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Sample records for monoclonal antibody detects

  1. Detection of Campylobacter species using monoclonal antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Colin R.; Lee, Alice; Stanker, Larry H.

    1999-01-01

    A panel of species specific monoclonal antibodies were raised to Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lari. The isotypes, and cross-reactivity profiles of each monoclonal antibody against an extensive panel of micro- organisms, were determined.

  2. Monoclonal antibody technologies and rapid detection assays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel methodologies and screening strategies will be outlined on the use of hybridoma technology for the selection of antigen specific monoclonal antibodies. The development of immunoassays used for diagnostic detection of prions and bacterial toxins will be discussed and examples provided demonstr...

  3. Monoclonal antibodies and method for detecting dioxins and dibenzofurans

    DOEpatents

    Vanderlaan, Martin; Stanker, Larry H.; Watkins, Bruce E.; Bailey, Nina R.

    1989-01-01

    Compositions of matter are described which include five monoclonal antibodies that react with dioxins and dibenzofurans, and the five hybridomas that produce these monoclonal antibodies. In addition, a method for the use of these antibodies in a sensitive immunoassay for dioxins and dibenzofurans is given, which permits detection of these pollutants in samples at concentrations in the range of a few parts per billion.

  4. Monoclonal Antibodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killington, R. A.; Powell, K. L.

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have provided an exciting addition to the "armory" of the molecular biologist and immunologist. This article discusses briefly the concept of, techniques available for, production of, and possible uses of monoclonal antibodies. (Author)

  5. Monoclonal antibodies: new agents for cancer detection and targeted therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.W.; Byers, V.S. )

    1991-01-01

    Antibodies directed against markers on cancer cells are gaining in importance for the purpose of targeting diagnostic and therapeutic agents. In the past, this approach has had very limited success principally because the classical methods for producing antibodies from blood serum of animals immunized with cancer cells or extracts were unsatisfactory. The situation has changed dramatically since 1975 following the design of procedures for 'immortalizing' antibody-producing cells (lymphocytes) by fusing them with cultured myeloma cells to form hybridomas which continuously secrete antibodies. Since these hybridomas produce antibodies coded for by a single antibody-producing cell, the antibodies are called monoclonal. Building on these advances in biomedical research, it is now possible to reproducibly manufacture monoclonal antibodies on a scale suitable for use in cancer detection and therapy.

  6. Monoclonal Antibodies Attached to Carbon Nanotube Transistors for Paclitaxel Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonbae; Lau, Calvin; Richardson, Mark; Rajapakse, Arith; Weiss, Gregory; Collins, Philip; UCI, Molecular Biology; Biochemistry Collaboration; UCI, Departments of Physics; Astronomy Collaboration

    Paclitaxel is a naturally-occurring pharmaceutical used in numerous cancer treatments, despite its toxic side effects. Partial inhibition of this toxicity has been demonstrated using weakly interacting monoclonal antibodies (3C6 and 8A10), but accurate monitoring of antibody and paclitaxel concentrations remains challenging. Here, single-molecule studies of the kinetics of antibody-paclitaxel interactions have been performed using single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors. The devices were sensitized with single antibody attachments to record the single-molecule binding dynamics of paclitaxel. This label-free technique recorded a range of dynamic interactions between the antibody and paclitaxel, and it provided sensitive paclitaxel detection for pM to nM concentrations. Measurements with two different antibodies suggest ways of extending this working range and uncovering the mechanistic differences among different antibodies.

  7. Monoclonal antibodies and cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Reisfeld, R.A.; Sell, S.

    1985-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on the subject of monoclonal antibodies. Topics include: Monoclonal antibody, biochemical effects and cancer therapeutic potential of tunicamycin, use of monoclonal antibodies for detection of lymph node metastases, active specific immunotherapy, and applications of monoclonal antibodies to investigations of growth factors.

  8. Monoclonal antibodies for the detection of trace chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderlaan, M.; Van Emon, J.; Watkins, B.; Stanker, L.

    1986-08-15

    Problems in analytical chemistry may limit monitoring for trace organic residues by traditional chromatographic methods. For example, the cost and analysis time per sample may preclude adequate sampling, making the development of alternative technologies desirable. Immunoassays are one such alternative, with the potential for cost reduction by automation and parallel sample processing. A particularly significant advance in the past decade has been the development of monoclonal antibodies, which offer greater selectivity and reproducibility than conventional antisera. Immunoassays can be developed that use simple, field-portable instrumentation, give rapid results, and have detection limits of less than a part-per-billion. This paper reviews the general technology for developing monoclonal antibodies to small organic molecules using the immunoassay of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) as an example. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Geskin, Larisa J

    2015-10-01

    Use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has revolutionized cancer therapy. Approaches targeting specific cellular targets on the malignant cells and in tumor microenvironment have been proved to be successful in hematologic malignancies, including cutaneous lymphomas. mAb-based therapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma has demonstrated high response rates and a favorable toxicity profile in clinical trials. Several antibodies and antibody-based conjugates are approved for use in clinical practice, and many more are in ongoing and planned clinical trials. In addition, these safe and effective drugs can be used as pillars for sequential therapies in a rational stepwise manner.

  10. Monoclonal antibodies to cyclodiene insecticides and method for detecting the same

    DOEpatents

    Stanker, Larry H.; Vanderlaan, Martin; Watkins, Bruce E.

    1994-01-01

    Methods are described for making specific monoclonal antibodies useful for detection of cyclodienes in foods and environmental samples. Monoclonal antibodies specifically reactive with cyclodienes can detect accumulated pesticides in food, tissue or environmental samples. Extraction and preparation of organic samples for immunoassay in a polar-nonpolar reaction medium permits detection of halogenated organic ring structures at concentrations in samples.

  11. Monoclonal antibodies to cyclodiene insecticides and method for detecting the same

    DOEpatents

    Stanker, L.H.; Vanderlaan, M.; Watkins, B.E.

    1994-08-02

    Methods are described for making specific monoclonal antibodies useful for detection of cyclodienes in foods and environmental samples. Monoclonal antibodies specifically reactive with cyclodienes can detect accumulated pesticides in food, tissue or environmental samples. Extraction and preparation of organic samples for immunoassay in a polar-nonpolar reaction medium permits detection of halogenated organic ring structures at concentrations in samples. 13 figs.

  12. Selection of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Specific Recombinant Monoclonal Phage Display Antibodies for Prey Detection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Monzó, César; Urbaneja, Alberto; Ximénez-Embún, Miguel; García-Fernández, Julia; García, José Luis; Castañera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Several recombinant antibodies against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most important pests in agriculture worldwide, were selected for the first time from a commercial phage display library of human scFv antibodies. The specificity and sensitivity of the selected recombinant antibodies were compared with that of a rabbit polyclonal serum raised in parallel using a wide range of arthropod species as controls. The selected recombinant monoclonal antibodies had a similar or greater specificity when compared with classical monoclonal antibodies. The selected recombinant antibodies were successfully used to detect the target antigen in the gut of predators and the scFv antibodies were sequenced and compared. These results demonstrate the potential for recombinant scFv antibodies to be used as an alternative to the classical monoclonal antibodies or even molecular probes in the post-mortem analysis studies of generalist predators. PMID:23272105

  13. Selection of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) specific recombinant monoclonal phage display antibodies for prey detection analysis.

    PubMed

    Monzó, César; Urbaneja, Alberto; Ximénez-Embún, Miguel; García-Fernández, Julia; García, José Luis; Castañera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Several recombinant antibodies against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most important pests in agriculture worldwide, were selected for the first time from a commercial phage display library of human scFv antibodies. The specificity and sensitivity of the selected recombinant antibodies were compared with that of a rabbit polyclonal serum raised in parallel using a wide range of arthropod species as controls. The selected recombinant monoclonal antibodies had a similar or greater specificity when compared with classical monoclonal antibodies. The selected recombinant antibodies were successfully used to detect the target antigen in the gut of predators and the scFv antibodies were sequenced and compared. These results demonstrate the potential for recombinant scFv antibodies to be used as an alternative to the classical monoclonal antibodies or even molecular probes in the post-mortem analysis studies of generalist predators.

  14. Selectivity verification of cardiac troponin monoclonal antibodies for cardiac troponin detection by using conventional ELISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathil, M. F. M.; Arshad, M. K. Md; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Adzhri, R.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Hashim, U.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents preparation and characterization of conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for cardiac troponin detection to determine the selectivity of the cardiac troponin monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies, used to capture and bind the targets in this experiment, are cTnI monoclonal antibody (MAb-cTnI) and cTnT monoclonal antibody (MAb-cTnT), while both cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and T (cTnT) are used as targets. ELISA is performed inside two microtiter plates for MAb-cTnI and MAb-cTnT. For each plate, monoclonal antibodies are tested by various concentrations of cTnI and cTnT ranging from 0-6400 µg/l. The binding selectivity and level of detection between monoclonal antibodies and antigen are determined through visual observation based on the color change inside each well on the plate. ELISA reader is further used to quantitatively measured the optical density of the color changes, thus produced more accurate reading. The results from this experiment are utilized to justify the use of these monoclonal antibodies as bio-receptors for cardiac troponin detection by using field-effect transistor (FET)-based biosensors coupled with substrate-gate in the future.

  15. Monoclonal antibodies to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed Central

    Place, D A; Scidmore, N C; McArthur, W P

    1988-01-01

    Murine hybridoma cell lines were developed which synthesized monoclonal antibodies against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans-associated antigens. Monoclonal antibodies specific for an antigen(s) common to all A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates tested but not detected on other gram-negative oral plaque microorganisms or other Actinobacillus species were identified. Monoclonal antibodies specific for each serotype group of A. actinomycetemcomitans which did not bind to other Actinobacillus species or oral plaque microorganisms were also identified. PMID:3356470

  16. A broadly reactive monoclonal antibody detects multiple genotypes of hepatitis B virus X protein.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lili; Shen, Zhongliang; Zhao, Xue; Wu, Yanxin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Junqi; Xie, Youhua; Liu, Jing

    2014-10-01

    A highly specific and broadly reactive monoclonal antibody against hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein was developed that detected, in both immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, HBx proteins of seven of the eight currently known genotypes of HBV, which were overexpressed in cultured cells. Evaluation of HBx expression levels in cultured hepatocytes using this monoclonal antibody showed that cells transiently and stably transfected with HBV genomes expressed far less HBx protein than cells transiently transfected with an HBx overexpression plasmid routinely used for studying HBx functions. The availability of such sensitive and broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies against HBx will enable more-quantitative studies of HBx functions.

  17. New Stx2e monoclonal antibodies for immunological detection and distinction of Stx2 subtypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Stx2e is a primary virulence factor in STEC strains that cause edema disease in neonatal piglets. Though Stx2a and Stx2e are similar, most antibody-based Stx detection kits are designed to detect Stx2a and do not recognize the Stx2e subtype. Methods and Findings Four monoclonal antibodie...

  18. Monoclonal antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of bovine enteric coronavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Crouch, C F; Raybould, T J; Acres, S D

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with three different viral polypeptides were evaluated singly and in combination as the capture antibody(s) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system for the detection of bovine enteric coronavirus. Similar levels of sensitivity were found for all combinations tested. A sensitive, highly specific, and reproducible assay for the detection of bovine enteric coronavirus was developed, using a mixture of two of these monoclonal antibodies reactive with antigenic components either external or internal to the virion. These monoclonal antibodies were bound indirectly to 96-well plates via rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulin. After sample application and incubation, virus was detected by using rabbit anti-coronavirus peroxidase conjugate followed by enzyme substrate and chromagen. Fecal samples from a single herd of cows were screened for the presence of coronavirus by this assay. Five percent of clinically normal cows were found to be shedding coronavirus. Images PMID:6325490

  19. Monoclonal antibodies and an indirect ELISA for detection of psychrotrophic bacteria in refrigerated milk.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, R; González, I; García, T; Carrera, E; Sanz, B; Hernández, P E; Martín, R

    1997-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies generated against live cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens have been used in an indirect ELISA format for the detection of Pseudomonas spp. and related psychrotrophic bacteria in refrigerated milk. The immunorecognition of monoclonal antibodies adsorbed to bacteria bound to the wells of a microtiter plate was performed with rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulins conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. Subsequent enzymic conversion of the substrate resulted in distinct absorbance differences when assaying milk samples containing psychrotrophic bacteria in the range 10(5) to 10(9) CFU ml(-1) . The detection threshold for the ELISA assay developed in this work is 10(5) CFU ml(-1).

  20. Monoclonal antibodies to synthetic pyrethroids and method for detecting the same

    DOEpatents

    Stanker, Larry H.; Vanderlaan, Martin; Watkins, Bruce E.; Van Emon, Jeanette M.; Bigbee, Carolyn L.

    1992-01-01

    Methods are described for making specific monoclonal antibodies which may be used in a sensitive immunoassay for detection of synthetic pyrethroids in foods and environmental samples. Appropriate sample preparation and enzyme amplification of the immunoassay for this widely-used class of pesticides permits detection at low levels in laboratory and field tested samples.

  1. Monoclonal antibodies to synthetic pyrethroids and method for detecting the same

    DOEpatents

    Stanker, L.H.; Vanderlaan, M.; Watkins, B.E.; Van Emon, J.M.; Bigbee, C.L.

    1992-04-28

    Methods are described for making specific monoclonal antibodies which may be used in a sensitive immunoassay for detection of synthetic pyrethroids in foods and environmental samples. Appropriate sample preparation and enzyme amplification of the immunoassay for this widely-used class of pesticides permits detection at low levels in laboratory and field tested samples. 6 figs.

  2. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  3. Detection of antibodies to equine arteritis virus by a monoclonal antibody-based blocking ELISA.

    PubMed Central

    Cho, H J; Entz, S C; Deregt, D; Jordan, L T; Timoney, P J; McCollum, W H

    2000-01-01

    A potent ELISA antigen was prepared from equine arteritis virus (EAV) by differential centrifugation of EAV-infected cell culture fluid, followed by solubilization of the preparation by Triton X-100 treatment. Using this antigen and a mouse monoclonal antibody against the G(L) protein of EAV, a reliable blocking ELISA (bELISA) was developed for the detection of EAV antibodies in equine sera. The bELISA was evaluated using a total of 837 test serum samples. The relative sensitivity (n = 320) of the bELISA compared to the serum neutralization (SN) test was 99.4%. The bELISA appears to be a highly specific test, the specificity of which did not appear to be adversely affected by previous exposure of horses to non-EAV-containing biologicals. Of 119 serum samples, 21 from horses without any history of exposure to EAV and 98 from racetrack Thoroughbreds, 118 were negative in the SN test and bELISA. One sample was SN-negative but suspicious with the bELISA. Based on testing 465 SN-negative field samples and 52 SN-negative samples from experimental horses, and excluding any sera giving a suspicious reaction, the relative specificity of the bELISA was 97.7%. Samples should be examined undiluted and diluted 1/10 in the bELISA because the testing of sera of high neutralizing antibody titer may be affected by a prozone-like phenomenon. The bELISA is a more rapid and cost-efficient test than the SN test for the detection of EAV antibodies in equine sera. PMID:10680655

  4. Monoclonal antibodies in the detection of bone marrow metastases in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Skov, B G; Hirsch, F R; Bobrow, L

    1992-04-01

    Using conventional examination (CE) of H&E stained slides from bone marrow aspirates, metastases can be detected in approximately 25% of patients with small cell lung cancer. We investigated a panel of monoclonal antibodies using immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of bone marrow infiltration from SCLC and compared the results with CE. Seven monoclonal antibodies raised against epithelial antigens (CAM 5.2, MOV 15, NCCST 433, PE 35, LCA1/L38, HMFG 1 AND HMFG 2) were applied on bone marrow sections from three groups of patients (pts): (1) 19 pts in whom SCLC-metastases were detected by CE, (2) 44 pts with SCLC in whom metastases could not be detected by CE, and (3) 20 pts with non-malignant bone marrow diseases. All the antibodies except LCA1/L38 were positive in 60-90% of the slides with infiltrating tumour cells in group 1. No positive tumour cells were detected in group 2. A few plasma cells and megakaryocytes were slightly positive for MOV 15 and NCCST 433, but no other positive cells were detected in group 3. In conclusion, the monoclonal antibodies used in this study may be useful for diagnostic purposes when a suspicious looking infiltration is detected by CE. However, these antibodies could not detect metastatic tumour cells in the bone marrow sections from patients in whom CE did not reveal any tumour cells.

  5. Monoclonal antibody "gold rush".

    PubMed

    Maggon, Krishan

    2007-01-01

    The market, sales and regulatory approval of new human medicines, during the past few years, indicates increasing number and share of new biologics and emergence of new multibillion dollar molecules. The global sale of monoclonal antibodies in 2006 were $20.6 billion. Remicade had annual sales gain of $1 billion during the past 3 years and five brands had similar increase in 2006. Rituxan with 2006 sales of $4.7 billion was the best selling monoclonal antibody and biological product and the 6th among the top selling medicinal brand. It may be the first biologic and monoclonal antibody to reach $10 billion annual sales in the near future. The strong demand from cancer and arthritis patients has surpassed almost all commercial market research reports and sales forecast. Seven monoclonal antibody brands in 2006 had sales exceeding $1 billion. Humanized or fully human monoclonal antibodies with low immunogenicity, enhanced antigen binding and reduced cellular toxicity provide better clinical efficacy. The higher technical and clinical success rate, overcoming of technical hurdles in large scale manufacturing, low cost of market entry and IND filing, use of fully human and humanized monoclonal antibodies has attracted funds and resources towards R&D. Review of industry research pipeline and sales data during the past 3 years indicate a real paradigm shift in industrial R&D from pharmaceutical to biologics and monoclonal antibodies. The antibody bandwagon has been joined by 200 companies with hundreds of new projects and targets and has attracted billions of dollars in R&D investment, acquisitions and licensing deals leading to the current Monoclonal Antibody Gold Rush.

  6. A murine monoclonal antibody based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for almond (Prunus dulcis L.) detection.

    PubMed

    Su, Mengna; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Liu, Changqi; Zhang, Ying; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2013-11-13

    A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using anti-almond soluble protein rabbit polyclonal antibodies as capture antibodies and murine monoclonal antibody 4C10 as the detection antibodies was developed. The assay is specific and sensitive (3-200 ng almond protein/mL) for almond detection. The standardized assay is accurate (<15% CV) and reproducible (intra- and inter assay variability <15% CV). The assay did not register any cross-reactivity with the tested food matrices, suggesting the assay to be almond amandin specific. The assay could detect the presence of declared almond in the tested matched commercial samples. Further, the assay reliably detected the presence of almonds in the laboratory prepared food samples spiked with almond flour.

  7. Detection of Penicillinase in Milk by Sandwich ELISA Based Polyclonal and Monoclonal Antibody.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yinli; Li, Guoxi

    2016-01-01

    A sandwich ELISA has been developed using polyclonal and monoclonal antibody for the determination of penicillinase in milk. For this purpose, specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against penicillinase were generated and characterized. Using penicillinase standards prepared from 1-128 ng/mL, the method indicated that the detection limit of the sandwich ELISA, as measured in an ELISA plate reader, was as low as 0.86 ng/mL of penicillinase. For determine the accuracy, raw milk containing 2, 8, 32, and 64 ng/mL of penicillinase were tested by sandwich ELISA. Recoveries were from 93-97.5%, and the coefficient of variation [CV (%)] were from 5.55-8.38%. For interassay reproducibility, recoveries were from 89.5-95.1%, the coefficient of variation [CV (%)] were from 5.26-9.58%. This sandwich ELISA provides a useful screening method for quantitative detection of penicillinase in milk.

  8. Detection of complement activation using monoclonal antibodies against C3d

    PubMed Central

    Thurman, Joshua M.; Kulik, Liudmila; Orth, Heather; Wong, Maria; Renner, Brandon; Sargsyan, Siranush A.; Mitchell, Lynne M.; Hourcade, Dennis E.; Hannan, Jonathan P.; Kovacs, James M.; Coughlin, Beth; Woodell, Alex S.; Pickering, Matthew C.; Rohrer, Bärbel; Holers, V. Michael

    2013-01-01

    During complement activation the C3 protein is cleaved, and C3 activation fragments are covalently fixed to tissues. Tissue-bound C3 fragments are a durable biomarker of tissue inflammation, and these fragments have been exploited as addressable binding ligands for targeted therapeutics and diagnostic agents. We have generated cross-reactive murine monoclonal antibodies against human and mouse C3d, the final C3 degradation fragment generated during complement activation. We developed 3 monoclonal antibodies (3d8b, 3d9a, and 3d29) that preferentially bind to the iC3b, C3dg, and C3d fragments in solution, but do not bind to intact C3 or C3b. The same 3 clones also bind to tissue-bound C3 activation fragments when injected systemically. Using mouse models of renal and ocular disease, we confirmed that, following systemic injection, the antibodies accumulated at sites of C3 fragment deposition within the glomerulus, the renal tubulointerstitium, and the posterior pole of the eye. To detect antibodies bound within the eye, we used optical imaging and observed accumulation of the antibodies within retinal lesions in a model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Our results demonstrate that imaging methods that use these antibodies may provide a sensitive means of detecting and monitoring complement activation–associated tissue inflammation. PMID:23619360

  9. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium in dairy products with flow cytometry and monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, R G; Pinder, A C

    1994-01-01

    Flow cytometry, combined with fluorescently labelled monoclonal antibodies, offers advantages of speed and sensitivity for the detection of specific pathogenic bacteria in foods. We investigated the detection of Salmonella typhimurium in eggs and milk. Using a sample clearing procedure, we determined that the detection limit was on the order of 10(3) cells per ml after a total analysis time of 40 min. After 6 h of nonselective enrichment, the detection limits were 10 cells per ml for milk and 1 cell per ml for eggs, even in the presence of a 10,000-fold excess of Escherichia coli cells. Images PMID:7811064

  10. Monoclonal antibodies, carbohydrate-binding modules, and the detection of polysaccharides in plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Cécile; Marcus, Susan E; Knox, J Paul

    2011-01-01

    Plant cell walls are diverse composites of complex polysaccharides. Molecular probes such as monoclonal antibodies (MABs) and carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are important tools to detect and dissect cell wall structures in plant materials. We provide an account of methods that can be used to detect cell wall polysaccharide structures (epitopes) in plant materials and also describe treatments that can provide information on the masking of sets of polysaccharides that may prevent detection. These masking -phenomena may indicate potential interactions between sets of cell wall polysaccharides, and methods to uncover them are an important aspect of cell wall immunocytochemistry.

  11. A Monoclonal Antibody Based Capture ELISA for Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype B: Toxin Detection in Food

    PubMed Central

    Stanker, Larry H.; Scotcher, Miles C.; Cheng, Luisa; Ching, Kathryn; McGarvey, Jeffery; Hodge, David; Hnasko, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Botulism is a serious foodborne neuroparalytic disease, caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Seven toxin serotypes (A – H) have been described. The majority of human cases of botulism are caused by serotypes A and B followed by E and F. We report here a group of serotype B specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) capable of binding toxin under physiological conditions. Thus, they serve as capture antibodies for a sandwich (capture) ELISA. The antibodies were generated using recombinant peptide fragments corresponding to the receptor-binding domain of the toxin heavy chain as immunogen. Their binding properties suggest that they bind a complex epitope with dissociation constants (KD’s) for individual antibodies ranging from 10 to 48 × 10−11 M. Assay performance for all possible combinations of capture-detector antibody pairs was evaluated and the antibody pair resulting in the lowest level of detection (L.O.D.), ~20 pg/mL was determined. Toxin was detected in spiked dairy samples with good recoveries at concentrations as low as 0.5 pg/mL and in ground beef samples at levels as low as 2 ng/g. Thus, the sandwich ELISA described here uses mAb for both the capture and detector antibodies (binding different epitopes on the toxin molecule) and readily detects toxin in those food samples tested. PMID:24253240

  12. Use of Monoclonal Antibodies in the Sensitive Detection and Neutralization of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype B.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Luisa W; Henderson, Thomas D; Lam, Tina I; Stanker, Larry H

    2015-11-27

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are some of nature's most potent toxins. Due to potential food contamination, and bioterrorism concerns, the development of detection reagents, therapeutics and countermeasures are of urgent interest. Recently, we have developed a sensitive electrochemiluminescent (ECL) immunoassay for BoNT/B, using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) MCS6-27 and anti-BoNT/B rabbit polyclonal antibodies as the capture and detector. The ECL assay detected as little as 1 pg/mL BoNT/B in the buffer matrix, surpassing the detection sensitivities of the gold standard mouse bioassays. The ECL assay also allowed detection of BoNT/B in sera matrices of up to 100% sera with negligible matrix effects. This highly-sensitive assay allowed the determination of the biological half-lives of BoNT/B holotoxin in vivo. We further tested the toxin neutralization potential of our monoclonal antibodies using the mouse systemic and oral intoxication models. A combination of mAbs protected mice in both pre- and post-exposure models to lethal doses of BoNT/B. MAbs were capable of increasing survival of animals when administered even 10 h post-intoxication in an oral model, suggesting a likely time for BoNT/B complexes to reach the blood stream. More sensitive detection assays and treatments against BoNT intoxication will greatly enhance efforts to combat botulism.

  13. Monoclonal Antibodies Detect a Spectrin-Like Protein in Normal and Dystrophic Human Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleyard, S. T.; Dunn, M. J.; Dubowitz, V.; Scott, M. L.; Pittman, S. J.; Shotton, D. M.

    1984-02-01

    Spectrin is the major protein of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton, which is bound to the cytoplasmic surface of the membrane's lipid bilayer and is responsible for cell shape and membrane elasticity. Inability to identify spectrin in other cell types led to the assumption that this protein was unique to erythrocytes. However, spectrin-like proteins have been demonstrated recently in a variety of cell types, including skeletal and cardiac muscle, in several species. We used monoclonal antibodies against human erythrocyte spectrin subunits in an immunocytochemical study to detect related proteins in normal and diseased human skeletal muscle. Six of seven monoclonal antibodies against β -spectrin determinants were bound at the cytoplasmic surface of muscle fiber plasma membranes, whereas none of six monoclonal antibodies against α -spectrin determinants was bound. Muscle fibers of patients with neuromuscular diseases showed similar distribution and specificity of antibody binding to those of normal subjects, but the intensity of binding was increased. In contrast, probable regenerating fibers in muscle of patients with muscular dystrophies showed reduced binding of antibodies, but reduced binding was not seen in fetal muscle fibers nor in those of a patient with a myotubular myopathy. We conclude that human skeletal muscle fibers possess a spectrin-related protein associated with their plasma membrane that shows extensive β -chain similarities to erythrocyte spectrin but differs significantly with respect to the α -subunit. Its function may be associated with the maintenance of membrane and myofibril integrity during contraction, and the increased antibody binding in diseased muscle may reflect a structural rearrangement of spectrin or a compensatory increase in spectrin abundance in response to increased stress on these systems.

  14. Monoclonal Antibodies against Pectin

    PubMed Central

    Liners, Françoise; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Didembourg, Christian; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have been produced that recognize a conformation of homopolygalacturonic acid (pectic acid) induced by an optimum concentration of calcium and sodium of about 1 and 150 millinormal, respectively. The epitope recognized is probably part of the dimers of pectin chains associated according to the `egg box' model. Images Figure 2 PMID:16667195

  15. Monoclonal antibodies against bacteria.

    PubMed

    Macario, A J; Conway de Macario, E

    1988-01-01

    Highlights are presented of most recent work in which monoclonal antibodies have been instrumental in the study of bacteria and their products. Topics summarized pertain to human and veterinary medicines, dentistry, phytopathology, ichthyology, and bacterial ecophysiology, differentiation, evolution and methanogenic biotechnology.

  16. Detection of Legionella pneumophila in environmental water samples using a fluorescein conjugated monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Makin, T.; Hart, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    Sixty-three environmental water samples from various sources were examined for the presence of Legionella pneumophila with a commercially available direct fluorescent monoclonal antibody (GS), an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and culture. GS detected L. pneumophila in 94% and 100% of environmental water samples which were culture and IFAT positive for L. pneumophila, respectively. IFAT detected 69% of L. pneumophila culture positive samples. Cultures of L. pneumophila serogroups 1 to 12, 14 and non-L. pneumophila bacteria which may be found in water, and bacteria containing non-specific binding proteins, were stained by GS and IFAT. GS identified all serogroups of L. pneumophila and did not cross react with any non-L. pneumophila bacteria. L. pneumophila in environmental samples was easy to detect against a clear dark background when stained with GS. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2673821

  17. Bone marrow metastases in small cell lung cancer: detection with magnetic resonance imaging and monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Trillet, V.; Revel, D.; Combaret, V.; Favrot, M.; Loire, R.; Tabib, A.; Pages, J.; Jacquemet, P.; Bonmartin, A.; Mornex, J. F.

    1989-01-01

    The detection of bone marrow involvement might be of prognostic value and may influence therapeutic decisions in small cell lung cancer. By unilateral bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, evidence of bone marrow metastases is seen in 15-30% of patients with this disease. Since magnetic resonance imaging of the lower body and immunostaining with monoclonal antibodies have recently been shown to be very sensitive detection methods, we investigated the value of these two techniques in detecting bone marrow involvement in 35 consecutive patients with small cell lung cancer. The results were compared to those obtained with conventional cytohistological analysis. In all cases when cytology and/or bone marrow biopsy were positive, monoclonal antibodies immunostaining and magnetic resonance imaging also detected malignant cells. Furthermore, evidence of bone marrow involvement was shown with magnetic resonance imaging and/or immunostaining in 10 of 26 cases (38%) where routine procedures were unable to detect malignant cells. In one of these 26 patients, magnetic resonance imaging and immunostaining provided the only evidence of metastatic disease. These data suggest that the rate of bone marrow metastases is underestimated by routine procedures. Further investigation is needed to determine whether or not these new non-invasive methods have prognostic value or affect therapeutic choices in small cell lung carcinoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2553088

  18. Preparation of anti-ciguatoxin monoclonal antibodies using synthetic haptens: sandwich ELISA detection of ciguatoxins.

    PubMed

    Tsumuraya, Takeshi; Fujii, Ikuo; Hirama, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a form of food poisoning caused by the consumption of fish that have accumulated a type of sodium channel activator toxin called ciguatoxins (CTXs), which are produced by dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus through the food chain. CFP affects more than 50000 people each year. The extremely low level of CTXs in tainted fish has hampered the development of antibodies for the detection of these toxins. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific against major congeners of CTX3C, 51-hydroxyCTX3C, CTX1B, and 54-deoxyCTX1B were prepared by immunization of mice with protein conjugates of rationally designed synthetic haptens in place of the natural toxins. We found that haptenic groups possessing a surface area larger than 400 angstroms2 were required to produce mAbs that can bind strongly to CTXs. Direct sandwich ELISA utilizing two different monoclonal antibodies that bind specifically to one of the two wings of a CTX were established to detect CTXs. No cross-reactivity was observed against the other marine toxins tested, including brevetoxin A, brevetoxin B, okadaic acid, and maitotoxin.

  19. Detection of the organophosphorus nerve agent soman by an ELISA using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Erhard, M H; Kühlmann, R; Szinicz, L; Lösch, U

    1990-01-01

    The development of a specific and sensitive immunologic ELISA detection system for methylphosphonoflouridic acid. 1,2,2-trimethylpropylester (soman) by the use of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is described. The monoclonal antibodies F71D7, F71H10, F71B12 and F71H9 originally produced against the soman derivative methyl phosphonic acid, p-aminophenyl 1,2,2-trimethylpropyldiester (MATP) also reacted with soman in a previously developed, direct competitive ELISA. After optimizing the ELISA system by varying the reaction mixture and the solvents for the organophosphate, 5.0 x 10(-7) mol/l soman (80% purity), e.g. 2.5 ng or 2 ng pure soman per 25 microliters test buffer, could be detected after a total test duration of 40 min. A shortening of the incubation time to 10 min resulted in a drop of sensitivity to 1.8 x 10(-6) mol/l soman. Various alcohols which may be used as extraction media for soman from various materials (isopropanol, ethanol and methanol) were shown to inhibit peroxidase activity and thereby reduce the sensitivity of the test. However, the influence of alcohols decreased with the shortening of incubation time. All monoclonal antibodies showed little cross reactivity to sarin and no cross reactivity to tabun and VX. Judging on the reactivity of the MAbs with MATP and soman oxidazed by 1,2-dihydrobenzol, some reactivity with some other (non-toxic) soman analogues containing the same pinacolyl group can be expected. There was no evidence for stereoselectivity of the MAbs tested. Finally, soman could be detected in different biological samples like human serum, goat serum, rabbit serum, chicken serum, milk, and tap water in concentrations between 1.3 x 10(-6) and 2.0 x 10(-6) mol/l.

  20. Variations in duplex DNA conformation detected by the binding of monoclonal autoimmune antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Braun, R P; Lee, J S

    1986-01-01

    Four monoclonal antibodies (Jel 229, 239, 241, 242) which bound to duplex DNA were prepared from two autoimmune female NZB/NZW mice. Their binding to various nucleic acids was investigated by a competitive solid phase radioimmune assay which allows the estimation of relative binding constants. None of the antibodies showed any consistent variation of binding constant with base composition and thus they must recognize features of the DNA backbone. Jel 241 binds across the major groove but the interaction with poly(pyrimidine) X poly(purine) DNAs was barely detectable. This antibody appears to recognize the "alternating-B" conformation which is promoted by methylation of pyrimidines in alternating sequences. The other three antibodies bind in the minor groove. In particular, for Jel 229 the preferred antigen was poly(dG) X poly(dC) with only weak binding to poly(dA) X poly(dT). This suggests a requirement for a wide minor groove. Thus autoimmune antibodies provide examples of "analogue" recognition and can be used to detect structural variations in the grooves of duplex DNA. PMID:3725591

  1. A cytotoxic monoclonal antibody (HU-39) that detects DRw8 + DRw12.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, T; Ogasawara, K; Ikeda, H; Kunikane, H; Kasahara, M; Ishikawa, N; Fukasawa, Y; Hawkin, S; Kojima, H; Wakisaka, A

    1987-06-01

    A monoclonal antibody, HU-39, was produced by immunizing BALB/c mice with a cultured human B lymphoblastoid cell line, Shi-C3 (HLA-A24, A31, B51, Bw52, DR2, DRw12, DQw1, DQw3). Utilizing the complement-dependent cytotoxicity test, HU-39 was found to detect a polymorphic determinant common to HLA-DRw8 and HLA-DRw12, a split antigen of HLA-DR5. Although HU-39 reacted with the cells from all of nine DRw12 positive individuals, the cells from only 18 out of 21 DRw8 positive individuals reacted with HU-39 and the remaining three were negative for HU-39. The cytotoxicity of the antibody was reduced after the surface HLA-DR molecules of two cell lines, GI and EBV-Sh, typed as DRw8 and DRw12, respectively, were masked with F(ab')2, of anti-HLA-DR monoclonal antibody. The results of the sequential coprecipitation test and the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis by using EBV-Sh also indicated that HU-39 preferentially recognizes an epitope borne on the DR molecules, but not on the DQ molecules. Thus, HU-39 appeared to be of great value as a tissue typing reagent to define DRw8 and DRw12, the latter of which had been difficult to assign because of the lack of monospecific alloantisera.

  2. Monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin A.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Hua; Wang, Wenbing; Xu, Liguang; Ma, Wei; Liu, Liqiang; Wang, Libing; Xu, Chuanlai

    2013-04-19

    A sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established and validated for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA). After routine fusion and selection, 10 monoclonal antibodies showed high affinity for SEA. An optimal pair for sandwich ELISA was selected by pairwise interaction analysis. After optimization, the limit of detection (LOD) and linear dynamic range of the method were established, and were found to be 0.0282 ng/mL and 0.06-2 ng/mL, respectively. The recovery in pure milk ranged from 82.67% to 111.95% and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation ranged from 3.16% to 6.05% and from 5.16% to 10.79%, respectively. Cross-reactivity with staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC), staphylococcal enterotoxin D (SED), and staphylococcal enterotoxin E (SEE) in this method were insignificant. These results indicate that the sandwich ELISA method developed in our study is effective for routine identification of SEA in food samples.

  3. Detection and Quantification of ADP-Ribosylated RhoA/B by Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; Fühner, Viola; Schröder, Anke; Hagemann, Sandra; Vu, Xuan-Khang; Berndt, Sarah; Hust, Michael; Pich, Andreas; Just, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 is the prototype of C3-like ADP-ribosyltransferases that modify the GTPases RhoA, B, and C. C3 catalyzes the transfer of an ADP-ribose moiety from the co-substrate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to asparagine-41 of Rho-GTPases. Although C3 does not possess cell-binding/-translocation domains, C3 is able to efficiently enter intact cells, including neuronal and macrophage-like cells. Conventionally, the detection of C3 uptake into cells is carried out via the gel-shift assay of modified RhoA. Since this gel-shift assay does not always provide clear, evaluable results an additional method to confirm the ADP-ribosylation of RhoA is necessary. Therefore, a new monoclonal antibody has been generated that specifically detects ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B, but not RhoC, in Western blot and immunohistochemical assay. The scFv antibody fragment was selected by phage display using the human naive antibody gene libraries HAL9/10. Subsequently, the antibody was produced as scFv-Fc and was found to be as sensitive as a commercially available RhoA antibody providing reproducible and specific results. We demonstrate that this specific antibody can be successfully applied for the analysis of ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B in C3-treated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and HT22 cells. Moreover, ADP-ribosylation of RhoA was detected within 10 min in C3-treated CHO wild-type cells, indicative of C3 cell entry. PMID:27043630

  4. Detection and Quantification of ADP-Ribosylated RhoA/B by Monoclonal Antibody.

    PubMed

    Rohrbeck, Astrid; Fühner, Viola; Schröder, Anke; Hagemann, Sandra; Vu, Xuan-Khang; Berndt, Sarah; Hust, Michael; Pich, Andreas; Just, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 is the prototype of C3-like ADP-ribosyltransferases that modify the GTPases RhoA, B, and C. C3 catalyzes the transfer of an ADP-ribose moiety from the co-substrate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to asparagine-41 of Rho-GTPases. Although C3 does not possess cell-binding/-translocation domains, C3 is able to efficiently enter intact cells, including neuronal and macrophage-like cells. Conventionally, the detection of C3 uptake into cells is carried out via the gel-shift assay of modified RhoA. Since this gel-shift assay does not always provide clear, evaluable results an additional method to confirm the ADP-ribosylation of RhoA is necessary. Therefore, a new monoclonal antibody has been generated that specifically detects ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B, but not RhoC, in Western blot and immunohistochemical assay. The scFv antibody fragment was selected by phage display using the human naive antibody gene libraries HAL9/10. Subsequently, the antibody was produced as scFv-Fc and was found to be as sensitive as a commercially available RhoA antibody providing reproducible and specific results. We demonstrate that this specific antibody can be successfully applied for the analysis of ADP-ribosylated RhoA/B in C3-treated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and HT22 cells. Moreover, ADP-ribosylation of RhoA was detected within 10 min in C3-treated CHO wild-type cells, indicative of C3 cell entry.

  5. Use of monoclonal antibodies in the detection of structural alterations occurring in lysozyme on heating.

    PubMed

    Kenett, D; Katchalski-Katzir, E; Fleminger, G

    1990-01-01

    Seven murine anti-hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), which recognize distinct epitopes of the native enzyme, were used as macromolecular probes to detect structural or conformational alterations occurring in HEL on heating at 95 degrees C, pH 5. As the interactions of the heat-treated HEL with its corresponding MAbs were carried out at room temperature, only irreversible structural and/or conformational alterations could be detected. The transformation of the native enzyme into its denatured form was followed electrophoretically and chromatographically. The denatured enzyme was more negatively charged at pH 8.4 and exhibited a longer retention time on reverse-phase HPLC than native HEL. Its specific catalytic activity was considerably lower than that of the native enzyme. Of the seven MAbs tested in competitive ELISA assays with native and heat-treated HEL only one, MAb D74.3, failed to recognize the heat-treated enzyme. This antibody, which is directed toward the active site region of the enzyme, was ineffective in inhibiting the catalytic activity of the heat-treated HEL using M. lysodeikticus as substrate. In contrast, the monoclonal antibody D1.3, which recognizes an epitope remote from the active site of HEL, inhibited the catalytic activity of the native as well as the heat-treated enzyme. The results indicate that the active site of HEL undergoes an irreversible structural alteration on heating for 2 hr at 95 degrees C, pH 5. No irreversible structural changes could be detected in the other regions of HEL recognized by the corresponding MAbs.

  6. Scintigraphic detection of gastric and pancreatic carcinomas with In-111 ZCE 025 monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Nabi, H.H.; Schwartz, A.N.; Wechter, D.G.; Higano, C.S.; Ortman-Nabi, J.A.; Unger, M.W. )

    1991-01-01

    We have evaluated the role of In-111 anti-CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) monoclonal antibody ZCE 025 in 8 patients. Three patients had a confirmed diagnosis of gastric carcinoma. Three had a confirmed diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. Two patients had elevated serum levels of CEA with no known primary. Each patient received 5.5 mCi In-111 ZCE 025 infused at doses of 10-80 mg. Planar and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging at 3 and 7 days after infusion detected 9 of 12 known tumor sites and all 5 of the previously identified sites of metastasis. In-111 ZCE 025 MoAb imaging also found 6 previously unsuspected tumor sites and changed the preoperative evaluation in 50% of the patients studied. It changed the clinical management in 2 patients and established the site of primary involvement in 2 others. There were no clinical or biochemical reactions. In-111 ZCE 025 monoclonal antibody scintigraphy is a useful adjunct in the evaluation of patients with either gastric or pancreatic carcinoma. It may have a beneficial impact on the surgical decision making in these patients.

  7. Monoclonal antibody-based serological methods for maize chlorotic mottle virus detection in China*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian-xiang; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Huan; Qian, Ya-juan; Xie, Yan; Zhou, Xue-ping

    2013-01-01

    Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) infects maize plants and causes significant losses in corn production worldwide. In this study, purified MCMV particles were used as the immunogen to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and polyclonal antibodies (PAbs). Four murine MAbs (4B8, 8C11, 6F4, and 9G1) against MCMV were obtained through the hybridoma technology. The triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA), dot-immunobinding assay (DIBA), and immunocapture reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR) using the MAb 4B8 were then developed for sensitive, specific, and rapid detection of MCMV in fields. MCMV could be detected in infected leaf crude extracts at dilutions of 1:327 680, 1:64 000, and 1:3 276 800 (w/v, g/ml) by TAS-ELISA, DIBA, and IC-RT-PCR, respectively. One hundred and sixty-one maize field samples showing virus-like symptoms and sixty-nine symptomless maize field samples from ten different provinces of China were collected and screened for the presence of MCMV using the established serological methods. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the full length CP genes and Chinese MCMV isolates formed one branch with Thailand isolates. The detection results demonstrated that MCMV is one of most prevalent viruses infecting maize in the Yunnan and Sichuan provinces of China. PMID:23825140

  8. Brewing spoilage Lactobacilli detected using monoclonal antibodies to bacterial surface antigens.

    PubMed

    Whiting, M S; Gares, S L; Ingledew, W M; Ziola, B

    1999-01-01

    A panel of thirteen monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) was assembled that reacts with surface antigens on eight of eleven Lactobacillus brewing spoilage organisms, including one or more of L. brevis, L. buchneri, L. casei-alactosus, L. plantarum, or unspeciated isolate(s). Immunoblotting was done to identify the antigens involved in Mab binding. Antigen stability in situ was tested by protease treatment and by surface antigen extraction of washed bacteria. Protease susceptibility of extracted surface antigens was also examined. In most cases, Lactobacillus surface antigens detected by the Mabs appear to be noncovalently bound proteins readily altered or removed from the bacterium by various environmental conditions. This research identifies brewing conditions that need to be tested to ascertain whether bacterial surface antigen-reactive Mabs can be used for the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of Lactobacillus brewing spoilage organisms.

  9. Production of monoclonal antibodies for sandwich immunoassay detection of Pacific ciguatoxins.

    PubMed

    Tsumuraya, Takeshi; Fujii, Ikuo; Hirama, Masahiro

    2010-10-01

    Ciguatoxins are the major causative toxins of ciguatera seafood poisoning. Limited availability of ciguatoxins has hampered the development of a reliable and specific immunoassay for detecting these toxins in contaminated fish. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific against both ends of Pacific ciguatoxins CTX3C and 51-hydroxyCTX3C were prepared by immunization of mice with the protein conjugates of rationally designed synthetic haptens in place of the natural toxin. Haptenic groups that possess a surface area larger than 400 A(2) were required to produce mAbs that can bind strongly to CTX3C or 51-hydroxyCTX3C. A direct sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using these mAbs was established to detect CTX3C and 51-hydroxyCTX3C at the ppb level with no cross-reactivity against the other marine toxins, including brevetoxin A, brevetoxin B, okadaic acid, or maitotoxin.

  10. Charge heterogeneity of monoclonal antibodies by multiplexed imaged capillary isoelectric focusing immunoassay with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Michels, David A; Tu, Andrea W; McElroy, Will; Voehringer, David; Salas-Solano, Oscar

    2012-06-19

    Characterization of charge heterogeneity of recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) requires high throughput analytical methods to support clone selection and formulation screens. We applied the NanoPro technology to rapidly measure relative charge distribution of mAbs in early stage process development. The NanoPro is a multiplexed capillary-based isoelectric immunoassay with whole-column imaging detection. This assay offers specificity, speed and sensitivity advantages over conventional capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) platforms. After CIEF, charge variants are photochemically immobilized to the wall of a short coated capillary. Once immobilized, mAbs are probed using a secondary anti-IgG conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. After flushing away excess reagents, secondary antibodies bound to their targets are then detected by chemiluminescence upon incubation with peroxidase reactive substrates. Charge heterogeneity as determined by chemiluminescence was similar to that measured by conventional CIEF technology with absorbance detection for purified mAbs and contaminated mAbs derived directly from host cellular extract. Upon method optimization, the automated CIEF immunoassay was applied to several mAbs of varying isoelectric points, demonstrating the suitability of NanoPro as a rugged high-throughput product characterization tool. Furthermore, qualification of detection sensitivity, precision, and dynamic range are reported with discussion of its advantages as an alternative approach to rapidly characterize charge variants during process development of mAbs.

  11. A sensitive three monoclonal antibodies based automatic latex particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay for Golgi protein 73 detection

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yanyan; Shen, Han; Zhu, Yefei; Xu, Hongpan; Li, Zhiyang; Si, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Golgi protein 73 (GP73) is a novel and potential marker for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that has been found to be abnormally elevated in liver disease. A latex particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (LTIA) was recently introduced and licensed for application in a variety of automated clinical chemistry analyzers. However, no studies have reported sufficient data on analytical performance of this method when using 3 monoclonal antibodies for GP73 measurement. The experimental conditions were firstly optimized and range of linearity, diagnostic potential, clinical relevance were compared with the LTIA based on polyclonal antibodies and ELISA. Dilution tests for the LTIA using 3 monoclonal antibodies produced a calibration curve from 10 to 350 ng/mL while the polyclonal antibodies produced the curve from 20 to 320 ng/mL. The detection limit was achieved at 1.82 ng/mL concentration. Within-run CV was obtained in the range of 1.5–2.9% and ROC curves indicated sensitivity and specificity of the LTIA based on 3 monoclonal antibodies were 96.7% and 93.3%, respectively, higher than for the polyclonal antibodies (94.6% and 72.4%) and ELISA (70.0% and 83.3%). Therefore, the LTIA assay based on 3 monoclonal antibodies is thus applicable in quantification of GP73 concentration in automated biochemistry analyzers. PMID:28054632

  12. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Antigen Detection Using Monoclonal Antibodies to the Nucleocapsid Protein

    PubMed Central

    Fukuma, Aiko; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Tani, Hideki; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Kurosu, Takeshi; Egawa, Kazutaka; Suda, Yuto; Singh, Harpal; Nomachi, Taro; Gokuden, Mutsuyo; Ando, Katsuyuki; Kida, Kouji; Kan, Miki; Kato, Nobuyuki; Yoshikawa, Akira; Kitamoto, Hiroaki; Sato, Yuko; Suzuki, Tadaki; Hasegawa, Hideki; Morikawa, Shigeru; Shimojima, Masayuki; Saijo, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a tick-borne infectious disease with a high case fatality rate, and is caused by the SFTS virus (SFTSV). SFTS is endemic to China, South Korea, and Japan. The viral RNA level in sera of patients with SFTS is known to be strongly associated with outcomes. Virological SFTS diagnosis with high sensitivity and specificity are required in disease endemic areas. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated novel monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the SFTSV nucleocapsid (N) protein and developed a sandwich antigen (Ag)-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of N protein of SFTSV using MAb and polyclonal antibody as capture and detection antibodies, respectively. The Ag-capture system was capable of detecting at least 350–1220 TCID50/100 μl/well from the culture supernatants of various SFTSV strains. The efficacy of the Ag-capture ELISA in SFTS diagnosis was evaluated using serum samples collected from patients suspected of having SFTS in Japan. All 24 serum samples (100%) containing high copy numbers of viral RNA (>105 copies/ml) showed a positive reaction in the Ag-capture ELISA, whereas 12 out of 15 serum samples (80%) containing low copy numbers of viral RNA (<105 copies/ml) showed a negative reaction in the Ag-capture ELISA. Among these Ag-capture ELISA-negative 12 samples, 9 (75%) were positive for IgG antibodies against SFTSV. Conclusions The newly developed Ag-capture ELISA is useful for SFTS diagnosis in acute phase patients with high levels of viremia. PMID:27045364

  13. Expression of POTE protein in human testis detected by novel monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ise, Tomoko; Das, Sudipto; Nagata, Satoshi; Maeda, Hiroshi; Lee, Yoomi; Onda, Masanori; Anver, Miriam R; Bera, Tapan K; Pastan, Ira

    2008-01-25

    The POTE gene family is composed of 13 highly homologous paralogs preferentially expressed in prostate, ovary, testis, and placenta. We produced 10 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against three representative POTE paralogs: POTE-21, POTE-2gammaC, and POTE-22. One reacted with all three paralogs, six MAbs reacted with POTE-2gammaC and POTE-22, and three MAbs were specific to POTE-21. Epitopes of all 10 MAbs were located in the cysteine-rich repeats (CRRs) motifs located at the N-terminus of each POTE paralog. Testing the reactivity of each MAb with 12 different CRRs revealed slight differences among the antigenic determinants, which accounts for differences in cross-reactivity. Using MAbs HP8 and PG5 we were able to detect a POTE-actin fusion protein in human testis by immunoprecipitation followed by Western blotting. By immunohistochemistry we demonstrated that the POTE protein is expressed in primary spermatocytes, implying a role in spermatogenesis.

  14. Expression of POTE protein in human testis detected by novel monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Ise, Tomoko; Das, Sudipto; Nagata, Satoshi; Maeda, Hiroshi; Lee, Yoomi; Onda, Masanori; Anver, Miriam R.; Pastan, Ira

    2008-01-25

    The POTE gene family is composed of 13 highly homologous paralogs preferentially expressed in prostate, ovary, testis, and placenta. We produced 10 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against three representative POTE paralogs: POTE-21, POTE-2{gamma}C, and POTE-22. One reacted with all three paralogs, six MAbs reacted with POTE-2{gamma}C and POTE-22, and three MAbs were specific to POTE-21. Epitopes of all 10 MAbs were located in the cysteine-rich repeats (CRRs) motifs located at the N-terminus of each POTE paralog. Testing the reactivity of each MAb with 12 different CRRs revealed slight differences among the antigenic determinants, which accounts for differences in cross-reactivity. Using MAbs HP8 and PG5 we were able to detect a POTE-actin fusion protein in human testis by immunoprecipitation followed by Western blotting. By immunohistochemistry we demonstrated that the POTE protein is expressed in primary spermatocytes, implying a role in spermatogenesis.

  15. Detection of a novel HLA-DQ specificity: serological and immunochemical analyses by a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, N; Kojima, H; Nakayama, T; Kunikane, H; Hawkin, S; Fukasawa, Y; Ikeda, H; Ogasawara, K; Kasahara, M; Tajima, Y

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (mAb) with a novel human B-cell allospecificity was produced by immunizing a C3H/He mouse with the human B lymphoblastoid cell line EBV-Wa (HLA-DR4/Dw15/DQblank homozygous). The mAb, termed HU-46, reacted with B cells from not only DR4/Dw15-positive individuals but also certain DRw8/Dw8-positive ones whose DQ phenotypes had not yet been defined. Two-dimensional gel analyses indicated that the mAb recognized class II antigens which were encoded by the HLA-DQ locus. Furthermore, in genetic analysis, the gene encoding the class II antigen detected by HU-46 met the Hardy-Weinberg condition as a fourth allele of the DQ locus. We provisionally labeled this novel DQ specificity DQWa.

  16. Bacterial surface antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies used to detect beer spoilage pediococci.

    PubMed

    Whiting, M S; Ingledew, W M; Lee, S Y; Ziola, B

    1999-08-01

    Fourteen monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) were isolated that react with surface antigens of Pediococcus beer spoilage organisms, including P. damnosus, P. pentosaceous, P. acidilactici, and unspeciated isolates. Immunoblotting, enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) of protease- and neuraminidase-treated surface antigen extracts, carbohydrate competition EIAs, and cardiolipin EIAs were used to characterize the bacterial antigens involved in Mab binding. Antigen stability in situ was tested by protease treatment or surface antigen extraction of washed bacteria. In most cases, the Mabs bind to Pediococcus surface antigens that appear to be covalently bound cell wall polymers resistant to alteration or removal from the bacterial surface. These bacterial surface antigen reactive Mabs show good potential for rapid, sensitive, and specific immunoassay detection of Pediococcus beer spoilage organisms.

  17. Monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of morbillivirus antibody in marine mammal sera.

    PubMed

    Saliki, J T; Lehenbauer, T W

    2001-05-01

    A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), using two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), was developed and compared with the standard virus neutralization test (VNT) for detecting antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) and phocine distemper virus (PDV) in sera from dogs and various species of marine mammals. The test depends on the blocking of MAb binding to solid-phase antigen in the presence of positive serum. Test conditions were optimized by using control VNT-negative and -positive sera specific for CDV and PDV. A positive cutoff value of 30% inhibition, which represents the mean cutoff of a VNT-negative population (n = 623) plus 2 standard deviations, was adopted for the test. A total of 736 serum samples were tested by the new cELISA and by the VNT as the "gold standard." An unexpected but useful finding was the ability of this CDV- and PDV-specific cELISA to also detect antibodies against the related pair dolphin morbillivirus and porpoise morbillivirus. Based on a subpopulation of 625 sera used in statistical analyses, the overall sensitivity and specificity of cELISA relative to those of the VNT were 94.9 and 97.7%, respectively. Because the cELISA proved to be nearly as sensitive and specific as the VNT while being simpler and more rapid, it would be an adequate screening test for suspect CDV or PDV cases and would also be useful for epidemiological surveillance of morbilliviral infections in marine mammal populations.

  18. Monoclonal antibody-based serological methods for detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), a member of the genus Tobamovirus, can be transmitted by seeds and infects many cucurbit species, causing serious yield losses in cucumber and watermelon plants. In this paper, five serological methods including antigen-coated plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA), triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA), Dot-immunobinding assay (DBIA), direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA) and immunocapture reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR) were described for detection and diagnosis of CGMMV. Results Using the purified CGMMV particles as immunogens, six murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced. Five serological methods were established using the MAb 4H1 and detection sensitivity was compared using purified preparations and infected-plant tissue extracts. The detection sensitivity of ACP-ELISA was 0.16 ng of purified CGMMV, whereas TAS-ELISA was more sensitive than ACP-ELISA with a minimum detection of 0.04 ng of purified CGMMV. The sensitivities of TAS-ELISA and DBIA were similar for detecting CGMMV in infected-plant tissue extracts, and were four times higher than ACP-ELISA. The IC-RT-PCR was the most sensitive method, which could detect as little as 0.1 pg of purified virus. The detection sensitivity of IC-RT-PCR for CGMMV-infected plant tissues was about 400 times higher than that of TAS-ELISA and DBIA. Conclusions The established ACP-ELISA, TAS-ELISA, DBIA and DTBIA are suitable for routine CGMMV detection of large-scale samples in the field survey, while IC-RT-PCR is more sensitive and suitable for acquiring information about the viral genome. PMID:21569615

  19. New Stx2e Monoclonal Antibodies for Immunological Detection and Distinction of Stx2 Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Craig; Patfield, Stephanie; Hernlem, Bradley J.; He, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Background Stx2e is a primary virulence factor in STEC strains that cause edema disease in neonatal piglets. Though Stx2a and Stx2e are similar, many antibody-based Stx detection kits are designed to detect Stx2a and do not recognize the Stx2e subtype. Methods and Findings Four monoclonal antibodies against Stx2e were developed and characterized. Two of these mAbs recognize the B subunit of Stx2e, Stx2f, and to a lesser extent, Stx2b, Stx2c, and Stx2d. The other two mAbs recognize the A subunit of Stx2e, and cross-react with all Stx2 subtypes except Stx2f. The most sensitive sandwich ELISA using these mAbs has a limit of detection for Stx2e of 11.8 pg/mL. The ability of the neutralizing antibody Stx2e-2 to block Stx2e-receptor binding in Vero cells was visualized using immunofluorescence. Combinations of these and previously developed mAbs permit ELISA-based differentiation between closely related Stx2a, Stx2c, and Stx2d (using mAbs Stx2-5/2-1, Stx2-5/2e-2, and Stx2e-3/2e-2, respectively). Conclusions The sensitive immunoassays developed in this study should augment our capacity to detect Stx2e in porcine environments and biological samples. Moreover, immunoassays that can distinguish between the closely related Stx2a, Stx2c, and Stx2d subtypes can be useful in quickly analyzing Stx subtypes in samples containing more than one strain of STEC. PMID:26192407

  20. Detection of acrolein-derived cyclic DNA adducts in human cells by monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jishen; Awoyemi, Bisola; Xuan, Zhuoli; Vohra, Priya; Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Dyba, Marcin; Greenspan, Emily; Fu, Ying; Creswell, Karen; Zhang, Lihua; Berry, Deborah; Tang, Moon-Shong; Chung, Fung-Lung

    2012-12-17

    Acrolein (Acr) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant found in cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust. It can also be produced endogenously by oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The Acr-derived 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine (Acr-dG) adducts in DNA are mutagenic lesions that are potentially involved in human cancers. In this study, monoclonal antibodies were raised against Acr-dG adducts and characterized using ELISA. They showed strong reactivity and specificity toward Acr-dG, weaker reactivity toward crotonaldehyde- and trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-derived 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosines, and weak or no reactivity toward 1,N(6)-ethenodeoxyadenosine and 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine. Using these antibodies, we developed assays to detect Acr-dG in vivo: first, a simple and quick FACS-based assay for detecting these adducts directly in cells; second, a highly sensitive direct ELISA assay for measuring Acr-dG in cells and tissues using only 1 μg of DNA without DNA digestion and sample enrichment; and third, a competitive ELISA for better quantitative measurement of Acr-dG levels in DNA samples. The assays were validated using Acr-treated HT29 cell DNA samples or calf thymus DNA, and the results were confirmed by LC-MS/MS-MRM. An immunohistochemical assay was also developed to detect and visualize Acr-dG in HT29 cells as well as in human oral cells. These antibody-based methods provide useful tools for the studies of Acr-dG as a cancer biomarker and of the molecular mechanisms by which cells respond to Acr-dG as a ubiquitous DNA lesion.

  1. Use of monoclonal antibodies in diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis: new strategies for detection of circulating antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, B L; Figueroa, J I; Hamilton, A J; Ortiz, B; Robledo, M A; Hay, R J; Restrepo, A

    1997-01-01

    The precise diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis, in most cases, is established by direct methods and indirect immunological tests. The latter method is reliant on the identification of the host's humoral responses, which are usually impaired or absent in patients with severe juvenile forms of the disease and in immunocompromised patients. Determining disease activity or assessing treatment responses by measuring antibody levels is difficult, since antibody titer may remain elevated or persist at stationary levels, even in the presence of clinical improvement. Consequently, there is a need for alternative tests aimed at the identification of circulating antigens. A modification of the standard hybridoma production method was used to raise a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the yeast form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Of these, MAb PIB, directed against an 87-kDa determinant, was used to develop an inhibition ELISA (inh-ELISA) capable of detecting as little as 5.8 ng of circulating antigen per ml of serum. Sera from 46 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis or other mycoses and sera from healthy individuals were evaluated by the inh-ELISA; overall sensitivity was 80.4% (37 of 46 paracoccidioidomycosis patients tested positive), and specificity compared with that of normal controls from areas of endemicity was 81.4%. The inh-ELISA detected circulating antigen in 100% of patients with the acute form of paracoccidioidomycosis and in 83.3 and 60% of patients with the chronic multifocal and unifocal forms of paracoccidioidomycosis according to the patients' clinical presentation. These results indicate that the inh-ELISA with MAb PIB is effective in the detection of circulating antigen and that this test may be useful for monitoring responses to treatment and establishing disease prognoses. PMID:9399534

  2. The human thymus microenvironment: heterogeneity detected by monoclonal anti-epithelial cell antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    de Maagd, R A; MacKenzie, W A; Schuurman, H J; Ritter, M A; Price, K M; Broekhuizen, R; Kater, L

    1985-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were raised against human thymus stromal cells and their specificity for the epithelial component of thymus stroma assessed by double immunofluorescence using anti-keratin antibodies to identify epithelium. Our monoclonal antibodies identify six distinct patterns of epithelial cell antigen expression within the thymus: pan epithelial (antibody IP1); cortex (MR3 and MR6); cortical/medullary junction (IP2); subcapsule and subpopulation of medulla (MR10/MR14); Hassall's corpuscles and adjacent subpopulation of medulla (IP3); Hassall's corpuscles only (MR13/IP4). This heterogeneity of antigen expression suggests that many different epithelial microenvironments exist within the human thymus. Images Figure 1 Figure 1 Cont Figure 2 PMID:3884494

  3. Monoclonal antibody-based serological methods for detecting Citrus tristeza virus in citrus groves.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Chen, Zhe; Hong, Jian; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhou, Changyong; Zhou, Xueping; Wu, Jianxiang

    2016-08-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the most economically important citrus viruses and harms the citrus industry worldwide. To develop reliable and effective serological detection assays of CTV, the major capsid protein (CP) gene of CTV was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using the expression vector pET-28a and purified through Ni+-NTA affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein was used to immunize BALB/c mice. Four hybridoma cell lines (14B10, 14H11, 20D5, and 20G12) secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against CTV were obtained through conventional hybridoma technology. The titers of MAb-containing ascitic fluids secreted by the four hybridoma lines ranged from 10(-6) to 10(-7) in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blots showed that all four MAbs could specifically react with CTV CP. Using the prepared MAbs, dot-ELISA, Tissue print-ELISA, and triple antibody sandwich (TAS)-ELISA were developed to detect CTV in tree nurseries and epidemiological studies. The developed dot-ELISA and TAS-ELISA methods could detect CTV in crude extracts of infected citrus leaves with dilutions of 1:2560 and 1:10, 240 (w/v, g/mL), respectively. Tissue print-ELISA was particularly useful for large-scale field sample detection, mainly owing to its simplicity and lack of sample preparation requirements. The field survey revealed that CTV is prevalent on citrus trees in the Chongqing Municipality, Jiangxi Province, and Zhejiang Province of China. The coincidence rate of serological and RT-PCR test results reached more than 99.5%. The prepared MAbs against CTV and established sensitive and specific serological assays have a significant role in the detection and prevention and control of CTV in our country.

  4. Production of a novel monoclonal antibody, JT-95, which can detect antigen of thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Takeyama, H; Hosoya, T; Sakurai, K; Mori, Y; Watanabe, M; Kisaki, H; Ohno, T

    1996-04-15

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) JT-95 was produced by immunization of mice with membrane fractions of a human thyroid carcinoma. Immuno-histochemical staining has demonstrated that the antigen recognized by JT-95 is strongly expressed in 95 (95%) of 100 cases of papillary carcinomas and in 3 (75%) of 4 cases of follicular carcinomas. In benign diseases of the thyroid gland, MAb JT-95 reacted with 0 (0%) of 39 adenomas, 1 (4%) of 21 adenomatous goiters, 0 (0%) of 8 hyperthyroidism specimens, and 3 (38%) of 8 chronic thyroiditis specimens. The antigen detected by MAb JT-95 has an apparent Mr 250,000 in thyroid carcinomas. Moreover, circulating antigen in thyroid carcinoma patients was detected by MAb JT-95 in an ELISA and in Western blotting. The circulating antigen has a Mr 105,000. MAb JT-95 conjugated with (131) I was administrated to nude mice bearing a human thyroid carcinoma. JT-95 131I accumulation at the transplanted tumor was visualized by autoradiography with 2.68-14.75-fold higher levels detected at the xenograft compared to that for normal organs. Based on these data, MAb JT-95 may be useful in the diagnosis detection and therapy of thyroid carcinoma.

  5. Novel Monoclonal Antibody-Based Immunodiagnostic Assay for Rapid Detection of Deamidated Gluten Residues.

    PubMed

    Masiri, Jongkit; Benoit, Lora; Katepalli, Madhu; Meshgi, Mahzad; Cox, David; Nadala, Cesar; Sung, Shao-Lei; Samadpour, Mansour

    2016-05-11

    Gluten derived from wheat and related Triticeae can induce gluten sensitivity as well as celiac disease. Consequently, gluten content in foods labeled "gluten-free" is regulated. Determination of potential contamination in such foods is achieved using immunoassays based on monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize specific epitopes present in gluten. However, food-processing measures can affect epitope recognition. In particular, preparation of wheat protein isolate through deamidation of glutamine residues significantly limits the ability of commercial gluten testing kits in their ability to recognize gluten. Adding to this concern, evidence suggests that deamidated gluten imparts more pathogenic potential in celiac disease than native gluten. To address the heightened need for antibody-based tools that can recognize deamidated gluten, we have generated a novel mAb, 2B9, and subsequently developed it as a rapid lateral flow immunoassay. Herein, we report the ability of the 2B9-based lateral flow device (LFD) to detect gluten from wheat, barley, and rye and deamidated gluten down to 2 ppm in food as well as its performance in food testing.

  6. Monoclonal antibodies and neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Miraldi, F. )

    1989-10-01

    Several antineuroblastoma monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) have been described and two have been used in radioimmunoimaging and radioimmunotherapy in patients. MoAb 3F8 is a murine IgG3 antibody specific for the ganglioside GD2. Radioiodine-labeled 3F8 has been shown to specifically target human neuroblastoma in patients, and radioimmunoimaging with this agent has provided consistently high uptakes with tumor-to-background ratios of greater than or equal to 10:1. Radioimmunotherapy has been attempted with both MoAb 3F8 and MoAb UJ13A, and although encouraging results have been obtained, dosimetry data and tissue dose response information for these agents is lacking, which impedes the development of such therapy. 124I, a positron emitter, can be used with 3F8 in positron emission tomography (PET) scanning to provide dosimetry information for radioimmunotherapy. The tumor radiation dose response from radiolabeled MoAb also can be followed with PET images with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) scanning of neuroblastoma tumors. Results to date indicate that radioimmunoimaging has clinical use in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma and the potential for radioimmunotherapy for this cancer remains high.48 references.

  7. Detection of circulating and endothelial cell polymers of Z and wild type alpha 1-antitrypsin by a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Janciauskiene, Sabina; Dominaitiene, Ruta; Sternby, Nils H; Piitulainen, Eva; Eriksson, Sten

    2002-07-19

    Globular inclusions of abnormal alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes are a characteristic feature of AAT deficiency of the PiZZ phenotype. Monoclonal antibodies, which contain constant specificity and affinity, are often used for the identification of Z-mutation carriers. A mouse monoclonal antibody (ATZ11) raised against PiZZ hepatocytic AAT was successfully used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and in identification of Z-related AAT globular inclusions by immunohistochemical techniques. Using electrophoresis, Western blotting, and ELISA procedures, we have shown in the present study that this monoclonal antibody specifically detects a conformation-dependent neoepitope on both polymerized and elastase-complexed molecular forms of AAT. The antibody has no apparent affinity for native, latent, or cleaved forms of AAT. The antibody ATZ11 illustrates the structural resemblance between the polymerized form of AAT and its complex with elastase and provides evidence that Z-homozygotes beyond the native form may have at least one more circulating molecular form of AAT, i.e. its polymerized form. In addition, staining of endothelial cells with ATZ11 antibody in both M- and Z-AAT individuals shows that AAT attached to endothelial cells is in a polymerized form. The antibody can be a powerful tool for the study of the molecular profile of AAT, not only in Z-deficiency cases but also in other (patho)physiological conditions.

  8. Label-free detection and characterization of the binding of hemagglutinin protein and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies using terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yiwen; Zhong, Junlan; Zhang, Cunlin; Zuo, Jian; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2015-03-01

    Hemagglutinin (HA) is the main surface glycoprotein of the influenza A virus. The H9N2 subtype influenza A virus is recognized as the most possible pandemic strain as it has crossed the species barrier, infecting swine and humans. We use terahertz spectroscopy to study the hydration shell formation around H9 subtype influenza A virus's HA protein (H9 HA) as well as the detection of antigen binding of H9 HA with the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody. We observe a remarkable concentration dependent nonlinear response of the H9 HA, which reveals the formation process of the hydration shell around H9 HA molecules. Furthermore, we show that terahertz dielectric properties of the H9 HA are strongly affected by the presence of the monoclonal antibody F10 and that the terahertz dielectric loss tangent can be used to detect the antibody binding at lower concentrations than the standard ELISA test.

  9. Monoclonal antibodies for the separate detection of halodeoxyuridines and method for their use

    DOEpatents

    Vanderlaan, Martin; Watkins, Bruce E.; Stanker, Larry H.

    1991-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are described which have specific affinities for halogenated nucleoside analogs and are preferentially selective for one particular halogen. Such antibodies, when incorporated into immunochemical reagents, may be used to identify and independently quantify the cell division character of more than one population or subpopulation in flow cytometric measurements. Independent assessment of division activity in cell sub-populations facilitates selection of appropriate time and dose for administration of anti-proliferative agents. The hybridomas which secrete halogen selective antibodies and the method of making them are described.

  10. Monoclonal antibodies for the separate detection of halodeoxyuridines and method for their use

    DOEpatents

    Vanderlaan, M.; Watkins, B.E.; Stanker, L.H.

    1991-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are described which have specific affinities for halogenated nucleoside analogs and are preferentially selective for one particular halogen. Such antibodies, when incorporated into immunochemical reagents, may be used to identify and independently quantify the cell division character of more than one population or subpopulation in flow cytometric measurements. Independent assessment of division activity in cell sub-populations facilitates selection of appropriate time and dose for administration of anti-proliferative agents. The hybridomas which secrete halogen selective antibodies and the method of making them are described. 14 figures.

  11. Detection of B. anthracis Spores and Vegetative Cells with the Same Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dian-Bing; Yang, Ruifu; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Bi, Li-Jun; You, Xiang-Yu; Wei, Hong-Ping; Zhou, Ya-Feng; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Xian-En

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, could be used as a biothreat reagent. It is vital to develop a rapid, convenient method to detect B. anthracis. In the current study, three high affinity and specificity monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, designated 8G3, 10C6 and 12F6) have been obtained using fully washed B. anthracis spores as an immunogen. These mAbs, confirmed to direct against EA1 protein, can recognize the surface of B. anthracis spores and intact vegetative cells with high affinity and species-specificity. EA1 has been well known as a major S-layer component of B. anthracis vegetative cells, and it also persistently exists in the spore preparations and bind tightly to the spore surfaces even after rigorous washing. Therefore, these mAbs can be used to build a new and rapid immunoassay for detection of both life forms of B. anthracis, either vegetative cells or spores. PMID:19915677

  12. [Production of monoclonal antibodies to Cymbidium mosaic virus and application in orchids virus detection].

    PubMed

    Meng, Chun-Mei; Wu, Jian-Xiang; Xie, Li; Zheng, Jin-Kai; Hong, Jian

    2007-10-01

    Three hybridoma cell lines, 2C6, 5B7 and 12G9, secreting monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) against Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) were produced by fusing mouse myeloma cells (SP2/0) with spleen cells from BALB/ C immunized by the CymMV particles. The three McAbs could specifically react with CymMV. The titres of ascitic fluids of two McAbs are up to 10(-6) in I-ELISA. Isotypes and subclasses of the the three McAbs belong to IgG1. Isotypes of light strains of the three McAbs all belong to kappa. They were used in antigen-coated plate (ACP)-ELISA for CymMV detection, and ACP-ELISA could successfully detect 0.487 ng of purified CymMV or virus in plant sap diluted 1:10240. The presence of CymMV in field Orchids tissues was investigated with ACP-ELISA.

  13. [Production of monoclonal antibodies to Lily symptomless virus and application in lily virus detection].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Xiang; Liu, Cheng-Ke; Hong, Jian; Liu, Wen-Hong; Ye, Mei-Qing

    2005-08-01

    Four hybridoma cell lines, 2A2, 5H9, 5H2 and 5E12, secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Lily symptomless virus (LSV) were produced by fusing mouse myeloma cells (SP2/0) with spleen cells from BALB/C immunized by the LSV particles. The four MAbs could specifically react with LSV. The titres of ascitic fluids of the four MAbs are up to 10(-6) in ELISA. Isotypes and subclasses of 5H9 and 5E12 belong to IgG1 while those of 2A2 and 5H2 belong to IgG3. Isotypes of light strains of the four MAbs all belong to kappa. The four MAbs were used in antigen-coated plate (ACP)-ELISA for LSV detection, and ACP-ELISA could successfully detect 1.8 ng of purified LSV or virus in plant sap diluted 1:300. The presence of LSV in field lily tissues was investigated with ACP-ELISA.

  14. Detection of parasite antigens in Leishmania infantum-infected spleen tissue by monoclonal antibody-, piezoelectric-based immunosensors.

    PubMed

    Cabral-Miranda, G; de Jesus, J R; Oliveira, P R S; Britto, G S G; Pontes-de-Carvalho, L C; Dutra, R F; Alcântara-Neves, N M

    2014-02-01

    Diseases such as leishmaniases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in Brazil, and their diagnoses need to be improved. The use of monoclonal antibodies has ensured high specificity to immunodiagnosis. The development of an immunosensor, coupling a monoclonal antibody to a bioelectronic device capable of quickly detecting Leishmania sp. antigens both qualitatively and quantitatively, is a promising alternative for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis due to its high specificity, low cost, and portability, compared with conventional methods. The present work was aimed at developing an immunosensor-based assay for detecting Leishmania infantum antigens in tissues of infected hosts. Four hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies against L. infantum had their specificity confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These antibodies were immobilized on a gold surface, covered with a thin film of 2-aminoethanethiol (cysteamine) and glutaraldehyde, blocked with glycine, and placed into contact with extracts of L. infantum -infected and noninfected control hamster spleens. The assay was able to detect 1.8 × 10(4) amastigotes/g of infected tissue. These results demonstrated that this assay may be useful for quantifying L. infantum amastigotes in organs of experimental animals for studies on pathogenesis and immunity and that it is a promising tool for the development of a diagnostic method, based on antigen detection, of human and dog visceral leishmaniasis.

  15. Monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassays for the sensitive detection of s-triazines in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hock, Bertold; Giersch, Thomas; Kramer, Karl-Josef

    1993-03-01

    Immunoassays in pesticide residue analysis significantly profit from the monoclonal antibody (mAb) technology because a sufficient supply of standardized antibodies can be provided. For the production of atrazine-specific mAbs hybridoma cells were produced by fusion of mouse myeloma cells and spleen cells from mice which were immunized with 4-chloro-6-ethylamino- 1,3,5-triazine-2-(6-aminohexanoic acid) coupled to keyhole limped hemocyanin. After screening with a competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) a mAb with high binding affinity towards atrazine was selected. A sensitive EIA was developed detecting atrazine with a range from 0.05 to 1 (mu) g/l with a test midpoint of 0.1 (mu) g/l. The mAb cross-reacts predominantly with propazine (136%). Since this herbicide is not used in most European countries, the test allows a rapid and inexpensive screening for atrazine in the ppt range. Another EIA has been constructed for the detection of terbuthylazine. The limiting factor in EIA development is the screening for cell lines secreting mAbs with high affinity and selectivity towards the analyte. Super paramagnetic beads being coated with suitable immonoconjugates are shown to bind to hybridomas presenting hapten-specific receptors on their surface. Hybridomas secreting hapten-specific mAbs can be removed by a magnet and be cloned subsequently by standard procedures. A considerable demand of mAbs is expected in the future due to new emerging techniques such as immunosensors.

  16. Detection of ruminant meat and bone meal in feeds by sandwich ELISA with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takayuki; Kato, Masatoshi; Endo, Kiwamu; Kotoura, Satoshi; Takeda, Zenya

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive and reproducible enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using two monoclonal antibodies directed against a synthetic peptide with an amino-acid sequence related to the C-terminus of bovine myoglobin and the whole molecule of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-denatured bovine myoglobin was adapted for detecting bovine myoglobin in contaminated feeds. The ELISA employed bovine meat extract of a known myoglobin concentration as a calibration standard and had an limit of detection (LOD) of 3.54 ng/ml and an limit of quantification (LOQ) of 11.0 ng/ml corresponding to 0.022% and 0.067% (wt/wt) bovine meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) mixed in 20-fold-diluted feed extracts, respectively. A cut-off threshold of 20.6 ng/ml bovine myoglobin was set to simplify ELISA and facilitate quick assessment of test results without a tedious calibration process. The ELISA was able to detect bovine MBM in artificially prepared model feeds, mixed botanical feeds, mixed botanical feeds with skimmed milk, fish meal, pork meal and pork/chicken meal at 0.1% (wt/wt). It was also able to detect sheep MBM in test feeds, but showed no reactivity to swine MBM, chicken MBM, skimmed milk or gelatine of bovine origin. The advantages of this method are the quick and easy extraction protocol of proteins from test feeds, using 100 mM sodium sulphide and 0.6% sodium dodecyl sulphate in the extraction solution and the effective detection of bovine and sheep MBM at 0.1% (wt/wt).

  17. Production of monoclonal antibodies to plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Christopher R

    2009-01-01

    The use of monoclonal antibodies in plant pathology has improved the quality and specificity of detection methods for diseases. Hybridoma technology allows the limitless production of highly specific antibodies which can be used to identify pathogens to the species or even sub-species level.

  18. Monoclonal antibody based immunodot for specific detection of proteins of the shrimp Penaeus species.

    PubMed

    Abhiman, P B; Shankar, K M; Patil, Rajreddy; Suresh Babu, P P; Sahoo, A K; Shamasundar, B A

    2014-05-01

    Frozen shrimp continued to be the single largest item of export from India in terms of value accounting for about 44% of the total marine export earnings. Headless, peeled frozen shrimp is a common and dominant item in the market and there is need for differentiating peeled Penaeus sp from Metapenaeus, Parapenopsis and Macrobrachium sp as consumer preference and price vary. Furthermore, there is need to find out original species used in value addition of shrimp products. Hence, it is essential for development of simple and consumer friendly technique for the identification of shrimp and their products in the market. Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) C-15 (IgG3) and C-52 (IgG2a) reacting with 65 and 47 kD proteins of Penaeus monodon respectively in the Western blot were selected. In epitope analysis by immunodot, the two MAbs reacted and recognized specific proteins of P. monodon, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Littopenaeus vannamei and not that of Metapenaeus, Parapenopsis, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, crabs and fishes. The immunodot required 120 min for completion. The sensitivity of the immunodot to detect proteins of P. monodon was 0.225 mg with MAb C-15 and 0.028 mg with MAb C-52. The MAb based immunodot developed, could be used for identifying and differentiating meat of P. monodon, F. indicus, and L. vannamei from that of Metapenaeus, Parapenopsis, M. rosenbergii, crabs and fishes.

  19. Improved immunobinding test using monoclonal antibodies for detection of Mycoplasma bovis in milk

    PubMed Central

    Infante, F.; Infante, F.; Flores-Gutiérrez, G. H.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an improved immunobinding test (IBT) using monoclonal antibodies to identify Mycoplasma bovis in naturally infected milk. The IBT and the improved IBT were highly specific and had an immunologic sensitivity of 5 × 103 colony-forming units per milliliter. The results for the 2 methods agreed in the 130 milk samples tested. However, the IBT required 158 min, whereas the improved IBT required only 110 min. In addition, the improved IBT used smaller quantities of antibodies and conjugates. PMID:12418785

  20. Fragmentation of monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Vlasak, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Fragmentation is a degradation pathway ubiquitously observed in proteins despite the remarkable stability of peptide bond; proteins differ only by how much and where cleavage occurs. The goal of this review is to summarize reports regarding the non-enzymatic fragmentation of the peptide backbone of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The sites in the polypeptide chain susceptible to fragmentation are determined by a multitude of factors. Insights are provided on the intimate chemical mechanisms that can make some bonds prone to cleavage due to the presence of specific side-chains. In addition to primary structure, the secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures have a significant impact in modulating the distribution of cleavage sites by altering local flexibility, accessibility to solvent or bringing in close proximity side chains that are remote in sequence. This review focuses on cleavage sites observed in the constant regions of mAbs, with special emphasis on hinge fragmentation. The mechanisms responsible for backbone cleavage are strongly dependent on pH and can be catalyzed by metals or radicals. The distribution of cleavage sites are different under acidic compared to basic conditions, with fragmentation rates exhibiting a minimum in the pH range 5–6; therefore, the overall fragmentation pattern observed for a mAb is a complex result of structural and solvent conditions. A critical review of the techniques used to monitor fragmentation is also presented; usually a compromise has to be made between a highly sensitive method with good fragment separation and the capability to identify the cleavage site. The effect of fragmentation on the function of a mAb must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis depending on whether cleavage sites are observed in the variable or constant regions, and on the mechanism of action of the molecule. PMID:21487244

  1. Improved monoclonal antibodies to halodeoxyuridine

    DOEpatents

    Vanderlaan, M.; Dolbeare, F.A.; Gray, J.W.; Thomas, C.B.

    1983-10-18

    The development, method of production, characterization and methods of use of two hybridomas, CIdU-1 (ATCC Accession No. HB-8321) and CIdU-2 (ATCC Accession No. HB-8320), are described. These secrete IgG/sub 1/(K) immunoglobulins that react with halodeoxyuridine (HdU or halodU) such as bromo, chloro, fluoro and iodo deoxyuridine (BrdU, CldU, FdU and IdU), whether these are free in solution or incorporated into single stranded DNA in whole cells. The antibodies do not react with naturally occurring free nucleic acids or with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymers. These antibodies are suitable for use in enzyme immunoassays for free CldU, FdU, IdU and BrdU and for detecting cells with these nucleotides incorporated into them. The monoclonal antibodies are useful in the detection of the sensitivity of tumor cells to specific chemotherapeutic agents, in the measurement of the rate of cellular DNA synthesis, in the measurement of the rate of proliferation of normal and malignant cells and in the detection of HPRT deficiency in cells. 1 tab.

  2. Comparison of conventional staining methods and monoclonal antibody-based methods for Cryptosporidium oocyst detection.

    PubMed Central

    Arrowood, M J; Sterling, C R

    1989-01-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of seven microscopy-based Cryptosporidium oocyst detection methods were compared after application to unconcentrated fecal smears. The seven methods were as follows: (i) a commercial acid-fast (AF) stain (VOLU-SOL) method, (ii) Truant auramine-rhodamine (AR) stain method, (iii) fluorescein-conjugated C1B3 monoclonal antibody (MAb) direct fluorescence method, (iv) OW3 MAb indirect fluorescence method, (v) biotinylated OW3 indirect fluorescence method, (vi) biotinylated OW3-indirect diaminobenzidine (DAB) method, and (vii) biotinylated OW3-aminoethylcarbazole (AEC) method. A total of 281 randomly collected Formalin-fixed fecal samples (submitted to the Maricopa County Health Department, Phoenix, Ariz.) and 30 known positives (Formalin-fixed and K2Cr2O7-preserved stools from our laboratory) were examined in a blind test; 32 of 311 samples (10.3%) were confirmed positive. Of the confirmed positives, 40.6% were identified by the AF method, 93.8% were identified by the AR method, 93.8% were identified by the C1B3 method, 81.3% were identified by the OW3-DAB method, 71.9% were identified by the OW3-AEC method, 100% were identified by the OW3 indirect fluorescence method, and 100% were identified by the biotinylated OW3 indirect fluorescence method. False-positives were encountered by the AF and AR methods (52.0 and 85.7% specificity, respectively), while no false-positives encountered by the MAb-based methods. Oocysts in infected tissue sections were easily detected by the MAb-based methods. Images PMID:2475523

  3. Development of a blocking ELISA for detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection based on a monoclonal antibody against protein P65

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Maojun; DU, Gaimei; ZHANG, Yue; WU, Yuzi; WANG, Haiyan; LI, Bin; BAI, Yun; FENG, Zhixin; XIONG, Qiyan; BAI, Fangfang; BROWNING, Glenn F; SHAO, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causes porcine enzootic pneumonia, an economically important disease of swine. A more sensitive and reliable method for detection of serum antibodies is needed for epidemiological investigations and to evaluate the effect of immunization. We expressed the M. hyopneumoniae protein P65 in Escherichia coli and produced a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that bound specifically to recombinant P65. Using this mAb, a blocking enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed. The blocking ELISA had similar specificity to and sensitivity with the commercial ELISA produced by IDEXX. Thus, this blocking ELISA is a useful test for serological confirmation of M. hyopneumoniae infection. PMID:27075114

  4. Preparation of Monoclonal Antibodies and a Simple Myeloperoxidase-Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Human Myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Bian, Zhi-Ping; Li, Xiong-Zhi; Wu, Heng-Fang; Xu, Jin-Dan; Gu, Chun-Rong; Chen, Xiang-Jian; Yang, Di

    2016-04-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a leukocyte hemoprotein released from neutrophils, is thought to be a potential participant in plaque formation and plaque rupture. Therefore, MPO is regarded as an early marker predicting the risk for atherosclerosis, especially for coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndrome. We generated hybridoma clones 1E3 and 3E8 secreting monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to human MPO. BALB/c mice were immunized with MPO protein purified from human neutrophils. Splenocytes from these mice were fused with the mouse myeloma cell line SP2/0. Based on isotyping of the mAbs, both clones 1E3 and 3E8 were referred to the IgG1 subclass. The specificities of 1E3 and 3E8 were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and only 3E8 was confirmed by western blot. We developed a simple MPO-immunosorbent assay (MPO-ISA) on microplate based on both the immune activity and peroxidase activity of MPO. The mAb secreted by clone 3E8 was chosen as coating antibody to capture the plasma MPO without interfering with the peroxidase activity of MPO. Then, tetramethylbenzidine substrate was added to the microwell directly, catalyzed by captured MPO, and a colored product was formed. The simple MPO-ISA test has a sensitivity of 3.68 ng/mL. The linear concentration of MPO-ISA for commercial MPO standard ranged to 250 ng/mL. The average recovery rate is 101.02%. The imprecision within-day was <10% at three different MPO levels. The imprecision between-day was <10% at low and middle MPO levels and varied to 14.61% at the high MPO level. We found that the established MPO-ISA can detect the plasma MPO from human and cavy, but not from mouse and rat. Compared with the commercial human MPO ELISA assay, the MPO-ISA can be used to detect the natural human MPO protein, but not recombinant MPO polypeptides. The generated mAbs and MPO-ISA test may be useful tools to assess risk for inflammation and cardiac events.

  5. Production of an anti-dermatophyte monoclonal antibody and its application: immunochromatographic detection of dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Noriki, Sakon; Ishida, Hisaya

    2016-01-01

    Tinea refers to superficial infection with one of three fungal genera—Microsporum, Epidermophyton, or Trichophyton—that are collectively known as dermatophytes. These infections are among the most common diseases worldwide and cause chronic morbidity. They are usually diagnosed by direct microscopy and fungal culture, which are burdensome to perform in the clinical setting. To supplement conventional methods, we developed a new method that employs an immunochromatography test for detection of dermatophyte infections. First, anti-Trichophyton monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were produced in mice using a Trichophyton allergen solution as an immunogen. The mAb specificity was assessed by immunostaining alcohol fixed slide cultures and formalin fixed paraffin-embedded microbial samples. Both alcohol- and formalin-fixed samples of all seven species of Trichophyton tested displayed positive immunostaining. Immunochromatography test strips were created using the anti-Trichophyton mAb. The efficiency of the test strip was assessed in patients diagnosed with tinea unguium and in healthy volunteers. Of the 20 patient nails tested, 19 tested positive and one tested negative, whereas of the 17 volunteer nails, only one tested positive. However, KOH microscopic examination of the volunteer nail that tested positive revealed the existence of Trichophyton hyphae. Although the number of nails assayed was small, since the assay had a sensitivity of 95.0% (19/20) and a specificity of 94.1% (16/17), the obtained results were considered to be promising. Thus, while further investigation with a greater number of samples is necessary, this method could potentially be employed as a new diagnostic tool for Trichophyton in the future. PMID:27250927

  6. Development of a double-monoclonal antibody sandwich ELISA: Tool for chicken interferon-γ detection ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hua; Xu, Zheng-zhong; Wang, Meiling; Chen, Jun-hua; Chen, Xiang; Pan, Zhi-ming; Jiao, Xin-an

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop reagents to set up a chicken interferon-γ (ChIFN-γ) assay. Four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for ChIFN-γ were generated to establish sandwich ELISA based on 2 different mAbs. To improve the detection sensitivity of ChIFN-γ, a double-monoclonal antibody sandwich ELISA was developed using mAb 3E5 as capture antibody and biotinylated mAb 3E3 as a detection reagent. The results revealed that this ELISA has high sensitivity, allowing for the detection of 125 to 500 pg/mL of recombinant ChIFN-γ, and also has an excellent capacity for detecting native ChIFN-γ. This ELISA was then used to detect ChIFN-γ level in chickens immunized with a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine, the immunized chicken splenocytes were stimulated by NDV F protein as recall antigen. From our results, it appears that the sensitivity range of this sandwich ELISA test is adequate to measure the ex vivo release of ChIFN-γ. PMID:27127340

  7. Development of a double-monoclonal antibody sandwich ELISA: Tool for chicken interferon-γ detection ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hua; Xu, Zheng-Zhong; Wang, Meiling; Chen, Jun-Hua; Chen, Xiang; Pan, Zhi-Ming; Jiao, Xin-An

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop reagents to set up a chicken interferon-γ (ChIFN-γ) assay. Four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for ChIFN-γ were generated to establish sandwich ELISA based on 2 different mAbs. To improve the detection sensitivity of ChIFN-γ, a double-monoclonal antibody sandwich ELISA was developed using mAb 3E5 as capture antibody and biotinylated mAb 3E3 as a detection reagent. The results revealed that this ELISA has high sensitivity, allowing for the detection of 125 to 500 pg/mL of recombinant ChIFN-γ, and also has an excellent capacity for detecting native ChIFN-γ. This ELISA was then used to detect ChIFN-γ level in chickens immunized with a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine, the immunized chicken splenocytes were stimulated by NDV F protein as recall antigen. From our results, it appears that the sensitivity range of this sandwich ELISA test is adequate to measure the ex vivo release of ChIFN-γ.

  8. Quantitative and sensitive detection of the SARS-CoV spike protein using bispecific monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Sunwoo, Hoon H; Palaniyappan, Arivazhagan; Ganguly, Advaita; Bhatnagar, Pravin K; Das, Dipankar; El-Kadi, Ayman O S; Suresh, Mavanur R

    2013-01-01

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike protein is known to mediate receptor interaction and immune recognition and thus it is considered as a major target for vaccine design. The spike protein plays an important role in virus entry, virus receptor interactions, and virus tropism. Sensitive diagnosis of SARS is essential for the control of the disease in humans. Recombinant SARS-CoV S1 antigen was produced and purified for the development of monoclonal and bi-specific monoclonal antibodies. The hybridomas secreting anti-S1 antibodies, F26G18 and P136.8D12, were fused respectively with the YP4 hybridoma to generate quadromas. The sandwich ELISA was formed by using F26G18 as a coating antibody and biotinylated F26G18 as a detection antibody with a detection limit of 0.037μg/ml (p<0.02). The same detection limit was found with P136.8D12 as a coating antibody and biotinylated F26G18 as a detection antibody. The sensitivity was improved (detection limit of 0.019μg/ml), however, when using bi-specific monoclonal antibody (F157) as the detection antibody. In conclusion, the method described in this study allows sensitive detection of a recombinant SARS spike protein by sandwich ELISA with bi-specific monoclonal antibody and could be used for the diagnosis of patients suspected with SARS.

  9. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    DOEpatents

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2013-04-09

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides different uses of the monoclonal antibody 8H9 or its derivative.

  10. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    DOEpatents

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2010-06-22

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides different uses of the monoclonal antibody 8H9 or its derivative.

  11. Detection of anthrax protective antigen (PA) using europium labeled anti-PA monoclonal antibody and time-resolved fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Robyn A; Quinn, Conrad P; Schiffer, Jarad M; Boyer, Anne E; Goldstein, Jason; Bagarozzi, Dennis A; Soroka, Stephen D; Dauphin, Leslie A; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Inhalation anthrax is a rare but acute infectious disease following adsorption of Bacillus anthracis spores through the lungs. The disease has a high fatality rate if untreated, but early and correct diagnosis has a significant impact on case patient recovery. The early symptoms of inhalation anthrax are, however, non-specific and current anthrax diagnostics are primarily dependent upon culture and confirmatory real-time PCR. Consequently, there may be a significant delay in diagnosis and targeted treatment. Rapid, culture-independent diagnostic tests are therefore needed, particularly in the context of a large scale emergency response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of monoclonal antibodies to detect anthrax toxin proteins that are secreted early in the course of B. anthracis infection using a time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) immunoassay. We selected monoclonal antibodies that could detect protective antigen (PA), as PA83 and also PA63 and LF in the lethal toxin complex. The assay reliable detection limit (RDL) was 6.63×10(-6)μM (0.551ng/ml) for PA83 and 2.51×10(-5)μM (1.58ng/ml) for PA63. Despite variable precision and accuracy of the assay, PA was detected in 9 out of 10 sera samples from anthrax confirmed case patients with cutaneous (n=7), inhalation (n=2), and gastrointestinal (n=1) disease. Anthrax Immune Globulin (AIG), which has been used in treatment of clinical anthrax, interfered with detection of PA. This study demonstrates a culture-independent method of diagnosing anthrax through the use of monoclonal antibodies to detect PA and LF in the lethal toxin complex.

  12. Monoclonal antibodies for treating cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Dillman, R.O. )

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the current status of in-vivo use of monoclonal antibodies for treating cancer. Publications appearing between 1980 and 1988 were identified by computer searches using MEDLINE and CANCERLIT, by reviewing the table of contents of recently published journals, and by searching bibliographies of identified books and articles. More than 700 articles, including peer-reviewed articles and book chapters, were identified and selected for analysis. The literature was reviewed and 235 articles were selected as relevant and representative of the current issues and future applications for in-vivo monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy and of the toxicity and efficacy which has been associated with clinical trials. Approaches include using antibody alone (interacting with complement or effector cells or binding directly with certain cell receptors) and immunoconjugates (antibody coupled to radioisotopes, drugs, toxins, or other biologicals). Most experience has been with murine antibodies. Trials of antibody alone and radiolabeled antibodies have confirmed the feasibility of this approach and the in-vivo trafficking of antibodies to tumor cells. However, tumor cell heterogeneity, lack of cytotoxicity, and the development of human antimouse antibodies have limited clinical efficacy. Although the immunoconjugates are very promising, heterogeneity and the antimouse immune response have hampered this approach as has the additional challenge of chemically or genetically coupling antibody to cytotoxic agents. As a therapeutic modality, monoclonal antibodies are still promising but their general use will be delayed for several years. New approaches using human antibodies and reducing the human antiglobulin response should facilitate treatment. 235 references.

  13. Label Free QCM Immunobiosensor for AFB1 Detection Using Monoclonal IgA Antibody as Recognition Element

    PubMed Central

    Ertekin, Özlem; Öztürk, Selma; Öztürk, Zafer Ziya

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces the use of an IgA isotype aflatoxin (AF) specific monoclonal antibody for the development of a highly sensitive Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) immunobiosensor for the detection of AF in inhibitory immunoassay format. The higher molecular weight of IgA antibodies proved an advantage over commonly used IgG antibodies in label free immunobiosensor measurements. IgA and IgG antibodies with similar affinity for AF were used in the comparative studies. Sensor surface was prepared by covalent immobilization of AFB1, using self assembled monolayer (SAM) formed on gold coated Quartz Crystal, with 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxy succinimide (EDC/NHS) method using a diamine linker. Nonspecific binding to the surface was decreased by minimizing the duration of EDC/NHS activation. Sensor surface was chemically blocked after AF immobilization without any need for protein blocking. This protein free sensor chip endured harsh solutions with strong ionic detergent at high pH, which is required for the regeneration of the high affinity antibody-antigen interaction. According to the obtained results, the detection range with IgA antibodies was higher than IgG antibodies in QCM immunosensor developed for AFB1. PMID:27529243

  14. Detection of wheat gliadin contamination of gluten-free foods by a monoclonal antibody dot immunobinding assay.

    PubMed

    Freedman, A R; Galfre, G; Gal, E; Ellis, H J; Ciclitira, P J

    1987-07-15

    Unfractionated wheat gliadin was used to produce murine monoclonal antibodies to gliadin. A dot immunobinding assay, using these antibodies, was developed to detect possible gliadin contamination of nominally gluten-free flour, using dilute ethanol extracts spotted onto nitrocellulose membranes. The sensitivity of the assay was less than 10 micrograms/ml of unfractionated gliadin which permitted the detection of trace amounts of gliadin present in certain wheat starch based 'gluten-free' products. The assay detected not only wheat gliadin, but also prolamine extracts of rye, barley and oats; maize, soya and potato extracts as well as the control proteins casein and ovalbumin, gave negative results. The assay is of value as a simple and rapid method of screening foods for their suitability for consumption by patients with coeliac disease.

  15. Monoclonal Antibodies in Diagnosis and Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, Thomas A.

    1991-06-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have been applied clinically to the diagnosis and therapy of an array of human disorders, including cancer and infectious diseases, and have been used for the modulation of immune responses. Effective therapy using unmodified monoclonal antibodies has, however, been elusive. Recently, monoclonal antibody-mediated therapy has been revolutionized by advances such as the definition of cell-surface structures on abnormal cells as targets for effective monoclonal antibody action, genetic engineering to create less immunogenic and more effective monoclonal antibodies, and the arming of such antibodies with toxins or radionuclides to enhance their effector function.

  16. Antigenic differences between Trichinella spiralis and T. pseudospiralis detected by monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kehayov, I; Tankov, C; Komandarev, S; Kyurkchiev, S

    1991-01-01

    Antigenic differences between Trichinella spiralis and T. pseudospiralis were established using two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that show different specificities to muscle larvae of the two variants. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that mAb 3G6 reacts positively against T. spiralis, T. nelsoni, T. nativa and T. pseudospiralis, whereas mAb 3E10 does not react with T. pseudospiralis under the same experimental conditions. These antigenic differences were confirmed after preabsorption of the antibodies with serial dilutions of extracts of T. spiralis or T. pseudospiralis muscle larvae. The indirect immunofluorescence technique showed that the antigen corresponding to mAb 3G6 is located in the stichosomes and the cuticle surface of both T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis. In contrast, mAb 3E10 positively stained cryostat sections of T. spiralis, forming a dense reaction product on the surface of the whole larvae and the surrounding capsule. This antibody can be quite useful as a specific probe for distinguishing T. spiralis from T. pseudospiralis in taxonomic studies. Using an avidin-biotin system, we could prove that mAb 3G6 recognizes an excretory/secretory-type antigen.

  17. Conjugation of Monoclonal Antibodies to Super Paramagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Detection of her2/neu Antigen on Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Shamsipour, Fereshteh; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Ghods, Roya; Chamankhah, Mahmood; Forouzesh, Flora; Vafaei, Sedigheh; Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ali Oghabian, Mohammad; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

    2009-04-01

    Conjugation of monoclonal antibodies to super paramagnetic nanoparticles is an effective method for cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this study the humanized anti her2/neu monoclonal antibody- Herceptin- was conjugated to super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles using EDC method. The concentration of the conjugated antibodies was measured by Bradford assay. The antibody-nanoparticle conjugates were incubated with SKBR-3 and T47D human breast carcinoma cell lines and the presence of the conjugates on cell surface was confirmed by Prussian blue iron staining method. Conjugation of Herceptin to SPIO resulted in a precipitate-free conjugate containing 20µg antibody/mg SPIO. Prussian blue iron-staining of cells showed successful binding of the conjugates to the cell surfaces. Conjugation of monoclonal antibodies to SPIO may be a useful method for detection of tumor cells, especially by MRI techniques.

  18. Development and evaluation of a competitive ELISA using a monoclonal antibody for antibody detection after goose parvovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) and vaccine immunization in goose sera.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Ju, Huanyu; Li, Yanwei; Jing, Zhiqiang; Guo, Lu; Zhao, Yu; Ma, Bo; Gao, Mingchun; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Junwei

    2014-12-01

    An assay protocol based on a monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAb-based C-ELISA) for detecting antibodies against goose parvovirus (GPV) and its virus-like particles (VLPs) is described. The assay was developed using baculovirus-expressed recombinant VP2 virus-like particles (rVP2-VLPs) as antigens and a monoclonal antibody against GPV as the competitive antibody. Of the four anti-GPV MAbs that were screened, MAb 1G3 was selected as it was blocked by the GPV positive serum. Based on the distribution of percent inhibition (PI) of the known negative sera (n=225), a cut-off value was set at 36% inhibition. Using this cut-off value, the sensitivity of the assay was 93.3% and the specificity was 95.8%, as compared with the gold standard (virus neutralization assay). The rVP2-VLPs did not react with anti-sera to other goose pathogens, indicating that it is specific for the recognization of goose parvovirus antibodies. The assay was then validated with serum samples from goslings vaccinated with several VLPs (rVP1-VLPs, rVP2-VLPs, rVP3-VLPs, and rCGV-VLPs) and other vaccines (inactivated and attenuated). The C-ELISA described in this study is a sensitive and specific diagnostic test and should have wide applications for the sero-diagnosis and immunologic surveillance of GPV.

  19. Detection of Neospora caninum in tissue sections using a murine monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Cole, R A; Lindsay, D S; Dubey, J P; Blagburn, B L

    1993-10-01

    A murine monoclonal antibody (MAb 6G7), isotype IgG2a, produced against tachyzoites of Neospora caninum (isolate NC-1) reacted specifically with tachyzoites of N. caninum in an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. MAb 6G7 did not react with tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii, sporozoites of Isospora suis, Eimeria bovis, or E. tenella, or merozoites of E. bovis in the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. MAb 6G7 reacted positively with both tachyzoites and bradyzoites of N. caninum in an avidin-biotin peroxidase complex immunohistochemical test on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. No reaction was observed with the following: tachyzoites and bradyzoites of T. gondii, T. gondii-like parasites, or Hammondia hammondi; bradyzoites of Frenkelia microti; schizonts and merozoites of Sarcocystis-like organisms; schizonts, sarcocysts, and oocysts/sporocysts of S. cruzi; schizonts and merozoites of S. canis; schizonts of S. hirsuta, S. tenella, and S. capracanis; merozoites of S. neurona and S. neurona-like organisms, E. bovis, or Haemoproteus sp.; bradyzoites and merozoites of S. montanaensis; bradyzoites of S. odocoileocanis, S. cruzi, and S. tenella; meronts, sexual stages, and caryocysts of Caryospora sp. and C. bigenetica; micromerozoites, macromerozoites, and schizonts of Hepatozoon canis; sporozoites, sexual stages, and oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum and C. baileyi; trophozoites of Monocystis lumbrici, Tritrichomonas foetus, and Balantidium coli; tissue cysts and bradyzoites of Besnoitia sp. and B. jellisoni; amastigotes of Leishmania sp.; and trophic theronts of Ichthyopthirius multifilis. MAb 6G7 reacted with tachyzoites and bradyzoites of N. caninum in natural and experimental infections in dogs, cattle, mice, rats, sheep, and goats, indicating that host origin of the tissues did not affect the performance of the test.

  20. Appearance of cross linked proteins in human atheroma and rat pre-fibrotic liver detected by a new monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Itabe, H; Jimi, S; Kamimura, S; Suzuki, K; Uesugi, N; Imanaka, T; Shijo, H; Takano, T

    1998-02-27

    A new monoclonal antibody against malondialdehyde (MDA)-treated low density lipoprotein (LDL) was raised using homogenate of human atheroma as immunogen. This antibody, DLH2, was obtained by selecting the clones which did not react to native LDL but did react to copper-induced oxidized LDL (OxLDL). DLH2 showed a greater reactivity to MDA-LDL than to OxLDL. When LDL was treated with various aldehyde containing reagents, treatment of LDL with glutaraldehyde or MDA greatly increased the reactivity to the antibody, while LDL treated with 2,4-hexadienal or 4-hydroxynonenal was not reactive. Among many proteins tested, high density lipoprotein, bovine serum albumin and hemoglobin showed significant reactivity to DLH2 after they were treated with MDA or glutaraldehyde. When low density and high density lipoproteins treated with MDA were subjected to immunoblot analysis, newly formed products larger than the original apolipoproteins were detected with the antibody, suggesting that this antibody recognizes aggregated proteins with divalent short chain cross linkers. The antigenic materials were shown by immunohistochemical analysis to be present in foamy macrophages in human atheromatous lesions. DLH2 antigen did not colocalize either with apolipoprotein B. Furthermore, we found a massive accumulation of the antigenic material in Kupffer cells in the liver of rats treated with alcohol and carbonyl iron, a model of hepatic fibrosis due to oxidative stress. These results suggest the presence of cross linked proteins in damaged tissues.

  1. [Evolution of monoclonal antibodies in cancer treatment].

    PubMed

    Kubczak, Małgorzata; Rogalińska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Since late 90s of last century the new age of directed therapy began using mainly biological constructs produced in rodents called monoclonal antibodies. The side effects of monoclonal antibodies were a challenge for pharmaceutical companies to improve the biological properties of these biological drugs. The humanization of monoclonal constructs was an idea to improve monoclonal antibodies next generation activity cancer cell reduction in humans. Moreover for some other patients sensitive for monoclonal antibodies therapy could also potentially induce immunological differences that might imply on human health. The new idea related to monoclonal antibodies was to design a small molecule constructs of nanoantibodies with ability to enter into cells. Such small molecules could find their targets inside human cells, even in nuclei leading to differences in cancer cells expression. The existing knowledge on monoclonal antibodies as well as directed activity of nanoantibodies could improve anticancer treatment efficancy of diseases.

  2. Enzymatic actions of Pasteurella multocida toxin detected by monoclonal antibodies recognizing the deamidated α subunit of the heterotrimeric GTPase Gq.

    PubMed

    Kamitani, Shigeki; Ao, Shinpei; Toshima, Hirono; Tachibana, Taro; Hashimoto, Makiko; Kitadokoro, Kengo; Fukui-Miyazaki, Aya; Abe, Hiroyuki; Horiguchi, Yasuhiko

    2011-08-01

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) is a virulence factor responsible for the pathogenesis of some Pasteurellosis. PMT exerts its toxic effects through the activation of heterotrimeric GTPase (G(q), G(12/13) and G(i))-dependent pathways, by deamidating a glutamine residue in the α subunit of these GTPases. However, the enzymatic characteristics of PMT are yet to be analyzed in detail because the deamidation has only been observed in cell-based assays. In the present study, we developed rat monoclonal antibodies, specifically recognizing the deamidated Gα(q), to detect the actions of PMT by immunological techniques such as western blotting. Using the monoclonal antibodies, we found that the toxin deamidated Gα(q) only under reducing conditions. The C-terminal region of PMT, C-PMT, was more active than the full-length PMT. The C3 domain possessing the enzyme core catalyzed the deamidation in vitro without any other domains. These results not only support previous observations on toxicity, but also provide insights into the enzymatic nature of PMT. In addition, we present several lines of evidence that Gα(11), as well as Gα(q), could be a substrate for PMT.

  3. Anti-Taenia solium monoclonal antibodies for the detection of parasite antigens in body fluids from patients with neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Adriana; Sáenz, Patricia; Marzal, Miguel W; Orrego, Miguel A; Castillo, Yesenia; Rivera, Andrea; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; García, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2016-07-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), an infection of the brain by Taenia solium (Ts) cysts, is the most common cause of adult-onset epilepsy in developing countries. Serological testing consists primarily of varying methods to detect antibodies in body fluids and more recently antigen (Ag) detection assays to identify individuals or animals with viable parasites. Antigen assays currently in use employ monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against T. saginata, which have known cross reactivity to animal cestodes but are highly specific in human samples. We produced, characterized and tested 21 mAbs raised against T. solium whole cyst antigens, vesicular fluid or excretory secretory products. Reactivity of the TsmAbs against specific cyst structures was determined using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry on histological sections of Ts muscle cysts. Four TsmAbs reacted to vesicular space alone, 9 to the neck and cyst wall, one to the neck and vesicular space and 7 to the neck, cyst wall and vesicular space. An in-house ELISA assay to detect circulating Ts antigen, using the TsmAbs as capture antibodies and a rabbit polyclonal anti-Ts whole cyst antibody as a detector antibody demonstrated that eight of the 21 TsmAbs detected antigens in known NCC-positive human sera and three of these also in urine samples. Reactivity was expressed as normalized ratios of optical densities (OD positive control/OD negative control). Three TsmAbs had ratios >10 and five between 2 and 10. The TsmAbs have potential utility for the diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with viable NCC infections.

  4. Detection of Vibrio cholerae with monoclonal antibodies specific for serovar O1 lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, L B; Henk, M C; Siebeling, R J

    1988-01-01

    Six hybridoma cell lines, each of which produced a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against Vibrio cholerae O1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were established. Each MAb was active serologically by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the slide agglutination test. In the ELISA, each MAb was tested against 7 O1 and 9 non-O1 LPS preparations. Three MAbs reacted with both Inaba and Ogawa serovars (A antigen), two MAbs reacted with the Ogawa serovars only (B antigen), and one MAb reacted with the Inaba serovars only (C antigen). Each MAb was also tested in the ELISA against whole-cell preparations of 37 O1 and 52 non-O1 V. cholerae serovars, 20 heterologous Vibrio species, and 37 heterologous bacterial species. The MAbs reacted with V. cholerae O1 cells only, except for one anti-A antigen MAb which reacted weakly with five V. cholerae non-O1 serovars and Serratia marcescens. Each anti-A antigen MAb was labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and tested by direct immunofluorescence against selected O1 and non-O1 serovars. Each MAb-FITC conjugate, when tested alone, exhibited O1-specific fluorescence; however, mixtures of the MAb-FITC dramatically enhanced fluorescence intensity on O1 cells. This finding was also visualized by immunoelectron microscopy on both thin-sectioned and negatively stained O1 cells by using an anti-mouse immunoglobulin-colloidal gold conjugate. These results suggest that the A antigen can be described by more than one epitope and that a superior serotyping reagent can be prepared from a defined mixture of MAbs. Images PMID:3053778

  5. [The pharmacokinetics of monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Keizer, R J; Huitema, A D R; Damen, C W N; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H

    2007-03-24

    Monoclonal antibodies (MOABs) are, due to their specificity, increasingly being deployed for therapeutic purposes. MOABs are derived from immunoglobulins and are fully or partially of murine or human origin. They are administered parenterally: mostly intravenously, but subcutaneous or intramuscular administration is also possible, in which case absorption probably occurs through the lymphatic system. The distribution of MOABs from the bloodstream into the tissues is slow and is hampered by the high molecular size of the MOABs, which is a lesser problem for fragments of antibodies (Fab fragments). MOABs are metabolised to peptides and amino acids. This process takes place in many tissues of the body, but probably predominantly in epithelial cells. As a consequence of the saturable binding of the MOAB to its target, a dose-dependent (non-linear) elimination is often observed. Immune reactions can accelerate the elimination of antibodies, partially depending on the degree ofhumanisation of the antibody. Antibodies and endogenous immunoglobulins are protected from elimination by binding to protective receptors (neonatal Fc-receptor; FcRn), which explains their long half-lives (up to 4 weeks). Metabolic pharmacokinetic interactions with other drugs have not been reported and are not expected. It is expected that in the years to come, new MOABs directed towards new targets will appear on the market, as well as existing antibodies with improved pharmacokinetic properties.

  6. Detection and serotyping of Mediterranean plum pox virus isolates by means of strain-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Myrta, A; Di Terlizzi, B; Boscia, D; Caglayan, K; Gavriel, I; Ghanem, G; Varveri, C; Savino, V

    1998-09-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is a major threat to the expanding Mediterranean stone fruit industry. In order to control the plum pox disease it is of utmost importance to detect early PPV foci and to identify the PPV isolates involved. A survey was therefore carried out in Albania, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Italy and Turkey by a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) with the following monoclonal antibodies (MAbs): 5B (universal), 4DG5 (PPV-D-specific), AL (PPV-M-specific), TUV and AC (PPV-C-specific), and EA24 (PPV-El Amar-specific). A hundred and seventy Mediterranean PPV isolates were tested for strain type. PPV-M was detected in Albania, Cyprus, Greece, Italy, and Turkey; PPV-D was detected in Albania and Italy, whereas samples with natural mixtures of both strains were found in a couple of orchards in Albania. Seven PPV isolates from apricots in two Egyptian localities were recognized only by MAb EA24. In conclusion, DAS-ELISA with a combination of the universal MAb5B and the MAbs specific to the four PPV serotypes currently known (M, D, C and El Amar) is an efficient tool for a simple, sensitive and routine detection of PPV and discrimination of its serotypes.

  7. Development and evaluation of an immunochromatographic assay using a gp51 monoclonal antibody for the detection of antibodies against the bovine leukemia virus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Ju; Cheong, Kwang-Myun; Joung, Ha-Kyung; Kim, Bo-Hye; Song, Jae-Young; Cho, In-Soo; Lee, Kyoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Infection of cattle with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) has been observed and reported worldwide, including in Korea. The onsite identification of infected cattle would help decreasing and eradicating BLV infections on farms. Here, we present a new immunochromatographic assay that employs monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for the detection of antibodies against BLV in the field. BLV envelope glycoprotein (gp)51 was expressed in E. coli, and MAbs against recombinant BLV gp51 were generated for the development of an immunochromatographic assay to detect BLV antibodies in cattle. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were determined by comparing these results with those obtained from a standard enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 160 bovine sera were used to evaluate the new immunochromatographic assay. Using ELISA as a reference standard, the relative specificity and sensitivity of this assay were determined to be 94.7% and 98%, respectively. Because of its high sensitivity and specificity, this BLV antibody detection assay would be suitable for the onsite identification of BLV infection in the field. PMID:27030192

  8. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-specific monoclonal antibody to detect CD19-specific T cells in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Jena, Bipulendu; Maiti, Sourindra; Huls, Helen; Singh, Harjeet; Lee, Dean A; Champlin, Richard E; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2013-01-01

    Clinical trials targeting CD19 on B-cell malignancies are underway with encouraging anti-tumor responses. Most infuse T cells genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) with specificity derived from the scFv region of a CD19-specific mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb, clone FMC63). We describe a novel anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody (mAb) to detect CD19-specific CAR(+) T cells before and after their adoptive transfer. This mouse mAb was generated by immunizing with a cellular vaccine expressing the antigen-recognition domain of FMC63. The specificity of the mAb (clone no. 136.20.1) was confined to the scFv region of the CAR as validated by inhibiting CAR-dependent lysis of CD19(+) tumor targets. This clone can be used to detect CD19-specific CAR(+) T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells at a sensitivity of 1∶1,000. In clinical settings the mAb is used to inform on the immunophenotype and persistence of administered CD19-specific T cells. Thus, our CD19-specific CAR mAb (clone no. 136.20.1) will be useful to investigators implementing CD19-specific CAR(+) T cells to treat B-lineage malignancies. The methodology described to develop a CAR-specific anti-idiotypic mAb could be extended to other gene therapy trials targeting different tumor associated antigens in the context of CAR-based adoptive T-cell therapy.

  9. Immunoglobulin VH determinants defined by monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Hybridoma clones secreting antibodies against common VH determinants were readily produced by fusion of cells from mice immunized with isolated V mu fragments of human immunoglobulins (Ig), but not with intact Ig molecules or isolated heavy chains. Four monoclonal antibodies to the V mu fragments of different IgM paraproteins were selected for analysis: MH-44 (mu kappa), GB-24 (mu kappa), NF-11 (gamma 1 kappa), and SA-44 (gamma 1 kappa). Each antibody reacted with the homologous V mu fragment, homologous mu chain, and normal gamma chains, but not with the intact IgM molecules, intact IgG, or isolated light chains, as determined by radioimmunoassay. The VH reaction spectra with a panel of myeloma heavy chains showed overlapping but distinctive patterns for the four antibodies. Each of the four monoclonal anti-VH antibodies appeared to react with a different "hidden" VH determinant that is not exposed on undenatured, intact Ig molecules and differs from conventional VH subgroup determinants. In immunofluorescence studies, the monoclonal anti-VH antibodies did not bind to surface Ig on viable B lymphocytes, but visibly stained subpopulations of fixed B lymphocytes, pre-B cells, and normal plasma cells. The mean frequencies of VH+ plasma cells were 30% (MH-44), 17% (GB-24), 13% (NF-11), and 3% (SA-44), and similar frequencies were obtained for the VH+ B cell subpopulations. While subpopulations of B cells could be identified at all stages in differentiation by immunofluorescence with the anti-VH antibodies, neither resting nor activated T cells expressed these VH determinants in detectable amounts. PMID:6185604

  10. Utility of the immunohistochemical detection of FLI-1 expression in round cell and vascular neoplasm using a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Sabrina; Orvieto, Enrico; Furlanetto, Alberto; Laurino, Licia; Ninfo, Vito; Dei Tos, Angelo P

    2004-05-01

    FLI-1 nuclear transcription factor has been proposed as a useful tool in the differential diagnosis of small round cell sarcomas. Recently, FLI-1 has been reported as the first nuclear marker of endothelial differentiation. However, its clinical use has been hampered by major interpretation problems, due to the presence of background staining as well as staining variation between different lots of the same antiserum. In this study, a novel monoclonal antibody raised against the carboxyl terminal of the FLI-1 protein (clone GI146-222, BD Pharmingen) was tested in a series of small round cell and vascular neoplasms. Furthermore, in order to assess FLI-1 specificity, we analyzed its expression in a series of common epithelial and nonepithelial malignancies. In total, 15 Ewing's sarcomas, 10 rhabdomyosarcomas, 5 desmoplastic small round cell tumors, 10 synovial sarcomas, 10 high-grade pleomorphic sarcomas, 10 malignant melanomas, 5 Merkel's carcinomas, 10 colonic adenocarcinomas, 10 breast carcinomas, 10 lung adenocarcinomas, 20 angiosarcomas, 5 epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas, 10 Kaposi's sarcomas and 10 benign hemangiomas, were stained. A strong FLI-1 immunoreactivity was detected in all Ewing's sarcomas and vascular neoplasms, highlighting the high sensitivity of FLI-1 monoclonal antibody. However, 2/5 Merkel's carcinomas and 1/10 malignant melanomas showed a strong nuclear immunostaining, suggesting that FLI-1 may not be so helpful in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous Ewing's sarcoma. In addition, a weak immunoreactivity was found in 3/5 Merkel cell carcinomas, 3/10 synovial sarcomas, 5/10 malignant melanomas, 6/10 lung adenocarcinomas and in 1/10 breast carcinomas. In contrast, all the rhabdomyosarcomas, desmoplastic small round cell tumors, high-grade pleomorphic sarcomas and colonic adenocarcinomas tested were negative. Importantly, in contrast with previous studies, no background staining was observed. Our results indicate that FLI-1 monoclonal antibody

  11. Monoclonal Antibodies for Lipid Management.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Matthew J; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, biochemical and genetic studies have identified proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) as a major mediator of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels and thereby a potential novel target for reducing risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). These observations led to the development of PCSK9 inhibitors, which lower LDL-c levels more than any other non-invasive lipid-lowering therapy presently available. The PCSK9 inhibitors furthest along in clinical trials are subcutaneously injected monoclonal antibodies. These PCSK9 inhibitors have demonstrated LDL-c-lowering efficacy with acceptable safety in phase III clinical trials and may offer a useful therapy in addition to maximally tolerated HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) in certain patient groups. Longer-term data are required to ensure sustained efficacy and safety of this new class of medications. This review provides an overview of the biology, genetics, development, and clinical trials of monoclonal antibodies designed to inhibit PCSK9.

  12. A Strategy for Screening Monoclonal Antibodies for Arabidopsis Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qian; Zhou, Lian; Wang, Yingxiang; Ma, Hong

    2017-01-01

    The flower is one of the most complex structures of angiosperms and is essential for sexual reproduction. Current studies using molecular genetic tools have made great advances in understanding flower development. Due to the lack of available antibodies, studies investigating the localization of proteins required for flower development have been restricted to use commercial antibodies against known antigens such as GFP, YFP, and FLAG. Thus, knowledge about cellular structures in the floral organs is limited due to the scarcity of antibodies that can label cellular components. To generate monoclonal antibodies that can facilitate molecular studies of the flower, we constructed a library of monoclonal antibodies against antigenic proteins from Arabidopsis inflorescences and identified 61 monoclonal antibodies. Twenty-four of these monoclonal antibodies displayed a unique band in a western blot assay in at least one of the examined tissues. Distinct cellular distribution patterns of epitopes were detected by these 24 antibodies by immunofluorescence microscopy in a flower section. Subsequently, a combination of immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis identified potential targets for three of these antibodies. These results provide evidence for the generation of an antibody library using the total plant proteins as antigens. Using this method, the present study identified 61 monoclonal antibodies and 24 of them were efficiently detecting epitopes in both western blot experiments and immunofluorescence microscopy. These antibodies can be applied as informative cellular markers to study the biological mechanisms underlying floral development in plants. PMID:28293248

  13. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    DOEpatents

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V

    2013-08-06

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides a method of inhibiting the growth of tumor cells comprising contacting said tumor cells with an appropriate amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof.

  14. Uses of monoclonal antibody 8H9

    DOEpatents

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2010-06-15

    This invention provides a composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a suitable carrier. This invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. This invention also provides an antibody other than the monoclonal antibody 8H9 comprising the complementary determining regions of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof, capable of binding to the same antigen as the monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention provides a substance capable of competitively inhibiting the binding of monoclonal antibody 8H9. This invention also provides an isolated scFv of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof. This invention also provides the 8H9 antigen. This invention also provides a method of inhibiting the growth of tumor cells comprising contacting said tumor cells with an appropriate amount of monoclonal antibody 8H9 or a derivative thereof.

  15. An ultra-sensitive monoclonal antibody-based fluorescent microsphere immunochromatographic test strip assay for detecting aflatoxin M1 in milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid lateral flow fluorescent microspheres immunochromatography test strip (FMs-ICTS) has been developed for the detection of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) residues in milk. For this purpose, an ultra-sensitive anti-AFM1 monoclonal antibody (MAb) 1D3 was prepared and identified. The IC50 value of the MA...

  16. An affinity improved single-chain antibody from phage display of a library derived from monoclonal antibodies detects fumonisins by immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zu-Quan; Li, He-Ping; Wu, Ping; Li, Ya-Bo; Zhou, Zhu-Qing; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Liu, Jin-Long; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2015-03-31

    Fumonisin B analogs, particularly FB1, FB2, and FB3, are major mycotoxins found in cereals. Single-chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies represent a promising alternative immunoassay system. A phage-displayed antibody library derived from four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) generated against FB1 was used to screen high binding affinity scFv antibodies; the best candidate was designated H2. Surface plasmon resonance measurements confirmed that the H2 scFv displayed a 82-fold higher binding affinity than its parent mAb. Direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that the H2 antibody could competitively bind to free FB1, FB2, and FB3, with an IC50 of 0.11, 0.04, and 0.10 μM, respectively; it had no cross-reactivity to deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and aflatoxin. Validation assays with naturally contaminated samples revealed a linear relationship between the H2 antibody-based assay results and chemical analysis results, that could be expressed as y=1.7072x+5.5606 (R(2)=0.8883). Homology modeling of H2 revealed a favorable binding structure highly complementary to the three fumonisins. Molecular docking analyses suggested that the preferential binding of the H2 scFv to FB2 was due to the presence of a hydrogen radical in its R1 position, leading to a proper electrostatic matching and hydrophobic interaction. The H2 scFv antibody can be used for the rapid, accurate, and specific detection of fumonisin contamination in agricultural samples.

  17. A protein-conjugate approach to develop a monoclonal antibody-based antigen detection test for the diagnosis of human brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Patra, Kailash P; Saito, Mayuko; Atluri, Vidya L; Rolán, Hortensia G; Young, Briana; Kerrinnes, Tobias; Smits, Henk; Ricaldi, Jessica N; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Gilman, Robert H; Tsolis, Renee M; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2014-06-01

    Human brucellosis is most commonly diagnosed by serology based on agglutination of fixed Brucella abortus as antigen. Nucleic acid amplification techniques have not proven capable of reproducibly and sensitively demonstrating the presence of Brucella DNA in clinical specimens. We sought to optimize a monoclonal antibody-based assay to detect Brucella melitensis lipopolysaccharide in blood by conjugating B. melitensis LPS to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, an immunogenic protein carrier to maximize IgG affinity of monoclonal antibodies. A panel of specific of monoclonal antibodies was obtained that recognized both B. melitensis and B. abortus lipopolysaccharide epitopes. An antigen capture assay was developed that detected B. melitensis in the blood of experimentally infected mice and, in a pilot study, in naturally infected Peruvian subjects. As a proof of principle, a majority (7/10) of the patients with positive blood cultures had B. melitensis lipopolysaccharide detected in the initial blood specimen obtained. One of 10 patients with relapsed brucellosis and negative blood culture had a positive serum antigen test. No seronegative/blood culture negative patients had a positive serum antigen test. Analysis of the pair of monoclonal antibodies (2D1, 2E8) used in the capture ELISA for potential cross-reactivity in the detection of lipopolysaccharides of E. coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica O9 showed specificity for Brucella lipopolysaccharide. This new approach to develop antigen-detection monoclonal antibodies against a T cell-independent polysaccharide antigen based on immunogenic protein conjugation may lead to the production of improved rapid point-of-care-deployable assays for the diagnosis of brucellosis and other infectious diseases.

  18. Monoclonal antibodies in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Faderl, Stefan; Keating, Michael J

    2006-09-01

    Multiple options are now available for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Over the last 10 years, monoclonal antibodies have become an integral part of the management of this disease. Alemtuzumab has received approval for use in patients with fludarabine-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Rituximab has been investigated extensively in chronic lymphocytic leukemia both as a single agent and in combination with chemotherapy and other monoclonal antibodies. Epratuzumab and lumiliximab are newer monoclonal antibodies in the early phase of clinical development. This article will review the monoclonal antibodies more commonly used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the results obtained with monoclonal antibodies as single agents and in combination with chemotherapy, and other biological agents and newer compounds undergoing clinical trials.

  19. Detection and Quantitation of Afucosylated N-Linked Oligosaccharides in Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies Using Enzymatic Digestion and LC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yi; May, Kimberly; Xu, Wei; Liu, Hongcheng

    2012-07-01

    The presence of N-linked oligosaccharides in the CH2 domain has a significant impact on the structure, stability, and biological functions of recombinant monoclonal antibodies. The impact is also highly dependent on the specific oligosaccharide structures. The absence of core-fucose has been demonstrated to result in increased binding affinity to Fcγ receptors and, thus, enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Therefore, a method that can specifically determine the level of oligosaccharides without the core-fucose (afucosylation) is highly desired. In the current study, recombinant monoclonal antibodies and tryptic peptides from the antibodies were digested using endoglycosidases F2 and H, which cleaves the glycosidic bond between the two primary GlcNAc residues. As a result, various oligosaccharides of either complex type or high mannose type that are commonly observed for recombinant monoclonal antibodies are converted to either GlcNAc residue only or GlcNAc with the core-fucose. The level of GlcNAc represents the sum of all afucosylated oligosaccharides, whereas the level of GlcNAc with the core-fucose represents the sum of all fucosylated oligosaccharides. LC-MS analysis of the enzymatically digested antibodies after reduction provided a quick estimate of the levels of afucosylation. An accurate determination of the level of afucosylation was obtained by LC-MS analysis of glycopeptides after trypsin digestion.

  20. Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by dot-blotting using monoclonal antibodies to CPV40 capsid protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) were prepared against the 40 kDa capsid protein of Cryptosporidium parvum virus (CPV) by immunizing mice with purified recombinant CPV40 protein. By immunoblotting analysis, one MAb, designated MAbCPV40-1, bound to a 40 kDa protein in extracts of C. parvum oocysts, which...

  1. Development of a multiplex lateral flow strip test for foot-and-mouth disease virus detection using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Caterer, Nigel R; Xu, Wanhong; Goolia, Melissa

    2015-09-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the world's most highly contagious animal diseases with tremendous economic consequences. A rapid and specific test for FMD diagnosis at the site of a suspected outbreak is crucial for the implementation of control measures. This project developed a multiplex lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test (multiplex-LFI) for the rapid detection and serotyping of FMD viruses. The monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against serotypes O, A, and Asia 1 were used as capture mAbs. The mAbs were conjugated with fluorescein, rhodamine or biotin for serotype O, A and Asia 1, respectively. The detection mAbs which consisted of a serotype-independent mAb in combination with one serotype A-specific mAb and one Asia 1-specific mAb, were each colloidal gold-conjugated. The strips used in this study contained one control line and three test lines, which corresponded to one of the three serotypes, O, A or Asia 1. The newly developed multiplex-LFI strip test specifically identified serotype O (n=46), A (n=45) and Asia 1 (n=17) in all tested field isolates. The sensitivity of this strip test was comparable to the double antibody sandwich ELISA for serotypes O and A, but lower than the ELISA for serotype Asia 1. The multiplex-LFI strip test identified all tissue suspensions from animals that were experimentally inoculated with serotypes O, A or Asia 1. FMD viruses were detected in 38% and 50% of the swab samples from the lesion areas of experimentally inoculated sheep for serotypes O and A, respectively. The capability of the multiplex-LFI strip tests to produce rapid results with high specificity for FMD viruses of multiple serotypes makes this test a valuable tool to detect FMD viruses at outbreak sites.

  2. Micrometastatic cancer cells in bone marrow: in vitro detection with anti-cytokeratin and in vivo labeling with anti-17-1A monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Schlimok, G.; Funke, I.; Holzmann, B.; Goettlinger, G.; Schmidt, G.; Haeser, H.; Swierkot, S.; Warnecke, H.H.; Schneider, B.; Koprowski, H.; Riethmueller, G.

    1987-12-01

    The detection of early micrometastasis or disseminated single tumor cells poses a problem for conventional diagnosis procedures. Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies against cytokeratin and the 17-1A epithelial antigen the authors identified immunocytochemically tumor cells in bone marrow of patients with breast cancer and colorectal cancer at the time of surgery of the primary tumor. Monoclonal antibody CK2, recognizing the human cytokeratin component 18 in simple epithelia, appeared to be the most suitable reagent because of its negative reaction with bone marrow samples of the noncarcinoma patients. Its specificity was further demonstrated in a double-marker staining procedure using an anti-leukocyte common antigen monoclonal antibody (T200) as counterstain. A comparative analysis showed that immunocytology was clearly superior to conventional cytology and histology. In 9.5-20.5% of patients without distant metastasis, tumor cells could be detected in bone marrow. They found a significant correlation between tumor cells in bone marrow and conventional risk factors, such as distant metastasis or lymph node involvement. In a first approach toward immunotherapy they demonstrated in 3 patients that infused monoclonal antibody 17-1A can label single tumor cells in bone marrow in vivo. They then used this single approach to follow up on 7 patients undergoing 17-1A therapy in an adjuvant clinical trial.

  3. Impact of heat processing on the detection of the major shellfish allergen tropomyosin in crustaceans and molluscs using specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Sandip D; Abdel Rahman, Anas M; Komoda, Toshikazu; Lopata, Andreas L

    2013-12-15

    The major heat-stable shellfish allergen, tropomyosin, demonstrates immunological cross-reactivity, making specific differentiation of crustaceans and molluscs for food labelling very difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of allergen-specific monoclonal antibodies in differential detection of shellfish-derived tropomyosin in 11 crustacean and 7 mollusc species, and to study the impact of heating on its detection. Cross-reactive tropomyosin was detected in all crustacean species, with partial detection in molluscs: mussels, scallops and snails but none in oyster, octopus and squid. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that heating of shellfish has a profound effect on tropomyosin detection. This was evident by the enhanced recognition of multiple tropomyosin variants in the analysed shellfish species. Specific monoclonal antibodies, targetting the N-terminal region of tropomyosin, must therefore be developed to differentiate tropomyosins in crustaceans and molluscs. This can help in correct food labelling practices and thus protection of consumers.

  4. Human macrophages produce dimeric forms of IL-18 which can be detected with monoclonal antibodies specific for inactive IL-18.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, S; Matsumoto, M; Shida, K; Fukumori, Y; Toyoshima, K; Seya, T

    2001-02-23

    We established two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) which specifically recognize human 'functionally inactive' recombinant IL-18, and IL-18 protein polymorphism was examined using human monocytes and macrophages (M phi). In 6 day GM-CSF-treated M phi, an 'inactive' IL-18-recognizing mAb 21 detected the IL-18 proform (24 kDa) and a 48-kDa protein, which were gradually increased concomitant with maturation stage. Majority of the 24- and 48-kDa forms were barely detectable with other mAbs recognizing 'active' IL-18. No reagents including Toll stimulators up-regulated these IL-18 populations in M phi. The 21-recognizable IL-18 species were separated using an anion-exchanger column and their IFN gamma-inducing activity was assessed with human lymphocytes plus IL-12. Virtually no as yet known activity was detected with these IL-18 species. After processed with M phi proteases, an 18-kDa form was generated to express the IFN gamma-inducing activity, although the activity was far weaker than that of control 'active' IL-18. These observations suggested that large amounts of various IL-18 species are produced with monocyte-M phi differentiation and most of these IL-18 species are functionally 'inactive' in terms of the reported IL-18 function even after proteolytic 18-kDa conversion.

  5. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan-4 (CSPG4)-specific monoclonal antibody 225.28 in detection of acute myeloid leukemia blasts.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Moon; Whiteside, Theresa L; Ferrone, Soldano; Boyiadzis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan-4 (CSPG4), a membrane-bound proteoglycan known to be expressed on the surface of malignant cells, has a restricted distribution in normal tissues. CSPG4 is a potential candidate tumor marker. We investigate CSPG4 expression on blasts in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and its relation with cytogenetic abnormalities and molecular markers known to have prognostic significance in this disease. Using hybridoma technology, we generated a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), mAb 225.28, reactive with CSPG4. Blast samples obtained from the peripheral blood of newly diagnosed AML patients were analyzed for CSPG4 expression using the CSPG4-specific mAb and multiparameter flow cytometry. The results were correlated with cytogenetic and molecular characteristics of AML. CSPG4 was found to be expressed on a variable fraction of leukemic blasts in all AML patients with different leukemia morphology, including monoblastic cases. Reactivity of CSPG4-specific mAb with leukemic blasts was not limited to those with the rearranged MLL gene. CSPG4 was also expressed on AML blasts with a complex karyotype, FLT3 mutation, or NPM1 mutation. The results indicate that CSPG4 is expressed and detectable by flow cytometry using the mAb 225.28 on a proportion of blasts of all subtypes of AML irrespective of cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities. mAb 225.28 could be useful in detecting AML blasts by flow cytometry.

  6. Monoclonal antibodies to snakehead, Channa striata immunoglobulins: detection and quantification of immunoglobulin-positive cells in blood and lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Sood, Neeraj; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Rathore, Gaurav; Singh, Akhilesh; Lakra, W S

    2011-02-01

    Snakehead Channa striata is an important freshwater food fish in many Southeast Asian countries. Three monoclonal antibodies (C9, C10 and D10) were developed against purified serum immunoglobulins of Channa striata (Cs-Ig) and characterized. C9 and D10 MAbs were specific to heavy chain, while C10 MAb detected only unreduced Cs-Ig in western blotting. In competitive ELISA, C9 and C10 MAbs were specific to C. striata Ig and showed no cross reactivity with serum Ig of other fish species i.e. Channa punctatus, Channa marulius, Clarias batrachus and Labeo rohita. D10 MAb showed reactivity to serum Ig of C. striata and C. marulius. In FACS analysis of gated lymphocytes, the percentage of Ig+ cells detected by C9 MAb was 18.2%, 27.7% and 10.3% in blood, spleen and kidney, respectively (n=3, body weight 500-600 g). However, only a few cells (0.5%) were found to be Ig+ in thymus (n=5). C9 MAb was also successfully employed to demonstrate Ig+ cells in blood smears and formalin fixed sections of spleen and kidney. These findings suggest that the spleen plays an important role in humoral immunity as compared to head kidney. Further, these MAbs can be useful immunological tool in monitoring health status of cultured C. striata.

  7. Rapid detection of human group C rotaviruses by reverse passive hemagglutination and latex agglutination tests using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Kuzuya, M; Fujii, R; Hamano, M; Nagabayashi, T; Tsunemitsu, H; Yamada, M; Nii, S; Mori, T

    1993-01-01

    Reverse passive hemagglutination (RPHA) tests and a latex agglutination test with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were developed for the rapid detection of noncultivatable human group C rotaviruses. For RPHA tests, two MAbs, MAb 5A12 recognizing the outer capsid and MAb 13A3 recognizing the inner capsid, were separately used for the coating of sheep erythrocytes (SRBCs). Forty-six fecal samples were examined to confirm the practicality of the tests. As a result, there was concordance between the RPHA test with SRBCs coated with MAb 5A12 and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of viral RNA (RNA-PAGE) in 44 (95.6%) of 46 samples, while the diagnoses by the RPHA test with SRBCs coated with MAb 13A3 were in complete agreement with those by RNA-PAGE. Furthermore, a latex agglutination test with MAb 13A3 was also developed, and this test was fast enough and sensitive enough to successfully detect the viruses from most fecal samples within 2 min. The present procedures would be useful for the diagnosis of human group C rotavirus infections in clinical laboratories which are not well equipped. Images PMID:8388891

  8. A murine monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody detects a common idiotope on human, mouse and rabbit antibodies to allergen Lol p IV.

    PubMed

    Zhou, E M; Dzuba-Fischer, J M; Rector, E S; Sehon, A H; Kisil, F T

    1991-09-01

    A syngeneic mouse monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-Id), designated as B1/1, was generated against a monoclonal antibody (MoAb 91) specific for Ryegrass pollen allergen Lol p IV. This anti-Id recognized an idiotope (Id) that was also present on other monoclonal antibodies with the same specificity as MoAb 91. Observations that (i) the anti-Id inhibited the binding of MoAb 91 to Lol p IV and (ii) the Id-anti-Id interaction could be inhibited by Lol p IV indicated that the Id was located within or near the antigen combining site. These properties served to characterize B1/1 as an internal image anti-Id. Evidence that an immune response in different species to Lol p IV elicits the formation of antibodies which express a common Id was provided by the observations that (i) the Id-anti-Id interactions could be inhibited by mouse, human and rabbit antisera to Lol p IV and (ii) the binding of these antisera to Lol p IV could be inhibited by the anti-Id. Interestingly, the internal image anti-Id B1/1 also recognized an Id on a monoclonal antibody which was directed to an epitope of Lol p IV, different from that recognized by MoAb 91.

  9. Adverse cardiac events to monoclonal antibodies used for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kounis, Nicholas G; Soufras, George D; Tsigkas, Grigorios; Hahalis, George

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are currently used in the treatment of neoplastic, hematological, or inflammatory diseases, a practice that is occasionally associated with a variety of systemic and cutaneous adverse events. Cardiac adverse events include cardiomyopathy, ventricular dysfunction, arrhythmias, arrests, and acute coronary syndromes, such as acute myocardial infarction and vasospastic angina pectoris. These events generally follow hypersensitivity reactions including cutaneous erythema, pruritus chills, and precordial pain. Recently, IgE specific for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have been detected, pointing to the existence of hypersensitivity and Kounis hypersensitivity-associated syndrome. Therefore, the careful monitoring of cardiovascular events is of paramount importance in the course of monoclonal antibody-based therapies. Moreover, further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiology of cardiovascular adverse events elicited by monoclonal antibodies and to identify preventive, protective, and therapeutic measures. PMID:25340003

  10. Rapid Detection and Isolation of Escherichia coli O104:H4 from Milk Using Monoclonal Antibody-coated Magnetic Beads.

    PubMed

    Luciani, Mirella; Di Febo, Tiziana; Zilli, Katiuscia; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Armillotta, Gisella; Manna, Laura; Minelli, Fabio; Tittarelli, Manuela; Caprioli, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia coli O104:H4 were produced by fusion of Sp2/O-Ag-14 mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells of Balb/c mice, immunized with heat-inactivated and sonicated E. coli O104:H4 bacterial cells. Four MAbs specific for the E. coli O104:H4 LPS (1E6G6, 1F4C9, 3G6G7, and 4G10D2) were characterized and evaluated for the use in a method for the detection of E. coli O104:H4 in milk samples that involves antibody conjugation to magnetic microbeads to reduce time and increase the efficiency of isolation. MAb 1E6G6 was selected and coupled to microbeads, then used for immuno-magnetic separation (IMS); the efficiency of the IMS method for E. coli O104:H4 isolation from milk was evaluated and compared to that of the EU RL VTEC conventional culture-based isolation procedure. Milk suspensions also containing other pathogenic bacteria that could potentially be found in milk (Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus) were also tested to evaluate the specificity of MAb-coated beads. Beads coated with MAb 1E6G6 showed a good ability to capture the E. coli O104:H4, even in milk samples contaminated with other bacteria, with a higher number of E. coli O104:H4 CFU reisolated in comparison with the official method (121 and 41 CFU, respectively, at 10(3) E. coli O104:H4 initial load; 19 and 6 CFU, respectively, at 10(2) E. coli O104:H4 initial load; 1 and 0 CFU, respectively, at 10(1) E. coli O104:H4 initial load). The specificity was 100%.

  11. Monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Dillman, R.O.

    1984-01-01

    Potential uses of monoclonal antibodies in anti-cancer treatment include passive serotherapy, radioisotope conjugates, toxin-linked conjugates, and chemotherapy-monoclonal antibody conjugates. The bases for these applications have been founded in research with heterologous antisera, and in some cases with monoclonal antibodies in animal tumor models. Human trials with passive serotherapy have already begun in both hematopoietic and solid tumor malignancies. Promising results have been reported in cutaneous T cell lymphoma with anti-T cell monoclonal antibody, and in nodular lymphoma with anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody. Radioisotope conjugate work appears promising for imaging in both animals and humans, and this work will lay the foundation for possible therapeutic application of radio-immunotherapy. Toxin-linked conjugates are promising in vitro and may have application in autologous bone marrow transplantation. Research with chemotherapy conjugates is also underway. Preliminary results suggest that murine monoclonal antibodies will be well tolerated clinically except in the setting of circulating cells which bear the target antigen, where rapid infusions may be associated with intolerable side effects. In certain diseases, production of endogenous anti-mouse antibodies may also limit application. Advances in the technology for human-human hybridoma production may help solve some of these problems. 132 references.

  12. Monoclonal Antibodies for Multiple Sclerosis Treatment.

    PubMed

    Palavra, Filipe

    2015-01-01

    Since their introduction in medical therapy, in the last quarter of the 20th century, monoclonal antibodies have gained an increasing importance in the treatment of various diseases. Neurology has been one of the medical specialties benefiting of the therapeutic potential of these monoclonal antibodies and certain neurological conditions may now contain such drugs in their therapeutic algorithms. Multiple sclerosis is one of these diseases and, in addition to the monoclonal antibodies already licensed for clinical use, several others are in development for future utilization in this specific area. The future will certainly pass through this kind of drugs and, in this article, a review of the most relevant data related to monoclonal antibodies already in use and also in clinical development for multiple sclerosis treatment will be performed.

  13. CD33 monoclonal antibody conjugated Au cluster nano-bioprobe for targeted flow-cytometric detection of acute myeloid leukaemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retnakumari, Archana; Jayasimhan, Jasusri; Chandran, Parwathy; Menon, Deepthy; Nair, Shantikumar; Mony, Ullas; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2011-07-01

    Protein stabilized gold nanoclusters (Au-NCs) are biocompatible, near-infrared (NIR) emitting nanosystems having a wide range of biomedical applications. Here, we report the development of a Au-NC based targeted fluorescent nano-bioprobe for the flow-cytometric detection of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cells. Au-NCs with ~ 25-28 atoms showing bright red-NIR fluorescence (600-750 nm) and average size of ~ 0.8 nm were prepared by bovine serum albumin assisted reduction-cum-stabilization in aqueous phase. The protein protected clusters were conjugated with monoclonal antibody against CD33 myeloid antigen, which is overexpressed in ~ 99.2% of the primitive population of AML cells, as confirmed by immunophenotyping using flow cytometry. Au-NC-CD33 conjugates having average size of ~ 12 nm retained bright fluorescence over an extended duration of ~ a year, as the albumin protein protects Au-NCs against degradation. Nanotoxicity studies revealed excellent biocompatibility of Au-NC conjugates, as they showed no adverse effect on the cell viability and inflammatory response. Target specificity of the conjugates for detecting CD33 expressing AML cells (KG1a) in flow cytometry showed specific staining of ~ 95.4% of leukaemia cells within 1-2 h compared to a non-specific uptake of ~ 8.2% in human peripheral blood cells (PBMCs) which are CD33low. The confocal imaging also demonstrated the targeted uptake of CD33 conjugated Au-NCs by leukaemia cells, thus confirming the flow cytometry results. This study demonstrates that novel nano-bioprobes can be developed using protein protected fluorescent nanoclusters of Au for the molecular receptor targeted flow cytometry based detection and imaging of cancer cells.

  14. Preparation and identification of monoclonal antibody against fumonisin B(1) and development of detection by Ic-ELISA.

    PubMed

    Ling, Sumei; Pang, Jie; Yu, Jinjin; Wang, Rongzhi; Liu, Licai; Ma, Yanling; Zhang, Yuming; Jin, Ni; Wang, Shihua

    2014-03-01

    Fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) is one of the mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides, which was mainly found in corn and related products. FB(1) was small molecule with no immunogenicity, so it should be conjugated to carrier proteins such as BSA (bovine serum albumin) or KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) to generate immunogenicity. In this study, conjugate FB(1)-BSA was used to immunize Balb/c mice, and one hybrid cell line 4G5 excreting monoclonal antibody against FB(1) was obtained by fusing mouse Sp2/0 myeloma cells with spleen cells from the immunized mouse. Hybridoma 4G5 was injected into the abdomen of Balb/c mice, and the anti-FB(1) mcAb was harvested from ascites and the titer reached 6.4 × 10(4) after purification with caprylic/ammonium sulfate precipitation (CA-AS) method. The cross-reactivity results showed that anti-FB(1) mcAb was highly specific to fumonisin B(1), and the affinity was 2.1 × 10(8) L/M. Indirect competitive ELISA (ic-ELISA) indicated that the linear range to detect FB(1) was 1-800 ng/mL with IC50 of 32 ng/mL. The detection limit was 1.0 ng/mL, and the recovery average was 93.75 ± 6.90%. Therefore, the anti-FB(1) mcAb excreted by 4G5 can be used to detect fumonisin B(1) in corn and related samples.

  15. A perspective of monoclonal antibodies: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    DeLand, F.H. )

    1989-07-01

    In 1975, the development of the technique to produce monoclonal antibodies revolutionized the approach to cancer detection and therapy. Hundreds of monoclonal antibodies to the epitopes of tumor cells have been produced, providing more specific tools for probing the cellular elements of cancer. At the same time, these tools have disclosed greater complexity in the character of these cells and stimulated further investigation. Although there are antibodies to specific epitopes of neoplastic cells, this purity has not provided the improved detection and therapy of cancer first expected. Technical manipulations have provided limited improvement in results, but more sophisticated techniques, such as biologic response modifiers, may be required to attain clinical results that can be universally applied. The intense research in monoclonal antibodies and their application does offer promise that the goal of improved cancer detection and therapy will be forthcoming. 58 references.

  16. Monoclonal Antibodies against the Drosophila Nervous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Shinobu C.; Zipursky, Stephen L.; Benzer, Seymour; Ferrus, Alberto; Shotwell, Sandra L.

    1982-12-01

    A panel of 148 monoclonal antibodies directed against Drosophila neural antigens has been prepared by using mice immunized with homogenates of Drosophila tissue. Antibodies were screened immunohistochemically on cryostat sections of fly heads. A large diversity of staining patterns was observed. Some antigens were broadly distributed among tissues; others were highly specific to nerve fibers, neuropil, muscle, the tracheal system, cell nuclei, photoreceptors, or other structures. The antigens for many of the antibodies have been identified on immunoblots. Monoclonal antibodies that identify specific molecules within the nervous system should prove useful in the study of the molecular genetics of neural development.

  17. Preparation of astatine-labeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Milesz, S.; Norseev, Yu.V.; Szucs, Z. |

    1995-07-01

    In the cationic state astatine forms a stable complex with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Thanks to this complex, astatine can be bound to monoclonal antibodies of the RYa{sub 1} type. The most favorable conditions for preparing astatine-labeled antibodies are established. The chromatographic analysis and electromigration experiments showed that astatine is firmly linked to a biomolecule in vitro and it did not escape from labeled monoclonal antibodies even under treatment with such highly effective astatine-complexing agent as thiourea. The immune activity of astatine-labeled antibodies did not change even after 20 h.

  18. Monoclonal Antibody That Defines Human Myoepithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dairkee, Shahnaz Hashmi; Blayney, Carlene; Smith, Helene S.; Hackett, Adeline J.

    1985-11-01

    We have isolated a mouse monoclonal antibody that, upon immunohistochemical localization in frozen sections, displays specificity for human myoepithelial cells in the resting mammary gland, sweat glands, and salivary glands. Furthermore, this antibody was strongly and homogeneously reactive with frozen sections of 3 of 60 breast carcinoma specimens. Using immunolocalization techniques in conjunction with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, we have determined that the reactivity of this monoclonal antibody is directed toward a 51,000-dalton keratin polypeptide. The potential uses of this antibody in the prognosis of human mammary carcinoma and in understanding the role of the myoepithelium in development and differentiation are discussed.

  19. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in clinic.

    PubMed

    Wootla, Bharath; Denic, Aleksandar; Rodriguez, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies are heavy plasma proteins, with sugar chains added to amino-acid residues by N-linked glycosylation and occasionally by O-linked glycosylation. The versatility of antibodies is demonstrated by the various functions that they mediate such as neutralization, agglutination, fixation with activation of complement and activation of effector cells. Naturally occurring antibodies protect the organism against harmful pathogens, viruses and infections. In addition, almost any organic chemical induces antibody production of antibodies that would bind specifically to the chemical. These antibodies are often produced from multiple B cell clones and referred to as polyclonal antibodies. In recent years, scientists have exploited the highly evolved machinery of the immune system to produce structurally and functionally complex molecules such as antibodies from a single B clone, heralding the era of monoclonal antibodies. Most of the antibodies currently in the clinic, target components of the immune system, are not curative and seek to alleviate symptoms rather than cure disease. Our group used a novel strategy to identify reparative human monoclonal antibodies distinct from conventional antibodies. In this chapter, we discuss the therapeutic relevance of both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in clinic.

  20. From rabbit antibody repertoires to rabbit monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Justus; Peng, Haiyong; Rader, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we explain why and how rabbit monoclonal antibodies have become outstanding reagents for laboratory research and increasingly for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Starting with the unique ontogeny of rabbit B cells that affords highly distinctive antibody repertoires rich in in vivo pruned binders of high diversity, affinity and specificity, we describe the generation of rabbit monoclonal antibodies by hybridoma technology, phage display and alternative methods, along with an account of successful humanization strategies. PMID:28336958

  1. Monoclonal antibody passive hemagglutination and capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for direct detection and quantitation of F41 and K99 fimbrial antigens in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Raybould, T J; Crouch, C F; Acres, S D

    1987-01-01

    Production of diarrhea in neonatal calves by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli depends on its ability to attach to the epithelial cells of the intestine via surface adhesins called pili or fimbriae and to secrete enterotoxins. The most important of these fimbriae are designated K99 and F41. We produced and characterized a murine monoclonal antibody specific to F41. This monoclonal antibody and a K99-specific monoclonal antibody were used to develop sensitive and specific passive hemagglutination and capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for detection and quantitation of F41 and K99 antigens in E. coli cultures and culture supernatants. The capture ELISA systems exhibited excellent sensitivity and specificity, whereas the passive hemagglutination systems appeared to be oversensitive. The ability of the capture ELISAs to detect K99 and F41 fimbrial antigens in fecal specimens from calves was evaluated. Fimbrial antigens were detected in six of six specimens from scouring calves but not in four of four specimens from nonscouring calves. PMID:2880866

  2. Development of a Double Antibody Sandwich ELISA for West Nile Virus Detection Using Monoclonal Antibodies against Non-Structural Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xi-Xia; Li, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Guo, Yong-Hui; Hao, Wei; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Fu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    The early diagnosis of West Nile virus (WNV) infection is important for successful clinical management and epidemiological control. The non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of flavivirus, a highly conserved and secreted glycoprotein, is abundant in the serum of flavivirus-infected patients and represents a useful early diagnostic marker. We developed a WNV-specific NS1 antigen-capture ELISA using two mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognised distinct epitopes of the NS1 protein of WNV as capture and detection antibodies. The antigen-capture ELISA displayed exclusive specificity to WNV without cross-reaction with other related members of the flavivirus family, including the dengue virus, yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. Additionally, the specificity was presented as no false positive in normal (0/1003) and DENV-infected (0/107) human serum specimens. The detection limit of the antigen-capture ELISA was as low as 15 pg/ml of recombinant WNV NS1 protein (rWNV-NS1) and 6.1 plaque-forming units (PFU)/0.1 ml of WNV-infected culture supernatant. In mice infected with WNV, the NS1 protein was readily detected in serum as early as one day after WNV infection, prior to the development of clinical signs of the disease. The sensitivity of the NS1 capture ELISA (93.7%) was significantly higher (79.4%) than that of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in 63 serum samples from WNV-infected mice (p = 0.035). This newly developed NS1 antigen-capture ELISA with high sensitivity and specificity could be used as an efficient method for the early diagnosis of WNV infection in animals or humans. PMID:25303282

  3. Trends in Malignant Glioma Monoclonal Antibody Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chekhonin, Ivan; Gurina, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Although new passive and active immunotherapy methods are emerging, unconjugated monoclonal antibodies remain the only kind of biological preparations approved for high-grade glioma therapy in clinical practice. In this review, we combine clinical and experimental data discussion. As antiangiogenic therapy is the standard of care for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), we analyze major clinical trials and possible therapeutic combinations of bevacizumab, the most common monoclonal antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Another humanized antibody to gain recognition in GBM is epidermal growth factor (EGFR) antagonist nimotuzumab. Other antigens (VEGF receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, hepatocyte growth factor and c-Met system) showed significance in gliomas and were used to create monoclonal antibodies applied in different malignant tumors. We assess the role of genetic markers (isocitrate dehydrogenase, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransnsferase) in GBM treatment outcome prediction. Besides antibodies studied in clinical trials, we focus on perspective targets and briefly list other means of passive immunotherapy.

  4. Human cartilage chitinase 3-like protein 2: cloning, expression, and production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies for osteoarthritis detection and identification of potential binding partners.

    PubMed

    Ranok, Araya; Khunkaewla, Panida; Suginta, Wipa

    2013-10-01

    Human cartilage chitinase 3-like protein 2 (CHI3L2 or YKL-39) is a member of family-18 glycosyl hydrolases that lacks chitinase activity. YKL-39 is known as a potential marker for the activation of chondrocytes and the progression of osteoarthritis. In this study, we cloned and expressed a functional form of human YKL-39 in the bacterial system. The Escherichia coli expressed YKL-30 was used as immugen for production of anti YKL-39 polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Both antibody types were highly selective, reacting only with YKL-39. Isotype mapping identified two hybridoma clones (so called clones 6H11 and 8H3) to be IgM isotype. Dot blot assay showed that the monoclonal antibody was strongly active with the synovial fluid of an osteoarthritis patient, human monocyte, and T lymphocyte cell lines. Database search for protein binding partners gave high hits with several glycoproteins that play particular roles in cartilage tissue scaffolding, connective tissue formation, and cell-cell interactions. In conclusion, anti YKL-39 polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised and tested to be suitable for immunological applications, such as the investigation of the YKL-39 regulating pathway and the development of an immunosensing tool for sensitive detection of cartilage tissue destruction.

  5. Use of monoclonal antibodies in the sensitive detection and neutralization of botulinum neurotoxin serotype B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are some of nature’s most potent toxins. Due to potential food contamination and bioterrorism concerns, the development of detection reagents, therapeutics and countermeasures are of urgent interest. Recently, we have developed sensitive electrochemiluminescent (ECL) i...

  6. Development of a highly sensitive monoclonal antibody based ELISA for detection of benzo[a]pyrene in potable water.

    PubMed

    Matschulat, Diana; Deng, Anping; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar

    2005-07-01

    In Europe, a limit value of 10 ng L(-1) was set by the European Commission for benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in water intended for human consumption (Council Directive 98/83/EC) and, therefore, sensitive and reliable methods are needed to evaluate its presence. We report here on the development of a highly sensitive indirect competitive ELISA for the detection of B[a]P in potable water. Fourteen monoclonal antibodies were generated in mice using novel B[a]P derivatives. The immunoassay with the least interference and the best sensitivity was optimized and characterized. As co-solvent, ten percent methanol (v/v) was determined as the optimum concentration for B[a]P solubilization for use with the developed ELISA. With the purified antibody (clone 22F12) the average IC50 for B[a]P and corresponding detection limit at a signal:noise (S/N) ratio of 3 was 65 ng L(-1) and 24 ng L(-1), respectively. From the 16 EPA-designated PAHs, only chrysene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene showed a cross-reactivity (CR) higher than 20%. No CR was observed for two- and three-ringed aromatics as well as dibenz[ah]anthracene and benzo[ghi]perylene. The effect of pH value (range 6.5-9.5), ionic strength (specific electric conductivity 1 microS cm(-1)-2.5 mS cm(-1)), and inorganic ions (sodium, copper, iron, aluminium, manganese, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and nitrite at maximum permissible levels according to the Council Directive) on both signal and sensitivity of the ELISA was studied. No significant influence of these parameters on the ELISA competition curve was found. We suggest that the optimized ELISA can be used to monitor potable water samples without previous extraction from the samples. The assay should facilitate the cleanup of B[a]P contaminated sites where B[a]P levels fall close to the limit value of the new drinking water directive.

  7. Production of monoclonal antibodies for detection of Citrus leprosis virus C in enzyme-linked immuno-assays and immunocapture reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Nandlal; Roy, Avijit; Govindarajulu, A; Nakhla, M K; Levy, L; Brlansky, R H

    2014-09-01

    Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C) causes damage in citrus production in the South and Central America. Since closely related types of citrus viruses have recently been described monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are needed for accurate and sensitive diagnosis of CiLV-C. In this study, MAbs to the expressed coat protein of CiLV-C were produced for serological detection of CiLV-C in crude extracts of infected tissues in double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (DAS-ELISA), dot blot immunosorbent assays (DBIA) and immuonocapture-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR) procedures. Monoclonal antibodies were developed in mice to the purified expressed coat protein of CiLV-C. The published standard protocols of DAS-ELISA, DBIA and IC-RT-PCR were followed for the detection of coat protein p29 of CiLV-C in the crude extracts of CiLV-C infected tissues. Two monoclonal antibodies, designated G10 and C11, were identified from four potential candidates for the specific and sensitive detection of coat protein p29 of CiLV-C in the crude citrus extracts of CiLV-C infected tissues in DAS-ELISA, whereas G10 was also selected based on performance for use in the DBIA and IC-RT-PCR diagnostic assays. Sensitivity analysis comparing the three methods for detection of coat protein p29 of CiLV-C determined that IC-RT-PCR was more sensitive than DAS-ELISA and DBIA. The creation of MAbs to CiLV-C allows for the sensitive and accurate detection of the virus from CiLV-C infected citrus leaf tissues. Successful detection of the virus in three diagnostic assays formats provides flexibility to diagnosticians who can use either ELISA or DBIA for screening large numbers of samples, and IC-RT-PCR for rapid, sensitive confirmation testing.

  8. Monoclonal antibodies to leukotoxin of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed Central

    DiRienzo, J M; Tsai, C C; Shenker, B J; Taichman, N S; Lally, E T

    1985-01-01

    Hybridoma cell lines which produce monoclonal antibodies to a leukotoxin from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans were prepared. The monoclonal antibodies were selected for their ability to neutralize the cytotoxic activity of the leukotoxin and recognize the toxin on nitrocellulose blots. The antibodies belonged to either the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) or IgG2 subclass and differed in their ability to bind to the leukotoxin on nitrocellulose blots. However, only slight differences in neutralization titers were observed. Use of the monoclonal antibodies revealed that polymyxin B-extracted or osmotic shock-released leukotoxin could be separated into several high-molecular-weight polypeptides by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunoblot analysis with the monoclonal antibodies also demonstrated that the leukotoxin was present in eight oral strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans that had been previously classified by a biological assay as leukotoxic. The availability of these monoclonal antibodies should facilitate and expand studies concerning the role of the leukotoxin in the pathogenicity of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Images PMID:3965404

  9. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy for Advanced Neuroblastoma

    Cancer.gov

    NCI is sponsoring two clinical trials of a monoclonal antibody called ch14.18, in combination with other drugs, to see if the antibody may be helpful for children or young adults (up to age 21) with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma.

  10. [Development of a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Sensor for Environmental Pyrene and Benzo (a) pyrene Detection].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Qiao, Yan; Zhong, Guo-zhen

    2015-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common environmental pollutants which are concerned because several of its members have been known to be carcinogenic and mutagenic. Pyrene, as a kind of PAHs, was covalently linked to carrier protein bovine serum albumin by active ester method and immunized to mice. A sensitive mAb 6A6 was developed by a three-step screening procedure. The IC50 of 6 A6 against pyrene and benzo(a) pyrene were 8.1 μg x L(-1) and 6.8 μg x L(-1), respectively. The cross-reactivity values (CR) with other PAHs were less than 5%. An immunosensor was developed based on 6A6 for pyrene and benzo(a) pyrene detection with a linear range of 0.2-10.0 μg x L(-1). The assessment of spiked water samples by the sensor demonstrated faster and more sensitive than ELISA method. We believe that this sensor can be used to rapidly assess pyrene and benzo(a) pyrene in environmental samples.

  11. Rapid Detection and Identification of Streptococcus Iniae Using a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae is among the major pathogens of a large number of fish species cultured in fresh and marine recirculating and net pen production systems . The traditional plate culture technique to detect and identify S. iniae is time consuming and may be problematic due to phenotypic variations...

  12. Two novel anti-von Willebrand factor monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Spadafora-Ferreira, M; Lopes, A A; Coelho, V; Guilherme, L; Kalil, J

    2000-01-15

    Von Willebrand Factor is a multimer produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, being stored in intracellular organelles, such as the Weibel-Palade bodies and alpha-granules in endothelial cells and platelets, respectively. This molecule acts as a carrier protein for factor VIIIc, involved in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation maintaining its stability in circulation. Von Willebrand Factor also plays an important role in platelet aggregation and adhesion to injured vessel wall. It interacts with platelets through two distinct glycoproteins, GPIb and GPIIb/IIIa. We raised two monoclonal antibodies, ECA-3 and ECA-4, against human umbilical vascular endothelial cells that recognize and immunoprecipitate von Willebrand Factor. Interestingly, ECA-4 monoclonal antibody is able to completely inhibit platelet agglutination induced by ristocetin, suggesting that it binds to von Willebrand Factor close to platelet GPIb binding site. The use of monoclonal antibodies to identify von Willebrand Factor binding regions to factor VIII or platelets has been reported by others. In pulmonary hypertension, abnormalities have been detected on the multimeric structure of the molecule as well as on its proteolytic fragments, by using monoclonal antibodies. Moreover, monoclonal antibodies raised against specific regions of von Willebrand Factor molecule may allow studies of functional abnormalities of this protein in inherited and acquired disorders like subtypes of von Willebrand's disease.

  13. Development of a monoclonal antibody against the left wing of ciguatoxin CTX1B: thiol strategy and detection using a sandwich ELISA.

    PubMed

    Tsumuraya, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Katsutoshi; Yamashita, Shuji; Fujii, Ikuo; Hirama, Masahiro

    2012-09-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a form of food poisoning caused by the ingestion of a variety of reef fish that have accumulated trace amounts of ciguatoxins produced by dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus through the food chain. CFP affects more than 50,000 people each year. The extremely low level of the causative neurotoxins, ciguatoxins, in fish has hampered the preparation of antibodies for detecting the toxins. In this paper, we describe a thiol strategy for synthesizing a keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-conjugate (20) of the ABCDE-ring fragment of the Pacific ciguatoxins, CTX1B (1) and 54-deoxyCTX1B (4). We succeeded in producing a monoclonal antibody (3G8) against the left wings of these ciguatoxins by immunizing mice with the hapten-KLH conjugate (20) as the synthetic antigen. The most promising mAb, 3G8, does not cross-react with other related marine toxins. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) utilizing 3G8 and the previously prepared monoclonal antibody (8H4) enabled us to detect 1 specifically at less than 0.28 ng/mL.

  14. Characterization of a 52 kDa exoantigen of Penicillium chrysogenum and monoclonal antibodies suitable for its detection.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wen; Wilson, Aaron M; Miller, J David

    2010-01-01

    The indoor clade of Penicillium chrysogenum, the so-called Fleming clade, is the most common species of Penicillium on moldy building materials. In a previous study, we identified a 52 kDa human antigen characteristic of the indoor clade of P. chrysogenum not present in a taxonomically diverse selection of fungi. Further investigations revealed that it is a modestly glycosylated mature protein with a pI 5.3. The protein is apparently identical to a glucoamylase previously reported from an aluminum-tolerant P. chrysogenum mutant. Based on sequence similarity, molecular weight, and pI, it is distinct from a number of other glucoamylases from domesticated strains of Aspergillus oryzae and A. niger used to produce industrial enzymes. Surprisingly, it had not been reported as an allergen. The monoclonal antibodies developed have the potential for use in assays of P. chrysogenum antigens in spores and spore/mycelial fragments in dust.

  15. Monoclonal Antibodies Against Human Cardiac Troponin I for Immunoassays II.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gregory; Liu, Suefay

    2015-06-01

    Human cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is one of the most specific biomarkers for detection of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). To formulate immunoassay kits for rapid immunodiagnosis of AMI, monoclonal antibodies with high affinity and specificity were generated against cTnI and subsequently tested through a series of experiments. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with cTnI as the immunogen and cell fusions with myeloma cells of BALB/c origin were performed to generate hybridomas. The supernatants of the hybridoma cell culture were routinely screened for antibody secretions against intact cTnI and synthetic peptides from the N-terminal half of cTnI (amino acid residues N1-30, N24-40, N59-79, and N80-95). Monoclonal antibodies specific to different epitope regions were then determined and selected, according to their respective affinity and specificity, for formulation of enzyme immunoassay kits. The results of this study found that most of the selected antibodies revealed comparable binding affinity to cTnI and to the corresponding synthetic peptides. Optimal sandwich enzyme immunoassays with high sensitivity could be achieved through proper combinations of the epitope-distinct monoclonal antibodies in different capture-detection pairs; signal enhancements were frequently observed when a mixture of epitope-distinct anti-cTnI monoclonal antibodies was used for coating. This indicates that a combination of epitope-distinct anti-cTnI monoclonal antibodies recognizing the N-terminal half of cTnI yield reliable detection and greater sensitivity for cTnI in AMI patients.

  16. Indium-111 labeled anti-melanoma monoclonal antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Ferrone, S.

    1984-04-30

    A monoclonal antibody to a high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen was chelated and radiolabeled with indium-111. This material shows high affinity for melanoma and thus can be used in the detection, localization and imaging of melanoma. 1 figure.

  17. The monoclonal antibody GZS-1 detects a maturation-associated antigen of human spermatozoa that is also present on the surface of human mononuclear blood cells.

    PubMed

    Hutter, H; Hammer, A; Blaschitz, A; Hartmann, M; Mahnert, W; Sedlmayr, P; Primus, G; Rosenkranz, C; Gebru, G; Henkel, R; Dohr, G

    1996-05-01

    A monoclonal antibody (GZS-1) has been generated by fusion of mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunised with human sperm cells. The antibody was determined to be an IgG1. The corresponding antigen is present on the whole surface of ejaculated human spermatozoa. It is not detectable on spermatozoa of other mammalian species (rabbit, cat, dog, sheep, boar, bull, horse). In human male genital organs, immunostaining with GZS-1 is observed on sperm cells in the epididymis and the ductus deferens together with the lining epithelium of those organs. No reactivity of sperm cells or germ cell precursors in the testis has been detected. Functional tests using the antibody show a strong inhibitory effect of human sperm in the hamster egg penetration assay. Furthermore, the GZS-1 antigen is detectable on the surface of human lymphocytes and monocytes by immunogold electron microscopy and FACS analysis. By Western blotting of human sperm and seminal plasma performed under reducing conditions immunostaining was detected at 21-25, 31, 51-54, and 62 kDa. The reaction with human lymphocytes shows one major band at 62 kDa and additional bands at 31 and 54 kDa. The results suggest that the monoclonal antibody GZS-1 may recognise an antigen which is secreted from the epithelial cells of the epididymis and binds to ejaculated spermatozoa as a sperm coating antigen. This component may be involved in the capacitation of the sperm and the acrosome reaction. Molecules that are expressed both on sperm and on immunocompetent cells may be relevant for the regulation of immunological processes or for the development of the related immunological tolerance of sperm in the female reproductive tract.

  18. [Detection of AlpA and AlpB lytic endopeptidase propeptides of Lysobacter sp. XL1 by sandwich-enzyme immunoassay based on monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Rudenko, N V; Tsfasman, I M; Latypov, O R; Ledova, L A; Krasovskaia, L A; Karatovskaia, A P; Brovko, F A; Vasil'eva, N V; Stepnaia, O A

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular lytic endopeptidases AlpA and AlpB of the bacterium Lysobacter sp. XL1 are highly homologous and synthesized as precursors consisting of signal peptide, propeptide and mature form. In this work, two monoclonal antibodies against propeptide endopeptidase AlpA (ProA) and eleven against propeptide endopeptidase AlpB (ProB) were obtained to study the AlpA and AlpB endopeptidases secretion. The affinity constants of the antibodies against ProA were 2.9 x 10(9) and 3.5 x 10(9) M(-1), and the affinity constants of the antibodies against ProB were from 1.5 x 10(8) to 2.2 x 10(9) M(-1). The obtained antibodies did not have cross-reactivity between themselves, as well as mature forms of the enzymes. The monoclonal antibodies based sandwich-type enzyme immunoassay has been developed for measuring the propeptide in a native form. The linear range of determination ProA was 1.5-100 ng/mL with 6% error of measurement, and for determining ProB 0.2-6.25 ng/mL with 6% error. Using the developed assay, ProA and ProB propeptides have been detected in cell lysates of Lysobacter sp. XL1 in an amount 1.18 ± 0.03 ng and 0.096 ± 0.002 ng per 1 OD540 of the bacterial culture, respectively. The immunochemical assay for detection various forms of AlpA and AlpB lytic endopeptidases can be useful when dealing with issues related to their secretion into the environment.

  19. Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and Comparison of Serological Methods for Its Sensitive Detection on Potato Tubers

    PubMed Central

    Gorris, María Teresa; Alarcon, Benito; Lopez, María M.; Cambra, Mariano

    1994-01-01

    Seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica have been produced. One, called 4G4, reacted with high specificity for serogroup I of E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica, the most common serogroup on potato tubers in different serological assays. Eighty-six strains belonging to different E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica serogroups were assayed. Some strains of serogroup XXII also reacted positively. No cross-reactions were observed against other species of plant pathogenic bacteria or 162 saprophytic bacteria from potato tubers. Only one strain of E. chrysanthemi from potato cross-reacted. A comparison of several serological techniques to detect E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica on potato tubers was performed with MAb 4G4 or polyclonal antibodies. The organism was extracted directly from potato peels of artificially inoculated tubers by soaking or selective enrichment under anaerobiosis in a medium with polypectate. MAb 4G4 was able to detect specifically 240 E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica cells per ml by indirect immunofluorescence and immunofluorescence colony staining and after soaking by ELISA-DAS (double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) after enrichment. The same amount of cells was detected by using immunolectrotransfer with polyclonal antibodies, and E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica and subsp. carotovora were distinguished by the latter technique. ELISA-DAS using MAb 4G4 with an enrichment step also efficiently detected E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica in naturally infected tubers and plants. PMID:16349293

  20. Generation of a monoclonal antibody against Mycoplasma spp. following accidental contamination during production of a monoclonal antibody against Lawsonia intracellularis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jeong-Min; Lee, Ji-Hye; Yeh, Jung-Yong

    2012-03-01

    This report describes Mycoplasma contamination of Lawsonia intracellularis cultures that led to the unintended acquisition of a monoclonal antibody against Mycoplasma spp. during the attempted generation of a monoclonal antibody against L. intracellularis.

  1. Phase Separation in Solutions of Monoclonal Antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedek, George; Wang, Ying; Lomakin, Aleksey; Latypov, Ramil

    2012-02-01

    We report the observation of liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in a solution of humanized monoclonal antibodies, IgG2, and the effects of human serum albumin, a major blood protein, on this phase separation. We find a significant reduction of phase separation temperature in the presence of albumin, and a preferential partitioning of the albumin into the antibody-rich phase. We provide a general thermodynamic analysis of the antibody-albumin mixture phase diagram and relate its features to the magnitude of the effective inter-protein interactions. Our analysis suggests that additives (HSA in this report), which have moderate attraction with antibody molecules, may be used to forestall undesirable protein condensation in antibody solutions. Our findings are relevant to understanding the stability of pharmaceutical solutions of antibodies and the mechanisms of cryoglobulinemia.

  2. Detection and serogroup differentiation of Salmonella spp. in food within 30 hours by enrichment-immunoassay with a T6 monoclonal antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, S P; Tsui, C O; Roberts, D; Chau, P Y; Ng, M H

    1996-01-01

    We previously described an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which makes use of monoclonal antibody T6, which recognizes an epitope on the outer core polysaccharide of Salmonella lipopolysaccharide molecules that is common to almost all Salmonella serovars. In this paper, we show that this assay can detect between 10(5) and 10(7) Salmonella cells per ml even in the presence of excess Escherichia coli. A total of 153 of 154 (99%) serogroup A to E strains and 51 of 78 (71%) serogroup F to 67 strains were reactive as determined by this assay. This corresponds to a detection rate of approximately 98% of all salmonellae known to affect humans. None of the 65 strains of non-Salmonella bacteria tested positive. Taking advantage of the O-factor polysaccharides also present on the antigen captured by the immobilized T6 antibody, we showed that 136 of 154 Salmonella serogroup A to E strains (88%) were correctly differentiated according to their serogroups by use of enzyme conjugates of a panel of O-factor-specific monoclonal antibodies. We evaluated this assay for the detection and serogroup differentiation of salmonellae directly from enrichment cultures of simulated food, eggs, pork, and infant formula milk. All 26 samples which had been contaminated with Salmonella spp. were detected by T6 (100% sensitivity), with only one false-positive result from 101 samples not contaminated by Salmonella spp. (99% specificity). The detection time was substantially reduced to between 17 and 29 h, depending on the enrichment methods used. Since there were no false-negative results, we concluded that this enrichment-immunoassay method can afford rapid screening for Salmonella spp. in food samples. PMID:8779567

  3. Detection of cell surface and intracellular antigens by human monoclonal antibodies. Hybrid cell lines derived from lymphocytes of patients with malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    This study represents an initial attempt to analyze the humoral immune reactions of patients with malignant melanoma by hybridoma methodology. Using lymphocytes from regional lymph nodes, peripheral blood and tumor infiltrates, 158 fusions were performed with SKO-007 (human myeloma line), LICR-LON-HMy2 (LICR-2), GM 4672 (human lymphoblastoid lines), or NS-1 (mouse myeloma line). Fusion of lymph node lymphocytes with NS-1 resulted in a 3-4 times higher frequency of clones than fusion with LICR-2, and a 10 times higher frequency than fusion with SKO-007 or GM 4672. In the case of peripheral blood lymphocytes, fusion with NS-1 gave greater than 25 times higher frequency of clones than fusion with LICR-2 or SKO-007. Production of human mu, gamma, or alpha heavy chains was detected in 50-80% of wells containing growing clones, and the levels of immunoglobulin ranged from 0.3 micrograms to 40 micrograms/ml. NS-1-derived clones could be easily subcultured, while LICR-2 and SKO-007 clones grew more slowly on subculturing. In this study, Ig secretion appeared to be a more stable property of LICR-2- derived clones than NS-1-derived clones. A panel of 20 human cancer cell lines was used to screen 771 Ig-secreting cultures for antibody to cell surface or intracellular antigens. Reactivity with cell surface antigens was found infrequently (6 cultures), whereas reactivity with intracellular antigens was more common (27 cultures). A new cell surface antigen with properties of a glycolipid was defined with an IgM monoclonal antibody secreted by a tetraploid cell derived from a fusion of LICR-2 with lymphocytes from the axillary lymph node of a patient with melanoma. The hybrid cell line has been subcloned four times and secretes 5 micrograms IgM/ml. The antigen detected by this IgM antibody was found on 5 of 23 melanoma cell lines and 12 of 30 epithelial cancer cell lines. No reactions were found with 11 cultures derived from normal cells. Stable cell lines secreting human

  4. Heterogeneity of monoclonal antibodies revealed by charge-sensitive methods.

    PubMed

    Vlasak, J; Ionescu, R

    2008-12-01

    The expanding field of monoclonal antibody-based pharmaceuticals has triggered increased interest in analytical characterization of these large proteins and in understanding of their heterogeneity and degradation pathways. As a result, a large number of enzymatic modifications as well as chemical and physical degradations have been reported in monoclonal antibodies in recent years. Most heterogeneity is related to changes in the surface charge of the antibody, either directly, as a change in the number of charged residues, or indirectly as a chemical or physical alteration that changes surface-charge distribution. This review presents an overview of the sources of charge-related heterogeneity in monoclonal antibodies and the methods used for their detection. A detailed section is dedicated to deamidation of asparagine and isomerization of aspartic acid residues, two ubiquitous degradation pathways detected in antibodies and other proteins as well. Finally, kinetic modeling of the accumulation of antibody variants is presented as a tool to determine the expected fraction of molecules that have undergone one or more degradation reactions.

  5. [Comparative studies on monoclonal antibody KM10 and anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Soyama, N; Yamamoto, M; Ohyanagi, H; Saitoh, Y

    1989-11-01

    The specificity of KM10 was evaluated in comparison with newly developed anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies (A10, B9, JA4, AH3). Both KM10 and all anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies reacted with CEA in ELISA system, and with adenocarcinoma of the stomach, colon, and pancreas in the immunohistochemical assay. B9, JA4, and AH3 were suggested to react with CEA related antigens, such as NCA and BGPI, whereas KM10 and A10 were suggested to recognize the distinctive part of CEA. The antigenic determinant of CEA reactive with KM10 and A10 was revealed to be protein moiety after enzyme treatment. The competitive binding inhibition assay, however, indicated that epitopes of KM10 and A10 were different each other. Enzyme immunoassay using both KM10 and A10 could detect CEA. These findings showed the possible use of both KM10 and A10 for clinical diagnosis and treatment by means of targeting for the distinctive part of CEA.

  6. Members of a family of proteins (the RD family) detected by a U1 70K monoclonal antibody are present in spliceosomal complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Staknis, D; Reed, R

    1995-01-01

    We have characterized a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to the U1 snRNP component U1 70K. We find that this antibody recognizes several proteins, in addition to U1 70K, in purified spliceosomal complexes and in total HeLa cell nuclear extract preparations. The novel mAb U1 70K antigens can also be specifically immunoprecipitated by the antibody. Similarly to U1 70K, many of the mAb U1 70K antigens can be phosphorylated by a co-purifying kinase activity. The epitope recognized by mAb U1 70K was previously shown to be a repeating arginine/aspartate (RD) dipeptide. Thus we have designated the novel mAb U1 70K antigens the RD family. Comparison of mAb U1 70K with a recently characterized antibody, mAb 16H3, whose epitope is a repeating R/D or R/E motif, showed that a large subset of the antigens are common. In contrast, most of the mAb U1 70K antigens are distinct from the proteins detected by mAb 104, an antibody to the SR family of splicing factors. Images PMID:7479068

  7. Monoclonal antibodies reacting with murine teratocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Goodfellow, P N; Levinson, J R; Williams, V E; McDevitt, H O

    1979-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were produced in vitro by fusing mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells from a rat immunized with the C3H mouse teratocarcinoma C86-S1. After the fusion two clones were chosen for further analysis. The first clone, 3C4-10, produced an antibody recognizing an antigen with a distribution restricted to teratocarcinoma cell lines, an endoderm cell line, and a neuroblastoma. The second clone, 4A1-9, produced an antibody that reacted with all cultured murine cells tested and adult brain. Neither antibody reacted with preimplantation embryos. The 3C4-10 antibody recognized an antigen associated with proteins. The apparent molecular weight of the 3C4-10 antigen was greater than 100,000. PMID:284353

  8. Chemoenzymatic glyco-engineering of monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Giddens, John P.; Wang, Lai-Xi

    2016-01-01

    Summary Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are an important class of therapeutic glycoproteins widely used for the treatment of cancer, inflammation, and infectious diseases. Compelling data have shown that the presence and fine structures of the conserved N-glycans at the Fc domain can profoundly affect the effector functions of antibodies. However, mAbs are usually produced as mixtures of Fc glycoforms and the control of glycosylation to a favorable, homogeneous status in various host expression systems is still a challenging task. In this chapter, we describe a detailed procedure of chemoenzymatic glyco-engineering of monoclonal antibodies, using rituximab (a therapeutic monoclonal antibody) as a model system. The protocol includes the deglycosylation of a mAb by an endoglycosidase (such as wild type EndoS) to remove the heterogeneous Fc N-glycans, leaving only the innermost GlcNAc or the core-fucosylated GlcNAc at the glycosylation site. Then the deglycosylated IgG serves as an acceptor for an endoglycosidase-catalyzed transglycosylation to add a desired N-glycan to the GlcNAc acceptor to reconstitute a defined, homogeneous natural glycoform of IgG, using a glycosynthase mutant as the enzyme and activated glycan oxazoline as the donor substrate. A semi-synthesis of sialylated and asialylated biantennary N-glycan oxazolines is also described. This detailed procedure can be used for the Fc glycosylation remodeling of other mAbs to provide homogeneous Fc glycoforms for various applications. PMID:26082235

  9. Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by dot-blotting using monoclonal antibodies to Cryptosporidium parvum virus 40-kDa capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Mark C; O'Brien, Celia N; Trout, James M

    2008-02-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) were prepared against the 40-kDa capsid protein of Cryptosporidium parvum virus (CPV) by immunizing mice with purified recombinant CPV40 protein. In immunoblotting analysis, MAbCPV40-1 bound to a 40-kDa protein in extracts of C. parvum oocysts. This 40-kDa protein was localized in the sporozoite cytoplasm by immunofluorescence (IFA) staining with MAbCPV40-1. In a dot-blot assay, MAbCPV40-1 was capable of detecting 10(2) non-bleach-treated and 10(2)-10(3) bleach-treated C. parvum oocysts. MAbCPV40-1 was capable of detecting CPV40 antigen in both soluble and total C. parvum oocyst protein extracts, indicating a potential use for detecting this parasite in environmental samples.

  10. Pregnancy-specific glycoprotein expression in normal gastrointestinal tract and in tumors detected with novel monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Houston, Aileen; Williams, John M; Rovis, Tihana Lenac; Shanley, Daniel K; O'Riordan, Ronan T; Kiely, Patrick A; Ball, Melanie; Barry, Orla P; Kelly, Jacquie; Fanning, Aine; MacSharry, John; Mandelboim, Ofer; Singer, Bernhard B; Jonjic, Stipan; Moore, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) are immunoglobulin superfamily members related to the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) family and are encoded by 10 genes in the human. They are secreted at high levels by placental syncytiotrophoblast into maternal blood during pregnancy, and are implicated in immunoregulation, thromboregulation, and angiogenesis. To determine whether PSGs are expressed in tumors, we characterized 16 novel monoclonal antibodies to human PSG1 and used 2 that do not cross-react with CEACAMs to study PSG expression in tumors and in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract using tissue arrays and immunohistochemistry. Staining was frequently observed in primary squamous cell carcinomas and colonic adenocarcinomas and was correlated with the degree of tumor differentiation, being largely absent from metastatic samples. Staining was also observed in normal oesophageal and colonic epithelium. PSG expression in the human and mouse GI tract was confirmed using quantitative RT-PCR. However, mRNA expression was several orders of magnitude lower in the GI tract compared to placenta. Our results identify a non-placental site of PSG expression in the gut and associated tumors, with implications for determining whether PSGs have a role in tumor progression, and utility as tumor biomarkers.

  11. Recent developments in monoclonal antibody radiolabeling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.; Mease, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have shown the potential to serve as selective carriers of radionuclides to specific in vivo antigens. Accordingly, there has been an intense surge of research activity in an effort to develop and evaluate MAb-based radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging (radioimmunoscintigraphy) and therapy (radioimmunotherapy), as well as for diagnosing nonmalignant diseases. A number of problems have recently been identified, related to the MAbs themselves and to radiolabeling techniques, that comprise both the selectivity and the specificity of the in vivo distribution of radiolabeled MAbs. This paper will address some of these issues and primarily discuss recent developments in the techniques for radiolabeling monoclonal antibodies that may help resolve problems related to the poor in vivo stability of the radiolabel and may thus produce improved biodistribution. Even though many issues are identical with therapeutic radionuclides, the discussion will focus mainly on radioimmunoscintigraphic labels. 78 refs., 6 tabs.

  12. Next generation and biosimilar monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Next Generation and Biosimilar Monoclonal Antibodies: Essential Considerations Towards Regulatory Acceptance in Europe workshop, organized by the European Centre of Regulatory Affairs Freiburg (EUCRAF), was held February 3–4, 2011 in Freiburg, Germany. The workshop attracted over 100 attendees from 15 countries, including regulators from 11 agencies, who interacted over the course of two days. The speakers presented their authoritative views on monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as attractive targets for development, the experience to date with the regulatory process for biosimilar medicinal products, the European Medicines Agency draft guideline on biosimilar mAbs, as well as key elements in the development of mAbs. Participants engaged in many lively discussions, and much speculation on the nature of the quality, non-clinical and clinical requirements for authorization of biosimilar mAbs. PMID:21487235

  13. Innovative Monoclonal Antibody Therapies in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kieseier, Bernd C.

    2008-01-01

    The recent years have witnessed great efforts in establishing new therapeutic options for multiple sclerosis (MS), especially for relapsing–remitting disease courses. In particular, the application of monoclonal antibodies provide innovative approaches allowing for blocking or depleting specific molecular targets, which are of interest in the pathogenesis of MS. While natalizumab received approval by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency in 2006 as the first monoclonal antibody in MS therapy, rituximab, alemtuzumab, and daclizumab were successfully tested for relapsing-remitting MS in small cohorts in the meantime. Here, we review the data available from these recent phase II trials and at the same time critically discuss possible pitfalls which may be relevant for clinical practice. The results of these studies may not only broaden our therapeutic options in the near future, but also provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. PMID:21180564

  14. Development of a direct competitive ELISA for the detection of Mycoplasma bovis infection based on a monoclonal antibody of P48 protein

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is a major, but often overlooked, pathogen documented to cause respiratory disease, mastitis, and arthritis in cattle throughout China since 2008. Here, we report the development of a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Dc-ELISA) to detect M. bovis antibody. Results We used a recombinant P48 protein and monoclonal antibody (mAb) 10E. MAb 10E, prepared against the recombinant P48 protein of M. bovis, identified all M. bovis strains with no cross-reactivity with other related pathogens. Coating micro plates with P48 protein instead of whole M. bovis cells as well as the use of mAb 10E produced a specific and sensitive Dc-ELISA for M. bovis antibody detection with a cut-off percent inhibition (PI) value of 32%. Compared with two commercial indirect ELISA (i-ELISA) kits, our Dc-ELISA offered a higher positive detection rate in 165 clinical bovine serum samples. Conclusions A rapid, sensitive, and reliable serological diagnosis method was developed for M. bovis, which can facilitate M. bovis surveillance, assisting researchers in understanding the ecology and epidemiology of M. bovis. PMID:24533468

  15. Monoclonal antibodies against metallothioneins and metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Talbot, B G; Bilodeau, G; Thirion, J P

    1986-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies against rabbit metallothioneins (MT) were prepared by in vitro immunization of mouse lymphocytes with a mixture of the two forms of metallothionein MT1 and MT2. Six IgM antibodies (TN1,3,4,5,6,7) which bind to metallothionein were characterized. Antibody TN3 is specific for rabbit MT1 and does not react with any other MT's tested. TN5 is specific for both rabbit MT1 and MT2. TN7 is specific for rabbit MT2 but not MT1 and cross-reacts also with Chinese hamster, mouse and rat metallothioneins. The antibodies TN1, TN4 and TN6 bind not only to rabbit MT1 and MT2 but also to other metal binding proteins like alcohol dehydrogenase and carbonic anhydrase.

  16. Rapid Detection of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin in Staphylococcus aureus Cultures by Use of a Lateral Flow Assay Based on Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Elke; Buechler, Joseph; Rejman, John; Stieber, Bettina; Akpaka, Patrick Eberechi; Bandt, Dirk; Burris, Rob; Coombs, Geoffrey; Hidalgo-Arroyo, G. Aida; Hughes, Peter; Kearns, Angela; Abós, Sonia Molinos; Pichon, Bruno; Skakni, Leila; Söderquist, Bo; Ehricht, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a virulence factor of Staphylococcus aureus, which is associated with skin and soft-tissue infections and necrotizing pneumonia. To develop a rapid phenotypic assay, recombinant PVL F component was used to generate monoclonal antibodies by phage display. These antibodies were spotted on protein microarrays and screened using different lukF-PV preparations and detection antibodies. This led to the identification of the optimal antibody combination that was then used to establish a lateral flow assay. This test was used to detect PVL in S. aureus cultures. The detection limit of the assay with purified native and recombinant antigens was determined to be around 1 ng/ml. Overnight cultures from various solid and liquid media proved suitable for PVL detection. Six hundred strains and clinical isolates from patients from America, Europe, Australia, Africa, and the Middle East were tested. Isolates were genotyped in parallel by DNA microarray hybridization for confirmation of PVL status and assignment to clonal complexes. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the assay in this trial were 99.7, 98.3, 98.4, and 99.7%, respectively. A total of 302 clinical isolates and reference strains were PVL positive and were assigned to 21 different clonal complexes. In summary, the lateral flow test allows rapid and economical detection of PVL in a routine bacteriology laboratory. As the test utilizes cultures from standard media and does not require sophisticated equipment, it can be easily integrated into a laboratory's workflow and might contribute to timely therapy of PVL-associated infections. PMID:23175260

  17. Microbials for the production of monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments

    PubMed Central

    Spadiut, Oliver; Capone, Simona; Krainer, Florian; Glieder, Anton; Herwig, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody fragments represent the most important biopharmaceutical products today. Because full length antibodies are glycosylated, mammalian cells, which allow human-like N-glycosylation, are currently used for their production. However, mammalian cells have several drawbacks when it comes to bioprocessing and scale-up, resulting in long processing times and elevated costs. By contrast, antibody fragments, that are not glycosylated but still exhibit antigen binding properties, can be produced in microbial organisms, which are easy to manipulate and cultivate. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the expression systems, strain engineering, and production processes for the three main microbials used in antibody and antibody fragment production, namely Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Escherichia coli. PMID:24183828

  18. Therapeutic monoclonal antibody for sporotrichosis

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Sandro R.

    2012-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis that affects both humans and animals worldwide. This subcutaneous mycosis had been attributed to a single etiological agent, Sporothrix schenckii. S. schenckii exhibits considerable genetic variability, and recently, it was suggested that this taxon consists of a complex of species. Sporotrichosis is caused by traumatic inoculation of the fungus, which is a ubiquitous environmental saprophyte that can be isolated from soil and plant debris. The infection is limited to cutaneous forms, but recently, more severe clinical forms of this mycosis have been described, especially among immunocompromised individuals. The immunological mechanisms involved in the prevention and control of sporotrichosis are not well understood. Some studies suggest that cell-mediated immunity plays an important role in protecting the host against S. schenckii. In contrast, the role of the humoral immune response in protection against this fungus has not been studied in detail. In a previous study, we showed that antigens secreted by S. schenckii induced a specific humoral response in infected animals, primarily against a 70-kDa molecule, indicating a possible role of specific antibodies against this molecule in infection control. In another study by our group, we produced a mAb against a 70-kDa glycoprotein of S. schenckii to better understand the effect of the passive immunization of mice infected with S. schenckii. The results showed a significant reduction in the number of CFUs in various mice organs when the mAb was injected before or during S. schenckii infection. Similar results were observed when T-cell-deficient mice were used. The drugs of choice in the treatment of sporotrichosis require long periods, and relapses are frequently observed, primarily in immunocompromised patients. The strong protection induced by the mAb against a 70-kDa glycoprotein makes it a strong candidate as a therapeutic vaccine against sporotrichosis. PMID

  19. Application of Denatured, Electrophoretically Separated, and Immobilized Lysates of Herpes Simplex Virus-Infected Cells for Detection of Monoclonal Antibodies and for Studies of the Properties of Viral Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Daniel K.; Pereira, Lenore; Norrild, Bodil; Roizman, Bernard

    1983-01-01

    We report the use of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)- and HSV-2-infected cell polypeptides (ICPs) separated by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels and transferred to nitrocellulose to (i) detect monoclonal antibodies to viral polypeptides and to (ii) study the properties of the proteins with the monoclonal antibodies. Our results were as follows. (i) When the antigens were electrophoretically separated in denaturing gels and then immobilized on nitrocellulose strips, we detected a greater diversity of monoclonal antibodies to viral proteins than when we used the technique of immune precipitation of soluble, nondenatured viral antigens. The primary advantage of the technique is in the detection of nonprecipitating antibody and of antibody to poorly soluble antigens not available for reaction in preparations cleared by high-speed centrifugation before immune reaction. (ii) Studies of the viral polypeptides reactive with three monoclonal antibodies indicated that the technique can be used to investigate several properties of the antigens. Specifically, monoclonal antibody to ICP 4 confirmed the accumulation of viral protein in the nucleus and the mapping of the gene in the S component. The results showed, however, that HSV-1 and HSV-2 ICP 4 do have common antigenic determinants. The reaction of a nonprecipitating monoclonal antibody with electrophoretically separated, immobilized polypeptides contained in cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions, those chemically deglycosylated, or those specified by specific HSV-1 x HSV-2 intertypic recombinants identified the antigens reactive with the second monoclonal antibody as various forms of glycoprotein gC. Of particular interest was a set of four antigens, 39,000 to 46,500 in apparent molecular weight, reactive with each of several monoclonal antibodies. These studies showed that two polypeptides partition in the cytoplasm and two in the nucleus and that all comap with the previously mapped ICPs 35 and 37 in the region of

  20. Monoclonal IgA Antibodies for Aflatoxin Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Ertekin, Özlem; Pirinçci, Şerife Şeyda; Öztürk, Selma

    2016-01-01

    Antibody based techniques are widely used for the detection of aflatoxins which are potent toxins with a high rate of occurrence in many crops. We developed a murine monoclonal antibody of immunoglobulin A (IgA) isotype with a strong binding affinity to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). The antibody was effectively used in immunoaffinity column (IAC) and ELISA kit development. The performance of the IACs was compatible with AOAC performance standards for affinity columns (Test Method: AOAC 991.31). The total binding capacity of the IACs containing our antibody was 111 ng, 70 ng, 114 ng and 73 ng for AFB1, AFB2, and AFG1 andAFG2, respectively. Furthermore, the recovery rates of 5 ng of each AF derivative loaded to the IACs were determined as 104.9%, 82.4%, 85.5% and 70.7% for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively. As for the ELISA kit developed using non-oriented, purified IgA antibody, we observed a detection range of 2–50 µg/L with 40 min total test time. The monoclonal antibody developed in this research is hitherto the first presentation of quadruple antigen binding IgA monoclonal antibodies in mycotoxin analysis and also the first study of their utilization in ELISA and IACs. IgA antibodies are valuable alternatives for immunoassay development, in terms of both sensitivity and ease of preparation, since they do not require any orientation effort. PMID:27187470

  1. Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Detection and Quantification Using a Murine Monoclonal Antibody-Based Direct Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changqi; Chhabra, Guneet S; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2015-10-21

    A commercially available direct sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (BioFront Technologies, Tallahassee, FL, USA) using murine anti-pistachio monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as capture and detection antibodies was evaluated. The assay was sensitive (limit of detection = 0.09 ± 0.02 ppm full fat pistachio, linear detection range = 0.5-36 ppm, 50% maximum signal concentration = 7.9 ± 0.7 ppm), reproducible (intra- and inter-assay variability < 24% CV), and rapid (post-extraction testing time ∼ 1.5 h). The target antigen was stable and detectable in whole pistachio seeds subjected to autoclaving (121 °C, 15 psi, 15, 30 min), blanching (100 °C, 5, 10 min), frying (191 °C, 1 min), microwaving (500, 1000 W, 3 min), and dry roasting (140 °C, 30 min; 168 °C, 12 min). No cross-reactivity was observed in 156 food matrices, each tested at 100,000 ppm, suggesting the ELISA to be pistachio specific. The pistachio recovery ranges for spiked (10 ppm) and incurred (10-50000 ppm) food matrices were 93.1-125.6% and 35.7-112.2%, respectively. The assay did not register any false-positive or -negative results among the tested commercial and laboratory prepared samples.

  2. Monoclonal antibodies specific for sickle cell hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.H.; Vanderlaan, M.; Grabske, R.J.; Branscomb, E.W.; Bigbee, W.L.; Stanker, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    Two mouse hybridoma cell lines were isolated which produce monoclonal antibodies that bind hemoglobin S. The mice were immunized with peptide-protein conjugates to stimulate a response to the amino terminal peptide of the beta chain of hemoglobin S, where the single amino acid difference between A and S occurs. Immunocharacterization of the antibodies shows that they bind specifically to the immunogen peptide and to hemoglobin S. The specificity for S is high enough that one AS cell in a mixture with a million AA cells is labeled by antibody, and such cells can be analyzed by flow cytometry. Immunoblotting of electrophoretic gels allows definitive identification of hemoglobin S as compared with other hemoglobins with similar electrophoretic mobility. 12 references, 4 figures.

  3. Idiotypic analysis of a monoclonal anti-Sm antibody.

    PubMed

    Pisetsky, D S; Lerner, E A

    1982-10-01

    Among murine models of autoimmunity, MRL mice are unique in their expression of antibodies to the nuclear antigen Sm. To assess genetic mechanisms in the control of this response, the idiotypes borne by a monoclonal anti-Sm antibody of MRL-Ipr/Ipr origin were investigated. Rabbit antisera were prepared against Y2, a hybridoma product with anti-Sm activity, and were rendered specific for idiotype by extensive absorption with normal globulins from BALB/c mice. In assays of idiotype by an inhibition ELISA, Y2 was shown to share idiotypes with Y12, another monoclonal anti-Sm derived from the same fusion as Y2; other monoclonal autoantibodies of MRL origin but different antigenic specificity failed to display idiotype activity in this assay. The presence of other anti-idiotypic specificities was revealed by absorption and elution of the anti-idiotype from an MRL globulin column; sera from both anti-Sm-positive and negative mice demonstrated these idiotypes. These results suggest that the predominant specificities detected by the anti-idiotype were unique to the monoclonal antibodies of the same animal, although there was also activity to idiotypes not related to anti-Sm binding molecules.

  4. Immunohistochemical identification of cytotoxic lymphocytes using human perforin monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, A.; Olsen, K. J.; Cheng, L.; Fox, W. M.; Hruban, R. H.; Podack, E. R.

    1992-01-01

    Perforin is a potent cytolytic pore-forming protein expressed in cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. A new monoclonal antibody raised against human perforin was used to detect both in vitro and in vivo perforin expression in cytotoxic cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultured in recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) showed strong granular cytoplasmic staining of the IL-2 activated cytotoxic cells. Fresh-frozen tissue sections from patients with heart allograft rejection were also stained. Strong granular cytoplasmic staining of the mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate characteristic for perforin in cardiac allograft rejection was observed. The detection and quantitative analysis of perforin-associated cytotoxic cells by the human anti-perforin monoclonal antibody will help to evaluate the significance of these functionally distinct cytotoxic cells in human tissue. Images Figure 1 PMID:1374586

  5. Development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against goose CD3ɛ extracellular domain and their application in detection of CD3(+) T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuelian; Shao, Jianwei; Cao, Chunqiu; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2015-12-15

    CD3 is one of the most important cell surface markers of T lymphocytes, and has an important function in signal transmission during antigen recognition. In this study, monoclonal antibodies against goose CD3ɛ extracellular domain were developed and characterized for the first time. The purified recombinant goose CD3ɛ extracellular domain protein and pcDNA3.1-GoCD3ɛex were used as immunogens to develop mAbs. Furthermore, recombinant protein was used to screen for mAbs. The characteristics of mAbs were identified through IFA, I-ELISA, Western blot, FCM, and LSCM analyzes. Results showed that mAbs 3C11 and 5A3 may be good candidates for use in detecting goose T lymphocytes and in immunoassaying and exploring the function of the CD3ɛ molecule.

  6. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a specific monoclonal antibody as a new tool to detect Sudan dyes and Para red.

    PubMed

    Ju, Chunmei; Tang, Yong; Fan, Huiying; Chen, Jinding

    2008-07-28

    To set up an immunoassay-based method to detect Sudan dyes and Para red, we generated a monoclonal antibody (Mab) using a specially designed carboxyl derivative of Sudan I (CSD I) as the immunogen. CSD I was synthesized by azocoupling reaction using 2-naphthol and diazotised 4-aminobenzoic acid. The antibody was obtained from a hybridoma, which was derived from the fusion of the mouse myeloma SP2/0 cells and the splenocytes from the mice immunized with the CSD I-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugate. In addition, we showed that the Mab was highly specific for Sudan I, III and Para red. The limit of detection was approximately 0.01ngmL(-1) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer and 0.5ngg(-1) in chilli tomato sauce. The recoveries of Sudan I, III and Para red for the chilli tomato sauce were from 84% to 99% and coefficients of variation were from 14.9% to 33.3%. Thus, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method is a rapid and high throughput screening tool to detect Sudan dyes and Para red in food products.

  7. The S492R EGFR ectodomain mutation is never detected in KRAS wild-type colorectal carcinoma before exposure to EGFR monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Claudia; Rachiglio, Anna Maria; La Porta, Maria Libera; Sacco, Alessandra; Roma, Cristin; Iannaccone, Alessia; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Forgione, Laura; Pasquale, Raffaella; Barbaro, Americo; Botti, Gerardo; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Normanno, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    The activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab in metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) is significantly limited by molecular mechanisms leading to intrinsic or acquired resistance. The S492R mutation of the EGFR, which is caused by either the 1476C>A or the 1474A>C substitution, interferes with binding to cetuximab but not to panitumumab, and has been detected in mCRC with acquired resistance to cetuximab. Since mechanisms of acquired and intrinsic resistance to EGFR monoclonal antibodies in CRC significantly overlap, we evaluated the frequency of the S492R mutation in a series of KRAS-exon 2 wild-type CRC patients. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues that were obtained from 505 systemic therapy-naïve CRC patients. A PCR/sequencing method for the detection of the S492R mutation was developed, by using as positive control a plasmid in which the 1474A>C mutation was generated by site directed mutagenesis. The lowest level of detection of this assay was approximately 10% mutant DNA in a background of wild-type DNA. PCR sequencing analysis revealed no S492R mutations in any of the analyzed 505 CRC specimens. Our findings suggest that the S492R mutation is not involved in primary resistance to cetuximab in CRC. Therefore, patients with mCRC should not be routinely screened for this mutation prior therapy with cetuximab.

  8. Photoluminescence detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) binding on diatom frustule biosilica functionalized with an anti-TNT monoclonal antibody fragment.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Le; Ford, Nicole; Gale, Debra K; Roesijadi, Guritno; Rorrer, Gregory L

    2016-05-15

    A selective and label-free biosensor for detection of the explosive compound 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in aqueous solution was developed based on the principle of photoluminescence quenching of upon immunocomplex formation with antibody-functionalized diatom frustule biosilica. The diatom frustule is an intricately nanostructured, highly porous biogenic silica material derived from the shells of microscopic algae called diatoms. This material emits strong visible blue photoluminescence (PL) upon UV excitation. PL-active frustule biosilica was isolated from cultured cells of the marine diatom Pinnularia sp. and functionalized with a single chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from an anti-TNT monoclonal antibody. When TNT was bound to the anti-TNT scFv-functionalized diatom frustule biosilica, the PL emission from the biosilica was partially quenched due to the electrophilic nature of the nitro (-NO2) groups on the TNT molecule. The dose-response curve for immunocomplex formation of TNT on the scFv-functionalized diatom frustule biosilica had a half-saturation binding constant of 6.4 ± 2.4·10(-8)M and statistically-significant measured detection limit of 3.5·10(-8)M. The binding and detection were selective for TNT and TNB (trinitrobenzene) but not RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) or 2,6-DNT (2,6-dinitrotoluene).

  9. Labeling of monoclonal antibodies with radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargava, K.K.; Acharya, S.A. )

    1989-07-01

    Antibodies, specifically monoclonal antibodies, are potentially very useful and powerful carriers of therapeutic agents to target tissues and diagnostic agents. The loading or charging of antibodies with agents, especially radiotracers, is reviewed here. The choice of radioisotope for immunodetection and/or immunotherapy is based on its availability, half-life, nature of the radiation emitted, and the metabolic pathways of the radionuclide in the body. Most important of all are the derivatization techniques available for labeling the antibody with the given radionuclide. Isotopes of iodine and divalent metal ions are the most commonly used radionuclides. Antibodies labeled with iodine at tyrosine residues are metabolized rapidly in vivo. This leads to the incorporation of metabolized radioactive iodine into various tissues, mainly the thyroid gland and stomach, and to the accumulation of high levels of circulating iodine in the blood, which masks tumor uptake considerably. To overcome these limitations, the use of iodohippurate as an iodine-anchoring molecule to the protein should be considered. When divalent or multivalent metal ions are used as the preferred radionuclide, bifunctional chelating reagents such as EDTA or DTPA are first coupled to the protein or antibody. These chelating molecules are attached to the protein by formation of an isopeptide linkage between the carboxylate of the chelating reagent and the amino group of the protein. Several procedures are available to generate the isopeptide linkage. When the anchoring of the chelating agent through isopeptide linkage results in the inactivation of the antibody, periodate oxidation of the carbohydrate moiety of the antibody, followed by reductive coupling of chelator, could be considered as an alternative. There is still a need for better, simpler, and more direct methods for labeling antibodies with radionuclides. 78 references.

  10. [Development of new approaches to standartization of enzyme immunoassay test systems for detection of antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus using electron microscopy and monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Krivitskaia, V Z; Sirotkin, A K; Samoĭlovich, M P; Sominina, A A

    1999-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), strain Long, was purified through 20-60% sucrose gradient. The virions from different sucrose density zones were tested by ELISA for reactivity with monoclonal antibodies (MAB) to F- (MAB 9C5) and N- (MAB 8B10) proteins of RSV. Comparative study of the same patterns of RSV by electron microscopy after negative staining showed a close relationship between the virion morphology and MAB binding in ELISA. MAB 9C5 were highly reactive with the surface domains of both mature RSV virions and "empty" virion envelopes without formed inner nucleocapsid structures. MAB 8B10 reacted well only with mature virions with completely assembled nucleocapsids. These MAB failed to reorganize the N-protein epitope of immature and destroyed virions, which indicated a conformation dependence of the 8B10 binding site. For practical purposes, MAB tests can be used to determine the RSV patterns, which can be used in ELISA for serologic diagnosis of RSV infection. Testing with these MAB demonstrate the stability of RSV to extreme exposures (lyophilization, storage, heating), which is important for creation of sensitive ELISA test systems and their standardization.

  11. Avian glycan-specific IgM monoclonal antibodies for the detection and quantitation of type A and B haemagglutinins in egg-derived influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Legastelois, Isabelle; Chevalier, Michel; Bernard, Marie-Clotilde; de Montfort, Aymeric; Fouque, Martine; Pilloud, Alexandra; Serraille, Christelle; Devard, Nicolas; Engel, Olivier; Sodoyer, Régis; Moste, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Two IgM monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), Y6F5 and Y13F9, were selected during a screening of clones obtained immunising BALB/c mice with purified envelop proteins of the A/Sydney/5/97 (H3N2) IVR108 influenza strain. These MAbs recognised avian glycans on the haemagglutinin (HA) of the virus. This broad recognition allowed these MAbs to be used as enzyme-labelled secondary antibody reagents in a strain specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in combination with a capture MAb that recognised and allowed the quantitation of the strain specific HA protein present in an egg-produced influenza vaccine. Advantage was taken of these MAbs to develop a universal ELISA in which the MAbs were used both as capture antibody and as enzyme-labelled secondary antibody to detect and quantify the HA protein of any egg-derived influenza vaccine. These avian-glycan specific IgM MAbs may prove to be particularly useful for determining the HA concentration in monovalent egg-derived pandemic influenza vaccines, in which the HA concentration may be lower than 5μg/ml. The HA detection limit in the ELISA assays developed in this study was 1.9μg/ml, as opposed to the 5μg/ml quantitation limit generally accepted for the standard single-radial-immunodiffusion (SRID) assay, the approved technique for quantifying HA content in influenza vaccines. These ELISAs can also be used to quantify influenza HA formulated with emulsion-based or mineral salt adjuvants that could interfere with HA measurement by the SRID assay.

  12. The Use of Monoclonal Antibodies in Human Prion Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodemer, Walter

    Detection of PrP and its pathological isoform(s) is the key to understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. There is ample evidence that PrP isoforms constitute a major component of an unknown and perhaps unconventional infectious agent. An etiological relationship between human and zoonotic transmissible spongiform encephalopathies may be revealed with monoclonal antibodies. Knowledge of the conformational transition rendering a nonpathogenic, almost ubiquitous cellular protein into a pathogenic one is crucial to defining pathomechanisms. The stepwise or even continuous formation of pathogenic molecules can be monitored. Any improvement in the early diagnosis could help to conceive new therapeutic measures which are not currently available. Determination of PrP isoforms in tissue, cells, or body fluids may be of prognostic value. Many experimental approaches in molecular medicine and molecular biology of the prion protein already rely on monoclonal antibodies. Recombinant antibodies such as the single-chain Fv may soon replace traditional hybridoma techniques. Binding affinity can easily be manipulated by a number of techniques, including in vitro mutagenesis - a step which could never be carried out using the traditional hybridoma technology. Monoclonal antibodies are and will remain an essential support for ongoing research on the prion protein in general and on the unconventional infectious prions.

  13. The Role of Monoclonal Antibodies in the Management of Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ameri, Ali; Cherry, Mohamad; Al-Kali, Aref; Ferrajoli, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    This article will review the monoclonal antibodies more commonly used in leukemias. In the last three decades, scientists have made considerable progress understanding the structure and the functions of various surface antigens, such as CD20, CD33. The introduction of rituximab, an anti CD20 monoclonal antibody, had a great impact in the treatment of lymphoproliferative disorders. Gemtuzumab, an anti CD 33 conjugated monoclonal antibody has activity in acute mylegenous leukemia (AML). As this field is undergoing a rapid growth, the years will see an increasing use of monoclonal antibodies in hematological malignancies.

  14. Coproantigen detection in dogs experimentally and naturally infected with Echinococcus granulosus by a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Malgor, R; Nonaka, N; Basmadjian, I; Sakai, H; Carámbula, B; Oku, Y; Carmona, C; Kamiya, M

    1997-12-01

    A sandwich ELISA for the detection of Echinococcus granulosus coproantigen in formalin and heat-treated faecal supernatants of dogs was developed. The assay used affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies obtained from rabbits hyperimmunised with E. granulosus excretory/secretory antigens and biotinylated monoclonal antibody EmA9 produced against adult E. multilocularis somatic extract. The test was sensitive to 7 ng and 2.3 ng of E. granulosus protein and carbohydrate/ml of faecal supernatant, respectively. Thirteen helminth-free dogs were infected with different amounts of E. granulosus protoscoleces and the presence of coproantigen was monitored during the prepatent period until day 35 post-infection, when they were necropsied. Faecal antigen levels started to rise above the normal range between days 10 and 20 post-infection, and typically peaked at the end of the experiment. All the dogs, bearing from 3 to 67,700 worms, showed positive values in the ELISA during the prepatent period. One dog experimentally infected with Taenia hydatigena metacestode and harbouring three worms, tested positive only after the prepatent period at day 52. The test was applied to 98 stray dogs. The ELISA detected all of four dogs naturally infected with E. granulosus, two dogs with patent infections of T. hydatigena and two dogs with no cestode infections, showing a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 96%.

  15. Serologic cross-reactivity between Class I MHC molecules and an H-2- linked differentiation antigen as detected by monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of anti-Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) monoclonal antibodies by immunofluorescence and flow microfluorometry demonstrated an unexpected cross-reactivity. Two of fifteen antibodies examined (20-8-4, anti-Kb,Kd,r,s and 34-1-2, antiKd,Dd,Kb,r,s,q,p) were observed to detect an antigen determined by gene(s) mapping to the right of H-2D. Two-color immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that this antigen, unlike classical H-2K and D antigens, was expressed in high amounts on peripheral T cells, but only weakly on Ia-positive cells and on small subpopulations of thymus and bone marrow cells. Mapping, absorption, blocking, and tissue distribution studies suggested that the cross-reactive antigen is Qa-like, but distinct from previously described Qa antigens. Thus, these data demonstrate serological cross-reactivity between a Class I MHC antigen and a differentiation antigen determined by genes linked to H-2. It seems likely that the gene responsible for this new antigen is one of the numerous Class I-like sequences detected by DNA hybridization analyses, but previously undefined in terms of tissue expression. These data suggest that many of these DNA sequences may be expressed in specific tissues and that cross-reactions of anti-Class I MAbs may provide useful probes for studying the products of such homologous genes. PMID:6363595

  16. Effects of the orientation of anti-BMP2 monoclonal antibody immobilized on scaffold in antibody-mediated osseous regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Sahar; Freire, Marcelo; Choi, Moon G; Tavari, Azadeh; Almohaimeed, Mohammad; Moshaverinia, Alireza; Zadeh, Homayoun H

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that anti-BMP2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can trap endogenous osteogenic BMP ligands, which can in turn mediate osteodifferentiation of progenitor cells. The effectiveness of this strategy requires the availability of the anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies antigen-binding sites for anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies to bind to the scaffold through a domain that will leave its antigen-binding region exposed and available for binding to an osteogenic ligand. We examined whether antibodies bound to a scaffold by passive adsorption versus through Protein G as a linker will exhibit differences in mediating bone formation. In vitro anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies was immobilized on absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) with Protein G as a linker to bind the antibody through its Fc region and implanted into rat calvarial defects. The biomechanical strength of bone regenerated by absorbable collagen sponge/Protein G/anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies immune complex was compared to ACS/anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies or ACS/Protein G/isotype mAb control group. Results demonstrated higher binding of anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies/BMPs to C2C12 cells, when the mAb was initially attached to recombinant Protein G or Protein G-coupled microbeads. After eight weeks, micro-CT and histomorphometric analyses revealed increased bone formation within defects implanted with absorbable collagen sponge/Protein G/anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies compared with defects implanted with absorbable collagen sponge/anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies (p < 0.05). Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) confirmed increased BMP-2, -4, and -7 detection in sites implanted with absorbable collagen sponge/Protein G/anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies in vivo. Biomechanical analysis revealed the regenerated bone in sites with Protein G/anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies had higher mechanical strength in comparison to anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies. The negative control group, Protein G

  17. Purification and identification of cell surface antigens using lamprey monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cuiling; Ali, Shabab; St. Germain, Jonathan; Liu, Yanling; Yu, Xuecong; Jaye, David L.; Moran, Michael F.; Cooper, Max D.; Ehrhardt, Götz R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) B antibodies of the evolutionary distant sea lamprey are structurally distinct from conventional mammalian antibodies. The different protein architecture and large evolutionary distance of jawless vertebrates suggest that VLR antibodies may represent promising tools for biomarker discovery. Here we report the generation of panels of monoclonal VLR antibodies from lamprey larvae immunized with human T cells and the use of a recombinant monoclonal VLR antibody for antigen purification and mass spectrometric identification. We demonstrate that despite predicted low affinity of individual VLR antigen binding units to the antigen, the high avidity resulting from decameric assembly of secreted VLR antibodies allows for efficient antigen capture and subsequent identification by mass spectometry. We show that VLR antibodies detect their antigens with high specificity and can be used in various standard laboratory application techniques. The lamprey antibodies are novel reagents that can complement conventional monoclonal antibodies in multiple scientific research disciplines. PMID:22964555

  18. Development and standardization of a monoclonal antibody-based rapid flow-through immunoassay for the detection of Aphanomyces invadans in the field

    PubMed Central

    Adil, B; Naveen Kumar, B. T.; Patil, Rajreddy; Ballyaya, Abhiman; Ramesh, K. S.; Poojary, Sathish Rama; Byadgi, Omkar V.; Siriyappagouder, Prabhugouda

    2013-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody-based flow-through immunoassay (FTA) was developed using a nitrocellulose membrane placed on the top of adsorbent pads enclosed in a plastic cassette with a test zone at the center. The FTA could be completed within 10 min. Clear purple dots against a white background indicated the presence of Aphanomyces (A.) invadans. The FTA limit of detection was 7 µg/mL for A. invadans compared to 56 µg/mL for the immunodot. FTA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could detect A. invadans in fish tissue homogenates at a 10-11 dilution compared to a 10-8 dilution by immunodot. In fish suffering from natural cases of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) collected from Mangalore, India, FTA and PCR could detect A. invadans in 100% of the samples compared to 89.04% detected by immunodot. FTA reagents were stable and produced expected results for 4 months when stored at 4~8℃. This rapid test could serve as simple and cost-effective on-site screening tool to detect A. invadans in fish from EUS outbreak areas and in ports during the shipment of live or frozen fish. PMID:23820211

  19. Detection of superficial zone protein in human and animal body fluids by cross-species monoclonal antibodies specific to superficial zone protein.

    PubMed

    Su, J L; Schumacher, B L; Lindley, K M; Soloveychik, V; Burkhart, W; Triantafillou, J A; Kuettner, K; Schmid, T

    2001-06-01

    In this report we describe the purification of human superficial zone protein (SZP), the generation of cross-species monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and the detection of this protein in human and animal body fluids. Human SZPs, used as immunizing antigens, were purified either from culture media of human cartilage organ cultures or from human synovial fluids. The immunizing antigens were mixed with RIBI adjuvant in one of three forms: nonmodified SZP, superficial zone protein-keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate (SZP-KLH), or a mixture of superficial zone protein and hyaluronic acid (SZP-HA). A panel of MAbs including GW4.23, S6.79, S13.52, S13.233, and S17.109 were generated and characterized. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) S6.79, an IgG2b with K(D) 3.14 x 10(-9) M from SZP-KLH immunization, is of particular interest. It reacts strongly to a large molecular weight form of SZP in both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. It stains the most superficial layer of articular cartilage in immunohistochemistry, whereas the middle and deep zones of cartilage are not stained. When MAb S6.79 was applied to Western blots of human body fluids, a strong 345-kDa band was detected in samples of synovial fluid and weaker bands of similar size were detected in samples of plasma and serum. MAb S6.79 also showed cross-species immunoreactivity with SZP in samples of synovial fluids harvested from bovine, dog, guinea pig, and rabbit, as demonstrated by Western blotting and antibody absorption experiments. This cross-species MAb will be a useful tool in human and animal model studies for monitoring SZP levels and tissue distribution. It may help define the roles of SZP in normal articular joints and may be of diagnostic or prognostic value for the measurement of SZP in pathological conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa vara-pericarditis.

  20. Development, Characterisation and Application of Monoclonal Antibodies for the Detection and Quantification of Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus in Plasma Samples Using Luminex Bead Array Technology

    PubMed Central

    Hoare, R.; Thompson, K. D.; Herath, T.; Collet, B.; Bron, J. E.; Adams, A.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is an orthomyxovirus that has had a significant economic impact on Atlantic salmon farming in Europe, North America and Chile. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were developed against Segment 3 (encoding the viral nucleoprotein, NP) of the virus. Six of the mAbs were shown to be specific to ISAV and recognised all isolates from Scotland, Norway and Canada. They reacted with ISAV in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and western blotting. They were also used to develop a novel detection method based on Luminex (Bio-Plex) bead-based flow cytometric technology for the detection of ISAV in the plasma of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts experimentally infected with ISAV. Fish were challenged by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of virus at 50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose (TCID50) = 2.8 x106 per animal. Virus present in plasma of infected fish, collected at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 21 and 28 days post infection using a non-lethal sampling method (n = 12 at each time point), was quantified using the optimised Bio-Plex assay. The results obtained with this assay were compared with absolute quantification of the virus by RT-qPCR using SYBR Green I and TaqMan chemistries. The Bio-Plex assay developed using the NP mAbs appears to be a rapid, sensitive method for detecting and quantifying ISAV in small volumes of fish plasma and has the potential to be multiplexed for the detection of other fish pathogens (e.g. during co-infections). To our knowledge this is the first report of the use of Luminex (Bio-Plex) technology for the detection of a fish pathogen. PMID:27434377

  1. Method and test kit for detecting an aflatoxin B/sub 1/ and G/sub 1/ using novel monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.E.; Hart, L.P.; Pestka, J.J

    1989-05-30

    A monoclonal antibody is described having an aflatoxin B/sub 1/ reactivity and limited cross-reactivity with aflatoxins B/sub 2/, G/sub 2/ and M/sub 1/ produced by a hybridoma identified as IVI-10108.

  2. Recombinant genetic libraries and human monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jarrett J; Nelson, Bryce; Sidhu, Sachdev S

    2014-01-01

    In order to comprehensively manipulate the human proteome we require a vast repertoire of pharmacological reagents. To address these needs we have developed repertoires of synthetic antibodies by phage display, where diversified oligonucleotides are used to modify the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of a human antigen-binding fragment (Fab) scaffold. As diversity is produced outside the confines of the mammalian immune system, synthetic antibody libraries allow us to bypass several limitations of hybridoma technology while improving the experimental parameters under which pharmacological reagents are produced. Here we describe the methodologies used to produce synthetic antibody libraries from a single human framework with diversity restricted to four CDRs. These synthetic repertoires can be extremely functional as they produce highly selective, high affinity Fabs to the majority of soluble human antigens. Finally we describe selection methodologies that allow us to overcome immuno-dominance in our selections to target a variety of epitopes per antigen. Together these methodologies allow us to produce human monoclonal antibodies to manipulate the human proteome.

  3. Structure and specificity of lamprey monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Herrin, Brantley R; Alder, Matthew N; Roux, Kenneth H; Sina, Christina; Ehrhardt, Götz R A; Boydston, Jeremy A; Turnbough, Charles L; Cooper, Max D

    2008-02-12

    Adaptive immunity in jawless vertebrates (lamprey and hagfish) is mediated by lymphocytes that undergo combinatorial assembly of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) gene segments to create a diverse repertoire of variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) genes. Immunization with particulate antigens induces VLR-B-bearing lymphocytes to secrete antigen-specific VLR-B antibodies. Here, we describe the production of recombinant VLR-B antibodies specific for BclA, a major coat protein of Bacillus anthracis spores. The recombinant VLR-B antibodies possess 8-10 uniform subunits that collectively bind antigen with high avidity. Sequence analysis, mutagenesis, and modeling studies show that antigen binding involves residues in the beta-sheets lining the VLR-B concave surface. EM visualization reveals tetrameric and pentameric molecules having a central core and highly flexible pairs of stalk-region "arms" with antigen-binding "hands." Remarkable antigen-binding specificity, avidity, and stability predict that these unusual LRR-based monoclonal antibodies will find many biomedical uses.

  4. The Preparation and Identification of a Monoclonal Antibody against Citrinin and the Development of Detection via Indirect Competitive ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Kalayu Yirga, Shimuye; Ling, Sumei; Yang, Yanling; Yuan, Jun; Wang, Shihua

    2017-01-01

    Citrinin (CTN) is a hepato-nephrotoxic mycotoxin produced by fungi genera of Aspergillus, Monauscus, and Penicillium. CTN contaminates grains, fruits, juices and vegetables, and causes various toxic effects to humans and animals. It has small molecular weight, which is non-immunogenic to animals. Thus, CTN was conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA), respectively, by amide bonds using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Mice were immunized with CTN-BSA conjugates, and spleen cells of the immunized mice were fused with Sp2/0 myeloma cells to obtain 21H27 hybriodoma cell. Ascitic fluid of hybridoma cell was produced in mice abdomen, and purified using caprylic/ammonium sulfate precipitation method. The 21H27 anti-CTN mcAb was the IgG2a antibody subclass, and cross-reactivity results indicated that anti-CTN mcAb is specific to CTN with high affinity (2.0 × 108 L/mol). Indirect competitive ELISA (ic-ELISA) results showed that the linear range of detection was 0.01–5.96 ng/mL and the IC50 was 0.28 ng/mL with a lower detection limit (LOD) of 0.01 ng/mL. The average recovery was 93.8% ± 1.6% with a coefficient variation of 1.0%–4.3%. Hence, anti-CTN mcAb secreted by 21H27 hybridoma cell was successfully produced and can be used to detect CTN contaminated feed and foodstuffs. PMID:28304351

  5. Characterization of N-Linked Glycosylation in a Monoclonal Antibody Produced in NS0 Cells Using Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Melissa; Wang, Yang; Rustandi, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    The N-linked glycosylation in recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAb) occurs at Asn297 on the Fc region in the CH2 domain. Glycosylation heterogeneities have been well documented to affect biological activities such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) through their interaction with Fc-receptors. Hence, it is critical to monitor and characterize the N-linked glycosylation profile in a therapeutic protein such as a mAb for product consistency. In one approach, the glycans are first released from the mAb using an enzyme specific digestion, such as Protein N-Glycosidase F (PNGase) and subsequently they are labeled using a fluorophore, for example, 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid (APTS) . Here we have applied this approach and used Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) to analyze a recombinant mAb produced in murine myeloma (NS0) cells. The technique provides short analysis times, efficient separations, and high sensitivity. CE-LIF peak identification was done by a combination of glycan standards and treatment with various exoglycosidases. Furthermore, the APTS-labeled glycans were also analyzed using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to aid identification of minor peaks by sample collection and off-line mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. PMID:24276024

  6. Detection by Epitope-defined Monoclonal Antibodies of Werner DNA Helicases in the Nucleoplasm and Their Upregulation by Cell Transformation and Immortalization

    PubMed Central

    Shiratori, Miwa; Sakamoto, Sakae; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Tokutake, Yoshiki; Kawabe, Yoichi; Enomoto, Takemi; Sugimoto, Masanobu; Goto, Makoto; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Furuichi, Yasuhiro

    1999-01-01

    We prepared several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for the NH2- and COOH-terminal regions of the DNA helicase (WRN helicase) responsible for Werner's syndrome known as a premature aging disease. With these antibodies, we detected by immunoblot analysis the endogenous WRN helicase of a relative mass of 180 kD in several lines of cultured cells, but not in patient cells with a defined mutation. Immunocytochemical staining of proliferating fibroblasts and tumor cells showed that the major part of WRN helicase is in the nucleoplasm and not in the nucleolus. Similar experiments with a rat mAb specific to the mouse homologue of human WRN helicase yielded an identical conclusion. Although this nucleoplasmic staining was evident in cells in interphase, the condensed chromatin structure in metaphase was not stained by the same mAbs, suggesting that WRN helicases exist perhaps in a soluble form or bound to the unfolded chromatin structure. From quantitative immunoblot analysis, higher levels of WRN helicase were observed in all transformed cells and tumor cells examined than those of normal cells. The expression of WRN helicase was enhanced consistently in fibroblasts and B-lymphoblastoid cells by transformation with SV-40 and Epstein-Barr virus, respectively, suggesting that rapidly proliferating cells require a high copy numbers of WRN helicase. PMID:9885239

  7. Monoclonal Antibodies to Shigella Lipopolysaccharide Are Useful for Vaccine Production

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jisheng; Smith, Mark A.; Benjamin, William H.; Kaminski, Robert W.; Wenzel, Heather

    2016-01-01

    There is a significant need for an effective multivalent Shigella vaccine that targets the most prevalent serotypes. Most Shigella vaccines under development utilize serotype-specific lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) as a major component based on protection and epidemiological data. As vaccine formulations advance from monovalent to multivalent, assays and reagents need to be developed to accurately and reproducibly quantitate the amount of LPSs from multiple serotypes in the final product. To facilitate this effort, we produced 36 hybridomas that secrete monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the O antigen on the LPS from Shigella flexneri 2a, Shigella flexneri 3a, and Shigella sonnei. We used six of these monoclonal antibodies for an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA), measuring LPSs with high sensitivity and specificity. It was also demonstrated that the Shigella serotype-specific MAbs were useful for bacterial surface staining detected by flow cytometry. These MAbs are also useful for standardizing the serum bactericidal assay (SBA) for Shigella. Functional assays, such as the in vitro bactericidal assay, are necessary for vaccine evaluation and may serve as immunological correlates of immunity. An S. flexneri 2a-specific monoclonal antibody killed S. flexneri 2b isolates, suggesting that S. flexneri 2a LPS may induce cross-protection against S. flexneri 2b. Overall, the Shigella LPS-specific MAbs described have potential utility to the vaccine development community for assessing multivalent vaccine composition and as a reliable control for multiple immunoassays used to assess vaccine potency. PMID:27280622

  8. Monoclonal Antibodies to Shigella Lipopolysaccharide Are Useful for Vaccine Production.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jisheng; Smith, Mark A; Benjamin, William H; Kaminski, Robert W; Wenzel, Heather; Nahm, Moon H

    2016-08-01

    There is a significant need for an effective multivalent Shigella vaccine that targets the most prevalent serotypes. Most Shigella vaccines under development utilize serotype-specific lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) as a major component based on protection and epidemiological data. As vaccine formulations advance from monovalent to multivalent, assays and reagents need to be developed to accurately and reproducibly quantitate the amount of LPSs from multiple serotypes in the final product. To facilitate this effort, we produced 36 hybridomas that secrete monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the O antigen on the LPS from Shigella flexneri 2a, Shigella flexneri 3a, and Shigella sonnei We used six of these monoclonal antibodies for an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA), measuring LPSs with high sensitivity and specificity. It was also demonstrated that the Shigella serotype-specific MAbs were useful for bacterial surface staining detected by flow cytometry. These MAbs are also useful for standardizing the serum bactericidal assay (SBA) for Shigella Functional assays, such as the in vitro bactericidal assay, are necessary for vaccine evaluation and may serve as immunological correlates of immunity. An S. flexneri 2a-specific monoclonal antibody killed S. flexneri 2b isolates, suggesting that S. flexneri 2a LPS may induce cross-protection against S. flexneri 2b. Overall, the Shigella LPS-specific MAbs described have potential utility to the vaccine development community for assessing multivalent vaccine composition and as a reliable control for multiple immunoassays used to assess vaccine potency.

  9. Immunodiagnosis of Fasciola gigantica Infection Using Monoclonal Antibody-Based Sandwich ELISA and Immunochromatographic Assay for Detection of Circulating Cathepsin L1 Protease

    PubMed Central

    Anuracpreeda, Panat; Chawengkirttikul, Runglawan; Sobhon, Prasert

    2016-01-01

    Background Tropical fasciolosis caused by Fasciola gigantica infection is one of the major diseases infecting ruminants in the tropical regions of Africa and Asia including Thailand. Parasitological diagnosis of fasciolosis is often unreliable and possesses low sensitivity. Therefore, the detection of circulating parasite antigens is thought to be a better alternative for diagnosis of fasciolosis, as it reflects the real parasite burden. Methods In this study, we have produced a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against recombinant F. gigantica cathepsin L1 (rFgCatL1), and developed both sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sandwich ELISA) and immunochromatographic (IC) test for rapid detection of circulating cathepsin L1 protease (CatL1) in the sera from mice experimentally and cattle naturally infected with Fasciola gigantica. MoAb 4E3 and biotinylated rabbit anti-recombinant CatL1 antibody were selected due to their high reactivities and specificities. Results The lower detection limits of sandwich ELISA and IC test were 3 pg/ml and 0.256 ng/ml, respectively. Sandwich ELISA and IC test could detect F. gigantica infection from day 1 to 35 post infection. In experimental mice, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 95%, 100% and 98.6% (for sandwich ELISA), and 93%, 100% and 98.2% (for IC test), while in natural cattle they were 98.3%, 100% and 99.5% (for sandwich ELISA), and 96.7%, 100% and 99.1% (for IC test). Conclusions These two assay methods showed high efficiencies and precisions for diagnosis of fasciolosis by F. gigantica. PMID:26731402

  10. [Progress in monoclonal antibody-based immunotherapy for cancer treatment].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yajun

    2015-06-01

    More than 100 years ago, Paul Ehrlich first proposed the "magic bullets" concept in which antibody targeting disease related antigen can fight against human disease. Since then, with the development of hybridoma technology for monoclonal antibody production and cancer serum therapy, immunotherapy based monoclonal antibody bas been used in chinical practice to treat hematological and solid tumor. Up to now, more than 20 recombinant antibody drugs were approved for cancer treatment worldwide. In recent years, the next-generation antibody drug, including immune checkpoint antagonists, bi-specific antibody, and antibody drug conjugates have successfully cured various malignant tumor. This review recalled the history of monoclonal antibody as potent immunotherapy of cancer firstly, and focused on the next-generation antibody drug's mechanism of action, construction strategies, and the side effects in clinic. Lastly, the future trend of anti-tumor antibody drug was also discussed.

  11. Immunochemical Characterization of Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Monoclonal Antibodies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    formation. This conformation was first proposed using studies with monoclonal antibodies against a synthetic peptide mimicking the sequence of the...distinct antigenic determinants on dengue -2 virus using monoclonal antibodies, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 31 (1982) 548-555. 7 D. De la Hoz, B.P. Doctor

  12. Diagnosis of amebic dysentery by detection of Entamoeba histolytica fecal antigen by an invasive strain-specific, monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Ruiz, A; Haque, R; Rehman, T; Aguirre, A; Hall, A; Guhl, F; Warhurst, D C; Miles, M A

    1994-01-01

    An invasive strain-specific monoclonal antibody against Entamoeba histolytica has been used in a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of invasive E. histolytica fecal antigen in clinical specimens and for the diagnosis of amebic dysentery in patients from Bangladesh. The fecal antigen capture ELISA (FAC-ELISA) did not cross-react with other parasite species in the clinical specimens or with noninvasive E. histolytica present in those specimens and in experimentally seeded stools. The limit of detection of the assay for invasive E. histolytica crude antigen diluted in phosphate-buffered saline or in stools was 0.58 and 3.9 micrograms/ml, respectively, which is the equivalent of approximately 72 and 487 E. histolytica trophozoites per well, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of the FAC-ELISA were 87, 100, and 98%, respectively, for the detection of invasive E. histolytica antigens and 100, 100, and 100%, respectively, for the diagnosis of amebic dysentery. The FAC-ELISA is a potential alternative for the field diagnosis of amebic dysentery and for epidemiological studies to define the distribution of invasive E. histolytica. PMID:8027351

  13. Use of monoclonal antibodies with neutralizing effects on toxic antigens from human bacterial plaque to detect specific bacteria by colony blotting.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, M; Miller, F C

    1991-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal diseases are provoked by bacteria which adhere to teeth at the gingival margin and form plaques containing toxins detectable by their effect on mammalian cells in culture. The aim of this study was to make toxin-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and determine whether they detect antigen in specific oral bacteria. Bacterial plaque was collected from teeth and homogenized, and the fluid phase (plaque extract) was boiled or first fractionated over Sephacryl S-300. Hybridomas from immunized mice secreted immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies which reacted to plaque antigens. Neutralization was detected by an increase in the growth of HL60 cells which were exposed to plaque toxins in the presence of IgM from hybridoma culture or ascitic fluids. However, the neutralization was obvious only when the plaque toxins reduced growth by 50% or less. Plaque toxin preparations were found to contain proteases which hydrolyzed all of the IgM in ascitic fluids within 24 h. Replenishing the IgM daily preserved protection compared with protection from IgM from other hybridomas or saline only. The decrease in the specific activity of plaque proteins caused by replenishing one such antibody (3hE5) was 2.5-fold compared with activity with unreplenished 3hE5, 3.8-fold compared with activity with saline only, and 10.7-fold compared with activity with replenished, unrelated antibody. The neutralizing IgM detected an array of 14,000- to 22,000-molecular-weight antigens. The native toxins may be aggregates of these antigens, or the array may indicate fragments of an undetected, larger antigen or a common, nonpeptide adduct. Only 0.5 to 0.8% of the bacteria from sites with periodontitis and grown on blood agar contained antigen. One group of reactive bacteria was identified as Actinomyces odontolyticus serotype I. Other isolates were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis, but antigen disappeared from the these isolates within 6 weeks of subculture. Epitope

  14. Monoclonal antibodies based on hybridoma technology.

    PubMed

    Yagami, Hisanori; Kato, Hiroshi; Tsumoto, Kanta; Tomita, Masahiro

    2013-03-01

    Based on the size and scope of the present global market for medicine, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a very promising future, with applications for cancers through autoimmune ailments to infectious disease. Since mAbs recognize only their target antigens and not other unrelated proteins, pinpoint medical treatment is possible. Global demand is dramatically expanding. Hybridoma technology, which allows production of mAbs directed against antigens of interest is therefore privileged. However, there are some pivotal points for further development to generate therapeutic antibodies. One is selective generation of human mAbs. Employment of transgenic mice producing human antibodies would overcome this problem. Another focus is recognition sites and conformational epitopes in antigens may be just as important as linear epitopes, especially when membrane proteins such as receptors are targeted. Recognition of intact structures is of critical importance for medical purposes. In this review, we describe patent related information for therapeutic mAbs based on hybridoma technology and also discuss new advances in hybridoma technology that facilitate selective production of stereospecific mAbs.

  15. Monoclonal Antibodies Against Xenopus Greatwall Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Fisher, Laura A.; Wahl, James K.

    2011-01-01

    Mitosis is known to be regulated by protein kinases, including MPF, Plk1, Aurora kinases, and so on, which become active in M-phase and phosphorylate a wide range of substrates to control multiple aspects of mitotic entry, progression, and exit. Mechanistic investigations of these kinases not only provide key insights into cell cycle regulation, but also hold great promise for cancer therapy. Recent studies, largely in Xenopus, characterized a new mitotic kinase named Greatwall (Gwl) that plays essential roles in both mitotic entry and maintenance. In this study, we generated a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for Xenopus Gwl and characterized these antibodies for their utility in immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and immunodepletion in Xenopus egg extracts. Importantly, we generated an MAb that is capable of neutralizing endogenous Gwl. The addition of this antibody into M-phase extracts results in loss of mitotic phosphorylation of Gwl, Plk1, and Cdk1 substrates. These results illustrate a new tool to study loss-of-function of Gwl, and support its essential role in mitosis. Finally, we demonstrated the usefulness of the MAb against human Gwl/MASTL. PMID:22008075

  16. An impedance immunosensor based on low-cost microelectrodes and specific monoclonal antibodies for rapid detection of avian influenza virus H5N1 in chicken swabs.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianhan; Wang, Ronghui; Jiao, Peirong; Li, Yuntao; Li, Yanbin; Liao, Min; Yu, Yude; Wang, Maohua

    2015-05-15

    Early screening of suspected cases is the key to control the spread of avian influenza (AI) H5N1. In our previous studies, an impedance biosensor with an interdigitated array microelectrode based biochip was developed and validated with pure AI H5 virus, but had limitations in cost and reliability of the biochip, specificity of the antibody against Asian in-field H5N1 virus and detection of H5N1 virus in real samples. The purpose of this study is to develop a low-cost impedance immunosensor for rapid detection of Asian in-field AI H5N1 virus in chicken swabs within 1h and validate it with the H5N1 virus. Specific monoclonal antibodies against AI H5N1 virus were developed by fusion of mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells isolated from an H5N1-virus-immunized mouse. Dot-ELISA analysis demonstrated that the developed antibodies had good affinity and specificity with the H5N1 virus. The microelectrodes were redesigned with compact size, fabricated using an improved wet-etching micro-fabrication process with a higher qualified production rate of 70-80%, and modified with the antibodies by the Protein A method. Equivalent circuit analysis indicated that electron transfer resistor was effective with the increase in impedance after capturing of the H5N1 viruses. Linear relationship between impedance change and logarithmic value of H5N1 virus at the concentrations from 2(-1) to 2(4) HAU/50 μl was found and the lower limit of detection was 2(-1) HAU/50 μl. No obvious interferences from non-target viruses such as H6N2, H9N2, Newcastle disease virus, and infectious bronchitis virus were found. Chicken swab tests showed that the impedance immunosensor had a comparable accuracy with real-time RT-PCR compared to viral isolation.

  17. Monoclonal antibodies in treatment of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rommer, P S; Dudesek, A; Stüve, O; Zettl, UK

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are used as therapeutics in a number of disciplines in medicine, such as oncology, rheumatology, gastroenterology, dermatology and transplant rejection prevention. Since the introduction and reintroduction of the anti-alpha4-integrin mAb natalizumab in 2004 and 2006, mAbs have gained relevance in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). At present, numerous mAbs have been tested in clinical trials in relapsing–remitting MS, and in progressive forms of MS. One of the agents that might soon be approved for very active forms of relapsing–remitting MS is alemtuzumab, a humanized mAb against CD52. This review provides insights into clinical studies with the mAbs natalizumab, alemtuzumab, daclizumab, rituximab, ocrelizumab and ofatumumab. PMID:24001305

  18. The birth pangs of monoclonal antibody therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the development and termination of nebacumab (Centoxin®), a human IgM monoclonal antibody (mAb) drug frequently cited as one of the notable failures of the early biopharmaceutical industry. The non-approval of Centoxin in the United States in 1992 generated major concerns at the time about the future viability of any mAb therapeutics. For Centocor, the biotechnology company that developed Centoxin, the drug posed formidable challenges in terms of safety, clinical efficacy, patient selection, the overall economic costs of health care, as well as financial backing. Indeed, Centocor's development of the drug brought it to the brink of bankruptcy. This article shows how many of the experiences learned with Centoxin paved the way for the current successes in therapeutic mAb development. PMID:22531443

  19. Building better monoclonal antibody-based therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, George J.

    2015-01-01

    For 20 years, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been a standard component of cancer therapy, yet there is still much room for improvement. Efforts continue to build better cancer therapeutics based on mAbs. Anti-cancer mAbs function via a variety of mechanisms including directly targeting the malignant cells, modifying the host response to the malignant cells, delivering cytotoxic moieties to the malignant cells or retargeting cellular immunity towards the malignant cells. Characteristics of mAbs that affect their efficacy include antigen specificity, overall structure, affinity for the target antigen and how a mAb component is incorporated into a construct that can trigger target cell death. This article reviews the various approaches to using mAb-based therapeutics to treat cancer, the strategies used to take advantage of the unique potential of each approach, and provides examples of current mAb-based treatments. PMID:25998715

  20. Antibacterial monoclonal antibodies: the next generation?

    PubMed

    DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Sellman, Bret R

    2015-10-01

    There is a clear need for renewed efforts to combat the increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance. While the antibiotic resistance epidemic is due in part to the misuse of antibiotics, even proper empiric antibiotic therapy increases the selective pressure and potential for drug-resistance and spread of resistance mechanisms between bacteria. Antibiotic resistance coupled with the detrimental effects of broad-spectrum antibiotics on the healthy microbiome, have led the field to explore pathogen specific antibacterials such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Medical need along with advances in mAb discovery, engineering, and production have driven significant effort developing mAb-based antibacterials. If successful, they will provide physicians with precision weapons to combat bacterial infections and can help prevent a return to a pre-antibiotic era.

  1. Utilizing three monoclonal antibodies in the development of an immunochromatographic assay for simultaneous detection of sulfamethazine, sulfadiazine, and sulfaquinoxaline residues in egg and chicken muscle.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yancheng; Ngom, Babacar; Le, Tao; Jin, Xiue; Wang, Liping; Shi, Deshi; Wang, Xiliang; Bi, Dingren

    2010-09-15

    A rapid and sensitive immunochromatographic assay (ICA) based on competitive format was developed and validated for simultaneous detection of sulfamethazine (SM(2)), sulfadiazine (SDZ), and sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) in chicken breast muscle and egg samples. For this purpose, three monoclonal antibodies raised against those three sulfonamides were conjugated to colloidal gold particles and applied to the conjugate pads of the test strip. The competitors of the sulfonamides (SM(2)/SDZ/SQX-bovine serum albumin conjugates) were immobilized onto a nitrocellulose membrane at three detection zones to form T(1), T(2), and T(3), respectively. With this method, the cutoff values for the three test lines were achieved at 80 μg/kg, which is lower than the maximum residue levels (MRLs) established for sulfonamides. The recoveries in negative samples spiked at concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 μg/kg ranged from 75% to 82% for egg samples and from 78% to 81% for chicken samples. The method was compared with the HPLC method by testing 180 eggs and chicken breast samples from local markets, and an agreement rate of 99.7% was obtained between the two methods.

  2. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 mutation is a frequent event in osteosarcoma detected by a multi-specific monoclonal antibody MsMab-1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Kato, Yukinari; Kaneko, Mika Kato; Sugawara, Masato; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Tsujimoto, Yuta; Naganuma, Yasushi; Yamakawa, Mitsunori; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Takagi, Michiaki

    2013-12-01

    Somatic mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and IDH2 occur in gliomas, acute myeloid leukemia, and cartilaginous tumors. Somatic mosaic IDH1/2 mutations are also reported in Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome, which are characterized by multiple central cartilaginous tumors. Although IDH1/2 mutation analysis against osteosarcoma has been performed in several studies, no IDH1/2 mutation has been reported. Herein, we newly report the IDH2-R172S mutation in three of 12 (25%) osteosarcoma patients, which was detected by direct DNA sequencing. No monoclonal antibody (mAb) has been reported against IDH2-R172S mutation. However, we demonstrate that the IDH2-R172S peptide was recognized by our established multi-specific anti-mutated IDH1/2 mAb, MsMab-1, in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western blot analysis revealed that MsMab-1 reacts with PA tag combined recombinant proteins of IDH2-R172S. Furthermore, MsMab-1 stained IDH2-R172S-expressing osteosarcoma tissues in immunohistochemistry. The MsMab-1 stained nine of 32 (28.1%) osteosarcomas in a tissue microarray. This report is the first describing IDH2 mutations in osteosarcoma, which can be detected by MsMab-1 mAb. Taken together, these results show that MsMab-1 can be anticipated for use in immunohistochemical determination of IDH1/2 mutation-bearing osteosarcoma.

  3. Cross-reactivity among antigens of different air-borne fungi detected by ELISA using five monoclonal antibodies against Penicillium notatum.

    PubMed

    Shen, H D; Lin, W L; Chen, R J; Han, S H

    1990-10-01

    Cross-reactivity among antigens of 12 genera of air-borne fungi, 13 species of Penicillium, and 5 species of Aspergillus was studied by ELISA using five monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against Penicillium notatum. Epitopes recognized by all the five MoAbs were susceptible to treatment of mild periodate oxidation and may therefore be associated with carbohydrates. Furthermore, our results showed that there is cross-reactivity among antigens of Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Eurotium species. By using these MoAbs, cross reactivity was not detected between antigens of Penicillium notatum and antigens of Fusarium solani, Alternaria porri, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Curvularia species, Nigrospora species, Aureobasidium pullulans, Wallemia species, Rhizopus arrhizus, and Candida albicans. Cross-reactivity among antigens of 11 species of Penicillium and 5 species of Aspergillus could be detected by ELISA using one of the five MoAbs (MoAb P15). The fact that there may be cross-reactivity among antigens of closely related fungi species should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of mold allergic diseases.

  4. Clinical pharmacokinetics of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Keizer, Ron J; Huitema, Alwin D R; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H

    2010-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been used in the treatment of various diseases for over 20 years and combine high specificity with generally low toxicity. Their pharmacokinetic properties differ markedly from those of non-antibody-type drugs, and these properties can have important clinical implications. mAbs are administered intravenously, intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Oral administration is precluded by the molecular size, hydrophilicity and gastric degradation of mAbs. Distribution into tissue is slow because of the molecular size of mAbs, and volumes of distribution are generally low. mAbs are metabolized to peptides and amino acids in several tissues, by circulating phagocytic cells or by their target antigen-containing cells. Antibodies and endogenous immunoglobulins are protected from degradation by binding to protective receptors (the neonatal Fc-receptor [FcRn]), which explains their long elimination half-lives (up to 4 weeks). Population pharmacokinetic analyses have been applied in assessing covariates in the disposition of mAbs. Both linear and nonlinear elimination have been reported for mAbs, which is probably caused by target-mediated disposition. Possible factors influencing elimination of mAbs include the amount of the target antigen, immune reactions to the antibody and patient demographics. Bodyweight and/or body surface area are generally related to clearance of mAbs, but clinical relevance is often low. Metabolic drug-drug interactions are rare for mAbs. Exposure-response relationships have been described for some mAbs. In conclusion, the parenteral administration, slow tissue distribution and long elimination half-life are the most pronounced clinical pharmacokinetic characteristics of mAbs.

  5. Simultaneous Rapid Detection and Serotyping of Cronobacter sakazakii Serotypes O1, O2, and O3 by Using Specific Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Scharinger, Eva J.; Dietrich, Richard; Kleinsteuber, Ina; Märtlbauer, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is a foodborne pathogen associated with rare but often lethal infections in neonates. Powdered infant formula (PIF) represents the most frequent source of infection. Out of the identified serotypes (O1 to O7), O1, O2, and O3 are often isolated from clinical and PIF samples. Serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) suitable for application in enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for the rapid detection of C. sakazakii have not yet been developed. In this study, we created specific MAbs with the ability to bind to C. sakazakii of serotypes O1, O2, and O3. Characterization by indirect EIAs, immunofluorescence, motility assays, and immunoblotting identified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and exopolysaccharide (EPS) as the antigenic determinants of the MAbs. The established sandwich EIAs were highly sensitive and were able to detect between 2 × 103 and 9 × 106 CFU/ml. Inclusivity tests confirmed that 93% of serotype O1 strains, 100% of O2 strains, and 87% of O3 strains were detected at low cell counts. No cross-reactivity with >100 strains of Cronobacter spp. and other Enterobacteriaceae was observed, except for that with C. sakazakii serotype O3 and Cronobacter muytjensii serotype O1. Moreover, the sandwich EIAs detected C. sakazakii in PIF samples artificially contaminated with 1 to 10 bacterial cells per 10 g of sample after 15 h of preenrichment. The use of these serotype-specific MAbs not only allows the reliable detection of C. sakazakii strains but also enables simultaneous serotyping in a simple sandwich EIA method. PMID:26850303

  6. Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Yellow Fever Virus and Application in Antigen Detection and IgM Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Adungo, Ferdinard; Kamau, David; Inoue, Shingo; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Sang, Rosemary; Mwau, Matilu

    2016-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is an acute hemorrhagic viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes in Africa and South America. The major challenge in YF disease detection and confirmation of outbreaks in Africa is the limited availability of reference laboratories and the persistent lack of access to diagnostic tests. We used wild-type YF virus sequences to generate recombinant envelope protein in an Escherichia coli expression system. Both the recombinant protein and sucrose gradient-purified YF vaccine virus 17D (YF-17D) were used to immunize BALB/c mice to generate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Eight MAbs were established and systematically characterized by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The established MAbs showed strong reactivity with wild-type YF virus and recombinant protein with no detectable cross-reactivity to dengue virus or Japanese encephalitis virus. Epitope mapping showed strong binding of three MAbs to amino acid positions 1 to 51, while two MAbs mapped to amino acid positions 52 to 135 of the envelope protein. The remaining three MAbs did not show reactivity to envelope fragments. The established MAbs exert no neutralization against wild-type YF and 17D viruses (titer of <10 for both strains). The applicability of MAbs 8H3 and 3F4 was further evaluated using IgM capture ELISA. A total of 49 serum samples were analyzed, among which 12 positive patient and vaccinee samples were correctly identified. Using serum samples that were 2-fold serially diluted, the IgM capture ELISA was able to detect all YF-positive samples. Furthermore, MAb-based antigen detection ELISA enabled the detection of virus in culture supernatants containing titers of about 1,000 focus-forming units. PMID:27307452

  7. Drug Development of Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Mould, Diane R; Meibohm, Bernd

    2016-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have become a substantial part of many pharmaceutical company portfolios. However, the development process of MAbs for clinical use is quite different than for small-molecule drugs. MAb development programs require careful interdisciplinary evaluations to ensure the pharmacology of both the MAb and the target antigen are well-understood. Selection of appropriate preclinical species must be carefully considered and the potential development of anti-drug antibodies (ADA) during these early studies can limit the value and complicate the performance and possible duration of preclinical studies. In human studies, many of the typical pharmacology studies such as renal or hepatic impairment evaluations may not be needed but the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these agents is complex, often necessitating more comprehensive evaluation of clinical data and more complex bioanalytical assays than might be used for small molecules. This paper outlines concerns and strategies for development of MAbs from the early in vitro assessments needed through preclinical and clinical development. This review focuses on how to develop, submit, and comply with regulatory requirements for MAb therapeutics.

  8. Clinical laboratory applications of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, W J; Marshall, D L; Shockley, R K; Martin, W J

    1988-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) technology is well recognized as a significant development for producing specific serologic reagents to a wide variety of antigens in unlimited amounts. These reagents have provided the means for developing a number of highly specific and reproducible immunological assays for rapid and accurate diagnosis of an extensive list of diseases, including infectious diseases. The impact that MAbs have had in characterizing infectious disease pathogens, as well as their current and future applications for use in clinical microbiology laboratories, is reviewed. In addition, the advantages (and disadvantages) of the use of MAbs in a number of immunoassays, such as particle agglutination, radioimmunoassays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunofluorescent-antibody assays, and immunohistology, are explored, including the use of these reagents in novel test system assays. Also, nucleic acid probe technology is compared with the use of MAbs from the perspective of their respective applications in the diagnosis of infectious disease agents. There is no question that hybridoma technology has the potential to alter significantly the methods currently used in most clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:3058298

  9. Development and use of three monoclonal antibodies for the detection of rice black-streaked dwarf virus in field plants and planthopper vectors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) causes great losses in rice, maize and wheat production in Asian countries. The use of serological methods for RBSDV detection depends on the availability of antibodies. In this study, three highly sensitive and specific murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against RBSDV antigens were produced using crude extracts from tumors of RBSDV-infected maize as the immunogen, and two serological assays, antigen-coated-plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA) and dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) were developed for RBSDV detection. Results All three MAbs reacted strongly and specifically with the crude extracts from RBSDV-infected plant and planthopper tissues. The detection endpoints of three MAbs (12E10, 18F10 and 5G5) in ACP-ELISA were respectively 1:40,960, 1:40,960, 1:81,920 (w/v, g mL-1) with the crude extract of infected maize, 1:10,240, 1:20,480, 1:20,480 (w/v, g mL-1) with the crude extract of infected rice, 1:5,120, 1:10,240, 1:10,240 (w/v, g mL-1) with the crude extract of infected wheat, 1:9,600, 1:9,600, 19,200 (individual planthopper/μL) with the crude extract of infected planthopper. The newly developed ACP-ELISA could detect the virus in the infected maize, wheat, rice tissue crude extracts diluted at 1:81,920, 1:20,480, 1:10,240 (w/v, g mL-1), respectively, and in individual viruliferous planthopper extract diluted at 1:19200 (individual planthopper/μL). The dot-ELISA was proved to detect the virus in the infected maize, wheat and rice tissue crude extracts diluted at 1:320 (w/v, g mL-1), and in individual viruliferous planthopper extract diluted at 1:1,600 (individual planthopper/μL), respectively. Field plants (915) and planthopper samples (594) from five provinces of China were screened for the presence of RBSDV using the two developed serological assays. The results indicated that 338 of the 915 plant samples and 19 of the 594 planthopper samples were infected by

  10. Detection of Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, and Bacteroides ovatus in clinical specimens by immunofluorescence with a monoclonal antibody to B. fragilis lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Viljanen, M K; Linko, L; Lehtonen, O P

    1988-01-01

    A total of 1,897 clinical specimens (1,019 aspirates and 876 swabs) were studied by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) with a mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb) against a D-galactose oligomer of Bacteroides fragilis lipopolysaccharide. The MAb has been shown to react with 96% of clinical B. fragilis isolates and with about 50% of Bacteroides ovatus and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron isolates but not with other aerobic or anaerobic organisms tested. The sensitivity of IF in comparison with culturing was 78.9% for all three species. Of the 32 strains originating from culture-positive, IF-negative specimens, 13 lacked the target determinant for the MAb. Sensitivity was highest with specimens taken from the perineal area (87.1%) and lowest with those taken from undefined sites (56.6%). Sensitivity was better with aspirates (86.8%) than with swabs (72.6%). The specificity of IF was 95.6% for all of the material. Positive and negative predictive values were 51.1 and 98.0%, respectively. Neither long transportation times of specimens nor antimicrobial therapy seemed to correlate with the occurrence of IF-positive, culture-negative specimens. This study shows that a single MAb can be used to establish an IF assay that can complement isolation in the detection of these three members of the B. fragilis group. Images PMID:3281973

  11. Preparation and evaluation of monoclonal antibodies against chlamydial protease-like activity factor to detect Chlamydia pneumoniae antigen in early pediatric pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J; Ding, T; Chen, Z; Fang, H; Li, H; Lu, H; Wu, Y

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae causes diseases in humans, including community-acquired pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinusitis. It is also associated with atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigated novel materials with which to develop a sensitive and specific method to identify early C. pneumoniae infection, to allow more effective clinical treatment and prevention. We prepared novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against a recombinant protein equivalent to the immunodominant region of chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF) from C. pneumoniae. The mAbs specifically reacted with the endogenous CPAF antigen of the C. pneumoniae type strain in immunoblotting and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assays, but did not react with C. trachomatis type strains or genital secretions from patients with acute C. trachomatis infection. The mAb with the highest titer was used to develop a new IIF assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the C. pneumoniae antigen in clinical specimens from child patients suspected of pneumonia. The sensitivity, specificity, and concordance rate of the mAb-based IIF and ELISA tests were compared with those of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Our results show that these mAbs have excellent specificity and may be used to develop new screening tools for the diagnosis of early pediatric pneumonia.

  12. Monoclonal antibodies for the detection of desialylation of erythrocyte membranes during haemolytic disease and haemolytic uraemic syndrome caused by the in vivo action of microbial neuraminidase.

    PubMed

    Seitz, R C; Poschmann, A; Hellwege, H H

    1997-09-01

    Especially in childhood, the in vivo action of microbial neuraminidase may cause haemolytic anaemia or life-threatening haemolytic uraemic syndrome. The exposure of the Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) crypto-antigen and T-antigen polyagglutinability of erythrocytes has been described as the first sign of toxic cleavage of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) from sialoglycoproteins of cell membranes. This phenomenon may, however, be too unspecific to initiate treatment for toxin elimination. The present study investigated the diagnostic effectiveness of a panel of three monoclonal antibodies (mcabs) for the estimation of the clinical significance of neuraminidase action in vivo. Depending on the amount of Neu5Ac released, the mcabs I-C4, II-Q9 and III-Y12 recognized different epitopes on erythrocyte asialoglycophorin. In 1345 patients, the mcab II-09 detected cleavage of Neu5Ac in 32 children who had T-antigen polyagglutinability and mild to moderate haemolytic anaemia. However, only 10 patients, whose erythrocytes were agglutinated by the mcabs III-Y12 or I-C4, developed severe haemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and finally the life-threatening haemolytic uraemic syndrome (p<0.0002). In conclusion, these mcabs provided an early marker of the in vivo action of neuraminidase. Two different degrees of erythrocyte desialylation, as defined by these mcabs, are suggested to reflect the severity of toxin-associated disease.

  13. [Detection of conservative and variable epitopes of the pandemic influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 hemagglutinin using monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Masalova, O V; Chichev, E V; Fediakina, I T; Mukasheva, E A; Klimova, R R; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Burtseva, E I; Ivanova, V T; Kushch, A A; L'vov, D K

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this work was to analyze the antigenic structure of the hemagglutinin (HA) of the pandemic influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and to develop a sandwich ELISA for identification of pandemic strains. Competitive ELISA demonstrated that 6 MAbs against HA of the pandemic influenza A/ IIV-Moscow/01/2009 (H1N1)pdm09 virus identified six epitopes. Binding of MAbs with 22 strains circulating in Russian Federation during 2009-2012 was analyzed in the hemagglutination-inhibition test (HI). The MAbs differed considerably in their ability to decrease the HI activity of these strains. MAb 5F7 identified all examined strains; MAbs 3A3 and 10G2 reacted with the majority of them. A highly sensitive sandwich ELISA was constructed based on these three MAbs that can differentiate the pandemic influenza strains from the seasonal influenza virus. The constancy of the HA epitope that reacts with MAb 5F7 provides its use for identification of the pandemic influenza strains in HI test. MAbs 3D9, 6A3 and 1E7 are directed against the variable HA epitopes, being sensitive to several amino acid changes in Sa, Sb, and Ca2 antigenic sites and in receptor binding site. These MAbs can be used to detect differences in HA structure and to study the antigenic drift of the pandemic influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09.

  14. [Hypocomplementary membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis in a Malagasy patient with schistosomiasis mansoni (detection of bilharzial antigen on glomerular basement membrane using monoclonal antibodies)].

    PubMed

    Rajaonarivelo, P; Rajaona, H R; Alix, J L; Couderc, P; Daveau, C; Santoro, F; Nogueira-Quetroz, J A; Lovens, M; Capron, A; Cordonnier, D

    1986-01-01

    Schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni affects more than 40 millions people all over the world. Renal involvement is observed mainly in endemic areas. We report a case of hypocomplementemic membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis in a malagasy man who suffered also from hepatosplenic bilharziosis. The relation between Schistosoma mansoni and the nephropathy was proved by indirect immunofluorescence test using a monoclonal antibody directed against the caecum of adult Schistosoma mansoni.

  15. Monoclonal Antibody Shows Promise as Potential Therapeutic for MERS | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    A monoclonal antibody has proven effective in preventing Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in lab animals, suggesting further development as a potential intervention for the deadly disease in humans, according to new research. MERS is a newly emerged coronavirus first detected in humans in 2012. Most cases have occurred in the Middle East, but the disease has appeared elsewhere. In all, MERS has infected more than 1,700 individuals and killed more than 600, according to the World Health Organization. No vaccines or antiviral therapies currently exist. Several candidate vaccines are being developed, and some have been tested in animal models, a prerequisite to human clinical trials.

  16. Localisation of malignant glioma by a radiolabelled human monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, J; Alderson, T; Sikora, K; Watson, J

    1983-01-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies were produced by fusing intratumoral lymphocytes from patients with malignant gliomas with a human myeloma line. One antibody was selected for further study after screening for binding activity to glioma cell lines. The patient from whom it was derived developed recurrent glioma. 1 mg of antibody was purified, radiolabelled with 131I, and administered intravenously. The distribution of antibody was determined in the blood, CSF and tumour cyst fluid and compared with that of a control human monoclonal immunoglobulin. Antibody localisation in the tumour was observed and confirmed by external scintiscanning. Images PMID:6101173

  17. Monoclonal antibody-based serological assays and immunocapture-RT-PCR for detecting Rice dwarf virus in field rice plants and leafhopper vectors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianxiang; Ni, Yuequn; Liu, Huan; Ding, Ming; Zhou, Xueping

    2014-01-01

    Rice dwarf virus (RDV) causes Rice dwarf disease, which leads to considerable losses in rice production in Asia. Purified RDV virions were used as the immunogen to prepare monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Three murine mAbs against RDV were prepared. Plate-trapped antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PTA-ELISA), dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) and immunocapture-RT-PCR (IC-RT-PCR) were then developed for sensitive, specific, and rapid detection of RDV in rice and leafhopper samples obtained in the field using the mAbs. The PTA-ELISA, dot-ELISA and IC-RT-PCR detected the virus in infected tissue crude extracts diluted at 1:81,920, 1:10,240 and 1:655,360 (w/v, g mL(-1)), in individual viruliferous rice green leafhopper crude extracts diluted at 1:25,600, 1:6400 and 1:3,276,800 (individual leafhopper/μL), respectively. 878 rice field samples and 531 leafhopper field samples from ten provinces of China were screened for the presence of RDV using the two serological assays and the IC-RT-PCR and the results indicated that 37 of the 878 rice samples and 22 of the 531 leafhopper samples were infected by RDV. All positive samples were from Yunnan Province, indicating that RDV is prevalent in this province, but not in the other nine provinces. The dot-ELISA is suitable for routine detection of large-scale rice and leafhopper samples in field surveys.

  18. Comparative testing of monoclonal antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites for ELISA development*

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, R. A.; Zavala, F.; Charoenvit, Y.; Campbell, G. H.; Burkot, T. R.; Schneider, I.; Esser, K. M.; Beaudoin, R. L.; Andre, R. G.

    1987-01-01

    Ten monoclonal antibodies developed against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites at four institutions were evaluated for use in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Four of the antibodies were eliminated because of their low sensitivity or requirement for high concentrations of capture antibody, while an additional four were rejected because they exhibited cross-reactivity with P. berghei sporozoites. Of the two remaining monoclonal antibodies, that designated 2A10 had the highest sensitivity, a requirement for lower concentrations of capture antibody, and had been tested successfully against sporozoites from a wider range of geographical areas than the others. Use of this monoclonal antibody in a standardized ELISA method gave a test ten times more sensitive than previously reported for P. falciparum sporozoites and its detection limit was less than 100 sporozoites per mosquito. PMID:3555879

  19. Demonstration of a surface antigen of Clostridium tyrobutyricum by use of immunoblotting with a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Gueguen, F; Robreau, G; Talbot, F; Malcoste, R

    1990-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody, prepared against whole cells of Clostridium tyrobutyricum, recognized a surface antigen extracted by heat treatment or by hot phenol-water treatment. This antigen, after analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting, has been shown to present a regularly-spaced ladder pattern similar to those shown by the lipopolysaccharide of many gram-negative bacteria. The proteinase K has been shown to have no effect on the recognition of this epitope by the monoclonal antibody. On the contrary, the inhibition of the antigen reactivity to the monoclonal antibody after a mild periodate oxidation suggests the involvement of a carbohydrate moiety in the epitope. Moreover, the SDS-PAGE analysis of phenol-water extracts has shown an additional compound, detected by silver staining but not recognized by the monoclonal antibody.

  20. Quality control of murine monoclonal antibodies using isoelectric focusing affinity immunoblot analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Robert G.; Rodkey, L. Scott; Reimer, Charles B.

    1987-01-01

    The quality control of murine hybridoma secretory products has been performed using two approaches for isoelectric focusing affinity immunoblot analysis: (1) a method in which antigen-coated nitrocellulose is placed on top of an acrylamide gel containing isoelectrically focused ascites to bind the antigen specific monoclonal antibody; and (2) a method in which focused ascite proteins were passively blotted onto nitrocellulose and specific monoclonal antibodies were detected with enzyme-conjugated antigen. Analysis by both methods of batches of ascites containing antihuman IgG antibodies that were produced by six hybridomas permitted effective monitoring of immunoreactive antibodies for pI microheterogeneity.

  1. Syngeneic anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies to an anti-NeuGc-containing ganglioside monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, A M; Pérez, A; Hernández, A M; Macías, A; Alfonso, M; Bombino, G; Pérez, R

    1998-12-01

    An IgM monoclonal antibody (MAb), named P3, has the characteristic to react specifically with a broad battery of N-glycolyl containing-gangliosides and with antigens expressed on breast tumors. When this MAb was administered alone in syngeneic mice, an specific IgG anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab2) response was induced, this Ab2 response was increased when P3 MAb was injected coupled to a carrier protein and in the presence of Freund's adjuvant. Spleen cells from these mice were used in somatic-cell hybridization experiments, using the murine myeloma cell line P3-X63-Ag8.653 as fusion partner. Five Ab2 MAbs specific to P3 MAb were selected. These IgG1 Ab2 MAbs were able to block the binding of P3 MAb to GM3(NeuGc) ganglioside and to a human breast carcinoma cell line. Cross-blocking experiments demonstrated that these Ab2 MAbs are recognizing the same or very close sites on the Abl MAb. The five Ab2 MAbs were injected into syngeneic mice and four of them produced strong anti-anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab3) response. While these Ab2 MAbs were unable to generate Ab3 antibodies with the same antigenic specificity than P3 MAb, three of them induced antibodies bearing P3 MAb idiotopes (Ag-Id+ Ab3). These results demonstrated that these Ab2 MAbs are not "internal image" antibodies, but they could define "regulatory idiotopes."

  2. Cation-exchange chromatography of monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Urmann, Marina; Graalfs, Heiner; Joehnck, Matthias; Jacob, Lothar R

    2010-01-01

    A novel cation-exchange resin, Eshmuno™ S, was compared to Fractogel® SO3− (M) and Toyopearl GigaCap S-650M. The stationary phases have different base matrices and carry specific types of polymeric surface modifications. Three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were used as model proteins to characterize these chromatographic resins. Results from gradient elutions, stirred batch adsorptions and confocal laser scanning microscopic investigations were used to elucidate binding behavior of mAbs onto Eshmuno™ S and Fractogel® SO3− and the corresponding transport mechanisms on these two resins. The number of charges involved in mAb binding for Eshmuno™ S is lower than for Fractogel® SO3−, indicating a slightly weaker electrostatic interaction. Kinetics from batch uptake experiments are compared to kinetic data obtained from confocal laser scanning microscopy images. Both experimental approaches show an accelerated protein adsorption for the novel stationary phase. The influence of pH, salt concentrations and residence times on dynamic binding capacities was determined. A higher dynamic binding capacity for Eshmuno™ S over a wider range of pH values and residence times was found compared to Fractogel® SO3− and Toyopearl GigaCap S-650M. The capture of antibodies from cell culture supernatant, as well as post-protein A eluates, were analyzed with respect to their host cell protein (hcp) removal capabilities. Comparable or even better hcp clearance was observed at much higher protein loading for Eshmuno™ S than Fractogel® SO3− or Toyopearl GigaCap S-650M. PMID:20559022

  3. Detection of pulmonary embolism with 99mTc-labeled F(ab)2 fragment of anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shundong; Fang, Wei; Zhu, Mingqing; Bai, Xia; Wang, Chen; Ruan, Changgeng

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a common and potentially life-threatening condition, and its correct diagnosis is highly desirable before anticoagulant therapy is initiated. However, the safe and accurate diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism remains a challenge. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a highly sensitive scintigraphic imaging technique. Pulmonary embolism can be detected by SPECT with (99m)Tc-labeled imaging agents that bind to components present predominantly on thromboemboli. P-selectin is an adhesion glycoprotein that is expressed in platelets and endothelial cells. P-selectin on activated platelets is a suitable biomarker of the active thrombus process. The objective of this study was to evaluate (99m)Tc-labeled F(ab)(2) fragment of anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody SZ51, (99m)Tc-SZ51-F(ab)(2), for imaging pulmonary embolism in beagle canines. SZ51 was digested to F(ab)(2) fragment, named SZ51-F(ab)(2), and its specific binding to P-selectin on either human or canine platelets was verified by flow cytometry assay. In each dog, an 18-gauge catheter was inserted into left or right pulmonary artery, and a two-stranded spiral stainless-steel coil (20 mm) was inserted through catheter. At 30 min after coil placement, X-ray angiography was performed to document the pulmonary embolism and the locations of the coil. After intravenous injection of (99m)Tc-SZ51-F(ab)(2), experimental thrombi in dogs could be consistently visualized for 2-3 hours by SPECT. Pulmonary embolism showed higher uptake of (99m)Tc-SZ51-F(ab)(2). The present study suggests that (99m)Tc-SZ51-F(ab)(2) may be a promising agent for detecting pulmonary embolism.

  4. Immunoscintigraphic detection of venous thrombosis of the lower extremities by means of human antifibrin monoclonal antibodies labeled with sup 111 In

    SciTech Connect

    Lusiani, L.; Zanco, P.; Visona, A.; Breggion, G.; Pagnan, A.; Ferlin, G. )

    1989-07-01

    A new monoclonal antibody specific for the beta-chain of human fibrin (C22A) and labeled with 111In has been obtained and successfully used in rabbits and dogs for the in vivo detection of venous thrombosis. Studies in humans are currently ongoing. In order to assess the diagnostic value of 111In-antifibrin for the detection of venous thrombosis of the lower extremities, the authors investigated 25 consecutive patients. Ten patients had clinical and instrumental (contrast phlebography and duplex scanning) evidence of acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT), 3 had a long-standing DVT with relapsing episodes of swelling and pain, 5 had superficial venous thrombosis, and the remaining 7 had no signs of thrombosis at all. Twenty patients were being treated with heparin. All patients received 111In-antifibrin at the dose of 74 MBq IV and were scanned with a large field of view gamma camera coupled with a high-energy, parallel-hole collimator at 30 minutes and three, six, and twenty-four hours postinjection. Only the persistence of an abnormal uptake at twenty-four hours confirmed by two observers at visual inspection was considered as positive. A positive result was obtained in 9 of 10 DVT patients (90% sensitivity) and in all SVT patients. The single DVT patient with a negative 111In-antifibrin test had the longest interval between scintigraphy and onset of symptoms (fifty-five days). Thus, the age of thrombi represented a substantial limitation for the test. A false-positive result was obtained in a single SVT patient, in whom also a deep involvement, unconfirmed by phlebography, was suspected (91.6% specificity).

  5. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against duck Tembusu virus E protein: an antigen-capture ELISA for the detection of Tembusu virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaofei; Shaozhou, Wulin; Zhang, Qingshan; Li, Chenxi; Qiu, Na; Meng, Runzhe; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yun

    2015-03-01

    The E protein of flaviviruses is the primary antigen that induces protective immunity, but a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the E protein of duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) has never been characterized. Six hybridoma cell lines secreting DTMUV anti-E mAbs were prepared and designated 2A5, 1F3, 1G2, 1B11, 3B6, and 4F9, respectively. An immunofluorescence assay indicated that the mAbs could specifically bind to duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells infected with DTMUV and that the E protein was distributed in the cytoplasm of the infected cells. Immunoglobulin isotyping differentiated the mAbs as IgG1 (1G2, 1B11, 4F9, 1F3, and 2A5) and IgG2b (3B6). The mAbs were used to identify three epitopes, A (2A5, 1F3, and 1G2), B (1B11 and 4F9), and C (3B6) on the E protein on the basis of a competitive binding assay. By using mAbs 1F3 and 3B6, we developed an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) to detect E antigen from clinical samples. The AC-ELISA did not react with other known pathogens, indicating that the mAbs are specific for DTMUV. Compared to RT-PCR, the specificity and sensitivity of the AC-ELISA was 94.1 % and 98.0 %, respectively. This AC-ELISA thus represents a sensitive and rapid method for detecting DTMUV infection in birds.

  6. Monoclonal antibodies against plant cell wall polysaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.G.; Bucheli, E.; Darvill, A.; Albersheim, P. )

    1989-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) are useful tools to probe the structure of plant cell wall polysaccharides and to localize these polysaccharides in plant cells and tissues. Murine McAbs were generated against the pectic polysaccharide, rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I), isolated from suspension-cultured sycamore cells. The McAbs that were obtained were grouped into three classes based upon their reactivities with a variety of plant polysaccharides and membrane glycoproteins. Eleven McAbs (Class I) recognize epitope(s) that appear to be immunodominant and are found in RG-I from sycamore and maize, citrus pectin, polygalacturonic acid, and membrane glycoproteins from suspension-cultured cells of sycamore, maize, tobacco, parsley, and soybean. A second group of five McAbs (Class II) recognize epitope(s) present in sycamore RG-I, but do not bind to any of the other polysaccharides or glycoproteins recognized by Class I. Lastly, one McAb (Class III) reacts with sycamore RG-I, sycamore and tamarind xyloglucan, and sycamore and rice glucuronoarabinoxylan, but does not bind to maize RG-I, polygalacturonic acid or the plant membrane glycoproteins recognized by Class I. McAbs in Classes II and III are likely to be useful in studies of the structure, biosynthesis and localization of plant cell wall polysaccharides.

  7. Monoclonal Antibodies Identify Novel Neural Antigens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkes, Richard; Niday, Evelyn; Matus, Andrew

    1982-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) were raised against synaptic plasma membranes from rat cerebellum. The hybridomas were screened with a solid-phase immunoassay, the positive lines were characterized by their immunoperoxidase staining pattern on cerebellum, and the specific polypeptide antigens were identified on protein blots. Among the Mabs described are some that stain only neurons or only glia and others that react with specific parts of cells, such as axons, dendrites, and synapses. Many Mabs reveal novel relationships between antigens and the cells in which they occur. For example, a Mab designated 7D5 reacts with a family of > 30 proteins but stains only glial cells. Several Mabs stain punctate sites of synaptic size and distribution in the cerebellar cortex but each reacts with a different subset of polypeptides. One of the most restricted cytological staining patterns is given by 12D5, which stains punctate sites in the granular layer of the cerebellar cortex and reacts with a single polypeptide band of apparent Mr 270,000. These results illustrate the feasibility of raising Mabs that can be used to follow the expression of specific gene products during brain development.

  8. Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Tumor Growth | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Nanobiology Program, Protein Interaction Group is seeking parties to license or co-develop, evaluate, or commercialize monoclonal antibodies against the insulin-like growth factor for the treatment of cancer.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES AGAINST FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) VITELLOGENIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have obtained a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against fathead minnow vitellogenin (Vtg) for use in sensitive ELISAs to quantify the response of exposure in vivo to estrogen or estrogen mimics.

  10. The application of monoclonal antibodies in cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemei; Soori, Gamini; Dobleman, Thomas J; Xiao, Gary G

    2014-01-01

    Cancer becomes the second leading cause of death in the world. An effective strategy for early diagnosis of the disease is key to reduce the mortality and morbidity. Development of effective monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based assays or diagnostic imaging techniques for detection of antigens and small molecules that are released from cancerous cells will enhance modern diagnostic medicine of cancer significantly. Although mAb technology is still under development, recent advances in preparation of recombinant antigen and antibody engineering techniques have dramatically enhanced the applications of this technology in cancer diagnosis. Compared with other methods, mAb-based assays may provide spatial, temporal, accurate and quantitative measurement for diagnosis of the disease. This review summarizes the progress of the mAb-based assays in the field of molecular diagnosis of cancer.

  11. The generation of monoclonal antibodies and their use in rapid diagnostic tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibodies are the most important component of an immunoassay. In these proceedings we outline novel methods used to generate and select monoclonal antibodies that meet performance criteria for use in rapid lateral flow and microfluidic immunoassay tests for the detection of agricultural pathogens ...

  12. Specific immunofluorescent staining of pathogenic treponemes with a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, F; Hunter, E F; George, R W; Pope, V; Larsen, S A

    1992-01-01

    Two hybrid cell lines which produced mouse monoclonal antibody to the DAL-1 street strain of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum were established. These monoclonal antibodies strongly reacted with T. pallidum subsp. pallidum (Nichols strain, DAL-1, and two other street strains, strains MN-1 and MN-3) and T. pallidum subsp. pertenue by indirect microimmunofluorescent antibody and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques, but they did not react with normal rabbit testicular tissue. These monoclonal antibodies did not react with nonpathogenic treponemes, such as T. phagedenis Reiter, T. denticola MRB, T. refringens Noguchi, or other spirochetes, such as Borrelia burgdorferi and Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona in microimmunofluorescent antibody smear slides or in Western blots (immunoblots). While unlabeled antibodies are useful for investigating the antigenic structures of T. pallidum, we labeled these monoclonal antibodies with fluorescein isothiocyanate and used them for diagnosing syphilis by direct staining of lesion exudate or T. pallidum subsp. pallidum in formalin-fixed tissues from patients suspected of having syphilis. Both monoclonal antibodies were directed against antigens of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum with a molecular weight of 37,000 as determined by the Western blotting technique. Images PMID:1374079

  13. Production and immunoanalytical application of 32 monoclonal antibodies against metacestode somatic antigens of Echinococcus multilocularis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Lu, Rui; Liu, Qiao-Feng; Chen, Jian-Ping; Deng, Qiang; Zhang, Ya-Lou; Zhang, Bing-Hua; Xu, Jia-Nan; Sun, Lei; Niu, Qin-Wang; Liang, Quan-Zeng

    2010-06-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis is a rare but potentially fatal disease. Immunodiagnosis based on antibodies or antigens plays an important role in its diagnosis. In this study, metacestode somatic antigens of Echinococcus multilocularis were used to immunize BALB/c mice, and hybridomas were formed by cell fusion. Making use of the inherent effect of monoclonal antibody techniques to isolate different epitopes, we obtained a repertoire of 32 monoclonal antibodies against the metacestode somatic antigens. These monoclonal antibodies were used to investigate the specificity and localization of the metacestode antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Nine antibodies specifically reacted with E. multilocularis, while 14 and ten cross-reacted with Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia saginata, respectively. Twenty-five antibodies stained the laminated layer. Eight reacted with the tegument of the protoscolex. Fourteen antibodies recognized the germinal layer. Most of the monoclonal antibodies can react with the antigen Em2. One antibody can react with antigen Em2 and Em10. One antibody that cross-reacted with T. saginata stained the germinal layer and protoscolex, especially its hooklets and suckers, but could not react with Em2 and Em10 antigens. It detected protein bands at 26 and 52 kDa. Two E. multilocularis-specific monoclonal antibodies stained both the germinal and laminated layers and could be used not only to purify specific antigens but also for immunohistochemical studies of E. multilocularis. In summary, these 32 monoclonal antibodies could have potential applications as useful tools in further studies of E. multilocularis antigen profiles.

  14. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of isomiroestrol, an identical marker, in White Kwao Krua using a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Kitisripanya, Tharita; Jutathis, Kamonthip; Inyai, Chadathorn; Komaikul, Jukrapun; Udomsin, Orapin; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Putalun, Waraporn

    2017-04-15

    Pueraria candollei var. mirifica or White Kwao Krua (WKK) is a phytoestrogen-rich plant widely used among women to improve climacteric symptoms. Additionally, the tuberous roots of this plant have been added as an active ingredient for skin rejuvenation and breast enlargement effects in various functional foods. However, most of the products on the market containing WKK have not been sufficiently standardized with respect to the active compound or identical marker. To control the quality of these plant materials, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using anti-isomiroestrol antibodies was established for the determination of isomiroestrol, an identical marker in WKK. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against isomiroestrol were generated and their specificity characterized in this study. Monoclonal antibody 12C1 showed higher specificity to isomiroestrol and was thus selected to develop the ELISA. Based on the validation analysis and the tested performance of the developed ELISA in variably sourced WKK samples, the assay can provide an alternative approach that is reliable and highly sensitive for the quantitative analysis of isomiroestrol in plant.

  15. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural detection of advanced glycation end products in atherosclerotic lesions of human aorta with a novel specific monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Kume, S.; Takeya, M.; Mori, T.; Araki, N.; Suzuki, H.; Horiuchi, S.; Kodama, T.; Miyauchi, Y.; Takahashi, K.

    1995-01-01

    To elucidate the deposition of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in aortic atherosclerosis, aortic walls were obtained from 25 autopsy cases and examined immunohistochemically and immunoelectron microscopically with a monoclonal antibody specific for AGEs, 6D12. Among the autopsy cases, atherosclerotic lesions were found in the aortas of 22 cases and were composed of diffuse intimal thickening, fatty streaks, atherosclerotic plaques, and/or complicated lesions. In these cases, intracellular AGE accumulation was demonstrated in the intimal lesions of aortic atherosclerosis in 12 cases. Compared with the diffuse intimal thickening, intracellular AGE accumulation was marked in the fatty streaks and atherosclerotic plaques. Immunohistochemical double staining with 6D12 and monoclonal antibodies for macrophages or muscle actin or a polyclonal antibody for scavenger receptors demonstrated that the AGE accumulation in macrophages or their related foam cells was marked in the diffuse intimal thickening and fatty streak lesions and that almost all macrophages and macrophage-derived foam cells possessed scavenger receptors. Immunoelectron microscopic observation revealed the localization of 6D12-positive reaction in lysosomal lipid vacuoles or electron-dense granules of the foam cells. These results indicate that AGE accumulation occurs in macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and their related foam cells. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 PMID:7545874

  16. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody against infective larvae of Brugia malayi.

    PubMed Central

    Parab, P B; Rajasekariah, G R; Chandrashekar, R; Alkan, S S; Braun, D G; Subrahmanyam, D

    1988-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were produced following immunization of mice with live infective larvae of Brugia malayi. One of these, 46.08.76, is an antibody that promotes adherence of mouse peritoneal macrophages and human peripheral blood leucocytes to the infective larvae of B. malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti, respectively, and kills them. Fresh normal serum, as a source of complement, augments this effect. The same monoclonal antibody conferred 89% protection to jirds (Meriones unguiculatus) against challenge infection of B. malayi stage-three larvae. This monoclonal antibody recognizes antigens of 80,000, 67,000, 52,000 and 36,000 MW proteins present among the antigens of larvae, as detected by an immunoblotting technique. The antibody also reacts with antigens of infective larvae of Litomosoides carinii, Dipetalonema viteae and B. pahangi, but to a smaller extent. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3384450

  17. Characterization and utilization of a monoclonal antibody against pancreatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtzman, S.H.; Sindelar, W.F.; Atcher, R.W.; Mitchell, J.B.; DeGraff, W.G.; Gamson, J.; Russo, A.; Friedman, A.M.; Hines, J.J.

    1994-10-01

    A monoclonal antibody was produced against a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma line and was found to react with several different human carcinomas by immunoperoxidase staining of fixed tissues. The original cells used to generate the monoclonal antibody were treated with detergent to lyse the cell membrane. A membrane associated protein of molecular weight 35kD was isolated from this detergent lysed preparation and found to be recognized by the monoclonal antibody. The binding constant of the antigen antibody reaction on the cells is 5 x 10{sup {minus}5}. It was further determined that there are 700,000 binding sites per cell. Kinetics of the antigen-antibody reaction under several conditions were also explored.

  18. Immunohistochemical detection of human natural killer cell like immunoreactivity in human pituitary adenomas, using monoclonal antibody NK-1.

    PubMed

    Sanno, N; Itoh, J; Teramoto, A; Itoh, Y; Hori, S; Osamura, R Y

    1997-10-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are specialized lymphocytes which are characterized as non-T and non-B cells, as they lack classic T and B cell surface markers. Recently, NK like immunoreactivity has been identified in endocrine and neuronal tissues as well as in the tumors derived from the neuroectoderm and neuroendocrine system. We examined the expression of NK-1 like immunoreactivity in 6 normal pituitary glands and in 55 cases of neoplastic pituitaries (16 growth hormone (GH) producing adenomas, 14 prolactin (PRL) producing adenomas, 4 thyrotropin (TSH) producing adenomas, 5 adrenocortocitropin (ACTH) producing adenomas and 16 non-functioning adenomas) immunohistochemically. The expression of the S-100 protein, which is a marker for folliclo-stellate (FS) cells, which have been reported to secrete cytokines as immuno-endocrine modulators, were also examined. In normal pituitary glands, NK-1 was detected in all 6 tissues in the cytoplasm of about 5-10% of the anterior pituitary cells. By serial sectioning and double immunostaining, NK-1 immunopositivity was frequently found to be localized in ACTH cells. The colocalization with other anterior pituitary hormones such as GH. PRL, the beta-subunit of luteinizing hormone (LH beta), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH beta). TSH beta and alpha-subunit of glycoprotein (alpha SU) was not observed. The S-100 immunopositive FS cells, which were scattered among hormone producing cells, were closely associated with NK-1 immunoreactive cells in the normal pituitaries. Among the 55 cases of pituitary adenomas, NK-1 was present in all the types of pituitary tumors, and a total of 33 (60.0%) contained NK-1 positive tumor cells. The frequency of NK-1 immunoreactivity in the individual adenoma types was; 14 of 16 GH producing adenomas (87.5%), 7 of 14 PRL producing adenomas (50%). 3 of 4 TSH producing adenomas (75%), 3 of 5 ACTH producing adenomas (60%), and 5 of 16 nonfunctioning adenomas (31.3%). By double immunostaining, NK-1 was

  19. Establishment of a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for specific detection of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ab toxin utilizing a monoclonal antibody produced with a novel hapten designed with molecular model.

    PubMed

    Dong, Sa; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Cunzheng; Xie, Yajing; Zhong, Jianfeng; Xu, Chongxin; Liu, Xianjin

    2017-03-01

    Cry1Ab toxin is commonly expressed in genetically modified crops in order to control chewing pests. At present, the detection method with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on monoclonal antibody cannot specifically detect Cry1Ab toxin for Cry1Ab's amino acid sequence and spatial structure are highly similar to Cry1Ac toxin. In this study, based on molecular design, a novel hapten polypeptide was synthesized and conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Then, through animal immunization with this antigen, a monoclonal antibody named 2C12, showing high affinity to Cry1Ab and having no cross reaction with Cry1Ac, was produced. The equilibrium dissociation constant (K D) value of Cry1Ab toxin with MAb 2C12 was 1.947 × 10(-8) M. Based on this specific monoclonal antibody, a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) was developed for the specific determination of Cry1Ab toxin and the LOD and LOQ values were determined as 0.47 ± 0.11 and 2.43 ± 0.19 ng mL(-1), respectively. The average recoveries of Cry1Ab from spiked rice leaf and rice flour samples ranged from 75 to 115%, with coefficient of variation (CV) less than 8.6% within the quantitation range (2.5-100 ng mL(-1)), showing good accuracy for the quantitative detection of Cry1Ab toxin in agricultural samples. In conclusion, this study provides a new approach for the production of high specific antibody and the newly developed DAS-ELISA is a useful method for Cry1Ab monitoring in agriculture products. Graphical Abstract Establishment of a DAS-ELISA for the specific detecting of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ab toxin.

  20. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) might contaminate murine monoclonal antibodies after purification on protein G.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Jörg A; Fettke, Joerg; Lenz, Christine; Albers, Katharina; Mallwitz, Frank; Gajovic-Eichelmann, Nenad; Ehrentreich-Förster, Eva; Kusch, Emely; Sellrie, Frank

    2012-03-31

    The large scale production of a monoclonal anti-progesterone antibody in serum free medium followed by affinity chromatography on protein G lead to a contamination of the antibody sample with a protein of about 14 kDa. This protein was identified by mass spectrometry as secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI). This SLPI contamination lead to a failure of the fiber-optic based competitive fluorescence assay to detect progesterone in milk. Purification of the monoclonal antibody using protein A columns circumvented this problem.

  1. Centrosome detection in sea urchin eggs with a monoclonal antibody against Drosophila intermediate filament proteins: characterization of stages of the division cycle of centrosomes.

    PubMed

    Schatten, H; Walter, M; Mazia, D; Biessmann, H; Paweletz, N; Coffe, G; Schatten, G

    1987-12-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody generated against Drosophila intermediate filament proteins (designated Ah6/5/9 and referred to herein as Ah6) is found to cross-react specifically with centrosomes in sea urchin eggs and with a 68-kDa antigen in eggs and isolated mitotic apparatus. When preparations stained with Ah6 are counterstained with a human autoimmune serum whose anti-centrosome activity has been established, the immunofluorescence images superimpose exactly. A more severe test of the specificity of the antibody demands that it display all of the stages of the centrosome cycle in the cell cycle: the flattening and spreading of the compact centrosomes followed by their division and the establishment of two compact poles. The test was made by an experimental design that uses a period of exposure of the eggs to 2-mercaptoethanol. This treatment allows observation of the stages of the centrosome cycle--separation, division, and bipolarization--while the chromosomes are arrested in metaphase. Mitosis is arrested in the presence of 0.1 M 2-mercaptoethanol. Chromosomes remain in a metaphase configuration while the centrosomes divide, producing four poles perpendicular to the original spindle axis. Microtubules are still present in the mitotic apparatus, as indicated by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. When 2-mercaptoethanol is removed, the chromosomes reorient to the poles of a tetrapolar (sometimes tripolar) mitotic apparatus. During the following cycle, the blastomeres form a monopolar mitotic apparatus. The observations of the centrosome cycle with the Ah6 antibody display very clearly all the stages that have been seen or deduced from work with other probes. The 68-kDa antigen that reacts with the Ah6 monoclonal antibody to Drosophila intermediate filament proteins must be a constant component of sea urchin centrosomes because it is present at all stages of the centrosome cycle.

  2. Structural Basis for Broad Detection of Genogroup II Noroviruses by a Monoclonal Antibody That Binds to a Site Occluded in the Viral Particle

    SciTech Connect

    Hansmana, Grant S.; Taylor, David W.; Smith, Thomas J.; McLellan, Jason S.; Georgiev, Ivelin; Tame, Jeremy R.H.; Park, Sam-Yong; Yamazaki, Makoto; Gondaira, Fumio; Miki, Motohiro; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Murata, Kazuyoshi; Kwong, Peter D.

    2012-03-13

    Human noroviruses are genetically and antigenically highly divergent. Monoclonal antibodies raised in mice against one kind of norovirus virus-like particle (VLP), however, were found to have broad recognition. In this study, we present the crystal structure of the antigen-binding fragment (Fab) for one of these broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies, 5B18, in complex with the capsid-protruding domain from a genogroup II genotype 10 (GII.10) norovirus at 3.3-{angstrom} resolution and, also, the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the GII.10 VLP at {approx}10-{angstrom} resolution. The GII.10 VLP structure was more similar in overall architecture to the GV.1 murine norovirus virion than to the prototype GI.1 human norovirus VLP, with the GII.10 protruding domain raised {approx}15 {angstrom} off the shell domain and rotated {approx}40{sup o} relative to the GI.1 protruding domain. In the crystal structure, the 5B18 Fab bound to a highly conserved region of the protruding domain. Based on the VLP structure, this region is involved in interactions with other regions of the capsid and is buried in the virus particle. Despite the occluded nature of the recognized epitope in the VLP structure, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) binding suggested that the 5B18 antibody was able to capture intact VLPs. Together, the results provide evidence that the norovirus particle is capable of extreme conformational flexibility, which may allow for antibody recognition of conserved surfaces that would otherwise be buried on intact particles.

  3. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against FABP4.

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, Olena; Filonenko, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan

    2006-04-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is a key mediator of intracellular transport and metabolism of fatty acids in adipose tissues. FABP4 binds fatty acids with high affinity and transports them to various compartments in the cell. When in complex with fatty acids, FABP4 interacts with and modulates the activity of two important regulators of metabolism: hormone-sensitive lipase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Genetic studies in mice clearly indicated that deregulation of FABP4 function may lead to the development of severe diseases such as diabetes II type and atherosclerosis. In this study, we report the production and detailed characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against FABP4. Recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST)-FABP4 or His-FABP4 was expressed in bacteria, affinity purified, and used for immunization of mice, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening, and characterization of selected clones. We have isolated two hybridoma clones that produced antibodies specific for recombinant and native FABP4, as shown by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation. The specificity of generated antibodies was further tested in a cell-based model of adipogenesis. In this analysis, the accumulation of FABP4 during NIH 3T3-L1 differentiation into adipocytes was detected by generated antibodies, which correlates well with previously published data. Taken together, we produced MAbs that will be useful for the scientific community working on fatty acid-binding proteins and lipid metabolism.

  4. Palladium-109 labeled anti-melanoma monoclonal antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Ferrone, S.

    1984-04-30

    The invention consists of new monoclonal antibodies labelled with Palladium 109, a beta-emitting radionuclide, the method of preparing this material, and its use in the radiotherapy of melanoma. The antibodies are chelate-conjugated and demonstrate a high uptake in melanomas. (ACR)

  5. Complete De Novo Assembly of Monoclonal Antibody Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Ngoc Hieu; Rahman, M. Ziaur; He, Lin; Xin, Lei; Shan, Baozhen; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    De novo protein sequencing is one of the key problems in mass spectrometry-based proteomics, especially for novel proteins such as monoclonal antibodies for which genome information is often limited or not available. However, due to limitations in peptides fragmentation and coverage, as well as ambiguities in spectra interpretation, complete de novo assembly of unknown protein sequences still remains challenging. To address this problem, we propose an integrated system, ALPS, which for the first time can automatically assemble full-length monoclonal antibody sequences. Our system integrates de novo sequencing peptides, their quality scores and error-correction information from databases into a weighted de Bruijn graph to assemble protein sequences. We evaluated ALPS performance on two antibody data sets, each including a heavy chain and a light chain. The results show that ALPS was able to assemble three complete monoclonal antibody sequences of length 216–441 AA, at 100% coverage, and 96.64–100% accuracy. PMID:27562653

  6. Immunoblotting with monoclonal antibodies: importance of the blocking solution.

    PubMed

    Hauri, H P; Bucher, K

    1986-12-01

    Four commonly used blocking agents, i.e., fetal calf serum, mammalian gelatin-Nonidet-P40, fish gelatin-Nonidet-P40, and defatted powdered milk were compared with respect to their efficiency to block the nonspecific background and to promote maximal immunoreactivity of monoclonal antibodies against human intestinal sucrase-isomaltase during immunoblotting. Two of five monoclonal antibodies were found to react with the electroblotted enzyme. However, one of the reacting antibodies gave optimal results with fish gelatin-Nonidet-P40 and the other with defatted powdered milk, while fetal calf serum lead to unacceptably high backgrounds. The results suggest that some of the difficulties encountered with monoclonal antibodies in immunoblotting may be due to inappropriate blocking conditions.

  7. Evaluation of Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry for Comparative Analysis of Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Carly N; Gucinski-Ruth, Ashley C

    2016-05-01

    Analytical techniques capable of detecting changes in structure are necessary to monitor the quality of monoclonal antibody drug products. Ion mobility mass spectrometry offers an advanced mode of characterization of protein higher order structure. In this work, we evaluated the reproducibility of ion mobility mass spectrometry measurements and mobiligrams, as well as the suitability of this approach to differentiate between and/or characterize different monoclonal antibody drug products. Four mobiligram-derived metrics were identified to be reproducible across a multi-day window of analysis. These metrics were further applied to comparative studies of monoclonal antibody drug products representing different IgG subclasses, manufacturers, and lots. These comparisons resulted in some differences, based on the four metrics derived from ion mobility mass spectrometry mobiligrams. The use of collision-induced unfolding resulted in more observed differences. Use of summed charge state datasets and the analysis of metrics beyond drift time allowed for a more comprehensive comparative study between different monoclonal antibody drug products. Ion mobility mass spectrometry enabled detection of differences between monoclonal antibodies with the same target protein but different production techniques, as well as products with different targets. These differences were not always detectable by traditional collision cross section studies. Ion mobility mass spectrometry, and the added separation capability of collision-induced unfolding, was highly reproducible and remains a promising technique for advanced analytical characterization of protein therapeutics. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  8. Evaluation of Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry for Comparative Analysis of Monoclonal Antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Carly N.; Gucinski-Ruth, Ashley C.

    2016-05-01

    Analytical techniques capable of detecting changes in structure are necessary to monitor the quality of monoclonal antibody drug products. Ion mobility mass spectrometry offers an advanced mode of characterization of protein higher order structure. In this work, we evaluated the reproducibility of ion mobility mass spectrometry measurements and mobiligrams, as well as the suitability of this approach to differentiate between and/or characterize different monoclonal antibody drug products. Four mobiligram-derived metrics were identified to be reproducible across a multi-day window of analysis. These metrics were further applied to comparative studies of monoclonal antibody drug products representing different IgG subclasses, manufacturers, and lots. These comparisons resulted in some differences, based on the four metrics derived from ion mobility mass spectrometry mobiligrams. The use of collision-induced unfolding resulted in more observed differences. Use of summed charge state datasets and the analysis of metrics beyond drift time allowed for a more comprehensive comparative study between different monoclonal antibody drug products. Ion mobility mass spectrometry enabled detection of differences between monoclonal antibodies with the same target protein but different production techniques, as well as products with different targets. These differences were not always detectable by traditional collision cross section studies. Ion mobility mass spectrometry, and the added separation capability of collision-induced unfolding, was highly reproducible and remains a promising technique for advanced analytical characterization of protein therapeutics.

  9. Enrichment and purging of human embryonic stem cells by detection of cell surface antigens using the monoclonal antibodies TG30 and GCTM-2.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Juan Carlos; Wang, Bei; Zhou, Qi; Chy, Hun; O'Brien, Carmel; Laslett, Andrew L

    2013-12-06

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can self-renew indefinitely in vitro, and with the appropriate cues can be induced to differentiate into potentially all somatic cell lineages. Differentiated hESC derivatives can potentially be used in transplantation therapies to treat a variety of cell-degenerative diseases. However, hESC differentiation protocols usually yield a mixture of differentiated target and off-target cell types as well as residual undifferentiated cells. For the translation of differentiated hESC-derivatives from the laboratory to the clinic, it is important to be able to discriminate between undifferentiated (pluripotent) and differentiated cells, and generate methods to separate these populations. Safe application of hESC-derived somatic cell types can only be accomplished with pluripotent stem cell-free populations, as residual hESCs could induce tumors known as teratomas following transplantation. Towards this end, here we describe a methodology to detect pluripotency associated cell surface antigens with the monoclonal antibodies TG30 (CD9) and GCTM-2 via fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) for the identification of pluripotent TG30(Hi)-GCTM-2(Hi) hESCs using positive selection. Using negative selection with our TG30/GCTM-2 FACS methodology, we were able to detect and purge undifferentiated hESCs in populations undergoing very early-stage differentiation (TG30(Neg)-GCTM-2(Neg)). In a further study, pluripotent stem cell-free samples of differentiated TG30(Neg)-GCTM-2(Neg) cells selected using our TG30/GCTM-2 FACS protocol did not form teratomas once transplanted into immune-compromised mice, supporting the robustness of our protocol. On the other hand, TG30/GCTM-2 FACS-mediated consecutive passaging of enriched pluripotent TG30(Hi)-GCTM-2(Hi) hESCs did not affect their ability to self-renew in vitro or their intrinsic pluripotency. Therefore, the characteristics of our TG30/GCTM-2 FACS methodology provide a sensitive assay to obtain highly

  10. Coarse grained modeling of transport properties in monoclonal antibody solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, James; Wang, Gang

    Monoclonal antibodies and their derivatives represent the fastest growing segment of the bio pharmaceutical industry. For many applications such as novel cancer therapies, high concentration, sub-cutaneous injections of these protein solutions are desired. However, depending on the peptide sequence within the antibody, such high concentration formulations can be too viscous to inject via human derived force alone. Understanding how heterogenous charge distribution and hydrophobicity within the antibodies leads to high viscosities is crucial to their future application. In this talk, we explore a coarse grained computational model of therapeutically relevant monoclonal antibodies that accounts for electrostatic, dispersion and hydrodynamic interactions between suspended antibodies to predict assembly and transport properties in concentrated antibody solutions. We explain the high viscosities observed in many experimental studies of the same biologics.

  11. [Development and identification of monoclonal antibodies of cape jasmine proteins in Reduning injection].

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Zhou, Jian-Ming; Wang, Hong-Mei; Zhou, Jun; Bi, Yu-An; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2013-05-01

    Liposoluble cape jasmine proteins were used to immunize BALB/C mice. Indirect ELISA was utilized to develop one monoclonal antibody by integrating SP2/0 cells and spleen cells from immunized BALB/C mice. The subclass of the monoclonal antibody was identified as IgG2b, with Kappa chain as its light chain. The ascite titer of 2H8 monoclonal antibody was 1:204 080. Western-blot analysis proved that 2H8 reacted with cape jasmine proteins to identify specific liposoluble protein with molecuar weight of around 58.5 kDa. Dot-ELISA was established with 2H8 ascites as the primary antibody, showing the minimum detectable amount of 19.5 ng. This study lays a foundation for the development of protein kits of Reduning injection.

  12. Monoclonal antibodies provide specific intramolecular markers for the study of epithelial tonofilament organization

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    The tonofilament-associated protein antigens recognized in epithelial cells by a group of six monoclonal antibodies have been studied by immunofluorescence and gel immunoautoradiography. The monoclonal antibodies were generated against detergent insoluble cytoskeleton extracts from a cultured simple epithelium derived cell line, Ptk1 cells. They show various tissue specificities, and while they all recognize components at the low end of the molecular weight range for intermediate filament proteins, they confirm that single antibody species can react with multiple polypeptides of different molecular weights in the tonofilament complex. The monoclonal antibodies described here demonstrate the presence of a simple epithelium antigenic determinant associated with intermediate filaments that is not detectable in the specialized cells of squamous and keratinizing epithelia but can reappear in such cells after transformation. PMID:6177700

  13. New monoclonal antibodies on the horizon in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Elizabeth K.; Raje, Noopur S.

    2016-01-01

    Across all cancers, monoclonal antibodies have emerged as a potential strategy for cancer therapy. Monoclonal antibodies target antigens expressed on the surface of cancer cells and accessory cells. This targeted approach uses the host’s immune system to promote the killing of cancer cells. Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy that remains incurable in the majority of patients. The treatment of MM has evolved dramatically over the past decade and continues to evolve with the approval of four new drugs in 2015. Most recently the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) approved two monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of this disease. Monoclonal antibodies are generally well-tolerated and offer a novel method of action for treated relapsed and refractory disease and are now being studied in the upfront setting. In this article, we review the evidence for the existing approved monoclonal antibodies and discuss promising targeted therapies and innovative strategies for the treatment of MM. PMID:28203341

  14. Breast cancer immunotherapy: monoclonal antibodies and peptide-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Mohit, Elham; Hashemi, Atieh; Allahyari, Mojgan

    2014-07-01

    Recently, immunotherapy has emerged as a treatment strategy in the adjuvant setting of breast cancer. In this review, monoclonal antibodies in passive and peptide-based vaccines, as one of the most commonly studied in active immunotherapy approaches, are discussed. Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu, has demonstrated considerable efficacy. However, resistance to trastuzumab has led to development of many targeted therapies which have been examined in clinical trials. Monoclonal antibodies against immune-checkpoint molecules that are dysregulated by tumors as an immune resistance mechanism are also explained in this review. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies with the ability to target breast cancer stem cells that play a role in cancer recurrence are mentioned. Here, clinical trials of HER-2/neu B and T cells, MUC1 and hTERT cancer peptide vaccines are also presented. In addition, various strategies for enhancing vaccine efficacy including combination with monoclonal antibodies and using different delivery systems for peptide/protein-based vaccine are described.

  15. Immunodiagnosis of human cysticercosis (Taenia solium) with antigens purified by monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, E; Tavares, C A; Lopes, J D

    1987-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were generated from mice immunized with scolex protein antigen of Cysticercus cellulosae. Three monoclonal antibodies specific for cysticercal antigens, which did not show any cross-reactivity with Taenia solium or Taenia saginata antigens, were selected. Each monoclonal antibody coupled to Sepharose could purify one antigen, which appeared as a single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When antigens purified by monoclonal antibodies were used to detect antibody in serum samples taken from patients with cysticercosis, taeniasis, and other parasitic infections in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, cross-reactivity was observed until a serum dilution of 1:128 was reached. Since serum samples from unexposed subjects showed positive reactions until a dilution of 1:64 was reached, we chose a discriminative dilution (1:128) above which no cross-reaction was observed. The percent positive serum samples from cysticercosis patients was 100% by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with any of the antigens purified by monoclonal antibodies. Images PMID:3611310

  16. A Monoclonal Antibody Specific to Surface Antigen on Candida krusei

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Raymond; Faure, Odile; Carloti, Arnaud; Lebeau, Bernadette; Bernard, Christian; Marot-Leblond, Agnès; Grillot, Renée; Senet, Jean-Marcel

    1998-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb; MAb 6B3) which reacts specifically with a cell wall antigen found in all strains or isolates of Candida krusei was developed. MAb 6B3 was extensively tested by immunofluorescence assay for cross-reaction with many Candida, Cryptococcus, Saccharomyces, Trichosporon, and Rhodotorula species and was found to react only with the species C. krusei. The specific epitope is expressed on the surface of fungal cells and appears to reside on a protein moiety. Taking into account the increasing importance of fluconazole-resistant strains in nosocomial fungal infections, the very high degree of specificity of this MAb for C. krusei could be useful for the routine detection of C. krusei in culture or in tissue samples. PMID:9455893

  17. Serological characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diolepoxide-DNA adducts using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Newman, M J; Weston, A; Carver, D C; Mann, D L; Harris, C C

    1990-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of structurally related compounds that are present in the environment in complex mixtures as common pollutants. These compounds have been studied extensively because of their carcinogenic and toxic properties to humans. We reported previously that humans exposed to certain PAHs produce antibodies that bind to different PAH diolepoxide-DNA (PAH-DNA) adducts. The ability to detect and measure antibodies to PAH-DNA adducts in human blood samples could prove useful as a biological dosimeter for identifying persons that have been exposed to high levels of PAHs, i.e. persons who may be at high cancer risk. In our initial studies we found that it was common for persons who were exposed to PAH to produce antibodies against PAH-DNA adducts. However, we were unable to identify the actual chemical types of PAH-DNA adducts that were recognized by the serum antibodies because many serum samples contained antibody activity to more than one adduct. These data indicate that different PAH-DNA adducts may be serologically similar or that humans actually produce immune responses against more than a single PAH-DNA adduct. We have used monoclonal antibody technology to determine the extent to which different PAH-DNA adducts share serologically recognized epitopes. Monoclonal antibodies were produced against two different PAH-DNA adducts, benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide-DNA (BPDE-DNA) and benz[a]anthracene diolepoxide-DNA (BADE-DNA). The binding of these antibodies to five PAH-DNA adduct preparations and to soluble PAHs was assessed. We found that most monoclonal antibodies bound to more than a single type of PAH-DNA adduct, documenting the serological relatedness of different PAH-DNA adducts. However, two monoclonal antibodies were produced that bound only to BPDE-DNA. Soluble non-metabolized PAHs and PAH tetraols were not recognized by these antibodies, thus demonstrating their specificity for PAH-DNA adducts and not the PAHs alone

  18. Detection of two distinct malignant B cell clones in a single patient using anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies and immunoglobulin gene rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Giardina, S L; Schroff, R W; Woodhouse, C S; Golde, D W; Oldham, R K; Cleary, M L; Sklar, J; Pritikin, N; Foon, K A

    1985-11-01

    Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement analysis and somatic cell hybridization techniques were used to examine the malignant cell population in an unusual patient with hairy cell leukemia and macroglobulinemia (N Engl J Med 296:92, 1977). Although previous investigations suggested that the IgM macroglobulin was secreted by the circulating leukemia cells, anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies raised to the IgM macroglobulin failed to react with the malignant cells in the circulation and bone marrow. In contrast, approximately 50% of the mononuclear cells from an enlarged inguinal lymph node reacted strongly with the anti-idiotype antibodies. Subsequent reanalysis of all cell populations demonstrated that whereas the circulating and bone marrow cells were IgM kappa-bearing, the macroglobulin was IgM gamma-bearing and the lymph node cells were evenly divided among IgM kappa-bearing and IgM gamma-bearing. Immunofluorescence flow cytometry indicated that those lymph node cells that reacted strictly with the anti-idiotype antibody were IgM gamma-bearing, demonstrating that they were the source of macroglobulin. An analysis of immunoglobulin gene DNA confirmed the coexistence of two distinct malignant B cell populations in the lymph node and indicated that the IgM kappa-bearing lymph node cells were identical to the circulating and bone marrow leukemic cells.

  19. Monoclonal antibodies specific for African swine fever virus proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, A; García-Barreno, B; Nogal, M L; Viñuela, E; Enjuanes, L

    1985-01-01

    We have obtained 60 stable hybridomas which produced immunoglobulins that recognized 12 proteins from African swine fever virus particles and African swine fever virus-infected cells. Most of the monoclonal antibodies were specific for the three major structural proteins p150, p72, and p12. The specificity of some monoclonal antibodies for the structural proteins p150 and p37 and the nonstructural proteins p220 and p60 indicated that proteins p150 and p220 are antigenically related to proteins p37 and p60. The association of some viral antigens to specific subcellular components was determined by immunofluorescence and analysis of the binding of monoclonal antibodies to infected cells. A host protein (p24) seemed to be associated with the virus particles. Images PMID:3882998

  20. Choriocarcinoma: blocking factor and monoclonal antibody iodine 131 imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pattillo, R.A.; Khazaeli, M.B.; Ruckert, A.C.; Hussa, R.O.; Collier, B.D.; Beierwaltes, W.; Mattingly, R.F.

    1984-04-01

    Postoperative iodine 131 monoclonal antibody localization in metastatic choriocarcinoma was accomplished in this study. The monoclonal antibody was prepared to male choriocarcinoma which cross reacted with gestational choriocarcinoma. The antibody was raised against whole choriocarcinoma cells and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) cross reactivity was excluded. The purified antibody was iodinated with /sup 131/I and successfully imaged BeWo choriocarcinoma transplanted in nude mice; however, imaging of choriocarcinoma in a patient was verified only after resection. It is our belief that failure to sufficiently concentrate the antibody in the tumor before operation was due to blocking factor in the serum of the patient. Blocking factor and hCG dropped postoperatively. Blocking factor activity in 15 patients with metastatic trophoblastic disease was monitored and, like hCG, was found to be a sensitive indicator of the presence of disease. Its efficacy may be in the small number of patients without hCG but with persistent disease.

  1. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to budgerigar fledgling disease virus major capsid protein VP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fattaey, A.; Lenz, L.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Eleven hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against intact budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) virions were produced and characterized. These antibodies were selected for their ability to react with BFD virions in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Each of these antibodies was reactive in the immunofluorescent detection of BFD virus-infected cells. These antibodies immunoprecipitated intact virions and specifically recognized the major capsid protein, VP1, of the dissociated virion. The MAbs were found to preferentially recognize native BFD virus capsid protein when compared with denatured virus protein. These MAbs were capable of detecting BFD virus protein in chicken embryonated cell-culture lysates by dot-blot analysis.

  2. Generation of monoclonal antibody targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor 3.

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, Olena; Ovcharenko, Galyna; Klymenko, Tetyana; Zhyvoloup, Olexandr; Gaman, Nadia; Volkova, Darija; Gout, Ivan; Filonenko, Valeriy

    2009-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is a member of the FGFR family of receptor tyrosine kinases, whose function has been implicated in diverse biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and tumorigenesis. Deregulation of FGFR3 signaling has been implicated with human pathologies, including cancer. Activating mutations in FGFR3 gene are frequently detected in bladder cancer, multiple myeloma, and noninvasive papillary urothelial cell carcinomas, while the overexpression of the receptor is observed in thyroid lymphoma and bladder cancer. The main aim of this study was to generate hybridoma clones producing antibody that could specifically recognize FGFR3/S249C mutant, but not the wild-type FGFR. To achieve this, we used for immunization bacterially expressed fragment of FGFR3 corresponding to loops II-III of the extracellular domain (GST-His/FGFR3/S249C-LII-III), which possesses oncogenic mutation at Ser249 detected in at least 50% of bladder cancers. Primary ELISA screening allowed us to isolate several hybridoma clones that showed specificity towards FGFR3/S249C, but not FGFR3wt protein. Unfortunately, these clones were not stable during single-cell cloning and expansion and lost the ability to recognize specifically FGFR3/S249C. However, this study allowed us to generate several monoclonal antibodies specific towards both FGFR3wt and FGFR3/S249C recombinant proteins. Produced hybridomas secreted MAbs that were specific in Western blotting towards bacterially expressed FGFR3wt and FGFR3/S249C, as well as the full-length receptors ectopically expressed in Sf21 and HEK293 cells. Moreover, transiently expressed wild-type and oncogenic forms of FGFR were efficiently immunoprecipitated with selected antibodies from the lysates of infected Sf21 and transiently transfected HEK293. In summary, generated antibodies should be useful as tools for examining the expression pattern and biological functions of FGFR3 in normal and

  3. The clinical application of monoclonal antibody therapies in renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dhanireddy, Kiran K; Xu, He; Mannon, Roslyn B; Hale, Douglas A; Kirk, Allan D

    2004-05-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have become valuable tools for the precise clinical manipulation of the immune system. These highly specific proteins have proven their usefulness in both the treatment and prevention of organ transplant rejection. Indeed, they are the centrepieces of many evolving regimens designed to reduce or eliminate the need for chronic immunosuppression. This manuscript will review the monoclonal antibodies that have made their way into the clinic either as experimental therapies or approved drugs. It will provide a general overview of this class of agents and their mechanisms of action. Standard therapies and potential new applications will be described.

  4. Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in human breast milk: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ross, Elle; Robinson, Steven E; Amato, Carol; McMillan, Colette; Westcott, Jay; Wolf, Tiffany; Robinson, William A

    2014-04-01

    Recently, therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have been introduced for the treatment of advanced melanoma and other diseases. It remains unclear whether these drugs can be safely administered to women who are breast feeding because of the potential hazardous side effects for nursing infants. One such therapy for metastatic melanoma is ipilimumab, a human monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-antigen-4, and is the preferred treatment for patients with metastatic melanoma when other molecular therapies are not viable. This study measured ipilimumab levels in the breast milk of a patient undergoing treatment that were enough to raise concerns for a nursing infant exposed to ipilimumab.

  5. Human peripheral blood monocytes display surface antigens recognized by monoclonal antinuclear antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Holers, V.M.; Kotzin, B.L.

    1985-09-01

    The authors used monoclonal anti-nuclear autoantibodies and indirect immunofluorescence to examine normal human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes for the presence of cell surface nuclear antigens. Only one monoclonal anti-histone antibody (MH-2) was found to bind to freshly isolated PBL, staining approximately 10% of large cells. However, after cells were placed into culture for 16-24 h, a high percentage (up to 60%) of large-sized cells were recognized by an anti-DNA (BWD-1) and several different antihistone monoclonal antibodies (BWH-1, MH-1, and MH-2). These antibodies recognize separate antigenic determinants on chromatin and histones extracted from chromatin. The histone antigen-positive cells were viable, and the monoclonal antibodies could be shown to be binding to the cell surface and not to the nucleus. Using monoclonal antibodies specific for monocytes and T cells, and complement-mediated cytotoxicity, the cells bearing histone antigens were shown to be primarily monocytes. The appearance of histone and DNA antigen-positive cells was nearly completely inhibited by the addition of low concentrations of cycloheximide at initiation of the cultures. In contrast, little effect on the percentage of positive cells was detected if cells were exposed to high doses of gamma irradiation before culture. These data further support the existence of cell surface nuclear antigens on selected cell subsets, which may provide insight into the immunopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and related autoimmune diseases.

  6. Monoclonal Antibodies for the Diagnosis of Borrelia crocidurae.

    PubMed

    Fotso Fotso, Aurélien; Mediannikov, Oleg; Nappez, Claude; Azza, Saïd; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Relapsing fever borreliae, produced by ectoparasite-borne Borrelia species, cause mild to deadly bacteremia and miscarriage. In the perspective of developing inexpensive assays for the rapid detection of relapsing fever borreliae, we produced 12 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Borrelia crocidurae and characterized the two exhibiting the highest titers. P3A10 MAb reacts with the 35.6-kDa flagellin B (flaB) of B. crocidurae while P6D9 MAb recognizes a 35.1-kDa variable-like protein (Vlp) in B. crocidurae and a 35.2-kDa Vlp in Borrelia duttonii. Indirect immunofluorescence assay incorporating relapsing fever and Lyme group borreliae and 11 blood-borne organisms responsible for fever in West Africa confirmed the reactivity of these two MAbs. Combining these two MAbs in indirect immunofluorescence assays detected relapsing fever borreliae including B. crocidurae in ticks and the blood of febrile Senegalese patients. Both antibodies could be incorporated into inexpensive and stable formats suited for the rapid point-of-care diagnosis of relapsing fever. These first-ever MAbs directed against African relapsing fever borreliae are available for the scientific community to promote research in this neglected field.

  7. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against human apolipoprotein E.

    PubMed Central

    Milne, R W; Douste-Blazy, P; Marcel, Y L; Retegui, L

    1981-01-01

    From a single cell fusion, five stable hybridomas secreting antiapolipoprotein E (apo E) were obtained. The immunoglobulin (Ig)G subclasses containing the respective monoclonal antibodies were isolated and were used as the antibody component in a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. The binding of 125I-apo E to the insolubilized antibody was inhibited by unlabeled apo E but not by unlabeled apoproteins A-I, A-II, C-II, and C-III, or by low density lipoprotein immunodepleted of endogenous apo E. Competition curves were obtained with lipoprotein subfractions that had the same shape as those obtained with purified apo E. Apo E levels in normal and hyperlipidemic plasma were well correlated when measured by the five monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal anti-apo E, although differences in absolute values were observed. In normal subjects 34, 10, 20, and 36% of apo E was recovered in the very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, and the d greater than 1.21-gl/ml fractions, respectively, whereas these values were 34, 7, 12, and 47%, respectively, in type III patients. All antibodies indicated the same subfraction distribution of apo E. The monoclonal antibodies reacted with all of the isomorphs of apo E. One of the antibodies could be clearly distinguished by its reactivity with chemically modified very low density lipoprotein. Images PMID:6788802

  8. Identification of mutant monoclonal antibodies with increased antigen binding.

    PubMed

    Pollock, R R; French, D L; Gefter, M L; Scharff, M D

    1988-04-01

    Sib selection and an ELISA have been used to isolate hybridoma subclones producing mutant antibodies that bind antigen better than the parental monoclonal antibody. Such mutants arise spontaneously in culture at frequencies of 2.5-5 X 10(-5). The sequences of the heavy and light chain variable regions of the mutant antibodies are identical to that of the parent and the Ka values of the mutants and the parent are the same. The increase in binding is associated with abnormalities of the constant region polypeptide and probably reflect changes in avidity of these antibodies.

  9. A monoclonal antibody for distinction of invasive and noninvasive clinical isolates of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Ruiz, A; Haque, R; Rehman, T; Aguirre, A; Jaramillo, C; Castañon, G; Hall, A; Guhl, F; Ruiz-Palacios, G; Warhurst, D C

    1992-01-01

    Approximately 10% of the world population is infected with Entamoeba histolytica, but only 10% of the carriers develop symptomatic amebiasis. This discrepancy could be explained by the genotypic differences between the morphologically indistinguishable invasive and noninvasive strains of E. histolytica currently identified by zymodeme analysis, a technique that is unsuitable for routine diagnostic laboratories. Here we report the production of a monoclonal antibody against E. histolytica and its use in an immunofluorescence assay to identify invasive isolates cultured from stool samples of infected patients in several regions where amebiasis is endemic: Bangladesh, Colombia, and Mexico. After testing a total of 88 E. histolytica isolates, the correlation between zymodeme characterization and the immunofluorescence assay with the invasive isolate-specific monoclonal antibody was 100%. The epitope detected by the invasive isolate-specific monoclonal antibody resides in a previously undescribed internal protein with molecular masses of 84 and 81 kDa in axenic and polyxenic E. histolytica strains, respectively. Images PMID:1452651

  10. Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Soluble Rat Lung Guanylate Cyclase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandwein, Harvey; Lewicki, John; Murad, Ferid

    1981-07-01

    Four monoclonal antibodies to rat lung soluble guanylate cyclase [GTP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing) EC 4.6.1.2] have been produced by fusing spleen cells from immunized BALB/c mice with SP-2/0 myeloma cells. The antibodies were detected by their ability to bind immobilized guanylate cyclase and by immunoprecipitation of purified enzyme in the presence of second (rabbit anti-mouse) antibody. After subcloning by limiting dilution, hybridomas were injected intraperitoneally into mice to produce ascitic fluid containing 2-5 mg of antibody per ml. The four antibodies obtained had titers of between 1:1580 and 1:3160 but were detectable at dilutions greater than 1:20,000. Soluble guanylate cyclase from several rat tissues were crossreactive with the four monoclonal antibodies, suggesting that the soluble enzyme from different rat tissues is antigenically similar. The antibodies also recognized soluble lung enzyme from rat, beef, and pig, while enzyme from rabbit was not crossreactive and mouse enzyme was recognized by only one of the antibodies. Particulate guanylate cyclase from a number of tissues had only minimal crossreactivity with the antibodies. Immunoprecipitated guanylate cyclase retained catalytic activity, could be activated with sodium nitroprusside, and was inhibited by cystamine. None of the antibodies were inhibitory under the conditions examined. These antibodies will be useful probes for the study of guanylate cyclase regulation and function under a variety of physiological conditions.

  11. Prediction and reduction of the aggregation of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    van der Kant, Rob; Karow-Zwick, Anne R; Van Durme, Joost; Blech, Michaela; Gallardo, Rodrigo; Seeliger, Daniel; Aßfalg, Kerstin; Baatsen, Pieter; Compernolle, Griet; Gils, Ann; Studts, Joey M; Schulz, Patrick; Garidel, Patrick; Schymkowitz, Joost; Rousseau, Frederic

    2017-03-17

    Protein aggregation remains a major area of focus in the production of monoclonal antibodies. Improving the intrinsic properties of antibodies can improve manufacturability, attrition rates, safety, formulation, titers, immunogenicity and solubility. Here, we explore the potential of predicting and reducing the aggregation propensity of monoclonal antibodies, based on the identification of aggregation-prone regions (APRs) and their contribution to the thermodynamic stability of the protein. Although APRs are thought to occur in the antigen binding region to drive hydrophobic binding with antigen, we were able to rationally design variants that display a marked decrease in aggregation propensity while retaining antigen binding through the introduction of artificial aggregation gatekeeper residues. The reduction in aggregation propensity was accompanied by an increase in expression titer, showing that reducing protein aggregation is beneficial throughout the development process. The data presented show that this approach can significantly reduce liabilities in novel therapeutic antibodies and proteins, leading to a more efficient path to clinical studies.

  12. Antibody discovery: sourcing of monoclonal antibody variable domains.

    PubMed

    Strohl, William R

    2014-03-01

    Historically, antibody variable domains for therapeutic antibodies have been sourced primarily from the mouse IgG repertoire, and typically either chimerized or humanized. More recently, human antibodies from transgenic mice producing human IgG, phage display libraries, and directly from human B lymphocytes have been used more broadly as sources of antibody variable domains for therapeutic antibodies. Of the total 36 antibodies approved by major maket regulatory agencies, the variable domain sequences of 26 originate from the mouse. Of these, four are marketed as murine antibodies (of which one is a mouse-rat hybrid IgG antibody), six are mouse-human chimeric antibodies, and 16 are humanized. Ten marketed antibodies have originated from human antibody genes, three isolated from phage libraries of human antibody genes and seven from transgenic mice producing human antibodies. Five antibodies currently in clinical trials have been sourced from camelids, as well as two from non-human primates, one from rat, and one from rabbit. Additional sources of antibody variable domains that may soon find their way into the clinic are potential antibodies from sharks and chickens. Finally, the various methods for retrieval of antibodies from humans, mouse and other sources, including various display technologies and amplification directly from B cells, are described.

  13. Production of Monoclonal Antibodies Directed against the Microsporidium Enterocytozoon bieneusi

    PubMed Central

    Accoceberry, Isabelle; Thellier, Marc; Desportes-Livage, Isabelle; Achbarou, Abderrahim; Biligui, Sylvestre; Danis, Martin; Datry, Annick

    1999-01-01

    Several hybridomas producing antibodies detected by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) were established by fusion of mouse myeloma SP2/O with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized against whole spores (protocol 1) or chitinase-treated spores (protocol 2) of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and were cloned twice by limiting dilutions. Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), 3B82H2 from protocol 1, isotyped as immunoglobulin M (IgM), and 6E52D9 from protocol 2, isotyped as IgG, were expanded in both ascites and culture. IFAT with the MAbs showed that both MAbs reacted exclusively with the walls of the spores of E. bieneusi, strongly staining the surface of mature spores, and produced titers of greater than 4,096. Immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the specific reactivities of both antibodies. No cross-reaction, either with the spores of the other intestinal microsporidium species Encephalitozoon intestinalis or with yeast cells, bacteria, or any other intestinal parasites, was observed. The MAbs were used to identify E. bieneusi spores in fecal specimens from patients suspected of having intestinal microsporidiosis. The IFAT was validated against standard staining methods (Chromotrope 2R and Uvitex 2B) and PCR. We report here the first description and characterization of two MAbs specific for the spore wall of E. bieneusi. These MAbs have great potential for the demonstration and species determination of E. bieneusi, and their application in immunofluorescence identification of E. bieneusi in stool samples could offer a new diagnostic tool for clinical laboratories. PMID:10565939

  14. Novel monoclonal antibodies recognizing the active conformation of epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Ise, Nobuyuki; Omi, Kazuya; Miwa, Kyoko; Honda, Hideo; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Goishi, Katsutoshi

    2010-04-09

    The precise regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is crucial for its function in cellular growth control. Although many antibodies against EGFR have been developed and used to analyze its regulation and function, it is not yet easy to analyze activated EGFR specifically. Activated EGFR has been mainly detected by its phosphorylation state using anti-phospho-EGFR and anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. In the present study, we have established novel monoclonal antibodies which recognize the activated EGFR independently of its phosphorylation. Our antibodies detected active state of EGFR in immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence, by recognizing the epitopes which are exposed through the conformational change induced by ligand-binding. Furthermore, we found that our antibodies preferentially detected the conformation of constitutively active EGFR mutants found in lung cancer cell lines. These results indicate that our antibodies may become novel research and diagnostic tools for detecting and analyzing the conformation of active EGFR in various cells and tissues.

  15. A monoclonal antibody for G protein-coupled receptor crystallography.

    PubMed

    Day, Peter W; Rasmussen, Søren G F; Parnot, Charles; Fung, Juan José; Masood, Asna; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Yao, Xiao-Jie; Choi, Hee-Jung; Weis, William I; Rohrer, Daniel K; Kobilka, Brian K

    2007-11-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of signaling proteins in mammals, mediating responses to hormones, neurotransmitters, and senses of sight, smell and taste. Mechanistic insight into GPCR signal transduction is limited by a paucity of high-resolution structural information. We describe the generation of a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the third intracellular loop (IL3) of the native human beta(2) adrenergic (beta(2)AR) receptor; this antibody was critical for acquiring diffraction-quality crystals.

  16. Cooperative Immunoassays: Ultrasensitive Assays with Mixed Monoclonal Antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, Paul H.; Moyle, William R.

    1983-07-01

    Mixtures of certain monoclonal antibodies appear to bind human chorionic gonadotropin in a ``cooperative'' fashion because they form circular complexes with the hormone. Experiments illustrate how this property might be exploited to develop very sensitive immunoassays for human chorionic gonadotropin or any other antigen. Since the assays are not based on competitive inhibition between radiolabeled and unlabeled antigen, they are much more sensitive than a traditional radioimmunoassay in which either one of the same antibodies is used alone.

  17. Systematic evaluation of monoclonal antibodies and immunoassays for the detection of Interferon-γ and Interleukin-2 in old and new world non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Höglind, Ankie; Areström, Irene; Ehrnfelt, Cecilia; Masjedi, Khosro; Zuber, Bartek; Giavedoni, Luis; Ahlborg, Niklas

    2017-02-01

    Non-human primates (NHP) provide important animal models for studies on immune responses to infections and vaccines. When assessing cellular immunity in NHP, cytokines are almost exclusively analyzed utilizing cross-reactive anti-human antibodies. The functionality of antibodies has to be empirically established for each assay/application as well as NHP species. A rational approach was employed to identify monoclonal antibodies (mAb) cross-reactive with many NHP species. Panels of new and established mAbs against human Interferon (IFN)-γ and Interleukin (IL)-2 were assessed for reactivity with eukaryotically expressed recombinant IFN-γ and IL-2, respectively, from Old (rhesus, cynomolgus and pigtail macaques, African green monkey, sooty mangabey and baboon) and New World NHP (Ma's night monkey, squirrel monkey and common marmoset). Pan-reactive mAbs, recognizing cytokines from all NHP species, were further analyzed in capture assays and flow cytometry with NHP peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Pan-reactive mAb pairs for IFN-γ well as IL-2 were identified and used in ELISA to measure IFN-γ and IL-2, respectively, in Old and New World NHP PBMC supernatants. The same mAb pairs displayed high functionality in ELISpot and FluoroSpot for the measurement of antigen-specific IFN-γ and IL-2 responses using cynomolgus PBMC. Functionality of pan-reactive mAbs in flow cytometry was also verified with cynomolgus PBMC. The development of well-defined immunoassays functional with a panel of NHP species facilitates improved analyses of cellular immunity and enables inclusion in multiplex cytokine assays intended for a variety of NHP.

  18. Development of a monoclonal antibody specific to cooked mammalian meats.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Y H; Sheu, S C; Bridgman, R C

    1998-04-01

    Detection of species adulteration in ground meat products is important for consumer protection and food-labeling law enforcement. This study was conducted to develop monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that can be used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for rapid detection of any cooked mammalian meats in cooked poultry products. Soluble muscle proteins extracted from cooked pork (heated at 100 degrees C for 15 min) were used as the antigen to immunized mice for developing the MAb. One that was developed, MAb 2F8 (IgG2b class), strongly reacted with cooked meat of five mammalian species (beef cattle, hogs, sheep, horse, and deer) but did not react with any cooked poultry (chicken, turkey, and duck) or raw meats. At least 0.5% by weight of pork, beef, lamb, and horse meats in a chicken-based mixture could not detect using the indirect ELISA with MAb 2F8. The MAb 2F8 is useful in a single initial screening test to detect the presence of five nonpoultry meat adulterants in cooked poultry products.

  19. Pulmonary monoclonal antibody delivery via a portable microfluidic nebulization platform

    PubMed Central

    Cortez-Jugo, Christina; Qi, Aisha; Rajapaksa, Anushi; Friend, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Nebulizers have considerable advantages over conventional inhalers for pulmonary drug administration, particularly because they do not require coordinated breath actuation to generate and deliver the aerosols. Nevertheless, besides being less amenable to miniaturization and hence portability, some nebulizers are prone to denature macromolecular drugs due to the large forces generated during aerosolization. Here, we demonstrate a novel portable acoustomicrofluidic device capable of nebulizing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies into a fine aerosol mist with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of approximately 1.1 μm, optimal for deep lung deposition via inhalation. The nebulized monoclonal antibodies were tested for their stability, immunoactivity, and pharmacological properties, which confirmed that nebulization did not cause significant degradation of the antibody. In particular, flow cytometry demonstrated that the antigen binding capability of the antibody is retained and able to reduce phosphorylation in cells overexpressing the EGFR, indicating that the aerosols generated by the device were loaded with stable and active monoclonal antibodies. The delivery of antibodies via inhalation, particularly for the treatment of lung cancer, is thus expected to enhance the efficacy of this protein therapeutic by increasing the local concentration where they are needed. PMID:25945147

  20. [Neutralizing Monoclonal and Chimeric Antibodies to Human IFN-γ].

    PubMed

    Larina, M V; Aliev, T K; Solopova, O N; Pozdnyakova, L P; Korobova, S V; Yakimov, S A; Sveshnikov, P G; Dolgikh, D A; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2015-01-01

    Autoiminune disorders are chronic diseases characterized by abnormal immune response directed against self-antigens that leads to tissue damage and violation of its normal functioning. Such diseases often result in disability or even death of patients. Nowadays a number of monoclonal antibodies to pro-inflammatory cytokines and their receptors are successfully used for the targeted treatment of autoimmune diseases. One of the perspective targets in autoimmune disease therapy is interferon gamma, a key cytokine in Th1 cells differentiation, activation of macrophages, and inflammation. In the present work, 5 monoclonal antibodies to human IFN-γ were obtained. For the development of potential therapeutic agent, we have performed neutralizing activity and affinity analysis of the antibodies. Based on the data obtained, the monoclonal antibody F1 was selected. This antibody has a dissociation constant 1.7 x 10(-9) M and IC90 = 8.9 ± 2.0 nM measured upon antibody inhibition of the IFN-γ-induced HLA-DR expression on the surface of U937 cells. We have constructed a bicistronic vector for the production of recombinant chimeric Fab fragment F1 chim in E. coli cells. The recombinant chimeric Fab fragment Fl chim neutralizes IFN-γ activity in vitro and has a dissociation constant 1.8 x 10(-9) M.

  1. Reversible self-association increases the viscosity of a concentrated monoclonal antibody in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Nguyen, Mary D H; Andya, James D; Shire, Steven J

    2005-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of reversible protein self-association on the viscosity of concentrated monoclonal antibody solutions. The viscosities of the monoclonal antibody solutions were measured by either a capillary viscometer or a cone-plate rheometer at different protein concentrations, pH, and ionic strength. Soluble aggregates were determined by size exclusion chromatography, light scattering, and analytical ultracentrifugation. Self-association of protein at high protein concentration was monitored by sedimentation equilibrium analysis using a preparative ultracentrifuge and a microfractionator. The viscosity of one of the monoclonal antibodies investigated is highly dependent on protein concentration, pH, and ionic strength of buffer and charged excipients. This antibody shows the highest viscosity near its pI at low ionic strength conditions. Sedimentation equilibrium analysis suggests that this antibody tends to reversibly self-associate at high protein concentration. The self-association appears to be quite weak and is not detectable by sedimentation velocity and size exclusion chromatography at low protein concentration. There are no significant differences in the amounts of non-dissociable soluble aggregates formed between low viscosity and high viscosity samples. These results suggest that the reversible multivalent self-association of this protein appears to be mediated mainly by electrostatic interactions of charged residues and results in unusually high viscosity of this monoclonal antibody in solution at low ionic strength conditions.

  2. Binding properties of monoclonal antibodies to rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Cusi, M G; Valensin, P E; Tollis, M; Bracci, L; Petreni, S; Soldani, P

    1991-07-01

    The monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) obtained by immunizing mice with a tetradecapeptide corresponding to the 190-203 region of rabies virus glycoprotein, involved in binding to the acetylcholine receptor (AchR), displayed different specificities to different rabies virus strains. These mAbs, when used in immunofluorescence tests, allowed differentiation of wild rabies viruses from the attenuated ones.

  3. A mouse monoclonal antibody against Alexa Fluor 647.

    PubMed

    Wuethrich, Irene; Guillen, Eduardo; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2014-04-01

    Fluorophores are essential tools in molecular and cell biology. However, their application is mostly confined to the singular exploitation of their fluorescent properties. To enhance the versatility and expand the use of the fluorophore Alexa Fluor 647 (AF647), we generated a mouse monoclonal antibody against it. We demonstrate its use of AF647 for immunoblot, immunoprecipitation, and cytofluorimetry.

  4. Bacterial surface antigens defined by monoclonal antibodies: the methanogens

    SciTech Connect

    Conway de Macario, E.; Macario, A.J.L.; Magarinos, M.C.; Jovell, R.J.; Kandler, O.

    1982-01-01

    The methanogens (MB) are unique microbes of great evolutionary interest with applications in biotechnology-bioengineerings and are important in digestive processes. Their cell-wall composition is distinctively different from that of Eubacteria, e.g. the Methanobacteriaceae possess the peptidoglycan pseudomurein rather than murein. The range of cell-wall compositions among MB and their evolutionary and functional significance is not well known. The authors undertook a systematic study of the MB's surface structure using monoclonal antibodies through the following steps: (1) generation of hybridomas that produce antibody to several MB from 3 of their 4 families; (2) development of immunoenzymatic assays for MB's antigens and antibodies; (3) determination of the fine specificity of monoclonal antibodies by inhibition-blocking tests using cell-wall extracts and compounds of known structure; thus a set of monoclonal probes of predetermined specificity was assembled; and (4) resolution of surface determinants of MB representative of the Methanobacteriaceae using the monoclonal probes. Specific markers of MB strains were characterized. Two epitopes were identified within the pseudomurein molecule.

  5. Monoclonal Antibodies to Prevent Use of Mycotoxins as Biological Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    Mycotoxins as Biological Weapons PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Marta Feldmesser, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Albert Einstein College of...Monoclonal Antibodies to Prevent Use of Mycotoxins as Biological Weapons 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0085 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  6. Development and evaluation of monoclonal antibodies for paxilline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Paxilline (PAX) is a tremorgenic mycotoxin that has been found in perennial ryegrass infected with Acremonium lolii. To facilitate screening for this toxin, four murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were developed. In competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (CI-ELISAs) the concentrati...

  7. INITIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES AGAINST THE FUNGAL HEMOLYSIN STACHYLYSIN FROM STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stachybotrys chartarum is known to produce the hemolysin stachylysin and its detection in human serum has been proposed as a biomarker for exposure to the fungus. In this study we report the initial characterization of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against stachylysin and the dev...

  8. Survey of citrus tristeza virus populations in Central California that react with MCA13 monoclonal antibody

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Citrus Pest Detection Program (CPDP) of the Central California Tristeza Eradication Agency monitors Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in Central California. MCA13 is a severe strain discriminating monoclonal antibody used to screen for potentially virulent CTV isolates. MCA13-reactive CTV isolates are...

  9. Production of human anti-HLA monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.C.; Mercier, F.; Roger, J.; Varin, M.

    1986-03-01

    Only 40% of the several hundred anti-HLA murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that have been made detect HLA-A,B,C or DR specificities previously defined by human alloantisera, the range of recognized specificities is very narrow, and few of the MAbs have proven useful as tissue typing reagents. In hopes of obtaining HLA typing reagents, the authors are developing a protocol for the production of human anti-HLA MAbs from HLA-antigen (Ag) immunized peripheral blood B cells of volunteering renal patients, immunized to one or more HLA Ags through therapeutic blood transfusions. A simple enrichment of the donor B cells has not been sufficient for anti-HLA MAb production, the authors are currently delineating the conditions necessary for increasing the number of HLA-specific donor B cells by in vitro stimulation with cells expressing the HLA Ag to which the B cell donor is immunized. For the production of MAbs, the stimulated B cells are transformed with Epstein-Barr virus and subsequently fused with KR-4 lymphoblastoid cells. Hybridomas are selected by HAT and Ouabain. Supernatants are screened for anti-HLA activity against lymphocyte targets expressing the original immunizing HLA Ag by complement mediated /sup 51/Cr release assay. Antibody specificity is determined by the complement-dependent microcytotoxicity test used for HLA typing.

  10. Data on the characterization of follicle-stimulating hormone monoclonal antibodies and localization in Japanese eel pituitary.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Jung; Park, Chae-Won; Byambaragchaa, Munkhzaya; Kim, Shin-Kwon; Lee, Bae-Ik; Hwang, Hyung-Kyu; Myeong, Jeong-In; Hong, Sun-Mee; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Min, Kwan-Sik

    2016-09-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were generated against recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rec-FSH) from Japanese eel Anguilla japonica; rec-FSH was produced in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni-NTA Sepharose column chromatography. In support of our recent publication, "Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against recombinant tethered follicle-stimulating hormone from Japanese eel Anguilla japonica" [1], it was important to characterize the specificity of eel follicle-stimulating hormone antibodies. Here, the production and ELISA system of these monoclonal antibodies are presented. The affinity-purified monoclonal antibodies specifically detected eel rec-FSH in ELISA and on western blots of rec-FSH produced from CHO cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that FSH staining was specifically localized in the eel pituitary.

  11. 78 FR 7438 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Development of Human Monoclonal Antibodies Against DR4

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Human Monoclonal Antibodies Against DR4 AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service... Monoclonal Antibodies Against DR4'' (HHS Ref. No. E-158-2010/0) to Customized Biosciences, Inc., which is... relates to the development of two human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to death receptor 4...

  12. Quantitative assessment of antibody internalization with novel monoclonal antibodies against Alexa fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Liao-Chan, Sindy; Daine-Matsuoka, Barbara; Heald, Nathan; Wong, Tiffany; Lin, Tracey; Cai, Allen G; Lai, Michelle; D'Alessio, Joseph A; Theunissen, Jan-Willem

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies against cell surface antigens may be internalized through their specific interactions with these proteins and in some cases may induce or perturb antigen internalization. The anti-cancer efficacy of antibody-drug conjugates is thought to rely on their uptake by cancer cells expressing the surface antigen. Numerous techniques, including microscopy and flow cytometry, have been used to identify antibodies with desired cellular uptake rates. To enable quantitative measurements of internalization of labeled antibodies, an assay based on internalized and quenched fluorescence was developed. For this approach, we generated novel anti-Alexa Fluor monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that effectively and specifically quench cell surface-bound Alexa Fluor 488 or Alexa Fluor 594 fluorescence. Utilizing Alexa Fluor-labeled mAbs against the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase, we showed that the anti-Alexa Fluor reagents could be used to monitor internalization quantitatively over time. The anti-Alexa Fluor mAbs were also validated in a proof of concept dual-label internalization assay with simultaneous exposure of cells to two different mAbs. Importantly, the unique anti-Alexa Fluor mAbs described here may also enable other single- and dual-label experiments, including label detection and signal enhancement in macromolecules, trafficking of proteins and microorganisms, and cell migration and morphology.

  13. Quantitative Assessment of Antibody Internalization with Novel Monoclonal Antibodies against Alexa Fluorophores

    PubMed Central

    Liao-Chan, Sindy; Daine-Matsuoka, Barbara; Heald, Nathan; Wong, Tiffany; Lin, Tracey; Cai, Allen G.; Lai, Michelle; D’Alessio, Joseph A.; Theunissen, Jan-Willem

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies against cell surface antigens may be internalized through their specific interactions with these proteins and in some cases may induce or perturb antigen internalization. The anti-cancer efficacy of antibody-drug conjugates is thought to rely on their uptake by cancer cells expressing the surface antigen. Numerous techniques, including microscopy and flow cytometry, have been used to identify antibodies with desired cellular uptake rates. To enable quantitative measurements of internalization of labeled antibodies, an assay based on internalized and quenched fluorescence was developed. For this approach, we generated novel anti-Alexa Fluor monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that effectively and specifically quench cell surface–bound Alexa Fluor 488 or Alexa Fluor 594 fluorescence. Utilizing Alexa Fluor–labeled mAbs against the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase, we showed that the anti-Alexa Fluor reagents could be used to monitor internalization quantitatively over time. The anti-Alexa Fluor mAbs were also validated in a proof of concept dual-label internalization assay with simultaneous exposure of cells to two different mAbs. Importantly, the unique anti-Alexa Fluor mAbs described here may also enable other single- and dual-label experiments, including label detection and signal enhancement in macromolecules, trafficking of proteins and microorganisms, and cell migration and morphology. PMID:25894652

  14. Development and Evaluation of Monoclonal Antibodies for Paxilline

    PubMed Central

    Maragos, Chris M.

    2015-01-01

    Paxilline (PAX) is a tremorgenic mycotoxin that has been found in perennial ryegrass infected with Acremonium lolii. To facilitate screening for this toxin, four murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were developed. In competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (CI-ELISAs) the concentrations of PAX required to inhibit signal development by 50% (IC50s) ranged from 1.2 to 2.5 ng/mL. One mAb (2-9) was applied to the detection of PAX in maize silage. The assay was sensitive to the effects of solvents, with 5% acetonitrile or 20% methanol causing a two-fold or greater increase in IC50. For analysis of silage samples, extracts were cleaned up by adsorbing potential matrix interferences onto a solid phase extraction column. The non-retained extract was then diluted with buffer to reduce solvent content prior to assay. Using this method, the limit of detection for PAX in dried silage was 15 µg/kg and the limit of quantification was 90 µg/kg. Recovery from samples spiked over the range of 100 to 1000 µg/kg averaged 106% ± 18%. The assay was applied to 86 maize silage samples, with many having detectable, but none having quantifiable, levels of PAX. The results suggest the CI-ELISA can be applied as a sensitive technique for the screening of PAX in maize silage. PMID:26426046

  15. Production of a Chaetomium globosum Enolase Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Ajay P.; Lemons, Angela R.; Rittenour, William R.; Hettick, Justin M.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2014-01-01

    Chaetomium globosum is a hydrophilic fungal species and a contaminant of water-damaged building materials in North America. Methods to detect Chaetomium species include subjective identification of ascospores, viable culture, or molecular-based detection methods. In this study, we describe the production and initial characterization of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) for C. globosum enolase. MAb 1C7, a murine IgG1 isotype MAb, was produced and reacted with recombinant C. globosum enolase (rCgEno) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and with a putative C. globosum enolase in a Western blot. Epitope mapping showed MAb 1C7 specific reactivity to an enolase decapeptide, LTYEELANLY, that is highly conserved within the fungal class Sordariomycetes. Cross-reactivity studies showed MAb 1C7 reactivity to C. atrobrunneum but not C. indicum. MAb 1C7 did not react with enolase from Aspergillus fumigatus, which is divergent in only two amino acids within this epitope. The results of this study suggest potential utility of MAb 1C7 in Western blot applications for the detection of Chaetomium and other Sordariomycetes species. PMID:25495488

  16. The use of combinations of monoclonal antibodies in clinical oncology.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Linda M; Schellens, Jan H M; Huitema, Alwin D R; Beijnen, Jos H

    2015-12-01

    Treatment with monoclonal antibodies is becoming increasingly important in clinical oncology. These antibodies specifically inhibit signaling pathways in tumor growth and/or induce immunological responses against tumor cells. By combining monoclonal antibodies several pathways may be targeted simultaneously, potentially leading to additive or synergistic effects. Theoretically, antibodies are very suitable for use in combination therapy, because of limited overlapping toxicity and lack of pharmacokinetic interactions. In this article an overview is given of preclinical and clinical data on twenty-five different combinations of antibodies in oncology. Some of these combinations have proven clinical benefit, for example the combination of trastuzumab and pertuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer, which exemplifies an additive or synergistic effect on antitumor activity in clinical studies and the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab, which results in significant increases in progression-free and overall survival in patients with advanced melanoma. However, other combinations may lead to unfavorable results, such as bevacizumab with cetuximab or panitumumab in advanced colorectal cancer. These combinations result in shorter progression-free survival and increased toxicity compared to therapy with a single antibody. In summary, the different published studies showed widely varying results, depending on the combination of antibodies, indication and patient population. More preclinical and clinical studies are necessary to unravel the mechanisms behind synergistic or antagonistic effects of combining monoclonal antibodies. Most research on combination therapies is still in an early stage, but it is expected that for several tumor types the use of combination therapy of antibodies will become standard of care in the near future.

  17. N-Glycosylation Design and Control of Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sha, Sha; Agarabi, Cyrus; Brorson, Kurt; Lee, Dong-Yup; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2016-10-01

    The N-linked glycan profiles on recombinant monoclonal antibody therapeutics significantly affect antibody biological functions and are largely determined by host cell genotypes and culture conditions. A key step in bioprocess development for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) involves optimization and control of N-glycan profiles. With pressure from pricing and biosimilars looming, more efficient and effective approaches are sought in the field of glycoengineering. Metabolic studies and mathematical modeling are two such approaches that optimize bioprocesses by better understanding and predicting glycosylation. In this review, we summarize a group of strategies currently used for glycan profile modulation and control. Metabolic analysis and mathematical modeling are then explored with an emphasis on how these two techniques can be utilized to advance glycoengineering.

  18. [Production of human monoclonal antibody reactive with gastrointestinal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Soyama, N; Ohyanagi, H; Saitoh, Y

    1990-12-01

    Lymphocytes obtained from regional lymph nodes and spleen in the patients with gastrointestinal carcinoma were fused with the human B lymphoblastoid cell line GC01 and human hybridomas producing human monoclonal antibody (MoAb) were derived. Human MoAb No. 235 (IgM) derived from spleen cell of a gastric cancer patient reacted with adenocarcinoma of stomach, colon, and pancreas in the new immunohistochemical assay, modified direct immunoperoxidase method, and reacted with KATO III cells in cultured cell lines. The antigenic determinant of this antibody was suspected to be protein moiety after enzyme treatment. The competitive binding inhibition assay indicated that its epitope was different from anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies (KM10, A10, B9, AH3, JA4) and KM01. These findings suggested the possible use of human MoAb No. 235 for clinical application of targeting cancer chemotherapy in the future.

  19. Initial Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies against Human Monocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugolini, Valentina; Nunez, Gabriel; Smith, R. Graham; Stastny, Peter; Capra, J. Donald

    1980-11-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies against human monocytes have been produced by somatic cell fusion. Extensive specificity analysis suggests that these antibodies react with most if not all human peripheral blood monocytes and not with highly purified T or B cells. Initial chemical characterization of the monocyte antigen recognized by two of these antibodies is presented. The molecule is a single polypeptide chain with an apparent molecular weight of 200,000. These reagents should prove useful in the clinical definition of disorders of monocyte differentiation, in studies of monocyte function, and in the elucidation of the genetics and structure of monocyte cell surface antigens.

  20. Monoclonal Antibody Cross-Reactions between Drosophila and Human Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Carol A.; Benzer, Seymour

    1983-12-01

    A panel of 146 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), obtained with Drosophila melanogaster tissue as primary immunogen, was tested for cross-reactivity with the human central nervous system. Sites examined included spinal cord, cerebellum, hippocampus, and optic nerve. Nonnervous tissues tested were liver and lymph node. Approximately half of the antibodies reacted with one or more sites in the human central nervous system, identifying regional, cell class, and subcellular antigens. Some recognized neuronal, glial, or axonal subsets. Immunoblot analysis revealed that some antibodies reacted with similar antigen patterns in both species.

  1. Adsorption of monoclonal antibodies to glass microparticles.

    PubMed

    Hoehne, Matthew; Samuel, Fauna; Dong, Aichun; Wurth, Christine; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Carpenter, John F; Randolph, Theodore W

    2011-01-01

    Microparticulate glass represents a potential contamination to protein formulations that may occur as a result of processing conditions or glass types. The effect of added microparticulate glass to formulations of three humanized antibodies was tested. Under the three formulation conditions tested, all three antibodies adsorbed irreversibly at near monolayer surface coverages to the glass microparticles. Analysis of the secondary structure of the adsorbed antibodies by infrared spectroscopy reveal only minor perturbations as a result of adsorption. Likewise, front-face fluorescence quenching measurements reflected minimal tertiary structural changes upon adsorption. In contrast to the minimal effects on protein structure, adsorption of protein to suspensions of glass microparticles induced significant colloidal destabilization and flocculation of the suspension.

  2. Process economics of industrial monoclonal antibody manufacture.

    PubMed

    Farid, Suzanne S

    2007-03-15

    Pressures for cost-effective manufacture of antibodies are growing given their high doses and increasing market potential that have resulted in significant increases in total site capacities of up to 200,000 L. This paper focuses on the process economic issues associated with manufacturing antibodies and reviews the cost studies published in the literature; many of the issues highlighted are not only specific to antibodies but also apply to recombinant proteins. Data collated at UCL suggest current benchmark investment costs of $660-$1580/ft2 ($7130-$17,000/m2) and $1765-$4220/L for antibody manufacturing facilities with total site capacities in the range of 20,000-200,000 L; the limitations of the data are highlighted. The complications with deriving benchmark cost of goods per gram (COG/g) values are discussed, stressing the importance of stating the annual production rate and either titre or fermentation capacity with the cost so as to allow comparisons. The uses and limitations of the methods for cost analysis and the available software tools for process economics are presented. Specific examples found in the literature of process economic studies related to antibody manufacture for different expression systems are reviewed. The key economic drivers are identified; factors such as fermentation titre and overall yield are critical determinants of economic success. Future trends in antibody manufacture that are driven by economic pressures are discussed, such as the use of alternative expression systems (e.g. transgenics, E. coli and yeast), disposables, and improvements to downstream technology. The hidden costs and the challenges in each case are highlighted.

  3. Immunohistochemical detection of a novel 22- to 25-kilodalton glycoprotein of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in biopsy material and partial characterization by using species-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, J I; Hamilton, A; Allen, M; Hay, R

    1994-01-01

    Two murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and Western blot [immunoblot]) were produced by using a modification of standard hybridization protocols, with cyclophosphamide included as an immunomodulator to abolish responses to highly cross-reactive immunodominant epitopes. MAbs PS14 and PS15 are two different clones which exhibit similar characteristics by ELISA and Western blot. They are directed against a 22- to 25-kDa antigen which is present in P. brasiliensis and which could not be identified in other dimorphic fungi by ELISA or Western blot. Partial purification of the antigen was accomplished by isoelectric focusing, and deglycosylation studies suggested that the 22- to 25-kDa antigen is a glycoprotein with a pI of between 4.5 and 5 and that O-linked sugars may be part of the recognized epitope. The MAbs stained the cytoplasm of P. brasiliensis yeast and hyphal cells in cryostat sections of fresh cultures of the fungus. In addition, the MAbs stained the wall of paracoccidioidomycotic granulomas, as well as the cytoplasm of the fungus, as determined by the use of immunofluorescence, immunoperoxidase, and immuno-alkaline phosphatase staining techniques in paraffin-embedded sections of human biopsy material, and they failed to stain granulomas resulting from other clinical conditions. These findings suggest that these MAbs have potential use in the immunohistochemical identification of P. brasiliensis. Images PMID:8077405

  4. Sperm-immobilizing monoclonal antibody to human seminal plasma antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Shigeta, M; Watanabe, T; Maruyama, S; Koyama, K; Isojima, S

    1980-01-01

    Rat spleen cells immunized to human azoospermic semen (a mixture of seminal plasma components) and mouse myeloma cells (P3/X63 Ag8U1; P3U1) (Marguilies et al., 1976) were successfully fused with polyethylene glycol (PEG 1500) and 19 of 89 fused cell cultures were found to produce sperm-immobilizing antibody. The cells that produced antibody indicating the highest sperm-immobilizing activity were distributed into wells for further recloning and 10 clones producing sperm-immobilizing antibody were established. The clone (1C4) producing the highest antibody titre was found to produce a large amount of IgG in culture supernatants and to contain a mixture of rat and mouse chromosomes. It was proved by immunodiffusion test that the monoclonal antibody was produced to the human seminal plasma antigen No. 7 which is common to human milk protein. Using this hybridoma which produced a large amount of monoclonal sperm-immobilizing antibody, a new method could be developed for purifying human seminal plasma antigen by immunoaffinity chromatography with bound antibody from the hybridoma. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6783353

  5. Monoclonal antibodies to human hemoglobin S and cell lines for the production thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Ronald H.; Vanderlaan, Martin; Bigbee, William L.; Stanker, Larry H.; Branscomb, Elbert W.; Grabske, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    The present invention provides monoclonal antibodies specific to and distinguish between hemoglobin S and hemoglobin A and methods for their production and use. These antibodies are capable of distinguishing between two hemoglobin types which differ from each other by only a single amino acid residue. The antibodies produced according to the present method are useful as immunofluorescent markers to enumerate circulating red blood cells which have the property of altered expression of the hemoglobin gene due to somatic mutation in stem cells. Such a measurement is contemplated as an assay for in vivo cellular somatic mutations in humans. Since the monoclonal antibodies produced in accordance with the instant invention exhibit a high degree of specificity to and greater affinity for hemoglobin S, they are suitable for labeling human red blood cells for flow cytometric detection of hemoglobin genotype.

  6. Monoclonal antibodies to human hemoglobin S and cell lines for the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, R.H.; Vanderlaan, M.; Bigbee, W.L.; Stanker, L.H.; Branscomb, E.W.; Grabske, R.J.

    1984-11-29

    The present invention provides monoclonal antibodies specific to and distinguishing between hemoglobin S and hemoglobin A and methods for their production and use. These antibodies are capable of distinguishing between two hemoglobin types which differ from each other by only a single amino acid residue. The antibodies produced according to the present method are useful as immunofluorescent markers to enumerate circulating red blood cells which have the property of altered expression of the hemoglobin gene due to somatic mutation in stem cells. Such a measurement is contemplated as an assay for in vivo cellular somatic mutations in humans. Since the monoclonal antibodies produced in accordance with the instant invention exhibit a high degree of specificity to and greater affinity for hemoglobin S, they are suitable for labeling human red blood cells for flow cytometric detection of hemoglobin genotype. 4 figs.

  7. Monoclonal antibodies to human interferon-gamma: production, affinity purification and radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed Central

    Novick, D; Eshhar, Z; Fischer, D G; Friedlander, J; Rubinstein, M

    1983-01-01

    Human interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by a cation exchange h.p.l.c., was used for the development of monoclonal antibodies. Following immunization, spleen lymphocytes of two mice showing the highest binding and neutralizing titers were isolated, fused with NSO mouse myeloma cells and cloned. The screening of hybridomas was based on precipitation of the immune complexes with a second antibody and recovery of the biological activity of IFN-gamma from the precipitate. Twenty nine independent hybridomas secreting antibodies specific to IFN-gamma were obtained. Twelve out of these 29 hybridomas produced antibodies that neutralized the antiviral activity of pure as well as crude IFN-gamma. Moreover, IFN-gamma obtained by various induction procedures was neutralized as well, indicating that these various IFN-gamma subtypes are immunologically cross-reactive. Immune precipitation of partially purified 125I-labelled IFN-gamma by several monoclonal antibodies revealed two protein bands of 26,000 and 21,000 daltons. Immunoaffinity chromatography of IFN-gamma gave a 50-fold purification to a specific activity > or = 4 x 10(7) units/mg. Two of the monoclonal antibodies were found suitable for a sensitive and rapid double antibody solid-phase radioimmunoassay, allowing the detection of IFN-gamma at concentrations of at least 4 ng/ml (150 units/ml) within 8 h. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:11892806

  8. Establishment of a novel monoclonal antibody against LGR5.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yuka; Kosaka, Hiromichi; Usami, Katsuaki; Toki, Hiroe; Kawai, Hironori; Shiraishi, Norihiko; Ota, Toshio; Nakamura, Kazuyasu; Furuya, Akiko; Satoh, Mitsuo; Hasegawa, Kazumasa; Masuda, Kazuhiro

    2010-04-09

    LGR5 is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is expressed on the cell surface membrane. LGR5 is reported to be overexpressed in colon, liver, and ovary tumor compared to normal tissue. However, a specific ligand for LGR5 has not yet been determined, and the function is still not clear. An LGR5-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) is needed as a tool for detection and analysis of LGR5 biological function and cancer therapy. To date, no mAb against LGR5 that retains high affinity and specificity has been reported. Here, we report successful establishment and characterization of a mAb (KM4056) that specifically recognizes the extracellular N-terminal domain of human LGR5, but not LGR4 or LGR6. This mAb has potent complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) activity in vitro and shows strong anti-tumor activity in vivo against xenograft model by transplanting LGR5 expressing CHO transfectants into SCID mice. Thus, KM4056 can be a useful tool for detection of LGR5 positive cells and analysis of LGR5 biological function.

  9. Human Monoclonal Antibodies Against a Plethora of Viral Pathogens From Single Combinatorial Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, R. Anthony; Burioni, Roberto; Sanna, Pietro P.; Partridge, Lynda J.; Barbas, Carlos F., III; Burton, Dennis R.

    1993-05-01

    Conventional antibody generation usually requires active immunization with antigen immediately prior to the preparation procedure. Combinatorial antibody library technology offers the possibility of cloning a range of antibody specificities at a single point in time and then accessing these specificities at will. Here we show that human monoclonal antibody Fab fragments against a plethora of infectious agents can be readily derived from a single library. Further examination of a number of libraries shows that whenever antibody against a pathogen can be detected in the serum of the donor, then specific antibodies can be derived from the corresponding library. We describe the generation of human Fab fragments against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, human cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster virus, rubella, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, and respiratory syncytial virus. The antibodies are shown to be highly specific and a number are effective in neutralizing virus in vitro.

  10. Stimuli-responsive magnetic nanoparticles for monoclonal antibody purification.

    PubMed

    Borlido, Luís; Moura, Leila; Azevedo, Ana M; Roque, Ana C A; Aires-Barros, Maria R; Farinha, José Paulo S

    2013-06-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are important therapeutic proteins. One of the challenges facing large-scale production of monoclonal antibodies is the capacity bottleneck in downstream processing, which can be circumvented by using magnetic stimuli-responsive polymer nanoparticles. In this work, stimuli-responsive magnetic particles composed of a magnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) core with a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (P(NIPAM-co-AA)) shell cross-linked with N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide were prepared by miniemulsion polymerization. The particles were shown to have an average hydrodynamic diameter of 317 nm at 18°C, which decreased to 277 nm at 41°C due to the collapse of the thermo-responsive shell. The particles were superparamagnetic in behavior and exhibited a saturation magnetization of 12.6 emu/g. Subsequently, we evaluated the potential of these negatively charged stimuli-responsive magnetic particles in the purification of a monoclonal antibody from a diafiltered CHO cell culture supernatant by cation exchange. The adsorption of antibodies onto P(NIPAM-co-AA)-coated nanoparticles was highly selective and allowed for the recovery of approximately 94% of the mAb. Different elution strategies were employed providing highly pure mAb fractions with host cell protein (HCP) removal greater than 98%. By exploring the stimuli-responsive properties of the particles, shorter magnetic separation times were possible without significant differences in product yield and purity.

  11. Murine monoclonal antibodies generated against mouse/rat hemokinin-1.

    PubMed

    Jin, Liang; Jin, Bo-quan; Song, Chao-jun; Zhang, Yu

    2009-08-01

    The mouse/rat hemokinin-1 (m/rHK-1) was discovered nearly 9 years ago. This molecule is a peptide comprising 11 amino acids. The m/rHK-1 was found to be mainly expressed in central immune organs like bone marrow, and was proven to have lymphopoietic roles in B and T lymphocyte development. m/rHK-1was also reported to have analgesic roles in rat spinal cord, in addition to other functions such as relaxing activity on coronary artery. Unlike its analogues SP, NKA, and NKB, m/rHK-1 does not express in the nervous system. To further study the distribution and function of m/rHK-1, we carried out conventional immunization and cell fusion procedures to acquire the hybridomas secreting specific monoclonal antibodies to m/rHK-1. In the 17 positive clones obtained, three antibodies named 1B12, 2B4, and 4G5 were shown representative in cross-reactivity against m/rHK-1 and its analogues by indirect ELISA, competitive indirect ELISA, and immunofluorescence assays. Among the three clones, the 2B4 monoclonal antibody appeared to be the high-titered and specific clone to m/rHK-1. Monoclonal antibodies to m/rHK-1 will function as good tools in the physiological study of m/rHK-1 in the near future.

  12. Intra and inter-laboratory reproducibility of a monoclonal antibody cocktail based ELISA for detection of allergen specific IgE in dogs: proficiency monitoring of macELISA in six laboratories.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kenneth W; Blankenship, Karen D; McCurry, Zachary M; McKinney, Brennan; Ruffner, Rick; Esch, Robert E; Tambone, Cecilia; Faas, Rebecca; Hermes, Darren; Brazis, Pilar; Drouet, Laurent

    2012-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of results yielded using a monoclonal antibody based ELISA for detection of allergen specific IgE when run in six separate affiliated laboratories. On two separate occasions, duplicate samples of 15 different sera pools were independently evaluated by each laboratory in a single blinded fashion. The average intra-assay variance among reactive assay calibrators in all laboratories was 6.2% (range 2.6-18.2%), while the average intra-laboratory inter-assay variance was 12.1% (range 8.0-17.1%). The overall inter-assay inter-laboratory variance was consistent among laboratories and averaged 15.6% (range 15.1-16.6%). All laboratories yielded similar profiles and magnitudes of responses for replicate unknown samples; dose-response profiles observed in each of the laboratories were indistinguishable. Considering positive/negative results, inter-assay inter-laboratory concordance of results exceeded 95%. Correlation of OD values between and among all laboratories was strong (r>0.9, p<0.001). Correlation of OD values between the two separate evaluations was also high for all allergens except olive, which was attributed to lot-to-lot differences of allergen coated wells. Collectively, the results demonstrated that the monoclonal antibody based ELISA for measuring allergen specific canine IgE is reproducible, and documents that consistency of results can be achieved not only in an individual laboratory, but between laboratories using the same monoclonal-based ELISA.

  13. Recent Progress toward Engineering HIV-1-Specific Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ming; Li, Yue; Zheng, Huiwen; Shao, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    The recent discoveries of broadly potent neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies represent a new generation of antiretrovirals for the treatment and prophylaxis. Antibodies are generally considered more effective and safer and have been proved to provide passive protection against mucosal challenge in humanized mice and macaques. Several neutralizing Abs could protect animals against HIV-1 but are not effective when used in an established infected model for therapy. In order to overcome the limitation of antiviral activities, multiple antibody-engineering technologies have been explored to generate “the better” neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 since bNAbs attack viral entry by various mechanisms. Thus, a promising direction of research is to discover and exploit rational antibody combination or engineered antibodies (eAbs) as potential candidate therapeutics against HIV-1. It has been reported that inclusion of fusion-neutralizing antibodies in a set of bNAbs could improve their overall activities and neutralizing spectrum. Here, we review several routes for engineering bNAbs, such as design and generation of bispecific antibodies, specific glycosylation of antibodies to enhance antiviral activity, and variable region-specific modification guided by structure and computer, as well as reviewing antibody-delivery technologies by non-viral vector, viral vector, and human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells transduced with a lentiviral construct. We also discuss the optimized antiviral activities and benefits of these strategy and potential mechanisms. PMID:27746780

  14. Cysteinylation of a monoclonal antibody leads to its inactivation

    PubMed Central

    McSherry, Troy; McSherry, Jennifer; Ozaeta, Panfilo; Longenecker, Kenton; Ramsay, Carol; Fishpaugh, Jeffrey; Allen, Steven

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Post-translational modifications can have a signification effect on antibody stability. A comprehensive approach is often required to best understand the underlying reasons the modification affects the antibody's potency or aggregation state. Monoclonal antibody 001 displayed significant variation in terms of potency, as defined by surface plasmon resonance testing (Biacore), from lot to lot independent of any observable aggregation or degradation, suggesting that a post-translational modification could be driving this variability. Analysis of different antibody lots using analytical hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) uncovered multiple peaks of varying size. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) indicated that the antibody contained a cysteinylation post-translational modification in complementarity-determining region (CDR) 3 of the antibody light chain. Fractionation of the antibody by HIC followed by ESI-MS and Biacore showed that the different peaks were antibody containing zero, one, or two cysteinylation modifications, and that the modification interferes with the ability of the modified antibody arm to bind antigen. Molecular modeling of the modified region shows that this oxidation of an unpaired cysteine in the antibody CDR would block a potential antigen binding pocket, suggesting an inhibition mechanism. PMID:27050640

  15. Inhibition of kinesin-driven microtubule motility by monoclonal antibodies to kinesin heavy chains

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    We have prepared and characterized seven mouse monoclonal antibodies (SUK 1-7) to the 130-kD heavy chain of sea urchin egg kinesin. On immunoblots, SUK 3 and SUK 4 cross-reacted with Drosophila embryo 116- kD heavy chains, and SUK 4, SUK 5, SUK 6, and SUK 7 bound to the 120-kD heavy chains of bovine brain kinesin. Three out of seven monoclonal antikinesins (SUK 4, SUK 6, and SUK 7) caused a dose-dependent inhibition of sea urchin egg kinesin-induced microtubule translocation, whereas the other four monoclonal antibodies had no detectable effect on this motility. The inhibitory monoclonal antibodies (SUK 4, SUK 6, and SUK 7) appear to bind to spatially related sites on an ATP- sensitive microtubule binding 45-kD chymotryptic fragment of the 130-kD heavy chain, whereas SUK 2 binds to a spatially distinct site. None of the monoclonal antikinesins inhibited the microtubule activated MgATPase activity of kinesin, suggesting that SUK 4, SUK 6, and SUK 7 uncouple this MgATPase activity from motility. PMID:2974459

  16. Monoclonal antibodies that target pathological assemblies of Abeta.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Mary P; Velasco, Pauline T; Chang, Lei; Viola, Kirsten L; Fernandez, Sara; Lacor, Pascale N; Khuon, Daliya; Gong, Yuesong; Bigio, Eileen H; Shaw, Pamela; De Felice, Fernanda G; Krafft, Grant A; Klein, William L

    2007-01-01

    Amyloid beta (Abeta) immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease has shown initial success in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease and in human patients. However, because of meningoencephalitis in clinical trials of active vaccination, approaches using therapeutic antibodies may be preferred. As a novel antigen to generate monoclonal antibodies, the current study has used Abeta oligomers (amyloid beta-derived diffusible ligands, ADDLs), pathological assemblies known to accumulate in Alzheimer's disease brain. Clones were selected for the ability to discriminate Alzheimer's disease from control brains in extracts and tissue sections. These antibodies recognized Abeta oligomers and fibrils but not the physiologically prevalent Abeta monomer. Discrimination derived from an epitope found in assemblies of Abeta1-28 and ADDLs but not in other sequences, including Abeta1-40. Immunoneutralization experiments showed that toxicity and attachment of ADDLs to synapses in culture could be prevented. ADDL-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was also inhibited, establishing this response to be oligomer-dependent. Inhibition occurred whether ADDLs were prepared in vitro or obtained from Alzheimer's disease brain. As conformationally sensitive monoclonal antibodies that selectively immunoneutralize binding and function of pathological Abeta assemblies, these antibodies provide tools by which pathological Abeta assemblies from Alzheimer's disease brain might be isolated and evaluated, as well as offering a valuable prototype for new antibodies useful for Alzheimer's disease therapeutics.

  17. Quantitative SPECT of uptake of monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    DeNardo, G.L.; Macey, D.J.; DeNardo, S.J.; Zhang, C.G.; Custer, T.R.

    1989-01-01

    Absolute quantitation of the distribution of radiolabeled antibodies is important to the efficient conduct of research with these agents and their ultimate use for imaging and treatment, but is formidable because of the unrestricted nature of their distribution within the patient. Planar imaging methods have been developed and provide an adequate approximation of the distribution of radionuclide for many purposes, particularly when there is considerable specificity of targeting. This is not currently the case for antibodies and is unlikely in the future. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides potential for greater accuracy because it reduces problems caused by superimposition of tissues and non-target contributions to target counts. SPECT measurement of radionuclide content requires: (1) accurate determination of camera sensitivity; (2) accurate determination of the number of counts in a defined region of interest; (3) correction for attenuation; (4) correction for scatter and septal penetration; (5) accurate measurement of the administered dose; (6) adequate statistics; and (7) accurate definition of tissue mass or volume. The major impediment to each of these requirements is scatter of many types. The magnitude of this problem can be diminished by improvements in tomographic camera design, computer algorithms, and methodological approaches. 34 references.

  18. Biosimilar monoclonal antibodies in lymphoma: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Rioufol, Catherine; Salles, Gilles

    2015-05-01

    Rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, revolutionized the treatment of lymphoma. Although newer generation anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies are being examined, patent expiries and patient demand have fueled the development of rituximab biosimilars. The development of such agents is both an important and difficult undertaking. By definition, although they aim to have safety and efficacy comparable with their reference agents, biosimilars are not exact replicas of those agents, and small changes in nonclinical and preclinical properties may ultimately affect in vivo activity. Consideration must be given to the complex mechanisms of action, sensitive patient populations that may be treated, and appropriate clinical trial endpoints. Furthermore, extrapolation of indications is multifaceted, deserving close examination. This review represents a critical look at biosimilars in lymphoma and their safety, efficacy and long-term effects on patient outcomes.

  19. Isolation of monoclonal antibodies that recognize the transforming proteins of avian sarcoma viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Lipsich, L A; Lewis, A J; Brugge, J S

    1983-01-01

    Thirteen clones of hybrid cells which synthesize antibodies directed against the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) transforming protein, pp60src, were isolated. Mouse myeloma cells were fused with spleen cells from mice that had been immunized with purified pp60src from bacterial recombinants which direct the synthesis of the RSV src gene. The hybridomas which survived the selection medium were screened by immunoprecipitation of pp60src from 32P-labeled lysates of RSV-transformed cells. Monoclonal antibodies produced by subclones derived from 13 hybridomas recognized pp60src encoded by the Schmidt-Ruppin and Prague strains of RSV and the cellular homolog of pp60src. Antibody from clone 261 had a high affinity for the viral yes gene product, and antibodies from clones 443 and 463 recognized the transforming proteins encoded by viruses containing the related transforming genes fps and ros. Several other clones had a low affinity for the viral yes, fps, and ros gene products which could be detected by in vitro phosphorylation of the transforming proteins after immunoprecipitation with the monoclonal antibody. All of the monoclonal antibodies allowed phosphorylation of pp60src and casein in an immune complex-bound reaction. Images PMID:6312092

  20. Monoclonal antibodies directed against surface molecules of multicell spheroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Andrew O.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this project is to generate a library of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to surface molecules of mammalian tumor and transformed cells grown as multicell spheroids (MCS). These MCS are highly organized, three dimensional multicellular structures which exhibit many characteristics of in vivo organized tissues not found in conventional monolayer or suspension culture; therefore, MCS make better in vitro model systems to study the interactions of mammalian cells. Additionally, they provide a functional assay for surface adhesion molecules.

  1. Positron emission tomographic imaging of tumors using monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Zalutsky, M.R.

    1992-08-01

    This research project is developing methods for utilizing positron emission tomography (PET) to increase the clinical potential of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). This report describes the development of methods for labeling MAbs and their fragments with positron-emitting halogen nuclides, fluorine-18 and iodine-124. These nulides were selected because of the widespread availability of F-18 and because of our extensive experience in the development of new protein radiohalogenation methods.

  2. Monoclonal antibodies recognizing single amino acid substitutions in hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Stanker, L.H.; Branscomb, E.; Vanderlaan, M.; Jensen, R.H.

    1986-06-01

    Four monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to non-human primate hemoglobin referred to as Cap-4, Cap-5, Rh-2, and Rh-4, and two mAb to human hemoglobin, referred to as H-1 and H-3 were isolated and were partially characterized. Binding studies with these mAb on a panel of hemoglobins and isolated ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. globin chains revealed a unique reactivity pattern for each mAb. Amino acid sequence analysis of the antigens used to generate the binding data suggests that the specific recognition of certain hemoglobin antigens by each mAb is controlled by the presence of a particular amino acid at a specific position within the epitope. The use of synthetic peptides as antigens confirmed this observation for five of the mAb. No synthetic peptides were tested with the sixth mAb, Rh-2. The amino acids required for binding of mAb Cap-4, Cap-5, Rh-4, and Rh-2 to hemoglobin are alanine at ..beta..5, threonine at ..beta..13, glutamine at ..beta..125, and leucine at ..cap alpha..68. The non-human primate hemoglobin antibodies require a specific amino acid that is not present in human hemoglobin. The amino acid required for binding of Cap-4, Cap-5, and Rh-4 could arise by a single base change in the ..beta.. globin gene, whereas the amino acid required for Rh-2 binding could only occur if two base changes occurred. Thus these mAb are candidate probes for a somatic cell mutation assay on the basis of the detection of peripheral blood red cells that possess single amino acid substituted hemoglobin as a result of single base substitutions in the globin genes of precursor cells.

  3. Recovery and purification process development for monoclonal antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junfen; Winter, Charles; Bayer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Hundreds of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are currently in development, and many companies have multiple antibodies in their pipelines. Current methodology used in recovery processes for these molecules are reviewed here. Basic unit operations such as harvest, Protein A affinity chromatography and additional polishing steps are surveyed. Alternative processes such as flocculation, precipitation and membrane chromatography are discussed. We also cover platform approaches to purification methods development, use of high throughput screening methods, and offer a view on future developments in purification methodology as applied to mAbs. PMID:20647768

  4. Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies against Biological Toxins. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-14

    the original copy. AD-B’i76 29`8 CONTRACT NO: DAMD17-93-C-3083 TITLE: NEUTRALIZING MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES AGAINST BIOLOGIC4JL TOXINS PRINCIPAL...Biological ’ Toxins DAMDl7-93-C-308.3 6. AUTHOR($) 65502A 30665502MB02. S4 .274 Mark C. Glassy, Ph.D. WUDA336206 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMI(S...NUMBER OF PAGES RA I, SBIR, Antibody, Toxins , BL2, BD 16. PRICE COUE 17. SEC.URIly (LASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIMICATION 19. SECURITY

  5. Production of Monoclonal Antibodies in Plants for Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Moussavou, Ghislain; Ko, Kisung; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Choo, Young-Kug

    2015-01-01

    Plants are considered as an alternative platform for recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) production due to the improvement and diversification of transgenic techniques. The diversity of plant species offers a multitude of possibilities for the valorization of genetic resources. Moreover, plants can be propagated indefinitely, providing cheap biomass production on a large scale in controlled conditions. Thus, recent studies have shown the successful development of plant systems for the production of mAbs for cancer immunotherapy. However, their several limitations have to be resolved for efficient antibody production in plants. PMID:26550566

  6. Monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhi-Qiang; Buchsbaum, Donald J

    2009-01-01

    Human pancreatic cancer is a malignant disease with almost equal incidence and mortality. Effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies are still urgently needed to improve its survival rate. With advances in structural and functional genomics, recent work has focused on targeted molecular therapy using monoclonal antibodies. This review summarizes the target molecules on the tumor cell surface and normal tissue stroma, which are related to pancreatic cancer oncogenesis, tumor growth or resistance to chemotherapy, as well as molecules involved in regulating inflammation and host immunoresponses. Targeted molecules include cell-surface receptors, such as the EGF receptor, HER2, death receptor 5 and IGF-1 receptor. Effects of monoclonal antibodies against these target molecules alone or in combination with chemotherapy, small-molecule signal transduction inhibitors, or radiation therapy are also discussed. Also discussed are the use of toxin or radioisotope conjugates, and information relating to the use of these targeting agents in pancreatic cancer clinical trials. Although targeted molecular therapy with monoclonal antibodies has made some progress in pancreatic cancer treatment, especially in preclinical studies, its clinical application to improve the survival rate of pancreatic cancer patients requires further investigation. PMID:20046965

  7. [Monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9: from bench to clinic].

    PubMed

    Guijarro Herraiz, Carlos

    2016-05-01

    Antibodies are glycoproteins with high specificity binding to multiple antigens due to the large number of structural conformations of the variable chains. Hybridoma technology (fusion of myeloma cells with immunoglobulin-producing lymphocytes) has allowed the synthesis of large quantities of unique antibodies (monoclonal [mAb]). mAbs were initially murine. Subsequently, chimeric mAbs were developed, followed by humanized mAbs and finally human mAbs. The high selectivity and good tolerance of human mAbs allows their therapeutic administration to block specific exogenous or endogenous molecules. Selective human mAbs to the catalytic domain of PCSK9 have recently been developed. These antibodies block PCSK9, favour low-density lipoprotein receptor recycling and markedly reduce circulating cholesterol. Preliminary studies indicate that lowering cholesterol through anti-PCSK9 antibodies may significantly reduce the cardiovascular complications of arteriosclerosis.

  8. Monoclonal antibody selection for interleukin-4 quantification using suspension arrays and forward-phase protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Cole, K D; Peterson, A; He, Hua-Jun; Gaigalas, A K; Zong, Y

    2007-12-01

    A recombinant mouse interleukin-4 (IL-4) and three different purified rat antimouse IL-4 monoclonal antibodies (Mab) with different clonalities were employed as a model system. This system was used to examine monoclonal antibody effectiveness using both conventional and high-throughput measurement techniques to select antibodies for attaining the most sensitive detection of the recombinant IL-4 through the "sandwich-type" immunoassays. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements and two high-throughput methods, suspension arrays (also called multiplexed bead arrays) and forward-phase protein microarrays, predicted the same capture (BVD4-1D11) and detection (BVD6-24G2) antibody pair for the most sensitive detection of the recombinant cytokine. By using this antibody pair, we were able to detect as low as 2 pg/mL of IL-4 in buffer solution and 13.5 pg/mL of IL-4 spiked in 100% normal mouse serum with the multiplexed bead arrays. Due to the large amount of material required for SPR measurements, the study suggests that the multiplexed bead arrays and protein microarrays are both suited for the selection of numerous antibodies against the same analyte of interest to meet the need in the areas of systems biology and reproducible clinical diagnostics for better patient care.

  9. Mapping Broadly Reactive Norovirus Genogroup I and II Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Sue E.; Ajami, Nadim; Parker, Tracy Dewese; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Natori, Katsuro; Takeda, Naokazu; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Kou, Baijun; Atmar, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Noroviruses are responsible for most acute nonbacterial epidemic outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. To develop cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for rapid identification of genogroup I and II (GI and GII) noroviruses (NoVs) in field specimens, mice were immunized with baculovirus-expressed recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) corresponding to NoVs. Nine MAbs against the capsid protein were identified that detected both GI and GII NoV VLPs. These MAbs were tested in competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to identify common epitope reactivities to GI and GII VLPs. Patterns of competitive reactivity placed these MAbs into two epitope groups (groups 1 and 2). Epitopes for MAbs NV23 and NS22 (group 1) and MAb F120 (group 2) were mapped to a continuous region in the C-terminal P1 subdomain of the capsid protein. This domain is within regions previously defined to contain cross-reactive epitopes in GI and GII viruses, suggesting that common epitopes are clustered within the P1 domain of the capsid protein. Further characterization in an accompanying paper (B. Kou et al., Clin Vaccine Immunol 22:160–167, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00519-14) revealed that MAb NV23 (epitope group 1) is able to detect GI and GII viruses in stool. Inclusion of the GI and GII cross-reactive MAb NV23 in antigen detection assays may facilitate the identification of GI and GII human noroviruses in stool samples as causative agents of outbreaks and sporadic cases of gastroenteritis worldwide. PMID:25428246

  10. Intravesical administration of radiolabeled antitumor monoclonal antibody in bladder carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Bamias, A.; Keane, P.; Krausz, T.; Williams, G.; Epenetos, A.A. )

    1991-01-15

    Tumor associated AUA1 monoclonal antibody and 11.4.1. nonspecific monoclonal antibody, which does not react with human tissues, were radiolabeled with 111In and administered intravesically to 23 patients undergoing cystoscopy for bladder carcinoma. The antibody solution remained in the bladder for 1 h and then was washed out prior to cystoscopy. Tumor and nontumor samples were obtained during cystoscopy and were counted in a gamma counter. Conventional and immunoperoxidase staining with both antibodies were also performed. AUA1 reacted with all bladder carcinomas while 11.4.1. was negative in all cases. The mean uptake of AUA1 at 2, 24, and 48 h after the instillation (expressed as 10(3) x percentage of injected dose/g of tissue) was: 6.12 +/- 5.50 (SD), 1.70 +/- 2.57, 0.30 +/- 0.17 in the tumors and 0.32 +/- 0.50, 0.22 +/- 0.30, 0 in the nontumor areas, and for 11.4.1. it was: 0.075 +/- 0.075, 0.025 +/- 0.025 in the tumors and 0.30 +/- 0.42, 0.15 +/- 0.26 in the nontumor areas. The uptake of AUA1 by the tumors correlated with the tumor grade. There was no radioactivity in the blood at 2 h, and at 1, 2, and 3 days after the instillation. Our results indicate that intravesical administration of radiolabeled monoclonal antibody AUA1 targets selectively to tumor tissue without any significant normal tissue uptake. This finding might allow the development of a nontoxic and specific therapeutic approach for superficial bladder carcinoma.

  11. Antibody-mediated immune suppression is improved when blends of anti-RBC monoclonal antibodies are used in mice.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Lidice; Amash, Alaa; Marjoram, Danielle; Lazarus, Alan H

    2016-08-25

    Although the prevention of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn is highly effective using polyclonal anti-D, a recombinant alternative is long overdue. Unfortunately, anti-D monoclonal antibodies have been, at best, disappointing. To determine the primary attribute defining an optimal antibody, we assessed suppression of murine red blood cell (RBC) immunization by single-monoclonal antibodies vs defined blends of subtype-matched antibodies. Allogeneic RBCs expressing the HOD antigen (hen egg lysozyme [HEL]-ovalbumin-human transmembrane Duffy(b)) were transfused into naïve mice alone or together with selected combinations of HEL-specific antibodies, and the resulting suppressive effect was assessed by evaluating the antibody response. Polyclonal HEL antibodies dramatically inhibited the antibody response to the HOD antigen, whereas single-monoclonal HEL antibodies were less effective despite the use of saturating doses. A blend of monoclonal HEL-specific antibodies reactive with different HEL epitopes significantly increased the suppressive effect, whereas a blend of monoclonal antibodies that block each other's binding to the HEL protein did not increase suppression. In conclusion, these data show that polyclonal antibodies are superior to monoclonal antibodies at suppressing the immune response to the HOD cells, a feature that can be completely recapitulated using monoclonal antibodies to different epitopes.

  12. Monoclonal antibodies and reagents for botulinum research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is produced by Clostridium botulinum as a dichain protein of ~ 150 kDa that blocks acetylcholine release resulting in muscular paralysis. Diagnosis of BoNT often relies on the mouse bioassay that has a detection limit of 10–20 pg/mL and can take up to four days to complet...

  13. [Monoclonal antibodies to type A, B, E and F botulinum neurotoxins].

    PubMed

    Abbasova, S G; Ruddenko, N V; Gorokhovatskiĭ, A Iu; Kapralova, M V; Vinogradova, I D; Vertiev, Iu V; Nesmeianov, V A; Grishin, E V

    2011-01-01

    Mouse monoclonal antibodies against the most acutely toxic substances, botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) of types A, B, E, and F, was generated and characterized, that recognize their respective toxins in natural toxin complex. Based on these antibodies, we developed sandwich-ELISA for quantitative detection of these toxins. For each respective toxin the detection limit of the assay was: BoNT/A - 0.4 ng/ml, BoNT/B - 0.5 ng/ml; BoNT/E - 0.1 ng/ml; and for BoNT/F - 2.4 ng/ml. The developed assays permitted quantitative identification of the BoNTs in canned meat and vegetables. The BNTA-4.1 and BNTA-9.1 antibodies possessed neutralizing activity against natural complex of the botulinium toxin type A in vivo, both individually and in mixture, the mixture of the antibodies neutralized the higher dose of the toxin. The BNTA-4.1 antibody binds specifically the light chain (the chain with protease activity) of the toxin, whereas BNTA-9.1 interacts with the heavy chain. We believe that the BNTA-4.1 and BNTA-9.1 monoclonal antibodies are prospective candidates for development of humanized therapeutic antibodies for treatment of BoNT/A-caused botulism.

  14. Thrombus detection with a radiolabeled antiplatelet monoclonal antibody: Comparison with In-111-oxine technique in coronary and peripheral thrombi in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.; Esekowitz, M.D.; Meinken, G.E.; Lange, R.C.; Smith, E.; Carbo, P.; Scudder, L.E.; Coller, B.

    1985-05-01

    Platelets (P) labeled with low concentrations of an I-123 or In-111 labeled anti-P monoclonal antibody (7E3) were shown earlier to successfully image in-vivo thrombi. This study was carried out to compare this technique with In-111-oxine-P for localizing coronary and venous thrombi (CT and DVT) in dogs. Thrombi were induced using either transcatheter placement of a dacron pug, mechanical trauma, or electrocoagulation. 7E3 was labeled with I-131 in 70 +- 10% yield (labeling conditions: 100 ..mu..g 7E3; 5 ..mu..g chloramine T; I/sup -//7E3 less than or equal to1; 2 min reaction; 200 ..mu..l pH 7 phosphate buffer; Sp. act. 10-30 ..mu..Ci/..mu..g). Binding of I-131-7E3 to dog P was 75 +- 10% after 1 hr incubation with whole blood. The dogs were injected with 0.5 mCi In-111-oxine-P and 1 mCi I-131-7E3-P in quick succession and data (blood clearance and imaging) were collected for 4 hr. In one experiment, DVT were clearly imaged within 10 min and CT in 30-60 min with I-131-7E3-P. In contrast, In-oxine-P required at least 30 min for imaging DVT and CT were only faintly visualized at 3-4 hr. The DVT to blood and CT to blood ratios at 2.4 hr were 16 and 12.3 for I-131-7E3-P and 9.4 and 6.5 for In-111-oxine-P respectively. In these preliminary studies, I-131-7E3-P thus appears to be superior to In-oxine-P for imaging venous and coronary thrombi. Additionally, 7E3 can be labeled with Tc-99m and I-123 for reduced dose and better imaging properties.

  15. Efficient generation of human IgA monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lorin, Valérie; Mouquet, Hugo

    2015-07-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the most abundant antibody isotype produced in humans. IgA antibodies primarily ensure immune protection of mucosal surfaces against invading pathogens, but also circulate and are present in large quantities in blood. IgAs are heterogeneous at a molecular level, with two IgA subtypes and the capacity to form multimers by interacting with the joining (J) chain. Here, we have developed an efficient strategy to rapidly generate human IgA1 and IgA2 monoclonal antibodies in their monomeric and dimeric forms. Recombinant monomeric and dimeric IgA1/IgA2 counterparts of a prototypical IgG1 monoclonal antibody, 10-1074, targeting the HIV-1 envelope protein, were produced in large amounts after expression cloning and transient transfection of 293-F cells. 10-1074 IgAs were FPLC-purified using a novel affinity-based resin engrafted with anti-IgA chimeric Fabs, followed by a monomers/multimers separation using size exclusion-based FPLC. ELISA binding experiments confirmed that the artificial IgA class switching of 10-1074 did not alter its antigen recognition. In summary, our technical approach allows the very efficient production of various forms of purified recombinant human IgA molecules, which are precious tools in dissecting IgA B-cell responses in physiological and pathophysiological conditions, and studying the biology, function and therapeutic potential of IgAs.

  16. Development and characterisation of monoclonal antibodies reactive with porcine CSF1R (CD115).

    PubMed

    Moffat, L; Rothwell, L; Garcia-Morales, C; Sauter, K A; Kapetanovic, R; Gow, D J; Hume, D A

    2014-11-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1) controls the proliferation and differentiation of cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system. CSF1, alongside a second ligand, interleukin-34 (IL-34), acts by binding to a cell surface receptor (CSF1R). We previously cloned and expressed pig CSF1 and IL-34. Here we produced a pig CSF1R-Ig+pFUSE Fc fusion protein and used it as an immunogen to produce three monoclonal antibodies (ROS8G11, ROS3A5 and ROS3B10) targeted against porcine CSF1R. Specific binding of each monoclonal antibody was confirmed by ELISA, Western blot, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. The antibodies did not block CSF1 signalling. The surface expression of CSF1R in pig peripheral blood was restricted to CD14-positive monocytes and was also detected on lung macrophages. These antibodies provided an opportunity to investigate the increase of available CSF1R during pig BMDM differentiation. The new monoclonal antibodies provide useful reagents to support the study of monocyte and macrophage biology in the pig.

  17. Monoclonal antibody epitope mapping of Plasmodium falciparum rhoptry proteins.

    PubMed

    Sam-Yellowe, T Y; Ndengele, M M

    1993-02-01

    Plasmodium falciparum rhoptry proteins of the 140/130/110-kDa high molecular weight complex (HMWC) are secreted into the erythrocyte membrane during merozoite invasion. Epitopes of membrane-associated HMWC proteins can be detected using rhoptry-specific antibodies by immunofluorescence assays. Phospholipase treatment of ring-infected intact human erythrocytes, membrane ghosts, and inside-out vesicles results in the release of the HMWC as demonstrated by immunoblotting. We characterized the membrane-associating properties of the 110-kDa protein in more detail. PLA2 from three different sources; bee venom, Naja naja venom, and porcine pancreas, were examined and all were equally effective in releasing the 110-kDa protein. Furthermore, PLA2 activity was inhibited by o-phenanthroline, quinacrine, maleic anhydride, and partially by p-bromophenacyl bromide, indicating that the activity of PLA2 is specific. Using sequential protease and phospholipase digestion experiments to map the immunoreactive and functional epitopes of the 110-kDa protein, a 35-kDa protease-resistant protein associated with mouse and human erythrocyte membranes was identified. Limited proteolysis of the 110-kDa protein and analysis by immunoblotting demonstrated several immunoreactive cleavage products, including a highly protease-resistant peptide fragment of approximately 35-kDa which corresponds to the membrane-associated protein. Epitope mapping of the 130-kDa rhoptry protein resulted in a different pattern of cleavage products. Stage-specific metabolic labeling of P. falciparum with [3H] palmitate and [3H] myristate was performed to determine the lipophilic properties of the HMWC. Results showed the incorporation of label into proteins of approximate molecular weight 200 and 45-kDa, predominantly in the late schizont stage. Interestingly, proteins of 140 and 110/100-kDa, corresponding to [35S] methionine-labeled proteins were labeled with [3H]palmitate in ring-infected erythrocyte membranes

  18. Transformation-Related Antigens Identified by Monoclonal Antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strand, Mette

    1980-06-01

    Tumor-cell proteins that were antigenic in a syngeneic animal were identified by immunoprecipitation with monoclonal antibodies. Spleen cells of BALB/c mice immunized with plasma membranes of Kirsten RNA sarcoma virus-transformed BALB/3T3 cells were fused with NS-l myeloma cells. Antibodies secreted into the culture fluid from these hybridomas were distinguished by their reactivity against proteins of different target cells. A total of 191 cultures were established; 143 produced antibodies that bound to BALB/3T3 cells transformed by the RNA sarcoma virus, of which antibodies from 82 bound to BALB/3T3 transformed with simian virus 40, and antibodies from 56 bound to BALB/3T3 cells. Thus, more than 50% of the cultures produced antibodies that possibly were specific to antigens of the transformed cell. Twenty different hybridomas have been cloned, and antibodies from eight of these were found to immunoprecipitate five different proteins. A protein of approximately 32,000 daltons was precipitated from BALB/3T3 cells transformed by the RNA sarcoma virus, simian virus 40, or methylcholanthrene but not from untransformed BALB/3T3 cells. A protein of about 300,000 daltons was precipitated from all four cell lines; precipitation was enhanced in the viral transformed cells. Proteins of approximately 57,000, 54,000, and 8500 daltons were immunoprecipitated from all four cell lines.

  19. A human monoclonal antibody that binds serotype A botulinum neurotoxin.

    PubMed

    Adekar, Sharad P; Jones, R Mark; Elias, M D; Al-Saleem, Fetweh H; Root, Michael J; Simpson, Lance L; Dessain, Scott K

    2008-02-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have demonstrated significant potential as therapeutics for botulinum neurotoxin exposures. We previously described a hybridoma method for cloning native human antibodies that uses a murine myeloma cell line that ectopically expresses the human telomerase catalytic subunit gene (hTERT) and the murine interleukin-6 gene (mIL-6). Here we describe a heterohybridoma cell line that ectopically expresses mIL-6 and hTERT and has improved stability of hTERT expression. We fused this cell line to human peripheral blood B cells from a subject who had received the botulinum toxoid vaccine, cloning a high-affinity antibody (13A) specific for serotype A botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/A). The 13A antibody is an affinity-matured, post-germinal center IgG(1) lambda antibody that has partial neutralization activity in vivo. 13A binds an epitope on BoNT/A that overlaps the binding epitope of an IgG antibody previously shown to fully neutralize a lethal dose of BoNT/A in vivo. The 13A antibody may be useful for diagnostic testing or for incorporation into an oligoclonal therapeutic to counteract BoNT/A exposure.

  20. Improved monoclonal antibody tumor/background ratios with exchange transfusions.

    PubMed

    Henry, C A; Clavo, A C; Wahl, R L

    1991-01-01

    Blood exchange transfusions were performed in nude rats with subcutaneous HTB77 human ovarian carcinoma xenografts in an attempt to improve specific monoclonal antibody (MoAb) tumor/non-tumor uptake ratios. Animals were injected intravenously with both 131I-5G6.4 specific and 125I-UPC-10 non-specific MoAb. Twenty-four hours later 65-80% of the original blood was exchanged with normal heparinized rat blood and then these rodents were sacrificed. Exchange transfusion significantly (P less than 0.05) decreased normal tissue activities of 131I (except for muscle) by 63-85%, while tumor activity decreased only 5%. Tumor to background ratios increased from 0.1-0.8 to 2.3-6.3. Exchange transfusions substantially enhance tumor/normal tissue antibody uptake ratios and, along with plasmapheresis, may be useful in enhancing antibody localization in vivo, particularly for therapy.

  1. Monoclonal antibody aggregation intermediates visualized by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hanjoo; Kirchmeier, Marc; Mach, Henryk

    2011-02-01

    Ubiquitous but highly variable processes of therapeutic protein aggregation remain poorly characterized, especially in the context of common infusion reactions and clinical immunogenicity. Among the numerous challenges is the characterization of intermediate steps that lead to the appearance of precipitates. Although the biophysical methods for elucidation of secondary and tertiary structures as well as overall size distribution are typically well established in the development laboratories, the use of molecular scale imaging techniques is still relatively rare due to low throughput and technical complexity. In this work, we present the use of atomic force microscopy to examine morphology of monoclonal antibody aggregates. Despite varying in primary structure as a result of different complementarity defining regions, most antibodies studied exhibited a similar aggregation intermediate consisting of several monomers. However, the manner of subsequent condensation of these oligomers appeared to differ between the antibodies, suggesting stability-dependent mechanisms.

  2. Daratumumab: monoclonal antibody therapy to treat multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Xia, C; Ribeiro, M; Scott, S; Lonial, S

    2016-10-01

    Daratumumab (Darzalex[TM]) is a human monoclonal antibody (MAb) that targets CD38; a surface protein highly expressed across multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Preclinical studies have shown daratumumab induces MM cell death through several mechanisms, including complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), apoptosis upon secondary crosslinking and immunomodulatory effects via a decrease in immune suppressive cells. Daratumumab has a favorable toxicity profile and encouraging clinical activity as a single agent and in combination with lenalidomide in heavily pretreated, relapsed patients in whom other novel agents (such as bortezomib, thalidomide and lenalidomide) and stem cell transplant have already failed. Given the encouraging efficacy and acceptable safety profile, daratumumab has emerged as a novel treatment option for MM both as a monotherapy and in combination with conventional and novel anti-MM agents. This review will focus on preclinical pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety and clinical development of daratumumab in MM.

  3. Immunohistochemical staining of cyclooxygenases with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Saed, Ghassan M

    2008-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry is an important tool that is often used for the diagnosis of several diseases in the pathology laboratory. The quality and sensitivity of immunohistochemical staining is affected by formalin fixation, which results in variable loss of antigenicity, known as a masking effect. While the sensitivity of immunohistochemistry is excellent for certain antigens, other antigens such as COX-1 and COX-2 are difficult to identify, especially in formalin-fixed, paraffin sections. Antigen retrieval is a technique that re-exposes epitopes and allows detection of masked antigens with standard immunohistochemical procedures. One common method involves partial, enzymatic pre-digestion with trypsin or pepsin while other, nonenzymatic procedures or heat-mediated antigen retrieval methods include pressure-cookers, hot plates, or microwave (MW) irradiation of tissue sections in water or a variety of antigen-retrieval solutions. In this chapter, we will describe a technique that provides a more reliable, much simpler approach for the demonstration of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in frozen, vibratome or paraffin sections, and/or cells in cultures.

  4. Efficient generation of monoclonal antibodies from single rhesus macaque antibody secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Weixu; Li, Leike; Xiong, Wei; Fan, Xuejun; Deng, Hui; Bett, Andrew J; Chen, Zhifeng; Tang, Aimin; Cox, Kara S; Joyce, Joseph G; Freed, Daniel C; Thoryk, Elizabeth; Fu, Tong-Ming; Casimiro, Danilo R; Zhang, Ningyan; A Vora, Kalpit; An, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are used as a preclinical model for vaccine development, and the antibody profiles to experimental vaccines in NHPs can provide critical information for both vaccine design and translation to clinical efficacy. However, an efficient protocol for generating monoclonal antibodies from single antibody secreting cells of NHPs is currently lacking. In this study we established a robust protocol for cloning immunoglobulin (IG) variable domain genes from single rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) antibody secreting cells. A sorting strategy was developed using a panel of molecular markers (CD3, CD19, CD20, surface IgG, intracellular IgG, CD27, Ki67 and CD38) to identify the kinetics of B cell response after vaccination. Specific primers for the rhesus macaque IG genes were designed and validated using cDNA isolated from macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Cloning efficiency was averaged at 90% for variable heavy (VH) and light (VL) domains, and 78.5% of the clones (n = 335) were matched VH and VL pairs. Sequence analysis revealed that diverse IGHV subgroups (for VH) and IGKV and IGLV subgroups (for VL) were represented in the cloned antibodies. The protocol was tested in a study using an experimental dengue vaccine candidate. About 26.6% of the monoclonal antibodies cloned from the vaccinated rhesus macaques react with the dengue vaccine antigens. These results validate the protocol for cloning monoclonal antibodies in response to vaccination from single macaque antibody secreting cells, which have general applicability for determining monoclonal antibody profiles in response to other immunogens or vaccine studies of interest in NHPs.

  5. Analysis of acetylcholine receptor phosphorylation sites using antibodies to synthetic peptides and monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Safran, A; Neumann, D; Fuchs, S

    1986-01-01

    Three peptides corresponding to residues 354-367, 364-374, 373-387 of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) delta subunit were synthesized. These peptides represent the proposed phosphorylation sites of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, the tyrosine-specific protein kinase and the calcium/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase respectively. Using these peptides as substrates for phosphorylation by the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase it was shown that only peptides 354-367 was phosphorylated whereas the other two were not. These results verify the location of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site within the AChR delta subunit. Antibodies elicited against these peptides reacted with the delta subunit. The antipeptide antibodies and two monoclonal antibodies (7F2, 5.46) specific for the delta subunit were tested for their binding to non-phosphorylated receptor and to receptor phosphorylated by the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Antibodies to peptide 354-367 were found to react preferentially with non-phosphorylated receptor whereas the two other anti-peptide antibodies bound equally to phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated receptors. Monoclonal antibody 7F2 reacted preferentially with the phosphorylated form of the receptor whereas monoclonal antibody 5.46 did not distinguish between the two forms. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3816758

  6. Macaque Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Novel Conserved Epitopes within Filovirus Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Zhen-Yong; Enterlein, Sven G.; Howell, Katie A.; Vu, Hong; Shulenin, Sergey; Warfield, Kelly L.; Froude, Jeffrey W.; Araghi, Nazli; Douglas, Robin; Biggins, Julia; Lear-Rooney, Calli M.; Wirchnianski, Ariel S.; Lau, Patrick; Wang, Yong; Herbert, Andrew S.; Dye, John M.; Glass, Pamela J.; Holtsberg, Frederick W.; Foung, Steven K. H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Filoviruses cause highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. Current immunotherapeutic options for filoviruses are mostly specific to Ebola virus (EBOV), although other members of Filoviridae such as Sudan virus (SUDV), Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), and Marburg virus (MARV) have also caused sizeable human outbreaks. Here we report a set of pan-ebolavirus and pan-filovirus monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) derived from cynomolgus macaques immunized repeatedly with a mixture of engineered glycoproteins (GPs) and virus-like particles (VLPs) for three different filovirus species. The antibodies recognize novel neutralizing and nonneutralizing epitopes on the filovirus glycoprotein, including conserved conformational epitopes within the core regions of the GP1 subunit and a novel linear epitope within the glycan cap. We further report the first filovirus antibody binding to a highly conserved epitope within the fusion loop of ebolavirus and marburgvirus species. One of the antibodies binding to the core GP1 region of all ebolavirus species and with lower affinity to MARV GP cross neutralized both SUDV and EBOV, the most divergent ebolavirus species. In a mouse model of EBOV infection, this antibody provided 100% protection when administered in two doses and partial, but significant, protection when given once at the peak of viremia 3 days postinfection. Furthermore, we describe novel cocktails of antibodies with enhanced protective efficacy compared to individual MAbs. In summary, the present work describes multiple novel, cross-reactive filovirus epitopes and innovative combination concepts that challenge the current therapeutic models. IMPORTANCE Filoviruses are among the most deadly human pathogens. The 2014-2015 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) led to more than 27,000 cases and 11,000 fatalities. While there are five species of Ebolavirus and several strains of marburgvirus, the current immunotherapeutics primarily target Ebola virus

  7. [Progress in preparation of small monoclonal antibodies of knock out technique].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Mao, Xin-min; Li, Lin-lin; Li, Xin-xia; Wang, Ye; Lan, Yi

    2015-10-01

    With the application of monoclonal antibody technology more and more widely, its production technology is becoming more and more perfect. Small molecule monoclonal antibody technology is becoming a hot research topic for people. The application of traditional Chinese medicine small molecule monoclonal antibody technology has been more and more widely, the technology for effective Chinese medicine component knockout provide strong technical support. The preparation of monoclonal antibodies and small molecule knockout technology are reviewed in this paper. The preparation of several steps, such as: in the process of preparation of antigen, hapten carrier coupling, coupling ratio determination and identification of artificial antigen and establishment of animal immunization and hybridoma cell lines of monoclonal antibody, the large-scale preparation; small molecule monoclonal antibody on Immune in affinity chromatography column method is discussed in detail. The author believes that this technology will make the traditional Chinese medicine research on a higher level, and improve the level of internationalization of Chinese medicine research.

  8. Monoclonal antibodies against type II rat brain protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Nakabayashi, C.H.; Huang, K.P.

    1987-05-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies (8/1, 10/10, and 25/3) against rat brain type II protein kinase C (PKC) were used to carry out the immunochemical characterization of this kinase. These antibodies immunoprecipitated the type II PKC in a dose-dependent manner but did neither to type I nor type III isozyme. Purified type II PKC has a molecular weight of 82,000 and consists of heterogeneous isoelectric point species, all of which are cross reactive with these antibodies. Immunoblot analysis of the tryptic fragments from PKC revealed that all three antibodies recognized the 33-38-KDa fragments, the phospholipid/phorbol ester-binding domain, but not the 45-48-KDa fragments, the kinase catalytic domain. The immune complexes of the kinase and the antibodies retained the kinase activity which was dependent on Ca/sup 2 +/ and phosphatidylserine (PS) and further activated by diacylglycerol. With antibody 8/1, the apparent Km values of the kinase for Ca/sup 2 +/ and PS were not influenced. The initial rate and final extent of autophosphorylation were reduced. The concentration of PS required for half-maximal (/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) binding was increased and the total PDBu binding was reduced. In the presence of optimum concentrations of Ca/sup 2 +/ and PS, the Kd of PDBu was unaffected by the antibody but the total binding was reduced. These results demonstrate that the PS/PDBu-binding domain contains the major epitope for the antibodies and the antibody mainly influences the PS/PDBu binding to the kinase.

  9. Immunolocalization of neuroblastoma using radiolabeled monoclonal antibody UJ13A

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, A.; Vivian, G.; Gordon, I.; Pritchard, J.; Kemshead, J.

    1984-08-01

    The monoclonal antibody UJ13A, raised after immunization of mice with human fetal brain, recognized an antigen expressed on human neuroblastoma cell lines and fresh tumors. Antibody was purified and radiolabeled with iodine isotopes using chloramine-T. In preclinical studies, 125I-labeled UJ13A was injected intravenously into nude mice bearing xenografts of human neuroblastoma. Radiolabeled UJ13A uptake by the tumors was four to 23 times greater than that by blood. In control animals, injected with a similar quantity of a monoclonal antibody known not to bind to neuroblastoma cells in vitro (FD44), there was no selective tumor uptake. Nine patients with histologically confirmed neuroblastoma each received 100 to 300 micrograms UJ13A radiolabeled with 1 to 2.8 mCi 123I or 131I. Sixteen positive sites were visible on gamma scans 1 to 7 days after injection: 15 were primary or secondary tumor sites, and one was a false positive; there were two false negatives. In two of the 15 positive sites, tumor had not been demonstrated by other imaging techniques; these were later confirmed as areas of malignant infiltration. No toxicity was encountered.

  10. Characterization of oxidative carbonylation on recombinant monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Stella, Cinzia; Wang, Weiru; Schöneich, Christian; Gennaro, Lynn

    2014-05-20

    In the biotechnology industry, oxidative carbonylation as a post-translational modification of protein pharmaceuticals has not been studied in detail. Using Quality by Design (QbD) principles, understanding the impact of oxidative carbonylation on product quality of protein pharmaceuticals, particularly from a site-specific perspective, is critical. However, comprehensive identification of carbonylation sites has so far remained a very difficult analytical challenge for the industry. In this paper, we report for the first time the identification of specific carbonylation sites on recombinant monoclonal antibodies with a new analytical approach via derivatization with Girard's Reagent T (GRT) and subsequent peptide mapping with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Enhanced ionization efficiency and high quality MS(2) data resulted from GRT derivatization were observed as key benefits of this approach, which enabled direct identification of carbonylation sites without any fractionation or affinity enrichment steps. A simple data filtering process was also incorporated to significantly reduce false positive assignments. Sensitivity and efficiency of this approach were demonstrated by identification of carbonylation sites on both unstressed and oxidized antibody bulk drug substances. The applicability of this approach was further demonstrated by identification of 14 common carbonylation sites on three highly similar IgG1s. Our approach represents a significant improvement to the existing analytical methodologies and facilitates extended characterization of oxidative carbonylation on recombinant monoclonal antibodies and potentially other protein pharmaceuticals in the biotechnology industry.

  11. Practical considerations for nonclinical safety evaluation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Carmel M; Hart, Bruce W

    2009-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a well established class of therapeutics as evidenced by a large number of FDA approved mAbs for the treatment of cancers and autoimmune diseases. Monoclonal antibodies that are molecularly engineered for enhanced functions and pharmacokinetic properties are routinely being considered for development by many biotechnology companies. Safety evaluation of current generation of mAbs poses new challenges due to the highly complex nature of engineering aspects and variability induced by the diverse recombinant cell systems to generate them. This review provides a basic outline for nonclinical safety evaluation of therapeutic antibodies. Important considerations for planning a preclinical program, the types of nonclinical safety studies, and a general timeline for their conduct in relation to clinical trials are described. A list of relevant regulatory documents issued by government agencies is also provided. Adoption of these principles will greatly enhance the quality and relevance of the nonclinical safety data generated and will facilitate future development of mAb therapeutics. PMID:20046568

  12. Demonstration of the salmonid humoral response to Renibacterium salmoninarum using a monoclonal antibody against salmonid immunoglobulin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomew, J.L.; Arkoosh , M.R.; Rohovec, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    The specificity of the antibody response of salmonids to Renibacterium salmoninarum antigens was demonstrated by western blotting techniques that utilized a monoclonal antibody against salmonid immunoglobulin. In this study, the specificity of the response in immunized chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytschawas compared with the response in naturally infected chinook salmon and coho salmon O. kisutch, and immunized rabbits. The antibody response in immunized salmon and rabbits and the naturally infected fish was primarily against the 57–58kilodalton protein complex. In addition to recognizing these proteins in the extracellular fraction and whole-cell preparations, antibody from the immunized salmon and rabbits detected four proteins with lower molecular masses. Western blotting techniques allow identification of the specific antigens recognized and are a useful tool for comparing the immunogenicity of different R. salmoninarumpreparations. Immunofluorescent techniques with whole bacteria were less sensitive than western blotting in detecting salmonid anti-R. salmoninarumantibody.

  13. Generation of human monoclonal antibodies reactive with cellular antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Cote, R J; Morrissey, D M; Houghton, A N; Beattie, E J; Oettgen, H F; Old, L J

    1983-01-01

    Human lymphocytes from lymph node, peripheral blood, spleen, and tumor specimens have been fused with the LICR-LON-HMy2 (LICR-2) or SKO-007 human cell lines or the NS-1 mouse myeloma line. Over 75 fusions with the three myeloma-lymphoblastoid lines have been performed. Several factors appeared to improve the fusion outcome, including maintenance of the myeloma-lymphoblastoid lines in logarithmic phase growth at greater than or equal to 95% viability, a delay of 24 hr in the introduction of aminopterin to the fused cells, and preselection of the fetal calf serum used in the medium. For a given number of lymphocytes, fusions with NS-1 produced 5-20 times more clones than fusions with LICR-2 or SKO-007, and LICR-2 produced 4 times as many clones as SKO-007. The percentage of clones secreting human immunoglobulin, the range of immunoglobulin production, and the proportion of IgM, IgA, and IgG secretors were comparable for clones derived from the three myeloma-lymphoblastoid lines. Stable Ig-secreting clones were isolated with approximately equal frequency from LICR-2 and NS-1 fusions. A number of stable clones producing human monoclonal antibodies reacting with cell-surface, cytoplasmic, or nuclear antigens have been isolated from tumor-bearing patients and normal individuals. A surface antigenic system present on normal and malignant cells has been defined with a human monoclonal antibody derived from a patient with breast cancer. Techniques for producing human monoclonal antibody now appear to be sufficiently advanced to initiate a serological dissection of the humoral immune response to cancer. Images PMID:6572959

  14. Studying low-density lipoprotein-monoclonal antibody complexes using dynamic laser light scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, M M; Tsai, S W; Phillips, M L; Curtiss, L K; Milne, R W; Schumaker, V N

    1999-01-26

    Monoclonal antibody complexes have proven very useful in the study of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). Thus, complexes composed of two different monoclonal antibodies, selected from a panel of 11 different antibodies, and LDL have been employed to map apolipoprotein B (apoB) on the surface of the LDL. In this way, apoB was found to surround the LDL as a ribbon with a bow [Chatterton, J. E., et al. (1995) J. Lipid Res. 36, 2027-2037]. Moreover, monoclonal MB19, which recognizes a polymorphic site, has been employed to quantitate the two different allelic forms of apoB found on LDL in human sera, and in this way, we assessed the effect of most of the known common polymorphisms of this protein as well as detected the depletion of the normal allele product in two forms of familial defective apoB-100 [Chatterton, J. E., et al. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 9571-9580; Pullinger, C. R., et al. (1995) J. Clin. Invest. 95, 1225-1234]. In this paper, these studies have been extended by examining by dynamic light scattering and sedimentation velocity techniques the complexes formed with only one antibody, and complexes formed using two antibodies. Our data show that the largest complex formed with a single monoclonal antibody was that of an LDL dimer; no larger, nonspecific complexes were present. With two antibodies, a variety of complexes were seen. Thus, monoclonal antibodies MB47 and 4G3, which bound about 55 degrees apart, formed a very stable dimer. Monoclonal antibodies MB47 and 2D8, which bound 136 degrees apart, formed a very stable tetramer, with four LDLs held together in probably a circular structure with four monoclonal antibodies. Finally, monoclonal antibodies 2D8 and 1D1, which bound 86 degrees apart, probably formed a less stable LDL tetramer, held together by three to four monoclonal antibodies. A rationale for these structures is discussed, as well as the biological relevance of these complexes.

  15. Development of Monoclonal Antibodies in China: Overview and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mao-Yu; Lu, Jin-Jian; Wang, Liang; Gao, Zi-Chao; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become increasingly important as human therapeutic agents. Yet, current research concentrates on technology itself and pays attention to developed countries. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of mAbs development in China through systematic analysis of drug registry, patent applications, clinical trials, academic publication, and ongoing R&D projects. The trends in therapeutic areas and industrialization process are also highlighted. Development and research trends of mAbs are analyzed to provide a future perspective of mAbs as therapeutic agents in China. PMID:25811022

  16. Monoclonal antibodies directed against surface molecules of multicell spheroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Andrew O.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this project is to generate a library of monoclonal antibodies (MAb's) to surface molecules involved in the cell-cell interactions of mammalian cells grown as multicell spheroids (MCS). MCS are highly organized 3-dimensional multicellular structures which exhibit many characteristics in vivo tissues not found in conventional monolayer or suspension culture. They also provide a functional assay for surface adhesion molecules. In brief, MCS combine the relevance of organized tissues with the accuracy of in vitro methodology. Further, one can manipulate these MCS experimentally to discern important information about their biology.

  17. Monoclonal antibody therapy in the treatment of Reye's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Treon, S P; Broitman, S A

    1992-11-01

    A role for lipopolysaccharides (endotoxins, LPS) in 7 the pathogenesis of Reye's syndrome (RS) has previously been suggested. Impairment of hepatic LPS clearance can lead to systemic endotoxemia as previous studies by this and other laboratories have suggested for several hepatic disorders including RS. Systemic LPS may mediate many of the clinical findings associated with RS by eliciting monokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8. Monoclonal antibody therapy directed at LPS, and monokines may represent a novel approach to the treatment of RS.

  18. Generation of cell lines for monoclonal antibody production.

    PubMed

    Alvin, Krista; Ye, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) represent the largest group of therapeutic proteins with 30 products approved in the USA and hundreds of therapies currently undergoing clinical trials. The complex nature of mAbs makes their development as therapeutic agents constrained by numerous criteria such as quality, safety, regulation, and quantity. Identification of a clonal cell line expressing high levels of mAb with adequate quality attributes and generated in compliance with regulatory standards is a necessary step prior to a program moving to large-scale production for clinical material. This chapter outlines the stable transfection technology that generates clonal cell lines for commercial manufacturing processes.

  19. Monoclonal antibody against mouse CAR following genetic immunization.

    PubMed

    Carson, Steven D; Switzer, Barbara L; Tracy, Steven M; Chapman, Nora M

    2004-02-01

    To broaden our repertoire of monoclonal antibodies against CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor), we inoculated mice with an expression vector containing the cDNA encoding human CAR extracellular and transmembrane sequence, and boosted the response by inoculation with soluble human CAR protein produced in E. coli. Of the hybridomas obtained following this immunization protocol, one secreted IgG with exceptional reactivity against mouse CAR. Since CAR has been shown to form dimers, expression of human CAR in cells that express mouse CAR may have stimulated the host immune system to recognize endogenous CAR in heterodimers.

  20. Development and use of monoclonal antibodies against an oncofetal protein associated with carcinogenesis and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Runge, S W; Larroya-Runge, S N; Schumm, D E; Webb, T E

    1991-06-01

    An oncofetal protein (OFP) studied in our laboratory associated with embryogenesis, carcinogenesis and tumorigenesis has as its known biological function the modification of RNA release from isolated nuclei. In the present study, we have developed and investigated the use of monoclonal antibodies against OFP. Six hybridoma cell lines (A-F) were isolated by screening the hybridoma culture media for anti-OFP antibodies (MOFP) with an indirect ELISA and by testing the ability of these antibodies complexed with anti-mouse IgG-agarose to bind to rat OFP and remove its associated RNA transport activity from solution (Immunobioassay). An inhibition ELISA developed to measure OFP gave a linear response up to 20 ng of plasma protein from a tumor-bearing rat. Western blot analysis using these monoclonals showed that OFP from a rat tumor (H7777) cytosol that shed to the blood consisted of two species exhibiting molecular weights of 50 and 55 kD respectively. In order to show the usefulness of our assays, a preliminary study showing the ability of the immunobioassay to detect the expression of OFP in the plasma of carcinogen treated rats in a dosage dependent manner has been presented. Since OFP is produced in the target organ of rats shortly after treatment with carcinogens and persists in the preneoplastic foci and subsequent tumors, these monoclonal antibodies will be valuable in studying its involvement in chemical carcinogenesis and tumorigenesis.

  1. Production and characterization of an Mls-1-specific monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Superantigens (SAGs) represent a new class of antigens, characterized as T cell receptor (TCR) V beta-reactive elements. Bacterial toxins constitute the major group of exogenous SAGs, while the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-encoded Mls molecules represent the endogenous SAGs. Mls-1 is the prototype of the latter SAGs, because it elicits a very potent T cell stimulatory response in vitro in unprimed T cells expressing the TCR V beta 6 or 8.1 chains. In vivo, Mls-1 causes deletion of immature T cells bearing the V beta 6, 7, 8.1, or 9 chains. Although Mls-1 was functionally discovered > 20 yr ago, it has not been possible to raise antibodies against this molecule. We have previously cloned and sequenced the Mtv-7 sag gene, which encodes Mls-1. Sequence comparisons with other MMTV sag genes suggested that the polymorphic 3' end encodes the TCR V beta specificity of these SAGs. We have, therefore, immunized hamsters with a 14-amino acid peptide from the deduced COOH-terminal sequence of the Mtv-7 sag gene. We describe here the production of a monoclonal antibody (mAb), 3B12, which is peptide specific and reacts with a recombinant baculovirus product of Mtv-7 sag. This mAb blocks Mls-1-specific T cell recognition and detects the Mls-1 protein on the surface of the B cell hybridoma LBB.A, but not on LBB.11, which is an Mtv-7 loss variant of LBB.A. Transfection of the Mtv-7 sag gene into LBB.11 renders this cell functionally Mls-1+ as well as positive for 3B12 binding, confirming the specificity of this mAb. It is well documented that B cells and CD8+ T cells express T cell stimulatory Mls-1 determinants, and we show here that this functional profile correlates with the expression of MMTV-specific mRNA. However, primary lymphocytes derived from Mls-1+ mice do not stain with 3B12, even after in vitro activation with mitogens or phorbol ester. PMID:8381154

  2. Monoclonal antibody-based candidate therapeutics against HIV type 1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weizao; Dimitrov, Dimiter S

    2012-05-01

    Treatment of HIV-1 infection has been highly successful with small molecule drugs. However, resistance still develops. In addition, long-term use can lead to toxicity with unpredictable effects on health. Finally, current drugs do not lead to HIV-1 eradication. The presence of the virus leads to chronic inflammation, which can result in increased morbidity and mortality after prolonged periods of infection. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been highly successful during the past two decades for therapy of many diseases, primarily cancers and immune disorders. They are relatively safe, especially human mAbs that have evolved in humans at high concentrations to fight diseases and long-term use may not lead to toxicities. Several broadly neutralizing mAbs (bnmAbs) against HIV-1 can protect animals but are not effective when used for therapy of an established infection. We have hypothesized that HIV-1 has evolved strategies to effectively escape neutralization by full-size antibodies in natural infections but not by smaller antibody fragments. Therefore, a promising direction of research is to discover and exploit antibody fragments as potential candidate therapeutics against HIV-1. Here we review several bnmAbs and engineered antibody domains (eAds), their in vitro and in vivo antiviral efficacy, mechanisms used by HIV-1 to escape them, and strategies that could be effective to develop more powerful mAb-based HIV-1 therapeutics.

  3. Monoclonal Antibody-Based Candidate Therapeutics Against HIV Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Treatment of HIV-1 infection has been highly successful with small molecule drugs. However, resistance still develops. In addition, long-term use can lead to toxicity with unpredictable effects on health. Finally, current drugs do not lead to HIV-1 eradication. The presence of the virus leads to chronic inflammation, which can result in increased morbidity and mortality after prolonged periods of infection. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been highly successful during the past two decades for therapy of many diseases, primarily cancers and immune disorders. They are relatively safe, especially human mAbs that have evolved in humans at high concentrations to fight diseases and long-term use may not lead to toxicities. Several broadly neutralizing mAbs (bnmAbs) against HIV-1 can protect animals but are not effective when used for therapy of an established infection. We have hypothesized that HIV-1 has evolved strategies to effectively escape neutralization by full-size antibodies in natural infections but not by smaller antibody fragments. Therefore, a promising direction of research is to discover and exploit antibody fragments as potential candidate therapeutics against HIV-1. Here we review several bnmAbs and engineered antibody domains (eAds), their in vitro and in vivo antiviral efficacy, mechanisms used by HIV-1 to escape them, and strategies that could be effective to develop more powerful mAb-based HIV-1 therapeutics. PMID:21827278

  4. Characterization of four monoclonal antibodies to recombinant human tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Takashi; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Hokari, Shigeru; Komoda, Tsugikazu

    2002-06-01

    In this study we produced a recombinant human Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) enzyme from baculovirus-infected insect cells, generated four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 15A4, 13B9, 1C6 and 3G7, to the enzyme, and characterized these antibodies. In the human serum and lung specimen, all four antibodies appeared to have a high specificity for native TRAP enzyme in western blot analysis, immunohistochemical analysis and enzyme immunoassay. These antibodies may react with respective conformational determinants, therefore, they may be useful for detection of active TRAP. Only one of the antibodies, 15A4 also reacted with a denatured epitope, therefore, it is suitable for western blot analysis, enzyme immunoassay and for immunohistochemistry in the rat. Taken together, having characterized properties of four monoclonal antibodies against recombinant human TRAP enzyme may be useful for development of TRAP specific immunoassays in pathology and hematology of the bone. They will certainly be of use for the study of biosynthesis, regulation and function of the TRAP enzyme.

  5. Monoclonal antibodies to human plasma low-density lipoproteins. I. Enhanced binding of 125I-labeled low-density lipoproteins by combined use of two monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Mao, S J; Patton, J G; Badimon, J J; Kottke, B A; Alley, M C; Cardin, A D

    1983-11-01

    Four monoclonal antibodies (IgG2b) to human plasma low-density lipoproteins (LDL) have been characterized. The binding affinities of each monoclonal antibody to 125I-labeled LDL were moderately high, ranging from 10(8) to 10(10) L/mol at 4 degrees C, but were reduced by at least 50-70% at 37 degrees C. The maximum binding of each monoclonal antibody was unique, ranging from 20 to 95% of total 125I-labeled LDL, suggesting that LDL particles were immunochemically heterogeneous. One antibody, LP-34, had both high and low binding affinities to LDL. Another, LP-47, exhibited high affinity for isolated LDL, yet reacted poorly with native LDL in plasma, indicating that the conformation of isolated LDL differs from that of native LDL in plasma. Unlike polyclonal serum antibodies, a mixture of four monoclonal antibodies failed to precipitate LDL, but did show a drastic increase in binding to LDL. We found that only two of our monoclonal antibodies were necessary for such synergistic enhancement. We propose that one of the monoclonal antibodies may serve as a catalytic reagent, and discuss the clinical significance of this finding.

  6. Magnetic nanoparticle based purification and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal antibody against enrofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Gun; Kim, Myeong-Ae; Park, Young-Il; Jung, Tae-Sung; Son, Seong-Wan; So, ByungJae; Kang, Hwan-Goo

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal anti-enrofloxacin antibody was prepared for a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and purification system using monoclonal antibody (mAb) coupled magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The IC50 values of the developed mAb for enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin, difloxacin, sarafloxacin, pefloxacin, and norfloxacin were 5.0, 8.3, 9.7, 21.7, 36.0, and 63.7 ng/mL, respectively. The lowest detectable level of ENR was 0.7 ng/mL in the prepared ELISA system. To validate the developed ELISA in the food matrix, known amounts of ENR were spiked in meat and egg samples at 10, 20 and 30 ng/mL. Recoveries for ENR ranged from 72.9 to 113.16% with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 2.42 to 10.11%. The applicability of the mAb-MNP system was verified by testing the recoveries for ENR residue in three different matrices. Recoveries for ENR ranged from 75.16 to 86.36%, while the CV ranged from 5.08 to 11.53%. Overall, ENR-specific monoclonal antibody was prepared and developed for use in competitive to ELISAs for the detection of ENR in animal meat samples. Furthermore, we suggest that a purification system for ENR using mAb-coupled MNPs could be useful for determination of ENR residue in food.

  7. Evaluation of multidrug resistant phenotype by flow cytometry with monoclonal antibodies and functional tests.

    PubMed

    Lizard, G; Maynadié, M; Roignot, P; Lizard-Nacol, S; Poupon, M F

    1995-03-01

    Multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype is characterized by a defect in drug accumulation caused by overexpression of a transmembrane glycoprotein, the P-glycoprotein (P-gp). MDR phenotype can be characterized either with monoclonal antibodies raised against P-gp or with functional tests, most often based on the incorporation of fluorescent compounds. In the present study, data obtained with the monoclonal antibodies C219, JSB1 and MRK16 are compared to those of functional tests performed by flow cytometry including uptake of daunorubicin (DNR), Rhodamine 123 (Rh 123) or Hoechst 33342. Sensitive and resistant cell lines K562S, K562R, KBA1 and KB31, derived either from a human chronic myeloid leukemia or from a human epithelial carcinoma, were used. In resistant cells, P-gp expression was revealed with either the monoclonal antibodies C219, JSB1 or MRK-16. The most specific results were obtained with MRK-16. With functional tests, no matter which dyes were used, the fluorescence was always stronger in sensitive than in resistant cells. However, with DNR and Hoechst 33342, an incorporation of these dyes was exhibited in resistant cells. This phenomenon was not observed with Rh 123, which makes it possible to distinguish clearly between sensitive and resistant cells and to detect as few as 1% of resistant cells. Because of its high sensitivity, the functional test involving incorporation of Rh 123 was successfully used in acute myeloid leukemia to detect multichemoresistant cells.

  8. Discovery and characterization of hydroxylysine in recombinant monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qing; Moore, Benjamin; Beardsley, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tryptic peptide mapping analysis of a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-expressed, recombinant IgG1 monoclonal antibody revealed a previously unreported +16 Da modification. Through a combination of MSn experiments, and preparation and analysis of known synthetic peptides, the possibility of a sequence variant (Ala to Ser) was ruled out and the presence of hydroxylysine was confirmed. Post-translational hydroxylation of lysine was found in a consensus sequence (XKG) known to be the site of modification in other proteins such as collagen, and was therefore presumed to result from the activity of the CHO homolog of the lysyl hydroxylase complex. Although this consensus sequence was present in several locations in the antibody sequence, only a single site on the heavy-chain Fab was found to be modified. PMID:26651858

  9. Internal radiation dosimetry for clinical testing of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Durham, J.S.; Hui, T.E.; Hill, R.L.

    1990-11-01

    In gauging the efficacy of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies in cancer treatment, it is important to know the amount of radiation energy absorbed by tumors and normal tissue per unit administered activity. This paper describes methods for estimating absorbed doses to human tumors and normal tissues, including intraperitoneal tissue surfaces, red marrow, and the intestinal tract from incorporated radionuclides. These methods use the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) scheme; however, they also incorporate enhancements designed to solve specific dosimetry problems encountered during clinical studies, such as patient-specific organ masses obtained from computerized tomography (CT) volumetrics, estimates of the dose to tumor masses within normal organs, and multicellular dosimetry for studying dose inhomogeneities in solid tumors. Realistic estimates of absorbed dose are provided within the short time requirements of physicians so that decisions can be made with regard to patient treatment and procurement of radiolabeled antibodies. Some areas in which further research could improve dose assessment are also discussed. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Assessing immunogenicity of biosimilar therapeutic monoclonal antibodies: regulatory and bioanalytical considerations.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Paul

    2013-03-01

    This article reflects on methodological limitations for interpretation of relative immunogenicity of biosimilar and reference therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, in emphasizing the relevance of correlation of bioanalytical signals with appropriate clinical end points, and the possible need for post-marketing observational studies to indicate the impact of detected differences in anti-drug antibody incidence and magnitude on sustainability of treatment benefit. Given the current uncertainty regarding the longer term clinical impact of undesirable immunogenicity for reference products, there can be no predefined margin for an acceptable difference based on incidence and magnitude of detected anti-drug antibodies. Any detected differences should be assessed in relation to clinical parameters; and the designation of biosimilarity made with reference to the similarity demonstrated in the directly comparative quality, nonclinical and clinical evaluations. Application of this 'totality of evidence' approach is illustrated for infliximab and adalimumab.

  11. Belimumab: anti-BLyS human monoclonal antibody, anti-BLyS monoclonal antibody, BmAb, human monoclonal antibody to B-lymphocyte stimulator.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Belimumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes and inhibits the biological activity of B-lymphocyte stimulator, or BLyS. Belimumab is in phase III trials for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and has completed a phase II trial in rheumatoid arthritis (RA); the product may also have potential in the treatment of other autoimmune disorders. In May 2001, Cambridge Antibody Technology (now MedImmune) completed its discovery programme and Human Genome Sciences identified belimumab as a candidate for clinical development. More than 1000 distinct human antibodies specific to BLyS were characterized by the collaboration.B-lymphocyte stimulator is a naturally occurring protein discovered by Human Genome Sciences that stimulates B-lymphocytes to develop into mature B cells. Laboratory studies have indicated that higher than normal levels of B-lymphocyte stimulator may contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as SLE and RA. Human Genome Sciences (HGS) and Cambridge Antibody Technology signed a collaborative agreement in August 1999 to study the B-lymphocyte stimulator as a human protein target. HGS is also developing other BLyS products. In March 2000, HGS and Cambridge Antibody Technology expanded their agreement into a 10-year collaboration and product development alliance, providing Human Genome Sciences with the right to use the antibody technology of Cambridge Antibody Technology to fully develop human antibodies for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. Cambridge Antibody Technology will receive royalty payments on product sales from HGS, as well as the development and milestone payments it has already received. Belimumab will be manufactured in Human Genome Sciences' manufacturing facility, located in Rockville, MD, USA. HGS holds commercial rights to the drug. In July 2005, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) exercised its co-development and co-promotion option to belimumab. In an agreement made in June 1996, HGS had

  12. Generation of a rat monoclonal antibody specific for hsp72.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masako; Shiota, Masayuki; Okada, Seiji; Harada, Akihito; Odawara, Jun; Mun, Saya; Iwao, Hiroshi; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki

    2011-08-01

    The heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) family members function as ATP-dependent molecular chaperones that assist in the folding of newly synthesized polypeptides and in the refolding of misfolded/aggregated proteins. These heat shock proteins comprise at least eight sets of molecular groups that share high homology, but differ from each other in their expression level and subcellular localization. Hsp72, which is also known as Hsp70 and Hsp70-1, is localized mainly in the cytoplasm but is also found in the nucleus. Stress-induced Hsp72 functions as a chaperone enabling the cells to cope with harmful aggregations of denatured proteins during and following stress. The difference in the function of Hsp72 from that of other Hsp70 members, however, remains unclear. We report the establishment of a monoclonal antibody specific for Hsp72 using the rat medial iliac lymph node method. Immunoblot analysis revealed that our monoclonal antibody against Hsp72 specifically identified the 65 kDa protein. Immunocytochemical staining also revealed that Hsp72 localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus, and aggregated in the nucleus in response to heat stress. This MAb against Hsp72 will allow for further studies to elucidate the mechanism by which Hsp72 is localized in the cell in response to stress stimuli, and aid in the identification of specific interacting molecules.

  13. Bothropic antivenom based on monoclonal antibodies, is it possible?

    PubMed

    Frauches, Thiago S; Petretski, Jorge H; Arnholdt, Andrea C V; Lasunskaia, Elena B; de Carvalho, Eulógio C Q; Kipnis, Thereza L; da Silva, Wilmar D; Kanashiro, Milton M

    2013-09-01

    Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against three major toxic components of Bothrops atrox venom were produced and tested. The mAbs against phospholipase A2, hemorrhagic metalloprotease, and thrombin-like enzymes were produced in large amounts and purified with caprylic acid followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation. Purified mAbs were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and their ability to neutralize the respective toxins was tested. Five Swiss mice were injected i.p. with 13.5 mg of pooled mAbs and challenged via s.c. route with venom. Survival rate was recorded for the next 48 h. All mice treated and challenged with venom survived, whereas only one mouse in the control group survived. Bleeding time in mice treated with mAbs was similar to that observed in control mice. Our results show that monoclonal antibodies neutralized the lethal toxicity of Bothrops venom and indicate that there is a reasonable possibility of developing antivenoms based on humanized mAbs to treat victims of venomous animals in the future.

  14. Monoclonal Antibodies Directed to Fucoidan Preparations from Brown Algae

    PubMed Central

    Torode, Thomas A.; Marcus, Susan E.; Jam, Murielle; Tonon, Thierry; Blackburn, Richard S.; Hervé, Cécile; Knox, J. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Cell walls of the brown algae contain a diverse range of polysaccharides with useful bioactivities. The precise structures of the sulfated fucan/fucoidan group of polysaccharides and their roles in generating cell wall architectures and cell properties are not known in detail. Four rat monoclonal antibodies, BAM1 to BAM4, directed to sulfated fucan preparations, have been generated and used to dissect the heterogeneity of brown algal cell wall polysaccharides. BAM1 and BAM4, respectively, bind to a non-sulfated epitope and a sulfated epitope present in the sulfated fucan preparations. BAM2 and BAM3 identified additional distinct epitopes present in the fucoidan preparations. All four epitopes, not yet fully characterised, occur widely within the major brown algal taxonomic groups and show divergent distribution patterns in tissues. The analysis of cell wall extractions and fluorescence imaging reveal differences in the occurrence of the BAM1 to BAM4 epitopes in various tissues of Fucus vesiculosus. In Ectocarpus subulatus, a species closely related to the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus, the BAM4 sulfated epitope was modulated in relation to salinity levels. This new set of monoclonal antibodies will be useful for the dissection of the highly complex and yet poorly resolved sulfated polysaccharides in the brown algae in relation to their ecological and economic significance. PMID:25692870

  15. Neutralizing determinants defined by monoclonal antibodies on polypeptides specified by bovine herpesvirus 1.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, J K; Butcher, A C; Riegel, C A; McGrane, V; Blair, C D; Teramoto, Y A; Winston, S

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were used to study neutralizing determinants on polypeptides of bovine herpesvirus 1. Two of three monoclonal antibodies which recognized nonoverlapping epitopes on a glycoprotein of 82,000 daltons were found to neutralize. A second group of monoclonal antibodies that individually precipitated five viral glycopolypeptides ranging in size from 102,000 to 55,000 daltons also neutralized. Two monoclonal antibodies which were the most efficient in neutralization recognized a non-glycosylated protein of 115,000 daltons which was the major polypeptide on the virus. A fourth group of monoclonal antibodies precipitated a non-glycosylated polypeptide of 91,000 daltons and several smaller polypeptides, but these antibodies demonstrated only limited neutralizing activity. Images PMID:6208375

  16. NCI Requests Targets for Monoclonal Antibody Production and Characterization - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    In an effort to provide well-characterized monoclonal antibodies to the scientific community, NCI's Antibody Characterization Program requests cancer-related protein targets for affinity production and distribution.

  17. [Production and characteristics of monoclonal antibodies to the diphtheria toxin].

    PubMed

    Valiakina, T I; Lakhtina, O E; Komaleva, R L; Simonova, M A; Samokhvalova, L V; Shoshina, N S; Kalinina, N A; Rubina, A Iu; Filippova, M A; Vertiev, Iu V; Grishin, E V

    2009-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to the diphtheria toxin were produced without cross reactivity with the thermolabile toxin (LT) from Escherichia coli; ricin; choleraic toxin; the SeA, SeB, SeE, SeI, and SeG toxins of staphylococcus; the lethal factor of the anthrax toxin; and the protective antigen of the anthrax toxin. A pair of antibodies for the quantitative determination of the diphtheria toxin in the sandwich variation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was chosen. The determination limit of the toxin was 0.7 ng/ml in plate and 1.6 ng/ml in microchip ELISA. The presence of a secretion from the nasopharynx lavage did not decrease the sensitivity of the toxin determination by sandwich ELISA. The immunization of mice with the diphtheria toxin and with a conjugate of the diphtheria toxin with polystyrene microspheres demonstrated that the conjugate immunization resulted in the formation of hybridoma clones which produced antibodies only to the epitopes of the A fragment of the diphtheria toxin. The immunization with the native toxin caused the production of hybridoma clones which predominantly produced antibodies to the epitopes of the B fragment.

  18. Screening individual hybridomas by microengraving to discover monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ogunniyi, Adebola O; Story, Craig M; Papa, Eliseo; Guillen, Eduardo; Love, J Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The demand for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in biomedical research is significant, but the current methodologies used to discover them are both lengthy and costly. Consequently, the diversity of antibodies available for any particular antigen remains limited. Microengraving is a soft lithographic technique that provides a rapid and efficient alternative for discovering new mAbs. This protocol describes how to use microengraving to screen mouse hybridomas to establish new cell lines producing unique mAbs. Single cells from a polyclonal population are isolated into an array of microscale wells (~105 cells per screen). The array is then used to print a protein microarray, where each element contains the antibodies captured from individual wells. The antibodies on the microarray are screened with antigens of interest, and mapped to the corresponding cells, which are then recovered from their microwells by micromanipulation. Screening and retrieval require approximately 1–3 d (9–12 d including the steps for preparing arrays of microwells). PMID:19528952

  19. [Cloning and expression of VLRB of Lampetra japonica and generation of the corresponding monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Wu, Fen-Fang; Ma, Ning; Chen, Li-Yong; Su, Peng; Li, Qing-Wei

    2012-04-01

    The agnathans (lampreys and hagfishes) are representatives of the jawless vertebrates. The receptor molecules of adaptive immune system in lampreys are different from the antigen receptors in mammal vertebrates. The unique receptor molecules of lampreys are known as variable lymphocyte receptors (VLR). There are three types of VLRs in lampreys, VLRA, VLRB, and VLRC. Multimeric antigen-specific VLRB antibodies are secreted by VLRB+ lymphocytes and constitute the major components of the humoral arm of the lamprey adaptive immune system. Oligomeric VLRB antibodies are composed of four or five disulfide-linked dimeric subunits, which are similar to IgM antibodies in structure and function. In this study, the conservative c-terminal of Lampetra japonica VLRB was cloned and expressed in BL21 E. coli. The recombinant VLRB protein was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography column. After Balb/c mice immunity, cell fusion, the positive clones were screened by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Finally, the hybridoma cells that produced specific anti-VLRB monoclonal antibodies were obtained. In order to get a large number of antibodies against VLRB, the hybridoma cells were injected into the abdominal cavity of Balb/c mice and the antibodies were purified by protein G sepharose. The results of ELISA indicated that the valence of anti-VLRB antibodies was 1:40000. Western blotting assay showed that the antibodies were able to detect both recombinant VLRB and secreted VLRB in lamprey sera. Flow cytometry analysis also revealed the existence of VLRB on the surface of lymphocytes. In summary, the anti-VLRB monoclonal antibodies provided a major tool for studying lamprey adaptive immune system.

  20. From the discovery of monoclonal antibodies to their therapeutic application: an historical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2014-09-01

    Vertebrate make billions of different antibodies, each with a binding site that recognizes a specific region of a macromolecule. The hybridoma technique allows monoclonal antibodies, highly specific antibodies produced in the laboratory by a variety of methods. In the last 35 years since the first process for creating monoclonal antibodies was introduced, their application have improved the growing biotechnology industry, but the most important application concerns the therapy of human malignancies.

  1. Verification of the Cross Immunoreactivity of A60, a Mouse Monoclonal Antibody against Neuronal Nuclear Protein

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shanping; Xiong, Guoxiang; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Huimin; Liu, Baohui; Cohen, Noam A.; Cohen, Akiva S.

    2016-01-01

    A60, the mouse monoclonal antibody against the neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN), is the most widely used neuronal marker in neuroscience research and neuropathological assays. Previous studies identified fragments of A60-immunoprecipitated protein as Synapsin I (Syn I), suggesting the antibody will demonstrate cross immunoreactivity. However, the likelihood of cross reactivity has never been verified by immunohistochemical techniques. Using our established tissue processing and immunofluorescent staining protocols, we found that A60 consistently labeled mossy fiber terminals in hippocampal area CA3. These A60-positive mossy fiber terminals could also be labeled by Syn I antibody. After treating brain slices with saponin in order to better preserve various membrane and/or vesicular proteins for immunostaining, we observed that A60 could also label additional synapses in various brain areas. Therefore, we used A60 together with a rabbit monoclonal NeuN antibody to confirm the existence of this cross reactivity. We showed that the putative band positive for A60 and Syn I could not be detected by the rabbit anti-NeuN in Western blotting. As efficient as Millipore A60 to recognize neuronal nuclei, the rabbit NeuN antibody demonstrated no labeling of synaptic structures in immunofluorescent staining. The present study successfully verified the cross reactivity present in immunohistochemistry, cautioning that A60 may not be the ideal biomarker to verify neuronal identity due to its cross immunoreactivity. In contrast, the rabbit monoclonal NeuN antibody used in this study may be a better candidate to substitute for A60. PMID:27242450

  2. Characterization and immunotherapeutic potential of a monoclonal antibody against a ras oncogene transformed cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, R.S. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Transformed cells express cell surface antigens not present, or present in diminished amounts on normal cells. Monoclonal antibodies can be used to identify and biochemically characterize tumor-associated antigens. Monoclonal antibody (MoAb) 45-2D9 was produced by immunization of BALB/c mice with a transformed cell line (45-2D9) induced by transfection of NIH 3T3 cells with a c-H-ras oncogene in DNA isolated from a human lung carcinoma. By immunoperoxidase staining, this antibody binds to the 45-342 cells as well as to the ras transformed primary and 3 secondary transfectants, including the one used to induce 45-342, but not to other ras transformed cell lines. Murine tumors as well as human fetal and most normal adult tissues are not stained. This antibody does bind to a variety of human tumors, including lung adenocarcinomas, as well as breast, colon and esophageal carcinomas. The ability of MoAb 45-2D9 to target ricin toxin A chain (RTA) and radio-isotopes to gp74 expressing cells was investigated. An immunotoxin generated by conjugating RTA to MoAb 45-2D9 inhibits protein and DNA synthesis by the 45-342 cells. Radiolabeled antibody specifically localizes to and can be used to image subcutaneous and pulmonary gp74 expressing tumors in nu/nu mice. Monoclonal antibodies against oncogene transformed cell lines may be useful for the detection and characterization of tumor-associated antigens as well as for the development of new tumor therapeutic and diagnostic reagents.

  3. Multimodal imaging and detection strategy with 124 I-labeled chimeric monoclonal antibody cG250 for accurate localization and confirmation of extent of disease during laparoscopic and open surgical resection of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Povoski, Stephen P; Hall, Nathan C; Murrey, Douglas A; Sharp, David S; Hitchcock, Charles L; Mojzisik, Cathy M; Bahnson, Eamonn E; Knopp, Michael V; Martin, Edward W; Bahnson, Robert R

    2013-02-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for approximately 85% to 90% of all primary kidney malignancies, with clear cell RCC (ccRCC) constituting approximately 70% to 85% of all RCCs. This study describes an innovative multimodal imaging and detection strategy that uses (124)I-labeled chimeric monoclonal antibody G250 ((124)I-cG250) for accurate preoperative and intraoperative localization and confirmation of extent of disease for both laparoscopic and open surgical resection of ccRCC. Two cases presented herein highlight how this technology can potentially guide complete surgical resection and confirm complete removal of all diseased tissues. This innovative (124)I-cG250 (ie, (124)I-girentuximab) multimodal imaging and detection approach, which would be clinically very useful to urologic surgeons, urologic medical oncologists, nuclear medicine physicians, radiologists, and pathologists who are involved in the care of ccRCC patients, holds great potential for improving the diagnostic accuracy, operative planning and approach, verification of disease resection, and monitoring for evidence of disease recurrence in ccRCC patients.

  4. Using monoclonal antibodies as an international standard for the measurement of anti-adalimumab antibodies.

    PubMed

    van Schouwenburg, Pauline A; Kruithof, Simone; Wolbink, Gertjan; Wouters, Diana; Rispens, Theo

    2016-02-20

    Comparing studies investigating anti-drug antibody (ADA) formation is hampered by the lack of comparability between study protocols, assay formats, and standardized reference materials. In this respect, the use of an international standard would mean a major step forward. Here we compared 11 fully human monoclonal antibodies against adalimumab in two assays commonly used for ADA measurement; the bridging ELISA and the antigen binding test (ABT). Our results show non-parallel titration of the monoclonal antibodies in both assays, which we also find for polyclonal ADA sources. Moreover, we observed that the output of the bridging ELISA depends to a large degree on the affinity of the monoclonal antibody. For the ABT, results reflect a combination of affinity and avidity. This suggests that rather than reporting ADA values in nanogram per milliliter, arbitrary units may be more appropriate. Together our data highlight the difficulty of ADA standardization by identifying several pitfalls that should be taken into account when selecting a standard for ADA testing.

  5. Development and characterization of mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for chicken interleukin 18

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) which are specific for chicken interleukin 18 (chIL18) were produced and characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR and neutralization assays. Monoclonal antibodies specific for chIL18 identified a ...

  6. Monoclonal antibody typing of Chlamydia psittaci strains derived from avian and mammalian species.

    PubMed Central

    Fukushi, H; Nojiri, K; Hirai, K

    1987-01-01

    A total of 77 Chlamydia psittaci strains of avian, human, and mammalian origin were grouped into four serovars with 11 monoclonal antibodies recognizing the lipopolysaccharide and the major outer membrane protein antigens. The avian and human strains, which were closely related to each other, were distinct from the mammalian strains. Immunological typing of C. psittaci with monoclonal antibodies seems practical. PMID:3667918

  7. Method of rapid production of hybridomas expressing monoclonal antibodies on the cell surface

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard B.; Laterza, Vince

    2006-12-12

    The present invention relates to genetically altered hybridomas, myelomas and B cells. The invention also relates to utilizing genetically altered hybridomas, myelomas and B cells in methods of making monoclonal antibodies. The present invention also provides populations of hybridomas and B cells that can be utilized to make a monoclonal antibody of interest.

  8. Localization of a highly immunogenic region of carboxypeptidase A recognized by three different monoclonal antibodies and their use in the detection of subtle conformational alterations in this enzyme region.

    PubMed

    Solomon, B; Koppel, R; Kenett, D; Fleminger, G

    1989-02-07

    Three murine monoclonal antibodies (mAb 100, 104, and 121) elicited against carboxypeptidase A (CPA) were prepared and characterized. All three mAbs recognize the same or partially overlapping sites of CPA. This is corroborated by the lack of antibody additivity in the ELISA assay carried out in the presence of pairs of mAbs, the similarity in molecular weight of the immunocomplex formed between CPA and one of the mAbs in the presence of another, and also a competition experiment in which one of the mAbs was labeled enzymatically. The three mAbs do not affect the enzymatic activity of CPA. Even at high concentrations, they do not recognize carboxypeptidase B (CPB) in spite of the similar tertiary structure and the 50% homology in amino acid sequence with CPA. This antigenic determinant is located on one of the four cyanogen bromide fragments of CPA. On the basis of the known sequences of the two enzymes, criteria which predict high antigenicity, and experimental data using synthetic peptides, such a determinant was found to be located within the amino acid sequence from residues 209 to 218 of the CPA molecule. The mAbs prepared detect conformational alterations in the above enzyme epitope when the enzyme is exposed to various conditions. The binding of the mAbs to CPA adsorbed onto a polystyrene plate is characterized by apparent binding constants higher by 1 or 2 orders of magnitude than those characterizing the interaction of the mAbs with CPA in solution. The mAbs also readily detect both conformational alterations of CPA on treatment with urea and subtle, reversible conformational alterations on removal of zinc from the active site of the enzyme.

  9. Discovery of functional monoclonal antibodies targeting G-protein-coupled receptors and ion channels.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Trevor C I

    2016-06-15

    The development of recombinant antibody therapeutics is a significant area of growth in the pharmaceutical industry with almost 50 approved monoclonal antibodies on the market in the US and Europe. Despite this growth, however, certain classes of important molecular targets have remained intractable to therapeutic antibodies due to complexity of the target molecules. These complex target molecules include G-protein-coupled receptors and ion channels which represent a large potential target class for therapeutic intervention with monoclonal antibodies. Although these targets have typically been addressed by small molecule approaches, the exquisite specificity of antibodies provides a significant opportunity to provide selective modulation of these target proteins. Given this opportunity, substantial effort has been applied to address the technical challenges of targeting these complex membrane proteins with monoclonal antibodies. In this review recent progress made in the strategies for discovery of functional monoclonal antibodies for these challenging membrane protein targets is addressed.

  10. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to the E2 protein of chikungunya virus protects against disease in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Goh, Lucas Y H; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Prow, Natalie A; Gardner, Joy; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Pyke, Alyssa T; Suhrbier, Andreas; Hall, Roy A

    2013-12-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) recently caused the largest epidemic ever recorded for this virus involving an estimated 1.4-6.5million cases, with imported cased reported in over 40 countries. The number of monoclonal antibodies specific for this re-emerging alphavirus is currently limited. Herein we describe the generation and characterisation of five monoclonal antibodies specific for the E2 glycoprotein of CHIKV. The antibodies detected a range of CHIKV isolates in several assays including ELISA, Western blot, immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) without evidence of cross-reactivity with other alphaviruses. Four antibodies also neutralised CHIKV in vitro, two of which provided complete protection against arthritis in a CHIKV mouse model when administered prior to infection. Given the current shortage of widely available reagents for CHIKV, these specific antibodies will be useful not only in research, but may also provide the basis for new diagnostics and treatments.

  11. Comprehensive characterization and optimization of anti-LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2) monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Davies, Paul; Hinkle, Kelly M; Sukar, Nour N; Sepulveda, Bryan; Mesias, Roxana; Serrano, Geidy; Alessi, Dario R; Beach, Thomas G; Benson, Deanna L; White, Charles L; Cowell, Rita M; Das, Sonal S; West, Andrew B; Melrose, Heather L

    2013-07-01

    Missense mutations in LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2) are a major cause of PD (Parkinson's disease). Several antibodies against LRRK2 have been developed, but results using these polyclonal antibodies have varied widely leading to conflicting conclusions. To address this challenge, the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research generated a number of monoclonal antibodies targeting epitopes across the LRRK2 protein. In the present paper, we report optimized protocols and results for ten monoclonal antibodies for immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, immunoprecipitation and kinase activity assays, in rat, mouse and human brain tissue. Several efficacious antibodies were identified, but results demonstrate that the mouse monoclonal N241A/34 is suitable for most applications, with the best overall rabbit monoclonal antibody being c41-2. These antibodies produced a dominant band of the expected size via immunoblotting and a lack of labelling in tissue derived from LRRK2-knockout animals under optimized conditions. A significant proportion of LRRK2 protein localizes to insoluble fractions and no evidence of truncated LRRK2 protein was detected in any fraction from rodent or human tissues. An assay was developed for the robust detection of LRRK2 kinase activity directly from frozen mouse and human brain tissue, but precipitous declines in activity were observed that corresponded to increasing post-mortem intervals and processing times. Finally, we demonstrate the highest levels of brain-localized LRRK2 in the striatum, but note differential expression patterns between rat and mouse in both striatum and cortex. Anti-LRRK2 monoclonal antibodies that are unlimited in availability together with the proposed standardized protocols should aid in the definition of LRRK2 function in both health and disease.

  12. Molecular mechanisms of resistance to the EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Toni M; Iida, Mari

    2011-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase belonging to the HER family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Receptor activation upon ligand binding leads to down stream activation of the PI3K/AKT, RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK and PLCγ/PKC pathways that influence cell proliferation, survival and the metastatic potential of tumor cells. Increased activation by gene amplification, protein overexpression or mutations of the EGFR has been identified as an etiological factor in a number of human epithelial cancers (e.g., NSCLC, CRC, glioblastoma and breast cancer). Therefore, targeting the EGFR has been intensely pursued as a cancer treatment strategy over the last two decades. To date, five EGFR inhibitors, including three small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and two monoclonal antibodies have gained FDA approval for use in oncology. Both approaches to targeting the EGFR have shown clinical promise and the anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab is used to treat HNSCC and CRC. Despite clinical gains arising from use of cetuximab, both intrinsic resistance and the development of acquired resistance are now well recognized. In this review we focus on the biology of the EGFR, the role of EGFR in human cancer, the development of antibody-based anti-EGFR therapies and a summary of their clinical successes. Further, we provide an in depth discussion of described molecular mechanisms of resistance to cetuximab and potential strategies to circumvent this resistance. PMID:21293176

  13. Removal of drugs from the circulation using immobilized monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Brizgys, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    High-affinity monoclonal antidigoxin antibodies (dig-Ab) were immobilized to a pellicular microbead and characterized in terms of antibody affinity, specificity for other glycosides, and binding capacity. Determination of digoxin binding revealed that the binding capacity decreased to 25% of theoretical capacity. Attempts to improve the binding capacity were ineffective. A guinea pig animal model was developed to determine the efficacy of removing digoxin in vivo from the circulation using an antibody column. Male guinea pigs were hemoperfused with either a dig-Ab or bovine Y-globulin control column 16 h after a single i.v. injection of digoxin. Pre- and postcolumn plasma concentrations were obtained to evaluate the extraction efficiency. Hemoperfusion continued for 3 h at flow rates of 1.0-2.0 mL/min. Bound digoxin was eluted as described earlier and concentrations determined by (/sup 125/I) digoxin RIA. Amounts of digoxin removed represented less than 1% of the total body content. After several studies with the same column, the dig-Ab had lost most of its activity. A freshly prepared dig-Ab column removed approximately 20% of the total body content. Most of the measured constituents of the blood were unaffected by the procedure.

  14. A monoclonal antibody recognizing a differentiation marker on rat gonocytes.

    PubMed

    van Dissel-Emiliani, F M; van Kooten, P J; de Boer-Brouwer, M; de Rooij, D G; van der Donk, J A

    1993-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) were raised against a testicular membrane fraction from 18-day post coitum (p.c.) rat testes. One antibody, designated 4B6.3E10 (mu, kappa), was obtained which specifically reacted with gonocytes in the fetal testis. No significant cross-reactivity with other tissues from the 18-day p.c. embryo was found. MAb 4B6.3E10 was reactive with rat gonocytes from 17-day p.c. until the day of birth. Germ cells at later stages of testis development did not show any labelling. The epitope recognized by 4B6.3E10 is a carbohydrate as periodate treatment leads to a loss of reactivity of the antibody. By SDS-PAGE and Western blotting of proteins extracted from a testicular membrane fraction from 18-day p.c. testes, MAb 4B6.3E10 was found to recognize at least 3 protein moieties with apparent molecular weights in the ranges of 80-100, 120, 160-180 kDa (either under reducing- or non-reducing conditions). The results suggest that MAb 4B6.3E10 recognizes a specific differentiation marker for fetal rat gonocytes.

  15. Molecular mechanisms of resistance to the EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab.

    PubMed

    Brand, Toni M; Iida, Mari; Wheeler, Deric L

    2011-05-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase belonging to the HER family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Receptor activation upon ligand binding leads to down stream activation of the PI3K/AKT, RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK and PLCγ/PKC pathways that influence cell proliferation, survival and the metastatic potential of tumor cells. Increased activation by gene amplification, protein overexpression or mutations of the EGFR has been identified as an etiological factor in a number of human epithelial cancers (e.g., NSCLC, CRC, glioblastoma and breast cancer). Therefore, targeting the EGFR has been intensely pursued as a cancer treatment strategy over the last two decades. To date, five EGFR inhibitors, including three small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and two monoclonal antibodies have gained FDA approval for use in oncology. Both approaches to targeting the EGFR have shown clinical promise and the anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab is used to treat HNSCC and CRC. Despite clinical gains arising from use of cetuximab, both intrinsic resistance and the development of acquired resistance are now well recognized. In this review we focus on the biology of the EGFR, the role of EGFR in human cancer, the development of antibody-based anti-EGFR therapies and a summary of their clinical successes. Further, we provide an in depth discussion of described molecular mechanisms of resistance to cetuximab and potential strategies to circumvent this resistance.

  16. Generation and characterization of novel conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies for α-synuclein pathology.

    PubMed

    Vaikath, Nishant N; Majbour, Nour K; Paleologou, Katerina E; Ardah, Mustafa T; van Dam, Esther; van de Berg, Wilma D J; Forrest, Shelley L; Parkkinen, Laura; Gai, Wei-Ping; Hattori, Nobutaka; Takanashi, Masashi; Lee, Seung-Jae; Mann, David M A; Imai, Yuzuru; Halliday, Glenda M; Li, Jia-Yi; El-Agnaf, Omar M A

    2015-07-01

    α-Synuclein (α-syn), a small protein that has the intrinsic propensity to aggregate, is implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA), which are collectively known as synucleinopathies. Genetic, pathological, biochemical, and animal modeling studies provided compelling evidence that α-syn aggregation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of PD and related synucleinopathies. It is therefore of utmost importance to develop reliable tools that can detect the aggregated forms of α-syn. We describe here the generation and characterization of six novel conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies that recognize specifically α-syn aggregates but not the soluble, monomeric form of the protein. The antibodies described herein did not recognize monomers or fibrils generated from other amyloidogenic proteins including β-syn, γ-syn, β-amyloid, tau protein, islet amyloid polypeptide and ABri. Interestingly, the antibodies did not react to overlapping linear peptides spanning the entire sequence of α-syn, confirming further that they only detect α-syn aggregates. In immunohistochemical studies, the new conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies showed underappreciated small micro-aggregates and very thin neurites in PD and DLB cases that were not observed with generic pan antibodies that recognize linear epitope. Furthermore, employing one of our conformation-specific antibodies in a sandwich based ELISA, we observed an increase in levels of α-syn oligomers in brain lysates from DLB compared to Alzheimer's disease and control samples. Therefore, the conformation-specific antibodies portrayed herein represent useful tools for research, biomarkers development, diagnosis and even immunotherapy for PD and related pathologies.

  17. Nucleotide sequence of the variable region of the heavy and light chains of a monoclonal IgG antibody reactive to herbicides, terbutryn and prometryn.

    PubMed

    Kreissig, S B; Ward, V K; Hammock, B D; Choudary, P V

    1995-01-01

    Members of the triazine family of herbicides are reliable indicators of contamination of the ground water or soil with pesticide residues. To facilitate better detection of the chemical residues using improved immunoassay procedures, several monoclonal antibodies against triazine herbicides have been developed. K1F4 is a hybridoma secreting monoclonal (IgG) antibody reactive to terbutryn and prometryn, two members of the triazine family. We have cloned the genes encoding the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of this monoclonal antibody and report the nucleotide sequence here.

  18. Urinary antigens as markers of papillary toxicity. I. Identification and characterization of rat kidney papillary antigens with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Falkenberg, F W; Hildebrand, H; Lutte, L; Schwengberg, S; Henke, B; Greshake, D; Schmidt, B; Friederich, A; Rinke, M; Schlüter, G; Bomhard, E

    1996-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were prepared in an attempt to develop diagnostic tools for the identification of toxic damage to the rat renal papilla. One IgG and five IgM monoclonal antibodies, reacting with antigens localized in the papilla were obtained. Three of the IgM class and the IgG class monoclonal antibodies were found to be specific for antigens localized in collecting ducts, two of them staining papillary collecting ducts more intensely than cortical collecting ducts. The IgG class antibody, termed Pap X 5C10, recognizes an antigen located at high density on the luminal side of papillary collecting duct epithelial cells and at lower density in cortical collecting duct cells. One of the IgM class monoclonal antibodies reacts with an antigen localized in epithelial cells as ascending and descending loops of Henle and of connecting tubules. Another of the IgM class monoclonal antibodies reacts with an antigen localized in the interstices of the inner medulla. All these monoclonal antibodies react with their antigens in native frozen as well as in Bouin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue slices. Molecular properties of the Pap X 5C10 antigen have been investigated by gel permeation chromatography, SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, and isoelectric focusing. The results indicate that the antigen in both its tissue-derived and urinary form is of large (150-200 kDa) molecular size and can be separated into two molecular species with isoelectric points of pH 7.2 and 7.3 respectively. In the urine the antigens recognized by the monoclonal antibodies form large complexes with Tamm-Horsfall protein. The antigen-containing complexes can be extracted from urine by adsorption to diatomaceous earth and elution with SDS-containing buffer. Using sandwich ELISA-type assays it is possible to determine the concentration of the antigens. In preliminary experiments we were able to show that at least three of the antigens are detected in the urine following toxic insults to the kidney. The

  19. A Monoclonal Antibody to Cryptococcus neoformans Glucuronoxylomannan Manifests Hydrolytic Activity for Both Peptides and Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Anthony; Wear, Maggie P; Cordero, Radames J B; Oscarson, Stefan; Casadevall, Arturo

    2017-01-13

    Studies in the 1980s first showed that some natural antibodies were "catalytic" and able to hydrolyze peptide or phosphodiester bonds in antigens. Many naturally occurring catalytic antibodies have since been isolated from human sera and associated with positive and negative outcomes in autoimmune disease and infection. The function and prevalence of these antibodies, however, remain unclear. A previous study suggested that the 18B7 monoclonal antibody against glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), the major component of the Cryptococcus neoformans polysaccharide capsule, hydrolyzed a peptide antigen mimetic. Using mass spectrometry and Förster resonance energy transfer techniques, we confirm and characterize the hydrolytic activity of 18B7 against peptide mimetics and show that 18B7 is able to hydrolyze an oligosaccharide substrate, providing the first example of a naturally occurring catalytic antibody for polysaccharides. Additionally, we show that the catalytic 18B7 antibody increases release of capsular polysaccharide from fungal cells. A serine protease inhibitor blocked peptide and oligosaccharide hydrolysis by 18B7, and a putative serine protease-like active site was identified in the light chain variable region of the antibody. An algorithm was developed to detect similar sites present in unique antibody structures in the Protein Data Bank. The putative site was found in 14 of 63 (22.2%) catalytic antibody structures and 119 of 1602 (7.4%) antibodies with no annotation of catalytic activity. The ability of many antibodies to cleave antigen, albeit slowly, supports the notion that this activity is an important immunoglobulin function in host defense. The discovery of GXM hydrolytic activity suggests new therapeutic possibilities for polysaccharide-binding antibodies.

  20. Effect of polyol sugars on the stabilization of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Nicoud, Lucrèce; Cohrs, Nicholas; Arosio, Paolo; Norrant, Edith; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the impact of sugars and polyols on the heat-induced aggregation of a model monoclonal antibody whose monomer depletion is rate-limited by protein unfolding. We follow the kinetics of monomer consumption by size exclusion chromatography, and we interpret the results in the frame of two mechanistic schemes describing the enhanced protein stability in the presence of polyols. It is found that the stabilization effect increases with increasing polyol concentration with a comparable trend for all of the tested polyols. However, the stabilization effect at a given polyol concentration is polyol specific. In particular, the stabilization effect increases as a function of polyol size until a plateau is reached above a critical polyol size corresponding to six carbon atoms. Our results show that the stabilization by polyols does not depend solely on the volume fraction filled by the polyol molecules, but is also affected by the polyol chemistry.

  1. Positron emission tomographic imaging of tumors using monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Zalutsky, M.R.

    1990-12-01

    The overall objective for this research project is to develop methods for utilizing Positron Emission Tomography (PET) to increase the clinical potential of radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). By labeling MAbs with positron-emitting nuclides, it should be possible to quantitate the dynamics of their three-dimensional distribution in vivo. Our long term goals are to apply this approach to investigate the following: normal tissue toxicity; radiation dose to the tumor; and early tumor imaging. The research plans of this proposal include the following specific aims: optimize labeling of MAbs with fluorine 18, bromine 76 and bromine 75; label MAb Mel-14 (reactive against human gliomas and melanomas) and its Fab and F(ab{prime}){sub 2} fragments while retaining immunoreactivity; determine the distribution of Mel-14 in athymic mice bearing human gliomas; determine pharmacokinetics of Mel-14 in nonhuman primates. Experiments with another MAb, TP-1, and iodine 124 and 131 are also planned. 8 figs.

  2. [Monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Seco, Victoria Galán; Casanova Peño, Ignacio; Arroyo González, Rafael

    2014-12-01

    Until the mid 1990s, with the appearance of interferon beta and glatiramer acetate, there was no treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS). However, due to their moderate therapeutic potential in some patients, a broad search was continued to find new and more effective treatment strategies, largely concentrated on monoclonal antibodies (MOAB). Natalizumab, the first MOAB for the treatment of MS, was approved at the end of 2004, representing a major advance in the field of neuroimmunology. Today, there is broad experience with natalizumab and other MOAB (alemtuzumab, daclizumab, rituximab, ocrelizumab, ofatumumab and anti-lingo-1) that are pending commercialization or are under phase II or III of development with promising results. The present review analyzes the efficacy and safety results of all these drugs.

  3. Target Therapy in Hematological Malignances: New Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Pawlowski, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Apart from radio- and chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) represent a new, more selective tool in the treatment of hematological malignancies. MoAbs bind with the specific antigens of the tumors. This interaction is a basis for targeted therapies which exhibit few side effects and significant antitumor activity. This review provides an overview of the functional characteristics of MoAbs, with some examples of their clinical application. The promising results in the treatment of hematological malignancies have led to the more frequent usage of MoAbs in the therapy. Development of MoAbs is a subject of extensive research. They are a promising method of cancer treatment in the future. PMID:27433507

  4. High-level iodination of monoclonal antibody fragments for radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ferens, J.M.; Krohn, K.A.; Beaumier, P.L.; Brown, J.P.; Hellstroem, I.; Hellstroem, K.E.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Larson, S.M.

    1984-03-01

    Two different murine monoclonal antibody Fab fragments specific for p97, a melanoma-associated antigen, were labeled with I-131 at high activity levels without excessive chemical damage. Up to 20 mg of Fab were labeled with up to 300 mCi of I-131 using the chloramine-T method and large working volumes at room temperature. As much as 90% of the initial activity was recovered as labeled product. The labeled Fabs varied in their sensitivity to radioiodination damage, as measured by an in vitro cell-binding assay. Radioiodination was performed safely using a remote iodination apparatus. The final product was of radiopharmaceutical quality suitable for clinical diagnosis and experimental radiotherapy in humans.

  5. Monoclonal antibodies and the transformation of blood typing.

    PubMed

    Marks, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Today, when monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become one of the most important classes of therapeutic drugs, it is easy to forget how much they have transformed our healthcare in other ways. One of the first clinical areas, as this paper shows, where mAbs made their mark was in the field of blood typing. The adoption of mAbs for this purpose was done with little public fanfare or funding. Nonetheless, it radically transformed the accuracy and cost of blood typing and shifted the procedure away from a dependence on reagents made from human blood donated by volunteers. This paper argues that the development of mAbs as reagents for blood typing laid the foundation for the first large-scale production of mAbs thereby paving the way to the advent of mAb diagnostics and therapeutics.

  6. Monoclonal antibodies and the transformation of blood typing

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Today, when monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become one of the most important classes of therapeutic drugs, it is easy to forget how much they have transformed our healthcare in other ways. One of the first clinical areas, as this paper shows, where mAbs made their mark was in the field of blood typing. The adoption of mAbs for this purpose was done with little public fanfare or funding. Nonetheless, it radically transformed the accuracy and cost of blood typing and shifted the procedure away from a dependence on reagents made from human blood donated by volunteers. This paper argues that the development of mAbs as reagents for blood typing laid the foundation for the first large-scale production of mAbs thereby paving the way to the advent of mAb diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:25484059

  7. Potential of palladium-109-labeled antimelanoma monoclonal antibody for tumor therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fawwaz, R.A.; Wang, T.S.T.; Srivastava, S.C.; Rosen, J.M.; Ferrone, S.; Hardy, M.A.; Alderson, P.O.

    1984-07-01

    Palladium-109, a beta-emitting radionuclide, was chelated to the monoclonal antibody 225.28S to the high molecular weight antigen associated with human melanoma. Injection of the radiolabeled monoclonal antibody into nude mice bearing human melanoma resulted in significant accumulation of the radiolabel in the tumors: 19% injected dose/g; 38:1 and 61:1 tumor-to-blood ratios at 24 and 48 hr, respectively. The localization of the radiolabeled antibody in liver and kidney also was high, but appreciably lower than that achieved in tumor. These results suggest Pd-109-labeled monoclonal antibody to tumor-associated antigens may have potential applications in tumor immunotherapy.

  8. A monoclonal antibody that blocks poliovirus attachment recognizes the lymphocyte homing receptor CD44.

    PubMed Central

    Shepley, M P; Racaniello, V R

    1994-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody, AF3, was previously shown to specifically inhibit poliovirus binding to HeLa cells and to detect a 100-kDa glycoprotein only in cell lines and tissues permissive for poliovirus infection. These results suggested that the 100-kDa protein may be involved in the pathogenesis of poliomyelitis and the cellular function of the poliovirus receptor site. To study further the role of the 100-kDa protein in poliovirus attachment, immunoaffinity purification, amino acid sequencing, and cDNA cloning were undertaken. The results demonstrate that antibody AF3 reacts with the lymphocyte homing receptor CD44, a multifunctional cell surface glycoprotein involved in the homing of circulating lymphocytes to lymph nodes and the modulation of lymphocyte adhesion and activation. Antibody AF3 reacts with a subset of CD44 molecules (AF3CD44H), which appears to be a small fraction of the heterogeneously glycosylated CD44 molecules expressed on hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. Anti-CD44 monoclonal antibodies, previously reported to induce CD44-mediated modulation of lymphocyte activation and adhesion, compete with 125I-AF3 in binding assays, demonstrating functional overlap among the epitopes. The anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody A3D8, which binds to a greater molecular weight range of CD44 than does AF3, inhibits poliovirus binding to a similar degree. CD44 does not act as a poliovirus receptor, since CD44-expressing mouse L-cell transformants did not bind poliovirus. The poliovirus receptor and AF3CD44H may be noncovalently associated, or they may interact through the cytoskeleton or signal transduction pathways. Images PMID:7508992

  9. Detection of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, ovine scrapie prion-related protein (PrPSc) and normal PrPc by monoclonal antibodies raised to copper-refolded prion protein.

    PubMed

    Thackray, Alana M; Madec, Jean-Yves; Wong, Edmond; Morgan-Warren, Robert; Brown, David R; Baron, Thierry; Bujdoso, Raymond

    2003-02-15

    Prion-related protein (PrP) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked cell-surface protein expressed by a wide variety of cells, including those of the nervous system and the immune system. Several functions of normal cellular PrP (PrPc) have been proposed that may be associated with the capacity of this protein to bind copper. In the present study, we describe the generation of a panel of monoclonal antibodies raised to copper-refolded PrP, which may be used to analyse the normal and disease-associated forms of this protein. The anti-PrP monoclonal antibodies were reactive by Western blot and ELISA with recombinant murine PrPc refolded in the presence or absence of either copper or manganese, and with the disease-susceptible allelic form V136R154Q171 ('VRQ'; where single-letter amino-acid notation has been used) and disease-resistant allelic form A136R154R171 ('ARR') of recombinant ovine PrPc. FACS analysis of lymphoid cells using these monoclonal antibodies showed that wild-type non-activated mouse lymphocytes expressed little, if any, PrPc. These monoclonal antibodies were shown to react with the unglycosylated and monoglycosylated forms of PrPSc (abnormal disease-specific conformation of PrP) in prion-infected tissue samples from all of the different species tested by Western blot. In addition, this analysis allowed one to make a distinction between bovine spongiform encephalopathy ('BSE') and scrapie PrPSc) isolates from experimentally infected sheep on the basis of their different electrophoretic mobilities.

  10. Probing Functional Changes in Exocyst Configuration with Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Inamdar, Shivangi M.; Hsu, Shu-Chan; Yeaman, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Spatial regulation of exocytosis relies on the exocyst, a hetero-octameric protein complex that tethers vesicles to fusion sites at the plasma membrane. Nevertheless, our understanding of mechanisms regulating exocyst assembly/disassembly, localization, and function are incomplete. Here, we have exploited a panel of anti-Sec6 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to probe possible configurational changes accompanying transitions in exocyst function in epithelial MDCK cells. Sec6 is quantitatively associated with Sec8 in high molecular weight complexes, as shown by gel filtration and co-immunoprecipitation studies. We mapped epitopes recognized by more than 20 distinct mAbs to one of six Sec6 segments. Surprisingly, mAbs that bound epitopes in each segment labeled distinct subcellular structures. In general, antibodies to epitopes in N-terminal domains labeled Sec6 in either cytosolic or nuclear pools, whereas those that bound epitopes in C-terminal domains labeled membrane-associated Sec6. In this latter group, we identified antibodies that labeled distinct Sec6 populations at the apical junctional complex, desmosomes, endoplasmic reticulum and vimentin-type intermediate filaments. That each antibody was specific was verified by both Sec6 RNAi and competition with fusion proteins containing each domain. Comparison of non-polarized and polarized cells revealed that many Sec6 epitopes either redistribute or become concealed during epithelial polarization. Transitions in exocyst configurations may be regulated in part by the actions of Ral GTPases, because the exposure of Sec6 C-terminal domain epitopes at the plasma membrane is significantly reduced upon RalA RNAi. To determine whether spatio-temporal changes in epitope accessibility was correlated with differential stability of interactions between Sec6 and other exocyst subunits, we quantified relative amounts of each subunit that co-immunoprecipitated with Sec6 when antibodies to N-terminal or C-terminal epitopes were used

  11. Production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against the Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3Aa16.

    PubMed

    Ben Hamadou-Charfi, Dorra; Sauer, Annette Juliane; Abdelkafi-Mesrati, Lobna; Jaoua, Samir; Stephan, Dietrich

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a quantitative determination of the vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3A from the culture supernatant of Bacillus thuringiensis either by ELISA or by the conventional quantification method of the Western blot band. The Vip3A protein was produced by fermentation of the B. thuringiensis reference strain BUPM95 in 3 L. By Western blot, the Vip3Aa16 toxin was detected in the culture supernatant during the exponential growth phase of B. thuringiensis BUPM95. However, the detection of Vip3Aa16 on Western blot showed in addition to the toxin two other strips (62 and 180 kDa) recognized by the anti-Vip3Aa16 polyclonal antibodies prepared at the Centre of Biotechnology of Sfax Tunisia. For that reason and in order to develop a technique for reliable quantification of the toxin, we have considered the production of polyclonal antibodies at the Julius Kühn Institute, Germany. These antibodies were the basis for the production of monoclonal antibodies directed against the protein produced by the Vip3Aa16 recombinant strain Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). These monoclonal antibodies were tested by plate-trapped antigen (PTA) and triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA). The selection of hybridoma supernatants gave us four positive clones producing monoclonal antibodies.

  12. Plasmodium vivax: a monoclonal antibody recognizes a circumsporozoite protein precursor on the sporozoite surface.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Ceron, L; Rodriguez, M H; Wirtz, R A; Sina, B J; Palomeque, O L; Nettel, J A; Tsutsumi, V

    1998-11-01

    The major surface circumsporozoite (CS) proteins are known to play a role in malaria sporozoite development and invasion of invertebrate and vertebrate host cells. Plasmodium vivax CS protein processing during mosquito midgut oocyst and salivary gland sporozoite development was studied using monoclonal antibodies which recognize different CS protein epitopes. Monoclonal antibodies which react with the CS amino acid repeat sequences by ELISA recognized a 50-kDa precursor protein in immature oocyst and additional 47- and 42-kDa proteins in older oocysts. A 42-kDa CS protein was detected after initial sporozoite invasion of mosquito salivary glands and an additional 50-kDa precursor CS protein observed later in infected salivary glands. These data confirm previous results with other Plasmodium species, in which more CS protein precursors were detected in oocysts than in salivary gland sporozoites. A monoclonal antibody (PvPCS) was characterized which reacts with an epitope found only in the 50-kDa precursor CS protein. PvPCS reacted with all P. vivax sporozoite strains tested by indirect immunofluorescent assay, homogeneously staining the sporozoite periphery with much lower intensity than that produced by anti-CS repeat antibodies. Immunoelectron microscopy using PvPCS showed that the CS protein precursor was associated with peripheral cytoplasmic vacuoles and membranes of sporoblast and budding sporozoites in development oocysts. In salivary gland sporozoites, the CS protein precursor was primarily associated with micronemes and sporozoite membranes. Our results suggest that the 50-kDa CS protein precursor is synthesized intracellularly and secreted on the membrane surface, where it is proteolytically processed to form the 42-kDa mature CS protein. These data indicate that differences in CS protein processing in oocyst and salivary gland sporozoites development may occur.

  13. Distinct reactivity of the commercially available monoclonal antibodies of D-dimer and plasma FDP testing to the molecular variants of fibrin degradation products.

    PubMed

    Madoiwa, Seiji; Kitajima, Isao; Ohmori, Tsukasa; Sakata, Yoichi; Mimuro, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Fibrin degradation products (FDP) are an important marker of coagulopathy. We assessed the reactivity of the monoclonal antibodies used in clinical laboratory testing (6 D-dimer reagents, D-dimer-1-6; 4 plasma FDP reagents, plasma FDP-1-4) to quantify FDP using in vitro-generated FDP as well as FDP in clinical samples. The monoclonal antibodies used in D-dimer-1, -2, -5, and -6 reacted poorly to the low molecular weight forms of in vitro-generated FDP. The monoclonal antibodies used in D-dimer-3 and -4 had better reactivity to the low molecular weight forms of in vitro-generated FDP. The monoclonal antibodies used in plasma FDP-2, -3, and -4 reacted well to the high and low molecular weight FDP forms, while the monoclonal antibody in plasma FDP-1 reacted poorly to the low molecular weight FDP forms. Analysis of clinical samples revealed deviations in FDP molecular weight forms in DIC samples. The reactivity of the monoclonal antibodies of laboratory FDP testing to FDP variants in clinical samples was similar to that of in vitro-generated FDP. In conclusion, the monoclonal antibodies used in clinical laboratories to detect FDP have distinct reactivity to the molecular variants of FDP generated in vitro as well as those present in clinical samples. Our findings support the consensus for the standardization of D-dimer and plasma FDP testing.

  14. Monoclonal antibody therapeutics with up to five specificities

    PubMed Central

    LaFleur, David W.; Abramyan, Donara; Kanakaraj, Palanisamy; Smith, Rodger G.; Shah, Rutul R.; Wang, Geping; Yao, Xiao-Tao; Kankanala, Spandana; Boyd, Ernie; Zaritskaya, Liubov; Nam, Viktoriya; Puffer, Bridget A.; Buasen, Pete; Kaithamana, Shashi; Burnette, Andrew F.; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh; Patel, Dimki; Roschke, Viktor V.; Kiener, Peter A.; Hilbert, David M.; Barbas III, Carlos F.

    2013-01-01

    The recognition that few human diseases are thoroughly addressed by mono-specific, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) continues to drive the development of antibody therapeutics with additional specificities and enhanced activity. Historically, efforts to engineer additional antigen recognition into molecules have relied predominantly on the reformatting of immunoglobulin domains. In this report we describe a series of fully functional mAbs to which additional specificities have been imparted through the recombinant fusion of relatively short polypeptides sequences. The sequences are selected for binding to a particular target from combinatorial libraries that express linear, disulfide-constrained, or domain-based structures. The potential for fusion of peptides to the N- and C- termini of both the heavy and light chains affords the bivalent expression of up to four different peptides. The resulting molecules, called zybodies, can gain up to four additional specificities, while retaining the original functionality and specificity of the scaffold antibody. We explore the use of two clinically significant oncology antibodies, trastuzumab and cetuximab, as zybody scaffolds and demonstrate functional enhancements in each case. The affect of fusion position on both peptide and scaffold function is explored, and penta-specific zybodies are demonstrated to simultaneously engage five targets (ErbB2, EGFR, IGF-1R, Ang2 and integrin αvβ3). Bispecific, trastuzumab-based zybodies targeting ErbB2 and Ang2 are shown to exhibit superior efficacy to trastuzumab in an angiogenesis-dependent xenograft tumor model. A cetuximab-based bispecific zybody that targeting EGFR and ErbB3 simultaneously disrupted multiple intracellular signaling pathways; inhibited tumor cell proliferation; and showed efficacy superior to that of cetuximab in a xenograft tumor model. PMID:23575268

  15. Generation of monoclonal antibodies to vertebrate albumins for analysis of arthropod blood meals.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Lori Kae; Nardi, James B; Holly, Theresa; Wang, Liping; Frye, Janie; Novak, Robert J

    2011-06-01

    An immunoassay using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that are specific for different vertebrate taxa (from class to species) has been developed that simplifies and facilitates analysis of vertebrate blood meals from arthropod vectors. The MAbs have been prepared against the single protein albumin, the most abundant protein in vertebrate sera. A panel of these antibodies has been generated against albumins from 33 species of vertebrates, representing four classes, 15 orders, and 25 families. Immunoreactivity of albumin in mosquito blood meals can be detected as late as 48 h after feeding. Immunoassays with MAbs can be carried out in the field as well as the laboratory. Used in conjunction with nucleic acid assays or used alone with an appropriate assortment of antibodies, the assay is simple, sensitive, and unambiguous.

  16. Kinetic analysis of monoclonal antibody-antigen interactions with a new biosensor based analytical system.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, R; Michaelsson, A; Mattsson, L

    1991-12-15

    An automated biosensor system for measuring molecular interactions has been used to study the kinetics of monoclonal antibody-antigen reactions. The system combines a microfluidic unit in contact with a sensor surface for surface plasmon resonance detection. The specificity of the surface is determined by the operator. Antibody or antigen is immobilised in a dextran matrix attached to the sensor surface. The interaction of matrix bound antibody or antigen with the corresponding partner in solution is monitored in real time. None of the interacting molecules needs to be labelled and it is not necessary to determine the concentration of the the matrix bound component in advance. Two systems were studied: matrix bound monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) interacting with HIV-1 core protein p24 and immobilised aminotheophylline reacting with MAbs. Control of the amount of immobilised ligand and reusable sensor surfaces permits the comparison of different MAbs reacting with antigen under almost identical conditions. Differences in affinity and reaction rates are immediately apparent. The calculated association rate constants for p24 MAbs ranged from 3 x 10(4) - 7.4 x 10(5) M-1 s-1 and for theophylline MAbs association rate constants as high as 1 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 were encountered. The calculated dissociation rate constants were in the region 2 x 10(-4) s-1 to 2 x 10(-2) s-1.

  17. Visualization of metastases from colon carcinoma using an iodine 131-radiolabeled monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Leyden, M.J.; Thompson, C.H.; Lichtenstein, M.; Andrews, J.T.; Sullivan, J.R.; Zalcberg, J.R.; McKenzie, I.F.

    1986-03-15

    A murine monoclonal antibody that reacts with human colonic cancer (250-30.6) was labeled with radioactive iodine (131I) and the antibody was injected intravenously into 15 patients with known metastases originating from carcinoma of the colon (10 cases), malignant melanoma (1), breast (1), pancreas (1), hepatocellular carcinoma (1), and adenocarcinoma of unknown origin (1). Of the patients with metastatic colon carcinoma, there were 19 known deposits as judged by the techniques of clinical examination, x-rays, and scans obtained using sulpha-colloid. Of these 19 deposits, 17 (90%) were found using the 131I-labeled monoclonal antibody. In one case, the primary tumor, previously undiagnosed, was found. In only 1 of the 10 patients was tumor not found and this was due to the subsequent finding that the undifferentiated tumor did not react with antibody. Of the five patients who did not have carcinoma of the colon, three had negative scans, but two were positive. Thus, the technique of immunoscintography can readily detect both primary and metastatic tumors.

  18. Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Against the Protective Antigen Component of Bacillus anthracis Toxin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-21

    F. Jaquet, P. Luethy, R. Huetter, and D. G. Braun. 1986. Characterization of mcnoclonal antibodies to a crystal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis ...AD-A192 855 UT FILE COPY Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Against the Protective Antigen Component of Bacillus anthracis...Author Tel. No. 301-663-7341 1--ac",- 88 3 14 05 6 Krhirty-six monoclonal antibodies to the protective antigen protein of Bacillus anthracis exotoxin

  19. Anti-bacterial monoclonal antibodies: back to the future?

    PubMed

    Oleksiewicz, Martin B; Nagy, Gábor; Nagy, Eszter

    2012-10-15

    Today's medicine has to deal with the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria, and is beginning to be confronted with pan-resistant microbes. This worsening inadequacy of the antibiotics concept, which has ruled infectious medicine in the last six decades creates an increasing unmet medical need that can be addressed by passive immunization. While past experience from the pre-antibiotic era with serum therapy was in many cases encouraging, antibacterial monoclonal antibodies have so far suffered high attrition rates in the clinic, generally from lack of efficacy. Yet, we believe that recent developments in a number of areas such as infectious disease pathogenesis research, translational medicine, mAb engineering, mAb manufacturing and rapid bedside diagnostics are converging to make the medium-term future permissive for antibacterial mAb development. Here, we review antibacterial mAb-based approaches that are or were in clinical development, and may potentially act as paradigms with regards to molecular targets, antibody formats and mode-of-action, pre-clinical validation and selection of most relevant patient populations, in order to increase the likelihood of successful product development in this field.

  20. Monoclonal antibody-based therapies for microbial diseases

    PubMed Central

    Saylor, Carolyn; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody (mAb) revolution that currently provides many new options for the treatment of neoplastic and inflammatory diseases has largely bypassed the field of infectious diseases. Only one mAb is licensed for use against an infectious disease, although there are many in various stages of development. This situation is peculiar given that serum therapy was one of the first effective treatments for microbial diseases and that specific antibodies have numerous antimicrobial properties. The underdevelopment and underutilization of mAb therapies for microbial diseases has various complex explanations that include the current availability of antimicrobial drugs, small markets, high costs and microbial antigenic variation. However, there are signs that the climate for mAb therapeutics in infectious diseases is changing given increasing antibiotic drug resistance, the emergence of new pathogenic microbes for which no therapy is available, and development of mAb cocktail formulations. Currently, the major hurdle for the widespread introduction of mAb therapies for microbial diseases is economic, given the high costs of immunoglobulin preparations and relatively small markets. Despite these obstacles there are numerous opportunities for mAb development against microbial diseases and the development of radioimmunotherapy provides new options for enhancing the magic bullet. Hence, there is cautious optimism that the years ahead will see more mAbs in clinical use against microbial diseases. PMID:20006139

  1. Monoclonal antibodies: pharmacokinetics as a basis for new dosage regimens?

    PubMed

    Azanza, J-R; Sádaba, B; Gómez-Guiu, A

    2015-10-01

    Complete monoclonal IgG antibodies which are in use in clinical practice share some pharmacological properties resulting in high concentrations in plasma. This fact is reflected in their low volumes of distribution, which can also be correlated with a high molecular weight and water solubility. This feature allows a novel approach to be applied to the dosing schedule for this group of drugs with fixed doses being used instead of the initially developed weight- or body surface-adjusted dosing schedules. In addition, the development of a new formulation containing hyaluronidase allows a subcutaneous route of administration to be used, because hyaluronidase creates a space in the subcutaneous tissue that helps antibody absorption. This method requires higher doses, but has allowed testing the feasibility of administering a fixed dose, with no individual dose adjustments based on weight or body surface. Moreover, loading doses are not needed, because the first dose results, within 3 weeks, in minimum concentrations that are higher than effective concentrations.

  2. Hierarchical Cluster Formation in Concentrated Monoclonal Antibody Formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrin, P. Douglas; Zarzar, Jonathan; Zarraga, Isidro Dan; Porcar, Lionel; Falus, Peter; Wagner, Norman; Liu, Yun

    Reversible cluster formation has been identified as an underlying cause of large solution viscosities observed in some concentrated monoclonal antibody (mAb) formulations. As high solution viscosity prevents the use of subcutaneous injection as a delivery method for some mAbs, a fundamental understanding of the interactions responsible for high viscosities in concentrated mAb solutions is of significant relevance to mAb applications in human health care as well as of intellectual interest. Here, we present a detailed investigation of a well-studied IgG1 based mAb to relate the short time dynamics and microstructure to significant viscosity changes over a range of pharmaceutically relevant physiochemical conditions. Using a combination of experimental techniques, it is found that upon adding Na2SO4, these antibodies dimerize in solution. Proteins form strongly bounded reversible dimers at dilute concentrations that, when concentrated, interact with each other to form loosely bounded, large, transient clusters. The combined effect of forming strongly bounded dimers and a large transient network is a significant increase in the solution viscosity. Strongly bounded, reversible dimers may exist in many IgG1 based mAb systems such that these results contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the physical mechanisms producing high viscosities in concentrated protein solutions.

  3. Defining process design space for monoclonal antibody cell culture.

    PubMed

    Abu-Absi, Susan Fugett; Yang, LiYing; Thompson, Patrick; Jiang, Canping; Kandula, Sunitha; Schilling, Bernhard; Shukla, Abhinav A

    2010-08-15

    The concept of design space has been taking root as a foundation of in-process control strategies for biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes. During mapping of the process design space, the multidimensional combination of operational variables is studied to quantify the impact on process performance in terms of productivity and product quality. An efficient methodology to map the design space for a monoclonal antibody cell culture process is described. A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) was used as the basis for the process characterization exercise. This was followed by an integrated study of the inoculum stage of the process which includes progressive shake flask and seed bioreactor steps. The operating conditions for the seed bioreactor were studied in an integrated fashion with the production bioreactor using a two stage design of experiments (DOE) methodology to enable optimization of operating conditions. A two level Resolution IV design was followed by a central composite design (CCD). These experiments enabled identification of the edge of failure and classification of the operational parameters as non-key, key or critical. In addition, the models generated from the data provide further insight into balancing productivity of the cell culture process with product quality considerations. Finally, process and product-related impurity clearance was evaluated by studies linking the upstream process with downstream purification. Production bioreactor parameters that directly influence antibody charge variants and glycosylation in CHO systems were identified.

  4. Radioimmunodetection of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with 111In-labeled T101 monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Carrasquillo, J.A.; Bunn, P.A. Jr.; Keenan, A.M.; Reynolds, J.C.; Schroff, R.W.; Foon, K.A.; Su, M.H.; Gazdar, A.F.; Mulshine, J.L.; Oldham, R.K.

    1986-09-11

    T101 monoclonal antibody recognizes a pan-T-cell antigen present on normal T cells and also found in high concentrations in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. We used this antibody, radiolabeled with 111In, in gamma-camera imaging to detect sites of metastatic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in 11 patients with advanced disease. In all patients, (/sup 111/In)T101 concentrated in pathologically or clinically detected nodes, including those in several previously unsuspected nodal regions. Concentrations (per gram of tissue) ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 percent of the injected dose and were consistently 10 to 100 times higher than previously reported on radioimmunodetection. Focal uptake was seen in skin tumors and heavily infiltrated erythroderma but not in skin plaques. The specificity of tumor targeting was documented by control studies with (/sup 111/In)chloride or (/sup 111/In)9.2.27 (anti-melanoma) monoclonal antibody. Increasing the T101 dose (1 to 50 mg) altered distribution in nontumor tissues. These studies suggest that imaging with (/sup 111/In)T101 may be of value in identifying sites of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. In contrast to the targeting of solid tumors, the mechanism of localization appears to be related to binding to T cells, which can then carry the radioactivity to involved sites.

  5. Natalizumab: AN 100226, anti-4alpha integrin monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    Natalizumab [AN 100226, anti-alpha4 integrin monoclonal antibody, Antegren] is a humanised monoclonal antibody that blocks alpha4beta1 integrin-mediated leukocyte migration. Natalizumab is in phase III trials for the treatment of multiple sclerosis in North America and the UK, and for the treatment of Crohn's disease also in the UK. It may have potential in the treatment of other immune-related inflammatory disease. Elan Corporation intends to examine the potential of natalizumab in rheumatoid arthritis and ulcerative colitis. 4beta1 integrin on circulating leukocytes binds to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, which is expressed at high levels in the blood vessels in the CNS during exacerbations of multiple sclerosis. This allows leukocytes expressing alpha4beta1 integrin (very late antigen-4) to move from the peripheral blood into the CNS. Inflammatory proteins and other factors released from lymphocytes in the brain lead to the progression of symptoms. A limitation of natalizumab is that it must be injected and cannot be administered orally. Scientists have transformed the large anti-alpha4 monoclonal antibody into much smaller, drug-like molecules suitable for oral administration. Protein Design Labs has granted a worldwide nonexclusive licence under its antibody humanisation patents to Elan Pharmaceuticals for natalizumab. Biogen Inc. has entered into an agreement with Elan for a worldwide exclusive collaboration to develop, manufacture and commercialise natalizumab for multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Development of natalizumab is also being funded, in part, by Axogen (acquired by Elan in 1999). In November 2003, Biogen and IDEC Pharmaceuticals merged to form Biogen Idec. Elan repurchased royalty rights on a package of products, including natalizumab, from Autoimmune Disease Research Company. Elan and Genzyme Transgenics Corporation signed an agreement to produce natalizumab in GTC's genetically engineered goats, which will

  6. The history of monoclonal antibody development – Progress, remaining challenges and future innovations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Justin K.H.

    2014-01-01

    As medicine progresses into a new era of personalised therapy, the use of monoclonal antibodies to treat a wide range of diseases lies at the heart of this new forefront. Since the licencing of the first monoclonal antibody for clinical use 30 years ago, the monoclonal antibody industry has expanded exponentially and is now valued at billions of dollars. With major advances in genetic sequencing and biomedical research, much research into monoclonal antibodies now focuses on identifying new targets for development and maximising their efficacy for use in clinical practice. However, a balance has to be struck with regards to reducing numbers of side-effects and overall economic cost, which arguably somewhat blighted their early clinical and commercial successes. Nowadays, there are approximately 30 monoclonal antibodies that have been approved for use in clinical practice with many more currently being tested in clinical trials. Some of the current major limitations include: the use of inefficient models for generation, a lack of efficacy and issues of cost-effectiveness. Some of the current research focuses on ways to improve the efficacy of existing monoclonal antibodies through optimising their effects and the addition of beneficial modifications. This review will focus on the history of monoclonal antibody development – how it has increasingly moved away from using laborious animal models to a more effective phage display system, some of the major drawbacks from a clinical and economical point of view and future innovations that are currently being researched to maximise their effectiveness for future clinical use. PMID:25568796

  7. Immunologic diversity among serogroup 1 Legionella pneumophila urinary antigens demonstrated by monoclonal antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, R B; Wilde, C; Johnson, W; Joly, J; Wheat, L J; Baker, R; Misfeldt, M

    1988-01-01

    We tested urine specimens from 222 patients with serogroup 1 Legionella pneumophila pneumonia in two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) which used different monoclonal antibodies (A and B) as detector antibodies. Of 171 specimens which contained enough antigen to be detected in the ELISAs, 169 reacted in only one of the two assays. A total of 25 patients whose infections were acquired in any of three Indianapolis hospitals excreted antigen reactive with monoclonal antibody B, but 18 patients who were treated for infections acquired elsewhere reacted with monoclonal antibody A. The urinary antigen ELISA reactivity patterns correlated with the reactivity patterns of L. pneumophila isolates when a separate panel of seven monoclonal antibodies was used. The isolate patterns, in turn, correlated well with environmental isolate patterns from two of the hospitals with nosocomial cases. We conclude that at least two different epitopes exist on the antigen molecules in urine from patients with serogroup 1 L. pneumophila pneumonia and that the subtyping of urinary antigens can be useful epidemiologically. PMID:2460492

  8. Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies against Vegetative Cells of Bacillus cereus

    PubMed Central

    Charni, Nadine; Perissol, Claude; Le Petit, Jean; Rugani, Nathalie

    2000-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Bacillus cereus were produced. The MAbs (8D3 and 9B7) were selected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for their reactivity with B. cereus vegetative cells. They reacted with B. cereus vegetative cells while failing to recognize B. cereus spores. Immunoblotting revealed that MAb 8D3 recognized a 22-kDa antigen, while MAb 9B7 recognized two antigens with molecular masses of approximately 58 and 62 kDa. The use of MAbs 8D3 and 9B7 in combination to develop an immunological method for the detection of B. cereus vegetative cells in foods was investigated. PMID:10788418

  9. Kinetic analysis of the multistep aggregation mechanism of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Nicoud, Lucrèce; Arosio, Paolo; Sozo, Margaux; Yates, Andrew; Norrant, Edith; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2014-09-11

    We investigate by kinetic analysis the aggregation mechanism of two monoclonal antibodies belonging to the IgG1 and IgG2 subclass under thermal stress. For each IgG, we apply a combination of size exclusion chromatography and light scattering techniques to resolve the time evolution of the monomer, dimer, and trimer concentrations, as well as the average molecular weight and the average hydrodynamic radius of the aggregate distribution. By combining the detailed experimental characterization with a theoretical kinetic model based on population balance equations, we extract relevant information on the contribution of the individual elementary steps on the global aggregation process. The analysis shows that the two molecules follow different aggregation pathways under the same operating conditions. In particular, while the monomer depletion of the IgG1 is found to be rate-limited by monomeric conformational changes, bimolecular collision is identified as the rate-limiting step in the IgG2 aggregation process. The measurement of the microscopic rate constants by kinetic analysis allows the quantification of the protein-protein interaction potentials expressed in terms of the Fuchs stability ratio (W). It is found that the antibody solutions exhibit large W values, which are several orders of magnitude larger than the values computed in the frame of the DLVO theory. This indicates that, besides net electrostatic repulsion, additional effects delay the aggregation kinetics of the antibody solutions with respect to diffusion-limited conditions. These effects likely include the limited efficiency of the collision events due to the presence of a limited number of specific aggregation-prone patches on the heterogeneous protein surface, and the contribution of additional repulsive non-DLVO forces to the protein-protein interaction potential, such as hydration forces.

  10. Monoclonal antibodies targeting non-small cell lung cancer stem-like cells by multipotent cancer stem cell monoclonal antibody library.

    PubMed

    Cao, Kaiyue; Pan, Yunzhi; Yu, Long; Shu, Xiong; Yang, Jing; Sun, Linxin; Sun, Lichao; Yang, Zhihua; Ran, Yuliang

    2017-02-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a rare subset of cancer cells that play a significant role in cancer initiation, spreading, and recurrence. In this study, a subpopulation of lung cancer stem-like cells (LCSLCs) was identified from non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines, SPCA-1 and A549, using serum-free suspension sphere-forming culture method. A monoclonal antibody library was constructed using immunized BLAB/c mice with the multipotent CSC cell line T3A-A3. Flow cytometry analysis showed that 33 mAbs targeted antigens can be enriched in sphere cells compared with the parental cells of SPCA-1 and A549 cell lines. Then, we performed functional antibody screening including sphere-forming inhibiting and invasion inhibiting assay. The results showed that two antibodies, 12C7 and 9B8, notably suppressed the self-renewal and invasion of LCSLCs. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACs) found that the positive cells recognized by mAbs, 12C7 or 9B8, displayed features of LCSLCs. Interestingly, we found that these two antibodies recognized different subsets of cells and their combination effect was superior to the individual effect both in vitro and in vivo. Tissue microarrays were applied to detect the expression of the antigens targeted by these two antibodies. The positive expression of 12C7 and 9B8 targeted antigen was 84.4 and 82.5%, respectively, which was significantly higher than that in the non-tumor lung tissues. In conclusion, we screened two potential therapeutic antibodies that target different subsets of LCSLCs.

  11. Specific immunoradiometric assay of insulin-like growth factor I with use of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Scott, M G; Cuca, G C; Petersen, J R; Lyle, L R; Burleigh, B D; Daughaday, W H

    1987-11-01

    We identified two monoclonal antibodies that bind spatially distinct epitopes on insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Using these two antibodies, we developed a simultaneous, two-site immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) specific for IGF-I. This IRMA has no detectable cross reactivity with insulin, proinsulin, prolactin, or somatotropin, and less than 2% crossreactivity with IGF-II. The assay response varies linearly with IGF-I concentrations of 0-800 micrograms/L in serum; the detection limit is about 10 micrograms/L. A comparison of 26 IGF-I serum values from the IRMA and from a previously reported IGF-I specific RIA gave a correlation coefficient of 0.96 with no substantial bias (slope = 1.10). IGF-I values for serum, as an aid in assessing growth abnormalities, are easily (only three pipetting steps) obtained in less than 4 h.

  12. Production, characterization, and protective effect of monoclonal antibodies to Clostridium chauvoei flagella.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Hirayama, N; Tamura, Y

    1987-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to flagella of Clostridium chauvoei were obtained by the fusion of murine myeloma cells (P3-X63-Ag8-U1) and spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with partially purified flagella of strain Okinawa. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analysis with partially purified flagella, flagellated cells, and nonflagellated mutants were used to show that five monoclonal antibodies are specific for the flagella. In the Western blot analysis, all five antiflagellar antibodies reacted strongly with the 56,000-molecular-weight protein, which corresponds to the flagellin. By using the ELISA-derived reactivity of monoclonal antibodies to the various clostridia and the competitive binding assay, we showed that the flagella of C. chauvoei had at least three epitopes. The three antiflagellar monoclonal antibodies (one immunoglobulin G and two immunoglobulin M) demonstrated passive protective effects in mice. These results strongly suggest that the flagella of C. chauvoei are important for protective immunity in mice.

  13. Endogenous Antibodies for Tumor Detection

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Barrie S.; Honeyman, Joshua N.; Darcy, David G.; Smith, Peter T.; Williams, Andrew R.; Lim, Irene Isabel P.; Johnson, Linda K.; Gönen, Mithat; Simon, Joel S.; LaQuaglia, Michael P.; Simon, Sanford M.

    2014-01-01

    The study of cancer immunology has provided diagnostic and therapeutic instruments through serum autoantibody biomarkers and exogenous monoclonal antibodies. While some endogenous antibodies are found within or surrounding transformed tissue, the extent to which this exists has not been entirely characterized. We find that in transgenic and xenograft mouse models of cancer, endogenous gamma immunoglobulin (IgG) is present at higher concentration in malignantly transformed organs compared to non-transformed organs in the same mouse or organs of cognate wild-type mice. The enrichment of endogenous antibodies within the malignant tissue provides a potential means of identifying and tracking malignant cells in vivo as they mutate and diversify. Exploiting these antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes is possible through the use of agents that bind endogenous antibodies. PMID:24875800

  14. Development of a monoclonal antibody-based flow-through immunoassay (FTA) for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Patil, R; Shankar, K M; Kumar, B T N; Kulkarni, A; Patil, P; Moger, N

    2013-09-01

    A flow-through immunoassay (FTA), an improved version of immunodot, was developed using a nitrocellulose membrane baked onto adsorbent pads enclosed in a plastic cassette to detect white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp. Sharp purple dots developed with WSSV against the white background of the nitrocellulose membrane. The detection limits of WSSV by the FTA and immunodot were 0.312 and 1.2 μg mL(-1) crude WSSV protein, respectively. The FTA could be completed in 8-10 min compared with 90 min for immunodot. The FTA was 100 times more sensitive than 1-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in between that of the 1- and 2-step PCR protocol recommended by the Office of International Epizootics (OIE). In experimental, orally infected shrimp post-larvae, WSSV was first detected 14, 16 and 18 h post-infection (hpi) by FTA, immunodot and one-step PCR, respectively. The FTA detected WSSV 2 and 4 h earlier than immunodot and one-step PCR, respectively. The FTA was more sensitive (25/27) than one-step PCR (23/27) and immunodot (23/27) for the detection of WSSV from white spot disease outbreak ponds. The reagent components of the FTA were stable giving expected results for 6 m at 4-8 °C. The FTA is available as a rapid test kit called 'RapiDot' for the early detection of WSSV under field conditions.

  15. The Use of Humanized Monoclonal Antibodies for the Prevention of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Arcuri, Santo; Galletti, Silvia; Faldella, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are widely used both in infants and in adults for several indications. Humanized monoclonal antibodies (palivizumab) have been used for many years for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in pediatric populations (preterm infants, infants with chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease) at high risk of severe and potentially lethal course of the infection. This drug was reported to be safe, well tolerated and effective to decrease the hospitalization rate and mortality in these groups of infants by several clinical trials. In the present paper we report the development and the current use of monoclonal antibodies for prophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus. PMID:23840240

  16. Structure of solid tumors and their vasculature: Implications for therapy with monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorak, H.F.; Nagy, J.A.; Dvorak, A.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Delivery of monoclonal antibodies to solid tumors is a vexing problem that must be solved if these antibodies are to realize their promise in therapy. Such success as has been achieved with monoclonal antibodies is attributable to the local hyperpermeability of the tumor vasculature, a property that favors antibody extravasation at tumor sites and that is mediated by a tumor-secreted vascular permeability factor. However, leaky tumor blood vessels are generally some distance removed from target tumor cells, separated by stroma and by other tumor cells that together represent significant barriers to penetration by extravasated monoclonal antibodies. For this reason, alternative approaches may be attractive. These include the use of antibody-linked cytotoxins, which are able to kill tumor cells without immediate contact, and direction of antibodies against nontumor cell targets, for example, antigens unique to the tumor vascular endothelium or to tumor stroma. 50 refs.

  17. Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for imaging and therapy: Potential, problems, and prospects: Scientific highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.; Buraggi, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    This meeting focused on areas of research on radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. Topics covered included the production, purification, and fragmentation of monoclonal antibodies and immunochemistry of hybridomas; the production and the chemistry of radionuclides; the radiohalogenation and radiometal labeling techniques; the in-vivo pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled antibodies; the considerations of immunoreactivity of radiolabeled preparations; the instrumentation and imaging techniques as applied to radioimmunodetection; the radiation dosimetry in diagnostic and therapeutic use of labeled antibodies; the radioimmunoscintigraphy and radioimmunotherapy studies; and perspectives and directions for future research. Tutorial as well as scientific lectures describing the latest research data on the above topics were presented. Three workshop panels were convened on ''Methods for Determining Immunoreactivity of Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibodies - Problems and Pitfalls,'' Radiobiological and Dosimetric Considerations for Immunotherapy with Labeled Antibodies,'' and ''The Human Anti-Mouse Antibody Response in Patients.''

  18. Protection of mice against Clostridium chauvoei infection by anti-idiotype antibody to a monoclonal antibody to flagella.

    PubMed

    Kijima-Tanaka, M; Nakamura, M; Nagamine, N; Takahashi, T; Aoki, A; Tamura, Y

    1994-03-01

    Polyclonal rabbit anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-Id) against the protective monoclonal antibody specific to the flagella of Clostridium chauvoei was produced, purified, and characterized. Anti-Id inhibited the binding of its related monoclonal antibody to the flagellar antigen, suggesting that the anti-Id bore an internal image of the flagellar antigen. When mice were immunized with anti-Id intraperitoneally, the survival rate increased significantly, compared with mice immunized with normal rabbit IgG (P < 0.01), and specific anti-flagellar antibodies were induced.

  19. Antibody specificity and antigen characterization of rat monoclonal antibodies against Streptococcus mutans cell wall-associated protein antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Ackermans, F; Klein, J P; Cormont, F; Bazin, H; Ogier, J A; Frank, R M; Vreven, J

    1985-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to Streptococcus mutans OMZ175 (serotype f) cell wall-associated antigens (wall-extracted antigens [WEA]) were derived from the fusion of Lou C plasmocytoma rat cells (IR 983 F) and spleen cells from Wistar R inbred rats immunized with WEA. Four cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies directed against a component of S. mutans WEA have been established. All four monoclonal antibodies reacted only with two antigens of WEA from S. mutans OMZ175 by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation techniques, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and competitive ELISA. Western blot analysis of WEA showed that the four monoclonal antibodies recognized two related cell wall-associated proteins with apparent molecular weights of 125,000 and 76,000. Immunoprecipitation of whole cells with the monoclonal antibodies confirmed the surface localization of the two antigens. The ELISA and competitive ELISA were used to analyze the distribution of the epitopes on seven S. mutans serotypes. All S. mutans serotypes were found to express the recognized epitopes; however, different reactivity patterns could be distinguished among the various strains tested, and the four monoclonal antibodies reacted only weakly with S. mutans serotypes d and g. Images PMID:2410364

  20. Use of AN Eosinophil Specific Monoclonal Antibody in Assessing Eosinophil Function.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkoff, Marjorie Sue

    A monoclonal antibody to an eosinophil specific determinant is very important in assessing eosinophil function during helminthic infection. Eosinophils induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in BALB/c mice were used to induce C57B1/6 immunocytes for production of hybridomas secreting eosinophil monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies were shown to react with an eosinophil surface epitope but not with neutrophils or macrophages as determined by ELISA, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot assay. Affinity chromatography with eosinophil chemotactic factor-sepharose consistently selected out a { rm M_ R} 67,000 protein from solubilized eosinophil membrane antigens but not from neutrophil and macrophage antigens. In vitro studies showed that the eosinophil-specific monoclonal antibodies abrogated antibody-dependent eosinophil -mediated killing of S. mansoni schistosomula using mouse, rat or human eosinophils. Neutrophil and macrophage killing activities were unaffected. The monoclonal antibodies effected complement-dependent lysis of mouse and rat eosinophils but not of human eosinophils. ECF-treated eosinophils showed enhanced killing of schistosomula which was blocked by the monoclonal antibody. Murine and human eosinophils preincubated with monoclonal antibody exhibited decreased chemotaxis to ECF at optimal chemotactic concentrations. The monoclonal antibody also blocked eosinophil binding to ECF- sepharose beads. In vivo induction of peripheral blood eosinophilia by injection of S. mansoni eggs was suppressed by injections of monoclonal antibodies 2CD13 and 2QD45 in mouse and rat experimental models. Eosinophilia induced by keyhole limpet hemocyanin- cyclophosphamide treatment was also suppressed by monoclonal antibody in both murine and rat systems. Pulmonary granulomas in mice given egg injection and monoclonal antibody were smaller and contained fewer eosinophils than those granulomas from mice given eggs only. In immuno-biochemical studies, the

  1. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against dog immunoglobulin isotypes.

    PubMed

    Arce, C; Moreno, A; Millán, Y; Martín de las Mulas, J; Llanes, D

    2002-09-06

    A panel of six monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing antigenic determinants on canine immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy or light chains was produced and characterized. All monoclonals recognized the IgG(2) subclass, although only two were subclass-specific (CA3H1 and CA4F1). The CA3B8 mAb was found to be specific for an epitope on canine immunoglobulin G heavy chain, (IgG(1) and IgG(2) subclasses). Two mAbs (CA2E9 and CA5B2) reacted with an epitope on the heavy chain of canine IgG and IgM and another, CA4E7, bound to canine IgA, IgG and IgM isotypes; CA4E7 recognized an epitope on canine immunoglobulin light chain. CA4E7, CA4F1 and CA5B2 recognized an epitope in the Fab region. Three mAbs, CA3B8, CA4E7 and CA5B2, showed much lower reactivity with canine IgG by ELISA when IgG was periodate-treated, suggesting that they recognized a carbohydrate determinant. Cross-reactivity analysis of these mAbs with sera from horse, goat, cow, sheep, pig, cat, rabbit, hamster, rat, mouse and human indicated that two mAbs, CA3B8 and CA5B2, recognized a canine IgG-specific epitope; two others, CA3H1 and CA4E7, recognized an epitope also present in rabbit and sheep immunoglobulin respectively; and the remaining two (CA2E9 and CA4F1) recognized an epitope broadly present on the Igs of the species analyzed. This panel of antibodies will be a useful tool for future canine immunodiagnosis tests. With the exception of CA2E9, all mAbs were able to recognize plasma cells on paraffin-embedded tissues, and will thus be useful for immunohistochemical assays.

  2. Identification of antigen-specific human monoclonal antibodies using high-throughput sequencing of the antibody repertoire.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju; Li, Ruihua; Liu, Kun; Li, Liangliang; Zai, Xiaodong; Chi, Xiangyang; Fu, Ling; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2016-04-22

    High-throughput sequencing of the antibody repertoire provides a large number of antibody variable region sequences that can be used to generate human monoclonal antibodies. However, current screening methods for identifying antigen-specific antibodies are inefficient. In the present study, we developed an antibody clone screening strategy based on clone dynamics and relative frequency, and used it to identify antigen-specific human monoclonal antibodies. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that at least 52% of putative positive immunoglobulin heavy chains composed antigen-specific antibodies. Combining information on dynamics and relative frequency improved identification of positive clones and elimination of negative clones. and increase the credibility of putative positive clones. Therefore the screening strategy could simplify the subsequent experimental screening and may facilitate the generation of antigen-specific antibodies.

  3. Maturation of human B lymphocytes--studies with a panel of monoclonal antibodies against membrane antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Zola, H; McNamara, P J; Moore, H A; Smart, I J; Brooks, D A; Beckman, I G; Bradley, J

    1983-01-01

    The expression of six different membrane markers by cells of the human B lymphocyte lineage has been studied, using monoclonal antibodies. B cells representing various stages of differentiation/maturation have been examined, using normal cells, leukaemia cells, and continuous cell lines. The expression of the six markers has been compared with maturation stages defined by immunoglobulin expression. The HLA/beta 2-microglobulin complex is present throughout the B cell lineage, whilst the Ia (p28,33) marker is present from the earliest stage that can be attributed to the B lineage, but is lost during plasma cell differentiation. A marker detected by monoclonal antibody FMC 1 is present only on mature B lymphocytes, being absent from pre-B cells or plasma cells. FMC 7 detects an antigen found on a relatively mature subpopulation, whereas FMC 8 detects early as well as mature B cells. FMC 3 expression is found on a proportion of cells at any maturation stage, suggesting that expression of this marker is controlled by factors unrelated to maturation. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6191892

  4. Development of a monoclonal antibody against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVa.

    PubMed

    Ito, T; Olesen, N J; Skall, H F; Sano, M; Kurita, J; Nakajima, K; Iida, T

    2010-02-24

    The viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) comprises 4 major genotypes and a number of subtypes with, in most cases, distinct geographical distribution. A quick and simple detection method that can discriminate the different genotypes is desirable for a quick and more efficient prevention of the spread of genotypes to new geographical areas. A monoclonal antibody (MAb) against VHSV genotype IVa was produced, with the aim of providing a simple method of discriminating this genotype from the other VHSV genotypes (I, II, III and IVb). Balb/c mice were injected with purified VHSV-JF00Ehil (genotype IVa) from diseased farmed Japanese flounder. Ten hybridoma clones secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against VHSV were established. One of these, MAb VHS-10, reacted only with genotype IVa in indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and ELISA. Using cell cultures that were transfected with each of the viral protein genes, it was shown that the MAb VHS-10 recognizes a nonlinear genotype IVa-specific epitope on the VHSV N-protein.

  5. Monoclonal antibody (Y1/82A) with specificity towards peripheral blood monocytes and tissue macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Davey, F R; Cordell, J L; Erber, W N; Pulford, K A; Gatter, K C; Mason, D Y

    1988-01-01

    A new monoclonal antibody, Y1/82A, was raised against phytohaemagglutinin activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Using an immunohistochemical technique it was shown that Y1/82A reacts against peripheral blood and bone marrow monocytes and resident macrophages from essentially all human tissues. Y1/82A bound to determinants present in leukaemic cells from patients with acute myelomonocytic leukaemia and acute monocytic leukaemia, but not to neoplastic cells from patients with malignant lymphoproliferative disorders or malignant epithelial tumours. Y1/82A failed to react with other cell types, with the exception of osteoclasts and megakaryocytes. Analysis by Western blotting showed that the antigen detected by antibody Y1/82A was associated with intracellular granules in macrophages. Monoclonal antibody Y1/82A may be useful in the diagnosis of monocytic leukaemias and histiocytic neoplasms and in the identification of macrophages in tissues from various inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. Images Fig 1-6 PMID:2457604

  6. Monoclonal antibodies against the native urease of Helicobacter pylori: synergistic inhibition of urease activity by monoclonal antibody combinations.

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, K; Mizuta, T; Tonokatu, Y; Fukuda, Y; Okamura, H; Hayashi, T; Shimoyama, T; Tamura, T

    1992-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the native urease of Helicobacter pylori NCTC 11637 were found to clearly inhibit the urease activity. Interestingly, synergistic inhibition by two MAbs recognizing different subunits was also observed. Ten MAbs were produced and classified as two isotypes of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass, IgG1, and IgG2a. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that five MAbs recognized the large subunit and the other five recognized the small subunit of the urease. Among the MAbs, L2 and S2, which recognized the large and the small subunits, respectively, were also able to inhibit the urease activity of clinical isolates from H. pylori-infected patients. The combination of L2 and S2 led to augmented synergistic inhibition. L2, but not S2, could also inhibit the urease activity from Helicobacter mustelae; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analysis showed that L2 cross-reacted with this urease. These results suggested that the epitope recognized by L2 had a structure common to both Helicobacter species and may be involved in the active site of the urease. In contrast to the MAbs, a polyclonal antibody in sera from mice immunized with H. pylori urease did not have the ability to inhibit H. pylori urease activity. However, the polyclonal antibody retained the ability to abolish the inhibitory action of these MAbs. Moreover, other MAbs which could not inhibit H. pylori urease activity also abolished the inhibitory action. Images PMID:1383158

  7. Enhanced Detection of Low-Abundance Host Cell Protein Impurities in High-Purity Monoclonal Antibodies Down to 1 ppm Using Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry Coupled with Multidimensional Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Doneanu, Catalin E; Anderson, Malcolm; Williams, Brad J; Lauber, Matthew A; Chakraborty, Asish; Chen, Weibin

    2015-10-20

    The enormous dynamic range of proteinaceous species present in protein biotherapeutics poses a significant challenge for current mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods to detect low-abundance HCP impurities. Previously, an HCP assay based on two-dimensional chromatographic separation (high pH/low pH) coupled to high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry and developed in the author's laboratory has been shown to achieve a detection limit of about 50 ppm (parts per milion) for the identification and quantification of HCPs present in monoclonal antibodies following Protein A purification.1 To improve the HCP detection limit we have explored the utility of several new analytical techniques for HCP analysis and thereby developed an improved liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methodology for enhanced detection of HCPs. The new method includes (1) the use of a new charge-surface-modified (CSH) C18 stationary phase to mitigate the challenges of column saturation, peak tailing, and distortion that are commonly observed in the HCP analysis; (2) the incorporation of traveling-wave ion mobility (TWIM) separation of coeluting peptide precursors, and (3) the improvement of fragmentation efficiency of low-abundance HCP peptides by correlating the collision energy used for precursor fragmentation with their mobility drift time. As a result of these improvements, the detection limit of the new methodology was greatly improved, and HCPs present at a concentration as low as 1 ppm (1 ng HCP/mg mAb) were successfully identified and quantified. The newly developed method was applied to analyze two high-purity mAbs (NIST mAb and Infliximab) expressed in a murine cell line. For both samples, low-abundance HCPs (down to 1 ppm) were confidently identified, and the identities of the HCPs were further confirmed by targeted MS/MS experiments. In addition, the performance of the assay was evaluated by an interlaboratory study in which three independent

  8. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with the mouse interleukin 5 receptor

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The rat mAbs R52.120 and R52.625 inhibit the action of IL-5 on both IL- 5-sensitive cell lines and freshly isolated splenic B lymphocytes. Neither antibody inhibits the proliferative cell responses promoted by IL-2, IL-3, or IL-4. Purified R52.120+ lymphoid spleen cells contain 15- 20-fold higher numbers of B lymphocytes responding to IL-5 in the form of maturation into antibody-producing cells. By immunofluorescence staining and flow fluorocytometry, the R52.120 and R52.625 antibodies bound to all 12 IL-5-sensitive cell lines tested. Both antibodies react with 2-4% cells in the spleen, 5% lymphoid cells, and 10-15% myeloid cells in the bone marrow, and 10-14% in the peritoneum of C57BL/6, DBA/2, and BALB/c adult mice. No positive cells for either antibody were detected in the thymus and lymph nodes of these mice. Both R52.120 and R52.625 antibodies specifically inhibit the binding of radiolabeled IL-5 to its receptor. Finally, R52.120 and R52.625 antibodies precipitate from 35S-methionine-labeled IL-5-R+ cell lysates three proteins with Mr 46,000, 130,000, and 140,000. Taken together from these results, we conclude that the R52.120 and R52.625 mAbs recognize epitopes on the IL-5-R complex very close or identical to the IL-5 binding sites. PMID:2469765

  9. Monoclonal antibodies to human apolipoproteins: application to the study of high density lipoprotein subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Bustos, P; Ulloa, N; Calvo, C; Muller, D; Durán, D; Martínez, J; Salazar, L; Quiroga, A

    2000-09-01

    We produced, selected and cloned hybridomas that secrete monoclonal antibodies against human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. All of the antibodies corresponded to the IgG(1) subclass and were named 1C11, 2B4, 2C10, 7C5, 8A4 and 8A5. The antibodies were characterized by their reactivity with whole lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, synthetic peptides and fragments generated by cleavage of the apo A-I. Three of the monoclonal antibodies studied (2B4, 2C10 and 7C5) were similarly inhibited by an amino-terminal peptide (amino acid sequence 1-20) of apo A-I, whereas antibodies 1C11, 8A4 and 8A5 had no reaction. Other results show that monoclonal antibody 1C11 recognizes an epitope located between amino acids 135-148. We evaluated the monoclonal antibody 8A4 against different HDL subpopulations by competitive displacement analysis and it showed a similar reactivity with the HDL particles: LpA-I and LpA-I:A-II. This antibody was used to standardize a sandwich ELISA to quantitate LpA-I in plasma. We conclude that these monoclonal antibodies are relevant for the study of apo A-I epitope expression and for quantitating apo A-I containing lipoparticles.

  10. An immunogen synthesis strategy for the development of specific anti-deoxynivalenol monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Melanie; Guo, Yirong; Iyer, Abhishek; García, Yara Ruiz; Galvita, Anastasia; Heyerick, Arne; Deforce, Dieter; Risseeuw, Martijn D P; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Bracke, Marc; Eremin, Sergei; Madder, Annemieke; De Saeger, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    An immunogen synthesis strategy was designed to develop anti-deoxynivalenol (DON) monoclonal antibodies with low cross-reactivity against structurally similar trichothecenes. A total of eight different DON immunogens were synthesised, differing in the type and position of the linker on the DON molecule. After immunisation, antisera from mice immunised with different DON immunogens were checked for the presence of relevant antibodies. Then, both homologous and heterologous enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed for hybridoma screening. Finally, three monoclonal antibodies against DON and its analogues were generated. In addition, monoclonal antibody 13H1 could recognise DON and its analogues in the order of HT-2 toxin > 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) > DON, with IC₅₀ ranging from 1.14 to 2.13 µg ml⁻¹. Another monoclonal antibody 10H10 manifested relatively close sensitivities to DON, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and 15-ADON, with IC₅₀ values of 22, 15 and 34 ng ml⁻¹, respectively. Using an indirect ELISA format decreases the 10H10 sensitivity to 15-ADON with 92%. A third monoclonal antibody 2A9 showed to be very specific and sensitive to 3-ADON, with IC₅₀ of 0.38 ng ml⁻¹. Using both 2A9 and 10H10 monoclonal antibodies allows determining sole DON contamination.

  11. Monoclonal antibodies against soman: Characterization of soman stereoisomers. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, D.E.; Yourick, J.J.; Dawson, J.S.; Scott, J.

    1992-12-31

    Hybridomas were produced which expressed monoclonal anti-soman antibodies as determined by microtiter enzyme-linked-antibody immunoassay (EIA). Each of these antibodies was titrated using a competitive inhibition enzyme immunoassay (CIEIA) with a variety of test ligands. The ligands used included soman (a racemic mixture), sarin, tabun, and each of the four stereoisomers of soman(C+P+, C+P-, C-P+ and C-P-). In all cases the antibodies tested exhibited IC50 values of 10 - 4 - 5 X 10 - 6 M for soman. When sarin or tabun was used as a ligand, the antibodies exhibited no cross reactivity. All of the antibodies cross reacted with the four soman stereoisomers. A second group of hybridomas were produced which expressed monoclonal antibodies against CsPs-soman. These antibodies were used to make preliminary absolute chiral assignments to the four soman stereoisomers. Soman; Antibodies; Stereoisomers; Absolute configuration.

  12. Heterobifunctional reagents: A new approach to radiolabeling of monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.S.T.; Ng, A.K.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Liu, Z.; Alderson, P.O.

    1985-05-01

    The use of bifunctional chelate such as the cyclic anhydride of DTPA for radiolabeling antibodies (Abs) may lead to homopolymerization, and intra- or intermolecular cross-linking, with resulting denaturation and decrease immunoreactivity of Abs. The authors, therefore, investigated the use of heterobifunctional reagents, whereby one group selectively couples to the amino group of the Ab and the other group to the radiometal for Ab labeling. One such reagent, 2,6-Dioxo-N-(carboxymethyl)morphine (DCM) was synthesized by reacting nitrilotriacetic acid with acetic anhydride. The other agent tested was commercially available N-Succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate (SPDP). These agents were evaluated independently for their ability to label a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) to a melanoma associated antigen (Ag). Labeling proceeded at a 2mg/ml concentration of the Ab, at HEPES pH 8.2, and 7.0, respectively, at room temperature for 30 min. The conjugate subsequently was labeled with Tc-99m or In-111. For comparison, the same labeled Abs also were prepared by using the cyclic anhydride of DTPA. Binding of the Ab to melanoma cells and control cells then was assayed. The results of cell binding experiments (N=3 per agent) in the region of Ag excess (X+-SD) were as follows: 62.6 +- 2.83% for Tc-99m-DCM-MoAb and 41.3+-1.84% for Tc-99m-SPDP-MoAb vs. 28.6 +- 1.16% for Tc-99m-DTPA-MoAb (p<0.01); 56.2 +- 2.97% for In-111-DCM-MoAb vs. 28.6 +- 1.16% for In-111-DTPA-M0Ab. Binding of all agents to the control lymphoid cell line was less than 3%. These results suggest that heterobifunctional reagents can reduce the loss of immunoreactivity of labeled MoAbs.

  13. The interaction between pertussis toxin and 10 monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Schou, C; Au-Jensen, M; Heron, I

    1987-10-01

    Data on the epitope specificity of 10 monoclonal hybridoma antibodies (Mabs) that showed positive reaction in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) towards pertussins toxin (Ptx) are presented. The relative functional affinity of the Mabs was determined in a catching ELISA system. The Mabs were tested for their ability to inhibit the biological activities of this toxin in two in vitro systems, viz. haemagglutination (HA) and Chinese Hamster Ovary cell (CHO) test, and in three in vivo assays: histamine sensitization (HS), leucocytosis-promoting activity (LP) and protection against intra-cerebral challenge (i.c.) with virulent B. pertussis organisms. Four Mabs were found inhibiting HA and three inhibited the effect on CHO cells. Two Mabs showed demonstrable protective effect on mice in i.c. test. The same two Mabs were also able to inhibit HS and LP activity of Ptx. Five of the ten Mabs reacted with Ptx subjected to blotting after separation of the toxin subunits in sodium-dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The five Mabs all bound to more than one subunit. The epitopes defined by several of the Mabs might be useful in the context of a third-generation whooping cough vaccine.

  14. Advective hydrogel membrane chromatography for monoclonal antibody purification in bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ying; Brower, Mark; Pollard, David; Kanani, Dharmesh; Jacquemart, Renaud; Kachuik, Bradley; Stout, James

    2015-01-01

    Protein A chromatography is widely employed for the capture and purification of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Because of the high cost of protein A resins, there is a significant economic driving force to seek new downstream processing strategies. Membrane chromatography has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional resin based column chromatography. However, to date, the application has been limited to mostly ion exchange flow through (FT) mode. Recently, significant advances in Natrix hydrogel membrane has resulted in increased dynamic binding capacities for proteins, which makes membrane chromatography much more attractive for bind/elute operations. The dominantly advective mass transport property of the hydrogel membrane has also enabled Natrix membrane to be run at faster volumetric flow rates with high dynamic binding capacities. In this work, the potential of using Natrix weak cation exchange membrane as a mAb capture step is assessed. A series of cycle studies was also performed in the pilot scale device (> 30 cycles) with good reproducibility in terms of yield and product purities, suggesting potential for improved manufacturing flexibility and productivity. In addition, anion exchange (AEX) hydrogel membranes were also evaluated with multiple mAb programs in FT mode. Significantly higher binding capacity for impurities (support mAb loads up to 10Kg/L) and 40X faster processing speed were observed compared with traditional AEX column chromatography. A proposed protein A free mAb purification process platform could meet the demand of a downstream purification process with high purity, yield, and throughput.

  15. Kinetics of Monoclonal Antibody Aggregation from Dilute toward Concentrated Conditions.

    PubMed

    Nicoud, Lucrèce; Jagielski, Jakub; Pfister, David; Lazzari, Stefano; Massant, Jan; Lattuada, Marco; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-04-07

    Gaining understanding on the aggregation behavior of proteins under concentrated conditions is of both fundamental and industrial relevance. Here, we study the aggregation kinetics of a model monoclonal antibody (mAb) under thermal stress over a wide range of protein concentrations in various buffer solutions. We follow experimentally the monomer depletion and the aggregate growth by size exclusion chromatography with inline light scattering. We describe the experimental results in the frame of a kinetic model based on population balance equations, which allows one to discriminate the contributions of the conformational and of the colloidal stabilities to the global aggregation rate. Finally, we propose an expression for the aggregation rate constant, which accounts for solution viscosity, protein-protein interactions, as well as aggregate compactness. All these effects can be quantified by light scattering techniques. It is found that the model describes well the experimental data under dilute conditions. Under concentrated conditions, good model predictions are obtained when the solution pH is far below the isoelectric point (pI) of the mAb. However, peculiar effects arise when the solution pH is increased toward the mAb pI, and possible explanations are discussed.

  16. Role of cosolutes in the aggregation kinetics of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Nicoud, Lucrèce; Sozo, Margaux; Arosio, Paolo; Yates, Andrew; Norrant, Edith; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2014-10-16

    We propose a general strategy based on kinetic analysis to investigate how cosolutes affect the aggregation behavior of therapeutic proteins. We apply this approach to study the impact of NaCl and sorbitol on the aggregation kinetics of two monoclonal antibodies, an IgG1 and an IgG2. By using a combination of size exclusion chromatography and light scattering techniques, we study the impact of the cosolutes on the monomer depletion, as well as on the formation of dimers, trimers, and larger aggregates. We analyze these macroscopic effects in the frame of a kinetic model based on Smoluchowski's population balance equations modified to account for nucleation events. By comparing experimental data with model simulations, we discriminate the effect of cosolutes on the elementary steps which contribute to the global aggregation process. In the case of the IgG1, it is found that NaCl accelerates the kinetics of aggregation by promoting specifically aggregation events, while sorbitol delays the kinetics of aggregation by specifically inhibiting protein unfolding. In the case of the IgG2, whose monomer depletion kinetics is limited by dimer formation, NaCl and sorbitol are found respectively to accelerate and inhibit conformational changes and aggregation events to the same extent.

  17. Ontogeny of Rat Thymic Epithelium Defined by Monoclonal Anticytokeratin Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Jovanović, Suzana; Vasiljevski, Milijana; Dujić, Aleksandar

    1990-01-01

    Ontogenetic study on the expression of cytokeratin (CK) polypeptides within particular subsets of rat thymic epithelial cells (TEC) has been performed by a large panel of anti-CK monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) using the streptavidin-biotin immunoperoxidase method. Simultaneous presence of two or more CK subunits in the same TEC has been demonstrated by double immunoflouorescence labeling. The obtained results showed that the expression of CK polypeptides in fetal and neonatal thymus differed from the adult patterns. The main difference was observed in expression of CK10, 18, and 19 polypeptides. During fetal ontogeny, CK10 and 18 are markers for most medullary TEC or a subset of medullary TEC, respectively, whereas CK19 is mainly a pan-TEC marker. In the adult animals, they are localized in the cortical and a subset of medullary TEC (CK18), subcapsular/perivascular and some medullary TEC (CK19), or in a subset of medullary TEC and Hasall’s corpuscles (HC) (CK10). The switch in their expression in the cortex was observed during the first two weeks of postnatal life. PMID:1726554

  18. Monoclonal antibodies directed against surface molecules of multicell spheroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Andrew O.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this project is to generate a library of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against surface molecules of tumor and transformed cells grown as multicell spheroids (MCS). These MCS are highly organized, 3-dimensional multicellular structures which exhibit many characteristics of in vivo organized tissues not found in conventional monolayer or suspension culture. Therefore MCS make better in vitro model systems to study the interactions of mammalian cells, and provide a functional assay for surface adhesion molecules. This project also involves investigations of cell-cell interactions in a gravity-based environment. It will provide a base of scientific information necessary to expand the focus of the project in future years to microgravity and hypergravity-based environments. This project also has the potential to yield important materials (e.g., cellular products) which may prove useful in the diagnosis and/or treatment of certain human diseases. Moreover, this project supports the training of both undergraduate and graduate students; thus, it will assist in developing a pool of future scientists with research experience in an area (gravitational biology) of interest to NASA.

  19. [Study of plant lectins from Viscum album using monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Tonevitskiĭ, A G; Rakhmanova, V A; Shamshiev, A T; Usachaeva, E A; Agapov, I I; Prokov'ev, S A; Denisenko, O N; Pfuller, U; Eifler, R

    1995-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (monAT) against both native (TA5, TB12) and denatured (TB33, TB35) plant toxin ML1 from Viscum album have been obtained. The interaction of monAT against native toxin with its isoforms ML2 and ML3 was investigated. It was shown that monAT TA5 to A-chain of ML1 toxin cross-reacted with ML2 and ML3 isoforms. TA5 did not inhibit enzyme activity of A-chain in cell-free rabbit reticulocyte system. It was shown that monAT TB12 reacted with galactose-binding site of B-subunit. Both monAT had no cross-reactions with plant toxin ricin. The binding constants for TA5 with ML1, ML2, ML3 respectively were 4.3.10(7) M-1, 1.2.10(7) M-1, and 0.3.10(7) M-1. The binding constants for TB12 were 2.10(7) M-1 with ML1 toxin, and more than 10(6) M-1 with ML2 and ML3. The nature of heterogeneity in ML toxin family is discussed. Test-systems for ML1 determination in different V. album extracts are suggested.

  20. DNA immunization as a technology platform for monoclonal antibody induction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuying; Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan

    2016-01-01

    To combat the threat of many emerging infectious diseases, DNA immunization offers a unique and powerful approach to the production of high-quality monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against various pathogens. Compared with traditional protein-based immunization approaches, DNA immunization is efficient for testing novel immunogen designs, does not require the production or purification of proteins from a pathogen or the use of recombinant protein technology and is effective at generating mAbs against conformation-sensitive targets. Although significant progress in the use of DNA immunization to generate mAbs has been made over the last two decades, the literature does not contain an updated summary of this experience. The current review provides a comprehensive analysis of the literature, including our own work, describing the use of DNA immunization to produce highly functional mAbs, in particular, those against emerging infectious diseases. Critical factors such as immunogen design, delivery approach, immunization schedule, use of immune modulators and the role of final boost immunization are discussed in detail. PMID:27048742

  1. Trial watch: Tumor-targeting monoclonal antibodies for oncological indications

    PubMed Central

    Vacchelli, Erika; Pol, Jonathan; Bloy, Norma; Eggermont, Alexander; Cremer, Isabelle; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Galon, Jérôme; Marabelle, Aurélien; Kohrt, Holbrook; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    An expanding panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that specifically target malignant cells or intercept trophic factors delivered by the tumor stroma is now available for cancer therapy. These mAbs can exert direct antiproliferative/cytotoxic effects as they inhibit pro-survival signal transduction cascades or activate lethal receptors at the plasma membrane of cancer cells, they can opsonize neoplastic cells to initiate a tumor-targeting immune response, or they can be harnessed to specifically deliver toxins or radionuclides to transformed cells. As an indication of the success of thi