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Sample records for monoecious cucumbers ii

  1. Identification and bioinformatics comparison of two novel phosphatases in monoecious and gynoecious cucumber lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena E.; Wojcieszek, Michał; Osipowski, Paweł; Krzywkowski, Tomasz; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    Two Arabidopsis thaliana genes from the PP2C family of protein phosphatases (AtABI1 and AtABI2) were used to find orthologous genes in the Cucumis sativus L. cv. Borszczagowski (cucumber) genome. Cucumber has been used as a model plant for sex expression studies because although it has been defined as a monoecious species, numerous genotypes are known to produce only female, only male, or hermaphroditic flowers. We identified two new orthologous genes of AtABI1 and AtABI2 in the cucumber genome and named them CsABI1 and CsABI2. To determine the relationships between the regulation of CsABI1 and CsABI2 and flower morphogenesis in cucumber, we performed various computational analyses to define the structure of the genes, and to predict regulatory elements and protein motifs in their sequences. We also performed an expression analysis to identify differences in the expression levels of CsABI1 and CsABI2 in vegetative and generative tissues (leaf, shoot apex, and flower buds) of monoecious (B10) and gynoecious (2gg) cucumber lines. We found that the expressions of CsABI1 and CsABI2 differed in male and female floral buds, and correlated these findings with the abscisic acid signaling pathways in male and female flowers.

  2. Acclimation to high CO/sub 2/ in monoecious cucumbers. II. Carbon exchange rates, enzyme activities, and starch and nutrient concentrations. [Cucumis sativus L

    SciTech Connect

    Peet, M.M.; Huber, S.C.; Patterson, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    Carbon exchange capacity of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) germinated and grown in controlled environment chambers at 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ decreased from the vegetative growth stage to the fruiting stage, during which time capacity of plants grown at 350 microliters per liter increased. Carbon exchange rates (CERs) measured under growth conditions during the fruiting period were, in fact, lower in plants grown at 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ than those grown at 350. Progressive decreases in CERs in 1000 microliters per liter plants were associated with decreasing stomatal conductances and activities of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and carbonic anhydrase. Leaf starch concentrations were higher in 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ grown-plants than in 350 microliters per liter grown plants but calcium and nitrogen concentrations were lower, the greatest difference occurring at flowering. Sucrose synthase and sucrose-P-synthase activities were similar in 1000 microliters per liter compared to 350 microliters per liter plants during vegetative growth and flowering but higher in 350 microliters per liter plants at fruiting. The decreased carbon exchange rates observed in this cultivar at 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ could explain the lack of any yield increase when compared with plants grown at 350 microliters per liter.

  3. A novel allele of monoecious (m) locus is responsible for elongated fruit shape and perfect flowers in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), sex determination is controlled primarily by the F (female) and M (monoecy) loci. Homozygous recessive mm plants bear bisexual (perfect) flowers and the fruits are often round shaped. CsACS2 encoding the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase has been shown ...

  4. Acclimation to high CO/sub 2/ in monoecious cucumbers. I. Vegetative and reproductive growth. [Cucmuis sativus L

    SciTech Connect

    Peet, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    CO/sub 2/ concentrations of 1000 compared to 350 microliters per liter in controlled environment chambers did not increase total fruit weight or number in a monoecious cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv Chipper) nor did it increase biomass, leaf area, or relative growth rates beyond the first 16 days after seeding. Average fruit weight was slightly, but not significantly greater in the 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ treatment because fruit numbers were changed more than total weight. Plants grown at 1000 and 350 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ were similar in distribution of dry matter and leaf area between mainstem, axillary, and subaxillary branches. Early flower production was greater in 1000 microliters per liter plants. Subsequent flower numbers were either lower in enriched plants or similar in the two treatments, except for the harvest at fruiting when enriched plants produced many more male flowers than the 350 microliters per liter treatments.

  5. Surveys for Pathogens of Monoecious Hydrilla

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    purpose of the study presented herein was to survey some known populations of monoecious hydrilla and isolate potential fungal pathogens. MATERIALS ...sporulating species herein noted as dematiaceous (dark mycelium ) or moniliaceous (hyaline mycelium ) Ascomycetes (Table 1). The majority of the species

  6. Cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans have consumed fermented cucumber products since before the dawn of civilization. Although cucumber fermentation remains largely a traditional process, it has proven to be a consistently safe process by which raw cucumbers are transformed into high quality pickles that have a long shelf-life ...

  7. Zoospore-derived monoecious gametophytes in Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Pang, Shaojun; Shan, Tifeng; Liu, Feng; Gao, Suqin

    2014-03-01

    The annual life cycle of the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringer comprises a macroscopic diploid sporophyte stage and a microscopic haploid gametophyte stage. In 2011, an unusual zoospore-derived monoecious gametophyte isolate (designated as line 10-5-3) of U. pinnatifida was observed. To understand this phenomenon, a comprehensive screening of eighty-two previously identified male gametophyte cultures, isolated from three randomly selected cultivars (lines 10, 7, and 5) was performed. Thirty-six of the isolates developed both antheridia and oogonia on the same filamentous fragment in a standard gametogenesis test (SGT: 18°C, 60 μmol photons/(m2·s)). Selfing of the monoecious gametophyte or crossing it with a normal male gametophyte both gave rise to morphologically normal sporophytic offspring. However, crossing resulted in a much higher fertilization rate (89.7%). The hybrid and selfed sporophytic offspring were grown to maturity in flow tanks at an ambient temperature of 10-18°C over a period of 69 days. Active zoospores were released from both types of mature sporophylls. The majority of these developed into male gametophytes, while 15%-20% developed into the observed monoecious structures on the same filament. Using PCR amplification it was found that all the monoecious gametophyte isolates and the sporophytic offspring resulting from the selfing and crossing lacked the femalelinked microsatellite sequence (a part of the locus Up-AC-2A8, GenBank accession No. AY738602.1), indicating their male nature. U. pinnatifida is an invasive species in some regions and the implications of the above findings for this species in nature are briefly discussed.

  8. Dioecy, more than monoecy, affects plant spatial genetic structure: the case study of Ficus

    PubMed Central

    Nazareno, Alison G; Alzate-Marin, Ana L; Pereira, Rodrigo Augusto S

    2013-01-01

    In this analysis, we attempt to understand how monoecy and dioecy drive spatial genetic structure (SGS) in plant populations. For this purpose, plants of the genus Ficus were used as a comparative model due to their particular characteristics, including high species diversity, variation in life histories, and sexual systems. One of the main issues we assessed is whether dioecious fig tree populations are more spatially genetically structured than monoecious populations. Using the Sp statistic, which allows for quantitative comparisons among different studies, we compared the extent of SGS between monoecious and dioecious Ficus species. To broaden our conclusions we used published data on an additional 27 monoecious and dioecious plant species. Furthermore, genetic diversity analyses were performed for two monoecious Ficus species using 12 microsatellite markers in order to strengthen our conclusions about SGS. Our results show that dioecy, more than monoecy, significantly contributes to SGS in plant populations. On average, the estimate of Sp was six times higher for dioecious Ficus species than monoecious Ficus species and it was two times higher in dioecious than monoecious plant species. Considering these results, we emphasize that the long-distance pollen dispersal mechanism in monoecious Ficus species seems to be the dominant factor in determining weak spatial genetic structure, high levels of genetic diversity, and lack of inbreeding. Although Ficus constitute a model species to study SGS, a more general comparison encompassing a wider range of plants is required in order to better understand how sexual systems affect genetic structure. PMID:24223285

  9. Chloroplast haplotype variation among monoecious and dioecious populations of Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae) in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Dorken, M E; Barrett, S C H

    2004-09-01

    Aquatic plants commonly have extensive geographical distributions, implying few restrictions to dispersal. Here we investigate the postglacial history of an aquatic plant with contrasting sexual systems (monoecy and dioecy), which are predicted to affect dispersal ability. We examined the distribution of cpDNA haplotypes using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) among 76 populations (32 monoecious, 38 dioecious, two mixed and four undetermined populations) of Sagittaria latifolia sampled throughout eastern North America. We also use these data to investigate the polarity of the evolutionary transition between monoecy and dioecy. Using PCR-RFLP, we identified eight cpDNA haplotypes. All haplotypes were found in unglaciated areas of the species' range, clustered primarily in the southeastern United States, providing evidence that glacial refugia probably occurred in this area. Genetic diversity (hT) was more than six times greater among monoecious compared to dioecious populations. All seven of the haplotypes for which the sexual system could be determined were represented among monoecious populations. In contrast, only four haplotypes were detected in dioecious populations and 94% of individuals from dioecious populations possessed a single haplotype. Monoecious populations possessing this widespread haplotype were restricted to the southern portion of the range, indicating that dioecy probably originated in this region and then spread northwards. The distribution of cpDNA haplotypes in dioecious populations represents a subset of the variation found in monoecious populations, a pattern expected if dioecy has evolved from monoecy in S. latifolia.

  10. [Effects of NO3- stress on photosynthetic rate, photochemical efficiency of PS II and light energy allocation in cucumber seedling leaves].

    PubMed

    Su, Xiu-Rong; Wang, Xiu-Feng; Yang, Feng-Juan; Wei, Min

    2007-07-01

    This paper studied the effects of different NO3- concentration on the photosynthetic rate, photochemical efficiency, and absorbed light energy allocation in cucumber seedling leaves. The results indicated that when the available NO3- concentration in the medium was low (14-98 mmol NO3- x L(-1)), an appropriate supplement of NO3- could enhance the capability of cucumber leaves in capturing light energy, and promote the photosynthesis. However, with further increase of NO3-, the photochemical efficiency of PS II decreased, electron transfer restrained, and net photosynthetic rate as well as the absorbed light energy used in photochemical reaction of PS II decreased. At the same time, the light energy used in antenna heat dissipation increased, while the photochemical efficiency decreased. After treated with 140 and 182 mmol NO3- x L(-1) for 6 days, the photosynthetic rate (P(n)) was decreased by 35% and 78%, respectively, maximal PS II efficiency at open centers in the absence of NPQ (F(v)/F(m)), antenna efficiency at open centers in the presence of NPQ (F(v)'/F(m)'), actual PS II efficiency (phi (PSII ) and photochemical quenching (q(P)) were lower, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was higher, and the deviation from full balance between PS I and PS II (beta/alpha - 1) was improved significantly, compared with the control. The fluctuant ranges of these chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were increased at higher NO3- concentration, compared with those at lower NO3- concentration. The absorbed light energy allocated to the photochemical reaction of PS II (P) was reduced by high light intensity and high NO3- concentration. Meanwhile, the proportion allocated in antenna heat dissipation (D) increased significantly. Antenna heat dissipation was the main way for excessive energy dissipation.

  11. The consequences of monoecy and protogyny for mating in wind-pollinated Carex.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Jannice; Barrett, Spencer C H

    2009-01-01

    Monoecy and protogyny are widespread in wind-pollinated plants and have been interpreted as outcrossing mechanisms, though few studies have investigated their function. Carex, a large genus of anemophilous herbs, is predominantly monoecious and many species are protogynous. We investigated whether monoecy and protogyny limit self-pollination in seven Carex species. We conducted field experiments comparing stigmatic pollen loads and seed set between intact and emasculated stems. We tested for self-compatibility and evaluated pollen limitation of seed set by supplemental pollination. Finally, we measured outcrossing rates in open-pollinated and emasculated stems using allozyme markers. Emasculated stems captured significantly less pollen than open-pollinated stems and set less seed. Pollen deposition during the female-only phase for intact stems was only 12% of the total captured. Outcrossing rates for three species indicated high selfing (range t = 0.03-0.39). Allozyme loci in the remaining species were monomorphic also suggesting high selfing. These results demonstrate that neither monoecy nor protogyny is particularly effective at limiting self-fertilization. Selection for the avoidance of selfing is unlikely to maintain monoecy in many Carex species although protogyny may provide limited opportunities for outcrossing. We propose that geitonogamy in self-compatible wind-pollinated species with unisexual flowers may be widespread and provides reproductive assurance.

  12. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of monoecious hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars reveals its karyotype variations and sex chromosomes constitution.

    PubMed

    Razumova, Olga V; Alexandrov, Oleg S; Divashuk, Mikhail G; Sukhorada, Tatiana I; Karlov, Gennady I

    2016-05-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L., 2n = 20) is a dioecious plant. Sex expression is controlled by an X-to-autosome balance system consisting of the heteromorphic sex chromosomes XY for males and XX for females. Genetically monoecious hemp offers several agronomic advantages compared to the dioecious cultivars that are widely used in hemp cultivation. The male or female origin of monoecious maternal plants is unknown. Additionally, the sex chromosome composition of monoecious hemp forms remains unknown. In this study, we examine the sex chromosome makeup in monoecious hemp using a cytogenetic approach. Eight monoecious and two dioecious cultivars were used. The DNA of 210 monoecious plants was used for PCR analysis with the male-associated markers MADC2 and SCAR323. All monoecious plants showed female amplification patterns. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with the subtelomeric CS-1 probe to chromosomes plates and karyotyping revealed a lack of Y chromosome and presence of XX sex chromosomes in monoecious cultivars with the chromosome number 2n = 20. There was a high level of intra- and intercultivar karyotype variation detected. The results of this study can be used for further analysis of the genetic basis of sex expression in plants.

  13. The incidence and pattern of copollinator diversification in dioecious and monoecious figs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li-Yuan; Machado, Carlos A; Dang, Xiao-Dong; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Yang, Da-Rong; Zhang, Da-Yong; Liao, Wan-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Differences in breeding system are associated with correlated ecological and morphological changes in plants. In Ficus, dioecy and monoecy are strongly associated with different suites of traits (tree height, population density, fruiting frequency, pollinator dispersal ecology). Although approximately 30% of fig species are pollinated by multiple species of fig-pollinating wasps, it has been suggested that copollinators are rare in dioecious figs. Here, we test whether there is a connection between the fig breeding system and copollinator incidence and diversification by conducting a meta-analysis of molecular data from pollinators of 119 fig species that includes new data from 15 Asian fig species. We find that the incidence of copollinators is not significantly different between monoecious and dioecious Ficus. Surprisingly, while all copollinators in dioecious figs are sister taxa, only 32.1% in monoecious figs are sister taxa. We present hypotheses to explain those patterns and discuss their consequences on the evolution of this mutualism. PMID:25495152

  14. Transcriptome profile analysis of floral sex determination in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Qin, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xiuyan; Feng, Zhuo; Du, Yalin

    2010-07-15

    Cucumber has been widely studied as a model for floral sex determination. In this investigation, we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of apical tissue of a gynoecious mutant (Csg-G) and the monoecious wild-type (Csg-M) of cucumber in an attempt to isolate genes involved in sex determination, using the Solexa technology. The profiling analysis revealed numerous changes in gene expression attributable to the mutation, which resulted in the down-regulation of 600 genes and the up-regulation of 143 genes. The Solexa data were confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in biogenesis, transport and organization of cellular component, macromolecular and cellular biosynthesis, localization, establishment of localization, translation and other processes. Furthermore, the expression of some of these genes depended upon the tissue and the developmental stage of the flowers of gynoecious mutant. The results of this study suggest two important concepts, which govern sex determination in cucumber. First, the differential expression of genes involved in plant hormone signaling pathways, such as ACS, Asr1, CsIAA2, CS-AUX1 and TLP, indicate that phytohormones and their crosstalk might play a critical role in the sex determination. Second, the regulation of some transcription factors, including EREBP-9, may also be involved in this developmental process.

  15. Bioinformatic investigation of the role of ubiquitins in cucumber flower morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; Osipowski, Paweł; Wojcieszek, Michał; Kowalczuk, Cezary; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    Three cDNA clones were used to screen cucumber genome in order to find genes and proteins. Functional annotation reveals that they are correlated with ubiquitination pathways. Various bioinformatics tools were used to screen and check protein sequences features such as: the presence of specific domains, transmembrane regions, cleavage site and cellular placement. The computational analysis for promotor region shows many binding sites for transcription factors, which could regulate the expression of genes. In order to check gene expression levels in developing flower buds of monoecious (B10) and gynoecious (2gg) cucumber lines, the real - time PCR technique was applied. The expression was checked for the whole buds and only for the 3rd and 4th whorls of bud when generative organ are form which were obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) technique.

  16. Triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Cladolabes schmeltzii. II. Structure and biological action of cladolosides A1-A6 .

    PubMed

    Silchenko, Alexandra S; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Avilov, Sergey A; Andryjaschenko, Pelageya V; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Yurchenko, Ekaterina A; Dolmatov, Igor Yu; Savchenko, Alexander M; Kalinin, Vladimir I

    2014-10-01

    Six new triterpene glycosides, cladolosides Al-A6 (1-6), have been isolated from the Vietnamese sea cucumber Cladolabes schmeltzii (Cladolabinae, Sclerodactylidae, Dendrochirotida). Structures of the glycosides were elucidated by 2D NMR spectroscopy and MS. All the glycosides have nonsulfated tetrasaccharide linear carbohydrate moieties. Glycoside 6 has a glucose residue as the third monosaccharide unit, while the rest of the compounds comprise a xylose in this postion of the carbohydrate chain. Glycosides 1-6 differ from each other in the structures of their holostane aglycones. Cytotoxic activities of glycosides 1-6 were studied against mouse spleenocytes, along with hemolytic activities against mouse erythrocytes. All the compounds, except cladoloside A5 (5) posessing a hydroxy-group in the aglycone side chain, demonstrated rather strong cytotoxic and hemolytic effects. The most active glycosides were cladolosides A1 (1) and A2 (2) having two O-acetic groups and the xylose residue in the third position of the sugar chain.

  17. The Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene CitACS4 Regulates Monoecy/Andromonoecy in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

    PubMed Central

    Manzano, Susana; Aguado, Encarnación; Martínez, Cecilia; Megías, Zoraida; García, Alicia; Jamilena, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Monoecious and andromonoecious cultivars of watermelon are characterised by the production of male and female flower or male and hermaphrodite flowers, respectively. The segregation analysis in the offspring of crosses between monoecious and andromonoecious lines has demonstrated that this trait is controlled by a single gene pair, being the monoecious allele M semi-dominant to the andromonoecious allele A. The two studied F1 hybrids (MA) had a predominantly monoecious phenotype since both produced not only female flowers, but also bisexual flowers with incomplete stamens, and hermaphrodite flowers with pollen. Given that in other cucurbit species andromonoecy is conferred by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7, CsACS2 and CpACS27A we have cloned and characterised CitACS4, the watermelon gene showing the highest similarity with the formers. CitACS4 encoded for a type ACS type III enzyme that is predominantly expressed in pistillate flowers of watermelon. In the andromonoecious line we have detected a missense mutation in a very conserved residue of CitACS4 (C364W) that cosegregates with the andromonoecious phenotype in two independent F2 populations, concomitantly with a reduction in ethylene production in the floral buds that will develop as hermaphrodite flowers. The gene does not however co-segregates with other sex expression traits regulated by ethylene in this species, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of pistillate flowers per plant. These data indicate that CitAC4 is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the ethylene required for stamen arrest during the development of female flowers. The C364W mutation would reduce the production of ethylene in pistillate floral buds, promoting the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and therefore of monoecy into andromonoecy. PMID:27149159

  18. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of male and female flowers of monoecious Quercus suber.

    PubMed

    Rocheta, Margarida; Sobral, Rómulo; Magalhães, Joana; Amorim, Maria I; Ribeiro, Teresa; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Costa, Maria M R

    2014-01-01

    Monoecious species provide a comprehensive system to study the developmental programs underlying the establishment of female and male organs in unisexual flowers. However, molecular resources for most monoecious non-model species are limited, hampering our ability to study the molecular mechanisms involved in flower development of these species. The objective of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes during the development of male and female flowers of the monoecious species Quercus suber, an economically important Mediterranean tree. Total RNA was extracted from different developmental stages of Q. suber flowers. Non-normalized cDNA libraries of male and female flowers were generated using 454 pyrosequencing technology producing a total of 962,172 high-quality reads with an average length of 264 nucleotides. The assembly of the reads resulted in 14,488 contigs for female libraries and 10,438 contigs for male libraries. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes revealed genes differentially expressed in early and late stages of development of female and male flowers, some of which have been shown to be involved in pollen development, in ovule formation and in flower development of other species with a monoecious, dioecious, or hermaphroditic sexual system. Moreover, we found differentially expressed genes that have not yet been characterized and others that have not been previously shown to be implicated in flower development. This transcriptomic analysis constitutes a major step toward the characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in flower development in a monoecious tree with a potential contribution toward the knowledge of conserved developmental mechanisms in other species.

  19. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of male and female flowers of monoecious Quercus suber

    PubMed Central

    Rocheta, Margarida; Sobral, Rómulo; Magalhães, Joana; Amorim, Maria I.; Ribeiro, Teresa; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Costa, Maria M. R.

    2014-01-01

    Monoecious species provide a comprehensive system to study the developmental programs underlying the establishment of female and male organs in unisexual flowers. However, molecular resources for most monoecious non-model species are limited, hampering our ability to study the molecular mechanisms involved in flower development of these species. The objective of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes during the development of male and female flowers of the monoecious species Quercus suber, an economically important Mediterranean tree. Total RNA was extracted from different developmental stages of Q. suber flowers. Non-normalized cDNA libraries of male and female flowers were generated using 454 pyrosequencing technology producing a total of 962,172 high-quality reads with an average length of 264 nucleotides. The assembly of the reads resulted in 14,488 contigs for female libraries and 10,438 contigs for male libraries. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes revealed genes differentially expressed in early and late stages of development of female and male flowers, some of which have been shown to be involved in pollen development, in ovule formation and in flower development of other species with a monoecious, dioecious, or hermaphroditic sexual system. Moreover, we found differentially expressed genes that have not yet been characterized and others that have not been previously shown to be implicated in flower development. This transcriptomic analysis constitutes a major step toward the characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in flower development in a monoecious tree with a potential contribution toward the knowledge of conserved developmental mechanisms in other species. PMID:25414713

  20. Suitability of Using Introduced Hydrellia spp. for Management of Monoecious Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    diameter by 21-cm height) filled with 50 g wet weight (towel- blotted) hydrilla. Two biotypes of hydrilla were used: dioecious and monoecious. For each... biotype , approximately 3 to 5 g of hydrilla containing 50 Hydrellia pakistanae eggs were added. The eggs were obtained from the ERDC greenhouse-based...STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  1. A GAMYB homologue CsGAMYB1 regulates sex expression of cucumber via an ethylene-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xiaolan; Liu, Bin; Wang, Wenjiao; Liu, Xingwang; Chen, Chunhua; Liu, Xiaofeng; Yang, Sen; Ren, Huazhong

    2014-07-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a typical monoecious vegetable with individual male and female flowers, and has been used as a model plant for sex determination. It is well known that sex differentiation of cucumber can be regulated by phytohormones, such as gibberellic acid (GA) and ethylene. The molecular mechanism of female sex expression modulated by ethylene has been widely understood, but how GA controls male sex expression remains elusive. In hermaphroditic Arabidopsis and rice, GA can regulate stamen and anther development via the transcriptional regulation of GAMYB. Here we characterized a GAMYB homologue CsGAMYB1 in cucumber. We found that CsGAMYB1 is predominantly expressed in male flower buds, where its expression is upregulated by GA3 treatment. CsGAMYB1 protein is localized in the nucleus. CsGAMYB1 can partially rescue stamen development and fertility phenotypes of an Arabidopsis myb33 myb65 double mutant. However, constitutive overexpression of CsGAMYB1 in wild-type Arabidopsis resulted in male sterility, which mimics the effect of GA overdose in flower development. Knockdown of CsGAMYB1 in cucumber decreases the ratio of nodes with male and female flowers, and ethylene is not involved in this process. Our data suggest that CsGAMYB1 regulates sex expression of cucumber via an ethylene-independent pathway.

  2. A GAMYB homologue CsGAMYB1 regulates sex expression of cucumber via an ethylene-independent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xiaolan; Liu, Bin; Wang, Wenjiao; Liu, Xingwang; Chen, Chunhua; Liu, Xiaofeng; Yang, Sen; Ren, Huazhong

    2014-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a typical monoecious vegetable with individual male and female flowers, and has been used as a model plant for sex determination. It is well known that sex differentiation of cucumber can be regulated by phytohormones, such as gibberellic acid (GA) and ethylene. The molecular mechanism of female sex expression modulated by ethylene has been widely understood, but how GA controls male sex expression remains elusive. In hermaphroditic Arabidopsis and rice, GA can regulate stamen and anther development via the transcriptional regulation of GAMYB. Here we characterized a GAMYB homologue CsGAMYB1 in cucumber. We found that CsGAMYB1 is predominantly expressed in male flower buds, where its expression is upregulated by GA3 treatment. CsGAMYB1 protein is localized in the nucleus. CsGAMYB1 can partially rescue stamen development and fertility phenotypes of an Arabidopsis myb33 myb65 double mutant. However, constitutive overexpression of CsGAMYB1 in wild-type Arabidopsis resulted in male sterility, which mimics the effect of GA overdose in flower development. Knockdown of CsGAMYB1 in cucumber decreases the ratio of nodes with male and female flowers, and ethylene is not involved in this process. Our data suggest that CsGAMYB1 regulates sex expression of cucumber via an ethylene-independent pathway. PMID:24790111

  3. Phytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles and the released Zn(II) ion to corn (Zea mays L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) during germination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruichang; Zhang, Haibo; Tu, Chen; Hu, Xuefeng; Li, Lianzhen; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Toxicity of engineered nanoparticles on organisms is of concern worldwide due to their extensive use and unique properties. The impacts of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on seed germination and root elongation of corn (Zea mays L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were investigated in this study. The role of seed coats of corn in the mitigation toxicity of nanoparticles was also evaluated. ZnO NPs (1,000 mg L(-1)) reduced root length of corn and cucumber by 17 % (p < 0.05) and 51 % (p < 0.05), respectively, but exhibited no effects on germination. In comparison with Zn(2+), toxicity of ZnO NPs on the root elongation of corn could be attributed to the nanoparticulate ZnO, while released Zn ion from ZnO could solely contribute to the inhibition of root elongation of cucumber. Zn uptake in corn exposed to ZnO NPs during germination was much higher than that in corn exposed to Zn(2+), whereas Zn uptake in cucumber was significantly correlated with soluble Zn in suspension. It could be inferred that Zn was taken up by corn and cucumber mainly in the form of ZnO NPs and soluble Zn, respectively. Transmission electron microscope confirmed the uptake of ZnO NPs into root of corn. Although isolation of the seed coats might not be the principal factor that achieved avoidance from toxicity on germination, seed coats of corn were found to mitigate the toxicity of ZnO NPs on root elongation and prevent approximately half of the Zn from entering into root and endosperm.

  4. Comparison of electric and growth responses to excision in cucumber and pea seedlings. II. Long-distance effects are caused by the release of xylem pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahlberg, R.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    Excision of a growing stem causes local wound responses, such as membrane depolarization and growth inhibition, as well as effects at larger distances from the cut. In this study, cucumber hypocotyls were excised 100 mm below the hook, so that the growing region was beyond the reach of the wound-induced depolarization (up to 40 mm). Even at such a distance, the cut still caused a considerable and rapid drop in the hypocotyl growth rate. This growth response is not a direct wound response because it does not result from the cut-induced depolarization and because it can be simulated by root pressure manipulation (using a pressure chamber). The results indicate that the growth response resulted from the rapid release of the xylem pressure upon excision. To test this conclusion we measured the xylem pressure by connecting a pressure probe to the cut surface of the stem. Xylem pressure (Px) was found to be +10 to +40 kPa in cucumber hypocotyls and -5 to -10 kPa or lower in pea epicotyls. Excision of the cucumber hypocotyl base led to a rapid drop in Px to negative values, whereas excision in pea led to a rapid rise in Px to ambient (zero) pressure. These fast and opposite Px changes parallel the excision-induced changes in growth rate (GR): a decrease in cucumber and a rise in pea. The sign of the endogenous xylem pressure also determined whether excision induced a propagating depolarization in the form of a slow wave potential (SWP). Under normal circumstances pea seedlings generated an SWP upon excision whereas cucumber seedlings failed to do so. When the Px in cucumber hypocotyls was experimentally inverted to negative values by incubating the cumber roots in solutions of NaCN or n-ethylmaleimide, excision caused a propagating depolarization (SWP). The experiment shows that only hydraulic signals in the form of positive Px steps are converted into propagating electric SWP signals. These propagating depolarizations might be causally linked to systemic 'wound

  5. Hormonal interactions and gene regulation can link monoecy and environmental plasticity to the evolution of dioecy in plants.

    PubMed

    Golenberg, Edward M; West, Nicholas W

    2013-06-01

    Most models for dioecy in flowering plants assume that dioecy arises directly from hermaphroditism through a series of independent feminizing and masculinizing mutations that become chromosomally linked. However, dioecy appears to evolve most frequently through monoecious grades. The major genetic models do not explain the evolution of unisexual flowers in monoecious and submonoecious populations, nor do they account for environmentally induced sexual plasticity. In this review, we explore the roles of environmental stress and hormones on sex determination, and propose a model that can explain the evolution of dioecy through monoecy, and the mechanisms of environmental sex determination. Environmental stresses elicit hormones that allow plants to mediate the negative effects of the stresses. Many of these same hormones are involved in the regulation of floral developmental genes. Recent studies have elucidated the mechanisms whereby these hormones interact and can act as switchpoints in regulatory pathways. Consequently, differential concentrations of plant hormones can regulate whole developmental pathways, providing a mechanism for differential development within isogenic individuals such as seen in monoecious plants. Sex-determining genes in such systems will evolve to generate clusters of coexpressed suites. Coexpression rather than coinheritance of gender-specific genes will define the sexual developmental fate. Therefore, selection for gender type will drive evolution of the regulatory sequences of such genes rather than their synteny. Subsequent mutations to hyper- or hyposensitive alleles within the hormone response pathway can result in segregating dioecious populations. Simultaneously, such developmental systems will remain sensitive to external stimuli that modify hormone responses.

  6. Spontaneous polyploidization in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber breeders and growers have observed off-type plants in hybrid cultivars with darker green leaves with pronounced serration, shorter stature, and misshaped fruits with non-viable seeds. Field-grown plants were identified with these characteristics and flow cytometry revealed that these plants...

  7. Against the odds: complete outcrossing in a monoecious clonal seagrass Posidonia australis (Posidoniaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Elizabeth A.; Gecan, Ilena; Krauss, Siegfried L.; Kendrick, Gary A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Seagrasses are marine, flowering plants with a hydrophilous pollination strategy. In these plants, successful mating requires dispersal of filamentous pollen grains through the water column to receptive stigmas. Approximately 40 % of seagrass species are monoecious, and therefore little pollen movement is required if inbreeding is tolerated. Outcrossing in these species is further impacted by clonality, which is variable, but can be extensive in large, dense meadows. Despite this, little is known about the interaction between clonal structure, genetic diversity and mating systems in hydrophilous taxa. Methods Polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were used to characterize genetic diversity, clonal structure, mating system and realized pollen dispersal in two meadows of the temperate, monoecious seagrass, Posidonia australis, in Cockburn Sound, Western Australia. Key Results Within the two sampled meadows, genetic diversity was moderate among the maternal shoots (R = 0·45 and 0·64) and extremely high in the embryos (R = 0·93–0·97). Both meadows exhibited a highly clumping (or phalanx) structure among clones, with spatial autocorrelation analysis showing significant genetic structure among shoots and embryos up to 10–15 m. Outcrossing rates were not significantly different from one. Pollen dispersal distances inferred from paternity assignment averaged 30·8 and 26·8 m, which was larger than the mean clone size (12·8 and 13·8 m). Conclusions These results suggest highly effective movement of pollen in the water column. Despite strong clonal structure and moderate genetic diversity within meadows, hydrophilous pollination is an effective vector for completely outcrossed offspring. The different localized water conditions at each site (highly exposed conditions vs. weak directional flow) appear to have little influence on the success and pattern of successful pollination in the two meadows. PMID:24812250

  8. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Gynoecious and Monoecious Plants Identifies Regulatory Networks Controlling Sex Determination in Jatropha curcas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mao-Sheng; Pan, Bang-Zhen; Fu, Qiantang; Tao, Yan-Bin; Martínez-Herrera, Jorge; Niu, Longjian; Ni, Jun; Dong, Yuling; Zhao, Mei-Li; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Most germplasms of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas are monoecious. A gynoecious genotype of J. curcas was found, whose male flowers are aborted at early stage of inflorescence development. To investigate the regulatory mechanism of transition from monoecious to gynoecious plants, a comparative transcriptome analysis between gynoecious and monoecious inflorescences were performed. A total of 3,749 genes differentially expressed in two developmental stages of inflorescences were identified. Among them, 32 genes were involved in floral development, and 70 in phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling pathways. Six genes homologous to KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEOBOX GENE 6 (KNAT6), MYC2, SHI-RELATED SEQUENCE 5 (SRS5), SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP), TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1), and TASSELSEED2 (TS2), which control floral development, were considered as candidate regulators that may be involved in sex differentiation in J. curcas. Abscisic acid, auxin, gibberellin, and jasmonate biosynthesis were lower, whereas cytokinin biosynthesis was higher in gynoecious than that in monoecious inflorescences. Moreover, the exogenous application of gibberellic acid (GA3) promoted perianth development in male flowers and partly prevented pistil development in female flowers to generate neutral flowers in gynoecious inflorescences. The arrest of stamen primordium at early development stage probably causes the abortion of male flowers to generate gynoecious individuals. These results suggest that some floral development genes and phytohormone signaling pathways orchestrate the process of sex determination in J. curcas. Our study provides a basic framework for the regulation networks of sex determination in J. curcas and will be helpful for elucidating the evolution of the plant reproductive system.

  9. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Gynoecious and Monoecious Plants Identifies Regulatory Networks Controlling Sex Determination in Jatropha curcas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mao-Sheng; Pan, Bang-Zhen; Fu, Qiantang; Tao, Yan-Bin; Martínez-Herrera, Jorge; Niu, Longjian; Ni, Jun; Dong, Yuling; Zhao, Mei-Li; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Most germplasms of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas are monoecious. A gynoecious genotype of J. curcas was found, whose male flowers are aborted at early stage of inflorescence development. To investigate the regulatory mechanism of transition from monoecious to gynoecious plants, a comparative transcriptome analysis between gynoecious and monoecious inflorescences were performed. A total of 3,749 genes differentially expressed in two developmental stages of inflorescences were identified. Among them, 32 genes were involved in floral development, and 70 in phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling pathways. Six genes homologous to KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEOBOX GENE 6 (KNAT6), MYC2, SHI-RELATED SEQUENCE 5 (SRS5), SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP), TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1), and TASSELSEED2 (TS2), which control floral development, were considered as candidate regulators that may be involved in sex differentiation in J. curcas. Abscisic acid, auxin, gibberellin, and jasmonate biosynthesis were lower, whereas cytokinin biosynthesis was higher in gynoecious than that in monoecious inflorescences. Moreover, the exogenous application of gibberellic acid (GA3) promoted perianth development in male flowers and partly prevented pistil development in female flowers to generate neutral flowers in gynoecious inflorescences. The arrest of stamen primordium at early development stage probably causes the abortion of male flowers to generate gynoecious individuals. These results suggest that some floral development genes and phytohormone signaling pathways orchestrate the process of sex determination in J. curcas. Our study provides a basic framework for the regulation networks of sex determination in J. curcas and will be helpful for elucidating the evolution of the plant reproductive system. PMID:28144243

  10. Experimental defoliation affects male but not female reproductive performance of the tropical monoecious plant Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Narbona, Eduardo; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Monoecious plants have the capacity to allocate resources separately to male and female functions more easily than hermaphrodites. This can be advantageous against environmental stresses such as leaf herbivory. However, studies showing effects of herbivory on male and female functions and on the interaction with the plant's pollinators are limited, particularly in tropical plants. Here, the effects of experimental defoliation were examined in the monoecious shrub Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae), a wasp-pollinated species from a Mexican tropical dry forest. Methods Three defoliation treatments were applied: 0 % (control), 25 % (low) or 75 % (high) of plant leaf area removed. Vegetative (production of new leaves) and reproductive (pistillate and staminate flower production, pollen viability, nectar production, fruit set, and seed set) performance variables, and the abundance and activity of floral visitors were examined. Key Results Defoliated plants overcompensated for tissue loss by producing more new leaves than control plants. Production of staminate flowers gradually decreased with increasing defoliation and the floral sex ratio (staminate : pistillate flowers) was drastically reduced in high-defoliation plants. In contrast, female reproductive performance (pistillate flower production, fruit set and seed set) and pollinator visitation and abundance were not impacted by defoliation. Conclusions The asymmetrical effects of defoliation on male and female traits of C. suberosus may be due to the temporal and spatial flexibility in the allocation of resources deployed by monoecious plants. We posit that this helps to maintain the plant's pollination success in the face of leaf herbivory stress. PMID:20519239

  11. Effective Size and F-Statistics of Subdivided Populations. I. Monoecious Species with Partial Selfing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J.

    1997-01-01

    Assuming discrete generations and autosomal inheritance involving genes that do not affect viability or reproductive ability, we have derived recurrence equations for the inbreeding coefficient and coancestry between individuals within and among subpopulations for a subdivided monoecious population with arbitrary distributions of male and female gametes per family, variable pollen and seed migration rates, and partial selfing. From the equations, formulas for effective size and expressions for F-statistics are obtained. For the special case of a single unsubdivided population, our equations reduce to the simple expressions derived by previous authors. It is shown that population structure (subdivision and migration) is important in determining the inbreeding coefficient and effective size. Failure to recognize internal structures of populations may lead to considerable bias in predicting effective size. Inbreeding coefficient, coancestry between individuals within and among subpopulations accrue at different and variable rates over initial generations before they converge to the same asymptotic rate of increase. For a given population, the smaller the pollen and seed migration rates, the more generations are required to attain the asymptotic rate and the larger the asymptotic effective size. The equations presented herein can be used for the study of evolutionary biology and conservation genetics. PMID:9258687

  12. Influence of inflorescence size on sexual expression and female reproductive success in a monoecious species.

    PubMed

    Torices, R; Méndez, M

    2011-01-01

    Sex allocation theory forecasts that larger plant size may modify the balance in fitness gain in both genders, leading to uneven optimal male and female allocation. This reasoning can be applied to flowers and inflorescences, because the increase in flower or inflorescence size can differentially benefit different gender functions, and thus favour preferential allocation to specific floral structures. We investigated how inflorescence size influenced sexual expression and female reproductive success in the monoecious Tussilago farfara, by measuring patterns of biomass, and N and P allocation. Inflorescences of T. farfara showed broad variation in sex expression and, according to expectations, allocation to different sexual structures showed an allometric pattern. Unexpectedly, two studied populations had a contrasting pattern of sex allocation with an increase in inflorescence size. In a shaded site, larger inflorescences were female-biased and had disproportionately more allocation to attraction structures; while in an open site, larger inflorescences were male-biased. Female reproductive success was higher in larger, showier inflorescences. Surprisingly, male flowers positively influenced female reproductive success. These allometric patterns were not easily interpretable as a result of pollen limitation when naïvely assuming an unequivocal relationship between structure and function for the inflorescence structures. In this and other Asteraceae, where inflorescences are the pollination unit, both male and female flowers can play a role in pollinator attraction.

  13. [Spatial distribution of fig wasps in syconia of two monoecious Ficus sp].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Ji; Li, Guo-Chang; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Yang, Da-Rong

    2012-04-01

    In addition to pollinator fig wasps, there are several non-pollinating fig wasps associated with monoecious Ficus sp. In order to understand how pollinator fig wasps and non-pollinating fig wasps are distributed across the same syconium, the spatial distribution of fig wasps associated with Ficus altissima and F. benjamina were compared using the pedicle lengths of galls containing each species. The results indicate that in Ficus altissima, the average pedicel length of galls containing Eupristina sp. is longer than that containing E. altissima. Average pedicel length of galls containing Sycobia sp., Micranisa ralianga and Sycoscapter sp. two did not show significant difference. The range of pedicel lengths of galls containing Sycobia sp., M. ralianga or Sycoscapter sp. two is narrower than that of galls containing E. altissima, indicating these non-pollinating fig wasps and pollinator have partially separated spatial niches. In F. benjamina, E. koningsbergeri was distributed in galls from the outer layer to inner layer, while most Walkerella sp. were found in outer layer galls, indicating E. koningsbergeri and Walkerella sp. have partially separated spatial niches.

  14. A three-genome phylogeny of Momordica (Cucurbitaceae) suggests seven returns from dioecy to monoecy and recent long-distance dispersal to Asia.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Hanno; Renner, Susanne S

    2010-02-01

    The bitter gourd genus Momordica comprises 47 species in Africa and 12 in Asia and Australia. All have unisexual flowers, and of the African species, 24 are dioecious, 23 monoecious, while all Asian species are dioecious. Maximum likelihood analyses of 6257 aligned nucleotides of plastid, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA obtained for 122 accessions of Momordica and seven outgroups show that Momordica is monophyletic and consists of 11 well-supported clades. Monoecy evolved from dioecy seven times independently, always in Africa and mostly in savanna species with low population densities. Leaky dioecy, with occasional fruit-producing males, occurs in two African species and might be the first step in an evolutionary transition towards monoecy. Dated biogeographic analyses suggest that Momordica originated in tropical Africa and that the Asian species are the result of one long-distance dispersal event about 19million years ago. The pantropical vegetable Momordica charantia is of African, not Asian origin as had previously been suggested.

  15. Syntenic relationships between cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and melon (C. melo L.) chromosomes as revealed by comparative genetic mapping

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (2n = 2 × = 14) and melon, C. melo L. (2n = 2 × = 24) are two important vegetable species in the genus Cucumis (family Cucurbitaceae). Both species have an Asian origin that diverged approximately nine million years ago. Cucumber is believed to have evolved from melon through chromosome fusion, but the details of this process are largely unknown. In this study, comparative genetic mapping between cucumber and melon was conducted to examine syntenic relationships of their chromosomes. Results Using two melon mapping populations, 154 and 127 cucumber SSR markers were added onto previously reported F2- and RIL-based genetic maps, respectively. A consensus melon linkage map was developed through map integration, which contained 401 co-dominant markers in 12 linkage groups including 199 markers derived from the cucumber genome. Syntenic relationships between melon and cucumber chromosomes were inferred based on associations between markers on the consensus melon map and cucumber draft genome scaffolds. It was determined that cucumber Chromosome 7 was syntenic to melon Chromosome I. Cucumber Chromosomes 2 and 6 each contained genomic regions that were syntenic with melon chromosomes III+V+XI and III+VIII+XI, respectively. Likewise, cucumber Chromosomes 1, 3, 4, and 5 each was syntenic with genomic regions of two melon chromosomes previously designated as II+XII, IV+VI, VII+VIII, and IX+X, respectively. However, the marker orders in several syntenic blocks on these consensus linkage maps were not co-linear suggesting that more complicated structural changes beyond simple chromosome fusion events have occurred during the evolution of cucumber. Conclusions Comparative mapping conducted herein supported the hypothesis that cucumber chromosomes may be the result of chromosome fusion from a 24-chromosome progenitor species. Except for a possible inversion, cucumber Chromosome 7 has largely remained intact in the past nine million years

  16. Living on the edge: Fig tree phenology at the northern range limit of monoecious Ficus in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu-Shui; Compton, Stephen G.; Xiao, Hui; Lu, Qian; Chen, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Fig trees (Ficus) are a species-rich group of mainly tropical and subtropical plants that are of ecological importance because of the large numbers of vertebrates that utilise their figs for food. Factors limiting their distributions to warmer regions are still poorly understood, but are likely to include factors linked to their specialised pollination biology, because each Ficus species is dependent on one or a small number of host-specific fig wasps (Agaonidae) for pollination. Adult fig wasps are short-lived, but some species are capable of dispersing extremely long distances to pollinate their hosts. Close to its northern range limit we investigated the phenology of Ficus virens, the monoecious fig tree that reaches furthest north in China. Relatively few trees produced any figs, and very few retained figs throughout the winter. Despite this, new crops produced in spring were pollinated, with seasonally migrant pollinators from plants growing further south the most likely pollen vectors. An inability to initiate new crops at low temperatures may limit the distribution of monoecious fig trees to warmer areas.

  17. Cucumber mosaic virus in Rubus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been reported on red raspberry in Chile, Scotland and the Soviet Union and in Chile on blackberry. Its occurrence in Rubus is rare and seems to cause little damage. Except for one early, unconfirmed report, CMV has not been reported on Rubus in North America. This vir...

  18. [Thermal dissipation pathway in cucumber seedling leaves under hypoxia stress].

    PubMed

    Jia, Yong-xi; Sun, Jin; Wang, Li-ping; Shu, Sheng; Guo, Shi-rong

    2011-03-01

    A water culture experiment was conducted to study the relationship between photosynthetic thermal dissipation and xanthophyll cycle in cucumber seedling leaves under hypoxia stress (the dissolved oxygen concentration in nutrient solution was 0.9-1.1 mg x L(-1)). Under the hypoxia stress, there was a significant decrease in the quantum yield of PS II photochemistry rate (phi(PS II)), net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under saturation light intensity, quanta yield (AQY), and maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), suggesting that the photoinhibition of the seedling leaves was induced. Meanwhile, the thermal dissipation (NPQ) and the allocation of dissipation energy (D) by antenna increased, but the photochemical quenching apparent (q(p)) decreased, suggesting the enhancement of thermal dissipation in cucumber leaves under hypoxia stress. A positive correlation was observed between NPQ and xanthophyll de-epoxidation state (DEPS), and both of them were promoted by ascorbic acid (AsA) and inhibited by 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT), suggesting that xanthophyll cycle was the major pathway of photosynthetic thermal dissipation in cucumber seedling leaves under hypoxia stress.

  19. Suitability of Zucchini and Cucumber Genotypes to Populations of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica

    PubMed Central

    López-Gómez, Manuel; Flor-Peregrín, Elena; Talavera, Miguel; Verdejo-Lucas, Soledad

    2015-01-01

    The host suitability of five zucchini and three cucumber genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita (MiPM26) and M. javanica (Mj05) was determined in pot experiments in a greenhouse. The number of egg masses (EM) did not differ among the genotypes of zucchini or cucumber, but the eggs/plant and reproduction factor (Rf) did slightly. M. incognita MiPM26 showed lower EM, eggs/plant, and Rf than M. javanica Mj05. Examination of the zucchini galls for nematode postinfection development revealed unsuitable conditions for M. incognita MiPM26 as only 22% of the females produced EM compared to 95% of the M. javanica females. As far as cucumber was concerned, 86% of the M. incognita and 99% of the M. javanica females produced EM, respectively. In a second type of experiments, several populations of M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica were tested on zucchini cv. Amalthee and cucumber cv. Dasher II to assess the parasitic variation among species and populations of Meloidogyne. A greater parasitic variation was observed in zucchini than cucumber. Zucchini responded as a poor host for M. incognita MiPM26, MiAL09, and MiAL48, but as a good host for MiAL10 and MiAL15. Intraspecific variation was not observed among the M. javanica or M. arenaria populations. Cucumber was a good host for all the tested populations. Overall, both cucurbits were suitable hosts for Meloidogyne but zucchini was a poorer host than the cucumber. PMID:25861120

  20. Suitability of Zucchini and Cucumber Genotypes to Populations of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica.

    PubMed

    López-Gómez, Manuel; Flor-Peregrín, Elena; Talavera, Miguel; Verdejo-Lucas, Soledad

    2015-03-01

    The host suitability of five zucchini and three cucumber genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita (MiPM26) and M. javanica (Mj05) was determined in pot experiments in a greenhouse. The number of egg masses (EM) did not differ among the genotypes of zucchini or cucumber, but the eggs/plant and reproduction factor (Rf) did slightly. M. incognita MiPM26 showed lower EM, eggs/plant, and Rf than M. javanica Mj05. Examination of the zucchini galls for nematode postinfection development revealed unsuitable conditions for M. incognita MiPM26 as only 22% of the females produced EM compared to 95% of the M. javanica females. As far as cucumber was concerned, 86% of the M. incognita and 99% of the M. javanica females produced EM, respectively. In a second type of experiments, several populations of M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica were tested on zucchini cv. Amalthee and cucumber cv. Dasher II to assess the parasitic variation among species and populations of Meloidogyne. A greater parasitic variation was observed in zucchini than cucumber. Zucchini responded as a poor host for M. incognita MiPM26, MiAL09, and MiAL48, but as a good host for MiAL10 and MiAL15. Intraspecific variation was not observed among the M. javanica or M. arenaria populations. Cucumber was a good host for all the tested populations. Overall, both cucurbits were suitable hosts for Meloidogyne but zucchini was a poorer host than the cucumber.

  1. Gladiolus plants transformed with single-chain variable fragment antibodies to Cucumber mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic plants of Gladiolus ‘Peter Pears’ or ‘Jenny Lee’ were developed that contain single-chain variable fragments (scFv) to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup I or II. The CMV subgroup I heavy and light chain scFv fragments were placed under control of either the duplicated CaMV 35S or suga...

  2. Pentatricopeptide 336 and mitochondrial sorting in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is a unique model plant for organellar genetics because its three genomes show differential transmission: maternal for chloroplast, paternal for mitochondrial and bi-parental for nuclear. A cucumber line has been selected showing a paternally transmitted, strongly mosaic (MSC) phenotype as...

  3. De Novo Assembly of Bitter Gourd Transcriptomes: Gene Expression and Sequence Variations in Gynoecious and Monoecious Lines.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Anjali; Singh, V K; Bharadwaj, D R; Kumar, Rajesh; Rai, Ashutosh; Rai, A K; Mugasimangalam, Raja; Parameswaran, Sriram; Singh, Major; Naik, P S

    2015-01-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a nutritious vegetable crop of Asian origin, used as a medicinal herb in Indian and Chinese traditional medicine. Molecular breeding in bitter gourd is in its infancy, due to limited molecular resources, particularly on functional markers for traits such as gynoecy. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of bitter gourd using Illumina next-generation sequencer, from root, flower buds, stem and leaf samples of gynoecious line (Gy323) and a monoecious line (DRAR1). A total of 65,540 transcripts for Gy323 and 61,490 for DRAR1 were obtained. Comparisons revealed SNP and SSR variations between these lines and, identification of gene classes. Based on available transcripts we identified 80 WRKY transcription factors, several reported in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses; 56 ARF genes which play a pivotal role in auxin-regulated gene expression and development. The data presented will be useful in both functions studies and breeding programs in bitter gourd.

  4. High sequence conservation among cucumber mosaic virus isolates from lily.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y K; Derks, A F; Langeveld, S; Goldbach, R; Prins, M

    2001-08-01

    For classification of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates from ornamental crops of different geographical areas, these were characterized by comparing the nucleotide sequences of RNAs 4 and the encoded coat proteins. Within the ornamental-infecting CMV viruses both subgroups were represented. CMV isolates of Alstroemeria and crocus were classified as subgroup II isolates, whereas 8 other isolates, from lily, gladiolus, amaranthus, larkspur, and lisianthus, were identified as subgroup I members. In general, nucleotide sequence comparisons correlated well with geographic distribution, with one notable exception: the analyzed nucleotide sequences of 5 lily isolates showed remarkably high homology despite different origins.

  5. Heterogeneity in pepper isolates of cucumber mosaic virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez-Alvarado, G.; Kurath, G.; Dodds, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-four cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) field isolates from pepper crops in Cali-fornia were characterized and compared by nucleic acid hybridization subgrouping, virion electrophoresis, and biological effects in several hosts. Isolates, belonging to subgroup I or subgroup II, were found that induced severe symptoms in mechanically inoculated bell pep-pers. Only two isolates, both from subgroup II, were mild. A group of 19 isolates collected from a single field were all in subgroup II and appeared identical by virion electrophoresis, but they exhibited varying degrees of symptom severity in peppers. As a more detailed indicator of heterogeneity, these 19 isolates were examined by RNase protection assays to delect sequence variation in the coat protein gene region of their genomes. The patterns of bands observed were complex and a high degree of genomic heterogeneity was detected between isolates, with no apparent correlation to symptomatology in bell pepper.

  6. First report of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus infecting greenhouse cucumber in Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), in the genus Tobamovirus and family Virgaviridae, is a seed-borne pathogen on cucurbits. In early 2013, serious viral disease outbreaks on greenhouse cucumber crops were experienced by greenhouse vegetable growers in Alberta, Canada. CGMMV was detected i...

  7. Cucumber applied genomics: where we are five years after release of cucumber draft genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first cucumber draft genome (North China fresh market type inbred line 9930) was released in 2009 (Version 1.0). Since then, due to the use of next generation sequencing technologies, seven high-density SSR- or SNP-based cucumber genetic maps have been constructed with mapped loci ranging from 7...

  8. Vinegar residue compost as a growth substrate enhances cucumber resistance against the Fusarium wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum by regulating physiological and biochemical responses.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lu; Du, Nanshan; Yuan, Yinghui; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) is the most severe soil-borne disease attacking cucumber. To assess the positive effects of vinegar residue substrate (VRS) on the growth and incidence of Fusarium wilt on cucumber, we determined the cucumber growth parameters, disease severity, defense-related enzyme and pathogenesis-related (PR) protein activities, and stress-related gene expression levels. In in vitro and pot experiments, we demonstrated the following results: (i) the VRS extract exhibited a higher biocontrol activity than that of peat against FOC, and significantly improved the growth inhibition of FOC, with values of 48.3 %; (ii) in response to a FOC challenge, antioxidant enzymes and the key enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolic activities, as well as the PR protein activities in the roots of cucumber, were significantly increased. Moreover, the activities of these proteins were higher in VRS than in peat; (iii) the expression levels of stress-related genes (including glu, pal, and ethylene receptor) elicited responses to the pathogens inoculated in cucumber leaves; and (iv) the FOC treatment significantly inhibited the growth of cucumber seedlings. Moreover, all of the growth indices of plants grown in VRS were significantly higher than those grown in peat. These results offer a new strategy to control cucumber Fusarium wilt, by upregulating the activity levels of defense-related enzymes and PR proteins and adjusting gene expression levels. They also provide a theoretical basis for VRS applications.

  9. Significant parent-of-origin effects in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is a useful plant to study organellar effects because chloroplasts are maternally and mitochondria paternally transmitted. We produced doubled haploids (DH) from divergent cucumber populations, generated reciprocal crosses in a diallel mating scheme, measured weights of plants approximately...

  10. Molecularly tagged genes and quantitative trait loci in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the release of the cucumber draft genome, significant progress has been made in molecular mapping, tagging or cloning of horticulturally important genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in cucumber, which provides the foundation for practicing marker-assisted selection in cucumber breeding. ...

  11. Pollination of cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae), by the stingless bees Scaptotrigona aff. depilis moure and Nannotrigona testaceicornis Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Meliponini) in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Santos, Solange A B dos; Roselino, Ana C; Bego, Luci R

    2008-01-01

    When for a successful fruit development the fertilization of flowers is necessary, bees can be used as crop-pollinators in greenhouses. In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of the stingless bees Scaptotrigona aff. depilis Moure and Nannotrigona testaceicornis Lepeletier as pollinators of cucumber plants (Cucumus sativus var. caipira) in greenhouses during the Brazilian winter season. The study was conducted in four greenhouses (GH), of which two greenhouses contained bee colonies to ascertain pollination of the cucumber plants (GH I, with S. aff. depilis, GH II, with N. testaceicornis), whereas the other two greenhouses (GH III, GH IV) had no bee colonies and served as control groups. Furthermore, we planted cucumbers in an open field plot (OA) where pollination by any/various visiting insects could occur. Each of the experimental areas measured 87.5 m2. Without pollination (GH III, GH IV), the plants produced a low number of cucumbers, and the fruits were smaller and less heavy than in those experimental areas where pollination occurred. In the open field area, not protected against unfavorable climatic conditions, the plants produced fewer flowers than the plants in the greenhouses. The highest cucumber yield (with the highest amount of perfect fruits) was found in those greenhouses which housed the stingless bees as pollinators (GH I, GH II). Our results demonstrate that stingless bees can be successfully and efficiently used as pollinators of greenhouse cucumbers during the winter season.

  12. The Unique Mitochondrial Genetics of Cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant cells typically contain two organelles, plastids and mitochondria. For the vast majority of plants, both of these organelles are maternally transmitted. Cucumber and melon are exceptions to this rule because the mitochondria are paternally transmitted. These two plants also possess mitochon...

  13. Mapping of Mitochondrial Sorting Locus in Cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In plants, DNA is located in three different places, the chloroplast, mitochondrion, and nucleus. Most angiosperms transmitted their organellar DNA through the egg (mitochondrial DNA), and through the egg and/ or pollen (chloroplast DNA). Transmission of the organellar DNA in cucumber is unique beca...

  14. Cucurbits [Cucumber, melon, pumpkin and squash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The focus of this chapter is on the edible members of the Cucurbitaceae family. The three important food-grade cucurbit genera Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita include the species Citrullus lanatus watermelons), Cucumis melo (cantaloupes and other sweet melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumbers and pick...

  15. Genetic basis of mitochondrial sorting in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regeneration of cucumber from cell cultures produces plants with distinct mosaic (MSC) phenotypes, misshapen cotyledons and leaves, reduced fertility, and low seed germination. The MSC phenotypes are paternally transmitted and associated with deletions or under-representations of specific regions of...

  16. Genetic basis of mitochondrial sorting in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regeneration of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) from cell cultures produces plants with distinct mosaic (MSC) phenotypes, misshapen cotyledons and leaves, reduced fertility, and low seed germination. The MSC phenotypes are paternally transmitted and associated with deletions or under-representations of s...

  17. The mechanisms by which phenanthrene affects the photosynthetic apparatus of cucumber leaves.

    PubMed

    Jin, Liqiao; Che, Xingkai; Zhang, Zishan; Li, Yuting; Gao, Huiyuan; Zhao, Shijie

    2017-02-01

    Phenanthrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that is widely distributed in the environment and seriously affects the growth and development of plants. To clarify the mechanisms of the direct effects of phenanthrene on the plant photosynthetic apparatus, we measured short-term phenanthrene-treated cucumber leaves. Phenanthrene inhibited Rubisco carboxylation activity, decreasing photosynthesis rates (Pn). And phenanthrene inhibited photosystem II (PSII) activity, thereby blocking photosynthetic electron transport. The inhibition of the light and dark reactions decreased the photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) and increased the excitation pressure (1-qP). Under high light, the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) in phenanthrene-treated cucumber leaves decreased significantly, but photosystem I (PSI) activity (Δ I/Io) did not. Phenanthrene also caused a J-point rise in the OJIP curve under high light, which indicated that the acceptor side of PSII QA to QB electron transfer was restricted. This was primarily due to the net degradation of D1 protein, which is caused by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phenanthrene-treated cucumber leaves under high light. This study demonstrated that phenanthrene could directly inhibit photosynthetic electron transport and Rubisco carboxylation activity to decrease net Pn. Under high light, phenanthrene caused the accumulation of ROS, resulting in net increases in D1 protein degradation and consequently causing PSII photoinhibition.

  18. Bacterial contamination of cucumber fruit through adhesion.

    PubMed

    Reina, Laura D; Fleming, Henry P; Breidt, Frederick

    2002-12-01

    In this study, the adhesion of bacteria to fresh cucumber surfaces in aqueous suspension was shown to be dependent on time of incubation, inoculum species and concentration, and temperature. The adhesion of bacteria to the fruit in wash water was less extensive at lower temperatures and shorter exposure times. Various species of bacteria were adsorbed to cucumber surfaces in the following relative order: Salmonella Typhimurium > Staphylococcus aureus > Lactobacillus plantarum > Listeria monocytogenes. Cells were adsorbed at all temperatures tested (5, 15, 25, and 35 degrees C) at levels that depended on incubation time, but the numbers of cells adsorbed were larger at higher incubation temperatures. Levels of adhesion of bacteria to dewaxed fruit were higher for L. monocytogenes and lower for Salmonella Typhimurium, L. plantarum, and S. aureus than were levels of adhesion to waxed fruit.

  19. Unisexual cucumber flowers, sex and sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shu-Nong; Xu, Zhi-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a universal phenomenon in the world of eukaryotes. Attempts have been made to understand regulatory mechanisms for plant sex determination by investigating unisexual flowers. The cucumber plant is one of the model systems for studying how sex determination is regulated by phytohormones. A systematic investigation of the development of unisexual cucumber flowers is summarized here, and it is suggested that the mechanism of the unisexual flower can help us to understand how the process leading to one type of gametogenesis is prevented. Based on these findings, we concluded that the unisexual cucumber flowers is not an issue of sex differentiation, but instead a mechanism for avoiding self-pollination. Sex differentiation is essentially the divergent point(s) leading to heterogametogenesis. On the basis of analyses of sex differentiation in unicellular organisms and animals as well as the core process of plant life cycle, a concept of "sexual reproduction cycle" is proposed for understanding the essential role of sex and a "progressive model" for future investigations of sex differentiation in plants.

  20. Hyperspectral Imaging for Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews the recent progress on hyperspectral imaging technology for defect inspection of pickling cucumbers. The chapter first describes near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for the detection of bruises on pickling cucumbers. The technique showed good detection...

  1. Detection of defect in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to damage due to adverse growth condition, improper harvest timing, and inappropriate harvesting and postharvest handling operations. There are typically five to 10 percentages of harvested pickling cucumbers that are not suitable for pickling and hence should be r...

  2. Exploring Weighty Matters with "Cucumber Soup": An Interdisciplinary Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columba, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Children's literature can play a significant role in integrating math and science concepts into real-world applications. One particularly delightful selection is "Cucumber Soup" (Krudwig, 1998). This book can create a context--making cucumber soup--for weighing and for a real-life on adding fractions. This kind of learning context takes children…

  3. An Integrated Genetic and Cytogenetic Map of the Cucumber Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cucurbitaceae includes important crops as cucumber, melon, watermelon, and squash and pumpkin. However, few genetic and genomic resources are available for plant improvement. Some cucurbit species such as cucumber have a narrow genetic base, which impedes construction of saturated molecular li...

  4. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  5. Genetic diversity, distant phylogenetic relationships and the occurrence of recombination events among cucumber mosaic virus isolates from zucchini in Poland.

    PubMed

    Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Beata; Chrzanowski, Mateusz; Budzyńska, Daria; Rymelska, Natalia; Borodynko-Filas, Natasza

    2017-02-25

    In recent years, the occurrence of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been noted in zucchini crops in Poland. Beside characteristic isolates, which displayed mosaics and chlorosis on infected plants, new necrotic isolates have also been identified. Here, we analysed the molecular variability of 27 isolates of CMV collected from zucchini in various regions of the country. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis based on the genes encoding the coat (CP) and movement (MP) proteins revealed that the Polish isolates belong to two subgroups: IA and II, with the prevalence of subgroup II. New recombinant variants with an IA-MP/II-CP pattern for RNA3 were also detected.

  6. DESCRIPTION OF TWO NEW MONOECIOUS SPECIES OF VOLVOX SECT. VOLVOX (VOLVOCACEAE, CHLOROPHYCEAE), BASED ON COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGY AND MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF CULTURED MATERIAL(1).

    PubMed

    Isaka, Nanako; Kawai-Toyooka, Hiroko; Matsuzaki, Ryo; Nakada, Takashi; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2012-06-01

    Species of Volvox sect. Volvox (Volvocaceae, Chlorophyceae) are unique because they have thick cytoplasmic bridges between somatic cells and spiny-walled zygotes. This section is taxonomically important because the genus Volvox is polyphyletic. However, taxonomic studies of species in Volvox sect. Volvox have not been carried out on cultured material. Here, we performed a taxonomic study of monoecious species of Volvox sect. Volvox based on the comparative morphology and molecular phylogeny of chloroplast genes and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear rDNA using various strains originating from Japan and two preserved strains from the USA. The strains were clearly divided into four species, V. globator L., V. barberi W. Shaw, V. kirkiorum sp. nov., and V. ferrisii sp. nov., on the basis of differences in numbers of zygotes (eggs) in the sexual spheroids, form of zygote wall, and somatic cell shape. Sequences for ITS of nuclear rDNA resolved that the two new species have phylogenetic positions separated from V. globator, V. barberi, V. capensis F. Rich et Pocock, and V. rousseletii G. S. West UTEX 1862 within Volvox sect. Volvox.

  7. Pure Culture Fermentation of Brined Cucumbers1

    PubMed Central

    Etchells, J. L.; Costilow, R. N.; Anderson, T. E.; Bell, T. A.

    1964-01-01

    The relative abilities of Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and several other species of lactic acid bacteria to grow and produce acid in brined cucumbers were evaluated in pure culture fermentations. Such fermentations were made possibly by the use of two techniques, gamma radiation (0.83 to 1.00 Mrad) and hot-water blanching (66 to 80 C for 5 min), designed first to rid the cucumbers of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining, followed by inoculation with the desired lactic acid bacteria. Of the nine species tested, strains of the three common to cucumber fermentations, P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis, grew to the highest populations, and produced the highest levels of brine acidity and the lowest pH values in fermentations at 5.4 to 5.6% NaCl by weight; also, their sequence of active development in fermentations, with the use of a three-species mixture for inoculation, was in the species order just named. This sequence of occurrence was similar to that estimated by others for natural fermentations. The rates of growth and acid production in fermentations with a mixture of P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis increased as the incubation temperature was increased from 21 to 27 to 32 C; however, the maximal populations and acidities attained were essentially the same for fermentations at each temperature. Further, these same three species were found to be the most salt tolerant of those tested; their upper limit for appreciable growth and measurable acid production was about 8% salt, whereas thermophilic species such as L. thermophilus, L. lactis, L. helveticus, L. fermenti, and L. delbrueckii exhibited a much lower salt tolerance, ranging from about 2.5 to 4.0%. However, certain strains of L. delbrueckii grew very rapidly in cucumbers brined at 2.5 to 3.0% salt, and produced sufficient acid in about 30 hr at 48 C to reduce the brine pH from above 7.0 to below 4.0. An inexpensive

  8. Pure Culture Fermentation of Brined Cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Etchells, J L; Costilow, R N; Anderson, T E; Bell, T A

    1964-11-01

    The relative abilities of Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and several other species of lactic acid bacteria to grow and produce acid in brined cucumbers were evaluated in pure culture fermentations. Such fermentations were made possibly by the use of two techniques, gamma radiation (0.83 to 1.00 Mrad) and hot-water blanching (66 to 80 C for 5 min), designed first to rid the cucumbers of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining, followed by inoculation with the desired lactic acid bacteria. Of the nine species tested, strains of the three common to cucumber fermentations, P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis, grew to the highest populations, and produced the highest levels of brine acidity and the lowest pH values in fermentations at 5.4 to 5.6% NaCl by weight; also, their sequence of active development in fermentations, with the use of a three-species mixture for inoculation, was in the species order just named. This sequence of occurrence was similar to that estimated by others for natural fermentations. The rates of growth and acid production in fermentations with a mixture of P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis increased as the incubation temperature was increased from 21 to 27 to 32 C; however, the maximal populations and acidities attained were essentially the same for fermentations at each temperature. Further, these same three species were found to be the most salt tolerant of those tested; their upper limit for appreciable growth and measurable acid production was about 8% salt, whereas thermophilic species such as L. thermophilus, L. lactis, L. helveticus, L. fermenti, and L. delbrueckii exhibited a much lower salt tolerance, ranging from about 2.5 to 4.0%. However, certain strains of L. delbrueckii grew very rapidly in cucumbers brined at 2.5 to 3.0% salt, and produced sufficient acid in about 30 hr at 48 C to reduce the brine pH from above 7.0 to below 4.0. An inexpensive

  9. The entry of cucumber mosaic virus into cucumber xylem is facilitated by co-infection with zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Nobuhara, Shinya; Nishimura, Miho; Ryang, Bo-Song; Naoe, Masaki; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Kosaka, Yoshitaka; Ohki, Satoshi T

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the synergistic effects of co-infection by zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on viral distribution in the vascular tissues of cucumber. Immunohistochemical observations indicated that ZYMV was present in both the phloem and xylem tissues. ZYMV-RNA was detected in both the xylem wash and guttation fluid of ZYMV-inoculated cucumber. Steam treatment at a stem internode indicated that ZYMV enters the xylem vessels and moves through them but does not cause systemic infection in the plant. CMV distribution in singly infected cucumbers was restricted to phloem tissue. By contrast, CMV was detected in the xylem tissue of cotyledons in plants co-infected with CMV and ZYMV. Although both ZYMV-RNA and CMV-RNA were detected in the xylem wash and upper internodes of steam-treated, co-infected cucumbers grown at 24 °C, neither virus was detected in the upper leaves using an ELISA assay. Genetically modified CMV harboring the ZYMV HC-Pro gene was distributed in the xylem and phloem tissues of singly inoculated cucumber cotyledons. These results indicate that the ZYMV HC-Pro gene facilitates CMV entry into the xylem vessels of co-infected cucumbers.

  10. Anticancer activity of sea cucumber triterpene glycosides.

    PubMed

    Aminin, Dmitry L; Menchinskaya, Ekaterina S; Pisliagin, Evgeny A; Silchenko, Alexandra S; Avilov, Sergey A; Kalinin, Vladimir I

    2015-03-06

    Triterpene glycosides are characteristic secondary metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata). They have hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, and other biological activities caused by membranotropic action. These natural products suppress the proliferation of various human tumor cell lines in vitro and, more importantly, intraperitoneal administration in rodents of solutions of some sea cucumber triterpene glycosides significantly reduces both tumor burden and metastasis. The anticancer molecular mechanisms include the induction of tumor cell apoptosis through the activation of intracellular caspase cell death pathways, arrest of the cell cycle at S or G2/M phases, influence on nuclear factors, NF-κB, and up-down regulation of certain cellular receptors and enzymes participating in cancerogenesis, such as EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), Akt (protein kinase B), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases), FAK (focal adhesion kinase), MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) and others. Administration of some glycosides leads to a reduction of cancer cell adhesion, suppression of cell migration and tube formation in those cells, suppression of angiogenesis, inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor invasion. As a result, marked growth inhibition of tumors occurs in vitro and in vivo. Some holothurian triterpene glycosides have the potential to be used as P-gp mediated MDR reversal agents in combined therapy with standard cytostatics.

  11. Anticancer Activity of Sea Cucumber Triterpene Glycosides

    PubMed Central

    Aminin, Dmitry L.; Menchinskaya, Ekaterina S.; Pisliagin, Evgeny A.; Silchenko, Alexandra S.; Avilov, Sergey A.; Kalinin, Vladimir I.

    2015-01-01

    Triterpene glycosides are characteristic secondary metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata). They have hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, and other biological activities caused by membranotropic action. These natural products suppress the proliferation of various human tumor cell lines in vitro and, more importantly, intraperitoneal administration in rodents of solutions of some sea cucumber triterpene glycosides significantly reduces both tumor burden and metastasis. The anticancer molecular mechanisms include the induction of tumor cell apoptosis through the activation of intracellular caspase cell death pathways, arrest of the cell cycle at S or G2/M phases, influence on nuclear factors, NF-κB, and up-down regulation of certain cellular receptors and enzymes participating in cancerogenesis, such as EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), Akt (protein kinase B), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases), FAK (focal adhesion kinase), MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) and others. Administration of some glycosides leads to a reduction of cancer cell adhesion, suppression of cell migration and tube formation in those cells, suppression of angiogenesis, inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor invasion. As a result, marked growth inhibition of tumors occurs in vitro and in vivo. Some holothurian triterpene glycosides have the potential to be used as P-gp mediated MDR reversal agents in combined therapy with standard cytostatics. PMID:25756523

  12. Cucumber disease diagnosis using multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jie; Li, Hongning; Shi, Junsheng; Yang, Weiping; Liao, Ningfang

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, multispectral imaging technique for plant diseases diagnosis is presented. Firstly, multispectral imaging system is designed. This system utilizes 15 narrow-band filters, a panchromatic band, a monochrome CCD camera, and standard illumination observing environment. The spectral reflectance and color of 8 Macbeth color patches are reproduced between 400nm and 700nm in the process. In addition, spectral reflectance angle and color difference is obtained through measurements and analysis of color patches using spectrometer and multispectral imaging system. The result shows that 16 narrow-bands multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in spectral reflectance and color reproduction. Secondly, a horticultural plant, cucumber' familiar disease are the researching objects. 210 multispectral samples are obtained by multispectral and are classified by BP artificial neural network. The classification accuracies of Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Corynespora cassiicola, Pseudoperonospora cubensis are 100%. Trichothecium roseum and Cladosporium cucumerinum are 96.67% and 90.00%. It is confirmed that the multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in the cucumber diseases diagnosis.

  13. Patterns and sources of variation in pollen deposition and pollen tube formation in flowers of the endemic monoecious shrub Cnidoscolus souzae (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Arceo-Gómez, G; Alonso, C; Abdala-Roberts, L; Parra-Tabla, V

    2016-07-01

    Pollen deposition and pollen tube formation are key components of angiosperm reproduction but intraspecific variation in these has rarely been quantified. Documenting and partitioning (populations, plants and flowers) natural variation in these two aspects of plant reproduction can help uncover spatial mosaics of reproductive success and underlying causes. In this study, we assess variation in pollen deposition and pollen tube formation for the endemic monoecious shrub Cnidoscolus souzae throughout its distribution range in Mexico, and determine how this variation is structured among populations, plants and flowers. We also infer the relative importance of pollen quantity and quality in determining pollination success in this species. While we found no evidence suggesting that pollen receipt limits C. souzae reproduction across 19 populations, we did find extensive variation in pollen load size and pollen tube number per flower. Total variation in pollen receipt and pollen tube number was mostly explained by intra-individual and among-population variance. Furthermore, pollen load size had a stronger effect on the number of pollen tubes at the base of the style than pollen germination rate, suggesting that pollen quantity may be more important than quality for pollen tube success in C. souzae. Our results suggest that both small within-plant flower differences and broad-scale differences in community attributes can play an important role in determining pollination success. We emphasise the need to evaluate patterns and sources of variation in pollen deposition and pollen tube formation as a first step in understanding the causes of variation in pollination success over broad spatial scales.

  14. Reducing whiteflies on cucumber using intercropping with less preferred vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of four less preferred vegetables – celery, asparagus lettuce, Malabar spinach, and edible amaranth – were investigated for suppression of two biotypes of sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitaceae). Int...

  15. Curcurbita pepo subspecies delineates striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) preference

    PubMed Central

    Brzozowski, L; Leckie, B M; Gardner, J; Hoffmann, M P; Mazourek, M

    2016-01-01

    The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C. pepo. Our results indicate preference contrasts between the two agriculturally relevant subspecies: C. pepo subsp. texana and C. pepo subsp. pepo. Plants of C. pepo subsp. pepo were more strongly preferred than C. pepo subsp. texana plants. This structure of beetle preference in C. pepo will allow plant breeders and entomologists to better focus research efforts on host plant non-preference to control striped cucumber beetles. PMID:27347423

  16. Effects of glycoalkaloids from Solanum plants on cucumber root growth.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fang; Li, Shengyu; He, Dajun; Cao, Gang; Ni, Xiuzhen; Tai, Guihua; Zhou, Yifa; Wang, Deli

    2010-09-01

    The phytotoxic effect of four glycoalkaloids and two 6-O-sulfated glycoalkaloid derivatives were evaluated by testing their inhibition of cucumber root growth. The bioassays were performed using both compounds singly and in equimolar mixtures, respectively. Cucumber root growth was reduced by chaconine (C), solanine (S), solamargine (SM) and solasonine (SS) with IC(50) values of 260 (C), 380 (S), 530 (SM), and 610 microM (SS). The inhibitory effect was concentration-dependent. 6-O-sulfated chaconine and 6-O-sulfated solamargine had no inhibitory effects, which indicated that the carbohydrate moieties play an important role in inhibiting cucumber root growth. The equimolar mixtures of paired glycoalkaloids, both chaconine/solanine and solamargine/solasonine, produced synergistic effects on inhibition of cucumber root growth. By contrast, mixtures of unpaired glycoalkaloids from different plants had no obviously synergistic effects. The growth inhibited plant roots lacked hairs, which implied that inhibition was perhaps at the level of root hair growth.

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Lv, Jing; Qi, Jianjian; Shi, Qiuxiang; Shen, Di; Zhang, Shengping; Shao, Guangjin; Li, Hang; Sun, Zhanyong; Weng, Yiqun; Shang, Yi; Gu, Xingfang; Li, Xixiang; Zhu, Xiaoguo; Zhang, Jinzhe; van Treuren, Robbert; van Dooijeweert, Willem; Zhang, Zhonghua; Huang, Sanwen

    2012-01-01

    Knowing the extent and structure of genetic variation in germplasm collections is essential for the conservation and utilization of biodiversity in cultivated plants. Cucumber is the fourth most important vegetable crop worldwide and is a model system for other Cucurbitaceae, a family that also includes melon, watermelon, pumpkin and squash. Previous isozyme studies revealed a low genetic diversity in cucumber, but detailed insights into the crop's genetic structure and diversity are largely missing. We have fingerprinted 3,342 accessions from the Chinese, Dutch and U.S. cucumber collections with 23 highly polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers evenly distributed in the genome. The data reveal three distinct populations, largely corresponding to three geographic regions. Population 1 corresponds to germplasm from China, except for the unique semi-wild landraces found in Xishuangbanna in Southwest China and East Asia; population 2 to Europe, America, and Central and West Asia; and population 3 to India and Xishuangbanna. Admixtures were also detected, reflecting hybridization and migration events between the populations. The genetic background of the Indian germplasm is heterogeneous, indicating that the Indian cucumbers maintain a large proportion of the genetic diversity and that only a small fraction was introduced to other parts of the world. Subsequently, we defined a core collection consisting of 115 accessions and capturing over 77% of the SSR alleles. Insight into the genetic structure of cucumber will help developing appropriate conservation strategies and provides a basis for population-level genome sequencing in cucumber.

  18. A case study of human migration and the sea cucumber crisis in the Galapagos Islands.

    PubMed

    Bremner, Jason; Perez, Jaime

    2002-06-01

    The sea cucumber fishing crisis in Galapagos is an example of the potential consequences of rapid migration, growing economic competition, and weak regulatory mechanisms. In a short period of time sea cucumber fishing has become the most inflammatory issue in the Galapagos. The key factors that allowed for the efficient exploitation of the new resource were not the fishermen themselves but rather the new fishing techniques and access to credit and markets. This suggests that the annual sea cucumber crisis is due to factors more complex than simply more fishermen generating greater sea cucumber catches. This paper examines census data and fisher registries to analyze population growth in the islands. A public opinion survey is used to determine the population's attitudes toward sea cucumber fishing and regulations. Qualitative interviews explore the history of the sea cucumber boom. Information from the sea cucumber monitoring program provides estimates for the annual sea cucumber catches.

  19. Diallel crossing among doubled haploids of cucumber reveals significant reciprocal-cross differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is an excellent plant for studying organellar effects on phenotypes because chloroplasts show maternal and mitochondria paternal transmission. We produced doubled haploids (DH) from divergent cucumber populations, generated reciprocal crosses in a diallel mating scheme, measured fresh and d...

  20. QTL mapping of parthenocarpic fruit set in North American processing cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parthenocarpy is a desirable trait with potential for increasing yield and quality in US processing cucumber production. Many successful parthenocarpic fresh market cucumber varieties have been developed, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms for parthenocarpic expression in cucumber is largely u...

  1. Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Generation of waste water containing sodium chloride from cucumber fermentation tank yards could be eliminated if cucumbers were fermented in brines that did not contain this salt. To determine if this is feasible, cucumbers were fermented in brines that contained only calcium chloride to maintain f...

  2. Development of automated inspection technology for quality grading of pickling cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to external and internal damage during growth, harvest, transport, and postharvest handling. It is estimated that approximately 5-10% of harvested pickling cucumbers fall into the defect category. Pickling cucumber quality defect can occur in the form of soft or wa...

  3. Fine mapping of short hypocotyl locus in semi-wild Xishuangbanna cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cucumber, hypocotyl length is a useful trait in establishing strong seedlings before transplanting or grafting. The semi-wild Xishuangbanna cucumber (XIS) exhibits very short hypocotyl as compared with most cultivated cucumbers. In this study, we investigated the inheritance of short hypocotyl wi...

  4. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using a hyperspectral reflectance/transmittance imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled cucumber products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, whic...

  5. De novo assembly of a draft genome for Cucumis hystrix, the closest relative of cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumis hystrix (2n = 2x = 24, HH) is the only known species that is cross-compatible with cucumber and has a great potential for cucumber improvement, To facilitate introgression of C. hystrix chromatins into cucumber genetic background through development of introgression library, we sequenced two...

  6. Water Status Related Root-to-Shoot Communication Regulates the Chilling Tolerance of Shoot in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2015-10-16

    Although root-to-shoot communication has been intensively investigated in plants under drought, few studies have examined root-to-shoot communication under chilling. Here we explored whether root-to-shoot communication contributes to the chilling-light tolerance of cucumber shoots and clarified the key signal involves in this communication. After leaf discs chilling-light treatment, the photoinhibitions of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) were similar in leaf discs of two cucumber varieties (JY-3 and JC-4). When the whole plants, including roots, were chilled under light, the photosynthetic performances in JC-4 leaves decreased more seriously than that in JY-3 leaves. However, when the water status of leaves was maintained by warming roots or floating the attached leaves on water, the PSII activity and amount of PSI in the leaves of the two varieties were similar after chilling-light treatment. In addition, the differences of PSII activities and amount of PSI between the two varieties under whole plant chilling-light treatment were independent of ABA pretreatment. Above results indicate that (1) the better water status in leaves under chilling contributes to the higher chilling tolerance of JY-3; (2) the water status, rather than an ABA signal, dominates root-to-shoot communication under chilling and the chilling tolerance of cucumber shoot.

  7. Effects of nitrogen form on growth, CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthetic electron allocation in cucumber and rice plants*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan-hong; Zhang, Yi-li; Wang, Xue-min; Cui, Jin-xia; Xia, Xiao-jian; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jing-quan

    2011-01-01

    Cucumber and rice plants with varying ammonium (NH4 +) sensitivities were used to examine the effects of different nitrogen (N) sources on gas exchange, chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence quenching, and photosynthetic electron allocation. Compared to nitrate (NO3 −)-grown plants, cucumber plants grown under NH4 +-nutrition showed decreased plant growth, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular carbon dioxide (CO2) level, transpiration rate, maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, and O2-independent alternative electron flux, and increased O2-dependent alternative electron flux. However, the N source had little effect on gas exchange, Chl a fluorescence parameters, and photosynthetic electron allocation in rice plants, except that NH4 +-grown plants had a higher O2-independent alternative electron flux than NO3 −-grown plants. NO3 − reduction activity was rarely detected in leaves of NH4 +-grown cucumber plants, but was high in NH4 +-grown rice plants. These results demonstrate that significant amounts of photosynthetic electron transport were coupled to NO3 − assimilation, an effect more significant in NO3 −-grown plants than in NH4 +-grown plants. Meanwhile, NH4 +-tolerant plants exhibited a higher demand for the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for NO3 − reduction, regardless of the N form supplied, while NH4 +-sensitive plants had a high water-water cycle activity when NH4 + was supplied as the sole N source. PMID:21265044

  8. [Growth and development of cucumber Cucumis sativus L. in the prereproductive period under long photoperiods].

    PubMed

    Shibaeva, T G; Markovskaia, E F

    2013-01-01

    When plants are grown in a greenhouse, an increase in the photoperiod, as well as continuous lighting, is one of the ways to improve plant productivity and energy savings. However, a number of crops under long photoperiods develop signs of light damage to leaves, and productivity is reduced. We studied the effect of the photoperiod (8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h) and photon flux densities (60, 120, and 160 micromol/m2 with PAR) on cucumber plants Cucumis sativus L. in a prereproductive period. We show that the response of the cucumber plants to a photoperiod duration of more than 20 h, including continuous lighting, depending on the plant age and lighting conditions, may include epinastic reaction of the leaves, activation of a mechanism of nonphotochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, and/or reversible photoinhibition of a reaction center of photosystem II, development of reversible chlorosis, reduction of a light-harvesting complex, and increase in the content of carotenoids. Reaction of immature and virginile plants to long photoperiods was different, which highlights the need for experimental separation of the prereproductive period of development in terms of age states and consideration of this when preparing programs of cultivation.

  9. A review of the immune molecules in the sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhuang; Li, Hui; Wang, Xiuli; Li, Xia; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jing; Liu, Cenjie

    2015-05-01

    It is very important to identify and characterize the immune-related genes that respond to pathogens. Until recently, only some of the immune-related genes in sea cucumbers had been characterized. Their expression patterns after pathogen challenges have been analyzed via expressed sequence tag libraries, microarray studies and proteomic approaches. These genes include lectins, antimicrobial peptides, lysozyme, enzymes, clotting protein, pattern recognition proteins, Toll receptors, complement C3 and other humoral factors that might participate in the innate immune system of sea cucumbers. Although the participation of some of these immune molecules in the sea cucumber's innate immune defense against invading pathogens has been demonstrated, the functions of many of the molecules remain unclear. This review focuses on the discovery and functional characterization of the immune-related molecules from the sea cucumber for the first time and provides new insights into the immune mechanisms of the sea cucumber, which opens new possibilities for developing drugs for novel anti-bacterial and antiviral applications in fisheries.

  10. Triterpene glycosides of sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) as taxonomic markers.

    PubMed

    Kalinin, Vladimir I; Avilov, Sergey A; Silchenko, Alexandra S; Stonik, Valentin A

    2015-01-01

    Triterpene glycosides are characteristic metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata). The majority of the glycosides belong to the holostane type {lanostane derivatives with an 18(20)-lactone}. Carbohydrate chains of these glycosides contain xylose, glucose, quinovose, 3-O-methylglucose, and, rarely, 3-O-methylxylose, 3-O-methylglucuronic acid, 3-O-methylquinovose, and 6-O-acetyl-glucose. The glycosides are specific for genera, groups of genera and even for species. The advantages and problems in the use of triterpene glycosides as taxonomic markers in the systematics of sea cucumbers are discussed.

  11. Gravity-regulated formation of the peg in developing cucumber seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, H.; Scott, T. K.

    1994-01-01

    It has been proposed that peg formation in the vascular transition region (TR zone) between the hypocotyl and the root in Cucurbitaceae seedlings is a gravimorphogenetic phenomenon. Initiation of the peg became visible 36 h after imbibition when cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Burpee Hybrid II) seeds were germinated in a horizontal position at 24 degrees C in the dark. Simultaneously, sedimented amyloplasts (putative statoliths) were apparent in the sheath cells surrounding the vascular strands, and in the cortical cells immediately adjacent to them, in the TR zone. In contrast, the other cortical cells, some of which were destined to develop into the peg, contained amyloplasts which were not sedimented. These results suggest that the graviperception mechanism for peg formation may be like that of statoliths in shoot gravitropism. By 48 h following imbibition, the cells of the TR zone still had sedimented amyloplasts but had lost their sensitivity to gravity, possibly because of their maturation.

  12. Survival of Salmonella Newport on Whole and Fresh-Cut Cucumbers Treated with Lytic Bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manan; Dashiell, Gwendolyn; Handy, Eric T; East, Cheryl; Reynnells, Russell; White, Chanelle; Nyarko, Esmond; Micallef, Shirley; Hashem, Fawzy; Millner, Patricia D

    2017-04-01

    Salmonella enterica associated with consumption of cucumbers ( Cucumis sativus ) has led to foodborne outbreaks in the United States. Whole and fresh-cut cucumbers are susceptible to S. enterica contamination during growing, harvesting, and postharvest handling. The application of lytic bacteriophages specific for S. enterica was evaluated to reduce Salmonella populations on cucumbers. Unwaxed cucumbers ('Lisboa' variety, or mini-cucumbers purchased at retail) were inoculated with Salmonella Newport (5 log CFU per cucumber) and were sprayed with 3.2 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (control) or 10 log PFU/ml of SalmoFresh, a Salmonella-specific bacteriophage preparation (phage), to deliver 4.76 × 10(7) PFU/cm(2). Cucumbers were stored at 10 or 22°C for 7 days. Inoculated mini-cucumbers were sliced with a sterile knife to investigate Salmonella transfer to mesocarp, and cut pieces were stored at 4°C for 2 days. Populations (log CFU per cucumber) of Salmonella Newport on phage-treated whole cucumbers were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller (2.44 ± 0.94) than on control-treated cucumbers (4.27 ± 0.37) on day 0. Populations on phage-treated cucumbers stored at 10°C were 1.72 ± 0.77 and 1.56 ± 0.46, which were significantly lower than those on control-treated cucumbers (3.20 ± 0.48 and 2.33 ± 0.25) on days 1 and 4, respectively. Between days 0 and 1, populations on control-treated cucumbers stored at 10 and 22°C declined by 1.07 and 2.47 log CFU per cucumber, respectively. At 22°C, Salmonella Newport populations declined by 2.37 log CFU per cucumber between days 0 and 1. Phage application to whole cucumbers before slicing did not reduce the transfer of Salmonella Newport to fresh-cut slices. Lytic phage application may be a potential intervention to reduce Salmonella populations on whole cucumbers.

  13. Functional compatibility in cucumber mycorrhizas in terms of plant growth performance and foliar nutrient composition.

    PubMed

    Ravnskov, S; Larsen, J

    2016-09-01

    Functional compatibility in cucumber mycorrhizas in terms of plant and fungal growth, and foliar nutrient composition from all possible combinations of six cucumber varieties and three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was evaluated. Measurements of foliar nutrient composition included N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu. Growth of AM fungi was measured in terms of root colonisation, as examined with microscopy and the AM fungus biomarker fatty acid 16:1ω5 from both phospholipids and neutral lipids. Different responses of plant growth and foliar nutrient profiles were observed for the different AM symbioses examined. The AM fungus Claroideoglomus claroideum caused growth depression in association with four out of six cucumber varieties; Rhizophagus irregularis caused growth promotion in one of six cucumber varieties; whereas Funneliformis mosseae had no effect on the growth performance of any of the cucumber varieties examined. All three AM fungi markedly altered host plant shoot nutrient composition, with the strongest contrast observed between cucumber-R. irregularis symbioses and non-mycorrhizal cucumber plants, independent of cucumber variety. On the other hand, AM fungal growth in roots differed between the three AM fungi, but was unaffected by host genotype. Strong build-up of storage lipids was observed for R. irregularis, which was more moderate in the two other AM fungi. In conclusion, strong differential responses of cucumber varieties to inoculation with different AM fungi in terms of growth and shoot nutrient composition revealed high functional diversity in AM symbioses in cucumber plants.

  14. Effects of wounding on cytokinin activity in cucumber cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Crane, K E; Ross, C W

    1986-12-01

    Three known physiological responses to exogenous cytokinins were measured in wounded and nonwounded cotyledons from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv Marketer) seedlings grown in darkness. Enhanced cell division, chlorophyll formation, and cotyledon expansion were detected in wounded cotyledons. The data suggest that wounding enhances endogenous cytokinin activity.

  15. Neiella marinum gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from sea cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel strain, designated J221**T, was isolated from the intestine of a sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, collected from earthen ponds in Qingdao, China. The strain is Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, aerobic, and rod-shaped cell. Growth of strain J221T was observed at temperatures between 10...

  16. The Genome of the Cucumber, Cucumis Sativus L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA sequen...

  17. Suppression of cucurbit scab on cucumber leaves by photodynamic dyes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to test the ability of the photodynamic dyes bengal rose, toluidine blue, and methylene blue, to protect systemically cucumber plants from cucurbit scab. At the stage of one true leaf, water or aqueous solutions of the dyes were applied to the leaf as droplets. When the se...

  18. Fine mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria (psm) in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is unique among plants because its mitochondrial DNA shows paternal transmission, is one of the largest known among all plants, due largely to short repetitive DNA motifs, and undergoes recombination among repeats to produce rearranged mitochondrial DNAs associated with strongly mosaic (MSC...

  19. Fine mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria (Psm) in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is unique among plants because its mitochondrial DNA shows paternal transmission, is one of the largest known among all plants, due largely to short repetitive DNA motifs, and recombination among these repeats produces rearranged mitochondrial DNAs associated with strongly mosaic (MSC) phen...

  20. Genome Wide Characterization of Simple Sequence Repeats in Cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The whole genome sequence of the cucumber cultivar Gy14 was recently sequenced at 15× coverage with the Roche 454 Titanium technology. The microsatellite DNA sequences (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) in the assembled scaffolds were computationally explored and characterized. A total of 112,073 SSRs ...

  1. Characteristics of spoilage-associated secondary cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Secondary fermentations during the bulk storage of fermented cucumbers can result in spoilage that causes a total loss of the fermented product, at an estimated cost of $6,000 to $15,000 per affected tank. Previous research has suggested that such fermentations are the result of microbiological util...

  2. In vitro auxin binding to cellular membranes of cucumber fruits.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, K R; Mudge, K W; Poovaiah, B W

    1981-04-01

    Specific binding of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to crude membrane preparations from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was demonstrated. This in vitro binding had a pH optimum of 3.75 and an equilibrium dissociation constant of 10 to 20 micromolar with 1250 picomoles binding sites per gram fresh weight. The NAA-binding sites were pronase sensitive. The supernatant from the fruit partially inhibited the in vitro NAA binding to fruit membranes. NAA, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 3-indoleacetic acid, 2-4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, which are reported to be very good inducers of parthenocarpy in cucumber, showed a high degree of specific binding to cucumber fruit membranes. In comparison, 2-naphthaleneacetic acid and indolepropionic acid, which are reported to be very weak auxins in corn coleoptile, pea stem, and strawberry fruit growth bioassays, did not bind efficiently to cucumber fruit membranes. In vitro binding studies with fruit membranes suggest that auxin stimulated fruit growth may be mediated by membrane-associated, auxin-binding protein(s).

  3. A sequencing-based linkage map of cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic maps are important tools for molecular breeding, gene cloning, and study of meiotic recombination. In cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), the marker density, resolution and genome coverage of previously developed genetic maps using PCR-based molecular markers are relatively low. In this study we ...

  4. [Analysis study of trace elements in abalone and sea cucumber].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Kang, Wan-Li; Xin, Shi-Gang; Xing, Wan-Quan

    2009-02-01

    Abalone and sea cucumbers are useful, which is related with trace elements in them. In the present paper, using high-pressure sealed nitrifying pots for digestion of samples, Orthogonal test was applied to the determination of 15 kinds of trace elements in abalone and sea cucumber such as Fe, Ca, Mg, Zn, Sr, Se, Hg, Cd etc by ICP-AES. The orthogonal table of L16 (4(4)) and experiment programs were designed. More information could be obtained with a small number of experimental times by combining chemistry with mathematical statistics, and the best experimental operation conditions could be chosen by square-error analysis. The method was simple, rapid, highly sensitive and accurate, but also features multi-element determination at the same time, with little environment pollution. The recovery rate of the method is in the range of 91.0%-110.0%, and relative standard deviations is less than 3.55%. The experimental results showed that both abalone and sea cucumber are of nutritional value of seafood, and are rich in Fe, Ca, Mg, Zn, Sr and other kinds of trace elements helpful to the human body. At the same time, because of severe environment pollution, seawater pollution should not be neglected. When seawater was polluted, hazardous substances were deposited in abalone or sea cucumber body with high levels of harmful heavy metals. Therefore, it should be a reminder that people must be careful to eat them.

  5. Sea cucumber species identification of family Caudinidae from Surabaya based on morphological and mitochondrial DNA evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Muhammad Hilman Fu'adil; Pidada, Ida Bagus Rai; Sugiharto, Widyatmoko, Johan Nuari; Irawan, Bambang

    2016-03-01

    Species identification and taxonomy of sea cucumber remains a challenge problem in some taxa. Caudinidae family of sea cucumber was comerciallized in Surabaya, and it was used as sea cucumber chips. Members of Caudinid sea cucumber have similiar morphology, so it is hard to identify this sea cucumber only from morphological appearance. DNA barcoding is useful method to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to determine Caudinid specimen of sea cucumber in East Java by morphological and molecular approach. Sample was collected from east coast of Surabaya, then preserved in absolute ethanol. After DNA isolation, Cytochrome Oxydase I (COI) gene amplification was performed using Echinoderm universal primer and PCR product was sequenced. Sequencing result was analyzed and identified in NCBI database using BLAST. Results showed that Caudinid specimen in have closely related to Acaudina molpadioides sequence in GenBank with 86% identity. Morphological data, especially based on ossicle, also showed that the specimen is Acaudina molpadioides.

  6. Can Adverse Effects of Acidity and Aluminum Toxicity Be Alleviated by Appropriate Rootstock Selection in Cucumber?

    PubMed Central

    Rouphael, Youssef; Rea, Elvira; Cardarelli, Mariateresa; Bitterlich, Michael; Schwarz, Dietmar; Colla, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Low-pH and aluminum (Al) stresses are the major constraints that limit crop yield in acidic soils. Grafting vegetable elite cultivars onto appropriate rootstocks may represent an effective tool to improve crop tolerance to acidity and Al toxicity. Two greenhouse hydroponic experiments were performed to evaluate growth, yield, biomass production, chlorophyll index, electrolyte leakage, mineral composition, and assimilate partitioning in plant tissues of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. “Ekron”) either non-grafted or grafted onto “P360” (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne; E/C) or figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché; E/F). Cucumber plants were cultured in pots and supplied with nutrient solutions having different pH and Al concentrations: pH 6, pH 3.5, pH 3.5 + 1.5 mM Al, and pH 3.5 + 3 mM Al (Experiment 1, 14 days) and pH 6, pH 3.5, and pH 3.5 + 0.75 mM Al (Experiment 2, 67 days). Significant depression in shoot and root biomass was observed in response to acidity and Al concentrations, with Al-stress being more phytotoxic than low pH treatment. Significant decrease in yield, shoot, and root biomass, leaf area, SPAD index, N, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and B concentration in aerial parts (leaves and stems) in response to low pH with more detrimental effects at pH 3.5 + Al. Grafted E/C plants grown under low pH and Al had higher yield, shoot, and root biomass compared to E/F and non-grafted plants. This better crop performance of E/C plants in response to Al stress was related to (i) a reduced translocation of Al from roots to the shoot, (ii) a better shoot and root nutritional status in K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn concentration, (iii) a higher chlorophyll synthesis, as well as (iv) the ability to maintain cell membrane stability and integrity (lower electrolyte leakage). Data provide insight into the role of grafting on Al stress tolerance in cucumber. PMID:27621740

  7. Analysis of peg formation in cucumber seedlings grown on clinostats and in a microgravity (space) environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, B. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    In young cucumber seedlings, the peg is a polar out-growth of tissue that functions by snagging the seed coat, thereby freeing the cotyledons. Previous studies have indicated that peg formation is gravity dependent. In this study we analyzed peg formation in cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L. cv Burpee Hybrid II) grown under conditions of normal gravity, microgravity, and simulated microgravity (clinostat rotation). Seeds were germinated on the ground, in clinostats and on board the space shuttle (STS 95) for 1-2 days, frozen and subsequently examined for their stage of development, degree of hook formation, number of pegs formed, and peg morphology. The frequency of peg formation in space grown seedlings was found to be nearly identical to that of clinostat grown seedlings and to differ from that of seedlings germinated under normal gravity only in a minority of cases; approximately 6% of the seedlings formed two pegs and nearly 2% of the seedlings lacked pegs, whereas such abnormalities did not occur in ground controls. The degree of hook formation was found to be less pronounced for space grown seedlings, compared to clinostat grown seedlings, indicating a greater degree of decoupling between peg formation and hook formation in space. Nonetheless, in all seedlings having single pegs and a hook, the peg was found to be positioned correctly on the inside of the hook, showing that there is coordinate development even in microgravity environments. Peg morphologies were altered in space grown samples, with the pegs having a blunt appearance and many pegs showing alterations in expansion, with the peg extending out over the edges of the seed coat and downwards. These phenotypes were not observed in clinostat or ground grown seedlings.

  8. Construction of a Fosmid Library of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and Comparative Analyses of the eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E Regions from Cucumber and Melon (Cucumis melo)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber and melon are the most economically important plants in the family Cucurbitaceae and are members of distinct subgenera in the genus Cucumis. We undertook comparative sequence analyses to assess synteny between the cucumber and melon genomes. A fosmid library of cucumber was synthesized as...

  9. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch).

    PubMed

    Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Tabei, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We established improved methods for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch). Vacuum infiltration of cotyledonary explants with Agrobacterium suspension enhanced the Agrobacterium infection efficiency in the proximal regions of explants. Wounding treatment was also essential for kabocha squash. Cocultivation on filter paper wicks suppressed necrosis of explants, keeping regeneration efficacy. Putative transgenic plants were screened by kanamycin resistance and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence. These putative transgenic plants grew normally and T1 seeds were obtained, and stable integration and transmission of the transgene in T1 generations were confirmed by Southern hybridization and PCR. The average transgenic efficiency for cucumber and kabocha squash was 11.9 ± 3.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 %, respectively.

  10. Characterization of the optical properties of normal and defective pickling cucumbers and whole pickles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renfu; Ariana, Diwan P.; Cen, Haiyan

    2010-04-01

    Internal defect in pickling cucumbers can cause bloater damage during brining, which lowers the quality of final pickled products and results in economic loss for the pickle industry. Hence it is important to have an effective optical inspection system for detection and segregation of defective pickling cucumbers. This research was intended to measure the spectral absorption and scattering properties of normal and internally defective pickling cucumbers and whole pickles, using hyperspectral imaging-based spatially-resolved technique. Spatially-resolved hyperspectral scattering images were acquired from 50 freshly harvested 'Journey' pickling cucumbers in the summer of 2008. The cucumbers were then subjected to rolling under mechanical load to induce internal damage. The damaged cucumbers were imaged again one hour and one day after the mechanical stress treatment. In addition, 20 whole pickles each of normal and defective (bloated) class were also measured by following the same procedure as that for pickling cucumbers. Spectra of the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients for pickling cucumbers and whole pickles were extracted from the spatially-resolved scattering profiles, using an inverse algorithm for a diffusion theory model, for the spectral range of 700-1,000 nm. It was found that within one hour after mechanical damage, changes in the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients for the cucumbers were minimal. One day after mechanical damage, the absorption coefficient for the cucumbers increased noticeably for the wavelengths of 700-920 nm, whereas the reduced scattering coefficient decreased more significantly for the wavelengths of 700-1,000 nm. Overall mechanical damage had greater impact on the scattering properties than on the absorption properties. After brining, pickles became translucent and scattering was greatly diminished. Thus the diffusion theory model was no longer valid for determining the optical properties of whole pickles. This

  11. Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    McFeeters, Roger F; Pérez-Díaz, Ilenys

    2010-04-01

    Waste water containing high levels of NaCl from cucumber fermentation tank yards is a continuing problem for the pickled vegetable industry. A major reduction in waste salt could be achieved if NaCl were eliminated from the cucumber fermentation process. The objectives of this project were to ferment cucumbers in brine containing CaCl(2) as the only salt, to determine the course of fermentation metabolism in the absence of NaCl, and to compare firmness retention of cucumbers fermented in CaCl(2) brine during subsequent storage compared to cucumbers fermented in brines containing both NaCl and CaCl(2) at concentrations typically used in commercial fermentations. The major metabolite changes during fermentation without NaCl were conversion of sugars in the fresh cucumbers primarily to lactic acid which caused pH to decrease to less than 3.5. This is the same pattern that occurs when cucumbers are fermented with NaCl as the major brining salt. Lactic acid concentration and pH were stable during storage and there was no detectable production of propionic acid or butyric acid that would indicate growth of spoilage bacteria. Firmness retention in cucumbers fermented with 100 to 300 mM CaCl(2) during storage at a high temperature (45 degrees C) was not significantly different from that obtained in fermented cucumbers with 1.03 M NaCl and 40 mM CaCl(2). In closed jars, cucumber fermentations with and without NaCl in the fermentation brine were similar both in the chemical changes caused by the fermentative microorganisms and in the retention of firmness in the fermented cucumbers.

  12. Evidence that a DEGS homologue in Enterobacter clocae is important for colonization and disease suppression on cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enterobacter cloacae 501R3 shows promise as a biocontrol agent for damping-off of cucumber caused by Pythium ultimum. Enterobacter cloacae C10 is a mini-Tn5 Km transposon mutant of 501R3 that was reduced in colonization of cucumber roots and in suppression of damping-off of cucumber. Molecular char...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber...

  14. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are...

  15. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber...

  17. Map-based cloning a multifunctional gene regulating leaf, flower and fruit development and plant architecture in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    standard-leaf type cucumbers as well as multi-branched vines not presented in standard-leaf type cucumbers. Littleleaf has the potential to address some problems in picking cucumber production. Littleleaf is controlled by a single, recessively inherited gene designated ll. In the present study, a hi...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber...

  19. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber...

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-36 Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber...

  2. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are...

  3. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are...

  4. Fine genetic mapping of Cp, a recessive gene for compact (dwarf) plant architecture in cucumber, cucumis sativus L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The compact or dwarf plant architecture is an important trait in cucumber breeding. Compact cucumber has the potential to be used in once-over mechanical harvest of pickling cucumber production. Compact growth habit is controlled by a simply inherited recessive gene. To facilitate markers assisted s...

  5. Fixation of Emerging Interviral Recombinants in Cucumber Mosaic Virus Populations

    PubMed Central

    Pita, Justin S.

    2013-01-01

    Interstrain recombinants were observed in the progenies of the Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) reassortant L1L2F3 containing RNAs 1 and 2 from LS-CMV and RNA 3 from Fny-CMV. We characterized these recombinants, and we found that their fixation was controlled by the nature of the replicating RNAs 1 and 2. We demonstrate that the 2b gene partially affects this fixation process, but only in the context of homologous RNAs 1 and 2. PMID:23115282

  6. Fruit removal increases root-zone respiration in cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Kläring, H.-P.; Hauschild, I.; Heißner, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Many attempts have been made to avoid the commonly observed fluctuations in fruit initiation and fruit growth in crop plants, particularly in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Weak sinks of the fruit have been assumed to result in low sink/source ratios for carbohydrates, which may inhibit photosynthesis. This study focuses on the effects of low sink–source ratios on photosynthesis and respiration, and in particular root-zone respiration. Methods Mature fruit-bearing cucumber plants were grown in an aerated nutrient solution. The root containers were designed as open chambers to allow measurement of CO2 gas exchange in the root zone. A similar arrangement in a gas-exchange cuvette enabled simultaneous measurements of CO2 exchange in the shoot and root zones. Key Results Reducing the sinks for carbohydrates by removing all fruit from the plants always resulted in a doubling of CO2 exchange in the root zone within a few hours. However, respiration of the shoot remained unaffected and photosynthesis was only marginally reduced, if at all. Conclusions The results suggest that the increased level of CO2 gas exchange in the root zone after removing the carbon sinks in the shoot is due primarily to the exudation of organic compounds by the roots and their decomposition by micro-organisms. This hypothesis must be tested in further experiments, but if proved correct it would make sense to include carbon leakage by root exudation in cucumber production models. In contrast, inhibition of photosynthesis was measurable only at zero fruit load, a situation that does not occur in cucumber production systems, and models that estimate production can therefore ignore (end-product) inhibition of photosynthesis. PMID:25301817

  7. A sulfated alpha-L-fucan from sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A C; Vieira, R P; Mourão, P A; Mulloy, B

    1994-03-04

    A purified sulfated alpha-L-fucan from the sea cucumber body wall was studied, before and after almost complete desulfation, using methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy. NMR analysis indicates that 2,4-di-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose and unsubstituted fucopyranose are present in equal proportions, and that 2-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose is present in twice that proportion. There is some NMR evidence that a regular repeating sequence of four residues comprises most or all of the polysaccharide chain.

  8. Structural analysis and anticoagulant activities of the novel sulfated fucan possessing a regular well-defined repeating unit from sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mingyi; Xu, Li; Zhao, Longyan; Xiao, Chuang; Gao, Na; Luo, Lan; Yang, Lian; Li, Zi; Chen, Lingyun; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-04-13

    Sulfated fucans, the complex polysaccharides, exhibit various biological activities. Herein, we purified two fucans from the sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis and Ludwigothurea grisea. Their structures were verified by means of HPGPC, FT-IR, GC-MS and NMR. As a result, a novel structural motif for this type of polymers is reported. The fucans have a unique structure composed of a central core of regular (1→2) and (1→3)-linked tetrasaccharide repeating units. Approximately 50% of the units from L. grisea (100% for H. edulis fucan) contain sides of oligosaccharides formed by nonsulfated fucose units linked to the O-4 position of the central core. Anticoagulant activity assays indicate that the sea cucumber fucans strongly inhibit human blood clotting through the intrinsic pathways of the coagulation cascade. Moreover, the mechanism of anticoagulant action of the fucans is selective inhibition of thrombin activity by heparin cofactor II. The distinctive tetrasaccharide repeating units contribute to the anticoagulant action. Additionally, unlike the fucans from marine alga, although the sea cucumber fucans have great molecular weights and affluent sulfates, they do not induce platelet aggregation. Overall, our results may be helpful in understanding the structure-function relationships of the well-defined polysaccharides from invertebrate as new types of safer anticoagulants.

  9. Structural Analysis and Anticoagulant Activities of the Novel Sulfated Fucan Possessing a Regular Well-Defined Repeating Unit from Sea Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mingyi; Xu, Li; Zhao, Longyan; Xiao, Chuang; Gao, Na; Luo, Lan; Yang, Lian; Li, Zi; Chen, Lingyun; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Sulfated fucans, the complex polysaccharides, exhibit various biological activities. Herein, we purified two fucans from the sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis and Ludwigothurea grisea. Their structures were verified by means of HPGPC, FT-IR, GC–MS and NMR. As a result, a novel structural motif for this type of polymers is reported. The fucans have a unique structure composed of a central core of regular (1→2) and (1→3)-linked tetrasaccharide repeating units. Approximately 50% of the units from L. grisea (100% for H. edulis fucan) contain sides of oligosaccharides formed by nonsulfated fucose units linked to the O-4 position of the central core. Anticoagulant activity assays indicate that the sea cucumber fucans strongly inhibit human blood clotting through the intrinsic pathways of the coagulation cascade. Moreover, the mechanism of anticoagulant action of the fucans is selective inhibition of thrombin activity by heparin cofactor II. The distinctive tetrasaccharide repeating units contribute to the anticoagulant action. Additionally, unlike the fucans from marine alga, although the sea cucumber fucans have great molecular weights and affluent sulfates, they do not induce platelet aggregation. Overall, our results may be helpful in understanding the structure-function relationships of the well-defined polysaccharides from invertebrate as new types of safer anticoagulants. PMID:25871288

  10. Absorption and Transport of Sea Cucumber Saponins from Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Wang, Han; Yang, Shuang; Lv, Zhihua

    2016-06-17

    The present study is focused on the intestinal absorption of sea cucumber saponins. We determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A₁; the findings indicated that the bioavailability of Holotoxin A₁ was lower than Echinoside A. We inferred that the differences in chemical structure between compounds was a factor that explained their different characteristics of transport across the intestine. In order to confirm the absorption characteristics of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A₁, we examined their transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer and effective permeability by single-pass intestinal perfusion. The results of Caco-2 cell model indicate that Echinoside A is transported by passive diffusion, and not influenced by the exocytosis of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, expressed in the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers as the classic inhibitor). The intestinal perfusion also demonstrated well the absorption of Echinoside A and poor absorption of Holotoxin A₁, which matched up with the result of the Caco-2 cell model. The results demonstrated our conjecture and provides fundamental information on the relationship between the chemical structure of these sea cucumber saponins and their absorption characteristics, and we believe that our findings build a foundation for the further metabolism study of sea cucumber saponins and contribute to the further clinical research of saponins.

  11. Feeding behavior and digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiamin; Zhang, Libin; Pan, Yang; Lin, Chenggang; Wang, Fang; Kan, Rentao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-02-01

    The feeding behavior and digestive physiology of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus are not well understood. A better understanding may provide useful information for the development of the aquaculture of this species. In this article the tentacle locomotion, feeding rhythms, ingestion rate (IR), feces production rate (FPR) and digestive enzyme activities were studied in three size groups (small, medium and large) of sea cucumber under a 12h light/12h dark cycle. Frame-by-frame video analysis revealed that all size groups had similar feeding strategies using a grasping motion to pick up sediment particles. The tentacle insertion rates of the large size group were significantly faster than those of the small and medium-sized groups (P<0.05). Feeding activities investigated by charge coupled device cameras with infrared systems indicated that all size groups of sea cucumber were nocturnal and their feeding peaks occurred at 02:00-04:00. The medium and large-sized groups also had a second feeding peak during the day. Both IR and FPR in all groups were significantly higher at night than those during the daytime (P<0.05). Additionally, the peak activities of digestive enzymes were 2-4h earlier than the peak of feeding. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the light/dark cycle was a powerful environment factor that influenced biological rhythms of A. japonicus, which had the ability to optimize the digestive processes for a forthcoming ingestion.

  12. Polyamines induce adaptive responses in water deficit stressed cucumber roots.

    PubMed

    Kubiś, Jan; Floryszak-Wieczorek, Jolanta; Arasimowicz-Jelonek, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exogenous polyamines (PAs) on the membrane status and proline level in roots of water stressed cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Dar) seedlings. It was found that water shortage resulted in an increase of membrane injury, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, lipid peroxidation and proline concentration in cucumber roots during progressive dehydration. PA pretreatment resulted in a distinct reduction of the injury index, and this effect was reflected by a lower stress-evoked LOX activity increase and lipid peroxide levels at the end of the stress period. In contrast, PA-supplied stressed roots displayed a higher proline accumulation. The presented results suggest that exogenous PAs are able to alleviate water deficit-induced membrane permeability and diminish LOX activity. Observed changes were accompanied by an accumulation of proline, suggesting that the accumulation of this osmolyte might be another possible mode of action for PAs to attain higher membrane stability, and in this way mitigate water deficit effects in roots of cucumber seedlings.

  13. Absorption and Transport of Sea Cucumber Saponins from Apostichopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Wang, Han; Yang, Shuang; Lv, Zhihua

    2016-01-01

    The present study is focused on the intestinal absorption of sea cucumber saponins. We determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A1; the findings indicated that the bioavailability of Holotoxin A1 was lower than Echinoside A. We inferred that the differences in chemical structure between compounds was a factor that explained their different characteristics of transport across the intestine. In order to confirm the absorption characteristics of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A1, we examined their transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer and effective permeability by single-pass intestinal perfusion. The results of Caco-2 cell model indicate that Echinoside A is transported by passive diffusion, and not influenced by the exocytosis of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, expressed in the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers as the classic inhibitor). The intestinal perfusion also demonstrated well the absorption of Echinoside A and poor absorption of Holotoxin A1, which matched up with the result of the Caco-2 cell model. The results demonstrated our conjecture and provides fundamental information on the relationship between the chemical structure of these sea cucumber saponins and their absorption characteristics, and we believe that our findings build a foundation for the further metabolism study of sea cucumber saponins and contribute to the further clinical research of saponins. PMID:27322290

  14. Individual variation in growth in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenck) housed individually

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Miao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang; Tian, Xiangli

    2010-09-01

    The exceptionally large individual growth variation has been previously recognized in several sea cucumber cohorts. However, there is a lack of information regarding the mechanism of such individual differences. In this study, the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) was reared individually in order to eliminate possible effects of social interaction, stocking density, etc. The results showed that there were substantial differences in growth among the sea cucumber individuals during the 100-day experiment. The special growth rate of the sea cucumber individuals differed by up to three folds (from 0.40% to 1.01%), and the coefficient of variation in body weight increased from 12.04% to 40.51%. The final wet body weight, food intake and food conversion efficiency for each sea cucumber were generally positively correlated with their initial wet body weight ( P<0.05). Energy budget of the animals showed that the food energy spent on respiration was much greater (about four folds) but energy deposited for growth was much less for (initially) smaller than for larger A. japonicus. The present result implies that there are obvious genetic differences among the sea cucumber individuals, largely accounting for the individual growth variation of the cohort sea cucumber. These results will provide some basic data for promoting selective breeding and farming of the sea cucumber.

  15. First complete genome sequence of an emerging cucumber green mottle mosaic virus isolate in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome sequence (6,423 nt) of an emerging Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) isolate on cucumber in North America was determined through deep sequencing of sRNA and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. It shares 99% nucleotide sequence identity to the Asian genotype, but only 90% t...

  16. Inheritance of Beta-Carotene-Associated Flesh Color in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.) Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutritional value of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) can be improved by the introgression of ß-carotene (i.e., provitamin A and/or orange flesh) genes from “Xishuangbanna gourd” (XIS; Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan) into U.S. pickling cucumber. However, the genetics of ß-carote...

  17. First Complete Genome Sequence of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus Isolated from Australia

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Roger A. C.; Coutts, Brenda A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present here the first complete genome sequence of the tobamovirus Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) from Australia, obtained from an infected cucumber plant. Compared with other CGMMV genomes, its closest nucleotide identities were 99.6% to KP772568, 99.3% to KF155229, and 99.1% to DQ767631 from Canada, Israel, and India, respectively. PMID:28336589

  18. Multispectral fluorescence imaging technique for discrimination of cucumber (Cucumis Sativus) seed viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we developed a nondestructive method for discriminating viable cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seeds based on hyperspectral fluorescence imaging. The fluorescence spectra of cucumber seeds in the 420–700 nm range were extracted from hyperspectral fluorescence images obtained using 365 nm u...

  19. Commercial scale cucumber fermentations brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride instead of NaCl...

  20. Reduction of Salmonella populations on cucumber fruit by application of lytic bacteriophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Foodborne illness outbreaks of Salmonella enterica associated with consumption of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) in the U.S. in 2014 and 2015 sickened over 1000 people and caused 5 deaths. Whole and fresh-cut cucumbers are susceptible to Salmonella contamination during growing and harvestin...

  1. Determination of germination quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seed by LED-induced hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: We developed a viability evaluation method for cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seed using hyperspectral reflectance imaging. Methods: Reflectance spectra of cucumber seeds in the 400 to 1000 nm range were collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED ill...

  2. Engineering Research on Quality Detection of Pickling Cucumbers: 2009 Progress Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report briefly summarizes the three studies performed in 2009 on cucumber defect detection. Hyperspectral imaging transmittance mode has demonstrated great potential for online sorting and grading of cucumbers and pickles. However, the technique is still limited by its speed in acquiring and pr...

  3. Metabolic footprinting of Lactobacillus buchneri strain LA1147 during anaerobic spoilage of fermented cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactobacillus buchneri has recently been associated with anaerobic spoilage of fermented cucumbers due to its ability to metabolize lactic acid into acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. However, we have limited knowledge of other chemical components in fermented cucumber that may be related to spoilage ...

  4. Rhizoctonia belly rot in cucumber fruit using Rhizoctonia solani isolated from sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumbers are grown in rotation with sugar beets in some areas in Michigan but their interaction with important diseases affecting sugar beets is not well known. Cucumbers are known to be primarily susceptible to Rhizoctonia solani AG-4, but little is known about their susceptibility to AG 2-2 isola...

  5. Detection of Fruit Fly Infestation in Pickling Cucumbers using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labo...

  6. Identification of five sea cucumber species through PCR-RFLP analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yingchun; Zheng, Rong; Zuo, Tao; Wang, Yuming; Li, Zhaojie; Xue, Yong; Xue, Changhu; Tang, Qingjuan

    2014-10-01

    Sea cucumbers are traditional marine food and Chinese medicine in Asia. The rapid expansion of sea cucumber market has resulted in various problems, such as commercial fraud and mislabeling. Conventionally, sea cucumber species could be distinguished by their morphological and anatomical characteristics; however, their identification becomes difficult when they are processed. The aim of this study was to develop a new convenient method of identifying and distinguishing sea cucumber species. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene ( COI) was used to identifing five sea cucumber species ( Apostichopus japonicus, Cucumaria frondosa, Thelenota ananas, Parastichopus californicus and Actinopyga lecanora). A 692 bp fragment of COI was searched for BamHI, KpnI, PstI, XbaI and Eco31I restriction sites with DNAMAN 6.0, which were then used to PCR-RFLP analysis. These five sea cucumber species can be discriminated from mixed sea cucumbers. The developed PCR-RFLP assay will facilitate the identification of sea cucumbers, making their source tracing and quality controlling feasible.

  7. Preparation of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture for cucumber fermentations that can meet kosher guidelines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method is described for growth of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture in jars of commercially available pasteurized fresh-pack kosher dill cucumbers so that jars can be used to inoculate commercial scale cucumber fermentation tanks. A procedure is also described to transfer lactic acid bacte...

  8. Pentatricopeptide repeat 336 as the candidate gene for paternal sorting of mitochondria (Psm) in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a useful plant to study organellar-nuclear interactions because its three genomes show differential transmission: bi-parental nuclear, maternal chloroplast and paternal mitochondrial (mt). The mt DNA of cucumber is relatively large due in part to accumulation of rep...

  9. [Effects of wheat root exudates on cucumber growth and soil fungal community structure].

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng-Zhi; Li, Min; Cao, Peng; Ma, Ya-Fei; Wang, Li-Li

    2014-10-01

    With wheat as the donor plant and cucumber as the receptor plant, this study investigated the effects of root exudates from wheat cultivars with different allelopathic potentials (positive or negative) and companion cropping with wheat on soil fungal community structure by PCR-DGGE method and cucumber growth. Results showed that the wheat root exudates with positive allelopathic potential increased height and stem diameter of cucumber seedlings significantly, compared to the control seedlings (W) after 6 days and 12 days treatment, respectively. Also, wheat root exudates with both positive and negative allelopathic potential increased the seedling height of cucumber significantly after 18 days treatment. The wheat root exudates with different allelopathic potentials decreased the band number, Shannon and evenness indices of soil fungal community significantly in cucumber seedling rhizosphere, and those in the soil with the control seedlings (W) were also significantly higher than that in the control soil without seedlings (Wn) after 6 days treatment. The band number, Shannon and evenness indices in all the treatments were significantly higher than those in the control soil without seedlings (Wn) after 18 days treatment. Companion cropping with negative allelopathic potential wheat decreased the Shannon and evenness indices of soil fungi community significantly in the cucumber seedling rhizosphere, suggesting the wheat root exudates and companion cropping with wheat changed soil fungal community structure in the cucumber seedling rhizosphere. The results of DGGE map and the principal component analysis showed that companion cropping with wheat cultivars with different allelopathic potentials changed soil fungal community structure in cucumber seedling rhizosphere.

  10. Putative paternal factors controlling chilling tolerance in Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilling temperatures (<10 degrees C) may cause damage to Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants during winter and early spring growing seasons. Inheritance to chilling in U.S. processing cucumber is controlled by cytoplasmic (maternally) and nuclear factors. To understand inherit...

  11. Fine genetic mapping of target leaf spot resistance gene cca-3 in cucumber, Cucumis sativus L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The target leaf spot (TLS) is a very important fungal disease in cucumber. In this study, we conducted fine genetic mapping of a recessively inherited resistance gene, cca-2 against TLS with 1,083 F2 plants derived from the resistant cucumber inbred line D31 and the susceptible line D5. Initial mapp...

  12. Identification and characterisation of Dof transcription factors in the cucumber genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is susceptible to many foliage diseases. Although candidate genes for resistances to several pathogens in cucumber have been reported, the underlying defence mechanisms remain unclear. The Dof (DNA-binding with one finger) proteins are a group of plant-specific transcription factors that ha...

  13. Transcriptomic and QTL analysis suggest candidate fruit shape factors in cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit size and shape are important determinants of market class and value in cucumber; however, underlying mechanisms regulating size and shape have not been identified. To gain insight into possible factors regulating cucumber fruit growth, we used a combined QTL and transcriptome approach to exami...

  14. QTL mapping for downy mildew resistance in cucumber inbred line WI7120 (PI 330628)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy mildew (DM) is the most devastating fungal disease of cucumber worldwide. The molecular mechanism of DM resistance in cucumber is poorly understood, and use of marker-assisted breeding for DM resistance is not widely available. Here we reported QTL mapping of DM resistance with 243 F2:3 famili...

  15. Comparative mapping of ZYMV resistances in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    PubMed

    Park, Y; Katzir, N; Brotman, Y; King, J; Bertrand, F; Havey, M

    2004-08-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) routinely causes significant losses in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) and melon ( Cucumis melo L.). ZYMV resistances from the cucumber population 'TMG1' and the melon plant introduction (PI) 414723 show different modes of inheritance and their genetic relationships are unknown. We used molecular markers tightly linked to ZYMV resistances from cucumber and melon for comparative mapping. A 5-kb genomic region (YCZ-5) cosegregating with the zym locus of cucumber was cloned and sequenced to reveal single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels distinguishing alleles from ZYMV-resistant (TMG1) and susceptible (Straight 8) cucumbers. A low-copy region of the YCZ-5 clone was hybridized to bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones of melon and a 180-kb contig assembled. One end of this melon contig was mapped in cucumber and cosegregated with ZYMV resistance, demonstrating that physically linked regions in melon show genetic linkage in cucumber. However the YCZ-5 region segregated independently of ZYMV resistance loci in two melon families. These results establish that these sources of ZYMV resistances from cucumber TMG1 and melon PI414723 are likely non-syntenic.

  16. QTL mapping of powdery mildew resistance in WI 2757 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew is a serious fungal disease of cucumber and other cucurbot crops in the US and many other parts of the world. Resistant cultivars have been deployed in production for a long time, but the genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber are not well understood. In a three-y...

  17. Evidence for a disease complex between Pythium aphanidermatum and root-knot nematodes in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field trial in 2012 indicated a possible disease complex between Pythium aphanidermatum and the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita in cucumber. Two growth chamber trials were conducted to investigate this potential disease complex. Treatments included inoculating nine-day-old cucumbe...

  18. A truncated F-box protein confers the dwarfism in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dwarfism is an important plant architecture trait for cucumber breeding. In the present study, we identified a dwarf mutant 406M in cucumber which showed a shorter internode length as compared with its wild type. In a BC1F2 population from the cross of 406M with its wild type parental line 406, the ...

  19. Biological characteristics and pathogenicity of a highly pathogenic Shewanella marisflavi infected sea cucumber (Apostichopus uaponicus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shewanella marisflavi isolate AP629 was characterized as a novel pathogen of sea cucumber. The LD50 values (14 days) in sea cucumber and swordtail fish were 3.89 × 106 and 4.85 × 104 CFU g-1 body weight, respectively. Studies on S. marisflavi had been conducted, including morphology, physiological a...

  20. Genome sequencing, genetic diversity and field detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus using LAMP technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent outbreaks of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus on cucumber, melon and watermelon in Australia, Canada, and the U.S. highlight the importance in implementing a cleaned seed program to manage this seed-borne virus from introduction. Both Canadian and Australian isolates were closely relate...

  1. Evaluation of enzymatic and non-enzymatic softening in low salt cucumber fermentations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Retention of a firm, crisp fruit texture is a major consideration for pickled vegetables including pickles made from fermented cucumbers. It is known that cucumbers soften rapidly when fermented at low salt concentrations (<3%) without added calcium. This study has shown that there is non-enzymati...

  2. Virus particles of cucumber green mottle mosaic tobamovirus move systemically in the phloem of infected cucumber plants.

    PubMed

    Simón-Buela, L; García-Arenal, F

    1999-02-01

    Systemic movement through the phloem of infected host plants is a key process in the life cycle of plant viruses, knowledge of which is scant. A main point to be elucidated is the structural form in which virus infection moves within the phloem. Indirect evidence suggests that virions might be the viral structure that moves in the phloem, but data from direct analysis in phloem sap have not been reported. We have done such analysis in the system cucumber (from which phloem exudate can be collected)/cucumber green mottle mosaic tobamovirus (CGMMV). CGMMV has structurally well-characterized particles. Both CGMMV coat protein and RNA were found in phloem exudate from infected cucumbers. Analysis of the accessibility of CGMMV RNA in phloem exudate to RNase A indicates that it is protected within a ribonucleoprotein structure. The accessibility to RNase A of the RNA in these structures was as in virus particles. Centrifugation analyses showed that the ribonucleoprotein structures in the phloem exudate have the same mass and isopycnic density as virions. Virus particles indistinguishable from purified virions were detected by electron microscopy in phloem exudate. No evidence of free RNA or other CGMMV-related structure was found in phloem exudate of infected plants. These results indicate that CGMMV movement in the phloem occurs mainly, if not exclusively, in the form of virus particles.

  3. A novel role for cyanide in the control of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings response to environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Zhang, Da-Wei; Zhu, Feng; Tang, He; Lv, Xin; Cheng, Jian; Xie, Huang-Fan; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2012-11-01

    The effects of potassium cyanide (KCN) pretreatment on the response of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants to salt, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and cold stress were investigated in the present study. Here, we found that KCN pretreatment improved cucumber seedlings tolerance to stress conditions with maximum efficiency at a concentration of 20 µM. The results showed that pretreatment with 20 µM KCN alleviated stress-induced oxidative damage in plant cells and clearly induced the activity of alternative oxidase (AOX) and the ethylene production. Furthermore, the structures of thylakoids and mitochondria in the KCN-pretreated seedlings were less damaged by the stress conditions, which maintained higher total chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate and photosystem II (PSII) proteins levels than the control. Importantly, the addition of the AOX inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (1 mm; SHAM) decreased plant resistance to environmental stress and even compromised the cyanide (CN)-enhanced stress tolerance. Therefore, our findings provide a novel role of CN in plant against environmental stress and indicate that the CN-enhanced AOX might contribute to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and the protection of photosystem by maintaining energy charge homoeostasis from chloroplast to mitochondria.

  4. Lactobacilli and tartrazine as causative agents of red-color spoilage in cucumber pickle products.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; Kelling, R E; Hale, S; Breidt, F; McFeeters, R F

    2007-09-01

    The cucumber pickling industry has sporadically experienced spoilage outbreaks in pickled cucumber products characterized by development of red color on the surface of the fruits. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei were isolated from 2 outbreaks of this spoilage that occurred about 15 y apart during the last 3 decades. Both organisms were shown to produce this spoilage when inoculated into pickled cucumbers while concomitantly degrading the azo dye tartrazine (FD&C yellow nr 5). This food dye is used as a yellow coloring in the brine cover solutions of commercial pickled cucumber products. The red color does not occur in the absence of tartrazine, nor when turmeric is used as a yellow coloring in the pickles. Addition of sodium benzoate to the brine cover solutions of a pickled cucumber product, more specifically hamburger dill pickles, prevented growth of these lactic acid bacteria and the development of the red spoilage.

  5. Expression patterns of genes encoding plasma membrane aquaporins during fruit development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Ren; Li, Dianbo; Xu, Fengfeng; Sun, Qianqian; Zhao, Bin; Mao, Ai-Jun; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-11-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels precisely regulating water movement through cell membranes in most living organisms. Despite the advances in the physiology of fruit development, their participation during fruit development in cucumber still barely understood. In this paper, the expressions of 12 genes encoding plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) were analyzed during cucumber fruit development in our work. Based on the homology search with known PIPs from rice, Arabidopsis and strawberry, 12 cucumber PIP genes subfamily members were identified. Cellular localization assays indicated that CsPIPs were localized in the plasma membrane. The qRT-PCR analysis of CsPIPs showed that 12 CsPIPs were differentially expressed during fruit development. These results suggest that 12 genes encoding plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (CsPIPs) play very important roles in cucumber life cycle and the data generated will be helpful in understanding their precise roles during fruit development in cucumber.

  6. Detection of mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariana, D.; Lu, R.; Guyer, D.

    2005-11-01

    Automated detection of defects on freshly harvested pickling cucumbers will help the pickle industry provide higher quality pickle products and reduce potential economic losses. Research was conducted on using a hyperspectral imaging system for detecting defects on pickling cucumbers caused by mechanical stress. A near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture both spatial and spectral information from cucumbers in the spectral region of 900 - 1700 nm. The system consisted of an imaging spectrograph attached to an InGaAs camera with line-light fiber bundles as an illumination source. Cucumber samples were subjected to two forms of mechanical loading, dropping and rolling, to simulate stress caused by mechanical harvesting. Hyperspectral images were acquired from the cucumbers over time periods of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 6 days after mechanical stress. Hyperspectral image processing methods, including principal component analysis and wavelength selection, were developed to separate normal and mechanically injured cucumbers. Results showed that reflectance from normal or non-bruised cucumbers was consistently higher than that from bruised cucumbers. The spectral region between 950 and 1350 nm was found to be most effective for bruise detection. The hyperspectral imaging system detected all mechanically injured cucumbers immediately after they were bruised. The overall detection accuracy was 97% within two hours of bruising and it was lower as time progressed. Lower detection accuracies for the prolonged times after bruising were attributed to the self- healing of the bruised tissue after mechanical injury. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is useful for detecting mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers.

  7. Characterization and expression profiling of cucumber kinesin genes during early fruit development: revealing the roles of kinesins in exponential cell production and enlargement in cucumber fruit.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue Yong; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Wei Jie; Liu, Xiao Ling; Zhang, Xiao Meng; Yu, Hong Jun; Huang, San Wen; Liu, Guo Qin

    2013-11-01

    Rapid cell division and expansion in early fruit development are important phases for cucumber fruit yield and quality. Kinesin proteins are microtubule-based motors responsible for modulating cell division and enlargement. In this work, the candidate kinesin genes involved in rapid cell division and expansion during cucumber fruit development were investigated. The morphological and cellular changes during early fruit development were compared in four cucumber genotypes with varied fruit size. The correlation between the expression profiles of cucumber kinesin genes and cellular changes in fruit was investigated. Finally, the biochemical characteristics and subcellular localizations of three candidate kinesins were studied. The results clarified the morphological and cellular changes during early cucumber fruit development. This study found that CsKF2-CsKF6 were positively correlated with rapid cell production; CsKF1 and CsKF7 showed a strongly positive correlation with rapid cell expansion. The results also indicated that CsKF1 localized to the plasma membrane of fast-expanding fruit cells, that CsKF2 might play a role in fruit chloroplast division, and that CsKF3 is involved in the function or formation of phragmoplasts in fruit telophase cells. The results strongly suggest that specific fruit-enriched kinesins are specialized in their functions in rapid cell division and expansion during cucumber fruit development.

  8. Cucumber ECERIFERUM1 (CsCER1), which influences the cuticle properties and drought tolerance of cucumber, plays a key role in VLC alkanes biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjiao; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Chong; Ren, Jiaojiao; Liu, Xiaofeng; Black, Kezia; Gai, Xinshuang; Wang, Qian; Ren, Huazhong

    2015-02-01

    Most land plants have a wax layer which covers their aerial parts to protect them from environmental stresses, such as drought, UV radiation, and pathogenic invasion. The wax biosynthesis has been well studied previously in Arabidopsis, but it still remains elusive in cucumber. Here, we isolated a CER1 homolog CsCER1 in cucumber, and we found that the expression of CsCER1 in the cucumber line 3401 which shows waxy fruit phenotype is much higher than that in the cucumber line 3413 which displays glossy fruit phenotype. Spatial and temporal expression analyses revealed that CsCER1 is specifically expressed in the epidermis where waxes are synthesized, and sub-cellular location showed that CsCER1 protein is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The expression of CsCER1 can be induced by low temperature, drought, salt stress and abscisic acid. In addition, abnormal expressions of CsCER1 in transgenic cucumber plants have dramatic effects on very-long-chain (VLC) alkanes biosynthesis, cuticle permeability, and drought resistance. Our data suggested that CsCER1 plays an important role in VLC alkanes biosynthesis in cucumber.

  9. Genetic mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Claudia I; Yandell, Brian S; Havey, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Mitochondria are organelles that have their own DNA; serve as the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells; play important roles in stress responses, programmed cell death, and ageing; and in the vast majority of eukaryotes, are maternally transmitted. Strict maternal transmission of mitochondria makes it difficult to select for better-performing mitochondria, or against deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. Cucumber is a useful plant for organellar genetics because its mitochondria are paternally transmitted and it possesses one of the largest mitochondrial genomes among all eukaryotes. Recombination among repetitive motifs in the cucumber mitochondrial DNA produces rearrangements associated with strongly mosaic (MSC) phenotypes. We previously reported nuclear control of sorting among paternally transmitted mitochondrial DNAs. The goal of this project was to map paternal sorting of mitochondria as a step towards its eventual cloning. We crossed single plants from plant introduction (PI) 401734 and Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii and produced an F(2) family. A total of 425 F(2) plants were genotyped for molecular markers and testcrossed as the female with MSC16. Testcross families were scored for frequencies of wild-type versus MSC progenies. Discrete segregations for percent wild-type progenies were not observed and paternal sorting of mitochondria was therefore analyzed as a quantitative trait. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL; LOD >23) was mapped between two simple sequence repeats encompassing a 459-kb region on chromosome 3. Nuclear genes previously shown to affect the prevalence of mitochondrial DNAs (MSH1, OSB1, and RECA homologs) were not located near this major QTL on chromosome 3. Sequencing of this region from PI 401734, together with improved annotation of the cucumber genome, should result in the eventual cloning of paternal sorting of mitochondria and provide insights about nuclear control of organellar-DNA sorting.

  10. Characteristics of Spoilage-Associated Secondary Cucumber Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Wendy; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D.; McFeeters, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary fermentations during the bulk storage of fermented cucumbers can result in spoilage that causes a total loss of the fermented product, at an estimated cost of $6,000 to $15,000 per affected tank. Previous research has suggested that such fermentations are the result of microbiological utilization of lactic acid and the formation of acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. The objectives of this study were to characterize the chemical and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations and to isolate and characterize potential causative microorganisms. Both commercial spoilage samples and laboratory-reproduced secondary fermentations were evaluated. Potential causative agents were isolated based on morphological characteristics. Two yeasts, Pichia manshurica and Issatchenkia occidentalis, were identified and detected most commonly concomitantly with lactic acid utilization. In the presence of oxygen, yeast metabolic activities lead to lactic acid degradation, a small decline in the redox potential (Eh, Ag/AgCl, 3 M KCl) of the fermentation brines, and an increase in pH to levels at which bacteria other than the lactic acid bacteria responsible for the primary fermentation can grow and produce acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. Inhibition of these yeasts by allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) resulted in stabilization of the fermented medium, while the absence of the preservative resulted in the disappearance of lactic and acetic acids in a model system. Additionally, three Gram-positive bacteria, Lactobacillus buchneri, a Clostridium sp., and Pediococcus ethanolidurans, were identified as potentially relevant to different stages of the secondary fermentation. The unique opportunity to study commercial spoilage samples generated a better understanding of the microbiota and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations. PMID:22179234

  11. Concurrence of cat and tet genes in multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from a sea cucumber and sea urchin mariculture farm in China.

    PubMed

    Dang, Hongyue; Song, Linsheng; Chen, Mingna; Chang, Yaqing

    2006-11-01

    A basic understanding of abundance and diversity of antibiotic-resistant microbes and their genetic determinants is necessary for finding a way to prevent and control the spread of antibiotic resistance. For this purpose, chloramphenicol and multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria were screened from a mariculture farm in northern China. Both sea cucumber and sea urchin rearing ponds were populated with abundant antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially marine vibrios. Sixty-five percent chloramphenicol-resistant isolates from sea cucumber harbored a cat gene, either cat IV or cat II, whereas 35% sea urchin isolates harbored a cat gene, actually cat II. The predominant resistance determinant cat IV gene mainly occurred in isolates related to Vibrio tasmaniensis or Pseudoalteromonas atlantica, and the cat II gene mainly occurred in Vibrio splendidus-like isolates. All the cat-positive isolates also harbored one or two of the tet genes, tet(D), tet(B), or tet(A). As no chloramphenicol-related antibiotic was ever used, coselection of the cat genes by other antibiotics, especially oxytetracycline, might be the cause of the high incidence of cat genes in the mariculture farm studied.

  12. [Principal component analysis and cluster analysis of inorganic elements in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Fang; Xue, Chang-Hu; Wang, Yu-Ming; Li, Zhao-Jie; Xue, Yong; Xu, Jie

    2011-11-01

    The present study is to investigate the feasibility of multi-elements analysis in determination of the geographical origin of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, and to make choice of the effective tracers in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus geographical origin assessment. The content of the elements such as Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Hg and Pb in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples from seven places of geographical origin were determined by means of ICP-MS. The results were used for the development of elements database. Cluster analysis(CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to differentiate the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus geographical origin. Three principal components which accounted for over 89% of the total variance were extracted from the standardized data. The results of Q-type cluster analysis showed that the 26 samples could be clustered reasonably into five groups, the classification results were significantly associated with the marine distribution of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples. The CA and PCA were the effective methods for elements analysis of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples. The content of the mineral elements in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples was good chemical descriptors for differentiating their geographical origins.

  13. Antifungal active triterpene glycosides from sea cucumber Holothuria scabra.

    PubMed

    Han, Hua; Yi, Yang-Hua; Li, Ling; Liu, Bao-Shu; La, Ming-Ping; Zhang, Hong-Wei

    2009-06-01

    To study the new antifungal active triterpene glycosides of sea cucumber Holothuria scabra. Triterpene glycosides from Holothuria scabra were separated and purified by silica gel chromatography, reversed-phase silica gel chromatography and RP-HPLC. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data and chemical evidence. Three triterpene glycosides were identified as scabraside A (1), echinoidea A (2) and holothurin A1 (3). Scabraside A (1) is a new triterpene glycoside, and compounds 2 and 3 were isolated from Holothuria scabra for the first time. They showed antifungal activities (1 < or = MIC80 < or = 16 microg mL(-1)).

  14. Occidental diffusion of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) 500–1300 CE: two routes to Europe

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2012-01-01

    Background The cucumber, Cucumis sativus, is one of the most widely consumed fruit vegetables the world over. The history of its dispersal to the Occident from its centre of origin, the Indian subcontinent, has been incorrectly understood for some time, due to the confusion of cucumbers with vegetable melons. Iconographic and literary evidence has shown that cucumber was absent in Roman times, up to 500 CE, but present in Europe by late medieval times, 1300. The objective of the present investigation was to determine more accurately when the cucumber arrived in Europe and by what route. Findings and Conclusions The evidence for the movement of C. sativus westward is entirely lexicographical until the 10th century. Syriac, Persian and Byzantine Greek sources suggest the presence of cucumbers, to the east and north-east of the Mediterranean Sea (modern Iran, Iraq and Turkey), by the 6th or 7th century. Arabic medical writings suggest the presence of cucumbers in Spain as early as the mid-9th century and in Tunisia by the early 10th century. Descriptive evidence in Arabic establishes the presence of cucumbers in Andalusia by the second half of the 10th century. Latin translations from Arabic sources indicate the presence of cucumbers in southern Italy by the second half of the 11th century. These writings, together with lexicographical discrepancies in names of cucurbits in late medieval Latin writings, suggest that cucumber was introduced to Europe by two independent diffusions. One diffusion appears to have been overland from Persia into eastern and northern Europe and preceded the Islamic conquests. The other, subsequent diffusion into western and southern Europe, was probably by a mostly maritime route from Persia or the Indian subcontinent into Andalusia. PMID:22104164

  15. [Allelopathy of different plants on wheat, cucumber and radish seedlings].

    PubMed

    Shen, Huimin; Guo, Hongru; Huang, Gaobao

    2005-04-01

    By means of bioassay in laboratory and field, this paper studied the allelopathy of 18 kinds of plants in Gansu Province on the seedlings of wheat, cucumber and radish. The results showed that the aqueous extract of the stems and leaves of Artemisia annua, Solanum nigrum and Datura stramonium had the strongest allelopathy on test receptor plants, and their synthetic inhibitory effect (SE) was 47.66%, 32.89% and 26.63%, respectively. The SE of Xanthium sibiricum, Portulaca oleraca, Cephalanoplos segetum, and Chenopodium album was 21.71%, 20.93%, 20.83% and 20.2%, respectively, while Vicia amoena (SE 3.5%), Setaria viridis (SE 2.2%), and Cymamchum chinense (SE 1.97%) had a weaker allelopathy. Chenopodium ambrosioides (SE - 1.03%), Polygonum caespitosum (SE - 1.63%) and Avena fatua (SE 5.33%) had no evident allelopathy, but Artemisia annua affected the seedling height and fresh weight of radish, cucumber, wheat and maize, with the SE being 54.07%, 38.46%, 33.35% and 20.88%, respectively. Artemisia annua had a 44.70% of SE on wheat growth, and thus, had a certain value to develop and use.

  16. Chain conformational and physicochemical properties of fucoidans from sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoqi; Xue, Changhu; Chang, Yaoguang; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Kunhao

    2016-11-05

    Although fucoidans from sea cucumber (SC-FUCs) have been proven as potential bioactive polysaccharides and functional food ingridents, their chain conformation and physicochemical properties were still poorly understood. This study investigated the chain conformation of fucoidans from sea cucumber Acaudina molpadioides (Am-FUC), Isostichopus badionotus (Ib-FUC) and Apostichopus japonicus (Aj-FUC), of which primary structure has been recently clarified. Chain conformation parameters demonstrated that studied SC-FUCs adopted random coil conformation in 150mM NaCl solution (pH 7.4). Based on the worm-like cylinder model and atomic force microscopy, the chain stiffness of SC-FUCs was further evaluated as Am-FUC≈Ib-FUC>Aj-FUC. It was suggested that the existence of branch structure increased the chain flexibility, while sulfated pattern exerted limited influence. SC-FUCs demonstrated shear-thinning rheological behavior and negative charge. Am-FUC possessed a higher thermostability than Ib-FUC and Aj-FUC. These results have important implications for understanding the molecular characteristics of SC-FUCs, which could facilitate their further application.

  17. Autolysis and extension of isolated walls from growing cucumber hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.; Durachko, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    Walls isolated from cucumber hypocotyls retain autolytic activities and the ability to extend when placed under the appropriate conditions. To test whether autolysis and extension are related, we treated the walls in various ways to enhance or inhibit long-term wall extension ('creep') and measured autolysis as release of various saccharides from the wall. Except for some non-specific inhibitors of enzymatic activity, we found no correlation between wall extension and wall autolysis. Most notably, autolysis and extension differed strongly in their pH dependence. We also found that exogenous cellulases and pectinases enhanced extension in native walls, but when applied to walls previously inactivated with heat or protease these enzymes caused breakage without sustained extension. In contrast, pretreatment of walls with pectinase or cellulase, followed by boiling in methanol to inactivate the enzymes, resulted in walls with much stronger expansin-mediated extension responses. Crude protein preparations from the digestive tracts of snails enhanced extension of both native and inactivated walls, and these preparations contained expansin-like proteins (assessed by Western blotting). Our results indicate that the extension of isolated cucumber walls does not depend directly on the activity of endogenous wall-bound autolytic enzymes. The results with exogenous enzymes suggest that the hydrolysis of matrix polysaccharides may not induce wall creep by itself, but may act synergistically with expansins to enhance wall extension.

  18. Odontonema cuspidatum and Psychotria punctata, two new cucumber mosaic virus hosts identified in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wide host range of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been expanded by the identification of Odontonema cuspidatum (firespike) and Psychotria punctata (dotted wild coffee) as CMV hosts in Florida....

  19. Use of species-specific PCR for the identification of 10 sea cucumber species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jing; Zeng, Ling

    2014-11-01

    We developed a species-specific PCR method to identify species among dehydrated products of 10 sea cucumber species. Ten reverse species-specific primers designed from the 16S rRNA gene, in combination with one forward universal primer, generated PCR fragments of ca. 270 bp length for each species. The specificity of the PCR assay was tested with DNA of samples of 21 sea cucumber species. Amplification was observed in specific species only. The species-specific PCR method we developed was successfully applied to authenticate species of commercial products of dehydrated sea cucumber, and was proven to be a useful, rapid, and low-cost technique to identify the origin of the sea cucumber product.

  20. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  1. Pasteuria penetrans for control of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato and cucumber, and M. arenaria on snapdragon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria, are important parasitic nematodes of vegetable and ornamental crops. Field microplot and greenhouse experiments were conducted to test commercial formulations of the biocontrol agent Pasteuria penetrans for control of M. incognita on tomato and cucumbe...

  2. [Effects of bio-fertilizer on organically cultured cucumber growth and soil biological characteristics].

    PubMed

    Cao, Dan; Zong, Liang-gang; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Yan

    2010-10-01

    Field trials of organic farming were conducted to examine the effects of different bio-fertilizers on the organically cultured cucumber growth, soil enzyme activities, and soil microbial biomass. Four treatments were installed, i. e., organic fertilizer only (CK), bio-fertilizer "Zhonghe" combined with organic fertilizer (ZHH), bio-fertilizer "NST" combined with organic fertilizer (NST), and bio-fertilizer "Bio" combined with organic fertilizer (BIO). Bio-fertilizers combined with organic fertilizer increased the cucumber yield significantly, and improved the root growth and leaf chlorophyll content. Comparing with that in CK, the cucumber yield in treatments ZHH, NST, and BIO was increased by 10.4%, 12.4%, and 29.2%, respectively. At the seedling stage, early flowering stage, and picking time of cucumber, the soil microbial biomass C and N in treatments ZHH, NST, and BIO were significantly higher than that in CK, and the activities of soil urease, acid phosphatase, and catalase were also higher.

  3. Spectral Changes of Cucumber Leaf During Adaptation of the Photosynthetic Apparatus to Led Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viazau, Y. V.; Kozel, N. V.; Domanski, V. P.; Shalygo, N. V.

    2015-01-01

    A direct correlation between the change of fluorescence at 77 K in leaves of cucumber plants growing under LED lighting and the change of the quantitative composition of structural proteins of PS1 and PS2 was established. It was shown that light absorption and the utilization of its energy during the long-term action of narrow-band light on cucumber plants could affect considerably spectra of the leaves because of changes in the synthesis of photosystem structural proteins.

  4. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renfu; Ariana, Diwan P.

    2011-06-01

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labor intensive and also prone to error due to human fatigue and the difficulty of visually detecting infestation that is hidden inside the fruit. In this research, a laboratory hyperspectral imaging system was used to detect fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers. Hyperspectral reflectance (450-740 nm) and transmittance (740-1,000 nm) images were acquired simultaneously for 329 normal (infestation free) and fruit flyinfested pickling cucumbers of three size classes with the mean diameters of 16.8, 22.1, and 27.6 mm, respectively. Mean spectra were extracted from the hyperspectral image of each cucumber, and they were then corrected for the fruit size effect using a diameter correction equation. Partial least squares discriminant analyses for the reflectance, transmittance and their combined data were performed for differentiating normal and infested pickling cucumbers. With reflectance mode, the overall classification accuracies for the three size classes and mixed class were between 82% and 88%, whereas transmittance achieved better classification results with the overall accuracies of 88%-93%. Integration of reflectance and transmittance did not result in noticeable improvements, compared to transmittance mode. Overall, the hyperspectral imaging system performed better than manual inspection, which had an overall accuracy of 75% and decreased significantly for smaller size cucumbers. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is potentially useful for detecting fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers.

  5. Triterpene glycosides from the deep-water North-Pacific sea cucumber Synallactes nozawai Mitsukuri.

    PubMed

    Silchenko, Alexandra S; Avilov, Sergey A; Antonov, Alexandr A; Kalinin, Vladimir I; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Smirnov, Alexey V; Riguera, Ricardo; Jiménez, Carlos

    2002-12-01

    Five non-sulfated triterpene glycosides, synallactosides A(1) (1), A(2) (2), B(1) (3), B(2) (4), and C (5), have been isolated from the sea cucumber Synallactes nozawai. Their structures have been deduced by extensive analysis of NMR and mass spectra. The glycosides 2-5 are new glycosides. Glycosides 2-4 have carbohydrate chains without precedent in the glycosides from sea cucumbers. This is the first time glycosides are found in members of the family Synallactidae.

  6. Two biologically distinct isolates of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus lack seed transmissibility in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Glasa, M; Kollerova, E

    2007-01-01

    The seed transmission of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) was studied in cucumber using two isolates unrelated in their biological characteristics. Although the virus could be readily detected in mature seeds harvested from infected cucumbers, the seedlings obtained from infected germinated seeds tested negative for ZYMV using both ELISA and RT-PCR assays. No evidence was obtained for transmission of two ZYMV isolates through seeds.

  7. Effect of vinegar residue compost amendments on cucumber growth and Fusarium wilt.

    PubMed

    Du, Nanshan; Shi, Lu; Du, Lantian; Yuan, Yinghui; Li, Bin; Sang, Ting; Sun, Jin; Shu, Sheng; Guo, Shirong

    2015-12-01

    Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum J. H. Owen is one of the major destructive soilborne diseases and results in considerable yield losses. Methyl bromide was once the most effective disease control method but has been confirmed as harmful to the environment. Using suppressive media as biological controls to assist crop growth is becoming popular. In this study, Fusarium wilt of cucumber was successfully controlled by a newly identified suppressive media: vinegar residue compost-amended media (vinegar residue compost mixed with peat and vermiculite in a 6:3:1 ratio (v/v) vinegar residue substrate (VRS). Greenhouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of VRS on the growth of cucumber seedlings and disease suppression. The control was peat/vermiculite (2:1, v/v). To identify the mixed media most suitable for the growth of plants and their suppressiveness indicators, we evaluated the biological characteristics of cucumber, the physicochemical and biochemical properties of the growth media, and the enzyme activities. Total organic C (C(org)), microbial biomass C (C(mic)), basal respiration (R(mic)), and enzyme (catalase, invertase, urease, proteinase, phosphatase, β-glucosidase, and hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate) activities increased significantly after vinegar waste compost amendment. The compost media also showed a significantly positive effect on the growth of cucumber seedlings and the suppression of the disease severity index (DSI, 38% reduction). The cucumber rhizosphere population of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was significantly lower in VRS than in the control. These results demonstrate convincingly that vinegar residue compost-amended media has a beneficial effect on cucumber growth and could be applied as a method for biological control of cucumber Fusarium wilt.

  8. Toxicity of Modified HL Simulant and Methyl Salicylate in Soil on Cucumbers and Earthworms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    SALICYLATE IN SOIL ON CUCUMBERS AND EARTHWORMS ruG JUL 1- 1993. Carlton T. Phillips Randall S. Wentsel RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE April 1993...Final, 89 Apr - 90 Oct 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Toxicity of Modified HL Simulant and Methyl Sales Order No. 2FLF3 Salicylate in Soil...methyl salicylate (MS), a component of HL simulant, was responsible for the toxicity exhibited by cucumbers and earthworms. The HL simulant without

  9. [Research on identification of cucumber, stem and leaf based on spectrum analysis technology].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Qing; Ji, Chang-Ying; Chen, Kun-Jie

    2011-10-01

    To be able to quickly identify the cucumber real time, the present paper studied the near infrared reflectance characteristics of cucumber, stem and leaf. Spectral reflectance of 138 samples (46 cucumbers, 46 stems and 46 leaves) was collected using near infrared spectroscopy in the band range of 600-1 099 nm indoor. After Savitzky-Golay smoothing preprocessing, random 108 spectral samples were put forward as calibration set. The weighted deviation method was used for choosing the spectral bands 690-950 nm that include much more information. The samples were analyzed by PCA method to extract the principal component scores, combining the Mahalanobis distance method the recognition model was established, and seven abnormal samples were excluded. The partial least squares (PLS) model was established by remaining 101 samples spectra of calibration set, which was used for predicting the validation set (30 samples except of the calibration set). The result shows that the correlation of the predicted value and the actual value reaches up to 0.994 1, and the correct recognition rate is 100%. This significantly illustrates that the near infrared spectral reflectance characteristics are different among the cucumbers, stems and leaves, which can be successfully applied to recognition of cucumber by the method. The developed technique can provide a new method for cucumber identification.

  10. Residue dynamic of pyrimorph on tomatoes, cucumbers and soil under greenhouse trails.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhao, Lianlian; Li, Xuesheng; Jiang, Yaping; Li, Nan; Qin, Zhaohai; Pan, Canping

    2011-03-01

    A modified QuEChERS method for analysis of pyrimorph residue in tomatoes, cucumbers and soil was developed and validated. Residue dynamics and final residues in greenhouse vegetables and soil were studied. At fortification levels of 0.05, 0.1 and 1 mg kg(-1) in tomatoes, cucumbers and soil, the method got recoveries ranged from 86.1% to 99.3% with relative standard deviations of 1.0%-7.7%, in agreement with directives for method validation in residue analysis. The limit of determination in tomatoes, cucumbers and soil was 0.05 mg kg(-1). The proposed method was successfully employed for the determination of pyrimorph residue levels and dissipation rates in vegetables and soil. At six experimental sites, pyrimorph residues in tomatoes and cucumbers showed relatively fast dissipation rates, with half-lives of 5.8-7.7 days and 5.7-7.1 days respectively. Half-lives of pyrimorph in soil were 8.5-11.0 days. The final residues of pyrimorph in tomatoes ranged from 0.19 to 3.66 mg kg(-1), 0.18 to 4.35 mg kg(-1) in cucumbers and 0.22 to 16.5 mg kg(-1) in soil with pre-harvest interval of 3-7 days. 5 mg kg(-1) was proposed as the MRL of pyrimorph in tomatoes and cucumbers.

  11. Identification of differentially expressed genes related to aphid resistance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Danna; Liu, Min; Hu, Qijing; He, Min; Qi, Xiaohua; Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Fucai; Chen, Xuehao

    2015-01-01

    Cucumber, a very important vegetable crop worldwide, is easily damaged by pests. Aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover) are among the most serious pests in cucumber production and often cause severe loss of yield and make fruit quality get worse. Identifying genes that render cucumbers resistant to aphid-induced damage and breeding aphid-resistant cucumber varieties have become the most promising control strategies. In this study, a Illumina Genome Analyzer platform was applied to monitor changes in gene expression in the whole genome of the cucumber cultivar ‘EP6392’ which is resistant to aphids. Nine DGE libraries were constructed from infected and uninfected leaves. In total, 49 differentially expressed genes related to cucumber aphid resistance were screened during the treatment period. These genes are mainly associated with signal transduction, plant-pathogen interactions, flavonoid biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism and sugar metabolism pathways. Eight of the 49 genes may be associated with aphid resistance. Finally, expression of 9 randomly selected genes was evaluated by qRT-PCR to verify the results for the tag-mapped genes. With the exception of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homolog 6, the expression of the chosen genes was in agreement with the results of the tag-sequencing analysis patterns. PMID:25959296

  12. Nitrate Increased Cucumber Tolerance to Fusarium Wilt by Regulating Fungal Toxin Production and Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jinyan; Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Saydin, Asanjan; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2017-01-01

    Cucumber Fusarium wilt, induced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC), causes severe losses in cucumber yield and quality. Nitrogen (N), as the most important mineral nutrient for plants, plays a critical role in plant–pathogen interactions. Hydroponic assays were conducted to investigate the effects of different N forms (NH4+ vs. NO3‒) and supply levels (low, 1 mM; high, 5 mM) on cucumber Fusarium wilt. The NO3‒-fed cucumber plants were more tolerant to Fusarium wilt compared with NH4+-fed plants, and accompanied by lower leaf temperature after FOC infection. The disease index decreased as the NO3‒ supply increased but increased with the NH4+ level supplied. Although the FOC grew better under high NO3− in vitro, FOC colonization and fusaric acid (FA) production decreased in cucumber plants under high NO3− supply, associated with lower leaf membrane injury. There was a positive correlation between the FA content and the FOC number or relative membrane injury. After the exogenous application of FA, less FA accumulated in the leaves under NO3− feeding, accompanied with a lower leaf membrane injury. In conclusion, higher NO3− supply protected cucumber plants against Fusarium wilt by suppressing FOC colonization and FA production in plants, and increasing the plant tolerance to FA. PMID:28287458

  13. High-Value Components and Bioactives from Sea Cucumbers for Functional Foods—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2011-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:22072996

  14. Identification of differentially expressed genes related to aphid resistance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Liang, Danna; Liu, Min; Hu, Qijing; He, Min; Qi, Xiaohua; Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Fucai; Chen, Xuehao

    2015-05-11

    Cucumber, a very important vegetable crop worldwide, is easily damaged by pests. Aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover) are among the most serious pests in cucumber production and often cause severe loss of yield and make fruit quality get worse. Identifying genes that render cucumbers resistant to aphid-induced damage and breeding aphid-resistant cucumber varieties have become the most promising control strategies. In this study, a Illumina Genome Analyzer platform was applied to monitor changes in gene expression in the whole genome of the cucumber cultivar 'EP6392' which is resistant to aphids. Nine DGE libraries were constructed from infected and uninfected leaves. In total, 49 differentially expressed genes related to cucumber aphid resistance were screened during the treatment period. These genes are mainly associated with signal transduction, plant-pathogen interactions, flavonoid biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism and sugar metabolism pathways. Eight of the 49 genes may be associated with aphid resistance. Finally, expression of 9 randomly selected genes was evaluated by qRT-PCR to verify the results for the tag-mapped genes. With the exception of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homolog 6, the expression of the chosen genes was in agreement with the results of the tag-sequencing analysis patterns.

  15. Mechanical stress induces neuroendocrine and immune responses of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jie; Li, Fenghui; Sun, Huiling; Gao, Fei; Yan, Jingping; Gai, Chunlei; Chen, Aihua; Wang, Qingyin

    2015-04-01

    Grading procedure in routine sea cucumber hatchery production is thought to affect juvenile sea cucumber immunological response. The present study investigated the impact of a 3-min mechanical perturbation mimicking the grading procedure on neuroendocrine and immune parameters of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. During the application of stress, concentrations of noradrenaline and dopamine in coelomic fluid increased significantly, indicating that the mechanical perturbation resulted in a transient state of stress in sea cucumbers. Coelomocytes concentration in coelomic fluid increased transiently after the beginning of stressing, and reached the maximum in 1 h. Whereas, coelomocytes phagocytosis at 3 min, superoxide anion production from 3 min to 0.5 h, acid phosphatase activity at 0.5 h, and phenoloxidase activity from 3 min to 0.5 h were all significantly down-regulated. All of the immune parameters recovered to baseline levels after the experiment was conducted for 8 h, and an immunostimulation occurred after the stress considering the phagocytosis and acid phosphatase activity. The results suggested that, as in other marine invertebrates, neuroendocrine/immune connections exist in sea cucumber A. japonicus. Mechanical stress can elicit a profound influence on sea cucumber neuroendocrine system. Neuroendocrine messengers act in turn to modulate the immunity functions. Therefore, these effects should be considered for developing better husbandry procedures.

  16. Distinct physiological responses of tomato and cucumber plants in silicon-mediated alleviation of cadmium stress

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiawen; Guo, Jia; Hu, Yanhong; Gong, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    The alleviative effects of silicon (Si) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity were investigated in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grown hydroponically. The growth of both plant species was inhibited by 100 μM Cd, but Si application counteracted the adverse effects on growth. Si application significantly decreased the Cd concentrations in shoots of both species and roots of cucumber. The root-to-shoot transport of Cd was depressed by added Si in tomato whereas it was increased by added Si in cucumber. The total content of organic acids was decreased in tomato leaves but increased in cucumber roots and leaves by Si application under Cd stress. Si application also increased the cell wall polysaccharide levels in the roots of both species under Cd toxicity. Si-mediated changes in levels of organic acids and cell wall polysaccharides might contribute to the differences in Cd transport in the two species. In addition, Si application also mitigated Cd-induced oxidative damage in both species. The results indicate that there were different mechanisms for Si-mediated decrease in shoot Cd accumulation: in tomato, Si supply decreased root-to-shoot Cd transport; whereas in cucumber, Si supply reduced the Cd uptake by roots. It is suggested that Si-mediated Cd tolerance is associated with different physiological responses in tomato and cucumber plants. PMID:26136764

  17. Habitat characteristic of two selected locations for sea cucumber ranching purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartati, Retno; Trianto, Agus; Widianingsih

    2017-02-01

    Sea cucumbers face heavily overfished because of their high prices and very strong market demand. One effort suggested to overcome this problem is sea ranching. The objectives of present works were to determine biological, physical, and chemical characteristics of prospective location for sea ranching of sea cucumber Holothuria atra. Two location at Jepara Waters (Teluk Awur and Bandengan WateRs of Jepara Regency) were selected. The determination of chemical (salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen of water, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium of water and sediment, organic matters of sediment), physical (transparancy, sedimen grains size, water current direction and its velocity), biologycal characteristic (coverage of seagrass and its macroalgae associated, phytoplankton as well as chlorophyl-a and phaeopytin of water and sediment) ware determined. The result of present work showed that some characteristic were matched with requirement as sea ranching location of sea cucumber because the density of sea cucumber in the sea is a function of habitat features. For sediment feeding holothurians of the family Aspidochirotida, the biologycal characteristic act as very important considerations by providing sea cucumber food. High cholophyl-a and phaeopytin in sediment also represent a prosperous habitat for sea cucumber ranching.

  18. Characterization and comparison of proteomes of albino sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) by iTRAQ analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chang-ge; Zhang, Dijun; Ma, Chengnv; Zhou, Jun; He, Shan; Su, Xiu-rong

    2016-04-01

    Sea cucumber is a commercially important marine organism in China. Of the different colored varieties sold in China, albino sea cucumber has the greatest appeal among consumers. Identification of factors contributing to albinism in sea cucumber is therefore likely to provide a scientific basis for improving the cultivability of these strains. In this study, two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification labeling was used for the first time to quantitatively define the proteome of sea cucumbers and reveal proteomic characteristics unique to albino sea cucumbers. A total of 549 proteins were identified and quantified in albino sea cucumber and the functional annotations of 485 proteins have been exhibited based on COG database. Compared with green sea cucumber, 12 proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the intestine and 16 proteins in the body wall of albino sea cucumber. Among them, 5 proteins were up-regulated in the intestine and 8 proteins were down-regulated in body wall. Gene ontology annotations of these differentially expressed proteins consisted mostly of 'biological process'. The large number of differentially expressed proteins identified here should be highly useful in further elucidating the mechanisms underlying albinism in sea cucumber.

  19. Backcross introgression of plastomic factors controlling chilling tolerance into elite cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) germplasm: Early generation recovery of recurrent parent phenotytpe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental stresses such as chilling temperatures can decrease germination, emergence, flower and fruit development, marketable yield, and postharvest fruit storage longevity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). While response to chilling injury in cucumber is controlled by simple plastidic (matern...

  20. Differential permeation of artemia cysts and cucumber seeds by alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. W.; Siegel, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    The rate of penetration of the simpler alcohols into brine shrimp cysts and cucumber seeds was studied. In solutions below 70% the rate of penetration is related to lipid solvent capacity of the alcohol. In concentrations above 70%, particularly in absolute alcohols, methanol penetrates brine shrimp rapidly and ethanol penetrates slowly. All the other alcohols tested did not penetrate the dormant structures. Ethionine and deuteroxy-methanol did not affect the rate of penetration of methanol. It is suggested that in dehydrated membranes the lipid moiety is protected by a continuous sheet of protein. Methanol, which is fairly similar to water, is probably able to penetrate the membrane by initiating a conformation change in the protein, exposing the lipid which subsequently dissolves in the methanol thus destroying the membrane.

  1. The magnesium-chelatase in developing cucumber cotyledons

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.J.; Weinstein, J.D. )

    1990-05-01

    Mg-chelatase in chloroplasts catalyzes the insertion of Mg into protoporphyrin. This step is the first in the tetrapyrrole pathway unique to chlorophyll biosynthesis. Mg-chelatase was assayed in semi-green cucumber cotyledons by an adaptation of the method of Fuesler at al, (1984) Plant Physiol. 74, 928-933. Plastid intactness was essential for Mg-chelatase activity. The estimated Km for the protoporphyrin substrate was between 0.5 and 1.0 {mu}M. In the presence of 4 mM ATP and an ATP regenerating system, activities of 500 pmol Mg-Protoporphyrin/mg protein/20 min were routinely recorded. In greening cotyledons, the specific activity of the Mg-chelatase increased steadily until the chlorophyll content of the plastids reached about 30 nmol/mg plastid protein, at which point further greening caused a decrease in Mg-chelatase activity. The total heme content of the plastids also rose with greening and paralleled the increase in Mg-chelatase activity. The regulation of heme levels and Mg-chelatase activity in greening cotyledons will be discussed. Substrate specificity studies showed that mesoporphyrin and deuteroporphyrin were active substrates for Mg chelation. The Mg-chelatase was not inhibited by its product, Mg-Protoporphyrin, but was inhibited by N-methyl mesoporphyrin (I{sub 50} = 2.5 {mu}M). Mg-chelatase activity was also measured in fully mature pea and corn chloroplasts (grown under diurnal light); the specific activities were comparable with those in cucumber.

  2. Gravitropism of cucumber hypocotyls: biophysical mechanism of altered growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The biophysical basis for the changes in cell elongation rate during gravitropism was examined in aetiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls. Bulk osmotic pressures on the two sides of the stem and in the epidermal cells were not altered during the early time course of gravitropism. By the pressure-probe technique, a small increase in turgor (0.3 bar, 30 kPa) was detected on the upper (inhibited) side, whereas there was a negligible decrease in turgor on the lower (stimulated) side. These small changes in turgor and water potential appeared to be indirect, passive consequences of the altered growth and the small resistance for water movement from the xylem, and indicated that the change in growth was principally due to changes in wall properties. The results indicate that the hydraulic conductance of the water-transport pathway was large (.25 h-1 bar-1) and the water potential difference supporting cell expansion was no greater than 0.3 bar (30 kPa). From pressure-block experiments, it appeared that upon gravitropic stimulation (1) the yield threshold of the lower half of the stem did not decrease and (2) the wall on the upper side of the stem was not made more rigid by a cross-linking process. Mechanical measurements of the stress/strain properties of the walls showed that the initial development of gravitropism did not involve an alteration of the mechanical behaviour of the isolated walls. Thus, gravitropism in cucumber hypocotyls occurs principally by an alteration of the wall relaxation process, without a necessary change in wall mechanical properties.

  3. Shelf life extension of minimally processed cabbage and cucumber through gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Khattak, Amal Badshah; Bibi, Nizakat; Chaudry, Muhammad Ashraf; Khan, Misal; Khan, Maazullah; Qureshi, Muhammad Jamil

    2005-01-01

    The influence of irradiation of minimally processed cabbage and cucumber on microbial safety, texture, and sensory quality was investigated. Minimally processed, polyethylene-packed, and irradiated cabbage and cucumber were stored at refrigeration temperature (5 degrees C) for 2 weeks. The firmness values ranged from 3.23 kg (control) to 2.82 kg (3.0-kGy irradiated samples) for cucumbers, with a gradual decrease in firmness with increasing radiation dose (0 to 3 kGy). Cucumbers softened just after irradiation with a dose of 3.0 kGy and after 14 days storage, whereas the texture remained within acceptable limits up to a radiation dose of 2.5 kGy. The radiation treatment had no effect on the appearance scores of cabbage; however, scores decreased from 7.0 to 6.7 during storage. The appearance and flavor scores of cucumbers decreased with increasing radiation dose, and overall acceptability was better after radiation doses of 2.5 and 3.0 kGy. The aerobic plate counts per gram for cabbage increased from 3 to 5 log CFU (control), from 1.85 to 2.93 log CFU (2.5 kGy), and from a few colonies to 2.6 log CFU (3.0 kGy) after 14 days of storage at 5 degrees C. A similar trend was noted for cucumber samples. No coliform bacteria were detected at radiation doses greater than 2.0 kGy in either cabbage or cucumber samples. Total fungal counts per gram of sample were within acceptable limits for cucumbers irradiated at 3.0 kGy, and for cabbage no fungi were detected after 2.0-kGy irradiation. The D-values for Escherichia coli in cucumber and cabbage were 0.19 and 0.17 kGy, and those for Salmonella Paratyphi A were 0.25 and 0.29 kGy for cucumber and cabbage, respectively.

  4. QTL mapping in multiple populations and development stages reveals dynamic quantitative trait loci for fruit size in cucumbers of different market classes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit size is an important quality trait in cucumber of different market classes. The genetic and molecular basis of fruit size variations in cucumber is not well understood. In this study, we conducted QTL mapping of fruit size in cucumber using three mapping populations developed from cross betwee...

  5. Commercial Scale Cucumber Fermentations Brined with Calcium Chloride Instead of Sodium Chloride.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F; Moeller, L; Johanningsmeier, S D; Hayes, J; Fornea, D S; Rosenberg, L; Gilbert, C; Custis, N; Beene, K; Bass, D

    2015-12-01

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) instead of NaCl to commercial scale production. Although CaCl2 brined cucumber fermentations were stable in laboratory experiments, commercial scale trials using 6440 L open-top tanks rapidly underwent secondary cucumber fermentation. It was understood that a limited air purging routine, use of a starter culture and addition of preservatives to the cover brine aids in achieving the desired complete cucumber fermentation. The modified process was used for subsequent commercial trials using 12490 and 28400 L open-top tanks packed with variable size cucumbers and from multiple lots, and cover brines containing CaCl2 and potassium sorbate to equilibrated concentrations of 100 and 6 mM, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum LA0045 was inoculated to 10(6) CFU/mL, and air purging was applied for two 2-3 h periods per day for the first 10 d of fermentation and one 2-3 h period per day between days 11 and 14. All fermentations were completed, as evidenced by the full conversion of sugars to lactic acid, decrease in pH to 3.0, and presented microbiological stability for a minimum of 21 d. This CaCl2 process may be used to produce fermented cucumbers intended to be stored short term in a manner that reduces pollution and waste removal costs.

  6. Biocontrol activity and primed systemic resistance by compost water extracts against anthracnoses of pepper and cucumber.

    PubMed

    Sang, Mee Kyung; Kim, Ki Deok

    2011-06-01

    We investigated direct and indirect effects of compost water extracts (CWEs) from Iljuk-3, Iljuk-7, Shinong-8, and Shinong-9 for the control of anthracnoses caused by Colletotrichum coccodes on pepper and C. orbiculare on cucumber. All tested CWEs significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited in vitro conidial germination and appressorium formation of the fungal pathogens; however, DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA) failed to inhibit the conidial development of the pathogens. Direct treatments of the CWEs and BABA on pepper and cucumber leaves at 1 and 3 days before or after inoculation significantly (P < 0.05) reduced anthracnose severities; Iljuk-3, Shinong-9, and BABA for pepper and Iljuk-7 for cucumber had more protective activities than curative activities. In addition, root treatment of CWEs suppressed anthracnoses on the plants by the pathogens; however, CWE treatment on lower leaves failed to reduce the diseases on the upper leaves of the plants. The CWE root treatments enhanced not only the expression of the pathogenesis-related (PR) genes CABPR1, CABGLU, CAChi2, CaPR-4, CAPO1, and CaPR-10 in pepper and PR1-1a, PR-2, PR-3, and APOX in cucumber but also the activity of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, and peroxidase and the generation of hydrogen peroxide in pepper and cucumber under pathogen-inoculated conditions. However, the CWE treatments failed to induce the plant responses under pathogen-free conditions. These results indicated that the CWEs had direct effects, reducing anthracnoses by C. coccodes on pepper leaves and C. orbiculare on cucumber leaves through protective and curative effects. In addition, CWE root treatments could induce systemic resistance in the primed state against pathogens on plant leaves that enhanced PR gene expression, defense-related enzyme production, and hydrogen peroxide generation rapidly and effectively immediately after pathogen infection. Thus, the CWEs might suppress anthracnoses on leaves of both pepper and cucumber through primed

  7. QTLs for downy mildew resistance and their association with LRR-RLK resistance gene analogs in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy mildew (DM) caused by the obligate oomycete Pseudoperonospora cubensis is an important disease of cucumber and other cucurbit crops. For more than 50 years, DM was effectively controlled in cucumber through host resistance. The dm-1 gene became less effective in 2004 due to the appearance of a...

  8. Persistence and protection of mitochondrial DNA in the generative cell of cucumber is consistent with its paternal transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber, unlike most plants, shows paternal inheritance of its mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); however, the mechanisms regulating this unique transmission mode are unclear. Here we monitored the amounts of mtDNA through the development of cucumber microspores to pollen and observed that mtDNA decreases ...

  9. Response to Phenotypic and Marker-Assisted Selection for Yield and Quality Component Traits in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even though the potential benefits of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for line and population development to improve yield in cucumber have been demonstrated, its application during tandem selection for yield and quality components has not been investigated. Therefore, two cucumber recombinant inbr...

  10. Preservation of acidified cucumbers with a combination of fumaric acid and cinnamaldehyde that target lactic acid bacteria and yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The naturally occurring compound, fumaric acid, was evaluated as a potential preservative for the long-term storage of cucumbers. Fumaric acid inhibited growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in an acidified cucumber juice medium model system resembling conditions that could allow preservation of cucu...

  11. Nondestructive detection of chilling injury in cucumber fruit using hyperspectral imaging with feature selection and supervised classification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilling injury, as a physiological disorder in cucumbers, occurs after the fruit has been subjected to low temperatures. It is thus desirable to detect chilling injury at early stages and/or remove chilling injured cucumbers during sorting and grading. This research was aimed to apply hyperspectral...

  12. Metabolism of lactic acid in fermented cucumbers by Lactobacillus buchneri and related species, potential spoilage organisms in reduced salt fermentations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent evidence suggests that Lactobacillus buchneri may play an important role in spoilage-associated secondary fermentation of cucumbers. Lactic acid degradation during fermented cucumber spoilage is influenced by sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, pH, and presence of oxygen. Objectives were to...

  13. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial ins...

  14. A method of genotyping by pedigree-based training-set for identification of QTLs associated with cucumber fruit size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large sets of genomic data are becoming available for cucumber (Cucumis sativus), yet there is no tool for whole genome genotyping. Creation of saturated genetic maps depends on development of good markers. The present cucumber genetic maps are based on several hundreds of markers. However they are ...

  15. Effect of shrink wrap packaging for maintaining quality of cucumber during storage.

    PubMed

    Dhall, Rajinder Kumar; Sharma, Sanjeev R; Mahajan, B V C

    2012-08-01

    Immature green cucumber cv. 'Padmini' fruits were individually shrink wrapped with Cryovac D955 (60 guage) film and stored at 12 ± 1 °C, 90-95% RH as well as ambient conditions (29-33 °C, 65-70% RH). At 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH, individual shrink wrapped cucumber recorded minimum Physiological loss in weight (0.66%) as compared with unwrapped fruits (11.11%) at the end of refrigerated storage (15 days). The softening (loss of firmness) was maximum (1304.6-876.6 g force) in unwrapped cucumbers whereas in shrink wrapping, minimum loss in firmness (1304.6-1065.3 g force) was observed after 12 days storage at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH but greater loss of weight and firmness makes the control cucumbers unmarketable after 9 days of storage. There were no rotting at all both in shrink wrapped and unwrapped cucumbers upto 15 days of storage at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH. After 15 days storage of shrink wrapped cucumbers at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH, there was loss of green colour and development of yellowness and decay. The sensory attributes score was highest in shrink wrapped cucumbers as compared to unwrapped cucumbers at end of both storage conditions. Thus it can be concluded that individual shrink wrapped cucumber can be stored well upto 15 days at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH and for 5 days at ambient conditions (29-33 °C, 65-70% RH) with maximum retention of green colour, no spoilage, minimum weight and firmness loss and very good sensory quality attributes whereas, unwrapped fruits can be stored well upto 9 days at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH and for 2 days at ambient conditions with maximum retention of physico-chemical quality attributes.

  16. Unraveling Main Limiting Sites of Photosynthesis under Below- and Above-Ground Heat Stress in Cucumber and the Alleviatory Role of Luffa Rootstock

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Ahammed, Golam J.; Zhou, Guona; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Zhou, Yanhong

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis is one of the most thermo-sensitive processes in plants. Although the severity of heat stress could be attenuated by grafting approach, the primary damaged site of photosynthesis system under heat stress and the regulatory mechanism of rootstock-mediated heat tolerance are poorly understood. In the current study, cucumber plants grafted onto their own roots and heat-tolerant luffa roots were exposed to root-zone heat (25/40°C) and aerial heat (40/25°C) individually and in combination (40/40°C) to understand the response of photosynthetic process by investigating energy absorption and distribution, electron transport in photosystem (PS) II and I, and CO2 assimilation. According to the results, root-zone heat stress inhibited photosynthesis mainly through decreasing Rubisco activity, while aerial heat stress mainly through inhibiting PSII acceptor side. The imbalance in light absorption and utilization resulted in accumulation of reactive oxygen species that caused damage to photosynthetic apparatus, forming a vicious cycle. On the contrary, grafting cucumber onto heat-tolerant luffa rootstock alleviated heat-induced photosynthetic inhibition and oxidative stress by maintaining higher root vitality, HSP70 accumulation, and antioxidant potential. PMID:27313587

  17. Enhanced control of cucumber wilt disease by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 by altering the regulation of Its DegU phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhihui; Zhang, Ruifu; Wang, Dandan; Qiu, Meihua; Feng, Haichao; Zhang, Nan; Shen, Qirong

    2014-05-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain SQR9, isolated from the cucumber rhizosphere, suppresses the growth of Fusarium oxysporum in the cucumber rhizosphere and protects the host plant from pathogen invasion through efficient root colonization. In the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus, the response regulator DegU regulates genetic competence, swarming motility, biofilm formation, complex colony architecture, and protease production. In this study, we report that stepwise phosphorylation of DegU in B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 can influence biocontrol activity by coordinating multicellular behavior and regulating the synthesis of antibiotics. Results from in vitro and in situ experiments and quantitative PCR (qPCR) studies demonstrate the following: (i) that the lowest level of phosphorylated DegU (DegU∼P) (the degQ mutation) impairs complex colony architecture, biofilm formation, colonization activities, and biocontrol efficiency of Fusarium wilt disease but increases the production of macrolactin and bacillaene, and (ii) that increasing the level of DegU∼P by degQ and degSU overexpression significantly improves complex colony architecture, biofilm formation, colonization activities, production of the antibiotics bacillomycin D and difficidin, and efficiency of biocontrol of Fusarium wilt disease. The results offer a new strategy to enhance the biocontrol efficacy of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9.

  18. Characterization of Synergy Between Cucumber mosaic virus and Potyviruses in Cucurbit Hosts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongzeng; Gaba, Victor; Yang, Jie; Palukaitis, Peter; Gal-On, Amit

    2002-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mixed infections of cucurbits by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and potyviruses exhibit a synergistic interaction. Zucchini squash and melon plants coinfected by the potyvirus Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and either Fny-CMV (subgroup IA) or LS-CMV (subgroup II) displayed strong synergistic pathological responses, eventually progressing to vascular wilt and plant death. Accumulation of Fny- or LS-CMV RNAs in a mixed infection with ZYMV in zucchini squash was slightly higher than infection with CMV strains alone. There was an increase in CMV (+) strand RNA levels, but no increase in CMV (-) RNA3 levels during mixed infection with ZYMV. Moreover, only the level of capsid protein from LS-CMV increased in mixed infection. ZYMV accumulated to similar levels in singly and mixed infected zucchini squash and melon plants. Coinfection of squash with the potyvirus Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) and CMV strains increased both the Fny-CMV RNA levels and the LS-CMV RNA levels. However, CMV (-) strand RNA3 levels were increased little or not at all for CMV on coinfection with WMV. Infection of CMV strains (LS and Fny) containing satellite RNAs (WL47-sat RNA and B5*-sat RNA) reduced the accumulation of the helper virus RNA, except when B5*-sat RNA was mixed with LS- CMV. However, mixed infection containing ZYMV and the CMV strains with satellites reversed the suppression effect of satellite RNAs on helper virus accumulation and increased satellite RNA accumulation. The synergistic interaction between CMV and potyviruses in cucurbits exhibited different features from that documented in tobacco, indicating there are differences in the mechanisms of potyvirus synergistic phenomena.

  19. The morphology of autotomy structures in the sea cucumber Eupentacta quinquesemita before and during evisceration.

    PubMed

    Byrne, M

    2001-03-01

    Evisceration in the dendrochirotid sea cucumber Eupentacta quinquesemita is a whole-body response involving a predictable series of events including muscle contraction and failure of three autotomy structures: (i) the introvert, the dexterous anterior extensible portion of the body wall, (ii) the tendon linking the pharyngeal retractor muscle to the longitudinal body wall muscle and (iii) the intestine-cloacal junction. The autotomy structures are histologically complex, consisting of muscle, nervous and connective tissue. Autotomy resulted from complete loss in the tensility of the connective tissue ground substance. Separation of the autotomy structures was facilitated by muscle contraction. The cell and tissue changes involved with autotomy were documented by microscopic examination of autotomising tissue. Change in the autotomy structures appears to initiate from the peritoneal side with delamination of the peritoneum followed by a wave of disruption as the connective tissue is infiltrated by coelomic fluid. Evisceration and autotomy in E. quinquesemita are neurally controlled, so particular attention was paid to the fate of neuronal elements. Neurosecretory-like processes containing large dense vesicles and axons were present in the connective tissue layers of the autotomy structures in association with extracellular matrix, muscles and neurons. These neuronal elements remained largely intact during autotomy and did not appear to be a source of factors that effect connective tissue change. They may, however, be involved in muscle activity. Holothuroid autotomy structures are completely or partially bathed in coelomic fluid, so there is potential for hormonal or neurosecretory activity using the coelomic fluid as a conduit. Connective tissue change during evisceration appears to be effected or mediated by an evisceration factor present in coelomic fluid that has a direct transmitter-like or neurosecretory-like mode of operation. The final outcome, expulsion of

  20. Cucumber Metallothionein-Like 2 (CsMTL2) Exhibits Metal-Binding Properties

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yu; Pan, Yanglu; Zhai, Junpeng; Xiong, Yan; Li, Jinhua; Du, Xiaobing; Su, Chenggang; Zhang, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    We identified a novel member of the metallothionein (MT) family, Cucumis sativus metallothionein-like 2 (CsMTL2), by screening a young cucumber fruit complementary DNA (cDNA) library. The CsMTL2 encodes a putative 77-amino acid Class II MT protein that contains two cysteine (Cys)-rich domains separated by a Cys-free spacer region. We found that CsMTL2 expression was regulated by metal stress and was specifically induced by Cd2+ treatment. We investigated the metal-binding characteristics of CsMTL2 and its possible role in the homeostasis and/or detoxification of metals by heterologous overexpression in Escherichia coli cells. Furthermore, we produced a deletion mutant form of the protein, CsMTL2m, that contained the two Cys-rich clusters but lacked the spacer region, in E. coli. We compared the metal-binding properties of CsMTL2 with those of CsMTL2m, the β domain of human metallothionein-like protein 1 (HsMTXb), and phytochelatin-like (PCL) heterologously expressed in E. coli using metal-binding assays. We found that E. coli cells expressing CsMTL2 accumulated the highest levels of Zn2+ and Cd2+ of the four transformed cell types, with levels being significantly higher than those of control cells containing empty vector. E. coli cells expressing CsMTL2 had a higher tolerance for cadmium than for zinc ions. These findings show that CsMTL2 improves metal tolerance when heterologously expressed in E. coli. Future studies should examine whether CsMTL2 improves metal tolerance in planta. PMID:27916887

  1. Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfates from the Body Wall of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria forskali

    PubMed Central

    Panagos, Charalampos G.; Thomson, Derek S.; Moss, Claire; Hughes, Adam D.; Kelly, Maeve S.; Liu, Yan; Chai, Wengang; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive P.; Hogwood, John; Woods, Robert J.; Mulloy, Barbara; Bavington, Charlie D.; Uhrín, Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) extracted from the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali is composed of the following repeating trisaccharide unit: →3)GalNAcβ4,6S(1→4) [FucαX(1→3)]GlcAβ(1→, where X stands for different sulfation patterns of fucose (X = 3,4S (46%), 2,4S (39%), and 4S (15%)). As revealed by NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, the fCS repeating unit adopts a conformation similar to that of the Lex blood group determinant, bringing several sulfate groups into close proximity and creating large negative patches distributed along the helical skeleton of the CS backbone. This may explain the high affinity of fCS oligosaccharides for L- and P-selectins as determined by microarray binding of fCS oligosaccharides prepared by Cu2+-catalyzed Fenton-type and photochemical depolymerization. No binding to E-selectin was observed. fCS poly- and oligosaccharides display low cytotoxicity in vitro, inhibit human neutrophil elastase activity, and inhibit the migration of neutrophils through an endothelial cell layer in vitro. Although the polysaccharide showed some anti-coagulant activity, small oligosaccharide fCS fragments had much reduced anticoagulant properties, with activity mainly via heparin cofactor II. The fCS polysaccharides showed prekallikrein activation comparable with dextran sulfate, whereas the fCS oligosaccharides caused almost no effect. The H. forskali fCS oligosaccharides were also tested in a mouse peritoneal inflammation model, where they caused a reduction in neutrophil infiltration. Overall, the data presented support the action of fCS as an inhibitor of selectin interactions, which play vital roles in inflammation and metastasis progression. Future studies of fCS-selectin interaction using fCS fragments or their mimetics may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25147180

  2. Transcriptomic analysis reveals distinct resistant response by physcion and chrysophanol against cucumber powdery mildew

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanping; Tian, Shilin; Yang, Xiaojun; Wang, Xin; Guo, Yuhai

    2016-01-01

    Physcion and chrysophanol induce defense responses against powdery mildew in cucumbers. The combination of these two compounds has synergistic interaction against the disease. We performed RNA-seq on cucumber leaf samples treated with physcion and chrysophanol alone and with their combination. We generated 17.6 Gb of high-quality sequencing data (∼2 Gb per sample) and catalogued the expressions profiles of 12,293 annotated cucumber genes in each sample. We identified numerous differentially expressed genes that exhibited distinct expression patterns among the three treatments. The gene expression patterns of the Chr and Phy treatments were more similar to each other than to the Phy × Chr treatment. The Phy × Chr treatment induced the highest number of differentially expressed genes. This dramatic transcriptional change after Phy × Chr treatment leaves reflects that physcion combined with chrysophanol treatment was most closely associated with induction of disease resistance. The analysis showed that the combination treatment caused expression changes of numerous defense-related genes. These genes have known or potential roles in structural, chemical and signaling defense responses and were enriched in functional gene categories potentially responsible for cucumber resistance. These results clearly demonstrated that disease resistance in cucumber leaves was significantly influenced by the combined physcion and chrysophanol treatment. Thus, physcion and chrysophanol are appealing candidates for further investigation of the gene expression and associated regulatory mechanisms related to the defense response. PMID:27231648

  3. Paenibacillus polymyxa NSY50 suppresses Fusarium wilt in cucumbers by regulating the rhizospheric microbial community.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lu; Du, Nanshan; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Li, Shuzhan; Guo, Shirong

    2017-02-13

    Paenibacillus polymyxa (P. polymyxa) NSY50, isolated from vinegar residue substrate, suppresses the growth of Fusarium oxysporum in the cucumber rhizosphere and protects the host plant from pathogen invasion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of NSY50 application on cucumber growth, soil properties and composition of the rhizospheric soil microbial community after exposure to Fusarium oxysporum. Bacterial and fungal communities were investigated by Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions (ITS1 and ITS2). The results showed that NSY50 effectively reduced the incidence of Fusarium wilt (56.4%) by altering the soil physico-chemical properties (e.g., pH, Cmic, Rmic, total N and Corg) and enzyme activities, especially of urease and β-glucosidase, which were significantly increased by 2.25- and 2.64-fold, respectively, relative to the pathogen treatment condition. More specifically, NSY50 application reduced the abundance of Fusarium and promoted potentially beneficial groups, including the Bacillus, Actinobacteria, Streptomyces, Actinospica, Catenulispora and Pseudomonas genera. Thus, our results suggest that NSY50 application can improve soil properties, shift the microbial community by increasing beneficial strains and decreasing pathogen colonization in the cucumber rhizosphere, and reduce the occurrence of cucumber Fusarium wilt, thereby promoting cucumber growth.

  4. A Multi Residue GC-MS Method for Determination of 12 Pesticides in Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Azadeh; Amirahmadi, Maryam; Mousavi, Zahra; Shoeibi, Shahram; Khajeamiri, Alireza; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Cucumber is one of the main vegetables in Iranian food basket. A wide range of pesticides are used for crops protection during the cultivation of vegetables such as cucumber due to heavy pest infestation. Analysis of pesticide residues in food and other environmental commodities have become essential requirement for consumers, producers, and food quality control authorities. This study was aimed at determination of pesticides residues in cucumber as a main vegetable in Iranian food basket. A reliable, rapid and accurate method based on spiked calibration curves and modified QuEChERS sample preparation was developed for determination of 12 pesticide residues in cucumber by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The use of spiked calibration standards for constructing the calibration curve substantially reduced adverse matrix-related effects. The recovery of pesticides at 5 concentration levels (n = 3) was in the range of 80.6-112.3. The method was proved to be repeatable with RSD lower than 20%. The limits of detection and quantification for all pesticides were <10 ng/g and <25 ng/g, respectively. The developed method was used for simultaneous determination of the selected pesticides in 60 greenhouse and garden cucumber samples. Among the 60 analyzed samples, 41.7% of them were contaminated with pesticide residues which 31.7% of samples had pesticide residues lower than maximum residue limit and 10% of samples had residue higher than maximum residue limit. PMID:28243277

  5. Growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka during periods of inactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Rongbin; Zang, Yuanqi; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2013-03-01

    The growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, were investigated during periods of inactivity. The body weight, oxygen consumption rate (OCR), activities of acidic phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and content of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the body wall and coelomic fluid of A. japonicus were measured during starvation, experimental aestivation and aestivation. The results showed that the body weight of sea cucumber in the three treatments decreased significantly during the experimental period ( P < 0.05). The OCR of sea cucumber reduced in starvation and experimental aestivation treatments, but increased gradually in natural aestivation treatment. The activities of ACP and AKP of sea cucumber decreased gradually in all treatments, whereas those of SOD and CAT as well as Hsp70 content decreased in the starvation and experimental aestivation treatments and increased in natural aestivation treatment. The sea cucumber entered a state of aestivation at 24°C. To some extent, the animals in experimental aestivation were different from those in natural aestivation in metabolism and physiological response. These findings suggested that the aestivation mechanism of A. japonicus is complex and may not be attributed to the elevated temperature only.

  6. CsAP3: A Cucumber Homolog to Arabidopsis APETALA3 with Novel Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jin-Jing; Li, Feng; Wang, Dong-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Xia; Liu, Na; Gu, Hai-Tao; Zou, Cheng; Luo, Jing-Chu; He, Chao-Xing; Huang, San-Wen; Zhang, Xiao-Lan; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Bai, Shu-Nong

    2016-01-01

    In our previous efforts to understand the regulatory mechanisms of cucumber unisexual flower development, we observed a stamen-specific down-regulation of the ethylene receptor CsETR1 in stage 6 female flowers of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). This down-regulation is correlated with the primordial anther-specific DNA damage that characterizes inappropriate stamen development in cucumber female flowers. To understand how CsETR1 is down regulated in the stamen, we characterized a cucumber MADS box gene homologous to Arabidopsis AP3, CsAP3. We demonstrated that CsAP3 is functionally equivalent to the Arabidopsis B-class MADS gene AP3. However, three novel characteristics of CsAP3 were found. These include firstly, binding and activating CsETR1 promoter in vitro and in vivo; secondly, containing a GV repeat in its C-terminus, which is conserved in cucurbits and required for the transcription activation; and thirdly, decreased expression as the node number increases, which is similar to that found for CsETR1. These findings revealed not only the conserved function of CsAP3 as a B-class floral identity gene, but also its unique functions in regulation of female flower development in cucumber. PMID:27540391

  7. Modification of the cellular heat sensitivity of cucumber by growth under supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, C.R.

    1994-02-01

    The effect of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation on the thermal sensitivity of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was studied using UV-B-sensitive cv Poinsett 76 and UV-B-resistant cv Ashley grown under control and elevated (300 mW m{sup -2}) UV-B radiation levels. Using both cotyledon and leaf discs, the ability of the tissue to reduce triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) was determined after treatment at 50{degrees}C for various times. Semilogarithmic plots of TTC reduction as a function of time at 50{degrees}were curvilinear. They were monophasic for the control cucumber and biphasic for cucumber grown in the presence of elevated UV-B. Treatment of cucumber plants at 37{degrees}C for 24 h or of tissue discs at acute UV-B levels for 1 h further modified their response to elevated temperature. These results suggest that growth of cucumber under enhanced UV-B radiation levels increased its ability to withstand elevated temperatures. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Identification and characterisation of Dof transcription factors in the cucumber genome.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chang-Long; Cheng, Qing; Zhao, Liqun; Mao, Aijun; Yang, Jingjing; Yu, Shuancang; Weng, Yiqun; Xu, Yong

    2016-03-16

    Cucumber is vulnerable to many foliage diseases. Recent studies reported cloning of candidate genes for several diseases in cucumber; however, the exact defence mechanisms remain unclear. Dof genes have been shown to play significant roles in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Dof genes coding for plant-specific transcription factors can promote large-scale expression of defence-related genes at whole genome level. The genes in the family have been identified and characterized in several plant species, but not in cucumber. In the present study, we identified 36 CsDof members from the cucumber draft genomes which could be classified into eight groups. The proportions of the CsDof family genes, duplication events, chromosomal locations, cis-elements and miRNA target sites were comprehensively investigated. Consequently, we analysed the expression patterns of CsDof genes in specific tissues and their response to two biotic stresses (watermelon mosaic virus and downy mildew). These results indicated that CsDof may be involved in resistance to biotic stresses in cucumber.

  9. Identification and characterisation of Dof transcription factors in the cucumber genome

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chang-long; Cheng, Qing; Zhao, Liqun; Mao, Aijun; Yang, Jingjing; Yu, Shuancang; Weng, Yiqun; Xu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Cucumber is vulnerable to many foliage diseases. Recent studies reported cloning of candidate genes for several diseases in cucumber; however, the exact defence mechanisms remain unclear. Dof genes have been shown to play significant roles in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Dof genes coding for plant-specific transcription factors can promote large-scale expression of defence-related genes at whole genome level. The genes in the family have been identified and characterized in several plant species, but not in cucumber. In the present study, we identified 36 CsDof members from the cucumber draft genomes which could be classified into eight groups. The proportions of the CsDof family genes, duplication events, chromosomal locations, cis-elements and miRNA target sites were comprehensively investigated. Consequently, we analysed the expression patterns of CsDof genes in specific tissues and their response to two biotic stresses (watermelon mosaic virus and downy mildew). These results indicated that CsDof may be involved in resistance to biotic stresses in cucumber. PMID:26979661

  10. [Effects of nutrition medium on cucumber growth and soil microenvironment in greenhouse under continuous cropping].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Cheng; Li, Tian-Lai; Cao, Xia; Meng, Si-Da; Zhang, Yong-Yong; Yang, Li-Juan

    2014-05-01

    An experiment of continuous cropping of cucumber in nutrition medium (composted with straw, rural soil and puffed chicken manure) or soil was conducted in greenhouse in order to study the effects of medium type on the cucumber growth and soil microenvironment, respectively. The results showed that the two treatments both displayed different levels of obstacles resulted from continuous cropping. In the same cropping season, the nutrient content, soil invertase and urease activities and B/F (bacteria/fungi) ratio in the nutrition medium were obviously higher but fungi quantity was lower than in the soil medium, suggesting the use of nutrition medium changed the bacterial population structure as to improve the cucumber growth and yield. Under continuous cropping, correlation analysis showed that the bacterial quantity was significantly positively related with plant height and root dry mass, and markedly significantly positive correlation exited between the aboveground dry mass and yield of cucumber. The urease activity was also significantly positively related with the cucumber yield. Compared with the soil medium, the nutrition medium could greatly improve soil microenvironment and alleviate the continuous cropping obstacle.

  11. Modification of the Cellular Heat Sensitivity of Cucumber by Growth under Supplemental Ultraviolet-B Radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation on the thermal sensitivity of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was studied using UV-B-sensitive cv Poinsett 76 and UV-B-resistant cv Ashley grown under control and elevated (300 mW m-2) UV-B radiation levels. Using both cotyledon and leaf discs, the ability of the tissue to reduce triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) was determined after treatment at 50[deg]C for various times. Semilogarithmic plots of TTC reduction as a function of time at 50[deg]C were curvilinear. They were monophasic for the control cucumber and biphasic for cucumber grown in the presence of elevated UV-B. Treatment of cucumber plants at 37[deg]C for 24 h or of tissue discs at acute UV-B levels for 1 h further modified their response to elevated temperature. These results suggest that growth of cucumber under enhanced UV-B radiation levels increased its ability to withstand elevated temperatures. PMID:12232090

  12. Paenibacillus polymyxa NSY50 suppresses Fusarium wilt in cucumbers by regulating the rhizospheric microbial community

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lu; Du, Nanshan; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Li, Shuzhan; Guo, Shirong

    2017-01-01

    Paenibacillus polymyxa (P. polymyxa) NSY50, isolated from vinegar residue substrate, suppresses the growth of Fusarium oxysporum in the cucumber rhizosphere and protects the host plant from pathogen invasion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of NSY50 application on cucumber growth, soil properties and composition of the rhizospheric soil microbial community after exposure to Fusarium oxysporum. Bacterial and fungal communities were investigated by Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions (ITS1 and ITS2). The results showed that NSY50 effectively reduced the incidence of Fusarium wilt (56.4%) by altering the soil physico-chemical properties (e.g., pH, Cmic, Rmic, total N and Corg) and enzyme activities, especially of urease and β-glucosidase, which were significantly increased by 2.25- and 2.64-fold, respectively, relative to the pathogen treatment condition. More specifically, NSY50 application reduced the abundance of Fusarium and promoted potentially beneficial groups, including the Bacillus, Actinobacteria, Streptomyces, Actinospica, Catenulispora and Pseudomonas genera. Thus, our results suggest that NSY50 application can improve soil properties, shift the microbial community by increasing beneficial strains and decreasing pathogen colonization in the cucumber rhizosphere, and reduce the occurrence of cucumber Fusarium wilt, thereby promoting cucumber growth. PMID:28198807

  13. iTRAQ reveals proteomic changes during intestine regeneration in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lina; Xu, Dongxue; Xu, Qinzeng; Sun, Jingchun; Xing, Lili; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2017-02-04

    Sea cucumbers have a striking capacity to regenerate most of their viscera after evisceration, which has drawn the interest of many researchers. In this study, the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) was utilized to investigate protein abundance changes during intestine regeneration in sea cucumbers. A total of 4073 proteins were identified, and 2321 proteins exhibited significantly differential expressions, with 1100 upregulated and 1221 downregulated proteins. Our results suggest that intestine regeneration constitutes a complex life activity regulated by the cooperation of various biological processes, including cytoskeletal changes, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and ECM-receptor interactions, protein synthesis, signal recognition and transduction, energy production and conversion, and substance transport and metabolism. Additionally, real-time PCR showed mRNA expression of differentially expressed genes correlated positively with their protein levels. Our results provided a basis for studying the regulatory mechanisms associated with sea cucumber regeneration.

  14. Characteristics of the Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus's population in the Sea of Japan (Kievka Bay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilova, G. S.; Sukhin, I. Yu.

    2011-06-01

    In Kievka Bay of the Sea of Japan, the population of the Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus inhabits the areas of coarse sediments and complex bottom topography. These distributional patterns are closely related to the species' ecology, i.e., to the demand for protection against the wave turbulence. The aggregationing coverage of the sea cucumber population is about 80 hectares, where ˜200 thousand animals were accounted for in the last years. The aggregation's area varies during the year, which is closely related to the species' biological peculiarities, such as their behavioral patterns and the redistribution of their food resources. A significant increase of the juvenile population occurred after the farm-reared sea cucumber spat were released in 2003.

  15. Lindane residues in cultivated cucumber and in the most consumed fish in Caspian Sea (Iran).

    PubMed

    Shokrzadeh, M; Saeedi Saravi, S S; Zehtab Yazdi, Y

    2009-09-01

    In this study, the concentrations of lindane residues (organochlorine pesticides) were analyzed in samples of cultivated cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) and four species of most consumed fish (Sefid, Koli, Kilca and Kafal fish). Samples of cucumber were collected from five sites in Sari city (north, south, east, west and central areas) and samples of fish were caught using electric fishing from four major fishing centers (Chalous and Babolsar cities, Khazar Abad and Miankaleh regions) in Mazandaran province of Iran. Quantitative determination of the lindane content was performed by gas chromatography electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The results showed that the concentration of lindane in cucumber samples and in the dorsal muscle of the selected fish were less than the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) recommended intake.

  16. [Effects of soil compaction stress on respiratory metabolism of cucumber root].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun-Xian; Sun, Yan; Han, Shou-Kun; Zhang, Hao

    2013-03-01

    A pot experiment with cucumber cultivar "Jingchun 4" was conducted to study the effects of soil compaction stress on the respiratory metabolism of cucumber root. Two treatments were installed, i.e. , soil bulk densities 1.20 and 1.55 g . cm-3. Under soil compaction stress, the activities of root pyruvate decarboxylase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and lactate dehydrogenase and the contents of root anaerobic respiration products alcohol, acetaldehyde, and lactate increased significantly, while the activities of the key enzymes involved in root aerobic respiration, including malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase, decreased significantly, root pyruvate and succinate contents had significant increase, whereas root malate content decreased significantly. All the results illustrated that under soil compaction stress, the aerobic respiration of cucumber root was inhibited, while its anaerobic respiration was promoted.

  17. Heavy metals in sea cucumber juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas, north China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haifeng; Tang, Shizhan; Qin, Dongli; Chen, Zhongxiang; Wang, Jinlong; Bai, Shuyan; Mou, Zhenbo

    2015-05-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas in northern China. Sea cucumber juveniles were collected from twenty commercial hatcheries distributed in five coastal cities. The mean concentrations obtained for heavy metals in mg/kg were as follows: Cu (0.179), Zn (2.634), Cr (0.108), Pb (0.065), Cd (0.161), As (0.372), Hg (0.034). All the mean concentrations were below the maximum residual limits set by Chinese legislation, but As in 10 % samples exceeded the safety threshold. Significant differences in contents of Cr, Pb and Hg were found among the five investigated areas. Overall, the heavy metal levels in sea cucumber juveniles were relatively low and more attention should be paid to toxic metals Pb, Cd, As and Hg in future routine monitoring program.

  18. Multiple Factors Affect Socioeconomics and Wellbeing of Artisanal Sea Cucumber Fishers

    PubMed Central

    Ngaluafe, Poasi; Foale, Simon J.; Cocks, Nicole; Cullis, Brian R.; Lalavanua, Watisoni

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries are important to livelihoods and subsistence seafood consumption of millions of fishers. Sea cucumbers are fished worldwide for export to Asia, yet few studies have assessed factors affecting socioeconomics and wellbeing among fishers. We interviewed 476 men and women sea cucumber fishers at multiple villages within multiple locations in Fiji, Kiribati, Tonga and New Caledonia using structured questionnaires. Low rates of subsistence consumption confirmed a primary role of sea cucumbers in income security. Prices of sea cucumbers sold by fishers varied greatly among countries, depending on the species. Gender variation in landing prices could be due to women catching smaller sea cucumbers or because some traders take advantage of them. Dissatisfaction with fishery income was common (44% of fishers), especially for i-Kiribati fishers, male fishers, and fishers experiencing difficulty selling their catch, but was uncorrelated with sale prices. Income dissatisfaction worsened with age. The number of livelihood activities averaged 2.2–2.5 across countries, and varied significantly among locations. Sea cucumbers were often a primary source of income to fishers, especially in Tonga. Other common livelihood activities were fishing other marine resources, copra production in Kiribati, agriculture in Fiji, and salaried jobs in New Caledonia. Fishing other coastal and coral reef resources was the most common fall-back livelihood option if fishers were forced to exit the fishery. Our data highlight large disparities in subsistence consumption, gender-related price equity, and livelihood diversity among parallel artisanal fisheries. Improvement of supply chains in dispersed small-scale fisheries appears as a critical need for enhancing income and wellbeing of fishers. Strong evidence for co-dependence among small-scale fisheries, through fall-back livelihood preferences of fishers, suggests that resource managers must mitigate concomitant effects on

  19. The role of abscisic acid in regulating cucumber fruit development and ripening and its transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanping; Wang, Ya; Ji, Kai; Dai, Shengjie; Hu, Ying; Sun, Liang; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Sun, Yufei; Duan, Chaorui; Wu, Yan; Luo, Hao; Zhang, Dian; Guo, Yangdong; Leng, Ping

    2013-03-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a kind of fruit usually harvested at the immature green stage, belongs to non-climacteric fruit. To investigate the contribution of abscisic acid (ABA) to cucumber fruit development and ripening, variation in ABA level was investigated and a peak in ABA level was found in pulp before fruit get fully ripe. To clarify this point further, exogenous ABA was applied to cucumber fruits at two different development stages. Results showed that ABA application at the turning stage promotes cucumber fruit ripening, while application at the immature green stage had inconspicuous effects. In addition, with the purpose of understanding the transcriptional regulation of ABA, two partial cDNAs of CsNCED1 and CsNCED2 encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in ABA biosynthetic pathway; one partial cDNA of CsCYP707A1 for 8'-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA and two partial cDNAs of CsBG1 and CsBG2 for β-glucosidase (BG) that hydrolyzes ABA glucose ester (ABA-GE) to release active ABA were cloned from cucumber. The DNA and deduced amino acid sequences of these obtained genes respectively showed high similarities to their homologous genes in other plants. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that ABA content may be regulated by its biosynthesis (CsNCEDs), catabolism (CsCYP707A1) and reactivation genes (CsBGs) at the transcriptional level during cucumber fruit development and ripening, in response to ABA application, dehydration and pollination, among which CsNCED1, CsCYP707A1 and CsBG1 were highly expressed in pulp and may play more important roles in regulating ABA metabolism.

  20. Influence of flow velocity on motor behavior of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yang; Zhang, Libin; Lin, Chenggang; Sun, Jiamin; Kan, Rentao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-05-15

    The influence of flow velocity on the motor behavior of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in the laboratory. Cameras were used to record sea cucumber movements and behavior analysis software was used to measure the distance traveled, time spent, upstream or downstream of the start position and the speed of movements. In general, the mean velocity of A. japonicus was below 0.7mms(-1). The maximum velocity recorded for all the sea cucumbers tested was for a large individual (89.25±17.11g), at a flow rate of 4.6±0.5cms(-1). Medium sized (19.68±5.53g) and large individuals moved significantly faster than small individuals (2.65±1.24g) at the same flow rate. A. japonicus moved significantly faster when there was a moderate current (4.6±0.5cms(-1) and 14.7±0.3cms(-1)), compared with the fast flow rate (29.3±3.7cms(-1)) and when there was no flow (0cms(-1)). Sea cucumbers did not show positive rheotaxis in general, but did move in a downstream direction at faster current speeds. Large, medium and small sized individuals moved downstream at the fastest current speed tested, 29.3±3.7cms(-1). When there was no water flow, sea cucumbers tended to move in an irregular pattern. The movement patterns show that the sea cucumber, A. japonicus can move across the direction of flow, and can move both upstream and downstream along the direction of flow.

  1. Multiple Factors Affect Socioeconomics and Wellbeing of Artisanal Sea Cucumber Fishers.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Steven W; Ngaluafe, Poasi; Foale, Simon J; Cocks, Nicole; Cullis, Brian R; Lalavanua, Watisoni

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries are important to livelihoods and subsistence seafood consumption of millions of fishers. Sea cucumbers are fished worldwide for export to Asia, yet few studies have assessed factors affecting socioeconomics and wellbeing among fishers. We interviewed 476 men and women sea cucumber fishers at multiple villages within multiple locations in Fiji, Kiribati, Tonga and New Caledonia using structured questionnaires. Low rates of subsistence consumption confirmed a primary role of sea cucumbers in income security. Prices of sea cucumbers sold by fishers varied greatly among countries, depending on the species. Gender variation in landing prices could be due to women catching smaller sea cucumbers or because some traders take advantage of them. Dissatisfaction with fishery income was common (44% of fishers), especially for i-Kiribati fishers, male fishers, and fishers experiencing difficulty selling their catch, but was uncorrelated with sale prices. Income dissatisfaction worsened with age. The number of livelihood activities averaged 2.2-2.5 across countries, and varied significantly among locations. Sea cucumbers were often a primary source of income to fishers, especially in Tonga. Other common livelihood activities were fishing other marine resources, copra production in Kiribati, agriculture in Fiji, and salaried jobs in New Caledonia. Fishing other coastal and coral reef resources was the most common fall-back livelihood option if fishers were forced to exit the fishery. Our data highlight large disparities in subsistence consumption, gender-related price equity, and livelihood diversity among parallel artisanal fisheries. Improvement of supply chains in dispersed small-scale fisheries appears as a critical need for enhancing income and wellbeing of fishers. Strong evidence for co-dependence among small-scale fisheries, through fall-back livelihood preferences of fishers, suggests that resource managers must mitigate concomitant effects on other

  2. Understanding mechanism of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus aestivation: Insights from TMT-based proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Muyan; Li, Xingke; Zhu, Aijun; Storey, Kenneth B; Sun, Lina; Gao, Tianxiang; Wang, Tianming

    2016-09-01

    Marine invertebrate aestivation is a unique strategy for summer survival in response to hot marine conditions. The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, is an excellent model marine invertebrate for studies of environmentally-induced aestivation. In the present study, we used a tandem mass tag (TMT)-coupled LC-MS/MS approach to identify and quantify the global proteome expression profile over the aestivation-arousal cycle of A. japonicus. A total of 3920 proteins were identified from the intestine of sea cucumber. Among them, 630 proteins showed significant differential expression when comparing three conditions of sea cucumbers: non-aestivating (active), deep-aestivation (at least 15days of continuous aestivation), and arousal after aestivation (renewed moving and feeding). Sea cucumbers in deep aestivation showed substantial differentially expressed proteins (143 up-regulated and 267 down-regulated proteins compared with non-aestivating controls). These differentially expressed proteins suggested that protein and phospholipid probably are major fuel sources during hypometabolism and a general attenuation of carbohydrate metabolism was observed during deep aestivation. Differentially expressed proteins also provided the first global picture of a shift in protein synthesis, protein folding, DNA binding, apoptosis, cellular transport and signaling, and cytoskeletal proteins during deep aestivation in sea cucumbers. A comparison of arousal from aestivation with deep aestivation, revealed a general reversal of the changes that occurred in aestivation for most proteins. Western blot detection further validated the significant up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of methyltransferase-like protein 7A-like in deep-aestivation. Our results suggest that there is substantial post-transcriptional regulation of proteins during the aestivation-arousal cycle in sea cucumbers.

  3. Glycosides from edible sea cucumbers stimulate macrophages via purinergic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Aminin, Dmitry; Pislyagin, Evgeny; Astashev, Maxim; Es’kov, Andrey; Kozhemyako, Valery; Avilov, Sergei; Zelepuga, Elena; Yurchenko, Ekaterina; Kaluzhskiy, Leonid; Kozlovskaya, Emma; Ivanov, Alexis; Stonik, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    Since ancient times, edible sea cucumbers have been considered a jewel of the seabed and used in Asian folk medicine for stimulation of resistance against different diseases. However, the power of this sea food has not been established on a molecular level. A particular group of triterpene glycosides was found to be characteristic metabolites of the animals, responsible for this biological action. Using one of them, cucumarioside A2-2 (CA2-2) from the edible Cucumaria japonica species as an example as well as inhibitory analysis, patch-clamp on single macrophages, small interfering RNA technique, immunoblotting, SPR analysis, computer modeling and other methods, we demonstrate low doses of CA2-2 specifically to interact with P2X receptors (predominantly P2X4) on membranes of mature macrophages, enhancing the reversible ATP-dependent Ca2+ intake and recovering Ca2+ transport at inactivation of these receptors. As result, interaction of glycosides of this type with P2X receptors leads to activation of cellular immunity. PMID:28004778

  4. Polymer mobility in cell walls of cucumber hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenwick, K. M.; Apperley, D. C.; Cosgrove, D. J.; Jarvis, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    Cell walls were prepared from the growing region of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) hypocotyls and examined by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy, in both enzymically active and inactivated states. The rigidity of individual polymer segments within the hydrated cell walls was assessed from the proton magnetic relaxation parameter, T2, and from the kinetics of cross-polarisation from 1H to 13C. The microfibrils, including most of the xyloglucan in the cell wall, as well as cellulose, behaved as very rigid solids. A minor xyloglucan fraction, which may correspond to cross-links between microfibrils, shared a lower level of rigidity with some of the pectic galacturonan. Other pectins, including most of the galactan side-chain residues of rhamnogalacturonan I, were much more mobile and behaved in a manner intermediate between the solid and liquid states. The only difference observed between the enzymically active and inactive cell walls, was the loss of a highly mobile, methyl-esterified galacturonan fraction, as the result of pectinesterase activity.

  5. Mössbauer study of iron uptake in cucumber root

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, K.; Kuzmann, E.; Fodor, F.; Vértes, A.; Kamnev, A. A.

    2005-09-01

    57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to study the uptake and distribution of iron in the root of cucumber plants grown in iron-deficient modified Hoagland nutrient solution and put into iron-containing solution with 10 μM Fe citrate enriched with 57Fe (90%) only before harvesting. The Mössbauer spectra of the frozen roots exhibited two Fe3+ components with typical average Mössbauer parameters of δ = 0.5 mm s-1, Δ = 0.46 mm s-1 and δ = 0.5 mm s-1, Δ = 1.2 mm s-1 at 78 K and the presence of an Fe2+ doublet, assigned to the ferrous hexaaqua complex. This finding gives a direct evidence for the existence of Fe2+ ions produced via root-associated reduction according to the mechanism proposed for iron uptake for dicotyledonous plants. Monotonous changes in the relative content of the components were found with the time period of iron supply. The Mössbauer results are interpreted in terms of iron uptake and transport through the cell wall and membranes.

  6. Uptake and distribution of ceria nanoparticles in cucumber plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyong; He, Xiao; Zhang, Haifeng; Ma, Yuhui; Zhang, Peng; Ding, Yayun; Zhao, Yuliang

    2011-08-01

    The presence and release of nanoparticles (NPs) into the environment have important implications for human health and the environment. A critical aspect of the risk assessment of nanoparticles is to understand the interactions of manufactured nanoparticles with plants. In this study, the uptake and distribution characteristics of two types of ceria nanoparticles with sizes of ca. 7 nm and 25 nm in cucumber plants were investigated using a radiotracer method and other techniques. With increasing concentration of the nanoparticles, concentration dependent absorption by the plant roots was noticed, but the majority of the particles only loosely adhered to the root surface. The seedlings treated with 7 nm ceria particles showed significantly higher ceria contents in both roots and shoots than those exposed to 25 nm ceria particles at all test concentrations (2, 20, and 200 mg L(-1)). Only very limited amounts of ceria nanoparticles could be transferred from the roots to shoots because the entry of nanoparticles into the roots was difficult. However, the results of tissue distributions of ceria nanoparticles in the plants and two dimensional distributions of the particles in the leaves imply that once they have entered into the vascular cylinder, ceria nanoparticles could move smoothly to the end of the vascular bundle along with water flow. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed study of uptake and distribution of metal oxide nanoparticles in plants.

  7. Characterization of the Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes in Cucumber: Structure, Phylogeny, and Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Cao, Ning; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturases (FADs) introduce double bonds into the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to produce unsaturated fatty acids, and therefore play a critical role in plant development and acclimation to environmental stresses. In this study, 23 full-length FAD genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were identified through database searches, including three CsFAB2 genes, two CsFAD2 genes, fourteen CsFAD5 genes, and one gene each for CsFAD3, CsFAD4, CsFAD6 and CsFAD7. These cucumber FAD genes were distributed on all seven chromosomes and two additional scaffolds. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, the cucumber FAD proteins were clustered into five subfamilies with their counterparts from other plants. Gene structures and protein sequences were considerably conserved in each subfamily. All three CsFAB2 proteins shared conserved structure with the known plant soluble FAD proteins. The other cucumber FADs belonged to the membrane-bound FADs and contained three highly conserved histidine boxes. Additionally, the putative endoplasmic reticulum retention signal was found at the C-termini of the CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 proteins, while the N-termini of CsFAD4, CsFAD5, CsFAD6, CsFAD7 and three CsFAB2s contained a predicted chloroplast signal peptide, which was consistent with their associated metabolic pathways. Furthermore, a gene expression analysis showed that CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 were universally expressed in all tested tissues, whereas the other cucumber FAD genes were preferentially expressed in the cotyledons or leaves. The tissue-specific expression patterns of cucumber FAD genes were correlated well with the differences in the fatty acid compositions ofroots and leaves. Finally, the cucumber FAD genes showed a cold-induced and heat-repressed expression pattern, although with distinct regulatory time courses among the different CsFAD members, which indicates the potential roles of the FADs in temperature stress resistance in cucumber. PMID:26938877

  8. Surveys for Pathogens of Monoecious Hydrilla 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    fly (Hydrellia pakistanae), a biocontrol insect , has successfully established populations on the dioecious hydrilla biotype, there are no records that...rather than a terrestrial plant. Natural spread of the fungus is by rain splash or by insects , animals, or humans moving among host plants. In the 2014

  9. Protective effect of heat-treated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) juice on alcohol detoxification in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vivek K; Kim, Na-Hyung; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Kangmin; Kang, Sun Chul

    2016-05-01

    In this study, heat-treated cucumber juice was assessed for its protective effect on blood alcohol levels and hepatic alcohol metabolic enzyme system in experimental rats. Initially, during detoxification of alcohol, all groups were orally dosed to 22% alcohol (6ml/kg body weight) along with different concentrations of heat-treated cucumber juice (10, 100 and 500mg/kg) and commercial goods for hangover-removal on sale (2ml/kg). Cucumber juice was dosed before 30 min, and simultaneously after 30min of alcohol administration, and its hepatoprotective effect on blood alcohol levels and hepatic alcohol metabolic enzyme system in experimental rats was evaluated. As a result, after 7h, remarkable reduction was found in the blood alcohol levels for all concentrations of cucumber juice treatment. Treatment with cucumber juice resulted in increasing dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymatic activities in rat liver at 9h after alcohol administration thereby stimulated blood alcohol metabolism as compared with control group. The effect of heat-treated cucumber juice on alcohol detoxification was observed only in the rats treated before 30min from alcohol administration. These findings indicate that heat-treated cucumber juice has significant protective effect on alcohol detoxification in experimental rats, suggesting its usefulness in the treatment of liver injury caused by alcohol consumption.

  10. Application of wet waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) with or without sea mud to feeding sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) ( P > 0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no significant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments ( P > 0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

  11. Medieval herbal iconography and lexicography of Cucumis (cucumber and melon, Cucurbitaceae) in the Occident, 1300–1458

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Janick, Jules; Daunay, Marie-Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background The genus Cucumis contains two species of important vegetable crops, C. sativus, cucumber, and C. melo, melon. Melon has iconographical and textual records from lands of the Mediterranean Basin dating back to antiquity, but cucumber does not. The goal of this study was to obtain an improved understanding of the history of these crops in the Occident. Medieval images purportedly of Cucumis were examined, their specific identity was determined and they were compared for originality, accuracy and the lexicography of their captions. Findings The manuscripts having accurate, informative images are derived from Italy and France and were produced between 1300 and 1458. All have an illustration of cucumber but not all contain an image of melon. The cucumber fruits are green, unevenly cylindrical with an approx. 2:1 length-to-width ratio. Most of the images show the cucumbers marked by sparsely distributed, large dark dots, but images from northern France show them as having densely distributed, small black dots. The different size, colour and distribution reflect the different surface wartiness and spininess of modern American and French pickling cucumbers. The melon fruits are green, oval to serpentine, closely resembling the chate and snake vegetable melons, but not sweet melons. In nearly all manuscripts of Italian provenance, the cucumber image is labelled with the Latin caption citruli, or similar, plural diminuitive of citrus (citron, Citrus medica). However, in manuscripts of French provenance, the cucumber image is labelled cucumeres, which is derived from the classical Latin epithet cucumis for snake melon. The absence of melon in some manuscripts and the expropriation of the Latin cucumis/cucumer indicate replacement of vegetable melons by cucumbers during the medieval period in Europe. One image, from British Library ms. Sloane 4016, has a caption that allows tracing of the word ‘gherkin’ back to languages of the geographical nativity of C

  12. A High-Density Genetic Linkage Map for Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.): Based on Specific Length Amplified Fragment (SLAF) Sequencing and QTL Analysis of Fruit Traits in Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wen-Ying; Huang, Long; Chen, Long; Yang, Jian-Tao; Wu, Jia-Ni; Qu, Mei-Ling; Yao, Dan-Qing; Guo, Chun-Li; Lian, Hong-Li; He, Huan-Le; Pan, Jun-Song; Cai, Run

    2016-01-01

    High-density genetic linkage map plays an important role in genome assembly and quantitative trait loci (QTL) fine mapping. Since the coming of next-generation sequencing, makes the structure of high-density linkage maps much more convenient and practical, which simplifies SNP discovery and high-throughput genotyping. In this research, a high-density linkage map of cucumber was structured using specific length amplified fragment sequencing, using 153 F2 populations of S1000 × S1002. The high-density genetic map composed 3,057 SLAFs, including 4,475 SNP markers on seven chromosomes, and spanned 1061.19 cM. The average genetic distance is 0.35 cM. Based on this high-density genome map, QTL analysis was performed on two cucumber fruit traits, fruit length and fruit diameter. There are 15 QTLs for the two fruit traits were detected. PMID:27148281

  13. Isolation of cucumber CsARF cDNAs and expression of the corresponding mRNAs during gravity-regulated morphogenesis of cucumber seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Y.; Yamasaki, S.; Fujii, N.; Hagen, G.; Guilfoyle, T.; Takahashi, H.

    Cucumber seedlings grown in a horizontal position develop a protuberance called peg on the lower side of the transition zone between the hypocotyl and the root. We have suggested that peg formation on the upper side of the gravistimulated transition zone is suppressed because cucumber seedlings grown in a vertical position or microgravity symmetrically develop two pegs on the transition zone. Plant hormone, auxin, is considered to play a crucial role in the gravity-regulated formation of peg. We have shown that the mRNAs of auxin-inducible genes (CsIAAs) isolated from cucumber accumulate more abundantly in the lower side of the transition zone than in the upper side when peg formation initiates. To reveal the mechanism of transcriptional regulation by auxin for peg formation, we isolated five cDNAs of Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) from cucumber and compared their mRNA accumulation with those of CsIAA1 and CsIAA2. The tissue specificity of mRNA accumulation of CsARF2 was similar to those of CsIAA1 and CsIAA2. The structural character of CsARF2 predicts it is transcriptional activator. These results suggest that CsARF2 may be involved in activation of the transcription of auxin-inducible genes including CsIAA1 for peg formation. Because mRNA accumulation of five CsARFs, including CsARF2, were affected by neither gravity nor auxin, transcriptional activity of CsARF2 may be regulated at post-transcriptional level to induce asymmetric mRNA accumulation of auxin-inducible genes in the transition zone.

  14. High-Throughput Sequencing Identifies Novel and Conserved Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) microRNAs in Response to Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, H W; Luo, L X; Liang, C Q; Jiang, N; Liu, P F; Li, J Q

    2015-01-01

    Seedlings of Cucumis sativus L. (cv. 'Zhongnong 16') were artificially inoculated with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) at the three-true-leaf stage. Leaf and flower samples were collected at different time points post-inoculation (10, 30 and 50 d), and processed by high throughput sequencing analysis to identify candidate miRNA sequences. Bioinformatic analysis using screening criteria, and secondary structure prediction, indicated that 8 novel and 23 known miRNAs (including 15 miRNAs described for the first time in vivo) were produced by cucumber plants in response to CGMMV infection. Moreover, gene expression profiles (p-value <0.01) validated the expression of 3 of the novel miRNAs and 3 of the putative candidate miRNAs and identified a further 82 conserved miRNAs in CGMMV-infected cucumbers. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the predicted target genes of these 88 miRNAs, which were screened using the psRNATarget and miRanda algorithms, were involved in three functional categories: 2265 in molecular function, 1362 as cellular components and 276 in biological process. The subsequent Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that the predicted target genes were frequently involved in metabolic processes (166 pathways) and genetic information processes (40 pathways) and to a lesser degree the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (12 pathways). These results could provide useful clues to help elucidate host-pathogen interactions in CGMMV and cucumber, as well as for the screening of resistance genes.

  15. Copulatory courtship signals male genetic quality in cucumber beetles.

    PubMed Central

    Tallamy, Douglas W; Darlington, Mark Burton; Pesek, John D; Powell, Bradford E

    2003-01-01

    In the spotted cucumber beetle, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), males court females during copulation by stroking them with their antennae. Stroking occurs exclusively during the first stages of copulation, after a male has penetrated a female's vaginal duct but before he is allowed access to her bursa copulatrix. Females accept the spermatophore of fast-stroking males and reject those of slow-stroking males by relaxing or constricting muscles distorting the vaginal duct. Here, we measure the repeatability of stroking behaviour within males, examine the effect of losing one antenna on male attractiveness and test whether such female control results in direct phenotypic benefits for the discriminating female or indirect genetic benefits that appear in her offspring. We also use a half-sibling design to quantify the variance and heritability of stroking speed and endurance. Female beetles were paired with a male that was known to stroke either quickly or slowly. No difference was found in the resulting fecundity or egg-hatching rate of the females, or in the survivorship, development rate, size, age at first reproduction or fecundity of their offspring indicating that no direct benefits are gained by discriminating among males on the basis of stroking speed. There were, however, good-genes benefits for the mates of fast-stroking males. Offspring of fast-stroking fathers were also fast strokers and were more likely to be accepted as mates than offspring of slow-stroking fathers. There was substantial variance among sires in stroking speed and endurance and the heritability of each trait was high. The antennal stroking rate was highly repeatable in successive mating attempts and males with only one antenna were not accepted as mates. The repeatability within males, variability between males and heritability between generations of copulatory stroking combine to provide females with a reliable and honest signal of the genetic quality of

  16. Hyperspectral Imaging for Determining Pigment Contents in Cucumber Leaves in Response to Angular Leaf Spot Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan-Ru; Li, Xiaoli; Yu, Ke-Qiang; Cheng, Fan; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging technique was employed to determine spatial distributions of chlorophyll (Chl), and carotenoid (Car) contents in cucumber leaves in response to angular leaf spot (ALS). Altogether, 196 hyperspectral images of cucumber leaves with five infection severities of ALS were captured by a hyperspectral imaging system in the range of 380–1,030 nm covering 512 wavebands. Mean spectrum were extracted from regions of interest (ROIs) in the hyperspectral images. Partial least square regression (PLSR) models were used to develop quantitative analysis between the spectra and the pigment contents measured by biochemical analyses. In addition, regression coefficients (RCs) in PLSR models were employed to select important wavelengths (IWs) for modelling. It was found that the PLSR models developed by the IWs provided the optimal measurement results with correlation coefficient (R) of prediction of 0.871 and 0.876 for Chl and Car contents, respectively. Finally, Chl and Car distributions in cucumber leaves with the ALS infection were mapped by applying the optimal models pixel-wise to the hyperspectral images. The results proved the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging for visualizing the pigment distributions in cucumber leaves in response to ALS. PMID:27283050

  17. Water balance altered in cucumber plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Sun, Guomei; Liu, Xiaokang; Zhai, Luchong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is caused by the infection and growth of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum in the xylem of host plants. The physiological responses of cucumbers that are infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was studied in pot and hydroponic experiments in a greenhouse. The results showed that although water absorption and stem hydraulic conductance decreased markedly in infected plants, large amounts of red ink accumulated in the leaves of infected cucumber plants. The transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs) of the infected plants were significantly reduced, but the E/gs was higher than healthy plants. We further found that there was a positive correlation between leaf membrane injury and E/gs, indicating that the leaf cell membrane injury increased the non-stomatal water loss from infected plants. The fusaric acid (FA), which was detected in the infected plant, resulted in damage to the leaf cell membranes and an increase in E/gs, suggesting that FA plays an important role in non-stomatal water loss. In conclusion, leaf cell membrane injury in the soil-borne Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants induced uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells. FA plays a critical role in accelerating the development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:25579504

  18. Characterisation of inorganic elements and volatile organic compounds in the dried sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Won; Lim, Na-Lae; Cho, Kichul; Yang, Hye Young; Yim, Kyung June; Kim, Mi-Ju; Lee, Myunglip; Kim, Dong Hyeun; Koh, Hyoung Bum; Jung, Won-Kyo; Roh, Seong Woon; Kim, Daekyung

    2014-03-15

    The sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus lives in a variety of marine habitats and is an important cultivated edible aquatic species in East Asia. In this study, S. japonicus, collected from the sea near Jeju Island of Korea, was lyophilised or vacuum-dried and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The GC-MS profiles of vacuum-dried and lyophilised samples differed. Based on direct injection and static headspace analysis, 37 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified in vacuum-dried samples and 33 VOCs were identified in lyophilised samples. Therefore, the odour of vacuum-dried sea cucumber is thought to be due to the presence of various VOCs that are absent in lyophilised sea cucumber. According to ICP-MS analysis, the levels of 15 inorganic elements were slightly higher in lyophilised samples than in vacuum-dried samples. The results of the inorganic and organic chemical analyses provide information about the composition of dried sea cucumber.

  19. Hyperspectral Imaging for Determining Pigment Contents in Cucumber Leaves in Response to Angular Leaf Spot Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-Ru; Li, Xiaoli; Yu, Ke-Qiang; Cheng, Fan; He, Yong

    2016-06-10

    Hyperspectral imaging technique was employed to determine spatial distributions of chlorophyll (Chl), and carotenoid (Car) contents in cucumber leaves in response to angular leaf spot (ALS). Altogether, 196 hyperspectral images of cucumber leaves with five infection severities of ALS were captured by a hyperspectral imaging system in the range of 380-1,030 nm covering 512 wavebands. Mean spectrum were extracted from regions of interest (ROIs) in the hyperspectral images. Partial least square regression (PLSR) models were used to develop quantitative analysis between the spectra and the pigment contents measured by biochemical analyses. In addition, regression coefficients (RCs) in PLSR models were employed to select important wavelengths (IWs) for modelling. It was found that the PLSR models developed by the IWs provided the optimal measurement results with correlation coefficient (R) of prediction of 0.871 and 0.876 for Chl and Car contents, respectively. Finally, Chl and Car distributions in cucumber leaves with the ALS infection were mapped by applying the optimal models pixel-wise to the hyperspectral images. The results proved the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging for visualizing the pigment distributions in cucumber leaves in response to ALS.

  20. Different cucumber CsYUC genes regulate response to abiotic stresses and flower development

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shuangshuang; Che, Gen; Ding, Lian; Chen, Zijing; Liu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hongyin; Zhao, Wensheng; Ning, Kang; Zhao, Jianyu; Tesfamichael, Kiflom; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is essential for plant growth and development, and YUCCA (YUC) proteins catalyze a rate-limiting step for endogenous auxin biosynthesis. Despite YUC family genes have been isolated from several species, systematic expression analyses of YUCs in response to abiotic stress are lacking, and little is known about the function of YUC homologs in agricultural crops. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a world cultivated vegetable crop with great economical and nutritional value. In this study, we isolated 10 YUC family genes (CsYUCs) from cucumber and explored their expression pattern under four types of stress treatments. Our data showed that CsYUC8 and CsYUC9 were specifically upregulated to elevate the auxin level under high temperature. CsYUC10b was dramatically increased but CsYUC4 was repressed in response to low temperature. CsYUC10a and CsYUC11 act against the upregulation of CsYUC10b under salinity stress, suggesting that distinct YUC members participate in different stress response, and may even antagonize each other to maintain the proper auxin levels in cucumber. Further, CsYUC11 was specifically expressed in the male flower in cucumber, and enhanced tolerance to salinity stress and regulated pedicel and stamen development through auxin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:26857463

  1. Effect of vermicompost and cucumber cultivar on population growth attributes of the melon aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Razmjou, J; Mohammadi, M; Hassanpour, M

    2011-08-01

    Worldwide, the developing industry of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in greenhouses is threatened by damage from sucking pests, especially aphids. Among these, the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most serious. We tested the effect of two cucumber cultivars ('Royal' and'Storm') and three vermicompost concentrations (0 [control], 20, and 30%) in field soil on the development and fecundity rates of A. gossypii, by using a randomized complete block design with four replicates as a factorial experiment. The developmental times of nymphs reared on plants grown into the three vermicompost concentrations ranged from 5.5 (0%) to 8.7 (30%) d (on Storm) and from 4.3 (0%) to 7 (30%) d (on Royal). The developmental time of melon aphid's nymphs was greatest on plants grown in the culture medium with 30% vermicompost rate and least on plants reared in the soil without vermicompost. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r,,) of A. gossypii ranged from 0.204 d(-1) on plants grown in the soil amended with 30% vermicompost rate (on Storm seedlings) to 0.458 d(-1) on plants grown in the soil without vermicompost (on Royal seedlings). Accordingly, our findings confirm that a combination of a low level of vermicompost and a partially resistant cucumber cultivar might play an important role in managing this aphid on cucumbers in greenhouses.

  2. The mosaic mutants of cucumber: A system to produce mitochondrial knock-downs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mitochondrial (mt) DNA of cucumber has several unique attributes, including paternal transmission and large size due in part to the accumulation of repetitive DNAs. Recombination among these repetitive motifs generates structural rearrangements in the mt DNAs. When the highly inbred line ‘B’ of ...

  3. Preventive Intra Oral Treatment of Sea Cucumber Ameliorate OVA-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-In; Park, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Choi, Jun-Ho; Kang, Seok-Jung; Lee, Jeong-Yeol; Yu, Hak Sun

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumber extracts have potent biological effects, including anti-viral, anti-cancer, antibacterial, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammation effects. To understand their anti-asthma effects, we induced allergic airway inflammation in mice after 7 oral administrations of the extract. The hyper-responsiveness value in mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-alum-induced asthma after oral injection of sea cucumber extracts was significantly lower than that in the OVA-alum-induced asthma group. In addition, the number of eosinophils in the lungs of asthma-induced mice pre-treated with sea cucumber extract was significantly decreased compared to that of PBS pre-treated mice. Additionally, CD4[Formula: see text]CD25[Formula: see text]Foxp3[Formula: see text]T (regulatory T; Treg) cells significantly increased in mesenteric lymph nodes after 7 administrations of the extract. These results suggest that sea cucumber extract can ameliorate allergic airway inflammation via Treg cell activation and recruitment to the lung.

  4. Effect of nitrogen deficiency on ascorbic acid biosynthesis and recycling pathway in cucumber seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Yu, Hong Jun; Zhang, Xiao Meng; Yang, Xue Yong; Zhao, Wen Chao; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Wei Jie

    2016-11-01

    L-Ascorbic acid (AsA, ascorbate) is one of the most abundant natural antioxidants, and it is an important factor in the nutritional quality of cucumber. In this work, key enzymes involved in the ascorbic acid biosynthesis and recycling pathway in cucumber seedlings under nitrogen deficiency were investigated at the levels of transcription and enzyme activity. The activities of myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) and transcript levels of MIOXs increased dramatically, while the activities of ascorbate oxidase (AO) and glutathione reductase (GR) and transcript levels of AOs and GR2 decreased significantly in N-limited leaves, as did the ascorbate concentration, in nitrogen-deficient cucumber seedlings. The activities of other enzymes and transcript levels of other genes involved in the ascorbate recycling pathway and ascorbate synthesis pathways decreased or remained unchanged under nitrogen deficiency. These results indicate that nitrogen deficiency induced genes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione recycling and myo-inositol pathway in cucumber leaves. Thus, the AO, GR and MIOX involved in the pathways might play roles in AsA accumulation.

  5. Inter- and intramolecular recombinations in the cucumber mosaic virus genome related to adaptation to alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuh-Kun; Goldbach, Rob; Prins, Marcel

    2002-04-01

    In four distinct alstroemeria-infecting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates, additional sequences of various lengths were present in the 3' nontranslated regions of their RNAs 2 and 3, apparently the result of intra- and intermolecular recombination events. Competition experiments revealed that these recombined RNA 2 and 3 segments increased the biological fitness of CMV in alstroemeria.

  6. Development of a Hyperspectral Imaging System for Online Quality Inspection of Pickling Cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports on the development of a hyperspectral imaging prototype for evaluation of external and internal quality of pickling cucumbers. The prototype consisted of a two-lane round belt conveyor, two illumination sources (one for reflectance and one for transmittance), and a hyperspectral i...

  7. Fine Genetic Mapping Localizes Cucumber Scab Resistance Gene Ccu into an R Gene Cluster

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The scab caused by Cladosporium cucumerinum, is an important disease of cucumber, Cucumis sativus. In this study, we conducted fine genetic mapping of the single dominant scab resistance gene, Ccu, with 148 F9 recombination inbreeding lines (RILs) and 1,944 F2 plants derived from the resistant cucum...

  8. Abscisic acid substantially inhibits senescence of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus) grown under low nitrogen conditions.

    PubMed

    Oka, Mariko; Shimoda, Yousuke; Sato, Naoko; Inoue, Junya; Yamazaki, Teru; Shimomura, Norihiro; Fujiyama, Hideyasu

    2012-05-15

    Low nitrogen (N) availability such as that found in both dry land and tropical regions limits plant growth and development. The relationship between the level of abscisic acid (ABA) in a plant and its growth under low-N conditions was investigated. The level of ABA in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants under low-N conditions was significantly higher at 10 and 20 d after transplantation compared with that under sufficient-N conditions. Chlorophyll was preserved in the aerial parts of cucumber plants grown under low-N conditions in the presence of ABA, while there was no significant difference between control plants and ABA-applied plants under sufficient-N conditions. ABA suppressed the reduction of chlorophyll biosynthesis under low-N conditions but not under sufficient-N conditions. On the other hand, ABA decreased the expression of the chlorophyll degradation gene in older cucumber plants grown under both conditions. In addition, transcript and protein levels of a gene encoding a chlorophyll a/b binding protein were positively correlated with ABA concentration under low-N conditions. The chloroplasts in control plants were round, and the stack of thylakoid membranes was reduced compared with that of plants treated with ABA 10(-5) M. These results strongly suggest that ABA is accumulated in cucumber plants grown under low-N conditions and that accumulated ABA promotes chlorophyll biosynthesis and inhibits its degradation in those plants.

  9. Comparison of physicochemical characteristics and anticoagulant activities of polysaccharides from three sea cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lan; Wu, Mingyi; Xu, Li; Lian, Wu; Xiang, Jingying; Lu, Feng; Gao, Na; Xiao, Chuang; Wang, Shengmin; Zhao, Jinhua

    2013-02-05

    In order to search for sulfated polysaccharides in different invertebrate connective tissues and to examine their biological activities, we have isolated three types of polysaccharides from the body wall of the three sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis, Apostichopus japonicas and Holothuria nobilis. The physicochemical properties and anticoagulant activities of these polysaccharides were examined and compared. The chemical composition analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicate that two types of polysaccharides, sulfated fucan and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FuCS), were found in all of the three species and in addition a neutral glycan was observed in H. edulis. The neutral α-glucan was firstly obtained from sea cucumber. The same type of polysaccharides from different species of sea cucumbers have similar physicochemical properties and anticoagulant activities, but those of different types of glycans are significantly different, possibly due to their different monosaccharide compositions, electric charges and average molecular weights. The FuCSs have stronger anticoagulant activities than the sulfated fucans, although the molecular sizes of the FuCSs are lower than those of the sulfated fucans, whereas the neutral glucan has no activity, as expected from the absence of sulfate. Thus, anticoagulant activities of the different type of polysaccharides are likely to relate to monosaccharide composition and sulfate content. Preliminary analysis suggests that the sulfation patterns of the FuCSs may result in the difference in anticoagulant activities. Our data could help elucidate the structure-activity relationship of the sea cucumber polysaccharides.

  10. Non-destructive detection of pesticide residues in cucumber using visible/near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Bahareh; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Jamshidi, Jamshid; Minaei, Saeid; Sharifi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was assessed for non-destructive detection of diazinon residues in intact cucumbers. Vis/NIR spectra of diazinon solution and cucumber samples without and with different concentrations of diazinon residue were analysed at the range of 450-1000 nm. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models were developed based on different spectral pre-processing techniques to classify cucumbers with contents of diazinon below and above the MRL as safe and unsafe samples, respectively. The best model was obtained using a first-derivative method with the lowest standard error of cross-validation (SECV = 0.366). Moreover, total percentages of correctly classified samples in calibration and prediction sets were 97.5% and 92.31%, respectively. It was concluded that Vis/NIR spectroscopy could be an appropriate, fast and non-destructive technology for safety control of intact cucumbers by the absence/presence of diazinon residues.

  11. USDA, ARS EOM 402-10 high B-carotene cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high B-carotene cucumber (Cucumis sativus var. sativus L.) line EOM 402-10 is being released. This line was derived from a cross between the "Xishuangbanna gourd" (XIS; Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan; 2n = 2x = 14) that bears orange fruit and the non-orange-fruited cultivated c...

  12. Grafting cucumber onto luffa improves drought tolerance by increasing ABA biosynthesis and sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shanshan; Li, Hao; Lv, Xiangzhang; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Kai; Asami, Tadao; Yu, Jingquan; Zhou, Yanhong

    2016-01-01

    Balancing stomata-dependent CO2 assimilation and transpiration is a key challenge for increasing crop productivity and water use efficiency under drought stress for sustainable crop production worldwide. Here, we show that cucumber and luffa plants with luffa as rootstock have intrinsically increased water use efficiency, decreased transpiration rate and less affected CO2 assimilation capacity following drought stress over those with cucumber as rootstock. Drought accelerated abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in roots, xylem sap and leaves, and induced the transcript of ABA signaling genes, leading to a decreased stomatal aperture and transpiration in the plants grafted onto luffa roots as compared to plants grafted onto cucumber roots. Furthermore, stomatal movement in the plants grafted onto luffa roots had an increased sensitivity to ABA. Inhibition of ABA biosynthesis in luffa roots decreased the drought tolerance in cucumber and luffa plants. Our study demonstrates that the roots of luffa have developed an enhanced ability to sense the changes in root-zone moisture and could eventually deliver modest level of ABA from roots to shoots that enhances water use efficiency under drought stress. Such a mechanism could be greatly exploited to benefit the agricultural production especially in arid and semi-arid areas. PMID:26832070

  13. Parental Effect of Long Acclimatization on Thermal Tolerance of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Lin; Yu, Shan-Shan; Dong, Yun-Wei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the thermal resistance of marine invertebrates to elevated temperatures under scenarios of future climate change, it is crucial to understand parental effect of long acclimatization on thermal tolerance of offspring. To test whether there is parental effect of long acclimatization, adult sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus) from the same broodstock were transplanted southward and acclimatized at high temperature in field mesocosms. Four groups of juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced different durations of high temperature acclimatization were established. Upper thermal limits, oxygen consumption and levels of heat shock protein mRNA of juveniles was determined to compare thermal tolerance of individuals from different groups. Juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced high temperature could acquire high thermal resistance. With the increase of parental exposure duration to high temperature, offspring became less sensitive to high temperature, as indicated by higher upper thermal limits (LT50), less seasonal variations of oxygen consumption, and stable oxygen consumption rates between chronic and acute thermal stress. The relatively high levels of constitutive expression of heat-shock proteins should contribute to the high thermal tolerance. Together, these results indicated that the existence of a parental effect of long acclimatization would increase thermal tolerance of juveniles and change the thermal sensitivity of sea cucumber to future climate change.

  14. [Effects of Chinese onion' s root exudates on cucumber seedlings growth and rhizosphere soil microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Shou-wei; Pan, Kai; Wu, Feng-zhi

    2013-04-01

    Taking the Chinese onion cultivars with different allelopathy potentials as the donor and cucumber as the accepter, this paper studied the effects of Chinese onion' s root exudates on the seedlings growth of cucumber and the culturable microbial number and bacterial community structure in the seedlings rhizosphere soil. The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars could promote the growth of cucumber seedlings, and the stimulatory effect increased with the increasing concentration of the root exudates. However, at the same concentrations of root exudates, the stimulatory effect had no significant differences between the Chinese onion cultivars with strong and weak allelopathy potential. The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars increased the individual numbers of bacteria and actinomyces but decreased those of fungi and Fusarium in rhizosphere soil, being more significant for the Chinese onion cultivar with high allelopathy potential (L-06). The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars also increased the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil. The cloning and sequencing results indicated that the differential bacteria bands were affiliated with Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Anaerolineaceae, and Anaerolineaceae only occurred in the rhizosphere soil in the treatment of high allelopathy potential Chinese onion (L-06). It was suggested that high concentration (10 mL per plant) of root exudates from high allelopathy potential Chinese onion (L-06) could benefit the increase of bacterial community diversity in cucumber seedlings rhizosphere soil.

  15. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

  16. The Psm locus controls paternal sorting of the cucumber mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Havey, M J; Park, Y H; Bartoszewski, G

    2004-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of cucumber shows paternal transmission and there are no reports of variation for mitochondrial transmission in cucumber. We used a mitochondrially encoded mosaic (MSC) phenotype to reveal phenotypic variation for mitochondrial-genome transmission in cucumber. At least 10 random plants from each of 71 cucumber plant introductions (PIs) were crossed as the female with an inbred line (MSC16) possessing the MSC phenotype. Nonmosaic F1 progenies were observed at high frequencies (greater than 50%) in F1 families from 10 PIs, with the greatest proportions being from PI 401734. Polymorphisms near the mitochondrial cox1 gene and JLV5 region revealed that nonmosaic hybrid progenies from crosses of PI 401734 with MSC16 as the male possessed the nonmosaic-inducing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the paternal parent. F2) F3, and backcross progenies from nonmosaic F1 plants from PI 401734 x MSC16 were testcrossed with MSC16 as the male parent to reveal segregation of a nuclear locus (Psm for Paternal sorting of mitochondria) controlling sorting of mtDNA from the paternal parent. Psm is a unique locus at which the maternal genotype affects sorting of paternally transmitted mtDNA.

  17. Water balance altered in cucumber plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Sun, Guomei; Liu, Xiaokang; Zhai, Luchong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2015-01-12

    Fusarium wilt is caused by the infection and growth of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum in the xylem of host plants. The physiological responses of cucumbers that are infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was studied in pot and hydroponic experiments in a greenhouse. The results showed that although water absorption and stem hydraulic conductance decreased markedly in infected plants, large amounts of red ink accumulated in the leaves of infected cucumber plants. The transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs) of the infected plants were significantly reduced, but the E/gs was higher than healthy plants. We further found that there was a positive correlation between leaf membrane injury and E/gs, indicating that the leaf cell membrane injury increased the non-stomatal water loss from infected plants. The fusaric acid (FA), which was detected in the infected plant, resulted in damage to the leaf cell membranes and an increase in E/gs, suggesting that FA plays an important role in non-stomatal water loss. In conclusion, leaf cell membrane injury in the soil-borne Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants induced uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells. FA plays a critical role in accelerating the development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants.

  18. Asynchronous meiosis in Cucumis hystrix-cucumber synthetic tetraploids resulting in low male fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wide hybridization is an important tool for crop improvement. Recently, we successfully developed a synthetic allotetraploid from interspecific cross between cucumber and its relative Cucumis hystrix-(2n = 2x =24) followed by chemical induction of chromosome doubling. The resulting allotetraploid wa...

  19. Optical Absorption and Scattering Properties of Normal and Defective Pickling Cucumbers for 700-1000 nm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal defect in pickling cucumbers can cause bloater damage during brining, which lowers the quality of final pickled products and results in economic loss for the pickle industry. Hence it is important to have an effective optical inspection system for detection and segregation of defective pick...

  20. Hyperspectral imaging-based classification and wavebands selection for internal defect detection of pickling cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral imaging is useful for detecting internal defect of pickling cucumbers. The technique, however, is not yet suitable for high-speed online implementation due to the challenges for analyzing large-scale hyperspectral images. This research was aimed to select the optimal wavebands from the...

  1. Development of hyperspectral imaging technique for the detection of chilling injury in cucumbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Chen, Yud-Ren; Wang, C. Y.; Chan, D. E.; Kim, Moon S.

    2004-11-01

    Hyperspectral images of cucumbers were acquired before and during cold storage treatments as well as during subsequent room temperature (RT) storage to explore the potential for the detection of chilling induced damage in whole cucumbers. Region of interest (ROI) spectral features of chilling injured areas, resulting from cold storage treatments at 0°C or 5°C, showed a reduction in reflectance intensity during multi-day post chilling periods of RT storage. Large spectral differences between good-smooth skins and chilling injured skins occurred in the 700-850 nm visible/NIR region. A number of data processing methods, including simple spectral band algorithms, second difference, and principal component analysis (PCA), were attempted to discriminate the ROI spectra of good cucumber skins from those of chilling injured skins. Results revealed that using either a dual-band ratio algorithm (Q811/756) or a PCA model from a narrow spectral region of 733-848 nm could detect chilling injured skins with a success rate of over 90%. Furthermore, the dual-band algorithm was applied to the analysis of images of cucumbers at different conditions, and the resultant images showed more correct identification of chilling injured spots than other processing methods.

  2. QTL mapping of downy mildew resistance in PI 197088 and PI 330628 cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy mildew (DM, Pseudoperonospora cubensis) is a devastating fungal disease of cucumber worldwide. Several plant introduction lines have been identified with high resistance to the post-2004 new DM strain found in the U.S. However, the inheritance of DM resistance is still not well defined. Molecu...

  3. Influence of microbial growth in the redox potential of fermented cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commonly, pH measurements are used during the production of fermented cucumbers to indirectly monitor growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acid production. Redox potential (Eh) measurements, which are determined by the flux of electrons in a system, could serve as a more accurate tool to monitor...

  4. Consumer acceptability of cucumber pickles produced by fermentation in calcium chloride brine for reduced environmental impact

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentation of cucumbers in calcium chloride brine has been proposed as an alternative process to reduce the environmental impact of traditional, high salt fermentations. The objective of this research was to determine whether consumer acceptability of pickle products would be impacted by fermentat...

  5. Characterization of the Optical Properties of Normal and Defective Pickling Cucumbers and Whole Pickles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal defect in pickling cucumbers can cause bloater damage during brining, which lowers the quality of final pickled products and results in economic loss for the pickle industry. Hence it is important to have an effective optical inspection system for detection and segregation of defective pick...

  6. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cucumber fermentation brines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial pathogens have been reported on fresh cucumbers and other vegetables used for commercial fermentation. The Food and Drug Administration currently has a 5-log reduction standard for E. coli O157:H7 and other vegetative pathogens in acidified pickle products. For fermented vegetables, which...

  7. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. Hardwickii, the wild progenitor of cultivated cucumber.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bang; Zhang, Dan; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-11-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequence of wild cucumber (Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii) was determined and characterized in this study. The genome is of 155 277 bp in length, containing a pair of inverted repeats regions (IRs) of 25 198 bp, which are separated by a large single-copy region of 86 618 bp and a small single-copy region of 18 263 bp. The wild cucumber chloroplast genome has 130 known genes, including 85 protein-coding genes, 8 ribosomal RNA genes, and 37 tRNA genes. Among these genes, 19 comprise one or two introns. There are 11 tRNA genes present in the IR of the chloroplast genome. Phylogenomic analysis showed that C. sativus var. hardwickii forms a cluster with other Cucumis species with strong bootstrap supports and is closely related to C. sativus var. sativus. This newly sequenced chloroplast genome sequence may provide useful genetic information to explore wild cucumber germplasms for cucumber breeding programs.

  8. Cucumber rhizosphere microbial community response to biocontrol agent Bacillus subtilis B068150

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis B068150 has been used as a biocontrol agent against the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum. However, their survival ability in cucumber rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere as well as their influence on native microbial communities has not been fully i...

  9. Assessment of chilling injury and molecular marker analysis in cucumber cultivars (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The responses to chilling temperature of 12 Korean cucumber varieties were compared to those of two U.S.A. (previously determined cold tolerant NC76 and 'Chipper'), and Chinese and Japanese germplasms. Seedlings of each entry were exposed to 4 degrees C (Experiment 1) and 1 degree C (Experiments 2 ...

  10. QTL mapping for downy mildew resistance in WI7120B (PI 330628) cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Downy mildew (DM) is the most devastating fungal diseases of cucumber worldwide. Several plant introduction (PI) lines have been identified to be highly resistant to the post-2004 DM strain in the US including PI 197088 and PI 330628 (WI7120B). However, the genetic basis of resistance i...

  11. Cucumber as a model plant to study mitochondrial-nuclear interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The three genomes of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) show different modes of transmission: maternal for plastid, paternal for mitochondrial (mt), and biparental for nuclear DNA. When the highly inbred line ‘B’ is passed through cell cultures, paternally transmitted mosaic (MSC) phenotypes appear after re...

  12. Efficacy of Fluensulfone in a Tomato–Cucumber Double Cropping System

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Kelly A.; Langston, David B.; Dickson, Donald W.; Davis, Richard F.; Timper, Patricia; Noe, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable crops in the southeastern United States are commonly grown on plastic mulch with two crop cycles produced on a single mulch application. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in two locations to evaluate the efficacy of fluensulfone for controlling Meloidogyne spp. when applied through drip irrigation to cucumber in a tomato–cucumber double-cropping system. In the spring tomato crop, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), fluensulfone, and a resistant cultivar significantly decreased root galling by 91%, 73%, and 97%, respectively, compared to the untreated control. Tomato plots from the spring were divided into split plots for the fall where the main plots were the spring treatment and the subplots were cucumber either treated with fluensulfone (3.0 kg a.i./ha. via drip irrigation) or left untreated. The fall application of fluensulfone improved cucumber vigor and reduced gall ratings compared to untreated subplots. Fluensulfone reduced damage from root-knot nematodes when applied to the first crop as well as provided additional protection to the second crop when it was applied through a drip system. PMID:26941459

  13. In Vitro Auxin Binding to Cellular Membranes of Cucumber Fruits 123

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Komaratchi R.; Mudge, Kenneth W.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1981-01-01

    Specific binding of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to crude membrane preparations from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was demonstrated. This in vitro binding had a pH optimum of 3.75 and an equilibrium dissociation constant of 10 to 20 micromolar with 1250 picomoles binding sites per gram fresh weight. The NAA-binding sites were pronase sensitive. The supernatant from the fruit partially inhibited the in vitro NAA binding to fruit membranes. NAA, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 3-indoleacetic acid, 2-4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, which are reported to be very good inducers of parthenocarpy in cucumber, showed a high degree of specific binding to cucumber fruit membranes. In comparison, 2-naphthaleneacetic acid and indolepropionic acid, which are reported to be very weak auxins in corn coleoptile, pea stem, and strawberry fruit growth bioassays, did not bind efficiently to cucumber fruit membranes. In vitro binding studies with fruit membranes suggest that auxin stimulated fruit growth may be mediated by membrane-associated, auxin-binding protein(s). PMID:16661764

  14. Mixtures of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria enhance biological control of multiple cucumber pathogens.

    PubMed

    Raupach, G S; Kloepper, J W

    1998-11-01

    ABSTRACT Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains INR7 (Bacillus pumilus), GB03 (Bacillus subtilis), and ME1 (Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens) were tested singly and in combinations for biological control against multiple cucumber pathogens. Investigations under greenhouse conditions were conducted with three cucumber pathogens-Colletotrichum orbiculare (causing anthracnose), Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans (causing angular leaf spot), and Erwinia tracheiphila(causing cucurbit wilt disease)-inoculated singly and in all possible combinations. There was a general trend across all experiments toward greater suppression and enhanced consistency against multiple cucumber pathogens using strain mixtures. The same three PGPR strains were evaluated as seed treatments in two field trials over two seasons, and two strains, IN26 (Burkholderia gladioli) and INR7 also were tested as foliar sprays in one of the trials. In the field trials, the efficacy of induced systemic resistance activity was determined against introduced cucumber pathogens naturally spread within plots through placement of infected plants into the field to provide the pathogen inoculum. PGPR-mediated disease suppression was observed against angular leaf spot in 1996 and against a mixed infection of angular leaf spot and anthracnose in 1997. The three-way mixture of PGPR strains (INR7 plus ME1 plus GB03) as a seed treatment showed intensive plant growth promotion and disease reduction to a level statistically equivalent to the synthetic elicitor Actigard applied as a spray.

  15. Metagenomic Analysis of Cucumber RNA from East Timor Reveals an Aphid lethal paralysis virus Genome

    PubMed Central

    Maina, Solomon; Edwards, Owain R.; de Almeida, Luis; Ximenes, Abel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present here the first complete genomic Aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV) sequence isolated from cucumber plant RNA from East Timor. We compare it with two complete ALPV genome sequences from China, and one each from Israel, South Africa, and the United States. It most closely resembled the Chinese isolate LGH genome. PMID:28082492

  16. Characterization of cucumber fermentation spoilage bacteria by enrichment culture and 16S rDNA cloning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial cucumber fermentations are typically carried out in 40000 L fermentation tanks. A secondary fermentation can occur after sugars are consumed that results in the formation of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, concomitantly with the loss of lactic acid and an increase in pH. Spoilage fe...

  17. Parental Effect of Long Acclimatization on Thermal Tolerance of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yun-wei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the thermal resistance of marine invertebrates to elevated temperatures under scenarios of future climate change, it is crucial to understand parental effect of long acclimatization on thermal tolerance of offspring. To test whether there is parental effect of long acclimatization, adult sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus) from the same broodstock were transplanted southward and acclimatized at high temperature in field mesocosms. Four groups of juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced different durations of high temperature acclimatization were established. Upper thermal limits, oxygen consumption and levels of heat shock protein mRNA of juveniles was determined to compare thermal tolerance of individuals from different groups. Juvenile sea cucumbers whose parents experienced high temperature could acquire high thermal resistance. With the increase of parental exposure duration to high temperature, offspring became less sensitive to high temperature, as indicated by higher upper thermal limits (LT50), less seasonal variations of oxygen consumption, and stable oxygen consumption rates between chronic and acute thermal stress. The relatively high levels of constitutive expression of heat-shock proteins should contribute to the high thermal tolerance. Together, these results indicated that the existence of a parental effect of long acclimatization would increase thermal tolerance of juveniles and change the thermal sensitivity of sea cucumber to future climate change. PMID:26580550

  18. [Mitigating the repress of cinnamic acid to cucumber growth by microbial strain].

    PubMed

    Yu, Guo-hui; Xie, Yin-hua; Chen, Yan-hong; Chen, Yuan-feng; Cheng, Ping

    2006-12-01

    Cucumber is one of the most important vegetable species. Its continuous planting has become a common practice demand in many areas of China, but an obstacle from continuous planting made sustainable production of this crop to be prohibited. The self-toxic effect was considered as an important negative factor to continuous cropping cucumber. And cinnamic acid was found to be the main substance to cause self-toxic. Strain Ha8, which isolated from waste water estuary in Zhuhai city and has been authenticated as Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, was found to be able to degrade cinnamic acid, benzoic acid, paraaminobenzoic acid and phenol. Its biologic degrading rate to cinnamic acid was 64.1% and its total degrading rate to cinnamic acid was 79.32% . Therefore, strain Ha8 was used to mitigate the growth stress of cucumber caused by cinnamic acid in the research. In the experiment by hydroponic culturing method, it was found that the stem length, root length, stem weight, leaf weight, root weight, numbers of flower and harvest weight of cucumbers were lower than those untreated ones when added 2micromol/L or 10micromol/L cinnamic acid in culturing solution. But when added 10(7)cfu/L of strain Ha8 and 2micromol/L or 10micromol/L cinnamic acid in same culturing solution, these parameters were higher than those treated only by 2mircomol/L or 10micromol/L cinnamic acid. The result shown that strain Ha8 could mitigate the self-toxic effect caused by cinnamic acid. In edaphic culturing experiments, it was found that organic fertilizer mixed with strain Ha8 could mitigate the growth stress of cucumber caused by 100mg/kg cinnamic acid. When added 3mg/kg sterilized organic fertilizer with strain Ha8 (> or = 10(6)cfu/g dry organic fertilizer) in the culturing soil, the result was satisfied. This treatment could not only improve the growth of cucumber, enhance their root dehydrogenase activity and output, promote their nutrition absorption rate, but also adjust the microbial groups in

  19. Transferring cucumber mosaic virus-white leaf strain coat protein gene into Cucumis melo L. and evaluating transgenic plants for protection against infections

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, C.; Xue, B.; Yepes, M.; Fuchs, M.; Ling, K.; Namba, S. . Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1994-03-01

    A single regeneration procedure using cotyledon examples effectively regenerated five commercially grown muskmelon cultivars. This regeneration scheme was used to facilitate gene transfers using either Agrobacterium tumefaciens or microprojectile bombardment methods. In both cases, the transferred genes were from the T-DNA region of the binary vector plasmid pGA482GG/cp cucumber mosaic virus-white leaf strain (CMV-WL), which contains genes that encode neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II), [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS), and the CMV-WL coat protein (CP). Explants treated with pGA482GG/cpCMV-WL regenerated shoots on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 4.4 [mu]m 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), kanamycin (Km) at 150 mg[center dot]liter[sup [minus]1] and carbenicillin (Cb) at 500 mg[center dot]liter[sup [minus]1]. The authors' comparison of A. tumefaciens- and microprojectile-mediated gene transfer procedures shows that both methods effectively produce nearly the same percentage of transgenic plants. R[sub 0] plants were first tested for GUS or NPT II expression, then the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other tests were used to verify the transfer of the NPT II, GUS, and CMV-WL CP genes.

  20. Comparative transcriptome analysis of papilla and skin in the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoxu; Cui, Jun; Liu, Shikai; Kong, Derong; Sun, He; Gu, Chenlei; Wang, Hongdi; Qiu, Xuemei; Chang, Yaqing; Liu, Zhanjiang; Wang, Xiuli

    2016-01-01

    Papilla and skin are two important organs of the sea cucumber. Both tissues have ectodermic origin, but they are morphologically and functionally very different. In the present study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis of the papilla and skin from the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in order to identify and characterize gene expression profiles by using RNA-Seq technology. We generated 30.6 and 36.4 million clean reads from the papilla and skin and de novo assembled in 156,501 transcripts. The Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that cell part, metabolic process and catalytic activity were the most abundant GO category in cell component, biological process and molecular funcation, respectively. Comparative transcriptome analysis between the papilla and skin allowed the identification of 1,059 differentially expressed genes, of which 739 genes were expressed at higher levels in papilla, while 320 were expressed at higher levels in skin. In addition, 236 differentially expressed unigenes were not annotated with any database, 160 of which were apparently expressed at higher levels in papilla, 76 were expressed at higher levels in skin. We identified a total of 288 papilla-specific genes, 171 skin-specific genes and 600 co-expressed genes. Also, 40 genes in papilla-specific were not annotated with any database, 2 in skin-specific. Development-related genes were also enriched, such as fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-β, collagen-α2 and Integrin-α2, which may be related to the formation of the papilla and skin in sea cucumber. Further pathway analysis identified ten KEGG pathways that were differently enriched between the papilla and skin. The findings on expression profiles between two key organs of the sea cucumber should be valuable to reveal molecular mechanisms involved in the development of organs that are related but with morphological differences in the sea cucumber.

  1. Pentatricopeptide repeat 336 as the candidate gene for paternal sorting of mitochondria (Psm) in cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Del Valle-Echevarria, A. R.; Sanseverino, W.; Garcia-Mas, J.

    2016-01-01

    Key message Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) 336 was identified as the candidate gene for Paternal Sorting of Mitochondria (Psm), a nuclear locus that affects the predominant mitochondria transmitted to progenies. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a useful plant to study organellar-nuclear interactions because its organelles show differential transmission, maternal for chloroplasts and paternal for mitochondria. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of cucumber is relatively large due in part to accumulation of repetitive DNAs and recombination among these repetitive regions produces structurally polymorphic mtDNAs associated with paternally transmitted mosaic (MSC) phenotypes. The mitochondrial mutant MSC16 possesses an under-representation of ribosomal protein S7 (rps7), a key component of the small ribosomal subunit in the mitochondrion. A nuclear locus, Paternal Sorting of Mitochondria (Psm), affects the predominant mitochondria transmitted to progenies generated from crosses with MSC16 as the male parent. Using single nucleotide polymorphisms, Psm was mapped to a 170 kb region on chromosome 3 of cucumber and pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) 336 was identified as the likely candidate gene. PPR336 stabilizes mitochondrial ribosomes in Arabidopsis thaliana and because MSC16 shows reduced transcription of rps7, the cucumber homolog of PPR336 (CsPPR336) as the candidate for Psm is consistent with a nuclear effect on ribosome assembly or stability in the mitochondrion. We used polymorphisms in CsPPR336 to genotype progenies segregating at Psm and recovered only one Psm−/− plant with the MSC phenotype, indicating that the combination of the Psm− allele with mitochondria from MSC16 is almost always lethal. This research illustrates the usefulness of the MSC mutants of cucumber to reveal and study unique interactions between the mitochondrion and nucleus. PMID:27423873

  2. Novel Use of PIT Tags in Sea Cucumbers: Promising Results with the Commercial Species Cucumaria frondosa

    PubMed Central

    Gianasi, Bruno L.; Verkaik, Katie; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a reliable and innocuous mark-recapture method has limited studies that would provide essential information for the management of commercial sea cucumbers. Tagging sea cucumbers is notoriously difficult because of their plastic nature and autolysis capacities. The markers that have so far been tested, mainly on or through the body wall, were either lost rapidly or had major drawbacks (e.g. suitable only for batch identification, requiring complex analysis, causing infections, necrosis, behavioural changes and mortality). The present study explored the efficacy of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags for individually marking sea cucumbers by assessing retention rates and long-term side effects of tags inserted in previously unstudied tissues/organs. Individuals of the species Cucumaria frondosa were tagged in the body wall, aquapharyngeal bulb and at the base of the oral tentacles. They were monitored closely for evidence of stress, infection, change in feeding and spawning behaviour and tag retention rate. Implanting the tag in an oral tentacle to reach the hydrovascular system of the aquapharyngeal bulb achieved the best retention rates in full-size individuals: from a maximum of 92% after 30 days to 68% at the end of the experimental period (300 days). Efficacy was lower in smaller individuals (84% after 30 d and 42% after 300 d). Following a slight increase in cloacal movements for 15 h post tagging, no side effect was noted in sea cucumbers tagged in the aquapharyngeal bulb via the tentacles. Feeding and spawning behaviours were not affected and no signs of infections or abnormal cell development in the vicinity of the tags were observed. This study indicates that marking sea cucumbers with 8.2 mm long PIT tags implanted via the oral tentacle is an effective technique, yielding relatively high retention rates over long periods without any detectable physiological or behavioural effects. PMID:26011165

  3. Exogenous Melatonin Improves Antioxidant Defense in Cucumber Seeds (Cucumis sativus L.) Germinated under Chilling Stress

    PubMed Central

    Marta, Bałabusta; Szafrańska, Katarzyna; Posmyk, Małgorzata M.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between exogenous melatonin applied into cucumber seeds during osmopriming and modifications of their antioxidant defense was studied. Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione pool were investigated in embryonic axes isolated from the control, osmoprimed, and osmoprimed with melatonin seeds. Germinating cucumber seeds are very sensitive to chilling. Temperature 10°C causes oxidative stress in young seedlings. Seed pre-treatment with melatonin seemed to limit H2O2 accumulation during germination under optimal condition as well as during chilling stress and recovery period. Melatonin affected superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and its isoforms during stress and recovery period but did not influence CAT and POX activities. Thus it is possible that in cucumber this indoleamine could act mostly as a direct H2O2 scavenger, but superoxide anion combat via SOD stimulation. The GSH/GSSG ratio is considered as an indirect determinant of oxidative stress. When the cells are exposed to oxidative stress GSSG is accumulated and the ratio of GSH to GSSG decreases. In our research pre-sowing melatonin application into the cucumber seeds caused high beneficial value of GSH/GSSG ratio that could be helpful for stress countering. Glutathione reductase (GSSG-R) activity in the axes isolated from these seeds was two fold higher than in those isolated from the control and from the osmoprimed without melatonin ones. Additional isoforms of GSSG-R in melatonin treated seeds were also observed. It explains high and effective GSH pool restoration in the seeds pre-treated with melatonin. We confirmed that melatonin could protect cucumber seeds and young seedlings against oxidative stress directly and indirectly detoxifying ROS, thereby plants grown better even in harmful environmental conditions. This work is the first that investigated on plant in vivo model and documented melatonin influence on redox state during seed germination

  4. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application.

    PubMed

    Wyrwicka, Anna; Urbaniak, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae) and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot), while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (POx), were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST). Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity.

  5. Identification of fucans from four species of sea cucumber by high temperature 1H NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Nian; Chen, Shiguo; Ye, Xingqian; Li, Guoyun; Yin, Li'ang; Xue, Changhu

    2014-10-01

    Acidic polysaccharide, which has various biological activities, is one of the most important components of sea cucumber. In the present study, crude polysaccharide was extracted from four species of sea cucumber from three different geographical zones, Pearsonothuria graeffei ( Pg) from Indo-Pacific, Holothuria vagabunda ( Hv) from Norwegian Coast, Stichopus tremulu ( St) from Western Indian Ocean, and Isostichopus badionotu ( Ib) from Western Atlantic. The polysaccharide extract was separated and purified with a cellulose DEAE anion-exchange column to obtain corresponding sea cucumber fucans (SC-Fucs). The chemical property of these SC-Fucs, including molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and sulfate content, was determined. Their structure was compared simply with fourier infrared spectrum analyzer and identified with high temperature 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum analyzer (NMR) and room temperature 13C NMR. The results indicated that Fuc- Pg obtained from the torrid zone mainly contained 2,4-O-disulfated and non-sulfated fucose residue, whereas Fuc- Ib from the temperate zone contained non-, 2-O- and 2,4-O-disulfated fucose residue; Fuc- St from the frigid zone and Fuc- Hv from the torrid zone contained mainly non-sulfated fucose residue. The proton of SC-Fucs was better resolved via high temperature 1H NMR than via room temperature 1H NMR. The fingerprint of sea cucumber in different sea regions was established based on the index of anomer hydrogen signal in SC-Fucs. Further work will help to understand whether there exists a close relationship between the geographical area of sea cucumber and the sulfation pattern of SC-Fucs.

  6. Development of fatty acid biomarkers for the identification of wild and aquacultured sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadorozhnyj, P. A.; Pivnenko, T. N.; Kovalev, N. N.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the fatty acids (FAs) of the organs and tissues of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were profiled in order to compare the FA composition of sea cucumber collected from natural habitat (wild) and cages (cultured). The differences in FA contents in dermomuscular tube, peripharyngeal annulus, gonad and intestine (with or without content) between the wild and the cultured were determined. The main fatty acids in all organs and tissues were 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7, 20:4n-6, 22:6n-3, 18:0, and 18:1n-7. The basically different FAs of body wall and digestive tube were 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9 and 20:1n-11. The ratio of saturated to mono- and polyunsaturated FAs in digestive tube was independent on inside content while there was a redistribution of the total amount of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. The comparison of FA composition of the wild and the cultured sea cucumber showed that 20:5n-3, 16:1n-7 and 18:1n-7 predominated the wild while 20:4n-6 predominated the cultured. The content of branched-chain fatty acids in the wild was 3%-4% and about 9% in the cultured. The possible FAs for identifying the wild and the cultured sea cucumbers were selected. It was suggested that the indexes such as the ratio of either (n-3:n-6) to (n-7:n-6) or (n-3) + (n-7) to (n-6) may serve as the biomarkers distinguishing the wild and the cultured sea cucumber.

  7. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application

    PubMed Central

    Wyrwicka, Anna; Urbaniak, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae) and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot), while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (POx), were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST). Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity. PMID:27327659

  8. Roles of auxin transport and action in the gravity-regulated morphogenesis of cucumber seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Y.; Shimizu, M.; Hotta, T.; Dai-Hee, K.; Yanai, K.; Kamada, M.; Fujii, N.; Miyazawa, Y.; Takahashi, H.

    Cucumber Cucumis sativus L seedlings develop a specialized protuberance peg on the lower side of the transition zone between the hypocotyl and the root when seeds germinate in a horizontal position The peg plays an important role in pulling seedling out from the seed coat We have reported that cucumber seedlings potentially develop a peg on each side of the transition zone but peg development on the upper side is suppressed in response to gravity Auxin is the primary factor responsible for the induction or the suppression of peg formation Here we investigated the roles of auxin transport and action in the gravity-regulated formation suppression of the peg in cucumber seedlings When cucumber seedlings were treated with inhibitors of auxin efflux carrier a peg was formed not only on the lower side but also on the upper side of the gravistimulated transition zone suggesting that activation of auxin efflux carriers is required for the suppression of peg formation To identify auxin efflux carriers involved in the suppression of peg formation by graviresponse we isolated six cucumber cDNAs of PIN auxin efflux carrier genes and investigated their mRNA accumulation and protein expression Our results show that CsPIN1 and CsPIN6 could play a role in the redistribution of auxin in the transition zone To understand auxin action on peg formation suppression we next examined the transcriptional regulators for the expressions of auxin-responsive genes The results suggest that a higher level of auxin in the lower side of the

  9. Comparative transcriptome analysis of papilla and skin in the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Derong; Sun, He; Gu, Chenlei; Wang, Hongdi; Qiu, Xuemei; Chang, Yaqing; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-01-01

    Papilla and skin are two important organs of the sea cucumber. Both tissues have ectodermic origin, but they are morphologically and functionally very different. In the present study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis of the papilla and skin from the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in order to identify and characterize gene expression profiles by using RNA-Seq technology. We generated 30.6 and 36.4 million clean reads from the papilla and skin and de novo assembled in 156,501 transcripts. The Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that cell part, metabolic process and catalytic activity were the most abundant GO category in cell component, biological process and molecular funcation, respectively. Comparative transcriptome analysis between the papilla and skin allowed the identification of 1,059 differentially expressed genes, of which 739 genes were expressed at higher levels in papilla, while 320 were expressed at higher levels in skin. In addition, 236 differentially expressed unigenes were not annotated with any database, 160 of which were apparently expressed at higher levels in papilla, 76 were expressed at higher levels in skin. We identified a total of 288 papilla-specific genes, 171 skin-specific genes and 600 co-expressed genes. Also, 40 genes in papilla-specific were not annotated with any database, 2 in skin-specific. Development-related genes were also enriched, such as fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-β, collagen-α2 and Integrin-α2, which may be related to the formation of the papilla and skin in sea cucumber. Further pathway analysis identified ten KEGG pathways that were differently enriched between the papilla and skin. The findings on expression profiles between two key organs of the sea cucumber should be valuable to reveal molecular mechanisms involved in the development of organs that are related but with morphological differences in the sea cucumber. PMID:26989617

  10. A bench-scale, cost effective and simple method to elicit Lycopersicon esculentum cv. PKM1 (tomato) plants against Cucumber mosaic virus attack using ozone-mediated inactivated Cucumber mosaic virus inoculum.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, N; Nagendra-Prasad, D; Mohan, N; Murugesan, K

    2007-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to evaluate ozone for inactivation of Cucumber mosaic virus present in the inoculum and to stimulate Lycopersicon esculentum cv. PKM1 (tomato) plants against Cucumber mosaic virus infection by using the inactivated Cucumber mosaic virus inoculum. Application of a T(4) (0.4mg/l) concentration of ozone to the inoculum containing Cucumber mosaic virus resulted in complete inactivation of the virus. The inactivated viral inoculum was mixed with a penetrator (delivery agent), referred to as T(4) preparation, and it was evaluated for the development of systemic acquired resistance in the tomato plants. Application of a T(4) preparation 5 days before inoculation with the Cucumber mosaic virus protected tomato plants from the effects of Cucumber mosaic virus. Among the components of the inactivated virus tested, coat protein subunits and aggregates were responsible for the acquired resistance in tomato plants. In field trials, the results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that, Cucumber mosaic virus accumulation was significantly less for all the test plants (16%) sprayed with the T(4) preparation than untreated control plants (89.5%) at 28 days postinoculation (dpi). A remarkable increase in the activities of the total soluble phenolics (10-fold) and salicylic acid (16-fold) was detected 5 days after the treatment in foliar extracts of test plants relative to untreated control plants. The results showed that treatment of tomato plants with inactivated viral inoculum led to a significant enhancement of protection against Cucumber mosaic virus attack in a manner that mimics a real pathogen and induces systemic acquired resistance.

  11. Development of a model system for the study of spoilage associated secondary cucumber fermentation during long term storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium chloride fermentations represent an alternative to reduce chloride concentrations in the wastewaters generated from commercial cucumber fermentations, currently performed in cover brine solutions containing 6% to 12% sodium chloride. However, preliminary attempts to commercially ferment the ...

  12. Effects of washing, peeling, storage, and fermentation on residue contents of carbaryl and mancozeb in cucumbers grown in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Saeedi Saravi, S S; Shokrzadeh, M

    2016-06-01

    Cucumbers grown in two different greenhouses were exposed to mancozeb and carbaryl at different times. The effects of 10-day preharvest period, water and detergent washing, peeling, predetermined storage period at 4°C (refrigeration), and fermentation on the reduction of residue levels in the plant tissues were investigated. Mancozeb and carbaryl residues in cucumbers were determined by gas chromatography-electron capture detection. Results showed that residue levels in samples, which were collected after 10 days following the pesticide application, were significantly lower than the samples collected after 2 h subsequent to the pesticide application. The culinary applications were effective in reducing the residue levels of the pesticides in cucumbers. As a result, non-fermentative pickling in sodium chloride and acetic acid was the most effective way to reduce the mancozeb and carbaryl residues of the cucumbers.

  13. [Effects of chlorophyllin-iron on osmotic adjustment and activities of antioxidantive enzymes in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Wang, Xiu-feng; Zhang, Fan-yang; Wei, Min; Shi, Qing-hua; Yang, Feng-juan; Li, Yan

    2014-12-01

    Cucumber cultivar 'Jinyan 4' was subjected to suboptimal temperature treatment of 18/12 degrees C (day/night) in the growth chambers. A solution culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of exogenously spraying 5 mg x L(-1) chlorophyllin-iron solution on plant growth, the content of proline, soluble sugar, MDA and activity of peroxidase in the leaves of cucumber seedling under suboptimal temperature. Application of chlorophyllin-iron showed prominent effects on mitigating the stress of suboptimal temperature on growth of the cucumber seedlings, significantly increasing the plant height, leaf area, shoot dry mass, the contents of soluble sugar and proline and the activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX. Exogenously spraying chlorophyllin-iron could promote the accumulation of proline and soluble sugar, raise the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decrease the membrane lipid peroxidation and improve the adaptability of cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature.

  14. Chilling tolerant U.S. processing cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.): three advanced backcross and ten inbred backcross lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental stresses such as chilling temperatures can reduce seed germination rate, seeding emergence rate, flower and fruit development, marketable yield, and postharvest fruit storage longevity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Chilling temperatures occur in unpredictable patterns, making it d...

  15. Characterization of PSI recovery after chilling-induced photoinhibition in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zishan; Jia, Yujiao; Gao, Huiyuan; Zhang, Litao; Li, Haidong; Meng, Qingwei

    2011-11-01

    By simultaneously analyzing the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient and light absorbance at 820 nm as well as chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, we investigated the effects of different photon flux densities (0, 15, 200 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) with or without 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) on the repair process of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaves after treatment with low temperature (6°C) combined with moderate photon flux density (200 μmol m(-2 )s(-1)) for 6 h. Both the maximal photochemical efficiency of Photosystem II (PSII) (F (v)/F (m)) and the content of active P700 (ΔI/I (o)) significantly decreased after chilling treatment under 200 μmol m(-2 )s(-1) light. After the leaves were transferred to 25°C, F (v)/F (m) recovered quickly under both 200 and 15 μmol m(-2 )s(-1) light. ΔI/I (o) recovered quickly under 15 μmol m(-2) s(-1) light, but the recovery rate of ΔI/I (o) was slower than that of F (v)/F (m). The cyclic electron transport was inhibited by chilling-light treatment obviously. The recovery of ΔI/I (o) was severely suppressed by 200 μmol m(-2) s(-1) light, whereas a pretreatment with DCMU effectively relieved this suppression. The cyclic electron transport around PSI recovered in a similar way as the active P700 content did, and the recovery of them was both accelerated by pretreatment with DCMU. The results indicate that limiting electron transport from PSII to PSI protected PSI from further photoinhibition, accelerating the recovery of PSI. Under a given photon flux density, faster recovery of PSII compared to PSI was detrimental to the recovery of PSI or even to the whole photosystem.

  16. Antifungal effectiveness of potassium sorbate incorporated in edible coatings against spoilage molds of apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Mehyar, Ghadeer F; Al-Qadiri, Hamzah M; Abu-Blan, Hifzi A; Swanson, Barry G

    2011-04-01

    Predominant spoilage molds of fresh apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes stored at 4 °C were isolated and examined for resistance to potassium sorbate (PS) incorporated in polysaccharide edible coatings. The isolated molds were Penicillium expansum, Cladosporium herbarum, and Aspergillus niger from apples. P. oxalicum and C. cucumerinum were isolated from cucumbers and P. expansium and C. fulvum from tomatoes. Guar gum edible coating incorporated with PS was the most effective mold inhibitor, significantly (P<0.05) reducing the isolated spoilage molds for 20, 15, and 20 d of storage at 4 °C on apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes, respectively. PS incorporated into pea starch edible coating was less effective and selectively inhibited the isolated mold species, causing significant (P<0.05) reduction in mold on apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes counts for 20, 10 to 15, and 15 to 20 d of storage at 4 °C, respectively. The isolated mold species exhibited different resistances to PS incorporated in the edible coatings. The greatest inhibition (2.9 log CFU/g) was obtained with C. herbarum on apples and the smallest (1.1 log CFU/g) was with P. oxalicum on cucumbers and the other isolated mold species exhibited intermediate resistance. The coatings tested, in general, inhibited molds more effectively on apples than on tomatoes and cucumbers. Addition of PS to pea starch and guar gum, edible coatings improved the antifungal activity of PS against isolated spoilage molds on apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes. PS inhibition was most effective against C. herbarum on apples and least effective against P. oxalicum on cucumbers.

  17. Ecological effects of co-culturing sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) with scallop Chlamys farreri in earthen ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yichao; Dong, Shuanglin; Qin, Chuanxin; Wang, Fang; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng

    2012-01-01

    Monthly changes in sedimentation and sediment properties were studied for three different culture treatments: sea cucumber monoculture (Mc), sea cucumber and scallop polyculture (Ps-c) and scallop monoculture (Ms). Results indicated that the survival rate of sea cucumber was significantly higher in Ps-c cultures than in Mc cultures. Sea cucumber yield was 69.6% higher in Ps-c culture than in Mc culture. No significant differences in body weight and scallop shell length were found between Ps-c and Ms cultures. The mean sedimentation rate of total particulate matter (TPM) was 72.2 g/(m2·d) in Ps-c cultures, with a maximum of 119.7 g/(m2·d), which was markedly higher than that of Mc (mean value). Sedimentation rates of organic matter (OM), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in Ps-c cultures were also significantly higher than those in Mc cultures. TOC and TN contents of sediment increased rapidly in the first 5 months in Ms cultures and remained at a high level. TOC and TN contents in Mc and Ps-c cultures decreased during sea cucumber feeding seasons and increased during sea cucumber dormancy periods (summer and winter). The study demonstrates that co-culture of sea cucumber and scallop in earthen ponds is an alternative way to alleviate nutrient loads and improve water quality in coastal aquaculture systems. Moreover, it provides the additional benefit of an increased sea cucumber yield.

  18. Functional characterization of gibberellin oxidases from cucumber, Cucumis sativus L.

    PubMed

    Pimenta Lange, Maria João; Liebrandt, Anja; Arnold, Linda; Chmielewska, Sara-Miriam; Felsberger, André; Freier, Eduard; Heuer, Monika; Zur, Doreen; Lange, Theo

    2013-06-01

    Cucurbits have been used widely to elucidate gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. With the recent availability of the genome sequence for the economically important cucurbit Cucumis sativus, sequence data became available for all genes potentially involved in GA biosynthesis for this species. Sixteen cDNAs were cloned from root and shoot of 3-d to 7-d old seedlings and from mature seeds of C. sativus. Two cDNAs code for GA 7-oxidases (CsGA7ox1, and -2), five for GA 20-oxidases (CsGA20ox1, -2, -3, -4, and -5), four for GA 3-oxidases (CsGA3ox1, -2, -3, and -4), and another five for GA 2-oxidases (CsGA2ox1, -2, -3, -4, and -5). Their enzymatic activities were investigated by heterologous expression of the cDNAs in Escherichia coli and incubation of the cell lysates with (14)C-labelled, D2-labelled, or unlabelled GA-substrates. The two GA 7-oxidases converted GA12-aldehyde to GA12 efficiently. CsGA7ox1 converted GA12 to GA14, to 15α-hydroxyGA12, and further to 15α-hydroxyGA14. CsGA7ox2 converted GA12 to its 12α-hydroxylated analogue GA111. All five GA 20-oxidases converted GA12 to GA9 as a major product, and to GA25 as a minor product. The four GA 3-oxidases oxidized the C19-GA GA9 to GA4 as the only product. In addition, three of them (CsGA3ox2, -3, and -4) converted the C20-GA GA12 to GA14. The GA 2-oxidases CsGA2ox1, -2, -3, and -4 oxidized the C19-GAs GA9 and GA4 to GA34 and GA51, respectively. CsGA2ox2, -3, and -4 converted GA51 and GA34 further to respective GA-catabolites. In addition to C19-GAs, CsGA2ox4 also converted the C20-GA GA12 to GA110. In contrast, CsGA2ox5 oxidized only the C20 GA12 to GA110 as the sole product. As shown for CsGA20ox1 and CsGA3ox1, similar reactions were catalysed with 13-hydroxlyated GAs as substrates. It is likely that these enzymes are also responsible for the biosynthesis of 13-hydroxylated GAs in vivo that occur at low levels in cucumber.

  19. Evaluation of cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant to facilitate cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) management with foliar insecticides in melons.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Andrew B; Godfrey, Larry D

    2011-08-01

    The bitter plant-derived compounds cucurbitacins are known to stimulate feeding of adult cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). A cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant applied as a flowable bait combined with either spinosad or carbaryl was compared with foliar sprays of spinosad and carbaryl for controlling two cucumber beetle species (Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim and Acalymma trivittatum Mannerheim) in honeydew melons (Cucumis melo L.). Field studies were conducted on the University of California-Davis plant pathology farm in 2008 and 2009. Beetle densities after applications and fruit damage from beetle feeding were compared among treatments. In addition, beetle survival was compared within field cages placed over the treated foliage infested with beetles. Using all three measures of efficacy, we determined that the addition of cucurbitacin bait had no effect on the level of cucumber beetle control with carbaryl in either 2008 or 2009. In both years, spinosad did not significantly reduce cucumber beetle densities in either field cages or field plots and did not reduce fruit damage relative to the untreated control. The addition of the bait to spinosad did not improve its efficacy. A laboratory bioassay of the spinosad formulation used in the field showed it had significant lethal effects on adults of both cucumber beetle species. Results indicated that the bait formulation used did not improve cucumber beetle control but may benefit from the addition of floral attractants or using a different type of cucurbitacin.

  20. Screening and identification of cucumber germplasm and rootstock resistance against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita).

    PubMed

    Li, X Z; Chen, S X

    2017-04-13

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp) are destructive agricultural pests that reduce the productivity of cultivated vegetables worldwide, especially when vegetables are cropped continuously in greenhouses. Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.), in particular, suffer extensive damage due to root-knot nematodes, and only a few wild species are known to be resistant. Grafting of cultivated plants to rootstocks of known resistant germplasms could be an effective method to resolve this problem. In this study, 21 cucumber germplasms and seven rootstocks were evaluated for resistance based on the growth of cucumber seedlings and resistance indexes to Meloidogyne incognita, which were surveyed 25 days after inoculation with M. incognita. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to investigate the resistance of 21 cucumber germplasms and seven rootstocks based on their growth and resistance indexes after inoculation with M. incognita. These analyses showed that the 21 germplasms and seven rootstocks could be divided into three groups based upon their resistance levels: moderately resistant, susceptible, and highly susceptible to M. incognita. All 21 cucumber germplasms exhibited susceptibility or high susceptibility to M. incognita and most rootstocks exhibited moderate resistance. The PCA results were consistent with those of the clustering analysis. The Jinyou No.1 cultivar had the highest resistance to M. incognita among the 21 cucumber germplasms, and Huangzhen No.1 cultivar had the highest resistance among the seven rootstock cultivars.

  1. Effect of Bacillus baekryungensis YD13 supplemented in diets on growth performance and immune response of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fajun; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2014-10-01

    The effect of a potential probiotic on the growth performance and immune response of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) was investigated. Bacillus baekryungensis YD13 isolated from sea cucumber culturing ponds was added to sea cucumber basal feed as a probiotic in different doses (0, the control; 1×104 (YD134), 1×106 (YD136) and 1×108 (YD138) CFU g-1 of diet), and administered orally to A. japonicus (initial mean wet weight 5.44 g ± 0.17 g). The sea cucumbers were fed in 20 aquaria, 5 each treatment, for 60 d. At the end of growth trial, 20 sea cucumbers from each treatment were challenged with Vibrio splendidus. A. japonicus in YD134 and YD136 exhibited significantly better growth performance than control ( P < 0.05). Five non-specific immune parameters including lysozyme, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in coelomic fluid were measured to evaluate the immune response of A. japonicus to the probiotics. Results showed that all parameters were significantly improved when YD11 was supplemented in the dose of 1×106 CFU g-1 ( P < 0.05). The cumulative incidence and mortality after the Vibrio splendidus challenge decreased significantly in sea cucumbers of YD136. Accordingly, 1×106 CFU g-1 of YD13 in diet was recommended for the growth promotion and immune enhancement of A. japonicus.

  2. Effects of Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 on digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuexin; Sun, Feixue; Zhang, Congyao; Bao, Pengyun; Cao, Shuqing; Zhang, Meiyan

    2014-12-01

    A marine bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas sp. BC228 was supplemented to feed in a feeding experiment aiming to determine its ability of enhancing the digestive enzyme activity and immune response of juvenile Apostichopus japonicus. Sea cucumber individuals were fed with the diets containing 0 (control), 105, 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 for 45 days. Results showed that intestinal trypsin and lipase activities were significantly enhanced by 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 in comparison with control ( P < 0.01). The phagocytic activity in the coelomocytes of sea cucumber fed the diet supplemented with 107 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 was significantly higher than that of those fed control diet ( P < 0.05). In addition, 105 and 107 CFU g-1 diet of BC228 significantly enhanced lysozyme and phenoloxidase activities in the coelomic fluid of sea cucumber, respectively, in comparison with other diets ( P < 0.01). Sea cucumbers, 10 each diet, were challenged with Vibrio splendidus NB13 after 45 days of feeding. It was found that the cumulative incidence and mortality of sea cucumber fed with BC228 containing diets were lower than those of animals fed control diet. Our findings evidenced that BC228 supplemented in diets improved the digestive enzyme activity of juvenile sea cucumber, stimulated its immune response and enhanced its resistance to the infection of V. splendidus.

  3. Uptake of copper and cerium by alfalfa, lettuce and cucumber exposed to nCeO2 and nCuO through the foliage or the roots: Impacts on food quality, physiological and agronomical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jie

    Nanotechnology is increasingly attracting attention not only for its variety of applications in modern life, but for the potential negative effects that nanomaterials (NMs) can cause in the environment and human health. Studies have shown varied effects of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) on plants; however, most of these studies focused on the interaction of NPs with plants at root level. The increasing production and use of NPs have also increased the atmospheric amounts of NPs, which could be taken up by plants through their leaves. Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) are broad leaf plants commonly grown both commercially and in home vegetable gardens that can be easily impacted by atmospheric NPs. However, there is limited information about the potential effects of these atmospheric NPs on cucumber. This research was aimed to determine (I) the possible uptake and translocation of cerium (Ce) by cucumber plants exposed to nCeO 2 (cerium dioxide nanoparticles, nanoceria) through the foliage, (II) the impacts of the NPs on physiological parameters of the plants and the effects on the nutritional value and quality of the fruits, and (III) the effects of seven copper compounds/nanoparticles applied to the growth medium of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). For aim I, 15 day-old hydroponically grown cucumber plants were exposed to nCeO2, either as powder at 0.98 and 2.94 g/m3 or suspensions at 20, 40, 80, 160, 320 mg/l. Ce uptake was analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The activity of three stress enzymes was measured by UV/Vis. Ce was detected in all cucumber tissues and TEM images showed the presence of Ce in roots. Results suggested nCeO2 penetrated plants through leaves and moved to other plant parts. The biochemical assays showed nCeO2 also modified stress enzyme activities. For aim II, 15 day-old soil grown cucumber plants were foliar treated, separately

  4. Accumulation and distribution of iron, cadmium, lead and nickel in cucumber plants grown in hydroponics containing two different chelated iron supplies.

    PubMed

    Csog, Árpád; Mihucz, Victor G; Tatár, Eniko; Fodor, Ferenc; Virág, István; Majdik, Cornelia; Záray, Gyula

    2011-07-01

    Cucumber plants grown in hydroponics containing 10 μM Cd(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II), and iron supplied as Fe(III) EDTA or Fe(III) citrate in identical concentrations, were investigated by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with special emphasis on the determination of iron accumulation and distribution within the different plant compartments (root, stem, cotyledon and leaves). The extent of Cd, Ni and Pb accumulation and distribution were also determined. Generally, iron and heavy-metal contaminant accumulation was higher when Fe(III) citrate was used. The accumulation of nickel and lead was higher by about 20% and 100%, respectively, if the iron supply was Fe(III) citrate. The accumulation of Cd was similar. In the case of Fe(III) citrate, the total amounts of Fe taken up were similar in the control and heavy-metal-treated plants (27-31 μmol/plant). Further, the amounts of iron transported from the root towards the shoot of the control, lead- and nickel-contaminated plants were independent of the iron(III) form. Although Fe mobility could be characterized as being low, its distribution within the shoot was not significantly affected by the heavy metals investigated.

  5. CsWRKY46, a WRKY transcription factor from cucumber, confers cold resistance in transgenic-plant by regulating a set of cold-stress responsive genes in an ABA-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Yu, Hongjun; Yang, Xueyong; Li, Qiang; Ling, Jian; Wang, Hong; Gu, Xingfang; Huang, Sanwen; Jiang, Weijie

    2016-11-01

    Plant WRKY transcription factors are trans-regulatory proteins that are involved in plant immune responses, development and senescence; however, their roles in abiotic stress are still not well understood, especially in the horticultural crop cucumber. In this study, a novel cucumber WRKY gene, CsWRKY46 was cloned and identified, which was up-regulated in response to cold stress and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. CsWRKY46 is belonging to group II of the WRKY family, CsWRKY46 was found exclusively in the nucleus, as indicated by a transient expression assay. Yeast one-hybrid assay shown that CsWRKY46 interact with the W-box in the promoter of ABI5. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines over-expressing CsWRKY46, WRK46-OE1 and WRK46-OE5 had higher seedling survival rates upon freezing treatment compared with that of the wild-type. The above over-expression lines also showed much a higher proline accumulation, less electrolyte leakage and lower malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Furthermore, the CsWRKY46 overexpression lines were hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination, but the seedlings were not. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that the expression levels of the ABA-responsive transcription factor ABI5 were higher in the WRKY46-OE lines than in wild-type and that the overexpression of CsWRKY46 increased the expression of stress-inducible genes, including RD29A and COR47. Taken together, our results demonstrated that CsWRKY46 from cucumber conferred cold tolerance to transgenic plants and positively regulated the cold signaling pathway in an ABA-dependent manner.

  6. Impact of water temperature on the growth and fatty acid profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Ye, Zhi; Tian, Xiangli

    2016-08-01

    The present study determined the changes in the fatty acid (FA) profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in response to the varied water temperature. Sea cucumbers with similar size (4.02±0.11g) were cultured for 8 weeks at 14°C, 18°C, 22°C and 26°C, respectively. At the end of the experiment, the specific growth rate (SGR) and the profiles of FAs in neutral lipids and phospholipids of the juvenile sea cucumbers cultured at different temperatures were determined. The SGRs of the sea cucumbers cultured at 26°C significantly decreased 46.3% compared to thos cultured at 18°C. Regression analysis showed that the SGR-temperature (T) relationship can be expressed as SGR=-0.0073T(2)+0.255T -1.0231 (R(2)=0.9936) and the highest SGR was predicted at 17.5°C. For the neutral lipids, the sum of saturated FAs (SFAs), monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) or polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) of the sea cucumbers that were cultured at the water temperature from 18°C-26°C did not change significantly, indicating the insensitivity of FA profiles for the neutral lipids of sea cucumbers in response to increasing water temperature. For phospholipids, the sum of PUFAs in the sea cucumbers dramatically decreased with the gradually increased water temperature. The sum of SFAs and MUFAs of sea cucumbers, however, increased with the gradually elevated water temperature. In particular, the contents of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the phospholipids of the sea cucumbers decreased 37.2% and 26.1%, respectively, when the water temperature increased from 14°C to 26°C. In summary, the sea cucumbers A. japonicus can regulate the FA compositions, especially the contents of EPA and DHA, in the phospholipids so as to adapt to varied water temperature.

  7. Study on the free radical scavenging activity of sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) gelatin hydrolysate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Mingyong; Xiao, Feng; Zhao, Yuanhui; Liu, Zunying; Li, Bafang; Dong, Shiyuan

    2007-07-01

    Gelatin from the sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) was hydrolyzed by bromelain and the hydrolysate was found to have a high free radical scavenging activity. The hydrolysate was fractionated through an ultrafiltration membrane with 5 kDa molecular weight cutoff (MWCO). The portion (less than 5 kDa) was further separated by Sephadex G-25. The active peak was collected and assayed for free radical scavenging activity. The scavenging rates for superoxide anion radicals (O2·-) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) of the fraction with the highest activity were 29.02% and 75.41%, respectively. A rabbit liver mitochondrial free radical damage model was adopted to study the free radical scavenging activity of the fraction. The results showed that the sea cucumber gelatin hydrolysate can prevent the damage of rabbit liver and mitochondria.

  8. The catalase gene family in cucumber: genome-wide identification and organization

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lifang; Yang, Yingui; Jiang, Lunwei; Liu, Shiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Catalase (CAT) is a common antioxidant enzyme in almost all living organisms. Currently, detailed reports on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) CAT (CsCAT) genes and tissue expression profiling are limited. In the present study, four candidate CsCAT genes were identified in cucumber. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CsCAT1-CsCAT3 are closely related to Arabidopsis AtCAT1-AtCAT3, but no obvious counterpart was observed for CsCAT4. Intron/exon structure analysis revealed that only one of the 15 positions was completely conserved. Motif analysis showed that, unlike the CAT genes of other species, none of CsCAT genes contained all 10 motifs. Expression data showed that transcripts of all of the CsCAT genes, except CsCAT4, were detected in five tissues. Moreover, their transcription levels displayed differences under different stress treatments. PMID:27560990

  9. Determination of set potential voltages for cucumber mosaic virus detection using screen printed carbon electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uda, M. N. A.; Hasfalina, C. M.; Samsuzana, A. A.; Faridah, S.; Rafidah A., R.; Hashim, U.; Ariffin, Shahrul A. B.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.

    2017-03-01

    Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) is a most dangerous pathogen among the cucurbit plant which it striking cucumbers, zucchinis, squashes, watermelons but it also striking to non-cucurbit such as peppers, tobaccos, celeries, beans and tomatoes. Symptoms shown by this virus when they starting to strike are very significant and at the end can kill the hosts they infected. In order to detect these viruses, biosensor such as screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) is developed and fixes a set potential voltage is defined using Chronoamperometry (CM) immunosensor technique. For short introduction, CM is a process which is a constant applied potential voltage between the working and reference electrode is maintained in order to create an electrons transfer for the oxidation or reduction species taking place at the surface of working electrode is measured and in this manuscript, complete details about measurement were used to finding the stable set potential voltages will be pointed out.

  10. Rheological and structural properties of sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus during heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Xue, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhaohui; Xu, Jiachao; Xue, Changhu

    2005-07-01

    Changes in tissue structure, rheological properties and water content of raw and heated sea cucumber meat were studied. Sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus was heated at 25°C , 70°C and 100°C water for 5 min. The structural changes were observed using a light microscope and the rheological parameters (rupture strength, adhesive strength and deformation) determined using a texture meter. Microscopic photograph revealed that the structural change of heated meat was greater than that of raw meat. The rupture strength, adhesive strength and deformation of raw meat were smaller than those of the heated meat. Meanwhile, rheological parameters showed positive correlation with heating temperature. These changes are mainly caused by thermal denaturation and gelatinization of collagen during heating. These changes were also evidenced in observations using a light microscope and differential scanning calorimetry.

  11. [Characterization of the Gut Bacterial Community of the Japanese Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus].

    PubMed

    Bogatyrenko, E A; Buzoleva, L S

    2016-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the composition and abundance of the gut bacterial community of the Japanese sea cucumber (trepang) Apostichopus japonicus and the soil from its habitat was carried out. In spite of the presence of strictly aerobic bacteria in the soil, gut microflora of this holothurian was shown to be formed by facultative anaerobes from the environment. Irrespective of the geographical location of the habitat, the sea cucmber gut community had a constant composition considered its normal microflora. Capacity of bactreia isolated from the Japanese sea cucumber for decomposition of starch, sodium alginate, chitin, chondroitin sulfate, Tweens, olive oil, casein, and gelatin was studied. Various degrees of enzymatic activity were shown for 33% of the studied bacterial strains, which indicates a considerable role of the trepang gut microflora in processing and assimilation of organic matter arriving with food.

  12. Microsatellite DNA polymorphisms and the relation with body weight in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiuli; Shan, Xue; Qiu, Xuemei; Meng, Xiangying; Chang, Yaqing

    2009-05-01

    The relationship between microsatellite polymorphism and body weight of captive bred Chinese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in two local populations in Dalian. Among ten loci discovered, nine show changes except for AJ07 loci. Seven loci were found highly polymorphic in both populations. For each locus in two populations, the average number of alleles is 6.428 6 and 6.285 7, the average observed heterozygosity at 0.225 7 and 0.245 9, the expected heterozygosity at 0.776 8 and 0.748 8, the polymorphism information content (PIC) at 0.709 2 and 0.674 6, respectively. Further analysis show significant correlation between A. japonicus body weight and occurrence markers AJ02 and AJ04. The findings of the relation may be helpful for molecular breeding, as well as the marker-assisted selection of sea cucumbers.

  13. Enzymatic preparation and structural determination of oligosaccharides derived from sea cucumber (Acaudina molpadioides) fucoidan.

    PubMed

    Yu, Long; Xu, Xiaoqi; Xue, Changhu; Chang, Yaoguang; Ge, Lei; Wang, Yanchao; Zhang, Cuiyu; Liu, Guanchen; He, Chen

    2013-08-15

    Sea cucumber fucoidan is a major bioactive component of sea cucumber. Sea cucumber is widely consumed in East Asian countries as healthy food. Employing the degrading enzyme from the marine bacterium strain Flavobacteriaceae CZ1127, sea cucumber (Acaudina molpadioides) fucoidan oligosaccharides were prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis. The oligosaccharide profile of the hydrolysate was determined by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS). With the assistance of LC-MS, four major oligosaccharides in the hydrolysate were purified. By using tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance, delicate structures of the oligosaccharides were verified as α-l-Fucp-1→3-α-l-Fucp(2,4OSO3(2-))-1→3-α-l-Fucp, α-l-Fucp-1→3-α-l-Fucp(2,4OSO3(2-))-1→3-α-l-Fucp-1→3-α-l-Fucp, α-l-Fucp-1→3-α-l-Fucp(2,4OSO3(2-))-1→3-α-l-Fucp-1→3-α-l-Fucp-1→3-α-l-Fucp-1→3-α-l-Fucp(2,4OSO3(2-))-1→3-α-l-Fucp and α-l-Fucp-1→3-α-l-Fucp(2,4OSO3(2-))-1→3-α-l-Fucp-1→3-α-l-Fucp-1→3-α-l-Fucp-1→3-α-l-Fucp(2,4OSO3(2-))-1→3-α-l-Fucp-1→3-α-l-Fucp.

  14. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of melanotransferrin from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xuemei; Li, Dong; Cui, Jun; Liu, Yang; Wang, Xiuli

    2014-06-01

    Melanotransferrin (MTf), a member of the transferrin families, plays an important role in immune response. But the research about MTf in sea cucumber is limited till now. In this study, the Melanotransferrin (Aj-MTf) gene was firstly cloned and characterized from the sea cucumber Apostichoupus japonicus by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of Aj-MTf is 2,840 bp in length and contains a 2,184 bp open reading frame that encodes a polypeptide of 727 amino acids. An iron-responsive element-like structure is located at the 5'-UTR of Aj-MTf cDNA. Sequence analysis shows that the Aj-MTf contains two conserved domains, and the binding-iron (III) sites, including eight amino acid residues (D81,Y109,Y215,H283,D425,Y454,Y565 and H634) and three N-linked glycosylation sites (N121V122S123,N173A174S175 and N673S674T675). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses suggested that the Aj-MTf expressions in the coelomic fluid, body cavity wall and respiratory trees were significantly changed from 4 to 24 h post lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. The mRNA levels of Aj-MTf in coelomic fluid was significantly up-regulated at 12 and 24 h in treatment group, and Aj-MTf shared a similar expression pattern with C-type lectin in coelomic fluid, while both genes appears to gradually increase after 4 h of LPS injection. These results indicate that the Aj-MTf plays a pivotal role in immune responses to the LPS challenge in sea cucumber, and provide new information that it is complementary to the sea cucumber immune genes and initiate new researches concerning the genetic basis of the holothurian immune response.

  15. Plant-microorganism-soil interactions influence the Fe availability in the rhizosphere of cucumber plants.

    PubMed

    Pii, Youry; Penn, Alexander; Terzano, Roberto; Crecchio, Carmine; Mimmo, Tanja; Cesco, Stefano

    2015-02-01

    Iron (Fe) is a very important element for plants, since it is involved in many biochemical processes and, often, for the low solubility of the natural Fe sources in soil, plants suffer from Fe - deficiency, especially when grown on calcareous soils. Among the numerous plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that colonize the rhizosphere of agronomically important crops, Azospirillum brasilense has been shown to exert strong stimulating activities on plants, by inducing alterations of the root architecture and an improvement of mineral nutrition, which could result from an enhancement of ion uptake mechanisms as well as by increased bioavailability of nutrients. Some studies have also established that A. brasilense can act as biocontrol agent, by preventing the growth and/or virulence of phytopathogens, most likely through the production of microbial siderophores that sequester Fe from the soil. Despite microbial siderophores complexed with Fe could be an easily accessible Fe source for plants, the possible involvement of A. brasilense in improving Fe nutrition in plants suffering from the micronutrient deficiency has not been investigated yet. Within the present research, the characterization of the physiological and biochemical effects induced by Fe starvation and PGPR inoculation in cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Chinese Long) was carried out. The analyses of root exudates released by hydroponically grown plants highlighted that cucumber plants respond differently depending on the nutritional status. In addition, following the cultivation period on calcareous soil, also the root exudates found in the extracts suggested a peculiar behaviour of plants as a function of the treatment. Interestingly, the presence of the inoculum in soil allowed a faster recovery of cucumber plants from Fe-deficiency symptoms, i.e. increase in the chlorophyll content, in the biomass and in the Fe content of leaves. These observations might suggest a feasible application of

  16. Sulfated polysaccharides with antioxidant and anticoagulant activity from the sea cucumber Holothuria fuscogliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rongfeng; Yu, Huahua; Yue, Yang; Liu, Song; Xing, Rong'e.; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-08-01

    Sea cucumber is a traditional nutritional food and medicinal resource with many bioactive components in China. Holothuria fuscogliva is a big sea cucumber with a rich of bioactive polysaccharides. To investigate the bioactivities of the polysaccharides from sea cucumber H. fuscogliva, we prepared the sulfated polysaccharides (HfP) from sea cucumber H. fuscogliva using a protease hydrolysis method. Antioxidant activities of HfP were investigated, including hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity. And, the anticoagulant activities of HfP were studied, including the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and thrombin time (TT). The average molecular weight was 1 867.1 Da, with a sulfate content of 20.7%. In addition, the molar ratio of monosaccharide composition of HfP was Man: Rha: Glc A: Glc: Gal: Xyl: Fuc=0.083 6: 0.437: 0.134: 0: 1.182: 0.748: 1. It had a strong antioxidant activity, the hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity EC 50 of HfP was 3.74 and 0.037 mg/mL, respectively. It also showed a good anticoagulant activity in our study. The APTT of HfP was much higher than that of heparin sodium, and the PT and TT of HfP was close to that of heparin sodium at a low concentration. Therefore, HfP shows a good antioxidant and anticoagulant activity and it may become a potential candidate of the natural antioxidant and anticoagulant and will have a good application future in health product or medicine industry.

  17. CeO₂ and ZnO nanoparticles change the nutritional qualities of cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijuan; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Rico, Cyren M; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Sun, Youping; Niu, Genhua; Servin, Alia; Nunez, Jose E; Duarte-Gardea, Maria; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-04-02

    There is lack of information about the effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on cucumber fruit quality. This study aimed to determine possible impacts on carbohydrates, proteins, mineral nutrients, and antioxidants in the fruit of cucumber plants grown in soil treated with CeO2 and ZnO NPs at 400 and 800 mg/kg. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to detect changes in functional groups, while ICP-OES and μ-XRF were used to quantify and map the distribution of nutrient elements, respectively. Results showed that none of the ZnO NP concentrations affected sugars; however at 400 mg/kg, CeO2 and ZnO NPs increased starch content. Conversely, CeO2 NPs did not affect starch content but impacted nonreducing sugar content (sucrose). FTIR data showed changes in the fingerprint regions of 1106, 1083, 1153, and 1181, indicating that both NPs altered the carbohydrate pattern. ZnO NPs did not impact protein fractionation; however, CeO2 NPs at 400 mg/kg increased globulin and decreased glutelin. Both CeO2 and ZnO NPs had no impact on flavonoid content, although CeO2 NPs at 800 mg/kg significantly reduced phenolic content. ICP-OES results showed that none of the treatments reduced macronutrients in fruit. In case of micronutrients, all treatments reduced Mo concentration, and at 400 mg/kg, ZnO NPs reduced Cu accumulation. μ-XRF revealed that Cu, Mn, and Zn were mainly accumulated in cucumber seeds. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first report on the nutritional quality of cucumber fruit attributed to the impact of CeO2 and ZnO NPs.

  18. Endogenous salicylic acid accumulation is required for chilling tolerance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Li, Liang; Shang, Qing-Mao; Liu, Xin-Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2014-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone, and its exogenous application can induce tolerance to multiple environmental stresses in plants. In this study, we examine the potential involvement of endogenous SA in response to chilling in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. A low temperature of 8 °C induces a moderate increase in endogenous SA levels. Chilling stimulates the enzymatic activities and the expression of genes for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and benzoic acid-2-hydroxylase rather than isochorismate synthase. This indicates that the PAL enzymatic pathway contributes to chilling-induced SA production. Cucumber seedlings pretreated with SA biosynthesis inhibitors accumulate less endogenous SA and suffer more from chilling damage. The expression of cold-responsive genes is also repressed by SA inhibitors. The reduction in stress tolerance and in gene expression can be restored by the exogenous application of SA, confirming the critical roles of SA in chilling responses in cucumber seedlings. Furthermore, the inhibition of SA biosynthesis under chilling stress results in a prolonged and enhanced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation. The application of exogenous SA and the chemical scavenger of H2O2 reduces the excess H2O2 and alleviates chilling injury. In contrast, the protective effects of SA are negated by foliar spraying with high concentrations of H2O2 and an inhibitor of the antioxidant enzyme. These results suggest that endogenous SA is required in response to chilling stress in cucumber seedlings, by modulating the expression of cold-responsive genes and the precise induction of cellular H2O2 levels.

  19. QTL mapping of powdery mildew resistance in WI 2757 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoming; Li, Yuhong; Pandey, Sudhakar; Yandell, Brain S; Pathak, Mamta; Weng, Yiqun

    2013-08-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a very important disease of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Resistant cultivars have been deployed in production for a long time, but the genetic mechanisms of PM resistance in cucumber are not well understood. A 3-year QTL mapping study of PM resistance was conducted with 132 F2:3 families derived from two cucumber inbred lines WI 2757 (resistant) and True Lemon (susceptible). A genetic map covering 610.4 cM in seven linkage groups was developed with 240 SSR marker loci. Multiple QTL mapping analysis of molecular marker data and disease index of the hypocotyl, cotyledon and true leaf for responses to PM inoculation identified six genomic regions in four chromosomes harboring QTL for PM resistance in WI 2757. Among the six QTL, pm1.1 and pm1.2 in chromosome 1 conferred leaf resistance. Minor QTL pm3.1 (chromosome 3) and pm4.1 (chromosome 4) contributed to disease susceptibility. The two major QTL, pm5.1 and pm5.2 were located in an interval of ~40 cM in chromosome 5 with each explaining 21.0-74.5 % phenotypic variations. Data presented herein support two recessively inherited, linked major QTL in chromosome 5 plus minor QTL in other chromosomes that control the PM resistance in WI 2757. The QTL pm5.2 for hypocotyl resistance plays the most important role in host resistance. Multiple observations in the same year revealed the importance of scoring time in the detection of PM resistance QTL. Results of this study provided new insights into phenotypic and genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber.

  20. Consumer Acceptability of Cucumber Pickles Produced by Fermentation in Calcium Chloride Brine for Reduced Environmental Impact.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Emily M; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Osborne, Jason A

    2015-06-01

    Fermentation of cucumbers in calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) brine has been proposed as an alternative process to reduce the environmental impact of traditional, high salt fermentations. The objective of this research was to determine whether consumer acceptability of pickle products would be impacted by fermentation and storage of cucumbers in CaCl2 brine. Cucumbers were fermented and stored with 0.1M CaCl2 or 1M sodium chloride (NaCl) in open-air, 3000 gal tanks at a commercial facility and processed into hamburger dill chips containing 0.38M NaCl. Cucumbers fermented in CaCl2 required additional desalting to reduce CaCl2 concentrations to that of current products. Consumers (n = 101) showed no significant preference for pickles from different fermentation treatments, whether stored for 2 mo (P = 0.75) or 8 mo (P = 0.68) prior to processing. In contrast, NaCl fermented pickles were preferred over CaCl2 fermented pickles stored for 10 mo and desalted only once (P < 0.01). A series of preference tests indicated that the taste of CaCl2 was not the factor affecting consumer preference, and the 50% detection threshold of CaCl2 in dill pickle chips was found to be 61.8 ± 7.6 mM, indicating that processors could potentially use CaCl2 fermentations with a single desalting step. Consumer liking of flavor (n = 73) was not influenced by fermentation in CaCl2 or by 23 or 35 mM CaCl2 in finished products (P > 0.05), but variability in texture decreased consumer liking (P < 0.05). Although promising, individual fermentation variability and texture quality of CaCl2 fermented products should be further evaluated prior to broad implementation of this process.

  1. Dietary Cordyceps militaris protects against Vibrio splendidus infection in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongxin; Du, Xingfan; Li, Shuying; Wen, Zhixin; Li, Yajie; Li, Xuejun; Meng, Nan; Mi, Rui; Ma, Shuhui; Sun, Aijie

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio splendidus is the common pathogen that causes infectious diseases widely spread in cultured sea cucumber in China. Therefore, we investigated the ability of Cordyceps militaris to protect against infection caused by V. splendidus. In this study, sea cucumbers were fed with a diet containing 0 (control), 1%, 2% or 3% C. militaris for 28 days, and subsequently challenged with V. splendidus by injection with 1.0 × 10(9) cfu per animal. Parameters of immune response such as phagocytosis (PC), lysozyme (LSZ) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity were determined on days 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 after injection. The results showed that dietary C. militaris at a dose of 2% or 3% significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05) all the immune parameters on day 0. One day after injection with V. splendidus, all the immune indices except ACP exhibited a tendency to decrease and then increase again, returning to the initial level on days 5 and/or 7 after injection. All the immune parameters of those fed with C. militaris were found significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the control group on day 1 after injection. Only LSZ activity of those fed with 1%- or 3%-C. militaris diet on day 5 showed significantly increases (P < 0.05) than the controls. As for ACP activity, the values remained steady with time, but with significant increase (P < 0.05) seen in sea cucumbers fed with 2%-C. militaris diet, and lasted for up to 7 days after V. splendidus injection. The cumulative mortality of sea cucumbers fed with the basal diet followed V. splendidus infection was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those fed with 2% and 3% C. militaris diet. Under the experimental conditions, dietary C. militaris could enhance the immune responses of Apostichopus japonicus and improve its resistance to infection by V. splendidus.

  2. Hemolytic and cytotoxic properties of saponin purified from Holothuria leucospilota sea cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Mozhgan; Parivar, Kazem; Baharara, Javad; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin; Asili, Javad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Holothuroids (sea cucumbers) are members of the phylum echinodermata, which produce saponins. Saponins exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological and biological activities. In this study, we isolated the crude saponins from the body wall of the dominant Iranian species of sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota (H. leucospilota). The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of saponins in the Persian Gulf H. leucospilota and study the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of these compounds. Methods: The body wall of sea cucumber was dried and powdered and the crude saponins were isolated using various solvents. The crude saponins were further purified by column chromatography using HP-20 resin. The foam test, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), hemolytic assay, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of saponins. Cytotoxicity was analyzed using a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. Results: The foam test, hemolytic assay, and TLC supported the presence of saponin compounds in the 80% ethanol fraction of H. leucospilota. The infrared (IR) spectrum of the extract showed hydroxyl (-OH), alkyl (C-H), ether (C-O) and ester (–C=O) absorption characteristic of teriterpenoid saponins. The C-O-C absorption indicated glycoside linkages to the sapogenins. The crude saponin extracted from sea cucumber was cytotoxic to A549 cells. Conclusion: The 80% ethanol fraction of saponin isolated from H. leucospilota exhibited hemolytic activity and offers promise as an anti-cancer candidate. PMID:26989736

  3. Development of broad virus resistance in non-transgenic cucumber using CRISPR/Cas9 technology.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Jeyabharathy; Brumin, Marina; Wolf, Dalia; Leibman, Diana; Klap, Chen; Pearlsman, Mali; Sherman, Amir; Arazi, Tzahi; Gal-On, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Genome editing in plants has been boosted tremendously by the development of CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) technology. This powerful tool allows substantial improvement in plant traits in addition to those provided by classical breeding. Here, we demonstrate the development of virus resistance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using Cas9/subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) technology to disrupt the function of the recessive eIF4E (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E) gene. Cas9/sgRNA constructs were targeted to the N' and C' termini of the eIF4E gene. Small deletions and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed in the eIF4E gene targeted sites of transformed T1 generation cucumber plants, but not in putative off-target sites. Non-transgenic heterozygous eif4e mutant plants were selected for the production of non-transgenic homozygous T3 generation plants. Homozygous T3 progeny following Cas9/sgRNA that had been targeted to both eif4e sites exhibited immunity to Cucumber vein yellowing virus (Ipomovirus) infection and resistance to the potyviruses Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and Papaya ring spot mosaic virus-W. In contrast, heterozygous mutant and non-mutant plants were highly susceptible to these viruses. For the first time, virus resistance has been developed in cucumber, non-transgenically, not visibly affecting plant development and without long-term backcrossing, via a new technology that can be expected to be applicable to a wide range of crop plants.

  4. Efficacy of sludge and manure compost amendments against Fusarium wilt of cucumber.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; Shi, Dezhi; Sun, Faqian; Lu, Haohao; Liu, Jingjing; Wu, Weixiang

    2012-11-01

    Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by the fungus, Fusarium oxysporum, is one of the most destructive soilborne diseases and can result in serious economic loss. No efficient fungicide is currently available to control the disease. The aim of this study was to examine the disease suppression ability of pig manure and sludge composts in peat-based container media and explore the possible disease suppression mechanisms. Pig manure and sewage sludge compost were made in laboratory-scale tanks. Plant growth media were formulated with peat mixture and compost (or 60 °C heated compost) in a 4:1 ratio (v/v). Cucumber seedlings were artificially inoculated with F. oxysporum conidia (5 × 10(5) conidia mL(-1)) by the root-dip method. Cucumber Fusarium wilt was effectively suppressed in sludge compost-amended media, while the disease suppression effect of pig manure compost was limited. The ammonia levels in the manure compost-amended media were significantly higher than those of sludge compost-amended media, which could explain its lower disease suppression ability. Heated composts behaved similarly with respect to disease suppression. Adding composts increased microbial biomass, microbial activity, and the microbial diversity of the growth media. PCR-DGGE results indicated that the fungal community had a significant correlation to the disease severity. The artificially inoculated pathogen was retrieved in all treatments and one possible biocontrol agent was identified as a strain of F. oxysporum by phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the sludge compost used in this study could be applied as a method for biocontrol of cucumber Fusarium wilt.

  5. [Suppression of three soil-borne diseases of cucumber by a rhizosphere fungal strain].

    PubMed

    Lyu, Heng; Niu, Yong-chun; Deng, Hui; Lin, Xiao-min; Jin, Chun-li

    2015-12-01

    To understand the effect of rhizosphere fungi on soil-borne diseases of cucumber, 16 fungal, strains from rhizosphere soil were investigated for the antagonistic activity to three soilborne pathogenic fungi with dual culture method and for suppression of cucumber diseases caused by the pathogens in pot experiments. Four strains showed antagonism to one or more pathogenic fungi tested. The strain JCL143, identified as Aspergillus terreus, showed strong antagonistic activity to the three pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In greenhouse pot experiments, inoculation with strain JCL143 provided 74% or more of relative control effect to all the three diseases of cucumber seedling caused by the above three pathogenic fungi, and provided 85% or more of relative control effect to Rhizoctonia root rot and Sclerotinia root and stem rot in pot experiment with non-sterilized substrate. In pot experiment with natural soil as substrate, inoculation with strain JCL143 provided average 84.1% of relative control effect to Fusarium wilt of cucumber at vine elongation stage. The fermentation broth of strain JCL143 showed inhibitory effect in different degrees on the colonial growth of the three pathogenic fungi tested, and reached 63.3% of inhibitory rate of colonial growth to S. sclerotiorum. The inhibitory activity of the fermentation broth decreased with increasing treatment temperature, was liable to decrease to alkaline pH than acid pH, and stable to protease treatment. The results indicated that A. terreus is an important factor in suppression of plant soil-borne diseases, and strain JCL143 with stable disease suppression is potential in biocontrol application.

  6. Differential impact of low temperature on fatty acid unsaturation and lipoxygenase activity in figleaf gourd and cucumber roots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong Hee; Ahn, Sung Ju; Im, Yang Ju; Cho, Kyoungwon; Chung, Gap-Chae; Cho, Baik-Ho; Han, Oksoo

    2005-05-20

    Previous studies show that low temperature strongly induces suberin layers in the roots of chilling-sensitive cucumber plants, while in contrast, low temperature produces a much weaker induction of suberin layers in the roots of the chilling-tolerant figleaf gourd [S.H. Lee, G.C. Chung, S. Steudle, Gating of aquaporins by low temperature in roots of chilling-sensitive cucumber and -tolerant figleaf gourd, J. Exp. Bot. 56 (2005) 985-995; S.H. Lee, G.C. Chung, E. Steudle, Low temperature and mechanical stresses differently gate aquaporins of root cortical cells of chilling-sensitive cucumber and figleaf gourd, Plant Cell Environ. (2005) in press; S.J. Ahn, Y.J. Im, G.C. Chung, B.H. Cho, S.R. Suh, Physiological responses of grafted-cucumber leaves and rootstock roots affected by low root temperature, Scientia Hort. 81 (1999) 397-408]. Here, the effect of low temperature on fatty acid unsaturation and lipoxygenase activity was examined in cucumber and figleaf gourd. The double bond index demonstrated that membrane lipid unsaturation shows hyperbolic saturation curve in figleaf gourd roots while a biphasic response in cucumber roots to low temperature. In figleaf gourd, the hyperbolic response in the double bond index was primarily due to accumulation of linolenic acid. Chilling stress also significantly induced lipoxygenase activity in figleaf gourd roots. These results suggest that the degree of unsaturation of root plasma membrane lipids correlates positively with chilling-tolerance. Therefore, studies that compare the effects of chilling on cucumber and figleaf gourd may provide broad insight into stress response mechanisms in chilling-sensitive and chilling-tolerant plants. Furthermore, these studies may provide important information regarding the relationship between lipid unsaturation and lipoxygenase function/activity, and between lipoxygenase activity and water channeling during the response to chilling stress. The possible roles of these processes in chilling

  7. Effects of different microbes on fermenting feed for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yan; Wang, Yingeng; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Zheng; Liao, Meijie; Rong, Xiaojun

    2015-10-01

    The effects of different microbes on fermenting feed for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) were compared to select the optimal fermentation strain in this study. Saccharomgces cerevisae, Candida utilis, Bacillus subtilis and Geotrichum candidum were independently added into the experimental compound feed, while only saline was mixed with the control feed. The fermentation treatments were inoculated with 10% seed solution under the condition of 25°C and 70% water content, which lasted for 5 days to elucidate the optimal microbe strain for fermenting effect. Physicochemical indexes and sensorial characteristics were measured per day during the fermentation. The indexes included dry matter recovery (DMR), crude protein (CP), the percentage of amino acid nitrogen to total nitrogen (AA-N/tN), the percentage of ammonia nitrogen to total nitrogen (NH3-N/tN), and the ratio of fermentation strains and vibrios to the total microbes, color, smell and viscosity. The results showed that DMR, CP and AA-N/tN of the S. cerevisae group reached the highest level on day 3, but the ratio of fermentation strain was second to C. utilis group. In addition, its NH3-N/tN and the ratio of vibrios were maintained at low levels, and the sensory evaluation score including smell, color and viscosity was the highest in S. cerevisae group on day 3. Therefore, S. cerevisae could be the optimal strain for the feed fermentation for sea cucumber. This research developed a new production method of fermentation feed for sea cucumber.

  8. Use of phages to control Vibrio splendidus infection in the juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Jiancheng; Wang, Xitao; Wang, Lili; Cao, Zhenhui; Xu, Yongping

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we isolated 3 bacteriophages with the ability to control Vibrio splendidus, a bacterium known to cause disease in the juvenile sea cucumber. These bacteriophages were designated as vB_VspS_VS-ABTNL-1 (PVS-1), vB_VspS_VS-ABTNL-2 (PVS-2) and vB_VspS_VS-ABTNL-3 (PVS-3). The ability of the 3 phages to inhibit the growth of V. splendidus VS-ABTNL was tested in vitro using each of the 3 phages individually or in the form of a cocktail of all 3 phages in the proportion of 1:1:1. All treated cultures produced a significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of growth of V. splendidus VS-ABTNL compared with untreated V. splendidus VS-ABTNL with the cocktail being superior to any of the 3 phages used individually. The lytic capability of the 3 phages was subsequently determined with a Spot Assay Technique performed with 4 isolates of V. splendidus, 3 other Vibrio species and 2 environmental isolates. Both PVS-1 and PVS-2 were lytic to all 4 isolates of V. splendidus while PVS-3 only inhibited the growth of 3 of them. V. splendidus VS-ABTNL was more susceptible to phage PVS-2 than the other 2 phages. In an in vivo performance trial, 360 sea cucumbers (23 ± 2 g) were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments. Each treatment was housed in 3 PVC tanks (38 cm × 54 cm × 80 cm) with 20 sea cucumbers per tank. Six diets were prepared including an unsupplemented control diet, antibiotic treatment diet, 3 diets containing 1 of the 3 phages individually and a diet containing a cocktail of all 3 phages. After 60 days of feeding, all sea cucumber were challenged with V. splendidus VS-ABTNL by immersion in sea water containing a bacterial concentration of 6 × 10(6) CFU/mL for 2 days. The survival rate of sea cucumbers during the next 10 days was 18% for the unsupplemented diet, 82% for the antibiotic treatment, 82% for the phage cocktail, 65% for phage PVS-1, 58% for phage PVS-2 and 50% for phage PVS-3. There were no significant differences in weight gain

  9. Variegatusides: new non-sulphated triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Stichopus variegates semper.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Hua; Zou, Zheng-Rong; Yi, Yang-Hua; Han, Hua; Li, Ling; Pan, Min-Xiang

    2014-04-02

    Four new triterpene glycosides, variegatusides C-F (1-4), together with three structurally known triterpene glycosides, variegatusides A and B (5, 6), and holothurin B (7), were isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus variegates Semper (Holothuriidae), collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectral analysis (nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS)) and chemical evidence. Variegatusides C-F exhibit the same structural feature consisting of the presence of a 23-hydroxyl group at the holostane-type triterpene aglycone side chain. Variegatuside C (1) has a double bond (24, 25) in this same chain, while variegatuside D (2) exhibits a 8(9)-ene bond in the holostane-type triterpene aglycone, which has not been extracted from other sea cucumber species. Compound 4 is a native compound from the sea cucumber S. variegates Semper, which has been reported to be desacetylstichloroside B₁. Except for holothurin B, these glycosides have no sulfate group in their sugar chain and show potent antifungal activities in vitro biotests.

  10. Structure and rheological characteristics of fucoidan from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Long; Xue, Changhu; Chang, Yaoguang; Hu, Yanfang; Xu, Xiaoqi; Ge, Lei; Liu, Guanchen

    2015-08-01

    Sea cucumber is a traditional health food consumed in East Asia. In this study, fucoidan from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Aj-FUC) was isolated, and its structure and rheological characteristics were elucidated for the first time. Aj-FUC was a branched polysaccharide mainly composed of a novel repeating unit [α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → 3,(α-L-Fucp-1 → 4-α-L-Fucp-1 →)4-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))], clarified by using a combination of infrared spectroscopy, methylation analysis, enzymatic degradation and nuclear magnetic resonance. In steady shear measurement, Aj-FUC manifested a non-Newtonian shear-thinning behaviour at low shear rate (1-100 S(-1)) while exhibiting a non-Newtonian shear-thickening behaviour at high shear rate (100-1000 S(-1)); salts had limited impact on its flow curve. Comparative study on viscosity and rheological behaviour of Aj-FUC and a linear fucoidan extracted from sea cucumber Acaudina molpadioides suggested that the presence of branch structure might significantly influence the rheological characteristics of fucoidan.

  11. The effects of dietary lead on growth, bioaccumulation and antioxidant capacity in sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ren, Tongjun; Han, Yuzhe; Zhao, Yang; Liao, Mingling; Wang, Fuqiang; Jiang, Zhiqiang

    2015-09-01

    Three different diets amended with lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] (100, 500 and 1000mg Pb/kg dry weight) and a Pb-free control diet (1.03mg Pb/kg dry weight) were fed to sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) for 30 days. The patterns of Pb accumulation over time were determined in various tissues (body wall, intestine and respiratory tree), as well as growth performance and antioxidant enzymes activities. Pb accumulation in body wall and intestine increased with time in all dietary Pb treatments. When fed the highest Pb diet, the body wall exhibited the greatest Pb burden (16.37mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight), while Pb content in the intestine (2.68mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight) and the respiratory tree (1.78mg Pb/kg tissue wet weight) were lower than Pb content in the body wall by day 30. The body weight gain (BWG), specific growth rate (SGR) and survival rate (SR) had not been affected by 30 days oral administration of Pb supplemented diet. However, the antioxidant enzymes activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)] of test groups were lower than control group in body wall and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the body wall was opposite after 30 days in sea cucumbers. In summary, this work reports toxic effects in sea cucumber, A. japonicus, after dietary exposure to Pb.

  12. Infectivity and complete nucleotide sequence of cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus isolate Cm cDNA.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Sun-Ju; Hong, Jin-Sung; Lee, Gung Pyo

    2014-07-01

    Three isolates of cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus (CFMMV) were collected from melon, cucumber, and pumpkin plants in Korea. A full-length cDNA clone of CFMMV-Cm (melon isolate) was produced and evaluated for infectivity after T7 transcription in vitro (pT7CF-Cmflc). The complete CFMMV genome sequence of the infectious clone pT7CF-Cmflc was determined. The genome of CFMMV-Cm consisted of 6,571 nucleotides and shared high nucleotide sequence identity (98.8 %) with the Israel isolate of CFMMV. Based on the infectious clone pT7CF-Cmflc, a CaMV 35S-promoter driven cDNA clone (p35SCF-Cmflc) was subsequently constructed and sequenced. Mechanical inoculation with RNA transcripts of pT7CF-Cmflc and agro-inoculation with p35SCF-Cmflc resulted in systemic infection of cucumber and melon, producing symptoms similar to those produced by CFMMV-Cm. Progeny virus in infected plants was detected by RT-PCR, western blot assay, and transmission electron microscopy.

  13. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in cucurbit crops of KPK, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Asad; Hussain, Adil; Ahmad, Musharaf

    2014-01-01

    Field survey of the cucurbit crops revealed a high incidence of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK), Pakistan. Among the seven districts surveyed, average percent incidence of CGMMV was recorded up to 58.1% in district Nowshera, followed by 51.1% in district Charsada, 40.5% in district Swabi and 37.3% in district Mardan. In Swat and Dir districts average incidence CGMMV was recorded upto 31.2% and 29.4%, respectively. Among the different crops highest incidence in plain areas of KPK was recorded in bottle gourd (59.3%) followed by 56.3% in Squash, 54.5% in Pumpkin, 45.5% in Melon, 41.7% in Cucumber and 29.9% in Sponge gourd. In Northern hilly areas highest incidence of CGMMV (52.9%) was observed in pumpkin, followed by 49.6% in bottle gourd, 47.3% in squash, 45.1% in Melon 42.3% in cucumber and 41.6% in sponge gourd. Little variability was observed in the coat protein amino acid sequence identities of CGMMV Pakistan isolate, when compared with other reported isolates.

  14. Outbreak of Salmonella Oslo Infections Linked to Persian Cucumbers - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Bottichio, Lyndsay; Medus, Carlota; Sorenson, Alida; Donovan, Danielle; Sharma, Reeti; Dowell, Natasha; Williams, Ian; Wellman, Allison; Jackson, Alikeh; Tolar, Beth; Griswold, Taylor; Basler, Colin

    2016-12-30

    In April 2016, PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance, detected a multistate cluster of Salmonella enterica serotype Oslo infections with an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern (XbaI PFGE pattern OSLX01.0090).* This PFGE pattern was new in the database; no previous infections or outbreaks have been identified. CDC, state and local health and agriculture departments and laboratories, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted epidemiologic, traceback, and laboratory investigations to identify the source of this outbreak. A total of 14 patients in eight states were identified, with illness onsets occurring during March 21-April 9, 2016. Whole genome sequencing, a highly discriminating subtyping method, was used to further characterize PFGE pattern OSLX01.0090 isolates. Epidemiologic evidence indicates Persian cucumbers as the source of Salmonella Oslo infections in this outbreak. This is the fourth identified multistate outbreak of salmonellosis associated with cucumbers since 2013. Further research is needed to understand the mechanism and factors that contribute to contamination of cucumbers during growth, harvesting, and processing to prevent future outbreaks.

  15. Colonization of Wheat, Maize and Cucumber by Paenibacillus polymyxa WLY78

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Tianyi; Chen, Sanfeng

    2017-01-01

    Paenibacillus polymyxa WLY78 is a nitrogen fixer and it can be potentially applied to biofertilizer in agriculture. In this study, P. polymyxa WLY78 is labelled with gfp gene. The GFP-labelled P. polymyxa WLY78 is used to inoculate wheat, maize and cucumber seedlings grown in the gnotobiotic system and in soil, respectively. Observation by confocal laser scanning microscope reveals that the GFP-labeled bacterial cells are mainly located on the root surface and epidermis of wheat, and only a few cells are present within cortical cells. In maize and cucumber seedlings, bacterial cells were colonized in epidermal and cortical cells, intercellular spaces and vascular system of root, stem and leaf tissue interiors besides on root surfaces. Higher densities of the bacterial cells in roots, stems and leaves indicated that P. polymyxa WLY78 cells could migrate from roots to stems and leaves of maize and cucumber. This study will provide insight into interaction between P. polymyxa WLY78 and host cells. PMID:28076417

  16. [Microbial activity and functional diversity in rhizosphere of cucumber under different subsurface drip irrigation scheduling].

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; He, Hong-Jun; Li, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Zi-Kun

    2014-08-01

    The effects of subsurface drip irrigation scheduling on microbial activity and functional diversity in rhizosphere of cucumber in solar greenhouse were studied in this paper. The results showed that the soil microbial biomass C and N, basal respiration, metabolic quotient and values of AWCD, Shannon and McIntosh indexes were increased at first and then decreased with the increase of irrigation water amount. The values of microbial C and N, basal respiration and metabolic quotient in I2 treatments were significantly higher than those in I1 treatments at the 0.8E(p) irrigation level. The numbers of bacteria, actinomyces and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and the activities of urease, phosphatase, sucrase, catalase and polyhenoloxidase were significantly higher in the 0.8E(p) treatment than in the other treatments. The numbers of bacteria and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, the activities of urease, phosphatase and sucrase in I2 treatments were significantly higher than in I1 treatment, the actinomyces number and activities of catalase and polyhenoloxidase had no significant difference between I1 and I2 treatments, however, the fungi number in I2 treatments were significantly lower than in I2 treaments at the 0.8E(p) irrigation level. The microbial activity and functional diversity in rhizosphere of cucumber were strengthened in the I20.8E(p) treatment, meanwhile, the soil microflora was improved and the soil enzymes activities were enhanced, therefore, the cucumber growth was promoted as well.

  17. Origin of the different phytotoxicity and biotransformation of cerium and lanthanum oxide nanoparticles in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuhui; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Zhiyong; He, Xiao; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Lirong; Chu, Shengqi; Yang, Ke; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

    2015-03-01

    To investigate how the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs) affect their biological and toxicological effects, we evaluated the phytotoxicity of CeO2 and La2O3 NPs to cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants and tried to clarify the relation between physicochemical properties of NPs and their behaviors. CeO2 NPs had no phytotoxicity to cucumber at all tested concentrations, while La2O3 NPs showed significant inhibition on root elongation (≥ 2 mg/L), shoot elongation (at 2000 mg/L), root biomass (≥ 2 mg/L), and shoot biomass (≥ 20 mg/L), as well as induced more reactive oxygen species and cell death in roots (2000 mg/L). The different distribution and speciation of Ce and La in plants were determined by synchrotron-based micro X-ray fluorescence microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In the aerial parts, all of La was combined with phosphate or carboxylic group, while a fraction of Ce was changed to Ce(III)-carboxyl complexes, implying that La2O3 acted as its ionic form, while CeO2 displayed the behavior of particles or particle-ion mixtures. The higher dissolution of La2O3 than CeO2 NPs might be the reason for their significant difference in phytotoxicity and transporting behaviors in cucumbers. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed study of the relation between the level of dissolution of NPs and their behaviors in plant systems.

  18. Fate and effect of tire rubber ash nano-particles (RANPs) in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Moghaddasi, Sahar; Hossein Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir; Karimzadeh, Fatholah; Chaney, Rufus

    2015-05-01

    There are growing interests on effects of nano-materials on living organisms including higher plants. No report is available on positive and negative effects of rubber ash nano-particles (RANPs) on edible plants. Recently, we reported the possibility of using waste tire rubber and rubber ash as zinc (Zn) fertilizer for plants. In this nutrient solution culture study, for the first time, root uptake and the effects of RANPs on growth and Zn, cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) concentration in cucumber was investigated. Various Zn levels (0, 1, 5, 25, 125mgL(-1)) were applied in the form of RANPs or ZnSO4. The root RANPs uptake was visualized by light (LA), scanning electron (SEM), and transmission electron microcopies (TEM). At all Zn levels, cucumber plants supplied with RANPs produced higher shoot and root biomass compared with those supplied with ZnSO4. In addition, the RANPs resulted in higher accumulation of Zn in cucumber tissues in comparison with ZnSO4; although phytotoxicity of Zn from ZnSO4 was greater than that from RANPs. Clear evidence of the RANPs penetration into the root cells was obtained by using SEM and TEM. Filaments of RANPs were also observed at the end of roots by LM and TEM. Further research is needed to clarify the fate of the RANPs in plant cells and their possible risks for food chain.

  19. Investigation on diazinon and oxydemeton-methyl residues in cucumbers grown in Kerman greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Ganjeizadeh Rohani, Fatemeh; Mahdavi, Vahideh; Aminaei, M Mehdi

    2014-07-01

    Pesticides are considered as the most polluting substances. The residue of pesticides in agricultural crops, especially in greenhouse harvests, has been reported critical. Cucumber, considered as a vegetable, is an agricultural product which is commonly found in the Iranian food basket. The current study aims to assess the level of diazinon and oxydemeton-methyl existing in cucumbers sampled from Kerman greenhouses. The pesticide residue was extracted by acetone and dichloromethane. The extracts were cleaned up according to the solid-phase extraction method. The pesticide residues were then determined by capillary gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. The recoveries were 83 and 85 %, the limit of detection was 0.028 and 0.034 mg/kg, and the limits of qualification were 0.093 and 0.113 mg/kg for diazinon and oxydemeton-methyl in cucumber samples, respectively. The median of diazinon residue was detected 0.582 mg/kg, which was 11.64 times the national maximum residue limit (MRL) (0.05 mg/kg), and the median for oxydemeton-methyl was 1.910 mg/kg, being 1.91 times the MRL (1 mg/kg).

  20. HANABA TARANU regulates the shoot apical meristem and leaf development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Ding, Lian; Yan, Shuangshuang; Jiang, Li; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Juan; Zhao, Jianyu; Zhao, Wensheng; Han, Ying-Yan; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2015-12-01

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is essential for continuous organogenesis in higher plants, while the leaf is the primary source organ and the leaf shape directly affects the efficiency of photosynthesis. HANABA TARANU (HAN) encodes a GATA3-type transcription factor that functions in floral organ development, SAM organization, and embryo development in Arabidopsis, but is involved in suppressing bract outgrowth and promoting branching in grass species. Here the function of the HAN homologue CsHAN1 was characterized in cucumber, an important vegetable with great agricultural and economic value. CsHAN1 is predominantly expressed at the junction of the SAM and the stem, and can partially rescue the han-2 floral organ phenotype in Arabidopsis. Overexpression and RNAi of CsHAN1 transgenic cucumber resulted in retarded growth early after embryogenesis and produced highly lobed leaves. Further, it was found that CsHAN1 may regulate SAM development through regulating the WUSCHEL (WUS) and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) pathways, and mediate leaf development through a complicated gene regulatory network in cucumber.

  1. Ontogenetic patterns of photosynthetic and photorespiratory metabolism in cucumber and tomato

    SciTech Connect

    Grodzinski, B.; Woodrow, L.; Madore, M.

    1987-04-01

    Leaves along the stems of cucumber and tomato plants show rates of dark respiration, CO/sub 2/ fixation and patterns of /sup 14/CO-partitioning which are consistent with a range of developmental stages including senescence, full source capacity, the sink-to-source transition and sink metabolism. In cucumber, rates of photorespiration, determined either as enhancement of net photosynthesis in a low O/sub 2/ atmosphere or as initial uptake of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, appear to be similar at all stages of leaf development. Expressed as a percentage of net photosynthesis at ambient O/sub 2/ levels, however, senescent and sink leaves would appear to have higher rates of photorespiration than source leaves, while leaves undergoing the sink-to-source transition have intermediate rates. In tomato, the highest photorespiratory rates are found in the most recently expanded leaves, which also have the highest rates of net photosynthesis. It is proposed that, in cucumber, which partitions much of its fixed carbon to stachyose in the mature leaf, the ability to synthesize and export oligosaccharides of the raffinose series affects and relative flux of carbon through the glycolate pathway as the leaf matures.

  2. Purification, physico-chemical characterization and thermodynamics of chitooligosaccharide binding to cucumber (Cucumis sativus) phloem lectin.

    PubMed

    Nareddy, Pavan Kumar; Bobbili, Kishore Babu; Swamy, Musti J

    2017-02-01

    A chitooligosaccharide-specific lectin has been purified from the phloem exudate of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) by affinity chromatography on chitin. The molecular weight of the cucumber phloem lectin (CPL) was determined as 51912.8Da by mass spectrometry whereas SDS-PAGE yielded a single band with a subunit mass of 26kDa, indicating that the protein is a homodimer. Peptide mass fingerprinting studies strongly suggest that CPL is identical to the 26kDa phloem protein 2 (PP2) from cucumber. CD spectroscopy indicated that CPL is a predominantly β-sheets protein. Hemagglutination activity of CPL was mostly unaffected between 4 and 90°C and between pH 4.0 and 10.0, indicating functional stability of the protein. Isothermal titration calorimetric studies indicate that the CPL dimer binds to two chitooligosaccharide ((GlcNAc)2-6) molecules with association constants ranging from 1.0×10(3) to 17.5×10(5)M(-1). The binding reaction was strongly enthalpy driven (ΔHb=-ve) with negative contribution from binding entropy (ΔSb=-ve). The enthalpy-driven nature of binding reactions suggests that hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions stabilize the CPL-chitooligosaccharide association. Enthalpy-entropy compensation was observed for the CPL-chitooligosaccharide interaction, indicating that water molecules play an important role in the binding process.

  3. Phytotoxicity of effluents from swine slaughterhouses using lettuce and cucumber seeds as bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Michel David; Lucia, Thomaz; Correa, Luciara; Neto, José Eduardo Pereira; Correa, Érico Kunde

    2017-08-15

    This study evaluated the phytotoxic effects of raw and treated effluents from a swine slaughterhouse on cucumber and lettuce seeds and determined correlations among physicochemical characteristics of such effluents and the germination of seeds used as bioindicators. Physicochemical parameters were characterized for both effluents and their phytotoxicity was determined through the germination index (GI), the root length (RL) and the number of germinated seeds (SG) for both plant species. The effluents treatment system was efficient to reduce the concentration of some physicochemical parameters to levels within those recommended by the Brazilian legislation, except for P, ammoniacal N and TKN concentration. Although phytotoxicity of the treated effluent was less in comparison to the raw effluent, the GI for cucumber and lettuce seeds submitted to each of the tested effluents was lower than 80%. Thus, both effluents were phytotoxic for the tested bioindicators (p<0.05). For lettuce seeds, the GI presented negative correlations (p<0.05) with the total Kjeldahl N (-0.93) and the surfactants concentration (-0.83) in the raw effluent. The Zn concentration in the treated effluent showed a negative correlation (p<0.05) with the GI of both lettuce (-0.63) and cucumber seeds (-0.64). Therefore, effluents from swine slaughterhouses may impair the germination of the evaluated plant species if used for agricultural purposes.

  4. Diets Containing Sea Cucumber (Isostichopus badionotus) Meals Are Hypocholesterolemic in Young Rats

    PubMed Central

    Olivera-Castillo, Leticia; Davalos, Alberto; Grant, George; Valadez-Gonzalez, Nina; Montero, Jorge; Barrera-Perez, Hirian Alonso Moshe; Chim-Chi, Yasser; Olvera-Novoa, Miguel Angel; Ceja-Moreno, Víctor; Acereto-Escoffie, Pablo; Rubio-Piña, Jorge; Rodriguez-Canul, Rossanna

    2013-01-01

    Sea cucumber is widely consumed as a putative functional food. It contains many biologically-active substances, but only limited research on its properties in vivo has been done. The effects of different meals containing Isostichopus badionotus, a sea cucumber from southeast Mexico, on growth performance and body lipid profile in young rats were analyzed. Sea cucumber body wall was either lyophilized, cooked (100 °C, 1 h in water) and lyophilized, or oven-dried (70 °C for 12 h). It was then ground and incorporated into cholesterol-containing diets. I. badionotus meals supported growth and improved lipid profile in rats. In particular, serum cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, triglycerides concentration and atherogenic index values were greatly reduced by some I. badionotus containing diets. Liver total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol were also reduced. Cooking or heat-treatment of the meals lowered but did not abolish their hypolipidemic potency. Gene expression analysis of several key genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism in liver showed that diets containing I. badionotus repressed the induction of key genes associated with dyslipidemia exerted by cholesterol supplementation. Consumption of I. badionotus from the Yucatan Peninsula is beneficial for dyslipidemia, although biological effect is clearly dependent on preparation method. PMID:24260223

  5. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in cucurbit crops of KPK, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Asad; Hussain, Adil; Ahmad, Musharaf

    2014-01-01

    Field survey of the cucurbit crops revealed a high incidence of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK), Pakistan. Among the seven districts surveyed, average percent incidence of CGMMV was recorded up to 58.1% in district Nowshera, followed by 51.1% in district Charsada, 40.5% in district Swabi and 37.3% in district Mardan. In Swat and Dir districts average incidence CGMMV was recorded upto 31.2% and 29.4%, respectively. Among the different crops highest incidence in plain areas of KPK was recorded in bottle gourd (59.3%) followed by 56.3% in Squash, 54.5% in Pumpkin, 45.5% in Melon, 41.7% in Cucumber and 29.9% in Sponge gourd. In Northern hilly areas highest incidence of CGMMV (52.9%) was observed in pumpkin, followed by 49.6% in bottle gourd, 47.3% in squash, 45.1% in Melon 42.3% in cucumber and 41.6% in sponge gourd. Little variability was observed in the coat protein amino acid sequence identities of CGMMV Pakistan isolate, when compared with other reported isolates. PMID:25763028

  6. Variegatusides: New Non-Sulphated Triterpene Glycosides from the Sea Cucumber Stichopus variegates Semper

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Hua; Zou, Zheng-Rong; Yi, Yang-Hua; Han, Hua; Li, Ling; Pan, Min-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Four new triterpene glycosides, variegatusides C–F (1–4), together with three structurally known triterpene glycosides, variegatusides A and B (5, 6), and holothurin B (7), were isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus variegates Semper (Holothuriidae), collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectral analysis (nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS)) and chemical evidence. Variegatusides C–F exhibit the same structural feature consisting of the presence of a 23-hydroxyl group at the holostane-type triterpene aglycone side chain. Variegatuside C (1) has a double bond (24, 25) in this same chain, while variegatuside D (2) exhibits a 8(9)-ene bond in the holostane-type triterpene aglycone, which has not been extracted from other sea cucumber species. Compound 4 is a native compound from the sea cucumber S. variegates Semper, which has been reported to be desacetylstichloroside B1. Except for holothurin B, these glycosides have no sulfate group in their sugar chain and show potent antifungal activities in vitro biotests. PMID:24699115

  7. Near-UV radiation acts as a beneficial factor for physiological responses in cucumber plants.

    PubMed

    Mitani-Sano, Makiko; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2013-11-05

    Effects of near-UV radiation on the growth and physiological activity of cucumber plants were investigated morphologically, physiologically and biochemically using 3-week-old seedlings grown under polyvinyl chloride films featuring transmission either above 290 nm or above 400 nm in growth chambers. The hypocotyl length and leaf area of cucumber seedlings were reduced but the thickness of leaves was enhanced by near-UV radiation, due to increased upper/lower epidermis thickness, palisade parenchyma thickness and volume of palisade parenchyma cells. Photosynthetic and respiratory activities were also promoted by near-UV radiation, associated with general enhancement of physiological/biochemical responses. Particularly, metabolic activities in the photosynthetic system of chloroplasts and the respiratory system of mitochondria were analyzed under the conditions of visible light with and without near-UV radiation. For example, the activities of NAD(P)-dependent enzymes such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) in chloroplasts and isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) in mitochondria were elevated, along with levels of pyridine nucleotides (nicotinamide coenzymes) [NAD(H) and NADP(H)] and activity of NAD kinase (NADP forming enzyme). Taken together, these data suggest that promotion of cucumber plant growth by near-UV radiation involves activation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in plants. The findings of this research showed that near-UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface is a beneficial factor for plant growth.

  8. Synergistic Effect of Dazomet Soil Fumigation and Clonostachys rosea Against Cucumber Fusarium Wilt.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Li, Shi-Dong; Sun, Man-Hong

    2014-12-01

    Soil fumigation and biological control are two control measures frequently used against soilborne diseases. In this study, the chemical fumigant dazomet was applied in combination with the biocontrol agent (BCA) Clonostachys rosea 67-1 to combat cucumber wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum KW2-1. When the mycoparasite C. rosea 67-1 was applied after dazomet fumigation, disease control reached 100%, compared with 88.1 and 69.8% for dazomet and 67-1 agent, respectively, applied alone, indicating a synergistic effect of dazomet and C. rosea in combating cucumber Fusarium wilt based on analysis of Bliss Independence. To understand the synergistic mechanism, the effects of chemical fumigation on the colonization potential and activity of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, and the interaction between the BCA and the pathogen were investigated. The results showed that growth of the pathogen decreased with increasing dazomet concentration subsequent to fumigation. When exposed to dazomet at 100 ppm, the fungal sporulation rate decreased by 94.4%. Severe damage was observed in fumigated isolates using scanning electron microscopy. In the greenhouse, disease incidence of cucumber caused by fumigated F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum significantly decreased. Whereas germination of C. rosea 67-1 spores increased by >sixfold in fumigated soil, and its ability to parasitize fumigated F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum significantly increased (P = 0.014).

  9. Physical and chemical indices of cucumber seedling leaves under dibutyl phthalate stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Du, Na; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Jiaying; Sun, Guoqiang; Wang, Pengjie

    2015-03-01

    Phthalic acid ester (PAE) pollution to soil can lead to phytotoxicity in plants and potential health risks to human being. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) as a kind of PAE has a large usage amount and large residues in soil. To analyze antioxidant responses of plants to DBP stress, effects of varying DBP concentrations on cucumber seedlings growth had been investigated. Malonaldehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), chlorophyll, proline, glutathione (GSH), and oxidized glutathione (GSSH) contents and activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase (POD) were studied. The results showed that H2O2 content increased in cucumber seedlings with the increase of DBP concentration. The chlorophyll content in the higher DBP significantly declined compared to the control. In the present study, a disturbance of the GSH redox balance was evidenced by a marked decrease in GSH/GSSG ratio in cucumber seedlings subjected DBP stress. Our results indicated that DBP treatment not only inhibited antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzyme activity in seedlings' leaves but might also induce chlorophyll degradation or reduce the synthesis of chlorophyll. Moreover, it could also enhance the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which induced membrane lipid peroxidation. DBP also altered the ultrastructure of mesophyll cells, damaged membrane structure of chloroplast and mitochondrion, and increased the number and size of starch grains in chloroplasts reducing the photosynthetic capacity.

  10. L-Alanine augments rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Park, K S; Paul, D; Kim, J S; Park, J W

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus vallismortis strain EXTN-1 is a proven biotic elicitor of systemic resistance in many crops against various pathogens. L: -Alanine (Ala) was tested in cucumber as a chemical elicitor of induced systemic resistance (ISR) against Colletotrichum orbiculare. In the greenhouse, both Ala and EXTN-1 induced significant levels of disease suppression in cucumber against anthracnose. When cucumber plants were treated with EXTN-1 and Ala together, augmentative disease suppression was observed. Experiments with transgenic tobacco plants carrying pathogenesis-related genes fused with the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reported gene (PR-1a::GUS & PDF 1.2::GUS) showed an enhanced activation of both PR-1a and PDF 1.2 genes upon combined treatment with Ala and EXTN-1. RT-PCR analysis with transgenic (PR-1a or PDF 1.2 over expressing) Arabidopsis plant showed more enhanced expression of resistance genes PR-1a and PDF 1.2 upon combined treatment with Ala and EXTN-1 than either alone. An augmentative ISR effect, when the bacterial elicitor and chemical elicitor were combined together, was confirmed.

  11. Ectopic expression of CsCTR1, a cucumber CTR-like gene, attenuates constitutive ethylene signaling in an Arabidopsis ctr1-1 mutant and expression pattern analysis of CsCTR1 in cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Bie, Beibei; Sun, Jin; Pan, Junsong; He, Huanle; Cai, Run

    2014-09-15

    The gaseous plant hormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment. Constitutive triple response 1 (CTR1) is a central regulator involved in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To obtain a better understanding of this particular pathway in cucumber, the cDNA-encoding CTR1 (designated CsCTR1) was isolated from cucumber. A sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsCTR1 has a high degree of homology with other plant CTR1 proteins. The ectopic expression of CsCTR1 in the Arabidopsis ctr1-1 mutant attenuates constitutive ethylene signaling of this mutant, suggesting that CsCTR1 indeed performs its function as negative regulator of the ethylene signaling pathway. CsCTR1 is constitutively expressed in all of the examined cucumber organs, including roots, stems, leaves, shoot apices, mature male and female flowers, as well as young fruits. CsCTR1 expression gradually declined during male flower development and increased during female flower development. Additionally, our results indicate that CsCTR1 can be induced in the roots, leaves and shoot apices by external ethylene. In conclusion, this study provides a basis for further studies on the role of CTR1 in the biological processes of cucumber and on the molecular mechanism of the cucumber ethylene signaling pathway.

  12. Ectopic Expression of CsCTR1, a Cucumber CTR-Like Gene, Attenuates Constitutive Ethylene Signaling in an Arabidopsis ctr1-1 Mutant and Expression Pattern Analysis of CsCTR1 in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

    PubMed Central

    Bie, Beibei; Sun, Jin; Pan, Junsong; He, Huanle; Cai, Run

    2014-01-01

    The gaseous plant hormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment. Constitutive triple response 1 (CTR1) is a central regulator involved in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To obtain a better understanding of this particular pathway in cucumber, the cDNA-encoding CTR1 (designated CsCTR1) was isolated from cucumber. A sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsCTR1 has a high degree of homology with other plant CTR1 proteins. The ectopic expression of CsCTR1 in the Arabidopsis ctr1-1 mutant attenuates constitutive ethylene signaling of this mutant, suggesting that CsCTR1 indeed performs its function as negative regulator of the ethylene signaling pathway. CsCTR1 is constitutively expressed in all of the examined cucumber organs, including roots, stems, leaves, shoot apices, mature male and female flowers, as well as young fruits. CsCTR1 expression gradually declined during male flower development and increased during female flower development. Additionally, our results indicate that CsCTR1 can be induced in the roots, leaves and shoot apices by external ethylene. In conclusion, this study provides a basis for further studies on the role of CTR1 in the biological processes of cucumber and on the molecular mechanism of the cucumber ethylene signaling pathway. PMID:25226540

  13. The Cucumber Genome Initiative-An International Effort to Unlock the Genetic Potential of an Orphan Crop Using Novel Genomic Technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is an important vegetable in the world. However, its narrow genetic basis makes it a less desirable species for genetic study and molecular breeding. The Cucumber Genome Initiative (CuGI) was established with aims: 1) to obtain a complete sequence of the genome; 2) to get an in-depth und...

  14. Preservation of acidified cucumbers with a natural preservative combination of fumaric acid and allyl isothiocyanate that target lactic acid bacteria and yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Without the addition of preservative compounds cucumbers acidified with 150 mM acetic acid with pH adjusted to 3.5 typically undergo fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Fumaric acid (20 mM) inhibited growth of Lactobacillus plantarum and the lactic acid bacteria present on fresh cucumbers, but sp...

  15. Round fruit shape in WI7239 cucumber is controlled by two interacting quantitative trait loci with one putatively encoding a tomato SUN homolog

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit size and shape is an important quality trait in cucumber breeding, yet its genetic basis remains poorly understood. In the present study, we conducted QTL mapping on round fruit shape in cucumber with F2 and F2:3 segregating populations from the cross between WI7238 (long fruit) and WI7239 (ro...

  16. Reassessment of the succession of lactic acid bacteria in commercial cucumber fermentations and physiological and genomic features associated with their dominance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current cucumber pickling practices differ significantly from those in the 1940s, when most of the microbiological studies of cucumber fermentations were completed, using culture dependent and biochemical testing. It is the objective of this study to conduct a compositional re-assessment of the micr...

  17. Integrated analysis in bi-parental and natural populations reveals CsCLAVATA3 (CsCLV3) underlying carpel number variations in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carpel number (CN) is an important fruit quality trait of cucumber, but the genetic basis of this trait in cucumber is largely unknown. In the present study, segregating analysis in multiple bi-parental mapping populations (F2, F3 and RILs) derived from WI2757 (CN=3) × True Lemon (CN=5) suggested th...

  18. [Effects of graft and nitrogen supply level on water consumption and water use efficiency of solar greenhouse cucumber under traditional irrigation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-yan; Wang, Lu; Wang, Yong-quan; Sun, Huan-ming; Ren, Hua-zhong

    2008-12-01

    An experiment was conducted in solar greenhouse to study the effects of graft and different nitrogen (N) supply levels (0, 110, and 331 kg k x hm(-2)) on the water consumption and water use efficiency (WUE) of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under traditional irrigation. The results showed that when topdressing 331 kg N x hm(-2), the water consumption of grafted cucumber was the highest, being 3350 m3 x hm(-2) and 2181 m3 x hm(-2) in winter-spring and autumn-winter cropping, so did the WUE, being 27.2 kg x m(-3) and 36.9 kg x m(-3), respectively. Comparing with those of self-rooted cucumber, the water consumption, economic yield, and WUE of grafted cucumber under the same N topdressing levels were increased by 3%-6%, 28%, and 20.9%, respectively, and the water consumption and WUE of grafted cucumber were increased with increasing N supply level. The water consumption of self-rooted cucumber also increased with increasing N supply level, but its WUE was the highest when the N supply was 110 kg graft could markedly promote the water consumption and WUE of cucumber, and the effect was more markedly with increasing N supply level. To increase N supply could also markedly promote the water consumption of self-rooted cucumber, but the WUE would be lower when excessive N was supplied.

  19. Effects of dietary nucleotides on growth, non-specific immune response and disease resistance of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zehong; Yi, Lina; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2015-11-01

    A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary nucleotides (NT) on growth, immune response and disease resistance of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas (initial weight: 5.87 ± 0.03 g). Four graded levels of dietary NT were designed as 0, 150, 375 and 700 mg/kg, respectively. After the feeding trial, sea cucumbers were challenged with Vibrio splendidus for the determination of disease resistance. The results showed that the specific growth rates were significantly higher in sea cucumber fed the diet with 375 mg/kg NT than those fed the basal diet without NT supplementation (P < 0.05). The highest total coelomocytes counts in coelomic fluid were found in the treatment with 150 mg/kg of dietary NT (P < 0.05). Compared to those fed with the basal diet, sea cucumber fed diets with nucleotides (≥ 375 mg/kg) had significantly higher phagocytic activities in coelomic fluid (P < 0.05). Respiratory burst activities in coelomic fluid significantly increased with increasing dietary NT supplementations up to 700 mg/kg (P < 0.05). No significant differences in the activities of superoxide dismutase, total nitric oxide synthase and acid phosphatase in coelomic fluid were found among all the treatments (P > 0.05). After being challenged with V. splendidus, the cumulative mortalities of sea cucumber fed diets with 150 and 375 mg/kg NT were significantly lower than that in the treatment without dietary nucleotide supplementation (P < 0.05). Under the experimental conditions, the present results confirmed that a diet supplemented with 375 mg/kg NT is able to enhance both non-specific immune response and growth of sea cucumber in vivo. In conclusion, it was showed that dietary NT does increase the growth performance, non-specific immunity and disease resistance of sea cucumber. The optimum dietary NT supplementation level for sea cucumber was found to be 375 mg/kg. The application of dietary NT may present a novel strategy for health management in

  20. Regulation of dietary glutamine on the growth, intestinal function, immunity and antioxidant capacity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Lan, Ying; Ye, Zhi; Wen, Bin

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined the effects of dietary glutamine (Gln) on the growth, intestinal function, immunity and antioxidant capacity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). The specific growth rate, intestinal morphology, activity of digestive enzymes, activity and gene expression of lysozyme and antioxidative enzymes of the sea cucumbers were determined after feeding 5 experimental diets with additions of increasing levels of Gln (at 0%, 0.4%, 0.8%,1.2% and 1.6%, respectively) for 60 days. We discovered that the specific growth rate of the sea cucumbers in 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.2% groups increased 35.3%, 27.3% and 24.1%, respectively, compared to the control (0%) group with significant differences. Dietary Gln can improve the intestinal function of the sea cucumbers by increasing the activities of trypsin and lipase in the intestine and the villus height and villus density of the intestine, eventhough significant differences were not observed in some groups. 0.4%-0.8% of dietary Gln can significantly increase the activity of lysozyme (LSZ) in the coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers. Significant improvements were observed on the SOD activity in coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers fed diets supplemented with 0.4%-1.6% of Gln compared to the control group. Similarly, the CAT activity in coelomic fluid of the sea cucumbers significantly increased in 0.8%, 1.2% and 1.6% groups compared to the control and 0.4% groups. Change pattern of the activity of CAT was consistent with the change pattern of the expression of CAT gene, indicating the dietary Gln can up-regulate the expression of CAT gene and consequently promote the secretion of CAT. However, the down-regulation of the expression of SOD gene by dietary Gln were observed in almost all of the treatment groups, which is in contrast with the change pattern of the activity of SOD, indicating the negative feedback regulation of the secretion of SOD on the expression of SOD gene. In summary, the suitable

  1. Genetic Analysis and QTL Mapping of Fruit Peduncle Length in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Song; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Sheng-Ping; Gu, Xing-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Mechanized harvesting of cucumbers offers significant advantages compared to manual labor as both shortages and costs of labor increase. However the efficient use of machines depends on breeding plants with longer peduncles, but the genetic and molecular basis of fruit peduncle development in cucumber is not well understood. In this study, F2 populations were developed from a cross between two inbred lines, 1101 with a long peduncle and 1694 with a short peduncle. These were grown at two field sites, Hainan, with a tropical marine climate, in December 2014, and Beijing, with a warm temperate climate, in May 2015. Electron microscope examination of the pith cells in the peduncles of the two parental lines showed that line 1101 had significantly greater numbers of smaller cells compared to line 1694. The inheritance of cucumber fruit peduncle length (FPL) was investigated by the mixed major gene and polygene inheritance model. Genetic analysis indicated that FPL in cucumber is quantitatively inherited and controlled by one additive major gene and additive-dominant polygenes (D-2 model). A total of 1460 pairs of SSR (simple sequence repeat) primers were analyzed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Two similar genetic maps with 78 SSR markers which covered 720.6 cM in seven linkage groups were constructed based on two F2 populations. QTL analysis from the data collected at the two field sites showed that there are two minor QTLs on chromosome 1, named qfpl1.1 and qfpl1.2, and one major QTL on chromosome 6, named qfpl6.1. The marker UW021226, which was the closest one to qfpl6.1, had an accuracy rate of 79.0% when tested against plants selected from populations of the two parents. The results from this study provide insights into the inheritance and molecular mechanism of the variation of FPL in cucumber, and further research will be carried out to fine map qfpl6.1 to develop more accurate markers for MAS breeding. PMID:27936210

  2. Genome-Wide Mapping of Structural Variations Reveals a Copy Number Variant That Determines Reproductive Morphology in Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Mao, Linyong; Chen, Huiming; Bu, Fengjiao; Li, Guangcun; Sun, Jinjing; Li, Shuai; Sun, Honghe; Jiao, Chen; Blakely, Rachel; Pan, Junsong; Cai, Run; Luo, Ruibang; Van de Peer, Yves; Jacobsen, Evert; Fei, Zhangjun; Huang, Sanwen

    2015-01-01

    Structural variations (SVs) represent a major source of genetic diversity. However, the functional impact and formation mechanisms of SVs in plant genomes remain largely unexplored. Here, we report a nucleotide-resolution SV map of cucumber (Cucumis sativas) that comprises 26,788 SVs based on deep resequencing of 115 diverse accessions. The largest proportion of cucumber SVs was formed through nonhomologous end-joining rearrangements, and the occurrence of SVs is closely associated with regions of high nucleotide diversity. These SVs affect the coding regions of 1676 genes, some of which are associated with cucumber domestication. Based on the map, we discovered a copy number variation (CNV) involving four genes that defines the Female (F) locus and gives rise to gynoecious cucumber plants, which bear only female flowers and set fruit at almost every node. The CNV arose from a recent 30.2-kb duplication at a meiotically unstable region, likely via microhomology-mediated break-induced replication. The SV set provides a snapshot of structural variations in plants and will serve as an important resource for exploring genes underlying key traits and for facilitating practical breeding in cucumber. PMID:26002866

  3. Induction of drought tolerance in cucumber plants by a consortium of three plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium strains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Juan; Yang, Wei; Wang, Chao; Gu, Chun; Niu, Dong-Dong; Liu, Hong-Xia; Wang, Yun-Peng; Guo, Jian-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Our previous work showed that a consortium of three plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) strains (Bacillus cereus AR156, Bacillus subtilis SM21, and Serratia sp. XY21), termed as BBS for short, was a promising biocontrol agent. The present study investigated its effect on drought tolerance in cucumber plants. After withholding watering for 13 days, BBS-treated cucumber plants had much darker green leaves and substantially lighter wilt symptoms than control plants. Compared to the control, the BBS treatment decreased the leaf monodehydroascorbate (MDA) content and relative electrical conductivity by 40% and 15%, respectively; increased the leaf proline content and the root recovery intension by 3.45-fold and 50%, respectively; and also maintained the leaf chlorophyll content in cucumber plants under drought stress. Besides, in relation to the control, the BBS treatment significantly enhanced the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and mitigated the drought-triggered down-regulation of the expression of the genes cAPX, rbcL, and rbcS encoding cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxy/oxygenase (Rubisco) large and small subunits, respectively, in cucumber leaves. However, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity was undetected in none of the culture solutions of three BBS constituent strains. These results indicated that BBS conferred induced systemic tolerance to drought stress in cucumber plants, by protecting plant cells, maintaining photosynthetic efficiency and root vigor and increasing some of antioxidase activities, without involving the action of ACC deaminase to lower plant ethylene levels.

  4. Silencing of the gibberellin receptor homolog, CsGID1a, affects locule formation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Xingwang; Yang, Sen; Chen, Chunhua; Xue, Shudan; Cai, Yanling; Wang, Dandan; Yin, Shuai; Gai, Xinshuang; Ren, Huazhong

    2016-04-01

    Gibberellins are phytohormones with many roles, including the regulation of fruit development. However, little is known about the relationship between GA perception and fleshy fruit ontogeny, and particularly locule formation. We characterized the expression of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) GA receptor gene (CsGID1a) using quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization and a promoter::β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay. CsGID1a-RNAi cucumber fruits were observed by dissecting microscope, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Finally, genome-wide gene expression in young fruits from a control and the RNAi line was compared using a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis approach. The expression pattern of CsGID1a was found to be closely correlated with fruit locule formation, and silencing CsGID1a in cucumber resulted in fruits with abnormal carpels and locules. Overexpression of CsGID1a in the Arabidopsis thaliana double mutant (gid1a gid1c) resulted in 'cucumber locule-like' fruits. The DGE analysis suggested that expression of genes related to auxin synthesis and transport, as well as the cell cycle, was altered in CsGID1a-RNAi fruits, a result that was supported by comparing the auxin content and cellular structures of the control and transgenic fruits. This study demonstrates a previously uncharacterized GA signaling pathway that is essential for cucumber fruit locule formation.

  5. Transcriptome profiling reveals roles of meristem regulators and polarity genes during fruit trichome development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunhua; Liu, Meiling; Jiang, Li; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jianyu; Yan, Shuangshuang; Yang, Sen; Ren, Huazhong; Liu, Renyi; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2014-09-01

    Trichomes are epidermal hair-like structures that function in plant defence against biotic and abiotic stresses. Extensive studies have been performed on foliar trichomes development in Arabidopsis and tomato, but the molecular mechanism of fruit trichome formation remains elusive. Cucumber fruit is covered with trichomes (spines) that directly affect the appearance and quality of cucumber products. Here, we characterized the fruit spine development in wild-type (WT) cucumber and a spontaneous mutant, tiny branched hair (tbh). Our data showed that the cucumber trichome was multicellular and non-glandular, with malformed organelles and no endoreduplication. Fruit spine development was generally homogenous and marked by a rapid base expansion stage. Trichomes in the tbh mutant were tiny and branched, with increased density and aberrant cell shape. Transcriptome profiling indicated that meristem-related genes were highly enriched in the upregulated genes in the tbh versus the WT, as well as in WT spines after versus before base expansion, and that polarity regulators were greatly induced during spine base expansion. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the differential expression of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 (CUC3) and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) during spine development. Therefore, cucumber trichomes are morphologically different from those of Arabidopsis and tomato, and their development may be regulated by a distinct pathway involving meristem genes and polarity regulators.

  6. Fine genetic mapping of cp: a recessive gene for compact (dwarf) plant architecture in cucumber, Cucumis sativus L.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhong; Yang, Luming; Pathak, Mamta; Li, Dawei; He, Xiaoming; Weng, Yiqun

    2011-10-01

    The compact (dwarf) plant architecture is an important trait in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) breeding that has the potential to be used in once-over mechanical harvest of cucumber production. Compact growth habit is controlled by a simply inherited recessive gene cp. With 150 F(2:3) families derived from two inbred cucumber lines, PI 308915 (compact vining) and PI 249561 (regular vining), we conducted genome-wide molecular mapping with microsatellite (simple sequence repeat, SSR) markers. A framework genetic map was constructed consisting of 187 SSR loci in seven linkage groups (chromosomes) covering 527.5 cM. Linkage analysis placed cp at the distal half of the long arm of cucumber Chromosome 4. Molecular markers cosegregating with the cp locus were identified through whole genome scaffold-based chromosome walking. Fine genetic mapping with 1,269 F(2) plants delimited the cp locus to a 220 kb genomic DNA region. Annotation and function prediction of genes in this region identified a homolog of the cytokinin oxidase (CKX) gene, which may be a potential candidate of compact gene. Alignment of the CKX gene homologs from both parental lines revealed a 3-bp deletion in the first exon of PI 308915, which can serve as a marker for marker-assisted selection of the compact phenotype. This work also provides a solid foundation for map-based cloning of the compact gene and understanding the molecular mechanisms of the dwarfing in cucumber.

  7. Responses of soil microbial communities in the rhizosphere of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) to exogenously applied p-hydroxybenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xingang; Yu, Gaobo; Wu, Fengzhi

    2012-08-01

    Changes in soil biological properties have been implicated as one of the causes of soil sickness, a phenomenon that occurs in continuous monocropping systems. However, the causes for these changes are not yet clear. The aim of this work was to elucidate the role of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), an autotoxin of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), in changing soil microbial communities. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was applied to soil every other day for 10 days in cucumber pot assays. Then, the structures and sizes of bacterial and fungal communities, dehydrogenase activity, and microbial carbon biomass (MCB) were assessed in the rhizosphere soil. Structures and sizes of rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR, respectively. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid inhibited cucumber seedling growth and stimulated rhizosphere dehydrogenase activity, MBC content, and bacterial and fungal community sizes. Rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities responded differently to exogenously applied PHBA. The PHBA decreased the Shannon-Wiener index for the rhizosphere bacterial community but increased that for the rhizosphere fungal community. In addition, the response of the rhizosphere fungal community structure to PHBA acid was concentration dependent, but was not for the rhizosphere bacterial community structure. Our results indicate that PHBA plays a significant role in the chemical interactions between cucumber and soil microorganisms and could account for the changes in soil microbial communities in the continuously monocropped cucumber system.

  8. [Rapid diagnostics of early phosphorus deficiency in mini-cucumber plants under protected cultivation by near infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Shi, Ji-yong; Zou, Xiao-bo; Zhao, Jie-wen; Mao, Han-ping; Wang, Kai-liang; Chen, Zheng-wei; Huang, Xiao-wei

    2011-12-01

    The morphological symptom of phosphorus deficiency at early stage is similar to the appearance of leaf aging process in preliminary phase, so that visual diagnostics of phosphorus deficiency in mini-cucumber plants at early stage is practically impossible. Near infrared reflectance spectra contain information about differences in compositions of leaf tissues between phosphorus-deficient plants and healthy plants. In the present paper, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy was used to provide diagnostic information on phosphorus deficiency of mini-cucumber plants grown under non-soil conditions. Near infrared spectra was collected from 90 leaves of mini-cucumber plants. Raw cucumber spectra was preprocessed by SNV and divided into 27 intervals. The top 10 principal components (PCs) were extracted as the input of BP-ANN classifiers by principal component analysis (PCA) while the values of nutrient deficient were used as the output variables of BP-ANN and three layers BP-ANN discrimination model was built. The best experiment results were based on the top 3 principal components of No. 7 interval when the spectra was divided into 27 intervals and identification rates of the ANN model are 100% in both training set and the prediction set. The overall results show that NIR spectroscopy combined with BP-ANN can be efficiently utilized for rapid and early diagnostics of phosphorus deficiency in mini-cucumber plants.

  9. Metabolism of lactic acid in fermented cucumbers by Lactobacillus buchneri and related species, potential spoilage organisms in reduced salt fermentations.

    PubMed

    Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; McFeeters, Roger F

    2013-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that Lactobacillus buchneri may play an important role in spoilage-associated secondary fermentation of cucumbers. Lactic acid degradation during fermented cucumber spoilage is influenced by sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, pH, and presence of oxygen. Objectives were to evaluate these factors on lactic acid utilization by L. buchneri, and to compare the biochemical changes to those which occur during fermented cucumber spoilage. Effects of NaCl (0, 2, 4, and 6% w/w), pH (3.8 vs 5.0), and aerobic environment were investigated using fermented cucumber media (FC) inoculated with spoilage microorganisms. At pH 3.8, L. buchneri degraded lactic acid in all NaCl concentrations. The highest rate of lactic acid utilization occurred in FC with 2% NaCl (P < 0.05). Lactic acid utilization was nearly identical under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, indicating that oxygen does not influence lactate metabolism by L. buchneri. Lactic acid utilization was accompanied by increases in acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol, and Lactobacillus rapi was able to convert 1,2-propanediol to propionic acid and propanol. L. buchneri initiated spoilage in a wide range of environmental conditions that may be present in commercial cucumber fermentations, and L. rapi may act syntrophically with L. buchneri to produce the commonly observed spoilage metabolites.

  10. Auxin: a major player in the shoot-to-root regulation of root Fe-stress physiological responses to Fe deficiency in cucumber plants.

    PubMed

    Bacaicoa, Eva; Mora, Verónica; Zamarreño, Angel María; Fuentes, Marta; Casanova, Esther; García-Mina, José María

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of IAA and ABA in the shoot-to-root regulation of the expression of the main Fe-stress physiological root responses in cucumber plants subjected to shoot Fe functional deficiency. Changes in the expression of the genes CsFRO1, CsIRT1, CsHA1 and CsHA2 (coding for Fe(III)-chelate reductase (FCR), the Fe(II) transporter and H+-ATPase, respectively) and in the enzyme activity of FCR and the acidification capacity were measured. We studied first the ability of exogenous applications of IAA and ABA to induce these Fe-stress root responses in plants grown in Fe-sufficient conditions. The results showed that IAA was able to activate these responses at the transcriptional and functional levels, whereas the results with ABA were less conclusive. Thereafter, we explored the role of IAA in plants with or without shoot Fe functional deficiency in the presence of two types of IAA inhibitors, affecting either IAA polar transport (TIBA) or IAA functionality (PCIB). The results showed that IAA is involved in the regulation at the transcriptional and functional levels of both Fe root acquisition (FCR, Fe(II) transport) and rhizosphere acidification (H+-ATPase), although through different, and probably complementary, mechanisms. These results suggest that IAA is involved in the shoot-to-root regulation of the expression of Fe-stress physiological root responses.

  11. Postharvest chitosan-g-salicylic acid application alleviates chilling injury and preserves cucumber fruit quality during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youzuo; Zhang, Meiling; Yang, Huqing

    2015-05-01

    The effect of salicylic acid with and without chitosan, or a chitosan-g-salicylic acid complex, on chilling injury and post-harvest quality of cucumber stored at 2 °C for 12 days plus 2 days at 20 °C was investigated. The results showed the chitosan-g-salicylic acid coating inhibited chilling injury better than salicylic acid alone or with chitosan. Chitosan-g-salicylic acid also reduced weight loss and respiration rate, limited increases in malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage, and maintained higher total soluble solids, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content. Furthermore, this coating increased the endogenous salicylic acid concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase in cucumber during storage. Our study suggests that chitosan-g-salicylic acid alleviated chilling injury in cucumber through sustained-release of salicylic acid and the higher antioxidant enzymes concentrations.

  12. Enantioselective residue dissipation of hexaconazole in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), head cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. caulorapa DC.), and soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Hu; Xu, Hao; Wang, Xiangyun; Wu, Changxing; Yang, Hongda; Li, Zhen; Wang, Qiang

    2012-03-07

    In this study, the enantioselective dissipation behavior of hexaconazole was investigated in cucumber fruit, head cabbage, and two different types of agricultural soils. The dissipation kinetics was determined by reverse-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on a cellulose tris (3-chloro-4-methylphenylcarbamate) chiral column. Dissipation rates of hexaconazole enantiomers followed first-order kinetics; the residues of (+)-enantiomer decreased more rapidly than (-)-enantiomer in cucumber and head cabbage, resulting in relative enrichment of the (-)-form, while the two enantiomers showed similar degradation rates in the tested soils. These results indicate substantial enantioselectivity in the residue dissipation of hexaconazole enantiomers in cucumber and head cabbage; however, nonenantioselective dissipation was observed in the tested soils.

  13. Effects of heat treatment on the gel properties of the body wall of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Hou, Hu; Bu, Lin; Li, Bafang; Xue, Changhu; Peng, Zhe; Su, Shiwei

    2017-03-01

    The sensory texture of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) was dramatically affected by heat treatment. In this study, sea cucumbers were heated under different thermal conditions (HSC), and divided into five groups (HSC-80, HSC-90, HSC-100, HSC-110, and HSC-120) according to the heating temperature (from 80 to 120 °C). The changes in texture, moisture, gel structure, and biochemical parameters of the HSC were investigated. With increasing heating time (from 10 to 80 min), the hardness and gel structure changed slightly, and the water activity decreased as the proportion of T21 increased by 133.33, 55.56, and 59.09% in the HSC-80, HSC-90, and HSC-100 groups, respectively. This indicated that moderate heating conditions (below 100 °C) caused gelation of sea cucumbers in HSC-80, HSC-90, and HSC-100 groups. However, as the water activity increased, the hardness declined rapidly by 2.56 and 2.7% in the HSC-110 and HSC-120 groups, with heating time increased from 10 to 80 min. Meanwhile, free hydroxyproline and ammonia nitrogen contents increased by 81.24 and 63.16% in the HSC-110 group; and by 63.09 and 54.99% in the HSC-120 group, as the gel structure of the sea cucumbers decomposed in these two groups. These results demonstrated that, severe heat treatment (above 100 °C) destroyed the chemical bonds, triggered the disintegration of collagen fibers and the gel structure of sea cucumbers, and transformed the migration and distribution of moisture, finally causing the deterioration of the sensory texture of the sea cucumbers.

  14. Effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of the red sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Senhao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Ren, Yichao; Wang, Fang

    2015-05-01

    Three color variants of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus are recognized, the red one is highly valued in the market. When the red variant is cultured in ponds in China, its body color changes from red to celadon in 3-6 months. The effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of this animal were investigated. Juveniles of red A. japonicus were cultured in cages suspended at a range of water depths (20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 cm). The specific growth rate of red sea cucumbers was significantly higher in animals cultured at deeper water layers compared with those grown at shallowers. Body weights were greatest for sea cucumbers cultured at a depth of 150 cm and their survival rates were highest at a depth of 200 cm. A scale to evaluate the color of red sea cucumbers ( R value) was developed using a Pantone standard color card. All stocked animals in the 9-month trial retained a red color, however the red body color was much more intense in sea cucumbers cultured at shallower depths, while animals suspended in deeper layers became pale. In a separate trial, A. japonicus were cultured in suspended cages with seven different colored substrates. Substrate color had a significant effect on the growth and body-color of red A. japonicus. The yield were greatest for A. japonicus cultured on a yellow substrate, followed by green > white > orange > red > black and blue. All sea cucumbers in the 7-month trial retained a red color, although the red was most intense (highest R value) in animals cultured on a blue substrate and pale (lowest R value) for animals cultured on a green substrate.

  15. Genome-Wide Identification of Two-Component System Genes in Cucurbitaceae Crops and Expression Profiling Analyses in Cucumber.

    PubMed

    He, Yanjun; Liu, Xue; Zou, Tao; Pan, Changtian; Qin, Li; Chen, Lifei; Lu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Cucumber and watermelon, which belong to Cucurbitaceae family, are economically important cultivated crops worldwide. However, these crops are vulnerable to various adverse environments. Two-component system (TCS), consisting of histidine kinases (HKs), phosphotransfers (HPs), and response regulator proteins (RRs), plays important roles in various plant developmental processes and signaling transduction in responses to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. No systematic investigation has been conducted on TCS genes in Cucurbitaceae species. Based on the completion of the cucumber and watermelon genome draft, we identified 46 and 49 TCS genes in cucumber and watermelon, respectively. The cucumber TCS members included 18 HK(L)s, 7 HPs, and 21 RRs, whereas the watermelon TCS system consisted of 19 HK(L)s, 6 HPs, and 24 RRs. The sequences and domains of TCS members from these two species were highly conserved. Gene duplication events occurred rarely, which might have resulted from the absence of recent whole-genome duplication event in these two Cucurbitaceae crops. Numerous stress- and hormone-responsive cis-elements were detected in the putative promoter regions of the cucumber TCS genes. Meanwhile, quantitative real-time PCR indicated that most of the TCS genes in cucumber were specifically or preferentially expressed in certain tissues or organs, especially in the early developing fruit. Some TCS genes exhibited diverse patterns of gene expression in response to abiotic stresses as well as exogenous trans-zeatin (ZT) and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, suggesting that TCS genes might play significant roles in responses to various abiotic stresses and hormones in Cucurbitaceae crops.

  16. Genome-Wide Identification of Two-Component System Genes in Cucurbitaceae Crops and Expression Profiling Analyses in Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    He, Yanjun; Liu, Xue; Zou, Tao; Pan, Changtian; Qin, Li; Chen, Lifei; Lu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Cucumber and watermelon, which belong to Cucurbitaceae family, are economically important cultivated crops worldwide. However, these crops are vulnerable to various adverse environments. Two-component system (TCS), consisting of histidine kinases (HKs), phosphotransfers (HPs), and response regulator proteins (RRs), plays important roles in various plant developmental processes and signaling transduction in responses to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. No systematic investigation has been conducted on TCS genes in Cucurbitaceae species. Based on the completion of the cucumber and watermelon genome draft, we identified 46 and 49 TCS genes in cucumber and watermelon, respectively. The cucumber TCS members included 18 HK(L)s, 7 HPs, and 21 RRs, whereas the watermelon TCS system consisted of 19 HK(L)s, 6 HPs, and 24 RRs. The sequences and domains of TCS members from these two species were highly conserved. Gene duplication events occurred rarely, which might have resulted from the absence of recent whole-genome duplication event in these two Cucurbitaceae crops. Numerous stress- and hormone-responsive cis-elements were detected in the putative promoter regions of the cucumber TCS genes. Meanwhile, quantitative real-time PCR indicated that most of the TCS genes in cucumber were specifically or preferentially expressed in certain tissues or organs, especially in the early developing fruit. Some TCS genes exhibited diverse patterns of gene expression in response to abiotic stresses as well as exogenous trans-zeatin (ZT) and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, suggesting that TCS genes might play significant roles in responses to various abiotic stresses and hormones in Cucurbitaceae crops. PMID:27446129

  17. Quantification and role of organic acids in cucumber root exudates in Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 colonization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengge; Meng, Xiaohui; Yang, Xingming; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong

    2014-10-01

    The ability to colonize on plant roots is recognized as one of the most important characteristics of the beneficial fungi Trichoderma spp. The aim of this study is to prove that the utilization of organic acids is a major trait of Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 for colonization of cucumber roots. A series experiments in split-root hydroponic system and in vitro were designed to demonstrate the association between the utilization of organic acids and T-E5 colonization on cucumber roots. In the split-root hydroponic system, inoculation with T-E5 (T) significantly increased the biomass of cucumber plants compared with CK (non-inoculation with T-E5). The T-E5 hyphae densely covering the cucumber root surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Three organic acids (oxalic acid, malic acid and citric acid) were identified from both the CK and T treatments by HPLC and LC/ESI-MS procedures. The amounts of oxalic acid and malic acid in T were significantly higher than those in CK. All the organic acids exhibited different and significant stimulation effects on the mycelial growth and conidial germination of T-E5 in vitro. An additional hydroponic experiment demonstrated the positive effects of organic acids on the T-E5 colonization of cucumber roots. In conclusion, the present study revealed that certain organic acids could be used as nutritional sources for Trichoderma harzianum T-E5 to reinforce its population on cucumber roots.

  18. Comparative transcriptome analysis of three color variants of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Jo, Jihoon; Park, Jongsun; Lee, Hyun-Gwan; Kern, Elizabeth M A; Cheon, Seongmin; Jin, Soyeong; Park, Joong-Ki; Cho, Sung-Jin; Park, Chungoo

    2016-08-01

    The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka 1867 represents an important resource in biomedical research, traditional medicine, and the seafood industry. Much of the commercial value of A. japonicus is determined by dorsal/ventral color variation (red, green, and black), yet the taxonomic relationships between these color variants are not clearly understood. We performed the first comparative analysis of de novo assembled transcriptome data from three color variants of A. japonicus. Using the Illumina platform, we sequenced nearly 177,596,774 clean reads representing a total of 18.2Gbp of sea cucumber transcriptome. A comparison of over 0.3 million transcript scaffolds against the Uniprot/Swiss-Prot database yielded 8513, 8602, and 8588 positive matches for green, red, and black body color transcriptomes, respectively. Using the Panther gene classification system, we assessed an extensive and diverse set of expressed genes in three color variants and found that (1) among the three color variants of A. japonicus, genes associated with RNA binding protein, oxidoreductase, nucleic acid binding, transferase, and KRAB box transcription factor were most commonly expressed; and (2) the main protein functional classes are differently regulated in all three color variants (extracellular matrix protein and phosphatase for green color, transporter and potassium channel for red color, and G-protein modulator and enzyme modulator for black color). This work will assist in the discovery and annotation of novel genes that play significant morphological and physiological roles in color variants of A. japonicus, and these sequence data will provide a useful set of resources for the rapidly growing sea cucumber aquaculture industry.

  19. [Effects of low magnesium on photosynthesis characteristics and antioxidant system in cucumber seedlings under low temperature].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shuai; Wu, Guo-xiu; Cai, Huan; Liu, Zhang-lei; Liu, Jing; Yang, Rui; Ai, Xi-zhen

    2015-05-01

    The effects of low magnesium (30% Mg) stress on photosynthesis characteristics and antioxidant system in 'Jinyou 3' cucumber ( Cucumis sativa) seedlings under low temperature (day/ night temperature was 12 °C/8 °C) were investigated, with Hoagland nutrient solution treatment as the control. The results showed that the 30% Mg treatment showed a significantly lower Mg content in leaves, compared with the control. However, no marked difference in roots between the 30% Mg treatment and the control was found. Low temperature significantly decreased the chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (g(s)), and carboxylation efficiency (CE), while increased the intercelluar CO2 concentration (Ci). The 30% Mg treatment showed significantly lower chlorophyll content, Pn, g(s) and CE, compared with the control. No marked change was found in Ci between the 30% Mg treatment and the control. Low magnesium stress resulted in a more serious damage in chloroplast membrane under low temperature, and showed lower chloroplasts, grains and lamellas, while more and larger starch grains in cucumber seedlings. Low magnesium stress also led to an increase in MDA content, while a decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) , peroxidase (POD) , catalase ( CAT) , ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR). These data suggested that magnesium deficiency caused by its hindered transportation under low temperature was the main reason for the chlorosis of cucumber leaves. The decrease in Pn was mainly caused by the non-stomatal limitation. Low magnesium stress increased the influence of low temperature on Pn, and the resulting decline in Pn was caused by the stomatal limitation.

  20. Detection of the dynamic response of cucumber leaves to fusaric acid using thermal imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Xiong, Yinfeng; Ling, Ning; Feng, Xumeng; Zhong, Zengtao; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2013-05-01

    Fusarium wilt is a major disease that causes severe losses in crop yield. Fusaric acid (FA), a non-specific fungal toxin produced by many Fusarium species, can accelerate the wilting of many crops. Unraveling the role of FA in the wilt process can enrich the understanding of the mechanism of pathogenesis. To investigate the dynamic process of the cucumber's response to FA, we used digital infrared thermography (DIT) to detect leaf temperature during the alternation of light and dark conditions in greenhouse hydroponic experiments. During FA treatment, we found that the leaf temperature of cucumber plants increased when stomata closure was induced by FA. Under the alternation of light and dark, FA-treated plants had a higher leaf temperature in the light and a lower temperature in the dark, when compared to untreated plants. To confirm the uncontrolled water loss was from damaged leaf cells, as a result of FA treatment, and not from the stomata, an experiment was conducted using a split-root system in which spatially separated cucumber roots were each supplied 0 ppm or 100 ppm of FA. In the split-root system, the low temperature areas of the leaves in the dark had a higher FA concentration and more severe membrane injury than the high temperature areas, demonstrating that FA is primary xylem transported. We concluded that membrane injury caused by FA led to non-stomata water loss and, ultimately, to wilting. Combining the response of the leaves under the light and dark conditions with the DIT employed in the present study permitted noninvasive monitoring and direct visualization of wilting development.

  1. Molecular Mapping and Candidate Gene Analysis for Numerous Spines on the Fruit of Cucumber.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengping; Liu, Shulin; Miao, Han; Wang, Min; Liu, Panna; Wehner, Todd C; Gu, Xingfang

    2016-09-01

    Number of spines on the fruit is an important quality trait in cucumber. The inheritance and identification of molecular markers for fruit spine density gene can provide a basis for breeding and lay the foundation for gene cloning. Cucumber inbred lines NCG-122 with numerous spines and NCG-121 with few spines were used for genetic analysis and gene mapping in this study. Genetic analysis showed that the numerous spines trait in NCG-122 was qualitative, and a single recessive nuclear gene (ns) controlled this trait. The few spines trait was dominant over the numerous spines trait. In the preliminary genetic mapping of the ns gene, 8 SSR markers were found to be linked to ns, which mapped to chromosome 2 (Chr.2) of cucumber. The closest flanking markers SSR22338 and SSR11596 were linked to the ns gene, with genetic distances of 10.2 and 1.7cM, respectively. One-hundred and thirty pairs of new SSR primers and 28 pairs of Indel primers were developed based on sequence information in the preliminary mapping region of ns Fifteen SSR markers and 2 Indel markers were identified to be linked to the ns gene after analysis on the F2 mapping population using the new molecular markers. The 2 closest flanking markers, SSRns-127 and SSR04219, were 0.7 and 2.4 cM from ns, respectively. The physical distance between SSRns-127 and SSR04219 was 266.1kb, containing 27 predicted genes. Csa2G285390 was speculated as the probable candidate gene for numerous spines. The accuracy of the closest linked marker to the ns gene, SSRns-127, for MAS breeding was 95.0%.

  2. Modification of plasma membrane proton pumps in cucumber roots as an adaptation mechanism to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Janicka-Russak, Małgorzata; Kabała, Katarzyna; Wdowikowska, Anna; Kłobus, Grażyna

    2013-07-01

    The effect of salt stress (50mM NaCl) on modification of plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (EC 3.6.3.14) activity in cucumber roots was studied. Plants were grown under salt stress for 1, 3 or 6 days. In salt-stressed plants, weak stimulation of ATP hydrolytic activity of PM H(+)-ATPase and significant stimulation of proton transport through the plasma membrane were observed. The H(+)/ATP coupling ratio in the plasma membrane of plants subjected to salt stress significantly increased. The greatest stimulation of PM H(+)-ATPase was in 6-day stressed plants. Increased H2O2 accumulation under salt stress conditions in cucumber roots was also observed, with the greatest accumulation observed in 6-day stressed plants. Additionally, during the sixth day of salinity, there appeared heat shock proteins (HSPs) 17.7 and 101, suggesting that repair processes and adaptation to stress occurred in plants. Under salt stress conditions, fast post-translational modifications took place. Protein blot analysis with antibody against phosphothreonine and 14-3-3 proteins showed that, under salinity, the level of those elements increased. Additionally, under salt stress, activity changes of PM H(+)-ATPase can partly result from changes in the pattern of expression of PM H(+)-ATPase genes. In cucumber seedlings, there was increased expression of CsHA10 under salt stress and the transcript of a new PM H(+)-ATPase gene isoform, CsHA1, also appeared. Accumulation of the CsHA1 transcript was induced by NaCl exposure, and was not expressed at detectable levels in roots of control plants. The appearance of a new PM H(+)-ATPase transcript, in addition to the increase in enzyme activity, indicates the important role of the enzyme in maintaining ion homeostasis in plants under salt stress.

  3. Development of formulations of biological agents for management of root rot of lettuce and cucumber.

    PubMed

    Amer, G A; Utkhede, R S

    2000-09-01

    The effect of various carrier formulations of Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida were tested on germination, growth, and yield of lettuce and cucumber crops in the presence of Pythium aphanidermatum and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucurbitacearum, respectively. Survival of B. subtilis and P. putida in various carriers under refrigeration (about 0 degree C) and at room temperature (about 22 degrees C) was also studied. In all carrier formulations, B. subtilis strain BACT-0 survived up to 45 days. After 45 days of storage at room temperature (about 22 degrees C), populations B. subtilis strain BACT-0 were significantly higher in vermiculite, kaolin, and bacterial broth carriers compared with other carriers. Populations of P. putida were significantly higher in vermiculite, peat moss, wheat bran, and bacterial broth than in other carriers when stored either under refrigeration (about 0 degree C) or at room temperature (about 22 degrees C) for 15 or 45 days. Germination of lettuce seed was not affected in vermiculite, talc, kaolin, and peat moss carriers, but germination was significantly reduced in alginate and bacterial broth carriers of B. subtilis compared to the non-treated control. Germination of cucumber seed was not affected by any of the carriers. Significantly higher fresh lettuce and root weights were observed in vermiculite and kaolin carriers of B. subtilis compared with P. aphanidermatum-inoculated control plants. Lettuce treated with vermiculite, and kaolin carriers of B. subtilis, or non-inoculated control lettuce plants had significantly lower root rot ratings than talc, peat moss, bacterial broth, and P. aphanidermatum-inoculated control plants. Growth and yield of cucumber plants were significantly higher in vermiculite-based carrier of P. putida than the other carriers and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucurbitacearum-inoculated plants.

  4. Applying imidacloprid via a precision banding system to control striped cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Jasinski, J; Darr, M; Ozkan, E; Precheur, R

    2009-12-01

    The striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a key pest of cucurbit crops throughout its range. A novel precision band applicator was designed to inject a solid stream of imidacloprid solution in-furrow directly over the seed during planting to reduce beetle leaf feeding on pumpkin, zucchini, and cucumber crops. In 2004 and 2005, bioassays at the cotyledon through fifth leaf were conducted on striped cucumber beetles using seedling leaf tissue grown from seeds treated using both continuous and precision banded in-furrow imidacloprid solution applications. In 2004, 80% of bioassay trials had treatments with beetle mortality significantly higher than the check, whereas 70% of the bioassay trials showed no significant difference in mortality between continuous in-furrow and precision banded treatments. In 2005, 79% of bioassay trials had treatments with beetle mortality significantly higher than the check, whereas 100% of the bioassays showed no significant difference in beetle mortality between continuous in-furrow and precision banded treatments at the same insecticide rate. The environmental savings of precision banded treatments compared with continuous in-furrow treatment reduced imidacloprid up to 84.5% on a per hectare basis for all cucurbits tested in 2004 and 2005, translating into an economic savings up to $215/ha. In separate bioassay trials conducted in 2005 on pumpkin, where insecticide band length and injection volume were manipulated independently, several treatments had significantly higher beetle mortality than the check. There was a trend of increased beetle mortality in treatments using shorter band lengths combined with higher insecticide solution volumes.

  5. The Roles of Two miRNAs in Regulating the Immune Response of Sea Cucumber.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengjuan; Li, Chenghua; Zhang, Ran; Zhang, Weiwei; Jin, Chunhua; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators in many pathological processes by suppressing the transcriptional and post-transcriptional expression of target genes. MiR-2008 was previously found to be significantly up-regulated in diseased sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by high-through sequencing, whereas the reads of miR-137, a well-documented tumor repressor, displayed no significant change. In the present study, we found that miR-137 expression was slightly attenuated and miR-2008 was significantly enhanced after Vibrio splendidus infection or Lipopolysaccharides application. Further target screening and dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that the two important miRNAs shared a common target gene of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (AjBHMT), which exhibited noncorrelated messenger RNA and protein expression patterns after bacterial challenge. In order to fully understand their regulatory mechanisms, we conducted the functional experiments in vitro and in vivo. The overexpression of miR-137 in sea cucumber or primary coelomocytes significantly decreased, whereas the inhibition of miR-137 increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of AjBHMT. In contrast, miR-2008 overexpression and inhibition showed no effect on AjBHMT mRNA levels, but the concentration of AjBHMT protein displayed significant changes both in vitro and in vivo. Consistently, the homocysteine (Hcy) contents were also accordingly altered in the aberrant expression analysis of both miRNAs, consistent with the results of the AjBHMT silencing assay in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, small interfering RNA mediated AjBHMT knockdown and Hcy exposure analyses both significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreased the number of surviving invasive pathogen in sea cucumber coelomocytes. Taken together, these findings confirmed the differential roles of sea cucumber miR-137 and miR-2008 in regulating the common target AjBHMT to promote ROS production

  6. A New Glabrous Gene (csgl3) Identified in Trichome Development in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Li-Hong; Wehner, Todd C.; Liu, Pan-Na; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Sheng-Ping; Gu, Xing-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Spines or trichomes on the fruit of cucumbers enhance their commercial value in China. In addition, glabrous mutants exhibit resistance to aphids and therefore their use by growers can reduce pesticide residues. Previous studies have reported two glabrous mutant plants containing the genes, csgl1 and csgl2. In the present study, a new glabrous mutant, NCG157, was identified showing a gene interaction effect with csgl1 and csgl2. This mutant showed the glabrous character on stems, leaves, tendrils, receptacles and ovaries, and there were no spines or tumors on the fruit surface. Inheritance analysis showed that a single recessive gene, named csgl3, determined the glabrous trait. An F2 population derived from the cross of two inbred lines 9930 (a fresh market type from Northern China that exhibits trichomes) and NCG157 (an American processing type with glabrous surfaces) was used for genetic mapping of the csgl3 gene. By combining bulked segregant analysis (BAS) with molecular markers, 18 markers, including two simple sequence repeats (SSR), nine insertion deletions (InDel) and seven derived cleaved amplified polymorphism sequences (dCAPs), were identified to link to the csgl3 gene. All of the linked markers were used as anchor loci to locate the csgl3 gene on cucumber chromosome 6. The csgl3 gene was mapped between the dCAPs markers dCAPs-21 and dCAPs-19, at genetic distances of 0.05 cM and 0.15 cM, respectively. The physical distance of this region was 19.6 kb. Three markers, InDel-19, dCAPs-2 and dCAPs-11, co-segregated with csgl3. There were two candidate genes in the region, Csa6M514860 and Csa6M514870. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the expression of Csa6M514870 was higher in the tissues of 9930 than that of NCG157, and this was consistent with their phenotypic characters. Csa6M514870 is therefore postulated to be the candidate gene for the development of trichomes in cucumber. This study will facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the smooth

  7. Patagonicosides B and C, two Antifungal Sulfated Triterpene Glycosides from the Sea Cucumber Psolus patagonicus

    PubMed Central

    Careaga, Valeria P.; Muniain, Claudia; Maier, Marta S.

    2013-01-01

    Two new triterpene glycosides, patagonicosides B (2) and C (3), together with the known patagonicoside A (1), have been isolated from the ethanolic extract of the sea cucumber Psolus patagonicus. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of extensive NMR spectroscopy (1H and13C NMR,1H–1H COSY, HMBC, HSQC, TOCSY, and NOESY), HRESIMS, and chemical transformations. Compounds 1–3 and their desulfated analogs showed antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungus Cladosporium cladosporoides in a dose dependent activity. PMID:21404430

  8. A New Glabrous Gene (csgl3) Identified in Trichome Development in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Cui, Jin-Ying; Miao, Han; Ding, Li-Hong; Wehner, Todd C; Liu, Pan-Na; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Sheng-Ping; Gu, Xing-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Spines or trichomes on the fruit of cucumbers enhance their commercial value in China. In addition, glabrous mutants exhibit resistance to aphids and therefore their use by growers can reduce pesticide residues. Previous studies have reported two glabrous mutant plants containing the genes, csgl1 and csgl2. In the present study, a new glabrous mutant, NCG157, was identified showing a gene interaction effect with csgl1 and csgl2. This mutant showed the glabrous character on stems, leaves, tendrils, receptacles and ovaries, and there were no spines or tumors on the fruit surface. Inheritance analysis showed that a single recessive gene, named csgl3, determined the glabrous trait. An F2 population derived from the cross of two inbred lines 9930 (a fresh market type from Northern China that exhibits trichomes) and NCG157 (an American processing type with glabrous surfaces) was used for genetic mapping of the csgl3 gene. By combining bulked segregant analysis (BAS) with molecular markers, 18 markers, including two simple sequence repeats (SSR), nine insertion deletions (InDel) and seven derived cleaved amplified polymorphism sequences (dCAPs), were identified to link to the csgl3 gene. All of the linked markers were used as anchor loci to locate the csgl3 gene on cucumber chromosome 6. The csgl3 gene was mapped between the dCAPs markers dCAPs-21 and dCAPs-19, at genetic distances of 0.05 cM and 0.15 cM, respectively. The physical distance of this region was 19.6 kb. Three markers, InDel-19, dCAPs-2 and dCAPs-11, co-segregated with csgl3. There were two candidate genes in the region, Csa6M514860 and Csa6M514870. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the expression of Csa6M514870 was higher in the tissues of 9930 than that of NCG157, and this was consistent with their phenotypic characters. Csa6M514870 is therefore postulated to be the candidate gene for the development of trichomes in cucumber. This study will facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the smooth

  9. Further studies of auxin and ACC induced feminization in the cucumber plant using ethylene inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, H.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The present study was designed to establish the role of an essential hormone controlling sex expression in cucumber. A potent anti-ethylene agent, AgNO3, completely inhibited pistillate flower formation caused by IAA, ACC or ethephon. Inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, AVG and CoCl2 also suppressed feminization due to exogenous IAA or ACC. Though AVG also suppressed ethephon-induced feminization, this may be due to the second effect of AVG rather than the effect on ACC biosynthesis. These results confirm that ethylene is a major factor regulating feminization and that exogenous auxin induces pistillate flower formation through its stimulation of ethylene production, rather than ACC production.

  10. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhou, Jishu; Ye, Zhi; Lan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to understand the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and the immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Five experimental diets were prepared, containing graded levels of n-3 HUFAs (0.46%, 0.85%, 1.25%, 1.61% and 1.95%, respectively), and the 0.46% group was used as control group. The specific growth rates, fatty acid profiles, activities and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and lysozyme of the sea cucumbers that were fed with the 5 experimental diets were determined. The results showed that the specific growth rate of sea cucumbers in all the treatment groups significantly increased compared to the control group (P < 0.05), indicating the positive effects of n-3 HUFAs on the growth of sea cucumbers. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the body wall of the sea cucumbers gradually increased with the increasing levels of n-3 HUFAs in the diets. The suitable supplement of n-3 HUFAs in diets improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of sea cucumbers by up-regulating the expression of SOD and CAT mRNA in sea cucumbers. However, excess n-3 HUFAs in diets caused lipid peroxidation, inhibited the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) mRNA and decreased the activities of LSZ in sea cucumbers. In summary, the suitable supplement levels of n-3 HUFAs in diets of sea cucumbers A. japonicus were estimated between 0.85% and 1.25% considering the growth performance, cost and the indicators of antioxidant capacity and immunity.

  11. Assessment of total and organic vanadium levels and their bioaccumulation in edible sea cucumbers: tissues distribution, inter-species-specific, locational differences and seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjun; Zhou, Qingxin; Xu, Jie; Xue, Yong; Liu, Xiaofang; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the levels, inter-species-specific, locational differences and seasonal variations of vanadium in sea cucumbers and to validate further several potential factors controlling the distribution of metals in sea cucumbers. Vanadium levels were evaluated in samples of edible sea cucumbers and were demonstrated exhibit differences in different seasons, species and sampling sites. High vanadium concentrations were measured in the sea cucumbers, and all of the vanadium detected was in an organic form. Mean vanadium concentrations were considerably higher in the blood (sea cucumber) than in the other studied tissues. The highest concentration of vanadium (2.56 μg g(-1)), as well as a higher degree of organic vanadium (85.5 %), was observed in the Holothuria scabra samples compared with all other samples. Vanadium levels in Apostichopus japonicus from Bohai Bay and Yellow Sea have marked seasonal variations. Average values of 1.09 μg g(-1) of total vanadium and 0.79 μg g(-1) of organic vanadium were obtained in various species of sea cucumbers. Significant positive correlations between vanadium in the seawater and V org in the sea cucumber (r = 81.67 %, p = 0.00), as well as between vanadium in the sediment and V org in the sea cucumber (r = 77.98 %, p = 0.00), were observed. Vanadium concentrations depend on the seasons (salinity, temperature), species, sampling sites and seawater environment (seawater, sediment). Given the adverse toxicological effects of inorganic vanadium and positive roles in controlling the development of diabetes in humans, a regular monitoring programme of vanadium content in edible sea cucumbers can be recommended.

  12. Wild bees visiting cucumber on midwestern U.S. organic farms benefit from near-farm semi-natural areas.

    PubMed

    Smith, A A; Bentley, M; Reynolds, H L

    2013-02-01

    Wild bees that provide pollination services to vegetable crops depend on forage resources, nesting sites, and overwintering sites in the agricultural landscape. The scale at which crop-visiting bees use resources in the landscape can vary regionally, and has not been characterized in the Midwestern United States. We investigated the effects of seminatural land cover on wild bee visitation frequency to cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and on wild bee species richness on 10 organic farms in Indiana. We estimated the spatial scale at which the effects of land cover were strongest, and also examined the effects of nonlandscape factors on wild bees. The visitation frequency of wild bees to cucumber was positively related to the proportion of seminatural land in the surrounding landscape, and this relationship was strongest within 250 m of the cucumber patch. The species richness of wild cucumber visitors was not affected by land cover at any spatial scale, nor by any of the nonlandscape factors we considered. Our results indicate that wild, crop visiting bees benefit from seminatural areas in the agricultural landscape, and benefit most strongly from seminatural areas within 250 m of the crop field. This suggests that setting aside natural areas in the near vicinity of vegetable fields may be an effective way to support wild, crop-visiting bees and secure their pollination services.

  13. Genetic diversity and serological specificity of emerging cucumber green mottle mosaic virus and development of a broad spectrum LAMP assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), first described in England, 1935, is a well-known, seed-borne Tobamovirus on cucurbits in Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. The recent outbreaks of CGMMV in Australia and North America (Canada and U.S.) received great concerns from the vegetable seed com...

  14. Determination of Pesticides Residues in Cucumbers Grown in Greenhouse and the Effect of Some Procedures on Their Residues

    PubMed Central

    LEILI, Mostafa; PIRMOGHANI, Amin; SAMADI, Mohammad Taghi; SHOKOOHI, Reza; ROSHANAEI, Ghodratollah; POORMOHAMMADI, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to determine the residual concentrations of ethion and imidacloprid in cucumbers grown in greenhouse. The effect of some simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were also studied. Methods: Ten active greenhouses that produce cucumber were randomly selected. Ethion and imidacloprid as the most widely used pesticides were measured in cucumber samples of studied greenhouses. Moreover, the effect of storing, washing, and peeling as simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were investigated. Results: One hour after pesticide application; the maximum residue levels (MRLs) of ethion and imidacloprid were higher than that of Codex standard level. One day after pesticide application, the levels of pesticides were decreased about 35 and 31% for ethion and imidacloprid, respectively, which still were higher than the MRL. Washing procedure led to about 51 and 42.5% loss in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. Peeling procedure also led to highest loss of 93.4 and 63.7% in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. The recovery for both target analytes was in the range between 88 and 102%. Conclusion: The residue values in collected samples one hour after pesticides application were higher than standard value. The storing, washing, and peeling procedures lead to the decrease of pesticide residues in greenhouse cucumbers. Among them, the peeling procedure has the greatest impact on residual reduction. Therefore, these procedures can be used as simple and effective processing techniques for reducing and removing pesticides from greenhouse products before their consumption. PMID:28032066

  15. RNA Expression and Post-Transcriptional Editing Analyses of Cucumber Plastids Reveals Genetic Differences Associated with Chilling Tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tolerance to chilling injury in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is associated with three plastomic single nucleotide polymorphisms (ptSNPs) at bp positions 4,813, 56,561, and 126,349 that are co-inherited. An understanding of the genetic expression of these ptSNPs as a response to chilling is critical...

  16. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ting; Jin, Haijun; Zhang, Hongmei; He, Lizhong; Zhou, Qiang; Huang, Danfeng; Hui, Dafeng; Yu, Jizhu

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease. PMID:27065102

  17. Changes in the DNA methylation pattern of the host male gametophyte of viroid-infected cucumber plants

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Mayte; Martinez, German; Marques, Maria Carmen; Moreno-Romero, Jordi; Köhler, Claudia; Pallas, Vicente; Gomez, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic organisms exposed to adverse conditions are required to show a certain degree of transcriptional plasticity in order to cope successfully with stress. Epigenetic regulation of the genome is a key regulatory mechanism allowing dynamic changes of the transcriptional status of the plant in response to stress. The Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) induces the demethylation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) leaves, leading to increasing transcription rates of rRNA. In addition to the clear alterations observed in vegetative tissues, HSVd infection is also associated with drastic changes in gametophyte development. To examine the basis of viroid-induced alterations in reproductive tissues, we analysed the cellular and molecular consequences of HSVd infection in the male gametophyte of cucumber plants. Our results indicate that in the pollen grain, accumulation of HSVd RNA induces a decondensation of the generative nucleus that correlates with a dynamic demethylation of repetitive regions in the cucumber genome that include rRNA genes and transposable elements (TEs). We therefore propose that HSVd infection impairs the epigenetic control of rRNA genes and TEs in gametic cells of cucumber, a phenomenon thus far unknown to occur in this reproductive tissue as a consequence of pathogen infection. PMID:27697787

  18. Complete genome sequence of an emerging melon necrotic spot virus isolate infecting greenhouse cucumber in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome (4,267 nt) of an Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) isolate (ABCA13-01) infecting greenhouse cucumber in Canada was determined through deep sequencing of small RNAs. Its genome sequence was most closely related to MNSV-N (97%), but lacking a 55-nt insertion at the 3’UTR for resista...

  19. Quality evaluation of pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral reflectance and transmittance imaging – Part 1. Development of a prototype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports on the development of a hyperspectral imaging prototype for real-time evaluation of external and internal quality of pickling cucumbers. The prototype consisted of a two-lane round belt conveyor, two illumination sources (one for reflectance and one for transmittance), and a line-...

  20. One Cycle of Phenotypic Selection Combined with Marker Assisted Selection for Improving Yield and Quality in Cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimation of response to marker-assisted selection (MAS) is critical to breeding programs. To investigate MAS for line development, two cucumber recombinant inbred lines (RILs) (7026B76 and 7022C8) differing in plant habit were mated, and F4 and F5 progeny was MAS selected to improve both yield an...

  1. Marker-assisted backcross selection in an interspecific Cucumis population broadens the genetic base of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a major cucurbit vegetable species whose genetic base has been drastically reduced during its domestication. The crop's narrow genetic base (3-12% DNA polymorphism) has resulted from the use of limited genetic material and intense selection during plant improvement....

  2. The effect of exogenous calcium on mitochondria, respiratory metabolism enzymes and ion transport in cucumber roots under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    He, Lizhong; Li, Bin; Lu, Xiaomin; Yuan, Lingyun; Yang, Yanjuan; Yuan, Yinghui; Du, Jing; Guo, Shirong

    2015-08-25

    Hypoxia induces plant stress, particularly in cucumber plants under hydroponic culture. In plants, calcium is involved in stress signal transmission and growth. The ultimate goal of this study was to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the effects of exogenous calcium on the mitochondrial antioxidant system, the activity of respiratory metabolism enzymes, and ion transport in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinchun No. 2) roots under hypoxic conditions. Our experiments revealed that exogenous calcium reduces the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes in mitochondria under hypoxia. Exogenous calcium also enhances the accumulation of enzymes involved in glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. We utilized fluorescence and ultrastructural cytochemistry methods to observe that exogenous calcium increases the concentrations of Ca(2+) and K(+) in root cells by increasing the activity of plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase and tonoplast H(+)-ATPase and H(+)-PPase. Overall, our results suggest that hypoxic stress has an immediate and substantial effect on roots. Exogenous calcium improves metabolism and ion transport in cucumber roots, thereby increasing hypoxia tolerance in cucumber.

  3. Inheritance and mapping of the ore gene controlling the quantity of ß-carotene in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) endocarp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The metabolic precursor of vitamin A, ß-carotene, is essential for human health. The gene(s) controlling ß- carotene quantity (QßC) has been introgressed from Xishuangbanna gourd (XIS, possessing ß-carotene; Cucumis sativus L. var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan; 2n = 2x = 14) into cultivated cucumbe...

  4. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of bacteria isolated from diseased cultured sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Qiao, Guo; Gu, Jie-Quan; Zhou, Wei; Li, Qiang; Woo, Sung-Ho; Xu, De-Hai; Park, Soo-Il

    2010-09-17

    During the winter-spring from 2004 to 2006 in northeastern China cultured Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus suffered from a serious disease. Clinical signs included swollen mouth, skin ulceration and massive mortality. Clinical samples taken during this period were studied. Thirty-one bacterial samples were isolated from diseased sea cucumbers and identified through biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and PCR amplification, followed by pathogenicity determination. The results showed that the 31 isolates belonged to the genera Vibrio (64.5%), Shewanella (12.9%), Serratia (12.9%), Pseudoalteromonas (6.4%) and Flavobacterium (3.2 %). The 3 prominent strains were Vibrio splendidus (41.9%), Shewanella (12.9%) and Serratia odorifera biogroup I (12.9%). Pathogenicity tests demonstrated that 13 out of 31 isolates were pathogenic, including 8 strains of V splendidus, 3 strains of Shewanella sp. and 2 strains of Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis. The pathogenic V splendidus showed the highest frequency of appearance. Median lethal dose (LD50) values (14 d) of V splendidus, Shewanella sp. and P. tetraodonis were 1.74 x 10(7), 7.76 x 10(6), 7.24 x 10(7) CFU g(-1) body weight of sea cucumber, respectively. The virulences differed by species: Shewanella sp. > V splendidus> P. tetraodonis. This is the first report of Shewanella sp. virulence in sea cucumber.

  5. Phloem sap proteome studied by iTRAQ provides integrated insight into salinity response mechanisms in cucumber plants.

    PubMed

    Fan, Huaifu; Xu, Yanli; Du, Changxia; Wu, Xue

    2015-07-01

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for plant vascular biology. Salinity is one of the major environmental factors limiting plant growth. Here, we used an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics approach for comparative analysis of protein abundances in cucumber phloem sap in response to salt. A total of 745 distinct proteins were identified and 111 proteins were differentially expressed upon salinity in sensitive and tolerant cultivars, of which 69 and 65 proteins changed significantly in sensitive and tolerant cultivars, respectively. A bioinformatics analysis indicated that cucumber phloem employed a combination of induced metabolism, protein turnover, common stress response, energy and transport, signal transduction and regulation of transcription, and development proteins as protection mechanisms against salinity. The proteins that were mapped to the carbon fixation pathway decreased in abundance in sensitive cultivars and had no change in tolerant cultivars under salt stress, suggesting that this pathway may promote salt tolerance by stabilizing carbon fixation and maintaining the essential energy and carbohydrates in tolerant cultivars. This study leads to a better understanding of the salinity mechanism in cucumber phloem and provides a list of potential gene targets for the further engineering of salt tolerance in plants.

  6. Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteriophage (phi)241 isolated from an industrial cucumber fermentation at high acidity and salinity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel phage, (phi)241, specific for Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated from an industrial cucumber fermentation where both acidity (pH less than or equal to 3.7) and salinity (greater than or equal to 5% NaCl) were high. The phage belongs to the Myoviridae family. Its latent period was 15 min a...

  7. Detection of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus-infected watermelon seeds using short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cucurbit diseases caused by cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) have led to a serious problem to growers and seed producers because it is difficult to prevent spreading through causal agent of seeds. Conventional detection methods for infected seed such as a biological, serological, and m...

  8. Bacterial ecology of fermented cucumber rising pH spoilage as determined by non-culture based methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermented cucumber spoilage (FCS) characterized by rising pH and the appearance of manure- and cheeselike aromas is a challenge of significant economical impact for the pickling industry. Previous culture-based studies identified the yeasts Pichia manshurica and Issatchenkia occidentalis, 4 Gram-pos...

  9. Effect of shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) farming waste on the growth, digestion, ammonium-nitrogen excretion of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Luo, Peng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-06-01

    In this study, specific growth rate (SGR), ingestion rate (IR), food conversion ratio (FCR), apparent digestion ratio (ADR) and ammonium-nitrogen excretion were determined for sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) reared in plastic containers (70 L; 4 containers each diet treatment). Sea cucumbers were fed with five diets containing different amounts of farming waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0) and a formulated compound (20% sea mud and 80% powdered algae). Sea cucumbers grew faster when they were fed with diet D (25% shrimp waste and 75% formulated compound) than those fed with other diets. Although IR value of sea cucumber fed with diet A (shrimp waste) was higher than those fed with other diets, both the lowest SGR and the highest FCR occurred in this diet group. The highest and the lowest ADR occurred in diet E (formulated compound) and diet A group, respectively, and the same to ammonium-nitrogen excretion. The contents of crude protein, crude lipid and total organic matter (TOM) in feces decreased in comparison with corresponding diets. In the feces from different diet treatments, the contents of crude protein and TOM increased gradually as the contents of crude protein and TOM in diets increased, while crude lipid content decreased gradually as the crude lipid content in diets increased.

  10. Low-temperature Storage of Cucumbers Induces Changes in the Organic Acid Content and in Citrate Synthase Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To elucidate the cause of reported pyruvate accumulation in chilled stored cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. ‘Toppugurin’, we have examined differences in the extent of incorporation of acetate-1,2-14C into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the specific activity of the enzyme citrate synthase ...

  11. Distribution center and retail conditions affect the sensory and compositional quality of bulk and packaged slicing cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During distribution and retail display, fruits and vegetables are often exposed to undesirable temperature and humidity conditions which often result in increased waste due to weight loss and objectionable appearance. Unwaxed fresh-market slicing cucumbers (cv. Calypso) were harvested from a commerc...

  12. Identification of fruit related microRNAs in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using high-throughput sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xueling; Song, Tiefeng; Liu, Chang; Feng, Hui; Liu, Zhiyong

    2014-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 21 nt noncoding RNAs that influence the phenotypes of different species through the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Although many miRNAs have been identified in a few model plants, less is known about miRNAs specific to cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). In this study, two libraries of cucumber RNA, one based on fruit samples and another based on mixed samples from leaves, stems, and roots, were prepared for deep-sequencing. A total of 110 sequences were matched to known miRNAs in 47 families, while 56 sequences in 46 families are newly identified in cucumber. Of these, 77 known and 44 new miRNAs were differentially expressed, with a fold-change of at least 2 and p-value < 0.05. In addition, we predicted the potential targets of known and new miRNAs. The identification and characterization of known and new miRNAs will enable us to better understand the role of these miRNAs in the formation of cucumber fruit.

  13. Effect of culture methods on individual variation in the growth of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus within a cohort and family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tianlong; Zhang, Libin; Zhang, Tao; Bai, Yucen; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-07-01

    There is substantial individual variation in the growth rates of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus individuals. This necessitates additional work to grade the seed stock and lengthens the production period. We evaluated the influence of three culture methods (free-mixed, isolated-mixed, isolated-alone) on individual variation in growth and assessed the relationship between feeding, energy conversion efficiency, and individual growth variation in individually cultured sea cucumbers. Of the different culture methods, animals grew best when reared in the isolated-mixed treatment (i.e., size classes were held separately), though there was no difference in individual variation in growth between rearing treatment groups. The individual variation in growth was primarily attributed to genetic factors. The difference in food conversion efficiency caused by genetic differences among individuals was thought to be the origin of the variance. The level of individual growth variation may be altered by interactions among individuals and environmental heterogeneity. Our results suggest that, in addition to traditional seed grading, design of a new kind of substrate that changes the spatial distribution of sea cucumbers would effectively enhance growth and reduce individual variation in growth of sea cucumbers in culture.

  14. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the ethylene insensitive3 (EIN3) gene in cucumber (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Bie, B B; Pan, J S; He, H L; Yang, X Q; Zhao, J L; Cai, R

    2013-10-07

    The plant gaseous hormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development, and responses to the environment. Ethylene insensitive3 (EIN3) is a key transcription factor involved in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To gain a better understanding of this particular pathway in cucumber, the full-length cDNA encoding EIN3 (designated as CsEIN3) was cloned from cucumber for the first time by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full length of CsEIN3 was 2560 bp, with an open reading frame of 1908 bp encoding 635 amino acids. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsEIN3 has high homology with other plant EIN3/EIL proteins that were derived from a common ancestor during evolution, and CsEIN3 was grouped into a cluster along with melon. Homology modeling demonstrated that CsEIN3 has a highly similar structure to the specific DNA-binding domain contained in EIN3/EIL proteins. Based on quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, we found that CsEIN3 was constitutively expressed in all organs examined, and was increased during flower development and maturation in both male and female flowers. Our results suggest that CsEIN3 is involved in processes of flower development. In conclusion, this study will provide the basis for further study on the role of EIN3 in relevant biological processes of cucumber and on the molecular mechanism of the cucumber ethylene signaling pathway.

  15. Effects of Hanseniaspora opuntiae C21 on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuexin; Liu, Zhiming; Yang, Zhiping; Bao, Pengyun; Zhang, Congyao; Ding, Jianfeng

    2014-07-01

    The effects of a diet containing Hanseniaspora opuntiae C21 on growth and digestive enzyme activity were estimated in juvenile Apostichopus japonicus. Groups of sea cucumbers were fed diets containing H. opuntiae C21 at 0 (control), 104, 105, and 106 CFU (colony-forming units)/g feed. Results showed that after 45 d the specific growth rate (SGR) of sea cucumbers fed a C21-supplemented diet at 10 4 CFU/g feed was significantly higher than that of the control ( P < 0.05). Intestinal trypsin and lipase activities were significantly enhanced by C21 administration at 104 and 105 CFU/g feed compared with the control ( P < 0.05). After feeding for 23-42 d, C21 was demonstrated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to be present in the intestine of sea cucumbers. In addition, after feeding the C21-supplemented diets for 15 d, the sea cucumbers were switched to an unsupplemented diet and C21 was confirmed to be capable of colonizing the intestine for at least 31 d after cessation of feeding. In conclusion, C21 was shown to successfully colonize the intestine of juvenile A. japonicus via dietary supplementation, and improve growth and digestive enzyme activity.

  16. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaotao; Jiang, Yuping; Hao, Ting; Jin, Haijun; Zhang, Hongmei; He, Lizhong; Zhou, Qiang; Huang, Danfeng; Hui, Dafeng; Yu, Jizhu

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease.

  17. Effect of co-culture of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) and sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) on pond environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Sun, Yongjun; Wang, Fang

    2016-10-01

    Monoculture of sea cucumber (pond S) and polyculture of shrimp with sea cucumber (pond SS) were established to evaluate the effect of shrimp on the environmental conditions of sea cucumber farming pond. Contributions of sediment organic matter (SOM2) resuspended from benthic sediment and the suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) deposited from the water column to the precipitated organic matter (SOM1) collected with sediment traps were estimated with carbon stable isotope analysis. The results showed that the levels of SPOM and SOM2 in pond SS significantly decreased in comparison with those in pond S at the end of experiment ( P < 0.05), indicating that co-culturing shrimp in sea cucumber farming pond could purify the farming water. Carbon stable isotope analysis showed that the proportion of SOM2 in SOM1 in pond SS (84.97% ± 0.38%) was significantly lower than that in pond S (95.20% ± 0.30%) ( P < 0.05), suggesting that the resuspension of organic matter from benthic sediment into overlying water was reduced in polyculture pond. In contrast, the proportion of SPOM in SOM1 in pond SS (15.03% ± 0.38%) was significantly higher than that in pond S (4.80% ± 0.30%) ( P < 0.05), indicating that the sedimentation of SPOM from water column was enhanced in pond SS owing to the biodeposition effect of shrimp.

  18. Determination of fungicide kresoxim-methyl residues in cucumber and soil by capillary gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Zhong; Wu, Xian; Hu, Ji-Ye

    2006-01-01

    The method of residue analysis of kresoxim-methyl and its dissipation rate in cucumber and soil in a greenhouse were studied. Residues of kresoxim-methyl were extracted from cucumber and soil matrices with acetone, purified by liquid-liquid extraction and Florisil cartridges, and then determined by GC with NP-detector. The limit of detection was estimated to be 9 x 10-12 g, and the minimum determination concentration of kresoxim-methyl in the samples was 0.005 mg kg-1. The average recoveries ranged from 89.4 to 100.2% with a coefficient variation between 2.4 and 8.9%. Dissipation study showed that the half-lives of kresoxim-methyl in cucumber were approximately 6.5 days at both the recommended and double the recommended dosage. Half-lives for both the treatments were approximately 8 days in soil. The present study revealed that the residues in cucumber were below the MRL (0.05 mg kg-1, fixed by EU) after 7 days for both treatments.

  19. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of bacteria isolated from diseased cultured sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in Northeastern China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the winter–spring from 2004 to 2006 in northeastern China cultured Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus suffered from a serious disease. Clinical signs included swollen mouth, skin ulceration and massive mortality. Clinical samples taken during this period were studied. Thirty-one bac...

  20. Co-occurrence of Arum- and Paris-type morphologies of arbuscular mycorrhizae in cucumber and tomato.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Mayumi; McGonigle, Terence P; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2005-03-01

    Colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was investigated in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Clethra barbinervis (Ericales) grown in field-collected soil known from previous studies to generate Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizae in C. barbinervis. Spores of Paraglomus, Acaulospora, Glomus, and Gigaspora were found in the soil. Formation of hyphal coils and arbusculate coils of Paris-type mycorrhizae and of arbuscules of Arum-type mycorrhizae in roots raised in this soil in the growth chamber were compared with the detection of DNA of AM fungi from the same root systems using Glomales-specific primers. Only Paris-type mycorrhizae with extensive arbusculate coils developed in C. barbinervis, but cucumber and tomato developed both Paris- and Arum-types in the same root systems. Glomaceae and Archaeosporaceae and/or Paraglomaceae were detected strongly in the DNA from both cucumber and tomato roots, in which Arum-type mycorrhizae were observed. In contrast, DNA of Glomaceae was detected more sparingly in C. barbinervis, in which Paris-type mycorrhizae dominated. Acaulosporaceae and Gigasporaceae were strongly detected in the DNA from both C. barbinervis and tomato, whereas they were more weakly detected in cucumber. These results indicate that the morphology of colonization is strongly influenced by the selection of fungi to colonize the host plant from among those in the soil environment.

  1. A One-Megabase Physical Map Provides Insights on Gene Organization in the Enormous Mitochondrial Genome of Cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber has one of the largest mitochondrial genomes known among all eukaryotes, due in part to the accumulation of short repetitive-DNA motifs. Recombination among these repetitive DNAs produces rearrangements affecting organization and expression of mitochondrial genes. In order to more efficie...

  2. Biocontrol of Fusarium wilt disease in cucumber with improvement of growth and mineral uptake using some antagonistic formulations.

    PubMed

    Moharam, Moustafa H A; Negim, Osama O

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium wilt disease in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is widespread, responsible for serious economic losses. Amongst totally 15 isolates of Fusarium spp., obtained from different localities of Sohag governorate, Egypt, only the identified isolates as F. oxysporum were pathogenic on cucumber Denmark Beta-Alpha cv. and caused wilt symptoms. Totally 22 isolates of Trichoderma spp., B. subtilis and Pseudomonas spp., were obtained from rhizosphere of cucumber and some available commercial formulations and then tested for antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum (FO5) in vitro. The highest inhibitory effect on growth of FO5 was observed by isolate Trichodex of T. harzianum (89.29%) followed by Th4 of T. harzianum, Serenade and MBI 600 of B. subtilis, PS3 of Pseudomonas spp., and Treico and Tv2 of T. viride. Pot experiments were performed to investigate the effects of formulated antagonists as seed treatment on Fusarium wilt incidence, growth and mineral uptake of cucumber. Results showed that all tested formulations significantly reduced percent of wilted plants and disease severity, and improved plant growth by increasing length of shoot and root, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root system, and number of leaves and flowers per plant compared with untreated control. They also significantly increased nutrient contents of plant shoot including N, P, K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn. Magnesium content in shoot slightly not significantly increased. Formulation of Trichodex was the most effective ones followed by Serenade, Th4 and PS3.

  3. Nitrogen and phosphorus budget of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junwei; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Zhu, Changbo

    2014-06-01

    The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) budget and the ecological efficiency of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were studied in a cofferdam, 120.2 ha in size. The nutrients were supplied by spring tide inflow. In total, 139600 kg N yr-1 and 9730 kg P yr-1 input to the system; while 118900 kg N yr-1 and 2840 kg P yr-1 outflowed from the system concurrently, thus the outflow was 85.7% (N) and 29.2% (P) of inflow. The production of N and P was 889.5 kg yr-1 and 49.28 kg yr-1 (sea cucumber) and 204 kg yr-1 and 18.03 kg yr-1 (jellyfish and shrimp), respectively. The utilization rate of N and P by polycultured animals was 7.8‰ and 6.9‰, respectively, 21.9% and 38% higher than that of monocultured sea cucumber. Our results indicated that the polyculture system was an efficient culture system of animals and a remediation system of coastal environment as well; it scavenged 14.3% and 70.8% of N and P, respectively. Such an ecological efficiency may be improved further by increasing either the stocking density or the size of sea cucumber or both.

  4. Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

  5. Use of molecular markers aids in the development of diverse inbred backcross lines in beit alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a Mediterranean fresh-market type with a relatively narrow genetic base. To broaden its base for plant improvement, 42 diverse accessions were compared employing a previously defined standard marker array to choose wide-based parental lines for use in bac...

  6. Use of molecular markers aids in the development of diverse inbred backcross lines in Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a Mediterranean fresh-market type with a relatively narrow genetic base. To broaden its base for plant improvement, 42 diverse accessions were compared employing a previously defined standard marker array to choose wide-based parental lines for use in bac...

  7. Using a viral vector to reveal the role of microRNA159 in disease symptom induction by a severe strain of Cucumber mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhiyou; Chen, Aizhong; Chen, Wenhu; Westwood, Jack H; Baulcombe, David C; Carr, John P

    2014-03-01

    In transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), expression of the Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b silencing suppressor protein from the severe subgroup IA strain Fny disrupted microRNA (miRNA)-regulated development but orthologs from mild subgroup II strains (Q and LS) did not, explaining strain-specific differences in symptom severity. However, it is unknown which miRNAs affected by Fny2b critically affect viral symptoms. Observations that Fny2b-transgenic plants phenocopy microRNA159ab (mir159ab) mutant plants and that Fny2b altered miR159ab-regulated transcript levels suggested a role for miR159ab in elicitation of severe symptoms by Fny-CMV. Using restoration of the normal phenotype in transgenic plants expressing an artificial miRNA as a proof of concept, we developed a LS-CMV-based vector to express sequences mimicking miRNA targets. Expressing a miR159 target mimic sequence using LS-CMV depleted miR159 and induced symptoms resembling those of Fny-CMV. Suppression of Fny-CMV-induced symptoms in plants harboring mutant alleles for the miR159ab targets MYB domain protein33 (MYB33) and MYB65 confirmed the importance of this miRNA in pathogenesis. This study demonstrates the utility of a viral vector to express miRNA target mimics to facilitate functional studies of miRNAs in plants.

  8. Reactive Oxygen Species Are Involved in Brassinosteroid-Induced Stress Tolerance in Cucumber1[W

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xiao-Jian; Wang, Yan-Jie; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Tao, Yuan; Mao, Wei-Hua; Shi, Kai; Asami, Tadao; Chen, Zhixiang; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2009-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) induce plant tolerance to a wide spectrum of stresses. To study how BR induces stress tolerance, we manipulated the BR levels in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) through a chemical genetics approach and found that BR levels were positively correlated with the tolerance to photo-oxidative and cold stresses and resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus. We also showed that BR treatment enhanced NADPH oxidase activity and elevated H2O2 levels in apoplast. H2O2 levels were elevated as early as 3 h and returned to basal levels 3 d after BR treatment. BR-induced H2O2 accumulation was accompanied by increased tolerance to oxidative stress. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase and chemical scavenging of H2O2 reduced BR-induced oxidative and cold tolerance and defense gene expression. BR treatment induced expression of both regulatory genes, such as RBOH, MAPK1, and MAPK3, and genes involved in defense and antioxidant responses. These results strongly suggest that elevated H2O2 levels resulting from enhanced NADPH oxidase activity are involved in the BR-induced stress tolerance. PMID:19386805

  9. Crop rotations in the sea: Increasing returns and reducing risk of collapse in sea cucumber fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Skewes, Timothy; Murphy, Nicole; Pascual, Ricardo; Fischer, Mibu

    2015-01-01

    Rotational harvesting is one of the oldest management strategies applied to terrestrial and marine natural resources, with crop rotations dating back to the time of the Roman Empire. The efficacy of this strategy for sessile marine species is of considerable interest given that these resources are vital to underpin food security and maintain the social and economic wellbeing of small-scale and commercial fishers globally. We modeled the rotational zone strategy applied to the multispecies sea cucumber fishery in Australia’s Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and show a substantial reduction in the risk of localized depletion, higher long-term yields, and improved economic performance. We evaluated the performance of rotation cycles of different length and show an improvement in biological and economic performance with increasing time between harvests up to 6 y. As sea cucumber fisheries throughout the world succumb to overexploitation driven by rising demand, there has been an increasing demand for robust assessments of fishery sustainability and a need to address local depletion concerns. Our results provide motivation for increased use of relatively low-information, low-cost, comanagement rotational harvest approaches in coastal and reef systems globally. PMID:25964357

  10. Evaluation of h secretion relative to zeatin-induced growth of detached cucumber cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Ross, C W; Rayle, D L

    1982-11-01

    Cytokinins promote expansion of cotyledons detached from seedlings of more than a dozen species. The zeatin-enhanced expansion of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv Marketer) cotyledons was investigated. In addition, whether acid secretion is involved in wall loosening accompanying such accelerated growth was evaluated. For cotyledons abraded with carborundum or cut into either eight or 18 pieces, we detected no zeatin-enhanced acidification of the growth medium during growth periods of 3 days. Measurements of pH values on each surface of zeatin-treated, abraded cotyledons after 3 days of growth also showed no detectable acidification caused by the hormone. Furthermore, with several buffers at pH values ranging from 5 to 8, growth of nonabraded, abraded, or cut cotyledons with or without zeatin was independent of external pH. However, experiments restricted to about 12 hours indicated that certain acidic buffers enhanced growth of cotyledons cut into 18 pieces. Lastly, concentrations of fusicoccin that caused growth promotion equal to that of zeatin initiated substantial acidification of the medium. Collectively, these data suggest that zeatin-induced expansion of detached cucumber cotyledons is independent of H(+) secretion.

  11. Apoptosis induction is involved in UVA-induced autolysis in sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hang; Fu, Hui; Dong, Xiufang; Feng, Dingding; Li, Nan; Wen, Chengrong; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Zhu, Beiwei

    2016-05-01

    Autolysis easily happens to sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus, S. japonicus) for external stimulus like UV exposure causing heavy economic losses. Therefore, it is meaningful to reveal the mechanism of S. japonicas autolysis. In the present study, to examine the involvement of apoptosis induction in UVA-induced autolysis of S. japonicas, we investigated the biochemical events including the DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation and free radical formation. Substantial morphological changes such as intestine vomiting and dermatolysis were observed in S. japonicus during the incubation after 1-h UVA irradiation (10W/m(2)). The degradation of the structural proteins and enhancement of cathepsin L activity were also detected, suggesting the profound impact of proteolysis caused by the UVA irradiation even for 1h. Furthermore, the DNA fragmentation and specific activity of caspase-3 was increased up to 12h after UVA irradiation. The levels of phosphorylated p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphorylated c-Jun.-N-terminal kinase (JNK) were significantly increased by the UVA irradiation for 1h. An electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis revealed that UVA enhanced the free radical formation in S. japonicas, even through we could not identify the attributed species. These results suggest that UVA-induced autolysis in S. japonicas at least partially involves the oxidative stress-sensitive apoptosis induction pathway. These data present a novel insight into the mechanisms of sea cucumber autolysis induced by external stress.

  12. 4-O-Sulfation in sea cucumber fucodians contribute to reversing dyslipidiaemia caused by HFD.

    PubMed

    Li, Shan; Li, Junhui; Zhi, Zijian; Hu, Yaqin; Ge, Jian; Ye, Xingqian; Tian, Ding; Linhardt, Robert J; Chen, Shiguo

    2017-02-01

    Fucodians extracted from sea cucumbers (SC-FUCs) possess linear chains with uniform repeating units. Sulfation patterns endow SC-FUCs unique structures and bioactivity. The present study investigated the anti-hyperlipidemic activity of two fucodians isolated from sea cucumbers Pearsonothuria graeffei (fuc-Pg) and Isostichopus badionotus (fuc-Ib). The results indicate fuc-Pg dominated with a 4-O-sulfation pattern shows strong activity in reducing body weight, regulating lipid disorder (TC, TG, HLD-C, and LDL-C level), improving liver function (liver weight, GOP, GPT, and TBA concentrations) and increasing adiponectin level (adiponectin concentration) caused by HFD. However, fuc-Ib dominated with a 2-O-sulfation pattern has only moderate effects. These results suggest that different sulfation pattern may contribute to the differences in the hyperlipidemic activities. Further analysis by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis indicate that Fuc-Pg can suppress the expression of CD 36, increase the level of PPARα and decrease the level of CYP7A1, thus, the transportation of fatty acids into liver tissue and lipid metabolism, while fuc-Ib had only limited effects. Our results indicated the sulfation pattern may contribute to anti-hyperlipidemic activity of fucodian, and fuc-Pg dominated with 4-O-sulfation shows better effect and could be further developed as a potential anti-hyperlipidemic food supplement.

  13. Effects of environment factors on initiation of sperm motility in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Li; Shao, Mingyu; Bao, Zhenmin; Hu, Jingjie; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2011-06-01

    Sperm of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) were quiescent in electrolyte NaCl solution and artificial seawater (ASW) and nonelectrolyte glucose and mannitol solutions when the osmolality was less than 200 mOsm kg-1. The sperm started to be motile as a result of increased osmolality, indicating an osmolality-dependent initiation of sperm motility in sea cucumber. After a brief incubation in hypotonic NaCl and glucose solutions with osmolalities of 200 and 400 mOsm kg-1, sperm lost partial motile ability. Sperm became immobilized when pH was 6.0 in NaCl, glucose and mannitol solutions, suggesting that an H+ release is involved in sperm activation. The decreased pH had no effect on the percentage of motile sperm in ASW, whereas it delayed the time period to reach the maximum motility (motilitymax). Extracellular Ca2+ in electrolyte solutions was not essential for motility stimulation but shortened the time of reaching motilitymax. When Ca2+ was mixed in nonelectrolyte solutions the sperm motility was completely suppressed. The K+ channel blocker, quinine, suppressed the sperm motility in electrolyte solution, showing a possible involvement of K+ transport in the process. High K+ concentration did not affect the sperm motility in NaCl solution, but decreased it in ASW and almost entirely suppressed it in nonelectrolyte solutions. The different effects of pH and K+ in ASW and NaCl solution indicate that external ions may also regulate sperm motility.

  14. Stress responses to rapid temperature changes of the juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunwei, Dong; Tingting, Ji; Shuanglin, Dong

    2007-07-01

    Activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and Hsp70 level were measured to evaluate the response of the commercially important sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) to rapid temperature changes in laboratory. Animals were subjected to a higher temperature (from 10 to 20°C) (Tinc treatment) or to a lower temperature (from 20 to 10°C) (Tdec treatment) for 72h. At 1, 3, 12, 24, 72h of exposure, animals were removed and prepared for further analysis. Results showed that the effect of acute temperature changes on enzyme activities was significant. In Tinc treatment, activities of SOD and CAT increased immediately. The significant enhancement of SOD and CAT activities suggested that oxidative stress increases significantly when ambient temperature increasing from 10 to 20°C. The up-regulation of Hsp70 in Tinc and Tdec treatments indicated that Hsp70 was a bioindicator of thermal stress in the sea cucumber, and the expression pattern depended on the thermal treatment.

  15. Hepatoprotective activity of sea cucumber Phyllophorus sp. extract in carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulmartiwi, Laksmi; Triastuti, Juni; Andriyono, Sapto; Umami, Mardiah Rahma

    2017-02-01

    Many procedures continuously in aquaculture and scientific research like tagging and vaccinating cause pain, involving damaging tissue and also cause stress responses in fish. Stress responses in fish influence liver because liver have vital role to supply energy and metabolism. Histology alteration in liver is caused by stress response like changes of vacuolation hepatocyte and characteristic colour. Triterpenoid was known had hepatoprotective activity. One of marine organism contained triterpenoid was sea cucumber. Result of research showed that liver tissue in fish with injected acetic acid 5 % (in upper lip) as pain stimulus have histopathology damages such as pyknosis (medium damage level) and oedema (heavy damage level) after 8 hour injection. Injected Lidocaine 1mg/fish as analgesic drug have histopathology damages such as oedema (heavy damages level), necrosis and pyknosis (low damages level). Injected acetic acid 5 % (in upper lip) and ethanolic extract of sea cucumber Phyllophorus sp. dose 5 mg/50 gr body weight shown histopathology damages such as necrosis, edema (medium damage level) and pyknosis (low damage level).

  16. Relationships of cucumbers and melons unraveled: molecular phylogenetics of Cucumis and related genera (Benincaseae, Cucurbitaceae).

    PubMed

    Ghebretinsae, Amanuel G; Thulin, Mats; Barber, Janet C

    2007-07-01

    Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae) comprises 33 species of annuals and perennials with a major native center of diversity in tropical and southern Africa. The genus includes some economically important and widely grown vegetables such as cucumbers and melons. Monophyly of the genus has been disputed in previous studies, but with only limited sampling. Relationships within Cucumis are thus poorly understood; moreover, the validity of the closely related genera has not been thoroughly tested. The present study was undertaken to test the monophyly of Cucumis and several closely related genera, to test sectional circumscriptions within Cucumis, and to understand the biogeographical history of the genus. We sequenced the nuclear ITS and plastid trnS-trnG regions for 40 ingroup and three outgroup taxa, representing all recognized subgenera and sections. Parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses found Cucumella, Oreosyce, Mukia, Myrmecosicyos, and Dicaelospermum nested within Cucumis. The clades recovered within the Cucumis complex in some instances represent the first phylogenetically derived hypothesis of relationships, whereas others correspond to previous subgeneric and sectional classifications. At least four introductions from Africa to Asia, as well as one reintroduction to Africa, are suggested within the Cucumis complex. Cucumis sativus (cucumber) is strongly supported as sister to the eastern Asian C. hystrix, whereas C. melo (melon) is strongly supported as sister to C. sagittatus in southern Africa.

  17. Biochemical and biophysical changes associated with magnetopriming in germinating cucumber seeds.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Jyotsna; Anand, Anjali; Nagarajan, Shantha

    2012-08-01

    Seeds of cucumber were exposed to static magnetic field strength from 100 to 250 mT for 1, 2 or 3 h. Germination-percentage, rate of germination, length of seedling and dry weight increased by 18.5, 49, 34 and 33% respectively in magnetoprimed seeds compared to unexposed seeds. Among different magnetic field doses, 200 mT for 1 h showed significant effect on germination parameters and hence selected for studying changes in water uptake, (1)H transverse relaxation time (T(2)), hydrolytic enzymes, reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzyme system in germinating seeds. Water uptake and T(2) values were significantly higher in treated seeds during imbibition. The activities of hydrolytic enzymes, amylase and protease were greater than the untreated controls by 51% and 13% respectively. Superoxide radicals also enhanced by 40% and hydrogen peroxide by 8% in magnetically exposed seeds. In magetoprimed seeds, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (8%), catalase (83%) and glutathione reductase (77%) over control was recorded. We report that magnetopriming of dry seeds can be effectively used as a pre-sowing treatment for seed invigoration in cucumber. Unlike other priming treatments seed is not required to be dehydrated after priming, allowing easy storage.

  18. Two plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase genes are differentially expressed in iron-deficient cucumber plants.

    PubMed

    Santi, Simonetta; Cesco, Stefano; Varanini, Zeno; Pinton, Roberto

    2005-03-01

    Aim of the present work was to investigate the involvement of plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (E.C. 3.6.3.6) isoforms of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in the response to Fe deficiency. Two PM H(+)-ATPase cDNAs (CsHA1 and CsHA2) were isolated from cucumber and their expression analysed as a function of Fe nutritional status. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed in Fe-deficient roots an enhanced accumulation of CsHA1 gene transcripts, which were hardly detectable in leaves. Supply of iron to deficient plants caused a decrease in the transcript level of CsHA1. In contrast, CsHA2 transcripts, detected both in roots and leaves, appeared to be unaffected by Fe. This work shows for the first time that a transcriptional regulation of PM H(+)-ATPase involving a specific isoform occurs in the response to Fe deficiency.

  19. Beneficial effects of exogenous selenium in cucumber seedlings subjected to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Hawrylak-Nowak, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    The study was conducted in order to determine the effects of exogenous selenium (Se) supply (5, 10, or 20 μM) on the resistance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cv. Polan F1 seedlings to salt stress (50 mM NaCl). Plant growth was negatively affected by excessive salinity and dry mass production as well as photosynthetic pigments accumulation severely decreased. Se treatments at 5 and 10 μM significantly improved the growth rate and increased the photosynthetic pigments and proline contents in cucumber leaves subjected to salt stress. Moreover, it is concluded that Se enhanced the salt tolerance of seedlings by protecting the cell membrane against lipid peroxidation. The growth-promoting effect of low Se concentrations (5 and 10 μM) under saline conditions could be due to the antioxidative activity of Se, increase in proline accumulation and/or decrease in content of chloride ions in the shoots tissues. Thus, optimal Se supplementation presents a promising potential for use in conditions of relatively high levels of NaCl in the medium.

  20. Cerebrosides from Sea Cucumber Protect Against Oxidative Stress in SAMP8 Mice and PC12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Che, Hongxia; Du, Lei; Cong, Peixu; Tao, Suyuan; Ding, Ning; Wu, Fengjuan; Xue, Changhu; Xu, Jie; Wang, Yuming

    2017-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder. Emerging evidence implicates β-amyloid (Aβ) plays a critical role in the progression of AD. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of cerebrosides obtained from sea cucumber against senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice in vivo. We also studied the effect of cerebrosides on Aβ-induced cytotoxicity on the rat pheochromocytoma cell (PC12) and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Cerebrosides ameliorated learning and memory deficits and the Aβ accumulation in demented mice, decreased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-G), and nitric oxide (NO), and enhanced the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly. The neuroprotective effect of sea cucumber cerebrosides (SCC) was also verified in vitro: the cerebrosides increased the survival rate of PC12 cells, recovered the cellular morphology, downregulated the protein levels of Caspase-9, cleaved Caspase-3, total Caspase-3, and Bax, and upregulated the protein level of Bcl-2, revealing that cerebrosides could inhibit Aβ-induced cell apoptosis. The results showed the protective effect of SCC was regulated by the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. Our results provide a new approach to developing the marine organisms as functional foods for neuroprotection.

  1. Nitric oxide is required for hydrogen gas-induced adventitious root formation in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongchao; Liao, Weibiao; Wang, Meng; Niu, Lijuan; Xu, Qingqing; Jin, Xin

    2016-05-20

    Hydrogen gas (H2) is involved in plant development and stress responses. Cucumber explants were used to study whether nitric oxide (NO) is involved in H2-induced adventitious root development. The results revealed that 50% and 100% hydrogen-rich water (HRW) apparently promoted the development of adventitious root in cucumber. While, the responses of HRW-induced adventitious rooting were blocked by a specific NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO), NO synthase (NOS) enzyme inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methylester hydrochloride (l-NAME) and nitrate reductase (NR) inhibitor NaN3. HRW also increased NO content and NOS and NR activity both in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Moreover, molecular evidence showed that HRW up-regulated NR genes expression in explants. The results indicate the importance of NOS and NR enzymes, which might be responsible for NO production in explants during H2-induced root organogenesis. Additionally, peroxidase (POD) and indoleacetic acid oxidase (IAAO) activity was significantly decreased in the explants treated with HRW, while HRW treatment significantly increased polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. In addition, cPTIO, l-NAME and NaN3 inhibited the actions of HRW on the activity of these enzymes. Together, NO may be involved in H2-induced adventitious rooting, and NO may be acting downstream in plant H2 signaling cascade.

  2. Outbreak of Salmonella Newport infections linked to cucumbers--United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Kristina M; Chu, Alvina; Anand, Madhu; Nguyen, Thai-An; Bottichio, Lyndsay; Wise, Matthew; Williams, Ian; Seelman, Sharon; Bell, Rebecca; Fatica, Marianne; Lance, Susan; Baldwin, Deanna; Shannon, Kyle; Lee, Hannah; Trees, Eija; Strain, Errol; Gieraltowski, Laura

    2015-02-20

    In August 2014, PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance, detected a multistate cluster of Salmonella enterica serotype Newport infections with an indistinguishable pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern (XbaI PFGE pattern JJPX01.0061). Outbreaks of illnesses associated with this PFGE pattern have previously been linked to consumption of tomatoes harvested from Virginia's Eastern Shore in the Delmarva region and have not been linked to cucumbers or other produce items. To identify the contaminated food and find the source of the contamination, CDC, state and local health and agriculture departments and laboratories, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted epidemiologic, traceback, and laboratory investigations. A total of 275 patients in 29 states and the District of Columbia were identified, with illness onsets occurring during May 20-September 30, 2014. Whole genome sequencing (WGS), a highly discriminating subtyping method, was used to further characterize PFGE pattern JJPX01.0061 isolates. Epidemiologic, microbiologic, and product traceback evidence suggests that cucumbers were a source of Salmonella Newport infections in this outbreak. The epidemiologic link to a novel outbreak vehicle suggests an environmental reservoir for Salmonella in the Delmarva region that should be identified and mitigated to prevent future outbreaks.

  3. Structural Elucidation of Novel Saponins in the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Zhang, Wei; Chataway, Tim; Franco, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers are prolific producers of a wide range of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to purify and characterize one class of compound, the saponins, from the viscera of the Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni. The saponins were obtained by ethanolic extraction of the viscera and enriched by a liquid-liquid partition process and adsorption column chromatography. A high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) was applied to the saponin-enriched mixture to obtain saponins with high purity. The resultant purified saponins were profiled using MALDI-MS/MS and ESI-MS/MS which revealed the structure of isomeric saponins to contain multiple aglycones and/or sugar residues. We have elucidated the structure of five novel saponins, Holothurins D/E and Holothurinosides X/Y/Z, along with seven reported triterpene glycosides, including sulfated and non-sulfated saponins containing a range of aglycones and sugar moieties, from the viscera of H. lessoni. The abundance of novel compounds from this species holds promise for biotechnological applications. PMID:25110919

  4. Primary structure and chain conformation of fucoidan extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yaoguang; Hu, Yanfang; Yu, Long; McClements, David Julian; Xu, Xiaoqi; Liu, Guanchen; Xue, Changhu

    2016-01-20

    Knowledge of the structure of polysaccharides is essential for understanding and controlling their functional properties. In this study, fucoidan was extracted from Holothuria tubulosa, a species of sea cucumber that has recently become commercially important. The primary structure of the H. tubulosa fucoidan was clarified using a combination of enzymatic degradation, methylation analysis, and NMR, and its chain conformation was further elucidated by utilizing high performance size exclusion chromatography combined with multiple angle laser light scattering and viscometry. The fucoidan was composed of a tetrafucose repeating unit [ → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2,4(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → ]. Its sulfate content was determined to be 31.2 ± 1.6% and the weight-average molecular mass was 1567.6 ± 34.1 kDa. The molecule adapted a random coil conformation in 0.15M NaCl solution (pH 7.4) at 25 °C, with a root-mean-square radius of 63.9 ± 1.8 nm and a hydrodynamic radius of 44.5 ± 4.5 nm. This is the first report on the chain conformation of sea cucumber fucoidan.

  5. Toxic effects in juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas (Selenka) exposure to benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Zhou, Shun; Ren, Yichao; Jiang, Senhao; Xia, Bin; Dong, Xiaoyu

    2016-12-01

    To understand the physiological response of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicas, were exposed to different concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and the growth, survival, antioxidant enzyme (SOD and T-AOC) activities were tested. Meanwhile, the quantitative real-time PCR technology was utilized to quantize the expression of immune related genes (i.e. innate immune genes, HSP genes and anti-oxidative genes). In our result, the SOD activity and T-AOC activity were induced at lower level of B[a]P (0.03 μg/L), however, a reduction of SOD activity and T-AOC activity were observed at relatively high B[a]P concentration (3 and 9 μg/L) for A. japonicas. Furthermore, the distinct expression patterns of selected immune-related genes were detected among different concentrations, and a general trend of down-regulation was observed at higher concentration. Especially, lysozyme almost showed the highest down-regulation at all concentrations, followed by NOS. Collectively, the growth, survival and expression signatures of immune related genes reflected an overall suppression of innate immunity in sea cucumber following exposure. Future functional studies should be carried out to characterize the detailed roles of immune genes and their related responses under B[a]P toxicity. Additionally, better understanding of the molecular indicators governing the healthy status under environmental toxicity would facilitate a healthy and sustainable culture program.

  6. Biological properties of pseudorecombinant and recombinant strains created with cucumber mosaic virus and tomato aspermy virus.

    PubMed Central

    Salánki, K; Carrère, I; Jacquemond, M; Balázs, E; Tepfer, M

    1997-01-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and tomato aspermy virus (TAV) are closely related cucumoviruses. We have made pseudorecombinant viruses in which the RNAs 3 of these two viruses have been exchanged and recombinant viruses containing chimeric RNA 3 molecules, in which the coat proteins and the 3'-end regions of CMV and TAV have been exchanged, giving rise to recombinants designated RT3 and TR3. The replication properties and the cell-to-cell and long-distance movement patterns of these pseudorecombinant and recombinant viruses were examined in different hosts. All the viruses were able to replicate and accumulate RNA 4 in protoplasts. The pseudorecombinants and the R1R2RT3 recombinant infected tobacco systemically, but the R1R2TR3 recombinant was not detectable, even in the inoculated leaves. Comparison of the abilities of the viruses to replicate in protoplasts and intact cucumber plants suggests that cell-to-cell movement factors are also encoded by RNAs 1 and/or 2. Major determinants of symptom severity in Nicotiana glutinosa are localized on the 3' part of RNA 3, and in Nicotiana benthamiana, more severe symptoms were observed with the T1T2R3 strain than with the others tested. PMID:9094632

  7. Estimation and Analysis of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Leaf Cellular Heat Sensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, C. R.

    1993-01-01

    Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduction by cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv Poinsett 76 and cv Ashley) leaf discs was used as a viability assay to examine the effect of temperature pretreatment on the tissue response to acute hyperthermia. Semi-logarithmic plots of TTC reduction as a function of incubation time at different temperatures from 40 to 60[deg]C resembled the heat survival curves of animal cells. Heat inactivation rates were obtained and subjected to "quasi" Arrhenius analyses by analytical methods derived from the animal studies. The Arrhenius plots of TTC reduction rates for cv Ashley leaf discs preincubated at 25 or 37[deg]C and for cv Poinsett 76 preincubated at 37[deg]C were linear with the same activation energy (Ea) of about 80 kcal mol-1. The Arrhenius plot of cv Poinsett 76 preincubated at 25[deg]C was nonlinear with an Ea of about 80 kcal mol-1 at temperatures below 46[deg]C and an Ea of about 27.5 kcal mol-1 at temperatures above 47[deg]C. The significance of these differences is discussed in terms of the role of protein denaturation in the thermal sensitivity of cucumber disc reduction of TTC and the applicability of these methods to the analysis of plant cellular heat sensitivity. PMID:12231745

  8. Hormonal regulation of the gravity s negative control of morphogenesis in cucumber seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, H.; Kamada, M.; Saito, Y.; Fujii, N.

    Just after germination, seedlings of most cucurbitaceous plants develop a peg to pull the cotyledons and plumule out from the seed coat. The peg usually develops on the concave side of the gravitropically bending transition zone between the hypocotyl and the root. Because cucumber seedlings grown in microgravity developed a peg on each side of the transition zone, it was suggested that peg formation was negatively regulated by gravity on Earth. It has also been suggested that auxin is an essential factor responsible for peg formation. To verify this hypothesis and to understand the molecular mechanism of the gravity-regulated peg formation, we measured the distribution of endogenous auxin in the transition zone, examined the expression patterns of an auxininducible genes (CS-IAAs), auxin response factor and auxin carrier genes (CS-ARFs, CS-AUX1, CS-PIN1). Because ethylene modifies peg development, we examined the expression of ACC synthase genes (CS-ACSs) and its relation to the auxin-mediated development of peg. Furthermore, we examined some other factors that might interact with auxin for peg formation. Based on the results of these studies, we propose a model for the mechanism of peg formation in cucumber seedlings.

  9. Crop rotations in the sea: Increasing returns and reducing risk of collapse in sea cucumber fisheries.

    PubMed

    Plagányi, Éva Elizabeth; Skewes, Timothy; Murphy, Nicole; Pascual, Ricardo; Fischer, Mibu

    2015-05-26

    Rotational harvesting is one of the oldest management strategies applied to terrestrial and marine natural resources, with crop rotations dating back to the time of the Roman Empire. The efficacy of this strategy for sessile marine species is of considerable interest given that these resources are vital to underpin food security and maintain the social and economic wellbeing of small-scale and commercial fishers globally. We modeled the rotational zone strategy applied to the multispecies sea cucumber fishery in Australia's Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and show a substantial reduction in the risk of localized depletion, higher long-term yields, and improved economic performance. We evaluated the performance of rotation cycles of different length and show an improvement in biological and economic performance with increasing time between harvests up to 6 y. As sea cucumber fisheries throughout the world succumb to overexploitation driven by rising demand, there has been an increasing demand for robust assessments of fishery sustainability and a need to address local depletion concerns. Our results provide motivation for increased use of relatively low-information, low-cost, comanagement rotational harvest approaches in coastal and reef systems globally.

  10. Field and vegetable crops as hosts of larval western spotted cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Andrew B; Godfrey, Larry D

    2011-06-01

    The western spotted cucumber beetle, Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim, is an important pest of melons (Cucurmis melo L.) in northern California. Recent observations indicate that adults are using alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) as a feeding host and larvae may be developing on the roots. Greenhouse studies were conducted during the winters of 2009 and 2010 in which larval development was compared on the roots of six field and vegetable crops commonly grown in the southern Sacramento Valley. The growth parameters used to evaluate the hosts were larval and pupal head capsule width, body width, and body length as well as total survival percentage and survival percentage to the third instar. According to larval growth and survivorship in 2009, maize (Zea mays L.) was the best host, followed by alfalfa and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) that were roughly equivalent to one another. Melon was a slightly weaker host than alfalfa and tomato; sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was a completely incompatible host and thus dropped from the 2010 study. In 2010, melon was the weakest host for larval development. Maize was the superior host again followed closely by alfalfa that performed slightly better than tomato and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). Data suggest that larval western spotted cucumber beetles may primarily develop outside of melon fields and the adults emigrate to melons.

  11. Gene structure, expression, and DNA methylation characteristics of sea cucumber cyclin B gene during aestivation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Aijun; Chen, Muyan; Zhang, Xiumei; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-12-05

    The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, is a good model for studying environmentally-induced aestivation by a marine invertebrate. One of the central requirements of aestivation is the repression of energy-expensive cellular processes such as cell cycle progression. The present study identified the gene structure of the cell cycle regulator, cyclin B, and detected the expression levels of this gene over three stages of the annual aestivation-arousal cycle. Furthermore, the DNA methylation characteristics of cyclin B were analyzed in non-aestivation and deep-aestivation stages of sea cucumbers. We found that the cyclin B promoter contains a CpG island, three CCAAT-boxes and three cell cycle gene homology regions (CHRs). Application of qRT-PCR analysis showed significant downregulation of cyclin B transcript levels during deep-aestivation in comparison with non-aestivation in both intestine and longitudinal muscle, and these returned to basal levels after arousal from aestivation. Methylation analysis of the cyclin B core promoter revealed that its methylation level showed significant differences between non-aestivation and deep-aestivation stages (p<0.05) and interestingly, a positive correlation between Cyclin B transcripts expression and methylation levels of the core promoter was also observed. Our findings suggest that cell cycle progression may be reversibly arrested during aestivation as indicated by the changes in cyclin B expression levels and we propose that DNA methylation is one of the regulatory mechanisms involved in cyclin B transcriptional variation.

  12. Differential gene expression in the respiratory tree of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus during aestivation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ye; Yang, Hongsheng; Storey, Kenneth B; Chen, Muyan

    2014-12-01

    Sea cucumbers, Apostichopus japonicus, experience seasonally high water temperatures during the summer months and enter aestivation to survive. Aestivation is characterized by strong metabolic rate depression which is supported by a series of strategies including reorganizing metabolic processes, suppressing cell functions, enhancing cytoprotective mechanisms, and altered gene expression. The respiratory tree tissue of the sea cucumber is an excellent material for studying aestivation, undergoing obvious atrophy during aestivation. The present study analyzed the global gene expression profile of respiratory tree tissue of A. japonicus during aestivation by constructing and screening three libraries representing key stages of aestivation: non-aestivation (NA), deep-aestivation (DA), and arousal from aestivation (AA) using RNA-seq. A total of 1240, 1184 and 303 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified following the criteria of |log2 ratio|≥1 and FDR≤0.001 in comparisons of DA vs. NA, AA vs. NA and DA vs. AA. A set of respiratory tree specific DEGs was identified the first time and, in addition, common DEGs that were responsive to aestivation in both respiratory tree and intestine were identified. Functional analysis of DEGs was further performed by GO enrichment analysis and respiratory tree specific GO terms were screened out and provide interesting hints for further studies of the molecular regulation of aestivation in A. japonicus.

  13. Gibberellin Is Involved in Inhibition of Cucumber Growth and Nitrogen Uptake at Suboptimal Root-Zone Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaocui; Yu, Xianchang

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal temperature stress often causes heavy yield losses of vegetables by suppressing plant growth during winter and early spring. Gibberellin acid (GA) has been reported to be involved in plant growth and acquisition of mineral nutrients. However, no studies have evaluated the role of GA in the regulation of growth and nutrient acquisition by vegetables under conditions of suboptimal temperatures in greenhouse. Here, we investigated the roles of GA in the regulation of growth and nitrate acquisition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants under conditions of short-term suboptimal root-zone temperatures (Tr). Exposure of cucumber seedlings to a Tr of 16°C led to a significant reduction in root growth, and this inhibitory effect was reversed by exogenous application of GA. Expression patterns of several genes encoding key enzymes in GA metabolism were altered by suboptimal Tr treatment, and endogenous GA concentrations in cucumber roots were significantly reduced by exposure of cucumber plants to 16°C Tr, suggesting that inhibition of root growth by suboptimal Tr may result from disruption of endogenous GA homeostasis. To further explore the mechanism underlying the GA-dependent cucumber growth under suboptimal Tr, we studied the effect of suboptimal Tr and GA on nitrate uptake, and found that exposure of cucumber seedlings to 16°C Tr led to a significant reduction in nitrate uptake rate, and exogenous application GA can alleviate the down-regulation by up regulating the expression of genes associated with nitrate uptake. Finally, we demonstrated that N accumulation in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal Tr conditions was improved by exogenous application of GA due probably to both enhanced root growth and nitrate absorption activity. These results indicate that a reduction in endogenous GA concentrations in roots due to down-regulation of GA biosynthesis at transcriptional level may be a key event to underpin the suboptimal Tr-induced inhibition of root

  14. QTL Mapping by SLAF-seq and Expression Analysis of Candidate Genes for Aphid Resistance in Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Danna; Chen, Minyang; Qi, Xiaohua; Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Fucai; Chen, Xuehao

    2016-01-01

    Cucumber, a very important vegetable crop worldwide, is easily damaged by pests. Aphid is one of the most serious cucumber pests and frequently cause severe damage to commercially produced crops. Understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying pest resistance is important for aphid-resistant cucumber varieties breeding. In this study, two parental cucumber lines, JY30 (aphid susceptible) and EP6392 (aphid resistant), and pools of resistant and susceptible (n = 50 each) plants from 1000 F2 individuals derived from crossing JY30 with EP6392, were used to detect genomic regions associated with aphid resistance in cucumbers. The analysis was performed using specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq), bulked segregant analysis (BSA), and single nucleotide polymorphism index (SNP-index) methods. A main effect QTL (quantitative trait locus) of 0.31 Mb on Chr5, including 43 genes, was identified by association analysis. Sixteen of the 43 genes were identified as potentially associated with aphid resistance through gene annotation analysis. The effect of aphid infestation on the expression of these candidate genes screened by SLAF-seq was investigated in EP6392 plants by qRT-PCR. The results indicated that seven genes including encoding transcription factor MYB59-like (Csa5M641610.1), auxin transport protein BIG-like (Csa5M642140.1), F-box/kelch-repeat protein At5g15710-like (Csa5M642160.1), transcription factor HBP-1a-like (Csa5M642710.1), beta-glucan-binding protein (Csa5M643380.1), endo-1,3(4)-beta-glucanase 1-like (Csa5M643880.1), and proline-rich receptor-like protein kinase PERK10-like (Csa5M643900.1), out of the 16 genes were down regulated after aphid infestation, whereas 5 genes including encoding probable leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor-like serine/threonine-protein kinase At5g15730-like (Csa5M642150.1), Stress-induced protein KIN2 (Csa5M643240.1 and Csa5M643260.1), F-box family protein (Csa5M643280.1), F-box/kelch-repeat protein (Csa5M643290

  15. CaCO3 dissolution by holothurians (sea cucumber): a case study from One Tree Reef, Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, K.; Silverman, J.; Kravitz, B.; Woolsey, E.; Eriksson, H.; Schneider-Mor, A.; Barbosa, S.; Rivlin, T.; Byrne, M.; Caldeira, K.

    2012-12-01

    Holothurians (sea cucumbers) are among the largest and most important deposit feeder in coral reefs. They play a role in nutrient and CaCO3 cycling within the reef structure. As a result of their digestive process they secrete alkalinity due to CaCO3 dissolution and organic matter degradation forming CO2 and ammonium. In a survey at station DK13 on One Three Reef we found that the population density of holothurians was > 1 individual m-2. The dominant sea cucumber species Holothuria leucospilota was collected from DK13. The increase in alkalinity due to CaCO3 dissolution in aquaria incubations was measured to be 47±7 μmol kg-1 in average per individual. Combining this dissolution rate with the sea cucumbers concentrations at DK13 suggest that they may account for a dissolution rate of 34.9±17.8 mmol m-2 day-1, which is equivalent to about half of night time community dissolution measured in DK13. This indicates that in reefs where the sea cucumber population is healthy and protected from fishing they can be locally important in the CaCO3 cycle. Preliminary result suggests that the CaCO3 dissolution rates are not affected by the chemistry of the sea water they are incubated in. Measurements of the empty digestive track volume of two sea cucumbers H. atra and Stichopus herrmanni were 36 ± 4 ml and 151 ± 14 ml, respectively. Based on these measurements it is estimated that these species process 19 ± 2kg and 80 ± 7kg CaCO3 sand yr-1 per individual, respectively. The annual dissolution rates of H. atra and S. herrmanni are 6.5±1.9g and 9.6±1.4g, respectively, suggest that 0.05±0.02% and 0.1±0.02% of the CaCO3 processed through their gut annually is dissolved. During the incubations the CaCO3 dissolution was 0.07±0.01%, 0.04±0.01% and 0.21±0.05% of the fecal casts for H. atra, H. leucospilota and S. herrmanni, respectively. Our result that the primary parameter determining the CaCO3 dissolution by sea cucumber is the amount of carbonate send in their gut

  16. Gibberellin Is Involved in Inhibition of Cucumber Growth and Nitrogen Uptake at Suboptimal Root-Zone Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bai, Longqiang; Deng, Huihui; Zhang, Xiaocui; Yu, Xianchang; Li, Yansu

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal temperature stress often causes heavy yield losses of vegetables by suppressing plant growth during winter and early spring. Gibberellin acid (GA) has been reported to be involved in plant growth and acquisition of mineral nutrients. However, no studies have evaluated the role of GA in the regulation of growth and nutrient acquisition by vegetables under conditions of suboptimal temperatures in greenhouse. Here, we investigated the roles of GA in the regulation of growth and nitrate acquisition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants under conditions of short-term suboptimal root-zone temperatures (Tr). Exposure of cucumber seedlings to a Tr of 16°C led to a significant reduction in root growth, and this inhibitory effect was reversed by exogenous application of GA. Expression patterns of several genes encoding key enzymes in GA metabolism were altered by suboptimal Tr treatment, and endogenous GA concentrations in cucumber roots were significantly reduced by exposure of cucumber plants to 16°C Tr, suggesting that inhibition of root growth by suboptimal Tr may result from disruption of endogenous GA homeostasis. To further explore the mechanism underlying the GA-dependent cucumber growth under suboptimal Tr, we studied the effect of suboptimal Tr and GA on nitrate uptake, and found that exposure of cucumber seedlings to 16°C Tr led to a significant reduction in nitrate uptake rate, and exogenous application GA can alleviate the down-regulation by up regulating the expression of genes associated with nitrate uptake. Finally, we demonstrated that N accumulation in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal Tr conditions was improved by exogenous application of GA due probably to both enhanced root growth and nitrate absorption activity. These results indicate that a reduction in endogenous GA concentrations in roots due to down-regulation of GA biosynthesis at transcriptional level may be a key event to underpin the suboptimal Tr-induced inhibition of root

  17. Validation of a method for the determination of 120 pesticide residues in apples and cucumbers by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Gouda; Al Jabir, Muna; Alabdulmalik, Najat; Mohammed, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Most countries have clearly defined regulations governing the use of pesticides in agricultural activity. The application of pesticides in agriculture usually leads to a residual amount of these pesticides on food products such as fruit and vegetables. The presence of pesticide residues on these foods destined for human consumption may pose food safety risks to consumers. To protect consumers, national authorities have established maximum limits for pesticide residues in foods. These limits can only be enforced if there are methods available to detect and monitor their concentrations in the applicable food products. To support the enforcement of this legislation, we have developed a multi-residue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the analysis of 120 pesticide residues in apples and cucumbers which has been validated and implemented in the routine monitoring and surveillance programme for these pesticides. In this method, apple and cucumber samples are extracted using the QuEChERS method (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) and the extracts were analyzed directly by LC-MS/MS. The mean recoveries at three different concentrations of 0.01 µg/g , 0.05 µg/g, and 0.1 µg/g over the analytical range varied between 70 and 120%. The repeatability of the method expressed as %RSD was less than 20%. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method ranged between 0.0014 and 0.0110 µg/g for apples and between 0.0012 and 0.0075 µg/g for cucumbers. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 0.01 µg/g for apples and cucumbers. The method has been used for the analysis of over 600 apple and 550 cucumber samples over the past two years. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The Cytotoxicity of Dacarbazine Potentiated by Sea Cucumber Saponin in Resistant B16F10 Melanoma Cells through Apoptosis Induction

    PubMed Central

    Baharara, Javad; Amini, Elaheh; Nikdel, Najme; Salek-Abdollahi, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive malignant melanocytic neoplasm which resists against the most conventional therapies. Sea cucumber as one of marine organisms contains bioactive compounds such as polysaccharide, terpenoid and other metabolites which have anti-cancer, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to investigate the anticancer potential of saponin extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilata alone and in combination with dacarbazine on B16F10 melanoma cell line. Methods: The B16F10 cell line was treated with different concentrations of saponin (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 μg/ml), dacarbazine (0, 1200, 1400, 1600, 18000, 1200, 1400, 1600, 2000 μg/ml) and co-administration of saponin-dacarbazine (1200 da+8 sp, 1200 da+4 sp) for 24 and 48 hr and the cytotoxic effect was examined by MTT, DAPI, acridine orange/propodium iodide, flow cytometry and caspase colorimetric assay. Results: The results exhibited that sea cucumber saponin, dacarbazine, and co-administration of saponin-dacarbazine inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells in a dose and time dependent manner with IC50 values of 10, 1400 and 4+1200 μg/ml, respectively. Morphological observation of DAPI and acridine orange/propodium iodide staining documented typical characteristics of apoptotic cell death. Flow cytometry assay indicated accumulation of IC50 treated cells in sub-G1 peak. Additionally, saponin extracted induced intrinsic apoptosis via up-regulation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Conclusion: These results revealed that the saponin extracted from sea cucumber as a natural anti-cancer compound may be a new treatment modality for metastatic melanoma and the application of sea cucumber saponin in combination with dacarbazine demonstrated the strongest anti-cancer activity as compared with the drug alone. PMID:27563423

  19. Patterning of anteroposterior body axis displayed in the expression of Hox genes in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Mani; Omori, Akihito; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Akasaka, Koji

    2015-09-01

    The presence of an anteroposterior body axis is a fundamental feature of bilateria. Within this group, echinoderms have secondarily evolved pentameral symmetric body plans. Although all echinoderms present bilaterally symmetric larval stages, they dramatically rearrange their body axis and develop a pentaradial body plan during metamorphosis. Therefore, the location of their anteroposterior body axis in adult forms remains a contentious issue. Unlike other echinoderms, sea cucumbers present an obvious anteroposterior axis not rearranged during metamorphosis, thus representing an interesting group to study their anteroposterior axis patterning. Hox genes are known to play a broadly conserved role in anteroposterior axis patterning in deuterostomes. Here, we report the expression patterns of Hox genes from early development to pentactula stage in sea cucumber. In early larval stages, five Hox genes (AjHox1, AjHox7, AjHox8, AjHox11/13a, and AjHox11/13b) were expressed sequentially along the archenteron, suggesting that the role of anteroposterior patterning of the Hox genes is conserved in bilateral larvae of echinoderms. In doliolaria and pentactula stages, eight Hox genes (AjHox1, AjHox5, AjHox7, AjHox8, AjHox9/10, AjHox11/13a, AjHox11/13b, and AjHox11/13c) were expressed sequentially along the digestive tract, following a similar expression pattern to that found in the visceral mesoderm of other bilateria. Unlike other echinoderms, pentameral expression patterns of AjHox genes were not observed in sea cucumber. Altogether, we concluded that AjHox genes are involved in the patterning of the digestive tract in both larvae and metamorphosis of sea cucumbers. In addition, the anteroposterior axis in sea cucumbers might be patterned like that of other bilateria.

  20. Induction of Drought Tolerance in Cucumber Plants by a Consortium of Three Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Strains

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Gu, Chun; Niu, Dong-Dong; Liu, Hong-Xia; Wang, Yun-Peng; Guo, Jian-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Our previous work showed that a consortium of three plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) strains (Bacillus cereus AR156, Bacillus subtilis SM21, and Serratia sp. XY21), termed as BBS for short, was a promising biocontrol agent. The present study investigated its effect on drought tolerance in cucumber plants. After withholding watering for 13 days, BBS-treated cucumber plants had much darker green leaves and substantially lighter wilt symptoms than control plants. Compared to the control, the BBS treatment decreased the leaf monodehydroascorbate (MDA) content and relative electrical conductivity by 40% and 15%, respectively; increased the leaf proline content and the root recovery intension by 3.45-fold and 50%, respectively; and also maintained the leaf chlorophyll content in cucumber plants under drought stress. Besides, in relation to the control, the BBS treatment significantly enhanced the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and mitigated the drought-triggered down-regulation of the expression of the genes cAPX, rbcL, and rbcS encoding cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxy/oxygenase (Rubisco) large and small subunits, respectively, in cucumber leaves. However, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity was undetected in none of the culture solutions of three BBS constituent strains. These results indicated that BBS conferred induced systemic tolerance to drought stress in cucumber plants, by protecting plant cells, maintaining photosynthetic efficiency and root vigor and increasing some of antioxidase activities, without involving the action of ACC deaminase to lower plant ethylene levels. PMID:23285089

  1. The effect of eating sea cucumber jelly on Candida load in the oral cavity of elderly individuals in a nursing home.

    PubMed

    Yano, Akira; Abe, Akiko; Aizawa, Fumie; Yamada, Hidetoshi; Minami, Kentaro; Matsui, Miki; Kishi, Mitsuo

    2013-12-11

    We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled study of elderly individuals in a nursing home to investigate the effect of the consumption of jelly containing sea cucumber on their oral Candida load. The jelly contained a hydrolysate of the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus, which contained triterpene glycosides called holotoxins. The holotoxins worked as a fungicide, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations for Candida albicans were 7 µg/mL. Eight individuals in the nursing home took the sea cucumber jelly for a week and their oral Candida were counted before and after the intervention. Nine individuals took a control jelly without S. japonicus. The sea cucumber jelly showed inhibitory effects on the oral Candida. Thus, daily consumption of the S. japonicus jelly has the potential to reduce the oral Candida load in the elderly in nursing homes.

  2. The Effect of Eating Sea Cucumber Jelly on Candida Load in the Oral Cavity of Elderly Individuals in a Nursing Home

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Akira; Abe, Akiko; Aizawa, Fumie; Yamada, Hidetoshi; Minami, Kentaro; Matsui, Miki; Kishi, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled study of elderly individuals in a nursing home to investigate the effect of the consumption of jelly containing sea cucumber on their oral Candida load. The jelly contained a hydrolysate of the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus, which contained triterpene glycosides called holotoxins. The holotoxins worked as a fungicide, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations for Candida albicans were 7 µg/mL. Eight individuals in the nursing home took the sea cucumber jelly for a week and their oral Candida were counted before and after the intervention. Nine individuals took a control jelly without S. japonicus. The sea cucumber jelly showed inhibitory effects on the oral Candida. Thus, daily consumption of the S. japonicus jelly has the potential to reduce the oral Candida load in the elderly in nursing homes. PMID:24335524

  3. Effects of exogenous putrescine on gas-exchange characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence of NaCl-stressed cucumber seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Run Hua; Li, Jun; Guo, Shi Rong; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2009-06-01

    The effects of 10 mM putrescine (Put) treated by spraying on leaves on growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic gas-exchange characteristics, and chlorophyll fluorescence were investigated by growing cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. ChangChun mici) using hydroponics with or without 65 mM NaCl as a salt stress. Salt stress caused the reduction of growth such as leaf area, root volume, plant height, and fresh and dry weights. Furthermore, net photosynthesis rate (P(n)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), intercellular CO(2) concentration (C(i)), and transpiration rate (T(r)) were also reduced by NaCl, but water use efficiency (WUE; P(n)/T(r)) showed a tendency to be enhanced rather than reduced by NaCl. However, Put alleviated the reduction of P (n) by NaCl, and showed a further reduction of C (i) by NaCl. The reduction of g(s) and T(r) by NaCl was not alleviated at all. The enhancement of WUE by NaCl was shown to have no alleviation at day 1 after starting the treatment, but after that, the enhancement was gradually reduced till the control level. Maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (F(v)/F(m)) showed no effects by any conditions based on the combination of NaCl and Put, and in addition, kept constant values in plants grown in each nutrient solution during this experimental period. The efficiency of excitation energy capture by open photosystem II (PSII) (F(v)'/F(m)'), actual efficiency of PSII (Phi(PSII)), and the coefficient on photochemical quenching (qP) of plants with NaCl were reduced with time, and the reduction was alleviated till the control level by treatment with Put. The F(v)'/F(m)', Phi(PSII), and qP of plants without NaCl and/or with Put showed no variation during the experiment. Non-photochemical quenching of the singlet excited state of chlorophyll a (NPQ) showed quite different manner from the others as mentioned above, namely, continued to enhance during the experiment.

  4. Carbon Monoxide Is Involved in Hydrogen Gas-Induced Adventitious Root Development in Cucumber under Simulated Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yue; Wang, Meng; Hu, Linli; Liao, Weibiao; Dawuda, Mohammed M.; Li, Chunlan

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen gas (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) are involved in plant growth and developmental processes and may induce plant tolerance to several stresses. However, the independent roles and interaction effect of H2 and CO in adventitious root development under drought conditions have still not received the needed research attention. We hypothesize that there exists crosstalk between H2 and CO during adventitious root development under drought stress. The results of our current study revealed that 50% (v/v) hydrogen-rich water (HRW), 500 μM Hemin (the CO donor) and 30% (w/v) CO aqueous solution apparently promoted the development of adventitious roots in cucumber explants (Cucumis Sativus L.) under drought stress. H2 and CO increased relative water content (RWC), leaf chlorophyll content (chlorophyll a, b, and a+b), and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters [photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII), PSII actual photochemical efficiency and photochemical quench coefficient] under drought condition. When the CO scavenger hemoglobin (Hb) or zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) was added to HRW/CO aqueous solution, the positive effect of HRW/CO aqueous solution on RWC, leaf chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were reversed. Additionally, superoxide dismutases, peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase was significantly increased in the explants treated with HRW and CO aqueous solution under drought stress, thus alleviating oxidative damage, as indicated by decreases in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide radical (O2-) levels. H2 and CO also improved the levels of water soluble carbohydrate, total soluble protein, and proline content. However, the above CO/H2-mediated effects were reversed by CO scavenger Hb or CO specific synthetic inhibitor ZnPPIX. Therefore, CO may be involved in H2-induced adventitious rooting under drought stress and alleviate oxidative damage by enhancing RWC, leaf

  5. Carbon Monoxide Is Involved in Hydrogen Gas-Induced Adventitious Root Development in Cucumber under Simulated Drought Stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Wang, Meng; Hu, Linli; Liao, Weibiao; Dawuda, Mohammed M; Li, Chunlan

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen gas (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) are involved in plant growth and developmental processes and may induce plant tolerance to several stresses. However, the independent roles and interaction effect of H2 and CO in adventitious root development under drought conditions have still not received the needed research attention. We hypothesize that there exists crosstalk between H2 and CO during adventitious root development under drought stress. The results of our current study revealed that 50% (v/v) hydrogen-rich water (HRW), 500 μM Hemin (the CO donor) and 30% (w/v) CO aqueous solution apparently promoted the development of adventitious roots in cucumber explants (Cucumis Sativus L.) under drought stress. H2 and CO increased relative water content (RWC), leaf chlorophyll content (chlorophyll a, b, and a+b), and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters [photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII), PSII actual photochemical efficiency and photochemical quench coefficient] under drought condition. When the CO scavenger hemoglobin (Hb) or zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) was added to HRW/CO aqueous solution, the positive effect of HRW/CO aqueous solution on RWC, leaf chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were reversed. Additionally, superoxide dismutases, peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase was significantly increased in the explants treated with HRW and CO aqueous solution under drought stress, thus alleviating oxidative damage, as indicated by decreases in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide radical (O2(-)) levels. H2 and CO also improved the levels of water soluble carbohydrate, total soluble protein, and proline content. However, the above CO/H2-mediated effects were reversed by CO scavenger Hb or CO specific synthetic inhibitor ZnPPIX. Therefore, CO may be involved in H2-induced adventitious rooting under drought stress and alleviate oxidative damage by enhancing RWC

  6. Transcriptomic Analysis Implies That GA Regulates Sex Expression via Ethylene-Dependent and Ethylene-Independent Pathways in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Guiye; Li, Yushun; Mo, Ning; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Sex differentiation of flower buds is an important developmental process that directly affects fruit yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Plant hormones, such as gibberellins (GAs) and ethylene can promote development of male and female flowers, respectively, however, the regulatory mechanisms of GA-induced male flower formation and potential involvement of ethylene in this process still remain unknown. In this study, to unravel the genes and gene networks involved in GA-regulated cucumber sexual development, we performed high throughout RNA-Seq analyses that compared the transcriptomes of shoot tips between GA3 treated and untreated gynoecious cucumber plants. Results showed that GA3 application markedly induced male flowers but decreased ethylene production in shoot tips. Furthermore, the transcript levels of M (CsACS2) gene, ethylene receptor CsETR1 and some ethylene-responsive transcription factors were dramatically changed after GA3 treatment, suggesting a potential involvement of ethylene in GA-regulated sex expression of cucumber. Interestingly, GA3 down-regulated transcript of a C-class floral homeotic gene, CAG2, indicating that GA may also influence cucumber sex determination through an ethylene-independent process. These results suggest a novel model for hormone-mediated sex differentiation and provide a theoretical basis for further dissection of the regulatory mechanism of male flower formation in cucumber. Statement: We reveal that GA can regulate sex expression of cucumber via an ethylene-dependent manner, and the M (CsACS2), CsETR1, and ERFs are probably involved in this process. Moreover, CAG2, a C-class floral homeotic gene, may also participate in GA-modulated cucumber sex determination, but this pathway is ethylene-independent. PMID:28154572

  7. Effects of exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid on PIP1 and NIP aquaporin gene expression in seedlings of cucumber cultivars subjected to salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Yan, F; Qu, D; Zhao, Y Y; Hu, X H; Zhao, Z Y; Zhang, Y; Zou, Z R

    2014-01-22

    Aquaporins play a direct role in plant water relation under salt stress, but the effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) on aquaporin gene expression in salt-treated plants remain unknown. This study investigated the potential effects of exogenous ALA (50 mg/dm3) on aquaporin expression levels under salt stress (75 mM NaCl) in the salt-sensitive (Jinchun No.4) and the relatively salt-tolerant cucumber (Jinyou No.1) seedlings. The expressions of cucumber PIP aquaporin gene (CsPIP1:1) and cucumber NIP aquaporin gene (CsNIP) were analyzed in 20-day-old seedling leaves at 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 h after ALA treatment. After treatment with saline alone and ALA alone, CsPIP1:1 and CsNIP gene expression levels in the 2 cucumber cultivars increased to maximum at 2 h. The aquaporin gene expression in salt-treated cucumber seedling leaves was considerably higher than that in leaves subjected to exogenous ALA. Further, the aquaporin expression levels in Jinchun No.4 were higher than those in Jinyou No.1, reaching 5.20- and 2-fold induction levels, respectively. After treatment with both ALA and NaCl, the CsNIP gene expression was downregulated in both the cucumber cultivars, while that of CsPIP1:1 decreased at 2 h and then increased to 3.8-fold in Jinchun No.4. In Jinyou No.1, CsPIP1:1 gene expression gradually increased to 2.3-fold at 4 h, followed by a decline in expression. The results indicated that ALA might delay and counteract the upregulated expression of CsPIP1:1 and CsNIP genes in cucumber seedlings under NaCl stress. Thus, salt tolerance of cucumber seedlings might be enhanced by ALA application.

  8. Profiling and comparison of color body wall transcriptome of normal juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) and those produced by crossing albino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Deyou; Yang, Hongsheng; Sun, Lina

    2014-12-01

    Sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) is one of the most important aquaculture animals in China. Usually its normal body color is black that fits its living environment. The juvenile individuals obtained by crossing albino sea cucumber segregated in body color. To document the transcriptome difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control, we sequenced their transcriptomes with RNA-seq. Approximately, 4.790 million (M) and 4.884 M reads, 200 nt in length, were generated from the body wall of albino associating sea cucumber and the control, respectively, from them, 9550 (46.81%) putative genes were identified. In total, 583 genes were found to express differentially between albino associating sea cucumber and the control. Of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 4.8% changed more than five-folds. The expression levels of eight DEGs were confirmed with real-time PCR. The changing trend of these DEGs detected with real-time PCR agreed well with that detected with RNA-seq, although the change degree of some DEGs was different. Four significantly enriched pathways were identified for DEGs, which included phagocytosis, Staphylococcus aureus infection, ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion. These pathways were helpful for understanding the physiological difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control.

  9. Occurrence and Dispersal of Indicator Bacteria on Cucumbers Grown Horizontally or Vertically on Various Mulch Types.

    PubMed

    Micallef, Shirley A; Callahan, Mary Theresa; Pagadala, Sivaranjani

    2016-10-01

    No data exist on the impact of cultivation practices on food safety risks associated with cucumber. Cucumbers are typically grown horizontally over a mulch cover, with fruit touching the ground, but this vining plant grows well in vertical systems. To assess whether production system affects bacterial dispersal onto plants, field trials were conducted over 2 years. Cucumber cultivar 'Marketmore 76' was grown horizontally on plastic, straw, or bare ground or vertically on trellises installed on bare ground in soil previously amended with raw dairy manure. Fruit, flower, leaf, and soil samples were collected to quantify Escherichia coli , thermotolerant coliforms, and enterococci by direct plating. E. coli isolates were characterized by BOX-PCR to evaluate relatedness among strains. Although thermotolerant coliforms and enterococci were significantly less abundant on fruit in year 1 (P < 0.05), this result was not seen in year 2 when more rain was recorded. Instead, fruit from straw-mulched beds had higher levels of enterococci compared with fruit grown on bare ground (P < 0.05). Leaves on bare ground occasionally had more bacteria than did leaves on plastic mulch beds (P < 0.05). Production system did not impact flower-associated bacterial levels. E. coli isolates (n =127) were genotyped, generating 21 distinct fingerprints. Vertical production did not appear to be a barrier for E. coli dispersal to the crop, as suggested by numerous related isolates from soil and flowers on bare ground, straw-mulched, and trellised beds (subcluster B1). None of the isolates from soil and flowers in this subcluster were related to isolates recovered from fruit, showing that flower colonization does not necessarily lead to fruit colonization. One cluster of isolates contained those from flowers and fruits but not soil, indicating a source other than manure-amended soil. Straw may be a source of E. coli ; a number of closely related E. coli isolates were retrieved from soil and fruits

  10. Gravity-induced modification of auxin transport and distribution for peg formation in cucumber seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, M.; Fujii, N.; Higashitani, A.; Takahashi, H.

    Cucumber seedlings grown in microgravity developed a peg on each side of the transition zone between hypocotyl and root, whereas seedlings grown in a horizontal position on the ground developed a peg on the concave (lower) side of the gravitropically bending transition zone. Using an auxin-inducible gene, CS-IAA1, we showed that upon gravistimulation the auxin concentration on the upper side of the horizontally placed transition zone is reduced to a level below the threshold necessary for peg formation. In this study, to elucidate the role of auxin in the lateral placement of peg formation, we measured the contents of endogenous auxin in the transition zone. The content of free IAA was lower and conjugated IAA was more abundant on the upper side of the transition zone of the gravistimulated seedlings compared with the lower side. These results support the idea that a decrease in auxin level due to a modification of auxin transport or metabolism causes the suppression of peg formation on the upper side of the transition zone in a horizontal position. Cucumber seedlings treated with auxin transport inhibitors exhibited agravitropic growth and developed a peg on each side of the transition zone. Application of auxin transport inhibitors caused an increase in CS-IAA1 mRNA (an auxin-inducible gene) at the transition zone. To analyze auxin transport system for peg formation, we isolated auxin influx carrier, CS-AUX1, and auxin efflux carrier, CS-PIN1, from cucumber plants. The accumulation of CS-AUX1 and CS-PIN1 mRNAs was observed at vascular tissue and epidermis in the transition zone. The level of CS-AUX1 mRNA was lower on the upper side of the transition zone in a horizontal position. The results suggest that the transition zone is an additional source of auxin, and that both influx and efflux of auxin in the cells of the transition zone control cytoplasmic concentration of auxin for peg formation.

  11. Photobilirubin II.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnett, R; Buckley, D G; Hamzetash, D; Hawkes, G E; Ioannou, S; Stoll, M S

    1984-01-01

    An improved preparation of photobilirubin II in ammoniacal methanol is described. Evidence is presented which distinguishes between the two structures proposed earlier for photobilirubin II in favour of the cycloheptadienyl structure. Nuclear-Overhauser-enhancement measurements with bilirubin IX alpha and photobilirubin II in dimethyl sulphoxide are complicated by the occurrence of negative and zero effects. The partition coefficient of photobilirubin II between chloroform and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) is 0.67. PMID:6743241

  12. Phytoextraction of weathered p,p'-DDE by zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) under different cultivation conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoping; White, Jason C; Gent, Martin P N; Iannucci-Berger, William; Eitzer, Brian D; Mattina, MaryJane Incorvia

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) under field conditions are good and poor accumulators, respectively, of persistent organic pollutants from soil. Here, each species was grown under three cultivation regimes: dense (five plants in 5 kg soil): nondense (one plant in 80 kg soil): and field conditions (two to three plants in approximately 789 kg soil). p,p'-DDE and inorganic element content in roots, stems, leaves, and fruit were determined. In addition. rhizosphere, near-root, and unvegetated soil fractions were analyzed for concentrations of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOA) and 14 water-extractable inorganic elements. Under field conditions, zucchini phytoextracted 1.3% of the weathered p,p'-DDE with 98% of the contaminant in the aerial tissues. Conversely, cucumber removed 0.09% of the p,p'-DDE under field conditions with 83% in the aerial tissues. Under dense cultivation, cucumber produced a fine and fibrous root system not observed in our previous experiments and phytoextracted 0.78% of the contaminant, whereas zucchini removed only 0.59% under similar conditions. However. cucumber roots translocated only 5.7% of the pollutant to the shoot system, while in zucchini 48% of the p,p'-DDE in the plant was present in the aerial tissue. For each species, the concentrations of LMWOA in soil increased with increasing impact by the root system both within a given cultivation regime (i.e., rhizosphere > near-root > unvegetated) and across cultivation regimes (i.e., dense > nondense > field conditions). Under dense cultivation, the rhizosphere concentrations of LMWOAs were significantly greater for cucumber than for zucchini; no species differences were evident in the other two cultivation regimes. To enable direct comparison across cultivation regimes, total in planta p,p'-DDE and inorganic elements were mass normalized or multiplied by the ratio of plant mass to soil mass. For cucumber, differences in

  13. Succession and seasonal variation in epilithic biofilms on artificial reefs in culture waters of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liming; Du, Rongbin; Zhang, Xiaoling; Dong, Shuanglin; Sun, Shichun

    2017-01-01

    Periphytic biofilms in aquaculture waters are thought to improve water quality, provide an additional food source, and improve the survival and growth of some reared animals. In the Asia- Pacific region, particularly in China, artificial reefs are commonly used in the commercial farming of sea cucumbers. However, few studies have examined the epilithic biofilms on the artificial reefs. To gain a better understanding of the succession of epilithic biofilms and their ecological processes in sea cucumber culture waters, two experiments were conducted in culture waters of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in Rongcheng, China, using artificial test panels. On the test panels of succession experiment, more than 67 species were identified in the biofilms. On the test panels of seasonal variation experiment, more than 46 species were recorded in the biofilms. In both experiments, communities of epilithic biofilms were dominated by diatoms, green algae and the annelid Spirorbis sp. In the initial colonization, the dominant diatoms were Cocconeis sp., Amphora spp. and Nitzschia closterium in June, which were succeeded by species of Navicula, Cocconeis and Nitzschia (July to September), and then by Licmophora abbreviata, Nitzschia closterium and Synedra spp. in the following months. A diatom bloom in the autumn and filamentous green algae burst in the summer were also observed. Ecological indices well annotated the succession and seasonal changes in epilithic communities. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis found significant differences in diatom community composition among months and seasons. Fast growth of biofilms was observed in the summer and autumn, whereas the biomass of summer biofilms was largely made up of filamentous green algae. Present results show that the components of epilithic biofilms are mostly optimal foods of A. japonicus, suggesting that biofilms on artificial reefs may contribute important nutritional sources for sea cucumbers during their

  14. Increased resistance to cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in Lilium transformed with a defective CMV replicase gene.

    PubMed

    Azadi, Pejman; Otang, Ntui Valentaine; Supaporn, Hasthanasombut; Khan, Raham Sher; Chin, Dong Poh; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2011-06-01

    Lilium cv Acapulco was transformed with a defective cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) replicase gene (CMV2-GDD) construct using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Four lines were analyzed for gene expression and resistance to CMV-O strain. Expression of the CMV2-GDD gene in the transgenic plants was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). When these four lines were mechanically inoculated with CMV-O, no signal of coat protein (CP) messages using RT-PCR was detected in newly produced leaves of two transgenic lines. Dot-immunobinding assay (DIBA) of CP was performed to examine the presence of the CMV in the newly produced leaves of challenged plants. Results, similar to those obtained with RT-PCR of the CP messages, were observed in DIBA. Therefore, our results imply that the two lines show increased levels of resistance to CMV, and CMV-GDD replicase gene is an effective construct that has protection against CMV in Lilium.

  15. Effect and potential mechanism of action of sea cucumber saponins on postprandial blood glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xueyuan; Wen, Min; Han, Xiuqing; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Yong; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2016-06-01

    Postprandial blood glucose control is the major goal in the treatment of diabetes. Here, we investigated the effect of sea cucumber saponins (SCSs) on postprandial blood glucose levels. SCS inhibited yeast as well as rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in a dose-dependent manner and showed better inhibition of yeast α-glucosidases compared to the positive control. Further studies were performed using ICR mice treated with SCS and starch or SCS alone by oral gavage. Unexpectedly, SCS increased postprandial blood glucose levels a short time (1 h) after oral gavage. The serum corticosterone (CORT) level showed a consistent correlation with glucose levels. In vitro experiments confirmed that SCS treatment increased the secretion of CORT in the Y1 adrenal cell line. Overall, these studies demonstrated that SCS gavage could inhibit α-glucosidase activity but cannot attenuate postprandial blood glucose level within short time periods. The underlying mechanisms are probably related to increased serum CORT levels.

  16. Occurrence and levels of nitrofuran metabolites in sea cucumber from Dalian, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongxia; Guo, Wuxia; Quan, Wenna; Jiang, Jingqiu; Qu, Baocheng

    2016-11-01

    The occurrence and levels of nitrofuran metabolites (NFMs) in sea cucumber (SC) from Dalian, China, are reported. Four metabolites including 3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ), 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ), semicarbazide (SEM) and 1-aminohydantoin (AHD) in different SC products (fresh, instant and dry salted SCs) were measured. The frequency of occurrence for NFMs in all SC samples was 42.7%. The total NFM concentrations ranged from non-detectable to 64.6 ng g(-)(1), with a mean of 3.59 ng g(-1). AOZ and SEM were the dominant congeners, accounting for 40.1% and 59.1% of the total NFMs, respectively. The concentrations and patterns varied among different regions. Higher levels of NFMs were found in the fresh SC products, and the order for the average concentration of ∑4NFM was fresh > dry salted > instant.

  17. Relationships between chemical structures and functions of triterpene glycosides isolated from sea cucumbers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joo-In; Bae, Hae-Rahn; Kim, Chang Gun; Stonik, Valentin A.; Kwak, Jong-Young

    2014-01-01

    Many marine triterpene glycosides have in vitro and in vivo activities with very low toxicity, suggesting that they are suitable agents for the prevention and treatment of different diseases, particularly cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of action of natural marine compounds in cancer, immune, and other various cells are not fully known. This review focuses on the structural characteristics of marine triterpene glycosides and how these affect their biological activities and molecular mechanisms. In particular, the membranotropic and membranolytic activities of frondoside A and cucumariosides from sea cucumbers and their ability to induce cytotoxicity and apoptosis have been discussed, with a focus on structure-activity relationships. In addition, the structural characteristics and antitumor effects of stichoposide C and stichoposide D have been reviewed along with underlying their molecular mechanisms. PMID:25250309

  18. Subcellular distribution of mutant movement proteins of Cucumber mosaic virus fused to green fluorescent proteins.

    PubMed

    Canto, Tomas; Palukaitis, Peter

    2005-04-01

    The subcellular distribution of the movement proteins (MPs) of nine alanine-scanning mutants of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and expressed from CMV, was determined by confocal microscopy of infected epidermal cells of Nicotiana tabacum and Nicotiana benthamiana, as well as infected N. benthamiana protoplasts. Only those mutant MPs that were functional for movement in all host species tested localized to plasmodesmata of infected epidermal cells and to tubules extending from the surface of infected protoplasts, as for wild-type CMV 3a MP. Various mutant MPs that were either conditionally functional for movement or dysfunctional for movement did not localize to plasmodesmata and did not form tubules on the surface of infected protoplasts. Rather, they showed distribution to different extents throughout the infected cells, including the cytoplasm, nucleus or the plasma membrane. The CMV 3a MP also did not associate with microtubules.

  19. Use of the SLW index to calculate growth function in the sea cucumber Isostichopus badionotus

    PubMed Central

    Poot-Salazar, Alicia; Hernández-Flores, Álvaro; Ardisson, Pedro-Luis

    2014-01-01

    Age and growth analysis is essential to fisheries management. Indirect methods to calculate growth are widely used; however, length frequency data analysis in sea cucumbers is complicated by high data variability caused by body wall elasticity. Here we calculated Isostichopus badionotus parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function. In order to address bias produced by body wall elasticity, we compared the performance of four measurements and one compound index that combines different biometric parameters: the square root of the length-width product (SLW). Results showed that variability in length data due to body wall elasticity was controlled by using body length (Le) from the SLW compound index. Growth in I. badionotus follows a negative allometric tendency. Slow or zero growth periods were observed during October and November, when weather conditions were adverse. PMID:24909262

  20. Characterization of siRNAs derived from cucumber mosaic virus in infected tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yanhong; Zhang, Yongjiang; Hu, Fan; Zhu, Shuifang

    2017-03-27

    This study characterized the viral small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) from Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun infected with a cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b-deficient mutant. Most vsiRNAs were 21 -22 nucleotides in length and the 5'-terminal ends were dominated by A and U, respectively. The observed vsiRNAs were heterogeneously distributed throughout the CMV genome; however, most of the vsiRNAs were derived from sense strands, as opposed to antisense strands. These results demonstrate the conserved and specific function of Dicer-like (DCL), Argonaute (AGO) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) proteins in tobacco. Finally, it was revealed that vsiRNAs target abundant host genes, indicating complex roles for CMV vsiRNAs during the development of symptoms.