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Sample records for monodon baculovirus mbv

  1. Duplex real-time PCR for detection and quantification of monodon baculovirus (MBV) and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) in Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kathy F J; Lightner, Donald V

    2011-02-22

    We describe a duplex real-time PCR assay using TaqMan probes for the simultaneous detection of monodon baculovirus (MBV) and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV). Both MBV and HPV are shrimp enteric viruses that infect intestinal and hepatopancreatic epithelial cells. Both viruses can cause significant mortalities and depressed growth in infected larval, postlarval, and early juvenile stages of shrimp, and thus present a risk to commercial aquaculture. In this duplex assay, we combined 2 single real-time PCRs, amplifying MBV and HPV, in a one-tube PCR reaction. The 2 viruses were distinguished by specific fluorescent labels at the 5' end of TaqMan probes: the MBV probe was labeled with dichlorodimethoxyfluorescein (JOE), and the HPV probe was labeled with 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM). The duplex real-time PCR assay was performed in a multi-channel real-time PCR detection system, and MBV and HPV amplification signals were separately detected by the JOE and FAM channels. This duplex assay was validated to be specific to the target viruses and found to have a detection limit of single copies for each virus. The dynamic range was found to be from 1 to 1 x 10(8) copies per reaction. This assay was further applied to quantify MBV and HPV in samples of infected Penaeus monodon collected from Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand. The specificity and sensitivity of this duplex real-time PCR assay offer a valuable tool for routine diagnosis and quantification of MBV and HPV from both wild and farmed shrimp stocks.

  2. Development of SYBR Green based real time PCR assay for detection of monodon baculovirus in Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Ramesh Kumar, D; Sanjuktha, M; Rajan, J J S; Ananda Bharathi, R; Santiago, T C; Alavandi, S V; Poornima, M

    2014-09-01

    Shrimp farming is one of the most important aquaculture activities. Expansion and intensification of shrimp farming has been accompanied with the outbreak of diseases, which threaten the development and sustainability of the industry. Viral diseases are the major challenges faced by shrimp farming industries. The prevention/control of such diseases have become critical in determining the viability of the shrimp farming. The disease caused by monodon baculovirus (MBV) is the major limiting factor especially in shrimp hatchery. There are no therapeutic measures to control the viral diseases. So the detection of the disease is crucial in the prevention and spread of the disease. Hence, in this study, SYBR Green based real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the detection of MBV. The sensitivity of the real time PCR was determined using 10-fold dilutions of purified plasmid DNA with the concentration in the range of 10(1)-10(5) copies per reaction. The assay could detect as low as 12 copies indicating that the assay was sensitive and could be effectively used for the quantification of MBV. The real time PCR assay was found to be specific and did not show any amplification with P. monodon infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus (HPV). The novelty of this assay is that it could be employed for diagnosis of low level MBV infection in broodstock using fecal matter of shrimp, a non-invasive diagnostic tool.

  3. Development of antiviral gene therapy for Monodon baculovirus using dsRNA loaded chitosan-dextran sulfate nanocapsule delivery system in Penaeus monodon post-larvae.

    PubMed

    Ramesh Kumar, D; Elumalai, Rajasegaran; Raichur, Ashok M; Sanjuktha, M; Rajan, J J; Alavandi, S V; Vijayan, K K; Poornima, M; Santiago, T C

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, a suitable carrier system was developed for the delivery of dsRNA into Penaeus monodon (P. monodon) post larvae to silence the Monodon baculovirus (MBV) structural gene of p74. The carrier system was developed by layer by layer adsorption of oppositely charged chitosan-dextran sulfate, on charged silica nanoparticles. The silica template was removedto produce multilayered hollow nanocapsules (CS-DS) that were utilized for dsRNA loading at an alkaline pH. The capsule's surface was modified by conjugating with shrimp feed for enhanced cellular uptake. In vivo cellular uptake of CS-DS/FITC loaded nanocapsules conjugated with feed was studied after oral administration into post-larvae. The results revealed that the encapsulated FITC was effectively delivered and exhibited a sustained release into the cytoplasm of shrimp post-larvae. The MBV challenge study for structural gene p74was conducted after 3-25 days of post infection (dpi) with respective CS-DS/dsRNA coated with feed. The results showed a significant survival rate of 86.63% and effective gene silencing in P. monodon. Our findings indicated that the delivery of dsRNA using shrimp feed coatedCS-DSnanocapsules could be a novel approach to prevent viral infections in shrimp.

  4. Localization of VP28 on the baculovirus envelope and its immunogenicity against white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus monodon

    SciTech Connect

    Syed Musthaq, S.; Madhan, Selvaraj; Sahul Hameed, A.S.; Kwang, Jimmy

    2009-09-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large dsDNA virus responsible for white spot disease in shrimp and other crustaceans. VP28 is one of the major envelope proteins of WSSV and plays a crucial role in viral infection. In an effort to develop a vaccine against WSSV, we have constructed a recombinant baculovirus with an immediate early promoter 1 which expresses VP28 at an early stage of infection in insect cells. Baculovirus expressed rVP28 was able to maintain its structural and antigenic conformity as indicated by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. Interestingly, our results with confocal microscopy revealed that rVP28 was able to localize on the plasma membrane of insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. In addition, we demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy that baculovirus successfully acquired rVP28 from the insect cell membrane via the budding process. Using this baculovirus displaying VP28 as a vaccine against WSSV, we observed a significantly higher survival rate of 86.3% and 73.5% of WSSV-infected shrimp at 3 and 15 days post vaccination respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR also indicated that the WSSV viral load in vaccinated shrimp was significantly reduced at 7 days post challenge. Furthermore, our RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that the recombinant baculovirus was able to express VP28 in vivo in shrimp tissues. This study will be of considerable significance in elucidating the morphogenesis of WSSV and will pave the way for new generation vaccines against WSSV.

  5. Occurrence of viral pathogens in Penaeus monodon post-larvae from aquaculture hatcheries.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Toms C; James, Roswin; Anbu Rajan, L; Surendran, P K; Lalitha, K V

    2015-09-01

    Viral pathogens appear to exert the most significant constraints on the growth and survival of crustaceans under culture conditions. The prevalence of viral pathogens White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), Hepatopancreatic Parvo Virus (HPV), Monodon Baculo Virus (MBV) and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV) in Penaeus monodon post-larvae was studied. Samples collected from different hatcheries and also samples submitted by farmers from Kerala were analyzed. Out of 104 samples collected, WSSV was detected in 12.5% of the post-larvae samples. Prevalence of concurrent infections by HPV, MBV and WSSV (either dual or triple infection) was present in 60.6% of the total post-larvae tested. Out of the 51 double positives, 98% showed either HPV or IHHNV infection. HPV or IHHNV was detected in 11 post-larval samples showing triple viral infection. This is the first report of IHHNV from India. Result of this study reveals the lack of efficient screening strategies to eradicate viruses in hatchery reared post-larvae.

  6. Occurrence of viral pathogens in Penaeus monodon post-larvae from aquaculture hatcheries

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Toms C.; James, Roswin; Anbu Rajan, L.; Surendran, P.K.; Lalitha, K.V.

    2015-01-01

    Viral pathogens appear to exert the most significant constraints on the growth and survival of crustaceans under culture conditions. The prevalence of viral pathogens White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), Hepatopancreatic Parvo Virus (HPV), Monodon Baculo Virus (MBV) and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV) in Penaeus monodon post-larvae was studied. Samples collected from different hatcheries and also samples submitted by farmers from Kerala were analyzed. Out of 104 samples collected, WSSV was detected in 12.5% of the post-larvae samples. Prevalence of concurrent infections by HPV, MBV and WSSV (either dual or triple infection) was present in 60.6% of the total post-larvae tested. Out of the 51 double positives, 98% showed either HPV or IHHNV infection. HPV or IHHNV was detected in 11 post-larval samples showing triple viral infection. This is the first report of IHHNV from India. Result of this study reveals the lack of efficient screening strategies to eradicate viruses in hatchery reared post-larvae. PMID:26217783

  7. Baculovirus phylogeny and evolution.

    PubMed

    Herniou, Elisabeth A; Jehle, Johannes A

    2007-10-01

    The family Baculoviridae represents one of the largest and most diverse groups of viruses and a unique model for studying the forces driving the evolution and biodiversity of double-stranded DNA viruses with large genomes. With the advent of comparative genomics, the phylogenetic relationships of baculoviruses have been put on solid bases. This, as well as improved bioinformatic approaches, has provided a detailed picture of baculovirus phylogeny and evolution. According to the present knowledge, baculoviruses can be classified into at least four evolutionary lineages: the most ancestral dipteran nucleopolyhedroviruses, the hymenopteran nucleopolyhedroviruses and the lepidopteran nucleopolyhedroviruses and granuloviruses. Despite the growing understanding of baculovirus phylogeny and macro-evolution, our knowledge of the micro-evolutionary processes within baculovirus species and virus populations is still limited. Here we present the state of the art on baculovirus phylogeny and evolution.

  8. Baculoviruses and nucleosome management

    SciTech Connect

    Volkman, Loy E.

    2015-02-15

    Negatively-supercoiled-ds DNA molecules, including the genomes of baculoviruses, spontaneously wrap around cores of histones to form nucleosomes when present within eukaryotic nuclei. Hence, nucleosome management should be essential for baculovirus genome replication and temporal regulation of transcription, but this has not been documented. Nucleosome mobilization is the dominion of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes. SWI/SNF and INO80, two of the best-studied complexes, as well as chromatin modifier TIP60, all contain actin as a subunit. Retrospective analysis of results of AcMNPV time course experiments wherein actin polymerization was blocked by cytochalasin D drug treatment implicate actin-containing chromatin modifying complexes in decatenating baculovirus genomes, shutting down host transcription, and regulating late and very late phases of viral transcription. Moreover, virus-mediated nuclear localization of actin early during infection may contribute to nucleosome management. - Highlights: • Baculoviruses have negatively-supercoiled, circular ds DNA. • Negatively-supercoiled DNA spontaneously forms nucleosomes in the nucleus. • Nucleosomes must be mobilized for replication and transcription to proceed. • Actin-containing chromatin modifiers participate in baculovirus replication.

  9. Transgene expression in Penaeus monodon cells: evaluation of recombinant baculoviral vectors with shrimp specific hybrid promoters.

    PubMed

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2016-08-01

    It has been realized that shrimp cell immortalization may not be accomplished without in vitro transformation by expressing immortalizing gene in cells. In this process, efficiency of transgene expression is confined to the ability of vectors to transmit gene of interests to the genome. Over the years, unavailability of such vectors has been hampering application of such a strategy in shrimp cells. We report the use of recombinant baculovirus mediated transduction using hybrid promoter system for transgene expression in lymphoid cells of Penaeus monodon. Two recombinant baculovirus vectors with shrimp viral promoters (WSSV-Ie1 and IHHNV-P2) were constructed (BacIe1-GFP and BacP2-GFP) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) used as the transgene. The GFP expression in cells under the control of hybrid promoters, PH-Ie1 or PH-P2, were analyzed and confirmed in shrimp cells. The results indicate that the recombinant baculovirus with shrimp specific viral promoters (hybrid) can be employed for delivery of foreign genes to shrimp cells for in vitro transformation.

  10. Recombinant Baculovirus Isolation.

    PubMed

    King, Linda A; Hitchman, Richard; Possee, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    Although there are several different methods available of making recombinant baculovirus expression vectors (reviewed in Chapter 3 ), all require a stage in which insect cells are transfected with either the virus genome alone (Bac-to-Bac(®) or BaculoDirect™, Invitrogen) or virus genome and transfer vector. In the latter case, this allows the natural process of homologous recombination to transfer the foreign gene, under control of the polyhedrin or other baculovirus gene promoter, from the transfer vector to the virus genome to create the recombinant virus. Previously, many methods required a plaque-assay to separate parental and recombinant virus prior to amplification and use of the recombinant virus. Fortunately, this step is no longer required for most systems currently available. This chapter provides an overview of the historical development of increasingly more efficient systems for the isolation of recombinant baculoviruses (Chapter 3 provides a full account of the different systems and transfer vectors available). The practical details cover: transfection of insect cells with either virus DNA or virus DNA and plasmid transfer vector; a reliable plaque-assay method that can be used to separate recombinant virus from parental (nonrecombinant) virus where this is necessary; methods for the small-scale amplification of recombinant virus; and subsequent titration by plaque-assay or real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methods unique to the Bac-to-Bac(®) system are also covered and include the transformation of bacterial cells and isolation of bacmid DNA ready for transfection of insect cells.

  11. Thiamin requirement of juvenile shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Chen, H Y; Wu, F C; Tang, S Y

    1991-12-01

    In a 9-wk feeding trial, juvenile shrimp (Penaeus monodon) were fed semipurified diets containing seven levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg diet) of supplemental thiamin hydrochloride. The dietary thiamin level required for optimal growth in P. monodon was found to be approximately 14 mg/kg diet based on hemolymph (blood) thiamin analysis. The minimum dietary thiamin level that produced substantial shrimp growth was approximately 13 mg/kg diet. Shrimp fed unsupplemented diets (thiamin content of 0.12 mg/kg diet) did not demonstrate specific deficiency signs, except those universal signs such as retarded growth, poor food conversion and low survival rates.

  12. Baculovirus Transfer Vectors.

    PubMed

    Possee, Robert D; King, Linda A

    2016-01-01

    The production of a recombinant baculovirus expression vector normally involves mixing infectious virus DNA with a plasmid-based transfer vector and then co-transfecting insect cells to initiate virus infection. The aim of this chapter is to provide an update on the range of baculovirus transfer vectors currently available. Some of the original transfer vectors developed are now difficult to obtain but generally have been replaced by superior reagents. We focus on those that are available commercially and should be easy to locate. These vectors permit the insertion of single or multiple genes for expression, or the production of proteins with specific peptide tags that aid subsequent protein purification. Others have signal peptide coding regions permitting protein secretion or plasma membrane localization. A table listing the transfer vectors also includes information on the parental virus that should be used with each one. Methods are described for the direct insertion of a recombinant gene into the virus genome without the requirement for a transfer vector. The information provided should enable new users of the system to choose those reagents most suitable for their purposes.

  13. HSP70 induction during baculovirus infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Baculoviruses are arthropod-specific double-stranded DNA viruses that have been employed as bio-insecticides against crop pests and to produce heterologous proteins in baculovirus expression systems. Although a consensus has emerged on the dominant molecular events driving baculovirus replication i...

  14. Recombinant baculovirus displayed vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Prabakaran, Mookkan; Kwang, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    The rapid evolution of new sublineages of H5N1 influenza in Asia poses the greatest challenge in vaccine development for pre-pandemic preparedness. To overcome the antigenic diversity of H5N1 strains, multiple vaccine strains can be designed based on the distribution of neutralizing epitopes in the globular head of H5 hemagglutinin (HA). Recently, we selected two different HAs of H5N1 strains based on the neutralizing epitopes and reactivity with different neutralizing antibodies. The HAs of selected vaccine strains were individually expressed on the baculovirus envelope (bivalent-BacHA) with its native antigenic configuration. Further, oral delivery of live bivalent-BacHA elicited broadly reactive humoral, mucosal and cell-mediated immune responses and showed complete protection against antigenically distinct H5N1 strains in mice. The strategy for the vaccine strain selection, vaccine design and route of administration will provide an idea for development of a widely protective vaccine against highly pathogenic H5N1 for pre-pandemic preparedness. PMID:23941989

  15. Recombinant baculoviruses for insect control.

    PubMed

    Inceoglu, A B; Kamita, S G; Hinton, A C; Huang, Q; Severson, T F; Kang, K; Hammock, B D

    2001-10-01

    Baculoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses which are highly selective for several insect groups. They are valuable natural control agents, but their utility in many agricultural applications has been limited by their slow speed of kill and narrow host specificity. Baculoviruses have been genetically modified to express foreign genes under powerful promoters in order to accelerate their speed of kill. In our and other laboratories, the expression of genes coding for insect juvenile hormone esterases and various peptide neurotoxins has resulted in recombinant baculoviruses with promise as biological insecticides. These viruses are efficacious in the laboratory, greenhouse and field and dramatically reduce damage caused by insect feeding. The recombinant viruses synergize and are synergized by classical pesticides such as pyrethroids. Since they are highly selective for pest insects, they can be used without disrupting biological control. Because the recombinant virus produces fewer progeny in infected larvae than the wild-type virus, they are rapidly out-competed in the ecosystem. The viruses can be used effectively with crops expressing endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis. They can be produced industrially but also by village industries, indicating that they have the potential to deliver sustainable pest control in developing countries. It remains to be seen, however, whether the current generation of recombinant baculoviruses will be competitive with the new generation of synthetic chemical pesticides. Current research clearly indicates, though, that the use of biological vectors of genes for insect control will find a place in agriculture. Baculoviruses will also prove valuable in testing the potential utility of proteins and peptides for insect control.

  16. Development of SYBR Green and TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR assays for hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) infecting Penaeus monodon in India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Reena; Paria, Anutosh; Mankame, Smruti; Makesh, M; Chaudhari, Aparna; Rajendran, K V

    2015-12-01

    Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) infects Penaeus monodon and causes mortality in the larval stages. Further, it has been implicated in the growth retardation in cultured P. monodon. Though different geographical isolates of HPV show large sequence variations, a sensitive PCR assay specific to Indian isolate has not yet been reported. Here, we developed a sensitive SYBR Green-based and TaqMan real-time PCR for the detection and quantification of the virus. A 441-bp PCR amplicon was cloned in pTZ57 R/T vector and the plasmid copy number was estimated. A 10-fold serial dilution of the plasmid DNA from 1 × 10(9) copies to 1 copy was prepared and used as the standard. The primers were tested initially using the standard on a conventional PCR format to determine the linearity of detection. The standards were further tested on real-time PCR format using SYBR Green and TaqMan chemistry and standard curves were generated based on the Ct values from three well replicates for each dilution. The assays were found to be sensitive, specific and reproducible with a wide dynamic range (1 × 10(9) to 10 copies) with coefficient of regression (R(2)) > 0.99, calculated average slope -3.196 for SYBR Green assay whereas, for TaqMan assay it was >0.99 and -3.367, respectively. The intra- and inter-assay variance of the Ct values ranged from 0.26% to 0.94% and 0.12% to 0.81%, respectively, for SYBR Green assay, and the inter-assay variance of the Ct values for TaqMan assay ranged from 0.07% to 1.93%. The specificity of the assays was proved by testing other DNA viruses of shrimp such as WSSV, IHHNV and MBV. Standardized assays were further tested to detect and quantify HPV in the post-larvae of P. monodon. The result was further compared with conventional PCR to test the reproducibility of the test. The assay was also used to screen Litopeneaus vannamei, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Scylla serrata for HPV.

  17. Book review: Baculovirus Molecular Biology, Second Edition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The application of cell culture and molecular biology methodologies to the study of baculoviruses has resulted in an explosion of information on this group of insect pathogens. The quantity of the corresponding literature on baculoviruses has reached a level difficult for any one researcher to mast...

  18. Budded baculovirus particle structure revisited.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiushi; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Vlak, Just M; van Oers, Monique M; Rottier, Peter J; van Lent, Jan W M

    2016-02-01

    Baculoviruses are a group of enveloped, double-stranded DNA insect viruses with budded (BV) and occlusion-derived (ODV) virions produced during their infection cycle. BVs are commonly described as rod shaped particles with a high apical density of protein extensions (spikes) on the lipid envelope surface. However, due to the fragility of BVs the conventional purification and electron microscopy (EM) staining methods considerably distort the native viral structure. Here, we use cryo-EM analysis to reveal the near-native morphology of two intensively studied baculoviruses, Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and Spodoptera exigua MNPV (SeMNPV), as models for BVs carrying GP64 and F as envelope fusion protein on the surface. The now well-preserved AcMNPV and SeMNPV BV particles have a remarkable elongated, ovoid shape leaving a large, lateral space between nucleocapsid (NC) and envelope. Consistent with previous findings the NC has a distinctive cap and base structure interacting tightly with the envelope. This tight interaction may explain the partial retaining of the envelope on both ends of the NC and the disappearance of the remainder of the BV envelope in the negative-staining EM images. Cryo-EM also reveals that the viral envelope contains two layers with a total thickness of ≈ 6-7 nm, which is significantly thicker than a usual biological membrane (<4 nm) as measured by X-ray scanning. Most spikes are densely clustered at the two apical ends of the virion although some envelope proteins are also found more sparsely on the lateral regions. The spikes on the surface of AcMNPV BVs appear distinctly different from those of SeMNPV. Based on our observations we propose a new near-native structural model of baculovirus BVs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Baculovirus-insect cell expression systems.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Donald L

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the first-published reports of baculovirus-mediated foreign gene expression stimulated great interest in the use of baculovirus-insect cell systems for recombinant protein production. Initially, this system appeared to be the first that would be able to provide the high production levels associated with bacterial systems and the eukaryotic protein processing capabilities associated with mammalian systems. Experience and an increased understanding of basic insect cell biology have shown that these early expectations were not completely realistic. Nevertheless, baculovirus-insect cell expression systems have the capacity to produce many recombinant proteins at high levels and they also provide significant eukaryotic protein processing capabilities. Furthermore, important technological advances over the past 20 years have improved upon the original methods developed for the isolation of baculovirus expression vectors, which were inefficient, required at least some specialized expertise and, therefore, induced some frustration among those who used the original baculovirus-insect cell expression system. Today, virtually any investigator with basic molecular biology training can relatively quickly and efficiently isolate a recombinant baculovirus vector and use it to produce their favorite protein in an insect cell culture. This chapter will begin with background information on the basic baculovirus-insect cell expression system and will then focus on recent developments that have greatly facilitated the ability of an average investigator to take advantage of its attributes.

  20. Baculovirus display of functional antibody Fab fragments.

    PubMed

    Takada, Shinya; Ogawa, Takafumi; Matsui, Kazusa; Suzuki, Tasuku; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2015-08-01

    The generation of a recombinant baculovirus that displays antibody Fab fragments on the surface was investigated. A recombinant baculovirus was engineered so that the heavy chain (Hc; Fd fragment) of a mouse Fab fragment was expressed as a fusion to the N-terminus of baculovirus gp64, while the light chain of the Fab fragment was simultaneously expressed as a secretory protein. Following infection of Sf9 insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus, the culture supernatant was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using antigen-coated microplates and either an anti-mouse IgG or an anti-gp64 antibody. A relatively strong signal was obtained in each case, showing antigen-binding activity in the culture supernatant. In western blot analysis of the culture supernatant using the anti-gp64 antibody, specific protein bands were detected at an electrophoretic mobility that coincided with the molecular weight of the Hc-gp64 fusion protein as well as that of gp64. Flow cytometry using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibody specific to mouse IgG successfully detected the Fab fragments on the surface of the Sf9 cells. These results suggest that immunologically functional antibody Fab fragments can be displayed on the surface of baculovirus particles, and that a fluorescence-activated cell sorter with a fluorescence-labeled antigen can isolate baculoviruses displaying specific Fab fragments. This successful baculovirus display of antibody Fab fragments may offer a novel approach for the efficient selection of specific antibodies.

  1. Prospects for altering host range for baculovirus bioinsecticides.

    PubMed

    Thiem, S M

    1997-06-01

    Advances in the understanding of baculovirus replication and the identification of genes that affect host range set the stage for constructing recombinant baculoviruses for specific past insects. The modification of baculovirus host specificity has recently been achieved by inserting or deleting genes that affect virus replication or cellular defenses.

  2. Baculovirus enhancins and their role in viral pathogenicity. Chapter 9

    Treesearch

    James M. Slavicek

    2012-01-01

    Baculoviruses are a large group of viruses pathogenic to arthropods, primarily insects from the order Lepidoptera and also insects in the orders Hymenoptera and Diptera. Baculoviruses have been used to control insect pests on agricultural crops and forests around the world. Efforts have been ongoing for the last two decades to develop strains of baculoviruses with...

  3. Cloning of penaeidin gene promoter in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Ho, Shih-Hu; Song, Yen-Ling

    2009-07-01

    Penaeidins belong to a family of antimicrobial peptides that are expressed in the hemocytes of penaeid shrimps. Using an extender PCR method and a nested PCR, we cloned two types of genomic fragment flanking the 5' end of penaeidin gene in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon): Type536 and Type411 sequences. Both fragments contained TATA box, GATA, dorsal and AP-1 motifs and were ligated to an expression vector with a luciferase reporter gene. The constructs were then delivered into Drosophila S2 cell line. The promoter functions of the two fragments were determined using a luciferase expression assay. The study demonstrated that Type411 sequence performed higher transcriptional activity than Type536. Alignment of the upstream sequences of penaeidin genes in P. monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei showed that the promoter regions were obviously more diverse than the 5'UTRs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the presence of two types of promoters that are not species-specific in the two shrimps.

  4. Dietary pantothenic acid requirement of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Shiau, S Y; Hsu, C W

    1999-03-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to estimate the minimal dietary pantothenic acid (PA) requirement for juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Purified diets with seven levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 120, 240, and 480 mg/kg) of supplemental PA were fed to P. monodon (mean weight 0.88 +/- 0.01 g) for 8 wk. The level of PA detected in the unsupplemented diet was 0.02 mg/kg. Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of shrimp. Feed efficiencies (FE) and protein efficiency ratios were highest in shrimp fed the diets supplemented with 120, 240, and 480 mg PA/kg diet, followed by the groups fed 60 mg/kg, then 40 mg/kg, and finally the unsupplemented control group (P < 0.05). Shrimp fed diets supplemented with PA had significantly higher survival percentages and lower hepatopancreatic lipid concentration than those fed the unsupplemented, control diets. Broken-line regression analyses of weight gain percentage and hepatopancreatic CoA and PA concentrations of the shrimp indicated that the adequate dietary PA concentration in growing P. monodon is 101-139 mg/kg.

  5. Purification of baculovirus vectors using heparin affinity chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Nasimuzzaman, Md; Lynn, Danielle; van der Loo, Johannes CM; Malik, Punam

    2016-01-01

    Baculoviruses are commonly used for recombinant protein and vaccine production. Baculoviruses are nonpathogenic to vertebrates, have a large packaging capacity, display broad host and cell type tropism, infect both dividing and nondividing cells, and do not elicit strong immune or allergic responses in vivo. Hence, their use as gene delivery vehicles has become increasingly popular in recent years. Moreover, baculovirus vectors carrying mammalian regulatory elements can efficiently transduce and express transgenes in mammalian cells. Based on the finding that heparan sulfate, which is structurally similar to heparin, is an attachment receptor for baculovirus, we developed a novel scalable baculovirus purification method using heparin-affinity chromatography. Baculovirus supernatants were loaded onto a POROS heparin column, washed to remove unbound materials, and eluted with 1.5 mol/l NaCl, which yielded a recovery of purified baculovirus of 85%. After ultracentrifugation, baculovirus titers increased from 200- to 700-fold with overall yields of 26–29%. We further show that baculovirus particles were infectious, normal in morphology and size, despite high-salt elution and shear forces used during purification and concentration. Our chromatography-based purification method is scalable and, together with ultracentrifugation and/or tangential flow filtration, will be suitable for large-scale manufacturing of baculovirus stocks for protein and vaccine production and in gene therapy applications. PMID:27933303

  6. In Vitro and In Vivo Gene Delivery by Recombinant Baculoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Hideki; Limn, Chang Kwang; Yap, Chan Choo; Onishi, Masayoshi; Nozaki, Masami; Nishimune, Yoshitake; Okahashi, Nobuo; Kitagawa, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Rie; Mochizuki, Rika; Moriishi, Kohji; Matsuura, Yoshiharu

    2003-01-01

    Although recombinant baculovirus vectors can be an efficient tool for gene transfer into mammalian cells in vitro, gene transduction in vivo has been hampered by the inactivation of baculoviruses by serum complement. Recombinant baculoviruses possessing excess envelope protein gp64 or other viral envelope proteins on the virion surface deliver foreign genes into a variety of mammalian cell lines more efficiently than the unmodified baculovirus. In this study, we examined the efficiency of gene transfer both in vitro and in vivo by recombinant baculoviruses possessing envelope proteins derived from either vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVG) or rabies virus. These recombinant viruses efficiently transferred reporter genes into neural cell lines, primary rat neural cells, and primary mouse osteal cells in vitro. The VSVG-modified baculovirus exhibited greater resistance to inactivation by animal sera than the unmodified baculovirus. A synthetic inhibitor of the complement activation pathway circumvented the serum inactivation of the unmodified baculovirus. Furthermore, the VSVG-modified baculovirus could transduce a reporter gene into the cerebral cortex and testis of mice by direct inoculation in vivo. These results suggest the possible use of the recombinant baculovirus vectors in combination with the administration of complement inhibitors for in vivo gene therapy. PMID:12941888

  7. Fundamentals of Baculovirus Expression and Applications.

    PubMed

    Kost, Thomas A; Kemp, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    In 1982 E. coli produced human insulin, the world's first recombinant DNA drug, was approved by the FDA. Since this historical event, remarkable progress has been made in developing bacterial, yeast, mammalian and insect cell protein expression systems that are used to produce recombinant proteins for both research and clinical applications. Of the available approaches, the insect cell based baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) has proven to be a particularly adaptable system for producing a diverse collection of proteins. Along with E. coli, the system has been valuable for the production of proteins for structural studies, including adequate quantities of difficult to produce G protein-coupled receptors. BEVS has also been used for production of the human papilloma virus vaccine, Cervarix, the first FDA approved insect cell produced product and FluBlok, a vaccine based on the influenza virus hemagglutinin protein. Baculoviruses, modified to contain mammalian promoters (BacMam viruses), have proven to be efficient gene delivery vectors for mammalian cells and provide an alternative transient mammalian cell based protein expression approach to that of plasmid DNA based transfection methodologies. Here we provide an update on recent advances in baculovirus vector development with a focus on the numerous applications of these viruses in basic research and biotechnology.

  8. The genome of Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus provides novel insight into the evolution of nuclear arthropod-specific large circular double-stranded DNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjie; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P; van Oers, Monique M; Vlak, Just M; Jehle, Johannes A

    2011-06-01

    The Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus (OrNV) is a dsDNA virus with enveloped, rod-shaped virions. Its genome is 127,615 bp in size and contains 139 predicted protein-coding open reading frames (ORFs). In-depth genome sequence comparisons revealed a varying number of shared gene homologues, not only with other nudiviruses (NVs) and baculoviruses, but also with other arthropod-specific large dsDNA viruses, including the so-called Monodon baculovirus (MBV), the salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Nudivirus genomes contain 20 baculovirus core gene homologues associated with transcription (p47, lef-8, lef-9, lef-4, vlf-1, and lef-5), replication (dnapol and helicase), virus structure (p74, pif-1, pif-2, pif-3, 19kda/pif-4, odv-e56/pif-5, vp91, vp39, and 38K), and unknown functions (ac68, ac81, and p33). Most strikingly, a set of homologous genes involved in peroral infection (p74, pif-1, pif-2, and pif-3) are common to baculoviruses, nudiviruses, SGHVs, and WSSV indicating an ancestral mode of infection in these highly diverged viruses. A gene similar to polyhedrin/granulin encoding the baculovirus occlusion body protein was identified in non-occluded NVs and in Musca domestica SGHV evoking the question of the evolutionary origin of the baculovirus polyhedrin/granulin gene. Based on gene homologies, we further propose that the shrimp MBV is an occluded member of the nudiviruses. We conclude that baculoviruses, NVs and the shrimp MBV, the SGHVs and WSSV share the significant number of conserved genetic functions, which may point to a common ancestry of these viruses.

  9. Chapter 4: Baculoviruses and other occluded insect viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Baculoviruses are among the most thoroughly studied insect pathogens. Members of Baculoviridae possess a large, circular double-stranded DNA genome contained within the enveloped nucleoprotein core of a rod-shaped virion. Baculovirus replication is distinguished by the production of two different ...

  10. Bioaccumulation and depuration of anthracene in Penaeus monodon (Fibricius) through food ingestion.

    PubMed

    Ong, Pei Thing; Yong, Jaw Chuen; Chin, Kam Yew; Hii, Yii Siang

    2011-07-01

    Understanding on the bioaccumulation and depuration of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in Penaeus monodon is important in seafood safety because it is one of the most popular seafood consumed worldwide. In this study, we used anthracene as the precursor compound for PAHs accumulation and depuration in the shrimp. Commercial feed pellets spiked with anthracene were fed to P. monodon. At 20 mg kg(-1) anthracene, P. monodon accumulated 0.1% of the anthracene from the feed. P. monodon deputed the PAH two times faster than its accumulation. The shrimp reduced its feed consumption when anthracene content in the feed exceeded 20 mg kg(-1). At 100 mg kg(-1) anthracene, P. monodon started to have necrosis tissues on the posterior end of their thorax. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF), uptake rate constant (k(1)) and depuration rate constant (k(2)) of anthracene in P. monodon were 1.15×10(-3), 6.80×10(-4) d(-1) and 6.28×10(-1) d(-1), respectively. The depuration rate constant is about thousand times higher than the uptake rate constant and this indicated that this crustacean is efficient in depurating hydrocarbons from their tissue.

  11. Covert Infection of Insects by Baculoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Trevor; Virto, Cristina; Murillo, Rosa; Caballero, Primitivo

    2017-01-01

    Baculoviruses (Baculoviridae) are occluded DNA viruses that are lethal pathogens of the larval stages of some lepidopterans, mosquitoes, and sawflies (phytophagous Hymenoptera). These viruses have been developed as biological insecticides for control of insect pests and as expression vectors in biotechnological applications. Natural and laboratory populations frequently harbor covert infections by baculoviruses, often at a prevalence exceeding 50%. Covert infection can comprise either non-productive latency or sublethal infection involving low level production of virus progeny. Latency in cell culture systems involves the expression of a small subset of viral genes. In contrast, covert infection in lepidopterans is associated with differential infection of cell types, modulation of virus gene expression and avoidance of immune system clearance. The molecular basis for covert infection may reside in the regulation of host–virus interactions through the action of microRNAs (miRNA). Initial findings suggest that insect nudiviruses and vertebrate herpesviruses may provide useful analogous models for exploring the mechanisms of covert infection by baculoviruses. These pathogens adopt mixed-mode transmission strategies that depend on the relative fitness gains that accrue through vertical and horizontal transmission. This facilitates virus persistence when opportunities for horizontal transmission are limited and ensures virus dispersal in migratory host species. However, when host survival is threatened by environmental or physiological stressors, latent or persistent infections can be activated to produce lethal disease, followed by horizontal transmission. Covert infection has also been implicated in population level effects on host–pathogen dynamics due to the reduced reproductive capacity of infected females. We conclude that covert infections provide many opportunities to examine the complexity of insect–virus pathosystems at the organismal level and to

  12. Covert Infection of Insects by Baculoviruses.

    PubMed

    Williams, Trevor; Virto, Cristina; Murillo, Rosa; Caballero, Primitivo

    2017-01-01

    Baculoviruses (Baculoviridae) are occluded DNA viruses that are lethal pathogens of the larval stages of some lepidopterans, mosquitoes, and sawflies (phytophagous Hymenoptera). These viruses have been developed as biological insecticides for control of insect pests and as expression vectors in biotechnological applications. Natural and laboratory populations frequently harbor covert infections by baculoviruses, often at a prevalence exceeding 50%. Covert infection can comprise either non-productive latency or sublethal infection involving low level production of virus progeny. Latency in cell culture systems involves the expression of a small subset of viral genes. In contrast, covert infection in lepidopterans is associated with differential infection of cell types, modulation of virus gene expression and avoidance of immune system clearance. The molecular basis for covert infection may reside in the regulation of host-virus interactions through the action of microRNAs (miRNA). Initial findings suggest that insect nudiviruses and vertebrate herpesviruses may provide useful analogous models for exploring the mechanisms of covert infection by baculoviruses. These pathogens adopt mixed-mode transmission strategies that depend on the relative fitness gains that accrue through vertical and horizontal transmission. This facilitates virus persistence when opportunities for horizontal transmission are limited and ensures virus dispersal in migratory host species. However, when host survival is threatened by environmental or physiological stressors, latent or persistent infections can be activated to produce lethal disease, followed by horizontal transmission. Covert infection has also been implicated in population level effects on host-pathogen dynamics due to the reduced reproductive capacity of infected females. We conclude that covert infections provide many opportunities to examine the complexity of insect-virus pathosystems at the organismal level and to explore the

  13. Baculovirus expression: old dog, new tricks

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Imre; Poterszman, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception more than 30 years ago, the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) has been used prolifically to produce heterologous proteins for research and development. In the cell, a cornerstone of biological activity are multiprotein complexes, catalyzing essential functions. BEVS has been uniquely successful to unlock such complex assemblies for high-resolution structural and functional analysis. Synthetic biology approaches have been implemented to optimize multigene assembly methods, accelerating upstream processes. Specialized baculoviral genomes are being created with functions tailored to enhance production of particular target protein classes. Here we comment on current and emerging developments in the field and their potential to accelerate protein complex research. PMID:26488462

  14. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of baculoviruses from Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Jehle, Johannes A; Lange, Martin; Wang, Hualin; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Yongjie; Hauschild, Rüdiger

    2006-03-01

    PCR amplification of the highly conserved baculovirus genes late expression factor 8 (lef-8), late expression factor 9 (lef-9) and polyhedrin/granulin (polh/gran) combined with molecular phylogenetic analyses provide a powerful tool to identify lepidopteran-specific baculoviruses and to study their diversity. In the present investigation, we have improved the degenerate oligonucleotides and corroborated the approach that was recently described by Lange et al. (Lange, M., Wang, H., Zhihong, H., Jehle, J.A., 2004. Towards a molecular identification and classification system of lepidopteran-specific baculoviruses. Virology 325, 36-47.). Baculovirus DNA was isolated from 71 uncharacterized historic baculovirus samples, and partial gene sequences were amplified by using gene-specific degenerate PCR primers. The obtained PCR products were directly sequenced, and the deduced amino acid sequences were compiled and aligned with published sequences of these target genes. A phylogenetic tree of 117 baculoviruses was inferred using maximum parsimony and distance methods. Based on the comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the partial lef-8, lef-9 and polh/gran genes, we propose a phylogenetic species criterion for lepidopteran-specific baculoviruses that uses the genetic distances of these genes for species demarcation.

  15. Tubular Bioreactor for Probing Baculovirus Infection and Protein Production.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Hu, Yu-Chen; Bentley, William E

    2016-01-01

    Probing the baculovirus infection process is essential in optimizing recombinant protein production. Typically, researchers monitor the infection process in stirred reactors that contain cells that have been infected at different times after virus inoculation, particularly if cells pass the primary infection and become infected by progeny virus. This chapter describes several alternative bioreactor systems for baculovirus infection. We provide an example alternative system that holds promise to avoid asynchronous distributions in infection time. Namely, we describe a two-stage reactor system consisting of an upstream continuous stirred tank reactor and a downstream tubular reactor with segmented plug flow for probing baculovirus infection and production.

  16. Utility of temporally distinct baculovirus promoters for constitutive and baculovirus-inducible transgene expression in transformed insect cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Hung; Jarvis, Donald L

    2013-05-10

    Genetically transformed lepidopteran insect cell lines have biotechnological applications as constitutive recombinant protein production platforms and improved hosts for baculovirus-mediated recombinant protein production. Insect cell transformation is often accomplished with a DNA construct(s) encoding a foreign protein(s) under the transcriptional control of a baculovirus immediate early promoter, such as the ie1 promoter. However, the potential utility of increasingly stronger promoters from later baculovirus gene classes, such as delayed early (39K), late (p6.9), and very late (polh), has not been systematically assessed. Hence, we produced DNA constructs encoding secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) under the transcriptional control of each of the four temporally distinct classes of baculovirus promoters, used them to transform insect cells, and compared the levels of SEAP RNA and protein production obtained before and after baculovirus infection. The ie1 construct was the only one that supported SEAP protein production by transformed insect cells prior to baculovirus infection, confirming that only immediate early promoters can be used to isolate transformed insect cells for constitutive recombinant protein production. However, baculovirus infection activated transgene expression by all four classes of baculovirus promoters. After infection, cells transformed with the very late (polh) and late (p6.9) promoter constructs produced the highest levels of SEAP RNA, but only low levels of SEAP protein. Conversely, cells transformed with the immediate early (ie1) and delayed early (39K) promoter constructs produced lower levels of RNA, but equal or higher levels of SEAP protein. Unexpectedly, the 39K promoter construct provided tightly regulated, baculovirus-inducible protein production at higher levels than the later promoter constructs. Thus, this study demonstrated the utility of the 39K promoter for insect cell engineering, particularly when one requires higher

  17. Utility of temporally distinct baculovirus promoters for constitutive and baculovirus-inducible transgene expression in transformed insect cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chi-Hung; Jarvis, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Genetically transformed lepidopteran insect cell lines have biotechnological applications as constitutive recombinant protein production platforms and improved hosts for baculovirus-mediated recombinant protein production. Insect cell transformation is often accomplished with a DNA construct(s) encoding a foreign protein(s) under the transcriptional control of a baculovirus immediate early promoter, such as the ie1 promoter. However, the potential utility of increasingly stronger promoters from later baculovirus gene classes, such as delayed early (39K), late (p6.9), and very late (polh), has not been systematically assessed. Hence, we produced DNA constructs encoding secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) under the transcriptional control of each of the four temporally distinct classes of baculovirus promoters, used them to transform insect cells, and compared the levels of SEAP RNA and protein production obtained before and after baculovirus infection. The ie1 construct was the only one that supported SEAP protein production by transformed insect cells prior to baculovirus infection, confirming that only immediate early promoters can be used to isolate transformed insect cells for constitutive recombinant protein production. However, baculovirus infection activated transgene expression by all four classes of baculovirus promoters. After infection, cells transformed with the very late (polh) and late (p6.9) promoter constructs produced the highest levels of SEAP RNA, but only low levels of SEAP protein. Conversely, cells transformed with the immediate early (ie1) and delayed early (39K) promoter constructs produced lower levels of RNA, but equal or higher levels of SEAP protein. Unexpectedly, the 39K promoter construct provided tightly regulated, baculovirus-inducible protein production at higher levels than the later promoter constructs. Thus, this study demonstrated the utility of the 39K promoter for insect cell engineering, particularly when one requires higher

  18. A novel baculovirus-derived promoter with high activity in the baculovirus expression system

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Solís, María; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Escribano, José M.; Jakubowska, Agata K.

    2016-01-01

    The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) has been widely used to produce a large number of recombinant proteins, and is becoming one of the most powerful, robust, and cost-effective systems for the production of eukaryotic proteins. Nevertheless, as in any other protein expression system, it is important to improve the production capabilities of this vector. The orf46 viral gene was identified among the most highly abundant sequences in the transcriptome of Spodoptera exigua larvae infected with its native baculovirus, the S. exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV). Different sequences upstream of the orf46 gene were cloned, and their promoter activities were tested by the expression of the GFP reporter gene using the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) vector system in different insect cell lines (Sf21, Se301, and Hi5) and in larvae from S. exigua and Trichoplusia ni. The strongest promoter activity was defined by a 120 nt sequence upstream of the ATG start codon for the orf46 gene. On average, GFP expression under this new promoter was more than two fold higher than the expression obtained with the standard polyhedrin (polh) promoter. Additionally, the orf46 promoter was also tested in combination with the polh promoter, revealing an additive effect over the polh promoter activity. In conclusion, this new characterized promoter represents an excellent alternative to the most commonly used baculovirus promoters for the efficient expression of recombinant proteins using the BEVS. PMID:27375973

  19. A novel baculovirus-derived promoter with high activity in the baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Solís, María; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Escribano, José M; Jakubowska, Agata K; Herrero, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) has been widely used to produce a large number of recombinant proteins, and is becoming one of the most powerful, robust, and cost-effective systems for the production of eukaryotic proteins. Nevertheless, as in any other protein expression system, it is important to improve the production capabilities of this vector. The orf46 viral gene was identified among the most highly abundant sequences in the transcriptome of Spodoptera exigua larvae infected with its native baculovirus, the S. exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV). Different sequences upstream of the orf46 gene were cloned, and their promoter activities were tested by the expression of the GFP reporter gene using the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) vector system in different insect cell lines (Sf21, Se301, and Hi5) and in larvae from S. exigua and Trichoplusia ni. The strongest promoter activity was defined by a 120 nt sequence upstream of the ATG start codon for the orf46 gene. On average, GFP expression under this new promoter was more than two fold higher than the expression obtained with the standard polyhedrin (polh) promoter. Additionally, the orf46 promoter was also tested in combination with the polh promoter, revealing an additive effect over the polh promoter activity. In conclusion, this new characterized promoter represents an excellent alternative to the most commonly used baculovirus promoters for the efficient expression of recombinant proteins using the BEVS.

  20. Genome scale transcriptomics of baculovirus-insect interactions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quan; Nielsen, Lars K; Reid, Steven

    2013-11-12

    Baculovirus-insect cell technologies are applied in the production of complex proteins, veterinary and human vaccines, gene delivery vectors' and biopesticides. Better understanding of how baculoviruses and insect cells interact would facilitate baculovirus-based production. While complete genomic sequences are available for over 58 baculovirus species, little insect genomic information is known. The release of the Bombyx mori and Plutella xylostella genomes, the accumulation of EST sequences for several Lepidopteran species, and especially the availability of two genome-scale analysis tools, namely oligonucleotide microarrays and next generation sequencing (NGS), have facilitated expression studies to generate a rich picture of insect gene responses to baculovirus infections. This review presents current knowledge on the interaction dynamics of the baculovirus-insect system' which is relatively well studied in relation to nucleocapsid transportation, apoptosis, and heat shock responses, but is still poorly understood regarding responses involved in pro-survival pathways, DNA damage pathways, protein degradation, translation, signaling pathways, RNAi pathways, and importantly metabolic pathways for energy, nucleotide and amino acid production. We discuss how the two genome-scale transcriptomic tools can be applied for studying such pathways and suggest that proteomics and metabolomics can produce complementary findings to transcriptomic studies.

  1. Effective transduction of osteogenic sarcoma cells by a baculovirus vector.

    PubMed

    Song, Sun U; Shin, Seok-Hwan; Kim, Soon-Ki; Choi, Gwang-Seong; Kim, Woo-Chul; Lee, Moon-Hee; Kim, Sei-Joong; Kim, In-Ho; Choi, Mi-Sook; Hong, Young-Jin; Lee, Kwan-Hee

    2003-03-01

    Efficient gene delivery of a baculovirus-derived vector (BV-p53-lacZ) to a human osteogenic sarcoma cell line, Saos-2, was serendipitously found while evaluating the vector for gene delivery to human p53-null tumour cells in a previous study. Therefore, we investigated other human, rat and mouse osteogenic sarcoma and other types of tumour cell lines for transduction efficiency via baculovirus vectors containing a lacZ reporter gene under the control of either a cytomegalovirus or Rous sarcoma virus promoter. The expression of beta-galactosidase protein, assessed by X-Gal staining and beta-galactosidase ELISA, demonstrated an extremely high level of transduction efficiency in some osteogenic sarcoma cell lines, such as U-2OS, Saos-2 and Saos-LM2. These human osteogenic sarcoma cell lines showed levels of beta-galactosidase expression 5-40 times greater than HepG2 cells, which were previously thought to be the mammalian cells most susceptible to baculovirus-mediated gene delivery. The level of acetylated histone proteins in these tumour lines did not correlate well with the high level of reporter gene expression. These results strongly suggest that some osteogenic sarcoma cells are highly susceptible to baculovirus-mediated gene delivery and that a baculovirus-derived vector is an efficient gene delivery vehicle into human osteogenic sarcoma cells.

  2. Membrane penetrating peptides greatly enhance baculovirus transduction efficiency into mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hong-Zhang; Wu, Carol P.; Chao, Yu-Chan; Liu, Catherine Yen-Yen

    2011-02-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Ligation of CTP with GP64 enhances baculovirus transduction into mammalian cells. {yields} Fusion of PTD with VP39 enhances baculovirus transduction into mammalian cells. {yields} CTP and PTD-carrying viruses improve the transduction of co-transduced baculoviruses. {yields} Virus entry and gene expression can be separate events in different cell types. -- Abstract: The baculovirus group of insect viruses is widely used for foreign gene introduction into mammalian cells for gene expression and protein production; however, the efficiency of baculovirus entry into mammalian cells is in general still low. In this study, two recombinant baculoviruses were engineered and their ability to improve viral entry was examined: (1) cytoplasmic transduction peptide (CTP) was fused with baculovirus envelope protein, GP64, to produce a cytoplasmic membrane penetrating baculovirus (vE-CTP); and (2) the protein transduction domain (PTD) of HIV TAT protein was fused with the baculovirus capsid protein VP39 to form a nuclear membrane penetrating baculovirus (vE-PTD). Transduction experiments showed that both viruses had better transduction efficiency than vE, a control virus that only expresses EGFP in mammalian cells. Interestingly, vE-CTP and vE-PTD were also able to improve the transduction efficiency of a co-transduced baculovirus, resulting in higher levels of gene expression. Our results have described new routes to further enhance the development of baculovirus as a tool for gene delivery into mammalian cells.

  3. Fosmid library end sequencing reveals a rarely known genome structure of marine shrimp Penaeus monodon

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is one of the most important aquaculture species in the world, representing the crustacean lineage which possesses the greatest species diversity among marine invertebrates. Yet, we barely know anything about their genomic structure. To understand the organization and evolution of the P. monodon genome, a fosmid library consisting of 288,000 colonies and was constructed, equivalent to 5.3-fold coverage of the 2.17 Gb genome. Approximately 11.1 Mb of fosmid end sequences (FESs) from 20,926 non-redundant reads representing 0.45% of the P. monodon genome were obtained for repetitive and protein-coding sequence analyses. Results We found that microsatellite sequences were highly abundant in the P. monodon genome, comprising 8.3% of the total length. The density and the average length of microsatellites were evidently higher in comparison to those of other taxa. AT-rich microsatellite motifs, especially poly (AT) and poly (AAT), were the most abundant. High abundance of microsatellite sequences were also found in the transcribed regions. Furthermore, via self-BlastN analysis we identified 103 novel repetitive element families which were categorized into four groups, i.e., 33 WSSV-like repeats, 14 retrotransposons, 5 gene-like repeats, and 51 unannotated repeats. Overall, various types of repeats comprise 51.18% of the P. monodon genome in length. Approximately 7.4% of the FESs contained protein-coding sequences, and the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) gene and the Innexin 3 gene homologues appear to be present in high abundance in the P. monodon genome. Conclusions The redundancy of various repeat types in the P. monodon genome illustrates its highly repetitive nature. In particular, long and dense microsatellite sequences as well as abundant WSSV-like sequences highlight the uniqueness of genome organization of penaeid shrimp from those of other taxa. These results provide substantial improvement to our current

  4. Barriers to success: How baculoviruses establish efficient systemic infections

    PubMed Central

    Passarelli, A. Lorena

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms used by baculoviruses to exit the midgut and cause systemic infection of their insect hosts have been debated for decades. After being ingested, baculoviruses reach the midgut, where several host barriers need to be overcome in order to establish successful infection. One of these barriers is the basal lamina, a presumably virus-impermeable extracellular layer secreted by the epithelial cells lining the midgut and trachea. This review discusses new evidence that demonstrates how these viruses breach the basal lamina and establish efficient systemic infections. The biochemical mechanisms involved in dismantling basal lamina during baculovirus infection may also provide new insights into the process of basal lamina remodeling in invertebrate and vertebrate animals. PMID:21300392

  5. Expansion of the Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon peptidomes using transcriptome shotgun assembly sequence data.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E

    2014-09-15

    The shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon are arguably the most important commercially farmed crustaceans. While expansion of their aquaculture has classically relied on improvements to rearing facilities, these options have largely been exhausted, and today a shift in focus is occurring, with increased investment in manipulating the shrimp themselves. Hormonal control is one strategy for increasing aquaculture output. However, to use it, one must first understand an animal's native hormonal systems. Here, transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) data were used to expand the peptidomes for L. vannamei and P. monodon. Via an established bioinformatics workflow, 41 L. vannamei and 25 P. monodon pre/preprohormone-encoding transcripts were identified, allowing for the prediction of 158 and 106 distinct peptide structures for these species, respectively. The identified peptides included isoforms of allatostatin A, B and C, as well as members the bursicon, CAPA, CCHamide, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, diuretic hormone 31, eclosion hormone, FLRFamide, GSEFLamide, intocin, leucokinin, molt-inhibiting hormone, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, orcomyotropin, pigment dispersing hormone, proctolin, red pigment concentrating hormone, RYamide, SIFamide, short neuropeptide F and tachykinin-related peptide families. While some of the predicted peptides are known L. vannamei and/or P. monodon isoforms (which vet the structures of many peptides identified previously via mass spectrometry and other means), most are described here for the first time. These data more than double the extant catalogs of L. vannamei and P. monodon peptides and provide platforms from which to launch future physiological studies of peptidergic signaling in these two commercially important species.

  6. Genome Sequence of a Baculovirus Pathogenic for Culex nigripalpus

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, C. L.; Tulman, E. R.; Lu, Z.; Balinsky, C. A.; Moser, B. A.; Becnel, J. J.; Rock, D. L.; Kutish, G. F.

    2001-01-01

    In this report we describe the complete genome sequence of a nucleopolyhedrovirus that infects larval stages of the mosquito Culex nigripalpus (CuniNPV). The CuniNPV genome is a circular double-stranded DNA molecule of 108,252 bp and is predicted to contain 109 genes. Although 36 of these genes show homology to genes from other baculoviruses, their orientation and order exhibit little conservation relative to the genomes of lepidopteran baculoviruses. CuniNPV genes homologous to those from other baculoviruses include genes involved in early and late gene expression (lef-4, lef-5, lef-8, lef-9, vlf-1, and p47), DNA replication (lef-1, lef-2, helicase-1, and dna-pol), and structural functions (vp39, vp91, odv-ec27, odv-e56, p6.9, gp41, p74, and vp1054). Auxiliary genes include homologues of genes encoding the p35 antiapoptosis protein and a novel insulin binding-related protein. In contrast to these conserved genes, CuniNPV lacks apparent homologues of baculovirus genes essential (ie-1 and lef-3) or stimulatory (ie-2, lef-7, pe38) for DNA replication. Also, baculovirus genes essential or stimulatory for early-late (ie-1, ie-2), early (ie-0 and pe-38), and late (lef-6, lef-11, and pp31) gene transcription are not identifiable. In addition, CuniNPV lacks homologues of genes involved in the formation of virogenic stroma (pp31), nucleocapsid (orf1629, p87, and p24), envelope of occluded virions (odv-e25, odv-e66, odv-e18), and polyhedra (polyhedrin/granulin, p10, pp34, and fp25k). A homologue of gp64, a budded virus envelope fusion protein, was also absent, although a gene related to the other category of baculovirus budded virus envelope proteins, Ld130, was present. The absence of homologues of occlusion-derived virion (ODV) envelope proteins and occlusion body (OB) protein (polyhedrin) suggests that both CuniNPV ODV and OB may be structurally and compositionally different from those found in terrestrial lepidopteran hosts. The striking difference in genome

  7. Genome sequence of a baculovirus pathogenic for Culex nigripalpus.

    PubMed

    Afonso, C L; Tulman, E R; Lu, Z; Balinsky, C A; Moser, B A; Becnel, J J; Rock, D L; Kutish, G F

    2001-11-01

    In this report we describe the complete genome sequence of a nucleopolyhedrovirus that infects larval stages of the mosquito Culex nigripalpus (CuniNPV). The CuniNPV genome is a circular double-stranded DNA molecule of 108,252 bp and is predicted to contain 109 genes. Although 36 of these genes show homology to genes from other baculoviruses, their orientation and order exhibit little conservation relative to the genomes of lepidopteran baculoviruses. CuniNPV genes homologous to those from other baculoviruses include genes involved in early and late gene expression (lef-4, lef-5, lef-8, lef-9, vlf-1, and p47), DNA replication (lef-1, lef-2, helicase-1, and dna-pol), and structural functions (vp39, vp91, odv-ec27, odv-e56, p6.9, gp41, p74, and vp1054). Auxiliary genes include homologues of genes encoding the p35 antiapoptosis protein and a novel insulin binding-related protein. In contrast to these conserved genes, CuniNPV lacks apparent homologues of baculovirus genes essential (ie-1 and lef-3) or stimulatory (ie-2, lef-7, pe38) for DNA replication. Also, baculovirus genes essential or stimulatory for early-late (ie-1, ie-2), early (ie-0 and pe-38), and late (lef-6, lef-11, and pp31) gene transcription are not identifiable. In addition, CuniNPV lacks homologues of genes involved in the formation of virogenic stroma (pp31), nucleocapsid (orf1629, p87, and p24), envelope of occluded virions (odv-e25, odv-e66, odv-e18), and polyhedra (polyhedrin/granulin, p10, pp34, and fp25k). A homologue of gp64, a budded virus envelope fusion protein, was also absent, although a gene related to the other category of baculovirus budded virus envelope proteins, Ld130, was present. The absence of homologues of occlusion-derived virion (ODV) envelope proteins and occlusion body (OB) protein (polyhedrin) suggests that both CuniNPV ODV and OB may be structurally and compositionally different from those found in terrestrial lepidopteran hosts. The striking difference in genome

  8. Baculovirus-mediated Gene Delivery and RNAi Applications

    PubMed Central

    Makkonen, Kaisa-Emilia; Airenne, Kari; Ylä-Herttulala, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    Baculoviruses are widely encountered in nature and a great deal of data is available about their safety and biology. Recently, these versatile, insect-specific viruses have demonstrated their usefulness in various biotechnological applications including protein production and gene transfer. Multiple in vitro and in vivo studies exist and support their use as gene delivery vehicles in vertebrate cells. Recently, baculoviruses have also demonstrated high potential in RNAi applications in which several advantages of the virus make it a promising tool for RNA gene transfer with high safety and wide tropism. PMID:25912715

  9. Baculoviruses deficient in ie1 gene function abrogate viral gene expression in transduced mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Efrose, Rodica; Swevers, Luc; Iatrou, Kostas

    2010-10-25

    One of the newest niches for baculoviruses-based technologies is their use as vectors for mammalian cell transduction and gene therapy applications. However, an outstanding safety issue related to such use is the residual expression of viral genes in infected mammalian cells. Here we show that infectious baculoviruses lacking the major transcriptional regulator, IE1, can be produced in insect host cells stably transformed with IE1 expression constructs lacking targets of homologous recombination that could promote the generation of wt-like revertants. Such ie1-deficient baculoviruses are unable to direct viral gene transcription to any appreciable degree and do not replicate in normal insect host cells. Most importantly, the residual viral gene expression, which occurs in mammalian cells infected with wt baculoviruses is reduced 10 to 100 fold in cells infected with ie1-deficient baculoviruses. Thus, ie1-deficient baculoviruses offer enhanced safety features to baculovirus-based vector systems destined for use in gene therapy applications.

  10. Maximizing in vivo production of Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) baculovirus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel), is a pest causing damage to a variety plants of from turf to row crops. A recently discovered baculovirus has the potential to be developed as a biological pesticide to provide targeted control of this insect pest. Initial field trials in turf grass and...

  11. Genetically-engineered baculovirus pesticides and their environmental safety

    Treesearch

    H. Alan Wood; Yu Zailin

    1991-01-01

    Baculoviruses such as the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) are ecologically attractive alternatives to chemical insect pesticides but have a slow rate of control. To overcome this we have developed and are field testing an environmentally acceptable strategy which can be used for the introduction and expression of pesticide-...

  12. Gene gymnastics: Synthetic biology for baculovirus expression vector system engineering.

    PubMed

    Vijayachandran, Lakshmi S; Thimiri Govinda Raj, Deepak B; Edelweiss, Evelina; Gupta, Kapil; Maier, Josef; Gordeliy, Valentin; Fitzgerald, Daniel J; Berger, Imre

    2013-01-01

    Most essential activities in eukaryotic cells are catalyzed by large multiprotein assemblies containing up to ten or more interlocking subunits. The vast majority of these protein complexes are not easily accessible for high resolution studies aimed at unlocking their mechanisms, due to their low cellular abundance and high heterogeneity. Recombinant overproduction can resolve this bottleneck and baculovirus expression vector systems (BEVS) have emerged as particularly powerful tools for the provision of eukaryotic multiprotein complexes in high quality and quantity. Recently, synthetic biology approaches have begun to make their mark in improving existing BEVS reagents by de novo design of streamlined transfer plasmids and by engineering the baculovirus genome. Here we present OmniBac, comprising new custom designed reagents that further facilitate the integration of heterologous genes into the baculovirus genome for multiprotein expression. Based on comparative genome analysis and data mining, we herein present a blueprint to custom design and engineer the entire baculovirus genome for optimized production properties using a bottom-up synthetic biology approach.

  13. BACULOVIRUS REPLICATION ALTERS HORMONE-REGULATED HOST DEVELOPMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The baculovirus Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus interferes with insect larval development by altering the host's hormonal system. The level of haemolymph ecdysteroids, the insect moulting hormone, was found to be higher in virus-infected larvae than in uninfected cont...

  14. BACULOVIRUS REPLICATION ALTERS HORMONE-REGULATED HOST DEVELOPMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The baculovirus Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus interferes with insect larval development by altering the host's hormonal system. The level of haemolymph ecdysteroids, the insect moulting hormone, was found to be higher in virus-infected larvae than in uninfected cont...

  15. Baculovirus expressed virus-like particles of Pea eation mosaic virus vary in size and encapsidate baculovirus mRNAs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV: family Luteoviridae) is transmitted in a persistent, circulative manner by aphids. We inserted cDNAs encoding the structural proteins of PEMV, the coat protein (CP) and coat protein-read through domain (CPRT) into the genome of the baculovirus Autographa californica m...

  16. Stability of serum-free and purified baculovirus stocks under various storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Jorio, Hasnaa; Tran, Rosa; Kamen, Amine

    2006-01-01

    In a context of large-scale production of baculoviruses in serum-free media for use as gene delivery vectors, the stability of these viruses has become an important factor. The development of robust processes heavily relies on baculovirus stock stability. In the present work, we studied over a period of 300 days the stability of baculovirus vectors produced in serum-free media stored at 4, -20, or -80 degrees C or in liquid nitrogen. The viral stocks investigated were either crude baculovirus supernatant, baculovirus supernatant concentrated 10 times and diafiltered against fresh serum-free media by tangential flow filtration, or baculovirus purified by size exclusion chromatography. The results showed that baculovirus supernatant and diafiltered concentrate stored at 4 degrees C underwent a progressive loss of infectivity after a period of 100 and 50 days of storage, respectively. Aggregation has been recognized as the probable mechanism for the loss of infectivity. Baculovirus stocks were unstable at -20 degrees C, whereas in liquid nitrogen they retained infectivity after successive freeze thaw cycles. Concentration and diafiltration of baculovirus supernatant prior to storing at -80 degrees C contributed to improving viral stock stability over time. Glycerol as well as DMSO and sucrose have proven to be equally effective as additives to maintain the purified baculovirus stability after storage at -80 degrees C or in liquid nitrogen.

  17. Melanosis in Penaeus monodon: Involvement of the Laccase-like Activity of Hemocyanin.

    PubMed

    Bris, Cédric Le; Cudennec, Benoit; Dhulster, Pascal; Drider, Djamel; Duflos, Guillaume; Grard, Thierry

    2016-01-27

    In shrimp, the development of postmortem melanosis resulting from phenoloxidase activities leads to important economic losses. Phenoloxidase enzymes include catechol oxidases, laccases, and tyrosinases, but hemocyanin is also capable of phenoloxidase activities. These activities have been explored in Penaeus monodon, using different substrates. Results highlighted that tyrosinase-specific substrates were little oxidized, whereas hydroquinone (laccase-specific substrate) was more highly oxidized than l-DOPA (nonspecific substrate) in the pereopods and pleopods. Global phenoloxidase activity, assayed with l-DOPA, did not appear thermally stable over time and probably resulted from phenoloxidase enzymes. Conversely, the laccase-like activity assayed with hydroquinone was thermally stable over time, reflecting the thermal stability of hemocyanin. Independently of the anatomical compartment, the temperature, or the substrate, the highest activities were assayed in the cuticular compartments. This study demonstrates the complexity of phenoloxidase activities in P. monodon, and the importance of considering all the activities, including laccase-like activities such as that of hemocyanin.

  18. DNA double-strand break repair in Penaeus monodon is predominantly dependent on homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shikha; Dahal, Sumedha; Naidu, Sharanya J; Anand, Deepika; Gopalakrishnan, Vidya; Kooloth Valappil, Rajendran; Raghavan, Sathees C

    2017-01-24

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are mostly repaired by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) in higher eukaryotes. In contrast, HR-mediated DSB repair is the major double-strand break repair pathway in lower order organisms such as bacteria and yeast. Penaeus monodon, commonly known as black tiger shrimp, is one of the economically important crustaceans facing large-scale mortality due to exposure to infectious diseases. The animals can also get exposed to chemical mutagens under the culture conditions as well as in wild. Although DSB repair mechanisms have been described in mammals and some invertebrates, its mechanism is unknown in the shrimp species. In the present study, we show that HR-mediated DSB repair is the predominant mode of repair in P. monodon Robust repair was observed at a temperature of 30 °C, when 2 µg of cell-free extract derived from hepatopancreas was used for the study. Although HR occurred through both reciprocal recombination and gene conversion, the latter was predominant when the bacterial colonies containing recombinants were evaluated. Unlike mammals, NHEJ-mediated DSB repair was undetectable in P. monodon However, we could detect evidence for an alternative mode of NHEJ that uses microhomology, termed as microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ). Interestingly, unlike HR, MMEJ was predominant at lower temperatures. Therefore, the results suggest that, while HR is major DSB repair pathway in shrimp, MMEJ also plays a role in ensuring the continuity and stability of the genome.

  19. Experimental infection of Penaeus vannamei by a rickettsia-like bacterium (RLB) originating from P. monodon.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Linda M; Noble, Brenda; Le Groumellec, Marc; Lightner, Donald V

    2003-03-17

    A rickettsia-like bacterium (RLB), which caused severe mortalities of commercially farmed Penaeus monodon in the southwest region of Madagascar, was investigated to determine whether the organism would produce the same disease in P. vannamei. Two series of bioassays were performed to determine whether this RLB could be transmitted to P. vannamei through injection and per os exposure. The first series of challenge bioassays used frozen, RLB-infected P. monodon tissue from Madagascar as the inoculum and feed for the injection, and per os bioassays with specific pathogen free (SPF) P. vannamei. In the second series of bioassays, frozen RLB-infected P. vannamei tissue derived from the first series of injection bioassays was used as the inoculum to challenge by injection and per os SPF P. vannamei. Disease status was determined through standard histological techniques and by in situ hybridization assays with a digoxigenin-labeled probe specific for this RLB. The results indicated that P. vannamei did develop the RLB infection when injected with either RLB infected P. monodon or P. vannamei tissue homogenates. This contrasts with results from the per os exposure to the RLB in which the disease could not be reproduced.

  20. Marine yeast Candida aquaetextoris S527 as a potential immunostimulant in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Babu, Divya T; Antony, Swapna P; Joseph, Simi P; Bright, Ann Rose; Philip, Rosamma

    2013-03-01

    A marine yeast Candida aquaetextoris S527 as a source of immunostimulant in Penaeus monodon was studied. Yeast diet was prepared by incorporating 10% C. aquaetextoris S527 biomass into a standard shrimp diet and administered in P. monodon at different frequencies (daily, once in three days, once in seven days and once in ten days) followed by challenge with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Immune parameters such as total protein, total hemocyte count, pro-phenoloxidase, nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, alkaline phosphatase activity and acid phosphatase activity were tested. Expression profile of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes viz., anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), crustin-1, crustin-2, crustin-3, penaeidin-3 and penaeidin-5; immune genes viz., alpha-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M), astakine, peroxinectin, prophenol oxidase (proPO) and transglutaminase, and WSSV genes viz., DNA polymerase, endonuclease, protein kinase, immediate early gene, latency related gene, ribonucleotide reductase, thymidine kinase and VP28 were analyzed. The study demonstrated that marine yeast diet administered once every seven days conferred better protection to P. monodon against WSSV infection, supported by the hematological and immune gene expression profiles analyzed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary biotin requirement for maximum growth of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Shiau, S Y; Chin, Y H

    1998-12-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to estimate the minimal dietary biotin requirement for juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Purified diets with eight levels (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg/kg) of supplemental biotin were fed to P. monodon (mean weight 0. 26 +/- 0.01 g) for 8 wk. Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of shrimp. Shrimp fed diets supplemented with biotin (0.2-20.0 mg/kg) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher weight gain, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio than those fed the unsupplemented control diet. Weight gain was high in shrimp fed 3. 0-10.0 mg biotin/kg diet and lowest in shrimp fed monodon is 2.0-2.4 mg/kg.

  2. Quantifying the vitamin K requirement of juvenile marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon) with menadione.

    PubMed

    Shiau, S Y; Liu, J S

    1994-02-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to estimate the optimum dietary vitamin K requirement for juvenile marine shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Purified diets with eight levels (0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg) of supplemental menadione were fed to P. monodon (mean weight 1.33 +/- 0.05 g) for 12 wk. Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of shrimp. Shrimp fed diets supplemented with vitamin K (5-320 mg/kg) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher weight gain and feed efficiency than those fed the unsupplemented control diet. Shrimp fed diets supplemented with > or = 50 mg/kg vitamin K had higher protein efficiency ratios than shrimp fed the control diet. Calcium deposition in shrimp generally increased as dietary vitamin K supplementation increased. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase activity was highest in shrimp fed the control diet, followed by shrimp fed 5-160 mg menadione/kg diet, and lowest in those fed 320 mg menadione/kg diet. Vitamin K-dependent protein precursor concentrations were high in shrimp fed 0-10 mg menadione/kg diet, lower in those fed 20 mg/kg, and lowest in shrimp fed > or = 50 mg/kg diet. Protein efficiency ratio and vitamin K-dependent protein precursor concentration analyzed by broken-line regression indicated that the adequate dietary vitamin K concentration in growing P. monodon is 30-40 mg/kg diet.

  3. Current status of viral diseases in Indian shrimp aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Tandel, G M; John, K Riji; Rosalind George, M; Prince Jeyaseelan, M J

    The intensification of aquaculture has been unique in showing the overwhelming changes in global food production in the last 100 years. Presently, it is playing a vital role in the economies of several countries. Conversely, it is also to be noted that the progression of aquaculture has been the foundation of anthropogenic alteration of a gigantic hierarchy and hence not astonishingly, it resulted in spread and emergence of an increasing group of new unknown diseases. In India, Penaeus monodon, black tiger shrimp was previously the foremost-cultivated shrimp species. Subsequently in 2008, the American white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has effectively replaced it. The change in dominant species has affected disease concerns in India as well as in world shrimp aquaculture. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most deleterious for both species. Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), Monodon baculovirus (MBV) and Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) are the other significant infectious agents of P. monodon and L. vannamei. An emerging disease of loose shell syndrome (LSS) was already reported from India during late 1998. A more recent disease of L. vannamei in India is monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS), a component of which seems to be Laem-Singh virus (LSNV). Thus, most of the information in this review relates to new emerging pathogens that threaten the cultivation shrimp industry in India.

  4. Horizontal transmission dynamics of White spot syndrome virus by cohabitation trials in juvenile Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei.

    PubMed

    Tuyen, N X; Verreth, J; Vlak, J M; de Jong, M C M

    2014-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood. In the current study the dynamics of disease transmission of WSSV were investigated in small, closed populations of Penaeus monodon and Penaeus vannamei. Pair cohabitation experiments using PCR as a readout for virus infection were used to estimate transmission parameters for WSSV in these two species. The mortality rate of contact-infected shrimp in P. monodon was higher than the rate in P. vannamei. The transmission rate parameters for WSSV were not different between the two species. The relative contribution of direct and indirect transmission rates of WSSV differed between the two species. For P. vannamei the direct contact transmission rate of WSSV was significantly lower than the indirect environmental transmission rate, but for P. monodon, the opposite was found. The reproduction ratio R0 for WSSV for these two species of shrimp was estimated to be above one: 2.07 (95%CI 1.53, 2.79) for P. monodon and 1.51 (95%CI 1.12, 2.03) for P. vannamei. The difference in R0 between the two species is due to a lower host mortality and hence a longer infectious period of WSSV in P. monodon.

  5. [Estimate the safety of baculovirus insecticides: the history and the status Quo].

    PubMed

    Xiao, H Z; Qi, Y P; Yang, F H

    2001-05-01

    This article reviews the evaluation of security of baculovirus used as a pesticide. Since 1970s, the scholars have done a lot of experiments with kinds of baculovirus to test the security of a large number kinds of living things even our human beings. Almost all experiments proved that baculovirus is secure, but some experiments came to different conclusions. These gave rise to great debate twice when they were published, but these conclusions have been proved to be wrong with later test by other scientists or the author himself. Since 90s baculovirus have been used a great deal as the vector to express the foreign gene. Some of them reported the expression in mammalian cells, which brought the suspicious of the baculovirus safety. This article made an analysis and a conclusion about them. Also, this article laid emphasis on the security of recombination baculovirus with the results of the security experiment of self-made recombination baculovirus pesticide. In the last analysis, this article draws a conclusion that the baculovirus and recombinant baculovirus insecticides are secure.

  6. Silencing structural and nonstructural genes in baculovirus by RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Flores-Jasso, C Fabian; Valdes, Victor Julian; Sampieri, Alicia; Valadez-Graham, Viviana; Recillas-Targa, Felix; Vaca, Luis

    2004-06-01

    We review several aspects of RNAi and gene silencing with baculovirus. We show that the potency of RNAi in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) insect cells correlates well with the efficiency of transfection of the siRNA. Using a fluorescein-labeled siRNA we found that the siRNA localized in areas surrounding the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Both long (700 nucleotides long) and small ( approximately 25 nucleotides long) interfering RNAs were equally effective in initiating RNA interference (RNAi), and the duration of the interfering effect was indistinguishable. Even though RNAi in Sf21 cells is very effective, in vitro experiments show that these cells fragment the long dsRNA into siRNA poorly, when compared to HEK cells. Finally, we show that in vivo inhibition of baculovirus infection with dsRNA homologous to genes that are essential for baculovirus infectivity depends strongly on the amount of dsRNA used in the assays. Five hundred nanogram of dsRNA directly injected into the haemolymph of insects prevent animal death to over 95%. In control experiments, over 96% of insects not injected with dsRNA or injected with an irrelevant dsRNA died within a week. These results demonstrate the efficiency of dsRNA for in vivo prevention of a viral infection by virus that is very cytotoxic and lytic in animals.

  7. Use of Whole Genome Sequence Data To Infer Baculovirus Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Herniou, Elisabeth A.; Luque, Teresa; Chen, Xinwen; Vlak, Just M.; Winstanley, Doreen; Cory, Jennifer S.; O'Reilly, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Several phylogenetic methods based on whole genome sequence data were evaluated using data from nine complete baculovirus genomes. The utility of three independent character sets was assessed. The first data set comprised the sequences of the 63 genes common to these viruses. The second set of characters was based on gene order, and phylogenies were inferred using both breakpoint distance analysis and a novel method developed here, termed neighbor pair analysis. The third set recorded gene content by scoring gene presence or absence in each genome. All three data sets yielded phylogenies supporting the separation of the Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) and Granulovirus (GV) genera, the division of the NPVs into groups I and II, and species relationships within group I NPVs. Generation of phylogenies based on the combined sequences of all 63 shared genes proved to be the most effective approach to resolving the relationships among the group II NPVs and the GVs. The history of gene acquisitions and losses that have accompanied baculovirus diversification was visualized by mapping the gene content data onto the phylogenetic tree. This analysis highlighted the fluid nature of baculovirus genomes, with evidence of frequent genome rearrangements and multiple gene content changes during their evolution. Of more than 416 genes identified in the genomes analyzed, only 63 are present in all nine genomes, and 200 genes are found only in a single genome. Despite this fluidity, the whole genome-based methods we describe are sufficiently powerful to recover the underlying phylogeny of the viruses. PMID:11483757

  8. Baculovirus studies in new, indigenous lepidopteran cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pant, U; Sudeep, A B; Athawale, S S; Vipat, V C

    2002-01-01

    Eight lepidopteran cell lines were established recently and their susceptibility to different insect viruses was studied. Two Spodoptera litura cell lines from the larval and pupal ovaries, were found highly susceptible to S. litura nuclear polyhedrosis virus (SLNPV, 5-6 x 10(6) NPV/ml). The Helicoverpa armigera cell line from the embryonic tissue was highly susceptible to H. armigera NPV (HaNPV, 6.3 x 10(6) NPV/ml). These in vitro grown SLNPV and HaNPV caused 100% mortality to respective 2nd instar larvae. The susceptibility of the cryo-preserved cell lines to respective baculoviruses (SLNPV/HaNPV) was studied and no significant difference in their susceptibility status was observed. The cultures could grow as suspension culture on shakers and may find application for in vitro production of wild type/recombinant baculoviruses as bio-insecticides. S. litura and Bombyx mori cell lines from larval ovaries, were highly susceptible to Autographa californica NPV (5.5 x 10(6) NPV/ml) and Bombyx mori NPV (BmNPV, 6.1 x 10(6) NPV/ml) respectively. These cell lines may find application in baculovirus expression vector studies for the production of recombinant proteins, useful in the development of diagnostic kits or as vaccines.

  9. Invasion of Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798, in the western north Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Pam L.; Knott, David M.; Kingsley-Smith, Peter R.; Morris, James A.; Buckel, Christine A.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Hartman, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    After going unreported in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean for 18 years (1988 to 2006), the Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, has recently reappeared in the South Atlantic Bight and, for the first time ever, in the Gulf of Mexico. Potential vectors and sources of this recent invader include: 1) discharged ballast water from its native range in Asia or other areas where it has become established; 2) transport of larvae from established non-native populations in the Caribbean or South America via ocean currents; or 3) escape and subsequent migration from active aquaculture facilities in the western Atlantic. This paper documents recent collections of P. monodon from the South Atlantic Bight and the Gulf of Mexico, reporting demographic and preliminary phylogenetic information for specimens collected between North Carolina and Texas from 2006 through 2012. The increased number of reports in 2011 and 2012, ranging from 102 mm to 298 mm total length, indicates that an adult population is present in densities sufficient for breeding, which is indicative of incipient establishment. Based on these reports of P. monodon, its successful invasion elsewhere, and its life history, we believe that this species will become common in the South Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Mexico in less than 10 years. Penaeus monodon is an aggressive predator in its native range and, if established, may prey on native shrimps, crabs, and bivalves. The impacts of an established P. monodon population are potentially widespread (e.g., alterations in local commercial fisheries, direct and indirect pressures on native shrimp, crab and bivalve populations, and subsequent impacts on the populations of other predators of those organisms) and should be considered by resource managers. The impacts of P. monodon on native fauna and the source(s) or vector(s) of the invasion, however, remain unknown at this time.

  10. [Construction of recombinant baculovirus vectors started by EF1alpha].

    PubMed

    Gao, Dongni; Jin, Liying; Ge, Jingping; Wang, Kun; An, Qi; Ping, Wenxiang; Lou, Zhuangwei

    2014-06-04

    To improve the transduction efficiency of baculovirus and exogenous gene expression level, we chose a mammalian cell-specific promoter-human extension factor 1alpha promoter (EF1-alpha), used virus pseudotyped tools--truncated vessicular stomatitis virus protein G (VSV-GED), added woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element (WPRE) and adenovirus inverted terminal repeats (ITRs). We constructed two improved recombinant baculoviruses transfer vectors named pWK and pWK-ITR with the pFB-VSV-GED-WPRE. The recombinant transfer vectors pWK-eGFP, pWK-ITR-eGFP and pWK (-)-eGFP were constructed by inserting the Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (eGFP) reporter gene into the downstream of EF1alpha promoter. Constructed recombinant plasmid transfected Sf9 insect cells, and observed the expression of green fluorescent protein by using the inverted fluorescence microscope. The fluorescence expression rate of BV-WK-eGFP, BV-WK-ITR-eGFP containing WPRE and ITRs was significantly higher than the negative control, ITRs can effectively extend the expression time of eGFP, the expression time of eGFP in BV-WK-eGFP and BV-WK-ITR-eGFP increased 72 hours compared to the negative control BV-WK (-) -eGFP. The transduction time of VSV-GED pseudotyped baculovirus BV-WK-eGFP, BV-WK-ITR-eGFP was obviously shorten in OL cells, and reduced 24 hours compared to the negative control BV-WK (-) -eGFP, transduction efficiency were higher 25.7% and 36.5% than the negative control BV-WK (-) -eGFP, respectively. The experiments proved that the VSV-GED could effectively improve the transduction efficiency of baculovirus, WPRE could enhance the expression efficiency of the exogenous gene significantly, and ITRs extend the expression time. The research will lay a foundation to explore improved recombinant baculovirus express exogenous genes in vertebrate cells and research the new recombinant live vector vaccine.

  11. Genetic engineering: Baculoviruses as expression vectors. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of baculoviruses in genetic engineering. Baculoviruses produce large quantities of a specific gene. Topics include genetic replication, expression of selected genes in host cells, and protein expression using baculoviruses. Baculovirus introduction into mammals causing antibody expression is considered, and implications on vaccine programs are briefly discussed. (Contains a minimum of 112 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Influence of probiotic bacterium Bacillus cereus isolated from the gut of wild shrimp Penaeus monodon in turn as a potent growth promoter and immune enhancer in P. monodon.

    PubMed

    NavinChandran, Manohar; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Moovendhan, Subramanian; Ramasubburayan, Ramasamy; Prakash, Santhiyagu; Immanuel, Grasian; Palavesam, Arunachalam

    2014-01-01

    A probiotic bacterium isolated from the gut of wild shrimp Penaeus monodon rendered maximum antagonistic activity against shrimp pathogens and was capable of producing extracellular enzymes. The probiotic bacterium was identified as Bacillus cereus through 16S rRNA sequencing. The lyophilized B. cereus was supplemented with shrimp basal diet at four different concentrations (0.1–0.4%/100 g feed) in D1–D4 diets. The viability of probiotic bacterium in the test diets was evaluated during the study period at various time intervals. The viability ranged from 50.24 ± 1.42 to 180.34 ± 1.30 CFU/g in D1 to D3 diets on the 30th day, whereas it was slightly declined from 45.23 ± 1.30 to 169.13 ± 1.18 CFU/g during the 90th day of storage. A control diet (C), devoid of probiotic supplementation was also simultaneously prepared. During experimentation, P. monodon postlarvae (PL-15) were cultured in individual one tonne capacity FRP tanks in triplicates provided with equal amount of substratum (clay soil) and fed with these respective diets at ad libitum for 90 days. Survival was high (82.0 ± 1.60%) in D4 diet fed shrimp as against a low survival of 65.0 ± 1.33% displayed by control diet fed shrimp. Overall growth responses inferred that a maximum production of 10.45 ± 0.275 g, SGR of 4.40 ± 0.179% and a better FCR of 1.27 ± 0.081 were obtained in D4 diet fed shrimp. However, the water quality parameters showed nonsignificant (P > 0.05) variations among the control and the probiotic treated groups. The tested immunological parameters such as Total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst activity, lysozyme activity, plasma protein concentration and bactericidal activity were higher in D4 diet fed P. monodon, when compared to that of other diets fed shrimp. It is therefore suggested that lyophilized probiotic B. cereus at a concentration of 0.4%/100 g feed was efficient in stimulating the growth and immunity in shrimp.

  13. Baculovirus replication induces the expression of heat shock proteins in vivo and in vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A recent handful of studies have linked baculovirus infection with the induction of heat shock proteins, a highly conserved family of cytoprotective proteins. Here, we demonstrate baculovirus-stimulated upregulation of hsp70 transcription in the natural host, Helicoverpa zea. Larvae lethally infec...

  14. Expression, delivery and function of insecticidal proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since the development of methods for inserting and expressing genes in baculoviruses, a line of research has focused on developing recombinant baculoviruses that express insecticidal peptides and proteins. These recombinant viruses have been engineered with the goal of improving their pesticidal po...

  15. Effect of spray drying processing parameters on the insecticidal activity of two encapsulated formulations of baculovirus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of spray dryer processing parameters on the process yield and insecticidal activity of baculovirus to support the development of this beneficial group of microbes as biopesticides. For each of two baculoviruses [granulovirus (GV) from Pieris rapae (L....

  16. Characterization of Intestinal Bacteria in Wild and Domesticated Adult Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    PubMed Central

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2014-01-01

    The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp. PMID:24618668

  17. DNA double-strand break repair in Penaeus monodon is predominantly dependent on homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shikha; Dahal, Sumedha; Naidu, Sharanya J; Anand, Deepika; Gopalakrishnan, Vidya; Kooloth Valappil, Rajendran; Raghavan, Sathees C

    2017-04-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are mostly repaired by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) in higher eukaryotes. In contrast, HR-mediated DSB repair is the major double-strand break repair pathway in lower order organisms such as bacteria and yeast. Penaeus monodon, commonly known as black tiger shrimp, is one of the economically important crustaceans facing large-scale mortality due to exposure to infectious diseases. The animals can also get exposed to chemical mutagens under the culture conditions as well as in wild. Although DSB repair mechanisms have been described in mammals and some invertebrates, its mechanism is unknown in the shrimp species. In the present study, we show that HR-mediated DSB repair is the predominant mode of repair in P. monodon. Robust repair was observed at a temperature of 30 °C, when 2 µg of cell-free extract derived from hepatopancreas was used for the study. Although HR occurred through both reciprocal recombination and gene conversion, the latter was predominant when the bacterial colonies containing recombinants were evaluated. Unlike mammals, NHEJ-mediated DSB repair was undetectable in P. monodon. However, we could detect evidence for an alternative mode of NHEJ that uses microhomology, termed as microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ). Interestingly, unlike HR, MMEJ was predominant at lower temperatures. Therefore, the results suggest that, while HR is major DSB repair pathway in shrimp, MMEJ also plays a role in ensuring the continuity and stability of the genome. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  18. Characterization, expression and silencing by RNAi of p53 from Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wenting; Qiu, Lihua; Zhao, Chao; Fu, Mingjun; Ma, Zhenhua; Zhou, Falin; Yang, Qibin

    2016-06-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 is a sequence-specific transcription factor, whose target genes can regulate genomic stability, the cellular response to DNA damage and cell-cycle progression. In the present study, the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence of p53 gene from Penaeus monodon (Pmp53) was cloned by the technology of rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA of Pmp53 was 2239 bp, encoding a protein of 450 amino acids with calculated molecular weight of 50.62 kDa. The temporal expression of Pmp53 in different tissues (ovary, heart, intestine, brain, muscles, stomach and gills) and different developmental stages of ovary was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The lowest expression level of Pmp53 was observed in the stomach, while the highest expression level was detected in the brain. During the ovary development stages, the expression level of Pmp53 reached the peak at stage III. RNA interference (RNAi) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) injection experiments were conducted to study the expression profile of Pmp53 and PmCDK2 (cyclin-dependent kinase 2, CDK2). Knocked down of Pmp53 by dsRNA-p53 was sequence-specific and successful. Expression levels of Pmp53 and PmCDK2 in ovary of P. monodon were significantly increased at 12-96 h post 5-HT injection. These results indicate that Pmp53 may be involved in the regulation of ovarian development of P. monodon.

  19. Characterization of intestinal bacteria in wild and domesticated adult black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2014-01-01

    The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp.

  20. Manufacturing of AcMNPV baculovirus vectors to enable gene therapy trials

    PubMed Central

    Kwang, Timothy Weixin; Zeng, Xinhui; Wang, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, baculoviruses have become workhorse research tools for transient transgene expression. Although they have not yet been used directly as a gene therapy vector in the clinical setting, numerous preclinical studies have suggested the highly promising potential of baculovirus as a delivery vector for a variety of therapeutic applications including vaccination, tissue engineering, and cancer treatment. As such, there is growing interest in using baculoviruses as human gene therapy vectors, which has led to advances in baculovirus bioprocessing methods. This review provides an overview of the current approaches for scaled-up amplification, concentration, purification, and formulation of AcMNPV baculoviruses, and highlights the key regulatory requirements that must be met before gene therapy clinical trials can be initiated. PMID:26858963

  1. Update on baculovirus as an expression and/or delivery vehicle for vaccine antigens.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Yeh; Chung, Yao-Chi; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2014-12-01

    After three decades of development, the baculovirus/insect cell expression system is now recognized as a powerful platform for recombinant protein production. With a number of distinct advantages, the baculovirus/insect cell expression system has been extensively used for the production of various vaccine candidates, and several human and veterinary vaccine products have been commercially available. In addition to insect cells, baculovirus is capable of entering a broad range of mammalian cells, lending itself to a promising gene delivery vehicle for antigen expression and display in vivo. The use of baculovirus for antigen expression and delivery has been reviewed in 2008. Rather than a critical evaluation, this paper aims to provide an update of the applications of baculovirus as an in vitro or in vivo antigen expression/delivery vehicle, with special focuses on developments and advances after 2008.

  2. Antibiotics in South Indian coastal sea and farmed prawns (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Palaniyappan, Venkatesh; Nagalingam, Arun Kumar; Ranganathan, Hari Prasad; Kandhikuppam, Krishnamoorthy Bharathi; Kothandam, Hari Prasath; Vasu, Soumya

    2013-01-01

    Sulphonamides and chloramphenicol antibiotics were analysed by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in sea and farmed prawn (Penaeus monodon) samples obtained from the coastal region of southern India during 2011-2012. Average recoveries were 77-99% and precision was between 1% and 8%. The results revealed that in sea prawn samples neither of the two antibiotics was detected, but in farmed samples from coastal Andhra Pradesh some sulphonamides were detected in a concentration range greater than the maximum residual limit as set by Council Directive 2377/90 EC.

  3. Modularity and evolutionary constraints in a baculovirus gene regulatory network

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The structure of regulatory networks remains an open question in our understanding of complex biological systems. Interactions during complete viral life cycles present unique opportunities to understand how host-parasite network take shape and behave. The Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus, whose genome may encode for 152 open reading frames (ORFs). Here we present the analysis of the ordered cascade of the AgMNPV gene expression. Results We observed an earlier onset of the expression than previously reported for other baculoviruses, especially for genes involved in DNA replication. Most ORFs were expressed at higher levels in a more permissive host cell line. Genes with more than one copy in the genome had distinct expression profiles, which could indicate the acquisition of new functionalities. The transcription gene regulatory network (GRN) for 149 ORFs had a modular topology comprising five communities of highly interconnected nodes that separated key genes that are functionally related on different communities, possibly maximizing redundancy and GRN robustness by compartmentalization of important functions. Core conserved functions showed expression synchronicity, distinct GRN features and significantly less genetic diversity, consistent with evolutionary constraints imposed in key elements of biological systems. This reduced genetic diversity also had a positive correlation with the importance of the gene in our estimated GRN, supporting a relationship between phylogenetic data of baculovirus genes and network features inferred from expression data. We also observed that gene arrangement in overlapping transcripts was conserved among related baculoviruses, suggesting a principle of genome organization. Conclusions Albeit with a reduced number of nodes (149), the AgMNPV GRN had a topology and key characteristics similar to those observed in complex cellular organisms, which indicates

  4. Detection and quantitation of Agrotis baculoviruses in mixed infections.

    PubMed

    Wennmann, Jörg T; Jehle, Johannes A

    2014-03-01

    At least four distinct baculoviruses, namely the Agrotis segetum nucleopolyhedrovirus A (AgseNPV-A), the A. segetum nucleopolyhedrovirus B (AgseNPV-B), the Agrotis ipsilon nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgipNPV) and the A. segetum granulovirus (AgseGV) have been isolated from larval stages (cutworms) of the species A. segetum and A. ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which are serious soil pests in agriculture. Cutworms can become infected by at least one of these four baculoviruses and also co-infections of A. segetum larvae with AgseNPV-B and AgseGV are observed under laboratory conditions. Because of their adaption to common hosts and the occurrence in mixed infections, these viruses have a considerable potential as biological control agents of cutworms and are suitable objects to decipher the co-evolution and population dynamics of baculoviruses in mixed infections. However, to facilitate studies on these viruses a reliable tool for detection and identification is essential. A method based on highly specific oligonucleotide primers for multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that led to the amplification of discriminating fragments of the polyhedrin (polh) and granulin (gran) gene of AgseNPV-A, AgseNPV-B, AgipNPV and AgseGV, was established. Furthermore, the AgseNPV-B and AgseGV specific pairs of primers were applied in real-time PCR (qPCR) for AgseNPV-B/AgseGV ratio determination in samples of mixed infections. It is demonstrated further that for quantifying NPVs and GVs in mixed infections, the method of occlusion body isolation is most crucial and significantly influences the results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Downregulation of a chitin deacetylase-like protein in response to baculovirus infection and its application for improving baculovirus infectivity.

    PubMed

    Jakubowska, Agata K; Caccia, Silvia; Gordon, Karl H; Ferré, Juan; Herrero, Salvador

    2010-03-01

    Several expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with homology to chitin deacetylase-like protein (CDA) were selected from a group of Helicoverpa armigera genes whose expression changed after infection with H. armigera single nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV). Some of these ESTs coded for a midgut protein containing a chitin deacetylase domain (CDAD). The expressed protein, HaCDA5a, did not show chitin deacetylase activity, but it showed a strong affinity for binding to chitin. Sequence analysis showed the lack of any chitin binding domain, described for all currently known peritrophic membrane (PM) proteins. HaCDA5a has previously been detected in the H. armigera PM. Such localization, together with its downregulation after pathogen infection, led us to hypothesize that this protein might be responsible for the homeostasis of the PM structure and that, by reduction of its expression, the insect may reduce PM permeability, decreasing the entrance of baculovirus. To test this hypothesis, we constructed a recombinant nucleopolyhedrovirus to express HaCDA5a in insect cells and tested its influence on PM permeability as well as the influence of HaCDA5a expression on the performance of the baculovirus. The experiments showed that HaCDA5a increased PM permeability, in a concentration-dependent manner. Bioassays on Spodoptera frugiperda and Spodoptera exigua larvae revealed that NPV expressing HaCDA5a was more infective than its parental virus. However, no difference in virulence was observed when the viruses were injected intrahemocoelically. These findings support the downregulation of a midgut-specific CDA-like protein as a possible mechanism used by H. armigera to reduce susceptibility to baculovirus by decreasing PM permeability.

  6. Molecular cloning and expression of a Toll receptor in the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Arts, Joop A J; Cornelissen, Ferry H J; Cijsouw, Tony; Hermsen, Trudi; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Stet, René J M

    2007-09-01

    Invertebrates rely completely for their protection against pathogens on the innate immune system. This non-self-recognition is activated by microbial cell wall components with unique conserved molecular patterns. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are recognised by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Toll and its mammalian homologs Toll-like receptors are cell-surface receptors acting as PRRs and involved in the signalling pathway implicated in their immune response. Here we describe a novel partial Toll receptor gene cloned from a gill library of the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, using primers based on the highly conserved Toll/IL-1R (TIR) domain. The deduced amino acid sequence of the P. monodon Toll (PmToll) shows 59% similarity to a Toll-related protein of Apis mellifera. Analysis of the LRRs of shrimp Toll contained no obvious PAMP-binding insertions. Phylogenetic analysis with the insect Toll family shows clustering with Toll1 and Toll5 gene products, and it is less related to Toll3 and Toll4. Furthermore, RT-qPCR shows that PmToll is constitutively expressed in gut, gill and hepatopancreas. Challenge with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) shows equal levels of expression in these organs. A role in the defence mechanism is discussed. In conclusion, shrimp possess at least one Toll receptor that might be involved in immune defence.

  7. Behavioural and biochemical alterations in Penaeus monodon post-larvae diet-exposed to inorganic mercury.

    PubMed

    Harayashiki, Cyntia Ayumi Yokota; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Liu, Lei; Butcher, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Mercury is a metal naturally present in the environment with concentrations in aquatic systems increasing annually due to human activities. This represents a great concern mainly due to its high toxicity to organisms and consequences for human health. Most studies regarding the toxic effect of mercury have focussed on freshwater species using water as the exposure and uptake pathway. In contrast, the present study investigated the effects of dietary exposure of mercury to the marine crustacean Penaeus monodon post-larvae during 96 h to evaluate changes in behaviour (swimming activity and risk taken) and in biochemical biomarkers [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)]. Results showed a decrease in swimming activity with an increase in mercury exposure, but no changes were observed regarding the behavioural response 'risk taken'. Prawns from medium (0.56 μg g(-1)) and high (1.18 μg g(-1)) treatments had their GST activity reduced in relation to the beginning of experiment (time 0), while AChE activity was increased in the low (0.15 μg g(-1)) treatment in relation to time 0. In the present study, behaviour analysis were clearer than biochemical biomarkers and results might indicate P. monodon populations from a mercury contaminated environment might be at risk, since the behavioural alterations observed increases the risk of predation.

  8. Quantification of vitamin C requirements for juvenile shrimp (Penaeus monodon) using polyphosphorylated L-ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, H Y; Chang, C F

    1994-10-01

    The vitamin C requirements of marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon) for optimal growth were evaluated in a 15-wk feeding trial using polyphosphorylated L-ascorbic acid (C2PP), a stable derivative of L-ascorbic acid (C1). Juvenile shrimp (0.55 +/- 0.01 g) were fed purified diets containing graded levels (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg diet) of supplemental C2PP or a high dosage of C1 (2500 mg/kg diet). Their weight gain, survival, feed efficiency and C1 storage in hepatopancreas and muscle were used to quantify the requirements. The growth of the shrimp fed the unsupplemented diet was significantly lower than those of the supplemented groups except the 100 mg C2PP/kg diet group. The C1 concentrations in muscle and hepatopancreas were greatest in shrimp fed 200 or 400 C2PP mg/kg diet. The dietary level required for juvenile P. monodon was found to be 209 mg/kg diet, based on the broken-line model analysis of weight gain, and was 220 mg/kg diet and 210 mg/kg diet, based on the analyses of C1 concentrations of hepatopancreas and muscle, respectively. Shrimp fed unsupplemented diet showed a significantly higher mortality than the supplemented groups. Most of the shrimp in the unsupplemented group that died suffered incomplete molting. No other overt deficiency sign was observed in any group.

  9. Estimation of the dietary riboflavin required to maximize tissue riboflavin concentration in juvenile shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Chen, H Y; Hwang, G

    1992-12-01

    The riboflavin requirements of marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon) were evaluated in a 15-wk feeding trial. Juvenile shrimp (initial mean weight, 0.13 +/- 0.05 g) were fed purified diets containing seven levels (0, 8, 12, 16, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg diet) of supplemental riboflavin. There were no significant differences in weight gains, feed efficiency ratios and survival of shrimp over the dietary riboflavin range. The riboflavin concentrations in shrimp bodies increased with the increasing vitamin supplementation. Hemolymph (blood) glutathione reductase activity coefficient was not a sensitive and specific indicator of riboflavin status of the shrimp. The dietary riboflavin level required for P. monodon was found to be 22.3 mg/kg diet, based on the broken-line model analysis of body riboflavin concentrations. Shrimp fed unsupplemented diet (riboflavin concentration of 0.48 mg/kg diet) for 15 wk showed signs of deficiency: light coloration, irritability, protuberant cuticle at intersomites and short-head dwarfism.

  10. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of cyclin E and CDK2 from Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Zhao, C; Fu, M J; Qiu, L H

    2016-09-16

    Reduced reproductive performance of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) has caused economic losses and hampered the fishing industry. Detailed investigation of the molecular mechanism by which the cell cycle is regulated in this organism is needed to understand the development and maturation of ovaries and oocytes, with a view to improving reproductive capacity. Cell cycle progression is mainly determined by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and cyclin complexes, the cyclin E/CDK2 complex playing a key role in G1/S transition. However, knowledge of the interplay between cyclin E and CDK2 in invertebrates remains limited. In this study, full-length P. monodon cyclin E (Pmcyclin E) and CDK2 (PmCDK2) sequences were cloned. The open reading frame of Pmcyclin E was 1263 bp in length and encoded a 47.9-kDa protein, while that of PmCDK2 was 921 bp, encoding a protein of 34.9 kDa. Recombinant cyclin E and CDK2 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni-chelating affinity chromatography. In addition, a pull-down assay was performed to identify any interaction between Pmcyclin E and PmCDK2. This research provides a basis for the study of the functional mechanisms of the cyclin E/CDK2 complex in shrimp, further enriching our knowledge of invertebrate cell cycle regulation.

  11. Identification, characterization and expression of sex-related genes in testes of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Leelatanawit, Rungnapa; Sittikankeaw, Kanchana; Yocawibun, Patchari; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Aoki, Takashi; Hirono, Ikuo; Menasveta, Piamsak

    2009-01-01

    Isolation and characterization of genes involving gonadal development are an initial step towards understanding reproductive maturation and sex determination of the giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). In the present study, 896 clones from the testis cDNA library were sequenced. A total of 606 ESTs (67.6%) significantly matched sequences in the GenBank (E-value <1e-04) whereas 290 ESTs (32.4%) were newly unidentified transcripts. The full length cDNA of genes functionally involved in testicular development including cyclophilin A (PMCYA), small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 (PMSUMO-1), ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2, dynactin subunit 5, cell division cycle 2 (cdc2) and mitotic checkpoint BUB3 were discovered. In addition, Tra-2, a gene involving sex determination cascades, was successfully characterized by RACE-PCR and first reported in crustaceans. Expression analysis indicated that a homologue of low molecular weight neurofilament protein XNF-L (termed P. monodon testis-specific transcript 1, PMTST1; N=8 for each sex) was only expressed in testes but not ovaries. PMCYA, thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein complex 240 kDa component (Trap240), multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase 2 (MIPP2) and heat shock-related 70 kDa protein 2 (HSP70-2), but not PMSUMO-1, PMTra-2 and prohibitin2 were differentially expressed between ovaries and testes of P. monodon. Expression of PMTST1 was up-regulated but that of the remaining genes in testes of P. monodon broodstock was down-regulated after shrimp were molted (P<0.05). Significant reduction of PMSUMO-1 and increment of prohibitin2 transcripts in domesticated broodstock (P<0.05) suggested that these reproductively related genes may be used as biomarkers to evaluate reduced degrees of the reproductive maturation in domesticated P. monodon.

  12. Bioengineered baculoviruses as new class of therapeutics using micro and nanotechnologies: principles, prospects and challenges.

    PubMed

    Paul, Arghya; Hasan, Anwarul; Rodes, Laetitia; Sangaralingam, Mugundhine; Prakash, Satya

    2014-05-01

    Designing a safe and efficient gene delivery system is required for success of gene therapy trials. Although a wide variety of viral, non-viral and polymeric nanoparticle based careers have been widely studied, the current gene delivery vehicles are limited by their suboptimal, non-specific therapeutic efficacy and acute immunological reactions, leading to unwanted side effects. Recently, there has been a growing interest in insect-cell-originated baculoviruses as gene delivery vehicles for diverse biomedical applications. Specifically, the emergence of diverse types of surface functionalized and bioengineered baculoviruses is posed to edge over currently available gene delivery vehicles. This is primarily because baculoviruses are comparatively non-pathogenic and non-toxic as they cannot replicate in mammalian cells and do not invoke any cytopathic effect. Moreover, emerging advanced studies in this direction have demonstrated that hybridizing the baculovirus surface with different kinds of bioactive therapeutic molecules, cell-specific targeting moieties, protective polymeric grafts and nanomaterials can significantly improve the preclinical efficacy of baculoviruses. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the recent advancements in the field of bioengineering and biotherapeutics to engineer baculovirus hybrids for tailored gene therapy, and articulates in detail the potential and challenges of these strategies for clinical realization. In addition, the article illustrates the rapid evolvement of microfluidic devices as a high throughput platform for optimizing baculovirus production and treatment conditions.

  13. Increase in Gut Microbiota after Immune Suppression in Baculovirus-infected Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowska, Agata K.; Vogel, Heiko; Herrero, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Spodoptera exigua microarray was used to determine genes differentially expressed in S. exigua cells challenged with the species-specific baculovirus SeMNPV as well as with a generalist baculovirus, AcMNPV. Microarray results revealed that, in contrast to the host transcriptional shut-off that is expected during baculovirus infection, S. exigua cells showed a balanced number of up- and down-regulated genes during the first 36 hours following the infection. Many immune-related genes, including pattern recognition proteins, genes involved in signalling and immune pathways as well as immune effectors and genes coding for proteins involved in the melanization cascade were found to be down-regulated after baculovirus infection. The down-regulation of immune-related genes was confirmed in the larval gut. The expression of immune-related genes in the gut is known to affect the status of gut microorganisms, many of which are responsible for growth and development functions. We therefore asked whether the down-regulation that occurs after baculovirus infection affects the amount of gut microbiota. An increase in the gut bacterial load was observed and we hypothesize this to be as a consequence of viral infection. Subsequent experiments on virus performance in the presence and absence of gut microbiota revealed that gut bacteria enhanced baculovirus virulence, pathogenicity and dispersion. We discuss the host immune response processes and pathways affected by baculoviruses, as well as the role of gut microbiota in viral infection. PMID:23717206

  14. Engineering Silkworms for Resistance to Baculovirus Through Multigene RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Subbaiah, Edupalli V.; Royer, Corinne; Kanginakudru, Sriramana; Satyavathi, Valluri V.; Babu, Adari Sobhan; Sivaprasad, Vankadara; Chavancy, Gérard; DaRocha, Martine; Jalabert, Audrey; Mauchamp, Bernard; Basha, Ibrahim; Couble, Pierre; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

    2013-01-01

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) that infects the silkworm, B. mori, accounts for >50% of silk cocoon crop losses globally. We speculated that simultaneous targeting of several BmNPV essential genes in transgenic silkworm would elicit a stable defense against the virus. We introduced into the silkworm germline the vectors carrying short sequences of four essential BmNPV genes in tandem, either in sense or antisense or in inverted-repeat arrangement. The transgenic silkworms carrying the inverted repeat-containing transgene showed stable protection against high doses of baculovirus infection. Further, the antiviral trait was incorporated to a commercially productive silkworm strain highly susceptible to BmNPV. This led to combining the high-yielding cocoon and silk traits of the parental commercial strain and a very high level of refractoriness (>75% survival rate as compared to <15% in nontransgenic lines) to baculovirus infection conferred by the transgene. We also observed impaired infectivity of the occlusion bodies derived from the transgenic lines as compared to the wild-type ones. Currently, large-scale exploitation of these transgenic lines is underway to bring about economic transformation of sericulture. PMID:23105011

  15. Engineering silkworms for resistance to baculovirus through multigene RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Subbaiah, Edupalli V; Royer, Corinne; Kanginakudru, Sriramana; Satyavathi, Valluri V; Babu, Adari Sobhan; Sivaprasad, Vankadara; Chavancy, Gérard; Darocha, Martine; Jalabert, Audrey; Mauchamp, Bernard; Basha, Ibrahim; Couble, Pierre; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

    2013-01-01

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) that infects the silkworm, B. mori, accounts for >50% of silk cocoon crop losses globally. We speculated that simultaneous targeting of several BmNPV essential genes in transgenic silkworm would elicit a stable defense against the virus. We introduced into the silkworm germline the vectors carrying short sequences of four essential BmNPV genes in tandem, either in sense or antisense or in inverted-repeat arrangement. The transgenic silkworms carrying the inverted repeat-containing transgene showed stable protection against high doses of baculovirus infection. Further, the antiviral trait was incorporated to a commercially productive silkworm strain highly susceptible to BmNPV. This led to combining the high-yielding cocoon and silk traits of the parental commercial strain and a very high level of refractoriness (>75% survival rate as compared to <15% in nontransgenic lines) to baculovirus infection conferred by the transgene. We also observed impaired infectivity of the occlusion bodies derived from the transgenic lines as compared to the wild-type ones. Currently, large-scale exploitation of these transgenic lines is underway to bring about economic transformation of sericulture.

  16. Development of polymorphic expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellites for the extension of the genetic linkage map of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Maneeruttanarungroj, C; Pongsomboon, S; Wuthisuthimethavee, S; Klinbunga, S; Wilson, K J; Swan, J; Li, Y; Whan, V; Chu, K-H; Li, C P; Tong, J; Glenn, K; Rothschild, M; Jerry, D; Tassanakajon, A

    2006-08-01

    In this study, microsatellite markers were developed for the genetic linkage mapping and breeding program of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. A total of 997 unique microsatellite-containing expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified from 10 100 EST sequences in the P. monodon EST database. AT-rich microsatellite types were predominant in the EST sequences. Homology searching by the blastn and blastx programs revealed that these 997 ESTs represented 8.6% known gene products, 27.8% hypothetical proteins and 63.6% unknown gene products. Characterization of 50 markers on a panel of 35-48 unrelated shrimp indicated an average number of alleles of 12.6 and an average polymorphic information content of 0.723. These EST microsatellite markers along with 208 other markers (185 amplified fragment length polymorphisms, one exon-primed intron-crossing, six single strand conformation polymorphisms, one single nucleotide polymorphism, 13 non-EST-associated microsatellites and two EST-associated microsatellites) were analysed across the international P. monodon mapping family. A total of 144 new markers were added to the P. monodon maps, including 36 of the microsatellite-containing ESTs. The current P. monodon male and female linkage maps have 47 and 36 linkage groups respectively with coverage across half the P. monodon genome.

  17. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of ovary-specific transcript 1 (Pm-OSTI) of the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Klinbunga, Sirawut; Sittikankaew, Kanchana; Yuvanatemiya, Vasin; Preechaphol, Rachanimuk; Prasertlux, Sirikan; Yamano, Keisuke; Menasveta, Piamsak

    2009-11-01

    Isolation and characterization of genes specifically expressed in ovaries are necessary for understanding sex differentiation and ovarian development processes in the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. In this study, a transcript that significantly matched the polehole precursor was further characterized by RACE-PCR. The sequence obtained was 5151 bp in length and contained a coding region of 5031 bp corresponding to 1677 amino acids. This transcript was only expressed in ovaries but not in testes of Juveniles (N = 10) and broodstock (N = 22) of P. monodon. A tissue distribution analysis further confirmed ovary-specific expression of this transcript (called P. monodon ovary-specific transcript 1, Pm-OST1) in female broodstock. Expression levels of Pm-OST 1 in ovaries of juvenile P. monodon upon 5-HT Injection (33.9+/-6.40 g; 50 microg/g body weight) were significantly higher at 12-72 hours post Injection (P<0.05). Quantitative real-time PCR Indicated that Pm-OST1 was comparably expressed throughout ovarian development in normal P. monodon broodstock (P>0.05). However, the expression level of Pm-OST1 was significantly higher in stage-III ovaries in eyestalk-ablated broodstock (P<0.05). Pm-OST1 was clearly localized in the ooplasm of previtellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes. Our results suggest that Pm-OST1 plays a functionally Important role in promoting the development of female germ cells and oocytes in P. monodon.

  18. The crystal structure of novel chondroitin lyase ODV-E66, a baculovirus envelope protein.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Yoshirou; Sugiura, Nobuo; Kimata, Koji; Kimura, Makoto; Kakuta, Yoshimitsu

    2013-12-11

    Chondroitin lyases have been known as pathogenic bacterial enzymes that degrade chondroitin. Recently, baculovirus envelope protein ODV-E66 was identified as the first reported viral chondroitin lyase. ODV-E66 has low sequence identity with bacterial lyases at <12%, and unique characteristics reflecting the life cycle of baculovirus. To understand ODV-E66's structural basis, the crystal structure was determined and it was found that the structural fold resembled that of polysaccharide lyase 8 proteins and that the catalytic residues were also conserved. This structure enabled discussion of the unique substrate specificity and the stability of ODV-E66 as well as the host specificity of baculovirus.

  19. The crystal structure of novel chondroitin lyase ODV-E66, a baculovirus envelope protein.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Yoshirou; Sugiura, Nobuo; Kimata, Koji; Kimura, Makoto; Kakuta, Yoshimitu

    2013-10-25

    Chondroitin lyases have been known as pathogenic bacterial enzymes that degrade chondroitin. Recently, baculovirus envelope protein ODV-E66 was identified as the first reported viral chondroitin lyase. ODV-E66 has low sequence identity with bacterial lyases at <12%, and unique characteristics reflecting the life cycle of baculovirus. To understand ODV-E66's structural basis, the crystal structure was determined and it was found that the structural fold resembled that of polysaccharide lyase 8 proteins and that the catalytic residues were also conserved. This structure enabled discussion of the unique substrate specificity and the stability of ODV-E66 as well as the host specificity of baculovirus.

  20. Baculovirus-mediated interferon alleviates dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver cirrhosis symptoms in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Nishibe, Y; Kaneko, H; Suzuki, H; Abe, T; Matsuura, Y; Takaku, H

    2008-07-01

    The wild-type baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) infects a range of mammalian cell types in vitro but does not replicate in these cells. The current study investigated the in vivo effect of AcMNPV in the mouse model of liver cirrhosis induced by the mutagen dimethylnitrosamine. Intraperitoneal injection of AcMNPV induced an immune response. The baculovirus was taken up by the liver and spleen where it suppressed liver injury and fibrosis through the induction of interferons. This study presents the first evidence of the feasibility of using baculovirus to treat liver cirrhosis.

  1. Baculovirus as a gene delivery vector for cartilage and bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Yu; Lu, Chia-Hsin; Luo, Wen-Yi; Chang, Yu-Han; Sung, Li-Yu; Chiu, Hsin-Yi; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2010-06-01

    Baculovirus is an effective vector for gene delivery into various mammalian cells, including chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells, and has been employed for diverse applications. By gene delivery and expression of the growth factor, recombinant baculovirus has been shown to modulate the differentiation state of the cells and stimulates the production of extracellular matrix and tissue formation, hence repairing the damaged cartilage and bone in vivo. This article reviews the studies pertaining to the applications of baculovirus-mediated gene delivery in cartilage and bone tissue engineering and discusses recent progress, future applications and potential hurdles.

  2. [Construction of baculovirus vector with Cytomegaloviruse promoter to express eGFP in primary chicken embryo cells].

    PubMed

    Song, Shanshan; Ge, Jingping; Li, Mei; Gao, Dongni; Jin, Liying; An, Qi; Ping, Wenxiang; Lou, Zhuangwei

    2013-06-04

    Baculovirus is known as a safe vector candidate due to its non-replication in mammalian cells. The tropism to different cells and transduction efficiency can be improved by introducing cell-specific promoter, VSV-GED and different functional regulatory elements. The optimized pseudotyped recombinant baculovirus can express eGFP gene in primary chicken cells, which provides us a new approach to develop engineered poultry vaccines. The pseudotyped recombinant baculoviruses were constructed with cytomegaoviyns (CMV) promotor, VSV-GED, woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element (WPRE) and inverted terminal repeats (ITRs). The recombinant baculoviruses contained eGFP reporter gene were transfected chicken primary cells, and the eGFP protein expression levels mediated by different baculoviruses were analyzed. The expression of eGFP was detected at 12 hours after infection. The transduction efficiency of the pseudotyped recombinant baculoviruses increased from 36% to 48.2% by inserting VSV-GED. The expression effect of eGFP in recombinant baculovirus carrying WPRE element was similar to that by adding 10 mmol/L butyrate. However, the WPRE elements are nontoxic to cells. Within 72 hours, the expression intensity of eGFP in the recombinant baculovirus with ITRs increased gradually. The VSV-GED element can improve the transduction efficiency and WPRE can increase the reporter gene eGFP expression levels mediated by baculovirus in chicken primary cells. The recombinant baculovirus with the ITRs elements can extend the expression time of eGFP.

  3. Reaching the melting point: Degradative enzymes and protease inhibitors involved in baculovirus infection and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Ishimwe, Egide; Hodgson, Jeffrey J; Clem, Rollie J; Passarelli, A Lorena

    2015-05-01

    Baculovirus infection of a host insect involves several steps, beginning with initiation of virus infection in the midgut, followed by dissemination of infection from the midgut to other tissues in the insect, and finally culminating in "melting" or liquefaction of the host, which allows for horizontal spread of infection to other insects. While all of the viral gene products are involved in ultimately reaching this dramatic infection endpoint, this review focuses on two particular types of baculovirus-encoded proteins: degradative enzymes and protease inhibitors. Neither of these types of proteins is commonly found in other virus families, but they both play important roles in baculovirus infection. The types of degradative enzymes and protease inhibitors encoded by baculoviruses are discussed, as are the roles of these proteins in the infection process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Baculovirus: an Insect-derived Vector for Diverse Gene Transfer Applications

    PubMed Central

    Airenne, Kari J; Hu, Yu-Chen; Kost, Thomas A; Smith, Richard H; Kotin, Robert M; Ono, Chikako; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Wang, Shu; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2013-01-01

    Insect-derived baculoviruses have emerged as versatile and safe workhorses of biotechnology. Baculovirus expression vectors (BEVs) have been applied widely for crop and forest protection, as well as safe tools for recombinant protein production in insect cells. However, BEVs ability to efficiently transduce noninsect cells is still relatively poorly recognized despite the fact that efficient baculovirus-mediated in vitro and ex vivo gene delivery into dormant and dividing vertebrate cells of diverse origin has been described convincingly by many authors. Preliminary proof of therapeutic potential has also been established in preclinical studies. This review summarizes the advantages and current status of baculovirus-mediated gene delivery. Stem cell transduction, preclinical animal studies, tissue engineering, vaccination, cancer gene therapy, viral vector production, and drug discovery are covered. PMID:23439502

  5. Reaching the Melting Point: Degradative Enzymes and Protease Inhibitors Involved in Baculovirus Infection and Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Ishimwe, Egide; Hodgson, Jeffrey J.; Clem, Rollie J.; Passarelli, A. Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Baculovirus infection of a host insect involves several steps, beginning with initiation of virus infection in the midgut, followed by dissemination of infection from the midgut to other tissues in the insect, and finally culminating in “melting” or liquefaction of the host, which allows for horizontal spread of infection to other insects. While all of the viral gene products are involved in ultimately reaching this dramatic infection endpoint, this review focuses on two particular types of baculovirus-encoded proteins: degradative enzymes and protease inhibitors. Neither of these types of proteins is commonly found in other virus families, but they both play important roles in baculovirus infection. The types of degradative enzymes and protease inhibitors encoded by baculoviruses are discussed, as are the roles of these proteins in the infection process. PMID:25724418

  6. Oral vaccination of racoons (Procyon lotor) with baculovirus-expressed rabies virus glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Fu, Z F; Rupprecht, C E; Dietzschold, B; Saikumar, P; Niu, H S; Babka, I; Wunner, W H; Koprowski, H

    1993-01-01

    Successful field oral vaccination and protection against viral diseases have so far been achieved only with live-attenuated or live-recombinant virus vaccines. In this communication, we present data that demonstrate that a glycoprotein derived from recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells is efficacious as an oral vaccine. The glycoprotein (G) of rabies virus (Evelyn Rokitnicki Abelseth strain) was abundantly expressed in a baculovirus expression system and oral vaccination of racoons with the baculovirus-expressed G protein resulted in the production of rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal challenge with a street rabies virus. The potential for using the baculovirus-expressed G protein for oral immunization of wildlife is discussed.

  7. A Highly Efficient and Simple Construction Strategy for Producing Recombinant Baculovirus Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xingjian; Wei, Yonglong; Li, Yinü; Li, Haoyang; Yang, Xin; Yi, Yongzhu; Zhang, Zhifang

    2016-01-01

    The silkworm baculovirus expression system is widely used to produce recombinant proteins. Several strategies for constructing recombinant viruses that contain foreign genes have been reported. Here, we developed a novel defective-rescue BmNPV Bacmid (reBmBac) expression system. A CopyControl origin of replication was introduced into the viral genome to facilitate its genetic manipulation in Escherichia coli and to ensure the preparation of large amounts of high quality reBmBac DNA as well as high quality recombinant baculoviruses. The ORF1629, cathepsin and chitinase genes were partially deleted or rendered defective to improve the efficiency of recombinant baculovirus generation and the expression of foreign genes. The system was validated by the successful expression of luciferase reporter gene and porcine interferon γ. This system can be used to produce batches of recombinant baculoviruses and target proteins rapidly and efficiently in silkworms. PMID:27008267

  8. Optimization of eGFP expression using a modified baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jingping; Jin, Liying; Tang, Xiaoyan; Gao, Dongni; An, Qi; Ping, Wenxiang

    2014-03-10

    The baculovirus gene expression system is an efficient and safe protein expression system, since baculoviruses cannot replicate in mammalian cells. In order to improve the transduction efficiency and increase the reporter gene expression levels delivered by baculoviruses, we tested in the baculovirus expression cassette the Woodchuck hepatitis virus response element (WPRE), and AAV-derived inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) and the truncated vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-GED). The results showed that WPRE and VSV-GED have synergistic effects and could enhance the expression efficiency of enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP), and that ITRs effectively extended the duration of eGFP expression. We also demonstrated that the efficiency of eGFP expression varied under the control of the CMV, CBA, EF1-α or WSSV ie1 promoters in different cell lines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Baculovirus-mediated expression of GPCRs in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Saarenpää, Tuulia; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka; Goldman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large family of seven transmembrane proteins that influence a considerable number of cellular events. For this reason, they are one of the most studied receptor types for their pharmacological and structural properties. Solving the structure of several GPCR receptor types has been possible using almost all expression systems, including Escherichia coli, yeast, mammalian, and insect cells. So far, however, most of the GPCR structures solved have been done using the baculovirus insect cell expression system. The reason for this is mainly due to cost-effectiveness, posttranslational modification efficiency, and overall effortless maintenance. The system has evolved so much that variables starting from vector type, purification tags, cell line, and growth conditions can be varied and optimized countless ways to suit the needs of new constructs. Here, we present the array of techniques that enable the rapid and efficient optimization of expression steps for maximal protein quality and quantity, including our emendations.

  10. Estimation of baculovirus titer based on viable cell size.

    PubMed

    Janakiraman, Vasantharajan; Forrest, William F; Seshagiri, Somasekar

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a simple and rapid protocol for determination of baculovirus titers based on increasing viable insect cell size/diameter following virus infection is presented. There are different methods available for determining virus titers such as plaque assays end-point dilution, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry. However, most of these methods are time consuming and labor intensive. The titer estimation method presented here can be completed in approximately 28 h from start to finish. In this method, the Vi-CELL (Beckman Coulter) was used to measure cell diameter change over a range of virus dilutions, following infection. The cell diameter change data were used to compute the virus titer using a statistical method called the method of moments that we have described previously.

  11. Baculovirus expression system and method for high throughput expression of genetic material

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Robin; Davies, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides novel recombinant baculovirus expression systems for expressing foreign genetic material in a host cell. Such expression systems are readily adapted to an automated method for expression foreign genetic material in a high throughput manner. In other aspects, the present invention features a novel automated method for determining the function of foreign genetic material by transfecting the same into a host by way of the recombinant baculovirus expression systems according to the present invention.

  12. The Host Specificities of Baculovirus per os Infectivity Factors

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jingjiao; Wang, Xi; Hou, Dianhai; Huang, Huachao; Liu, Xijia; Deng, Fei; Wang, Hualin; Arif, Basil M.; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Manli

    2016-01-01

    Baculoviruses are insect-specific pathogens with a generally narrow host ranges. Successful primary infection is initiated by the proper interaction of at least 8 conserved per os infectivity factors (PIFs) with the host’s midgut cells, a process that remains largely a mystery. In this study, we investigated the host specificities of the four core components of the PIF complex, P74, PIF1, PIF2 and PIF3 by using Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) backbone. The four pifs of HearNPV were replaced by their counterparts from a group I Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) or a group II Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltNPV). Transfection and infection assays showed that all the recombinant viruses were able to produce infectious budded viruses (BVs) and were lethal to H. armigera larvae via intrahaemocoelic injection. However, feeding experiments using very high concentration of occlusion bodies demonstrated that all the recombinant viruses completely lost oral infectivity except SpltNPV pif3 substituted pif3-null HearNPV (vHaBacΔpif3-Sppif3-ph). Furthermore, bioassay result showed that the median lethal concentration (LC50) value of vHaBacΔpif3-Sppif3-ph was 23-fold higher than that of the control virus vHaBacΔpif3-Hapif3-ph, indicating that SpltNPV pif3 can only partially substitute the function of HearNPV pif3. These results suggested that most of PIFs tested have strict host specificities, which may account, at least in part, for the limited host ranges of baculoviruses. PMID:27454435

  13. Expression of bioactive recombinant bovine interferon-gamma using baculovirus.

    PubMed

    Gentilomi, Giovanna; Lelli, Rossella; D'Angelo, Mirella; Langella, Vincenzo; Monaco, Federica; Portanti, Ottavio; Luciani, Mirella; Mirasoli, Mara; Roda, Aldo; Zerbini, Marialuisa; Musiani, Monica

    2006-01-01

    The precise role of bovine interferon-gamma (BoIFN-gamma) in disease and therapy is still poorly defined. Clearly it is involved in defence against parasites, bacteria, viruses and possibly tumor cells. This paper reports the expression of BoIFN-gamma in a baculovirus system to generate a fully functional recombinant protein. Bovine interferon-gamma cDNA was cloned from mitogen stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) RNA utilizing the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The cDNA open reading frame (ORF) encoding for a putative 166 amino acid protein (22KDa) was cloned and expressed into baculovirus transfer vector pBlueBac 4.5/V5 His. This vector was co-transfected with Autografa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) DNA into Spodoptera frugiperda cells (Sf9) and the recombinant virus, named AcBoIFN-gamma, was then recovered. Recombinant BoIFN-gamma (rBoIFN-gamma His) was accumulated in the serum-free medium of AcBoIFN-gamma-infected cells. The nickel affinity spin column purified rBoIFN-gamma His was shown to be a glycosylated 20-22 KDa protein as confirmed by SDS-PAGE glycan determination and showed antiviral activity in vitro against the bovine viral diarrhoea-mucosal disease virus (BVD/MD). The production of this bioactive rBoIFN-gamma His will allow us to explore this cytokine as a potential vaccine adjuvant or therapeutic agent for bovine diseases.

  14. Pathology Associated with White Spot Virus (WSV) Infection in Wild Broodstock of Tiger Prawns (Penaeus monodon)

    PubMed Central

    Kua, Beng Chu; Rashid, Noraziah Mat

    2012-01-01

    A total of six wild broodstocks of tiger prawns, Penaeus monodon, were found positive for White Spot Virus (WSV) with an IQ2000 detection kit. Using histopathology, the intranuclear inclusion of haemocyte due to WSV infection was observed in the epithelium cells of the antennal gland, stomach and gills. This result confirmed that the wild broodstocks were positive with WSV without showing any white spot. Additionally, histopathological examination also revealed an accumulation of haemocytes around the hepatopancreatic tubules resulting from bacterial infection. Encapsulation and nodule formation, as well as related necrosis, were also observed around the hepatopancreatic tubules infected with a metazoan parasite. Encysted tylocephalum larval cestodes were observed in the hepatopancreas, with haemocytic aggregation being observed around the infected tubules. These findings showed some bacterial and parasitic infections which, in addition to the viral infection itself, could contribute to the 80% mortality rate in wild broodstocks infected with WSV. PMID:24575228

  15. Pathology Associated with White Spot Virus (WSV) Infection in Wild Broodstock of Tiger Prawns (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Kua, Beng Chu; Rashid, Noraziah Mat

    2012-05-01

    A total of six wild broodstocks of tiger prawns, Penaeus monodon, were found positive for White Spot Virus (WSV) with an IQ2000 detection kit. Using histopathology, the intranuclear inclusion of haemocyte due to WSV infection was observed in the epithelium cells of the antennal gland, stomach and gills. This result confirmed that the wild broodstocks were positive with WSV without showing any white spot. Additionally, histopathological examination also revealed an accumulation of haemocytes around the hepatopancreatic tubules resulting from bacterial infection. Encapsulation and nodule formation, as well as related necrosis, were also observed around the hepatopancreatic tubules infected with a metazoan parasite. Encysted tylocephalum larval cestodes were observed in the hepatopancreas, with haemocytic aggregation being observed around the infected tubules. These findings showed some bacterial and parasitic infections which, in addition to the viral infection itself, could contribute to the 80% mortality rate in wild broodstocks infected with WSV.

  16. Iflavirus increases its infectivity and physical stability in association with baculovirus

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowska, Agata K.; Murillo, Rosa; Carballo, Arkaitz; Williams, Trevor; van Lent, Jan W.M.; Caballero, Primitivo

    2016-01-01

    Virus transmission and the prevalence of infection depend on multiple factors, including the interaction with other viral pathogens infecting the same host. In this study, active replication of an iflavirus, Spodoptera exigua iflavirus 1 (order Picornavirales) was observed in the offspring of insects that survived following inoculation with a pathogenic baculovirus, Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus. Tracking the origin of the iflavirus suggested the association of this virus with the occlusion bodies of the baculovirus. Here we investigated the effect of this association on the stability and infectivity of both viruses. A reduction in baculovirus pathogenicity, without affecting its infectivity and productivity, was observed when associated with the iflavirus. In contrast, viral association increased the infectivity of the iflavirus and its resistance to ultraviolet radiation and high temperature, two of the main factors affecting virus stability in the field. In addition, electron microscopy analysis revealed the presence of particles resembling iflavirus virions inside the occlusion bodies of the baculovirus, suggesting the possible co-occlusion of both viruses. Results reported here are indicative of facultative phoresis of a virus and suggest that virus–virus interactions may be more common than currently recognized, and may be influential in the ecology of baculovirus and host populations and in consequence in the use of baculoviruses as biological insecticides. PMID:26966651

  17. Interaction of Vibrio spp. with the Inner Surface of the Digestive Tract of Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Soonthornchai, Wipasiri; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jarayabhand, Padermsak; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul

    2015-01-01

    Several species of Vibrio are the causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. In aquaculture, Vibrio harveyi (Vh) and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp) have long been considered as shrimp pathogens in freshwater, brackish and marine environments. Here we show by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that Penaeus monodon orally inoculated with each of these two pathogens via an Artemia diet had numerous bacteria attached randomly across the stomach surface, in single and in large biofilm-like clusters 6 h post-infection. A subsequent marked proliferation in the number of V. harveyi within the biofilm-like formations resulted in the development of infections in the stomach, the upper and middle midgut, but neither in the posterior midgut nor the hindgut. SEM also revealed the induced production of peritrichous pili-like structures by the Vp attaching to the stomach lining, whilst only a single polar fibre was seen forming an apparent physical bridge between Vh and the host's epithelium. In contrast to these observations, no such adherences or linkages were seen when trials were conducted with non-pathogenic Vibrio spp. or with Micrococcus luteus, with no obvious resultant changes to the host's gut surface. In naive shrimp, the hindgut was found to be a favorable site for bacteria notably curved, short-rod shaped bacteria which probably belong to Vibrio spp. Data from the current study suggests that pathogens of P. monodon must be able to colonize the digestive tract, particularly the stomach, where chitin is present, and then they use an array of virulent factors and enzymes to infect their host resulting in disease. Oral infection is a better way of mimicking natural routes of infection; investigating the host-bacteria interactions occurring in the digestive tract may lead to new strategies for the prevention or control of bacterial infections in penaeids.

  18. Hepatopancreatic nuclease of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon unlikely to be involved in viral triggered apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Molthathong, Sudkhate; Rojtinnakorn, Jiraporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Flegel, Timothy W

    2007-06-01

    Nucleases are phosphodiesterases that hydrolyze DNA and/or RNA. In a search for shrimp nucleases involved in apoptosis, we discovered a nuclease from hepatopancreatic cDNA of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. The full-length nuclease gene was amplified and revealed to contain 1668bp corresponding to 381 deduced amino acid residues in the mature enzyme. Sequence analysis indicated 83% nucleic acid identity and 89% amino acid identity to a nuclease from the Kuruma shrimp Penaeus japonicus (also called Marsupenaeus japonicus). Comparative analysis of sequences, conserved motifs and phylogenetic trees indicated that P. monodon nuclease (PMN) belonged to the family of DNA/RNA non-specific endonucleases (DRNSN). RT-PCR analysis using primers specific for PMN mRNA with seven different shrimp tissues revealed that expression in normal shrimp was restricted to the hepatopancreas. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis of PMN using hepatopancreatic mRNA from normal shrimp and from shrimp challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) indicated significant up-regulation of PMN in the hepatopancreas (P<0.05) at the early stage of viral infection but a return to baseline levels as gross signs of disease developed. At the same time, expression was always confined to the hepatopancreas and never seen in other tissues, including those reported to be prime targets for WSSV and subject to increased levels of apoptosis after infection. The results suggested that PMN is probably a digestive enzyme that is unlikely to be involved in hallmark DNA digestion associated with apoptosis.

  19. Dietary vitamin C and its derivatives affect immune responses in grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Hsien; Shiau, Shi Yen

    2002-02-01

    Effects of L-ascorbic acid (AA) and its four derivatives, namely L-ascorbyl-2-sulfate (C2S), L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (C2PP), L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate-Na (C2MP-Na) and L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate-Mg (C2MP-Mg) on the immune responses of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon, were studied. The vitamin C deprived diet together with diets supplemented with either adequate or high (five times adequate) levels of AA, C2S, C2PP, C2MP-Na and C2MP-Mg were each fed to triplicate groups of shrimp (mean initial weight: 0.37 +/- 0.01 g) for 8 weeks. Significantly (P<0.01) higher weight gain (WG), feed efficiency (FE), survival, total haemocyte count (THC), superoxide anion (O2) production ratio and phenoloxidase (PO) activity were observed in shrimp fed diets supplemented with adequate and high levels of ascorbate than shrimp fed the vitamin C deprived diet, regardless of the ascorbate source. Among the ascorbate sources, shrimp fed C2MP-Mg and C2PP containing diets had higher THC than shrimp fed AA, C2S and C2MP-Na containing diets, regardless of the supplementation level. Shrimp fed adequate levels of C2MP-Mg and C2PP and high levels of C2MP-Mg containing diets had higher O2 production ratios than shrimp fed AA and C2S containing diets. Shrimp fed adequate levels of C2MP-Mg and C2PP and high levels of C2PP containing diets had higher PO activity than shrimp fed AA, C2S and C2MP-Na containing diets. These data suggest that dietary ascorbate enhances immune responses in P. monodon and different ascorbate sources may affect the immune responses differently.

  20. Interaction of Vibrio spp. with the Inner Surface of the Digestive Tract of Penaeus monodon

    PubMed Central

    Soonthornchai, Wipasiri; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jarayabhand, Padermsak; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul

    2015-01-01

    Several species of Vibrio are the causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans. In aquaculture, Vibrio harveyi (Vh) and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp) have long been considered as shrimp pathogens in freshwater, brackish and marine environments. Here we show by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that Penaeus monodon orally inoculated with each of these two pathogens via an Artemia diet had numerous bacteria attached randomly across the stomach surface, in single and in large biofilm-like clusters 6 h post-infection. A subsequent marked proliferation in the number of V. harveyi within the biofilm-like formations resulted in the development of infections in the stomach, the upper and middle midgut, but neither in the posterior midgut nor the hindgut. SEM also revealed the induced production of peritrichous pili-like structures by the Vp attaching to the stomach lining, whilst only a single polar fibre was seen forming an apparent physical bridge between Vh and the host’s epithelium. In contrast to these observations, no such adherences or linkages were seen when trials were conducted with non-pathogenic Vibrio spp. or with Micrococcus luteus, with no obvious resultant changes to the host’s gut surface. In naive shrimp, the hindgut was found to be a favorable site for bacteria notably curved, short-rod shaped bacteria which probably belong to Vibrio spp. Data from the current study suggests that pathogens of P. monodon must be able to colonize the digestive tract, particularly the stomach, where chitin is present, and then they use an array of virulent factors and enzymes to infect their host resulting in disease. Oral infection is a better way of mimicking natural routes of infection; investigating the host-bacteria interactions occurring in the digestive tract may lead to new strategies for the prevention or control of bacterial infections in penaeids. PMID:26285030

  1. Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV)-related sequences in the genome of the black tiger prawn Penaeus monodon from Africa and Australia.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kathy F J; Lightner, Donald V

    2006-06-01

    We found an infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV)-related sequence within the shrimp genome in populations of Penaeus monodon from Africa and Australia. IHHNV is a single-stranded DNA virus that has caused severe mortality and stunted growth in penaeid shrimp. Recently, IHHNV-related sequences were found in samples of P. monodon from Madagascar and Tanzania. These sequences vary considerably (14 and 8%, respectively) from that of IHHNV found in association with viral epidemics. Laboratory bioassays were carried out with P. monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei to determine if either of these IHHNV-related sequences is infectious. We used juvenile and adult P. monodon containing the virus-related sequences from four geographic regions to generate inocula and tissues for feeding. Specific pathogen free P. monodon and L. vannamei were used as indicator shrimp. During the 2-4 week bioassays, none of the indicator shrimp showed signs of infection or disease. Results of both PCR assays and histological examination of the indicator shrimp were negative for IHHNV infection, indicating that the Africa type IHHNV-related sequences are not infectious. With the shrimp containing the Madagascar type IHHNV-related sequence (designated as type A), we performed genome walking at the 3' end of the virus-related sequence and found that this virus-related sequence is part of the P. monodon genome. A fragment of 1.9 kb flanking sequence was cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis showed that this flanking sequence contains shrimp microsatellite DNA. Also, its translated amino acid sequence was highly similar to a retrotransposon. This result provides molecular evidence that the type A IHHNV-related sequence is shrimp DNA. This sequence was found in the P. monodon collected from Africa and Australia.

  2. First record of a parasitic septate gregarines (Apicomplexa: Sporozoea) in the shrimp Peneaus monodon in Sundarbans of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, J; Bandyopadhyay, P K

    2010-04-01

    Investigations on the incidence of septate gregarines in shrimp have immense importance because of severe pathogenicity of the parasite. The septate gregarines infect the midgut of shrimp Peneaus monodon and severe infection disturbs the intestinal tissues. Mostly gregarines of the genus Nematopsis have been identified from cultured peneaid shrimp. It has worldwide in distribution. In India, gregarine parasites have so far been reported from penaeid shrimps of Bombay and Kerala. The species which was isolated from the midgut of shrimp Peneaus monodon collected from Kharibari area of Sunderbans. 9 out of 20 i.e. 45% of the randomly sampled hosts were found to be infected with a species of the genus Nematopsis. Different developmental stages including trophozoites, sporadins, and gametocysts of the Nematopsis sp. infecting the shrimp have been isolated. No correlations have been established between incidence of infection and environmental parameters.

  3. Persistence of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus delays mortality caused by white spot syndrome virus infection in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Molthathong, Sudkhate; Jitrakorn, Sarocha; Joyjinda, Yutthana; Boonchird, Chuenchit; Witchayachamnarnkul, Boonsirm; Pongtippatee, Pattira; Flegel, Timothy; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon

    2013-02-15

    Persistent infection of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) (also called IHHNV) and its non-infectious inserts in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (P. monodon) genome are commonly found without apparent disease. Here, we introduced the method of multiplex PCR in order to differentiate shrimp with viral inserts from ones with the infectious virus. The method allowed us to study the effect of pre-infection of IHHNV, in comparison to IHHNV inserts, on WSSV resistance in P. monodon. A multiplex PCR system was developed to amplify the entire IHHNV genome, ensuring the accurate diagnosis. Field samples containing IHHNV DNA templates as low as 20 pg or equivalent 150 viral copies can be detected by this method. By challenging the two groups of diagnosed shrimp with WSSV, we found that shrimp with IHHNV infection and those with viral inserts responded to WSSV differently. Considering cumulative mortality, average time to death of shrimp in IHHNV-infected group (day 14) was significantly delayed relative to that (day 10) of IHHNV-inserted group. Real-time PCR analysis of WSSV copy number indicated the lower amount of WSSV in the IHHNV-infected group than the virus-inserted group. The ratio of IHHNV: WSSV copy number in all determined IHHNV-infected samples ranged from approximately 4 to 300-fold. The multiplex PCR assay developed herein proved optimal for convenient differentiation of shrimp specimens with real IHHNV infection and those with insert types. Diagnosed shrimp were also found to exhibit different WSSV tolerance. After exposed to WSSV, the naturally pre-infected IHHNV P. monodon were less susceptible to WSSV and, consequently, survived longer than the IHHNV-inserted shrimp.

  4. Persistence of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus delays mortality caused by white spot syndrome virus infection in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Persistent infection of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) (also called IHHNV) and its non-infectious inserts in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (P. monodon) genome are commonly found without apparent disease. Here, we introduced the method of multiplex PCR in order to differentiate shrimp with viral inserts from ones with the infectious virus. The method allowed us to study the effect of pre-infection of IHHNV, in comparison to IHHNV inserts, on WSSV resistance in P. monodon. Results A multiplex PCR system was developed to amplify the entire IHHNV genome, ensuring the accurate diagnosis. Field samples containing IHHNV DNA templates as low as 20 pg or equivalent 150 viral copies can be detected by this method. By challenging the two groups of diagnosed shrimp with WSSV, we found that shrimp with IHHNV infection and those with viral inserts responded to WSSV differently. Considering cumulative mortality, average time to death of shrimp in IHHNV-infected group (day 14) was significantly delayed relative to that (day 10) of IHHNV-inserted group. Real-time PCR analysis of WSSV copy number indicated the lower amount of WSSV in the IHHNV-infected group than the virus-inserted group. The ratio of IHHNV: WSSV copy number in all determined IHHNV-infected samples ranged from approximately 4 to 300-fold. Conclusion The multiplex PCR assay developed herein proved optimal for convenient differentiation of shrimp specimens with real IHHNV infection and those with insert types. Diagnosed shrimp were also found to exhibit different WSSV tolerance. After exposed to WSSV, the naturally pre-infected IHHNV P. monodon were less susceptible to WSSV and, consequently, survived longer than the IHHNV-inserted shrimp. PMID:23414329

  5. Expression studies on NA+/K(+)-ATPase in gills of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) acclimated to different salinities.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Aparna; Gireesh-Babu, P; Tripathi, Gayatri; Sabnis, Supriya; Dhamotharan, K; Vardarajan, Remya; Kumari, Kavita; Dasgupta, Subrata; Rajendran, K V

    2015-05-01

    The decapod crustacean Penaeus monodon survives large fluctuations in salinity through osmoregulation in which Na+/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity in the gills plays a central role. Adult P. monodon specimens were gradually acclimatized to 5, 25 and 35 per thousand salinities and maintained for 20 days to observe long-term alterations in NKA expression. Specific NKA activity assayed in gill tissues was found to be 3 folds higher at 5 per thousand compared to 25 per thousand (isosmotic salinity) and 0.48 folds lower at 35 per thousand. The enzyme was immunolocalized in gills using mouse α-5 monoclonal antibody that cross reacts with P. monodon NKA α-subunit. At 5 per thousand the immunopositive cells were distributed on lamellar tips and basal lamellar epithelium of the secondary gill filaments and their number was visibly higher. At both 25 per thousand and 35 per thousand NKA positive cells were observed in the inter-lamellar region but the expression was more pronounced at 25 per thousand. Gill architecture was normal at all salinities. However, the 1.5 fold increase in NKA α-subunit mRNA at 5 per thousand measured by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) using EF1α as reference gene was not statistically significant. The study confirms the osmoregulating ability of P. monodon like other crustaceans at lower salinities. It is likely that significant increase in NKA transcript level happens at an earlier time point. At higher salinities all three methods record only marginal or no change from isosmotic controls confirming the hypothesis that the animal largely osmoconforms in hyperosmotic environment.

  6. Dietary copper requirement of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and effects on non-specific immune responses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Hsien; Shiau, Shi-Yen

    2002-10-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the dietary copper (Cu) requirement and its effect on the non-specific immune responses of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Purified diets with seven levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 80, 160 mg Cu kg diet(-1) of supplemental Cu were fed to P. monodon (mean initial weight 0.29 +/- 0.004 g). Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of shrimp. The rearing water contained 1.53 microg Cu 1(-1). Shrimp fed diets supplemented with 10 and 20 mg Cu kg diet(-1) had significantly (P < 0.01) greater weight gain, feed efficiency (FE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) than those fed the unsupplemented control diet and diets supplemented with > or = 40 mg Cu kg diet(-1). Whole body Cu concentration in shrimp generally increased as dietary Cu supplementation increased. Total haemocyte count (THC) was higher in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 10-30 mg Cu kg diet(-1) than shrimp fed the unsupplemented control diet and diets supplemented with > or = 40 mg Cu kg diet(-1). Intracellular superoxide anion (O2-) production ratios were significantly higher in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 10-30 mg Cu kg diet(-1) than shrimp fed the diet supplemented with 160 mg Cu kg diet(-1). Analysis by polynomial regression of weight gain percent, FE and by linear regression of the whole-body Cu retention of shrimp indicated that the adequate dietary Cu concentration in growing P. monodon is about 15-21 mg Cu kg diet (-1). The immune indicators suggest that an adequate dietary Cu concentration for non-specific immune responses in P. monodon is about 10-30 mg Cu kg diet(-1).

  7. Therapeutic effect of Artemia enriched with Escherichia coli expressing double-stranded RNA in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Thammasorn, Thitiporn; Somchai, Parinyachat; Laosutthipong, Chaowanee; Jitrakorn, Sarocha; Wongtripop, Somjai; Thitamadee, Siripong; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon

    2013-10-01

    We exploited Artemia as a double-stranded (ds)RNA-delivery system to combat viral diseases in shrimp. First, the transformed Escherichia coli (E. coli) expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) was tested in the Artemia enrichment process. RFP signals detectable in the gut of Artemia under confocal microscope were evident for the successful encapsulation. Second, the Artemia enrichment process was performed using E. coli producing Laem-Singh virus (LSNV)-specific dsRNA, which has been previously shown to inhibit the viral infection in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon by intramuscular injection and oral administration. The enriched Artemia nauplii were confirmed to contain dsRNA-LSNV by RT-PCR, and were subjected to the feeding test with P. monodon postlarvae. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that a number of LSNV copies in most of the treated shrimp were, at least, 1000-fold lower than the untreated controls. During 11-17weeks after feeding, average body weight of the treated group was markedly increased relative to the control group. A smaller differential growth rate of the treated group as compared to the control was also noticed. These results suggested that feeding shrimp with the dsRNA-enriched Artemia can eliminate LSNV infection, which is the cause of retarded growth in P. monodon. The present study reveals for the first time the therapeutic effect of dsRNA-enriched Artemia for shrimp disease control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The possible role of penaeidin5 from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, in protection against viral infection.

    PubMed

    Woramongkolchai, Noppawan; Supungul, Premruethai; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2011-05-01

    Penaeidin class 5 (PEN5) has so far only been reported in the Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The PEN5 homolog from F. chinensis (FenchiPEN5) exhibits antimicrobial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi. Here, we characterized the PEN5 gene from P. monodon (PenmonPEN5) and evaluated its potential involvement in antiviral immunity. The deduced open reading frame of PenmonPEN5 encodes for a predicted 79 amino acid peptide including a 19 amino acid signal peptide. The gene structure of PenmonPEN5 contains two exons interrupted by one intron, whilst the 5' upstream sequence contains a putative TATA box and several GATA, GATA-3, AP-1 and dorsal transcription factor binding sites. PenmonPEN5 mRNA levels in P. monodon shrimps following a systemic infection with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) were significantly induced at 24 h post infection, but was strongly down-regulated at 48 h post injection, compared to those of the uninfected control shrimps. The suppression of PenmonPEN5 transcript levels by RNA interference mediated gene silencing led to an increased susceptibility of shrimps to WSSV infection, suggesting a possible role of PenmonPEN5 in the shrimp's antiviral immunity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using double-stranded RNA for the control of Laem-Singh Virus (LSNV) in Thai P. monodon.

    PubMed

    Saksmerprome, Vanvimon; Thammasorn, Thitiporn; Jitrakorn, Sarocha; Wongtripop, Somjai; Borwornpinyo, Suparerk; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm

    2013-04-15

    Viral inhibition by double-stranded (ds)RNA is a potential therapeutic approach for controlling shrimp viral diseases. Here, we describe the successful oral application of dsRNA targeting Laem-Singh Virus (LSNV) to diminish monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS) in Thai Penaeus monodon. Shrimp feed formulated with bacterially expressed LSNV-dsRNA was given to shrimp for 9 weeks. RT-PCR results revealed that all control shrimp were LSNV-positive at the end of experiment, while the shrimp that received dsRNA-feed exhibited 20-60% LSNV reduction. The average body weight of treated shrimp (number of shrimp=100) was significantly higher than that of the control group. Such increase is likely due to the elimination of MSGS caused by LSNV, as size variation of the treated group is much lower than that in the control group. This study demonstrates for the first time that feed with LSNV-specific dsRNA promotes the overall growth of P. monodon and relieves MSGS condition in LSNV-infected shrimp. The work reaffirms the potential of dsRNA application for controlling viral disease in shrimp farming. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Utilizing the virus-induced blocking of apoptosis in an easy baculovirus titration method.

    PubMed

    Niarchos, Athanasios; Lagoumintzis, George; Poulas, Konstantinos

    2015-10-22

    Baculovirus-mediated protein expression is a robust experimental technique for producing recombinant higher-eukaryotic proteins because it combines high yields with considerable post-translational modification capabilities. In this expression system, the determination of the titer of recombinant baculovirus stocks is important to achieve the correct multiplicity of infection for effective amplification of the virus and high expression of the target protein. To overcome the drawbacks of existing titration methods (e.g., plaque assay, real-time PCR), we present a simple and reliable assay that uses the ability of baculoviruses to block apoptosis in their host cells to accurately titrate virus samples. Briefly, after incubation with serial dilutions of baculovirus samples, Sf9 cells were UV irradiated and, after apoptosis induction, they were viewed via microscopy; the presence of cluster(s) of infected cells as islets indicated blocked apoptosis. Subsequently, baculovirus titers were calculated through the determination of the 50% endpoint dilution. The method is simple, inexpensive, and does not require unique laboratory equipment, consumables or expertise; moreover, it is versatile enough to be adapted for the titration of every virus species that can block apoptosis in any culturable host cells which undergo apoptosis under specific conditions.

  11. Utilizing the virus-induced blocking of apoptosis in an easy baculovirus titration method

    PubMed Central

    Niarchos, Athanasios; Lagoumintzis, George; Poulas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Baculovirus-mediated protein expression is a robust experimental technique for producing recombinant higher-eukaryotic proteins because it combines high yields with considerable post-translational modification capabilities. In this expression system, the determination of the titer of recombinant baculovirus stocks is important to achieve the correct multiplicity of infection for effective amplification of the virus and high expression of the target protein. To overcome the drawbacks of existing titration methods (e.g., plaque assay, real-time PCR), we present a simple and reliable assay that uses the ability of baculoviruses to block apoptosis in their host cells to accurately titrate virus samples. Briefly, after incubation with serial dilutions of baculovirus samples, Sf9 cells were UV irradiated and, after apoptosis induction, they were viewed via microscopy; the presence of cluster(s) of infected cells as islets indicated blocked apoptosis. Subsequently, baculovirus titers were calculated through the determination of the 50% endpoint dilution. The method is simple, inexpensive, and does not require unique laboratory equipment, consumables or expertise; moreover, it is versatile enough to be adapted for the titration of every virus species that can block apoptosis in any culturable host cells which undergo apoptosis under specific conditions. PMID:26490731

  12. Detection of single and mixed covert baculovirus infections in eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana populations.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Elizabeth M; Woodward, David T; Cory, Jenny S

    2011-07-01

    We surveyed for covert baculovirus infections in the eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) and compared the prevalence of virus detected in a laboratory and a field population. DNA was extracted from budworm adults and then PCR with degenerate primers was used to identify individuals carrying baculovirus DNA. Multiplex PCR was then applied to the positive samples to distinguish between the multiple baculovirus types that could potentially be found in C. fumiferana populations. Covert infections were found in both the laboratory and the field population of C. fumiferana, although the frequency of infection and the composition of viruses found were very different. Overall 28% of insects from the laboratory population were positive for baculovirus DNA. Individual adults supported both single and mixed covert infections with CfMNPV plus CfDEFNPV, CfDEFNPV plus a GV and mixtures of all three viruses together. However, the majority of insects supported single virus infections, and surprisingly this virus was CfDEFNPV, a virus that is reported not to have per os activity in C. fumiferana larvae. Insects from field populations showed a very different pattern; 70.5% of individuals were baculovirus positive and all of these were positive for CfDEFNPV only.

  13. Expression, Delivery and Function of Insecticidal Proteins Expressed by Recombinant Baculoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Kroemer, Jeremy A.; Bonning, Bryony C.; Harrison, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Since the development of methods for inserting and expressing genes in baculoviruses, a line of research has focused on developing recombinant baculoviruses that express insecticidal peptides and proteins. These recombinant viruses have been engineered with the goal of improving their pesticidal potential by shortening the time required for infection to kill or incapacitate insect pests and reducing the quantity of crop damage as a consequence. A wide variety of neurotoxic peptides, proteins that regulate insect physiology, degradative enzymes, and other potentially insecticidal proteins have been evaluated for their capacity to reduce the survival time of baculovirus-infected lepidopteran host larvae. Researchers have investigated the factors involved in the efficient expression and delivery of baculovirus-encoded insecticidal peptides and proteins, with much effort dedicated to identifying ideal promoters for driving transcription and signal peptides that mediate secretion of the expressed target protein. Other factors, particularly translational efficiency of transcripts derived from recombinant insecticidal genes and post-translational folding and processing of insecticidal proteins, remain relatively unexplored. The discovery of RNA interference as a gene-specific regulation mechanism offers a new approach for improvement of baculovirus biopesticidal efficacy through genetic modification. PMID:25609310

  14. Evolutionary analysis of the ubiquitin gene of baculovirus and insect hosts.

    PubMed

    Ma, S S; Zhang, Z; Xia, H C; Chen, L; Yang, Y H; Yao, Q; Chen, K P

    2015-08-21

    Baculovirus is the only virus that has been found to encode the ubiquitin protein. In this study, ubiquitin sequences from 16 insects and 49 viruses were collected and compared. The resulting sequences were aligned with virus genomes. Then MAGE 5.0, k-estimated software, as well as other software programs were used for systemic evolutionary, selection pressure, and evolutionary distance analysis. The results of the pairwise ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution values and evolutionary distances showed that ubiquitin from baculovirus and insect hosts have been under purifying selection during evolution and are thus evolutionarily conserved. Moreover, genes from insect hosts were more conserved than those in baculovirus. Analysis of the non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates at each site and entropy calculations revealed the evolutionary status of every site in the ubiquitin genes of baculovirus and their hosts. Genome locations and phylogenetic trees indicated that granuloviruses and non-photosynthetic vegetation evolved, and granulovirus evolution was more similar to that of insect hosts. Our results suggest that the ubiquitin gene in baculovirus may have been acquired through horizontal transfer from the host.

  15. Characterization of a Trichoplusia ni hexamerin-derived promoter in the AcMNPV baculovirus vector.

    PubMed

    López-Vidal, Javier; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Sánchez-Ramos, Ismael; Escribano, José M

    2013-06-10

    The promoter sequences of the encoding genes for the three most abundant hexamerins of the Lepidoptera Trichoplusia ni were isolated and cloned into the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV)-derived baculovirus expression vector. From the sequences analyzed, the DNA region driving the expression of the Basic juvenile hormone-suppressible protein 2 (BJHSP-2), denominated pB2, presented the highest promoter strength in the context of the baculovirus vector in Sf21 insect cells. This promoter activity occurred earlier in baculovirus-infected cells than that achieved by a conventional polyhedrin promoter (polh), but surprisingly stopped at 48h post-infection. A mapping of pB2 essential promoter elements determined that a region of about 400bp, denominated pB29, retained and even increased the transcriptional activity with respect to the parental full-length sequence. Finally, several chimeric combinations of the insect-derived pB2 with the virus-derived conventional polh or p10 promoters were constructed and incorporated into an AcMNPV baculovirus vector. The pB2-p10 combination showed increased recombinant protein expression at early times post-infection and similar expression levels at very late times post-infection in Sf21 cells with respect to conventional late promoters. To the best of our knowledge, pB2 is the first promoter isolated from the Lepidoptera T. ni, the natural host of AcMNPV, to be assayed in a baculovirus expression vector.

  16. Insecticidal activity of two proteases against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae infected with recombinant baculoviruses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Baculovirus comprise the largest group of insect viruses most studied worldwide, mainly because they efficiently kill agricutural insect pests. In this study, two recombinant baculoviruses containing the ScathL gene from Sarcophaga peregrina (vSynScathL), and the Keratinase gene from the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus (vSynKerat), were constructed. and their insecticidal properties analysed against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae. Results Bioassays of third-instar and neonate S. frugiperda larvae with vSynScathL and vSynKerat showed a decrease in the time needed to kill the infected insects when compared to the wild type virus. We have also shown that both recombinants were able to increase phenoloxidase activity in the hemolymph of S. frugiperda larvae. The expression of proteases in infected larvae resulted in destruction of internal tissues late in infection, which could be the reason for the increased viral speed of kill. Conclusions Baculoviruses and their recombinant forms constitute viable alternatives to chemical insecticides. Recombinant baculoviruses containing protease genes can be added to the list of engineered baculoviruses with great potential to be used in integrated pest management programs. PMID:20587066

  17. Baculovirus as delivery system for gene transfer during hypothermic organ preservation.

    PubMed

    Murguía-Meca, Fernanda; Plata-Muñoz, Juan J; Hitchman, Richard B; Danquah, John O; Hughes, David; Friend, Peter J; Fuggle, Susan V; King, Linda A

    2011-08-01

    Concerns over the safety of conventional viral vectors have limited the translation of gene transfer from an exciting experimental procedure to a successful clinical therapy in transplantation. Baculoviruses are insect viruses, but have the ability to enter mammalian cells and deliver potential therapeutic molecules with no evidence of viral replication. This study provides evidence of the ability of recombinant baculovirus to enter mammalian kidneys and livers during cold preservation. Six kidneys and six liver lobules retrieved from large pigs were perfused with University of Wisconsin (UW) solution containing a baculovirus tagged with green fluorescent protein and preserved for 8 h. In addition, six kidneys were perfused with UW containing a baculovirus expressing red fluorescent protein and preserved for 24 h. Green fluorescent virus particles were detected within transduced kidneys and livers after 8 h standard cold storage and red fluorescent protein mRNA was detected in kidneys after 24 h of cold preservation. There were no significant differences in tissue architecture, cell morphology or ATP content between experimental organs and their controls. Ex vivo transduction of organs with recombinant baculovirus during conventional cold preservation was demonstrated with no evidence of additional injury or reduction in cell viability. © 2011 The Authors. Transplant International © 2011 European Society for Organ Transplantation.

  18. Thirty years of baculovirus-insect cell protein expression: from dark horse to mainstream technology.

    PubMed

    van Oers, Monique M; Pijlman, Gorben P; Vlak, Just M

    2015-01-01

    In December 1983, a seminal paper appeared on the overexpression of human IFN-β in insect cells with a genetically engineered baculovirus. The finding that baculoviruses produced massive amounts of two proteins (polyhedrin and p10) by means of two very strong promoters and that the corresponding genes were dispensable for virus propagation in insect cells was crucial in the development of this expression system. During the next 30 years, major improvements were achieved over the original baculovirus expression vector (BEV) system, facilitating the engineering of the baculovirus vectors, the modification of the sugar moieties of glycoproteins expressed in insect cells and the scale-up of the cell culture process. To date, thousands of recombinant proteins have been produced in this successful expression system, including several protein-based human and veterinary vaccines that are currently on the market. Viral vectors based on adeno-associated virus are being produced using recombinant baculovirus technology and the first gene therapy treatment based on this method has been registered. Specially adapted BEVs are used to deliver and express heterologous genes in mammalian cells, and they may be used for gene therapy and cancer treatment in the future. The purpose of this review is to highlight the thirtieth 'anniversary' of this expression system by summarizing the fundamental research and major technological advances that allowed its development, whilst noting challenges for further improvements.

  19. Improved Production Efficiency of Virus-Like Particles by the Baculovirus Expression Vector System.

    PubMed

    López-Vidal, Javier; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Bárcena, Juan; Nuñez, Maria del Carmen; Martínez-Alonso, Diego; Dudognon, Benoit; Guijarro, Eva; Escribano, José M

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines based on virus-like particles (VLPs) have proven effective in humans and animals. In this regard, the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is one of the technologies of choice to generate such highly immunogenic vaccines. The extended use of these vaccines for human and animal populations is constrained because of high production costs, therefore a significant improvement in productivity is crucial to ensure their commercial viability. Here we describe the use of the previously described baculovirus expression cassette, called TB, to model the production of two VLP-forming vaccine antigens in insect cells. Capsid proteins from porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 Cap) and from the calicivirus that causes rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHDV VP60) were expressed in insect cells using baculoviruses genetically engineered with the TB expression cassette. Productivity was compared to that obtained using standard counterpart vectors expressing the same proteins under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. Our results demonstrate that the use of the TB expression cassette increased the production yields of these vaccine antigens by around 300% with respect to the standard vectors. The recombinant proteins produced by TB-modified vectors were fully functional, forming VLPs identical in size and shape to those generated by the standard baculoviruses, as determined by electron microscopy analysis. The use of the TB expression cassette implies a simple modification of the baculovirus vectors that significantly improves the cost efficiency of VLP-based vaccine production, thereby facilitating the commercial viability and broad application of these vaccines for human and animal health.

  20. Dietary supplementation of honeysuckle improves the growth, survival and immunity of Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Lin, Hei-Zhao; Jiang, Shi-Gui; Wu, Kai-Chang; Liu, Yong-Jian; Tian, Li-Xia; Zhang, Yun-Qiang; Niu, Jin

    2013-07-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of honeysuckle on shrimp, Penaeus monodon, first on growth performance, secondly on the immune response of shrimp. In trial 1, shrimp (mean initial wet weight about 3.02 g) were fed with five diets containing 0% (basal diet), 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% honeysuckle in triplicate for 60 days. Growth performance (final body wet weight, FBW; weight gain, WG; biomass gain, BG) of shrimp fed honeysuckle diets were higher (P < 0.05) than that of shrimp fed the basal diet, shrimp fed 0.4% honeysuckle diet showed the highest value of growth performance. Shrimp fed 0.2% honeysuckle diet showed highest value of survival. The total antioxidant status (TAS) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of shrimp fed 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% honeysuckle diets were higher (P < 0.05) than those of shrimp fed basal and 0.1% honeysuckle diets. Hepatopancreas malondialdehyde (MDA) of shrimp fed honeysuckle diets were lower (P < 0.05) than that of shrimp fed the basal diet. Total haemocyte count of shrimp fed the basal diet was lower (P < 0.05) than that of shrimp fed honeysuckle diets. Haemolymph clotting time of shrimp had the opposite trend with the total haemocyte count of shrimp. In trial 2, the shrimp were exposed to air during a simulated live transportation for 36 h after the rearing trial. The antioxidant responses were characterized by lower TAS and higher antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase: SOD, GSH-Px) and higher oxidative stress level (MDA) in the hepatopancreas compared to levels found in trial 1. No mortalities were observed in any diet groups after 36 h of simulated live transportation. The glutathione (GSH) content and TAS of shrimp fed 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% honeysuckle diets were higher (P < 0.05) than those of shrimp fed the basal and 0.1% honeysuckle diets. The SOD activity of shrimp fed the basal diet was higher (P < 0.05) than that of shrimp fed honeysuckle diets. The GSH-Px activity of shrimp fed the

  1. Crystal Structure of Baculovirus RNA Triphosphatase Complexed with Phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Changela, Anita; Martin, Alexandra; Shuman, Stewart; Mondragon, Alfonso

    2010-03-05

    Baculovirus RNA 5'-triphosphatase (BVP) exemplifies a family of RNA-specific cysteine phosphatases that includes the RNA triphosphatase domains of metazoan and plant mRNA capping enzymes. Here we report the crystal structure of BVP in a phosphate-bound state at 1.5 {angstrom} resolution. BVP adopts the characteristic cysteine-phosphatase {alpha}/{beta} fold and binds two phosphate ions in the active site region, one of which is proposed to mimic the phosphate of the product complex after hydrolysis of the covalent phosphoenzyme intermediate. The crystal structure highlights the role of backbone amides and side chains of the P-loop motif {sup 118}HCTHGXNRT{sup 126} in binding the cleavable phosphate and stabilizing the transition state. Comparison of the BVP structure to the apoenzyme of mammalian RNA triphosphatase reveals a concerted movement of the Arg-125 side chain (to engage the phosphate directly) and closure of an associated surface loop over the phosphate in the active site. The structure highlights a direct catalytic role of Asn-124, which is the signature P-loop residue of the RNA triphosphatase family and a likely determinant of the specificity of BVP for hydrolysis of phosphoanhydride linkages.

  2. Highly efficient baculovirus-mediated multigene delivery in primary cells

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Maysam; Bellon-Echeverria, Itxaso; Rizk, Aurélien; Ehsaei, Zahra; Cianciolo Cosentino, Chiara; Silva, Catarina S.; Xie, Ye; Boyce, Frederick M.; Davis, M. Wayne; Neuhauss, Stephan C. F.; Taylor, Verdon; Ballmer-Hofer, Kurt; Berger, Imre; Berger, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Multigene delivery and subsequent cellular expression is emerging as a key technology required in diverse research fields including, synthetic and structural biology, cellular reprogramming and functional pharmaceutical screening. Current viral delivery systems such as retro- and adenoviruses suffer from limited DNA cargo capacity, thus impeding unrestricted multigene expression. We developed MultiPrime, a modular, non-cytotoxic, non-integrating, baculovirus-based vector system expediting highly efficient transient multigene expression from a variety of promoters. MultiPrime viruses efficiently transduce a wide range of cell types, including non-dividing primary neurons and induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPS). We show that MultiPrime can be used for reprogramming, and for genome editing and engineering by CRISPR/Cas9. Moreover, we implemented dual-host-specific cassettes enabling multiprotein expression in insect and mammalian cells using a single reagent. Our experiments establish MultiPrime as a powerful and highly efficient tool, to deliver multiple genes for a wide range of applications in primary and established mammalian cells. PMID:27143231

  3. Molecular biology of the baculovirus occlusion-derived virus envelope.

    PubMed

    Braunagel, Sharon C; Summers, Max D

    2007-10-01

    Study of the biology of the occlusion-derived virus (ODV) of the baculovirus Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus provides opportunities to reveal new discoveries into the mechanism of several cellular pathways. The synchronous pulse of multiple ODV envelope proteins that integrate into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and traffic to the nuclear membranes on their way to the ODV envelope provide a unique tool to study the mechanisms of integral membrane protein trafficking from the ER to the outer and inner nuclear membrane. Studies of the formation of virus-induced, intranuclear membrane microvesicles provide insight on mechanisms that alter fluidity and regulate budding of the inner nuclear membrane. Since ODV is specially adapted for primary infection of the insect gut, studies of the structure and function of ODV envelope proteins reveals insights on the mechanism of viral invasion of the gut and this knowledge is fundamental for the development of new strategies for insect control. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding the source of the ODV envelope and the molecular events that sort and traffic integral membrane proteins from the ER to the ODV envelope. The composition of ODV is reviewed, however it is worth noting that the function of many ODV proteins are currently unknown.

  4. Baculovirus Capsid Display Potentiates OVA Cytotoxic and Innate Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Molinari, Paula; Crespo, María I.; Gravisaco, María J.

    2011-01-01

    Baculoviruses (BV) are DNA viruses that are pathogenic for insects. Although BV infect a range of mammalian cell types, they do not replicate in these cells. Indeed, the potential effects of these insect viruses on the immune responses of mammals are only just beginning to be studied. We show in this paper that a recombinant Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus carrying a fragment of ovalbumin (OVA) on the VP39 capsid protein (BV-OVA) has the capacity to act as an adjuvant and vector of antigens in mice, thereby promoting specific CD4 and cytotoxic T cell responses against OVA. BV also induced in vivo maturation of dendritic cells and the production of inflammatory cytokines, thus promoting innate and adaptive immune responses. The OVA-specific response induced by BV-OVA was strong enough to reject a challenge with OVA-expressing melanoma cells (MO5 cells) and effectively prolonged survival of MO5 bearing mice. All these findings, together with the absence of pre-existing immunity to BV in humans and the lack of viral gene expression in mammalian cells, make BV a candidate for vaccination. PMID:21918683

  5. Expression and subcellular targeting of canine parvovirus capsid proteins in baculovirus-transduced NLFK cells.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Leona; Välilehto, Outi; Kirjavainen, Sanna; Tikka, Päivi J; Mellett, Mark; Käpylä, Pirjo; Oker-Blom, Christian; Vuento, Matti

    2005-01-17

    A mammalian baculovirus delivery system was developed to study targeting in Norden Laboratories feline kidney (NLFK) cells of the capsid proteins of canine parvovirus (CPV), VP1 and VP2, or corresponding counterparts fused to EGFP. VP1 and VP2, when expressed alone, both had equal nuclear and cytoplasmic distribution. However, assembled form of VP2 had a predominantly cytoplasmic localization. When VP1 and VP2 were simultaneously present in cells, their nuclear localization increased. Thus, confocal immunofluorescence analysis of cells transduced with the different baculovirus constructs or combinations thereof in the absence or presence of infecting CPV revealed that the VP1 protein is a prerequisite for efficient targeting of VP2 to the nucleus. The baculovirus vectors were functional and the genes of interest efficiently introduced to this CPV susceptible mammalian cell line. Thus, we show evidence that the system could be utilized to study targeting of the CPV capsid proteins.

  6. Baculovirus cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyases show a close relationship with lepidopteran host homologues.

    PubMed

    Biernat, M A; Ros, V I D; Vlak, J M; van Oers, M M

    2011-08-01

    Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) photolyases repair ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage using blue light. To get insight in the origin of baculovirus CPD photolyase (phr) genes, homologues in the lepidopteran insects Chrysodeixis chalcites, Spodoptera exigua and Trichoplusia ni were identified and characterized. Lepidopteran and baculovirus phr genes each form a monophyletic group, and together form a well-supported clade within the insect photolyases. This suggests that baculoviruses obtained their phr genes from an ancestral lepidopteran insect host. A likely evolutionary scenario is that a granulovirus, Spodoptera litura GV or a direct ancestor, obtained a phr gene. Subsequently, it was horizontally transferred from this granulovirus to several group II nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs), including those that infect noctuids of the Plusiinae subfamily. © 2011 The Authors. Insect Molecular Biology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

  7. [Rapid and efficient expression of foreign genes in mammalian cells by baculovirus vectors].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tong; Xu, Chen-Yu; Wang, Ying-Bin; Chen, Min; Wu, Ting; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2003-09-01

    The baculovirus insect cell expression system has been used extensively for the expression of recombinant proteins in insect cells. Recently, reports have described that recombinant baculoviruses can transduce a broad spectrum of primary and established mammalian cells, which shows the baculoviruses could serve as a new gene-transfer vehicle for mammalian cells. In this report, we further research the modification of baculovirus vector and the way to deliver exogenous gene into mammalian cells. On the base of Bac-to-Bac baculovirus insect cell expression system, two recombinant baculoviruses (BacV-CMV-EGFPA, BacV-CMV-EGFPB) were constructed containing different direction of CMV promoters which controll the expression of a reporter gene (EGFP). We found that CMV promoter could direct expression of reporter gene in Sf9 cells with relatively low efficiency. The culture supernatant of Sf9 cells which have been infected by the recombinant baculoviruses for four days were collected and the titers of the viruses in culture supernatant were determined by plaque assay on Sf9 cells. The HepG2 cells, an human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, were directly incubated with the collected culture supernatant which contains the recombinant baculoviruses for 8 hours in 37 degrees C CO2 incubator (moi = 100). Twenty-four hours post transduction the efficiencies of gene-transfer and expression were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM) which detect the green fluorescence of individual cells. Results show that these two recombinant baculoviruses have similar gene-transfer and expression efficiency in HepG2 cells, which means the direction of CMV promoters has no effects on reporter gene expression. The optimal transduction conditions of incubating the mammalian cells with the culture supernatant of Sf9 cells infected by recombinant baculoviruses for four days were determined by FCM assay in HepG2 cells. The HepG2 cells inoculated in 24-well plate (5 x 10(4)/well) were incubated with the

  8. A new insect cell glycoengineering approach provides baculovirus-inducible glycogene expression and increases human-type glycosylation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Toth, Ann M; Kuo, Chu-Wei; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Jarvis, Donald L

    2014-07-20

    Insect cells are often glycoengineered using DNA constructs encoding foreign glyocoenzymes under the transcriptional control of the baculovirus immediate early promoter, ie1. However, we recently found that the delayed early baculovirus promoter, 39K, provides inducible and higher levels of transgene expression than ie1 after baculovirus infection (Lin and Jarvis, 2013). Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the utility of the 39K promoter for insect cell glycoengineering. We produced two polyclonal transgenic insect cell populations in parallel using DNA constructs encoding foreign glycoenzymes under either ie1 (Sfie1SWT) or 39K (Sf39KSWT) promoter control. The surface of Sfie1SWT cells was constitutively sialylated, whereas the Sf39KSWT cell surface was only strongly sialylated after baculovirus infection, indicating Sf39KSWT cells were inducibly-glycoengineered. All nine glycogene-related transcript levels were induced by baculovirus infection of Sf39KSWT cells and most reached higher levels in Sf39KSWT than in Sfie1SWT cells at early times after infection. Similarly, galactosyltransferase activity, sialyltransferase activity, and sialic acid levels were induced and reached higher levels in baculovirus-infected Sf39KSWT cells. Finally, two different recombinant glycoproteins produced by baculovirus-infected Sf39KSWT cells had lower proportions of paucimannose-type and higher proportions of sialylated, complex-type N-glycans than those produced by baculovirus-infected Sfie1SWT cells. Thus, the 39K promoter provides baculovirus-inducible expression of foreign glycogenes, higher glycoenzyme activity levels, and higher human-type N-glycan processing efficiencies than the ie1 promoter, indicating that this delayed early baculovirus promoter has great utility for insect cell glycoengineering.

  9. In vivo study of immunogenicity and kinetic characteristics of a quantum dot-labelled baculovirus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Zheng, Zhenhua; Meng, Jin; Wang, Han; He, Man; Zhang, Fuxian; Liu, Yan; Hu, Bin; He, Zike; Hu, Qinxue; Wang, Hanzhong

    2015-09-01

    Nanomaterials conjugated with biomacromolecules, including viruses, have great potential for in vivo applications. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the safety of nanoparticle-conjugated macromolecule biomaterials (Nano-mbio). Although a number of studies have assessed the risks of nanoparticles and macromolecule biomaterials in living bodies, only a few of them investigated Nano-mbios. Here we evaluated the in vivo safety profile of a quantum dot-conjugated baculovirus (Bq), a promising new Nano-mbio, in mice. Each animal was injected twice intraperitoneally with 50 μg virus protein labelled with around 3*10(-5)nmol conjugated qds. Control animals were injected with PBS, quantum dots, baculovirus, or a mixture of quantum dots and baculovirus. Blood, tissues and body weight were analysed at a series of time points following both the first and the second injections. It turned out that the appearance and behaviour of the mice injected with Bq were similar to those injected with baculovirus alone. However, combination of baculovirus and quantum dot (conjugated or simply mixed) significantly induced stronger adaptive immune responses, and lead to a faster accumulation and longer existence of Cd in the kidneys. Thus, despite the fact that both quantum dot and baculovirus have been claimed to be safe in vivo, applications of Bq in vivo should be cautious. To our knowledge, this is the first study examining the interaction between a nanoparticle-conjugated virus and a living body from a safety perspective, providing a basis for in vivo application of other Nano-mbios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Highly Directional Sonar Beam of Narwhals (Monodon monoceros) Measured with a Vertical 16 Hydrophone Array

    PubMed Central

    Koblitz, Jens C.; Stilz, Peter; Rasmussen, Marianne H.; Laidre, Kristin L.

    2016-01-01

    Recordings of narwhal (Monodon monoceros) echolocation signals were made using a linear 16 hydrophone array in the pack ice of Baffin Bay, West Greenland in 2013 at eleven sites. An average -3 dB beam width of 5.0° makes the narwhal click the most directional biosonar signal reported for any species to date. The beam shows a dorsal-ventral asymmetry with a narrower beam above the beam axis. This may be an evolutionary advantage for toothed whales to reduce echoes from the water surface or sea ice surface. Source level measurements show narwhal click intensities of up to 222 dB pp re 1 μPa, with a mean apparent source level of 215 dB pp re 1 μPa. During ascents and descents the narwhals perform scanning in the vertical plane with their sonar beam. This study provides valuable information for reference sonar parameters of narwhals and for the use of acoustic monitoring in the Arctic. PMID:27828956

  11. Use of glacial fronts by narwhals (Monodon monoceros) in West Greenland.

    PubMed

    Laidre, Kristin L; Moon, Twila; Hauser, Donna D W; McGovern, Richard; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Dietz, Rune; Hudson, Ben

    2016-10-01

    Glacial fronts are important summer habitat for narwhals (Monodon monoceros); however, no studies have quantified which glacial properties attract whales. We investigated the importance of glacial habitats using telemetry data from n = 15 whales tagged in September of 1993, 1994, 2006 and 2007 in Melville Bay, West Greenland. For 41 marine-terminating glaciers, we estimated (i) narwhal presence/absence, (ii) number of 24 h periods spent at glaciers and (iii) the fraction of narwhals that visited each glacier (at 5, 7 and 10 km) in autumn. We also compiled data on glacier width, ice thickness, ice velocity, front advance/retreat, area and extent of iceberg discharge, bathymetry, subglacial freshwater run-off and sediment flux. Narwhal use of glacial habitats expanded in the 2000s probably due to reduced summer fast ice and later autumn freeze-up. Using a generalized multivariate framework, glacier ice front thickness (vertical height in the water column) was a significant covariate in all models. A negative relationship with glacier velocity was included in several models and glacier front width was a significant predictor in the 2000s. Results suggest narwhals prefer glaciers with potential for higher ambient freshwater melt over glaciers with silt-laden discharge. This may represent a preference for summer freshwater habitat, similar to other Arctic monodontids. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Induction of ovarian maturation in Penaeus monodon by molecular signal interventional approach.

    PubMed

    Devaraj, Halagowder; Saravanakumar, Marimuthu; Thiyagu, Mani

    2012-11-01

    Vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis in the hepatopancreas and ovary is negatively regulated by vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) produced in the neurosecretory cell of X-organ/sinus gland complex of the eyestalks of penaeid shrimp. Eyestalk ablation is used commercially to induce ovarian maturation in shrimps which leads to an eventual loss of the spawner. The aim of the present study was to understand the molecular mechanism of VIH regulation in ovarian development and its inhibition of VTG gene expression by using a MEK-specific inhibitor (U0126). The real-time quantitative PCR results showed VTG mRNA level was progressively increased in the ovary and hepatopancreas of unilateral eyestalk-ablated and inhibitor-treated shrimps. Western blot analysis also showed that phosphoMEK was detected only in the unilateral eyestalk-ablated and control shrimp, whereas phospho-MEK was not detected in inhibitor-treated shrimp. DAX-1, SF-1, and StAR expression correlated with changes in VIH mRNA and altered phospho-ERK levels. This is consistent with the hypothesis that suppression of DAX-1 results in SF-1-mediated StAR protein upregulation of estradiol that is implicated in vitellogenesis. This is the first report that demonstrates the molecular mechanism of VIH suppression via MEK pathway to induce ovarian maturation in female Penaeus monodon by molecular signal intervention, a less-invasive method than traditional eyestalk ablation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. New insights into the spermatogenesis of the black tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tianyi; Paterson, Brian; Johnston, Stephen

    2017-02-05

    This study reports a comprehensive description of penaeid spermatogenesis (Penaeus monodon) by light and transmission electron microscopy. A conspicuous characteristic of spermatocytogenesis was a ring-like structure with high electron-density adjacent to the nucleus of a primary spermatocyte. During the spermiogenesis from stage I (StI) to stage VI spermatid (StVI), the formation of the acrosome and decondensation of the nucleus were the most notable morphological transformations. StIs were small and compact and they were contained in the syncytia. In the cytoplasm of StII, mitochondrion-like bodies (MLB) participated the extension of perinuclear multi-layered lamellae. The association of MLBs and endoplasmic reticula appeared to contribute to the formation of small cytoplasmic pre-acrosomal vesicles (PV) which coalesced into an acrosomal chamber (AC) at the periphery of StIII. A dense anterior acrosomal body (AB) was formed in the enlarged AC in StIV. The nuclear envelope became disintegrated in StV. At last, an AB-derived spiky acrosome was emerged from AC in StVI. Sperm nuclei became increasingly decondensed during the entire process of spermiogenesis and the nuclear components in the testicular spermatozoa appeared to only contain chains of DNA and nucleosome-contained chromatin.

  14. Ultrastructural effect of gamma radiation on grass shrimps ( Penaeus monodon fabricius)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perng, Fang-Shiow; Yang, Jui-Sen

    The effect of ionizing radiation (2, 5, and 10 KGy of gamma rays) on muscle ultrastructure of grass shrimps ( Penaeus monodon Fabricius) tails at ambient or frozen (-18°C) temperature was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). No significant change was found in muscle ultrastructure of shrimp meat irradiated at doses of 2 or 5 KGy and then stored at 4°C for 0 and 8 days. However, in shrimps which were irradiated at ambient temperature at a dose of 10 KGy, the margin of A-band of the myofibrils in longitudinal sections exhibited an irregular zig-zag pattern. In cross section some myosin filaments in the A-band regions were missing. A possible interpretation of these results would be that 10 KGy gamma irradiation dose at ambient temperature depolymerized myosin in the A-band from the tail of thick filament. Actin damage was also observed in some cross sections. Irradiation damage of sarcoplasmic membranes appeared in the specimens irradiated at a dose of 10KGy at ambient temperature. Shrimps frozen at -18°C and then irradiated with 10 KGy did not exhibit filament damage. Freezing apparently protected shrimp meat from irradiation injury.

  15. Effect of immune gene silencing in WSSV infected tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, M S; Gomathi, A; Dubey, N K; Vinaya Kumar, K; Vijayan, K K

    2017-09-05

    White spot syndrome virus, continues to cause huge economic loss to aquaculture industry. In the absence of effective therapeutics to control WSSV, it is important to understand the host pathogen interaction at the molecular level. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library was constructed which led to identification of several differentially expressed genes in response to WSSV infection in Penaeus monodon. The genes expressed in SSH cDNA library of shrimp gill and gut tissues belonged to a wide range of biological functions. The three differentially expressed genes, Single von Willebrand factor type C domain protein (pmSVC), P53 protein gene (pmP53) and ADP ribosylation factor (pmArf) were up-regulated against WSSV infection and were further characterized by gene silencing to study the role of these shrimp immune genes on WSSV multiplication. The sequence-specific knock down of pmSVC, pmP53 and pmArf using the dsRNA revealed that in pmSVC-dsRNA inoculated shrimps WSSV replication was more with increased viral copy numbers when compared with pmP53-dsRNA and pmArf -dsRNA inoculated shrimps. The varied response of immune genes to WSSV infection, indicated that host genes may either inhibit virus replication to some extent or might act as a target to facilitate viral pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of PmSpӓtzle 1 from the black tiger shrimp Peneaus monodon.

    PubMed

    Boonrawd, Sittichai; Mani, Ravi; Ponprateep, Sirikwan; Supungul, Premruethai; Masrinoul, Promsin; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien

    2017-06-01

    Spätzle is a signaling ligand in innate immune response that signals pathogenic infection via Toll receptor and Toll pathway into the cells for the synthesis of antimicrobial proteins. Herein, three PmSpӓtzle isoforms were identified in Penaeus monodon, namely PmSpz1, 2 and 3. The PmSpz1 was chosen for detailed study. The PmSpz1 gene was expressed in all nine tissues tested including the hemocytes, stomach, hepatopancreas, gill, lymphoid tissue, eyestalk, muscle, intestine and heart. Its expression was up-regulated upon white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Western blot analysis of hemolymph showed that the PmSpz1 mostly existed as a cleaved active form awaiting to activate the Toll pathway. Injection of a recombinant PmSpz1 rendered the shrimp less susceptible to the WSSV infection. Injection of a recombinant active form of PmSpz1 into a normal shrimp activated the synthesis of crustinPm1, crustinPm7, ALFPm3, penaeidin3 but not penaeidin5 indicating that the expression of all antimicrobial proteins but not penaeidin5 was under the regulation of Toll pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Two plasmolipins from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon and their response to virus pathogens.

    PubMed

    Vatanavicharn, Tipachai; Pongsomboon, Siriporn; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2012-10-01

    Two isoforms of plasmolipin were initially identified from the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) EST database and completed using 50 RACE to reveal complete cDNAs of 558 bp (PmPLP1) and 537 bp(PmPLP2) with 87% nucleotide sequence identity. The deduced amino acid sequences contained four-transmembrane domains and showed the highest amino acid identity (49% and 51%, respectively) to the honey bee (Apis mellifera) chemokine-like factor (CKLF), with a very similar hydrophobic pattern to other plasmolipins. Transcripts of PmPLP1 and PmPLP2 were observed in all tested shrimp tissues with the highest expression levels in the gill and epipodite for PmPLP1 and in the hemocytes and antennal gland for PmPLP2. PmPLP1 transcript levels were significantly upregulated in hemocytes at 24 and 72 h post infection (hpi) with yellow head virus (YHV) (7.4- and 14.7- fold, respectively), but only after 72 hpi by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In contrast, PmPLP2 was only slightly (but statistically significant)up-regulated with YHV and WSSV. Thus, PmPLPs have the potential to be a part of viral infection mechanisms or defense response. This is the first characterization of a plasmolipin gene in crustaceans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Towards improved quality benchmarking and shelf life evaluation of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Le, Nhat Tam; Doan, Nhu Khue; Nguyen Ba, Thanh; Tran, Thi Van Thi

    2017-11-15

    An improved quality benchmarking and shelf life evaluation of freshly harvested black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) was pursued by combining sensory and chemical methods. This involved developing a quality index method (QIM) to further assess both freshness and shelf life of the studied shrimp samples. The quality index included the use of trimethylamine (TMA-N), total volatile basis nitrogen (TVB-N), histamine, and hypoxanthine, which were performed at scheduled times during the ten days of ice storage (0°C). Shelf life of the studied shrimp was most likely to be 8days, and there were positive linear correlations between quality indices (QI) and storage period. The quality of shrimp decreased over storage time. In fact, significant changes of chemical and sensory characteristics of the shrimp samples would become more obvious from day 5 onwards. Besides, quality classification of black tiger shrimp involved four main levels, namely: excellent, good, moderately acceptable, and just acceptable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tissue-specific expression and regulation of the haemolymph clottable protein of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Huang, Chang-Jen; Cheng, Jin-Hwa; Tsai, Inn-Ho

    2007-08-01

    The clottable protein (CP) involved in Penaeus monodon haemolymph coagulation has previously been characterized and cloned. Polyclonal antibodies against purified CP were also prepared from rabbit serum. By Western blot analyses, we showed occurrence of CP in the shrimp central nervous system, gill, and lymphoid organ. Results of RT-PCR further indicated that the central nervous system, gill, and lymphoid organ transcribed more CP, heart and hepatopancreas transcribed less, while the haemocytes and the muscle did not. We further analyzed the CP distribution within shrimp lymphoid organ by immunohistochemical method, CP was found to localise in stromal cells of lymphoid organ rather than in the developing haemocytes. In addition, concentrations and regulation of the plasma CP under normal and artificially traumatic conditions were studied with rocket immunoelectrophoresis. The average plasma CP concentration in normal intermolt shrimps was elevated from 3 mg ml(-1) to above 12 mg ml(-1) after successive blood-withdrawing for a week. The production and secretion of CP apparently were increased more than 4 folds to compensate its loss. Our result also suggested that the shrimp sinus gland endocrine system is not directly required for the expression and up-regulation of CP.

  20. Histological and three dimensional organizations of lymphoid tubules in normal lymphoid organ of Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Duangsuwan, Pornsawan; Phoungpetchara, Ittipon; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Sobhon, Prasert

    2008-04-01

    The normal lymphoid organ of Penaeus monodon (which tested negative for WSSV and YHV) was composed of two parts: lymphoid tubules and interstitial spaces, which were permeated with haemal sinuses filled with large numbers of haemocytes. There were three permanent types of cells present in the wall of lymphoid tubules: endothelial, stromal and capsular cells. Haemocytes penetrated the endothelium of the lymphoid tubule's wall to reside among the fixed cells. The outermost layer of the lymphoid tubule was covered by a network of fibers embedded in a PAS-positive extracellular matrix, which corresponded to a basket-like network that covered all the lymphoid tubules as visualized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Argyrophilic reticular fibers surrounded haemal sinuses and lymphoid tubules. Together they formed the scaffold that supported the lymphoid tubule. Using vascular cast and SEM, the three dimensional structure of the subgastric artery that supplies each lobe of the lymphoid organ was reconstructed. This artery branched into highly convoluted and blind-ending terminal capillaries, each forming the lumen of a lymphoid tubule around which haemocytes and other cells aggregated to form a cuff-like wall. Stromal cells which form part of the tubular scaffold were immunostained for vimentin. Examination of the whole-mounted lymphoid organ, immunostained for vimentin, by confocal microscopy exhibited the highly branching and convoluted lymphoid tubules matching the pattern of the vascular cast observed in SEM.

  1. Use of glacial fronts by narwhals (Monodon monoceros) in West Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Twila; Hauser, Donna D. W.; McGovern, Richard; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Dietz, Rune; Hudson, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Glacial fronts are important summer habitat for narwhals (Monodon monoceros); however, no studies have quantified which glacial properties attract whales. We investigated the importance of glacial habitats using telemetry data from n = 15 whales tagged in September of 1993, 1994, 2006 and 2007 in Melville Bay, West Greenland. For 41 marine-terminating glaciers, we estimated (i) narwhal presence/absence, (ii) number of 24 h periods spent at glaciers and (iii) the fraction of narwhals that visited each glacier (at 5, 7 and 10 km) in autumn. We also compiled data on glacier width, ice thickness, ice velocity, front advance/retreat, area and extent of iceberg discharge, bathymetry, subglacial freshwater run-off and sediment flux. Narwhal use of glacial habitats expanded in the 2000s probably due to reduced summer fast ice and later autumn freeze-up. Using a generalized multivariate framework, glacier ice front thickness (vertical height in the water column) was a significant covariate in all models. A negative relationship with glacier velocity was included in several models and glacier front width was a significant predictor in the 2000s. Results suggest narwhals prefer glaciers with potential for higher ambient freshwater melt over glaciers with silt-laden discharge. This may represent a preference for summer freshwater habitat, similar to other Arctic monodontids. PMID:27784729

  2. Highly Directional Sonar Beam of Narwhals (Monodon monoceros) Measured with a Vertical 16 Hydrophone Array.

    PubMed

    Koblitz, Jens C; Stilz, Peter; Rasmussen, Marianne H; Laidre, Kristin L

    2016-01-01

    Recordings of narwhal (Monodon monoceros) echolocation signals were made using a linear 16 hydrophone array in the pack ice of Baffin Bay, West Greenland in 2013 at eleven sites. An average -3 dB beam width of 5.0° makes the narwhal click the most directional biosonar signal reported for any species to date. The beam shows a dorsal-ventral asymmetry with a narrower beam above the beam axis. This may be an evolutionary advantage for toothed whales to reduce echoes from the water surface or sea ice surface. Source level measurements show narwhal click intensities of up to 222 dB pp re 1 μPa, with a mean apparent source level of 215 dB pp re 1 μPa. During ascents and descents the narwhals perform scanning in the vertical plane with their sonar beam. This study provides valuable information for reference sonar parameters of narwhals and for the use of acoustic monitoring in the Arctic.

  3. Protection of Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus by inactivated vaccine with herbal immunostimulants.

    PubMed

    Yogeeswaran, Aiyakani; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Punitha, Stanislas Mary Josephine; Babu, Mariavincent Michael; Selvaraj, Thangaswamy; Kumaran, Thangamani; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2012-06-01

    To improve the immune response in tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon against WSSV infection, juveniles (350 ± 10 mg) were vaccinated with formalin-inactivated WSSV and fed with herbal immunostimulants. The methanolic extracts of herbal immunostimulants such as Acalypha indica, Cynodon dactylon, Picrorrhiza kurrooa, Withania somnifera and Zingiber officinalis were incorporated in formulated diets at different concentrations; 250 (ED(1)), 500 (ED(2)), 1000 (ED(3)) and 2000 (ED(4)) mg kg(-1) of feed and fed for 60 days after vaccination. After 30 and 60 days intervals of feeding, the shrimps were challenged with WSSV, which were isolated and propagated from the infected crustaceans. The shrimps fed with control diets (C(1)) succumbed to death within 5 days after WSSV challenge, when no vaccination and immunostimulations were given. The other control groups (C(2) and C(3)) had slight improvements in all parameters including survival. The percentage survival was significantly (P < 0.05) increased to 30, 50 and 60% in the ED(2), ED(3) and ED(4) diets respectively after 60 days challenging. The better haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters were also found in the herbal extracts supplemented diets fed vaccinated shrimps. The present study revealed that the combined effect of immunostimulation and vaccination helped to boost the immune system against WSSV infection and hence this application can be adopted for shrimp culture.

  4. Enhanced wound healing activity of desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) vs. shrimp (Penaeus monodon) chitosan based scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Marei, Narguess H; El-Mazny, W; El-Shaer, Aida; Zaki, Kareem Dorri; Hussein, Zahra S; Abd-El-Samie, Emtithal M

    2017-04-01

    Chitosan (CS) has received great attention in tissue engineering, especially in wound healing acceleration. In this study, chitin was isolated from desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) and shrimp (Penaeus monodon) then deacetylated to chitosan. Then, chitosan was characterized by degree of deacetylation (DD), molecular weight (M.Wt), swelling index (SI), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X ray diffraction (XRD). The chitosan was then casted into 2D scaffolds and was pictured using scanning electron microscope (SEM). In a comparative study, primary cell cultures of neonatal (1-2day old) mice skin tissue, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, were seeded onto locust chitosan based scaffolds (LCSBS) and shrimp chitosan based scaffold (SCSBS). Their attachment percentage was determined after 1h. The cell proliferation rate was tested for 5days on LCSBS and SCSBS. Wound healing activity progress of LCSBS and SCSBS was tested in vivo using histopathology, and results revealed that seeded and unseeded LCSBS accelerated healing in contrast to SCSBS. The data demonstrated that LCSBS shows a high degree of biocompatibility in vivo. These results suggest that LCSBS is a potential substitute for the development of low cost implantable materials to accelerate wound healing.

  5. Gene Expression Profiling of the Cephalothorax and Eyestalk in Penaeus Monodon during Ovarian Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Philip; Elizur, Abigail; Williams, Richard; Cummins, Scott F.; Knibb, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    In crustaceans, a range of physiological processes involved in ovarian maturation occurs in organs of the cephalothorax including the hepatopancrease, mandibular and Y-organ. Additionally, reproduction is regulated by neuropeptide hormones and other proteins released from secretory sites within the eyestalk. Reproductive dysfunction in captive-reared prawns, Penaeus monodon, is believed to be due to deficiencies in these factors. In this study, we investigated the expression of gene transcripts in the cephalothorax and eyestalk from wild-caught and captive-reared animals throughout ovarian maturation using custom oligonucleotide microarray screening. We have isolated numerous transcripts that appear to be differentially expressed throughout ovarian maturation and between wild-caught and captive-reared animals. In the cephalothorax, differentially expressed genes included the 1,3-β-D-glucan-binding high-density lipoprotein, 2/3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase and vitellogenin. In the eyestalk, these include gene transcripts that encode a protein that modulates G-protein coupled receptor activity and another that encodes an architectural transcription factor. Each may regulate the expression of reproductive neuropeptides, such as the crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone and molt-inhibiting hormone. We could not identify differentially expressed transcripts encoding known reproductive neuropeptides in the eyestalk of either wild-caught or captive-reared prawns at any ovarian maturation stage, however, this result may be attributed to low relative expression levels of these transcripts. In summary, this study provides a foundation for the study of target genes involved in regulating penaeid reproduction. PMID:22355268

  6. Gene Expression in Mammalian Cells Using BacMam, a Modified Baculovirus System.

    PubMed

    Fornwald, James A; Lu, Quinn; Boyce, Frederick M; Ames, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    BacMams are modified baculoviruses that contain mammalian expression cassettes for gene delivery and expression in mammalian cells. BacMams have become an integral part of the recombinant mammalian gene expression toolbox in research labs worldwide. Construction of transfer vectors is straightforward using basic molecular biology protocols. Virus generation is based on common methods used with the baculovirus insect cell expression system. BacMam transduction of mammalian cells requires minimal modifications to familiar cell culture methods. This chapter highlights the BacMam transfer vector pHTBV.

  7. Generating a host range-expanded recombinant baculovirus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chunfeng; Deng, Zihao; Long, Zhao; Cai, Yi; Ying, Zhongfu; Yin, Hanqi; Yuan, Meijin; Clem, Rollie J.; Yang, Kai; Pang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    As baculoviruses usually have a narrow insecticidal spectrum, knowing the mechanisms by which they control the host-range is prerequisite for improvement of their applications as pesticides. In this study, from supernatant of culture cells transfected with DNAs of an Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) mutant lacking the antiapoptotic gene p35 (vAc∆P35) and a cosmid representing a fragment of Spodoptera exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV), a viral strain was plaque-purified and named vAcRev. vAcRev had a broader host range than either vAc∆P35 or SeMNPV parental virus, being able to infect not only the permissive hosts of its parental viruses but also a nonpermissive host (Spodoptera litura). Genome sequencing indicated that vAcRev comprises a mixture of two viruses with different circular dsDNA genomes. One virus contains a genome similar to vAc∆P35, while in the other viral genome, a 24.4 kbp-fragment containing 10 essential genesis replaced with a 4 kbp-fragment containing three SeMNPV genes including a truncated Se-iap3 gene. RNA interference and ectopic expression assays found that Se-iap3 is responsible for the host range expansion of vAcRev, suggesting that Se-iap3 inhibits the progression of apoptosis initiated by viral infection and promotes viral propagation in hosts both permissive and non-permissive for AcMNPV and SeMNPV. PMID:27321273

  8. Solvent extracts of the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri prevent Vibrio harveyi infections in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Kanjana, Kulwadee; Radtanatip, Tawut; Asuvapongpatana, Somluk; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Wongprasert, Kanokpan

    2011-01-01

    Vibriosis is a common bacterial disease that can cause high mortality and morbidity in farmed shrimp. Since compounds from seaweed have been reported to have anti-bacterial and immunostimulant activity, this study was conducted to determine whether solvent extracts from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri might be a possible alternative for prevention and treatment of shrimp vibriosis caused by Vibrio harveyi. Seaweed extracts prepared using ethanol, methanol, chloroform and hexane were evaluated for anti-V. harveyi activity by the disc-diffusion method. The ethanol, methanol and chloroform extracts showed activity against a virulent strain of V. harveyi with potency (minimal inhibitory concentrations in the range of 90-190 μg ml(-1)) equivalent to the antibiotic norfloxacin. The ethanol extract was not toxic to the brine shrimp Artemia salina when it was fed to them for enrichment prior to their use, in turn, as feed for postlarvae of Penaeus monodon. Postlarvae fed with these enriched Artemia gave significantly lower mortality than control postlarvae after challenge with V. harveyi. In addition, P. monodon juveniles injected with the ethanol extract showed a significant increase in the total number of haemocytes and an increased proportion of semi-granulocytes and granulocytes when compared to control shrimp. The activities of phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase were also increased, with an accompanying increase in superoxide anion production. When these juvenile shrimp were challenged with V. harveyi, mortality was markedly reduced compared to that of control shrimp. The results indicated that ethanol extracts of G. fisheri had immunostimulant and antimicrobial activity that could protect P. monodon against V. harveyi.

  9. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by coastal plant Prosopis chilensis (L.) and their efficacy in controlling vibriosis in shrimp Penaeus monodon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, Kathiresan; Alikunhi, Nabeel M.; Manickaswami, Gayathridevi; Nabikhan, Asmathunisha; Ayyavu, Gopalakrishnan

    2013-02-01

    The present work investigated the effect of leaf extract from coastal plant Prosopis chilensis on synthesis of silver nanoparticles using AgNO3 as a substrate and to find their antibacterial potential on pathogenic Vibrio species in the shrimp, Penaeus monodon. The leaf extract could be able to produce silver nanoparticles, as evident by gradual change in colour of the reaction mixture consisted of the extract and 1 mM AgNO3 to dark brown. The silver nanoparticles exhibited 2 θ values corresponding to the presence of silver nanocrystal, as evident by X-ray diffraction spectrum. The peaks corresponding to flavanones and terpenoids were found to be stabilizing agents of the nanoparticles, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The size of silver nanoparticles ranged from 5 to 25 nm with an average of 11.3 ± 2.1 nm and was mostly of spherical in shape, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The silver nanoparticles were found to inhibit Vibrio pathogens viz., Vibrio cholerae, V. harveyi, and V. parahaemolyticus and this antibacterial effect was better than that of leaf extract, as proved by disc diffusion assay. The nanoparticles were then tested in the shrimp Penaeus monodon challenged with the four species of Vibrio pathogens for 30 days. The shrimps fed with silver nanoparticles exhibited higher survival, associated with immunomodulation in terms of higher haemocyte counts, phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities of haemolymph of P. monodon which is on par with that of control. Thus, the present study proved the possibility of using silver nanoparticles produced by coastal Prosopis chilensis as antibacterial agent in controlling vibriosis.

  10. Construction of integrated genetic linkage maps of the tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) using microsatellite and AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    You, E-M; Liu, K-F; Huang, S-W; Chen, M; Groumellec, M L; Fann, S-J; Yu, H-T

    2010-08-01

    The linkage maps of male and female tiger shrimp (P. monodon) were constructed based on 256 microsatellite and 85 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Microsatellite markers obtained from clone sequences of partial genomic libraries, tandem repeat sequences from databases and previous publications and fosmid end sequences were employed. Of 670 microsatellite and 158 AFLP markers tested for polymorphism, 341 (256 microsatellite and 85 AFLP markers) were used for genotyping with three F(1) mapping panels, each comprising two parents and more than 100 progeny. Chi-square goodness-of-fit test (chi(2)) revealed that only 19 microsatellite and 28 AFLP markers showed a highly significant segregation distortion (P < 0.005). Linkage analysis with a LOD score of 4.5 revealed 43 and 46 linkage groups in male and female linkage maps respectively. The male map consisted of 176 microsatellite and 49 AFLP markers spaced every approximately 11.2 cM, with an observed genome length of 2033.4 cM. The female map consisted of 171 microsatellite and 36 AFLP markers spaced every approximately 13.8 cM, with an observed genome length of 2182 cM. Both maps shared 136 microsatellite markers, and the alignment between them indicated 38 homologous pairs of linkage groups including the linkage group representing the sex chromosome. The karyotype of P. monodon is also presented. The tentative assignment of the 44 pairs of P. monodon haploid chromosomes showed the composition of forty metacentric, one submetacentric and three acrocentric chromosomes. Our maps provided a solid foundation for gene and QTL mapping in the tiger shrimp.

  11. Vitamin E requirements of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and effects on non-specific immune responses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Hsien; Shiau, Shi-Yen

    2004-04-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to determine the dietary vitamin E (DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate, dl-alpha-TOA) requirement and its effect on the non-specific immune responses of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Purified diets with eight levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 400 mg vitamin E kg diet-1) of supplemental dl-alpha-TOA were fed to P. monodon (mean initial weight 0.29 +/- 0.01 g) for eight weeks. Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of shrimp. Weight gains and total haemocyte count (THC) were higher (P < 0.05) in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 75 and 100 mg vitamin E kg diet-1 than in shrimp fed diets supplemented with monodon and that 179 mg vitamin E kg diet-1 is required to maximise tissue vitamin E concentration.

  12. Molecular cloning and expression of chitin deacetylase 1 gene from the gills of Penaeus monodon (black tiger shrimp).

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Katreena P; Panes, Vivian A; Santos, Mudjekeewis D

    2016-08-01

    Chitin deacetylases have been identified and studied in several fungi and insects but not in crustaceans. These glycoproteins function in catalyzing the conversion of chitin to chitosan by the hydrolysis of N-acetamido bonds of chitin. Here, for the first time, the full length cDNA of chitin deacetylase (CDA) gene from crustaceans was fully cloned using a partial fragment obtained from a transcriptome database of the gills of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon that survived White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection employing Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) PCR. The shrimp CDA, named PmCDA1, was further characterized by in silico analysis, and its constitutive expression determined in apparently healthy shrimp through reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Results revealed that the P. monodon chitin deacetylase (PmCDA1) is 2176 bp-long gene with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1596 bp encoding for 532 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PmCDA1 belongs to Group I CDAs together with CDA1 and CDA2 proteins found in insects. Moreover, PmCDA1 is composed of a conserved chitin-binding peritrophin-A domain (CBD), a low-density lipoprotein receptor class A domain (LDL-A) and a catalytic domain that is part of CE4 superfamily, all found in group I CDAs, which are known to serve critical immune function against WSSV. Finally, high expression of PmCDA1 gene in the gills of apparently healthy P. monodon was observed suggesting important basal function of the gene in this tissue. Taken together, this is a first report of the full chitin deacetylase 1 (CDA1) gene in crustaceans particularly in shrimp that exhibits putative immune function against WSSV and is distinctly highly expressed in the gills of shrimp.

  13. Fusarium incarnatum isolated from black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, with black gill disease cultured in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Khoa, L V; Hatai, K; Aoki, T

    2004-09-01

    Fusarium incarnatum was isolated from gill lesions of cultured black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, in every crop during 2000-2002 in Nghe An province, Vietnam. Infected shrimps showed typical signs of black gill disease and mortalities about a month prior to harvest. Detailed morphological examinations, as well as molecular phylogenic analyses based on partial nucleotide sequences of ribosomal DNA, were made on the isolates. An artificial infection of kuruma prawn, Penaeus japonicus, using two selected isolates was also conducted and their pathogenicity determined.

  14. A formulated double-stranded RNA diet for reducing Penaeus monodon densovirus infection in black tiger shrimp.

    PubMed

    Chimwai, Chaweewan; Tongboonsong, Punnee; Namramoon, Orathai; Panyim, Sakol; Attasart, Pongsopee

    2016-02-01

    Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV) is one of the major causes of stunted shrimp in the aquaculture industry in Thailand. Significant reductions in levels of PmDNV as assessed by PCR analysis of shrimp hepatopancreas were seen in both prophylactic and curative experiments after feeding shrimp with a formulated diet containing mixed inactivated bacteria harboring dsRNAs corresponding to the PmDNV ns1 and vp genes. Significant reductions of approximately 88% (prophylactic) and 64% (curative) of PmDNV were observed, suggesting that this diet has a high potential for application in commercial aquaculture for reducing PmDNV associated stunted growth of shrimp.

  15. Modeling rotavirus-like particles production in a baculovirus expression vector system: Infection kinetics, baculovirus DNA replication, mRNA synthesis and protein production.

    PubMed

    Roldão, António; Vieira, Helena L A; Charpilienne, Annie; Poncet, Didier; Roy, Polly; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M; Oliveira, R

    2007-03-10

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhoea in children worldwide, responsible for more than half a million deaths in children per year. Rotavirus-like particles (Rota VLPs) are excellent vaccine candidates against rotavirus infection, since they are non-infectious, highly immunogenic, amenable to large-scale production and safer to produce than those based on attenuated viruses. This work focuses on the analysis and modeling of the major events taking place inside Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) cells infected by recombinant baculovirus that may be critical for the expression of rotavirus viral proteins (VPs). For model validation, experiments were performed adopting either a co-infection strategy, using three monocistronic recombinant baculovirus each one coding for viral proteins VP(2), VP(6) and VP(7), or single-infection strategies using a multigene baculovirus coding for the three proteins of interest. A characteristic viral DNA (vDNA) replication rate of 0.19+/-0.01 h(-1) was obtained irrespective of the monocistronic or multigene vector employed, and synthesis of progeny virus was found to be negligible in comparison to intracellular vDNA concentrations. The timeframe for vDNA, mRNA and VP synthesis tends to decrease with increasing multiplicity of infection (MOI) due to the metabolic burden effect. The protein synthesis rates could be ranked according to the gene size in the multigene experiments but not in the co-infection experiments. The model exhibits acceptable prediction power of the dynamics of intracellular vDNA replication, mRNA synthesis and VP production for the three proteins involved. This model is intended to be the basis for future Rota VLPs process optimisation and also a means to evaluating different baculovirus constructs for Rota VLPs production.

  16. Baculovirus as a PRRSV and PCV2 bivalent vaccine vector: baculovirus virions displaying simultaneously GP5 glycoprotein of PRRSV and capsid protein of PCV2.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Gang; Wang, Zhi-Sheng; Zhang, Qi; Li, Zhao-Cai; Ding, Li; Li, Wei; Wu, Hung-Yi; Chang, Ching-Dong; Lee, Long-Huw; Tong, De-Wen; Liu, Hung-Jen

    2012-02-01

    The GP5 glycoprotein of PRRSV is the main target for inducing neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity in the natural host. The capsid (Cap) protein is the major immunogenic protein and associated with the production of PCV2-specific neutralizing antibodies. In the present study, one genetic recombinant baculovirus BacSC-Dual-GP5-Cap was constructed. This virus displays simultaneously histidine-tagged GP5 and Cap proteins with the baculovirus glycoprotein gp64 TM and CTD on the virion surface as well as the surface of the virus-infected cells. After infection, the GP5 and Cap proteins were expressed and anchored simultaneously on the plasma membrane of Sf-9 cells, as revealed by Western blot and confocal microscopy. This report demonstrated first that both GP5 and Cap proteins were displayed successfully on the viral surface, revealed by immunogold electron microscopy. Vaccination of swine with recombinant baculovirus BacSC-Dual-GP5-Cap elicited significantly higher GP5 and Cap ELISA antibody titers in swine than the control groups. Virus neutralization test also showed that serum from the BacSC-Dual-GP5-Cap treated swine had significant levels of virus neutralization titers. Lymphocyte proliferation responses could be induced in swine immunized with BacSC-Dual-GP5-Cap than the control groups. These findings demonstrate that the BacSC-Dual-GP5-Cap bivalent subunit vaccine can be a potential vaccine against PRRSV and PCV2 infections.

  17. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) for isolation and characterization of genes related to testicular development in the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Leelatanawit, Rungnapa; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Aoki, Takashi; Hirono, Ikuo; Valyasevi, Rudd; Menasveta, Piamsak

    2008-11-30

    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries of the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, were constructed. In total, 178 and 187 clones from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively, of P. monodon were unidirectionally sequenced. From these, 37.1% and 53.5% Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) significantly matched known genes (E-value < 1e-04). Three isoforms of P. monodon progestin membrane receptor component 1: PM-PGMRC1-s (1980 bp), PM-PGMRC1-m (2848 bp), and PM-PGMRC1-l (2971 bp), with an identical ORF of 573 bp corresponding to a deduced polypeptide of 190 amino acids, were successfully identified by RACE-PCR. Interestingly, PMPGMRC1 showed a greater expression level in testes of juvenile than broodstock P. monodon (P < 0.05). Dopamine administration (10(-6) mol/shrimp) resulted in up-regulation of PMPGMRC1 in testes of juveniles at 3 hrs post treatment (P < 0.05), but had no effect on PM-Dmc1 (P > 0.05).

  18. Laboratory and field evaluations for efficacy of a fast-killing baculovirus isolate from Spodoptera frugiperda

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three biopesticide parameters were evaluated for a fast-killing isolate (3AP2) Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) and a wild-type isolate (Sf3) of the same baculovirus. Both isolates were evaluated for virus production using in vivo methods, for speed of kill based on bioas...

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IN SITU TOXICITY ASSAY SYSTEM USING RECOMBINANT BACULOVIRUSES. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new method for experimentally analyzing the role of enzymes involved in metabolizing mutagenic, carcinogenic, or cytotoxic chemicals is described. Spodoptera fugiperda (SF-21) cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses are used for high level expression of one or m...

  20. Tissue specificity of a baculovirus expressed, basement membrane-degrading protease in larvae of Heliothis virescens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ScathL is a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease from flesh fly Sarcophaga peregrina, which digests components of the basement membrane during insect metamorphosis. A recombinant baculovirus (AcMLF9.ScathL) expressing ScathL kills larvae of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, significantly faste...

  1. THE EFFECT OF BACULOVIRUS INFECTION ON ECDYSTEROID TITER IN GYPSY MOTH LARVAE (LYMANTRIA DISPAR).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Insect baculovirus carries a gene refered to as egt. This gene encodes an enzyme known as ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyl transferase which catalyzes the sugar conjugation of ecdysteroids. Using a gypsy moth embryonic cell line EGT activity of Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

  2. Iron levels change in larval Heliothis virescens tissues following baculovirus infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and 59Fe radiotracers were used to investigate changes in levels of iron (Fe) in the tissues of Heliothis virescens following baculovirus infection. Fe concentrations were determined by ICP-MS in hemolymph collected from 4th instar larvae infect...

  3. Baculovirus insecticides in Latin America: historical overview, current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Haase, Santiago; Sciocco-Cap, Alicia; Romanowski, Víctor

    2015-04-30

    Baculoviruses are known to regulate many insect populations in nature. Their host-specificity is very high, usually restricted to a single or a few closely related insect species. They are amongst the safest pesticides, with no or negligible effects on non-target organisms, including beneficial insects, vertebrates and plants. Baculovirus-based pesticides are compatible with integrated pest management strategies and the expansion of their application will significantly reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic chemical insecticides. Several successful baculovirus-based pest control programs have taken place in Latin American countries. Sustainable agriculture (a trend promoted by state authorities in most Latin American countries) will benefit from the wider use of registered viral pesticides and new viral products that are in the process of registration and others in the applied research pipeline. The success of baculovirus-based control programs depends upon collaborative efforts among government and research institutions, growers associations, and private companies, which realize the importance of using strategies that protect human health and the environment at large. Initiatives to develop new regulations that promote the use of this type of ecological alternatives tailored to different local conditions and farming systems are underway.

  4. Complex dynamics of defective interfering baculoviruses during serial passage in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Mark P; Pijlman, Gorben P; Sardanyés, Josep; Duarte, Jorge; Januário, Cristina; Elena, Santiago F

    2013-03-01

    Defective interfering (DI) viruses are thought to cause oscillations in virus levels, known as the 'Von Magnus effect'. Interference by DI viruses has been proposed to underlie these dynamics, although experimental tests of this idea have not been forthcoming. For the baculoviruses, insect viruses commonly used for the expression of heterologous proteins in insect cells, the molecular mechanisms underlying DI generation have been investigated. However, the dynamics of baculovirus populations harboring DIs have not been studied in detail. In order to address this issue, we used quantitative real-time PCR to determine the levels of helper and DI viruses during 50 serial passages of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) in Sf21 cells. Unexpectedly, the helper and DI viruses changed levels largely in phase, and oscillations were highly irregular, suggesting the presence of chaos. We therefore developed a simple mathematical model of baculovirus-DI dynamics. This theoretical model reproduced patterns qualitatively similar to the experimental data. Although we cannot exclude that experimental variation (noise) plays an important role in generating the observed patterns, the presence of chaos in the model dynamics was confirmed with the computation of the maximal Lyapunov exponent, and a Ruelle-Takens-Newhouse route to chaos was identified at decreasing production of DI viruses, using mutation as a control parameter. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of DI baculoviruses, and suggest that changes in virus levels over passages may exhibit chaos.

  5. Protein Expression Profiles of Permissive, Semi-Permissive and Non-Permissive Cells Infected by Baculovirus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Amassing information on the in vitro protein expression of an insect host challenged by an entomopathogenic agent, such as a baculovirus, is paramount to an enhanced understanding of how host-pathogen interactions determine the success or failure of a pathogen. In this study, 2D-gel electrophoresis...

  6. Enhanced Baculovirus-Mediated Transduction of Human Cancer Cells by Tumor-Homing Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Mäkelä, Anna R.; Matilainen, Heli; White, Daniel J.; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Oker-Blom, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Tumor cells and vasculature offer specific targets for the selective delivery of therapeutic genes. To achieve tumor-specific gene transfer, baculovirus tropism was manipulated by viral envelope modification using baculovirus display technology. LyP-1, F3, and CGKRK tumor-homing peptides, originally identified by in vivo screening of phage display libraries, were fused to the transmembrane anchor of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein and displayed on the baculoviral surface. The fusion proteins were successfully incorporated into budded virions, which showed two- to fivefold-improved binding to human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-435) and hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells. The LyP-1 peptide inhibited viral binding to MDA-MB-435 cells with a greater magnitude and specificity than the CGKRK and F3 peptides. Maximal 7- and 24-fold increases in transduction, determined by transgene expression level, were achieved for the MDA-MB-435 and HepG2 cells, respectively. The internalization of each virus was inhibited by ammonium chloride treatment, suggesting the use of a similar endocytic entry route. The LyP-1 and F3 peptides showed an apparent inhibitory effect in transduction of HepG2 cells with the corresponding display viruses. Together, these results imply that the efficiency of baculovirus-mediated gene delivery can be significantly enhanced in vitro when tumor-targeting ligands are used and therefore highlight the potential of baculovirus vectors in cancer gene therapy. PMID:16775347

  7. Acetylcholinesterase of Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae): Baculovirus expression, biochemical properties and organophosphate insensitivity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study reports the baculovirus expression and biochemical characterization of recombinant acetylcholinesterase from Haematobia irritans (L) (rHiAChE) and the effect of the previously described G262A mutation on enzyme activity and sensitivity to selected organophosphates. The rHiAChE was confirm...

  8. Baculovirus Insecticides in Latin America: Historical Overview, Current Status and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Santiago; Sciocco-Cap, Alicia; Romanowski, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Baculoviruses are known to regulate many insect populations in nature. Their host-specificity is very high, usually restricted to a single or a few closely related insect species. They are amongst the safest pesticides, with no or negligible effects on non-target organisms, including beneficial insects, vertebrates and plants. Baculovirus-based pesticides are compatible with integrated pest management strategies and the expansion of their application will significantly reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic chemical insecticides. Several successful baculovirus-based pest control programs have taken place in Latin American countries. Sustainable agriculture (a trend promoted by state authorities in most Latin American countries) will benefit from the wider use of registered viral pesticides and new viral products that are in the process of registration and others in the applied research pipeline. The success of baculovirus-based control programs depends upon collaborative efforts among government and research institutions, growers associations, and private companies, which realize the importance of using strategies that protect human health and the environment at large. Initiatives to develop new regulations that promote the use of this type of ecological alternatives tailored to different local conditions and farming systems are underway. PMID:25941826

  9. Baculovirus Infection Influences Host Protein Expression in Two Established Insect Cell Lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We identified host proteins that changed in response to host cell susceptibility to baculovirus infection. We used three baculovirus–host cell systems utilizing two cell lines derived from pupal ovaries, Hz-AM1 (from Helicoverpa zea) and Hv-AM1 (from Heliothis virescens). Hv-AM1 cells are permissive...

  10. Factors affecting recombinant Western equine encephalitis virus glycoprotein production in the baculovirus system.

    PubMed

    Toth, Ann M; Geisler, Christoph; Aumiller, Jared J; Jarvis, Donald L

    2011-12-01

    In an effort to produce processed, soluble Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) glycoproteins for subunit therapeutic vaccine studies, we isolated twelve recombinant baculoviruses designed to express four different WEEV glycoprotein constructs under the transcriptional control of three temporally distinct baculovirus promoters. The WEEV glycoprotein constructs encoded full-length E1, the E1 ectodomain, an E26KE1 polyprotein precursor, and an artificial, secretable E2E1 chimera. The three different promoters induced gene expression during the immediate early (ie1), late (p6.9), and very late (polh) phases of baculovirus infection. Protein expression studies showed that the nature of the WEEV construct and the timing of expression both influenced the quantity and quality of recombinant glycoprotein produced. The full-length E1 product was insoluble, irrespective of the timing of expression. Each of the other three constructs yielded soluble products and, in these cases, the timing of expression was important, as higher protein processing efficiencies were generally obtained at earlier times of infection. However, immediate early expression did not yield detectable levels of every WEEV product, and expression during the late (p6.9) or very late (polh) phases of infection provided equal or higher amounts of processed, soluble product. Thus, while earlier foreign gene expression can provide higher recombinant glycoprotein processing efficiencies in the baculovirus system, in the case of the WEEV glycoproteins, earlier expression did not provide larger amounts of high quality, soluble recombinant glycoprotein product.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IN SITU TOXICITY ASSAY SYSTEM USING RECOMBINANT BACULOVIRUSES. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new method for experimentally analyzing the role of enzymes involved in metabolizing mutagenic, carcinogenic, or cytotoxic chemicals is described. Spodoptera fugiperda (SF-21) cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses are used for high level expression of one or m...

  12. REPAT, a new family of proteins induced by bacterial toxins and baculovirus infection in Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Salvador; Ansems, Marleen; Van Oers, Monique M; Vlak, Just M; Bakker, Petra L; de Maagd, Ruud A

    2007-11-01

    Insect larvae spend most of their time eating and the digestive tract is the most crucial barrier for the entrance of many pathogens. In our study, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to compare Spodoptera exigua midgut gene expression between larvae exposed to the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca toxin and non-exposed insects. Based on the SSH results, full cDNA sequences coding for four homologous proteins were obtained. Quantitative and semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed the increased expression of the genes coding for these proteins after exposure to different B. thuringiensis toxins as well as after infection with baculovirus. The proteins were named REPAT after their increased expression in Response to Pathogen. REPAT1, a member of this family, was recombinantly expressed using the baculovirus expression system, revealing the glycosylated nature of the protein. Recombinant baculoviruses expressing REPAT1 were used to infect larvae from S. exigua, showing that expression of REPAT1 was reducing the virulence of baculovirus to the infected larvae. Together, these results suggest a role for REPAT1 in mitigating pathological effects.

  13. THE EFFECT OF BACULOVIRUS INFECTION ON ECDYSTEROID TITER IN GYPSY MOTH LARVAE (LYMANTRIA DISPAR).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Insect baculovirus carries a gene refered to as egt. This gene encodes an enzyme known as ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyl transferase which catalyzes the sugar conjugation of ecdysteroids. Using a gypsy moth embryonic cell line EGT activity of Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

  14. Contributions of immune responses to developmental resistance in Lymantria dispar challenged with baculovirus

    Treesearch

    James McNeil; Diana Cox-Foster; James Slavicek; Kelli. Hoover

    2010-01-01

    How the innate immune system functions to defend insects from viruses is an emerging field of study. We examined the impact of melanized encapsulation, a component of innate immunity that integrates both cellular and humoral immune responses, on the success of the baculovirus Lymantria dispar multiple nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) in its...

  15. Improving Baculovirus Infectivity by Efficiently Embedding Enhancing Factors into Occlusion Bodies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shili; Zhao, Lijuan; Ma, Ruipeng; Fang, Wei; Hu, Jia; Lei, Chengfeng; Sun, Xiulian

    2017-07-15

    The relatively low infectivity of baculoviruses to their host larvae limits their use as insecticidal agents on a larger scale. In the present study, a novel strategy was developed to efficiently embed foreign proteins into Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) occlusion bodies (OBs) to achieve stable expression of foreign proteins and to improve viral infectivity. A recombinant AcMNPV bacmid was constructed by expressing the 150-amino-acid (aa) N-terminal segment of polyhedrin under the control of the p10 promoter and the remaining C-terminal 95-aa segment under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. The recombinant virus formed OBs in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells, in which the occlusion-derived viruses were embedded in a manner similar to that for wild-type AcMNPV. Next, the 95-aa polyhedrin C terminus was fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein, and the recombinant AcMNPV formed fluorescent green OBs and was stably passaged in vitro and in vivo The AcMNPV recombinants were further modified by fusing truncated Agrotis segetum granulovirus enhancin or truncated Cydia pomonella granulovirus ORF13 (GP37) to the C-terminal 95 aa of polyhedrin, and both recombinants were able to form normal OBs. Bioactivity assays indicated that the median lethal concentrations of these two AcMNPV recombinants were 3- to 5-fold lower than that of the control virus. These results suggest that embedding enhancing factors in baculovirus OBs by use of this novel technique may promote efficient and stable foreign protein expression and significantly improve baculovirus infectivity.IMPORTANCE Baculoviruses have been used as bioinsecticides for over 40 years, but their relatively low infectivity to their host larvae limits their use on a larger scale. It has been reported that it is possible to improve baculovirus infectivity by packaging enhancing factors within baculovirus occlusion bodies (OBs); however, so far, the packaging efficiency has been low. In this

  16. Effect of guava leaves on growth and the non-specific immune response of Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiao-Li; Li, Zhuo-Jia; Yang, Keng; Lin, Hei-Zhao; Guo, Zhi-Xun

    2014-09-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf extracts have antiviral and antibacterial activity against shrimp pathogens such as yellow-head virus (YHV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), and Vibrio harveyi, which make it a potential water disinfectant for use in shrimp culture. In this study, the safety of guava leaf supplementation in shrimp was evaluated by studying its influence on growth and the non-specific immune response of Penaeus monodon. Six diets containing different levels of guava leaves (0% [basal diet], 0.025% [G1], 0.05% [G2], 0.1% [G3], 0.2% [G4], and 0.4% [G5]) were fed to groups of shrimp (1.576 ± 0.011 g body weight) in triplicate for 56 days. Growth performance (final body weight, WG, PWG, SGR) of shrimp fed guava leaf diets was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of shrimp fed on the basal diet. The G1 diet resulted in the highest body weight gain (308.44%), followed by the G2 (295.45%), G3 (283.05%), G5 (281.29%), G4 (276.11%), and finally the basal diet (214.58%). Survival of shrimp in the G1 diet group was higher than that of shrimp in the control and the other experimental groups; however, no statistical differences (P > 0.05) were found. Dietary supplementation with guava leaf improved the activities of prophenoloxidase (PO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in serum, and of superoxide dismutase (SOD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and lysozyme (LSZ) both in serum and hepatopancreas of shrimp. In the experimental groups, the activities of these enzymes followed a similar pattern of change; they increased initially at low levels of dietary supplementation and then decreased with increasing concentrations of dietary guava leaf. Serum PO and SOD activities in shrimp fed the G1 diet reached 7.50 U ml(-1) and 178.33 U ml(-1), respectively, with PO activity being significantly higher than in controls. In shrimp fed the G1 diet, SOD, ACP, and AKP activities in hepatopancreas were significantly higher than in the controls, reaching

  17. Use of Glacial Fronts by Narwhals (Monodon monoceros) in West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laidre, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Glacial fronts in Greenland are known to be important summer habitat for narwhals (Monodon monoceros), as freshwater runoff and sediment discharge may aggregate prey at the terminus. We investigated the importance of glacial habitat characteristics in determining narwhal visitation. Narwhals (n=18) were instrumented with satellite transmitters in September 1993-1994 and 2006-2007 in Melville Bay, West Greenland. Daily narwhal locations were interpolated using a correlated random walk based on observed filtered locations and associated positional error. We also compiled a database on physical features of 41 glaciers along the northwest Greenland coast. This covered the entire coastal region with narwhal activity. Parameters included glacier ice velocity (km/yr) from radar satellite data, glacier front advance and retreat, and glacier width (km) at the ice-ocean interface derived using front position data digitized from 20-100m resolution radar image mosaics and Landsat imagery. We also quantified relative volumes and extent of glacial ice discharge, thickness of the glacial ice at the terminus (m), and water depth at the terminus (m) from gravity and airborne radar data, sediment flux from satellite-based analysis, and freshwater runoff from a regional atmospheric climate model (RACMO2.3). We quantified whale visits to glaciers at three distances (5, 7, and 10 km) and conducted proximity analyses on annual and monthly time steps. We estimated 1) narwhal presence or absence, 2) the number of 24 h periods spent at glaciers, and 3) the fraction of study animals that visited each glacier. The use of glacial habitat by narwhals expanded to the north and south between the 1990s (n=9 unique glaciers visited) and the 2000s (n=30 visited), likely due to loss of summer fast ice and later fall freeze-up trends (3.5 weeks later since 1979). We used a generalized linear mixed effects framework to quantify the glacier and fjord habitat characteristics preferred by narwhals.

  18. Bacterial Population in Intestines of the Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) under Different Growth Stages

    PubMed Central

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal bacterial communities in aquaculture have been drawn to attention due to potential benefit to their hosts. To identify core intestinal bacteria in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), bacterial populations of disease-free shrimp were characterized from intestines of four developmental stages (15-day-old post larvae (PL15), 1- (J1), 2- (J2), and 3-month-old (J3) juveniles) using pyrosequencing, real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches. A total of 25,121 pyrosequencing reads (reading length = 442±24 bases) were obtained, which were categorized by barcode for PL15 (7,045 sequences), J1 (3,055 sequences), J2 (13,130 sequences) and J3 (1,890 sequences). Bacteria in the phyla Bacteroides, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were found in intestines at all four growth stages. There were 88, 14, 27, and 20 bacterial genera associated with the intestinal tract of PL15, J1, J2 and J3, respectively. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Proteobacteria (class Gammaproteobacteria) was a dominant bacteria group with a relative abundance of 89% for PL15 and 99% for J1, J2 and J3. Real-time PCR assay also confirmed that Gammaproteobacteria had the highest relative abundance in intestines from all growth stages. Intestinal bacterial communities from the three juvenile stages were more similar to each other than that of the PL shrimp based on PCA analyses of pyrosequencing results and their DGGE profiles. This study provides descriptive bacterial communities associated to the black tiger shrimp intestines during these growth development stages in rearing facilities. PMID:23577162

  19. Homologous genetic recombination in the yellow head complex of nidoviruses infecting Penaeus monodon shrimp.

    PubMed

    Wijegoonawardane, Priyanjalie K M; Sittidilokratna, Nusra; Petchampai, Natthida; Cowley, Jeff A; Gudkovs, Nicholas; Walker, Peter J

    2009-07-20

    Yellow head virus (YHV) is a highly virulent pathogen of Penaeus monodon shrimp. It is one of six known genotypes in the yellow head complex of nidoviruses which also includes mildly pathogenic gill-associated virus (GAV, genotype 2) and four other genotypes (genotypes 3-6) that have been detected only in healthy shrimp. In this study, comparative phylogenetic analyses conducted on replicase- (ORF1b) and glycoprotein- (ORF3) gene amplicons identified 10 putative natural recombinants amongst 28 viruses representing all six genotypes from across the Indo-Pacific region. The approximately 4.6 kb genomic region spanning the two amplicons was sequenced for three putative recombinant viruses from Vietnam (genotype 3/5), the Philippines (genotype 5/2) and Indonesia (genotype 3/2). SimPlot analysis using these and representative parental virus sequences confirmed that each was a recombinant genotype and identified a recombination hotspot in a region just upstream of the ORF1b C-terminus. Maximum-likelihood breakpoint analysis predicted identical crossover positions in the Vietnamese and Indonesian recombinants, and a crossover position 12 nt upstream in the Philippine recombinant. Homologous genetic recombination in the same genome region was also demonstrated in recombinants generated experimentally in shrimp co-infected with YHV and GAV. The high frequency with which natural recombinants were identified indicates that genetic exchange amongst genotypes is occurring commonly in Asia and playing a significant role in expanding the genetic diversity in the yellow head complex. This is the first evidence of genetic recombination in viruses infecting crustaceans and has significant implications for the pathogenesis of infection and diagnosis of these newly emerging invertebrate pathogens.

  20. Bacterial population in intestines of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) under different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal bacterial communities in aquaculture have been drawn to attention due to potential benefit to their hosts. To identify core intestinal bacteria in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), bacterial populations of disease-free shrimp were characterized from intestines of four developmental stages (15-day-old post larvae (PL15), 1- (J1), 2- (J2), and 3-month-old (J3) juveniles) using pyrosequencing, real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches. A total of 25,121 pyrosequencing reads (reading length = 442±24 bases) were obtained, which were categorized by barcode for PL15 (7,045 sequences), J1 (3,055 sequences), J2 (13,130 sequences) and J3 (1,890 sequences). Bacteria in the phyla Bacteroides, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were found in intestines at all four growth stages. There were 88, 14, 27, and 20 bacterial genera associated with the intestinal tract of PL15, J1, J2 and J3, respectively. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Proteobacteria (class Gammaproteobacteria) was a dominant bacteria group with a relative abundance of 89% for PL15 and 99% for J1, J2 and J3. Real-time PCR assay also confirmed that Gammaproteobacteria had the highest relative abundance in intestines from all growth stages. Intestinal bacterial communities from the three juvenile stages were more similar to each other than that of the PL shrimp based on PCA analyses of pyrosequencing results and their DGGE profiles. This study provides descriptive bacterial communities associated to the black tiger shrimp intestines during these growth development stages in rearing facilities.

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of a hemolymph clottable protein from tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Yeh, M S; Huang, C J; Leu, J H; Lee, Y C; Tsai, I H

    1999-12-01

    To investigate the coagulation system in crustacean decapoda, a homodimeric glycoprotein of 380 kDa was purified from the hemolymph of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) by sequential DEAE anion exchange chromatography. The purified protein was coagulated by the shrimp hemocyte transglutaminase in the presence of Ca2+. The clottable protein contains 44% alpha helices and 26% beta sheets as determined by circular dichroism spectra. Its conformation is stable in buffer of pH 4-9. To solve its primary structure, partial sequences of the purified polypeptides from cyanogen bromide cleavage and endopeptidase digestion were also determined. A shrimp cDNA expression library was constructed. By combination with antibody screening, reverse transcriptase PCR using degenerate primers from determined amino acid sequences and cDNA library screening with digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes, the entire cDNA of 6124 bp was obtained. This cDNA encodes a protein of 1670 amino acids, including a 14-amino acid signal peptide. With four potential N-glycosylation sites, the clottable protein was found to contain 3.8% high-mannose glycan; and Man8GlcNAc and Man9GlcNAc were released upon endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase hydrolysis. Upon conducting a protein sequence database survey, the shrimp clottable protein shows 36% identities to the crayfish clotting protein and lower similarities to members of insect vitellogenins, apolipoprotein B and mammalian von Willebrand factor. Notably, a region rich in Gln residues, a polyGln motif and five Ser-Lys-Thr-Ser repeats are present in the shrimp protein, suggesting this protein might be a transglutaminase substrate. Northern blot analysis revealed that the clottable protein is expressed in most of the shrimp tissues but not in the mature hemocytes.

  2. A novel baculovirus vector for the production of nonfucosylated recombinant glycoproteins in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Mabashi-Asazuma, Hideaki; Kuo, Chu-Wei; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Jarvis, Donald L

    2014-03-01

    Glycosylation is an important attribute of baculovirus-insect cell expression systems, but some insect cell lines produce core α1,3-fucosylated N-glycans, which are highly immunogenic and render recombinant glycoproteins unsuitable for human use. To address this problem, we exploited a bacterial enzyme, guanosine-5'-diphospho (GDP)-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-d-mannose reductase (Rmd), which consumes the GDP-l-fucose precursor. We expected this enzyme to block glycoprotein fucosylation by blocking the production of GDP-l-fucose, the donor substrate required for this process. Initially, we engineered two different insect cell lines to constitutively express Rmd and isolated subclones with fucosylation-negative phenotypes. However, we found the fucosylation-negative phenotypes induced by Rmd expression were unstable, indicating that this host cell engineering approach is ineffective in insect systems. Thus, we constructed a baculovirus vector designed to express Rmd immediately after infection and facilitate the insertion of genes encoding any glycoprotein of interest for expression later after infection. We used this vector to produce a daughter encoding rituximab and found, in contrast to an Rmd-negative control, that insect cells infected with this virus produced a nonfucosylated form of this therapeutic antibody. These results indicate that our Rmd(+) baculoviral vector can be used to solve the immunogenic core α1,3-fucosylation problem associated with the baculovirus-insect cell system. In conjunction with existing glycoengineered insect cell lines, this vector extends the utility of the baculovirus-insect cell system to include therapeutic glycoprotein production. This new vector also extends the utility of the baculovirus-insect cell system to include the production of recombinant antibodies with enhanced effector functions, due to its ability to block core α1,6-fucosylation.

  3. Sleeping Beauty-baculovirus hybrid vectors for long-term gene expression in the eye.

    PubMed

    Turunen, Tytteli Anni Kaarina; Laakkonen, Johanna Päivikki; Alasaarela, Laura; Airenne, Kari Juhani; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    A baculovirus vector is capable of efficiently transducing many nondiving and diving cell types. However, the potential of baculovirus is restricted for many gene delivery applications as a result of the transient gene expression that it mediates. The plasmid-based Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system integrates transgenes into target cell genome efficiently with a genomic integration pattern that is generally considered safer than the integration of many other integrating vectors; yet efficient delivery of therapeutic genes into cells of target tissues in vivo is a major challenge for nonviral gene therapy. In the present study, SB was introduced into baculovirus to obtain novel hybrid vectors that would combine the best features of the two vector systems (i.e. effective gene delivery and efficient integration into the genome), thus circumventing the major limitations of these vectors. We constructed and optimized SB-baculovirus hybrid vectors that bear either SB100x transposase or SB transposon in the forward or reverse orientations with respect to the viral backbone The functionality of the novel hybrid vectors was investigated in cell cultures and in a proof-of-concept study in the mouse eye. The hybrid vectors showed high and sustained transgene expression that remained stable and demonstrated no signs of decline during the 2 months follow-up in vitro. These results were verified in the mouse eye where persistent transgene expression was detected two months after intravitreal injection. Our results confirm that (i) SB-baculovirus hybrid vectors mediate long-term gene expression in vitro and in vivo, and (ii) the hybrid vectors are potential new tools for the treatment of ocular diseases. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. A baculovirus-mediated strategy for full-length plant virus coat protein expression and purification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Garlic production is severely affected by virus infection, causing a decrease in productivity and quality. There are no virus-free cultivars and garlic-infecting viruses are difficult to purify, which make specific antibody production very laborious. Since high quality antisera against plant viruses are important tools for serological detection, we have developed a method to express and purify full-length plant virus coat proteins using baculovirus expression system and insects as bioreactors. Results In this work, we have fused the full-length coat protein (cp) gene from the Garlic Mite-borne Filamentous Virus (GarMbFV) to the 3′-end of the Polyhedrin (polh) gene of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). The recombinant baculovirus was amplified in insect cell culture and the virus was used to infect Spodoptera frugiperda larvae. Thus, the recombinant fused protein was easily purified from insect cadavers using sucrose gradient centrifugation and analyzed by Western Blotting. Interestingly, amorphous crystals were produced in the cytoplasm of cells infected with the recombinant virus containing the chimeric-protein gene but not in cells infected with the wild type and recombinant virus containing the hexa histidine tagged Polh. Moreover, the chimeric protein was used to immunize rats and generate antibodies against the target protein. The antiserum produced was able to detect plants infected with GarMbFV, which had been initially confirmed by RT-PCR. Conclusions The expression of a plant virus full-length coat protein fused to the baculovirus Polyhedrin in recombinant baculovirus-infected insects was shown to produce high amounts of the recombinant protein which was easily purified and efficiently used to generate specific antibodies. Therefore, this strategy can potentially be used for the development of plant virus diagnostic kits for those viruses that are difficult to purify, are present in low titers or are

  5. Improved Production Efficiency of Virus-Like Particles by the Baculovirus Expression Vector System

    PubMed Central

    Bárcena, Juan; Nuñez, Maria del Carmen; Martínez-Alonso, Diego; Dudognon, Benoit; Guijarro, Eva; Escribano, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines based on virus-like particles (VLPs) have proven effective in humans and animals. In this regard, the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is one of the technologies of choice to generate such highly immunogenic vaccines. The extended use of these vaccines for human and animal populations is constrained because of high production costs, therefore a significant improvement in productivity is crucial to ensure their commercial viability. Here we describe the use of the previously described baculovirus expression cassette, called TB, to model the production of two VLP-forming vaccine antigens in insect cells. Capsid proteins from porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 Cap) and from the calicivirus that causes rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHDV VP60) were expressed in insect cells using baculoviruses genetically engineered with the TB expression cassette. Productivity was compared to that obtained using standard counterpart vectors expressing the same proteins under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. Our results demonstrate that the use of the TB expression cassette increased the production yields of these vaccine antigens by around 300% with respect to the standard vectors. The recombinant proteins produced by TB-modified vectors were fully functional, forming VLPs identical in size and shape to those generated by the standard baculoviruses, as determined by electron microscopy analysis. The use of the TB expression cassette implies a simple modification of the baculovirus vectors that significantly improves the cost efficiency of VLP-based vaccine production, thereby facilitating the commercial viability and broad application of these vaccines for human and animal health. PMID:26458221

  6. Baculovirus superinfection: a probable restriction factor on the surface display of proteins for library screening.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaodong; Chen, Yuanrong; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Xiaofen; Dong, Beitao; Jones, Ian M; Chen, Hongying

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the expression of recombinant proteins, baculoviruses have been developed as a platform for the display of complex eukaryotic proteins on the surface of virus particles or infected insect cells. Surface display has been used extensively for antigen presentation and targeted gene delivery but is also a candidate for the display of protein libraries for molecular screening. However, although baculovirus gene libraries can be efficiently expressed and displayed on the surface of insect cells, target gene selection is inefficient probably due to super-infection which gives rise to cells expressing more than one protein. In this report baculovirus superinfection of Sf9 cells has been investigated by the use of two recombinant multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus carrying green or red fluorescent proteins under the control of both early and late promoters (vAcBacGFP and vAcBacDsRed). The reporter gene expression was detected 8 hours after the infection of vAcBacGFP and cells in early and late phases of infection could be distinguished by the fluorescence intensity of the expressed protein. Simultaneous infection with vAcBacGFP and vAcBacDsRed viruses each at 0.5 MOI resulted in 80% of infected cells co-expressing the two fluorescent proteins at 48 hours post infection (hpi), and subsequent infection with the two viruses resulted in similar co-infection rate. Most Sf9 cells were re-infectable within the first several hours post infection, but the re-infection rate then decreased to a very low level by 16 hpi. Our data demonstrate that Sf9 cells were easily super-infectable during baculovirus infection, and super-infection could occur simultaneously at the time of the primary infection or subsequently during secondary infection by progeny viruses. The efficiency of super-infection may explain the difficulties of baculovirus display library screening but would benefit the production of complex proteins requiring co-expression of multiple polypeptides.

  7. Recombinant expression and anti-microbial activity of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) from the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Marcos, Michael; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Aumelas, André; Romestand, Bernard; Gueguen, Yannick; Boze, Hélène; Moulin, Guy; Bachère, Evelyne

    2005-01-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs), originally characterized from horseshoe crabs, have been recently identified from hemocytes of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, by a genomic approach. In order to characterize the properties and biological activities of this immune effector in shrimp, ALFPm3, the most abundant isoform found in P. monodon, was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Large-scale production in fermentor provided 262 mg/l of recombinant ALFPm3 which was purified to homogeneity by single chromatography step on expanded-bed Streamline SP6XL. The rALFPm3 was further characterized in terms of N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry. Anti-microbial assays demonstrated that rALFPm3 has a broad spectrum of anti-fungal properties against filamentous fungi, and anti-bacterial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, associated with a bactericidal effect. Interestingly, rALFPm3 is highly efficient against various Vibrio species including strains pathogenic for shrimp. Finally, a synthetic peptide corresponding to a part of the putative LPS-binding site of ALFPm3 was shown to display activities mainly directed against Gram-positive bacteria indicating the involvement of the full molecule to the anti-microbial activity for Gram-negative bacteria.

  8. Molecular detection methods developed for a systemic rickettsia-like bacterium (RLB) in Penaeus monodon (Decapoda: Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Nunan, Linda M; Poulos, Bonnie; Redman, Rita; Le Groumellec, Marc; Lightner, Donald V

    2003-01-22

    Molecular detection methods were developed to aid in the diagnosis of a rickettsia-like bacterium (RLB) which caused severe mortalities of farm-raised Penaeus monodon in Madagascar. Using primers derived from the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria, a PCR assay was optimized to amplify this region of the genome of the RLB, using extracted DNA from infected P. monodon tissue as the template. The resulting amplified PCR product was sequenced and 2 novel primers were selected from the variable region of the gene. These primers amplified a 532 bp fragment of DNA originating from the rickettsia-infected samples. The PCR assay was optimized and tested on DNA extracted from specific pathogen-free (SPF) P. vannamei tissue and several other strains of bacteria. The PCR assay with the rickettsia-specific primers was specific for this RLB and did not amplify the other DNA samples tested. The 532 bp PCR-amplified fragment was labeled with digoxigenin (DIG) for in situ hybridization assays. This probe was tested on SPF, RLB and bacteria-infected shrimp specimens preserved in Davidson's fixative. The probe was specific for both natural and experimental rickettsial infections. Hybridization with this probe required a stringent temperature of 65 degrees C, otherwise cross-reactivity was observed with other types of bacteria.

  9. Use of prawn blood agar hemolysis to screen for bacteria pathogenic to cultured tiger prawns Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Chang, C I; Liu, W Y; Shyu, C Z

    2000-11-14

    A newly developed prawn blood agar consisting of 1 ml of tiger prawn hemolymph in medium containing 200 ppm Rose Bengal was used to determine the hemolytic activity of 35 isolates of bacteria obtained from cultured tiger prawns Penaeus monodon and their rearing water. For comparison, the hemolytic activity of these isolates was also determined in sheep blood agar. Nine isolates (25.7% of total) showed different hemolytic reactions on prawn blood agar and sheep blood agar. From the 35 isolates, 8 with various hemolytic characteristics were selected and the relationship between the type of hemolytic activity and pathogenicity was determined and compared. Four isolates that showed hemolytic activity in prawn blood agar caused high mortality to cultured tiger prawns. By contrast, a significantly lower mortality rate was observed for tiger prawns injected with 4 isolates that did not exhibit hemolytic activity on prawn blood agar. Results further showed that mortality did not correlate with hemolytic activity determined using sheep blood agar. Prawn blood agar containing P. monodon hemocytes was faster and more accurate for determining prawn hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates.

  10. Seasonal incidence of protozoan parasites of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) of Sundarbans, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Jayati; Bandyapadhyay, Probir K

    2011-06-01

    There is a delicate balance between the host, pathogen and environment. Aquatic organisms, including shellfish, respond directly to climatic changes in their biological environment as their metabolic processes are influenced by temperature, salinity, and oxygen levels. Certain environmental conditions are more conducive to diseases than others among which water temperature is significantly associated with disease outbreak. The present study showed that Peneaus monodon of Sundarbans serve as a host for many protozoan parasites and epibionts including ciliates, gregarines and microsporidia. The protozoan parasites also require a particular environmental condition for their maximum growth and survival. The intensity of infection significantly increases with rise in temperature (P < 0.05) following a definite trend but no significant relationship between infection rate of ciliates and pH of water. In case of gregarine parasites significance (P < 0.05) exists among infection rate and temperature as well as pH of the farm water. Microsporidian parasites do not follow any significant seasonal trend in infecting the host P. monodon.

  11. High prevalence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei in shrimps Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei sampled from slow growth ponds in India.

    PubMed

    Biju, Narayanan; Sathiyaraj, Ganesan; Raj, Mithun; Shanmugam, Venu; Baskaran, Babu; Govindan, Umamaheswari; Kumaresan, Gayathri; Kasthuriraju, Karthick Kannan; Chellamma, Thampi Sam Raj Yohannan

    2016-08-09

    Hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis in cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon is caused by the newly emerged pathogen Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP). It has been detected in shrimp cultured in China, Vietnam and Thailand and is suspected to have occurred in Malaysia and Indonesia and to be associated with severely retarded growth. Due to retarded shrimp growth being reported at farms in the major grow-out states of Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha in India, shrimp were sampled from a total of 235 affected ponds between March 2014 and April 2015 to identify the presence of EHP. PCR and histology detected a high prevalence of EHP in both P. monodon and L. vannamei, and infection was confirmed by in situ hybridization using an EHP-specific DNA probe. Histology revealed basophilic inclusions in hepatopancreas tubule epithelial cells in which EHP was observed at various developmental stages ranging from plasmodia to mature spores. The sequence of a region of the small subunit rDNA gene amplified by PCR was found to be identical to EHP sequences deposited in GenBank. Bioassays confirmed that EHP infection could be transmitted orally to healthy shrimp. Histology also identified bacterial co-infections in EHP-infected shrimp sampled from slow-growth ponds with low-level mortality. The data confirm that hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis caused by EHP is prevalent in shrimp being cultivated in India. EHP infection control measures thus need to be implemented urgently to limit impacts of slowed shrimp growth.

  12. Sodium alginate from Sargassum wightii retards mortalities in Penaeus monodon postlarvae challenged with white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Immanuel, Grasian; Sivagnanavelmurugan, Madasasmy; Balasubramanian, Varatharajan; Palavesam, Arunachalam

    2012-07-25

    Sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed Sargassum wightii (16.35 ± 1.42%, mean [±SD] yield from 5 extractions) was prepared as a powder or beads and used to enrich Artemia nauplii at concentrations of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg l-1. The alginate-enriched nauplii were fed to Penaeus monodon shrimp postlarvae (PL) stage 15 (PL15, i.e. 15 d old) for 20 d. Mean weight gain and specific growth rate over this period were 0.24 g and 15.8%, respectively, in PL groups not fed alginate, and 0.20-0.28 g and 14.7-16.5%, respectively, in PL groups fed alginate. Amongst PL35 then challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by immersion, all PL not fed alginate died within 9 d. However, amongst PL fed the 4 concentrations of alginate powder or beads, mortality rates reduced with increasing alginate concentration, and between 25 and 32% PL remained alive when the bioassay was terminated on Day 21. Amongst alginate-fed PL groups compared with the control group, mortality was reduced by 26.5 to 58.4%. Nested PCR detection of WSSV revealed sodium alginate concentration-dependent reductions in infection loads. The data indicate that sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed and fed to P. monodon can retard progression of WSSV disease.

  13. Experimental exposure of Artemia to hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus and subsequent transmission to post-larvae of Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, V K; Sarathi, M; Venkatesan, C; Sivaraj, A; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2009-11-01

    The different life stages of Artemia franciscana were experimentally exposed to Hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus (HPV), in order to evaluate the possibility of Artemia acting as reservoir or carrier for HPV. All the five developmental stages of Artemia were challenged with HPV both by immersion and oral infection routes. The viral infectivity to Artemia was studied by PCR but not much difference in mortality between control and challenge groups were observed. To confirm the vector status of Artemia for HPV, the HPV exposed Artemia were fed to postlarval forms of Penaeus monodon. Post-larvae of P. monodon were fed with HPV exposed Artemia and could get infected upon feeding on them. Mortality was observed in the post-larvae, which were fed with HPV exposed Artemia, and whereas no mortality was observed in post-larvae fed with Artemia not exposed to HPV and these post-larvae were PCR negative for HPV, as well. Results of this experiment suggest that Artemia might be a possible horizontal transmission pathway for HPV. Further research however is required with histology, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microcopy to determine whether the Artemia are actually infected with this virus or whether they are simply mechanical carriers. This will enable us to understand better whether Artemia is a carrier of this virus and if so the mechanism involved.

  14. Immunomodulation by dietary beta-1, 3-glucan in the brooders of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Chang, C F; Chen, H Y; Su, M S; Liao, I C

    2000-08-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of beta-1,3-glucan derived from Schizophyllum commune in enhancing shrimp survival as well as haemocyte phagocytosis and superoxide anion production in brooder Penaeus monodon. Pond-reared P. monodon adults (135 +/- 25 g) stocked in outdoor or indoor tanks were fed either a test diet containing beta-1,3-glucan (2.0 g kg(-1) or a glucan-free control diet for 40 days. Their survival was compared. The brooders reared in indoor tanks were analysed at days 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 30 and 40 for their haemocyte phagocytic activity and superoxide anion production. The results showed that regardless of indoor or outdoor rearing the survival rate of shrimp fed the glucan diet was significantly higher (P<0.001) than that of the control group. The brooders showed enhanced haemocyte phagocytic activity, cell adhesion and superoxide anion production when glucan was administered in their diets. The immunostimulatory enhancement peaked at day 24 after starting the dietary exposure and subsequently decreased to the pre-feeding level at the end of the 40 days feeding trial.

  15. Protein profiling in the gut of Penaeus monodon gavaged with oral WSSV-vaccines and live white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Amod D; Kiron, Viswanath; Rombout, Jan H W M; Brinchmann, Monica F; Fernandes, Jorge M O; Sudheer, Naduvilamuriparampu S; Singh, Bright I S

    2014-07-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a pathogen that causes considerable mortality of the farmed shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Candidate 'vaccines', WSSV envelope protein VP28 and formalin-inactivated WSSV, can provide short-lived protection against the virus. In this study, P. monodon was orally intubated with the aforementioned vaccine candidates, and protein expression in the gut of immunised shrimps was profiled. The alterations in protein profiles in shrimps infected orally with live-WSSV were also examined. Seventeen of the identified proteins in the vaccine and WSSV-intubated shrimps varied significantly compared to those in the control shrimps. These proteins, classified under exoskeletal, cytoskeletal, immune-related, intracellular organelle part, intracellular calcium-binding or energy metabolism, are thought to directly or indirectly affect shrimp's immunity. The changes in the expression levels of crustacyanin, serine proteases, myosin light chain, and ER protein 57 observed in orally vaccinated shrimp may probably be linked to immunoprotective responses. On the other hand, altered expression of proteins linked to exoskeleton, calcium regulation and energy metabolism in WSSV-intubated shrimps is likely to symbolise disturbances in calcium homeostasis and energy metabolism.

  16. Genetic analysis of Black Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) across its natural distribution range reveals more recent colonization of Fiji and other South Pacific islands

    PubMed Central

    Waqairatu, Salote S; Dierens, Leanne; Cowley, Jeff A; Dixon, Tom J; Johnson, Karyn N; Barnes, Andrew C; Li, Yutao

    2012-01-01

    The Black Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) has a natural distribution range from East Africa to the South Pacific Islands. Although previous studies of Indo-Pacific P. monodon have found populations from the Indian Ocean and Australasia to differ genetically, their relatedness to South Pacific shrimp remains unknown. To address this, polymorphisms at eight shared microsatellite loci and haplotypes in a 418-bp mtDNA-CR (control region) sequence were examined across 682 P. monodon from locations spread widely across its natural range, including the South Pacific islands of Fiji, Palau, and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Observed microsatellite heterozygosities of 0.82–0.91, allele richness of 6.85–9.69, and significant mtDNA-CR haplotype variation indicated high levels of genetic diversity among the South Pacific shrimp. Analysis of microsatellite genotypes using a Bayesian STRUCTURE method segregated Indo-Pacific P. monodon into eight distinct clades, with Palau and PNG shrimp clustering among others from Southeast Asia and eastern Australia, respectively, and Fiji shrimp clustering as a distinct group. Phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA-CR haplotypes delineated shrimp into three groupings, with shrimp from Fiji again being distinct by sharing no haplotypes with other populations. Depending on regional location, the genetic structures and substructures identified from the genotyping and mtDNA-CR haplotype phylogeny could be explained by Metapopulation and/or Member–Vagrant type evolutionary processes. Neutrality tests of mutation-drift equilibrium and estimation of the time since population expansion supported a hypothesis that South Pacific P. monodon were colonized from Southeast Asia and eastern Australia during the Pleistocene period over 60,000 years ago when land bridges were more expansive and linked these regions more closely. PMID:22957205

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GLYCOSYLATED ECDYSTEROIDS IN THE HEMOLYMPH OF BACULOVIRUS-INFECTED GYPSY MOTH LARVAE AND CELLS IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae, infected with the gypsy moth baculovirus (LdNPV), show an elevated and prolonged extension of the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer peak associated with molting. The ecdysteroid immunoreactivity associated w...

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GLYCOSYLATED ECDYSTEROIDS IN THE HEMOLYMPH OF BACULOVIRUS-INFECTED GYPSY MOTH LARVAE AND CELLS IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae, infected with the gypsy moth baculovirus (LdNPV), show an elevated and prolonged extension of the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer peak associated with molting. The ecdysteroid immunoreactivity associated w...

  19. Production and characterization of the celery mismatch endonuclease CEL II using baculovirus/silkworm expression system.

    PubMed

    Mon, Hiroaki; Lee, Jaeman; Fukushima, Mai; Nagata, Yudai; Fujii, Mie; Xu, Jian; Nishi, Oumi; Iiyama, Kazuhiro; Kusakabe, Takahiro

    2013-08-01

    Mutation and polymorphism detection by nucleases has become a more important tool in clinical and biological researches. There are several kinds of single-stranded nucleases for detecting mismatched DNAs. One of them, CEL II, was isolated from Apium graveolens and cleaves DNA with high specificity at sites of mismatch. High-throughput mutation scanning requires large quantity of CEL II endonuclease. Here, we demonstrate high-level expression of CEL II using silkworm-baculovirus system. The recombinant CEL II secreted in silkworm hemolymph was glycosylated and susceptible to N-glycosidase F. Additionally, larger metal ions such as Ca(2+) and Sr(2+) were able to replace Mg(2+) and enhanced mismatch cleavage activity of CEL II. These results indicate that the silkworm-baculovirus platform is a good alternative system to obtain the functional CEL II.

  20. Expression of feline recombinant interferon-gamma in baculovirus and demonstration of biological activity.

    PubMed

    Argyle, D J; Harris, M; Lawrence, C; McBride, K; Barron, R; McGillivray, C; Onions, D E

    1998-07-08

    We have previously reported the cloning of the coding sequence for feline-specific interferon-gamma. Here, we describe the expression of this sequence in a baculovirus system and demonstrate the biological activity of the recombinant protein. The coding sequence for feline interferon was directionally cloned into the baculovirus transfer vector pAcCL29-1. Transfer vector and linearized wild-type AcMNPV (BacPAK6) were used to co-transfect Sf9 cells by calcium phosphate coprecipitation. Subsequently, wild-type and recombinant viruses were separated by plaque assay. Recombinant plaques were expanded and a master stock of virus is produced. Production of biologically active interferon-gamma from infected Sf9 cells was demonstrated using a standard cytopathic effect reduction assay, utilising vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and an MHC class II induction assay.

  1. Expression of a secreted protein in mammalian cells using baculovirus particles.

    PubMed

    Jardin, Barbara Ann; Elias, Cynthia B; Prakash, Satya

    2012-01-01

    There are many methods presently available to produce recombinant proteins in mammalian systems. The BacMam system is a simple straightforward method which overlaps two well-established technologies, namely the BEVS insect cell system and the transduction of mammalian cells in vitro. This chapter describes a method for the study of gene expression in mammalian cells in a series of simple steps. Protocols outlined include the design and construction of the recombinant baculovirus, cell culture techniques required to maintain both insect and mammalian cells, generation of baculovirus stocks, and methods to obtain maximal and reproducible gene expression in mammalian cells. Currently available statistical techniques using factorial design of experiment to optimize conditions for recombinant protein in vitro are outlined. Then details with respect to process scale-up in disposable bioreactors are included.

  2. Comparison of recombinant protein expression in a baculovirus system in insect cells (Sf9) and silkworm.

    PubMed

    Usami, Akihiro; Ishiyama, Seiji; Enomoto, Chiaki; Okazaki, Hironobu; Higuchi, Keiko; Ikeda, Mashahiro; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Sugai, Mutsumi; Ishikawa, Yukiko; Hosaka, Yumiko; Koyama, Teruyuki; Tobita, Yoneko; Ebihara, Syoko; Mochizuki, Toshiko; Asano, Yoshimi; Nagaya, Hidekazu

    2011-02-01

    Using a hybrid baculovirus system, we compared the expression of 45 recombinant proteins from six categories using two models: silkworm (larvae and pupae) and an Sf9 cell line. A total of 45 proteins were successfully expressed; preparation of hybrid baculovirus was unsuccessful for one protein, and two proteins were not expressed. A similar pattern of expression was seen in both silkworm and Sf9 cells, with double and multiple bands found in immunoblotting of the precipitate of both hosts. Degraded proteins were seen only in the silkworm system (particularly in the larvae). Production was more efficient in silkworms; a single silkworm produced about 70 times more protein than 10(6) Sf9 cells in 2 ml of culture medium.

  3. Cloning and baculovirus expression of a desiccation stress gene from the beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Graham, L A; Bendena, W G; Walker, V K

    1996-02-01

    The cDNA sequence encoding a novel desiccation stress protein (dsp28) found in the hemolymph of the common yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, has been determined. The sequence encodes a 225 amino acid protein containing a 20 amino acid signal peptide. Dsp28 shows no significant similarity to any known nucleic acid or protein sequence. Levels of dsp28 mRNA were found to increase approx 5-fold following desiccation. Dsp28 cDNA has been cloned into a baculovirus expression vector and the expressed protein was compared to native dsp28. Both dsp28 expressed by recombinant baculovirus and native dsp28 are glycosylated and N-terminally processed. Although dsp28 is induced by cold in addition to desiccation stress, it does not contribute to the freezing point depression (thermal hysteresis) observed in Tenebrio hemolymph.

  4. Baculovirus infection triggers a positive phototactic response in caterpillars to induce 'tree-top' disease.

    PubMed

    van Houte, Stineke; van Oers, Monique M; Han, Yue; Vlak, Just M; Ros, Vera I D

    2014-12-01

    Many parasites manipulate host behaviour to enhance parasite transmission and survival. A fascinating example is baculoviruses, which often induce death in caterpillar hosts at elevated positions ('tree-top' disease). To date, little is known about the underlying processes leading to this adaptive host manipulation. Here, we show that the baculovirus Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) triggers a positive phototactic response in S. exigua larvae prior to death and causes the caterpillars to die at elevated positions. This light-dependent climbing behaviour is specific for infected larvae, as movement of uninfected caterpillars during larval development was light-independent. We hypothesize that upon infection, SeMNPV captures a host pathway involved in phototaxis and/or light perception to induce this remarkable behavioural change.

  5. The effect of cell line, phylogenetics and medium on baculovirus budded virus yield and quality.

    PubMed

    Matindoost, Leila; Hu, Hao; Chan, Leslie C L; Nielsen, Lars K; Reid, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The performance of bioprocesses involving baculoviruses largely depends on an efficient infection of cells by concentrated budded virus (BV) inoculums. Baculovirus expression vector systems have been established using Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), a group I NPV that displays rapid virus kinetics, whereas bioprocesses using group II baculovirus-based biopesticides such as Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) have the limitation of low levels of BV, as these viruses often display poor BV production kinetics. In this study, the effect of key parameters involved in the quality of progeny virions, including cell line, virus phylogenetics and medium, on viral DNA replication, virus trafficking to the extracellular environment, and the yield of recombinant protein or polyhedra were investigated in synchronous infections of HearNPV and AcMNPV. HearNPV showed higher vDNA replication in its optimum medium, SF900III, when compared to AcMNPV, but both viruses had similar specific extracellular virion content. However, the ratio of AcMNPV extracellular virions to the total number of progeny virions produced was higher, and their quality was tenfold higher than that of HearNPV extracellular virions. The results of infection of two different cell lines, High Five and Sf9, with AcMNPV, along with HearNPV infection of HzAM1 cells in three different media, suggest that the host cells and the nutritional state of the medium as well as the phylogenetics of the virus affect the BV yields produced by different baculovirus/cell line/medium combinations.

  6. Dengue Type-2 Virus Envelope Protein Made Using Recombinant Baculovirus Protects Mice Against Virus Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    the envelope (E) glycoprotein of dengue 2 virus was cloned into baculovirus (IAutographa californical nuclear polyhedrosis virus, AcNPV). The...polyclonal, anti- dengue type 2 antibody and a dengue type 2-specific, neutralizing monoclonal antibody. Balb/c mice immunized with the recombinant...antigen produced only non-neutralizing antibody against dengue 2 virus but were partially protected against morbidity and mortality after

  7. Display of a Maize cDNA library on baculovirus infected insect cells

    PubMed Central

    Meller Harel, Helene Y; Fontaine, Veronique; Chen, Hongying; Jones, Ian M; Millner, Paul A

    2008-01-01

    Background Maize is a good model system for cereal crop genetics and development because of its rich genetic heritage and well-characterized morphology. The sequencing of its genome is well advanced, and new technologies for efficient proteomic analysis are needed. Baculovirus expression systems have been used for the last twenty years to express in insect cells a wide variety of eukaryotic proteins that require complex folding or extensive posttranslational modification. More recently, baculovirus display technologies based on the expression of foreign sequences on the surface of Autographa californica (AcMNPV) have been developed. We investigated the potential of a display methodology for a cDNA library of maize young seedlings. Results We constructed a full-length cDNA library of young maize etiolated seedlings in the transfer vector pAcTMVSVG. The library contained a total of 2.5 × 105 independent clones. Expression of two known maize proteins, calreticulin and auxin binding protein (ABP1), was shown by western blot analysis of protein extracts from insect cells infected with the cDNA library. Display of the two proteins in infected insect cells was shown by selective biopanning using magnetic cell sorting and demonstrated proof of concept that the baculovirus maize cDNA display library could be used to identify and isolate proteins. Conclusion The maize cDNA library constructed in this study relies on the novel technology of baculovirus display and is unique in currently published cDNA libraries. Produced to demonstrate proof of principle, it opens the way for the development of a eukaryotic in vivo display tool which would be ideally suited for rapid screening of the maize proteome for binding partners, such as proteins involved in hormone regulation or defence. PMID:18700036

  8. Copper accumulation and transport in a marine food chain composed of Platymonas subcordiformis, brachionus plicatilis and Penaeus monodon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, A.-Gen; Chen, Wei-Qi; Li, Wen-Quan

    1997-09-01

    Accumulation, transport and toxicity of Cu in the food chain consisting of Platymonas subcordiformis, Brachionus plicatilis and Penaeus monodon were studied. Effects of Cu on the growth of organisms in the food chain were investigated and the inhibiting effect concentration (EC50) of Cu was then determined according to the dynamics of the relative number of cells or total individuals of organisms, expressed in percentages with reference to the controlled system, under different culture conditions. On the basis of the variations in accumulation and percentages of accumulation of Cu in the biological phase, the relationship between the accumulation of Cu in organisms and its toxicity was analyzed and the main approach for determining the transport of Cu in the food chain was then discussed.

  9. Enhanced growth and resistance to Vibrio challenge in pond-reared black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon fed a Bacillus probiotic.

    PubMed

    Rengpipat, Sirirat; Tunyanun, Aroon; Fast, Arlo W; Piyatiratitivorakul, Somkiat; Menasveta, Piamsak

    2003-07-08

    The bacterial probiont Bacillus S11 (BS11) was used as a supplement in feed (PF) for black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in 2 earthen pond field-trials carried out for 100 d during 2 different seasons in Thailand. Growth and survival were compared with those of shrimp receiving an unsupplemented feed (UF). In the hot and cool seasons, respectively, shrimp fed PF grew significantly larger and had significantly higher survival than shrimp fed UF (p < 0.05). Projected yields on an annual basis (two 100 d crops) were 49% greater with PF-fed shrimp. In 8 d challenge tests using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi 1526, shrimp fed UF all died within 6 d while survival for shrimp fed PF was 5 and 9%.

  10. Domain 2 of a Kazal serine proteinase inhibitor SPIPm2 from Penaeus monodon possesses antiviral activity against WSSV.

    PubMed

    Visetnan, Suwattana; Donpudsa, Suchao; Supungul, Premruethai; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien

    2014-12-01

    A 5-domain Kazal type serine proteinase inhibitor SPIPm2 from Penaeus monodon is involved in innate immune defense against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). To test which domains were involved, the 5 domains of SPIPm2 were over-expressed and tested against WSSV infection. By using hemocyte primary cell culture treated with each recombinant SPIPm2 domain along with WSSV, the expression of WSSV early genes ie1, WSV477 and late gene VP28 were substantially reduced as compared to other domains when the recombinant domain 2, rSPIPm2D2, was used. Injecting the WSSV along with rSPIPm2D2 but not with other domains caused delay in mortality rate of the infected shrimp. The results indicate that the SPIPm2D2 possesses strong antiviral activity and, hence, contributes predominantly to the antiviral activity of SPIPm2.

  11. Isolation of a bacterium resembling Pirellula species from primary tissue culture of the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed Central

    Fuerst, J A; Sambhi, S K; Paynter, J L; Hawkins, J A; Atherton, J G

    1991-01-01

    During attempts to establish tissue cultures from hepatopancreas, heart, and hemolymph of the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon), using a medium including penicillin, streptomycin, and amphotericin B, bacterial contamination in the form of a sheet of growth attached to the tissue culture vessel was a persistent problem. Contaminant bacteria were teardrop-shaped cells arranged in rosettes, and electron microscopy revealed buds, crateriform structures, and the absence of a peptidoglycan layer in the cell wall, features characteristic of bacteria in the Planctomyces-Pirellula group, a phylogenetically distinct group of eubacteria. Two strains of contaminant bacteria were isolated in pure culture. Both exhibited morphology and antibiotic resistance consistent with their membership in the Planctomyces-Pirellula group (order Planctomycetales) of eubacteria. Tissue culture media for marine invertebrates may select for such bacteria if high concentrations of cell wall synthesis-inhibiting antibiotics are included. Images PMID:1781677

  12. Proteomic analyses of baculovirus Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus budded and occluded virus.

    PubMed

    Braconi, Carla Torres; Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel Mendes Pereira; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Pauletti, Bianca Alves; Garcia-Maruniak, Alejandra; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais; Maruniak, James E; Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade

    2014-04-01

    Baculoviruses infect insects, producing two distinct phenotypes during the viral life cycle: the budded virus (BV) and the occlusion-derived virus (ODV) for intra- and inter-host spread, respectively. Since the 1980s, several countries have been using Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) as a biological control agent against the velvet bean caterpillar, A. gemmatalis. The genome of AgMNPV isolate 2D (AgMNPV-2D) carries at least 152 potential genes, with 24 that possibly code for structural proteins. Proteomic studies have been carried out on a few baculoviruses, with six ODV and two BV proteomes completed so far. Moreover, there are limited data on virion proteins carried by AgMNPV-2D. Therefore, structural proteins of AgMNPV-2D were analysed by MALDI- quadrupole-TOF and liquid chromatography MS/MS. A total of 44 proteins were associated with the ODV and 33 with the BV of AgMNPV-2D. Although 38 structural proteins were already known, we found six new proteins in the ODV and seven new proteins carried by the AgMNPV-2D BV. Eleven cellular proteins that were found on several other enveloped viruses were also identified, which are possibly carried with the virion. These findings may provide novel insights into baculovirus biology and their host interaction. Moreover, our data may be helpful in subsequent applied studies aiming to improve AgMNPV use as a biopesticide and a biotechnology tool for gene expression or delivery.

  13. Ultra Deep Sequencing of a Baculovirus Population Reveals Widespread Genomic Variations

    PubMed Central

    Chateigner, Aurélien; Bézier, Annie; Labrousse, Carole; Jiolle, Davy; Barbe, Valérie; Herniou, Elisabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses rely on widespread genetic variation and large population size for adaptation. Large DNA virus populations are thought to harbor little variation though natural populations may be polymorphic. To measure the genetic variation present in a dsDNA virus population, we deep sequenced a natural strain of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus. With 124,221X average genome coverage of our 133,926 bp long consensus, we could detect low frequency mutations (0.025%). K-means clustering was used to classify the mutations in four categories according to their frequency in the population. We found 60 high frequency non-synonymous mutations under balancing selection distributed in all functional classes. These mutants could alter viral adaptation dynamics, either through competitive or synergistic processes. Lastly, we developed a technique for the delimitation of large deletions in next generation sequencing data. We found that large deletions occur along the entire viral genome, with hotspots located in homologous repeat regions (hrs). Present in 25.4% of the genomes, these deletion mutants presumably require functional complementation to complete their infection cycle. They might thus have a large impact on the fitness of the baculovirus population. Altogether, we found a wide breadth of genomic variation in the baculovirus population, suggesting it has high adaptive potential. PMID:26198241

  14. Proteomics computational analyses suggest that baculovirus GP64 superfamily proteins are class III penetrenes

    PubMed Central

    Garry, Courtney E; Garry, Robert F

    2008-01-01

    Background Members of the Baculoviridae encode two types of proteins that mediate virus:cell membrane fusion and penetration into the host cell. Alignments of primary amino acid sequences indicate that baculovirus fusion proteins of group I nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPV) form the GP64 superfamily. The structure of these viral penetrenes has not been determined. The GP64 superfamily includes the glycoprotein (GP) encoded by members of the Thogotovirus genus of the Orthomyxoviridae. The entry proteins of other baculoviruses, group II NPV and granuloviruses, are class I penetrenes. Results Class III penetrenes encoded by members of the Rhabdoviridae and Herpesviridae have an internal fusion domain comprised of beta sheets, other beta sheet domains, an extended alpha helical domain, a membrane proximal stem domain and a carboxyl terminal anchor. Similar sequences and structural/functional motifs that characterize class III penetrenes are located collinearly in GP64 of group I baculoviruses and related glycoproteins encoded by thogotoviruses. Structural models based on a prototypic class III penetrene, vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G), were established for Thogoto virus (THOV) GP and Autographa california multiple NPV (AcMNPV) GP64 demonstrating feasible cysteine linkages. Glycosylation sites in THOV GP and AcMNPV GP64 appear in similar model locations to the two glycosylation sites of VSV G. Conclusion These results suggest that proteins in the GP64 superfamily are class III penetrenes. PMID:18282283

  15. Optimization of canine interleukin-12 production using a baculovirus insect cell expression system.

    PubMed

    de Pinheiro, Cristiane Garboggini Melo; Pedrosa, Mayara de Oliveira; Teixeira, Naiara Carvalho; Ano Bom, Ana Paula Dinis; van Oers, Monique M; Oliveira, Geraldo Gileno de Sá

    2016-01-22

    Interleukin-12 is an important cytokine in mediating cellular immune responses. Recombinant single-chain canine IL-12 was produced in a baculovirus-insect cell system with the aim of conducting further studies on modulation of immune responses in dogs. To optimize the production of recombinant canine IL-12, a classical baculovirus and a modified vector (chitinase A and v-cathepsin knockout) were used containing a native or an optimized insert of canine IL-12. The optimized IL-12 construct contained the GP64 signal peptide and was synthesized with optimized codons for expression in Trichoplusia ni cells. Dot-blot and Western blot analysis showed the highest production levels of recombinant IL-12 protein by the use of the modified baculovirus vector containing the optimized insert, at a multiplicity of infection of five and at 48 h after infection. The recombinant cytokine was successfully purified and showed a good degree of purity, integrity, folding, and yield, with very little endotoxin contamination. Recombinant canine IL-12 induced IFN-γ in canine lymphocytes, indicating that it was biologically active. Therefore, this study describes an efficient method to produce adequate amounts of biologically active canine IL-12, useful for immunomodulation studies in dogs.

  16. Evaluation of Cre Recombinase Delivery in Mammalian Cells using Baculovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Erbs, Eric; Pradhan, Amynah A.; Matifas, Audrey; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Massotte, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    In vivo conditional knock-out of a protein is a method of choice to decipher its biological function. It can be achieved by encoding the cre-recombinase on a recombinant virus to exert spatio-temporal control of its expression and enzymatic activity and, subsequently, of the target gene deletion. Recombinant baculoviruses have been successfully used to express a wide range of proteins in insect cells. More recently, their potential to infect mammalian cells has been addressed but, so far, their ability to yield a conditional knock-out as a result of efficient in vivo cre-recombinase gene delivery has not been examined. Cre-recombinase fused to the green fluorescent protein was cloned under the control of the CAG promoter in a recombinant Autographa californica baculovirus expressing the vesicular stomatitis virus envelope G protein for increased mammalian cell infection. Gene delivery was evaluated in vitro in mammalian cells, neuroblastoma and mouse primary neuronal cultures as well as in vivo in the mouse brain. Infection with adeno-associated viruses encoding the cre-recombinase fused to the green fluorescent protein was performed as a positive control. Our results indicate that baculovirus infection leads to functional cre-recombinase expression in non-neuronal and neuroblastoma cell lines but not in mouse primary neuronal cultures or brain. PMID:23732834

  17. Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulating Bacillus spp. improve the survival, growth and robustness of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) postlarvae.

    PubMed

    Laranja, Joseph Leopoldo Q; Ludevese-Pascual, Gladys L; Amar, Edgar C; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; De Schryver, Peter

    2014-10-10

    Low larval survival resulting from suboptimal culture conditions and luminous vibriosis poses a major problem for the larviculture of penaeid shrimp. In this study, a poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulating mixed bacterial culture (mBC; 48.5% PHB on cell dry weight) and two PHB accumulating bacterial isolates, Bacillus sp. JL47 (54.7% PHB on cell dry weight) and Bacillus sp. JL1 (45.5% PHB on cell dry weight), were obtained from a Philippine shrimp culture pond and investigated for their capacity to improve growth, survival and robustness of Penaeus monodon postlarvae (PL). Shrimp PL1 and shrimp PL30 were provided with the PHB containing bacterial cultures in the feed for 30 days followed by, respectively, a challenge with pathogenic Vibrio campbellii and exposure to a lethal dose of ammonia. Prior to the pathogenic challenge or ammonia stress, growth and survival were higher for shrimp receiving the PHB accumulating bacteria as compared to shrimp receiving diets without bacterial additions. After exposure to the pathogenic challenge the shrimp fed PHB accumulating bacteria showed a higher survival as compared to non-treated shrimp, suggesting an increase in robustness for the shrimp. Similar effects were observed when shrimp PL30 were provided with the PHB accumulating bacterial cultures during a challenge with pathogenic V. campbellii through the water. The survival of shrimp exposed to lethal ammonia stress showed no significant difference between PHB accumulating bacteria-fed shrimp and non-PHB treated shrimp. The data illustrate that bacilli capable of accumulating PHB can provide beneficial effects to P. monodon post-larvae during culture in terms of growth performance, survival and resistance against pathogenic infection and ammonia stress. Further investigations are required to verify the PHB effect of the bacterial cultures on the shrimp.

  18. Anti-white spot syndrome virus activity of Ceriops tagal aqueous extract in giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Sudheer, N S; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2012-09-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the most contagious pathogen of cultured shrimp, causes mass mortality, leading to huge economic loss to the shrimp industry. The lack of effective therapeutic or prophylactic measures has aggravated the situation, necessitating the development of antiviral agents. With this objective, the antiviral activity in the aqueous extract of a mangrove plant Ceriops tagal in Penaeus monodon was evaluated. The Ceriops tagal aqueous extract (CTAE) was non-toxic to shrimps at 50 mg/ml when injected intramuscularly at a dosage of 10 μL/animal (0.5 mg/animal) and showed a protective effect against WSSV at 30 mg/ml when mixed with WSSV suspension at a 1:1 ratio. When the extract was administered along with the diet and the animals were challenged orally, there was a dose-dependent increase in survival, culminating in 100 % survival at a concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight/day. Neither hypertrophied nuclei nor the viral envelope protein VP28 could be demonstrated in surviving shrimps using histology and indirect immunofluorescence histochemistry (IIFH), respectively. To elucidate the mode of action, the temporal expression of WSSV genes and shrimp immune genes, including antimicrobial peptides, was attempted. None of the viral genes were found to be expressed in shrimps that were fed with the extract and challenged or in those that were administered CTAE-exposed WSSV. The overall results suggest that the aqueous extract from C. tagal can protect P. monodon from white spot syndrome virus infection.

  19. Bdellovibrio and Like Organisms Enhanced Growth and Survival of Penaeus monodon and Altered Bacterial Community Structures in Its Rearing Water

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Qiuping; Liu, Renliang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a 96-h laboratory reduction test was conducted with strain BDHSH06 (GenBank accession no. EF011103) as the test strain for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) and 20 susceptible marine bacterial strains forming microcosms as the targets. The results showed that BDHSH06 reduced the levels of approximately 50% of prey bacterial strains within 96 h in the seawater microcosms. An 85-day black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) rearing experiment was performed. The shrimp survival rate, body length, and weight in the test tanks were 48.1% ± 1.2%, 99.8 ± 10.0 mm, and 6.36 ± 1.50 g, respectively, which were values significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those for the control, viz., 31.0% ± 2.1%, 86.0 ± 11.1 mm, and 4.21 ± 1.56 g, respectively. With the addition of BDHSH06, total bacterial and Vibrio numbers were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 1.3 to 4.5 log CFU · ml−1 and CFU · g−1 in both water and shrimp intestines, respectively, compared to those in the control. The effect of BDHSH06 on bacterial community structures in the rearing water was also examined using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles of rearing water samples from the control and test tanks revealed that the amounts of 44% of the bacterial species were reduced when BDHSH06 was added to the rearing water over the 85-day rearing period, and among these, approximately 57.1% were nonculturable. The results of this study demonstrated that BDHSH06 can be used as a biocontrol/probiotic agent in P. monodon culture. PMID:25107962

  20. Characterization and identification of calmodulin and calmodulin binding proteins in hemocyte of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Sengprasert, Panjana; Amparyup, Piti; Tassanakajorn, Anchalee; Wongpanya, Ratree

    2015-06-01

    Calmodulin (CaM), a ubiquitous intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) sensor in all eukaryotic cells, is one of the well-known signaling proteins. Previously, CaM gene has shown a high transcriptional level in hemocyte of the pathogen infected shrimp, suggesting that shrimp CaM does not only regulate Ca(2+) metabolism, but is also involved in immune response cascade. In the present study, the CaM gene of shrimp Penaeus monodon was identified and the recombinant P.monodon CaM (rPmCaM) was produced and biochemically characterized. The identification of CaM-binding proteins was also performed. The PmCaM cDNA consisted of an open reading frame of 447 bp encoding for 149 amino acid residues with a calculated mass of 16,810 Da and an isoelectric point of 4.09. Tissue distribution showed that the PmCaM transcript was expressed in all examined tissues. The results of gel mobility shift assay, circular dichroism spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy all confirmed that the conformational changes of the rPmCaM were observed after the calcium binding. According to the gene silencing of PmCaM transcript levels, the shrimp's susceptibility to pathogenic Vibrio harveyi infection increased in comparison with that of the control groups. Protein pull-down assay and LC-MS/MS analysis were performed to identify rPmCaM-binding proteins involved in shrimp immune responses and transglutaminase, elongation factor 1-alpha, elongation factor 2 and actin were found. However, by computational analysis, only the first three proteins contained CaM-binding domain. These findings suggested that PmCaM may play an important role in regulation of shrimp immune system.

  1. The genome sequence of Agrotis segetum nucleopolyhedrovirus B (AgseNPV-B) reveals a new baculovirus species within the Agrotis baculovirus complex.

    PubMed

    Wennmann, Jörg T; Gueli Alletti, Gianpiero; Jehle, Johannes A

    2015-04-01

    The genome of Agrotis segetum nucleopolyhedrovirus B (AgseNPV-B) was completely sequenced and compared with whole genome sequences of the Agrotis segetum nucleopolyhedrovirus A (AgseNPV-A) and Agrotis ipsilon nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgipNPV). The AgseNPV-B genome is 148,981 bp in length and encodes 150 putative open reading frames. AgseNPV-B contains two copies of the gene viral enhancing factor (vef), making the Agrotis nucleopolyhedroviruses and A. segetum granulovirus (AgseGV) very rich in vef in comparison to other baculoviruses. Genome alignments of AgseNPV-B, AgseNPV-A and AgipNPV showed a very high genome co-linearity interspersed with variable regions, which are considered as putative sites of genomic recombination. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all three viruses are distinct. However, AgseNPV-B is more closely related to AgipNPV suggesting that both viruses are at an early stage of phylogenetic divergence. It is proposed that AgseNPV-B belongs to a third Alphabaculovirus species of the Agrotis baculovirus complex. The Agrotis exclamationis nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgexNPV) shared high nucleotide sequence identities with AgseNPV-B, suggesting it is actually an AgseNPV-B isolate.

  2. Genomic comparison of Neodiprion sertifer and Neodiprion lecontei nucleopolyhedroviruses and identification of potential hymenopteran baculovirus-specific open reading frames.

    PubMed

    Lauzon, Hilary A M; Garcia-Maruniak, Alejandra; Zanotto, Paolo M de A; Clemente, José C; Herniou, Elisabeth A; Lucarotti, Christopher J; Arif, Basil M; Maruniak, James E

    2006-06-01

    Genomic comparison of Neodiprion sertifer nucleopolyhedrovirus (NeseNPV) and Neodiprion lecontei nucleopolyhedrovirus (NeleNPV) showed that the hymenopteran baculoviruses had features in common and were distinct from other, fully sequenced lepidopteran and dipteran baculoviruses. Their genomes were small in size (86,462 and 81,755 bp, respectively), had low G+C contents (33.8 and 33.3 mol%, respectively) and contained fewer open reading frames (ORFs) (90 and 89, respectively) than other baculoviruses. They shared 69 ORFs (48.6% mean amino acid identity overall), 43 of which were previously identified baculovirus homologues. The remaining shared ORFs could be common to other baculoviruses, but low amino acid identities precluded identifying them as such. Some may also be unique to hymenopteran baculoviruses. These included a trypsin-like protease, a zinc-finger protein, regulator of chromosome condensation proteins, a densovirus capsid-like protein and a phosphotransferase. Structural analysis, the presence of conserved domains and phylogenetic studies suggested that some of these ORFs may be functional and could have been transferred horizontally from an insect host. ORFs found only in NeseNPV and NeleNPV may play a role in host specificity and/or tissue tropism, as hymenopteran baculoviruses are restricted to the midgut. The genomes were basically collinear, but contained non-syntenic regions (NSRs) with large numbers of repeats between their polyhedrin and dbp genes. They differed from each other in the number of ORFs and the G+C content of their NSRs and the presence of homologous regions in the NeseNPV genome. NeleNPV also had a short inversion relative to NeseNPV. NeseNPV contained 21 ORFs not found in NeleNPV and NeleNPV had 20 ORFs not found in NeseNPV.

  3. Differential regulation of the lipoxygenase pathway in shrimp hepatopancreases and ovaries during ovarian development in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Wimuttisuk, Wananit; Tobwor, Punsa; Deenarn, Pacharawan; Intaraudom, Chakapong; Pruksatrakul, Thapanee; Nithithanasilp, Sutichai; Wongtripop, Somjai; Phomklad, Suwanchai; Chaitongsakul, Panomkorn; Vichai, Vanicha

    2017-05-27

    Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are critical to the success of ovarian development in marine crustaceans, especially for domesticated species such as the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. These fatty acids are stored in a midgut gland called the hepatopancreas and subsequently serve as an energy source or are incorporated in yolk during ovarian development. PUFAs are known precursors of hydroxy fatty acids, including hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (HEPE), which are catalyzed by lipoxygenases (LOX). In previous studies, 8-HEPE has been shown to regulate female reproduction and adipogenesis in marine crustaceans. However, whether the biosynthesis of 8-HEPE in these species is the result of LOX activity has yet to be investigated. In this study, 8-HEPE was identified exclusively in P. monodon hepatopancreases using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Treatment with nordihydroguaiaretic acid resulted in the reduction of 8-HEPE, suggesting the enzyme-dependent catalysis of 8-HEPE in hepatopancreases. Additionally, a full-length P. monodon LOX (PmLOX) was amplified from shrimp ovary cDNA. Sequence analysis revealed that the putative PmLOX contains domains and catalytic residues required for LOX catalytic function. Furthermore, PmLOX expression increased steadily as shrimp ovary maturation progressed, while PmLOX expression and the amount of 8-HEPE decreased in shrimp hepatopancreases. These findings not only suggest differential requirements for hydroxy fatty acid biosynthesis in shrimp ovaries and hepatopancreases during the P. monodon ovarian development, but also provide insights into the LOX pathway in marine crustaceans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Two new anti-apoptotic proteins of white spot syndrome virus that bind to an effector caspase (PmCasp) of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon.

    PubMed

    Lertwimol, Tareerat; Sangsuriya, Pakkakul; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Senapin, Saengchan; Phongdara, Amornrat; Boonchird, Chuenchit; Flegel, Timothy W

    2014-05-01

    White spot syndrome virus proteins WSSV134 and WSSV322 have been shown to bind with the p20 domain (residues 55-214) of Penaeus monodon caspase (PmCasp) protein through yeast two-hybrid screening. Binding was confirmed for the p20 domain and the full-length caspase by co-immunoprecipitation. WSSV134 is also known as the WSSV structural protein VP36A, but no function or conserved domains have been ascribed to WSSV322. Discovery of the caspase binding activity of these two proteins led to an investigation of their possible anti-apoptotic roles. Full-length PmCasp was confirmed to be an effector caspase by inducing apoptosis in transfected Sf-9 cells as assessed by DAPI staining. Using the same cell model, comparison of cells co-transfected with PmCasp and either WSSV134 or WSSV322 revealed that both of the binding proteins had anti-apoptotic activity. However, using the same Sf-9 protocol with anti-apoptosis protein-1 (AAP-1; also called WSSV449) previously shown to bind and inactivate a different effector caspase from P. monodon (Pm caspase) did not block apoptosis induced by PmCasp. The results revealed diversity in effector caspases and their viral protein inhibitors in P. monodon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, in protection from white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Tharntada, Sirinit; Ponprateep, Sirikwan; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Liu, Haipeng; Söderhäll, Irene; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2009-06-01

    The anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, has been shown previously to exhibit a broad spectrum of activity against various strains of bacteria and fungi. Herein, the recombinant ALFPm3 (rALFPm3) protein was examined for its role in the defence against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in haematopoietic (Hpt) cell cultures of the freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, as well as in live P. monodon shrimps. Incubation of Hpt cell cultures with a mixture of WSSV and rALFPm3 resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in VP28 gene expression levels, compared with those incubated with WSSV alone, with an rALFPm3 IC50 value lower than 2.5 microM. However, pre-treatment of Hpt cells with 5 microM rALFPm3 showed no induced protection against subsequent WSSV infection, whereas the synthetic crayfish ALF peptide could protect cells at a higher concentration (10 microM). The in vivo role of ALFPm3 was examined by injection of P. monodon with WSSV pre-treated with rALFPm3 protein. The results clearly showed that rALFPm3 was able to reduce WSSV propagation and prolong the survival of shrimps.

  6. Population genetic structure of Penaeus monodon, in relation to monsoon current patterns in Southwest, East and Andaman coastal waters of India.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Anup; Rao, Divya; Karuppaiah, Deepa; Gopalakrishnan, Achamveetil; Pozhoth, Jayagopal; Samraj, Yohannan Chellamma Thampi; Doyle, Roger W

    2012-01-10

    The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), a commercially important penaeid species, is widely distributed across the Indo-Pacific region. Genetic diversity in P. monodon collected from eight geographical regions in Southwest, East and Andaman coastal waters of India (N=418) was investigated using 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Average observed heterozygosity at sampled loci were high, ranging from 0.643 (Coromandel Coast) to 0.753 (South Andaman). Pairwise F(ST) (ranged from 0.005 to 0.078) and R(ST) (ranged from 0.005 to 0.171) estimates revealed surprisingly strong and statistically significant genetic structure among tiger shrimp populations. A synthetic map generated by multidimensional scaling shows an apparent cline in allele frequencies paralleling the roughly circular flow of surface currents in the Bay of Bengal. Significant heterozygote deficiencies were noted in most population samples at most loci. Andaman Island sites showed the highest diversity. Recognition of high genetic diversity and distinct population structuring of P. monodon in Indian seas has important implications for future domestication of this species in India, for two reasons: identification of the best wild founding stocks for aquaculture and, subsequently, the potential impacts of release of domesticates to the wild, either accidentally or deliberately (i.e. for stock enhancement). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation and characterization of genes functionally involved in ovarian development of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH).

    PubMed

    Preechaphol, Rachanimuk; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Khamnamtong, Bavornlak; Menasveta, Piamsak

    2010-10-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries between cDNA in stages I (previtellogenic) and III (cortical rod) ovaries of the giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) were established. In all, 452 ESTs were unidirectionally sequenced. Sequence assembly generated 28 contigs and 201 singletons, 109 of which (48.0%) corresponding to known sequences previously deposited in GenBank. Several reproduction-related transcripts were identified. The full-length cDNA of anaphase promoting complex subunit 11 (PmAPC11; 600 bp with an ORF of 255 bp corresponding to a polypeptide of 84 amino acids) and selenoprotein Mprecursor (PmSePM; 904 bp with an ORF of 396 bp corresponding to a polypeptide of 131 amino acids) were characterized and reported for the first time in penaeid shrimp. Semiquantitative RT-PCR revealed that the expression levels of PmSePM and keratinocyte-associated protein 2 significantly diminished throughout ovarian development, whereas Ser/Thrcheckpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), DNA replication licensing factor mcm2 and egalitarian were down-regulated in mature ovaries of wild P. monodon (p < 0.05). Accordingly, the expression profiles of PmSePM and keratinocyte-associated protein 2 could be used as biomarkers for evaluating the degree of reproductive maturation in domesticated P. monodon.

  8. Self-assembled B19 parvovirus capsids, produced in a baculovirus system, are antigenically and immunogenically similar to native virions.

    PubMed Central

    Kajigaya, S; Fujii, H; Field, A; Anderson, S; Rosenfeld, S; Anderson, L J; Shimada, T; Young, N S

    1991-01-01

    B19 parvovirus is pathogenic in humans, causing fifth disease, transient aplastic crisis, some cases of hydrops fetalis, and acquired pure red cell aplasia. Efforts to develop serologic assays and vaccine development have been hampered by the virus's extreme tropism for human bone marrow and the absence of a convenient culture system. We constructed recombinants containing either the major (VP2) or minor (VP1) structural proteins of B19 in a baculovirus-based plasmid, from which the polyhedrin gene had been deleted; these recombinant plasmids were used to generate recombinant infectious baculovirus. Subsequent infection of insect cells in vitro resulted in high-level expression of either B19VP1 or VP2. Parvovirus capsids were obtained by self-assembly in cell cultures coinfected with either VP1- and VP2-containing baculoviruses or, surprisingly, VP2-containing baculoviruses alone. Empty B19 capsids composed of VP1 and VP2 could replace serum virus as a source of antigen in a conventional immunoassay for detection of either IgG or IgM antiparvovirus antibodies in human serum. Immunization of rabbits with capsids composed of VP1 and VP2 resulted in production of antisera that recognized serum parvovirus on immunoblot and neutralized parvovirus infectivity for human erythroid progenitor cells. Baculovirus-derived parvovirus antigen can substitute for scarce viral antigen in immunoassays and should be suitable as a human vaccine. Images PMID:1711206

  9. Surface displaying of swine IgG1 Fc enhances baculovirus-vectored vaccine efficacy by facilitating viral complement escape and mammalian cell transduction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zehui; Liu, Yangkun; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yang, Yajuan; Ren, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaoying; Du, Enqi

    2017-05-12

    Baculovirus-mediated gene transfer has been developed as a vaccine design strategy against a number of diseases without apparent viral replication. However, it has been hampered by complement-dependent inactivation, thus hindering the in vivo application of baculovirus. A variety of approaches have been exploited to bypass the complement system in the serum. In this study, we constructed and screened a series of baculovirus vectors displaying complement interfering factors, of which a baculovirus vector displaying swine IgG1 Fc (pFc) showed the highest complement antagonism (75.6%). Flow cytometry analysis of transduced cells demonstrated that the baculovirus display of pFc had a significant increase in transduction efficiency and transgene expression of reporter genes. On this basis, a VSV-G-pseudotyped with swine IgG1 Fc surface displayed baculovirus vector was developed to express the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E2 gene. The translational enhancers Syn21 and P10UTR were incorporated to improve the antigen expression. The E2 gene was efficiently expressed in both insect and mammalian cells. Pigs immunized with this recombinant baculovirus developed high levels of E2-specific antibody, CSFV-specific neutralizing antibody and IFN-γ-secreting cellular immune responses. These results demonstrate that the strategy of surface-displaying swine IgG1 Fc has a great potential to improve the efficiency of baculovirus-vectored vaccine for CSFV and other swine pathogens.

  10. A novel baculovirus vector shows efficient gene delivery of modified porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus antigens and elicits specific immune response.

    PubMed

    Karuppannan, Anbu K; Qiang, Jia; Chang, C C; Kwang, Jimmy

    2013-11-04

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating epizootic of porcine species. Current vaccines are inadequate to control the disease burden and outbreaks in the field. We report a novel baculovirus vaccine vector with White spot syndrome virus immediate early 1 shuttle promoter, with strong activity in both insect cells and mammalian cells, for immunization against PRRSV. The insect cell cultured baculovirus vector produces PRRSV envelope glycoproteins ORF2a, ORF3, ORF4 and ORF5, which are similar to the antigens in the infectious PRRS virion, and these antigens are stably incorporated on the surface of the baculovirus. Further, the baculovirus vector efficiently transduces these antigens in cells of porcine origin, thereby simulating a live infection. The baculovirus vectored PRRSV antigens, upon inoculation in mice, elicits robust neutralizing antibodies against the infective PRRS virus. Further, the experiments indicate that hitherto under emphasized ORF2a and ORF4 are important target antigens for neutralizing PRRSV infectivity.

  11. Recombinant baculovirus mediates dsRNA specific to rr2 delivery and its protective efficacy against WSSV infection.

    PubMed

    Rattanarojpong, Triwit; Khankaew, Suthiwat; Khunrae, Pongsak; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Poomputsa, Kanokwan

    2016-07-10

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major causative agent in shrimp farming. Consequently, RNAi technology is an effective strategy to prevent WSSV infection in shrimp especially dsRNA targeting to rr2 of WSSV. In an effort to develop dsRNA expression in shrimp for control of WSSV infection, we developed a recombinant baculovirus expressing recombinant VP28 as the gene delivery system to carry a gene encoding dsRNA specific to rr2 for triggering the RNAi process in shrimp. The results showed that the recombinant baculovirus harboring VP28 was able to express VP28 indicated by Western blot with polyclonal antibody specific to VP28. VP28 transcript was detected in shrimp hemocytes after co-culture hemocytes with the recombinant baculovirus displaying VP28. In addition, we found that shrimp injected with the recombinant baculovirus displaying VP28 and encoding dsRNA synthetic gene specific to rr2 (Bac-VP28-dsrr2) showed the lowest cumulative mortality (33%) at 14days post infection (dpi) when compared to shrimp injected with baculovirus displaying VP28 (Bac-VP28) (64% cumulative mortality) (p<0.05). According to the results, shrimp injected with Bac-VP28-dsrr2 also showed significantly lower WSSV copies than shrimp injected with Bac-VP28 (p<0.05) along with the down-regulation of rr2 expression at 1, 3 and 7dpi. In conclusion, the Bac-VP28-dsrr2 was effective in prevention of WSSV infection. Therefore, the results obtained here can be applied to the prevention of WSSV infection by mixing the recombinant baculovirus with shrimp feed in the future.

  12. Structural Organization of Baculovirus Occlusion Bodies and Protective Role of Multilayered Polyhedron Envelope Protein.

    PubMed

    Sajjan, Dayanand B; Hinchigeri, Shivayogeppa B

    2016-03-01

    Baculoviruses are the ingenious insect pathogens. Outside the host, baculovirus occlusion bodies (OB) provide stability to occlusion-derived viruses (ODV) embedded within. The OB is an organized structure, chiefly composed of proteins namely polyhedrin, polyhedron envelope protein (PEP) and P10. Currently, the structural organization of OB is poorly understood and the role of OB proteins in conferring the stability to ODV is unknown. Here we have shown that the assembly of polyhedrin unit cells into an OB is a rapid process; the PEP forms in multiple layers; the PEP layers predominantly contribute to ODV viability. Full-grown OBs (n = 36) were found to be 4.0 ± 1.0 µm in diameter and possessed a peculiar geometry of a truncated rhombic dodecahedron. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) study on the structure of OBs at different stages of growth in insect cells revealed polyhedrin assembly and thickness of PEP layers. The thickness of PEP layers at 53 h post-transfection (hpt) ranged from 56 to 80 nm. Mature PEP layers filled up approximately one third of the OB volume. The size of ODV nucleocapsid was found to be 433 ± 10 nm in length. The zeta potential and particle size distribution study of viruses revealed the protective role of PEP layers. The presence of a multilayered PEP confers a viable advantage to the baculoviruses compared to single-layered PEP. Thus, these findings may help in developing PEP layer-based biopolymers for protein-based nanodevices, nanoelectrodes and more stable biopesticides.

  13. Baculovirus FP25K Localization: Role of the Coiled-Coil Domain.

    PubMed

    Garretson, Tyler A; McCoy, Jason C; Cheng, Xiao-Wen

    2016-11-01

    Two types of viruses are produced during the baculovirus life cycle: budded virus (BV) and occlusion-derived virus (ODV). A particular baculovirus protein, FP25K, is involved in the switch from BV to ODV production. Previously, FP25K from the model alphabaculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) was shown to traffic ODV envelope proteins. However, FP25K localization and the domains involved are inconclusive. Here we used a quantitative approach to study FP25K subcellular localization during infection using an AcMNPV bacmid virus that produces a functional AcMNPV FP25K-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein. During cell infection, FP25K-GFP localized primarily to the cytoplasm, particularly amorphous structures, with a small fraction being localized in the nucleus. To investigate the sequences involved in FP25K localization, an alignment of baculovirus FP25K sequences revealed that the N-terminal putative coiled-coil domain is present in all alphabaculoviruses but absent in betabaculoviruses. Structural prediction indicated a strong relatedness of AcMNPV FP25K to long interspersed element 1 (LINE-1) open reading frame 1 protein (ORF1p), which contains an N-terminal coiled-coil domain responsible for cytoplasmic retention. Point mutations and deletions of this domain lead to a change in AcMNPV FP25K localization from cytoplasmic to nuclear. The coiled-coil and C-terminal deletion viruses increased BV production. Furthermore, a betabaculovirus FP25K protein lacking this N-terminal coiled-coil domain localized predominantly to the nucleus and exhibited increased BV production. These data suggest that the acquisition of this N-terminal coiled-coil domain in FP25K is important for the evolution of alphabaculoviruses. Moreover, with the divergence of preocclusion nuclear membrane breakdown in betabaculoviruses and membrane integrity in alphabaculoviruses, this domain represents an alphabaculovirus adaptation for nuclear trafficking

  14. Baculovirus per os infectivity factors form a complex on the surface of occlusion-derived virus.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ke; van Oers, Monique M; Hu, Zhihong; van Lent, Jan W M; Vlak, Just M

    2010-09-01

    Five highly conserved per os infectivity factors, PIF1, PIF2, PIF3, PIF4, and P74, have been reported to be essential for oral infectivity of baculovirus occlusion-derived virus (ODV) in insect larvae. Three of these proteins, P74, PIF1, and PIF2, were thought to function in virus binding to insect midgut cells. In this paper evidence is provided that PIF1, PIF2, and PIF3 form a stable complex on the surface of ODV particles of the baculovirus Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). The complex could withstand 2% SDS-5% beta-mercaptoethanol with heating at 50 degrees C for 5 min. The complex was not formed when any of the genes for PIF1, PIF2, or PIF3 was deleted, while reinsertion of these genes into AcMNPV restored the complex. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis independently confirmed the interactions of the three PIF proteins and revealed in addition that P74 is also associated with this complex. However, deletion of the p74 gene did not affect formation of the PIF1-PIF2-PIF3 complex. Electron microscopy analysis showed that PIF1 and PIF2 are localized on the surface of the ODV with a scattered distribution. This distribution did not change for PIF1 or PIF2 when the gene for PIF2 or PIF1 protein was deleted. We propose that PIF1, PIF2, PIF3, and P74 form an evolutionarily conserved complex on the ODV surface, which has an essential function in the initial stages of baculovirus oral infection.

  15. MicroRNAome of Spodoptera frugiperda cells (Sf9) and its alteration following baculovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Hussain, Mazhar; Asgari, Sassan

    2013-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) as small non-coding RNAs play important roles in many biological processes such as development, cell signalling and immune response. Studies also suggest that miRNAs are important in host-virus interactions where the host limits virus infection by differentially expressing miRNAs that target essential viral genes. Here, we identified conserved and new miRNAs from Spodoptera frugiperda cells (Sf9) using a combination of deep sequencing and bioinformatics as well as experimental approaches. S. frugiperda miRNAs share common features of miRNAs in other organisms, such as uracil (U) at the 5' end of miRNA. The 5' ends of the miRNAs were more conserved than the 3' ends, revealing evolutionary protection of the seed region in miRNAs. The predominant miRNAs were found to be conserved among arthropods. The majority of homologous miRNAs were found in Bombyx mori, with 76 of the 90 identified miRNAs. We found that seed shifting and arm switching have happened in this insect's miRNAs. Expression levels of the majority of miRNAs changed following baculovirus infection. Results revealed that baculovirus infection mainly led to an overall suppression of cellular miRNAs. We found four different genes being regulated by sfr-miR-184 at the post-transcriptional level. The data presented here further support conservation of miRNAs in insects and other organisms. In addition, the results reveal a differential expression of host miRNAs upon baculovirus infection, suggesting their potential roles in host-virus interactions. Seed shifting and arm switching happened during evolution of miRNAs in different insects and caused miRNA diversification, which led to changes in the target repository of miRNAs.

  16. In vivo transcriptional targeting into the retinal vasculature using recombinant baculovirus carrying the human flt-1 promoter

    PubMed Central

    Luz-Madrigal, Agustín; Clapp, Carmen; Aranda, Jorge; Vaca, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Background Endothelial cells are a target for gene therapy because they are implicated in a number of vascular diseases. Recombinant baculovirus have emerged as novel gene delivery vectors. However, there is no information available concerning the use of endothelial-specific promoters in the context of the baculovirus genome. In the present study, we have generated a recombinant baculovirus containing the human flt-1 promoter (BacFLT-GFP) driving the expression of the green fluorescent protein. Transcriptional gene targeting was analyzed in vitro in different mammalian cell lines and in vivo in adult rat retinal vasculature. Results BacFLT-GFP evoked the highest levels of expression in the endothelial cell line BUVEC-E6E7-1, similar to those reached by recombinant baculovirus carrying the CMV promoter (112% relative to BacCMV-GFP, n = 4). Interestingly, BacFLT-GFP directed high levels of expression in rat glioma C6 and in human glioblastoma CH235 cells (34.78% and 47.86% relative to BacCMV-GFP, respectively). Histone deacetylase inhibitors such as butyrate or trichostatin A enhanced the transcriptional activity of both BacCMV-GFP and BacFLT-GFP. Thus, in this study histone deacetylation appears to be a central mechanism for the silencing of baculovirus, independently of the promoter utilized. In vivo transcriptional targeting was demonstrated in adult rat retinal vasculature by intravitreal delivery of BacFLT-GFP and immunohistochemical staining with von Willebrand factor (vWF). Analysis by fluorescence microscopy and deconvolved three-dimensional confocal microscopy of retinal whole mounts obtained after 3 days of baculovirus injection showed that most GFP-expressing cells localized to the inner limiting membrane (ILM) and ganglion cell layer (GCL) and colocalize with vWF (70%, n = 10) in blood vessels, confirming the endothelial phenotype of the transduced cells. Conclusion Taken together, our results indicate that the restricted expression in endothelial cells

  17. The genome of Gryllus bimaculatus nudivirus indicates an ancient diversification of baculovirus-related nonoccluded nudiviruses of insects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjie; Kleespies, Regina G; Huger, Alois M; Jehle, Johannes A

    2007-05-01

    The Gryllus bimaculatus nudivirus (GbNV) infects nymphs and adults of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). GbNV and other nudiviruses such as Heliothis zea nudivirus 1 (HzNV-1) and Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus (OrNV) were previously called "nonoccluded baculoviruses" as they share some similar structural, genomic, and replication aspects with members of the family Baculoviridae. Their relationships to each other and to baculoviruses are elucidated by the sequence of the complete genome of GbNV, which is 96,944 bp, has an AT content of 72%, and potentially contains 98 predicted protein-coding open reading frames (ORFs). Forty-one ORFs of GbNV share sequence similarities with ORFs found in OrNV, HzNV-1, baculoviruses, and bacteria. Most notably, 15 GbNV ORFs are homologous to the baculovirus core genes, which are associated with transcription (lef-8, lef-9, lef-4, vlf-1, and lef-5), replication (dnapol), structural proteins (p74, pif-1, pif-2, pif-3, vp91, and odv-e56), and proteins of unknown function (38K, ac81, and 19kda). Homologues to these baculovirus core genes have been predicted in HzNV-1 as well. Six GbNV ORFs are homologous to nonconserved baculovirus genes dnaligase, helicase 2, rr1, rr2, iap-3, and desmoplakin. However, the remaining 57 ORFs revealed no homology or poor similarities to the current gene databases. No homologous repeat (hr) sequences but fourteen short direct repeat (dr) regions were detected in the GbNV genome. Gene content and sequence similarity suggest that the nudiviruses GbNV, HzNV-1, and OrNV form a monophyletic group of nonoccluded double-stranded DNA viruses, which separated from the baculovirus lineage before this radiated into dipteran-, hymenopteran-, and lepidopteran-specific clades of occluded nucleopolyhedroviruses and granuloviruses. The accumulated information on the GbNV genome suggests that nudiviruses form a highly diverse and phylogenetically ancient sister group of the baculoviruses, which have

  18. Recombinant Protein Production in Large-Scale Agitated Bioreactors Using the Baculovirus Expression Vector System.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Christine M; Montes, Johnny; Aucoin, Marc G; Kamen, Amine A

    2016-01-01

    The production of recombinant proteins using the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) in large-scale agitated bioreactors is discussed in this chapter. Detailed methods of the key stages of a batch process, including host cell growth, virus stock amplification and quantification, bioreactor preparation and operation, the infection process, final harvesting, and primary separation steps for recovery of the product are presented. Furthermore, methods involved with advanced on-line monitoring and bioreactor control, which have a significant impact on the overall process success, are briefly discussed.

  19. Identification of genes involved in DNA replication of the Autographa californica baculovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Kool, M; Ahrens, C H; Goldbach, R W; Rohrmann, G F; Vlak, J M

    1994-01-01

    By use of a transient replication assay, nine genes involved in DNA replication were identified in the genome of the Autographa californica baculovirus. Six genes encoding helicase, DNA polymerase, IE-1, LEF-1, LEF-2, and LEF-3 are essential for DNA replication while three genes encoding P35, IE-2, and PE38 stimulate DNA replication. No stimulation by the AcMNPV pcna gene, encoding a protein with sequence homology to proliferating-cell nuclear antigen, was observed. A pattern of amino acids found in a number of single-stranded-DNA-binding proteins was identified in the carboxyl-terminal region of IE-1. Images PMID:7972036

  20. Antigenic evaluation of a recombinant baculovirus-expressed Sarcocystis neurona SAG1 antigen.

    PubMed

    Gupta, G D; Lakritz, J; Saville, W J; Livingston, R S; Dubey, J P; Middleton, J R; Marsh, A E

    2004-10-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the primary parasite associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). This is a commonly diagnosed neurological disorder in the Americas that infects the central nervous system of horses. Current serologic assays utilize culture-derived parasites as antigen. This method requires large numbers of parasites to be grown in culture, which is labor intensive and time consuming. Also, a culture-derived whole-parasite preparation contains conserved antigens that could cross-react with antibodies against other Sarcocystis species and members of Sarcocystidae such as Neospora spp., Hammondia spp., and Toxoplasma gondii. Therefore, there is a need to develop an improved method for the detection of S. neurona-specific antibodies. The sera of infected horses react strongly to surface antigen 1 (SnSAG1), an approximately 29-kDa protein, in immunoblot analysis, suggesting that it is an immunodominant antigen. The SnSAG1 gene of S. neurona was cloned, and recombinant S. neurona SAG1 protein (rSnSAG1-Bac) was expressed with the use of a baculovirus system. By immunoblot analysis, the rSnSAG1-Bac antigen detected antibodies to S. neurona from naturally infected and experimentally inoculated equids, cats, rabbit, mice, and skunk. This is the first report of a baculovirus-expressed recombinant S. neurona antigen being used to detect anti-S. neurona antibodies in a variety of host species.

  1. A novel recombinant baculovirus overexpressing a Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin enhances insecticidal activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Baculoviruses have been genetically modified to express foreign genes under powerful promoters in order to accelerate their speed of killing. In this study a truncated form of cry1Ab gene derived from Bacillus thuringinsis (Bt) subsp. aegypti isolate Bt7 was engineered into the genome of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nuclearpolyhedrosis wild type virus, in place of the polyhedrin gene by using homologous recombination in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf) cells between a transfer vector carrying the Bt gene and the wild type virus linearized DNA. Recombinant wild type virus containing the cry1Ab gene was detected as blue occlusion-negative plaques in monolayers of Sf cells grown in the presence of X-Gal. In Sf cells infected with plaque-purified recombinant virus, the cry1Ab gene was expressed to yield a protein of approximately 82-kDa, as determined by immunoblot analysis. The toxicity of the recombinant virus expressing the insecticidal crystal protein (ICP) was compared to that of the wild-type virus. Infected-cell extract was toxic to cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis second instar larvae and the estimated LC50 was 1.7 μg/ml for the recombinant virus compared with that of wild-type virus which was 10 μg/ml. PMID:24735532

  2. Production of human type II collagen using an efficient baculovirus-silkworm multigene expression system.

    PubMed

    Qi, Qi; Yao, Lunguang; Liang, Zhisheng; Yan, Donghua; Li, Zhuo; Huang, Yadong; Sun, Jingchen

    2016-12-01

    Human type II collagen is a macromolecular protein found throughout the human body. The baculovirus expression vector system is one of the most ideal systems for the routine production and display of recombinant eukaryotic proteins in insect, larvae, and mammalian cells. We use this system to express a full-length gene, human type II collagen cDNA (4257 bp), in cultured Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells (Sf9), Bombyx mori cells, and silkworm larvae. In this study, the expression of human type II collagen gene in both insect cells and silkworm larvae was purified by nickel column chromatography, leading to 300-kDa bands in SDS-PAGE and western blotting indicative of collagen α-chains organized in a triple-helical structure. About 1 mg/larva human type II collagen is purified from silkworm skin, which shows a putative large scale of collagen production way. An activity assay of recombinant human type II collagen expressed by silkworm larvae demonstrated that the recombinant protein has considerable bioactive properties. Scanning electron microscopy of purified proteins clearly reveals randomly distributed and pitted structures. We conclude that the baculovirus-silkworm multigene expression system can be used as an efficient platform for express active human type II collagen and other complicated eukaryotic proteins.

  3. Bioactive baculovirus nanohybrids for stent based rapid vascular re-endothelialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Arghya; Elias, Cynthia B.; Shum-Tim, Dominique; Prakash, Satya

    2013-08-01

    Present study, for the first time, reports the development of a nanohybridized baculovirus based stent that can locally promote vascular re-endothelialization by efficient delivery of pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) genes. In vitro data demonstrated rapid expression of functionally active Vegf by the bioactive stent-transduced vascular cells. In vivo site-specific transgene expression was observed at the stented regions of balloon-denuded canine femoral artery, which eventually lead to significant endothelial recovery at the injured sites. A significant reduction in neointima formation (2.23 +/- 0.56 mm2 vs 2.78 +/- 0.49 mm2 and 3.11 +/- 0.23 mm2, p < 0.05; n = 8) and percent stenosis was observed in treated stent group compared to negative control and bare metal stent groups. These findings collectively implicate the potential of this newly developed baculovirus based biotherapeutic stent to ameliorate damaged vascular biology and attenuate re-narrowing of stented artery by inhibiting neointima formation.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the metalloglycoprotein esterase A4 using a baculovirus expression system

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraki, Toshiki; Shibayama, Naoya; Yoon, Young-Ho; Yun, Kyung-Mook; Hamamoto, Toshiro; Tame, Jeremy R. H.; Park, Sam-Yong

    2007-09-01

    Esterase A4 (EA4) is a timer protein found in diapause eggs of the silkworm Bombyx mori. The gene for this metalloglycoprotein was cloned from B. mori eggs and expressed using a baculovirus expression system in silkworm pupae. Crystals of the purified protein have been grown that diffract to beyond 2.1 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. Esterase A4 (EA4) is a timer protein found in diapause eggs of the silkworm Bombyx mori. The gene for this metalloglycoprotein was cloned from B. mori eggs and expressed using a baculovirus expression system in silkworm pupae. Crystals of the purified protein have been grown that diffract to beyond 2.1 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. The protein crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.1, b = 73.9, c = 47.4 Å, β = 104.1°. With one dimer per asymmetric unit, the crystal volume per unit protein weight (V{sub M}) is 2.3 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and the solvent content is 47%.

  5. Baculovirus envelope protein ODV-E66 is a novel chondroitinase with distinct substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Nobuo; Setoyama, Yuka; Chiba, Mie; Kimata, Koji; Watanabe, Hideto

    2011-08-19

    Chondroitin sulfate is a linear polysaccharide of alternating D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues with sulfate groups at various positions of the sugars. It interacts with and regulates cytokine and growth factor signal transduction, thus influencing development, organ morphogenesis, inflammation, and infection. We found chondroitinase activity in medium conditioned by baculovirus-infected insect cells and identified a novel chondroitinase. Sequence analysis revealed that the enzyme was a truncated form of occlusion-derived virus envelope protein 66 (ODV-E66) of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus. The enzyme was a novel chondroitin lyase with distinct substrate specificity. The enzyme was active over a wide range of pH (pH 4-9) and temperature (30-60 °C) and was unaffected by divalent metal ions. The ODV-E66 truncated protein digested chondroitin most efficiently followed by chondroitin 6-sulfate. It degraded hyaluronan to a minimal extent but did not degrade dermatan sulfate, heparin, and N-acetylheparosan. Further analysis using chemo-enzymatically synthesized substrates revealed that the enzyme specifically acted on glucuronate residues in non-sulfated and chondroitin 6-sulfate structures but not in chondroitin 4-sulfate structures. These results suggest that this chondroitinase is useful for detailed structural and compositional analysis of chondroitin sulfate, preparation of specific chondroitin oligosaccharides, and study of baculovirus infection mechanism.

  6. Properties of baculovirus particles displaying GFP analyzed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Toivola, Jouni; Ojala, Kirsi; Michel, Patrik O; Vuento, Matti; Oker-Blom, Christian

    2002-12-01

    Recombinant baculovirus particles displaying green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the major envelope glycoprotein gp64 of the Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) were characterized by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). FCS detected Brownian motion of single, intact recombinant baculovirus display particles with a diffusion coefficient (D) of (2.89 +/- 0.74) x 10(-8) cm2s(-1) and an apparent hydrodynamic radius of 83.35 +/- 21.22 nm. In the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Triton X-100, and octylglucoside, the diffusion time was reduced to the 0.2 ms range (D = 7.57 x 10(-7) cm2s(-1)), showing that the fusion proteins were anchored in the viral envelope. This allowed for a calculation of the number of single gp64 fusion proteins incorporated in the viral membrane. A mean value of 3.2 fluorescent proteins per virus particle was obtained. Our results show that FCS is the method of choice for studying enveloped viruses such as a display virus with one component being GFP.

  7. Baculovirus vector as an avian influenza vaccine: hemagglutinin expression and presentation augment the vaccine immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Yuan; Lin, Shih-Yeh; Cheng, Ming-Chu; Tsai, Ching-Ping; Hung, Chang-Lin; Lo, Kai-Wei; Hwang, Yung; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2013-03-10

    Baculovirus simultaneously displaying and expressing the avian influenza virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA) protein can induce potent anti-HA humoral and cellular immune responses. Based on the hypothesis that improving the antigen expression and presentation can further boost the AIV vaccine efficacies, we first constructed a baculoviral vector (Bac-HAW) with HA gene fused with the woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element (WPRE) near its 3' end and expressed under the control of the hybrid CAG promoter. The WPRE fusion improved the HA expression and augmented the humoral and Th1 cellular immune responses after intramuscular administration into BALB/c mice. With Bac-HAW as the backbone, we next constructed Bac-HAMW which harbored the HA gene flanked with the signal sequence (MHCIss) and trafficking domain (MITD) of MHC class I molecule. In comparison with Bac-HAW, Bac-HAMW ameliorated the HA peptide presentation, significantly elevated the HA-specific humoral response (total IgG, IgG2a and hemagglutination inhibition titers) and favorably boosted the Th1 and IFN-γ(+)/CD8(+) T cell responses without extraneous adjuvants. These data collectively confirmed that enhancement of antigen expression and presentation by combining the WPRE and MHCIss/MITD fusion can potentiate the immunogenicity of the baculovirus-based vaccine, and implicates the potential of Bac-HAMW as an appealing AIV vaccine.

  8. How baculovirus polyhedra fit square pegs into round holes to robustly package viruses.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaoyun; Sutton, Geoff; Evans, Gwyndaf; Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin; Stuart, David I

    2010-01-20

    Natural protein crystals (polyhedra) armour certain viruses, allowing them to survive for years under hostile conditions. We have determined the structure of polyhedra of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), revealing a highly symmetrical covalently cross-braced robust lattice, the subunits of which possess a flexible adaptor enabling this supra-molecular assembly to specifically entrap massive baculoviruses. Inter-subunit chemical switches modulate the controlled release of virus particles in the unusual high pH environment of the target insect's gut. Surprisingly, the polyhedrin subunits are more similar to picornavirus coat proteins than to the polyhedrin of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV). It is, therefore, remarkable that both AcMNPV and CPV polyhedra possess identical crystal lattices and crystal symmetry. This crystalline arrangement must be particularly well suited to the functional requirements of the polyhedra and has been either preserved or re-selected during evolution. The use of flexible adaptors to generate a powerful system for packaging irregular particles is characteristic of the AcMNPV polyhedrin and may provide a vehicle to sequester a wide range of objects such as biological nano-particles.

  9. Can a chitin-synthesis-inhibiting turfgrass fungicide enhance black cutworm susceptibility to a baculovirus?

    PubMed

    Bixby-Brosi, Andrea J; Potter, Daniel A

    2012-03-01

    Developmental resistance, i.e. reduced virulence and speed of kill of late instars, is a limiting factor in the use of baculoviruses for caterpillar control. Agrotis ipsilon multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgipMNPV) is highly infective to young black cutworms, Agrotis ipsilon, but too slow-acting against late instars for effective curative control on golf courses or sports fields. Chitin-synthesis-inhibiting fungicides containing the active ingredient polyoxin-d are used to control fungal diseases in turfgrass, and similar compounds have been shown in the laboratory to synergize baculoviruses by disrupting peritrophic membrane function. This study tested whether applying the virus together with such a fungicide can synergize AgipMNPV activity against A. ipsilon in turfgrass. The addition of a chitin synthesis inhibitor failed to increase AgipMNPV infectivity to A. ipsilon in the field. Rather, delayed and slightly reduced mortality from viral infection was seen when larvae fed on fungicide/virus-treated grasses as opposed to virus-only treatments. Choice tests revealed the fungicide residues to be a mild feeding deterrent. Because polyoxin-d does not deactivate AgipMNPV, the two substances are compatible. However, combination applications of polyoxin-d and Agip MNPV on turfgrass might interfere with larval ingestion of a lethal virus dose, resulting in prolonged larval feeding in the field. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Local Immune Stimulation by Intravesical Instillation of Baculovirus to Enable Bladder Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Wei Xia; Zhao, Ying; Kwang, Timothy; Wu, Chunxiao; Chen, Can; Toh, Han Chong; Mahendran, Ratha; Esuvaranathan, Kesavan; Wang, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin is currently used as adjuvant therapy for superficial, non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). However, nearly 40% of patients with NMIBC will fail Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy. In an attempt to investigate the feasibility of using insect baculovirus-based vectors for bladder cancer therapy, we observed that intravesical instillation of baculoviruses without transgene up-regulated a set of Th1-type of cytokines and increased the survival rate of mice bearing established orthotopic bladder tumors. When baculoviral vectors were used to co-deliver the mouse CD40 ligand and IL-15 genes through intravesical instillation, the immunogene therapy triggered significantly increased bladder infiltrations of inflammatory monocytes, CD4+, CD8+ and γδ T lymphocytes. All treated animals survived beyond 12 months whereas control animals died around 2 months after tumor inoculation. We conclude that direct intravesical instillation of baculoviral gene transfer vectors holds the potential to be a novel therapeutic modality for NMIBC. PMID:27273619

  11. Production and purification of recombinant enteropeptidase expressed in an insect-baculovirus cell system.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Mahammad; Somashekhar, R

    2015-01-01

    Enteropeptidase (EC 3.4.21.9) is the glycoprotein enzyme in the small intestine that triggers the activation of the zymogens in pancreatic juice by converting trypsinogen into trypsin. Because of its physiological significance, there have been many studies on the expression, purification, and characterization of enteropeptidase from different species. The baculovirus expression system has been commonly used in research communities and scientific industries for the production of high levels of recombinant proteins, which require posttranslational modifications for functional activity. In the present study, we isolated bovine enteropeptidase catalytic subunit gene from Bos taurus indicus (GenBank accession no. KC756844), and cloned it in pFast Bac HT "A" baculovirus expression donor vector, under the polyhedrin promoter. Recombinant bovine enteropeptidase was expressed in SF-9 insect cells with high expression levels. Recombinant enteropeptidase was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. A 6-mg quantity of pure active protein was obtained from 100 mL culture using this approach. Its activity and kinetic parameters were determined by cleavage of its fluorogenic substrate Gly-(Asp) 4-Lys-β-naphthylamide. The recombinant bovine enteropeptidase showed a K m value of 0.75 ± 0.02 mM with K cat 25 ± 1 s.

  12. Three-dimensional reconstruction of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) spermatozoa using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tianyi; Paterson, Brian D; Webb, Robyn; Johnston, Stephen D

    2016-05-01

    Serial Block-Face Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBF-SEM) was used in this study to examine the ultrastructural morphology of Penaeus monodon spermatozoa. SBF-SEM provided a large dataset of sequential electron-microscopic-level images that facilitated comprehensive ultrastructural observations and three-dimensional reconstructions of the sperm cell. Reconstruction divulged a nuclear region of the spermatophoral spermatozoon filled with decondensed chromatin but with two apparent levels of packaging density. In addition, the nuclear region contained, not only numerous filamentous chromatin elements with dense microregions, but also large centrally gathered granular masses. Analysis of the sperm cytoplasm revealed the presence of degenerated mitochondria and membrane-less dense granules. A large electron-lucent vesicle and "arch-like" structures were apparent in the subacrosomal area, and an acrosomal core was found in the acrosomal vesicle. The spermatozoal spike arose from the inner membrane of the acrosomal vesicle, which was slightly bulbous in the middle region of the acrosomal vesicle, but then extended distally into a broad dense plate and to a sharp point proximally. This study has demonstrated that SBF-SEM is a powerful technique for the 3D ultrastructural reconstruction of prawn spermatozoa, that will no doubt be informative for further studies of sperm assessment, reproductive pathology and the spermiocladistics of penaeid prawns, and other decapod crustaceans.

  13. Adaptation of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, to different salinities through an excretory function of the antennal gland.

    PubMed

    Buranajitpirom, Decha; Asuvapongpatana, Somluk; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Wongprasert, Kanokpan; Namwong, Wisa; Poltana, Pisit; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm

    2010-06-01

    Black tiger shrimps (Penaeus monodon) are able to survive and can be reared under various salinities, possibly by the cellular adaptation of their excretory system, particularly the antennal gland, which is known to regulate body fluid in crustaceans. We have investigated the morphological and biochemical alterations of the antennal glands in shrimp reared in 7, 15, or 30 ppt seawater. Drastic changes occur in animals reared under 7 ppt conditions. Ultrastructural studies of the antennal gland in shrimps reared in 7 ppt seawater have revealed that podocytic cells in the coelomosacs ramify with more cytoplasmic processes forming the filtration slits, and that the tubular labyrinth cells possess more mitochondria in their basal striation and a wider tubular lumen than those found in the other groups. Many apical cytoplasmic blebs from labyrinth cells have also been seen in the lumen of the labyrinths under 7 ppt conditions, a feature that is not as prominent under the other conditions. The expression and activity of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the antennal gland are also correlated with the surrounding environment: the lower the salinity, the higher the expression and activity of the enzyme. Immunohistochemistry results have demonstrated the highest staining intensity in the labyrinth cells of shrimps reared under 7 ppt conditions. Our findings thus suggest that one of the adaptation mechanisms of this shrimp to the surrounding salinity is the regulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase expression in the antennal gland, in conjunction with subcellular changes in its excretory cells.

  14. Preliminary study on haemocyte response to white spot syndrome virus infection in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    van de Braak, C B T; Botterblom, M H A; Huisman, E A; Rombout, J H W M; van der Knaap, W P W

    2002-08-29

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been a major cause of shrimp mortality in aquaculture in the past decade. In contrast to extensive studies on the morphology and genome structure of the virus, little work has been done on the defence reaction of the host after WSSV infection. Therefore, we examined the haemocyte response to experimental WSSV infection in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Haemolymph sampling and histology showed a significant decline in free, circulating haemocytes after WSSV infection. A combination of in situ hybridisation with a specific DNA probe for WSSV and immuno-histochemistry with a specific antibody against haemocyte granules in tissue sections indicated that haemocytes left the circulation and migrated to tissues where many virus-infected cells were present. However, no subsequent haemocyte response to the virus-infected cells was detected. The number of granular cells decreased in the haematopoietic tissue of infected shrimp. In addition, a fibrous-like immuno-reactive layer appears in the outer stromal matrix of tubule walls in the lymphoid organ of infected shrimp. The role of haemocytes in shrimp defence after viral infection is discussed.

  15. Antibacterial function of herbal extracts on growth, survival and immunoprotection in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    AftabUddin, Sheikh; Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Romkey, Shaharin Salma; Shelton, William L

    2017-03-29

    This study examined the effects of an herbal extract composed of nine herbs i.e Aloe vera, Andrographis pariculata, Annona squamosa, Azadirachta indica, Citrus aurantifolia, Coriandrum sativum, Ocimum sanctum, Ollium cepa and Psidium guajava on growth, survival rate and immunoprotection against pathogenic Vibrio harveyi in the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. The petroleum ether, methanol and N-hexen extracts of different herbal plants were selected, processed and thoroughly mixed in equal proportions and added to the shrimp diets at a concentration of 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mL kg(-1). After 60 days of feeding, shrimps were challenged with V. harveyi bacteria (1 × 10(7) cells mL(-1)), which were isolated and propagated from the infected shrimps. The shrimps fed on diets with methanolic extraction of 2.5 mL kg(-1) had significantly (P < 0.001) higher survival rate (76%), specific growth rate (4.26 ± 0.11%) and better food conversion ratio (1.5) than the other groups. This study indicates that addition of methanolic herbal extracts of 2.5 mL kg(-1) can positively influence the immune response of tiger shrimp against V. harveyi infection.

  16. A novel gonad-specific Argonaute 4 serves as a defense against transposons in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Leebonoi, Wantana; Sukthaworn, Suchitraporn; Panyim, Sakol; Udomkit, Apinunt

    2015-02-01

    Argonaute is a key protein of the small-RNA guided gene regulation process. The Argonaute family is generally divided into two subfamilies; AGO and PIWI. In this study, a cDNA encoding a novel type of Argonaute (PmAgo4) in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon was identified and characterized. PmAgo4 cDNA contained an open reading frame of 2433 nucleotides that can be translated into a deduced amino acid with the conserved PAZ and PIWI domains. PmAgo4 was phylogenetically clustered with the AGO subfamily while exhibited a gonad-specific expression pattern similar to that of proteins in the PIWI subfamily. The expression of PmAgo4 did not change significantly in response to either double-stranded RNA or yellow head virus injection suggesting that PmAgo4 may not be the main AGO proteins that play a role in dsRNA-mediated gene silencing or antiviral defense. Interestingly, PmAgo4 appeared to participate in the control of transposons since the activation of both DNA transposon and retrotransposon was detected in the testis of PmAgo4-knockdown shrimp. Our study thus provided the first evidence for an unusual type of the AGO proteins that was predominantly expressed in shrimp gonad and implication of its role in protecting the shrimp genome against an invasion of transposons.

  17. A five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and its inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Somprasong, Nawarat; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2006-01-01

    A novel five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor, SPIPm2, identified from the hemocyte cDNA library of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon was successfully expressed in the Escherichia coli expression system. The expressed recombinant SPIPm2 (rSPIPm2) as inclusion bodies was solubilized with a sodium carbonate buffer, pH10, and purified by gel filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of rSPIPm2 was determined using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to be 29.065 kDa. The inhibitory activities of rSPIPm2 were tested against trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, subtilisin and elastase. The inhibitor exhibited potent inhibitory activities against subtilisin and elastase, weak inhibitory activity against trypsin, and did not inhibit chymotrypsin. Tight-binding inhibition assay suggested that the molar ratios of SPIPm2 to subtilisin and elastase were 1:2 and 1:1, respectively. The inhibition against subtilisin and elastase was a competitive type with inhibition constants (Ki) of 0.52 and 3.27 nM, respectively. The inhibitory activity of SPIPm2 against subtilisin implies that, in shrimp, it may function as a defense component against proteinases from pathogenic bacteria but the elastase inhibitory function is not known.

  18. High-level expression, purification and production of the fungal immunomodulatory protein-gts in baculovirus-infected insect larva.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tzong-Yuan; Chen, Hsin-An; Li, Feng-Yin; Lin, Ching-Ting; Wu, Chi-Ming; Hsieh, Feng-Chia; Tzen, Jason Tze-Cheng; Hsieh, Sheng-Kuo; Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong

    2013-02-01

    Fip-gts, a fungal immunomodulatory protein (Fip) isolated from Ganoderma tsugae (gts), has been reported to possess therapeutic effects in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune disease. To cost-effectively produce Fip-gts and bypass the bottleneck involved in its time-consuming purification from G. tsugae, in this study, we incorporated the SP(bbx) secretion signal into recombinant baculovirus for expressing glycosylated and bioactive rFip-gts in baculovirus-infected insect cells and Trichoplusia ni larva. This is the first study to employ the aerosol infecting T. ni larva with recombinant baculovirus for economical and high-level production of foreign proteins. In this study, one purification could yield 10 mg of rFip-gts protein merely from ∼100 infected T. ni larvae by aerosol inoculation, corresponding to 5 L (5 × 10⁹ cells) of the infected Sf21 culture. In addition, the rFip-gts purified from T. ni larvae could induce the expression of interleukin-2 in murine splenocytes with an immunoresponsive level similar to that induced by LZ-8 (a known potent immunomodulatory protein purified from Ling zhi, Ganoderma lucidum). Thus, our results demonstrated that the larva-based baculovirus expression system can successfully express rFip-gts with the assembling capability required for maintaining immunomodulatory and anticancer activity. Our approach will open a new avenue for the production of rFip-gts and facilitate the immunoregulatory activity of rFip-gts available in the future.

  19. Occurrence and phylogenetic characterization of a baculovirus isolated from Culex quinquefasciatus in São Paulo State, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of baculovirus infections in mosquitoes and characterize them by using molecular tools. Fortnightly collections were made of mosquito larvae in the city of Caraguatatuba. Six larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus were isolated that had white cysts (nodul...

  20. Occurrence and phylogenetic characterization of a baculovirus isolated from Culex quinquefasciatus in São Paulo State, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Baculoviruses are microbial agents that affects mosquito and lepidoptera larvae. They are characterized by rod-shaped virions containing circular double-stranded DNA and are the most studied insect viruses, due to their role as biological pesticides. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrenc...

  1. Induction of an IAP antagonist in Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in response to infection by the baculovirus CuniNPV

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    CuniNPV is a member of the Dipteran–specific baculoviruses in the genus Deltabaculovirus that specifically infects mosquito larvae within the genus Culex while species of Aedes and Anopheles are refractory. Infections are restricted to the nuclei of larval midgut epithelial cells with transmission...

  2. Isolation of a baculovirus variant that exhibits enhanced polyhedra production stability during serial passage in cell culture

    Treesearch

    James M. Slavicek; Melissa J. Mercer; Mary Ellen Kelly; Nancy. Hayes-Plazolles

    1996-01-01

    The formation of few polyhedra mutants during serial propagation of baculoviruses in cell culture encumbers commercial scale production in this system. A Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) variant (isolate A21-MPV) has been isolated and the traits of budded virus (BV) production, synthesis of polyhedra, the...

  3. Baculovirus infection of the armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) feeding on spiny- or smooth-edged grass (Festuca spp.) leaf blades

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Susceptibility of the armyworm, Mythimna unipuncta (Haworth), to infection by a baculovirus isolated from a Kentucky armyworm population was compared on two suspected progenitors of tall fescue, Festuca mairei and Festuca arundinacea subsp. fenas, with spiny leaf margins intact or removed to test wh...

  4. Avian influenza neuraminidase 1 (N1) ELISA using baculovirus expressed antigen and its application on DIVA vaccination strategy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An ELISA was developed using baculovirus express N1 protein from the A/Chicken/Indonesia/11/03 (H5N1) virus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of the N1-ELISA. The specificity of the ELISA was tested with a chicken anti-sera panel raised against N1 to N9 v...

  5. Expression of the hemagglutinin HA1 subunit of the equine influenza virus using a baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed

    Sguazza, Guillermo H; Fuentealba, Nadia A; Tizzano, Marco A; Galosi, Cecilia M; Pecoraro, Marcelo R

    2013-01-01

    Equine influenza virus is a leading cause of respiratory disease in horses worldwide. Disease prevention is by vaccination with inactivated whole virus vaccines. Most current influenza vaccines are generated in embryonated hens' eggs. Virions are harvested from allantoic fluid and chemically inactivated. Although this system has served well over the years, the use of eggs as the substrate for vaccine production has several well-recognized disadvantages (cost, egg supply, waste disposal and yield in eggs). The aim of this study was to evaluate a baculovirus system as a potential method for producing recombinant equine influenza hemagglutinin to be used as a vaccine. The hemagglutinin ectodomain (HA1 subunit) was cloned and expressed using a baculovirus expression vector. The expression was determined by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. A high yield, 20μg/ml of viral protein, was obtained from recombinant baculovirus-infected cells. The immune response in BALB/c mice was examined following rHA1 inoculation. Preliminary results show that recombinant hemagglutinin expressed from baculovirus elicits a strong antibody response in mice; therefore it could be used as an antigen for subunit vaccines and diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution of Pleuroncodes monodon larvae over the continental shelf of south-central Chile: Field and modeling evidence for partial local retention and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yannicelli, Beatriz; Castro, Leonardo; Parada, Carolina; Schneider, Wolfgang; Colas, Francois; Donoso, David

    2012-01-01

    In situ and modeled spatial distribution of squat lobster ( Pleuroncodes monodon) larvae over the continental shelf off south central Chile (35-37°S) was analyzed along with currents and hydrography. We aimed to identify the main larval transport/retention characteristics in the study area, which constitutes the southernmost P. monodon fishing grounds embedded in the Humboldt Current System. We hypothesized that the main contribution to population renewal originates in the two persistent adult aggregations close to the nursery ground that occurs over a continental shelf terrace limited by two submarine canyons. Two extensive bio-physical field campaigns were carried out during the main 2001-2002 upwelling season field data indicated that larvae were released from late austral winter to spring from spots to the north and south of the nursery. Zoea I were found mainly below 50 m depth in southward-flowing waters, whereas older zoea dominated in northward flowing layers above 50 m. Larvae were circumscribed between the coast and the shelf break front and pelagic retention areas were identified over the widest shelf area. Megalopa and juveniles during March, were only found over the nursery area. Individual based simulations coupled to the output of a hydrodynamic model (climatological configuration) for the studied area, showed that the release sites close to the nursery made the largest contribution to recruitment. Sites further north could also contribute to recruitment if hatching occurred later in the upwelling season. The contribution of vertical behavior to larval success was also important, as was the former’s interaction with the site and time of larval release. Our results support the relevance of coastal circulation (affected by topography) on the persistence of P. monodon populations off southern Chile, and the modulation of temporal variability. These results might apply to other abundant species in the area.

  7. Identification and characterisation of microsatellite DNA markers in order to recognise the WSSV susceptible populations of marine giant black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Usri; Dutta, Sourav; Mallik, Ajoy; Mondal, Debabrata; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2015-09-25

    White spot disease (WSD) which is caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) creates severe epizootics in captured and cultured black tiger shrimp, resulting a huge loss in the economic output of the aquaculture industry worldwide. Performing selective breeding using DNA markers would prove to be a potential cost effective strategy for long term disease control in shrimps. In the present investigation, microsatellite DNA fingerprints were compared between naturally occurring WSSV resistant and susceptible populations of Penaeus monodon. After PCR with a set of shrimp specific primers three reproducible DNA fragments of varying sizes were found, among which 442 bp and 236 bp fragments were present in considerably higher frequencies in the WSSV susceptible shrimp population (p ≤ 0.0001). After WSSV challenge experiment the copy no. of WSSV was determined using real-time PCR, where it was found to be almost 4 × 10(3) fold higher in WSSV susceptible shrimps than in the resistant ones. Thus, these microsatellite DNA markers will be useful to distinguish between WSSV susceptible and resistant brood stocks of P. monodon. Sequencing studies revealed that these DNA markers were novel in P. monodon. Highest WSSV resistance using these DNA markers, was observed in the shrimp populations of Andaman Island and Chennai among the different coastal areas of India, suggesting these places as safe for specific pathogen resistant brood stock shrimp collection. This study will be a very effective platform towards understanding the molecular pathogenesis of WSD for generation of disease free shrimp aquaculture industry.

  8. Time-course and levels of apoptosis in various tissues of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon infected with white-spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Wongprasert, Kanokpan; Khanobdee, Kornnika; Glunukarn, Supatra Somapa; Meeratana, Prasert; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm

    2003-06-20

    This study focused on apoptosis in various tissues of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon following white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) injection. The study included: (1) light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of various tissues; (2) fluorescent LM of nuclear DNA by staining with 4, 6-diamidine-2-phenyl indole dihydrochloride (DAPI) and TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) techniques; and (3) determination of caspase-3 activity. Juvenile P. monodon were injected with WSSV, and several tissues of ectodermal and mesodermal origin were studied at different intervals after injection. The total haemocyte count had decreased to one-tenth of its original level 60 h after WSSV injection. By LM, extensive destruction by WSSV was observed in the stomach epithelium, gills, hematopoietic tissue, hemocytes and the heart, but the most severely affected tissue was the subcuticular epithelium. TEM revealed that at 6 h post-injection (p.i.) the chromatin of infected nuclei was marginated, and by 24 h p.i. the nuclei were filled with enveloped and non-enveloped WSSV virions. At later stages of the infection, the nucleus extruded WSSV particles. Chromatin margination and nuclear condensation and fragmentation (i.e. signs of apoptosis) were observed as early as 6 h p.i. in all affected tissues, but occurred in cells without WSSV virions rather than in cells with virions. The occurrence of apoptosis was supported by data obtained using TUNEL and by DAPI-staining and progressed from 6 to 60 h p.i. In addition, caspase-3 activity in WSSV-infected shrimp was about 6-fold higher than that in uninfected shrimp. The data strongly suggests that apoptosis occurs following WSSV infection in P. monodon, but the extent to which it contributes to shrimp mortality requires further investigation.

  9. Expression Profile of Penaeus monodon Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme (PmUbc) at Protein Level in White spot syndrome virus Challenged Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Keezhedath, Jeena; Kurcheti, Pani Prasad; Pathan, Mujahid Khan; Babu, Gireesh P; Tripathi, Gayatri; Sudhagar, Arun; Rao, Srinivas P

    2013-06-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the major pathogens in shrimp aquaculture. Four proteins of WSSV are predicted to encode a RING H2 domain, which in presence of ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (E2) in shrimps can function as viral E3 ligase and modulate the host ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Modulation of host ubiquitin proteasome pathway by viral proteins is implicated in viral pathogenesis. In the present study, expression profile of Penaeus monodon Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (PmUbc) was studied at protein level in WSSV challenged shrimp. A time point analysis of the expression of PmUbc was carried out at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post WSSV challenge in P. monodon. Recombinant PmUbc (rPmUbc) was produced in prokaryotic expression vector, BL21 (DE3) pLys S. The PmUbc expression pattern was studied by ELISA with rPmUbc antibodies raised in rabbit. A significant increase in PmUbc expression at 24 h post infection (hpi) was observed followed by a decline till 72 hpi. Since the up-regulation and a tremendous decline of PmUbc protein expression was observed at 24 and in 72 hpi respectively in ELISA, it can be speculated that these proteins might interact with host ubiquitination pathway for viral pathogenesis. Many findings have shown that viral infection can up-regulate expression of ubiquitin and that the ubiquitin system plays a key role in the course of viral infection. The present study reveals the expression patterns of PmUbc at protein level in WSSV infected P. monodon. However, further studies are to be carried out to unfold the molecular mechanism of interaction between host and virus to devise efficient control strategies for this major culprit in shrimp culture industry.

  10. Characterization and expression analysis of a chitinase gene (PmChi-4) from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) under pathogen infection and ambient ammonia nitrogen stress.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaimin; Zhou, Falin; Huang, Jianhua; Yang, Qibin; Jiang, Song; Qiu, Lihua; Yang, Lishi; Zhu, Caiyan; Jiang, Shigui

    2017-03-01

    Chitinase is a multi-gene family, which play important physiological roles in crustaceans, involved in several biological processes, including digestion, molting and defense against viruses. In the present study, a chitinase-4 gene (PmChi-4) was cloned from Penaeus monodon by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full length of PmChi-4 cDNA was 2178 bp, including an 1815 bp open reading frame (ORF) which encoded 604 amino acid residues. The predicted PmChi-4 protein was 67.7 kDa and shared 61%-88% identity with the type of Chi-4s from other crustaceans. Quantitative real-time (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that PmChi-4 was expressed ubiquitously with the high expression level in hepatopancreas. PmChi-4 was expressed throughout the whole larvae stages, and the highest level of PmChi-4 transcripts was detected at Mysis3 stage, which indicated that PmChi-4 may be involved in larval metamorphosis. In order to know whether PmChi-4 was related to the immune response of shrimp, Streptococcus agalactiae and Vibrio harveyi were chosen to challenge the shrimp, PmChi-4 transcripts were significantly increased and reached to the maximum at 6 h in hepatopancreas and at 12 h in gill, respectively. The results suggested that PmChi-4 participated in the immune defenses to pathogen infection. Besides, the ammonia nitrogen stress treatment was also carried out, PmChi-4 transcripts were significantly decreased in hepatopancreas and gill and the result showed that PmChi-4 may be involved in ammonia nitrogen stress in P. monodon. Overall, our present study lay a foundation for further research into the biological function and regulation of chitinase in P. monodon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Baculovirus Vector-Mediated Transfer of Sodium Iodide Symporter and Plasminogen Kringle 5 Genes for Tumor Radioiodide Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Guo, Rui; Shi, Shuo; Miao, Yin; Zhang, Yifan; Li, Biao

    2014-01-01

    Background Both tumor cells and their supporting endothelial cells should be considered for targeted cell killing when designing cancer treatments. Here we investigated the feasibility of combining radioiodide and antiangiogenic therapies after baculovirus-mediated transfer of genes encoding the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and plasminogen kringle 5 (K5). Methods A recombinant baculovirus containing the NIS gene under control of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter and the K5 gene driven by the early growth response 1 (Egr1) promoter was developed. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was performed to confirm the activation of hTERT transcription. NIS and K5 gene expression were identified by Western blot and Real-Time PCR. Functional NIS activity in baculovirus-infected Hela cells was confirmed by the uptake of 125I and cytotoxicity of 131I. The apoptotic effect of 131I-induced K5 on baculovirus-infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was analyzed by a flow cytometry-based assay. In vivo, NIS reporter gene imaging and therapeutic experiments with 131I were performed. Finally, the microvessel density (MVD) in tumors after treatment was determined by CD31 immunostaining. Results The activation of hTERT transcription was specifically up-regulated in tumor cells. NIS gene expression markedly increased in baculovirus-infected HeLa cells, but not in MRC5 cells. The Hela cells showed a significant increase of 125I uptake, which was inhibited by NaClO4, and a notably decreased cell survival rate by 131I treatment. Expression of the K5 gene induced by 131I was elevated in a dose- and time-dependent manner and resulted in the apoptosis of HUVECs. Furthermore, 131I SPECT imaging clearly showed cervical tumor xenografts infected with recombinant baculovirus. Following therapy, tumor growth was significantly retarded. CD31 immunostaining confirmed a significant decrease of MVD. Conclusion The recombinant baculovirus supports a promising

  12. The Genome of Gryllus bimaculatus Nudivirus Indicates an Ancient Diversification of Baculovirus-Related Nonoccluded Nudiviruses of Insects▿

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongjie; Kleespies, Regina G.; Huger, Alois M.; Jehle, Johannes A.

    2007-01-01

    The Gryllus bimaculatus nudivirus (GbNV) infects nymphs and adults of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae). GbNV and other nudiviruses such as Heliothis zea nudivirus 1 (HzNV-1) and Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus (OrNV) were previously called “nonoccluded baculoviruses” as they share some similar structural, genomic, and replication aspects with members of the family Baculoviridae. Their relationships to each other and to baculoviruses are elucidated by the sequence of the complete genome of GbNV, which is 96,944 bp, has an AT content of 72%, and potentially contains 98 predicted protein-coding open reading frames (ORFs). Forty-one ORFs of GbNV share sequence similarities with ORFs found in OrNV, HzNV-1, baculoviruses, and bacteria. Most notably, 15 GbNV ORFs are homologous to the baculovirus core genes, which are associated with transcription (lef-8, lef-9, lef-4, vlf-1, and lef-5), replication (dnapol), structural proteins (p74, pif-1, pif-2, pif-3, vp91, and odv-e56), and proteins of unknown function (38K, ac81, and 19kda). Homologues to these baculovirus core genes have been predicted in HzNV-1 as well. Six GbNV ORFs are homologous to nonconserved baculovirus genes dnaligase, helicase 2, rr1, rr2, iap-3, and desmoplakin. However, the remaining 57 ORFs revealed no homology or poor similarities to the current gene databases. No homologous repeat (hr) sequences but fourteen short direct repeat (dr) regions were detected in the GbNV genome. Gene content and sequence similarity suggest that the nudiviruses GbNV, HzNV-1, and OrNV form a monophyletic group of nonoccluded double-stranded DNA viruses, which separated from the baculovirus lineage before this radiated into dipteran-, hymenopteran-, and lepidopteran-specific clades of occluded nucleopolyhedroviruses and granuloviruses. The accumulated information on the GbNV genome suggests that nudiviruses form a highly diverse and phylogenetically ancient sister group of the baculoviruses, which have

  13. Vaccination with Recombinant Baculovirus Expressing Ranavirus Major Capsid Protein Induces Protective Immunity in Chinese Giant Salamander, Andrias davidianus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Xinglang; Han, Yahui; Jia, Qiuhong; Gao, Hongwei

    2017-07-25

    The Chinese giant salamander iridovirus (CGSIV), belonging to the genus Ranavirus in the family Iridoviridae, is the causative agent of an emerging infectious disease causing high mortality of more than 90% and economic losses in Chinese giant salamanders in China. In this study, a recombinant baculovirus-based vaccine expressing the CGSIV major capsid protein (MCP) was developed and its protective immunity in Chinese giant salamanders was evaluated. The recombinant Autographacalifornica nucleopolyhedrosis virus (AcNPV), expressing CGSIV MCP, designated as AcNPV-MCP, was generated with the highest titers of 1 × 10⁸ plaque forming units/mL (PFU/mL) and confirmed by Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assays. Western blot analysis revealed that the expressed MCP reacted with mouse anti-MCP monoclonal antibodies at the band of about 53 kDa. The results of IIF indicated that the MCP was expressed in the infected Spodoptera frugiperda 9 (Sf9) cells with the recombinant baculovirus, and the Chinese giant salamander muscle cells also transduced with the AcNPV-MCP. Immunization with the recombinant baculovirus of AcNPV-MCP elicited robust specific humoral immune responses detected by ELISA and neutralization assays and potent cellular immune responses in Chinese giant salamanders. Importantly, the effective immunization conferred highly protective immunity for Chinese giant salamanders against CGSIV challenge and produced a relative percent of survival rate of 84%. Thus, the recombinant baculovirus expressing CGSIV MCP can induce significant immune responses involving both humoral and cell-mediated immunity in Chinese giant salamanders and might represent a potential baculovirus based vaccine candidate for Chinese giant salamanders against CGSIV.

  14. Expression of the lef5 gene from Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus contributes to the baculovirus stability in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Solís, María; Jakubowska, Agata K; Herrero, Salvador

    2017-09-09

    Baculoviruses are a broad group of viruses infecting insects, predominately of the order Lepidoptera. They are used worldwide as biological insecticides and as expression vectors to produce recombinant proteins. Baculoviruses replicate in their host, although several cell lines have been developed for in vitro replication. Nevertheless, replication of baculoviruses in cell culture involves the generation of defective viruses with a decrease in productivity and virulence. Transcriptional studies of the Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) and the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) infective process revealed differences in the expression patterns when the virus replicated under in vitro (Se301 cells) or in vivo (S. exigua larvae) conditions. The late expression factor 5 (lef5) gene was found to be highly overexpressed when the virus replicates in larvae. To test the possible role of lef5 expression in viral stability, recombinant AcMNPV expressing the lef5 gene from SeMNPV (Se-lef5) was generated and its stability was monitored during successive infection passages in Sf21 cells by evaluating the loss of several essential and non-essential genes. The gfp transgene was more stable in those viruses expressing the Se-LEF5 protein and the GFP-defective viruses were accumulated at a lower level when compared to its control viruses, confirming the positive influence of lef5 in viral stability during the multiplication process. This work describes for the first time a viral factor involved in transgene stability when baculoviruses replicate in cell culture, opening new ways to facilitate the in vitro production of recombinant proteins using baculovirus.

  15. A New theraphosid Spider Toxin Causes Early Insect Cell Death by Necrosis When Expressed In Vitro during Recombinant Baculovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel Mendes Pereira; Morgado, Fabrício Da Silva; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni; Corzo, Gerardo; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2013-01-01

    Baculoviruses are the most studied insect viruses in the world and are used for biological control of agricultural and forest insect pests. They are also used as versatile vectors for expression of heterologous proteins. One of the major problems of their use as biopesticides is their slow speed to kill insects. Thus, to address this shortcoming, insect-specific neurotoxins from arachnids have been introduced into the baculovirus genome solely aiming to improve its virulence. In this work, an insecticide-like toxin gene was obtained from a cDNA derived from the venom glands of the theraphosid spider Brachypelma albiceps. The mature form of the peptide toxin (called Ba3) has a high content of basic amino acid residues, potential for three possible disulfide bonds, and a predicted three-stranded β-sheetDifferent constructions of the gene were engineered for recombinant baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nuclepolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) expression. Five different forms of Ba3 were assessed; (1) the full-length sequence, (2) the pro-peptide and mature region, (3) only the mature region, and the mature region fused to an (4) insect or a (5) virus-derived signal peptide were inserted separately into the genome of the baculovirus. All the recombinant viruses induced cell death by necrosis earlier in infection relative to a control virus lacking the toxin gene. However, the recombinant virus containing the mature portion of the toxin gene induced a faster cell death than the other recombinants. We found that the toxin construct with the signal peptide and/or pro-peptide regions delayed the necrosis phenotype. When infected cells were subjected to ultrastructural analysis, the cells showed loss of plasma membrane integrity and structural changes in mitochondria before death. Our results suggest this use of baculovirus is a potential tool to help understand or to identify the effect of insect-specific toxic peptides when produced during infection of insect cells. PMID

  16. Development of an in situ toxicity assay system using recombinant baculoviruses.

    PubMed

    Grant, D F; Greene, J F; Pinot, F; Borhan, B; Moghaddam, M F; Hammock, B D; McCutchen, B; Ohkawa, H; Luo, G; Guenthner, T M

    1996-02-23

    A new method for experimentally analyzing the role of enzymes involved in metabolizing mutagenic, carcinogenic, or cytotoxic chemicals is described. Spodoptera fugiperda (SF-21) cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses are used for high level expression of one or more cloned enzymes. The ability of these enzymes to prevent or enhance the toxicity of drugs and xenobiotics is then measured in situ. Initial parameters for the system were developed and optimized using baculoviruses engineered for expression of the mouse soluble epoxide hydrolase (msEH, EC 3.3.2.3) or the rat cytochrome P4501A1. SF-21 cells expressing msEH were resistant to trans-stilbene oxide toxicity as well as several other toxic epoxides including: cis-stilbene oxide, 1,2,7,8-diepoxyoctane, allylbenzene oxide, and estragole oxide. The msEH markedly reduced DNA and protein adduct formation in SF-21 cells exposed to [3H]allylbenzene oxide or [3H]estragole oxide. On the other hand, 9,10-epoxyoctadecanoic acid and methyl 9,10-epoxyoctadecanoate were toxic only to cells expressing sEH, suggesting that the corresponding fatty acid diols were cytotoxic. This was confirmed by showing that chemically synthesized diols of these fatty acid epoxides were toxic to control SF-21 cells at the same concentration as were the epoxides to cells expressing sEH. A recombinant baculovirus containing a chimeric cDNA formed between the rat P4501A1 and the yeast NADPH-P450 reductase was also constructed and expressed in this system. A model compound, naphthalene, was toxic to SF-21 infected with the rat P4501A1/reductase chimeric co-infecting SF-21 cells with either a human or a rat microsomal EH virus along with P4501A1/reductase virus. These results demonstrate the usefulness of this new system for experimentally analyzing the role of enzymes hypothesized to metabolize endogenous and exogenous chemicals of human health concern.

  17. Expression of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus proteins in a baculovirus vector system.

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, J; Storgaard, T; Bloch, B; Alexandersen, S; Aasted, B

    1993-01-01

    We have previously published a detailed transcription map of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) and proposed a model for the translation of the two virion structural proteins (VP1 and VP2) and three nonstructural proteins (NS-1, NS-2, and NS-3) (S. Alexandersen, M. E. Bloom, and S. Perryman, J. Virol. 62:3684-3994, 1988). To verify and further characterize this model, we cloned the predicted open reading frames for NS-1, NS-2, NS-3, VP1-VP2, and VP2 alone into a recombinant baculovirus and expressed them in Sf9 insect cells. Expression of VP1-VP2 or VP2 alone in cDNA and in the genomic form was achieved. The expressed proteins had molecular weights similar to those of the corresponding proteins of wild-type ADV-G, although the ratio of VP1 to VP2 was altered. The recombinant baculovirus-expressed ADV VP1 and VP2 showed nuclear localization in Sf9 cells and were able to form particles indistinguishable, by electron microscopy, from wild-type virus. The large nonstructural protein, NS-1, showed predominantly nuclear localization in Sf9 cells when analyzed by immunofluorescence and had a molecular weight similar to that of wild-type ADV NS-1. Moreover, expression of NS-1 in Sf9 cells caused a change in morphology of the cells and resulted in 10-times-lower titers of recombinant baculovirus during infection, suggesting a cytostatic or cytotoxic action of this protein. The smaller NS-2 gene product seems to be located in the cytoplasm. When analyzed by Western immunoblotting, NS-2 comigrated with an approximately 16-kDa band seen in lysates of ADV-infected feline kidney cells. The putative NS-3 gene product exhibited a diffuse distribution in Sf9 cells and had a molecular weight of approximately 10,000. All of the expressed ADV-encoded proteins were recognized by sera from ADV-infected mink. Thus, expression of ADV cDNAs allowed assignment of the different mRNAs to the viral proteins observed during ADV infection in cell culture and supported our previously proposed

  18. Actin-based motility drives baculovirus transit to the nucleus and cell surface.

    PubMed

    Ohkawa, Taro; Volkman, Loy E; Welch, Matthew D

    2010-07-26

    Most viruses move intracellularly to and from their sites of replication using microtubule-based mechanisms. In this study, we show that nucleocapsids of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus undergo intracellular motility driven by actin polymerization. Motility requires the viral P78/83 capsid protein and the host Arp2/3 complex. Surprisingly, the virus directs two sequential and coordinated phases of actin-based motility. Immediately after cell entry, motility enables exploration of the cytoplasm and collision with the nuclear periphery, speeding nuclear entry and the initiation of viral gene expression. Nuclear entry itself requires transit through nuclear pore complexes. Later, after the onset of early gene expression, motility is required for accumulation of a subpopulation of nucleocapsids in the tips of actin-rich surface spikes. Temporal coordination of actin-based nuclear and surface translocation likely enables rapid transmission to neighboring cells during infection in insects and represents a distinctive evolutionary strategy for overcoming host defenses.

  19. Expression from baculovirus and serological reactivity of the nucleocapsid protein of dolphin morbillivirus.

    PubMed

    Grant, Rebecca J; Kelley, Karen L; Maruniak, James E; Garcia-Maruniak, Alejandra; Barrett, Tom; Manire, Charles A; Romero, Carlos H

    2010-07-14

    The nucleocapsid (N) protein of dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) was expressed from a baculovirus (Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus) vector and shown by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis to be about 57 kDa. Transmission electron microscopy revealed fully assembled nucleocapsid-like particles (NLPs) exhibiting the typical helical herringbone morphology. These NLPs were approximately 20-22 nm in diameter and varied in length from 50 to 100 nm. Purified DMV-N protein was used as antigen in an indirect ELISA (iELISA) and shown to react with rabbit and human antisera to measles virus (MV) and dog sera with antibodies to canine distemper virus (CDV). The iELISA was used for the demonstration of morbillivirus antibodies in the serum of cetaceans and manatees, showing potential as a serological tool for the mass screening of morbillivirus antibodies in marine mammals. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Preparation of connexin43-integrated giant Liposomes by a baculovirus expression-liposome fusion method.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Koki; Tsumoto, Kanta; Arakawa, Satoko; Shimizu, Shigeomi; Morita, Ikuo; Yoshimura, Tetsuro; Akiyoshi, Kazunari

    2010-12-01

    Connexin-43 (Cx43) containing giant liposomes (GL) were prepared by a baculovirus expression-liposome fusion method. Recombinant budded viruses expressing Cx43 were prepared and then fused with GLs containing DOPG/DOPC at pH 4.5. Connexon formation on the GL membrane was observed by transmission electron microscope. Hydrophilic fluorescent dye transfers were observed through a Cx43-mediated pathway not only between Sf9 (Spodoptera frugiperda) cells with Cx43 but also from giant Cx43 liposomes to Cx43-expressing U2OS cells (human osteosarcoma cell). The functional connexin-containing liposome is expected to be useful for cellular cytosolic delivery systems. The original orientation and function of Cx43 was maintained after integration into the liposomes. The liposome fusion method will create new opportunities as a tool for analysis of channel membrane proteins.

  1. Linearization of baculovirus DNA enhances the recovery of recombinant virus expression vectors.

    PubMed Central

    Kitts, P A; Ayres, M D; Possee, R D

    1990-01-01

    Engineered derivatives of Autographa californica multiple nucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) possessing a unique restriction site provide a source of viral DNA that can be linearized by digestion with a specific endonuclease. Circular or linearized DNA from two such viruses were compared in terms of their infectivity and recombinogenic activities. The linear forms were 15- to 150-fold less infectious than the corresponding circular forms, when transfected into Spodoptera frugiperda cells using the calcium phosphate method. Linear viral DNA was, however, proficient at recombination on co-transfection with an appropriate transfer vector. Up to 30% of the progeny viruses were recombinant, a 10-fold higher fraction of recombinants than was obtained from co-transfections with circular AcMNPV DNA. The isolation of a recombinant baculovirus expression vector from any of the AcMNPV transfer vectors currently in use can thus be facilitated by linearization of the viral DNA at the appropriate location. Images PMID:2216760

  2. Biological Activity of Recombinant Bovine Interferon τ Produced by a Silkworm-Baculovirus Gene Expression System

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Hitomi; TSUNAZAKI, Makoto; HAMANO, Takashi; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; OKUDA, Kiyoshi; INUMARU, Shigeki; OKANO, Akira; GESHI, Masaya; HIRAKO, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bovine interferon (bIFN) τ plays a crucial role in maternal-fetal recognition and was expressed using a Bombyx mori (Bm) nuclear polyhedrosis virus (silkworm baculovirus) gene expression system. The biological effects of Bm-recombinant bIFNτ (rbIFNτ) on prostaglandin (PG) F2α synthesis were investigated in cultured bovine endometrial epithelial cells with oxytocin (OT, 100 nM) and on the in vitro development of bovine embryos. Bm-rbIFNτ and OT were shown to suppress PGF2α production in a dose-dependent manner. When in vitro produced morula stage embryos were cultured for 72 hr in modified CR1aa medium supplemented with or without rbIFNτ, Bm-rbIFNτ (10 ng/ml) significantly promoted development to the expanded blastocyst stage. In conclusion, Bm-rbIFNτ was suggested to have the same bioactivity as native IFNτ. PMID:24212505

  3. Baculovirus expression of the glycoprotein gene of Lassa virus and characterization of the recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Hummel, K B; Martin, M L; Auperin, D D

    1992-09-01

    A recombinant baculovirus was constructed that expresses the glycoprotein gene of Lassa virus (Josiah strain) under the transcriptional control of the polyhedrin promoter. The expressed protein (B-LSGPC) comigrated with the authentic viral glycoprotein as observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), was reactive with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) in Western blots, and was glycosylated. Although the recombinant protein was not processed into the mature glycoproteins, G1 and G2, it demonstrated reactivity with all known epitopes as measured by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA), and it was immunogenic, eliciting antisera in rabbits that recognized whole virus in IFAs. Regarding future applications to diagnostic assays, the recombinant glycoprotein proved to be an effective substitute for Lassa virus-infected mammalian cells in IFAs and it was able to distinguish sera from several human cases of Lassa fever, against a panel of known negative sera of African origin, in an enzyme immunoassay (EIA).

  4. Production of CCHF virus-like particle by a baculovirus-insect cell expression system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhao-Rui; Wang, Man-Li; Deng, Fei; Li, Tian-Xian; Hu, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Hua-Lin

    2011-10-01

    Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV) is a tick-born virus of the Nairovirus genus within the Bunyaviridae family, which is widespread and causes high fatality. The nucleocapsid of CCHFV is comprised of N proteins that are encoded by the S segment. In this research, the N protein of CCHFV was expressed in insect cells using a recombinant baculovirus. Under an electron microscope, Virus-Like Particles (VLPs) with various size and morphology were observed in cytoplasmic vesicles in the infected cells. Sucrose-gradient purification of the cell lysate indicated that the VLPs were mainly located in the upper fraction after ultracentrifugation, which was confirmed by Western blot analysis and immuno-electron microscopy (IEM).

  5. Molecular characterization and expression profile of MAP2K1ip1/MP1 gene from tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lishi; Liu, Xianjun; Huang, Jianhua; Yang, Qibin; Qiu, Lihua; Liu, Wenjing; Jiang, Shigui

    2012-05-01

    MAPK kinase 1 interacting protein 1 (MAP2K1ip1) is an important scaffold proteins of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that form an active signaling module and enhance the specificity and spatiality of MAPK signaling. In the present study, we identified and characterized a MAP2K1ip1 cDNA from tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (designated as PmMAP2K1ip1). The open reading frame of PmMAP2K1ip1 is 372 bp encoding 123 amino-acid residues with a MAPK interaction domain. The predicted PmMAP2Kip1 protein is 13.6 KDa with the theoretical isoelectric point of 6.3. PmMAP2K1ip1 shared the highest amino acid with Nasonia vitripennis and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, at 48% and 47.5%, respectively. Phylogenic analysis shows PmMAP2Kip1 is clustering with SpMAP2Kip1, and close to the group of MAP2Kip1s from insect. Furthermore, semiquantitative RT-PCR revealed PmMAP2Kip1 is widely distributed in most examined tissues except nerve, and high expressed in ovary, hemocyte, intestines and hepatopancreas. Meanwhile, PmMAP2k1ip1 is expressed ubiquitously during larval and sex gland development, and keep a high level at the initial development stage. Quantitative real time RT-PCR revealed PmMAP2K1ip1 were up-regulated by lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan (PGN) in haemocyte. These data reveal MAP2K1ip1 is a multifunction protein that involved development and immune response. It is benefit to characterize other MAPK signal genes and elucidate the molecular regulation mechanism of MAPK signaling in tiger shrimp.

  6. Immune gene expression profile of Penaeus monodon in response to marine yeast glucan application and white spot syndrome virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Wilsy; Lowman, Douglas; Antony, Swapna P; Puthumana, Jayesh; Bright Singh, I S; Philip, Rosamma

    2015-04-01

    Immunostimulant potential of eight marine yeast glucans (YG) from Candida parapsilosis R20, Hortaea werneckii R23, Candida spencermartinsiae R28, Candida haemulonii R63, Candida oceani R89, Debaryomyces fabryi R100, Debaryomyces nepalensis R305 and Meyerozyma guilliermondii R340 were tested against WSSV challenge in Penaeus monodon post larvae (PL). Structural characterization of these marine yeast glucans by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) indicated structures containing (1-6)-branched (1-3)-β-D-glucan. PL were fed 0.2% glucan incorporated diet once in seven days for a period of 45 days and the animals were challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The immunostimulatory activity of yeast glucans were assessed pre- and post-challenge WSSV by analysing the expression profile of six antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes viz., anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), crustin-1, crustin-2, crustin-3, penaeidin-3 and penaeidin-5 and 13 immune genes viz., alpha-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M), astakine, caspase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, haemocyanin, peroxinectin, pmCathepsinC, prophenol oxidase (proPO), Rab-7, superoxide dismutase and transglutaminase. Expression of seven WSSV genes viz., DNA polymerase, endonuclease, protein kinase, immediate early gene, latency related gene, thymidine kinase and VP28 were also analysed to detect the presence and intensity of viral infection in the experimental animals post-challenge. The study revealed that yeast glucans (YG) do possess immunostimulatory activity against WSSV and also supported higher survival (40-70 %) post-challenge WSSV. Among the various glucans tested, YG23 showed maximum survival (70.27%), followed by YG20 (66.66%), YG28 (60.97%), YG89 (58.53%), YG100 (54.05%), YG63 (48.64%), YG305 (45.7%) and YG340 (43.24%).

  7. A novel viral responsive protein is involved in hemocyte homeostasis in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Prapavorarat, Adisak; Vatanavicharn, Tipachai; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2010-07-09

    A novel viral responsive protein, namely hemocyte homeostasis-associated protein (HHAP), was characterized for its role in the response of shrimp to white spot syndrome virus infection. The full-length cDNAs of HHAP from the black tiger shrimp (PmHHAP), Penaeus monodon, and the fresh water crayfish (PlHHAP), Pacifastacus leniusculus, were obtained and showed high sequence identity to a hypothetical protein from various organisms, with the highest identity to the hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC006773 from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (54% amino acid sequence identity). Transcripts of PmHHAP were expressed in various shrimp tissues with the highest expression in hematopoietic tissue, whereas the transcripts of PlHHAP were found in the hematopoietic and nerve tissues. Upon white spot syndrome virus infection, a high up-regulation level of shrimp hemocytic HHAP mRNA and protein was observed by real-time reverse transcription-PCR and immunofluorescence microscopy, respectively. Gene silencing of PmHHAP by RNA interference resulted in a significant decrease in the number of circulating hemocytes and 100% shrimp mortality within 30 h of the double-stranded PmHHAP RNA injection (but not in control shrimp), indicating that HHAP is essential for shrimp survival. Interestingly, severe damage of hemocytes was observed in vivo in the PmHHAP knockdown shrimp and in vitro in shrimp primary hemocyte cell culture, suggesting that PmHHAP plays an important role in hemocyte homeostasis. Thus, it is speculated that the up-regulation of PmHHAP is an important mechanism to control circulating hemocyte levels in crustaceans during viral infection.

  8. Characterization of Argonaute2 gene from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and its responses to immune challenges.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lishi; Li, Xiaolan; Jiang, Song; Qiu, Lihua; Zhou, Falin; Liu, Wenjing; Jiang, Shigui

    2014-01-01

    Argonaute2 binds to a short guide RNA (microRNA or short interfering RNA) and guides RNAs direct RISC to complementary mRNAs that are targets for RISC-mediated gene silencing. Here we identified and characterized Argonaute2 from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (designated as PmAgo2). The full-length cDNA of PmAgo2 contained a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 106 bp, an open reading frame (ORF) of 2616 bp and a 3' UTR of 123 bp. The predicted PmAgo2 protein is 99.4 KDa with the theoretical isoelectric point of 9.54. PmAgo2 shared the highest similarity of amino acid with Marsupenaeus japonicus Argonaute2 and Litopenaeus vannamei Argonaute2, at 69.0% and 68.5%, respectively. Phylogenic analysis showed PmAgo2 clustered with shrimp Argonaute2, and closed to the group of insects. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that PmAgo2 was widely expressed in almost all examined tissues except eyestalk, with high expression in lymph and haemocyte. mRNA expression also revealed that PmAgo2 was significantly up-regulated by Staphylococcus aureus and White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in hepatopancreas. Furthermore, our study also confirmed that dsRNA and ssRNA homologous poly (I:C) and R848 activated the expression of PmAgo2. The result indicated that PmAgo2 responded to both bacterial infection and viral infection, especially, it may induce an ssRNA-mediated RNAi with other core members of siRNA pathway in black tiger shrimp. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. DNA fragmentation, an indicator of apoptosis, in cultured black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    PubMed

    Sahtout, A H; Hassan, M D; Shariff, M

    2001-03-09

    Fifty black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon from commercial cultivation ponds in Malaysia were examined by Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) fluorescence assay and agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA extracts for evidence of DNA fragmentation as an indicator of apoptosis. From these specimens, 30 were grossly normal and 20 showed gross signs of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Of the 30 grossly normal shrimp, 5 specimens were found to be positive for WSSV infection by normal histology and by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. All of the specimens showing gross signs of WSSV infection were positive for WSSV by normal histology, while 5 were positive by nested PCR only (indicating light infections) and 15 were positive by 1-step PCR (indicating heavy infections). Typical histological signs of WSSV infection included nuclear hypertrophy, chromatin condensation and margination. None of the 25 grossly normal shrimp negative for WSSV by 1-step PCR showed any signs of DNA fragmentation by TUNEL assay or agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA extracts. The 10 specimens that gave PCR-positive results for WSSV by nested PCR only (i.e., 5 grossly normal shrimp and 5 grossly positive for WSSV) gave mean counts of 16 +/- 8% TUNEL-positive cells, while the 25 specimens PCR positive by 1-step PCR gave mean counts of 40 +/- 7% TUNEL-positive cells. Thus, the number of TUNEL positive cells present in tissues increased with increasing severity of infection, as determined by gross signs of white spots on the cuticle, the number of intranuclear inclusions in histological sections, and results from single and nested PCR assays. DNA extracts of PCR-positive specimens tested by agarose gel electrophoresis showed indications of DNA fragmentation either as smears or as 200 bp ladders. Given that DNA fragmentation is generally considered to be a hallmark of apoptosis, the results suggested that apoptosis might be implicated in shrimp death caused by WSSV.

  10. Identification and expression analysis of Dicer2 in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) responses to immune challenges.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolan; Yang, Lishi; Jiang, Song; Fu, Mingjun; Huang, Jianhua; Jiang, Shigui

    2013-07-01

    Dicer is a key initiative protein of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway that produces small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or micro RNAs (miRNA), which then leads to RNA-directed gene regulation or viral immunity. In the present study, we identified and characterized a Dicer2 cDNA from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (designated as PmDcr2). The full length cDNA of PmDcr2 contains a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 109 bp, an open reading frame (ORF) of 4509 bp and a 3' UTR of 842 bp. The molecular weight (MW) of predicted PmDcr2 protein is 171.7 KDa with the theoretical isoelectric point of 6.23. PmDcr2 amino acid shared the highest similarity of 91.8% and 90.7% with Dicer2 of Litopenaeus vannamei and Marsupenaeus japonicas, respectively. Phylogenic analysis showed PmDcr2 was clustering with shrimp Dicer2, and closed to the insect group including Tribolium castaneum Dicer2. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that PmDcr2 was widely expressed in almost all examined tissues except muscle, with high expression in gill, hemocyte and lymph. The expression of PmDcr2 in hepatopancreas was up-regulated by Vibrio vulnificus and White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), but not by Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, the viral nucleotide homologue dsRNA poly (I:C) and ssRNA R484 also remarkably induced PmDcr2 mRNA expression more efficient and stronger. These data reflect that PmDcr2 is not only response to the gram negative bacteria infection, but also specially to the viral infection in black tiger shrimp. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Novel Viral Responsive Protein Is Involved in Hemocyte Homeostasis in the Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon*

    PubMed Central

    Prapavorarat, Adisak; Vatanavicharn, Tipachai; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2010-01-01

    A novel viral responsive protein, namely hemocyte homeostasis-associated protein (HHAP), was characterized for its role in the response of shrimp to white spot syndrome virus infection. The full-length cDNAs of HHAP from the black tiger shrimp (PmHHAP), Penaeus monodon, and the fresh water crayfish (PlHHAP), Pacifastacus leniusculus, were obtained and showed high sequence identity to a hypothetical protein from various organisms, with the highest identity to the hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC006773 from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (54% amino acid sequence identity). Transcripts of PmHHAP were expressed in various shrimp tissues with the highest expression in hematopoietic tissue, whereas the transcripts of PlHHAP were found in the hematopoietic and nerve tissues. Upon white spot syndrome virus infection, a high up-regulation level of shrimp hemocytic HHAP mRNA and protein was observed by real-time reverse transcription-PCR and immunofluorescence microscopy, respectively. Gene silencing of PmHHAP by RNA interference resulted in a significant decrease in the number of circulating hemocytes and 100% shrimp mortality within 30 h of the double-stranded PmHHAP RNA injection (but not in control shrimp), indicating that HHAP is essential for shrimp survival. Interestingly, severe damage of hemocytes was observed in vivo in the PmHHAP knockdown shrimp and in vitro in shrimp primary hemocyte cell culture, suggesting that PmHHAP plays an important role in hemocyte homeostasis. Thus, it is speculated that the up-regulation of PmHHAP is an important mechanism to control circulating hemocyte levels in crustaceans during viral infection. PMID:20444692

  12. A snake-like serine proteinase (PmSnake) activates prophenoloxidase-activating system in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Monwan, Warunthorn; Amparyup, Piti; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2017-02-01

    Clip domain serine proteinases (ClipSPs) play critical roles in the activation of proteolytic cascade in invertebrate immune systems including the prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating system. In this study, we characterized a snake-like serine protease, namely PmSnake, from the shrimp Penaeus monodon which has previously been identified based on the subtractive cDNA library of proPO double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-treated hemocytes. An open reading frame of PmSnake contains 1068 bp encoding a predicted protein of 355 amino acid residues with a putative signal peptide of 22 amino acids and two conserved domains (N-terminal clip domain and C-terminal trypsin-like serine proteinase domain). Sequence analysis revealed that PmSnake was closest to the AeSnake from ant Acromyrmex echinatior (53% similarity), but was quite relatively distant from other shrimp PmclipSPs. PmSnake transcript was mainly expressed in shrimp hemocytes and up-regulated after systemic Vibrio harveyi infection indicating that it is an immune-responsive gene. Suppression of PmSnake expression by dsRNA interference reduced both transcript and protein levels leading to a reduction of the hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity (36%), compared to the control, suggesting that the PmSnake functions as a clip-SP in shrimp proPO system. Western blot analysis using anti-PmSnake showed that the PmSnake was detected in hemocytes but not in cell-free plasma. In vitro PO activity and serine proteinase activity assays showed that adding rPmSnake into the shrimp hemolymph could increase PO activity as well as serine proteinase activity suggesting that the rPmSnake activates the proPO system via serine proteinase cascade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gene expression profiling in gill tissues of White spot syndrome virus infected black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon by DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, M S; Gomathi, A; Gopikrishna, G; Ponniah, A G

    2015-06-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) continues to be the most devastating viral pathogen infecting penaeid shrimp the world over. The genome of WSSV has been deciphered and characterized from three geographical isolates and significant progress has been made in developing various molecular diagnostic methods to detect the virus. However, the information on host immune gene response to WSSV pathogenesis is limited. Microarray analysis was carried out as an approach to analyse the gene expression in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in response to WSSV infection. Gill tissues collected from the WSSV infected shrimp at 6, 24, 48 h and moribund stage were analysed for differential gene expression. Shrimp cDNAs of 40,059 unique sequences were considered for designing the microarray chip. The Cy3-labeled cRNA derived from healthy and WSSV-infected shrimp was subjected to hybridization with all the DNA spots in the microarray which revealed 8,633 and 11,147 as up- and down-regulated genes respectively at different time intervals post infection. The altered expression of these numerous genes represented diverse functions such as immune response, osmoregulation, apoptosis, nucleic acid binding, energy and metabolism, signal transduction, stress response and molting. The changes in gene expression profiles observed by microarray analysis provides molecular insights and framework of genes which are up- and down-regulated at different time intervals during WSSV infection in shrimp. The microarray data was validated by Real Time analysis of four differentially expressed genes involved in apoptosis (translationally controlled tumor protein, inhibitor of apoptosis protein, ubiquitin conjugated enzyme E2 and caspase) for gene expression levels. The role of apoptosis related genes in WSSV infected shrimp is discussed herein.

  14. Putative spawner-isolated mortality virus associated with mid-crop mortality syndrome in farmed Penaeus monodon from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Owens, L; Haqshenas, G; McElnea, C; Coelen, R

    1998-11-30

    Beginning in 1994, farms in northern Australia experienced a higher than normal mortality rate in 12 to 15 g prawns from growout ponds. The farmers named this problem mid-crop mortality syndrome (MCMS). Intramuscular injection of filtered (450 nm), cell-free extracts of moribund prawns from these ponds killed healthy prawns between 5 to 30 d post-injection. A 20 nm virus was visualized by electron microscopy from a 1.4 g ml-1 band recovered from caesium chloride gradients of extracts from the moribund prawns. DNA was extracted from this band, restriction enzyme digested and ligated into pGEM7zf(+) vector. A digoxigenin-labelled polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated, gene probe was subsequently prepared by amplifying an inserted sequence (approximately 2 kb) of one selected clone specific for the virus. Specimens of the moribund prawns stained positively by in situ DNA hybridization in endodermal tissues, including the apical ends of hepatopancreatic tubules, the midgut and hindgut caecae, the midgut, and the hindgut folds. In prawns that showed haemocytic enteritis, some haemocytes in the affected midgut showed limited staining. The positively-staining cells showed no cytolysis. In prawns injected with cell-free viral extracts, additional tissues were positive by probe analysis, including strong staining in the male reproductive tract, specifically in the terminal ampoule and the medial vas deferens. Limited staining also occurred in the ovary and in both the stromal matrix and spheroid cells of the lymphoid organ. It was evident that the infection was enteric by natural pathways and systemic by injection. Historical specimens of Penaeus monodon experimentally infected with spawner-isolated mortality virus (SMV) were probe-positive in exactly the same pattern as the naturally and experimental MCMS prawns. Altogether, the evidence suggested that the MCMS agent was a parvo-like virus very similar or identical to SMV.

  15. Transcript Analysis of White spot syndrome virus Latency and Phagocytosis Activating Protein Genes in Infected Shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Shekhar, M S; Dillikumar, M; Vinaya Kumar, K; Gopikrishna, G; Rajesh, S; Kiruthika, J; Ponniah, A G

    2012-12-01

    Viral latency has been recently observed to be associated with White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in shrimp. In the present study, shrimp samples (Penaeus monodon) surviving WSSV infection were examined for presence of WSSV in latent phase. Virus latency was observed in shrimp which were either experimentally challenged with WSSV and survived the infection or those which survived the natural infection. Three viral transcripts (ORFs 427, 151, 366) associated with latency were analyzed by real-time PCR. The shrimp surviving the natural WSSV infection on estimation with RT-PCR were found to have low grade of WSSV infection (less than 56 copies of WSSV). All the shrimp samples were RT-PCR negative for structural protein genes of WSSV, VP24 and VP28, indicating that these samples were harboring latent phase virus. RT-PCR of all the shrimp samples which survived WSSV infection revealed amplification of phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) gene (435 bp) with higher gene expression levels in experimentally challenged shrimp when compared to naturally infected shrimp. The expression of PAP in WSSV infected shrimp samples indicates its possible role in host response for resistance against WSSV infection. PAP was cloned and expressed as recombinant protein for protection studies. Shrimp were injected with three doses (5, 15 and 20 μg g(-1) body weight) of recombinant PAP. Relative percent survival of 10 % was observed in shrimp immunized with the dose of 15 μg g(-1) body weight of recombinant PAP. The expression of both WSSV latency associated and PAP genes obtained from shrimp surviving the WSSV infection, indicates the possible role of these genes in host-pathogen interaction.

  16. The roles of haemocytes and the lymphoid organ in the clearance of injected Vibrio bacteria in Penaeus monodon shrimp.

    PubMed

    van de Braak, C B T; Botterblom, M H A; Taverne, N; van Muiswinkel, W B; Rombout, J H W M; van der Knaap, W P W

    2002-10-01

    In order to study the reaction of Penaeus monodon haemocytes, live Vibrio anguillarum bacteria were injected and the shrimp were periodically sampled. Immuno-double staining analysis with specific antisera against the haemocyte granules and bacteria showed that large numbers of haemocytes encapsulated the bacteria at the site of injection. A rapid decrease of live circulating bacteria was detected in the haemolymph. Bacterial clearance in the haemolymph was induced by humoral factors, as observed by agglutinated bacteria, and followed by uptake in different places in the body. Bacteria mainly accumulated in the lymphoid organ (LO), where they, or their degradation products, could be detected for at least 7 days after injection. The LO consists of folded tubules with a central haemal lumen and a wall, layered with cells. The haemolymph, including the antigens, seemed to migrate from the central tubular lumen through the wall, where the bacteria are arrested and their degradation is started. Electron microscopy of the LO revealed the presence of many phagocytic cells that morphologically resemble small-granular haemocytes. It is proposed that haemocytes settle in the tubule walls before they phagocytose. Immunostaining suggests that many of the haemocytes degranulate in the LO, producing a layer of fibrous material in the outer tubule wall. These findings might contribute to the reduced haemocyte concentration in the haemolymph of diseased animals or following injection of foreign material. It is proposed that the LO is a filter for virtually all foreign material encountered in the haemolymph. Observations from the present study are similar to clearance mechanisms in the hepatic haemolymph vessel in most decapod crustaceans that do not possess a LO. The experimental shrimp appeared to contain many LO spheroids, where bacterial antigens were finally observed as well. It is proposed that the spheroids have a degradation function for both bacterial and viral material

  17. Identification and characterization of a QM protein as a possible peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) from the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Udompetcharaporn, Attasit; Junkunlo, Kingkamon; Senapin, Saengchan; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Flegel, Timothy W; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2014-10-01

    In an attempt to identify a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) in Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon, in vitro pull-down binding assays were used between shrimp proteins and purified peptidoglycan (PG). By gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry followed by Mascot program analysis, proteins from shrimp hemocyte peripheral membrane proteins showed significant homology to records for a QM protein, actin and prophenoloxidase 2 precursor (proPO2), while proteins from cell-free plasma showed significant homology to records for a vitellogenin, a fibrinogen related protein (FREP) and a C-type lectin. Due to time and resource limitations, specific binding to PG was examined only for recombinant PmQM protein and PmLec that were synthesized based on sequences reported in the Genbank database (accession numbers FJ766846 and DQ078266, respectively). An in vitro assay revealed that hemocytes would bind with and encapsulate agarose beads coated with recombinant PmQM (rPmQM) or rPmLec and that melanization followed 2h post-encapsulation. ELISA tests confirmed specific binding of rPmQM protein to PG. This is the first time that PmQM has been reported as a potential PGRP in shrimp or any other crustacean. The two other potential PGRP identified (FREP and the vitellin-like protein present in male P. monodon, unlike other vitellin subunits) should also be expressed heterologously and tested for their ability to activate shrimp hemocytes.

  18. White spot syndrome virus isolates of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricious) in India are similar to exotic isolates as revealed by polymerase chain reaction and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S S; Shekhar, M S

    2005-07-01

    Microbiological analysis of samples collected from cases of white spot disease outbreaks in cultured shrimp in different farms located in three regions along East Coast of India viz. Chidambram (Tamil Nadu), Nellore (Andhra Pradesh) and Balasore (Orissa), revealed presence of Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Aeromonas spp. but experimental infection trials in Penaeus monodon with these isolates did not induce any acute mortality or formation of white spots on carapace. Infection trials using filtered tissue extracts by oral and injection method induced mortality in healthy P. monodon with all samples and 100% mortality was noted by the end of 7 day post-inoculation. Histopathological analysis demonstrated degenerated cells characterized by hypertrophied nuclei in gills, hepatopancreas and lymphoid organ with presence of intranuclear basophilic or eosino-basophilic bodies in tubular cells and intercellular spaces. Analysis of samples using 3 different primer sets as used by other for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) generated 643, 1447 and 520bp amplified DNA products in all samples except in one instance. Variable size virions with mean size in the range of 110 x 320 +/- 20 nm were observed under electron microscope. It could be concluded that the viral isolates in India involved with white spot syndrome in cultured shrimp are similar to RV-PJ and SEMBV in Japan, WSBV in Taiwan and WSSV in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, China and Japan.

  19. Bioaccumulation and public health implications of trace metals in edible tissues of the crustaceans Scylla serrata and Penaeus monodon from the Tanzanian coast.

    PubMed

    Rumisha, Cyrus; Leermakers, Martine; Mdegela, Robinson H; Kochzius, Marc; Elskens, Marc

    2017-09-30

    The coastal population in East Africa is growing rapidly but sewage treatment and recycling facilities in major cities and towns are poorly developed. Since estuarine mangroves are the main hotspots for pollutants, there is a potential for contaminants to accumulate in edible fauna and threaten public health. This study analysed trace metals in muscle tissues of the giant mud crabs (Scylla serrata) and the giant tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) from the Tanzanian coast, in order to determine the extent of bioaccumulation and public health risks. A total of 180 samples of muscle tissues of S. serrata and 80 of P. monodon were collected from nine sites along the coast. Both species showed high levels of trace metals in the wet season and significant bioaccumulation of As, Cu and Zn. Due to their burrowing and feeding habits, mud crabs were more contaminated compared to tiger prawns sampled from the same sites. Apart from that, the measured levels of Cd, Cr and Pb did not exceed maximum limits for human consumption. Based on the current trend of fish consumption in Tanzania (7.7 kg/person/year), the measured elements (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) are not likely to present health risks to shellfish consumers. Nevertheless, potential risks of As and Cu cannot be ruled out if the average per capita consumption is exceeded. This calls for strengthened waste management systems and pollution control measures.

  20. PmVRP15, a novel viral responsive protein from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, promoted white spot syndrome virus replication.

    PubMed

    Vatanavicharn, Tipachai; Prapavorarat, Adisak; Jaree, Phattarunda; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2014-01-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization of Penaeus monodon hemocytes challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has identified the viral responsive gene, PmVRP15, as the highest up-regulated gene ever reported in shrimps. Expression analysis by quantitative real time RT-PCR revealed 9410-fold up-regulated level at 48 h post WSSV injection. Tissue distribution analysis showed that PmVRP15 transcript was mainly expressed in the hemocytes of shrimp. The full-length cDNA of PmVRP15 transcript was obtained and showed no significant similarity to any known gene in the GenBank database. The predicted open reading frame of PmVRP15 encodes for a deduced 137 amino acid protein containing a putative transmembrane helix. Immunofluorescent localization of the PmVRP15 protein revealed it accumulated around the nuclear membrane in all three types of shrimp hemocytes and that the protein was highly up-regulated in WSSV-infected shrimps. Double-stranded RNA interference-mediated gene silencing of PmVRP15 in P. monodon significantly decreased WSSV propagation compared to the control shrimps (injected with GFP dsRNA). The significant decrease in cumulative mortality rate of WSSV-infected shrimp following PmVRP15 knockdown was observed. These results suggest that PmVRP15 is likely to be a nuclear membrane protein and that it acts as a part of WSSV propagation pathway.

  1. A Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor SPIPm2 from the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon is involved in antiviral responses.

    PubMed

    Donpudsa, Suchao; Ponprateep, Sirikwan; Prapavorarat, Adisak; Visetnan, Suwattana; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien

    2010-10-01

    A five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor, SPIPm2, from Penaeus monodon has recently been implicated in antiviral responses for it is up-regulated upon viral infection and needs further studies. The SPIPm2 genomic gene was composed of seven exons and six introns. The genomic DNA segments coding for each Kazal domain were separated by introns of variable lengths supporting the hypothesis of gene duplication in the Kazal-type gene family. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that the SPIPm2 transcript and its five-domain protein product were expressed mainly in the hemocytes and less in gill, heart and antennal gland. Upon white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, the SPIPm2 was only detected in the hemocytes and plasma. Immunocytochemical study of P. monodon hemocytes showed that the percentage of SPIPm2-producing hemocytes was reduced by about half after WSSV infection. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed further that the SPIPm2 was up-regulated early in the hemocytes of WSSV-infected shrimp and gradually reduced as the infection progressed. Injection of the recombinant SPIPm2 (rSPIPm2) prior to WSSV injection resulted in a significant inhibition of WSSV replication. The rSPIPm2 injection also prolonged the mortality rate of WSSV-infected shrimp. Therefore, the SPIPm2 was involved in the innate immunity against WSSV infection in shrimp. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. PmVRP15, a Novel Viral Responsive Protein from the Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon, Promoted White Spot Syndrome Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Vatanavicharn, Tipachai; Prapavorarat, Adisak; Jaree, Phattarunda; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2014-01-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization of Penaeus monodon hemocytes challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has identified the viral responsive gene, PmVRP15, as the highest up-regulated gene ever reported in shrimps. Expression analysis by quantitative real time RT-PCR revealed 9410–fold up-regulated level at 48 h post WSSV injection. Tissue distribution analysis showed that PmVRP15 transcript was mainly expressed in the hemocytes of shrimp. The full-length cDNA of PmVRP15 transcript was obtained and showed no significant similarity to any known gene in the GenBank database. The predicted open reading frame of PmVRP15 encodes for a deduced 137 amino acid protein containing a putative transmembrane helix. Immunofluorescent localization of the PmVRP15 protein revealed it accumulated around the nuclear membrane in all three types of shrimp hemocytes and that the protein was highly up-regulated in WSSV-infected shrimps. Double-stranded RNA interference-mediated gene silencing of PmVRP15 in P. monodon significantly decreased WSSV propagation compared to the control shrimps (injected with GFP dsRNA). The significant decrease in cumulative mortality rate of WSSV-infected shrimp following PmVRP15 knockdown was observed. These results suggest that PmVRP15 is likely to be a nuclear membrane protein and that it acts as a part of WSSV propagation pathway. PMID:24637711

  3. Expression profile of bio-defense genes in Penaeus monodon gills in response to formalin inactivated white spot syndrome virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sudheer, N S; Poulose, Gigi; Thomas, Ancy; Viswanath, Kiron; Kulkarni, Amod; Narayanan, R B; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2015-05-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most devastating pathogen of penaeid shrimp. While developing technology to vaccinate shrimp against WSSV, it is imperative to look into the immune response of the animal at molecular level. However, very little information has been generated in this direction. The present study is an attempt to understand the expression of bio-defense genes in gill tissues of Penaeus monodon in response to formalin inactivated WSSV. A WSSV vaccine with a viral titer of 1×10(9) DNA copies was prepared and orally administered to P. monodon at a rate of 1.75×10(6) DNA copies of inactivated virus preparation (IVP) day(-1) for 7days. The animals were challenged with WSSV on 1st and 5th day post vaccination, and temporal expression of bio-defense genes in gill tissues was studied. Survival of 100% and 50% were observed respectively on 1st and 5th day post vaccination challenge. The humoral immune genes prophenoloxidase (proPO), alpha 2-macroglobulin (α2M), crustin and PmRACK, and the cell mediated immune genes caspase and Rab7 were up regulated in gill tissue upon vaccination and challenge. The expression of humoral gene crustin and cellular gene Rab7 was related to survival in IVP administered shrimp. Results of the study suggest that these genes have roles in protecting shrimp from WSSV on vaccination.

  4. Osmo and ionic regulation of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon Fabricius 1798) juveniles exposed to K(+) deficient inland saline water at different salinities.

    PubMed

    Tantulo, Uras; Fotedar, Ravi

    2007-02-01

    An 11-day trial was conducted to investigate the osmoregulatory capacity (OC) and regulation of K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) of Penaeus monodon juveniles when exposed to K(+) deficient inland saline water (ISW) of four different salinities (5, 15, 25 and 35 ppt). The survival of juveniles showed a positive linear relationship (R(2) ranging from 0.72 to 0.98) with salinity. At the end of the trial, juveniles were able to survive only in 5 ppt of ISW and showed no changes in OC when transferred from ocean water (OW) to ISW. Further, the OC of juveniles in 5 ppt of ISW was significantly different (P<0.05) from the OC of juveniles exposed to 15, 25 and 35 ppt and exhibited strong serum K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) regulation monitored over 16 h. In contrast, at 35 ppt, significant decrease (P<0.05) in serum K(+) and Mg(2+) concentrations and accumulation of serum Na(+) concentration occurred after 16 h of exposure to ISW. At higher salinity, an increase in serum Na(+) concentration leads to an increase in the serum osmolality of the juveniles, which in turn causes decrease in the OC of the juveniles. The results of this study suggest that K(+) deficiency in ISW has a negative effect on survival, OC and the ability of P. monodon juveniles to regulate serum Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) concentrations. These effects are compounded as salinity increases.

  5. Molecular cloning, expression and functional analysis of three subunits of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) from black tiger shrimps (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Wang, Yan; Fu, Mingjun; Yang, Keng; Qiu, Lihua

    2017-02-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a cellular serine-threonine (Ser/Thr) phosphatase that plays a crucial role in regulating most cellular functions. In the present study, the full-length cDNAs of three subunits of PmPP2A (PmPP2A-A, PP2A-B and PP2A-C) were cloned from Penaeus monodon, which are the first available for shrimps. Sequence analysis showed that PmPP2A-A, PmPP2A-B and PmPP2A-C encoded polypeptides of 591, 443, and 324 amino acids, respectively. The mRNAs of three subunits of PmPP2A were expressed constitutively in all tissues examined, and predominantly in the ovaries. In ovarian maturation stages, the three subunits of PmPP2A were continuously but differentially expressed. Dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine injection experiments were conducted to study the expression profile of three subunits of PmPP2A, and the results indicated that PmPP2A played a negative regulatory role in the process of ovarian maturation. In addition, the recombinant proteins of three subunits of PmPP2A were successfully obtained, and the phosphatase activity of PmPP2A was tested in vitro. The results of this study will advance our understanding about the molecular mechanisms of PmPP2A in Penaeus monodon.

  6. Construction of recombinant baculovirus vaccines for Newcastle disease virus and an assessment of their immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jingping; Liu, Ying; Jin, Liying; Gao, Dongni; Bai, Chengle; Ping, Wenxiang

    2016-08-10

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a lethal avian infectious disease caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) which poses a substantial threat to China's poultry industry. Conventional live vaccines against NDV are available, but they can revert to virulent strains and do not protect against mutant strains of the virus. Therefore, there is a critical unmet need for a novel vaccine that is safe, efficacious, and cost effective. Here, we designed novel recombinant baculovirus vaccines expressing the NDV F or HN genes. To optimize antigen expression, we tested the incorporation of multiple regulatory elements including: (1) truncated vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-GED), (2) woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element (WPRE), (3) inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) of adeno-associated virus (AAV Serotype II), and (4) the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. To test the in vivo efficacy of the viruses, we vaccinated chickens with each construct and characterized the cellular and humoral immune response to challenge with virulent NDV (F48E9). All of the vaccine constructs provided some level of protection (62.5-100% protection). The F-series of vaccines provided a greater degree of protection (87.5-100%) than the HN-series (62.5-87.5%). While all of the vaccines elicited a robust cellular and humoral response subtle differences in efficacy were observed. The combination of the WPRE and VSV-GED regulatory elements enhanced the immune response and increased antigen expression. The ITRs effectively increased the length of time IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-4 were expressed in the plasma. The F-series elicited higher titers of neutralizing antibody and NDV-specific IgG. The baculovirus system is a promising platform for NDV vaccine development that combines the immunostimulatory benefits of a recombinant virus vector with the non-replicating benefits of a DNA vaccine.

  7. Baculoviruses modulate a proapoptotic DNA damage response to promote virus multiplication.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan K; Friesen, Paul D

    2012-12-01

    The baculovirus Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) initiates apoptosis in diverse insects through events triggered by virus DNA (vDNA) replication. To define the proapoptotic pathway and its role in antivirus defense, we investigated the link between the host's DNA damage response (DDR) and apoptosis. We report here that AcMNPV elicits a DDR in the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Replication of vDNA activated DDR kinases, as evidenced by ATM-driven phosphorylation of the Drosophila histone H2AX homolog (H2Av), a critical regulator of the DDR. Ablation or inhibition of ATM repressed H2Av phosphorylation and blocked virus-induced apoptosis. The DDR kinase inhibitors caffeine and KU55933 also prevented virus-induced apoptosis in cells derived from the permissive AcMNPV host, Spodoptera frugiperda. This block occurred at a step upstream of virus-mediated depletion of the cellular inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein, an event that initiates apoptosis in Spodoptera and Drosophila. Thus, the DDR is a conserved, proapoptotic response to baculovirus infection. DDR inhibition also repressed vDNA replication and reduced virus yields 100,000-fold, demonstrating that the DDR contributes to virus production, despite its recognized antivirus role. In contrast to virus-induced phosphorylation of Drosophila H2Av, AcMNPV blocked phosphorylation of the Spodoptera H2AX homolog (SfH2AX). Remarkably, AcMNPV also suppressed SfH2AX phosphorylation following pharmacologically induced DNA damage. These findings indicate that AcMNPV alters canonical DDR signaling in permissive cells. We conclude that AcMNPV triggers a proapoptotic DDR that is subsequently modified, presumably to stimulate vDNA replication. Thus, manipulation of the DDR to facilitate multiplication is an evolutionarily conserved strategy among DNA viruses of insects and mammals.

  8. Characterization of baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus infection in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kitajima, Masayuki; Hamazaki, Hiroyuki; Miyano-Kurosaki, Naoko; Takaku, Hiroshi . E-mail: hiroshi.takaku@it-chiba.ac.jp

    2006-05-05

    The baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) is used as a vector in many gene therapy studies. Wild-type AcMNPV infects many mammalian cell types in vitro, but does not replicate. We investigated the dynamics of AcMNPV genomic DNA in infected mammalian cells and used flow cytometric analysis to demonstrate that recombinant baculovirus containing a cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter/enhancer with green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressed high levels of GFP in Huh-7 cells, but not B16, Raw264.7, or YAC-1 cells. The addition of butyrate, a deacetylase inhibitor, markedly enhanced the percentage of GFP-expressing Huh-7 and B16 cells, but not Raw264.7 and YAC-1 cells. The addition of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a DNA methylation inhibitor, had no enhancing effect. Polymerase chain reaction analysis using AcMNPV-gp64-specific primers indicated that AcMNPV infected not only Huh-7 and B16 cells, but also Raw264.7 and YAC-1 cells in vitro. The genomic DNA was detected in Huh-7 and B16 cells 96 h after infection. Genomic AcMNPV DNA in YAC-1 cells was not transported to the nucleus. Luciferase assay indicated that AcMNPV p35 gene mRNA and p35 promoter activity were clearly expressed only in Huh-7 and B16 cells. These results suggest that viral genomic DNA expression is restricted by different host cell factors, such as degradation, deacetylation, and inhibition of nuclear transport, depending on the mammalian cell type.

  9. Baculovirus-Induced Climbing Behavior Favors Intraspecific Necrophagy and Efficient Disease Transmission in Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Rebolledo, Dulce; Guevara, Roger; Murillo, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Shortly prior to death, many species of Lepidoptera infected with nucleopolyhedrovirus climb upwards on the host plant. This results in improved dissemination of viral occlusion bodies over plant foliage and an increased probability of transmission to healthy conspecific larvae. Following applications of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus for control of Spodoptera exigua on greenhouse-grown sweet pepper crops, necrophagy was observed by healthy S. exigua larvae that fed on virus-killed conspecifics. We examined whether this risky behavior was induced by olfactory or phagostimulant compounds associated with infected cadavers. Laboratory choice tests and olfactometer studies, involving infected and non-infected cadavers placed on spinach leaf discs, revealed no evidence for greater attraction of healthy larvae to virus-killed over non-infected cadavers. Physical contact or feeding on infected cadavers resulted in a very high incidence of transmission (82–93% lethal disease). Observations on the behavior of S. exigua larvae on pepper plants revealed that infected insects died on the uppermost 10% of foliage and closer to the plant stem than healthy conspecifics of the same stage, which we considered clear evidence of baculovirus-induced climbing behavior. Healthy larvae that subsequently foraged on the plant were more frequently observed closer to the infected than the non-infected cadaver. Healthy larvae also encountered and fed on infected cadavers significantly more frequently and more rapidly than larvae that fed on non-infected cadavers. Intraspecific necrophagy on infected cadavers invariably resulted in virus transmission and death of the necrophagous insect. We conclude that, in addition to improving the dissemination of virus particles over plant foliage, baculovirus-induced climbing behavior increases the incidence of intraspecific necrophagy in S. exigua, which is the most efficient mechanism of transmission of this lethal pathogen. PMID

  10. Expression of an antiviral protein from Lonomia obliqua hemolymph in baculovirus/insect cell system.

    PubMed

    Carmo, A C V; Giovanni, D N S; Corrêa, T P; Martins, L M; Stocco, R C; Suazo, C A T; Moraes, R H P; Veiga, A B G; Mendonça, R Z

    2012-05-01

    The control of viral infections, mainly those caused by influenza viruses, is of great interest in Public Health. Several studies have shown the presence of active properties in the hemolymph of arthropods, some of which are of interest for the development of new pharmacological drugs. Recently, we have demonstrated the existence of a potent antiviral property in the hemolymph of Lonomia obliqua caterpillars. The aim of this study was to produce an antiviral protein in a baculovirus/Sf9 cell system. The resulting bacmid contains the sequence coding for the antiviral protein previously described by our group. Total RNA from L. obliqua caterpillars was extracted with Trizol and used in the reverse transcription assay with oligo(d)T primer followed by polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) with specific primers for the cDNA coding for the antiviral protein, based on the sequence deposited in the GenBank database. Restriction sites were inserted in the cDNA for ligation in the donor plasmid pFastBac1™. The recombinant plasmid was selected in Escherichia coli DH5α and subsequently used in the transformation of E. coli DH10Bac for the construction of the recombinant bacmid. This bacmid was used for the expression of the antiviral protein in the baculovirus/Sf9 cell system. After identifying the protein by western blot, activity tests were performed, showing that the purified recombinant protein was able to significantly reduce viral replication (about 4 logs). Studies on the optimization of the expression system for the production of this antiviral protein in insect cells are in progress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The genome sequence of Pseudoplusia includens single nucleopolyhedrovirus and an analysis of p26 gene evolution in the baculoviruses.

    PubMed

    Craveiro, Saluana R; Inglis, Peter W; Togawa, Roberto C; Grynberg, Priscila; Melo, Fernando L; Ribeiro, Zilda Maria A; Ribeiro, Bergmann M; Báo, Sônia N; Castro, Maria Elita B

    2015-02-25

    Pseudoplusia includens single nucleopolyhedrovirus (PsinSNPV-IE) is a baculovirus recently identified in our laboratory, with high pathogenicity to the soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (Walker, 1858). In Brazil, the C. includens caterpillar is an emerging pest and has caused significant losses in soybean and cotton crops. The PsinSNPV genome was determined and the phylogeny of the p26 gene within the family Baculoviridae was investigated. The complete genome of PsinSNPV was sequenced (Roche 454 GS FLX - Titanium platform), annotated and compared with other Alphabaculoviruses, displaying a genome apparently different from other baculoviruses so far sequenced. The circular double-stranded DNA genome is 139,132 bp in length, with a GC content of 39.3 % and contains 141 open reading frames (ORFs). PsinSNPV possesses the 37 conserved baculovirus core genes, 102 genes found in other baculoviruses and 2 unique ORFs. Two baculovirus repeat ORFs (bro) homologs, bro-a (Psin33) and bro-b (Psin69), were identified and compared with Chrysodeixis chalcites nucleopolyhedrovirus (ChchNPV) and Trichoplusia ni single nucleopolyhedrovirus (TnSNPV) bro genes and showed high similarity, suggesting that these genes may be derived from an ancestor common to these viruses. The homologous repeats (hrs) are absent from the PsinSNPV genome, which is also the case in ChchNPV and TnSNPV. Two p26 gene homologs (p26a and p26b) were found in the PsinSNPV genome. P26 is thought to be required for optimal virion occlusion in the occlusion bodies (OBs), but its function is not well characterized. The P26 phylogenetic tree suggests that this gene was obtained from three independent acquisition events within the Baculoviridae family. The presence of a signal peptide only in the PsinSNPV p26a/ORF-20 homolog indicates distinct function between the two P26 proteins. PsinSNPV has a genomic sequence apparently different from other baculoviruses sequenced so far. The complete

  12. Identification of a High-Efficiency Baculovirus DNA Replication Origin That Functions in Insect and Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yueh-Lung; Wu, Carol-P; Huang, Yu-Hui; Huang, Sheng-Ping; Lo, Huei-Ru; Chang, Hao-Shuo; Lin, Pi-Hsiu; Wu, Ming-Cheng; Chang, Chia-Jung

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The p143 gene from Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) has been found to increase the expression of luciferase, which is driven by the polyhedrin gene promoter, in a plasmid with virus coinfection. Further study indicated that this is due to the presence of a replication origin (ori) in the coding region of this gene. Transient DNA replication assays showed that a specific fragment of the p143 coding sequence, p143-3, underwent virus-dependent DNA replication in Spodoptera frugiperda IPLB-Sf-21 (Sf-21) cells. Deletion analysis of the p143-3 fragment showed that subfragment p143-3.2a contained the essential sequence of this putative ori. Sequence analysis of this region revealed a unique distribution of imperfect palindromes with high AT contents. No sequence homology or similarity between p143-3.2a and any other known ori was detected, suggesting that it is a novel baculovirus ori. Further study showed that the p143-3.2a ori can replicate more efficiently in infected Sf-21 cells than baculovirus homologous regions (hrs), the major baculovirus ori, or non-hr oris during virus replication. Previously, hr on its own was unable to replicate in mammalian cells, and for mammalian viral oris, viral proteins are generally required for their proper replication in host cells. However, the p143-3.2a ori was, surprisingly, found to function as an efficient ori in mammalian cells without the need for any viral proteins. We conclude that p143 contains a unique sequence that can function as an ori to enhance gene expression in not only insect cells but also mammalian cells. IMPORTANCE Baculovirus DNA replication relies on both hr and non-hr oris; however, so far very little is known about the latter oris. Here we have identified a new non-hr ori, the p143 ori, which resides in the coding region of p143. By developing a novel DNA replication-enhanced reporter system, we have identified and located the core region required for the p143

  13. Functional expression of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed

    Reiländer, H; Haase, W; Maul, G

    1996-02-06

    A DNA fragment encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was isolated via PCR from a jellyfish Aequorea victoria cDNA, cloned and sequenced. Subsequently, a recombinant baculovirus bearing the coding region of the GFP under the transcriptional control of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) polyhedrin gene promoter was constructed and isolated. High-level expression of GFP could be easily monitored in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells after infection with recombinant baculovirus, due to the intrinsic fluorescence (lambda(max) = 508 nm) of the recombinant protein after excitation with blue light (lambda(max) = 400 nm). The functional recombinant GFP displayed an apparent molecular mass of approximately 43 kDa and the fluorescence emission spectrum of the recombinant protein was virtually identical to that of the native green fluorescent protein.

  14. Development of a prokaryotic-like polycistronic baculovirus expression vector by the linkage of two internal ribosome entry sites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Shuo; Chang, Yen-Chung; Chen, Ying-Ju; Chen, Yu-Jie; Teng, Chao-Yi; Wang, Chung-Hsiung; Wu, Tzong-Yuan

    2009-08-01

    Recombinant baculoviruses are suitable for the high-level production of large multi-protein complexes. A tri-cistronic expression vector was constructed by the inclusion of two internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs). In this novel polycistronic vector, one single polyhedrin promoter controlled the transcription of a tri-cistronic transcript. Also, the first cistron was translated through a cap-dependent mechanism, while the second and third cistrons were translated by the IRESs derived from the 5' UTR of Rhopalosiphum padi virus (RhPV) and Perina nuda virus (PnV), respectively. The ratio of tri-cistronic gene expression levels produced by the three translational initiation modules is about 2:1:1 (cap:PnV IRES:RhPV IRES). This study indicates that polycistronic genes can be co-expressed at the translational level as in prokaryotic expression system by baculovirus biotechnology.

  15. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of chondroitin lyase from baculovirus: envelope protein ODV-E66.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Yoshirou; Sugiura, Nobuo; Onishi, Momo; Kimata, Koji; Kimura, Makoto; Kakuta, Yoshimitu

    2012-02-01

    Baculovirus envelope protein ODV-E66 (67-704), in which the N-terminal 66 amino acids are truncated, is a chondroitin lyase. It digests chondroitin and chondroitin 6-sulfate efficiently, but does not digest chondroitin 4-sulfate. This unique characteristic is useful for the preparation of specific chondroitin oligosaccharides and for investigation of the mechanism of baculovirus infection. ODV-E66 (67-704) was crystallized; the crystal diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group P6(2) or P6(4), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 113.5, c = 101.5 Å. One molecule is assumed to be present per asymmetric unit, which gives a Matthews coefficient of 2.54 Å(3) Da(-1).

  16. DNA polymerase gene sequences indicate western and forest tent caterpillar viruses form a new taxonomic group within baculoviruses.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Cydney B; Cooper, Dawn; Short, Steven M; Myers, Judith H; Suttle, Curtis A

    2002-11-01

    Baculoviruses infect larval lepidopterans, and thus have potential value as microbial controls of agricultural and forest pests. Understanding their genetic relatedness and host specificity is relevant to the risk assessment of viral insecticides if non-target impacts are to be avoided. DNA polymerase gene sequences have been demonstrated to be useful for inferring genetic relatedness among dsDNA viruses. We have adopted this approach to examine the relatedness among natural isolates of two uncharacterized caterpillar-infecting baculoviruses, Malacosoma californicum pluviale nucleopolyhedrovirus (McplMNPV) and Malacosoma disstria nucleopolyhedrovirus (MadiMNPV), which infect two closely related host species with little to no cross-infectivity. We designed two degenerate primers (BVP1 and BVP2) based on protein motifs conserved among baculoviruses. McplMNPV and MadiMNPV viral DNA was obtained from naturally infected caterpillars collected from geographically distinct sites in the Southern Gulf Islands and Prince George regions of British Columbia, Canada. Sequencing of 0.9 kb PCR amplicons from six McplMNPV and six MadiMNPV isolates obtained from a total of eight sites, revealed very low nucleotide variation among McplMNPV isolates (99.2-100% nucleotide identity) and among MadiMNPV isolates (98.9-100% nucleotide identity). Greater nucleotide variation was observed between viral isolates from the two different caterpillar species (only 84.7-86.1% nucleotide identity). Both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses support placement of McplMNPV and MadiMNPV in a clade that is distinct from other groups of baculoviruses.

  17. Baculovirus p35 gene is oppositely regulated by P53 and AP-1 like factors in Spodoptera frugiperda

    SciTech Connect

    Mohareer, Krishnaveni; Sahdev, Sudhir; Hasnain, Seyed E.

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baculovirus p35 is regulated by both viral and host factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baculovirus p35 is negatively regulated by SfP53-like factor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baculovirus p35 is positively regulated by SfAP-1-like factor. -- Abstract: Baculovirus p35 belongs to the early class of genes of AcMNPV and requires viral factors like Immediate Early protein-1 for its transcription. To investigate the role of host factors in regulating p35 gene expression, the putative transcription factor binding sites were examined in silico and the role of these factors in influencing the transcription of p35 gene was assessed. We focused our studies on AP-1 and P53-like factors, which are activated under oxidative stress conditions. The AP-1 motif is located at -1401 while P53 motif is at -1912 relative to p35 translation start site. The predicted AP-1 and P53 elements formed specific complexes with Spodoptera frugiperda nuclear extracts. Both AP-1 and P53 motif binding proteins were down regulated as a function of AcMNPV infection in Spodoptera cells. To address the question whether during an oxidative outburst, the p35 transcription is enhanced; we investigated the role of these oxidative stress induced host transcription factors in influencing p35 gene transcription. Reporter assays revealed that AP-1 element enhances the transcription of p35 by a factor of two. Interestingly, P53 element appears to repress the transcription of p35 gene.

  18. Comparison of the Protective Efficacy of DNA and Baculovirus-Derived Protein Vaccines for EBOLA Virus in Guinea Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Ebola virus (ZEBOV). Numerous strains of these viruses have been identified. One species of Marburg-like viruses has been officially designated... viruses to guinea pigs challenged with ebola virus . In: Vaccines 97. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, pp. 87/92. Hevey...Short communication Comparison of the protective efficacy of DNA and baculovirus- derived protein vaccines for EBOLA virus in guinea pigs Jenny L

  19. Display of VP1 on the Surface of Baculovirus and Its Immunogenicity against Heterologous Human Enterovirus 71 Strains in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kiener, Tanja K.; Chow, Vincent T. K.; Kwang, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    Background Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a common cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in young children. It is often associated with severe neurological diseases and has caused high mortalities in recent outbreaks across the Asia Pacific region. Currently, there is no effective vaccine and antiviral agents available against EV71 infections. VP1 is one of the major immunogenic capsid protein of EV71 and plays a crucial role in viral infection. Antibodies against VP1 are important for virus neutralization. Methodology/Principal Finding In the present study, infectious EV71 viruses were generated from their synthetic complementary DNA using the human RNA polymerase I reverse genetics system. Secondly, the major immunogenic capsid protein (VP1) of EV71-Fuyang (subgenogroup C4) was displayed on the surface of recombinant baculovirus Bac-Pie1-gp64-VP1 as gp64 fusion protein under a novel White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) immediate early ie1 promoter. Baculovirus expressed VP1 was able to maintain its structural and antigenic conformity as indicated by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. Interestingly, our results with confocal microscopy revealed that VP1 was able to localize on the plasma membrane of insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. In addition, we demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy that baculovirus successfully acquired VP1 from the insect cell membrane via the budding process. After two immunizations in mice, Bac-Pie1-gp64-VP1 elicited neutralization antibody titer of 1∶64 against EV71 (subgenogroup C4) in an in vitro neutralization assay. Furthermore, the antisera showed high cross-neutralization activities against all 11 subgenogroup EV71 strains. Conclusion Our results illustrated that Bac-Pie1-gp64-VP1 retained native epitopes of VP1 and acted as an effective EV71 vaccine candidate which would enable rapid production without any biosafety concerns. PMID:21747954

  20. Effect of different baculovirus inactivation procedures on the integrity and immunogenicity of porcine parvovirus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Rueda, P; Fominaya, J; Langeveld, J P; Bruschke, C; Vela, C; Casal, J I

    2000-11-22

    We have demonstrated earlier the usefulness of recombinant porcine parvovirus (PPV) virus-like particles (VLPs) as an efficient recombinant vaccine for PPV. Here, we have demonstrated that preparations of PPV VLPs could be contaminated by recombinant baculoviruses. Since these baculoviruses can be a problem for the registration and safety requirements of the recombinant vaccine, we have tested different baculovirus inactivation strategies, studying simultaneously the integrity and immunogenicity of the VLPs. These methods were pasteurization, treatment with detergents and alkylation with binary ethylenimine (BEI). The structural and functional integrity of the PPV VLPs after the inactivation treatments were analyzed by electron microscopy, hemagglutination, double antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA and immunogenicity studies. Binary ethylenimine and Triton X-100 inactivated particles maintained all the original structural and antigenic properties. In addition, PPV VLPs were subjected to size-exclusion chromatography to analyze the presence of VP2 monomers or any other contaminant. The resulting highly purified material was used as the standard of reference to quantify PPV VLPs in order to determine the dose of vaccine by DAS-ELISA. After immunization experiments in guinea pigs, the antibody titers obtained with all the inactivation procedures were very similar. Triton X-100 treatment was selected for further testing in animals because of the speed, simplicity and safety of the overall procedure.

  1. Co-expression vs. co-infection using baculovirus expression vectors in insect cell culture: Benefits and drawbacks.

    PubMed

    Sokolenko, Stanislav; George, Steve; Wagner, Andreas; Tuladhar, Anup; Andrich, Jonas M S; Aucoin, Marc G

    2012-01-01

    The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is a versatile and powerful platform for protein expression in insect cells. With the ability to approach similar post-translational modifications as in mammalian cells, the BEVS offers a number of advantages including high levels of expression as well as an inherent safety during manufacture and of the final product. Many BEVS products include proteins and protein complexes that require expression from more than one gene. This review examines the expression strategies that have been used to this end and focuses on the distinguishing features between those that make use of single polycistronic baculovirus (co-expression) and those that use multiple monocistronic baculoviruses (co-infection). Three major areas in which researchers have been able to take advantage of co-expression/co-infection are addressed, including compound structure-function studies, insect cell functionality augmentation, and VLP production. The core of the review discusses the parameters of interest for co-infection and co-expression with time of infection (TOI) and multiplicity of infection (MOI) highlighted for the former and the choice of promoter for the latter. In addition, an overview of modeling approaches is presented, with a suggested trajectory for future exploration. The review concludes with an examination of the gaps that still remain in co-expression/co-infection knowledge and practice.

  2. The conserved baculovirus protein p33 (Ac92) is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked sulfhydryl oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Long, C.M.; Rohrmann, G.F.; Merrill, G.F.

    2009-06-05

    Open reading frame 92 of the Autographa californica baculovirus (Ac92) is one of about 30 core genes present in all sequenced baculovirus genomes. Computer analyses predicted that the Ac92 encoded protein (called p33) and several of its baculovirus orthologs were related to a family of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-linked sulfhydryl oxidases. Alignment of these proteins indicated that, although they were highly diverse, a number of amino acids in common with the Erv1p/Alrp family of sulfhydryl oxidases are present. Some of these conserved amino acids are predicted to stack against the isoalloxazine and adenine components of FAD, whereas others are involved in electron transfer. To investigate this relationship, Ac92 was expressed in bacteria as a His-tagged fusion protein, purified, and characterized both spectrophotometrically and for its enzymatic activity. The purified protein was found to have the color (yellow) and absorption spectrum consistent with it being a FAD-containing protein. Furthermore, it was demonstrated to have sulfhydryl oxidase activity using dithiothreitol and thioredoxin as substrates.

  3. Electron Tomography and Simulation of Baculovirus Actin Comet Tails Support a Tethered Filament Model of Pathogen Propulsion

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Jan; Pfanzelter, Julia; Winkler, Christoph; Narita, Akihiro; Le Clainche, Christophe; Nemethova, Maria; Carlier, Marie-France; Maeda, Yuichiro; Welch, Matthew D.; Ohkawa, Taro; Schmeiser, Christian; Resch, Guenter P.; Small, J. Victor

    2014-01-01

    Several pathogens induce propulsive actin comet tails in cells they invade to disseminate their infection. They achieve this by recruiting factors for actin nucleation, the Arp2/3 complex, and polymerization regulators from the host cytoplasm. Owing to limited information on the structural organization of actin comets and in particular the spatial arrangement of filaments engaged in propulsion, the underlying mechanism of pathogen movement is currently speculative and controversial. Using electron tomography we have resolved the three-dimensional architecture of actin comet tails propelling baculovirus, the smallest pathogen yet known to hijack the actin motile machinery. Comet tail geometry was also mimicked in mixtures of virus capsids with purified actin and a minimal inventory of actin regulators. We demonstrate that propulsion is based on the assembly of a fishbone-like array of actin filaments organized in subsets linked by branch junctions, with an average of four filaments pushing the virus at any one time. Using an energy-minimizing function we have simulated the structure of actin comet tails as well as the tracks adopted by baculovirus in infected cells in vivo. The results from the simulations rule out gel squeezing models of propulsion and support those in which actin filaments are continuously tethered during branch nucleation and polymerization. Since Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexneri, and Vaccinia virus among other pathogens use the same common toolbox of components as baculovirus to move, we suggest they share the same principles of actin organization and mode of propulsion. PMID:24453943

  4. Baculovirus LEF-11 Hijack Host ATPase ATAD3A to Promote Virus Multiplication in Bombyx mori cells

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhan-Qi; Hu, Nan; Dong, Fei-Fan; Chen, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Ya-Ming; Chen, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Min-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Research on molecular mechanisms that viruses use to regulate the host apparatus is important in virus infection control and antiviral therapy exploration. Our previous research showed that the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) LEF-11 localized to dense regions of the cell nucleus and is required for viral DNA replication. Herein, we examined the mechanism of LEF-11 on BmNPV multiplication and demonstrated that baculovirus LEF-11 interacts with Bombyx mori ATAD3A and HSPD1 (HSP60) protein. Furthermore, we showed that LEF-11 has the ability to induce and up-regulate the expression of ATAD3A and HSPD1, phenomena that were both reversed upon knockdown of lef-11. Our findings showed that ATAD3A and HSPD1 were necessary and contributed to BmNPV multiplication in Bombyx mori cells. Moreover, ATAD3A was found to directly interact with HSPD1. Interestingly, ATAD3A was required for the expression of HSPD1, while the knockdown of HSPD1 had no obvious effect on the expression level of ATAD3A. Taken together, the data presented in the current study demonstrated that baculovirus LEF-11 hijacks the host ATPase family members, ATAD3A and HSPD1, efficiently promote the multiplication of the virus. This study furthers our understanding of how baculovirus modulates energy metabolism of the host and provides a new insight into the molecular mechanisms of antiviral research. PMID:28393927

  5. QTL for white spot syndrome virus resistance and the sex-determining locus in the Indian black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Robinson, Nicholas A; Gopikrishna, Gopalapillay; Baranski, Matthew; Katneni, Vinaya Kumar; Shekhar, Mudagandur S; Shanmugakarthik, Jayakani; Jothivel, Sarangapani; Gopal, Chavali; Ravichandran, Pitchaiyappan; Gitterle, Thomas; Ponniah, Alphis G

    2014-08-28

    Shrimp culture is a fast growing aquaculture sector, but in recent years there has been a shift away from tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon to other species. This is largely due to the susceptibility of P. monodon to white spot syndrome virus disease (Whispovirus sp.) which has impacted production around the world. As female penaeid shrimp grow more rapidly than males, mono-sex production would be advantageous, however little is known about genes controlling or markers associated with sex determination in shrimp. In this study, a mapped set of 3959 transcribed single nucleotide polymorphisms were used to scan the P. monodon genome for loci associated with resistance to white-spot syndrome virus and sex in seven full-sibling tiger shrimp families challenged with white spot syndrome virus. Linkage groups 2, 3, 5, 6, 17, 18, 19, 22, 27 and 43 were found to contain quantitative trait loci significantly associated with hours of survival after white spot syndrome virus infection (P < 0.05 after Bonferroni correction). Nine QTL were significantly associated with hours of survival. Of the SNPs mapping to these and other regions with suggestive associations, many were found to occur in transcripts showing homology to genes with putative immune functions of interest, including genes affecting the action of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, lymphocyte-cell function, heat shock proteins, the TOLL pathway, protein kinase signal transduction pathways, mRNA binding proteins, lectins and genes affecting the development and differentiation of the immune system (eg. RUNT protein 1A). Several SNPs significantly associated with sex were mapped to linkage group 30, the strongest associations (P < 0.001 after Bonferroni correction) for 3 SNPs located in a 0.8 cM stretch between positions 43.5 and 44.3 cM where the feminisation gene (FEM-1, affecting sexual differentiation in Caenorhabditis elegans) mapped. The markers for disease resistance and sexual differentiation identified by this study

  6. Dietary effect of Sargassum wightii fucoidan to enhance growth, prophenoloxidase gene expression of Penaeus monodon and immune resistance to Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Sivagnanavelmurugan, Madasamy; Thaddaeus, Bergmans Jude; Palavesam, Arunachalam; Immanuel, Grasian

    2014-08-01

    The polysaccharide fucoidan from brown seaweed Sargassum wightii was extracted and it was incorporated with pellet diets at three concentrations (0.1, 0.2 & 0.3%). The fucoidan incorporated diets were fed to shrimp Penaeus monodon for 60 days and the growth performance was assessed. The weight gain and SGR of control group was 6.83 g and 9.72%, respectively, but the weight gain and SGR of various concentrations (0.1-0.3%) of fucoidan incorporated diets fed groups of shrimp was increased from 7.30 to 8.20 g and 9.83 to 10.03%, respectively. After 60 days of feeding experiment, the relative quantification of prophenoloxidase gene of experimental groups over control group was analysed by RT-PCR and it was ranged between 2.13 and 7.95 fold increase within 33.52-34.61 threshold cycles, respectively at 0.1-0.3% concentrations of fucoidan. After 60 days of feeding experiment, the P. monodon were challenged with shrimp pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus and the mortality percentage was recorded daily up to 21 days. The reduction in mortality percentage of experimental groups over control group was recorded from 44.56 to 72.79%, respectively in 0.1-0.3% of fucoidan incorporated diets fed groups. During challenge experiment, all the immunological parameters such as THC, prophenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst activity, superoxide dismutase activity, phagocytic activity, bactericidal activity and bacterial clearance ability of experimental groups were significantly (P < 0.05) increased than control group. The V. parahaemolyticus load was enumerated from the infected shrimp at every 10 days intervals during challenge experiment. In control group, the Vibrio load was increased in hepatopancreas and muscle tissues from 10th to 21st days of challenge test. But in the experimental groups, the Vibrio load in both the tissues decreased positively from 10th to 21st days of challenge duration. It is concluded that the S. wightii fucoidan had enhanced the innate immunity and

  7. A syntenin-like protein with postsynaptic density protein (PDZ) domains produced by black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in response to white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bangrak, Phuwadol; Graidist, Potchanapond; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Supamattaya, Kidchakan; Phongdara, Amornrat

    2002-04-24

    We report the isolation and characterization of products from a subtractive cDNA library from the haemolymph of Penaeus monodon experimentally infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). One cDNA derived from up-regulated mRNA was identified. A homology search indicated similarity to the putative protein syntenin (TE8). The nearly complete nucleotide sequence of TE8 was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA (RACE). Its putative protein product contained a tandem repeat of PDZ domains (postsynaptic density protein or PSD-95, DlgA and ZO-1). We propose that TE8 may function as an adapter that couples PDZ-binding protein(s) in a signaling pathway involved in the shrimp response to WSSV.

  8. Expression profile of key immune-related genes in Penaeus monodon juveniles after oral administration of recombinant envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ancy; Sudheer, Naduvilamuriparampu Saidumuhammed; Kiron, Viswanath; Bright Singh, Issac S; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri

    2016-07-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most catastrophic pathogen the shrimp industry has ever encountered. VP28, the abundant envelope protein of WSSV was expressed in bacteria, the purified protein administered orally to Penaeus monodon juveniles and its immune modulatory effects examined. The results indicated significant up-regulation of caspase, penaeidin, crustin, astakine, syntenin, PmRACK, Rab7, STAT and C-type lectin in animals orally administered with this antigen. This revealed the immune modulations in shrimps followed by oral administration of rVP28P which resulted in the reduced transcription of viral gene vp28 and delay in mortality after WSSV challenge. The study suggests the potential of rVP28P to elicit a non-specific immune stimulation in shrimps.

  9. Cloning and characterization of a caspase gene from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)-infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    PubMed

    Wongprasert, Kanokpan; Sangsuriya, Pakkakul; Phongdara, Amornrat; Senapin, Saengchan

    2007-08-01

    A black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) caspase cDNA homologue (PmCasp) has been identified from a hemocyte library using a previously identified caspase homologue from the banana shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) as a probe. The full-length PmCasp was 1202bp with a 954bp open reading frame, encoding 317 amino acids. The deduced protein contained a potential active site (QACRG pentapeptide) conserved in most caspases. It had 83% identity with caspase of P. merguiensis and 30% identity with drICE protein of Drosophila melanogaster, and it exhibited caspase-3 activity in vitro. PmCasp was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and a rabbit polyclonal antiserum was produced. In Western blots, the antiserum reacted with purified recombinant PmCasp and with lysates of E. coli containing the expressed plasmid. In crude protein extracts from normal shrimp, the antiserum reacted with 36 and 26kDa bands likely to correspond to inactive pro-caspase and its proteolytic intermediate form, respectively. PmCasp expression was measured in normal shrimp and in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected shrimp at 24 and 48h post-injection (p.i.) by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed up-regulation of PmCasp at 48h p.i. and expression remained high up to the moribund state. These results were supported by Western blot analysis showing increased PmCasp protein levels at 24 and 48h p.i. when compared to normal control shrimp. Immunohistochemical analysis of gills from the WSSV-infected shrimp revealed immunoreactivity localized in the cytoplasm of both normal and apparently apoptotic cells. In summary, a caspase-3 like gene is conserved in P. monodon and is up-regulated after WSSV infection.

  10. The novel white spot syndrome virus-induced gene, PmERP15, encodes an ER stress-responsive protein in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Leu, Jiann-Horng; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Shu-Hwa; Wang, Yu-Bin; Lin, Chung-Yen; Lo, Chu-Fang

    2015-04-01

    By microarray screening, we identified a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-strongly induced novel gene in gills of Penaeus monodon. The gene, PmERP15, encodes a putative transmembrane protein of 15 kDa, which only showed some degree of similarity (54-59%) to several unknown insect proteins, but had no hits to shrimp proteins. RT-PCR showed that PmERP15 was highly expressed in the hemocytes, heart and lymphoid organs, and that WSSV-induced strong expression of PmERP15 was evident in all tissues examined. Western blot analysis likewise showed that WSSV strongly up-regulated PmERP15 protein levels. In WSSV-infected hemocytes, immunofluorescence staining showed that PmERP15 protein was colocalized with an ER enzyme, protein disulfide isomerase, and in Sf9 insect cells, PmERP15-EGFP fusion protein colocalized with ER -Tracker™ Red dye as well. GRP78, an ER stress marker, was found to be up-regulated in WSSV-infected P. monodon, and both PmERP15 and GRP78 were up-regulated in shrimp injected with ER stress inducers tunicamycin and dithiothreitol. Silencing experiments showed that although PmERP15 dsRNA-injected shrimp succumbed to WSSV infection more rapidly, the WSSV copy number had no significant changes. These results suggest that PmERP15 is an ER stress-induced, ER resident protein, and its induction in WSSV-infected shrimp is caused by the ER stress triggered by WSSV infection. Furthermore, although PmERP15 has no role in WSSV multiplication, its presence is essential for the survival of WSSV-infected shrimp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Increase of dietary vitamin C improves haemocyte respiratory burst response and growth of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon, fed with high dietary copper.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Hsien; Shiau, Shi-Yen

    2003-04-01

    Effects of dietary vitamin C (l-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate-Mg, C2MP-Mg) on growth, tissue copper (Cu) accumulation, and haemocyte superoxide anion production of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon, fed with either adequate or high (8 x adequate) dietary Cu were studied. Three experimental diets were used: basal diet supplemented with adequate levels of both C2MP-Mg (40 mg kg diet(-1)) and Cu (20mg kg diet(-1)) (NC-NCu); basal diet supplemented with adequate C2MP-Mg and high Cu (8 x adequate) (NC-HCu); and basal diet supplemented with high C2MP-Mg (5 x adequate) and high Cu (HC-HCu). These were each fed to triplicate groups of shrimp (mean initial weight: 0.29+/-0.01 g) for 8 weeks. Highest (P< 0.01) weight gain, feed efficiency (FE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were observed in shrimp fed NC-NCu diet, intermediate in shrimp fed HC-HCu diet, and lowest in shrimp fed NC-HCu diet. Cu concentrations in hepatopancreas, muscle and haemolymph were highest in shrimp fed NC-HCu diet, followed by shrimp fed HC-HCu diet, and lowest for shrimp fed NC-NCu diet. Survival, total haemocyte count (THC) and intracellular superoxide anion (O-2) production were higher in shrimp fed NC-NCu diet than shrimp fed NC-HCu diet, whereas hepatosomatic index (HSI) was higher in shrimp fed NC-HCu diet than shrimp fed NC-NCu diet. However, all these parameters were similar in shrimp fed NC-NCu diet and shrimp fed HC-HCu diet. These data suggest that increase of dietary vitamin C improved haemocyte respiratory burst response and growth and prevented tissue Cu accumulation in P. monodon fed with high dietary Cu.

  12. Toxic effects of blooms of marine species of Oscillatoriales on farmed prawns (Penaeus monodon, Penaeus japonicus) and brine shrimp (Artemia salina).

    PubMed

    Smith, P T

    1996-08-01

    Benthic and planktonic blooms of species of Oscillatoriales coincided with mortalities of Penaeus monodon during four episodes at Australian prawn farms. Oscillatoria corakiana was the dominant planktonic species at 65-90,000 cells/ml, but Spirulina sp., Lyngbya sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Nodularia sp. were also identified from the water column, benthic layers or surface mats. The levels and variety of Vibrionaceae in prawn tissue, suggest that mortalities were caused by secondary infections of bacteria. However, experimental results indicate that toxicity of the blooms of Oscillatoriales was the primary cause of disease. Pond water and extracts from a tank culture of benthic Oscillatoriales caused mortalities when injected into P. monodon and P. japonicus. Immersion of artemia in extracts from the tank culture also caused mortalities, with L.D50 values for the supernatant extract of 70 mg/litre for artemia cysts and 50 mg/litre for adult artemia, and LD50 values for the pellet extract of 110 mg/litre for artemia cysts and 200 mg/litre for adult artemia. Experiments with artemia suggested the blooms of Oscillatoriales produced water-soluble, heat-labile toxin/s. Mortalities may have been caused by a neurotoxin because: (a) there was a lack of histopathological evidence of damage to the digestive tracts of prawns during each episode; and (b) artemia cysts immersed in extracts of Oscillatoriales died before they developed digestive tracts. PSP toxin, anatoxin-a, homoanatoxin-a and microcystins were not detected when pond water from a diseased pond was tested. It is proposed that sub-lethal levels of toxin weakened the prawns, causing reduced feeding behaviour and an impaired immune system. As a result, prawns were prone to secondary infection by pathogenic bacteria. Because Oscillatoriales are ubiquitous in prawn farms, the findings have significant implications for the assessment of disease in the prawn farming industry.

  13. The effect of choline and cystine on the utilisation of methionine for protein accretion, remethylation and trans-sulfuration in juvenile shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Richard, Lenaïg; Vachot, Christiane; Surget, Anne; Rigolet, Vincent; Kaushik, Sadasivam J; Geurden, Inge

    2011-09-01

    This 35-d feeding experiment examined in juvenile shrimp Penaeus monodon (3·3 g initial body weight) the effects of methionine (Met), choline and cystine on protein accretion and the activity of two key enzymes of remethylation (betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase; BHMT) and trans-sulfuration (cystathionine β-synthase; CBS). The interaction between Met and choline was tested using semi-purified diets either adequate or limiting (30 or 50 %) in total sulphur amino acid (SAA) content with a constant cystine:Met ratio. The diets contained either basal or excess choline (3 v. 7 g/kg feed). Cystine was added to two other 30 and 50 % Met-limiting diets to adjust the SAA supply to that of the control diet in order to evaluate the interaction between Met and cystine. As expected, N accretion was significantly lower with the SAA-limiting diets but increased back to control levels by the extra choline or cystine, demonstrating their sparing effect on Met utilisation for protein accretion. We show, for the first time, the activities of BHMT and CBS in shrimp hepatopancreas. Only BHMT responded to the SAA deficiencies, whereas the extra choline and cystine did not stimulate remethylation or down-regulate trans-sulfuration. Our data also suggest the capacity of P. monodon to synthesise taurine, being significantly affected by the cystine level in the 30 % SAA-limiting diets. Further research is warranted to better understand the metabolic regulation of taurine synthesis in shrimp and of the observed Met-sparing effects.

  14. Expression of the human multidrug transporter in insect cells by a recombinant baculovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Germann, U.A.; Willingham, M.C.; Pastan, I.; Gottesman, M.M. )

    1990-03-06

    The plasma membrane associated human multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene product, known as the 170-kDa P-glycoprotein or the multidrug transporter, acts as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for various cytotoxic agents. The authors expressed recombinant human multidrug transporter in a baculovirus expression system to obtain large quantities and further investigate its structure and mechanism of action. MDR1 cDNA was inserted into the genome of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells synthesized high levels of recombinant multidrug transporter 2-3 days after infection. The transporter was localized by immunocytochemical methods on the external surface of the plasma membranes, in the Golgi apparatus, and within the nuclear envelope. The human multidrug transporter expressed in insect cells is not susceptible to endoglycosidase F treatment and has a lower apparent molecular weight of 140,000, corresponding to the nonglycosylated precursor of its authentic counterpart expressed in multidrug-resistant cells. Labeling experiments showed that the recombinant multidrug transporter is phosphorylated and can be photoaffinity labeled by ({sup 3}H)azidopine, presumably at the same two sites as the native protein. Various drugs and reversing agents compete with the ({sup 3}H)azidopine binding reaction when added in excess, indicating that the recombinant human multidrug transporter expressed in insect cells is functionally similar to its authentic counterpart.

  15. The baculovirus expression vector system: A commercial manufacturing platform for viral vaccines and gene therapy vectors.

    PubMed

    Felberbaum, Rachael S

    2015-05-01

    The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) platform has become an established manufacturing platform for the production of viral vaccines and gene therapy vectors. Nine BEVS-derived products have been approved - four for human use (Cervarix(®), Provenge(®), Glybera(®) and Flublok(®)) and five for veterinary use (Porcilis(®) Pesti, BAYOVAC CSF E2(®), Circumvent(®) PCV, Ingelvac CircoFLEX(®) and Porcilis(®) PCV). The BEVS platform offers many advantages, including manufacturing speed, flexible product design, inherent safety and scalability. This combination of features and product approvals has previously attracted interest from academic researchers, and more recently from industry leaders, to utilize BEVS to develop next generation vaccines, vectors for gene therapy, and other biopharmaceutical complex proteins. In this review, we explore the BEVS platform, detailing how it works, platform features and limitations and important considerations for manufacturing and regulatory approval. To underscore the growth in opportunities for BEVS-derived products, we discuss the latest product developments in the gene therapy and influenza vaccine fields that follow in the wake of the recent product approvals of Glybera(®) and Flublok(®), respectively. We anticipate that the utility of the platform will expand even further as new BEVS-derived products attain licensure. Finally, we touch on some of the areas where new BEVS-derived products are likely to emerge.

  16. [Horizontal transmission routes of baculovirus infection in gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.)].

    PubMed

    Kolosov, A V; Kosogova, T A; Bulychev, L E; Sergeev, A N

    2010-01-01

    The paper considers horizontal transmission routes of baculovirus infection in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.). The original method for modeling natural processes in controllable conditions allowed one to estimate the influence of factors on the occurrence of epizooties. The authors investigated 3 possible models of virus transmission from infected to uninfected gypsy moths: 1) infected and test caterpillars were kept and fed together (a complex route); 2) those which were in the immediate vicinity, but deprived of eating together (an aerial route); 3) test caterpillars were fed on the leaves on which infected caterpillars had eaten (an oral route). The investigations have shown that the complex and oral routes out of the considered models may be considered to be effective infection transmission routes for the horizontal spread of epizooties. Furthermore, the availability of sufficient amount of infected caterpillars in the population leads to a reduction in the resistance of healthy insects to other diseases. Thus, by taking into account the capacity of larvae for passive migration, the purpose of insecticidal treatment is to set up a few infection foci that will be a source for the spread of epizootias and contribute to an overall viability reduction of a pest population.

  17. Actin-based motility drives baculovirus transit to the nucleus and cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Ohkawa, Taro; Volkman, Loy E.

    2010-01-01

    Most viruses move intracellularly to and from their sites of replication using microtubule-based mechanisms. In this study, we show that nucleocapsids of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus undergo intracellular motility driven by actin polymerization. Motility requires the viral P78/83 capsid protein and the host Arp2/3 complex. Surprisingly, the virus directs two sequential and coordinated phases of actin-based motility. Immediately after cell entry, motility enables exploration of the cytoplasm and collision with the nuclear periphery, speeding nuclear entry and the initiation of viral gene expression. Nuclear entry itself requires transit through nuclear pore complexes. Later, after the onset of early gene expression, motility is required for accumulation of a subpopulation of nucleocapsids in the tips of actin-rich surface spikes. Temporal coordination of actin-based nuclear and surface translocation likely enables rapid transmission to neighboring cells during infection in insects and represents a distinctive evolutionary strategy for overcoming host defenses. PMID:20660627

  18. Use of baculovirus expression system for generation of virus-like particles: successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fuxiao; Wu, Xiaodong; Li, Lin; Liu, Zengshan; Wang, Zhiliang

    2013-08-01

    The baculovirus expression system (BES) has been one of the versatile platforms for the production of recombinant proteins requiring multiple post-translational modifications, such as folding, oligomerization, phosphorylation, glycosylation, acylation, disulfide bond formation and proteolytic cleavage. Advances in recombinant DNA technology have facilitated application of the BES, and made it possible to express multiple proteins simultaneously in a single infection and to produce multimeric proteins sharing functional similarity with their natural analogs. Therefore, the BES has been used for the production of recombinant proteins and the construction of virus-like particles (VLPs), as well as for the development of subunit vaccines, including VLP-based vaccines. The VLP, which consists of one or more structural proteins but no viral genome, resembles the authentic virion but cannot replicate in cells. The high-quality recombinant protein expression and post-translational modifications obtained with the BES, along with its capacity to produce multiple proteins, imply that it is ideally suited to VLP production. In this article, we critically review the pros and cons of using the BES as a platform to produce both enveloped and non-enveloped VLPs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Kinetic exclusion assay of monoclonal antibody affinity to the membrane protein Roundabout 1 displayed on baculovirus.

    PubMed

    Kusano-Arai, Osamu; Fukuda, Rie; Kamiya, Wakana; Iwanari, Hiroko; Hamakubo, Takao

    2016-07-01

    The reliable assessment of monoclonal antibody (mAb) affinity against membrane proteins in vivo is a major issue in the development of cancer therapeutics. We describe here a simple and highly sensitive method for the evaluation of mAbs against membrane proteins by means of a kinetic exclusion assay (KinExA) in combination with our previously developed membrane protein display system using budded baculovirus (BV). In our BV display system, the membrane proteins are displayed on the viral surface in their native form. The BVs on which the liver cancer antigen Roundabout 1 (Robo1) was displayed were adsorbed onto magnetic beads without fixative (BV beads). The dissociation constant (Kd, ∼10(-11) M) that was measured on the Robo1 expressed BV beads correlated well with the value from a whole cell assay (the coefficient of determination, R(2) = 0.998) but not with the value for the soluble extracellular domains of Robo1 (R(2) = 0.834). These results suggest that the BV-KinExA method described here provides a suitably accurate Kd evaluation of mAbs against proteins on the cell surface.

  20. Characterization of a baculovirus nuclear localization signal domain in the late expression factor 3 protein

    SciTech Connect

    Au, Victoria; Yu Mei; Carstens, Eric B.

    2009-03-01

    The baculovirus Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) single-stranded DNA binding protein LEF-3 is a multi-functional protein that is required to transport the helicase protein P143 into the nucleus of infected cells where they function to replicate viral DNA. The N-terminal 56 amino acid region of LEF-3 is required for nuclear transport. In this report, we analyzed the effect of site-specific mutagenesis of LEF-3 on its intracellular distribution. Fluorescence microscopy of expression plasmid-transfected cells demonstrated that the residues 28 to 32 formed the core nuclear localization signal, but other adjacent positively-charged residues augmented these sequences. Comparison with other group I Alphabaculoviruses suggested that this core region functionally duplicated residues including 18 and 19. This was demonstrated by the loss of nuclear localization when the equivalent residues (18 to 20) in Choristoneura fumiferana nucleopolyhedrovirus (CfMNPV) LEF-3 were mutated. The AcMNPV LEF-3 nuclear localization domain was also shown to drive nuclear transport in mammalian cells indicating that the protein nuclear import systems in insect and mammalian cells are conserved. We also demonstrated by mutagenesis that two conserved cysteine residues located at 82 and 106 were not essential for nuclear localization or for interaction with P143. However, by using a modified construct of P143 that localized on its own to the nucleus, we demonstrated that a functional nuclear localization domain on LEF-3 was required for interaction between LEF-3 and P143.

  1. Oligomerization of Baculovirus LEF-11 Is Involved in Viral DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhan-Qi; Hu, Nan; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Ting-Ting; Cao, Ming-Ya; Li, Hai-Qing; Lei, Xue-Jiao; Chen, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Min-Hui

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that baculovirus Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) late expression factor 11 (lef-11) is associated with viral DNA replication and have demonstrated that it potentially interacts with itself; however, whether LEF-11 forms oligomers and the impact of LEF-11 oligomerization on viral function have not been substantiated. In this study, we first demonstrated that LEF-11 is capable of forming oligomers. Additionally, a series of analyses using BmNPV LEF-11 truncation mutants indicated that two distinct domains control LEF-11 oligomerization (aa 42–61 and aa 72–101). LEF-11 truncation constructs were inserted into a lef-11-knockout BmNPV bacmid, which was used to demonstrate that truncated LEF-11 lacking either oligomerization domain abrogates viral DNA replication. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis was used to determine that the conserved hydrophobic residues Y58&I59 (representing Y58 and I59), I85 and L88&L89 (representing L88 and L89) are required for LEF-11 oligomerization and viral DNA replication. Collectively, these data indicate that BmNPV LEF-11 oligomerization influences viral DNA replication. PMID:26660313

  2. Evaluation of the Virus Counter® for rapid baculovirus quantitation.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Matthew M; Stepp, Patricia C; Ranno, Kirk A; Mahmoud, Wafaa; Ibbitson, Elizabeth; Jarvis, James; Cox, Manon M J; Christensen, Kurt; Votaw, Heather; Edwards, Dean P; Rowlen, Kathy L

    2011-01-01

    The utility of a new instrument for rapid virus quantitation, the Virus Counter, was evaluated in a blind study conducted at three sites. This instrument is a substantially improved version of the original academic research instrument described previously by Stoffel and Rowlen (2005a). The addition of hydrodynamic focusing, a self-contained fluidics system and customized software for system control and data analysis has resulted in a commercially viable and available design. Baculovirus samples were provided by Protein Sciences Corporation and blinded to InDevR and Baylor College of Medicine. Protein Sciences Corporation and Baylor College of Medicine analyzed the samples by plaque assay and InDevR analyzed the samples using the Virus Counter. Serial dilution of stock viruses into growth media and buffer allowed for comparison of measured versus intended concentrations. Direct log-scale comparison between pooled Virus Counter results and pooled plaque assay results indicated a linear relationship (slope=1.1±0.2, R(2)=0.86) with statistically significant Pearson correlation (r=0.93, p<0.001). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative proteomics reveal fundamental structural and functional differences between the two progeny phenotypes of a baculovirus.

    PubMed

    Hou, Dianhai; Zhang, Leike; Deng, Fei; Fang, Wei; Wang, Ranran; Liu, Xijia; Guo, Lin; Rayner, Simon; Chen, Xinwen; Wang, Hualin; Hu, Zhihong

    2013-01-01

    The replication of lepidopteran baculoviruses is characterized by the production of two progeny phenotypes: the occlusion-derived virus (ODV), which establishes infection in midgut cells, and the budded virus (BV), which disseminates infection to different tissues within a susceptible host. To understand the structural, and hence functional, differences between BV and ODV, we employed multiple proteomic methods to reveal the protein compositions and posttranslational modifications of the two phenotypes of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus. In addition, Western blotting and quantitative mass spectrometry were used to identify the localization of proteins in the envelope or nucleocapsid fractions. Comparative protein portfolios of BV and ODV showing the distribution of 54 proteins, encompassing the 21 proteins shared by BV and ODV, the 12 BV-specific proteins, and the 21 ODV-specific proteins, were obtained. Among the 11 ODV-specific envelope proteins, 8 either are essential for or contribute to oral infection. Twenty-three phosphorylated and 6 N-glycosylated viral proteins were also identified. While the proteins that are shared by the two phenotypes appear to be important for nucleocapsid assembly and trafficking, the structural and functional differences between the two phenotypes are evidently characterized by the envelope proteins and posttranslational modifications. This comparative proteomics study provides new insight into how BV and ODV are formed and why they function differently.

  4. Transient and stable gene expression in mammalian cells transduced with a recombinant baculovirus vector

    PubMed Central

    Condreay, J. Patrick; Witherspoon, Sam M.; Clay, William C.; Kost, Thomas A.

    1999-01-01

    Recombinant baculoviruses can serve as gene-transfer vehicles for transient expression of recombinant proteins in a wide range of mammalian cell types. Furthermore, by inclusion of a dominant selectable marker in the viral vector, cell lines can be derived that stably express recombinant genes. A virus was constructed containing two expression cassettes controlled by constitutive mammalian promoters: the cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter/enhancer directing expression of green fluorescent protein and the simian virus 40 (SV40) early promoter controlling neomycin phosphotransferase II. Using this virus, efficient gene delivery and expression was observed and measured in numerous cell types of human, primate, and rodent origin. In addition to commonly used transformed cell lines such as HeLa, CHO, Cos-7, and 293, this list includes primary human keratinocytes and bone marrow fibroblasts. In all cases, addition of butyrate or trichostatin A (a selective histone deacetylase inhibitor) to transduced cells markedly enhanced the levels of reporter protein expression observed. When transduced cells are put under selection with the antibiotic G418, cell lines can be obtained at high frequency that stably maintain the expression cassettes of the vector DNA and exhibit stable, high-level expression of the reporter gene. Stably transduced derivatives have been selected from a substantial number of different cell types, suggesting that stable lines can be derived from any cell type that exhibits transient expression. PMID:9874783

  5. Expression and purification of the matrix protein of Nipah virus in baculovirus insect cell system.

    PubMed

    Masoomi Dezfooli, Seyedehsara; Tan, Wen Siang; Tey, Beng Ti; Ooi, Chien Wei; Hussain, Siti Aslina

    2016-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) causes fatal respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans and animals. The matrix (M) protein of NiV plays an important role in the viral assembly and budding process. Thus, an access to the NiV M protein is vital to the design of viral antigens as diagnostic reagents. In this study, recombinant DNA technology was successfully adopted in the cloning and expression of NiV M protein. A recombinant expression cassette (baculovirus expression vector) was used to encode an N-terminally His-tagged NiV M protein in insect cells. A time-course study demonstrated that the highest yield of recombinant M protein (400-500 μg) was expressed from 107 infected cells 3 days after infection. A single-step purification method based on metal ion affinity chromatography was established to purify the NiV M protein, which successfully yielded a purity level of 95.67% and a purification factor of 3.39. The Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that the purified recombinant M protein (48 kDa) was antigenic and reacted strongly with the serum of a NiV infected pig.

  6. Baculovirus expression of the avian paramyxovirus 2 HN gene for diagnostic applications.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kye, Soo-Jeong; Kim, Ji-Ye; Seul, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Hee-Soo; Kwon, Hyuk-Moo; Sung, Haan-Woo

    2014-03-01

    Avian paramyxovirus 2 (APMV-2) infections are associated with respiratory diseases in poultry worldwide. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is a useful tool for surveillance and monitoring of this virus. In this study, full-length hemagglutinin (HN) gene of APMV-2 was chemically synthesized based on its published sequence, cloned and expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses. The biological, antigenic and immunogenic properties of the expressed protein were evaluated to assess its ability to produce diagnostic reagents for HI testing. Recombinant APMV-2 HN protein showed two distinct bands with molecular masses of 64 and 75kDa, which showed hemagglutination (HA) and neuraminidase activities, respectively. The recombinant HN (rHN) protein extracted from infected cells produced high HA titers (2(13) per 25μL). HA activity of the protein was inhibited by APMV-2 antiserum, although there were weak cross reactions with other APMV serotype antisera. The rHN protein induced high titers of APMV-2-specific antibodies in immunized chickens based on the HI test. These results indicated that recombinant APMV-2 HN protein is a useful alternative to the APMV-2 antigen in HI assays.

  7. A rapid method for estimation of baculovirus titer based on viable cell size.

    PubMed

    Janakiraman, Vasantharajan; Forrest, William F; Chow, Bernard; Seshagiri, Somasekar

    2006-03-01

    Baculovirus protein expression system is a powerful tool for producing recombinant proteins. To optimize conditions for efficient recombinant protein expression, it is important to determine titer of virus stock for arriving at an optimal multiplicity of infection (MOI) that maximizes recombinant protein expression. Traditionally plaque assays have been used for titer determination. Other methods such as endpoint dilution, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry have been developed to aid the determination of virus titers. However, most of these methods are time-consuming and labor intensive. In this regard, a simple and rapid method for determination of virus titers based on the cytopathic effects that lead to viable cell size increase following virus infection is presented in this paper. In this study, the Vi-CELL (Beckman Coulter) was used to measure cell-diameter over a range of virus dilutions, following infection. Applying statistical modeling techniques, the viable cell-diameter data was used to estimate the virus titer. The results indicated that the viable cell-diameter based titer estimation to be reliable and comparable to titers determined by the traditional plaque assay.

  8. Development and validation of an intact cell assay for protein tyrosine phosphatases using recombinant baculoviruses.

    PubMed

    Cromlish, W A; Payette, P; Kennedy, B P

    1999-11-15

    We have developed an intact cell assay to be used in the direct quantitation of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity. Utilizing the baculovirus expression system, the assay readily allows for a direct activity readout for PTPs such as PTP1B or CD45. Infected Sf9 cells expressing either full-length PTP1B, full-length CD45, CD45 catalytic domain, or hCOX-1 (mock-infected) are harvested 29 hr post-infection, at which time cells are viable and the expressed proteins are processed, as well as localized to their predicted subcellular compartments. Assays are carried out in a 96-well format, with cells expressing the PTP of interest. Cells are preincubated with or without inhibitor and challenged with substrate, and the phosphatase activity is determined spectrophotometrically by monitoring the conversion of p-nitrophenyl phosphate to p-nitrophenol at OD405. Documented PTP inhibitors have been used to validate this assay system. This study demonstrates that a direct readout of PTP activity in intact cells can be achieved, thus providing a useful cell-based screen for determining selective inhibitors of PTPs.

  9. Baculovirus Induced Transcripts in Hemocytes from the Larvae of Heliothis virescens

    PubMed Central

    Breitenbach, Jonathan E.; Shelby, Kent S.; Popham, Holly J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Using RNA-seq digital difference expression profiling methods, we have assessed the gene expression profiles of hemocytes harvested from Heliothis virescens that were challenged with Helicoverpa zea single nucleopolyhedrovirus (HzSNPV). A reference transcriptome of hemocyte-expressed transcripts was assembled from 202 million 42-base tags by combining the sequence data of all samples, and the assembled sequences were then subject to BLASTx analysis to determine gene identities. We used the fully sequenced HzSNPV reference genome to align 477,264 Illumina sequence tags from infected hemocytes in order to document expression of HzSNPV genes at early points during infection. A comparison of expression profiles of control insects to those lethally infected with HzSNPV revealed differential expression of key cellular stress response genes and genes involved in lipid metabolism. Transcriptional regulation of specific insect hormones in baculovirus-infected insects was also altered. A number of transcripts bearing homology to retroviral elements that were detected add to a growing body of evidence for extensive invasion of errantiviruses into the insect genome. Using this method, we completed the first and most comprehensive gene expression survey of both baculoviral infection and host immune defense in lepidopteran larvae. PMID:22163334

  10. Hyperactivity and tree-top disease induced by the baculovirus AcMNPV in Spodoptera exigua larvae are governed by independent mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Houte, Stineke; Ros, Vera I. D.; van Oers, Monique M.

    2014-04-01

    Although many parasites are known to manipulate the behavior of their hosts, the mechanisms underlying such manipulations are largely unknown. Baculoviruses manipulate the behavior of caterpillar hosts by inducing hyperactivity and by inducing climbing behavior leading to death at elevated positions (tree-top disease or Wipfelkrankheit). Whether hyperactivity and tree-top disease are independent manipulative strategies of the virus is unclear. Recently, we demonstrated the involvement of the protein tyrosine phosphatase ( ptp) gene of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) in the induction of hyperactivity in Spodoptera exigua larvae. Here we show that AcMNPV ptp is not required for tree-top disease, indicating that in S. exigua baculovirus-induced hyperactivity and tree-top disease are independently induced behaviors that are governed by distinct mechanisms.

  11. A pseudotype baculovirus expressing the capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus and a T-Cell immunogen shows enhanced immunogenicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of livestock which causes severe economic loss in cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccination is still a major strategy in developing countries to control FMD. Currently, inactivated vaccine of FMDV has been used in many countries with limited success and safety concerns. Development of a novel effective vaccine is must. Methods In the present study, two recombinant pseudotype baculoviruses, one expressing the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) under the control of a cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer/promoter (CMV-IE), and the other the caspid plus a T-cell immunogen coding region under a CAG promoter were constructed, and their expression was characterized in mammalian cells. In addition, their immunogenicity in a mouse model was investigated. The humoral and cell-mediated immune responses induced by pseudotype baculovirus were compared with those of inactivated vaccine. Results Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and indirect sandwich-ELISA (IS-ELISA) showed both recombinant baculoviruses (with or without T-cell epitopes) were transduced efficiently and expressed target proteins in BHK-21 cells. In mice, intramuscular inoculation of recombinants with 1 × 109 or 1 × 1010 PFU/mouse induced the production of FMDV-specific neutralizing antibodies and gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Furthermore, recombinant baculovirus with T-cell epitopes had better immunogenicity than the recombinant without T-cell epitopes as demonstrated by significantly enhanced IFN-γ production (P < 0.01) and higher neutralizing antibody titer (P < 0.05). Although the inactivated vaccine produced the highest titer of neutralizing antibodies, a lower IFN-γ expression was observed compared to the two recombinant pseudotype baculoviruses. Conclusions These results indicate that pseudotype baculovirus-mediated gene delivery could be a alternative strategy to develop a new generation of vaccines against FMDV infection

  12. A Cholesterol Recognition Amino Acid Consensus Domain in GP64 Fusion Protein Facilitates Anchoring of Baculovirus to Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luz-Madrigal, Agustin; Asanov, Alexander; Camacho-Zarco, Aldo R.; Sampieri, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Baculoviridae is a large family of double-stranded DNA viruses that selectively infect insects. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is the best-studied baculovirus from the family. Many studies over the last several years have shown that AcMNPV can enter a wide variety of mammalian cells and deliver genetic material for foreign gene expression. While most animal viruses studied so far have developed sophisticated mechanisms to selectively infect specific cells and tissues in an organism, AcMNPV can penetrate and deliver foreign genes into most cells studied to this date. The details about the mechanisms of internalization have been partially described. In the present study, we have identified a cholesterol recognition amino acid consensus (CRAC) domain present in the AcMNPV envelope fusion protein GP64. We demonstrated the association of a CRAC domain with cholesterol, which is important to facilitate the anchoring of the virus at the mammalian cell membrane. Furthermore, this initial anchoring favors AcMNPV endocytosis via a dynamin- and clathrin-dependent mechanism. Under these conditions, efficient baculovirus-driven gene expression is obtained. In contrast, when cholesterol is reduced from the plasma membrane, AcMNPV enters the cell via a dynamin- and clathrin-independent mechanism. The result of using this alternative internalization pathway is a reduced level of baculovirus-driven gene expression. This study is the first to document the importance of a novel CRAC domain in GP64 and its role in modulating gene delivery in AcMNPV. PMID:23986592

  13. A cholesterol recognition amino acid consensus domain in GP64 fusion protein facilitates anchoring of baculovirus to mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Luz-Madrigal, Agustin; Asanov, Alexander; Camacho-Zarco, Aldo R; Sampieri, Alicia; Vaca, Luis

    2013-11-01

    Baculoviridae is a large family of double-stranded DNA viruses that selectively infect insects. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is the best-studied baculovirus from the family. Many studies over the last several years have shown that AcMNPV can enter a wide variety of mammalian cells and deliver genetic material for foreign gene expression. While most animal viruses studied so far have developed sophisticated mechanisms to selectively infect specific cells and tissues in an organism, AcMNPV can penetrate and deliver foreign genes into most cells studied to this date. The details about the mechanisms of internalization have been partially described. In the present study, we have identified a cholesterol recognition amino acid consensus (CRAC) domain present in the AcMNPV envelope fusion protein GP64. We demonstrated the association of a CRAC domain with cholesterol, which is important to facilitate the anchoring of the virus at the mammalian cell membrane. Furthermore, this initial anchoring favors AcMNPV endocytosis via a dynamin- and clathrin-dependent mechanism. Under these conditions, efficient baculovirus-driven gene expression is obtained. In contrast, when cholesterol is reduced from the plasma membrane, AcMNPV enters the cell via a dynamin- and clathrin-independent mechanism. The result of using this alternative internalization pathway is a reduced level of baculovirus-driven gene expression. This study is the first to document the importance of a novel CRAC domain in GP64 and its role in modulating gene delivery in AcMNPV.

  14. Efficient production of an avian adeno-associated virus vector using insect cell/baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anping; Wang, Yongjuan; Wu, Shuang; Zuo, Weiyong; Guo, Changming; Hong, Weiming; Zhu, Shanyuan

    2017-02-01

    Recombinant avian adeno-associated virus (rAAAV) is a promising gene transfer vector for avian cells. Although rAAAV can be produced by co-transfection of HEK293 cells with three plasmids, both scalability and productivity of the transient transfection method can not meet the demand for large-scale in vivo experiments. In this study, a scalable rAAAV production method was established by using insect cell/baculovirus expression system. Three recombinant baculoviruses, namely BacARep, BacAVP and BacAGFP, were generated by transfection of Sf9 cells with the three plasmids expressing AAAV Rep genes, modified VP gene or the inverted terminal repeats-flanked green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene. After demonstration of the correct expression of AAAV genes, rAAAV-GFP was produced by triple infection of insect cells or triple transfection of HEK293 cells for comparison purpose. Electron microscopy revealed the formation of typical AAAV particles in the insect cells. Western blotting showed the correct assembly of rAAAV particles with a VP protein ratio similar to that of AAAV. Quantitative PCR showed that the insect cell-produced rAAAV yield was almost 25-fold higher than that produced by HEK293 cells. Fluorescent microscopy showed that the insect cell-produced rAAAV could transfer GFP reporter gene into two avian cell types with similar transfer efficiency to that of HEK293 cell-produced rAAAV. These data suggest that insect cell/baculovirus expression system could be used for scalable production of rAAAV, and the viral vector produced could be used as the gene transfer vehicle for avian cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of baculovirus P35 protein on apoptosis in brain tissue of rats with acute cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Ji, J F; Ma, X H

    2015-08-10

    We explored the effect of baculovirus P35 protein on apoptosis in the brain tissue of rats with acute cerebral infarction (ACI). A rat model of middle cerebral artery infarction was created. The rats were randomly divided into sham, model, and treatment groups. Baculovirus P35 protein was injected into the intracranial arteries of the treatment group rats. The rats in the model group were given an equal volume of phosphate-buffered saline. The rats were sacrificed after 72 h and the brain tissue was separated. The levels of caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax mRNA, the brain cell apoptosis index, and the infarct size were determined. After 72 h, the levels of caspase-3 and Bax mRNA in the model and treatment groups were significantly greater than in the sham group, and the levels of Bcl-2 mRNA were significantly smaller (P < 0.05). The levels of caspase-3 and Bax mRNA were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the model group, and the level of Bcl-2 mRNA was significantly greater (P < 0.05). Compared with the sham group, the brain tissue apoptosis index and the cerebral infarction area increased significantly in the model and treatment groups (P < 0.05). The brain tissue apoptosis index and cerebral infarction area in the treatment group were significantly lower than in the model group (P < 0.05). Baculovirus P35 protein can effectively inhibit brain cell apoptosis in rats with ACI. It delayed apoptosis and necrosis in subjects with ACI tissue and had a protective effect on brain tissue.

  16. Chaperokine function of recombinant Hsp72 produced in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system is retained.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongying; Nagaraja, Ganachari M; Kaur, Punit; Asea, Edwina E; Asea, Alexzander

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72; inducible form of the 70-kDa heat shock protein) plays a critical role in innate and adaptive immune responses and has shown promise as an ideal adjuvant for the optimization of antigen-specific anti-tumor vaccines. Recent studies suggest that to correctly elucidate the mechanisms by which Hsp72 exerts its beneficial effects in vitro, great care must be taken to ensure that endotoxin by-products do not invalidate the findings. In this study, we have taken advantage of the baculovirus expression vector system for production of endotoxin-free recombinant Hsp72. The coding sequence of human hsp72 was recombined into the baculovirus immediately downstream of the strong polyhedron gene promoter. Ninety-six h post-infection of Sf9 insect cells with recombinant baculovirus, maximal levels of Hsp72 protein were detected. The recombinant human Hsp72 was purified by affinity chromatography from insect cells, and purity was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. The purified human recombinant Hsp72(bv) (Hsp72 produced using the BEVS) was demonstrated to have no endotoxin contamination and was shown to have stimulated potent calcium flux in the human monocytic cell line. Furthermore, recombinant Hsp72(bv) enhanced the tolerance of neuroblastoma cells to heat stress-induced cell death and displayed classical chaperokine functions including augmentation of inflammatory cytokine productions in mouse splenocytes. The production of functional, endotoxin-free recombinant human Hsp72(bv) in insect cells is inexpensive and convenient and eliminates the need of special procedures for endotoxin depletion. Endotoxin-free recombinant human Hsp72(bv) can now be used to unlock the important role Hsp72 plays in modulating immune function.

  17. Baculovirus Per Os Infectivity Factors Form a Complex on the Surface of Occlusion-Derived Virus ▿

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Ke; van Oers, Monique M.; Hu, Zhihong; van Lent, Jan W. M.; Vlak, Just M.

    2010-01-01

    Five highly conserved per os infectivity factors, PIF1, PIF2, PIF3, PIF4, and P74, have been reported to be essential for oral infectivity of baculovirus occlusion-derived virus (ODV) in insect larvae. Three of these proteins, P74, PIF1, and PIF2, were thought to function in virus binding to insect midgut cells. In this paper evidence is provided that PIF1, PIF2, and PIF3 form a stable complex on the surface of ODV particles of the baculovirus Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). The complex could withstand 2% SDS-5% β-mercaptoethanol with heating at 50°C for 5 min. The complex was not formed when any of the genes for PIF1, PIF2, or PIF3 was deleted, while reinsertion of these genes into AcMNPV restored the complex. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis independently confirmed the interactions of the three PIF proteins and revealed in addition that P74 is also associated with this complex. However, deletion of the p74 gene did not affect formation of the PIF1-PIF2-PIF3 complex. Electron microscopy analysis showed that PIF1 and PIF2 are localized on the surface of the ODV with a scattered distribution. This distribution did not change for PIF1 or PIF2 when the gene for PIF2 or PIF1 protein was deleted. We propose that PIF1, PIF2, PIF3, and P74 form an evolutionarily conserved complex on the ODV surface, which has an essential function in the initial stages of baculovirus oral infection. PMID:20610731

  18. Baculovirus surface display of sigmaC and sigmaB proteins of avian reovirus and immunogenicity of the displayed proteins in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yueh H; Lee, Long H; Shih, Wen L; Hu, Yu C; Liu, Hung J

    2008-11-25

    Avian reovirus (ARV), an important pathogen in poultry, causes arthritis, chronic respiratory disease, and malabsorption syndrome that cause considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. In present study, we have succeeded in construction of a universal baculovirus surface display system (UBSDS) that can display different foreign proteins on the envelope of baculovirus. Sequences encoding the signal peptide (SS), transmembrane domain (TM), and cytoplasmic domain (CTD) derived from the gp64 protein of baculovirus and histidine tag, respectively were inserted into the pBacCE vector. Four restriction enzyme sites between the histidine tag and gp64 transmembrane domain were established for expression of different foreign proteins. The transmembrane domain and CTD of gp64 in the platform were designed in order to improve stability and quantity of foreign proteins on the envelope of baculovirus. The sigmaC and sigmaB proteins of ARV are known to elicit neutralizing antibodies against ARV. The UBSDS was therefore used to express sigmaC and sigmaB proteins on the envelope of baculovirus. Two recombinant baculoviruses BacSC-sigmaC and BacSC-sigmaB have been successfully constructed. After infection, both His6-tagged recombinant sigmaC (rsigmaC) and sigmaB (rsigmaB) proteins were displayed on the envelope of recombinant baculoviruses and the recombinant viral proteins were anchored on the plasma membrane of Sf-9 cells, as revealed by immunofluorescence staining (IFS) and confocal microscopy. The antigenicity of rsigmaC and rsigmaB proteins was demonstrated by Western blotting assay. Immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated that both recombinant viruses displayed rsigmaC and rsigmaB proteins on the viral surface. Immunization of BALB/c mice with recombinant viruses, demonstrated that serum from the BacSC-sigmaC and BacSC-sigmaB treated models had significant higher levels of virus neutralization activities than the control groups. This demonstrates that the

  19. Aromatic/heterocyclic amino acids and the simulated sunlight-ultraviolet inactivation of the Heliothis/Helicoverpa baculovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Ignoffo, C.M.; Garcia, C.

    1995-04-01

    Tryptophan, of five aromatic/heterocyclic amino acids (tyrosine, phenylalanine, proline, histidine) provided significant protection of the Heliothis baculovirus (HzSNPV) from inactivation by simulated ultraviolet (SUV). Fifty percent of SUV protection of HzSNPV with tryptophan or tyrosine was obtained at 0.03 mg/ml and 0.5 mg/ml, respectively. Rates as high as 100.0 mg/ml of phenylalanine, histidine, or proline provided <50% protection. The extent of tryptophan protection was correlated with its absorption in the sunlight UV-B spectra. 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Human olfactory receptors: recombinant expression in the baculovirus/Sf9 insect cell system, functional characterization, and odorant identification.

    PubMed

    Matarazzo, Valéry; Ronin, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Cell surface expression of recombinant olfactory receptors (ORs) is a major limitation in characterizing their functional nature. We have shown that the recombinant expression of a human OR, OR 17-210, in the baculovirus/Sf9 insect cell system allows this protein to be expressed at the cell surface. We used Ca(2+) imaging to demonstrate that recombinant OR 17-210 produces cellular activities upon odorant stimulation with ketones. Furthermore, this expression and functional system has been used to show that the preincubation of Human Odorant Binding Protein 2A decrease the calcium response of OR 17-210 following stimulation by acetophenone and beta ionone.

  1. Effects of temperature on the susceptibility of insect cells to infection by baculoviruses.

    PubMed

    Lynn, D E

    2001-01-01

    Three insect cell lines were tested for susceptibility to baculovirus infection by use of a typical endpoint assay procedure. Cell lines from Spodoptera frugiperda (IPLB-Sf21AE), Lymantria dispar (IPLB-LdEIta), and Heliothis virescens (IPLB-HvE6s) in 96-well tissue culture plates were each infected with dilutions of extra cellular virus suspensions of the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). In addition, the L. dispar and H. virescens cells were also infected with L. dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus, and Helicoverpa zea nucleopolyhedrovirus, respectively. Each cell/virus combination was incubated at three temperatures: 22, 27 and 32 degrees C and wells were scored for positive infection (presence of occlusion bodies in cell nuclei) at 2 to 4 day intervals for up to 4 weeks. The resulting data were analyzed by the Spearman-Kärber method, providing virus titers for each combination of virus, cell line, and temperature. The results were categorized by accuracy (assuming the highest titer achieved was the most accurate) and by rapidity of maximum titer. AcMNPV reached the highest titer in each line at 22 degrees C although equivalent titers were reached with both AcMNPV and HzSNPV in the HvE6a line at all three temperatures. This line actually reported about 100-fold less AcMNPV than the other two lines with the same virus sample. Alternatively, the Sf21AE and LdEIta lines reached 10-fold higher titers at the lowest temperature as compared with the higher temperatures, although also at a slower rate.

  2. Evaluating Baculovirus as a Vector for Human Prostate Cancer Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Stephanie L.; Rivera, Guillermo C.; Dussupt, Vincent; Leadley, Regina M.; Hudson, Lucy C.; MA de Ridder, Corrina; Kraaij, Robert; Burns, Julie E.; Maitland, Norman J.; Georgopoulos, Lindsay J.

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy represents an attractive strategy for the non-invasive treatment of prostate cancer, where current clinical interventions show limited efficacy. Here, we evaluate the use of the insect virus, baculovirus (BV), as a novel vector for human prostate cancer gene therapy. Since prostate tumours represent a heterogeneous environment, a therapeutic approach that achieves long-term regression must be capable of targeting multiple transformed cell populations. Furthermore, discrimination in the targeting of malignant compared to non-malignant cells would have value in minimising side effects. We employed a number of prostate cancer models to analyse the potential for BV to achieve these goals. In vitro, both traditional prostate cell lines as well as primary epithelial or stromal cells derived from patient prostate biopsies, in two- or three-dimensional cultures, were used. We also evaluated BV in vivo in murine prostate cancer xenograft models. BV was capable of preferentially transducing invasive malignant prostate cancer cell lines compared to early stage cancers and non-malignant samples, a restriction that was not a function of nuclear import. Of more clinical relevance, primary patient-derived prostate cancer cells were also efficiently transduced by BV, with robust rates observed in epithelial cells of basal phenotype, which expressed BV-encoded transgenes faster than epithelial cells of a more differentiated, luminal phenotype. Maximum transduction capacity was observed in stromal cells. BV was able to penetrate through three-dimensional structures, including in vitro spheroids and in vivo orthotopic xenografts. BV vectors containing a nitroreductase transgene in a gene-directed enzyme pro-drug therapy approach were capable of efficiently killing malignant prostate targets following administration of the pro-drug, CB1954. Thus, BV is capable of transducing a large proportion of prostate cell types within a heterogeneous 3-D prostate tumour, can

  3. Functional characterization of the ubiquitin variant encoded by the baculovirus Autographa californica.

    PubMed

    Haas, A L; Katzung, D J; Reback, P M; Guarino, L A

    1996-04-30

    The marked evolutionary conservation of ubiquitin is assumed to arise from constraints imposed by folding, stability, and interaction of the polypeptide with various components of the ATP, ubiquitin-dependent degradative pathway. The present studies characterize the most divergent (75% identity) of the species-specific ubiquitin isoforms encoded as a late gene product of the baculovirus Autographa californica [Guarino, L. A. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 409-413]. Viral ubiquitin supports 40% of the rate of ATP-dependent degradation exhibited by eukaryotic ubiquitin. Inhibition of proteolysis correlated with a lower steady-state concentration of ubiquitin-conjugated degradative intermediates. Rate studies revealed that viral ubiquitin exerts its effect at the step of isopeptide ligase-catalyzed (E3) ubiquitin conjugation since viral and eukaryotic polypeptides are identical in their abilities to support ATP-coupled activation by E1 and transthiolation to E2 carrier proteins. Other studies demonstrated viral ubiquitin severely attenuated the rate of K48-linked multiubiquitin chain formation in E3-independent conjugation catalyzed by recombination yeast CDC34 or rabbit reticulocyte E232K but not chain elongation of alternate linkages formed by yeast RAD6 or human E2EPF. The latter observations suggest nonconserved positions on viral ubiquitin constitute recognition signals for K48-linked chain formation. Sequence comparison of species-specific ubiquitin isoforms indicates that nonconserved positions localized to a defined region on the polypeptide surface distinct from the basic face required for E1 binding. These results suggest this novel ubiquitin isoform may function in baculoviral replication to block destruction of a short-lived protein(s) by the host degradative pathway, targeted through either E2-catalyzed K48-linked multibiquitin chain formation or general E3-mediated conjugation.

  4. Baculovirus-Mediated miRNA Regulation to Suppress Hepatocellular Carcinoma Tumorigenicity and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chiu-Ling; Wu, Jaw-Ching; Chen, Guan-Yu; Yuan, Pei-Hsiang; Tseng, Yen-Wen; Li, Kuei-Chang; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA 122 (miR-122) is a tumor suppressor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but is lowly expressed in HCC cells. MiR-151 is aberrantly overexpressed in HCC cells and promotes HCC metastasis yet its roles on HCC tumorigenicity are unknown. To combat HCC tumorigenicity/metastasis, we developed Sleeping Beauty (SB)-based hybrid baculovirus (BV) vectors that expressed (i) miR-122 precursors (pre-miR-122), (ii) miR-151 sponges, or (iii) pre-miR-122 and miR-151 sponges. Transduction of aggressive HCC cells (Mahlavu) with the pre-miR-122-expressing BV tremendously enhanced miR-122 levels for >6 weeks, suppressed the levels of downstream effectors (e.g., ADAM10 and Bcl-w), proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, motility and migration/invasion in vitro. Intratumoral injection of the pre-miR-122-expressing BV attenuated the HCC growth/metastasis. The miR-151 sponges-expressing BV diminished the miR-151 levels for 6 weeks, enhanced RhoGDIA expression, suppressed RhoGTPases, as well as motility and migration/invasion of Mahlavu cells. Intratumoral injection of the miR-151 sponge-expressing BV impeded not only HCC metastasis but also cell proliferation, MMP expression and tumor growth in vivo. The BV co-expressing pre-miR-122 and miR-151 sponges also simultaneously enhanced miR-122 expression and inhibited miR-151, and conferred antitumor/anti-metastasis effects albeit lack of synergism. These data implicate the potentials of the SB-based hybrid BV for persistently modulating miRNA and suppressing HCC tumorigenicity/metastasis. PMID:25023326

  5. Characterization of novel components of the baculovirus per os infectivity factor complex.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ke; van Lent, Jan W M; Boeren, Sjef; Fang, Minggang; Theilmann, David A; Erlandson, Martin A; Vlak, Just M; van Oers, Monique M

    2012-05-01

    Baculovirus occlusion-derived virus (ODV) infects insect midgut cells under alkaline conditions, a process mediated by highly conserved per os infectivity factors (PIFs), P74 (PIF0), PIF1, PIF2, PIF3, PIF4, and PIF5 (ODV-E56). Previously, a multimolecular complex composed of PIF1, PIF2, PIF3, and P74 was identified which was proposed to play an essential role during ODV entry. Recently, more proteins have been identified that play important roles in ODV oral infectivity, including PIF4, PIF5, and SF58, which might work in concert with previously known PIFs to facilitate ODV infection. In order to understand the ODV entry mechanism, the identification of all components of the PIF complex is crucial. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify additional components of the PIF complex. Coimmunoprecipitation (CoIP) combined with proteomic analysis was used to identify the components of the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) PIF complex. PIF4 and P95 (AC83) were identified as components of the PIF complex while PIF5 was not, and this was confirmed with blue native PAGE and a second CoIP. Deletion of the pif4 gene impaired complex formation, but deletion of pif5 did not. Differentially denaturing SDS-PAGE further revealed that PIF4 forms a stable complex with PIF1, PIF2, and PIF3. P95 and P74 are more loosely associated with this complex. Three other proteins, AC5, AC68, and AC108 (homologue of SF58), were also found by the proteomic analysis to be associated with the PIF complex. Finally the functional significance of the PIF protein interactions is discussed.

  6. Protein-Protein Interactions of the Baculovirus Per Os Infectivity Factors in the PIF Complex.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qin; Shen, Yunwang; Kon, Xiangshuo; Zhang, Jianjia; Feng, Min; Wu, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-28

    After ingestion of occlusion bodies, the occlusion-derived viruses (ODVs) of baculoviruses establish the first round of infection within the larval host midgut cells. Several ODV envelope proteins, called per os infectivity factors (PIFs), have been shown to be essential for oral infection. Eight PIFs have been identified to date, including P74, PIFs1-6, and Ac110. At least six PIFs: P74, PIFs1-4, PIF6, together with three other ODV-specific proteins: Ac5, P95 (Ac83), and Ac108, have been reported to form a complex on the ODV surface. In this study, in order to understand the interactions of these PIFs, the direct protein-protein interactions of the nine components of the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) PIF complex were investigated using yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) combined with bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. Six direct interactions comprising PIF1-PIF2, PIF1-PIF3, PIF1-PIF4, PIF1-P95, PIF2-PIF3, and PIF3-PIF4, were identified in Y2H analysis, and these results were further verified by BiFC. For P74, PIF6, Ac5 and Ac108, no direct interaction was identified. P95 (Ac83) was identified to interact with PIF1 and further Y2H analysis of the truncations and deletion mutants showed that the predicted P95 chitin-binding domain and PIF1 100-200aa were responsible for P95 interaction with PIF1. Furthermore, a summary of the protein-protein interactions of PIFs reported so far, comprising 10 reciprocal interactions and 2 self-interactions, is presented, which will facilitate our understanding of the characteristic of PIF complex.

  7. Chondroitinase from baculovirus Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus and chondroitin sulfate from silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Nobuo; Ikeda, Motoko; Shioiri, Tatsumasa; Yoshimura, Mayumi; Kobayashi, Michihiro; Watanabe, Hideto

    2013-12-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a linear polysaccharide composed of repeating disaccharide units of glucuronic acid (GlcUA) and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (GalNAc) with sulfate groups at various positions. Baculovirus is an insect-pathogenic virus that infects Lepidoptera larvae. Recently, we found that the occlusion-derived virus envelope protein 66 (ODV-E66) from Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) exhibits chondroitin (CH)-digesting activity with distinct substrate specificity. Here, we demonstrate that the ODV-E66 protein from Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) exhibits 92% homology to the amino acid sequence and 83% of the CH lyase activity of ODV-E66 from AcMNPV. ODV-E66 cleaves glycosyl bonds at nonreducing sides of disaccharide units consisting of nonsulfated and 6-O-sulfated GalNAc residues. We then investigated CS in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, which is the host of BmNPV. CS was present in insect tissues such as the midgut, peritrophic membrane, silk gland and skin. The polysaccharide consisted of a nonsulfated disaccharide unit, mono-sulfated disaccharide at Position 4 of the GalNAc residue and mono-sulfated disaccharide at Position 6 of the GalNAc residue. With regard to immunohistochemical analysis, the staining patterns of the silkworm tissues were different among anti-CS antibodies. Chondroitn sulfate that is digestible by ODV-E66 exists sufficiently in the peritrophic membrane protecting the midgut epithelium from ingested pathogens. Our results suggest that ODV-E66 facilitates the primary infection of the virus by digestion of CS in the peritrophic membrane.

  8. [The assemblage, purification and characterization of EV71 VLPs expressed in baculovirus].

    PubMed

    Cao, Lei; Yi, Yao; Song, Jing-Dong; Tian, Miao-Miao; Tian, Rui-Guang; Meng, Qing-Ling; Qiu, Feng; Jia, Zhi-Yuan; Bi, Sheng-Li

    2012-05-01

    To construct a recombinant expression plasmid Bacmid-P1-3CD containing the P1 and 3CD genes of enterovirus 71(EV71), the P1 and 3CD genes were cloned into the same baculovirus shuttle vector (Bacmid). Recombinant AcMNPV-P1-3CD was obtained by transfecting the Bacmid-P1-3CD into the insect cell line of S f9. With the IFA and Western-blot methods for identification of expression products confirmed that the target protein was expressed in interior of infected S f9 cells. Electron microscopy showed that the structural protein capsid P1 was cut by virus-encoded protease 3CD and assembled into EV71 virus like particles (VLPs) about 27nm diameter. Different values of MOI and time points of expression were compared to explore the optimal expression condition, and the results showed that the time point could be a more important factor. Then we used S f9 cells with serum-free medium in CellSTACK-10 Culture Chambers to produce EV71 VLPs in the confirmed condition. After purification of VLPs by density gradient centrifugation, we observed on SDS-PAGE profile the purified sample contained three major proteins whose molecular masses corresponded to those of VP1 (39kD), VP0 (34kD) and VP3 (26kD) as well as the intact structure, which can be greatly used for further study in protein structure and genetic engineering vaccine research.

  9. Low multiplicity infection of insect cells with a recombinant baculovirus: The cell yield concept.

    PubMed

    Wong, K T; Peter, C H; Greenfield, P F; Reid, S; Nielsen, L K

    1996-03-20

    In vitro infection of insect cells with baculoviruses is increasingly considered a viable means for the production of biopesticides, recombinant veterinary vaccines, and other recombinant products. Batch fermentation processes traditionally employ intermediate to high multiplicities of infection necessitating two parallel scale-up processes-one for cells and one for virus. In this study, we consider the use of multiplicities of infection as low as 0.0001 plaque-forming units per cell, a virus level low enough to enable infection of even large reactors (e.g., 10 m(3)) directly from a frozen stock. Using low multiplicities in the Sf9/beta-gal-AcNPV system, recombinant protein titers comparable with the maximum titer observed in high multiplicity infections were achieved. Cultures yielding the maximum titer were characterized by reaching a maximum cell density between 3 and 4 x 10(9) cell L(-1). This optimal cell yield did not depend on the multiplicity of infection, supporting the existing view that batch cultures are limited by availability of substrate. Up to a certain cell density, product titer will increase almost linearly with availability of biocatalyst, that is, cells. Beyond this point any further cell formation comes at the expense of final product titer. Low multiplicity infections were found not to cause any significant dispersion of the protein production process. Hence, product stability is not a major issue of concern using low multiplicities of infection. The sensitivity to initial conditions and disturbances, however, remains an issue of concern for the commercial use of low multiplicity infections. (c) 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Protein Expression in Insect and Mammalian Cells Using Baculoviruses in Wave Bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Kadwell, Sue H; Overton, Laurie K

    2016-01-01

    Many types of disposable bioreactors for protein expression in insect and mammalian cells are now available. They differ in design, capacity, and sensor options, with many selections available for either rocking platform, orbitally shaken, pneumatically mixed, or stirred-tank bioreactors lined with an integral disposable bag (Shukla and Gottschalk, Trends Biotechnol 31(3):147-154, 2013). WAVE Bioreactors™ were among the first disposable systems to be developed (Singh, Cytotechnology 30:149-158, 1999). Since their commercialization in 1999, Wave Bioreactors have become routinely used in many laboratories due to their ease of operation, limited utility requirements, and protein expression levels comparability to traditional stirred-tank bioreactors. Wave Bioreactors are designed to use a presterilized Cellbag™, which is attached to a rocking platform and inflated with filtered air provided by the bioreactor unit. The Cellbag can be filled with medium and cells and maintained at a set temperature. The rocking motion, which is adjusted through angle and rock speed settings, provides mixing of oxygen (and CO2, which is used to control pH in mammalian cell cultures) from the headspace created in the inflated Cellbag with the cell culture medium and cells. This rocking motion can be adjusted to prevent cell shear damage. Dissolved oxygen and pH can be monitored during scale-up, and samples can be easily removed to monitor other parameters. Insect and mammalian cells grow very well in Wave Bioreactors (Shukla and Gottschalk, Trends Biotechnol 31(3):147-154, 2013). Combining Wave Bioreactor cell growth capabilities with recombinant baculoviruses engineered for insect or mammalian cell expression has proven to be a powerful tool for rapid production of a wide range of proteins.

  11. Baculovirus expression of the respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein using Trichoplusia ni insect cells.

    PubMed

    Parrington, M; Cockle, S; Wyde, P; Du, R P; Snell, E; Yan, W Y; Wang, Q; Gisonni, L; Sanhueza, S; Ewasyshyn, M; Klein, M

    1997-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major viral pathogen responsible for severe respiratory tract infections in infants, young children, and the elderly. The RSV fusion (F) protein is highly conserved among RSV subgroups A and B and is the major protective immunogen. A genetically-engineered version of the RSV F protein was produced in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system. To express a secreted form of this protein, the transmembrane domain was eliminated by removing the region of the gene encoding 48 amino acids at the C-terminus. Production of the truncated RSV F protein (RSV-Fs) was compared in two different insect cell lines, Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) and Trichoplusia ni (High Five). The yield of RSV-Fs secreted from High Five insect cells was over 7-fold higher than that from Sf9 insect cells. Processing of the RSV-Fs protein was also different in the two insect cell lines. N-terminal sequencing demonstrated that while most of the RSV-Fs protein secreted by High Five cells was correctly processed at the F2-F1 proteolytic cleavage site, most of the RSV-Fs protein secreted by Sf9 cells was unprocessed or incorrectly processed. Antigenicity of the major RSV F neutralization epitopes was maintained in the RSV-Fs protein secreted from High Five cells. The RSV-specific neutralizing antibody titres in the sera of cotton rats immunized with the RSV-Fs protein were equivalent to those in the sera of animals intranasally inoculated with live RSV. Animals immunized with either live RSV or the immunoaffinity purified RSV-Fs protein from High Five cells were completely protected against live virus challenge.

  12. Recombinant protein production by the baculovirus-insect cell system in Basal media without serum supplementation.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Norikatsu; Yamaji, Hideki; Fukuda, Hideki

    2003-11-01

    The production of beta-galactosidase by Sf9 cells infected with recombinant Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcNPV) was investigated in shake-flask culture using two serum-free basal media: Grace's medium and TNM-FH (Grace's medium supplemented with lactalbumin hydrolysate and yeast extract). At the time of infection, cells grown in serum-supplemented TNM-FH were transferred into fresh basal media without adaptation. The absence of serum depressed the beta-galactosidase yield considerably in Grace's medium, but to a much lesser extent in TNM-FH, where it reached around 2/3 of the level obtained in TNM-FH supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). While both lactalbumin hydrolysate and yeast extract promoted beta-galactosidase production, their removal by medium replacement on post-infection day 1 gave a beta-galactosidase yield nearly equal to that obtained in their continuous presence. Supplementation of basal media with phosphatidic acid (PA) from egg yolk lecithin, which has been shown to enhance cell growth and recombinant protein production in serum-free culture of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, was also effective in increasing beta-galactosidase yield. Elevating the multiplicity of infection (MOI) from 2 to 10 plaque-forming units per cell (pfu/cell) also resulted in an increase in product yield. These results provide information important to the development of cost-effective serum-free culture technology for use in large-scale production of recombinant proteins by the baculovirus-insect cell system.

  13. Active Depletion of Host Cell Inhibitor-of-Apoptosis Proteins Triggers Apoptosis upon Baculovirus DNA Replication▿

    PubMed Central

    Vandergaast, Rianna; Schultz, Kimberly L. W.; Cerio, Rebecca J.; Friesen, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Apoptosis is an important antivirus defense by virtue of its impact on virus multiplication and pathogenesis. To define molecular mechanisms by which viruses are detected and the apoptotic response is initiated, we examined the antiviral role of host inhibitor-of-apoptosis (IAP) proteins in insect cells. We report here that the principal IAPs, DIAP1 and SfIAP, of the model insects Drosophila melanogaster and Spodoptera frugiperda, respectively, are rapidly depleted and thereby inactivated upon infection with the apoptosis-inducing baculovirus Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). Virus-induced loss of these host IAPs triggered caspase activation and apoptotic death. Elevation of IAP levels by ectopic expression repressed caspase activation. Loss of host IAP in both species was triggered by AcMNPV DNA replication. By using selected inhibitors, we found that virus-induced IAP depletion was mediated in part by the proteasome but not by caspase cleavage. Consistent with this conclusion, mutagenic disruption of the SfIAP RING motif, which acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, stabilized SfIAP during infection. Importantly, SfIAP was also stabilized upon the removal of its 99-residue N-terminal leader, which serves as a critical determinant of IAP turnover. These data indicated that a host pathway initiated by virus DNA replication and acting through instability motifs embedded within IAP triggers IAP depletion and thereby causes apoptosis. Taken together, the results of our study suggest that host modulation of cellular IAP levels is a conserved mechanism by which insects mount an apoptotic antiviral response. Thus, host IAPs may function as critical sentinels of virus invasion in insects. PMID:21653668

  14. Baculovirus p35 increases pancreatic {beta}-cell resistance to apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hollander, Kenneth; Bar-Chen, Michal; Efrat, Shimon . E-mail: sefrat@post.tau.ac.il

    2005-07-01

    {beta}-cells die by apoptosis in type 1 diabetes as a result of autoimmune attack mediated by cytokines, and in type 2 diabetes by various perpetrators including human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP). The cascade of apoptotic events induced by cytokines and hIAPP is mediated through caspases and reactive oxygen species. The baculovirus p35 protein is a potent anti-apoptotic agent shown to be effective in a variety of species and able to inhibit a number of apoptotic pathways. Here, we aimed at determining the protective potential of p35 in {beta}-cells exposed to cytokines and hIAPP, as well as the effects of p35 on {beta}-cell function. The p35 gene was introduced into {beta}TC-tet cells, a differentiated murine {beta}-cell line capable of undergoing inducible growth-arrest. Both proliferating and growth-arrested cells expressing p35 manifested increased resistance to cytokines and hIAPP, compared with control cells, as judged by cell viability, DNA fragmentation, and caspase-3 activity assays. p35 was significantly more protective in growth-arrested, compared with proliferating, cells. No significant differences were observed in proliferation and insulin content between cells expressing p35 and control cells. In contrast, p35 manifested a perturbing effect on glucose-induced insulin secretion. These findings suggest that p35 could be incorporated as part of a multi-pronged approach of immunoprotective strategies to provide protection from recurring autoimmunity for transplanted {beta}-cells, as well as in preventive gene therapy in type 1 diabetes. p35 may also be protective from {beta}-cell damage caused by hIAPP in type 2 diabetes.

  15. Baculovirus-expressed Plasmodium reichenowi EBA-140 merozoite ligand is host specific.

    PubMed

    Zerka, Agata; Olechwier, Agnieszka; Rydzak, Joanna; Kaczmarek, Radoslaw; Jaskiewicz, Ewa

    2016-12-01

    Plasmodium reichenowi, an ape malaria parasite is morphologically identical and genetically similar to Plasmodium falciparum, infects chimpanzees but not humans. Genomic studies revealed that all primate malaria parasites belong to Laverania subgenus. Laverania parasites exhibit strict host specificity, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these host restrictions remain unexplained. Plasmodium merozoites express multiple binding ligands that recognize specific receptors on erythrocytes, including micronemal proteins belonging to P. falciparum EBL family. It was shown that erythrocyte binding antigen-175 (EBA-175), erythrocyte binding ligand-1 (EBL-1), erythrocyte binding antigen-140 (EBA-140) recognize erythrocyte surface sialoglycoproteins - glycophorins A, B, C, respectively. EBA-140 merozoite ligand hijacks glycophorin C (GPC), a minor erythrocyte sialoglycoprotein, to invade the erythrocyte through an alternative invasion pathway. A homolog of P. falciparum EBA-140 protein was identified in P. reichenowi. The amino acid sequences of both EBA-140 ligands are very similar, especially in the conservative erythrocyte binding region (Region II). It has been suggested that evolutionary changes in the sequence of EBL proteins may be associated with Plasmodium host restriction. In this study we obtained, for the first time, the recombinant P. reichenowi EBA-140 ligand Region II using baculovirus expression vector system. We show that the ape EBA-140 Region II is host specific and binds to chimpanzee erythrocytes in the dose and sialic acid dependent manner. Further identification of the erythrocyte receptor for this ape ligand is of great interests, since it may reveal the molecular basis of host restriction of both P. reichenowi and its deadliest human counterpart, P. falciparum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of Novel Components of the Baculovirus Per Os Infectivity Factor Complex

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Ke; van Lent, Jan W. M.; Boeren, Sjef; Fang, Minggang; Theilmann, David A.; Erlandson, Martin A.; Vlak, Just M.

    2012-01-01

    Baculovirus occlusion-derived virus (ODV) infects insect midgut cells under alkaline conditions, a process mediated by highly conserved per os infectivity factors (PIFs), P74 (PIF0), PIF1, PIF2, PIF3, PIF4, and PIF5 (ODV-E56). Previously, a multimolecular complex composed of PIF1, PIF2, PIF3, and P74 was identified which was proposed to play an essential role during ODV entry. Recently, more proteins have been identified that play important roles in ODV oral infectivity, including PIF4, PIF5, and SF58, which might work in concert with previously known PIFs to facilitate ODV infection. In order to understand the ODV entry mechanism, the identification of all components of the PIF complex is crucial. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify additional components of the PIF complex. Coimmunoprecipitation (CoIP) combined with proteomic analysis was used to identify the components of the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) PIF complex. PIF4 and P95 (AC83) were identified as components of the PIF complex while PIF5 was not, and this was confirmed with blue native PAGE and a second CoIP. Deletion of the pif4 gene impaired complex formation, but deletion of pif5 did not. Differentially denaturing SDS-PAGE further revealed that PIF4 forms a stable complex with PIF1, PIF2, and PIF3. P95 and P74 are more loosely associated with this complex. Three other proteins, AC5, AC68, and AC108 (homologue of SF58), were also found by the proteomic analysis to be associated with the PIF complex. Finally the functional significance of the PIF protein interactions is discussed. PMID:22379094

  17. Mouse x pig chimeric antibodies expressed in Baculovirus retain the same properties of their parent antibodies.

    PubMed

    Jar, Ana M; Osorio, Fernando A; López, Osvaldo J

    2009-01-01

    The development of hybridoma and recombinant DNA technologies has made it possible to use antibodies against cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases in humans. These advances in therapy, as well as immunoprophylaxis, could also make it possible to use these technologies in agricultural species of economic importance such as pigs. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an arterivirus causing very important economic losses to the industry. Passive transfer of antibodies obtained by biotechnology could be used in the future to complement or replace vaccination against this and other pig pathogens. To this end, we constructed and studied the properties of chimeric mouse x pig anti-PRRSV antibodies. We cloned the constant regions of gamma-1 and gamma-2 heavy chains and the lambda light chain of pig antibodies in frame with the variable regions of heavy and light chains of mouse monoclonal antibody ISU25C1, which has neutralizing activity against PRRSV. The coding regions for chimeric IgG1 and IgG2 were expressed in a baculovirus expression system. Both chimeric antibodies recognized PRRSV in ELISA as well as in a Western-blot format and, more importantly, were able to neutralize PRRSV in the same fashion as the parent mouse monoclonal antibody ISU25C1. In addition, we show that both pig IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies could bind complement component C1q, with IgG2 being more efficient than IgG1 in binding C1q. Expressing chimeric pig antibodies with protective capabilities offers a new alternative strategy for infectious disease control in domestic pigs.

  18. A highly conserved baculovirus gene p48 (ac103) is essential for BV production and ODV envelopment

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Meijin; Wu Wenbi; Liu Chao; Wang Yanjie; Hu Zhaoyang; Yang Kai Pang Yi

    2008-09-15

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) p48 (ac103) is a highly conserved baculovirus gene of unknown function. In the present study, we generated a knockout of the p48 gene in an AcMNPV bacmid and investigated the role of P48 in baculovirus life cycle. The p48-null Bacmid vAc{sup P48-KO-PH-GFP} was unable to propagate in cell culture, while a 'repair' Bacmid vAc{sup P48-REP-PH-GFP} was able to replicate in a manner similar to a wild-type Bacmid vAc{sup PH-GFP}. Titration assays and Western blotting confirmed that vAc{sup P48-KO-PH-GFP} was unable to produce budded viruses (BVs). qPCR analysis showed that p48 deletion did not affect viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy indicated that P48 was required for nucleocapsid envelopment to form occlusion-derived viruses (ODVs) and their subsequent occlusion. Confocal analysis showed that P48 prominently condensed in the centre of the nucleus. Our results demonstrate that P48 plays an essential role in BV production and ODV envelopment in the AcMNPV life cycle.

  19. The complete genome of a baculovirus isolated from an insect of medical interest: Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Aragão-Silva, C. W.; Andrade, M. S.; Ardisson-Araújo, D. M. P.; Fernandes, J. E. A.; Morgado, F. S.; Báo, S. N.; Moraes, R. H. P.; Wolff, J. L. C.; Melo, F. L.; Ribeiro, B. M.

    2016-01-01

    Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is a species of medical importance due to the severity of reactions caused by accidental contact with the caterpillar bristles. Several natural pathogens have been identified in L. obliqua, and among them the baculovirus Lonomia obliqua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LoobMNPV). The complete genome of LoobMNPV was sequenced and shown to have 120,022 bp long with 134 putative open reading frames (ORFs). Phylogenetic analysis of the LoobMNPV genome showed that it belongs to Alphabaculovirus group I (lepidopteran-infective NPV). A total of 12 unique ORFs were identified with no homologs in other sequenced baculovirus genomes. One of these, the predicted protein encoded by loob035, showed significant identity to an eukaryotic transcription terminator factor (TTF2) from the Lepidoptera Danaus plexippus, suggesting an independent acquisition through horizontal gene transfer. Homologs of cathepsin and chitinase genes, which are involved in host integument liquefaction and viral spread, were not found in this genome. As L. obliqua presents a gregarious behavior during the larvae stage the impact of this deletion might be neglectable. PMID:27282807

  20. Synthesis of bluetongue virus (BTV) corelike particles by a recombinant baculovirus expressing the two major structural core proteins of BTV.

    PubMed Central

    French, T J; Roy, P

    1990-01-01

    The L3 and M7 genes of bluetongue virus (BTV), which encode the two major core proteins of the virus (VP3 and VP7, respectively), were inserted into a baculovirus dual-expression transfer vector and a recombinant baculovirus expressing both foreign genes isolated following in vivo recombination with wild-type Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus DNA. Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells infected with the recombinant synthesized large amounts of BTV corelike particles. These particles have been shown to be similar to authentic BTV cores in terms of size, appearance, stoichiometric arrangement of VP3 to VP7 (ratio, 2:15), and the predominance of VP7 on the surface of the particles. In infected insect cells, the corelike particles were observed in paracrystalline arrays. The formation of these structures indicates that neither the BTV double-stranded viral RNA species nor the associated minor core proteins are necessary for assembly of cores in insect cells. Furthermore, the three BTV nonstructural proteins NS1, NS2, and NS3, are not required to assist or direct the formation of empty corelike particles from VP3 and VP7. Images PMID:2157041

  1. Production of DUSP1 protein using the baculovirus insect cell expression system and its in vitro effects on cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Peng; Zhu, Shuying; Jun, Li; Huang, Lihua; Hong, Yahui

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to produce the human dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) protein with biological activity and to investigate its in vitro effects on cancer cells. DUSP1 protein was expressed in the baculovirus expression system and purified by Ni-affinity chromatography followed by dialysis in PBS. The purified protein was verified by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. Six cancer cell lines were then cultured in the presence of DUSP1 for various periods of time, and the phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) content in each cell line was subsequently determined by western blot analysis. Compared to the β-actin level, the amount of p-ERK markedly decreased after 1 h, indicating that DUSP1 suppressed the expression of p-ERK in 6 cancer cell lines examined. Human cervical cancer cells were also collected and counted following co-culture with DUSP1 to examine its effect on the growth rate of cancer cells. A baculovirus expression system for the production of DUSP1 protein was successfully constructed. The p-ERK content was found to be significantly decreased when the cancer cell lines were exposed to DUSP1. The capability of binary fission was reduced when the cells were examined under a microscope. The proliferation of human cervical cancer cells was also inhibited by DUSP1.

  2. Characterization of a protein tyrosine phosphatase as a host factor promoting baculovirus replication in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Xue, Renju; Li, Xianyang; Hu, Cuimei; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-04-01

    The relevance of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) to host-pathogen interaction is highlighted in mammalian studies, whereas less is known in insects. Here we presented the categorization of the PTP complement of silkworm and characterized their homologous relationship with human and fruit fly PTPs. Among the 36 PTP genes, ptp-h, which was proposed to be the origin of baculovirus ptp belongs to atypical VH1-like dual-specific PTP subset and encodes a catalytic active protein. The maximum expression level of Bmptp-h was at 5th instar and in fat body. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) infection potently induced its expression in silkworm larvae and in BmE cells. Knock-down of Bmptp-h by RNA interference significantly inhibited viral replication, and over-expression enhanced viral replication as determined by viral DNA abundance and BmNPV-GFP positive cells. These results suggest that BmPTP-h might be one of the host factors that is beneficial to baculovirus infection by promoting viral replication. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Live imaging of baculovirus infection of midgut epithelium cells: a functional assay of per os infectivity factors.

    PubMed

    Mu, Jingfang; van Lent, Jan W M; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Yun; Chen, Xinwen; Vlak, Just M; van Oers, Monique M

    2014-11-01

    The occlusion-derived viruses (ODVs) of baculoviruses are responsible for oral infection of insect hosts, whereas budded viruses (BVs) are responsible for systemic infection within the host. The ODV membrane proteins play crucial roles in mediating virus entry into midgut epithelium cells to initiate infection and are important factors in host-range determination. For Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), seven conserved ODV membrane proteins have been shown to be essential for oral infectivity and are called per os infectivity factors (PIFs). Information on the function of the individual PIF proteins in virus entry is limited, partly due to the lack of a good in vitro system for monitoring ODV entry. Here, we constructed a baculovirus with EGFP fused to the nucleocapsid to monitor virus entry into primary midgut epithelium cells ex vivo using confocal fluorescence microscopy. The EGFP-labelled virus showed similar BV virulence and ODV infectivity as WT virus. The ability to bind and enter host cells was then visualized for WT AcMNPV and viruses with mutations in P74 (PIF0), PIF1 or PIF2, showing that P74 is required for ODV binding, whilst PIF1 and PIF2 play important roles in the entry of ODV after binding to midgut cells. This is the first live imaging of ODV entry into midgut cells and complements the genetic and biochemical evidence for the role of PIFs in the oral infection process.

  4. A highly conserved baculovirus gene p48 (ac103) is essential for BV production and ODV envelopment.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Meijin; Wu, Wenbi; Liu, Chao; Wang, Yanjie; Hu, Zhaoyang; Yang, Kai; Pang, Yi

    2008-09-15

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) p48 (ac103) is a highly conserved baculovirus gene of unknown function. In the present study, we generated a knockout of the p48 gene in an AcMNPV bacmid and investigated the role of P48 in baculovirus life cycle. The p48-null Bacmid vAc(P48-KO-PH-GFP) was unable to propagate in cell culture, while a 'repair' Bacmid vAc(P48-REP-PH-GFP) was able to replicate in a manner similar to a wild-type Bacmid vAc(PH-GFP). Titration assays and Western blotting confirmed that vAc(P48-KO-PH-GFP) was unable to produce budded viruses (BVs). qPCR analysis showed that p48 deletion did not affect viral DNA replication. Electron microscopy indicated that P48 was required for nucleocapsid envelopment to form occlusion-derived viruses (ODVs) and their subsequent occlusion. Confocal analysis showed that P48 prominently condensed in the centre of the nucleus. Our results demonstrate that P48 plays an essential role in BV production and ODV envelopment in the AcMNPV life cycle.

  5. Rapid, scalable, and low-cost purification of recombinant adeno-associated virus produced by baculovirus expression vector system

    PubMed Central

    Buclez, Pierre-Olivier; Dias Florencio, Gabriella; Relizani, Karima; Beley, Cyriaque; Garcia, Luis; Benchaouir, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAV) are largely used for gene transfer in research, preclinical developments, and clinical trials. Their broad in vivo biodistribution and long-term efficacy in postmitotic tissues make them good candidates for numerous gene transfer applications. Upstream processes able to produce large amounts of rAAV were developed, particularly those using baculovirus expression vector system. In parallel, downstream processes present a large panel of purification methods, often including multiple and time consuming steps. Here, we show that simple tangential flow filtration, coupled with an optimized iodixanol-based isopycnic density gradient, is sufficient to purify several liters of crude lysate produced by baculovirus expression vector system in only one working day, leading to high titers and good purity of rAAV products. Moreover, we show that the viral vectors retain their in vitro and in vivo functionalities. Our results demonstrate that simple, rapid, and relatively low-cost methods can easily be implemented for obtaining a high-quality grade of gene therapy products based on rAAV technology. PMID:27226971

  6. The Effect of MicroRNA bantam on Baculovirus AcMNPV Infection in Vitro and in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaojie; Ran, Zihan; Li, Sisi; Yin, Juan; Zhong, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The role of microRNA bantam, one of the most abundant microRNAs in Sf9 cells, was studied for its role in baculovirus infection in vitro and in vivo. The expression level of bantam was increased after AcMNPV infection in Sf9 cells and in Spodoptera litura larvae. In Sf9 cells, application of bantam inhibitor or mimic altered the expression of many virus genes, the most affected gene being lef8, gp41 and p10, the expression level of which was increased by 8, 10 and 40 times, respectively, in the presence of bantam inhibitor. Virus DNA replication was decreased in the presence of bantam mimic and increased in the presence of bantam inhibitor in a dose dependent manner. However, the production of budded virus did not change significantly. Feeding the larvae of S. litura and Spodoptera exigua with bantam antagomiR, a more stable form of the inhibitor, resulted in an abnormal larval growth and a decreased pupation rate. In S. litura, larvae died 3.5 days sooner than the control when bantam antagomiR was applied, together with AcMNPV. In infected S. exigua, larval mortality increased from 47% without antagomiR to 80% with it. The results suggest that microRNA bantam plays an important role in insect growth, as well as in baculovirus-insect interaction. PMID:27196923

  7. An integrated analysis of enzyme activities, cofactor pools and metabolic fluxes in baculovirus-infected Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Vicente; Monteiro, Francisca; Carinhas, Nuno; Ambrósio, Raquel; Alves, Paula M

    2010-11-01

    The scarcity of fundamental knowledge on the baculovirus-host cell interaction is a major drawback for the improvement of bioprocesses through Metabolic Engineering. After the first hours post-infection, the virus takes over the control of cellular machinery, leading to the repression of host gene expression and imposing a high metabolic burden to insect cells. Nevertheless, there is a lack of detailed data on the metabolic responses to infection, which are ultimately responsible for system productivity performance. In this work, a further insight into the central metabolism of Sf9 cells is achieved by a combined analysis of enzyme activities, cellular cofactors (ATP and NAD(P)(+)/NAD(P)H) and metabolic fluxes. Hexokinase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were identified as feasible limiting steps of metabolism; carbon and nitrogen metabolism enzymes were differentially regulated during batch cultures. Moreover, alterations occurring after infection demonstrated the importance of maintaining the energetic state of the cells for baculovirus replication, since ATP accumulated in a MOI-dependent way, and the glutamate dehydrogenase anaplerotic pathway was greatly activated. Altogether, cellular de-energization and stress responses are relevant factors in the metabolic burden imposed by infection. The implications for the improvement of bioprocess performance are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression of SEAP (secreted alkaline phosphatase) by baculovirus mediated transduction of HEK 293 cells in a hollow fiber bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Jardin, B A; Zhao, Y; Selvaraj, M; Montes, J; Tran, R; Prakash, S; Elias, C B

    2008-06-30

    A BacMam baculovirus was designed in our laboratory to express the reporter protein secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) driven by the immediate early promoter of human cytomegalovirus promoter (CMV). In vitro tests have been carried out using this recombinant baculovirus to study the secreted protein in two cell lines and under various culture conditions. The transductions were carried out on two commonly used mammalian cell lines namely the human embryonic kidney (HEK 293A) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1). Initial studies clearly demonstrated that the transient expression of SEAP was at least 10-fold higher in the HEK 293 cells than the CHO cells under equivalent experimental conditions. Factorial design experiments were done to study the effect of different parameters such as cell density, MOI, and the histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A concentration. The multiplicity of infection (MOI) and the cell density were found to have the most impact on the process. The enhancer trichostatin A also showed some positive effect. The production of secreted protein in a batch reactor was studied using the Wave disposable bioreactor system. A semi-continuous perfusion process was developed to extend the period of gene expression in mammalian cells using a hollow fiber bioreactor system (HFBR). The growth of cells and viability in both systems was monitored by offline analyses of metabolites. The expression of recombinant protein could be maintained over an extended period of time up to 30 days in the HFBR.

  9. Protection of Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome by continuous oral administration of a low concentration of Bacillus subtilis spores expressing the VP28 antigen.

    PubMed

    Pham, K-C; Tran, H T T; Van Doan, C; Le, P H; Van Nguyen, A T; Nguyen, H A; Hong, H A; Cutting, S M; Phan, T-N

    2017-03-01

    In this study, Bacillus subtilis spores expressing a chimeric protein, CotB-VP28, were used as a probiotic vaccine to protect black tiger shrimps (Penaeus monodon) against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Oral administration of pellets coated with CotB-VP28 spores (at ≥1 × 10(9 ) CFU per g pellet) to shrimps induced immune-relating phenoloxydase activity (PO) in shrimps after 14 days of feeding (prior challenge) and at day 3 post challenge (1·26 and 1·70 fold increase respectively). A 75% protection rate was obtained by continuous feeding of the spore-coated pellets at ≥1 × 10(9 ) CFU per g for 14 days prior to WSSV challenge and during all the postchallenge period. Even when the amount of CotB-VP28 spores in feed pellets was reduced down to ≥5 × 10(7)  CFU per g and ≥1 × 10(6)  CFU per g, relatively high protection rates of 70 and 67·5%, respectively, were still obtained. By contrast, feeding pellets without spores (untreated group) and with naked spores (PY79 group) at ≥1 × 10(9)  CFU per g could not protect shrimps against WSSV. These data suggest that supplementation of CotB-VP28 spores at low dose of ≥1 × 10(6)  CFU per g could be effective as a prophylactic treatment of WSS for black tiger shrimps. This study reports the protective efficacy of Bacillus subtilis CotB-VP28 spores on black tiger shrimps (Penaeus monodon) against white spot syndrome virus infection. Oral administration of pellets coated with CotB-VP28 spores (≥1 × 10(9 ) CFU per g) conferred 75% protection after white spot syndrome virus challenge. Even after reducing CotB-VP28 spores in feed pellets to ≥1 × 10(6)  CFU per g, 67·5% protections was still obtained. These data indicate that supplementation of CotB-VP28 spores at a low dose of ≥1 × 10(6)  CFU per g could be effective in prophylaxis against white spot syndrome in black tiger shrimps. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Superior biologic activity of the recombinant bee venom allergen hyaluronidase expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells as compared with Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Soldatova, L N; Crameri, R; Gmachl, M; Kemeny, D M; Schmidt, M; Weber, M; Mueller, U R

    1998-05-01

    Hyaluronidase (Hya) is one of several allergens in honeybee venom. Its cDNA sequence was recently described. We sought to express recombinant Hya in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems and to compare it with natural (n)Hya for biologic activity. In Escherichia coli Hya was produced as inclusion body 6 x His-fusion protein. In baculovirus-infected insect cells expression was obtained by cotransfection of linearized Bac-N-Blue DNA and pMelBac transfer vector into Spodoptera frugiperda cells. Enzymatic activity of Hya from the baculovirus system was equal to nHya, and that of the enzyme expressed in E. coli was only 20% to 30% of nHya. In vitro IgE binding was similar in nHya and the enzyme from baculovirus but markedly lower in Hya expressed in E. coli. Biologic activity of Hya expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells was comparable with that of the natural enzyme, indicating a native-like conformation of the recombinant protein. In contrast, the enzyme expressed in E. coli as an inclusion-body protein and reconstituted in vitro reached only 20% to 30% of the activity of nHya.

  11. Early Detection of Baculovirus Expression and Infection in Lepidopteran Larvae Fed Occlusion Bodies of an AcMNPV Recombinant Carrying a Red Fluorescent Protein Gene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A method has been devised utilizing a baculovirus recombinant (AcMNPV hsp70Red) carrying a red fluorescent protein (RFP) gene under the early heat shock promoter (hsp70) to assess potential infectivity of larvae fed occlusion bodies. A time study was employed whereby first and third instars of Trich...

  12. DEPENDENCE OF ECDYSTEROID METABOLISM AND DEVELOPMENT IN HOST LARVAE ON THE TIME OF BACULOVIRUS INFECTION AND THE ACTIVITY OF THE UDP-GLUCOSYL TRANSFERASE GENE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Infection of fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar, Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae with the wild-type (Wt) gypsy moth baculovirus, LdNPV on the first day post-molt, or infection of fifth instars on the fifth day post-molt, results in elevated ecdysteroid levels in both he...

  13. Enhanced recombinant protein production and differential expression of molecular chaperones in sf-caspase-1-repressed stable cells after baculovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yiu-Kay; Hsu, John T-A; Chu, Chih-Chieh; Chang, Teng-Yuan; Pan, Kao-Lu; Lin, Chih-Chien

    2012-11-07

    There are few studies that have examined the potential of RNA inference (RNAi) to increase protein production in the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) (Sf)-caspase-1-repressed stable cells exhibit resistance to apoptosis and enhancement of recombinant protein production. However, the mechanism of recombinant protein augmentation in baculovirus-infected Caspase-repressed insect cells has not been elucidated. In the current study, we utilized RNAi-mediated Sf-caspase-1-repressed stable cells to clarify how the resistance to apoptosis can enhance both intracellular (firefly luciferase) and extracellular (secreted alkaline phosphatase [SEAP]) recombinant protein production in BEVS. Since the expression of molecular chaperones is strongly associated with the maximal production of exogenous proteins in BEVS, the differential expression of molecular chaperones in baculovirus-infected stable cells was also analyzed in this study. The data indicated that the retention of expression of molecular chaperones in baculovirus-infected Sf-caspase-1-repressed stable cells give the higher recombinant protein accumulation.

  14. Development of a Real-Time qPCR Assay for Quantification of Covert Baculovirus Infections in a Major African Crop Pest

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Robert I.; Tummala, Yamini; Rhodes, Glenn; Cory, Jenny S.; Shirras, Alan; Grzywacz, David; Wilson, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Many pathogens and parasites are present in host individuals and populations without any obvious signs of disease. This is particularly true for baculoviruses infecting lepidopteran hosts, where studies have shown that covert persistent viral infections are almost ubiquitous in many species. To date, the infection intensity of covert viruses has rarely been quantified. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of a covert baculovirus infection within the lepidopteran crop pest Spodoptera exempta. A real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) procedure using a 5' nuclease hydrolysis (TaqMan) probe was developed for specific detection and quantification of Spodoptera exempta nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpexNPV). The qPCR assay indicated that covert baculovirus dynamics varied considerably over the course of the host life-cycle, with infection load peaking in early larval instars and being lowest in adults and final-instar larvae. Adult dissections indicated that, contrary to expectation, viral load aggregation was highest in the head, wings and legs, and lowest in the thorax and abdomen. The data presented here have broad implications relating to our understanding of transmission patterns of baculoviruses and the role of covert infections in host-pathogen dynamics. PMID:26463414

  15. The effect of spent medium recycle on cell proliferation, metabolism and baculovirus production by the lepidopteran Se301 cell line infected at very low MOI.

    PubMed

    Beas-Catena, Alba; Sánchez-Mirón, Asterio; Garía-Camacho, Francisco; Contreras-Gómez, Antonio; Molina-Grima, Emilio

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the effect of spent medium recycle on Spodoptera exigua Se301 cell line proliferation, metabolism, and baculovirus production when grown in batch suspension cultures in Ex-Cell 420 serum-free medium. The results showed that the recycle of 20% of spent medium from a culture in mid-exponential growth phase improved growth relative to a control culture grown in fresh medium. Although both glucose and glutamine were still present at the end of the growth phase, glutamate was always completely exhausted. The pattern of the specific glucose and lactate consumption and production rates, as well as the specific glutamine and glutamate consumption rates, suggests a metabolic shift at spent medium recycle values of over 60%, with a decrease in the efficiency of glucose utilization and an increase in glutamate consumption to fuel energy metabolism. Baculovirus infection provoked a change in the metabolic pattern of Se301 cells, although a beneficial effect of spent medium recycle was also observed. Both growth rate and maximum viable cell density decreased relative to uninfected cultures. The efficiency of glucose utilization was dramatically reduced in those cultures containing the lowest percentages of spent medium, whereas glutamine and glutamate consumption was modulated, thereby suggesting that infected cells were devoted to virus replication, retaining their ability to incorporate the nutrients required to support viral replication. Recycle of 20% of spent medium increased baculovirus production by around 90%, thus showing the link between cell growth and baculovirus production.

  16. Characterization of an Sf-rhabdovirus-negative Spodoptera frugiperda cell line as an alternative host for recombinant protein production in the baculovirus-insect cell system.

    PubMed

    Maghodia, Ajay B; Geisler, Christoph; Jarvis, Donald L

    2016-06-01

    Cell lines derived from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf), are widely used as hosts for recombinant protein production in the baculovirus-insect cell system (BICS). However, it was recently discovered that these cell lines are contaminated with a virus, now known as Sf-rhabdovirus [1]. The detection of this adventitious agent raised a potential safety issue that could adversely impact the BICS as a commercial recombinant protein production platform. Thus, we examined the properties of Sf-RVN, an Sf-rhabdovirus-negative Sf cell line, as a potential alternative host. Nested RT-PCR assays showed Sf-RVN cells had no detectable Sf-rhabdovirus over the course of 60 passages in continuous culture. The general properties of Sf-RVN cells, including their average growth rates, diameters, morphologies, and viabilities after baculovirus infection, were virtually identical to those of Sf9 cells. Baculovirus-infected Sf-RVN and Sf9 cells produced equivalent levels of three recombinant proteins, including an intracellular prokaryotic protein and two secreted eukaryotic glycoproteins, and provided similar N-glycosylation patterns. In fact, except for the absence of Sf-rhabdovirus, the only difference between Sf-RVN and Sf9 cells was SF-RVN produced higher levels of infectious baculovirus progeny. These results show Sf-RVN cells can be used as improved, alternative hosts to circumvent the potential safety hazard associated with the use of Sf-rhabdovirus-contaminated Sf cells for recombinant protein manufacturing with the BICS.

  17. DEPENDENCE OF ECDYSTEROID METABOLISM AND DEVELOPMENT IN HOST LARVAE ON THE TIME OF BACULOVIRUS INFECTION AND THE ACTIVITY OF THE UDP-GLUCOSYL TRANSFERASE GENE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Infection of fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar, Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae with the wild-type (Wt) gypsy moth baculovirus, LdNPV on the first day post-molt, or infection of fifth instars on the fifth day post-molt, results in elevated ecdysteroid levels in both he...

  18. Baculovirus as an ideal radionuclide reporter gene vector: a new strategy for monitoring the fate of human stem cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yu; Liu, Shuai; Wu, Haifei; Lv, Jing; Xu, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Yifan

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclide reporter gene imaging holds promise for non-invasive monitoring of transplanted stem cells. Thus, the feasibility of utilizing recombinant baculoviruses carrying the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) reporter gene in monitoring stem cell therapy by radionuclide imaging was explored in this study. Recombinant baculoviruses carrying NIS and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter genes (Bac-NIS and Bac-GFP) were constructed and used to infect human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs). Infection efficiency, total fluorescence intensity and duration of transgene expression were determined by flow cytometry. Cytotoxicity/proliferative effects of baculovirus on hUCB-MSCs were assessed using CCK-8 assays. ¹²⁵I uptake and perchlorate inhibition assays were performed on Bac-NIS-infected hUCB-MSCs. Radionuclide imaging of mice transplanted with Bac-NIS-infected hUCB-MSCs was performed by NanoSPECT/CT imaging. Infection efficiencies of recombinant baculovirus in hESCs, hiPSCs and hUCB-MSCs increased with increasing MOIs (27.3%, 35.8% and 95.6%, respectively, at MOI = 800). Almost no cytotoxicity and only slight effects on hUCB-MSCs proliferation were observed. Obvious GFP expression (40.6%) remained at 8 days post-infection. The radioiodide was functionally accumulated by NIS gene products and specifically inhibited by perchlorate (ClO₄⁻). Radioiodide uptake, peaking at 30 min and gradually decreasing over time, significantly correlated with hUCB-MSCs cell number (R² = 0.994). Finally, radionuclide imaging showed Bac-NIS-infected hUCB-MSCs effectively accumulated radioiodide in vivo, which gradually weakened over time. Baculovirus as transgenic vector of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technology is a promising strategy for monitoring stem cell transplantation therapy.

  19. Reduction of the infectivity of baculovirus stocks frozen at ultra-low temperature in serum-free media: The role of lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, Ignacio; Gioria, Verónica Viviana; Micheloud, Gabriela Analía; Claus, Juan Daniel

    2016-11-01

    The infectivity of stocks of baculoviruses produced in serum-free media is sensitive to freezing at ultra-low temperatures. The objective of this work was to elucidate the causes of such sensitivity, using as a model the freezing of stocks of Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV), a baculovirus widely employed as biological insecticide. Titers of supernatants of cell cultures infected with AgMNPV in four different serum-free media supplemented with lipid emulsions were reduced by 50 to 90% after six months freezing. By using a full factorial experiment, freezing and lipid emulsion, as well as the interaction between them, were identified as the main factors reducing the viral titer. The virucidal effect of the lipid emulsion was reproduced by one of their components, the surfactant Polysorbate 80. Damaged viral envelopes were observed by transmission electron microscopy in most particles frozen in a medium supplemented with lipid emulsion or Polysorbate 80. Additionally, Polysorbate 80 also affected the infectivity of AgMNPV stocks that were incubated at 27°C. The identification of the roles played by the lipid emulsion and Polysorbate 80 is not only a contribution to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the inactivation of baculovirus stocks produced in serum-free media during storage at ultra-low temperature, but is also an input for the rational development of new procedures aimed at improving both the preservation of baculovirus stocks and the composition of culture media for the production of baculovirus-based bioproducts in insect cells. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1559-1569, 2016.

  20. Baculovirus-induced tree-top disease: how extended is the role of egt as a gene for the extended phenotype?

    PubMed

    Ros, Vera I D; van Houte, Stineke; Hemerik, Lia; van Oers, Monique M

    2015-01-01

    Many parasites alter host behaviour to enhance their chance of transmission. Recently, the ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyl transferase (egt) gene from the baculovirus Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) was identified to induce tree-top disease in L. dispar larvae. Infected gypsy moth larvae died at elevated positions (hence the term tree-top disease), which is thought to promote dissemination of the virus to lower foliage. It is, however, unknown whether egt has a conserved role among baculoviruses in inducing tree-top disease. Here, we studied tree-top disease induced by the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) in two different host insects, Trichoplusia ni and Spodoptera exigua, and we investigated the role of the viral egt gene therein. AcMNPV induced tree-top disease in both T. ni and S. exigua larvae, although in S. exigua a moulting-dependent effect was seen. Those S. exigua larvae undergoing a larval moult during the infection process died at elevated positions, while larvae that did not moult after infection died at low positions. For both T. ni and S. exigua, infection with a mutant AcMNPV lacking egt did not change the position where the larvae died. We conclude that egt has no highly conserved role in inducing tree-top disease in lepidopteran larvae. The conclusion that egt is a 'gene for an extended phenotype' is therefore not generally applicable for all baculovirus-host interactions. We hypothesize that in some baculovirus-host systems (including LdMNPV in L. dispar), an effect of egt on tree-top disease can be observed through indirect effects of egt on moulting-related climbing behaviour.

  1. Accumulation, metabolism, and food-chain transfer of chlorinated and brominated contaminants in subadult white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from Svalbard, Norway.

    PubMed

    Wolkers, H; Lydersen, C; Kovacs, K M; Burkow, I; van Bavel, B

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were studied in white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from Svalbard, Norway. In addition, their main food items were included in the study. In the whales, a broad range of pollutants was found in relatively high concentrations. PCBs and pesticides were approximately 3000 and 8000 ng/g lipid, respectively, for white whales and three times higher for narwhals. PBDEs 47 were approximately 70 ng/g lipid for white whales and 170 ng/g lipid for narwhals. Compared with other marine mammals from the same area, contaminant levels are among the highest levels ever measured. These high levels are likely in part because of a decreased capacity to metabolize contaminants. Metabolic indices indicated that most compounds accumulate to the same degree in white whales and narwhals, but for some toxaphenes and chlordanes, narwhals might have a decreased metabolism and consequently a higher accumulation. The three-times-higher contaminant levels in blubber of narwhals was further explained by substantially higher contaminant levels in their more benthic diet. The high levels and broad pattern of accumulating pollutants make white whales and narwhals excellent indicators for a wide range of contaminants in the Arctic.

  2. Combined effects of deltamethrin, temperature and salinity on oxidative stress biomarkers and acetylcholinesterase activity in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Tu, Huynh Thi; Silvestre, Frederic; Meulder, Bertrand De; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the interactions of two abiotic factors (temperature and salinity) and deltamethrin (pyrethroid pesticide) exposure on some oxidative stress biomarkers as well as on acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) in hepatopancreas, gills and muscle of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). A combination of three temperatures (24, 29 and 34°C), two salinities (15 and 25 ppt), and the absence or presence of 0.1 μg L(-1) deltamethrin was applied on shrimp during 4 d under laboratory conditions. Lipid peroxidation level (LPO) and glutathione S-transferase activity (GST) were not affected by combined effect of temperature, salinity and deltamethrin in any of the studied tissues. Deltamethrin impaired other tested oxidative stress biomarkers, i.e. total glutathione (tGSH), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx). tGSH level significantly increased in hepatopancreas due to deltamethrin exposure mainly at 34°C, while pesticide effects on tGSH and CAT activity in gills were influenced by both temperature and salinity. In addition, GPx activity in hepatopancreas decreased after deltamethrin treatment mainly at 24°C. Finally, AChE in muscle was strongly inhibited by deltamethrin at all tested temperatures and salinities. These novel findings demonstrate that interactions between abiotic factors and a commonly used pesticide exposure should be taken into account when analyzing some widespread biomarkers in black tiger shrimp. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecological niches and areas of overlap of the squat lobster ‘munida’ ( Pleuroncodes monodon) and anchoveta ( Engraulis ringens) off Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Mariano; Ramirez, Argiro; Bertrand, Sophie; Móron, Octavio; Bertrand, Arnaud

    2008-10-01

    The world’s largest mono-specific fishery, the Peruvian anchovy or anchoveta ( Engraulis ringens) fishery, has been the subject of many studies since the 1960s. Details of its relationship with other species have mainly focused on alternations with sardine, Sardinops sagax, and little effort has so far been paid to interactions with other species sharing the same ecosystem. This is the case for Pleuroncodes monodon, the crustacean squat lobster or ’munida’, which has become highly abundant along the Peruvian coast since the mid-1990s. Munida is now an important prey for seabirds, mammals and coastal predatory fish. Knowledge of patterns of distribution and ecological niche of munida is scarce however off Peru. Here we describe and compare spatial patterns of distribution of anchoveta and munida and their ecological niches based on data from 26 acoustic surveys performed along the Peruvian coast between 1998 and 2006. The results indicate that munida and anchoveta share ecological niches but that munida is restricted to the coldest part of the productive cold coastal waters whereas anchoveta do not present any temperature preference over a large range (14-23 °C). The recent increase in munida abundance off Peru is concomitant with colder conditions; with their onset munida extended its range from central Chile northwards. Off Peru the very shallow oxycline keeps munida from its usual bottom habitat and has forced it to adopt pelagic behaviour.

  4. A new bacterial white spot syndrome (BWSS) in cultured tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and its comparison with white spot syndrome (WSS) caused by virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y G; Lee, K L; Najiah, M; Shariff, M; Hassan, M D

    2000-05-25

    This paper describes a new bacterial white spot syndrome (BWSS) in cultured tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. The affected shrimp showed white spots similar to those caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), but the shrimp remained active and grew normally without significant mortalities. The study revealed no evidence of WSSV infection using electron microscopy, histopathology and nested polymerase chain reaction. Electron microscopy indicated bacteria associated with white spot formation, and with degeneration and discoloration of the cuticle as a result of erosion of the epicuticle and underlying cuticular layers. Grossly the white spots in BWSS and WSS look similar but showed different profiles under wet mount microscopy. The bacterial white spots were lichen-like, having perforated centers unlike the melanized dots in WSSV-induced white spots. Bacteriological examination showed that the dominant isolate in the lesions was Bacillus subtilis. The occurrence of BWSS may be associated with the regular use of probiotics containing B. subtilis in shrimp ponds. The externally induced white spot lesions were localized at the integumental tissues, i.e., cuticle and epidermis, and connective tissues. Damage to the deeper tissues was limited. The BWS lesions are non-fatal in the absence of other complications and are usually shed through molting.

  5. Identification of RAPD-SCAR marker linked to white spot syndrome virus resistance in populations of giant black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Dutta, S; Biswas, S; Mukherjee, K; Chakrabarty, U; Mallik, A; Mandal, N

    2014-05-01

    White spot disease (WSD) caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) creates severe epizootics in shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. Despite several efforts, no such permanent remedy was yet developed. Selective breeding using DNA markers would be a cost-effective strategy for long-term solution of this problem. In the present investigation, out of 30 random primers, only one primer produced a statistically significant (P < 0.01) randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker of 502 bp, which provided a good discrimination between disease resistant and disease susceptible populations of Penaeus monodon from three geographical locations along the East coast of India. Because RAPD markers are dominant, a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was developed by cloning and sequencing of 502 bp RAPD fragment, which generates a single 457 bp DNA fragment after PCR amplification only in the disease resistant shrimps. Challenge experiment was also conducted to validate this 457 bp SCAR marker, and the results suggested that the WSSV loads were 2.25 × 10(3) fold higher in disease susceptible than that in disease resistant shrimps using real-time PCR. Therefore, this 457 bp DNA SCAR marker will be very valuable towards the development of disease-free shrimp aquaculture industry. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Influence of selected Indian immunostimulant herbs against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon with reference to haematological, biochemical and immunological changes.

    PubMed

    Citarasu, Thavasimuthu; Sivaram, Veeramani; Immanuel, Grasian; Rout, Namita; Murugan, Vadivel

    2006-10-01

    Immunostimulants are the substances, which enhance the non-specific defence mechanism and provide resistance against the invading pathogenic micro-organism. In order to increase the immunity of shrimps against the WSSV, the methanolic extracts of five different herbal medicinal plants like Cyanodon dactylon, Aegle marmelos, Tinospora cordifolia, Picrorhiza kurooa and Eclipta alba were selected and mixed thoroughly in equal proportion. The mixed extract was supplemented with various concentrations viz. 100 (A), 200 (B), 400 (C), and 800 (D) mgkg(-1) through artificial diets individually. The prepared diets (A-D) were fed individually to WSSV free healthy shrimp Penaeus monodon with an average weight of 8.0+/-0.5g for 25 days. Control diet (E), devoid of herbal extract was also fed to shrimps simultaneously. After 25 days of feeding experiment, the shrimps were challenged with WSSV, which were isolated and propagated from the infected crustaceans. The shrimps succumbed to death within 7 days when fed on no herbal immunostimulant diet (E). Among the different concentrations of herbal immunostimulant supplemented diets, the shrimps fed on diet D (800mgkg(-1)) significantly (P<0.0001) had more survival (74%) and reduction in the viral load. Also the better performance of haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters was found in the immunostimulant incorporated diets fed shrimps. The present work revealed that the application of herbal immunostimulants will be effective against shrimp viral pathogenesis and they can be recommended for shrimp culture.

  7. A Kazal type serine proteinase SPIPm2 from the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon is capable of neutralization and protection of hemocytes from the white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Ponprateep, Sirikwan; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien

    2011-12-01

    A Kazal type serine proteinase SPIPm2 is abundantly expressed in the hemocytes and shown to be involved in innate immune response against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in Penaeus monodon. The SPIPm2 is expressed and stored in the granules in the cytoplasm of semigranular and granular but not the hyaline hemocytes. Upon WSSV challenge and progression of infection, the SPIPm2 was secreted readily from the semigranular and granular hemocytes. The more they secreted the SPIPm2, the less they were distinguishable from the hyaline cells. The WSSV-infected cells were either semigranular or granular hemocytes or both and depleted of SPIPm2. The rSPIPm2 was able to temporarily and dose-dependently neutralize the WSSV and protect the hemocytes from viral infection judging from the substantially less expression of WSSV late gene VP28. The antiviral activity was very likely due to the binding of SPIPm2 to the components of viral particle and hemocyte cell membrane. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Viral Responsive Protein 15 and Its Possible Role in Nuclear Export of Virus in Black Tiger Shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Jaturontakul, Krisadaporn; Jatuyosporn, Thapanan; Laohawutthichai, Pasunee; Kim, Sun-Yong; Mori, Tomoyuki; Supungul, Premruethai; Hakoshima, Toshio; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Krusong, Kuakarun

    2017-07-26

    A viral responsive protein 15 from Penaeus monodon (PmVRP15) has been reported to be important for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in vivo. This work aims to characterize PmVRP15 and investigate its possible role in nuclear import/export of the virus. Circular dichroism spectra showed that PmVRP15 contains high helical contents (82%). Analytical ultracentrifugation suggested that PmVRP15 could possibly form oligomers in solution. A subcellular fractionation study showed that PmVRP15 was found in heavy and light membrane fractions, indicating that PmVRP15 may be associated with endoplasmic reticulum. Double-stranded RNAi-mediated knockdown of PmVRP15 gene expression in vitro showed no effect on WSSV copy number in whole hemocyte cells. However, PmVRP15 silencing resulted in an accumulation of WSSV DNA in the nucleus of PmVRP15-silenced hemocytes. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy showed that PmVRP15 knockdown hemocytes had a much lower level of VP28 (WSSV envelope protein), in comparison to that in the control. It is likely that PmVRP15 may play a role in viral nuclear egress.

  9. A double WAP domain-containing protein PmDWD from the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon is involved in the controlling of proteinase activities in lymphoid organ.

    PubMed

    Suthianthong, Pranisa; Pulsook, Naritsara; Supungul, Premruethai; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien

    2011-03-01

    A homolog of mammalian secretory leucocyte proteinase inhibitor or SLPI known as a double WAP domain (DWD) protein has been found in penaeid shrimp and believed to play an important role in innate immune system of the shrimp. The PmDWD identified from the Penaeus monodon EST database was investigated for its expression under pathogen infection. Infections by Vibrio harveyi and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) up-regulated the expression of the PmDWD, which was peaked at about 24 h post infection and, then, subsided to more or less normal level. The PmDWD was expressed in various tissues of normal, 24-h WSSV-injected and leg-amputated shrimp, predominantly in the hemocytes. The expression was dramatically increased in lymphoid organ upon WSSV infection and leg amputation. The recombinant PmDWD (rPmDWD) was not active against the commercial proteinases: trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase and subtilisin while its mutant rPmDWD_F70R was active against the subtilisin. By using agar diffusion assay, the rPmDWD inhibited the crude proteinases from lymphoid organs of leg-amputated and WSSV-infected shrimp. It inhibited the crude proteinases from Bacillus subtilis as well. Unlike the mammalian SLPIs, the rPmDWD had no antimicrobial activity against various bacteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of a Novel Binding Protein for Fortilin/TCTP — Component of a Defense Mechanism against Viral Infection in Penaeus monodon

    PubMed Central

    Panrat, Tanate; Sinthujaroen, Patuma; Nupan, Benjamas; Wanna, Warapond; Tammi, Martti Tapani; Phongdara, Amornrat

    2012-01-01

    The Fortilin (also known as TCTP) in Penaeus monodon (PmFortilin) and Fortilin Binding Protein 1 (FBP1) have recently been shown to interact and to offer protection against the widespread White Spot Syndrome Virus infection. However, the mechanism is yet unknown. We investigated this interaction in detail by a number of in silico and in vitro analyses, including prediction of a binding site between PmFortilin/FBP1 and docking simulations. The basis of the modeling analyses was well-conserved PmFortilin orthologs, containing a Ca2+-binding domain at residues 76–110 representing a section of the helical domain, the translationally controlled tumor protein signature 1 and 2 (TCTP_1, TCTP_2) at residues 45–55 and 123–145, respectively. We found the pairs Cys59 and Cys76 formed a disulfide bond in the C-terminus of FBP1, which is a common structural feature in many exported proteins and the “x–G–K–K” pattern of the amidation site at the end of the C-terminus. This coincided with our previous work, where we found the “x–P–P–x” patterns of an antiviral peptide also to be located in the C-terminus of FBP1. The combined bioinformatics and in vitro results indicate that FBP1 is a transmembrane protein and FBP1 interact with N-terminal region of PmFortilin. PMID:22428011

  11. The expression and purification of WSSV134 from white spot syndrome virus and its inhibitory effect on caspase activity from Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Bowornsakulwong, Thanunthon; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Rattanarojpong, Triwit; Khunrae, Pongsak

    2017-02-01

    WSSV134 or VP36A protein of white spot syndrome virus was previously reported to be able to reduce apoptosis in Sf-9 cells transfected with caspase of Penaeus monodon (PmCasp). The protein was therefore believed to have a role in supporting the survival of WSSV inside the host cells during infection. However, the anti-apoptosis activity of WSSV134 involved in the inhibition of PmCasp is still unclear. In this study, we produced a recombinant WSSV134 (rWSSV134) and tested for its ability to inhibit PmCasp in vitro. The results from a caspase inhibition assay revealed that rWSSV134 could inhibit PmCasp in a dose-dependent manner. Since WSSV134 was predicted to contain three potential caspase binding sites, corresponding to the D54, D104 and D259, we then employed site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the involvement of these sites in PmCasp inhibition. D54A and D259A mutants could still inhibit PmCasp while D104A mutant lacks this activity. Our results confirmed that the WSSV134 is an inhibitor for PmCasp and that residue D104 is important for PmCasp inhibition.

  12. Effects of heme precursors on CYP1A2 and POR expression in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huiyuan; Ma, Jun; Liu, Nian; Wang, Shoulin

    2010-05-01

    CYP1A2 and NADPH-CYP450 oxidoreductase (POR) were expressed in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda (sf9) system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of heme precursors on the expression of CYP1A2 and POR. The heme precursors [δ-Aminolaevulinic Acid (5-ALA), Fe(3+) and hemin] were introduced into the system to evaluate their effects on the expression of CYP1A2, POR and their co-expression. All the proteins were identified using immunoblotting, CO-difference spectroscopy, or cytochrome c assay. In the present study, functional CYP1A2 and POR were successfully expressed in the baculovirus/sf9 system, and both of them showed high activities. Co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe(3+) significantly improved expression of CYP1A2 by about 50% compared with the addition of 5-ALA, Fe(3+) or hemin alone. Either co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe(3+) or addition of 5-ALA or Fe(3+) alone improved the POR expression level 2 fold and its activity 7-10 fold compared with control (no addition). However, unlike CYP1A2, there was no difference between the co-addition and addition of these heme precursors alone. Different ratios of BvCYP1A2 to BvPOR also affected the co-expression of CYP1A2 and POR, with a 3:1 ratio of BvCYP1A2 / BvPOR significantly increasing their co-expression. Surprisingly, the addition of 0.1 mM 5-ALA or Fe(3+) alone, but not their co-addition, could significantly improve the CYP1A2 and POR co-expression (P < 0.05). 5-ALA and Fe(3+) increased the expression of CYP1A2 and POR in a baculovirus/sf9 system, but the pattern of their expression was different between their expression alone and co-expression.

  13. Combining stable insect cell lines with baculovirus-mediated expression for multi-HA influenza VLP production.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Daniela P; Correia, Ricardo; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Roldão, António; Teixeira, Ana P; Alves, Paula M

    2017-03-10

    Safer and broadly protective vaccines are needed to cope with the continuous evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and promising approaches based on the expression of multiple hemagglutinins (HA) in a virus-like particle (VLP) have been proposed. However, expression of multiple genes in the same vector can lead to its instability due to tandem repetition of similar sequences. By combining stable with transient expression systems we can rationally distribute the number of genes to be expressed per platform and thus mitigate this risk. In this work, we developed a modular system comprising stable and baculovirus-mediated expression in insect cells for production of multi-HA influenza enveloped VLPs. First, a stable insect High Five cell population expressing two different HA proteins from subtype H3 was established. Infection of this cell population with a baculovirus vector encoding three other HA proteins from H3 subtype proved to be as competitive as traditional co-infection approaches in producing a pentavalent H3 VLP. Aiming at increasing HA expression, the stable insect cell population was infected at increasingly higher cell concentrations (CCI). However, cultures infected at CCI of 3×10(6)cells/mL showed lower HA titers per cell in comparison to standard CCI of 2×10(6)cells/mL, a phenomenon named "cell density effect". To lessen the negative impact of this phenomenon, a tailor-made refeed strategy was designed based on the exhaustion of key nutrients during cell growth. Noteworthy, cultures supplemented and infected at a CCI of 4×10(6)cells/mL showed comparable HA titers per cell to those of CCI of 2×10(6)cells/mL, thus leading to an increase of up to 4-fold in HA titers per mL. Scalability of the modular strategy herein proposed was successfully demonstrated in 2L stirred tank bioreactors with comparable HA protein levels observed between bioreactor and shake flasks cultures. Overall, this work demonstrates the suitability of combining stable

  14. Mesenchymal stem cells expressing baculovirus-engineered BMP-2 and VEGF enhance posterolateral spine fusion in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Fu, Tsai-Sheng; Chang, Yu-Han; Wong, Chak-Bor; Wang, I-Chun; Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Lai, Po-Liang; Chen, Lih-Huei; Chen, Wen-Jer

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based cell therapy and gene transfer have converged and show great potential for accelerating bone healing. Gene therapy can provide more sustained expression of osteogenic factors such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). We previously demonstrated that low-dose BMP-2 enhanced spinal posterolateral fusion by MSCs in a rabbit model. Herein, we genetically modified rabbit MSCs with a recombinant baculovirus encoding BMP-2 (Bac-CB) and vascular endothelial growth factor (Bac-VEGF) seeded into porous scaffolds to enhance spinal fusion. This study evaluates the success rate of the MSC-based cell therapy and gene transfer approach for single-level posterolateral spine fusion. We hypothesize that combining three-dimensional tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds and genetically modified allogeneic MSCs with baculovirus-mediated growth factor expression would increase the success rate of spinal fusion. The study design was based on an animal model (approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee) using 18 adult male New Zealand rabbits. This study included 18 male New Zealand rabbits, weighing 3.5 to 4 kg. Allogeneic bone marrow-derived MSCs were isolated and genetically modified with Bac-CB and Bac-CV seeded onto TCP scaffolds (MSC/Bac/TCP). The animals were divided into three groups according to the material implanted into the bilateral L4-L5 intertransverse space: TCP scaffold (n=6), MSC/TCP (n=6), and MSC/Bac/TCP (n=6). After 12 weeks, the rabbits were euthanized for radiographic examination, manual palpation, and histologic study. Bilateral fusion areas in each animal were evaluated independently. The radiographic fusion rates at 12 sites were 0 of 12 in the TCP scaffold group, 4 of 12 in the MSC/TCP group, and 10 of 12 in the MSC/Bac/TCP group. By manual palpation, there were zero solid fusions in the TCP scaffold group, two solid fusions in the MSC/TCP group, and five solid fusions in the MSC/Bac/TCP group. Fusion rates

  15. Molecular characterization of a crustin-like antimicrobial peptide in the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and its expression profile in response to various immunostimulants and challenge with WSSV.

    PubMed

    Antony, Swapna P; Singh, I S Bright; Sudheer, N S; Vrinda, S; Priyaja, P; Philip, Rosamma

    2011-01-01

    A crustin-like antimicrobial peptide from the haemocytes of giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon was partially characterized at the molecular level and phylogenetic analysis was performed. The partial coding sequence of 299 bp and 91 deduced amino acid residues possessed conserved cysteine residues characteristic of the shrimp crustins. Phylogenetic tree and sequence comparison clearly confirmed divergence of this crustin-like AMP from other shrimp crustins. The differential expression of the crustin-like AMP in P. monodon in response to the administration of various immunostimulants viz., two marine yeasts (Candida haemulonii S27 and Candida sake S165) and two β-glucan isolates (extracted from C. haemulonii S27 and C. sake S165) were noted during the study. Responses to the application of two gram-positive probiotic bacteria (Bacillus MCCB101 and Micrococcus MCCB104) were also observed. The immune profile was recorded pre- and post-challenge white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Expressions of seven WSSV genes were also observed for studying the intensity of viral infection in the experimental animals. The crustin-like AMP was found to be constitutively expressed in the animal and a significant down-regulation could be noted post-challenge WSSV. Remarkable down-regulation of the gene was observed in the immunostimulant fed animals pre-challenge followed by a significant up-regulation post-challenge WSSV. Tissue-wise expression of crustin-like AMP on administration of C. haemulonii and Bacillus showed maximum transcripts in gill and intestine. The marine yeast, C. haemulonii and the probiotic bacteria, Bacillus were found to enhance the production of crustin-like AMP and confer significant protection to P. monodon against WSSV infection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Solubility as a limiting factor for expression of hepatitis A virus proteins in insect cell-baculovirus system.

    PubMed

    Silva, Haroldo Cid da; Pestana, Cristiane Pinheiro; Galler, Ricardo; Medeiros, Marco Alberto

    2016-08-01

    The use of recombinant proteins may represent an alternative model to inactivated vaccines against hepatitis A virus (HAV). The present study aimed to express the VP1 protein of HAV in baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). The VP1 was expressed intracellularly with molecular mass of 35 kDa. The VP1 was detected both in the soluble fraction and in the insoluble fraction of the lysate. The extracellular expression of VP1 was also attempted, but the protein remained inside the cell. To verify if hydrophobic characteristics would also be present in the HAV structural polyprotein, the expression of P1-2A protein was evaluated. The P1-2A polyprotein remained insoluble in the cellular extract, even in the early infection stages. These results suggest that HAV structural proteins are prone to form insoluble aggregates. The low solubility represents a drawback for production of large amounts of HAV proteins in BEVS.

  17. Solubility as a limiting factor for expression of hepatitis A virus proteins in insect cell-baculovirus system

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Haroldo Cid; Pestana, Cristiane Pinheiro; Galler, Ricardo; Medeiros, Marco Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The use of recombinant proteins may represent an alternative model to inactivated vaccines against hepatitis A virus (HAV). The present study aimed to express the VP1 protein of HAV in baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). The VP1 was expressed intracellularly with molecular mass of 35 kDa. The VP1 was detected both in the soluble fraction and in the insoluble fraction of the lysate. The extracellular expression of VP1 was also attempted, but the protein remained inside the cell. To verify if hydrophobic characteristics would also be present in the HAV structural polyprotein, the expression of P1-2A protein was evaluated. The P1-2A polyprotein remained insoluble in the cellular extract, even in the early infection stages. These results suggest that HAV structural proteins are prone to form insoluble aggregates. The low solubility represents a drawback for production of large amounts of HAV proteins in BEVS. PMID:27581123

  18. Safety and immunogenicity of a baculovirus-expressed hemagglutinin influenza vaccine: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Treanor, John J; Schiff, Gilbert M; Hayden, Frederick G; Brady, Rebecca C; Hay, C Mhorag; Meyer, Anthony L; Holden-Wiltse, Jeanne; Liang, Hua; Gilbert, Adam; Cox, Manon

    2007-04-11

    A high priority in vaccine research is the development of influenza vaccines that do not use embryonated eggs as the substrate for vaccine production. To determine the dose-related safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of an experimental trivalent influenza virus hemagglutinin (rHA0) vaccine produced in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial at 3 US academic medical centers during the 2004-2005 influenza season among 460 healthy adults without high-risk indications for influenza vaccine. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a single injection of saline placebo (n = 154); 75 microg of an rHA0 vaccine containing 15 microg of hemagglutinin from influenza A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1) and influenza B/Jiangsu/10/03 virus and 45 microg of hemagglutinin from influenza A/Wyoming/3/03(H3N2) virus (n = 153); or 135 microg of rHA0 containing 45 microg of hemagglutinin each from all 3 components (n = 153). Serum samples were taken before and 30 days following immunization. Primary safety end points were the rates and severity of solicited and unsolicited adverse events. Primary immunogenicity end points were the rates of 4-fold or greater increases in serum hemagglutinin inhibition antibody to each of the 3 vaccine strains before and 28 days after inoculation. The prespecified primary efficacy end point was culture-documented influenza illness, defined as development of influenza-like illness associated with influenza virus on a nasopharyngeal swab. Rates of local and systemic adverse effects were low, and the rates of systemic adverse effects were not different in either vaccine group than in the placebo group. Hemagglutinin inhibition antibody responses to the H1 component were seen in 3% of placebo, 51% of 75-microg vaccine, and 67% of 135-microg vaccine recipients, while responses to B were seen in 4% of placebo, 65% of 75-microg vaccine, and 92% of 135-microg vaccine recipients. Responses

  19. Using double-stranded RNA to prevent in vitro and in vivo viral infections by recombinant baculovirus.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Victor Julian; Sampieri, Alicia; Sepulveda, Jorge; Vaca, Luis

    2003-05-23

    Introduction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into a wide variety of cells and organisms results in post-transcriptional depletion of the homologue endogenous mRNA. This well-preserved phenomenon known as RNA interference (RNAi) is present in evolutionarily diverse organisms such as plants, fungi, insects, metazoans, and mammals. Because the identification of the targeted mRNA by the RNAi machinery depends upon Watson-Crick base-pairing interactions, RNAi can be exquisitely specific. We took advantage of this powerful and flexible technique to demonstrate that selective silencing of genes essential for viral propagation prevents in vitro and in vivo viral infection. Using the baculovirus Autographa californica, a rapidly replicating and highly cytolytic double-stranded DNA virus that infects many different insect species, we show for the first time that introduction of dsRNA from gp64 and ie1, two genes essential for baculovirus propagation, results in prevention of viral infection in vitro and in vivo. This is the first report demonstrating the use of RNAi to inhibit a viral infection in animals. This inhibition was specific, because dsRNA from the polyhedrin promoter (used as control) or unrelated dsRNAs did not affect the time course of viral infection. The most relevant consequences from the present study are: 1) RNAi offers a rapid and efficient way to interfere with viral genes to assess the role of specific proteins in viral function and 2) using RNAi to interfere with viral genes essential for cell infection may provide a powerful therapeutic tool for the treatment of viral infections.

  20. Dissimilar Regulation of Antimicrobial Proteins in the Midgut of Spodoptera exigua Larvae Challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins or Baculovirus.

    PubMed

    Crava, Cristina M; Jakubowska, Agata K; Escriche, Baltasar; Herrero, Salvador; Bel, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and lysozymes are the main effectors of the insect immune system, and they are involved in both local and systemic responses. Among local responses, midgut immune reaction plays an important role in fighting pathogens that reach the insect body through the oral route, as do many microorganisms used in pest control. Under this point of view, understanding how insects defend themselves locally during the first phases of infections caused by food-borne pathogens is important to further improve microbial control strategies. In the present study, we analyzed the transcriptional response of AMPs and lysozymes in the midgut of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a polyphagous pest that is commonly controlled by products based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or baculovirus. First, we comprehensively characterized the transcripts encoding AMPs and lysozymes expressed in S. exigua larval midgut, identifying 35 transcripts that represent the S. exigua arsenal against microbial infection. Secondly, we analyzed their expression in the midgut after ingestion of sub-lethal doses of two different pore-forming B. thuringiensis toxins, Cry1Ca and Vip3Aa, and the S. exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV). We observed that both Bt toxins triggered a similar, wide and in some cases high transcriptional activation of genes encoding AMPs and lysozymes, which was not reflected in the activation of the classical systemic immune-marker phenoloxidase in hemolymph. Baculovirus ingestion resulted in the opposed reaction: Almost all transcripts coding for AMPs and lysozymes were down-regulated or not induced 96 hours post infection. Our results shed light on midgut response to different virulence factors or pathogens used nowadays as microbial control agents and point out the importance of the midgut immune response contribution to the larval immunity.

  1. Efficient, low-cost protein factories: expression of human adenosine deaminase in baculovirus-infected insect larvae.

    PubMed Central

    Medin, J A; Hunt, L; Gathy, K; Evans, R K; Coleman, M S

    1990-01-01

    Human adenosine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.4), a key purine salvage enzyme essential for immune competence, has been overproduced in Spodoptera frugiperda cells and in Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) larvae infected with recombinant baculovirus. The coding sequence of human adenosine deaminase was recombined into a baculovirus immediately downstream from the strong polyhedrin gene promoter. Approximately 60 hr after infection of insect cells with the recombinant virus, maximal levels of intracellular adenosine deaminase mRNA, protein, and enzymatic activity were detected. The recombinant human adenosine deaminase represented 10% of the total cellular protein and exhibited a specific activity of 70 units/mg of protein in crude homogenate. This specific activity is 70-350 times greater than that exhibited by the enzyme in homogenates of the two most abundant natural sources of human adenosine deaminase, thymus and leukemic cells. When the recombinant virus was injected into insect larvae, the maximum recombinant enzyme was produced 4 days postinfection and represented about 2% of the total insect protein with a specific activity of 10-25 units/mg of protein. The recombinant human adenosine deaminase was purified to homogeneity from both insect cells and larvae and demonstrated to be identical to native adenosine deaminase purified from human cells with respect to molecular weight, interaction with polyclonal anti-adenosine deaminase antibody, and enzymatic properties. A pilot purification yielded 8-9 mg of homogeneous enzyme from 22 larvae. The production of large quantities of recombinant human adenosine deaminase in insect larvae is inexpensive and rapid and eliminates the need for specialized facilities for tissue culture. This method should be applicable to large-scale production of many recombinant proteins. Images PMID:2181448

  2. Dissimilar Regulation of Antimicrobial Proteins in the Midgut of Spodoptera exigua Larvae Challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins or Baculovirus

    PubMed Central

    Crava, Cristina M.; Jakubowska, Agata K.; Escriche, Baltasar; Herrero, Salvador; Bel, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and lysozymes are the main effectors of the insect immune system, and they are involved in both local and systemic responses. Among local responses, midgut immune reaction plays an important role in fighting pathogens that reach the insect body through the oral route, as do many microorganisms used in pest control. Under this point of view, understanding how insects defend themselves locally during the first phases of infections caused by food-borne pathogens is important to further improve microbial control strategies. In the present study, we analyzed the transcriptional response of AMPs and lysozymes in the midgut of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a polyphagous pest that is commonly controlled by products based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or baculovirus. First, we comprehensively characterized the transcripts encoding AMPs and lysozymes expressed in S. exigua larval midgut, identifying 35 transcripts that represent the S. exigua arsenal against microbial infection. Secondly, we analyzed their expression in the midgut after ingestion of sub-lethal doses of two different pore-forming B. thuringiensis toxins, Cry1Ca and Vip3Aa, and the S. exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV). We observed that both Bt toxins triggered a similar, wide and in some cases high transcriptional activation of genes encoding AMPs and lysozymes, which was not reflected in the activation of the classical systemic immune-marker phenoloxidase in hemolymph. Baculovirus ingestion resulted in the opposed reaction: Almost all transcripts coding for AMPs and lysozymes were down-regulated or not induced 96 hours post infection. Our results shed light on midgut response to different virulence factors or pathogens used nowadays as microbial control agents and point out the importance of the midgut immune response contribution to the larval immunity. PMID:25993013

  3. Rotavirus A-specific single-domain antibodies produced in baculovirus-infected insect larvae are protective in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Single-domain antibodies (sdAbs), also known as nanobodies or VHHs, are characterized by high stability and solubility, thus maintaining the affinity and therapeutic value provided by conventional antibodies. Given these properties, VHHs offer a novel alternative to classical antibody approaches. To date, VHHs have been produced mainly in E. coli, yeast, plants and mammalian cells. To apply the single-domain antibodies as a preventive or therapeutic strategy to control rotavirus infections in developing countries (444,000 deaths in children under 5 years of age) has to be minimized their production costs. Results Here we describe the highly efficient expression of functional VHHs by the Improved Baculovirus Expression System (IBES® technology), which uses a baculovirus expression vector in combination with Trichoplusia ni larvae as living biofactories. Two VHHs, named 3B2 and 2KD1, specific for the inner capsid protein VP6 of Group A rotavirus, were expressed in insect larvae. The IBES® technology achieved very high expression of 3B2 and 2KD1, reaching 2.62% and 3.63% of the total soluble protein obtained from larvae, respectively. These expression levels represent up to 257 mg/L of protein extract after insect processing (1 L extract represents about 125 g of insect biomass or about 375 insect larvae). Larva-derived antibodies were fully functional when tested in vitro and in vivo, neutralizing Group A rotaviruses and protecting offspring mice against rotavirus-induced diarrhea. Conclusions Our results open up the possibility of using insects as living biofactories (IBES® technology) for the cost-efficient production of these and other fully functional VHHs to be used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, thereby eliminating concerns regarding the use of bacterial or mammalian cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that insects have been used as living biofactories to produce a VHH molecule. PMID:22953695

  4. Comparative susceptibilities of insect cell lines to infection by the occlusion-body derived phenotype of baculoviruses.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Dwight E

    2003-07-01

    Twelve insect cell lines from six species were tested for susceptibility to baculovirus infection by occlusion-derived virus (ODV) phenotype through the use of a typical endpoint assay procedure. ODV from three nucleopolyhedroviruses were prepared by alkali treatment (sodium carbonate) of occlusion bodies (OBs) and the virus preparations were titered on various cell lines. More than a four-log difference was realized for each of theses viruses between the various cell lines. The TN368 line from Trichoplusia ni was only marginally susceptible to ODV from each virus, showing only 3-6 infectious units (IU) per million OBs while the gypsy moth line, LdEp was most susceptible, realizing more than 100,000 IU/million OBs. The other lines tested showed various levels of susceptibility between these two extremes and also varied between the three viruses tested. In additional tests, the ODV were treated with trypsin prior to application to the cells. With most cell lines, this treatment increased the infectivity of each virus by 2-10-fold. Exceptions to this trend included the gypsy moth LdEp line, on which the trypsinized ODV from two of the viruses were slightly less infectious than each virus without trypsin, and the TN-368 line, on which the trypsinized ODV was 5,000-75,000 times more infectious. The variable results of trypsinized virus on the different lines are probably due to the levels of endogenous protease activity in the various lines, but the mode of action of the trypsin has not been elucidated. Ultimately, the variable response of cell lines to ODV of different viruses, and the variable effects of trypsin on the ODV may lead to an improved understanding of the infection process of this virus phenotype as well as factors relating to baculovirus host range.

  5. Antigenic and immunogenic analysis of group A and group B respiratory syncytial virus G proteins expressed from recombinant baculoviruses.

    PubMed

    Sullender, W M; Britt, W J

    1996-04-01

    The attachment glycoprotein G plays a major role in the antigenic variability of respiratory syncytial (RS) virus. We have expressed from recombinant baculoviruses antigenic group A and group B RS virus G proteins (designated bacAG for the group A and bacBG for the group B virus G protein). The insect cell-produced G proteins migrated more rapidly in SDS-PAGE as compared to HEp-2 cell derived G proteins owing to glycosylation differences. Antigenicity was tested by immunofluorescence; five or five group cross-reactive, five or six group A-specific, and six of six group B-specific MAbs reacted appropriately with bacAG and/or bacBG. In addition, bacAG and bacBG reacted with human polyclonal antibodies to RS virus. Cotton rats were immunized with bacAG, bacBG or a control lysate and challenged intranasally with a group A RS virus. The bacAG-immunized group had a statistically significant reduction in viral replication in the lungs (lung titres as mean log10 p.f.u./g +/- SD, bacAG = 3.1 +/- 1.2; control = 4.8 +/- 0.6, P = 0.013). The bacBG-immunized group showed less reduction in viral titres (bacBG lung titres = 4.1 +/- 0.6, P = 0.13 for bacBG compared to control). Thus, as expected, homologous protein (bacAG) immunization provided more protection against viral replication than immunization with the heterologous protein (bacBG). The G protein of RS virus expressed in insect cells had antigenic and immunogenic features which were similar to that of the G protein expressed in mammalian cells. The baculovirus-expressed G proteins should be useful for the study of immune responses to RS viruses.

  6. Induction of a subnuclear structure by the simultaneous expression of baculovirus proteins, IE1, LEF3, and P143 in the presence of hr

    SciTech Connect

    Nagamine, Toshihiro . E-mail: tnaga@riken.jp; Kawasaki, Yu; Matsumoto, Shogo

    2006-09-01

    Baculoviruses elicit the formation of a nuclear domain, called the virogenic stroma, in which viral DNA replication and nucleocapsid assembly occur. We had previously reported that nuclear focus formation of a transcriptional activator, IE1, is triggered by its binding to a viral DNA element, hr, and predicted that this hr-induced IE1 focus is an initial scaffold for the virogenic stroma. However, LEF3, a component of the virogenic stroma, did not localize to the IE1 foci. In exploring a mediator for its localization, we found that a baculovirus DNA helicase (P143), in combination with IE1 and hr, induced a subnuclear structure to which LEF3 localized and also that another component of the virogenic stroma, DBP, is able to localize to this structure. These results reveal that only four viral molecules are necessary to establish a nuclear domain which possesses a recruiting ability for a component of the virogenic stroma.

  7. High-level protein expression following single and dual gene cloning of infectious bronchitis virus N and S genes using baculovirus systems.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S; Giesow, Katrin; Keil, Günther M

    2014-03-01

    Baculovirus is an efficient system for the gene expression that can be used for gene transfer to both insect and different vertebrate hosts. The nucleocapsid gene (N) of the infectious bronchitis virus was cloned in a baculovirus expression system for insect cell expression. Dual expression vectors containing IBV N and spike (S) proteins of the avian infectious bronchitis virus were engineered under the control of human and murine cytomegalovirus immediate-early enhancer/promoter elements in combination with the baculoviral polyhedrin and p10 promoters for simultaneous expression in both vertebrate and insect cells. Transduction of the N gene in the insect Sf9 cells revealed a high level of protein expression. The expressed protein, used in ELISA, effectively detected chicken anti-IBV antibodies with high specificity. Transduction of mammalian and avian cells with BacMam viruses revealed that dual expression cassettes yielded high levels of protein from both transcription units.

  8. Modeling the Combined Effect of Pressure and Mild Heat on the Inactivation Kinetics of Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, and Staphylococcus aureus in Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Barjinder P.; Rao, P. Srinivasa

    2017-01-01

    The high-pressure inactivation of Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, and Staphylococcus aureus was studied in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). The processing parameters examined included pressure (300 to 600 MPa) and temperature (30 to 50°C). In addition, the pressure-hold period (0 to 15 min) was investigated, thus allowing both single-pulse pressure effects (i.e., zero holding time) and pressure-hold effects to be explored. E. coli was found to be the most sensitive strain to single-pulse pressure, followed by L. innocua and lastly S. aureus. Higher pressures and temperatures resulted in higher destruction rates, and the value of the shape parameter (β′) accounted for the downward concavity (β′ > 1) of the survival curves. A simplified Weibull model described the non-linearity of the survival curves for the changes in the pressure-hold period well, and it was comparable to the original Weibull model. The regression coefficients (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), accuracy factor (Af), bias factor (Bf), and residual plots suggested that using linear models to represent the data was not as appropriate as using non-linear models. However, linear models produced good fits for some pressure–temperature combinations. Analogous to their use in thermal death kinetics, activation volume (Va) and activation energy (Ea) can be used to describe the pressure and temperature dependencies of the scale parameter (δ, min), respectively. The Va and Ea values showed that high pressure and temperaturefavored the inactivation process, and S. aureus was the most baro-resistant pathogen. PMID:28790979

  9. Identification and cloning of a selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase from tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and its transcription following pathogen infection and related to the molt stages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuan-Fu; Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Cheng, Winton; Lo, Chu-Fang

    2010-09-01

    Complementary (c)DNA encoding glutathione peroxidase (GPx) messenger (m)RNA of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon was obtained from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The 1321-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 564bp, a 69-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 688-bp 3'-UTR containing a poly A tail and a conserved selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (188 aa) was 21.05kDa long with an estimated pI of 7.68. It contains a putative selenocysteine residue which is encoded by the unusual stop codon, (190)TGA(192), and forms the active site with residues Glu(75) and Trp(143). Comparison of amino acid sequences showed that tiger shrimp GPx is more closely related to vertebrate GPx1, in accordance with those in Litopenaeus vannamei and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. GPx cDNA was synthesised in lymphoid organ, gills, heart, haemocytes, the hepatopancreas, muscles, and intestines. After injected with either Photobacterium damsela or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the respiratory bursts of shrimp significantly increased in order to kill the pathogen, and induced increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase and GPx, and regulation in the expression of cloned GPx mRNA to protect cells against damage from oxidation. The GPx expression significantly increased at stage D(0/1), and then gradually decreased until stage C suggesting that the cloned GPx might play a role in the molt regulation of shrimp. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PmTBC1D20, a Rab GTPase-activating protein from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, is involved in white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Yingvilasprasert, Wanchart; Supungul, Premruethai; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2014-02-01

    TBC (TRE2/BUB2/CDC16) domain proteins contain an ≈ 200-amino-acid motif and function as Rab GTPase-activating proteins that are required for regulating the activity of Rab proteins, and so, in turn, endocytic membrane trafficking in cells. TBC domain family member 20 (TBC1D20) has recently been reported to mediate Hepatitis C virus replication. Herein, PmTBC1D20 identified from the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, was characterized and evaluated for its role in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. The full-length cDNA sequence of PmTBC1D20 contains 2003 bp with a predicted 1443 bp open reading frame encoding a deduced 480 amino acid protein. Its transcript levels were significantly up-regulated at 24 and 48 h by ≈ 2.3- and 2.1-fold, respectively, after systemic infection with WSSV. In addition, depletion of PmTBC1D20 transcript in shrimps by double stranded RNA interference led to a decrease in the level of transcripts of three WSSV genes (VP28, ie1 and wsv477). This suggests the importance of PmTBC1D20 in WSSV infection. This is the first report of TBC1D20 in a crustacean and reveals the possible mechanism used by WSSV to modulate the activity of the host protein, PmTBC1D20, for its benefit in viral trafficking and replication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification and cloning of a selenophosphate synthetase (SPS) from tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and its transcription in relation to molt stages and following pathogen infection.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Huang, Chang-Jen; Guo, Chih-Hung; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Tsai, Inn-Ho; Cheng, Winton

    2012-01-01

    Complementary (c)DNA encoding selenophosphate synthetase (SPS) messenger (m)RNA of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, designated PmSPS, was obtained from the hepatopancreas by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The 1582-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1248 bp, a 103-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 231-bp 3'-UTR, which contained a conserved selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element, a conventional polyadenylation signal, and a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (416 aa) was 45.5 kDa with an estimated pI of 4.85. It contained a putative selenocysteine residue which was encoded by the unusual stop codon, (275)TGA(277), which formed at the active site with residues Sec(58) and Lys(61). A comparison of amino acid sequences showed that PmSPS was more closely related to invertebrate SPS1, such as those of Heliothis virescens and Drosophila melanogaster a and b. PmSPS cDNA was synthesized in all tested tissues, especially in the hepatopancreas. PmSPS in the hepatopancreas of shrimp significantly increased after an injection with either Photobacterium damsela or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in order to protect cells against damage from oxidation, and enhance the recycling of selenocysteine or selenium metabolism, indicating that PmSPS is involved in the disease-resistance response. The PmSPS expression by hemocytes significantly increased in stage C, and then gradually decreased until stage A, suggesting that the cloned PmSPS in hemocytes might play a role in viability by renewing hemocytes and antioxidative stress response for new exoskeleton synthesis during the molt cycle of shrimp. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of WSSV prevalence and distribution of disease-resistant shrimp among the wild population of Penaeus monodon along the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Usri; Mallik, Ajoy; Mondal, Debabrata; Dutta, Sourav; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2014-06-01

    Shrimp aquaculture is threatened by many diseases, among which white spot disease (WSD) caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the leading one. Information related to the geographical distribution and seasonal prevalence of WSD is necessary to obtain a clear understanding of the disease biology in shrimp. Identification of WSD-resistant individual shrimp with DNA markers is also an important technique to develop better WSD-free shrimp health management. The present study aim is to estimate the occurrence of WSSV in Penaeus monodon qualitatively and quantitatively during three different seasons during the years 2011 to 2013 along the west coast of India. Additionally, the disease resistance prevalence using previously developed 71 bp microsatellite and 457 bp RAPD-SCAR DNA markers is also investigated. Samples were collected throughout the year from four locations along the west coast of India: Kochi, Kerala; Mangalore, Karnataka; Vasco-da-Gama, Goa; and Veraval, Gujarat. The results depicted that the average WSSV prevalence, as determined by the nested PCR method and taken cumulatively over the four locations, was the lowest (0%) during the post-monsoon season and the highest (31.6%) during the monsoon season. The WSD prevalence was observed to increase when the latitude was decreased along the west coast of India (from Veraval to Kochi). Out of the three different seasons, the average WSSV copy number was the highest (approximately 10(3) copies μg(-1) shrimp genomic DNA) during the monsoon season. The disease-resistant prevalence, as determined using the developed DNA markers, was found to be the highest in Vasco-da-Gama (59.5%) and the lowest in Kochi (40.9%). The present study suggests better options for the efficient collection of disease-free and disease-resistant brood stocks, which would be a more cost-effective and safer approach toward disease prevention over conventional trends of seed generation from unselected wild brood stock.

  13. Problems and solutions with the design and execution of an epidemiological study of white spot disease in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Corsin, F; Phi, T T; Phuoc, L H; Tinh, N T N; Hao, N V; Mohan, C V; Turnbull, J F; Morgan, K L

    2002-02-14

    White spot disease (WSD) is caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and is an acutely fatal pandemic disease of crustaceans. It has resulted in massive losses to the shrimp-farming industry in Asia and has now spread to the Americas. This paper reports the problems and solutions associated with the design and execution of a longitudinal epidemiological study of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) health on farms practising a crop rotation of rice and shrimp in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The pre-sampling phase of the project involved selecting an appropriate site and sampling variables, obtaining permission and establishing the necessary laboratory and logistic facilities. At the start of the sampling phase, 40 farmers were selected and 32 of these were visited and interviewed. This resulted in the enrolment of only 17 farmers. A further seven had to be enrolled to obtain the maximum number of farmers that could be sampled by the study team. Compliance was enhanced through meetings, regular visits by senior members of the project team and ensuring that visits were punctual and that all information was treated confidentially. The production cycle began in January 1998 and lasted for approximately 5 months. An attempt was made to collect 500 post larvae (PL) before each pond was stocked to assess the health of the batch and to test for the presence of WSSV by one-step PCR. After stocking, the wild crustaceans also were sampled from the pond for PCR analyses. Information was collected on the management practices and samples of water, pond bottom, feed and shrimp collected throughout the production cycle. Water quality variables with predictable diurnal variation were sampled in the morning and afternoon, twice a week. Two months after stocking, the first outbreak of WSD occurred; subsequently, 18 farms conducted a complete emergency harvest due to the actual or perceived presence of a WSD outbreak. Detectable mortalities were reported from 19 farms, and moribund shrimps were

  14. A pH-sensitive heparin-binding sequence from Baculovirus gp64 protein is important for binding to mammalian cells but not to Sf9 insect cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunxiao; Wang, Shu

    2012-01-01

    Binding to heparan sulfate is essential for baculovirus transduction of mammalian cells. Our previous study shows that gp64, the major glycoprotein on the virus surface, binds to heparin in a pH-dependent way, with a stronger binding at pH 6.2 than at 7.4. Using fluorescently labeled peptides, we mapped the pH-dependent heparin-binding sequence of gp64 to a 22-amino-acid region between residues 271 and 292. Binding of this region to the cell surface was also pH dependent, and peptides containing this sequence could efficiently inhibit baculovirus transduction of mammalian cells at pH 6.2. When the heparin-binding peptide was immobilized onto the bead surface to mimic the high local concentration of gp64 on the virus surface, the peptide-coated magnetic beads could efficiently pull down cells expressing heparan sulfate but not cells pretreated with heparinase or cells not expressing heparan sulfate. Interestingly, although this heparin-binding function is essential for baculovirus transduction of mammalian cells, it is dispensable for infection of Sf9 insect cells. Virus infectivity on Sf9 cells was not reduced by the presence of heparin or the identified heparin-binding peptide, even though the peptide could bind to Sf9 cell surface and be efficiently internalized. Thus, our data suggest that, depending on the availability of the target molecules on the cell surface, baculoviruses can use two different methods, electrostatic interaction with heparan sulfate and more specific receptor binding, for cell attachment.

  15. Characterization of N-glycan structures and biofunction of anti-colorectal cancer monoclonal antibody CO17-1A produced in baculovirus-insect cell expression system.

    PubMed

    Song, Mira; Park, Da-Young; Kim, Youngkwan; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Lu, Zhe; Ko, Kinarm; Choo, Young Kug; Han, Yeon Soo; Ahn, Mi-Hyun; Oh, Doo-Byoung; Ko, Kisung

    2010-08-01

    Advantages of the baculovirus insect cell expression system for production of recombinant proteins include high capacity, flexibility, and glycosylation capability. In this study, this expression system was exploited to produce anti-cancer monoclonal antibody (mAb) CO17-1A, which recognizes the antigen GA733. The heavy chain (HC) and light chain (LC) genes of mAb CO17-1A were cloned under the control of P(10) and Polyhedrin promoters in the pFastBac dual vector, respectively. Gene expression cassettes carrying the HC and LC genes were transposed into a bacmid in Escherichia coli (DH10Bac). The transposed bacmid was transfected to Sf9 insect cells to generate baculovirus expressing mAb CO17-1A. Confocal immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses confirmed expression of mAb CO17-1A in baculovirus-infected insect cells. The optimum conditions for mAb expression were evaluated at 24, 48, and 72 h after the virus infection at an optimum virus multiplicity of infection of 1. Expression of mAb CO17-1A in insect cells significantly increased at 72 h after infection. HPLC analysis of glycosylation status revealed that the insect-derived mAb (mAb(I)) CO17-1A had insect specific glycan structures. ELISA showed that the purified mAb(I) from cell culture supernatant specifically bound to SW948 human colorectal cancer cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis showed that, although mAb(I) had insect specific glycan structures that differed from their mammalian counterparts, mAb(I) similarly interacted with CD64 (FcgammaRI) and Fc of IgG, compared to the interactions of mammalian-derived mAb. These results suggest that the baculovirus insect cell expression system is able to express, assemble, and secrete biofunctional full size mAb.

  16. Re-visiting the endogenous capacity for recombinant glycoprotein sialylation by baculovirus-infected Tn-4h and DpN1 cells.

    PubMed

    Hillar, Alexander; Jarvis, Donald L

    2010-10-01

    It was previously reported that Tn-4h and DpN1 cells have the endogenous capacity to efficiently sialylate secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) when infected with a baculovirus expression vector. In contrast, it has been found that lepidopteran insect cell lines that are more widely used as hosts for baculovirus vectors typically fail to sialylate SEAP and other recombinant glycoproteins. Thus, the N-glycan processing capabilities of Tn-4h and DpN1 cells are of potential interest to investigators using the baculovirus expression system for recombinant glycoprotein production. In this study, we experimentally re-assessed the ability of Tn-4h and DpN1 cells to sialylate SEAP with Sf9 and glyco-engineered Sf9 cells (SfSWT-1) as negative and positive controls, respectively. Our results showed that the SEAP purified from SfSWT-1 cells was strongly sialylated and initially indicated that the SEAP purified from Tn-4h cells was weakly sialylated. However, further analyses suggested that the SEAP produced by Tn-4h cells only appeared to be sialylated because it was contaminated with an electrophoretically indistinguishable sialoglycoprotein derived from fetal bovine serum. We subsequently expressed, purified, and analyzed a second recombinant glycoprotein (GST-SfManI) from all four cell lines and found that only the SfSWT-1 cells were able to detectably sialylate this product. Together, these results showed that neither Tn-4h nor DpN1 cells efficiently sialylated SEAP or GST-SfManI when infected by baculovirus expression vectors. Furthermore, they suggested that previous reports of efficient SEAP sialylation by Tn-4h and DpN1 cells probably reflect contamination with a sialylated, co-migrating glycoprotein, perhaps bovine fetuin, derived from the serum used in the insect cell growth medium.

  17. Re-visiting the endogenous capacity for recombinant glycoprotein sialylation by baculovirus-infected Tn-4h and DpN1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Hillar, Alexander; Jarvis, Donald L

    2010-01-01

    It was previously reported that Tn-4h and DpN1 cells have the endogenous capacity to efficiently sialylate secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) when infected with a baculovirus expression vector. In contrast, it has been found that lepidopteran insect cell lines that are more widely used as hosts for baculovirus vectors typically fail to sialylate SEAP and other recombinant glycoproteins. Thus, the N-glycan processing capabilities of Tn-4h and DpN1 cells are of potential interest to investigators using the baculovirus expression system for recombinant glycoprotein production. In this study, we experimentally re-assessed the ability of Tn-4h and DpN1 cells to sialylate SEAP with Sf9 and glyco-engineered Sf9 cells (SfSWT-1) as negative and positive controls, respectively. Our results showed that the SEAP purified from SfSWT-1 cells was strongly sialylated and initially indicated that the SEAP purified from Tn-4h cells was weakly sialylated. However, further analyses suggested that the SEAP produced by Tn-4h cells only appeared to be sialylated because it was contaminated with an electrophoretically indistinguishable sialoglycoprotein derived from fetal bovine serum. We subsequently expressed, purified, and analyzed a second recombinant glycoprotein (GST-SfManI) from all four cell lines and found that only the SfSWT-1 cells were able to detectably sialylate this product. Together, these results showed that neither Tn-4h nor DpN1 cells efficiently sialylated SEAP or GST-SfManI when infected by baculovirus expression vectors. Furthermore, they suggested that previous reports of efficient SEAP sialylation by Tn-4h and DpN1 cells probably reflect contamination with a sialylated, co-migrating glycoprotein, perhaps bovine fetuin, derived from the serum used in the insect cell growth medium. PMID:20574041

  18. The localization of a heterologous displayed antigen in the baculovirus-budded virion determines the type and strength of induced adaptive immune response.

    PubMed

    Tavarone, Eugenia; Molina, Guido Nicolás; Amalfi, Sabrina; Peralta, Andrea; Molinari, Paula; Taboga, Oscar

    2017-02-17

    In the search of strategies of presentation of heterologous antigens to elicit humoral or cellular immune responses that modulate and properly potentiate each type of response, researchers have been studying baculovirus (BV) as vaccine vectors with promising results. For some years, several research groups explored different antigen presentation approaches using the BV AcNPV by expressing polypeptides on the surface of budded virions or by de novo synthesis of heterologous antigens by transduction of mammalian cells. In the case of expression on the surface of budded virions, for example, researchers have expressed polypeptides in peplomers as GP64 glycoprotein fusions or distributed throughout the entire surface by fusions to portions of the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus, VSV. Recently, our group developed the strategy of cross-presentation of antigens by fusions of GP64 to the capsid protein VP39 (capsid display) for the generation of cytotoxic responses. While the different strategies showed to be effective in raising immune responses, the individuality of each analysis makes difficult the comparison of the results. Here, by comparing the different strategies, we show that localization of the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) strongly determined the quality and intensity of the adaptive response to the heterologous antigen. Furthermore, surface display favored humoral responses, whereas capsid display favored cytotoxic responses. Finally, capsid display showed a much more efficient strategy to activate CD8-mediated responses than transduction. The incorporation of adjuvants in baculovirus formulations dramatically diminished the immunostimulatory properties of baculovirus.

  19. Mucosal delivery of ACNPV baculovirus driving expression of the Gal-lectin LC3 fragment confers protection against amoebic liver abscess in hamster.

    PubMed

    Meneses-Ruiz, D M; Laclette, J P; Aguilar-Díaz, H; Hernández-Ruiz, J; Luz-Madrigal, A; Sampieri, A; Vaca, L; Carrero, J C

    2011-01-01

    Mucosal vaccination against amoebiasis using the Gal-lectin of E. histolytica has been proposed as one of the leading strategies for controlling this human disease. However, most mucosal adjuvants used are toxic and the identification of safe delivery systems is necessary. Here, we evaluate the potential of a recombinant Autographa californica baculovirus driving the expression of the LC3 fragment of the Gal-lectin to confer protection against amoebic liver abscess (ALA) in hamsters following oral or nasal immunization. Hamsters immunized by oral route showed complete absence (57.9%) or partial development (21%) of ALA, resulting in some protection in 78.9% of animals when compared with the wild type baculovirus and sham control groups. In contrast, nasal immunization conferred only 21% of protection efficacy. Levels of ALA protection showed lineal correlation with the development of an anti-amoebic cellular immune response evaluated in spleens, but not with the induction of seric IgG anti-amoeba antibodies. These results suggest that baculovirus driving the expression of E. histolytica vaccine candidate antigens is useful for inducing protective cellular and humoral immune responses following oral immunization, and therefore it could be used as a system for mucosal delivery of an anti-amoebic vaccine.

  20. Mucosal Delivery of ACNPV Baculovirus Driving Expression of the Gal-Lectin LC3 Fragment Confers Protection against Amoebic Liver Abscess in Hamster

    PubMed Central

    Meneses-Ruiz, DM; Laclette, JP; Aguilar-Díaz, H; Hernández-Ruiz, J; Luz-Madrigal, A; Sampieri, A; Vaca, L; Carrero, JC

    2011-01-01

    Mucosal vaccination against amoebiasis using the Gal-lectin of E. histolytica has been proposed as one of the leading strategies for controlling this human disease. However, most mucosal adjuvants used are toxic and the identification of safe delivery systems is necessary. Here, we evaluate the potential of a recombinant Autographa californica baculovirus driving the expression of the LC3 fragment of the Gal-lectin to confer protection against amoebic liver abscess (ALA) in hamsters following oral or nasal immunization. Hamsters immunized by oral route showed complete absence (57.9%) or partial development (21%) of ALA, resulting in some protection in 78.9% of animals when compared with the wild type baculovirus and sham control groups. In contrast, nasal immunization conferred only 21% of protection efficacy. Levels of ALA protection showed lineal correlation with the development of an anti-amoebic cellular immune response evaluated in spleens, but not with the induction of seric IgG anti-amoeba antibodies. These results suggest that baculovirus driving the expression of E. histolytica vaccine candidate antigens is useful for inducing protective cellular and humoral immune responses following oral immunization, and therefore it could be used as a system for mucosal delivery of an anti-amoebic vaccine. PMID:22110386

  1. Protective efficacy of a single dose of baculovirus hemagglutinin-based vaccine in chickens and ducks against homologous and heterologous H5N1 virus infections.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Hye; Song, Byung Min; Yum, Jung; Kim, Ji An; Oh, Seung Kyoo; Kim, Hyun Soo; Cho, Gil Jae; Seo, Sang Heui

    2014-11-01

    Outbreaks of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus in poultry and humans are ongoing. Vaccination is an efficient method for prevention of H5N1 infection. Using chickens and ducks, we assessed the efficacy of a vaccine comprising H5N1 hemagglutinin (HA) protein produced in a baculovirus expression system. The immunized chickens and ducks were protected against lethal infection by H5N1 in an antigen dose-dependent manner. Complete protection against homologous challenge and partial protection against heterologous challenge were achieved in chickens immunized with 5 μg HA protein and in ducks immunized with 10 μg HA protein. The IgG antibody subtype was mainly detected in the sera and tissues, including the lungs. The neuraminidase (NA) inhibition assay was negative in immunized chickens and ducks. Our results indicated that the expressed HA protein by baculovirus was immunogenic to both chickens and ducks, and the immunized chickens and ducks were protected from the lethal infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus, though ducks required more HA protein than chickens to be protected. Also, baculovirus HA-vaccinated poultry can be differentiated from infected poultry by NA inhibition assay.

  2. Protective Efficacy of a Single Dose of Baculovirus Hemagglutinin-Based Vaccine in Chickens and Ducks Against Homologous and Heterologous H5N1 Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Hye; Song, Byung Min; Yum, Jung; Kim, Ji An; Oh, Seung Kyoo; Kim, Hyun Soo; Cho, Gil Jae

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Outbreaks of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus in poultry and humans are ongoing. Vaccination is an efficient method for prevention of H5N1 infection. Using chickens and ducks, we assessed the efficacy of a vaccine comprising H5N1 hemagglutinin (HA) protein produced in a baculovirus expression system. The immunized chickens and ducks were protected against lethal infection by H5N1 in an antigen dose-dependent manner. Complete protection against homologous challenge and partial protection against heterologous challenge were achieved in chickens immunized with 5 μg HA protein and in ducks immunized with 10 μg HA protein. The IgG antibody subtype was mainly detected in the sera and tissues, including the lungs. The neuraminidase (NA) inhibition assay was negative in immunized chickens and ducks. Our results indicated that the expressed HA protein by baculovirus was immunogenic to both chickens and ducks, and the immunized chickens and ducks were protected from the lethal infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus, though ducks required more HA protein than chickens to be protected. Also, baculovirus HA-vaccinated poultry can be differentiated from infected poultry by NA inhibition assay. PMID:25211640

  3. Effects of recombinant baculovirus AcMNPV-BmK IT on the formation of early cables and nuclear polymerization of actin in Sf9 cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuejun; Lin, Taotao; Liang, Aihua; Hu, Fengyun

    2016-05-01

    Autographa californica nuclearpoly hedrosis virus (AcMNPV) is one of the most important baculoviridae. However, the application of AcMNPV as a biocontrol agent has been limited. Previously, we engineered Buthus martensii Karsch insect toxin (BmK IT) gene into the genome of AcMNPV. The bioassay data indicated that the recombinant baculovirus AcMNPV-BmK IT significantly enhanced the anti-insect efficacy of the virus. The actin cytoskeleton is the major component beneath the surface of eukaryotic cells. In this report, the effects of AcMNPV-BmK IT on the formation of early cables of actin and nuclear filamentous-actin (F-actin) were studied. The results indicated that these baculovirus induced rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton of host cells during infection and actin might participate in the transportation of baculovirus from cytoplasm to the nuclei. AcMNPV-BmK IT delayed the formation of early cables of actin and nuclear F-actin and accelerated the clearance of actin in the nuclei.

  4. Baculovirus-based nasal drop vaccine confers complete protection against malaria by natural boosting of vaccine-induced antibodies in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shigeto; Araki, Hitomi; Yokomine, Takashi

    2010-02-01

    Blood-stage malaria parasites ablate memory B cells generated by vaccination in mice, resulting in diminishing natural boosting of vaccine-induced antibody responses to infection. Here we show the development of a new vaccine comprising a baculovirus-based Plasmodium yoelii 19-kDa carboxyl terminus of merozoite surface protein 1 (PyMSP1(19)) capable of circumventing the tactics of parasites in a murine model. The baculovirus-based vaccine displayed PyMSP1(19) on the surface of the virus envelope in its native three-dimensional structure. Needle-free intranasal immunization of mice with the baculovirus-based vaccine induced strong systemic humoral immune responses with high titers of PyMSP1(19)-specific antibodies. Most importantly, this vaccine conferred complete protection by natural boosting of vaccine-induced PyMSP1(19)-specific antibody responses shortly after challenge. The protective mechanism is a mixed Th1/Th2-type immunity, which is associated with the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-dependent pathway. The present study offers a novel strategy for the development of malaria blood-stage vaccines capable of naturally boosting vaccine-induced antibody responses to infection.

  5. Using the BacMam Baculovirus System to Study Expression and Function of Recombinant Efflux Drug Transporters in Polarized Epithelial Cell Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Fung, King Leung; Kapoor, Khyati; Pixley, Jessica N.; Talbert, Darrell J.; Kwit, Alexandra D.T.; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily includes several membrane-bound proteins that are critical to drug pharmacokinetics and disposition. Pharmacologic evaluation of these proteins in vitro remains a challenge. In this study, human ABC transporters were expressed in polarized epithelial cell monolayers transduced using the BacMam baculovirus gene transfer system. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of BacMam baculovirus to transduce cells grown in monolayers. In a porcine kidney cell line, LLC-PK1 cells, baculoviral transduction is successful only via the apical side of a polarized monolayer. We observed that recombinant ABC transporters were expressed on the cell surface with post-translational modification. Furthermore, sodium butyrate played a critical role in recombinant protein expression, and preincubation in the presence of tunicamycin or thapsigargin enhanced protein expression. Cells overexpressing human P-glycoprotein (P-gp) showed vectorial basolateral-to-apical transport of [3H]-paclitaxel, which could be reversed by the inhibitor tariquidar. Similarly, coexpression of human P-gp and ABCG2 in LLC-PK1 cells resulted in higher transport of mitoxantrone, which is a substrate for both transporters, than in either P-gp– or ABCG2-expressing cells alone. Taken together, our results indicate that a high level of expression of efflux transporters in a polarized cell monolayer is technically feasible with the BacMam baculovirus system PMID:26622052

  6. High-level expression and purification of secreted forms of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein gD synthesized by baculovirus-infected insect cells.

    PubMed

    Sisk, W P; Bradley, J D; Leipold, R J; Stoltzfus, A M; Ponce de Leon, M; Hilf, M; Peng, C; Cohen, G H; Eisenberg, R J

    1994-02-01

    Two forms of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein gD were recombined into Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (baculovirus) and expressed in infected Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells. Each protein was truncated at residue 306 of mature gD. One form, gD-1(306t), contains the coding sequence of Patton strain herpes simplex virus type 1 gD; the other, gD-1(QAAt), contains three mutations which eliminate all signals for addition of N-linked oligosaccharides. Prior to recombination, each gene was cloned into the baculovirus transfer vector pVT-Bac, which permits insertion of the gene minus its natural signal peptide in frame with the signal peptide of honeybee melittin. As in the case with many other baculovirus transfer vectors, pVT-Bac also contains the promoter for the baculovirus polyhedrin gene and flanking sequences to permit recombination into the polyhedrin site of baculovirus. Each gD gene was engineered to contain codons for five additional histidine residues following histidine at residue 306, to facilitate purification of the secreted protein on nickel-containing resins. Both forms of gD-1 were abundantly expressed and secreted from infected Sf9 cells, reaching a maximum at 96 h postinfection for gD-1(306t) and 72 h postinfection for gD-1(QAAt). Secretion of the latter protein was less efficient than gD-1(306t), possibly because of the absence of N-linked oligosaccharides from gD-1(QAAt). Purification of the two proteins by a combination of immunoaffinity chromatography, nickel-agarose chromatography, and gel filtration yielded products that were > 99% pure, with excellent recovery. We are able to obtain 20 mg of purified gD-1(306t) and 1 to 5 mg of purified gD-1(QAAt) per liter of infected insect cells grown in suspension. Both proteins reacted with monoclonal antibodies to discontinuous epitopes, indicating that they retain native structure. Use of this system for gD expression makes crystallization trials feasible.

  7. Stable replication of the EBNA1/OriP-mediated baculovirus vector and its application to anti-HCV gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Norihiko; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Chang, Myint Oo; Takaku, Hiroshi

    2009-10-02

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the main causes of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Although combined interferon-alpha-ribavirin therapy is effective for about 50% of the patients with HCV, better therapies are needed and preventative vaccines have yet to be developed. Short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) inhibit gene expression by RNA interference. The application of transient shRNA expression is limited, however, due to the inability of the shRNA to replicate in mammalian cells and its inefficient transduction. The duration of transgene (shRNA) expression in mammalian cells can be significantly extended us