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Sample records for monooctanoyl phosphatidylcholine synthesis

  1. Synthesis of phosphatidylcholine under possible primitive earth conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M.; Eichberg, J.; Oro, J.

    1982-01-01

    Using a primitive earth evaporating pond model, the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine was accomplished when a reaction mixture of choline chloride and disodium phosphatidate, in the presence of cyanamide and traces of acid, was evaporated and heated at temperatures ranging from 25 to 100 C for 7 hours. Optimum yields of about 15% were obtained at 80 C. Phosphatidylcholine was identified by chromatographic, chemical and enzymatic degradation methods. On enzymatic hydrolysis with phospholipase A2 and phospholipase C, lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphorylcholine were formed, respectively. Alkaline hydrolysis gave glycerophosphorylcholine. The synthesis of phosphatidylcholine as the major compound was accompanied by the formation of lysophosphatidylcholine in smaller amounts. Cyanamide was found to be essential for the formation of phosphatidylcholine, and only traces of HCl, of the order of that required to convert the disodium phosphatidate to free phosphatidic acid were found necessary for the synthesis. This work suggests that phosphatidylcholine, which is an essential component of most biological membranes, could have been synthesized on the primitive earth.

  2. Regulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis in rat liver endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Sribney, M; Knowles, C L; Lyman, E M

    1976-01-01

    The biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine in rat liver microsomal preparations catalysed by CDP-choline-1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase (EC 2.7.8.2) was inhibited by a combination of ATP and CoA or ATP and pantetheine. ATP alone at high concentrations (20 mM) inhibits phosphatidylcholine formation to the extent of 70%. In the presence of 0.1 mM-CoA, ATP (2 mM) inhibits to the extent of 80% and in the presence of 1 mM-pantetheine to the extent of 90%. ADP and other nucleotide triphosphates in combination with either CoA or pantetheine are only 10-30% as effective in inhibiting phosphatidylcholine synthesis. AMP(CH2)PP [adenosine 5'-(alphabeta-methylene)triphosphate] together with CoA inhibits to the extent of 59% and with pantetheine by 48%. AMP-P(CH2)P [adenosine 5'-(betagamma-methylene)triphosphate] together with either CoA or pantetheine had no significant effect on phosphatidylcholine formation. Other closely related derivatives of pantothenic acid were without effect either alone or in the presence of ATP, as were thiol compounds such as cysteine, homocysteine, cysteamine, dithiothreitol and glutathione. Several mechanisms by which this inhibition might take place were ruled out and it is concluded that ATP together with either CoA or pantetheine interacts reversibly with phosphatidylcholine synthetase to cause temporarily the inhibition of phosphatidylcholine formation. PMID:182154

  3. Legionella dumoffii Utilizes Exogenous Choline for Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Palusinska-Szysz, Marta; Szuster-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Kania, Magdalena; Janczarek, Monika; Chmiel, Elżbieta; Danikiewicz, Witold

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidycholine (PC) is the major membrane-forming phospholipid in eukaryotes but it has been found in only a limited number of prokaryotes. Bacteria synthesize PC via the phospholipid N-methylation pathway (Pmt) or via the phosphatidylcholine synthase pathway (Pcs) or both. Here, we demonstrated that Legionella dumoffii has the ability to utilize exogenous choline for phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis when bacteria grow in the presence of choline. The Pcs seems to be a primary pathway for synthesis of this phospholipid in L. dumoffii. Structurally different PC species were distributed in the outer and inner membranes. As shown by the LC/ESI-MS analyses, PC15:0/15:0, PC16:0/15:0, and PC17:0/17:1 were identified in the outer membrane and PC14:0/16:0, PC16:0/17:1, and PC20:0/15:0 in the inner membrane. L. dumoffii pcsA gene encoding phosphatidylcholine synthase revealed the highest sequence identity to pcsA of L. bozemanae (82%) and L. longbeachae (81%) and lower identity to pcsA of L. drancourtii (78%) and L. pneumophila (71%). The level of TNF-α in THP1-differentiated cells induced by live and temperature-killed L. dumoffii cultured on a medium supplemented with choline was assessed. Live L. dumoffii bacteria cultured on the choline-supplemented medium induced TNF-α three-fold less efficiently than cells grown on the non-supplemented medium. There is an evident effect of PC modification, which impairs the macrophage inflammatory response. PMID:24821544

  4. Acyl-chain remodeling of dioctanoyl-phosphatidylcholine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant defective in de novo and salvage phosphatidylcholine synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kishino, Hideyuki; Eguchi, Hiroki; Takagi, Keiko; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Ohta, Akinori

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Dioctanoyl-PC (diC8PC) supported growth of a yeast mutant defective in PC synthesis. • diC8PC was converted to PC species containing longer acyl residues in the mutant. • Both acyl residues of diC8PC were replaced by longer fatty acids in vitro. • This system will contribute to the elucidation of the acyl chain remodeling of PC. - Abstract: A yeast strain, in which endogenous phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis is controllable, was constructed by the replacement of the promoter of PCT1, encoding CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, with GAL1 promoter in a double deletion mutant of PEM1 and PEM2, encoding phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase and phospholipid methyltransferase, respectively. This mutant did not grow in the glucose-containing medium, but the addition of dioctanoyl-phosphatidylcholine (diC8PC) supported its growth. Analyses of the metabolism of {sup 13}C-labeled diC8PC ((methyl-{sup 13}C){sub 3}-diC8PC) in this strain using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry revealed that it was converted to PC species containing acyl residues of 16 or 18 carbons at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions. In addition, both acyl residues of (methyl-{sup 13}C){sub 3}-diC8PC were replaced with 16:1 acyl chains in the in vitro reaction using the yeast cell extract in the presence of palmitoleoyl-CoA. These results indicate that PC containing short acyl residues was remodeled to those with acyl chains of physiological length in yeast.

  5. Phosphatidylcholine synthesis in castor bean endosperm. I. Metabolism of L-serine. [Ricinus communis

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, A.J.; Moore, T.S. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Endosperm halves from 3-day-old castor bean (Ricinus communis var Hale) were incubated for 30 minutes with L(/sup 14/C)serine, after which label was observed in ethanolamine, choline, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, ethanolaminephosphate, and CDPethanolamine, but not in cholinephosphate or CDPcholine. Only later did significant amounts of isotope become incorporated into cholinephosphate and CDPcholine. The choline kinase inhibitor hemicholinium-3 prevented the incorporation of label from serine into choline-phosphate and CDPcholine, reduced the incorporation of (/sup 14/C)choline into phosphatidylcholine by 65%, but inhibited the incorporation of label into phosphatidylcholine from serine by only 15%. The inhibitor did not prevent the incorporation of labeled methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine into phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine plus phosphatidyl-choline. The amount of incorporation of label from the methyl donor was only 8% of that from choline into phosphatidylcholine. The implications of these results for the pathway and regulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis from the water-soluble precursors are discussed.

  6. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Phosphatidylcholine Analogues Containing Monoterpene Acids as Potent Antiproliferative Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gliszczyńska, Anna; Niezgoda, Natalia; Gładkowski, Witold; Czarnecka, Marta; Świtalska, Marta; Wietrzyk, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of novel phosphatidylcholines with geranic and citronellic acids in sn-1 and sn-2 positions is described. The structured phospholipids were obtained in high yields (59–87%) and evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxic activity against several cancer cell lines of different origin: MV4-11, A-549, MCF-7, LOVO, LOVO/DX, HepG2 and also towards non-cancer cell line BALB/3T3 (normal mice fibroblasts). The phosphatidylcholines modified with monoterpene acid showed a significantly higher antiproliferative activity than free monoterpene acids. The highest activity was observed for the terpene-phospholipids containing the isoprenoid acids in sn-1 position of phosphatidylcholine and palmitic acid in sn-2. PMID:27310666

  7. Synthesis of a Novel Biodegradable Polyurethane with Phosphatidylcholines

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jun; Chen, Niancao; Chen, Yuanwei; Luo, Xianglin

    2010-01-01

    A novel polyurethane was successfully synthesized by chain-extension of biodegradable poly (l-lactide) functionalized phosphatidylcholine (PC) with hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) as chain extender (PUR-PC). The molecular weights, glass transition temperature (Tg) increased significantly after the chain-extension. The hydrophilicity of PUR-PC was better than the one without PC, according to a water absorption test. Moreover, the number of adhesive platelets and anamorphic platelets on PUR-PC film were both less than those on PUR film. These preliminary results suggest that this novel polyurethane might be a better scaffold than traditional biodegradable polyurethanes for tissue engineering due to its better blood compatibility. Besides, this study also provides a new method to prepare PC-modified biodegradable polyurethanes. PMID:20480047

  8. Phosphatidylcholine synthesis is required for optimal function of Legionella pneumophila virulence determinants

    PubMed Central

    Conover, Gloria M; Martinez-Morales, Fernando; Heidtman, Matthew I.; Luo, Zhao-Qing; Tang, May; Chen, Cui; Geiger, Otto; Isberg, Ralph R.

    2009-01-01

    The function of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the bacterial cell envelope remains cryptic. We show here that productive interaction of the respiratory pathogen Legionella pneumophila with host cells requires bacterial PC. Synthesis of the lipid in L. pneumophila was shown to occur via either phospholipid N-methyltransferase (PmtA) or phosphatidylcholine synthase (PcsA), but the latter pathway was demonstrated to be of predominant importance. Loss of PC from the cell envelope caused lowered yields of L. pneumophila within macrophages as well as loss of high multiplicity cytotoxicity, while mutants defective in PC synthesis could be complemented either by reintroduction of PcsA or by overproduction of PmtA. The lowered yields and reduced cytotoxicity in mutants with defective PC biosynthesis were due to three related defects. First, there was a poorly functioning Dot/Icm apparatus, which delivers substrates required for intracellular growth into the cytosol of infected cells. Secondly, there was reduced bacterial binding to macrophages, possibly due to loss of PC or a PC derivative on the bacterium that is recognized by the host cell. Finally, strains lacking PC had low steady state levels of flagellin protein, a deficit that had been previously associated with the phenotypes of lowered cytotoxicity and poor cellular adhesion. PMID:17979985

  9. Phosphatidylcholine synthesis is required for optimal function of Legionella pneumophila virulence determinants.

    PubMed

    Conover, Gloria M; Martinez-Morales, Fernando; Heidtman, Matthew I; Luo, Zhao-Qing; Tang, May; Chen, Cui; Geiger, Otto; Isberg, Ralph R

    2008-02-01

    The function of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the bacterial cell envelope remains cryptic. We show here that productive interaction of the respiratory pathogen Legionella pneumophila with host cells requires bacterial PC. Synthesis of the lipid in L. pneumophila was shown to occur via either phospholipid N-methyltransferase (PmtA) or phosphatidylcholine synthase (PcsA), but the latter pathway was demonstrated to be of predominant importance. Loss of PC from the cell envelope caused lowered yields of L. pneumophila within macrophages as well as loss of high multiplicity cytotoxicity, while mutants defective in PC synthesis could be complemented either by reintroduction of PcsA or by overproduction of PmtA. The lowered yields and reduced cytotoxicity in mutants with defective PC biosynthesis were due to three related defects. First, there was a poorly functioning Dot/Icm apparatus, which delivers substrates required for intracellular growth into the cytosol of infected cells. Second, there was reduced bacterial binding to macrophages, possibly due to loss of PC or a PC derivative on the bacterium that is recognized by the host cell. Finally, strains lacking PC had low steady-state levels of flagellin protein, a deficit that had been previously associated with the phenotypes of lowered cytotoxicity and poor cellular adhesion.

  10. Phosphatidylcholine synthesis in the rat: The substrate for methylation and regulation by choline

    SciTech Connect

    Datko, A.H.; Aksamit, R.R.; Mudd, S.H. )

    1990-03-01

    Two lines of evidence led us to reexamine the possibility that methylation of phosphoethanolamine and its partially methylated derivatives, in addition to methylation of the corresponding phosphatidyl derivatives, plays a role in mammalian phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis: (a) Results obtained by Salerno and Beeler with rat appear to strongly support such a role for methylation of phosphobases; (b) Such reactions have recently been shown to play major roles in phosphatidylcholine synthesis by higher plants. We found that, following continuous labeling of rat liver with L-(methyl-3H)methionine for 10.4 min (intraperitoneal administration) or for 0.75 min (intraportal administration), virtually no 3H was detected in methylated derivatives of phosphoethanolamine, but readily detectable amounts of 3H were present in the base moiety of each methylated derivative of phosphatidylethanolamine. Thus, there was no indication that phospho-base methylation makes a significant contribution. Studies of cultured rat hepatoma cells showed definitively for the first time in a mammalian system that choline deprivation up-regulates the rate of flow of methyl groups originating in methionine into phosphatidylethanolamine and derivatives. Even under these conditions, methylation of phosphoethanolamine bases appeared to play a negligible role.

  11. The Rate-limiting Enzyme in Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis Regulates Proliferation of the Nucleoplasmic ReticulumD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Lagace, Thomas A.; Ridgway, Neale D.

    2005-01-01

    The nucleus contains a network of tubular invaginations of the nuclear envelope (NE), termed the nucleoplasmic reticulum (NR), implicated in transport, gene expression, and calcium homeostasis. Here, we show that proliferation of the NR, measured by the frequency of NE invaginations and tubules, is regulated by CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase-α (CCTα), the nuclear and rate-limiting enzyme in the CDP–choline pathway for phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) synthesis. In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells, fatty acids triggered activation and translocation of CCTα onto intranuclear tubules characteristic of the NR. This was accompanied by a twofold increase in NR tubules quantified by immunostaining for lamin A/C or the NE. CHO MT58 cells expressing a temperature-sensitive CCTα allele displayed reduced PtdCho synthesis and CCTα expression and minimal proliferation of the NR in response to oleate compared with CHO MT58 cells stably expressing CCTα. Expression of CCTα mutants in CHO58 cells revealed that both enzyme activity and membrane binding promoted NR proliferation. In support of a direct role for membrane binding in NR tubule formation, recombinant CCTα caused the deformation of liposomes into tubules in vitro. This demonstrates that a key nuclear enzyme in PtdCho synthesis coordinates lipid synthesis and membrane deformation to promote formation of a dynamic nuclear-cytoplasmic interface. PMID:15635091

  12. Stimulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis by activators of protein kinase C is dissociable from increased phospholipid hydrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Z; Chattopadhyay, J; Pettit, G R

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between the stimulatory effects of protein kinase C activators, including phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and bryostatin, on the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) and on PtdCho synthesis. The cell lines used were selected because of their differential responses to protein kinase C activators and included rat-1 fibroblasts, untransformed and A-raf-transformed NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and human HL60 leukaemia cells. Exposure of rat-1 and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts to 100 nM-PMA stimulated phospholipase D-mediated hydrolysis of phospholipids about 2- and 6-fold respectively. In contrast, 100 nM-PMA had similar (2.5-3.0-fold) stimulatory effects on PtdCho synthesis in these cell lines. In the untransformed NIH 3T3 cells, both PMA and bryostatin stimulated both phospholipid hydrolysis and PtdCho synthesis, with 100 nM-bryostatin being somewhat less potent than 100 nM-TPA. In contrast, in A-raf-transformed NIH 3T3 cells or in HL60 cells, only TPA, but not bryostatin, stimulated PtdCho synthesis. In these transformed cells, bryostatin had 3-fold, or higher, stimulatory effects on phospholipid hydrolysis. Addition of ionomycin, a Ca2(+)-elevating agent, partially restored the stimulatory effect of bryostatin on PtdCho synthesis, but it failed to modify the effect of bryostatin on phospholipid hydrolysis. These data indicate that increased phospholipid hydrolysis is not necessarily associated with increased PtdCho synthesis. PMID:1989580

  13. Stimulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis by activators of protein kinase C is dissociable from increased phospholipid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Z; Chattopadhyay, J; Pettit, G R

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between the stimulatory effects of protein kinase C activators, including phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and bryostatin, on the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) and on PtdCho synthesis. The cell lines used were selected because of their differential responses to protein kinase C activators and included rat-1 fibroblasts, untransformed and A-raf-transformed NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and human HL60 leukaemia cells. Exposure of rat-1 and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts to 100 nM-PMA stimulated phospholipase D-mediated hydrolysis of phospholipids about 2- and 6-fold respectively. In contrast, 100 nM-PMA had similar (2.5-3.0-fold) stimulatory effects on PtdCho synthesis in these cell lines. In the untransformed NIH 3T3 cells, both PMA and bryostatin stimulated both phospholipid hydrolysis and PtdCho synthesis, with 100 nM-bryostatin being somewhat less potent than 100 nM-TPA. In contrast, in A-raf-transformed NIH 3T3 cells or in HL60 cells, only TPA, but not bryostatin, stimulated PtdCho synthesis. In these transformed cells, bryostatin had 3-fold, or higher, stimulatory effects on phospholipid hydrolysis. Addition of ionomycin, a Ca2(+)-elevating agent, partially restored the stimulatory effect of bryostatin on PtdCho synthesis, but it failed to modify the effect of bryostatin on phospholipid hydrolysis. These data indicate that increased phospholipid hydrolysis is not necessarily associated with increased PtdCho synthesis.

  14. Positive-strand RNA viruses stimulate host phosphatidylcholine synthesis at viral replication sites

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiantao; Zhang, Zhenlu; Chukkapalli, Vineela; Nchoutmboube, Jules A.; Li, Jianhui; Randall, Glenn; Belov, George A.; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    All positive-strand RNA viruses reorganize host intracellular membranes to assemble their viral replication complexes (VRCs); however, how these viruses modulate host lipid metabolism to accommodate such membrane proliferation and rearrangements is not well defined. We show that a significantly increased phosphatidylcholine (PC) content is associated with brome mosaic virus (BMV) replication in both natural host barley and alternate host yeast based on a lipidomic analysis. Enhanced PC levels are primarily associated with the perinuclear ER membrane, where BMV replication takes place. More specifically, BMV replication protein 1a interacts with and recruits Cho2p (choline requiring 2), a host enzyme involved in PC synthesis, to the site of viral replication. These results suggest that PC synthesized at the site of VRC assembly, not the transport of existing PC, is responsible for the enhanced accumulation. Blocking PC synthesis by deleting the CHO2 gene resulted in VRCs with wider diameters than those in wild-type cells; however, BMV replication was significantly inhibited, highlighting the critical role of PC in VRC formation and viral replication. We further show that enhanced PC levels also accumulate at the replication sites of hepatitis C virus and poliovirus, revealing a conserved feature among a group of positive-strand RNA viruses. Our work also highlights a potential broad-spectrum antiviral strategy that would disrupt PC synthesis at the sites of viral replication but would not alter cellular processes. PMID:26858414

  15. Intracellular localization of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis in cotyledons of cotton seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, K.D.; Trelease, R.N. )

    1991-01-01

    Subfractionation of clarified cotyledon homogenates of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seedlings on sucrose gradients revealed a single coincident peak of cholinephosphotransferase (CPT) and ethanolaminephosphotransferase (EPT) activities, which equilibrated with the main peak of Anti-mycin A-insensitive NADH: cytochrome c reductase (CCR) activity. The small percentage of CPT and EPT activities in glyoxysome-enriched pellets equilibrated with cytochrome c oxidase activity, not with catalase activity. Preincubation of microsomes in 0.2 millimolar MgCl{sub 2} followed by subfractionation on sucrose gradients resulted in peak CPT and EPT activities equilibrating with peak CCR activity at 24% (w/w) sucrose. Preincubation of microsomes with {sup 14}C-CCP choline (or {sup 14}C-CDPethanolamine) resulted in synthesis and incorporation of {sup 14}C-phosphatidylcholine (PC) (or {sup 14}C-phosphatidylethanolamine, PE) into membranes at the same density. Increasing the Mg{sup 2+} concentration to 2.0 millimolar facilitated binding of ribosomes and caused a concomitant shift in density (to 34% w/w sucrose) of peak CPT, EPT, and CCR activities. under these conditions, newly synthesized and incorporated {sup 14}C-PC (or PE) was recovered in these membranes. These results indicate that Er in cotyledons of germinated cotton seedlings is the primary subcellular site of PC and PE synthesis. This is similar to the situation in endosperm tissue but distinctly different from root and hypocotyl tissue where Golgi are a major subcellular site of PC and PE synthesis.

  16. Synthesis of acetylcholine from choline derived from phosphatidylcholine in a human neuronal cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Blusztajn, J.K.; Liscovitch, M.; Richardson, U.I.

    1987-08-01

    Cholinergic neurons are unique among cells since they alone utilize choline not only as a component of major membrane phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine (Ptd-Cho), but also as a precursor of their neurotransmitter acetylcholine (AcCho). It has been hypothesized that choline-phospholipids might serve as a storage pool of choline for AcCho synthesis. The selective vulnerability of cholinergic neurons in certain neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer disease, motor neuron disorders) might result from the abnormally accelerated liberation of choline (to be used a precursor of AcCho) from membrane phospholipids, resulting in altered membrane composition and function and compromised neuronal viability. However, the proposed metabolic link between membrane turnover and AcCho synthesis has been difficult to demonstrate because of the heterogeneity of the preparations used. Here the authors used a population of purely cholinergic cells (human neuroblastomas, LA-N-2), incubated in the presence of (methyl-/sup 3/H)methionine to selectively label PtdCho synthesized by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine, the only pathway of de novo choline synthesis. Three peaks of radioactive material that cochromatographed with authentic AcCho, choline, and phosphocholine were observed when the water-soluble metabolites of the (/sup 3/H)PtdCho were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results demonstrate that AcCho can be synthesized from choline derived from the degradation of endogenous PtdCho formed de novo by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine.

  17. Restrained Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis in a Cellular Model of Down's Syndrome is Associated with the Overexpression of Dyrk1A.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Maruan; Medina, José M; Velasco, Ana

    2017-03-01

    Aberrant formation of the cerebral cortex could be attributed to the lack of suitable substrates that direct the migration of neurons. Previous work carried out at our laboratory has shown that oleic acid is a neurotrophic factor. In order to characterize the effect of oleic acid in a cellular model of Down's syndrome (DS), here, we used immortalized cell lines derived from the cortex of trisomy Ts16 and euploid mice. We report that in the plasma membrane of euploid cells, an increase in phosphatidylcholine concentrations occurs in the presence of oleic acid. However, in trisomic cells, oleic acid failed to increase phosphatidylcholine incorporation into the plasma membrane. Gene expression analysis of trisomic cells revealed that the phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic pathway was deregulated. Taken together, these results suggest that the overdose of specific genes in trisomic lines delays differentiation in the presence of oleic acid. The dual-specificity tyrosine (Y) phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) gene is located on human chromosome 21. DYRK1A contributes to intellectual disability and the early onset of Alzheimer's disease in DS patients. Here, we explored the potential role of Dyrk1A in the reduction of phosphatidylcholine concentrations in trisomic cells in the presence of oleic acid. The downregulation of Dyrk1A by small interfering RNA (siRNA) in trisomic cells returned phosphatidylcholine concentrations up to similar levels to those of euploid cells in the presence of oleic acid. Thus, our results highlight the role of Dyrk1A in brain development through the modulation of phosphatidylcholine location, levels and synthesis.

  18. Excess S-adenosylmethionine reroutes phosphatidylethanolamine towards phosphatidylcholine and triglyceride synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Uña, Maite; Varela-Rey, Marta; Cano, Ainara; Fernández-Ares, Larraitz; Beraza, Naiara; Aurrekoetxea, Igor; Martínez-Arranz, Ibon; García-Rodríguez, Juan L; Buqué, Xabier; Mestre, Daniela; Luka, Zigmund; Wagner, Conrad; Alonso, Cristina; Finnell, Richard H; Lu, Shelly C; Martínez-Chantar, M Luz; Aspichueta, Patricia; Mato, José M

    2013-01-01

    Methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A) and glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) are the primary genes involved in hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) synthesis and degradation, respectively. Mat1a ablation in mice induces a decrease in hepatic SAMe, activation of lipogenesis, inhibition of triglyceride (TG) release, and steatosis. Gnmt deficient mice, despite showing a large increase in hepatic SAMe, also develop steatosis. We hypothesized that as an adaptive response to hepatic SAMe accumulation, phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis via the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) N-methyltransferase (PEMT) pathway is stimulated in Gnmt−/− mice. We also propose that the excess PC thus generated is catabolized leading to TG synthesis and steatosis via diglyceride (DG) generation. We observed that Gnmt−/− mice present with normal hepatic lipogenesis and increased TG release. We also observed that the flux from PE to PC is stimulated in the liver of Gnmt−/− mice and that this results in a reduction in PE content and a marked increase in DG and TG. Conversely, reduction of hepatic SAMe following the administration of a methionine deficient diet reverted the flux from PE to PC of Gnmt−/− mice to that of wild type animals and normalized DG and TG content preventing the development of steatosis. Gnmt−/− mice with an additional deletion of perilipin2, the predominant lipid droplet protein, maintain high SAMe levels, with a concurrent increased flux from PE to PC, but do not develop liver steatosis. Conclusion These findings indicate that excess SAMe reroutes PE towards PC and TG synthesis, and lipid sequestration. PMID:23505042

  19. Synthesis of mixed-chain phosphatidylcholines including coumarin fluorophores for FRET-based kinetic studies of phospholipase A(2) enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Manlin; Pinnamaraju, Susmitha; Ranganathan, Radha; Hajdu, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of the sn-2 ester linkage of glycerophospholipids to produce fatty acids and lysophospholipids. A significant number of mammalian phospholipases comprise a family of secreted PLA2 enzymes, found in specific tissues and cellular locations, exhibiting unique enzymatic properties and distinct biological functions. Development of new real-time spectrofluorimetric PLA2 assays should facilitate the kinetic characterization and mechanistic elucidation of the isozymes in vitro, with the potential applicability to detect and measure catalytic PLA2 activity in tissues and cellular locations. Here we report a new synthesis of double-labeled phosphatidylcholine analogs with chain-terminal reporter groups including coumarin fluorophores for fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based kinetic studies of PLA2 enzymes. The use of coumarin derivatives as fluorescent labels provides reporter groups with substantially decreased size compared to the first generation of donor-acceptor pairs of fluorescent phospholipids. The key advantage of the design is to interfere less with the physicochemical properties of the acyl chains, thereby improving the substrate quality of the synthetic probes. In order to assess the impact of the fluorophore substituents on the catalytic hydrolysis and on the phospholipid packing in the lipid-water interface of the assay, we used the experimentally determined specific activity of bee-venom phospholipase A2 as a model for the secretory PLA2 enzymes. Specifically, the rate of PLA2 hydrolysis of the coumarin labeled phosphatidylcholine analogs was less than three times slower than the natural substrate dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) under the same experimental conditions. Furthermore, variation of the mole fraction of the synthetic phosphatidylcholine vs. that of the natural DPPC substrate showed nearly ideal mixing behavior in the phospholipid-surfactant aggregates of the assay. The

  20. Synthesis and in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial studies of novel structured phosphatidylcholines with phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Balakrishna, Marrapu; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Karuna, Mallampalli S L; Sarada, Sripada; Kumar, C Ganesh; Prasad, R B N

    2017-04-15

    Novel phenoylated phosphatidylcholines were synthesized from 1,2-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine/egg 1,2-diacyl phosphatidylcholine and phenolic acids such as ferulic, sinapic, vanillic and syringic acids. The structures of phenoylated phosphatidylcholines were confirmed by spectral analysis. 2-acyl-1-lyso phosphatidylcholine was synthesized from phosphatidylcholine via regioselective enzymatic hydrolysis and was reacted with hydroxyl protected phenolic acids to produce corresponding phenoylated phosphatidylcholines in 48-56% yields. Deprotection of protected phenoylated phosphatidylcholines resulted in phenoylated phosphatidylcholines in 87-94% yields. The prepared compounds were evaluated for their preliminary in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Among the active derivatives, compound 1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy) cinnamoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine exhibited excellent antioxidant activity with EC50 value of 16.43μg/mL. Compounds 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy) cinnamoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy) cinnamoyl-2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine exhibited good antioxidant activity with EC50 values of 36.05 and 33.35μg/mL respectively. Compound 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy) cinnamoyl-2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine exhibited good antibacterial activity against Klebsiella planticola with MIC of 15.6μg/mL and compound 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy) benzoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine exhibited good antifungal activity against Candida albicans with MIC of 15.6μg/mL.

  1. In vivo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine in rat brain via the phospholipid methylation pathway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakher, Michael; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    The in vivo synthesis of brain phosphatidylcholine (PC) by the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was examined. (H-3)methyl)methionine was infused i.c.v., by indwelling cannula, and brain samples were taken 0.5-18 h thereafter and assayed for (H-3)PC, as well as for its biosynthetic intermediates (H-3)phosphatidyl monomethylethanolamine ((H-3)PMME) and (H-3)phosphatidyl dimethylethanolamine ((H-3)PDME), and for (H-3)lysophosphatidylcholine ((H-3)LPC) and S-(H-3)adenosylmethionine ((H-3)SAM). Most of the (H-3)PC (79-94 percent) was present ipsilateral to the infusion site; indicating that the radioactivity in the (H-3)PC was primarily of intracerebral origin, and not taken up from the blood. Moreover, only very low levels of (H-3)PC were attained in brains of animals receiving (H-3)methionine i.p. and these levels were symmetrically distributed. (H-3)PMME and (H-3)PDME turned over with apparent half-lives of 2.2 h and 2.4 h. In contrast, the accumulation of brain (H-3)PC was biphasic, suggesting the existence of two pools, the more labile of which turned over rapidly (t(sub 1/2) = 5 h) and was formed for as long as (H-3)PMME and (H-3)PDME are present in the brain, and another, which was distinguishable only at 18 h after the (H-3)methionine infusion. (The latter pool may have been synthesized from (H-3)choline that was released via the hydrolysis of some of the brain (H-3)PC previously formed by the methylation of PE.) Subcellular fractionation of brain tissue obtained after in vivo labelling with (H-3)methionine revealed that mitochondrial PC had the highest specific radioactivity (dpm per micromol total lipid phosphorus), and myelin the least. These observations affirm that rat brain does synthesize PC in vivo by methylating PE, and the technique provides an experimental system which may be useful for examining the physiological regulation of this process.

  2. In vivo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine in rat brain via the phospholipid methylation pathway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakher, Michael; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    The in vivo synthesis of brain phosphatidylcholine (PC) by the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was examined. (H-3)methyl)methionine was infused i.c.v., by indwelling cannula, and brain samples were taken 0.5-18 h thereafter and assayed for (H-3)PC, as well as for its biosynthetic intermediates (H-3)phosphatidyl monomethylethanolamine ((H-3)PMME) and (H-3)phosphatidyl dimethylethanolamine ((H-3)PDME), and for (H-3)lysophosphatidylcholine ((H-3)LPC) and S-(H-3)adenosylmethionine ((H-3)SAM). Most of the (H-3)PC (79-94 percent) was present ipsilateral to the infusion site; indicating that the radioactivity in the (H-3)PC was primarily of intracerebral origin, and not taken up from the blood. Moreover, only very low levels of (H-3)PC were attained in brains of animals receiving (H-3)methionine i.p. and these levels were symmetrically distributed. (H-3)PMME and (H-3)PDME turned over with apparent half-lives of 2.2 h and 2.4 h. In contrast, the accumulation of brain (H-3)PC was biphasic, suggesting the existence of two pools, the more labile of which turned over rapidly (t(sub 1/2) = 5 h) and was formed for as long as (H-3)PMME and (H-3)PDME are present in the brain, and another, which was distinguishable only at 18 h after the (H-3)methionine infusion. (The latter pool may have been synthesized from (H-3)choline that was released via the hydrolysis of some of the brain (H-3)PC previously formed by the methylation of PE.) Subcellular fractionation of brain tissue obtained after in vivo labelling with (H-3)methionine revealed that mitochondrial PC had the highest specific radioactivity (dpm per micromol total lipid phosphorus), and myelin the least. These observations affirm that rat brain does synthesize PC in vivo by methylating PE, and the technique provides an experimental system which may be useful for examining the physiological regulation of this process.

  3. Pool sizes of the precursors for phosphatidylcholine synthesis in developing rat lung.

    PubMed

    Tokmakjian, S; Possmayer, F

    1981-10-23

    1. Pulmonary maturation in the rat is accompanied by a 30% postnatal increase in the pool size of choline, a 4-fold overall prenatal and postnatal decrease in the level of cholinephosphate, a 3-fold decrease in CDPcholine levels and a 2-fold increase in the content of phosphatidylcholine. 2. The level of 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol in rat lung increases 5-fold during the fetal and neonatal periods. Only minor alterations were noted in the fatty acid composition. 3. These results are consistent with an increase in the relative rates of the cholinephosphate cytidylyl-transferase and cholinephosphotransferase steps of phosphatidylcholine production during pulmonary maturation. The relative rate of the step catalyzed by phosphatidate phosphohydrolase may also be increased.

  4. Selective use of palmitic acid over stearic acid for synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol in lung

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, F.H.

    1986-11-01

    The incorporation of (/sup 3/H)palmitic acid and (/sup 14/C)stearic acid into phospholipids in rabbit lung tissue was studied. Under equal molar concentrations of palmitate and stearate, palmitate was incorporated to the 1- and 2-positions of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) 2-3 times more than stearate. By contrast, palmitate was 30% less than stearate in phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine. These results suggest that preferential utilization of palmitate over stearate, rather than substrate availability, determines the high content of palmitoyl at the 1- and 2-positions of PC and PG in lung.

  5. Relationships between phosphatidylcholine content, chitin synthesis, growth, and morphology of Aspergillus nidulans choC.

    PubMed

    Binks, P R; Robson, G D; Goosey, M W; Trinci, A P

    1991-10-01

    The phosphatidylcholine (PC) content of Aspergillus nidulans choC was varied by growing the auxotroph in medium containing various concentrations of choline chloride. Direct linear correlations were observed between PC content and in vivo chitin synthase activity, between in vivo chitin synthase activity and mean hyphal extension rate, and between mean hyphal extension rate and hyphal growth unit length; hyphal growth unit length is a measure of hyphal branching. Further, there was a correlation between PC content and colony radial growth rate. Thus, membrane composition is an important determinant of both hyphal (and colony) extension rate and mycelial morphology.

  6. Genetic impairments in folate enzymes increase dependence on dietary choline for phosphatidylcholine production at the expense of betaine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Ariel B; Shields, Kelsey; Fomin, Vlad G; Lopez, Yusnier S; Mohan, Sanjay; Lovesky, Jessica; Chuang, Jasmine C; Ganti, Anita; Carrier, Bradley; Yan, Jian; Taeswuan, Siraphat; Cohen, Vanessa V; Swersky, Camille C; Stover, Julie A; Vitiello, Gerardo A; Malysheva, Olga V; Mudrak, Erika; Caudill, Marie A

    2016-10-01

    Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in folate-mediated pathways predict susceptibility to choline deficiency during severe choline deprivation, it is unknown if effects persist at recommended intakes. Thus, we used stable isotope liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methodology to examine the impact of candidate SNPs on choline metabolism in a long-term, randomized, controlled feeding trial among pregnant, lactating, and nonpregnant (NP) women consuming 480 or 930 mg/d choline (22% as choline-d9, with d9 indicating a deuterated trimethyl amine group) and meeting folate-intake recommendations. Variants impairing folate metabolism, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) rs1801133, methionine synthase (MTR) rs1805087 [wild-type (WT)], MTR reductase (MTRR) rs1801394, and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (MTHFD1) rs2236225, influenced choline dynamics, frequently through interactions with reproductive state and choline intake, with fewer genotypic alterations observed among pregnant women. Women with these variants partitioned more dietary choline toward phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis via the cytidine diphosphate (CDP)-choline pathway at the expense of betaine synthesis even when use of betaine as a methyl donor was increased. Choline intakes of 930 mg/d restored partitioning of dietary choline between betaine and CDP-PC among NP (MTHFR rs1801133 and MTR rs1805087 WT) and lactating (MTHFD1 rs2236225) women with risk genotypes. Overall, our findings indicate that loss-of-function variants in folate-metabolizing enzymes strain cellular PC production, possibly via impaired folate-dependent phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT)-PC synthesis, and suggest that women with these risk genotypes may benefit from choline intakes exceeding current recommendations.-Ganz, A. B., Shields, K., Fomin, V. G., Lopez, Y. S., Mohan, S., Lovesky, J., Chuang, J. C

  7. Deciphering the roles of Arabidopsis LPCAT and PAH in phosphatidylcholine homeostasis and pathway coordination for chloroplast lipid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Kazachkov, Michael; Shen, Wenyun; Bai, Mei; Wu, Hong; Zou, Jitao

    2014-12-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a key intermediate in the metabolic network of glycerolipid biosynthesis. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) and phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAH) are two key enzymes of PC homeostasis. We report that LPCAT activity is markedly induced in the Arabidopsis pah mutant. The quadruple pah lpcat mutant, with dual defects in PAH and LPCAT, had a level of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) that was much higher than that in the lpcat mutants and a PC content that was higher than that in the pah mutant. Comparative molecular profile analysis of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and digalactosyldiacylglycerol revealed that both the pah and pah lpcat mutants had increased proportions of 34:6 from the prokaryotic pathway despite differing levels of LPCAT activity. We show that a decreased representation of the C16:0 C18:2 diacylglycerol moiety in PC was a shared feature of pah and pah lpcat, and that this change in PC metabolic profile correlated with the increased prokaryotic contribution to chloroplast lipid synthesis. We detected increased PC deacylation in the pah lpcat mutant that was attributable at least in part to the induced phospholipases. Increased LPC generation was also evident in the pah mutant, but the phospholipases were not induced, raising the possibility that PC deacylation is mediated by the reverse reaction of LPCAT. We discuss possible roles of LPCAT and PAH in PC turnover that impacts lipid pathway coordination for chloroplast lipid synthesis.

  8. A lysophosphatidic acid analogue is revealed as a potent inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine synthesis, inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gueguen, Geneviéve; Granci, Virginie; Rogalle, Pierre; Briand-Mésange, Fabienne; Wilson, Michéle; Klaébé, Alain; Tercé, François; Chap, Hugues; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Simon, Marie-Françoise; Gaits, Frédérique

    2002-01-01

    A previous study demonstrated that cross-desensitization experiments performed with the lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) analogues (R)- and (S)-N-palmitoyl-norleucinol 1-phosphate (PNPAs) inhibited LPA-induced platelet aggregation without any stereospecificity. Here we report opposite biological effects of the two enantiomers on mitogenesis of IMR-90 fibroblasts in relation to their respective metabolism. (R)PNPA was proliferative, while (S)PNPA induced apoptosis by specifically inhibiting phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis at the last step of the CDP-choline pathway controlled by cholinephosphotransferase. This effect was not direct but required dephosphorylation of PNPAs by ecto-lipid phosphate phosphatase before cellular uptake of the generated N-palmitoyl-norleucinols (PNOHs). Inhibition of cholinephosphotransferase by the derivative (S)PNOH was confirmed by an in vitro assay. (S)PNPA proapoptotic effects led us to clarify the mechanism linking cholinephosphotransferase inhibition to apoptosis. Three proapoptotic responses were observed: the activation of caspase-3, the production of ceramides from newly synthesized pools (as demonstrated by the inhibitor Fumonisin B1) and finally the activation of stress-activated protein kinase, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1/2, as a result of ceramide increase. Thus our data demonstrate that synthetic analogues of LPA might display stereospecific effects leading to apoptosis independently of classical LPA-activated pathways. PMID:12197836

  9. Inhaled nitric oxide alleviates hyperoxia suppressed phosphatidylcholine synthesis in endotoxin-induced injury in mature rat lungs

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xiaohui; Guo, Chunbao; Huang, Shibing; Sun, Bo

    2006-01-01

    Background We investigated efficacy of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in modulation of metabolism of phosphatidylcholine (PC) of pulmonary surfactant and in anti-inflammatory mechanism of mature lungs with inflammatory injury. Methods Healthy adult rats were divided into a group of lung inflammation induced by i.v. lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or a normal control (C) for 24 h, and then exposed to: room air (Air), 95% oxygen (O), NO (20 parts per million, NO), both O and NO (ONO) as subgroups, whereas [3H]-choline was injected i.v. for incorporation into PC of the lungs which were processed subsequently at 10 min, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h, respectively, for measurement of PC synthesis and proinflammatory cytokine production. Results LPS-NO subgroup had the lowest level of labeled PC in total phospholipids and disaturated PC in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue (decreased by 46–59%), along with the lowest activity of cytidine triphosphate: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (-14–18%) in the lungs, compared to all other subgroups at 4 h (p < 0.01), but not at 8 and 12 h. After 24-h, all LPS-subgroups had lower labeled PC than the corresponding C-subgroups (p < 0.05). LPS-ONO had higher labeled PC in total phospholipids and disaturated PC, activity of cytidylyltransferase, and lower activity of nuclear transcription factor-κB and expression of proinflammatory cytokine mRNA, than that in the LPS-O subgroup (p < 0.05). Conclusion In LPS-induced lung inflammation in association with hyperoxia, depressed PC synthesis and enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production may be alleviated by iNO. NO alone only transiently suppressed the PC synthesis as a result of lower activity of cytidylyltransferase. PMID:16403237

  10. Cloning of Glycerophosphocholine Acyltransferase (GPCAT) from Fungi and Plants: A NOVEL ENZYME IN PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE SYNTHESIS.

    PubMed

    Głąb, Bartosz; Beganovic, Mirela; Anaokar, Sanket; Hao, Meng-Shu; Rasmusson, Allan G; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Banaś, Antoni; Stymne, Sten; Lager, Ida

    2016-11-25

    Glycero-3-phosphocholine (GPC), the product of the complete deacylation of phosphatidylcholine (PC), was long thought to not be a substrate for reacylation. However, it was recently shown that cell-free extracts from yeast and plants could acylate GPC with acyl groups from acyl-CoA. By screening enzyme activities of extracts derived from a yeast knock-out collection, we were able to identify and clone the yeast gene (GPC1) encoding the enzyme, named glycerophosphocholine acyltransferase (GPCAT). By homology search, we also identified and cloned GPCAT genes from three plant species. All enzymes utilize acyl-CoA to acylate GPC, forming lyso-PC, and they show broad acyl specificities in both yeast and plants. In addition to acyl-CoA, GPCAT efficiently utilizes LPC and lysophosphatidylethanolamine as acyl donors in the acylation of GPC. GPCAT homologues were found in the major eukaryotic organism groups but not in prokaryotes or chordates. The enzyme forms its own protein family and does not contain any of the acyl binding or lipase motifs that are present in other studied acyltransferases and transacylases. In vivo labeling studies confirm a role for Gpc1p in PC biosynthesis in yeast. It is postulated that GPCATs contribute to the maintenance of PC homeostasis and also have specific functions in acyl editing of PC (e.g. in transferring acyl groups modified at the sn-2 position of PC to the sn-1 position of this molecule in plant cells). © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Evidence for a regulatory role of CTP : choline phosphate cytidylyltransferase in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine in fetal lung following premature birth.

    PubMed

    Weinhold, P A; Feldman, D A; Quade, M M; Miller, J C; Brooks, R L

    1981-07-24

    The sequence of reactions which function to incorporate choline into phosphatidylcholine was investigated in lung from fetuses following premature delivery. The rate of [methyl-14C]choline incorporation by rat lung slices into phosphatidylcholine increases following premature delivery at both 20 and 21 days gestation. The increase in choline incorporation is primarily due to an increased specific activity of phosphorylcholine resulting from a decreased pool size of phosphorylcholine. The decrease in the concentration of phosphorylcholine following premature delivery is apparently caused by an increased activity of cytidylyltransferase which leads to an increase in the conversion of phosphorylcholine to phosphatidylcholine. The total activity of choline kinase, cytidylyltransferase, cholinephosphotransferase and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase did not change significantly. However, the cytidylyltransferase activity in the microsome fraction increased following premature delivery at 20 and 21 days gestation. The amount of cytidylyltransferase in the H form in the cytosol fraction increased following premature delivery at 21 days gestation but not at 20 days gestation. The results are interpreted to indicate that the active form of cytidylyltransferase in lung cells is the membrane-bound enzyme and this form increases following birth resulting in an increased synthesis of phosphatidylcholine.

  12. Promotion-resistant JB6 mouse epidermal cells exhibit defects in phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis and phorbol ester-induced phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Z; Guyer, B; Dong, Z

    1997-01-01

    The tumour-promotion-sensitive (P+) and -resistant (P-) variants of mouse JB6 epidermis-derived cells have often been used to study the requirements for the tumour-promoting effect of PMA. As part of an effort to identify the defect(s) in JB6 P- cells that might prevent the promoting effect of PMA, stimulation of phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) by PMA as well as the rate of phospholipid synthesis were compared in three P+ variants, two P- variants and a transformed variant of the JB6 cell line. PMA (5-100 nM) had significantly less stimulatory effect on PtdCho hydrolysis in P- cells than in P+ or transformed JB6 cells. The effects of PMA on PtdEtn hydrolysis in the P+ and P- cell lines were similar, whereas in transformed cells PMA had slightly less effect. Each JB6 cell line was found to contain similar amounts of PtdCho. In contrast, P- cells contained significantly less PtdEtn and a correspondingly higher level of ethanolamine phosphate compared with P+ and transformed cells. P- cells also secreted ethanolamine phosphate into the medium; this process was greatly enhanced by PMA. In the two P- variants the synthesis of PtdEtn from [14C]ethanolamine was reduced to various extents, whereas the rate of PtdCho synthesis was comparable in each JB6 cell line. The synthesis of PtdCho, but not PtdEtn, was greatly stimulated by PMA in both the P+ and P- clones. The results indicate that decreased synthesis/level of PtdEtn and suboptimal functioning of a PtdCho-specific PLD are common characteristics of the P- JB6 cells examined so far. The observed alterations in phospholipid metabolism may play a role in the resistance of P- cells to the tumour-promoting action of PMA. PMID:9163343

  13. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced inhibition of phosphatidylcholine synthesis by human type II pneumocytes is partially mediated by prostaglandins.

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Díaz, J; Vara, E; García, C; Balibrea, J L

    1994-01-01

    TNF alpha seems to play an important role in the pathogenesis of adult respiratory distress syndrome. We studied the effect of TNF alpha on phospholipid synthesis by isolated type II pneumocytes and attempted to characterize the role of arachidonate metabolites and the influence of pentoxifylline on such an effect. Lung tissue obtained from both multiple organ donors (n = 14) and lung cancer patients (n = 11) was used for cell isolation. Surfactant synthesis was measured by the incorporation of D-[U-14C]glucose into phosphatidylcholine (PC). The basal PC synthesis was higher in the donor group than in the malignant group (3.44 +/- 0.19 vs 2.15 +/- 0.15 pmol/microgram protein x 120 min, P < 0.01), and, in the presence of 100 ng/ml of TNF alpha, the incorporation of labeled glucose into PC was reduced significantly in both donor (1.13 +/- 0.11 vs 3.44 +/- 0.19 pmol/microgram protein x 120 min, P < 0.01) and cancer (0.99 +/- 0.11 vs 2.15 +/- 0.15 pmol/microgram protein x 120 min, P < 0.01) groups. Indomethacin was able to completely block the cytokine-induced decrease in PC synthesis by pneumocytes from the malignant group and to attenuate the inhibitory effect of TNF alpha in those from donors, nordihydroguaiaretic acid having a similar effect. The TNF alpha effect can be blocked by pentoxifylline (100 micrograms/ml), a substance which can even succeed in reverting the basal secretory inhibition of cancer patients' pneumocytes to levels similar to those of the donor group. TNF alpha may contribute to the pathophysiology of adult respiratory distress syndrome by inhibiting the synthesis of surfactant. TNF alpha might be produced in lung tumors, resulting in chronic paracrine or systemic exposure of pneumocytes to low concentrations of the cytokine. The TNF alpha effect was not prevented completely by the blockage of the arachidonic acid metabolism, hence other mediators should also be implicated. PMID:8040266

  14. Choline metabolism and membrane formation in rat hepatoma cells grown in suspension culture. II. Phosphatidylcholine synthesis during growth cycle and fluctuation of mitochondrial density.

    PubMed

    Plagemann, P G

    1969-09-01

    The incorporation of methyl-labeled choline into phosphorylcholine and phosphatidylcholine of cellular membranes by Novikoff rat hepatoma cells (line N1S1-67) during growth in suspension culture was investigated. Upon initiation of a fresh culture at 10(5) cells/ml, the rate of synthesis of phosphorylcholine by the cells was four to five times greater than that of the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine. While the rate of synthesis of the latter remained relatively constant, the rate of phosphorylation of choline decreased progressively during the course of the growth cycle of the culture to 10-20% of the initial rate when the culture reached stationary phase at 3 x 10(6) cells/ml. The decrease in phosphorylcholine synthesis during the growth cycle was not due to depletion of choline in the medium or a decrease in its concentration, but was correlated with a decrease in choline kinase activity of the cells as measured in cell-free extracts. Newly synthesized phosphatidylcholine was detectable in cells only as an integral part of cellular membranes. Its distribution among various cytoplasmic membrane structures separated by isopycnic centrifugation in sucrose density gradients remained relatively constant during the growth cycle. About 50% was associated with the mitochondria, and the remainder with plasma membrane fragments and other membranous structures with mean densities of about 1.15 and 1.13 g/cm(3), respectively. However, the density of the mitochondria increased from about 1.167 g/cm(3) in early exponential phase cells to about 1.190 g/cm(3) in stationary phase cells. The finding that the density of the entire propulation of mitochondria changed simultaneously and progressively is in agreement with the view that mitochondria grow by addition of phospholipids and structural proteins and increase in number by division.

  15. The rate-limiting reaction in phosphatidylcholine synthesis by alveolar type II cells isolated from fetal rat lung.

    PubMed

    Post, M; Batenburg, J J; Van Golde, L M; Smith, B T

    1984-10-04

    The rate-limiting reaction in the formation of phosphatidylcholine by type II cells isolated from fetal rat lung was examined. Studies on the uptake of [Me-3H]choline and its incorporation into its metabolites indicated that in these cells the choline phosphate pool was much larger than both the choline and CDPcholine pools. Chemical measurements of the pool sizes showed that the choline phosphate pool was indeed much larger than the intracellular choline and CDPcholine pools. Pulse-chase studies with [Me-3H]choline revealed that labelled choline taken up by the cells was rapidly phosphorylated to choline phosphate and that the radioactivity lost from choline phosphate during the chase period appeared in phosphatidylcholine. Little change was observed in the labelling of CDPcholine during the chase period. These results indicate that cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase catalyzes a rate-limiting reaction in phosphatidylcholine formation by fetal rat lung type II cells.

  16. Differential effects of pertussis toxin on insulin-stimulated phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis and glycerolipid synthesis de novo. Studies in BC3H-1 myocytes and rat adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J.M.; Standaert, M.L.; Nair, G.P.; Farese, R.V. )

    1991-04-02

    Insulin-induced increases in diacylglycerol (DAG) have been suggested to result from stimulation of de novo phosphatidic acid (PA) synthesis and phosphatidylcholine (PC) hydrolysis. Presently, the authors found that insulin decreased PC levels of BC3H-1 myocytes and rat adipocytes by approximately 10-25% within 30 s. These decreases were rapidly reversed in both cell types, apparently because of increased PC synthesis de novo. In BC3H-1 myocytes, pertussis toxin inhibited PC resynthesis and insulin effects on the pathway of de novo PA-DAG-PC synthesis, as evidenced by changes in ({sup 3}H)glycerol incorporation, but did not inhibit insulin-stimulated PC hydrolysis. Pertussis toxin also blocked the later, but not the initial, increase in DAG production in the myocytes. Phorbol esters activated PC hydrolysis in both myocytes and adipocytes, but insulin-induced stimulation of PC hydrolysis was not dependent upon activation of PKC, since this hydrolysis was not inhibited by 500 {mu}M sangivamycin, an effective PKC inhibitor. The results indicate that insulin increases DAG by pertussis toxin sensitive and insensitive (PC hydrolysis) mechanisms, which are mechanistically separate, but functionally interdependent and integrated. PC hydrolysis may contribute importantly to initial increases in DAG, but later sustained increases are apparently largely dependent on insulin-induced stimulation of the pathway of de novo phospholipid synthesis.

  17. Induction of glutathione synthesis by oxidized low-density lipoprotein and 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl phosphatidylcholine: protection against quinone-mediated oxidative stress.

    PubMed Central

    Moellering, Douglas R; Levonen, Anna-Liisa; Go, Young-Mi; Patel, Rakesh P; Dickinson, Dale A; Forman, Henry Jay; Darley-Usmar, Victor M

    2002-01-01

    Exposure of endothelial cells to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) leads to diverse cellular effects, including induction of the intracellular antioxidant GSH. It is not known whether lipid-or protein-derived oxidation products cause GSH induction and whether this involves increased activity of the key enzyme in its synthesis, glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL). Furthermore, the effect of oxLDL exposure on the cell's ability to combat oxidative stress has not been previously examined. In the present study we found that, in bovine aortic endothelial cells, LDL or 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl phosphatidylcholine oxidized by different reactive oxygen and nitrogen species induced GSH synthesis. However, prevention of GSH synthesis during exposure to oxLDL caused extensive cell death. The mediator causing GSH induction was shown to be a polar lipid and resulted in the increased activity of GCL as well as increased protein levels of the regulatory subunit of GCL. Pretreatment with both oxLDL and the polar lipid subfraction of the oxLDL protected cells against the toxicity of 2,3-dimethoxynaphthoquinone (DMNQ), a superoxide- and H(2)O(2)-forming compound. The potential of a low level of lipid peroxidation products to initiate cytoprotective pathways are discussed. PMID:11829739

  18. Two-ligand priming mechanism for potentiated phosphoinositide synthesis is an evolutionarily conserved feature of Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine exchange proteins

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jin; Ghosh, Ratna; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Lönnfors, Max; Somerharju, Pentti; Bankaitis, Vytas A.

    2016-01-01

    Lipid signaling, particularly phosphoinositide signaling, plays a key role in regulating the extreme polarized membrane growth that drives root hair development in plants. The Arabidopsis AtSFH1 gene encodes a two-domain protein with an amino-terminal Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PITP) domain linked to a carboxy-terminal nodulin domain. AtSfh1 is critical for promoting the spatially highly organized phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate signaling program required for establishment and maintenance of polarized root hair growth. Here we demonstrate that, like the yeast Sec14, the AtSfh1 PITP domain requires both its phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)- and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho)-binding properties to stimulate PtdIns-4-phosphate [PtdIns(4)P] synthesis. Moreover, we show that both phospholipid-binding activities are essential for AtSfh1 activity in supporting polarized root hair growth. Finally, we report genetic and biochemical evidence that the two-ligand mechanism for potentiation of PtdIns 4-OH kinase activity is a broadly conserved feature of plant Sec14-nodulin proteins, and that this strategy appeared only late in plant evolution. Taken together, the data indicate that the PtdIns/PtdCho-exchange mechanism for stimulated PtdIns(4)P synthesis either arose independently during evolution in yeast and in higher plants, or a suitable genetic module was introduced to higher plants from a fungal source and subsequently exploited by them. PMID:27193303

  19. Synthesis of phosphatidylcholine with defined fatty acid in the sn-1 position by lipase-catalyzed esterification and transesterification reaction.

    PubMed

    Adlercreutz, Dietlind; Budde, Heike; Wehtje, Ernst

    2002-05-20

    The incorporation of caproic acid in the sn-1 position of phosphatidylcholine (PC) catalyzed by lipase from Rhizopus oryzae was investigated in a water activity-controlled organic medium. The reaction was carried out either as esterification or transesterification. A comparison between these two reaction modes was made with regard to product yield, product purity, reaction time, and byproduct formation as a consequence of acyl migration. The yield in the esterification and transesterification reaction was the same under identical conditions. The highest yield (78%) was obtained at a water activity (a(w)) of 0.11 and a caproic acid concentration of 0.8 M. The reaction time was shorter in the esterification reaction than in the transesterification reaction. The difference in reaction time was especially pronounced at low water activities and high fatty acid concentrations. The loss in yield due to acyl migration and consequent enzymatic side reactions was around 16% under a wide range of conditions. The incorporation of a fatty acid in the sn-1 position of PC proved to be thermodynamically much more favorable than the incorporation of a fatty acid in the sn-2 position.

  20. Synthesis of DHA/EPA-rich phosphatidylcholine by immobilized phospholipase A1: effect of water addition and vacuum condition.

    PubMed

    Li, Daoming; Qin, Xiaoli; Wang, Weifei; Li, Zhigang; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-08-01

    DHA/EPA-rich phosphatidylcholine (PC) was successfully synthesized by immobilized phospholipase A1 (PLA1)-catalyzed transesterification of PC and DHA/EPA-rich ethyl esters in a solvent-free system. Effects of reaction temperature, water addition and substrate mass ratio on the incorporation of DHA/EPA were evaluated using response surface methods (RSM). Water addition had most significant effect on the incorporation. Reaction temperature and substrate mass ratio, however, had no significant effect on the incorporation. The maximal incorporation was 19.09 % (24 h) under the following conditions: temperature 55.7 °C, water addition 1.1 wt % and substrate mass ratio (ethyl esters/PC) 6.8:1. Furthermore, effects of water addition (from 0 to 1.25 wt %) on DHA/EPA incorporation and the composition of products were further investigated. The immobilized PLA1 was more active when water addition was above 0.5 wt %. By monitoring the reaction processes with different water addition, a possible reaction scheme was proposed for transesterification of PC with DHA/EPA-rich ethyl esters. In summary, PC and sn2-lysophosphatidylocholine (LPC) were predominant in the mixtures at early stages of reaction, whereas sn1-LPC and glycerophosphocholine (GPC) predominant at later stages. The vacuum employed after 24 h significantly increased the incorporation of DHA/EPA and the composition of PC, and the highest incorporation (30.31 %) of DHA/EPA was obtained at 72 h and the yield of PC was 47.2 %.

  1. Two-ligand priming mechanism for potentiated phosphoinositide synthesis is an evolutionarily conserved feature of Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine exchange proteins.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Ghosh, Ratna; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Lönnfors, Max; Somerharju, Pentti; Bankaitis, Vytas A

    2016-07-15

    Lipid signaling, particularly phosphoinositide signaling, plays a key role in regulating the extreme polarized membrane growth that drives root hair development in plants. The Arabidopsis AtSFH1 gene encodes a two-domain protein with an amino-terminal Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (PITP) domain linked to a carboxy-terminal nodulin domain. AtSfh1 is critical for promoting the spatially highly organized phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate signaling program required for establishment and maintenance of polarized root hair growth. Here we demonstrate that, like the yeast Sec14, the AtSfh1 PITP domain requires both its phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)- and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho)-binding properties to stimulate PtdIns-4-phosphate [PtdIns(4)P] synthesis. Moreover, we show that both phospholipid-binding activities are essential for AtSfh1 activity in supporting polarized root hair growth. Finally, we report genetic and biochemical evidence that the two-ligand mechanism for potentiation of PtdIns 4-OH kinase activity is a broadly conserved feature of plant Sec14-nodulin proteins, and that this strategy appeared only late in plant evolution. Taken together, the data indicate that the PtdIns/PtdCho-exchange mechanism for stimulated PtdIns(4)P synthesis either arose independently during evolution in yeast and in higher plants, or a suitable genetic module was introduced to higher plants from a fungal source and subsequently exploited by them. © 2016 Huang, Ghosh, et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  2. Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 3-mediated phosphatidylcholine synthesis is required for assembly of very low density lipoproteins in human hepatoma Huh7 cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hongbing; Ye, Jin

    2008-01-11

    Hepatocytes play a crucial role in regulating lipid metabolism by exporting cholesterol and triglyceride into plasma through secretion of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). VLDL production is also required for release of hepatitis C virus (HCV) from infected hepatocytes. Here, we show that long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 3 (ACSL3) plays a crucial role in secretion of VLDL and HCV from hepatocytes. In cultured human hepatoma Huh7 cells, ACSL3 is specifically required for incorporation of fatty acids into phosphatidylcholine. In cells receiving small interfering RNA targeting ACSL3, secretion of apolipoprotein B, the major protein component of VLDL, was inhibited and the lipoprotein was rapidly degraded. This inhibition in secretion was completely eliminated when these cells were treated with phosphatidylcholine. Treatment of cells with small interfering RNA targeting ACSL3 also inhibited secretion of HCV from Huh7-derived cells. These results identify ACSL3 as a new enzymatic target to limit VLDL secretion and HCV infection.

  3. Phosphatidylcholine synthesis is essential for HrpZ harpin secretion in plant pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae and non-pathogenic Pseudomonas sp. 593.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Min; Long, Deliang; He, Huoguang; Li, Yang; Li, Yadong; Wang, Xingguo

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae van Hall is important phytopathogenic bacterium of stone fruit trees, and able to elicit hypersensitive response (HR) in nonhost plants. The HrpZ, secreted via type III secretion system (T3SS) to the extracellular space of the plant, is a T3SS-dependent protein and a sole T3SS effector able to induce the host defense response outside host cells. We deleted the phosphatidylcholine synthase gene (pcs) of P. syringae pv. syringae van Hall CFCC 1336, and found that the 1336 pcs(-) mutant was unable to synthesize phosphatidylcholine and elicit a typical HR in soybean. Further studies showed that the 1336 pcs(-) mutant was unable to secrete HrpZ harpin but could express HrpZ protein in cytoplasm as effectively as the wild type. To confirm if phosphatidylcholine affects HrpZ harpin secretion, we introduced the hrpZ gene into the soil-dwelling bacterium Pseudomonas sp. 593 and the 593 pcs(-) mutant, which were unable to express HrpZ harpin and elicit HR in tobacco or soybean. Western blotting and HR assay showed that the 593H not only secreted HrpZ harpin but also caused a strong HR in tobacco and soybean. In contrast, the 593 pcs(-)H only expressed HrpZ protein in its cytoplasm at the wild type level, but did not secrete HrpZ harpin or elicit HR reaction. Our results demonstrate that phosphatidylcholine is essential for the secretion of HrpZ harpin in P. syringae pv. syringae van Hall and other Pseudomonas strains.

  4. Phosphatidylcholine and the CDP-Choline Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Fagone, Paolo; Jackowski, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    The CDP-choline pathway of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) biosynthesis was first described more than 50 years ago. Investigation of the CDP-choline pathway in yeast provides a basis for understanding the CDP-choline pathway in mammals. PtdCho is considered as an intermediate in a cycle of synthesis and degradation, and the activity of a CDP-choline cycle is linked to subcellular membrane lipid movement. The components of the mammalian CDP-choline pathway include choline transport, choline kinase, phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase, and choline phosphotransferase activities. The protein isoforms and biochemical mechanisms of regulation of the pathway enzymes are related to their cell and tissue-specific functions. Regulated PtdCho turnover mediated by phospholipases or neuropathy target esterase participates in the mammalian CDP-choline cycle. Knockout mouse models define the biological functions of the CDP-choline cycle in mammalian cells and tissues. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phospholipids and Phospholipid Metabolism. PMID:23010477

  5. Do cholinephosphotransferase and phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase synthesize different species of phosphatidylcholine

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, S.H.; Moore, T.S.

    1986-04-01

    Two pathways exist for phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis in castor bean endosperm. The major pathway utilizes the reaction; (CDPcholine + diacylglycerol ..-->.. PC + CMP) while the other is through (PE + 3 S-Adenosylmethioninie ..-->.. PC + 3 homocysteine). The reason for two pathways is not clear. In an effort to determine if they produce two different products, radioactive precursors (SAM and CDPcholine) were administered to isolated endoplasmic reticulum from the castor bean endosperm. The products were extracted, chromatographed on TLC, and the PC classes separated by argentation chromatography. The radioactivity was determined by a RTLC Scanner. By these methods, it has been determined that there are differences between the PC products of the methyltransferase and the cholinephosphotransferase.

  6. Brucella abortus Synthesizes Phosphatidylcholine from Choline Provided by the Host

    PubMed Central

    Comerci, Diego J.; Altabe, Silvia; de Mendoza, Diego; Ugalde, Rodolfo A.

    2006-01-01

    The Brucella cell envelope is characterized by the presence of phosphatidylcholine (PC), a common phospholipid in eukaryotes that is rare in prokaryotes. Studies on the composition of Brucella abortus 2308 phospholipids revealed that the synthesis of PC depends on the presence of choline in the culture medium, suggesting that the methylation biosynthetic pathway is not functional. Phospholipid composition of pmtA and pcs mutants indicated that in Brucella, PC synthesis occurs exclusively via the phosphatidylcholine synthase pathway. Transformation of Escherichia coli with an expression vector containing the B. abortus pcs homologue was sufficient for PC synthesis upon induction with IPTG (isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside), while no PC formation was detected when bacteria were transformed with a vector containing pmtA. These findings imply that Brucella depends on choline provided by the host cell to form PC. We could not detect any obvious associated phenotype in the PC-deficient strain under vegetative or intracellular growth conditions in macrophages. However, the pcs mutant strain displays a reproducible virulence defect in mice, which suggests that PC is necessary to sustain a chronic infection process. PMID:16484204

  7. Biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sohlenkamp, Christian; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2003-03-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the major membrane-forming phospholipid in eukaryotes and can be synthesized by either of two pathways, the methylation pathway or the CDP-choline pathway. Many prokaryotes lack PC, but it can be found in significant amounts in membranes of rather diverse bacteria and based on genomic data, we estimate that more than 10% of all bacteria possess PC. Enzymatic methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine via the methylation pathway was thought to be the only biosynthetic pathway to yield PC in bacteria. However, a choline-dependent pathway for PC biosynthesis has been discovered in Sinorhizobium meliloti. In this pathway, PC synthase, condenses choline directly with CDP-diacylglyceride to form PC in one step. A number of symbiotic (Rhizobium leguminosarum, Mesorhizobium loti) and pathogenic (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Brucella melitensis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Borrelia burgdorferi and Legionella pneumophila) bacteria seem to possess the PC synthase pathway and we suggest that the respective eukaryotic host functions as the provider of choline for this pathway. Pathogens entering their hosts through epithelia (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae) require phosphocholine substitutions on their cell surface components that are biosynthetically also derived from choline supplied by the host. However, the incorporation of choline in these latter cases proceeds via choline phosphate and CDP-choline as intermediates. The occurrence of two intermediates in prokaryotes usually found as intermediates in the eukaryotic CDP-choline pathway for PC biosynthesis raises the question whether some bacteria might form PC via a CDP-choline pathway.

  8. Effects of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine degradation on cyclodextrin-mediated cholesterol efflux in cultured fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ohvo, H; Olsio, C; Slotte, J P

    1997-11-15

    The hydrolysis of plasma membrane sphingomyelin is known to dramatically alter cellular cholesterol homeostasis in different ways, whereas the degradation of plasma membrane phosphatidylcholine has much less or no effects on cell cholesterol homeostasis [Pörn, Ares, Slotte, J. Lipid Res. 34 (1993) 1385-1392]. In this study, we used an efficient extracellular cholesterol acceptor (cyclodextrin) and determined the extent of cholesterol efflux from cultured fibroblasts in which plasma membrane sphingomyelin or phosphatidylcholine was degraded. Treatment of cells with sphingomyelinase reduced the cell sphingomyelin content by about 76% (about 13 nmol SM degraded), and dramatically increased the desorption of [3H]cholesterol from the plasma membrane to 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin. The corresponding hydrolysis of cell surface phosphatidylcholine (about 12% reduction of the cellular phosphatidylcholine content, corresponding to about 12 nmol degraded PC) had almost no effect on cell [3H]cholesterol efflux. The stimulatory effect of sphingomyelin degradation on cell [3H]cholesterol efflux was reversible, since rates of [3H]cholesterol efflux dropped back to control levels when cells (in this case baby hamster kidney cells) were allowed to restore their sphingomyelin content by re-synthesis in the absence of sphingomyelinase. The findings of this study clearly demonstrate that plasma membrane sphingomyelin markedly affected the rate of cholesterol transfer between cells and an extracellular acceptor (i.e., cyclodextrin), whereas the effect of phosphatidylcholine on cholesterol efflux was much smaller.

  9. The interconversion of diacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine during triacylglycerol production in microsomal preparations of developing cotyledons of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    PubMed

    Stobart, A K; Stymne, S

    1985-11-15

    Microsomal preparations from the developing cotyledons of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) catalyse the acylation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate in the presence of acyl-CoA. Under these conditions the radioactive glycerol in sn-glycerol 3-phosphate accumulates in phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylcholine, diacyl- and tri-acylglycerol. The incorporation of glycerol into phosphatidylcholine is via diacylglycerol and probably involves a cholinephosphotransferase. The results show that the glycerol moiety and the acyl components in phosphatidylcholine exchange with the diacylglycerol during the biosynthesis of diacylglycerol from phosphatidic acid. The continuous reversible transfer of diacylglycerol with phosphatidylcholine, which operates during active triacylglycerol synthesis, will control in part the polyunsaturated-fatty-acid quality of the final seed oil.

  10. The interconversion of diacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine during triacylglycerol production in microsomal preparations of developing cotyledons of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    PubMed Central

    Stobart, A K; Stymne, S

    1985-01-01

    Microsomal preparations from the developing cotyledons of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) catalyse the acylation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate in the presence of acyl-CoA. Under these conditions the radioactive glycerol in sn-glycerol 3-phosphate accumulates in phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylcholine, diacyl- and tri-acylglycerol. The incorporation of glycerol into phosphatidylcholine is via diacylglycerol and probably involves a cholinephosphotransferase. The results show that the glycerol moiety and the acyl components in phosphatidylcholine exchange with the diacylglycerol during the biosynthesis of diacylglycerol from phosphatidic acid. The continuous reversible transfer of diacylglycerol with phosphatidylcholine, which operates during active triacylglycerol synthesis, will control in part the polyunsaturated-fatty-acid quality of the final seed oil. PMID:4084230

  11. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Cell Survival Signaling Requires Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Crook, Matt; Upadhyay, Awani; Ido, Liyana J.; Hanna-Rose, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Identification of pro-cell survival signaling pathways has implications for cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative disease. We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans epidermal growth factor receptor LET-23 (LET-23 EGFR) has a prosurvival function in counteracting excitotoxicity, and we identify novel molecular players required for this prosurvival signaling. uv1 sensory cells in the C. elegans uterus undergo excitotoxic death in response to activation of the OSM-9/OCR-4 TRPV channel by the endogenous agonist nicotinamide. Activation of LET-23 EGFR can effectively prevent this excitotoxic death. We investigate the roles of signaling pathways known to act downstream of LET-23 EGFR in C. elegans and find that the LET-60 Ras/MAPK pathway, but not the IP3 receptor pathway, is required for efficient LET-23 EGFR activity in its prosurvival function. However, activation of LET-60 Ras/MAPK pathway does not appear to be sufficient to fully mimic LET-23 EGFR activity. We screen for genes that are required for EGFR prosurvival function and uncover a role for phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic enzymes in EGFR prosurvival function. Finally, we show that exogenous application of phosphatidylcholine is sufficient to prevent some deaths in this excitotoxicity model. Our work implicates regulation of lipid synthesis downstream of EGFR in cell survival and death decisions. PMID:27605519

  12. Submental fat reduction by mesotherapy using phosphatidylcholine alone vs. phosphatidylcholine and organic silicium: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Co, Abigail C; Abad-Casintahan, Maria Flordeliz; Espinoza-Thaebtharm, Agnes

    2007-12-01

    Excess skin and fatty tissues beneath the jaw lead to a double chin deformity. Localized fat deposits in this area are a cause of discomfort and anguish, leading patients to undergo surgical procedures such as liposuction and dermolipectomy to improve the cosmetic effect. Both procedures require anesthesia and an operating room setting and are quite expensive. Fearful of extensive surgery and its complications, patients and physicians seek less invasive methods. Mesotherapy with phosphatidylcholine and other cocktails have been used to treat localized fat deposits. However, there are few published articles regarding its effectiveness and some are even anecdotal. This study aims to determine the efficacy of phosphatidylcholine alone vs. phosphatidylcholine and organic silicium in submental fat reduction. Twelve patients with submental fat deposit with no coexisting morbidity and with informed consent were included in the study. They were submitted to one to five treatment sessions with an average interval of 2 weeks between each session. The medication administered was injected, either pure phosphatidylcholine or a combination of phosphatidylcholine and organic silicium. Baseline measurements of submental fat using vernier caliper and digital photographs of the patients were taken during each treatment session. The occurrence of adverse effects was likewise noted. Results Among the 12 patients, 11 completed the treatment course, and 1 was excluded from the study because of failure to follow up. Both phosphatidylcholine and a combination of phosphatidylcholine and organic silicium were equally effective in reducing submental fat deposits. There was no significant difference as to the rate and degree of reduction. Significant reduction in the thickness of submental fat was achieved after three treatment sessions. Adverse reactions in both groups were mild and transitory ranging from heavy sensation, localized heat, nodulations, and slight bruising that abated 3 to 5

  13. Biosynthetic preparation of selectively deuterated phosphatidylcholine in genetically modified Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Maric, Selma; Thygesen, Mikkel B.; Schiller, Jürgen; Marek, Magdalena; Moulin, Martine; Haertlein, Michael; Forsyth, V. Trevor; Bogdanov, Mikhail; Dowhan, William; Arleth, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major component of eukaryotic cell membranes and one of the most commonly used phospholipids for reconstitution of membrane proteins into carrier systems such as lipid vesicles, micelles and nanodiscs. Selectively deuterated versions of this lipid have many applications, especially in structural studies using techniques such as NMR, neutron reflectivity and small-angle neutron scattering. Here we present a comprehensive study of selective deuteration of phosphatidylcholine through biosynthesis in a genetically modified strain of Escherichia coli. By carefully tuning the deuteration level in E. coli growth media and varying the deuteration of supplemented carbon sources, we show that it is possible to achieve a controlled deuteration for three distinct parts of the PC lipid molecule, namely the (a) lipid head group, (b) glycerol backbone and (c) fatty acyl tail. This biosynthetic approach paves the way for the synthesis of specifically deuterated, physiologically relevant phospholipid species which remain difficult to obtain through standard chemical synthesis. PMID:25301578

  14. A pathway for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in Plasmodium falciparum involving phosphoethanolamine methylation.

    PubMed

    Pessi, Gabriella; Kociubinski, Guillermo; Mamoun, Choukri Ben

    2004-04-20

    Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of the most severe form of human malaria. The rapid multiplication of the parasite within human erythrocytes requires an active production of new membranes. Phosphatidylcholine is the most abundant phospholipid in Plasmodium membranes, and the pathways leading to its synthesis are attractive targets for chemotherapy. In addition to its synthesis from choline, phosphatidylcholine is synthesized from serine via an unknown pathway. Serine, which is actively transported by Plasmodium from human serum and readily available in the parasite, is subsequently converted into phosphoethanolamine. Here, we describe in P. falciparum a plant-like S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent three-step methylation reaction that converts phosphoethanolamine into phosphocholine, a precursor for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine. We have identified the gene, PfPMT, encoding this activity and shown that its product is an unusual phosphoethanolamine methyltransferase with no human homologs. P. falciparum phosphoethanolamine methyltransferase (Pfpmt) is a monopartite enzyme with a single catalytic domain that is responsible for the three-step methylation reaction. Interestingly, Pfpmt activity is inhibited by its product phosphocholine and by the phosphocholine analog, miltefosine. We show that miltefosine can also inhibit parasite proliferation within human erythrocytes. The importance of this enzyme in P. falciparum membrane biogenesis makes it a potential target for malaria chemotherapy.

  15. Preparation and characterization of debranched-starch/phosphatidylcholine inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weiwei; Luo, Zhigang; Li, Lin; Fu, Xiong

    2015-01-21

    In this study, debranched-starch/phosphatidylcholine inclusion complexes were prepared. The effect of reaction parameters such as reaction temperature, reaction time, and addition amount of phosphatidylcholine on the phosphatidylcholine payload and inclusion rate was investigated. The phosphatidylcholine payload and inclusion rate prepared under the optimal conditions were 106 mg/g and 84.8%, respectively. The formation of debranched-starch/phosphatidylcholine inclusion complexes was confirmed by the results of XRD and FT-IR. Furthermore, the molecular, cluster, and fractal structures of the complexes were investigated using (13)C CP/MAS NMR and SAXS. The results indicated that the inclusion complexes were formed by hydrophobic interactions between alkyl chain of phosphatidylcholine and debranched-starch helix cavity. The complexes possessed a mass fractal structure, and a semicrystalline structure with a Bragg distance of 19.04 nm formed. After complexation, the stability of phosphatidylcholine was significantly improved, and phosphatidylcholine of the complexes can be gradually released with pancreatin treatment. This study revealed that debranched-starch can be used as an effective carrier of phosphatidylcholine for the purpose of improving its stability.

  16. Isoniazid interaction with phosphatidylcholine-based membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Amanda Vicente; Marengo Trindade, Paulo; Marques, Sheylla; Brum, Tainá; Harte, Etienne; Rodrigues, Marieli Oliveira; D'Oca, Marcelo Gonçalves Montes; da Silva, Pedro Almeida; Pohlmann, Adriana R.; Alves, Isabel Dantas; de Lima, Vânia Rodrigues

    2013-11-01

    Interaction between the anti-tuberculosis drug isoniazid (INH) and phosphatidylcholine membranes was investigated in terms of: (i) drug affinity to a lipid bilayer and (ii) drug-induced changes in the dynamic properties of liposomes, such as membrane hydration state, polar head and non-polar acyl chain order and lipid phase transition behavior. These parameters were studied by plasmon waveguide resonance spectroscopy (PWR), UV-visible, horizontal attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (HATR-FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. PWR measurements showed an INH membrane dissociation constant value of 0.031 μM to phosphatidylcholine bilayers. INH induced higher membrane perturbation in the plane which is perpendicular to the membrane plane. The INH saturation concentration in phosphatidylcholine liposomes was 170 μM. At this concentration, HATR-FTIR and NMR findings showed that INH may interact with the lipid polar head, increasing the number of hydrogen bonds in the phosphate region and enhancing the choline motional freedom. DSC measurements showed that, at 115 μM, INH was responsible for a decrease in lipid phase transition temperature of approximately 2 °C and had no influence in the lipid enthalpy variation (ΔH). However, at 170 μM, INH induced the reduction of the ΔH by approximately 52%, suggesting that the drug may increase the distance among lipid molecules and enhance the freedom of the lipid acyl chains methylene groups. This paper provides information on the effects of INH on membrane dynamics which is important to understand liposome targeting of the drug and for the development of anti-TB pharmacologic systems that not only are less susceptible to resistance but also have low toxicity.

  17. Phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and insulin release in rat islets of Langerhans

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Turnover of phosphatidylcholine (PC) has been demonstrated to play a role in glucose stimulation of insulin release by pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The activity of the islet CDP-choline pathway of PC synthesis was determined by measuring the incorporation of radiolabeled choline or {sup 32}PO{sub 4} into PC, phosphorylcholine and CDP-choline. Concurrently, insulin release was measured by radioimmunoassay to correlate insulin release and PC synthesis. Glucose concentrations greater than 8.5 mM stimulated CDP-choline pathway activity. However, measurement of PC lipid phosphorus tended to decrease, suggesting that stimulation of the CDP-choline pathway was a means of replenishing PC pools diminished by hydrolysis of PC. Inhibition of glucose oxidation by mannoheptulose or incubations under hypoxic conditions prevented stimulation of the CDP-choline pathway, while inhibition of phospholipase A{sub 2} (PLA{sub 2}) and secretion by the removal of extracellular Ca{sup 2+} potentiated the stimulation seen with glucose.

  18. The Origin of Chylomicron Phosphatidylcholine in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mansbach, Charles M.

    1977-01-01

    This study investigates the pathways of origin of chylomicron phosphatidylcholine (PC) using a lymph- and bile-fistulated rat infused with a stabilized triolein emulsion. [14C-glycerol]PC was used to evaluate chylomicron PC generated by lyso PC acyltransferase. The percentage of chylomicron PC derived from the PC infused was directly proportional to the PC concentration in the infusate. When the infusate PC concentration was 10 mM, essentially all the chylomicron PC was derived therefrom at 4-6 h of infusion. Incorporation of the radiolabel was not found to be as great in the lymph subnatant PC as in chylomicron PC, suggesting that chylomicron and lymph subnatant PC might be supplied from different PC precursor pools. 32Pi was infused into similarly prepared rats to judge chylomicron PC synthesized from de novo sources. In these experiments it was found that the percentage of chylomicron PC derived from de novo synthesis was inversely related to the PC concentration of the infusate. This suggests that exogenously infused PC inhibits de novo PC synthesis. When [32P]rat bile PC was infused with [14C-glycerol]potato PC, the bile PC was preferred as a chylomicron precursor despite the greater similarity of the saturated fatty acids of potato PC to those of chylomicron PC. When the saturated fatty acids of bile and chylomicron PC were compared, chylomicron PC was significantly richer in stearate, suggesting extensive enterocyte modification of the saturated fatty acids of bile PC. PMID:874099

  19. Membrane-mimetic films of asymmetric phosphatidylcholine lipid bolaamphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue-Long; Biswas, Nilanjana; Kai, Toshitsugu; Dai, Zhifei; Dluhy, Richard A; Chaikof, Elliot L

    2006-01-31

    Membrane-spanning phospholipid bolaamphiphiles either alone or as a constituent of a multicomponent lipid membrane may prove to be facile building blocks for generating robust bioactive membrane-mimetic assemblies. We have previously reported the synthesis of asymmetric dialkyl phospholipid bolaamphiphiles that contain ester linked phosphatidylcholine and amine functionalities at opposite chain ends. In this report, we describe the synthesis of phospholipid bolaamphiphiles that are conjugated to biotin via the terminal amine with or without a poly(ethylene oxide) spacer arm of varying chain length. The behavior of biotinylated bolaamphiphiles as a self-assembled monolayer at an air-water interface was characterized by epi-fluorescence microscopy and revealed that domain structure and pi-A isotherms were substantially influenced by linker type and size. Substrate bound assemblies were produced by Langmuir-Blodgett deposition onto planar substrates coated with an avidin derivatized polyelectrolyte multilayer. Significantly, external reflectance infrared spectroscopy confirmed the fabrication of bolaamphiphile thin films that display extended stability in vitro.

  20. Effects of diacylglycerols on conformation of phosphatidylcholine headgroups in phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, E M; Lester, D S; Borchardt, D B; Zidovetzki, R

    1995-01-01

    The effects of five diacylglycerols (DAGs), diolein, 1-stearoyl,2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol, dioctanoylglycerol, 1-oleoyl,2-sn-acetylglycerol, and dipalmitin (DP), on the structure of lipid bilayers composed of mixtures of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine (4:1 mol/mol) were examined by 2H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine deuterated at the alpha- and beta-positions of the choline moiety was used to probe the surface region of the membranes. Addition of each DAG except DP caused a continuous decrease in the beta-deuteron quadrupole splittings and a concomitant increase in the alpha-deuteron splittings indicating that DAGs induce a conformational change in the phosphatidylcholine headgroup. Additional evidence of conformational change was found at high DAG concentrations (> or = 20 mol%) where the alpha-deuteron peaks became doublets indicating that the two alpha-deuterons were not equivalent. The changes induced by DP were consistent with the lateral phase separation of the bilayers into gel-like and fluid-like domains with the phosphatidylcholine headgroups in the latter phase being virtually unaffected by DP. The DAG-induced changes in alpha-deuteron splittings were found to correlate with DAG-enhanced protein kinase C (PK-C) activity, suggesting that the DAG-induced conformational changes of the phosphatidylcholine headgroups are either directly or indirectly related to a mechanism of PK-C activation. 2H NMR relaxation measurements showed significant increase of the spin-lattice relaxation times for the region of the phosphatidylcholine headgroups, induced by all DAGs except DP. However, this effect of DAGs did not correlate with the DAG-induced activation of PK-C. PMID:8519996

  1. Regulation of Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Waechter, Charles J.; Lester, Robert L.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence is presented which indicates that the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine by the methylation pathway in growing cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is repressed by the presence of choline in the growth medium. This result, obtained previously for glucose-grown cells, was also observed for lactate-grown cells, of which half of the phosphatidylcholine is mitochondrial. A respiration-deficient mutant of the parent wild-type strain has been studied, and its inability to form functional mitochondria cannot be due to an impaired methylation pathway, as it has been shown to incorporate 14C-CH3-methionine into all of the methylated glycerophosphatides. The incorporation rate is depressed by the inclusion of 1 mm choline in the growth medium, suggesting a regulatory effect similar to that demonstrated for the wild-type strain. The effects of choline on the glycerophospholipid composition of lactate and glucose-grown cells is presented. The repressive effects of the two related bases, mono- and dimethylethanolamine, were examined, and reduced levels of 14C-CH3-methionine incorporation were found for cells grown in the presence of these bases. The effect of choline on the methylation rates is reversible and glucosegrown cells regain the nonrepressed level of methylation activity in 60 to 80 min after removal of choline from the growth medium. Images PMID:5547992

  2. Pathways for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Morales, Fernando; Schobert, Max; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2003-12-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the major membrane-forming phospholipid in eukaryotes with important structural and signalling functions. Although many prokaryotes lack PC, it can be found in significant amounts in membranes of rather diverse bacteria. Two pathways for PC biosynthesis are known in bacteria, the methylation pathway and the phosphatidylcholine synthase (PCS) pathway. In the methylation pathway, phosphatidylethanolamine is methylated three times to yield PC, in reactions catalysed by one or several phospholipid N-methyltransferases (PMTs). In the PCS pathway, choline is condensed directly with CDP-diacylglyceride to form PC in a reaction catalysed by PCS. Using cell-free extracts, it was demonstrated that Sinorhizobium meliloti, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Mesorhizobium loti and Legionella pneumophila have both PMT and PCS activities. In addition, Rhodobacter sphaeroides has PMT activity and Brucella melitensis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Borrelia burgdorferi have PCS activities. Genes from M. loti and L. pneumophila encoding a Pmt or a Pcs activity and the genes from P. aeruginosa and Borrelia burgdorferi responsible for Pcs activity have been identified. Based on these functional assignments and on genomic data, one might predict that if bacteria contain PC as a membrane lipid, they usually possess both bacterial pathways for PC biosynthesis. However, important pathogens such as Brucella melitensis, P. aeruginosa and Borrelia burgdorferi seem to be exceptional as they possess only the PCS pathway for PC formation.

  3. Importance of phosphatidylcholine on the chloroplast surface.

    PubMed

    Botella, César; Jouhet, Juliette; Block, Maryse A

    2017-01-01

    In plant cells, phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major glycerolipid of most membranes but practically lacking from the plastid internal membranes. In chloroplasts, PC is absent from the thylakoids and the inner envelope membrane. It is however the main component of the outer envelope membrane, where it exclusively distributes in the outer monolayer. This unique distribution is likely related with operational compartmentalization of plant lipid metabolism. In this review, we summarize the different mechanisms involved in homeostasis of PC in plant cells. The specific origin of chloroplast PC is examined and the involvement of the P4-ATPase family of phospholipid flippases (ALA) is considered with a special attention to the recently reported effect of the endoplasmic reticulum-localized ALA10 on modification of chloroplast PC desaturation. The different possible roles of chloroplast PC are then discussed and analyzed in consideration of plant physiology.

  4. Phosphatidylcholine: Greasing the Cholesterol Transport Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Lagace, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Negative feedback regulation of cholesterol metabolism in mammalian cells ensures a proper balance of cholesterol with other membrane lipids, principal among these being the major phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC). Processes such as cholesterol biosynthesis and efflux, cholesteryl ester storage in lipid droplets, and uptake of plasma lipoproteins are tuned to the cholesterol/PC ratio. Cholesterol-loaded macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions display increased PC biosynthesis that buffers against elevated cholesterol levels and may also facilitate cholesterol trafficking to enhance cholesterol sensing and efflux. These same mechanisms could play a generic role in homeostatic responses to acute changes in membrane free cholesterol levels. Here, I discuss the established and emerging roles of PC metabolism in promoting intracellular cholesterol trafficking and membrane lipid homeostasis. PMID:27081313

  5. ABCB4 exports phosphatidylcholine in a sphingomyelin-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Ishigami, Masato; Nagao, Kohjiro; Hanada, Kentaro; Kono, Nozomu; Arai, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Michinori; Kioka, Noriyuki; Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2015-03-01

    ABCB4, which is specifically expressed on the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes, exports phosphatidylcholine (PC) into bile. Because SM depletion increases cellular PC content and stimulates PC and cholesterol efflux by ABCA1, a key transporter involved in generation of HDL, we predicted that SM depletion also stimulates PC efflux through ABCB4. To test this prediction, we compared the lipid efflux activity of ABCB4 and ABCA1 under SM depletion induced by two different types of inhibitors for SM synthesis, myriocin and (1R,3S)-N-(3-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-3-phenylpropyl)dodecanamide, in human embryonic kidney 293 and baby hamster kidney cells. Unexpectedly, SM depletion exerted opposite effects on ABCB4 and ABCA1, suppressing PC efflux through ABCB4 while stimulating efflux through ABCA1. Both ABCB4 and ABCA1 were recovered from Triton-X-100-soluble membranes, but ABCB4 was mainly recovered from CHAPS-insoluble SM-rich membranes, whereas ABCA1 was recovered from CHAPS-soluble membranes. These results suggest that a SM-rich membrane environment is required for ABCB4 to function. ABCB4 must have evolved to exert its maximum activity in the SM-rich membrane environment of the canalicular membrane, where it transports PC as the physiological substrate.

  6. Oral phosphatidylcholine pretreatment alleviates the signs of experimental rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Erős, Gabor; Ibrahim, Saleh; Siebert, Nikolai; Boros, Mihály; Vollmar, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylcholine-derived metabolites exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in various stress conditions. We hypothesized that dietary phosphatidylcholine may potentially function as an anti-inflammatory substance and may decrease inflammatory activation in a chronic murine model of rheumatoid arthritis (collagen-induced arthritis). Methods The experiments were performed on male DBA1/J mice. In groups 1 to 3 (n = 10 each), collagen-induced arthritis was induced by administration of bovine collagen II. In group 2 the animals were fed ad libitum with phosphatidylcholine-enriched diet as a pretreatment, while the animals of group 3 received this nourishment as a therapy, after the onset of the disease. The severity of the disease and inflammation-linked hyperalgesia were evaluated with semiquantitative scoring systems, while the venular leukocyte–endothelial cell interactions and functional capillary density were assessed by means of in vivo fluorescence microscopy of the synovial tissue. Additionally, the mRNA expressions of cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2, TNFα and endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase were determined, and classical histological analysis was performed. Results Phosphatidylcholine pretreatment reduced the collagen-induced arthritis-induced hypersensitivity, and decreased the number of leukocyte–endothelial cell interactions and the extent of functional capillary density as compared with those of group 1. It also ameliorated the tissue damage and decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. The expressions of the cannabinoid receptors and TNFα were not influenced by the phosphatidylcholine intake. Phosphatidylcholine-enriched food administrated as therapy failed to evoke the aforementioned changes, apart from the reduction of the inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Conclusions Phosphatidylcholine-enriched food as pretreatment, but not as therapy, appears to exert beneficial effects

  7. [Effect of macrocyclic esters on mitochondrial and phosphatidylcholine membranes].

    PubMed

    Bogatskiĭ, A V; Luk'ianenko, N G; Nazarov, E I; Nazarova, N Iu; Konup, I P

    1982-01-01

    It has been found that some macrocyclic esters have no ionophoric properties, but can block valinomycin-induced potassium transport in mitochondrial membranes and lessen the potassium current induced by valinomycin in phosphatidylcholine bilayers. It has been also discovered that 36-member cyclic esters of succinic acid and propylene glycoles decrease fluorescence of puridine nucleotides in mitochondria and produce a modifying effect on bimolecular phosphatidylcholine membranes in the medium of litium, calcium and magnesium chlorides at unilateral injection. The results obtained suggest that cyclopolyesters under investigation form mixed complexes with the macromolecules in the composition of mitochondrial and phosphatidylcholine membranes with the participation of the integrated ion.

  8. EPR study of spermine interaction with multilamellar phosphatidylcholine liposomes.

    PubMed

    Momo, F; Wisniewska, A; Stevanato, R

    1995-11-22

    The interaction of spermine with egg-yolk phosphatidylcholine liposomes was investigated. The EPR spin labeling technique evidenced that spermine induces modifications of some membrane functions of biological interest like water permeability and is a possible modulator of diffusion processes for charged and polar molecules. The association constant for a hypothesized complex between spermine and the phosphate group of phosphatidylcholine was evaluated by enzymatic methods.

  9. Phosphatidylcholine Derived Bolaamphiphiles via ‘Click’ Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, Edward J.; DiVittorio, Kristy M.; Smith, Bradley D.

    2010-01-01

    The copper catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition is employed to modify phosphatidylcholine precursors with sn-2 acyl chains containing terminal alkyne or azide groups. Although the reactions are conducted as biphasic dispersions, the yields are essentially quantitative. Bolaamphiphiles are formed by simply clicking together two phosphatidylcholine alkyne precursors to a central bisazide scaffold. The chemistry introduces polar 1,4-triazole units into the lipophilic region of the bilayer membrane, and the bolaamphiphiles do not form stable vesicles. PMID:17217264

  10. Phospholipid lateral diffusion in phosphatidylcholine-sphingomyelin-cholesterol monolayers; effects of oxidatively truncated phosphatidylcholines.

    PubMed

    Parkkila, Petteri; Stefl, Martin; Olżyńska, Agnieszka; Hof, Martin; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in a number of pathological conditions and the generated oxidatively modified lipids influence membrane properties and functions, including lipid-protein interactions and cellular signaling. Brewster angle microscopy demonstrated oxidatively truncated phosphatidylcholines to promote phase separation in monolayers of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (POPC), sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol). More specifically, 1-palmitoyl-2-azelaoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PazePC), was found to increase the miscibility transition pressure of the SM/Chol-phase. Lateral diffusion of lipids is influenced by a variety of membrane properties, thus making it a sensitive parameter to observe the coexistence of different lipid phases, for instance. The dependence on lipid lateral packing of the lateral diffusion of fluorophore-containing phospholipid analogs was investigated in Langmuir monolayers composed of POPC, SM, and Chol and additionally containing oxidatively truncated phosphatidylcholines, using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). To our knowledge, these are the first FCS results on miscibility transition in ternary lipid monolayers, confirming previous results obtained using Brewster angle microscopy on such lipid monolayers. Wide-field fluorescence microscopy was additionally employed to verify the transition, i.e. the loss and reformation of SM/Chol domains.

  11. Interaction of fluoxetine with phosphatidylcholine liposomes.

    PubMed

    Momo, Federico; Fabris, Sabrina; Stevanato, Roberto

    2005-10-22

    Fluoxetine (Prozac) is one of the latest of a new generation of antidepressants, approved by FDA in 2002. The interactions of fluoxetine with multilamellar liposomes of pure phosphatidylcholine (PC) or containing cholesterol 10% molar were studied as a function of the lipid chain lengths, using differential scanning calorimetry and spin labelling EPR techniques. The DSC profiles of the gel-to-fluid state transition of liposomes of DMPC (C14:0) are broadened and shifted towards lower temperatures at increasing dopant concentrations and, with less than 10% fluoxetine, any detectable transition is destroyed. The broadened profiles and the lowered transition temperatures demonstrate that both the size and the packing of the cooperative units undergoing the transition are modified by fluoxetine, leading to a looser and more flexible bilayer. No phase separation was observed. The effects of fluoxetine on the thermotropic phase behaviour of DPPC (C16:0) and, even more, of DSPC (C18:0) are different from that of DMPC. In fact, in the former cases, two peaks appeared at increasing dopant concentrations, suggesting the occurrence of a phase separation phenomenon, which is a sign of a binding of fluoxetine in the phosphate region. In cholesterol containing membranes, fluoxetine, even at low concentrations, leads to a general corruption of the membrane, both in terms of packing and cooperativity, and the formation of any new phase is no longer observable. EPR spectra reflect the disordered motion of acyl chains in the bilayer. It was found that fluoxetine lowers the order of the lipid chains mainly in correspondence of the fifth carbon position of SASL, indicating a possible accumulation near the interfacial region.

  12. Effects of hypochlorous acid on unsaturated phosphatidylcholines.

    PubMed

    Arnhold, J; Osipov, A N; Spalteholz, H; Panasenko, O M; Schiller, J

    2001-11-01

    Effects of hypochlorous acid and of the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system on mono- and polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines were analyzed by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Chlorohydrins and glycols were detected as main products according to the characteristic shift of molecular masses. Mainly mono-chlorohydrins result upon the incubation of HOCl/(-)OCl with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, whereas only traces of mono-glycols were detected. 1-Palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine yielded a complex mixture of products. Mono-chlorohydrins and glycols dominated only at short incubation, while bis-chlorohydrins as well as products containing one chlorohydrin and one glycol moiety appeared after longer incubation. Similarly, a complex product mixture resulted upon incubation of 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine with hypochlorous acid. Additionally, tris-chlorohydrins, products with two chlorohydrin and one glycol moiety, as well as lysophosphatidylcholines and fragmentation products of the arachidonoyl side chain were detectable. Mono-chlorohydrins of 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine were detected after the incubation of the latter phospholipid with the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system at pH 6.0. These chlorohydrins were not observed in the absence of chloride, hydrogen peroxide, or myeloperoxidase as well as in the presence of methionine, taurine, or sodium azide. Thus, mono-chlorohydrins in 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine produced by hypochlorous acid from the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system can also be detected by means of MALDI-TOF MS.

  13. Regulation of Lipid and Glucose Metabolism by Phosphatidylcholine Transfer Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hye Won; Wei, Jie; Cohen, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP, a.k.a. StARD2) binds phosphatidylcholines and catalyzes their intermembrane transfer and exchange in vitro. The structure of PC-TP comprises a hydrophobic pocket and a well-defined head-group binding site, and its gene expression is regulated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α. Recent studies have revealed key regulatory roles for PC-TP in lipid and glucose metabolism. Notably, Pctp−/− mice are sensitized to insulin action and exhibit more efficient brown fat-mediated thermogenesis. PC-TP appears to limit access of fatty acids to mitochondria by stimulating the activity of thioesterase superfamily member 2, a newly characterized long-chain fatty acyl-CoA thioesterase. Because PC-TP discriminates among phosphatidylcholines within lipid bilayers, it may function as a sensor that links metabolic regulation to membrane composition. PMID:20338778

  14. Efficacy of phosphatidylcholine in the modulation of motion sickness susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.; Ryan, P.; Homick, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of pharmacological doses of phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) in the modulation of motion sickness induced by exposure to coriolis stimulation in a rotating chair. Subjects received daily dietary supplements of 25 grams of lecithin (90 percent phosphatidylcholine) and were tested for their susceptibility to motion sickness after 4 h, 2 d, and 21 d. A small but statistically significant increase in susceptibility (+15 percent) was noted 4 h after supplemental phosphatidylcholine, with four of nine subjects demonstrating a marked increase in susceptibility. This finding was attributed to choline's stimulatory action on cholinergic systems, an action which opposes that of the classical antimotion sickness drug scopolamine. Chronic lecithin loading revealed a trend towards reduced susceptibility, possibly indicating the occurrence of adaptive mechanisms such as receptor down-regulation. Withdrawal from lecithin loading, perhaps coupled with anticholinergic treatment, might prove to be a potent prophylactic regimen and ought to be tested.

  15. Molecular characterization of a phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Preuss, I; Kaiser, I; Gehring, U

    2001-10-01

    While searching for a phospholipase C (PLC) specific for phosphatidylcholine in mammalian tissues, we came across such an activity originating from a contamination of Pseudomonas fluorescens. This psychrophilic bacterium was found to contaminate placental extracts upon processing in the cold. The secreted phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing PLC was purified by a combination of chromatographic procedures. As substrates, the enzyme preferred dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine and 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylcholine over phosphatidylinositol. The active enzyme is a monomer of approximately 40 kDa. As for other bacterial PLCs, the enzyme requires Ca2+ and Zn2+ for activity; dithiothreitol affected the activity due to its chelation of Zn2+, but this inhibition could be compensated for by addition of ZnCl2. The compound D609, described to selectively inhibit phosphatidylcholine-specific PLCs, caused half-inhibition of the P. fluorescens enzyme at approximately 420 microM, while 50-fold lower concentrations similarly affected PLCs from Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens. Partial peptide sequences obtained from the pure P. fluorescens enzyme after tryptic cleavage were used to clone a DNA fragment of 3.5 kb from a P. fluorescens gene library prepared from our laboratory isolate. It contains an ORF of 1155 nucleotides encoding the PLC. There is no significant sequence homology to other PLCs, suggesting that the P. fluorescens enzyme represents a distinct subclass of bacterial PLCs. The protein lacks cysteine residues and consequently contains no disulfide bonds. Interestingly, P. fluorescens reference strain DSMZ 50090 is devoid of the PLC activity described here as well as of the relevant coding sequence.

  16. Production of 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl phosphatidylcholine by bonito muscle lysophosphatidylcholine/transacylase.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Kaoru; Matsui, Hidetoshi; Tanaka, Tamotsu; Matsuura, Fumito; Satouchi, Kiyoshi; Koike, Tohru

    2004-10-01

    1,2-Didocosahexaenoyl phosphatidylcholine (PC), which has highly unsaturated fatty acid at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions of glycerol, is a characteristic molecular species of bonito muscle. To examine the involvement of a de novo route in its synthesis, the molecular species of phosphatidic acid (PA) were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry using a 1,3-bis[bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino]propan-2-olato dizinc(II) complex, a novel phosphate-capture molecule. However, 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl species could not be detected. Next, 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl PC synthesis by the cytosolic lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)/transacylase was examined using endogenous LPC from bonito muscle, in which the 2-docosahexaenoyl species is abundant. The LPC/transacylase synthesized 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl PC as the most abundant molecular species. For further characterization, the LPC/transacylase was purified to homogeneity from the 100,000 x g supernatant of bonito muscle. The isolated LPC/transacylase is a labile glycoprotein with molecular mass of 52 kDa including a 5-kDa sugar moiety. The LPC/transacylase showed a PC synthesis (transacylase activity) below and above the critical micelle concentration of substrate LPC, and fatty acid release (lysophospholipase activity) was always smaller than the transacylase activity, even with a monomeric substrate. These results suggest that the LPC/transacylase is responsible for the synthesis of 1,2-didocosahexaenoyl PC.

  17. A phosphatidylcholine hyaluronic acid chitin-nanofibrils complex for a fast skin remodeling and a rejuvenating look.

    PubMed

    Morganti, Pierfrancesco; Palombo, Paolo; Palombo, Marco; Fabrizi, Giuseppe; Cardillo, Antonio; Svolacchia, Fabiano; Guevara, Luis; Mezzana, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of mortality worldwide has led older individuals to seek intervention modalities to improve their appearance and reverse signs of aging. We formulated a medical device as innovative block-polymer nanoparticles based on phosphatidylcholine, hyaluronan, and chitin nanofibrils entrapping amino acids, vitamins, and melatonin. Viability and collagen synthesis were controlled on fibroblasts ex vivo culture while adenosine triphosphate production was evaluated on keratinocytes culture. Subjective and objective evaluations were performed in vivo on selected volunteer patients. In accordance with our previous studies, both the in vitro and in vivo obtained results demonstrate the efficacy of the injected block-polymer nanoparticles in reducing skin wrinkling and ameliorating the signs of aging.

  18. Knockout of arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase results in sex-dependent changes in phosphatidylcholine metabolism in mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Madelyn C.; Douillet, Christelle C.

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase is the key enzyme in the methylation pathway for inorganic arsenic. We have recently shown that As3mt knockout (KO) has a profound effect on metabolomic profiles in mice. Phosphatidylcholine species (PCs) were the largest group of metabolites altered in both plasma and urine. The present study used targeted analysis to investigate the KO-associated changes in PC profiles in the liver, the site of PC synthesis. Results show that As3mt KO has a systemic effect on PC metabolism and that this effect is sex dependent. PMID:27591999

  19. Knockout of arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase results in sex-dependent changes in phosphatidylcholine metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Madelyn C; Douillet, Christelle C; Stýblo, Miroslav

    2016-12-01

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase is the key enzyme in the methylation pathway for inorganic arsenic. We have recently shown that As3mt knockout (KO) has a profound effect on metabolomic profiles in mice. Phosphatidylcholine species (PCs) were the largest group of metabolites altered in both plasma and urine. The present study used targeted analysis to investigate the KO-associated changes in PC profiles in the liver, the site of PC synthesis. Results show that As3mt KO has a systemic effect on PC metabolism and that this effect is sex dependent.

  20. From brain to food: analysis of phosphatidylcholins, lyso-phosphatidylcholins and phosphatidylcholin-plasmalogens derivates in Alzheimer's disease human post mortem brains and mice model via mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Marcus O W; Grösgen, Sven; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Tanila, Heikki; Grimm, Heike S; Hartmann, Tobias

    2011-10-21

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extracellular senile plaques mainly consisting of Aβ, a 40-42 amino acid long peptide, and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, accompanied by an excessive loss of synapses. Recently evidence accumulated that nutrition, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, influences AD pathogenesis. Especially mid-life food habits with the consumption of specific fatty acids (FA) appear to influence the disease risk. The timely separation between food intake and disease makes a direct correlation with detailed analysis of eating habits combined with accurate food analysis nearly unattainable. A possible solution to circumvent these difficulties is to investigate the FA composition in human post mortem brain. In this study we focused on the main phospholipids phosphatidylcholin (PC), phosphatidylcholin-plasmalogen (PC-PL) and lyso-phosphatidylcholin (lyso-PC) in AD brains compared to control brains. Frontal cortices, temporal cortices and cerebellum of 30 AD (mean 78 years) and 14 control aged matched brains (mean 77.4 years) as well as APP transgenic mice compared to control mice were analyzed using an AB Sciex 4000 Qtrap mass spectrometer utilizing a FIA MS/MS method. PC, PC-PL and lyso-PC metabolites were analyzed in respect to saturation level and FA composition. As expected, the majority of the lipid species showed no significant differences, but interestingly a few species revealed a highly significant reduction in AD brains. These FAs are potential candidates for further food analysis in respect to AD pathology. Additionally, we show that the method applied with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) used for this study is suitable for semi quantitative analysis of small amounts (10 μl) of brain tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronopotentiometric studies of phosphatidylcholine bilayers modified by ergosterol.

    PubMed

    Naumowicz, Monika; Petelska, Aneta Dorota; Figaszewski, Zbigniew Artur

    2011-01-01

    We have monitored the effect of ergosterol on electrical capacitance and electrical resistance of the phosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes using chronopotentiometry method. The chronopotentiometric characteristic of the bilayers depends on constant-current flow through the membranes. For low current values, no electroporation takes place and the membrane voltage rises exponentially to a constant value described by the Ohm's law. Based on these kinds of chronopotentiometric curves, a method of the membrane capacitance and the membrane resistance calculations is presented.

  2. Localization of phosphatidylcholine in outer envelope membrane of spinach chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    We have examined the effects of phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus on the extent of phospholipid hydrolysis in envelope membrane vesicles and in intact chloroplasts. When isolated envelope vesicles were incubated in presence of phospholipase C, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol, but not phosphatidylinositol, were totally converted into diacylglycerol if they were available to the enzyme (i.e., when the vesicles were sonicated in presence of phospholipase C). These experiments demonstrate that phospholipase C can be used to probe the availability of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol in the cytosolic leaflet of the outer envelope membrane from spinach chloroplasts. When isolated, purified, intact chloroplasts were incubated with low amounts of phospholipase C (0.3 U/mg chlorophyll) under very mild conditions (12 degrees C for 1 min), greater than 80% of phosphatidylcholine molecules and almost none of phosphatidylglycerol molecules were hydrolyzed. Since we have also demonstrated, by using several different methods (phase-contrast and electron microscopy, immunochemical and electrophoretic analyses) that isolated spinach chloroplasts, and especially their outer envelope membrane, remained intact after mild treatment with phospholipase C, we can conclude that there is a marked asymmetric distribution of phospholipids across the outer envelope membrane of spinach chloroplasts. Phosphatidylcholine, the major polar lipid of the outer envelope membrane, is almost entirely accessible from the cytosolic side of the membrane and therefore is probably localized in the outer leaflet of the outer envelope bilayer. On the contrary, phosphatidylglycerol, the major polar lipid in the inner envelope membrane and the thylakoids, is probably not accessible to phospholipase C from the cytosol and therefore is probably localized mostly in the inner leaflet of the outer envelope membrane and in the other chloroplast membranes. PMID:3988805

  3. Stability of drug-carrier emulsions containing phosphatidylcholine mixtures.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Michele; Pattarino, Franco; Ignoni, Terenzio

    2002-03-01

    Lipid emulsion particles containing 10% of medium chain triglycerides were prepared using 2% w/w of a mixture 1:1 w/w of purified soya phosphatidylcholine and 2-hexanoyl phosphatidylcholine as emulsifier mixture, for use as drug carriers. The mean droplet sizes of emulsions, prepared using an Ultra Turrax or a high-pressure homogenizer, were about 288 and 158 nm, respectively, compared with 380 and 268 nm for emulsions containing lecithin, or 325 and 240 nm for those containing 6-phosphatidylcholine. The stability of the emulsions, determined by monitoring the decrease of a lipophilic marker at a specified level within the emulsion, and observing coalescence over time, was also greatly increased using the emulsifier mixture. The emulsion stability did not notably change in the presence of a model destabilizing drug, indomethacin. The use of a second hydrophilic surfactant to adjust the packing properties of the lecithin at the oil-water interface provided an increase in the stability of lipid emulsions, and this may be of importance in the formulation of drug delivery systems.

  4. The effect of phosphatidylcholine to sphingomyelin mole ratio on the dynamic properties of sheep erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Borochov, H; Zahler, P; Wilbrandt, W; Shinitzky, M

    1977-11-01

    Sheep red blood cells are shown to incorporate phosphatidylchline when incubated in human plasma in the presence of EGTA. This treatment results in up to a 5-fold increase in mol ratio of phosphatidylcholine to sphingomyelin. By replacing EGTA with Ca+ the increase of phsphatidylcholine content is completely inhibited, due to the activation of the membrane bound lecithinase which rapidly degrades the incorporated phosphatidylcholine. Analogous treatments of the isolate membranes resulted in similar phosphatidylcholine incorporation but in the presence of Ca+ a residual phosphatidylcholine uptake was still oberved. These results suggest that in the isolated membranes small amounts of phosphatidylcholine can be incorporated into an additional region which is unavailable for the membrane lecithinase. The increase in the phosphatidylcholine to sphingomyelin mol ratio in sheep red blood cells is concomitant with an increase in lipid fluidity, as well as increase in osmotic fragility9

  5. Apolipoprotein-induced conversion of phosphatidylcholine bilayer vesicles into nanodisks.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chung-Ping Leon; Chiu, Michael H; Wu, Xinping; Lee, Sean K; Prenner, Elmar J; Weers, Paul M M

    2011-03-01

    Apolipoprotein mediated formation of nanodisks was studied in detail using apolipophorin III (apoLp-III), thereby providing insight in apolipoprotein-lipid binding interactions. The spontaneous solubilization of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) vesicles occured only in a very narrow temperature range at the gel-liquid-crystalline phase transition temperature, exhibiting a net exothermic interaction based on isothermal titration calorimetry analysis. The resulting nanodisks were protected from proteolysis by trypsin, endoproteinase Glu-C, chymotrypsin and elastase. DMPC solubilization and the simultaneous formation of nanodisks were promoted by increasing the vesicle diameter, protein to lipid ratio and concentration. Inclusion of cholesterol in DMPC dramatically enhanced the rate of nanodisk formation, presumably by stabilization of lattice defects which form the main insertion sites for apolipoprotein α-helices. The presence of fully saturated acyl chains with a length of 13 or 14 carbons in phosphatidylcholine allowed the spontaneous vesicle solubilization upon apolipoprotein addition. Nanodisks with C13:0-phosphatidylcholine were significantly smaller with a diameter of 11.7 ± 3.1nm compared to 18.5 ± 5.6 nm for DMPC nanodisks determined by transmission electron microscopy. Nanodisk formation was not observed when the phosphatidylcholine vesicles contained acyl chains of 15 or 16 carbons. However, using very high concentrations of lipid and protein (>10mg/ml), 1,2,-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine nanodisks could be produced spontaneously although the efficiency remained low. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Vesicle-mediated phosphatidylcholine reapposition to the plasma membrane following hormone-induced phospholipase D activation.

    PubMed

    Coletti, D; Silvestroni, L; Naro, F; Molinaro, M; Adamo, S; Palleschi, S

    2000-04-10

    Phospholipase D (PLD) activation involved in signal transduction may lead to the hydrolysis of conspicuous amounts of phosphatidylcholine (PC). This study shows that PLD activation significantly alters the plasma membrane (PM) environment and the membrane exchange dynamics. PC-PLD activation in vasopressin (AVP)-stimulated L6 myogenic cells was accompanied by increased exocytosis and decreased membrane fluidity, as shown by transmission EM and fluorescence spectroscopy of trimethylammonium-diphenyl-hexatriene. AVP-induced exocytosis appeared to be brefeldin A-insensitive. PLD inhibition by Zn(2+) and PC de novo synthesis inhibition by hexadecylphosphocholine abolished AVP-induced vesicle traffic. Upon AVP stimulation, metabolically labeled PC decreased in PM, then transiently increased in microsomes, and returned to the prestimulus level in the PM within 5 min, a phenomenon requiring PC neosynthesis and microtubule functionality. Vesicle traffic with similar features was also observed after endothelin-1-induced PC-PLD activation in rat peritubular myoid cells. These results indicate that, in nonsecretory cells, exocytosis coupled to PC de novo synthesis restores PM-PC, conspicuously consumed during PLD-mediated signal transduction. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  7. Expression of phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic enzymes during early embryogenesis in the amphibian Bufo arenarum.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bussy, Rodrigo; Mouguelar, Valeria; Banchio, Claudia; Coux, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    In the principal route of phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis the regulatory steps are catalysed by CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) and choline kinase (CK). Knock-out mice in Pcyt1a (CCT gene) and Chka1 (CK gene) resulted in preimplantation embryonic lethality, demonstrating the essential role of this pathway. However, there is still a lack of detailed CCT and CK expression analysis during development. The aim of the current work was to study the expression during early development of both enzymes in the external-fertilization vertebrate Bufo arenarum. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot confirmed their presence in unfertilized eggs. Analysis performed in total extracts from staged embryos showed constant protein levels of both enzymes until the 32-cell stage: then they decreased, reaching a minimum in the gastrula before starting to recover. CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase is an amphitropic enzyme that inter-converts between cytosolic inactive and membrane-bound active forms. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that the cytosolic:total CCT protein ratio does not change throughout embryogenesis, suggesting a progressive decline of CCT activity in early development. However, PC (and phosphatidylethanolamine) content per egg/embryo remained constant throughout the stages analysed. In conclusion, the current data for B. arenarum suggest that net synthesis of PC mediated by CCT and CK is not required in early development and that supplies for membrane biosynthesis are fulfilled by lipids already present in the egg/embryo reservoirs.

  8. Gut flora metabolism of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zeneng; Klipfell, Elizabeth; Bennett, Brian J.; Koeth, Robert; Levison, Bruce S.; DuGar, Brandon; Feldstein, Ariel E.; Britt, Earl B.; Fu, Xiaoming; Chung, Yoon-Mi; Wu, Yuping; Schauer, Phil; Smith, Jonathan D.; Allayee, Hooman; Tang, W. H. Wilson; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolomics studies hold promise for discovery of pathways linked to disease processes. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide. A metabolomics approach was used to generate unbiased small molecule metabolic profiles in plasma that predict risk for CVD. Three metabolites of the dietary lipid phosphatidylcholine, namely choline, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), and betaine, were identified and then shown to predict risk for CVD in an independent large clinical cohort. Dietary supplementation of mice with choline, TMAO or betaine promoted up-regulation of multiple macrophage scavenger receptors linked to atherosclerosis, and supplementation with choline or TMAO promoted atherosclerosis. Studies using germ-free mice confirmed a critical role for dietary choline and gut flora in TMAO production, augmented macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. Suppression of intestinal microflora in atherosclerosis-prone mice inhibited dietary choline-enhanced atherosclerosis. Genetic variations controlling expression of flavin monooxygenases (FMOs), an enzymatic source of TMAO, segregated with atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice. Discovery of a relationship between gut flora-dependent metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine and CVD pathogenesis provides opportunities for development of both novel diagnostic tests and therapeutic approaches for atherosclerotic heart disease. PMID:21475195

  9. Novel pathway for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in bacteria associated with eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    López-Lara, I M; Geiger, O

    2001-10-04

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the major membrane-forming phospholipid in eukaryotes and can be synthesised by either of two pathways, the CDP-choline pathway or the methylation pathway. Many prokaryotes lack PC, but it can be found in significant amounts in membranes of distantly related bacteria such as Rhizobacteria and Spirochetes. Enzymatic methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine via the methylation pathway was thought to be the only biosynthetic pathway to yield PC in bacteria. However, a novel choline-dependent pathway for PC biosynthesis has been discovered in Sinorhizobium meliloti. In this pathway, a novel enzymatic activity, PC synthase, condenses choline directly with CDP-diacylglyceride to form PC in one step. Surprisingly, genomes of some pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Borrelia burgdorferi and Legionella pneumophila) contain genes similar to the sinorhizobial gene for phosphatidylcholine synthase. We, therefore, suggest that the new PC synthase pathway is present in a number of bacteria displaying symbiotic or pathogenic associations with eukaryotes and that the eukaryotic host functions as the provider of choline for this pathway.

  10. Physical and biological properties of cationic triesters of phosphatidylcholine

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, RC; Ashley, GW; Shida, MM; Rakhmanova, VA; Tarahovsky, YS; Pantazatos, DP; Kennedy, MT; Pozharski, EV; Baker, KA; Jones, RD; Rosenzweig, HS; Choi, KL; Qiu, R; McIntosh, TJ

    1999-01-01

    The properties of a new class of phospholipids, alkyl phosphocholine triesters, are described. These compounds were prepared from phosphatidylcholines through substitution of the phosphate oxygen by reaction with alkyl trifluoromethylsulfonates. Their unusual behavior is ascribed to their net positive charge and absence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding. The O-ethyl, unsaturated derivatives hydrated to generate large, unilamellar liposomes. The phase transition temperature of the saturated derivatives is very similar to that of the precursor phosphatidylcholine and quite insensitive to ionic strength. The dissociation of single molecules from bilayers is unusually facile, as revealed by the surface activity of aqueous liposome dispersions. Vesicles of cationic phospholipids fused with vesicles of anionic lipids. Liquid crystalline cationic phospholipids such as 1, 2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine triflate formed normal lipid bilayers in aqueous phases that interacted with short, linear DNA and supercoiled plasmid DNA to form a sandwich-structured complex in which bilayers were separated by strands of DNA. DNA in a 1:1 (mol) complex with cationic lipid was shielded from the aqueous phase, but was released by neutralizing the cationic charge with anionic lipid. DNA-lipid complexes transfected DNA into cells very effectively. Transfection efficiency depended upon the form of the lipid dispersion used to generate DNA-lipid complexes; in the case of the O-ethyl derivative described here, large vesicle preparations in the liquid crystalline phase were most effective. PMID:10545361

  11. Dietary and biliary phosphatidylcholine activates PKCζ in rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Shahzad; Mansbach, Charles M

    2015-04-01

    Chylomicron output by the intestine is proportional to intestinal phosphatidylcholine (PC) delivery. Using five different variations of PC delivery to the intestine, we found that lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC), the absorbed form of PC, concentrations in the cytosol (0 to 0.45 nM) were proportional to the input rate. The activity of protein kinase C (PKC)ζ, which controls prechylomicron output rate by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), correlated with the lyso-PC concentration suggesting that it may be a PKCζ activator. Using recombinant PKCζ, the Km for lyso-PC activation was 1.49 nM and the Vmax 1.12 nM, more than the maximal lyso-PC concentration in cytosol, 0.45 nM. Among the phospholipids and their lyso derivatives, lyso-PC was the most potent activator of PKCζ and the only one whose cytosolic concentration suggested that it could be a physiological activator because other phospholipid concentrations were negligible. PKCζ was on the surface of the dietary fatty acid transport vesicle, the caveolin-1-containing endocytic vesicle. Once activated, PKCζ, eluted off the vesicle. A conformational change in PKCζ on activation was suggested by limited proteolysis. We conclude that PKCζ on activation changes its conformation resulting in elution from its vesicle. The downstream effect of dietary PC is to activate PKCζ, resulting in greater chylomicron output by the ER.

  12. Interaction of the Lipopeptide Biosurfactant Lichenysin with Phosphatidylcholine Model Membranes.

    PubMed

    Coronel, Jonathan R; Marqués, Ana; Manresa, Ángeles; Aranda, Francisco J; Teruel, José A; Ortiz, Antonio

    2017-09-26

    Lichenysins produced by Bacillus licheniformis are anionic lipopeptide biosurfactants with cytotoxic, antimicrobial, and hemolytic activities that possess enormous potential for chemical and biological applications. Through the use of physical techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry, small- and wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy as well as molecular dynamics simulations, we report on the interaction of Lichenysin with synthetic phosphatidylcholines differing in hydrocarbon chain length. Lichenysin alters the thermotropic phase behavior of phosphatidylcholines, displaying fluid-phase immiscibility and showing a preferential partitioning into fluid domains. The interlamellar repeat distance of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) is modified, affecting both the phospholipid palisade and the lipid/water interface, which also experiences a strong dehydration. Molecular dynamics confirms that Lichenysin is capable of interacting both with the hydrophobic portion of DPPC and with the polar headgroup region, which is of particular relevance to explain much of its properties. The results presented here help to establish a molecular basis for the Lichenysin-induced perturbation of model and biological membranes previously described in the literature.

  13. Autoantibodies against mouse bromelain-modified RBC are specifically inhibited by a common membrane phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, K O; Hardy, S J

    1985-01-01

    Sera from mice injected 4 days earlier with lipopolysaccharide lysed mouse RBC treated with bromelain (brom). This lytic activity was totally inhibited by including phosphatidylcholine at final concentrations of about 2 micrograms/ml, or more, in the lytic mixtures. In contrast, the lytic activity of antibodies against rat RBC was not inhibited, even at concentrations of phosphatidylcholine up to 2.5 mg/ml. Various components of the phosphatidylcholine molecule, and other lipids including the closely-related molecule dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl-dimethyl-ethanolamine which is identical to dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, except for the absence of a CH2 group on the polar head group, did not inhibit lysis by the autoantibodies. Autoantibodies against mouse brom RBC, but not antibodies against rat RBC, bound to, and could be eluted from, phosphatidylcholine molecules attached to an insoluble matrix. Liposomes of phosphatidylcholine prepared in the presence of phosphatidic acid or phosphatidylinositol did not inhibit the lysis of mouse brom RBC by autoantibodies to the same extent as liposomes of only phosphatidylcholine. This suggests that phosphatidylcholine is recognized by the autoantibodies only if presented in a certain configuration. We suggest that the function of these autoantibodies may be to facilitate the removal of membrane-damaged cells from the body. Such cells may arise by the process of ageing, or because of the effects of infectious agents such as viruses. PMID:4007927

  14. Evidence for an oleoyl phosphatidylcholine desaturase in microsomal preparations from cotyledons of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) seed.

    PubMed Central

    Slack, C R; Roughan, P G; Browse, J

    1979-01-01

    1. [14C]Oleoyl-CoA was metabolized rapidly and essentially completely by microsomal preparations from developing safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) cotyledons, and most of the [14C]oleate was incorporated into 3-sn-phosphatidylcholine. 2. In aerobic reaction mixtures containing NADH2 the [14C]oleate in 3-sn-phosphatidylcholine was converted into [14C]linoleate without any change in the specific radioactivity of the lipid. Over a 60 min incubation period the extent of conversion of [14C]oleoyl phosphatidylcholine into [14C]linoleoyl phosphatidylcholine was generally greater than 60%. The rate of desaturation of endogenous [14C]oleoyl phosphatidylcholine labelled from [14C]oleoyl-CoA was much greater that of exogenous [14C]dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine the specific radioactivity of the oleoyl moiety of the lipid remained constant, indicating that labelled and unlabelled oleate were desaturated at the same rate. On this assumption an initial rate of desaturation of about 15 nmol of oleate desaturated/min per mumol of 3-sn-phosphatidylcholine was estimated. 4. [14C]Oleate esterified at positions 1 and 2 of both endogenous and exogenous 3-sn-phosphatidylcholine was desaturated. 5. Attempts to demonstrate the presence of an oleoyl-CoA desaturase in safflower microsomal fractions by the appearance of linoleoyl-CoA in reaction mixtures were inconclusive. PMID:475773

  15. Production of Structured Phosphatidylcholine with High Content of DHA/EPA by Immobilized Phospholipase A1-Catalyzed Transesterification

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Jia-Feng; Yang, Bo; Li, Dao-Ming; Wang, Yong-Hua; Wang, Wei-Fei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of structured phosphatidylcholine (PC) enriched with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by transesterification of DHA/EPA-rich ethyl esters with PC using immobilized phospholipsase A1 (PLA1) in solvent-free medium. Firstly, liquid PLA1 was immobilized on resin D380, and it was found that a pH of 5 and a support/PLA1 ratio (w/v) of 1:3 were the best conditions for the adsorption. Secondly, the immobilized PLA1 was used to catalyze transesterification of PC and DHA/EPA-rich ethyl esters. The maximal incorporation of DHA and EPA achieved was 30.7% for 24 h of reaction at 55 °C using a substrate mass ratio (PC/ethyl esters) of 1:6, an immobilized PLA1 loading of 15% and water dosage of 1.25%. Then the reaction mixture was analyzed by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The composition of reaction product included 16.5% PC, 26.3% 2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-lysophosphatidylcholine (1-LPC), 31.4% 1-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-lysophosphatidylcholine (2-LPC), and 25.8% sn-glycerol-3-phosphatidylcholine (GPC). PMID:25170810

  16. The interaction of bioactive peptides with an immobilized phosphatidylcholine monolayer.

    PubMed Central

    Mozsolits, H; Lee, T H; Wirth, H J; Perlmutter, P; Aguilar, M I

    1999-01-01

    The interaction of three bioactive peptides, bombesin, beta-endorphin, and glucagon with a phosphatidylcholine monolayer that was immobilized to porous silica particles and packed into a stainless steel column cartridge, has been studied using dynamic elution techniques. This immobilized lipid monolayer provides a biophysical model system with which to study the binding of peptides to a lipid membrane. In particular, the influence of temperature and methanol concentration on the affinity of each peptide for the immobilized lipid surface was assessed. For all test peptides, nonlinear retention plots were observed at all temperatures that contrasted sharply with the simple linear plots observed for the small unstructured control molecules N-acetyltryptophanamide and diphenylalanine. An analysis of the thermodynamics of the interaction of peptides with the immobilized monolayer was also carried out. The results revealed that while the peptides interacted with the monolayer predominantly through hydrophobic interactions, the relative contribution of DeltaH(assoc)(O) and DeltaS(assoc)(O) to the overall free energy of association was dependent on the temperature and methanol concentration. In particular, it was evident that under most conditions, the binding of the peptides to the immobilized lipid monolayer was enthalpy-driven, i.e., mediated by nonclassical hydrophobic interactions. Significant band-broadening and asymmetric and split peaks were also observed for bombesin, beta-endorphin, and glucagon at different temperatures and methanol concentrations. These changes in affinity and peak shape are consistent with the formation of multiple conformational species during the interaction of these peptides with the lipid monolayer. In addition, the binding behavior of the three test peptides on an n-octylsilica surface that lacked the phospho headgroups of the phospholipid was significantly different from that observed with the immobilized phosphatidylcholine surface

  17. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alters phosphatidylcholine metabolism in elicited peritoneal macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, R.I.; Allegretto, N.J.; Kiener, P.A.; Warr, G.A. )

    1990-07-01

    We investigated the effects of LPS on mouse peritoneal macrophage phospholipids using radiolabeled precursors. LPS (200 ng/ml) stimulated incorporation of ({sup 32}P) into all classes of phospholipids within 0.5 hr, and after 2 hr the increase was 60% greater than controls. Separation of the phospholipid classes by thin-layer chromatography revealed a selective increase in incorporation of label into phosphatidylcholine (PC) (90% increase compared to approximately 50% in the other phospholipids). In macrophages labeled with ({sup 3}H)-choline, LPS stimulated both the incorporation of label into PC and the release of incorporated label into the medium. The time dependencies of stimulated ({sup 3}H) release and ({sup 32}P) incorporation were similar. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that LPS activates macrophages via a PC-specific phospholipase-dependent mechanism.

  18. Thermotropic and Barotropic Phase Behavior of Phosphatidylcholine Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Matsuki, Hitoshi; Goto, Masaki; Tada, Kaori; Tamai, Nobutake

    2013-01-01

    Bilayers formed by phospholipids are frequently used as model biological membranes in various life science studies. A characteristic feature of phospholipid bilayers is to undergo a structural change called a phase transition in response to environmental changes of their surroundings. In this review, we focus our attention on phase transitions of some major phospholipids contained in biological membranes, phosphatidylcholines (PCs), depending on temperature and pressure. Bilayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), which is the most representative lipid in model membrane studies, will first be explained. Then, the bilayer phase behavior of various kinds of PCs with different molecular structures is revealed from the temperature–pressure phase diagrams, and the difference in phase stability among these PC bilayers is discussed in connection with the molecular structure of the PC molecules. Furthermore, the solvent effect on the phase behavior is also described briefly. PMID:23348926

  19. Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine: A Remarkable Exception to Tocopherol s Membrane Presence

    SciTech Connect

    Marquardt, Drew; Williams, Justin; Kinnun, Justin A.; Kucerka, Norbert; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Wassall, Stephen; Katsaras, John; Harroun, Thad

    2014-01-01

    Using data obtained from different physical techniques (i.e., neutron diffraction, NMR and UV spectroscopy), we present evidence which explains some of the conflicting and inexplicable data found in the literature regarding -tocopherol s (aToc s) behavior in dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (di-14:0PC) bilayers. Without exception, the data point to aToc s active chromanol moiety residing deep in the hydrophobic core of di-14:0PC bilayers, a location that is in stark contrast to aToc s location in other PC bilayers. Our result is a clear example of the importance of lipid species diversity in biological membranes and importantly, it suggests that measurements of aToc s oxidation kinetics, and its associated byproducts observed in di-14:0PC bilayers, should be reexamined, this time taking into account its noncanonical location in this bilayer.

  20. Miscibility properties of binary phosphatidylcholine mixtures. A calorimetric study.

    PubMed

    van Dijck, P W; Kaper, A J; Oonk, H A; de Gier, J

    1977-10-03

    From data obtained by differential scanning calorimetry phase diagrams were constructed, using a thermodynamically based fitting method. The following binary mixtures of phosphatidylcholines in water were studied: 14:0/14:0-glycerophosphocholine/16:0/16:0-glucerophosphocholine, 14:0/14:0-glycerophosphocholine/18:0/18:0-glycerophosphocholine, 12:0/12:0-glycerophosphocholine/16:0/16:0-glycerophosphocholine, 18:1t/18:1t-glycerophosphocholine/14:0/14:0-glycerophosphocholine and 18:1t/18:1t-glycerophosphocholine/16:0/16:0-glycerophosphocholine. A comparison is made of the present results with those obtained using probe techniques and the differences are discussed.

  1. Kinetin Increases Water Permeability of Phosphatidylcholine Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Stillwell, William; Hester, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Kinetin is shown to increase substantially the water permeability of liposomes composed of several types of phosphatidylcholines including the natural phospholipids egg lecithin and asolectin and the synthetic phospholipids dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. Kinetin effects were measured from 16.3 micromolar to 2.4 millimolar at temperatures from 10°C to 50°C and at pH 2.0, 7.0, and 11.0. Temperature studies indicate that kinetin produces a larger increase in water permeability with membranes in the more fluid liquid crystalline state. Kinetin is also shown to enhance [14C]glucose permeability and perhaps promotes membrane aggregation. From these experiments, we conclude that kinetin may produce its initial effect by altering the lipid bilayer portion of membranes. PMID:16662860

  2. Antibiotic-loaded phosphatidylcholine inhibits staphylococcal bone infection

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Jessica Amber; Beenken, Karen E; Skinner, Robert A; Meeker, Daniel G; Smeltzer, Mark S; Haggard, Warren O; Troxel, Karen S

    2016-01-01

    AIM To test antibiotic-loaded coating for efficacy in reducing bacterial biofilm and development of osteomyelitis in an orthopaedic model of implant infection. METHODS Phosphatidylcholine coatings loaded with 25% vancomycin were applied to washed and sterilized titanium wires 20 mm in length. A 10 mm segment was removed from rabbit radius (total = 9; 5 coated, 4 uncoated), and the segment was injected with 1 × 106 colony forming units (CFUs) of Staphylococcus aureus (UAMS-1 strain). Titanium wires were inserted through the intramedullary canal of the removed segment and into the proximal radial segment and the segment was placed back into the defect. After 7 d, limbs were removed, X-rayed, swabbed for tissue contamination. Wires were removed and processed to determine attached CFUs. Tissue was swabbed and streaked on agar plates to determine bacteriological score. RESULTS Antibiotic-loaded coatings resulted in significantly reduced biofilm formation (4.7 fold reduction in CFUs; P < 0.001) on titanium wires and reduced bacteriological score in surrounding tissue (4.0 ± 0 for uncoated, 1.25 ± 0.5 for coated; P = 0.01). Swelling and pus formation was evident in uncoated controls at the 7 d time point both visually and radiographically, but not in antibiotic-loaded coatings. CONCLUSION Active antibiotic was released from coated implants and significantly reduced signs of osteomyelitic symptoms. Implant coatings were well tolerated in bone. Further studies with additional control groups and longer time periods are warranted. Antibiotic-loaded phosphatidylcholine coatings applied at the point of care could prevent implant-associated infection in orthopaedic defects. PMID:27622146

  3. The Phosphatidylcholine Transfer Protein Stard7 is Required for Mitochondrial and Epithelial Cell Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Na, Cheng-Lun; Luo, Shiyu; Wu, David; Hogan, Simon; Huang, Taosheng; Weaver, Timothy E

    2017-04-12

    Mitochondria synthesize select phospholipids but lack the machinery for synthesis of the most abundant mitochondrial phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine (PC). Although the phospholipid transfer protein Stard7 promotes uptake of PC by mitochondria, the importance of this pathway for mitochondrial and cellular homeostasis represents a significant knowledge gap. Haploinsufficiency for Stard7 is associated with significant exacerbation of allergic airway disease in mice, including an increase in epithelial barrier permeability. To test the hypothesis that Stard7 deficiency leads to altered barrier structure/function downstream of mitochondrial dysfunction, Stard7 expression was knocked down in a bronchiolar epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) and specifically deleted in lung epithelial cells of mice (Stard7(epi∆/∆)). Stard7 deficiency was associated with altered mitochondrial size and membrane organization both in vitro and in vivo. Altered mitochondrial structure was accompanied by disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis, including decreased aerobic respiration, increased oxidant stress, and mitochondrial DNA damage that, in turn, was linked to altered barrier integrity and function. Both mitochondrial and barrier defects were largely corrected by targeting Stard7 to mitochondria or treating epithelial cells with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant. These studies suggest that Stard7-mediated transfer of PC is crucial for mitochondrial homeostasis and that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to altered barrier permeability in Stard7-deficient mice.

  4. Phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis by the Kennedy pathway occurs at different sites in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Farine, Luce; Niemann, Moritz; Schneider, André; Bütikofer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) are among the most abundant phospholipids in biological membranes. In many eukaryotes, the CDP-ethanolamine and CDP-choline branches of the Kennedy pathway represent major and often essential routes for the production of PE and PC, with ethanolamine and choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferases (EPT and CEPT, respectively) catalysing the last reactions in the respective pathways. Although the site of PE and PC synthesis is commonly known to be the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), detailed information on the localization of the different phosphotransferases is lacking. In the unicellular parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, both branches of the Kennedy pathway are essential for cell growth in culture. We have previously reported that T. brucei EPT (TbEPT) catalyses the production of ether-type PE molecular species while T. brucei CEPT (TbCEPT) synthesizes diacyl-type PE and PC molecular species. We now show that the two enzymes localize to different sub-compartments of the ER. By expressing a series of tagged forms of the two enzymes in T. brucei parasites, in combination with sub-cellular fractionation and enzyme activity measurements, TbEPT was found exclusively in the perinuclear ER, a distinct area located close to but distinct from the nuclear membrane. In contrast, TbCEPT was detected in the bulk ER. PMID:26577437

  5. Phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis by the Kennedy pathway occurs at different sites in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Farine, Luce; Niemann, Moritz; Schneider, André; Bütikofer, Peter

    2015-11-18

    Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) are among the most abundant phospholipids in biological membranes. In many eukaryotes, the CDP-ethanolamine and CDP-choline branches of the Kennedy pathway represent major and often essential routes for the production of PE and PC, with ethanolamine and choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferases (EPT and CEPT, respectively) catalysing the last reactions in the respective pathways. Although the site of PE and PC synthesis is commonly known to be the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), detailed information on the localization of the different phosphotransferases is lacking. In the unicellular parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, both branches of the Kennedy pathway are essential for cell growth in culture. We have previously reported that T. brucei EPT (TbEPT) catalyses the production of ether-type PE molecular species while T. brucei CEPT (TbCEPT) synthesizes diacyl-type PE and PC molecular species. We now show that the two enzymes localize to different sub-compartments of the ER. By expressing a series of tagged forms of the two enzymes in T. brucei parasites, in combination with sub-cellular fractionation and enzyme activity measurements, TbEPT was found exclusively in the perinuclear ER, a distinct area located close to but distinct from the nuclear membrane. In contrast, TbCEPT was detected in the bulk ER.

  6. ABCB4 exports phosphatidylcholine in a sphingomyelin-dependent manner[S

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu; Ishigami, Masato; Nagao, Kohjiro; Hanada, Kentaro; Kono, Nozomu; Arai, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Michinori; Kioka, Noriyuki; Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2015-01-01

    ABCB4, which is specifically expressed on the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes, exports phosphatidylcholine (PC) into bile. Because SM depletion increases cellular PC content and stimulates PC and cholesterol efflux by ABCA1, a key transporter involved in generation of HDL, we predicted that SM depletion also stimulates PC efflux through ABCB4. To test this prediction, we compared the lipid efflux activity of ABCB4 and ABCA1 under SM depletion induced by two different types of inhibitors for SM synthesis, myriocin and (1R,3S)-N-(3-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-3-phenylpropyl)dodecanamide, in human embryonic kidney 293 and baby hamster kidney cells. Unexpectedly, SM depletion exerted opposite effects on ABCB4 and ABCA1, suppressing PC efflux through ABCB4 while stimulating efflux through ABCA1. Both ABCB4 and ABCA1 were recovered from Triton-X-100-soluble membranes, but ABCB4 was mainly recovered from CHAPS-insoluble SM-rich membranes, whereas ABCA1 was recovered from CHAPS-soluble membranes. These results suggest that a SM-rich membrane environment is required for ABCB4 to function. ABCB4 must have evolved to exert its maximum activity in the SM-rich membrane environment of the canalicular membrane, where it transports PC as the physiological substrate. PMID:25601960

  7. Binding of calcium to phosphatidylcholines as determined by proton magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yabusaki, K K; Wells, M A

    1975-01-14

    The interactions of calcium, magnesium, and the rare earth cations, cerium, neodymium, and praseodymium, with phosphatidylcholines were studied by proton magnetic resonance and infared spectroscopy. The calcium-induced chemical shifts for the various protons of phosphatidylcholine were C alpha choline greater than C beta choline greater than N(CH3)3 greater than C3 glycerol. No significant chemical shifts were observed for the C1 and C2 glycerol protons. None of the acyl chain protons were affected by the presence of calcium. Analysis of the salt-induced chemical shifts yielded binding curves with an excellent fit with the theoretical. The vicinal coupling constants for the various protons of phosphatidylcholine did not appear to change in the presence of calcium. The lanthanide-induced isotropic shifts for the protons of phosphatidylcholines followed the order Cbeta choline greater than C3 glycerol greater than Calpha choline greater than N(CH3)3. Examination of the P=O stretching band (1150-1300 cm-1) of phosphatidylcholines by differential infrared spectroscopy showed that this band shifted to shorter wavelengths in the presence of calcium. The site of calcium binding to phosphatidylcholines as deduced from the proton magnetic resonance and infrared data is discussed in light of the high specificity for calcium in enhancing the amino-catalyzed methanolysis of phosphatidylcholines.

  8. Inferior Prefrontal Cortex Mediates the Relationship between Phosphatidylcholine and Executive Functions in Healthy, Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zamroziewicz, Marta K.; Zwilling, Chris E.; Barbey, Aron K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines the neural mechanisms that mediate the relationship between phosphatidylcholine and executive functions in cognitively intact older adults. We hypothesized that higher plasma levels of phosphatidylcholine are associated with better performance on a particular component of the executive functions, namely cognitive flexibility, and that this relationship is mediated by gray matter structure of regions within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that have been implicated in cognitive flexibility. Methods: We examined 72 cognitively intact adults between the ages of 65 and 75 in an observational, cross-sectional study to investigate the relationship between blood biomarkers of phosphatidylcholine, tests of cognitive flexibility (measured by the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System Trail Making Test), and gray matter structure of regions within the PFC. A three-step mediation analysis was implemented using multivariate linear regressions and we controlled for age, sex, education, income, depression status, and body mass index. Results: The mediation analysis revealed that gray matter thickness of one region within the PFC, the left inferior PFC (Brodmann’s Area 45), mediates the relationship between phosphatidylcholine blood biomarkers and cognitive flexibility. Conclusion: These results suggest that particular nutrients may slow or prevent age-related cognitive decline by influencing specific structures within the brain. This report demonstrates a novel structural mediation between plasma phosphatidylcholine levels and cognitive flexibility. Future work should examine the potential mechanisms underlying this mediation, including phosphatidylcholine-dependent cell membrane integrity of the inferior PFC and phosphatidylcholine-dependent cholinergic projections to the inferior PFC. PMID:27733825

  9. A phosphatidylcholine hyaluronic acid chitin–nanofibrils complex for a fast skin remodeling and a rejuvenating look

    PubMed Central

    Morganti, Pierfrancesco; Palombo, Paolo; Palombo, Marco; Fabrizi, Giuseppe; Cardillo, Antonio; Svolacchia, Fabiano; Guevara, Luis; Mezzana, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background The reduction of mortality worldwide has led older individuals to seek intervention modalities to improve their appearance and reverse signs of aging. Objective We formulated a medical device as innovative block-polymer nanoparticles based on phosphatidylcholine, hyaluronan, and chitin nanofibrils entrapping amino acids, vitamins, and melatonin. Methods Viability and collagen synthesis were controlled on fibroblasts ex vivo culture while adenosine triphosphate production was evaluated on keratinocytes culture. Subjective and objective evaluations were performed in vivo on selected volunteer patients. Results In accordance with our previous studies, both the in vitro and in vivo obtained results demonstrate the efficacy of the injected block-polymer nanoparticles in reducing skin wrinkling and ameliorating the signs of aging. PMID:23293530

  10. Phosphatidylcholine kinetics in neonatal rat lungs and the effects of rhuKGF and betamethasone.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Wolfgang; Gesche, Jens; Raith, Marco; Poets, Christian F

    2016-05-15

    Surfactant, synthesized by type II pneumocytes (PN-II), mainly comprises phosphatidylcholine (PC) and is essential to prevent neonatal respiratory distress. Furthermore, PC is essential to lung tissue growth and maintenance as a membrane component. Recent findings suggest that the lung contributes to systemic lipid homeostasis via PC export through ABC-A1 transporter expression. Hence it is important to consider pharmacological interventions in neonatal lung PC metabolism with respect to such export. Five-day-old rats were treated with carrier (control), intraperitoneal betamethasone, subcutaneous recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (rhuKGF), or their combination for 48 h. Animals were intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg/kg [D9-methyl]choline chloride 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 h before death at day 7, and lung lavage fluid (LLF) and tissue were harvested. Endogenous PC, D9-labeled PC species, and their water-soluble precursors (D9-)choline and (D9-)phosphocholine were determined by tandem mass spectrometry. Treatment increased secreted and tissue PC pools but did not change equilibrium composition of PC species in LLF. However, all treatments increased specific surfactant components in tissue. In control rats, peak D9-PC in lavaged lung was reached after 3 h and was decreased at 6 h. Only 13% of this net loss in lavaged lung was found in LLF. Such decrease was not present in lungs treated with betamethasone and/or with rhuKGF. D9-PC loss at 3-6 h and PC synthesis calculated from D9 enrichment of phosphocholine indicated that daily synthesis rate is higher than total pool size. We conclude that lung tissue contributes to systemic PC homeostasis in neonatal rats, which is altered by glucocorticoid and rhuKGF treatment.

  11. Activity of phosphatidylcholine-transfer protein from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves with mitochondria and chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Julienne, Marianne; Vergnolle, Chantal; Kader, Jean-Claude

    1981-01-01

    A low-molecular-weight protein catalysing the transfer of phosphatidylcholine from liposomes to mitochondria and chloroplasts has been isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) by chromatography on Sephadex G-75. PMID:7325986

  12. A selective calix[6]arene-based fluorescent chemosensor for phosphatidylcholine type lipids.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Emilio; Moerkerke, Steven; Wouters, Johan; Bartik, Kristin; Jabin, Ivan

    2016-11-02

    The development of chemosensors that can selectively detect phosphatidylcholines (PCs) in biological samples is of medical relevance considering the importance of these phospholipids in cell growth and survival. Their selective sensing over phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) is however a challenging task. We report here on the chemosensing capacities of calix[6]tris-pyrenylurea 1, which is able to selectively interact with phosphatidylcholine-type lipids in organic media. Host 1 also binds them in a biphasic chloroform/water solution, opening the way to the design of selective chemosensors for these lipids in biological media. The results obtained by NMR, fluorescence spectroscopy and modelling studies show that the selectivity is the result of the high degree of complementarity between the lipids' zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine headgroup and the receptor's H-bonding donor site and hydrophobic pocket. The mode of recognition is reminiscent of natural systems, such as human phosphatidylcholine transfer proteins (PC-TPs), validating the biomimetic approach adopted in our work.

  13. Phosphatidylcholine Supply to Peroxisomes of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Flis, Vid V; Fankl, Ariane; Ramprecht, Claudia; Zellnig, Günther; Leitner, Erich; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

    2015-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid (PL) of all organelle membranes, is synthesized via two different pathways. Methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) catalyzed by the methyl transferases Cho2p/Pem1p and Opi3p/Pem2p as well as incorporation of choline through the CDP (cytidine diphosphate)-choline branch of the Kennedy pathway lead to PC formation. To determine the contribution of these two pathways to the supply of PC to peroxisomes (PX), yeast mutants bearing defects in the two pathways were cultivated under peroxisome inducing conditions, i.e. in the presence of oleic acid, and subjected to biochemical and cell biological analyses. Phenotype studies revealed compromised growth of both the cho20Δopi3Δ (mutations in the methylation pathway) and the cki1Δdpl1Δeki1Δ (mutations in the CDP-choline pathway) mutant when grown on oleic acid. Analysis of peroxisomes from the two mutant strains showed that both pathways produce PC for the supply to peroxisomes, although the CDP-choline pathway seemed to contribute with higher efficiency than the methylation pathway. Changes in the peroxisomal lipid pattern of mutants caused by defects in the PC biosynthetic pathways resulted in changes of membrane properties as shown by anisotropy measurements with fluorescent probes. In summary, our data define the origin of peroxisomal PC and demonstrate the importance of PC for peroxisome membrane formation and integrity.

  14. Phosphatidylcholine from "Healthful" Egg Yolk Varieties: An Organic Laboratory Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Linda C.

    1995-12-01

    I have added an investigative element to a popular undergraduate experiment. the characterization of phosphatidylcholine (PC) from egg yolks. Varieties of eggs are commercially available which have been obtained from chickens fed a diet containing no animal fat. Presumably, less saturated fat in the diet of the chickens could be reflected in the fatty acid composition of various classes of biological lipids, including phospholipids, in the eggs from these chickens. PC is extracted using conventional methods, the extract is further purified by chromatography on silicic acid, and the column fractions are assayed for the presence and purity of PC by TLC. Fractions containing pure PC are pooled, concentrated, hydrolyzed, and esterified to obtain the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) which are identified by GLC. Comparing FAMEs derived from PC of yolks of regular eggs to those obtained from the other special brands adds a novel twist to the students' work and generates greater student interest and involvement in both the interpretation of data than a simple isolation of a biological compound alone evokes.

  15. Phosphatidylcholine Supply to Peroxisomes of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ramprecht, Claudia; Zellnig, Günther; Leitner, Erich; Hermetter, Albin; Daum, Günther

    2015-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, phosphatidylcholine (PC), the major phospholipid (PL) of all organelle membranes, is synthesized via two different pathways. Methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) catalyzed by the methyl transferases Cho2p/Pem1p and Opi3p/Pem2p as well as incorporation of choline through the CDP (cytidine diphosphate)-choline branch of the Kennedy pathway lead to PC formation. To determine the contribution of these two pathways to the supply of PC to peroxisomes (PX), yeast mutants bearing defects in the two pathways were cultivated under peroxisome inducing conditions, i.e. in the presence of oleic acid, and subjected to biochemical and cell biological analyses. Phenotype studies revealed compromised growth of both the cho20Δopi3Δ (mutations in the methylation pathway) and the cki1Δdpl1Δeki1Δ (mutations in the CDP-choline pathway) mutant when grown on oleic acid. Analysis of peroxisomes from the two mutant strains showed that both pathways produce PC for the supply to peroxisomes, although the CDP-choline pathway seemed to contribute with higher efficiency than the methylation pathway. Changes in the peroxisomal lipid pattern of mutants caused by defects in the PC biosynthetic pathways resulted in changes of membrane properties as shown by anisotropy measurements with fluorescent probes. In summary, our data define the origin of peroxisomal PC and demonstrate the importance of PC for peroxisome membrane formation and integrity. PMID:26241051

  16. Interactions of alkali metal chlorides with phosphatidylcholine vesicles.

    PubMed

    Klasczyk, Benjamin; Knecht, Volker; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Dimova, Rumiana

    2010-12-21

    We study the interaction of alkali metal chlorides with lipid vesicles made of palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC). An elaborate set of techniques is used to investigate the binding process at physiological conditions. The alkali cation binding to POPC is characterized thermodynamically using isothermal titration calorimetry. The isotherms show that for all ions in the alkali group the binding process is endothermic, counterintuitively to what is expected for Coulomb interactions between the slightly negatively charged POPC liposomes and the cations. The process is entropy driven and presumably related to the liberation of water molecules from the hydration shells of the ions and the lipid headgroups. The measured molar enthalpies of the binding of the ions follows the Hofmeister series. The binding constants were also estimated, whereby lithium shows the strongest affinity to POPC membranes, followed by the rest of the ions according to the Hofmeister series. Cation adsorption increases the net surface potential of the vesicles as observed from electrophoretic mobility and zeta potential measurements. While lithium adsorption leads to slightly positive zeta potentials above a concentration of 100 mM, the adsorption of the rest of the ions mainly causes neutralization of the membrane. This is the first study characterizing the binding equilibrium of alkali metal chlorides to phosphatidylcholine membranes at physiological salt concentrations.

  17. Biliary phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine profiles in sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Gauss, Annika; Ehehalt, Robert; Lehmann, Wolf-Dieter; Erben, Gerhard; Weiss, Karl-Heinz; Schaefer, Yvonne; Kloeters-Plachky, Petra; Stiehl, Adolf; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Sauer, Peter; Gotthardt, Daniel Nils

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To analyze phospholipid profiles in intrahepatic bile from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and secondary sclerosing cholangitis (SSC). METHODS: Intrahepatic bile specimens collected via endoscopic retrograde cholangiography from 41 patients were analyzed. Fourteen of these patients were diagnosed with PSC, 10 with SSC, 11 with choledocholithiasis or no identifiable biliary disease, and 6 with cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC). Bile acid, cholesterol, protein, and bilirubin contents as well as pancreas lipase activity in bile were determined by biochemical methods. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) species were quantified using nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Bile from all the examined patient groups showed a remarkably similar PC and LPC species composition, with only minor statistical differences. Total biliary PC concentrations were highest in controls (8030 ± 1843 μmol/L) and lowest in patients with CCC (1969 ± 981 μmol/L) (P = 0.005, controls vs SSC and CCC, respectively, P < 0.05). LPC contents in bile were overall low (4.2% ± 1.8%). Biliary LPC/PC ratios and ratios of biliary PC to bilirubin, PC to cholesterol, PC to protein, and PC to bile acids showed no intergroup differences. CONCLUSION: PC and LPC profiles being similar in patients with or without sclerosing cholangitis, these phospholipids are likely not of major pathogenetic importance in this disease group. PMID:24023488

  18. Biliary phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine profiles in sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Gauss, Annika; Ehehalt, Robert; Lehmann, Wolf-Dieter; Erben, Gerhard; Weiss, Karl-Heinz; Schaefer, Yvonne; Kloeters-Plachky, Petra; Stiehl, Adolf; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Sauer, Peter; Gotthardt, Daniel Nils

    2013-09-07

    To analyze phospholipid profiles in intrahepatic bile from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and secondary sclerosing cholangitis (SSC). Intrahepatic bile specimens collected via endoscopic retrograde cholangiography from 41 patients were analyzed. Fourteen of these patients were diagnosed with PSC, 10 with SSC, 11 with choledocholithiasis or no identifiable biliary disease, and 6 with cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC). Bile acid, cholesterol, protein, and bilirubin contents as well as pancreas lipase activity in bile were determined by biochemical methods. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) species were quantified using nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Bile from all the examined patient groups showed a remarkably similar PC and LPC species composition, with only minor statistical differences. Total biliary PC concentrations were highest in controls (8030 ± 1843 μmol/L) and lowest in patients with CCC (1969 ± 981 μmol/L) (P = 0.005, controls vs SSC and CCC, respectively, P < 0.05). LPC contents in bile were overall low (4.2% ± 1.8%). Biliary LPC/PC ratios and ratios of biliary PC to bilirubin, PC to cholesterol, PC to protein, and PC to bile acids showed no intergroup differences. PC and LPC profiles being similar in patients with or without sclerosing cholangitis, these phospholipids are likely not of major pathogenetic importance in this disease group.

  19. Reduced metribuzin pollution with phosphatidylcholine-clay formulations.

    PubMed

    Undabeytia, Tomás; Recio, Esther; Maqueda, Celia; Morillo, Esmeralda; Gómez-Pantoja, Eulalia; Sánchez-Verdejo, Trinidad

    2011-03-01

    Metribuzin is a widely used herbicide that has been identified as a groundwater contaminant. In this study, slow-release formulations of metribuzin were designed by encapsulating the active ingredient in phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles and adsorbing the vesicles onto montmorillonite. The maximum active ingredient content in the slow-release formulations was 246 g kg(-1) . Infrared spectroscopy results revealed that the hydrophobic interactions between metribuzin and the alkyl chains on PC were necessary for encapsulation. In addition, water bridges connecting the herbicide and the PC headgroup enhanced the solubility of metribuzin in PC. Adsorption experiments in soils were performed to evaluate the relationship between sorption and leaching. Funnel experiments in a sandy soil revealed that the herbicide was not irreversibly retained in the formulation matrix. In soil column experiments, PC-clay formulations enhanced herbicide accumulation and biological activity in the top soil layer relative to a commercial formulation. PC-clay formulations also reduced the dissipation of metribuzin by a factor of 1.6-2.5. A reduction in the recommended dose of metribuzin can be achieved by employing PC-clay formulations, which reduces the environmental risk associated with herbicide applications. Moreover, PC and montmorillonite are non-toxic and do not negatively affect the environment. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Origins of extreme boundary lubrication by phosphatidylcholine liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Raya; Kampf, Nir; Dror, Yael; Shimoni, Eyal; Klein, Jacob

    2013-07-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles have been shown to have remarkable boundary lubricating properties under physiologically-high pressures. Here we carry out a systematic study, using a surface force balance, of the normal and shear (frictional) forces between two opposing surfaces bearing different PC vesicles across water, to elucidate the origin of these properties. Small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs, diameters < 100 nm) of the symmetric saturated diacyl PCs DMPC (C(14)), DPPC (C(16)) and DSPC (C(18)) attached to mica surfaces were studied in their solid-ordered (SO) phase on the surface. Overall liposome lubrication ability improves markedly with increasing acyl chain length, and correlates strongly with the liposomes' structural integrity on the substrate surface: DSPC-SUVs were stable on the surface, and provided extremely efficient lubrication (friction coefficient μ ≈ 10(-4)) at room temperature at pressures up to at least 18 MPa. DMPC-SUVs ruptured following adsorption, providing poor high-pressure lubrication, while DPPC-SUVs behavior was intermediate between the two. These results can be well understood in terms of the hydration-lubrication paradigm, but suggest that an earlier conjecture, that highly-efficient lubrication by PC-SUVs depended simply on their being in the SO rather than in the liquid-disordered phase, should be more nuanced. Our results indicate that the resistance of the SUVs to mechanical deformation and rupture is the dominant factor in determining their overall boundary lubrication efficiency in our system.

  1. Oxidative interactions between the erythrocyte membrane and phosphatidylcholine vesicles.

    PubMed

    Yang, E; Huestis, W H

    1994-05-20

    Sonicated unilamellar phosphatidylcholine vesicles induce hemoglobin oxidation in erythrocytes and resealed membrane fragments (buds) at pH 5.5. No such oxidation was observed in vesicle-bud mixtures at pH 7.4, in cells or buds suspended in pH 5.5 buffer, or in cells incubated with multilamellar lipid vesicles at pH 5.5. In buds, vesicle-induced hemoglobin oxidation was accompanied by lipid peroxidation and formation of covalent high molecular weight protein aggregates. The causative relationships among the oxidative events were examined using selective antioxidants and membrane fragments in which the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 was cleaved. Protein cross-linking and lipid peroxidation were found to be independent events, but both were found only in concert with heme oxidation. Further, vesicle-induced hemoglobin oxidation was found to be correlated with quasi-stable adsorption of intact vesicles to cells; intercalation of foreign lipid into the cell bilayer was not required. The inability of multilamellar vesicles to induce these low pH oxidative effects suggests a steric limitation on this cell-vesicle association. The results suggest that membrane component reorganization and patching induced by low pH may enhance vesicle adsorption, which in turn initiates oxidative damage.

  2. Phosphatidylcholine embedded micellar systems: enhanced permeability through rat skin.

    PubMed

    Spernath, Aviram; Aserin, Abraham; Sintov, Amnon C; Garti, Nissim

    2008-02-15

    Micellar and microemulsion systems are excellent potential vehicles for delivery of drugs because of their high solubilization capacity and improved transmembrane bioavailability. Mixtures of propylene glycol (PG) and nonionic surfactants with sodium diclofenac (DFC) were prepared in the presence of phosphatidylcholine (PC) as transmembrane transport enhancers. Fully dilutable systems with maximum DFC solubilization capacity (SC) at pH 7 are presented. It was demonstrated that the concentrates underwent phase transitions from reverse micelles to swollen reverse micelles and, via the bicontinuous transitional mesophase, into inverted O/W microstructures. The SC decreases as a function of dilution. DFC transdermal penetration using rat skin in vitro correlated with SC, water content, effect of phospholipid content, presence of an oil phase, and ethanol. Skin penetration from the inverted bicontinuous mesophase and the skin penetration from the O/W-like microstructure were higher than that measured from the W/O-like droplets, especially when the micellar system containing the nonionic surfactant, sugar ester L-1695, and hexaglycerol laurate. PC embedded within the micelle interface significantly increased the penetration flux across the skin compared to micellar systems without the embedded PC at their interface. Moreover, the combination of PC with HECO40 improved the permeation rate (P) and shortened the lag-time (T(L)).

  3. Selective effect of phosphatidylcholine on the lysis of adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Young; Kwon, Min-Seo; Son, Junghyun; Kang, Sang-Wook; Song, Youngsup

    2017-01-01

    Obesity, a serious health risk factor, is often associated with depression and negatively affects many aspects of life. Injection of a formula comprising phosphatidylcholine (PPC) and deoxycholate (DC) has emerged as an alternative to liposuction in the reduction of local fat deposits. However, the formula component mainly responsible for this effect and the mechanism behind the actions of the components with respect to fat reduction are unknown. Here, we investigate the specific effects of PPC and DC on adipocyte viability. When exposed to PPC or DC, 3T3L1 preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes showed dose dependent decrease in cell viability. Interestingly, while DC mediated cell death was non-specific to both preadipocytes and adipocytes, PPC specifically induced a decrease in mature adipocyte viability, but had less effect on preadipocytes. Injection of PPC and DC into inguinal fat pads caused reduction in size. PPC injections preferentially decreased gene expression in mature adipocytes, while a strong inflammatory response was elicited by DC injection. In line with the decreased adipocyte viability, exposure of differentiated adipocytes to PPC resulted in triglyceride release, with a minimal effect on free fatty acids release, suggesting that its fat-reducing effect mediated mainly through the induction of adipocyte cell death rather than lipolysis. Taken together, it appears that PPC specifically affects adipocytes, and has less effect on preadipocyte viability. It can therefore be a promising agent to selectively reduce adipose tissue mass.

  4. Chlorophyll a triplet-state ESR in frozen phosphatidylcholine vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Hiromitsu, I.; Kevan, L.

    1988-05-19

    Photoexcited chlorophyll a (Chla) triplet state in rapidly frozen egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) vesicles is investigated at 77 K by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy using light intensity modulation. The electron spin polarization (ESP) intensity is stronger for 0.2 mM Chla than for 1.0 mM Chla. The absolute values of the zero field splitting parameter, D, are 283 (+/-1) x 10/sup -4/ and 276 (+/-2) x 10/sup -4/ cm/sup -1/, and the average depopulation rates of the triplet state are 0.671 +/- 0.052 and 1.054 +/- 0.036 ms/sup -1/ for 0.2 mM Chla and 1.0 mM Chla, respectively. This difference can be consistently attributed to faster triplet-state migration between adjacent Chla's at the higher 1.0 mM Chla concentration. A characteristic migration time of 2.6 ms is obtained. The ESP pattern of the Chla triplet state in the frozen EPC vesicles resembles that in polycrystals more than that in glasses. This suggests that the local environment around Chla in the vesicles is more structured than in glasses.

  5. A simple method for positional analysis of phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Kiełbowicz, Grzegorz; Gładkowski, Witold; Chojnacka, Anna; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2012-12-15

    Simple and fast method of positional analysis of fatty acid composition of phosphatidylcholine (PC) from egg-yolk and soy has been elaborated. The key step of the procedure was complete ethanolysis of PC catalyzed by sn-1,3 specific lipase from Mucor miehei (Lipozyme). 2-Acyl-lysophosphatidylcholine (2-acyl LPC), fatty acids ethyl esters (FAEEs) and free fatty acids (FAs) were formed in this process. No acyl migration was observed during the reaction. The products were entirely separated from the products mixture by simple extraction in water:hexane (2:3 v/v) system. The hexane fraction containing free FAs and FAEEs was treated with BF(3)/Et(2)O in ethanol to obtain only FAEEs. The analysis of FAEEs by GC gave the composition of the FAs in the sn-1 position of the PC. 2-Acyl LPC from water fraction after precipitation in cold (-20°C) acetone was converted into FAEEs and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) to determine FAs composition in the sn-2 position of the PC.

  6. The labeling of pulmonary surfactant phosphatidylcholine in newborn and adult sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Ikegami, M.; Jobe, A.; Nathanielsz, P.W.

    1981-08-01

    The labeling of the saturated phosphatidylcholine from surfactant with radiolabeled palmitic acid was characterized in seven newborn and seven adult sheep using a repetitive sampling technique. Each animal had a small cannula placed surgically in the trachea. Following the intravenous injection of (3H) palmitic acid, surfactant samples in saline were recovered from the distal airways of each animal with fine plastic catheters over a period of 10 days. The change in specific activity of the saturated phosphatidylcholine (cpm/mumol) was used to define the kinetics of secretion and then disappearance of the labeled saturated phosphatidylcholine. Labeled saturated phosphatidylcholine accumulated in a linear fashion without an apparent initial delay for 27 hr in adult and 44 hr in newborn sheep. The labeled saturated phosphatidylcholine then decayed with mean apparent biological half-life values of 45 hr and 54 hr in adult and newborn sheep, respectively. However, these half-life estimates are compromised by the long secretory phase of the labeling curves. The characteristics of the labeling of surfactant saturated phosphatidylcholine in sheep may be more representative of surfactant metabolism in large mammals than previous studies in small rodents.

  7. Hormonal induction of pulmonary maturation in the rabbit fetus: effects of maternal treatment with estradiol-17 beta on th endogenous levels of cholinephosphate, CDP-choline and phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Possmayer, F; Casola, P G; Chan, F; MacDonald, P; Ormseth, M A; Wong, T; Harding, P G; Tokmakjian, S

    1981-04-23

    1. Administration of estradiol-17 beta to pregnant rabbits at 25 days gestation (term, 31 days) resulted n a significant increase in the incorporation of [14C]-choline, but not [14C]ethanolamine, into the lipids of fetal lung slices. The incorporation of [35S]methionine was not affected. 2. Enzymatic assays conducted in vitro revealed no significant effect on either the activities of several enzyme markers for subcellular organelles, the activities of the enzymes responsible for the production of phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol, membrane-bound or aqueously dispersed phosphatidate-dependent phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase activities or the activities of the auxiliary enzymes responsible for the synthesis of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. 3. The activity of the enzymes involved in the choline pathway for the de novo biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine were not significantly altered except for a 66% increase in the CTP:cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase activity assayed in the cytosol. The addition of phosphatidylglycerol stimulated cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase activity approx. 3-fold. However, in the presence of this lipid, the activities in cytosol from control and treated fetuses were similar, indicating that the increased activity noted in the absence of phosphatidylglycerol was due to an activation of existing cytidylyltransferase activity rather than an increase in total enzyme units. 4. Estrogen treatment of the does was also associated with a marked decrease in the levels of cholinephosphate in fetal lung and significant increases in the levels of CDPcholine and phosphatidylcholine. These alterations in pool size are consistent with an increase in the activity of cholinephosphate cytidyltransferase in vivo. The results suggest that cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase may catalyse an important rate-determining reaction in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine in fetal lung. The data also support the view that the reaction

  8. Formation of Aldehydic Phosphatidylcholines during the Anaerobic Decomposition of a Phosphatidylcholine Bearing the 9-Hydroperoxide of Linoleic Acid.

    PubMed

    Onyango, Arnold N

    2016-01-01

    Lipid oxidation-derived carbonyl compounds are associated with the development of various physiological disorders. Formation of most of these products has recently been suggested to require further reactions of oxygen with lipid hydroperoxides. However, in rat and human tissues, the formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal is greatly elevated during hypoxic/ischemic conditions. Furthermore, a previous study found an unexpected result that the decomposition of a phosphatidylcholine (PC) bearing the 13-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid under a nitrogen atmosphere afforded 9-oxononanoyl-PC rather than 13-oxo-9,11-tridecadienoyl-PC as the main aldehydic PC. In the present study, products of the anaerobic decomposition of a PC bearing the 9-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid were analysed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. 9-Oxononanoyl-PC (ONA-PC) and several well-known bioactive aldehydes including 12-oxo-9-hydroperoxy-(or oxo or hydroxy)-10-dodecenoyl-PCs were detected. Hydrolysis of the oxidized PC products, methylation of the acids obtained thereby, and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy with electron impact ionization further confirmed structures of some of the key aldehydic PCs. Novel, hydroxyl radical-dependent mechanisms of formation of ONA-PC and peroxyl-radical dependent mechanisms of formation of the rest of the aldehydes are proposed. The latter mechanisms will mainly be relevant to tissue injury under hypoxic/anoxic conditions, while the former are relevant under both normoxia and hypoxia/anoxia.

  9. Formation of Aldehydic Phosphatidylcholines during the Anaerobic Decomposition of a Phosphatidylcholine Bearing the 9-Hydroperoxide of Linoleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Lipid oxidation-derived carbonyl compounds are associated with the development of various physiological disorders. Formation of most of these products has recently been suggested to require further reactions of oxygen with lipid hydroperoxides. However, in rat and human tissues, the formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal is greatly elevated during hypoxic/ischemic conditions. Furthermore, a previous study found an unexpected result that the decomposition of a phosphatidylcholine (PC) bearing the 13-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid under a nitrogen atmosphere afforded 9-oxononanoyl-PC rather than 13-oxo-9,11-tridecadienoyl-PC as the main aldehydic PC. In the present study, products of the anaerobic decomposition of a PC bearing the 9-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid were analysed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. 9-Oxononanoyl-PC (ONA-PC) and several well-known bioactive aldehydes including 12-oxo-9-hydroperoxy-(or oxo or hydroxy)-10-dodecenoyl-PCs were detected. Hydrolysis of the oxidized PC products, methylation of the acids obtained thereby, and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy with electron impact ionization further confirmed structures of some of the key aldehydic PCs. Novel, hydroxyl radical-dependent mechanisms of formation of ONA-PC and peroxyl-radical dependent mechanisms of formation of the rest of the aldehydes are proposed. The latter mechanisms will mainly be relevant to tissue injury under hypoxic/anoxic conditions, while the former are relevant under both normoxia and hypoxia/anoxia. PMID:27366754

  10. Time-resolved investigations of singlet oxygen luminescence in water, in phosphatidylcholine, and in aqueous suspensions of phosphatidylcholine or HT29 cells.

    PubMed

    Baier, Jürgen; Maier, Max; Engl, Roland; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2005-02-24

    Singlet oxygen was generated by energy transfer from the photoexcited sensitizer, Photofrin or 9-acetoxy-2,7,12,17-tetrakis-(beta-methoxyethyl)-porphycene (ATMPn), to molecular oxygen. Singlet oxygen was detected time-resolved by its luminescence at 1270 nm in an environment of increasing complexity, water (H2O), pure phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine in water (lipid suspensions), and aqueous suspensions of living cells. In the case of the lipid suspensions, the sensitizers accumulated in the lipids, whereas the localizations in the cells are the membranes containing phosphatidylcholine. By use of Photofrin, the measured luminescence decay times of singlet oxygen were 3.5 +/- 0.5 micros in water, 14 +/- 2 micros in lipid, 9 +/- 2 micros in aqueous suspensions of lipid droplets, and 10 +/- 3 micros in aqueous suspensions of human colonic cancer cells (HT29). The decay time in cell suspensions was much longer than in water and was comparable to the value in suspensions of phosphatidylcholine. That luminescence signal might be attributed to singlet oxygen decaying in the lipid areas of cellular membranes. The measured luminescence decay times of singlet oxygen excited by ATMPn in pure lipid and lipid suspensions were the same within the experimental error as for Photofrin. In contrast to experiments with Photofrin, the decay time in aqueous suspension of HT29 cells was 6 +/- 2 micros when using ATMPn.

  11. Modulation of a human lymphoblastoid B cell line by cyclic AMP. Ig secretion and phosphatidylcholine metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, W.T.; Patke, C.L.; Gilliam, E.B.; Rosenblatt, H.M.; Barron, K.S.; Orson, F.M.

    1988-09-01

    A transformed human B cell line, LA350, was found to be sensitive to cAMP-elevating agents by responding with rapid (0 to 2 h) severalfold elevations of intracellular cAMP to treatment with cholera toxin, isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), forskolin, and dibutyryl cAMP (all p less than 0.001). These cAMP-elevating agents also produced significant inhibitions of subsequent (48 to 72 h) Ig secretion by the same B cells as measured by a reverse hemolytic plaque assay and an enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay for IgM (both p less than 0.001). PMA- and IBMX-treated cells were particularly responsive to the effects of cholera toxin, showing a doubling of cAMP content and profound decrease in Ig production (p less than 0.001). Because our previous studies had correlated activation of the metabolic turnover of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) fraction of membrane phospholipids with enhanced Ig secretion, we examined the sensitivity of PC metabolism to cAMP in control and PMA-stimulated cells. Formation of PC was found to be inhibited by forskolin and IBMX (both p less than 0.002) but breakdown of PC was stimulated (p less than 0.001). These findings imply that as the enzymatic products of PC, choline phosphate and diacylglycerol, are depleted due to the combined effects of cAMP upon synthesis and turnover of PC, there is a decrease in Ig secretion. Since diacylglycerol activates protein kinase C, it appears reasonable that Ig secretion is at least partially regulated by cAMP-responsive alterations in PC metabolism produced by protein kinase C-induced phosphorylation. We conclude that the early cAMP-sensitive changes in PC metabolism in this activated B cell line may signal for subsequent alterations in Ig secretion.

  12. Metabolic precursors of surfactant disaturated-phosphatidylcholine in preterms with respiratory distress

    PubMed Central

    Cogo, Paola E.; Ori, Carlo; Simonato, Manuela; Verlato, Giovanna; Isak, Ilena; Hamvas, Aaron; Carnielli, Virgilio P.

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to study the metabolic precursors of surfactant disaturated-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) on mechanical ventilation. We performed 46 DSPC kinetic studies in 23 preterms on fat-free parenteral nutrition and mechanical ventilation (birth weight = 1167 ± 451 g, gestational age = 28.5 ± 2.0 weeks). Eight infants received a simultaneous intravenous infusion of U13C-glucose and [16,16,16]2H-palmitate, eight infants received U13C-glucose and 2H2O, and seven received U13C-palmitate and 2H2O. Surfactant DSPC kinetics were calculated from the isotopic enrichments of DSPC-palmitate from sequential tracheal aspirates and its metabolic precursors in plasma or urine. DSPC fractional synthesis rate (FSR) was 17 ± 11, 21 ± 16, and 15 ± 6%/day from glucose, palmitate, and body water, respectively (P = 0.36). DSPC-FSR from U13C-glucose and 2H2O were significantly correlated and yielded similar estimates (difference of –0.1 ± 3%) (P = 0.91). The difference in the 15 infants receiving palmitate versus 2H2O or palmitate versus glucose was +6.0 ± 12%/day (P = 0.21). There was a significant correlation between DSPC-FSRs from plasma glucose and plasma FFA. The contribution of glucose versus palmitate to DSPC-FSR was 49 ± 20% versus 51 ± 20%, respectively. Plasma glucose and FFA showed similar contributions to DSPC-FSR in infants with RDS and fat-free parenteral nutrition. FSRs from 2H2O or glucose were highly correlated. PMID:19474458

  13. Exchange of monooleoylphosphatidylcholine with single egg phosphatidylcholine vesicle membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Zhelev, D V

    1996-01-01

    In a previous paper we described the experiments and the framework of a model for the exchange of monooleoylphosphatidylcholine with a single egg phosphatidylcholine membrane. In the present paper a model is presented that relates the experimentally measured apparent characteristics of the overall kinetics of lysolipid exchange to the true rates of lysolipid exchange and interbilayer transfer. It is shown that the adsorption of the lysolipid follows two pathways: one through the adsorption of lipid monomers and other through the fusion of micelles. The desorption of lysolipid follows a single pathway, namely, the desorption of monomers. The overall rate of fast desorption under convective flow conditions gives the true rate of monomer desorption from the outer membrane monolayer. The overall rate of both slow lysolipid uptake and slow desorption gives the rate of interbilayer transfer. Because of the uneven distribution of lysolipid between the two monolayers during its uptake, one of the membrane monolayers is apparently extended relative to the other. This relative extension of one of the monolayers induces a monolayer tension. The induced monolayer tension can increase up to 7 mN.m-1, when most of the intercalated lysolipid only partitions into the monolayer facing the lysolipid solution. This value is similar to the measured value for the critical monolayer tension of membrane failure, which is on the order of 5 mN.m-1. The similarity of the magnitudes of the induced monolayer tension during monooleoylphosphatidylcholine exchange and the monolayer tension of membrane failure suggests that the interbilayer lipid transfer may be affected by the formation of short living membrane defects. Furthermore, the pH-induced interbilayer exchange of phosphatidylglycerol is considered. In this case, it is shown that the rate of interbilayer transfer is a function of the phosphatidylglycerol concentration in the membrane. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8804609

  14. Comparison of native, lyso and hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine as phospholipid source in the diet of postlarval Penaeus japonicus bate.

    PubMed

    Kontara, E K; Djunaidah, I S; Coutteau, P; Sorgeloos, P

    1998-01-01

    Native and two modified forms of soybean phosphatidylcholine were used to study the nutritional effect of their fatty acids for postlarval Penaeus japonicus. Five semipurified and isolipidic diets were formulated using casein as a protein source. Three diets contained 1.5% of different types of phosphatidylcholine (95% purity), i.e. native soybean phosphatidylcholine, hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine and 1-acyl lyso soybean phosphatidylcholine, besides 1% of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid formulated as triglycerides. Two negative control diets contained either triglycerides or ethyl esters as a source of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids without phospholipid. The experiment was conducted during two successive phases of 20 d starting from 12-d old postlarvae. Feeding the diet containing native soybean phosphatidylcholine resulted in significantly better growth and resistance to osmotic shock of P. japonicus postlarvae compared to the other diets. The total lipid content of the tissue was significantly increased by the supplementation of soybean phosphatidylcholine, whereas no significant difference was observed for the shrimp fed the modified phosphatidylcholine sources compared to the phosphatidylcholine-free diet at the end of the experiment. Shrimp fed the diet containing soybean phosphatidylcholine exhibited a higher polar lipid fraction in the whole body total lipid mainly as a result of the increased proportion of phosphatidylcholine and to a lesser extent of phosphatidylinositol at the expense of free fatty acids, free sterols and sterol esters. The content of 20:5n-3, 22:6n-3 and total n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in the shrimp tissue were higher in shrimp fed the native soybean and hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine diets compared to those fed the phosphatidylcholine-free and 1-acyl lyso soybean phosphatidylcholine-based diets. The fatty acid profile of tissue phosphatidylethanolamine was more influenced by the type of dietary

  15. 2-aminohydroxamic acid derivatives as inhibitors of Bacillus cereus phosphatidylcholine preferred phospholipase C PC-PLC(Bc).

    PubMed

    González-Bulnes, Patricia; González-Roura, Albert; Canals, Daniel; Delgado, Antonio; Casas, Josefina; Llebaria, Amadeu

    2010-12-15

    Phosphatidylcholine preferring phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is an important enzyme that plays a key role in a variety of cellular events and lipid homoeostases. Bacillus cereus phospholipase C (PC-PLC(Bc)) has antigenic similarity with the elusive mammalian PC-PLC, which has not thus far been isolated and purified. Therefore the discovery of inhibitors of PC-PLC(Bc) is of current interest. Here, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a new type of compounds inhibiting PC-PLC(Bc). These compounds have been designed by evolution of previously described 2-aminohydroxamic acid PC-PLC(Bc) inhibitors that block the enzyme by coordination of the zinc active site atoms present in PC-PLC(Bc) [Gonzalez-Roura, A.; Navarro, I.; Delgado, A.; Llebaria, A.; Casas, J. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.2004, 43, 862]. The new compounds maintain the zinc coordinating groups and possess an extra trimethylammonium function, linked to the hydroxyamide nitrogen by an alkyl chain, which is expected to mimic the trimethylammonium group of the phosphatidylcholine PC-PLC(Bc) substrates. Some of the compounds described inhibit the enzyme with IC(50)'s in the low micromolar range. Unexpectedly, the most potent inhibitors found are those that possess a trimethylammonium group but have chemically blocked the zinc coordinating functionalities. The results obtained suggest that PC-PLC(Bc) inhibition is not due to the interaction of compounds with the phospholipase catalytic zinc atoms, but rather results from the inhibitor cationic group recognition by the PC-PLC(Bc) amino acids involved in choline lipid binding.

  16. Elucidation of Phosphatidylcholine Composition in Krill Oil Extracted from Euphausia superba

    PubMed Central

    Winther, Bjørn; Hoem, Nils; Berge, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry was used to elucidate the phospholipids in krill oil extracted from Euphausia superba, an emerging source for human nutritional supplements. The study was carried out in order to map the species of the choline-containing phospholipid classes: phosphatidylcholine and lyso-phosphatidylcholine. In addition, the prevalent phosphatidylcholine class was quantified and the results compared with prior analysis. The qualification was performed with separation on a reverse phase chromatography column, while the quantification was obtained with class separation on a normal phase chromatography column. An Orbitrap system was used for the detection, and pulsed-Q dissociation fragmentation was utilized for the identification of the species. An asymmetrical exclusion list was applied for detection of phospholipid species of lower concentration, significantly improving the number of species observed. A total of 69 choline-containing phospholipids were detected, whereof 60 phosphatidylcholine substances, among others seven with probable omega-3 fatty acids in both sn-1 and sn-2. The phosphatidylcholine concentration was estimated to be 34 ± 5 g/100 g oil (n = 5). These results confirm the complexity of the phospholipid composition of krill oil, and the presence of long chained, heavily unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:20848234

  17. Elucidation of phosphatidylcholine composition in krill oil extracted from Euphausia superba.

    PubMed

    Winther, Bjørn; Hoem, Nils; Berge, Kjetil; Reubsaet, Léon

    2011-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry was used to elucidate the phospholipids in krill oil extracted from Euphausia superba, an emerging source for human nutritional supplements. The study was carried out in order to map the species of the choline-containing phospholipid classes: phosphatidylcholine and lyso-phosphatidylcholine. In addition, the prevalent phosphatidylcholine class was quantified and the results compared with prior analysis. The qualification was performed with separation on a reverse phase chromatography column, while the quantification was obtained with class separation on a normal phase chromatography column. An Orbitrap system was used for the detection, and pulsed-Q dissociation fragmentation was utilized for the identification of the species. An asymmetrical exclusion list was applied for detection of phospholipid species of lower concentration, significantly improving the number of species observed. A total of 69 choline-containing phospholipids were detected, whereof 60 phosphatidylcholine substances, among others seven with probable omega-3 fatty acids in both sn-1 and sn-2. The phosphatidylcholine concentration was estimated to be 34 ± 5 g/100 g oil (n = 5). These results confirm the complexity of the phospholipid composition of krill oil, and the presence of long chained, heavily unsaturated fatty acids.

  18. The interfacial elastic packing interactions of galactosylceramides, sphingomyelins, and phosphatidylcholines.

    PubMed Central

    Smaby, J M; Kulkarni, V S; Momsen, M; Brown, R E

    1996-01-01

    The interfacial elastic packing interactions of different galactosylceramides (GalCers), sphingomyelins (SMs), and phosphatidylcholines (PC) were compared by determining their elastic area compressibility moduli (Cs-1) as a function of lateral packing pressure (pi) in a Langmuir-type film balance. To assess the relative contributions of the lipid headgroups as well as those of the ceramide and diacylglycerol hydrocarbon regions, we synthesized various GalCer and SM species with identical, homogeneous acyl residues and compared their behavior to that of PCs possessing similar hydrocarbon structures. For PCs, this meant that the sn-1 acyl chain was long and saturated (e.g., palmitate) and the sn-2 chain composition was varied to match that of GalCer or SM. When at equivalent pi and in either the chain-disordered (liquid-expanded) or chain-ordered (liquid-condensed) state, GalCer films were less elastic than either SM or PC films. When lipid headgroups were identical (SM and PC), Cs-1 values (at equivalent pi) for chain-disordered SMs, but not chain-ordered SMs, were 25-30% higher than those of PCs. Typical values for fluid phase (liquid-expanded) GalCer at 30 mN/m and 24 degrees C were 158 (+/- 7) mN/m, whereas those of SM were 135 (+/- 7) mN/m and those of PC were 123 (+/- 2) mN/m. Pressure-induced transitions to chain-ordered states (liquid-condensed) resulted in significant increases (two- to fourfold) in the "in-plane" compressibility for all three lipid types. Typical Cs-1 values for chain-ordered GalCers at 30 mN/m and 24 degrees C were between 610 and 650 mN/m, whereas those of SM and of PC were very similar and were between 265 and 300 mN/m. Under fluid phase conditions, the pi-Cs-1 behavior for each lipid type was insensitive to whether the acyl chain was saturated or monounsaturated. Measurement of the Cs-1 values also provided an effective way to evaluate the two-dimensional phase transition region of SMs, GalCers, and PCs. Modest heterogeneity in the acyl

  19. Kinetics of phloretin binding to phosphatidylcholine vesicle membranes

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    The submillisecond kinetics for phloretin binding to unilamellar phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles was investigated using the temperature-jump technique. Spectrophotometric studies of the equilibrium binding performed at 328 nm demonstrated that phloretin binds to a single set of independent, equivalent sites on the vesicle with a dissociation constant of 8.0 microM and a lipid/site ratio of 4.0. The temperature of the phloretin-vesicle solution was jumped by 4 degrees C within 4 microseconds producing a monoexponential, concentration-dependent relaxation process with time constants in the 30--200-microseconds time range. An analysis of the concentration dependence of relaxation time constants at pH 7.30 and 24 degrees C yielded a binding rate constant of 2.7 X 10(8) M-1 s-1 and an unbinding constant of 2,900 s-1; approximately 66 percent of total binding sites are exposed at the outer vesicle surface. The value of the binding rate constant and three additional observations suggest that the binding kinetics are diffusion limited. The phloretin analogue, naringenin, which has a diffusion coefficient similar to phloretin yet a dissociation constant equal to 24 microM, bound to PC vesicle with the same rate constant as phloretin did. In addition, the phloretin-PC system was studied in buffers made one to six times more viscous than water by addition of sucrose or glycerol to the differ. The equilibrium affinity for phloretin binding to PC vesicles is independent of viscosity, yet the binding rate constant decreases with the expected dependence (kappa binding alpha 1/viscosity) for diffusion-limited processes. Thus, the binding rate constant is not altered by differences in binding affinity, yet depends upon the diffusion coefficient in buffer. Finally, studies of the pH dependence of the binding rate constant showed a dependence (kappa binding alpha [1 + 10pH-pK]) consistent with the diffusion-limited binding of a weak acid. PMID:7391812

  20. Enhancement by cytidine of membrane phospholipid synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    G-Coviella, I. L.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Cytidine, as cytidine 5'-diphosphate choline, is a major precursor in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine in cell membranes. In the present study, we examined the relationships between extracellular levels of cytidine, the conversion of [14C]choline to [14C]phosphatidylcholine, and the net syntheses of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine by PC12 cells. The rate at which cytidine (as [3H]cytidine) was incorporated into the PC12 cells followed normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Km = 5 microM; Vmax = 12 x 10(-3) mmol/mg of protein/min) when the cytidine concentrations in the medium were below 50 microM; at higher concentrations, intracellular [3H]cytidine nucleotide levels increased linearly. Once inside the cell, cytidine was converted mainly into cytidine triphosphate. In pulse-chase experiments, addition of cytidine to the medium caused a time- and dose-dependent increase (by up to 30%) in the incorporation of [14C]choline into membrane [14C]-phosphatidylcholine. When the PC12 cells were supplemented with both cytidine and choline for 14 h, small but significant elevations (p less than 0.05) were observed in their absolute contents of membrane phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine, all increasing by 10-15% relative to their levels in cells incubated with choline alone. Exogenous cytidine, acting via cytidine triphosphate, can thus affect the synthesis and levels of cell membrane phospholipids.

  1. Enhancement by cytidine of membrane phospholipid synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    G-Coviella, I. L.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Cytidine, as cytidine 5'-diphosphate choline, is a major precursor in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine in cell membranes. In the present study, we examined the relationships between extracellular levels of cytidine, the conversion of [14C]choline to [14C]phosphatidylcholine, and the net syntheses of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine by PC12 cells. The rate at which cytidine (as [3H]cytidine) was incorporated into the PC12 cells followed normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Km = 5 microM; Vmax = 12 x 10(-3) mmol/mg of protein/min) when the cytidine concentrations in the medium were below 50 microM; at higher concentrations, intracellular [3H]cytidine nucleotide levels increased linearly. Once inside the cell, cytidine was converted mainly into cytidine triphosphate. In pulse-chase experiments, addition of cytidine to the medium caused a time- and dose-dependent increase (by up to 30%) in the incorporation of [14C]choline into membrane [14C]-phosphatidylcholine. When the PC12 cells were supplemented with both cytidine and choline for 14 h, small but significant elevations (p less than 0.05) were observed in their absolute contents of membrane phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine, all increasing by 10-15% relative to their levels in cells incubated with choline alone. Exogenous cytidine, acting via cytidine triphosphate, can thus affect the synthesis and levels of cell membrane phospholipids.

  2. Egg-sphingomyelin and cholesterol form a stoichiometric molecular complex in bilayers of egg-phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Peter J; Wolf, Claude

    2010-12-02

    Sphingomyelin and cholesterol are membrane lipids that interact to form liquid-ordered phase believed to act as a platform for the organization of signaling proteins. We report analyses of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction patterns recorded from aqueous dispersions of ternary mixtures of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine from egg yolk and cholesterol to investigate how cholesterol distributes between the two phospholipids. In the absence of cholesterol the two phospholipids are immiscible between 20 and 50 °C. Addition of up to 22 mol % cholesterol to equimolar mixtures of the phospholipids results in partition of some sphingomyelin into a phosphatidylcholine phase at 37 °C. Increased proportions of cholesterol result in partition of the excess cholesterol into the phosphatidylcholine phase which is in equilibrium with a stoichiometric complex of 1.7:1, sphingomyelin:cholesterol. The molecular order of the complex may explain the basis upon which proteins are assembled within the membrane raft.

  3. A phosphatidylinositol transfer protein controls the phosphatidylcholine content of yeast Golgi membranes

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    SEC14p is required for protein transport from the yeast Golgi complex. We describe a quantitative analysis of yeast bulk membrane and Golgi membrane phospholipid composition under conditions where Golgi secretory function has been uncoupled from its usual SEC14p requirement. The data demonstrate that SEC14p specifically functions to maintain a reduced phosphatidylcholine content in Golgi membranes and indicate that overproduction of SEC14p markedly reduces the apparent rate of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis via the CDP-choline pathway in vivo. We suggest that SEC14p serves as a sensor of Golgi membrane phospholipid composition through which the activity of the CDP-choline pathway in Golgi membranes is regulated such that a phosphatidylcholine content that is compatible with the essential secretory function of these membranes is maintained. PMID:8294512

  4. Arsenic-Containing Phosphatidylcholines: A New Group of Arsenolipids Discovered in Herring Caviar.

    PubMed

    Viczek, Sandra A; Jensen, Kenneth B; Francesconi, Kevin A

    2016-04-18

    A new group of arsenolipids based on cell-membrane phosphatidylcholines has been discovered in herring caviar (fish roe). A combination of HPLC with elemental and molecular mass spectrometry was used to identify five arsenic-containing phosphatidylcholines; the same technique applied to salmon caviar identified an arsenic-containing phosphatidylethanolamine. The arsenic group in these membrane lipids might impart particular properties to the molecules not displayed by their non-arsenic analogues. Additionally, the new compounds have human health implications according to recent results showing high cytotoxicity for some arsenolipids. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Conditional Mutagenesis of a Novel Choline Kinase Demonstrates Plasticity of Phosphatidylcholine Biogenesis and Gene Expression in Toxoplasma gondii*

    PubMed Central

    Sampels, Vera; Hartmann, Anne; Dietrich, Isabelle; Coppens, Isabelle; Sheiner, Lilach; Striepen, Boris; Herrmann, Andreas; Lucius, Richard; Gupta, Nishith

    2012-01-01

    The obligate intracellular and promiscuous protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii needs an extensive membrane biogenesis that must be satisfied irrespective of its host-cell milieu. We show that the synthesis of the major lipid in T. gondii, phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), is initiated by a novel choline kinase (TgCK). Full-length (∼70-kDa) TgCK displayed a low affinity for choline (Km ∼0.77 mm) and harbors a unique N-terminal hydrophobic peptide that is required for the formation of enzyme oligomers in the parasite cytosol but not for activity. Conditional mutagenesis of the TgCK gene in T. gondii attenuated the protein level by ∼60%, which was abolished in the off state of the mutant (Δtgcki). Unexpectedly, the mutant was not impaired in its growth and exhibited a normal PtdCho biogenesis. The parasite compensated for the loss of full-length TgCK by two potential 53- and 44-kDa isoforms expressed through a cryptic promoter identified within exon 1. TgCK-Exon1 alone was sufficient in driving the expression of GFP in E. coli. The presence of a cryptic promoter correlated with the persistent enzyme activity, PtdCho synthesis, and susceptibility of T. gondii to a choline analog, dimethylethanolamine. Quite notably, the mutant displayed a regular growth in the off state despite a 35% decline in PtdCho content and lipid synthesis, suggesting a compositional flexibility in the membranes of the parasite. The observed plasticity of gene expression and membrane biogenesis can ensure a faithful replication and adaptation of T. gondii in disparate host or nutrient environments. PMID:22451671

  6. Determination of Oxidized Phosphatidylcholines by Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Pia; Pötz, Sandra; Brunner, Martina; Trötzmüller, Martin; Fauland, Alexander; Triebl, Alexander; Hartler, Jürgen; Lankmayr, Ernst; Köfeler, Harald C.

    2015-01-01

    A novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach for analysis of oxidized phosphatidylcholines by an Orbitrap Fourier Transform mass spectrometer in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled to hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was developed. This method depends on three selectivity criteria for separation and identification: retention time, exact mass at a resolution of 100,000 and collision induced dissociation (CID) fragment spectra in a linear ion trap. The process of chromatography development showed the best separation properties with a silica-based Kinetex column. This type of chromatography was able to separate all major lipid classes expected in mammalian samples, yielding increased sensitivity of oxidized phosphatidylcholines over reversed phase chromatography. Identification of molecular species was achieved by exact mass on intact molecular ions and CID tandem mass spectra containing characteristic fragments. Due to a lack of commercially available standards, method development was performed with copper induced oxidation products of palmitoyl-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylcholine, which resulted in a plethora of lipid species oxidized at the arachidonoyl moiety. Validation of the method was done with copper oxidized human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) prepared by ultracentrifugation. In these LDL samples we could identify 46 oxidized molecular phosphatidylcholine species out of 99 possible candidates. PMID:25874761

  7. Effects of phenylamide herbicides on the physical properties of phosphatidylcholine membranes.

    PubMed

    Stidham, M A; Siedow, J N; McIntosh, T J; Porter, N A; Moreland, D E

    1985-02-14

    A number of phenylamide herbicides are observed to uncouple electron transport in isolated chloroplasts and mitochondria and alter the H+ permeability of artificial liposomes. Several of these phenylamides were incorporated into phosphatidylcholine multilamellar and small unilamellar vesicles to measure their effects on the physical properties of membranes. X-ray diffraction analysis of the multilamellar vesicles revealed that the herbicides partitioned into the hydrocarbon chain region of the bilayer, but caused only minimal perturbations on hydrocarbon chain packing. 31P-NMR spectroscopy of these multilamellar vesicles showed both a broadening and lowering of the phase transition temperature of the bilayer lipids upon addition of the herbicides. 13C-NMR spectroscopy of small, unilamellar phosphatidylcholine vesicles was performed to measure the effects of the phenylamides on the chemical shifts and the spin-lattice relaxation times of the individual phosphatidylcholine carbon atoms. None of the added compounds had any measurable effect on the 13C-NMR chemical shifts of the phosphatidylcholine. However, the herbicides significantly modified spin-lattice relaxation times of certain of the lipid carbon atoms. These results generally indicate that the herbicides orient in the lipid bilayers such that the hydrocarbon chains of the phenylamides associate with the hydrocarbon chains of the lipid, whereas the phenyl moiety resides in the polar region of the bilayer.

  8. An LC method for the analysis of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis products and its application to the monitoring of the acyl migration process.

    PubMed

    Kiełbowicz, Grzegorz; Smuga, Damian; Gładkowski, Witold; Chojnacka, Anna; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2012-05-30

    An assay for quantitative analysis of phosphatidylcholine (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) and its hydrolysis products: 1-hydroxy-2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1-palmitoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and palmitic acid using high-performance liquid chromatography with charge aerosol detector (CAD) was developed. The separation of the compounds of interest was achieved on a reversed-phase/hydrophilic interaction stationary phase with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile:methanol:10mM ammonium acetate solution. The method was applied to control the acyl migration process of LPC regioisomers in the most common solvents used in the synthesis or modification of PC.

  9. Radiotracer Evidence Implicating Phosphoryl and Phosphatidyl Bases as Intermediates in Betaine Synthesis by Water-Stressed Barley Leaves 12

    PubMed Central

    Hitz, William D.; Rhodes, David; Hanson, Andrew D.

    1981-01-01

    In barley, glycine betaine is a metabolic end product accumulated by wilted leaves; betaine accumulation involves acceleration of de novo synthesis from serine, via ethanolamine, N-methylethanolamines, choline, and betaine aldehyde (Hanson, Scott 1980 Plant Physiol 66: 342-348). Because in animals and microorganisms the N-methylation of ethanolamine involves phosphatide intermediates, and because in barley, wilting markedly increases the rate of methylation of ethanolamine to choline, the labeling of phosphatides was followed after supplying [14C]ethanolamine to attached leaf blades of turgid and wilted barley plants. The kinetics of labeling of phosphatidylcholine and betaine showed that phosphatidylcholine became labeled 2.5-fold faster in wilted than in turgid leaves, and that after short incubations, phosphatidylcholine was always more heavily labeled than betaine. In pulse-chase experiments with wilted leaves, label from [14C]ethanolamine continued to accumulate in betaine as it was being lost from phosphatidylcholine. When [14C]monomethylethanolamine was supplied to wilted leaves, phosphatidylcholine was initially more heavily labeled than betaine. These results are qualitatively consistent with a precursor-to-product relationship between phosphatidylcholine and betaine. The following experiments, in which tracer amounts of [14C]ethanolamine or [14C]formate were supplied to wilted barley leaves, implicated phosphoryl and phosphatidyl bases as intermediates in the methylation steps between ethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Label from both [14C]ethanolamine and [14C]formate entered phosphorylmonomethylethanolamine and phosphorylcholine very rapidly; these phosphoryl bases were the most heavily labeled products at 15 to 30 minutes after label addition and lost label rapidly as the fed 14C-labeled precursor was depleted. Phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine were also significantly labeled from [14C]ethanolamine and [14C]formate at early

  10. Chains, Sheets and Droplets: Assemblies of Hydrophobic Gold Nanocrystals with Saturated Phosphatidylcholine Lipid and Squalene

    PubMed Central

    Rasch, Michael R.; Bosoy, Christian; Yu, Yixuan; Korgel, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Assemblies of saturated 1,2-diacyl-phosphatidylcholine lipid and hydrophobic dodecanethiol-capped 1.8 nm diameter gold nanocrystals were studied as a function of lipid chain length and the addition of the naturally-occurring oil, squalene. The gold nanocrystals formed various lipid-stabilized agglomerates, sometimes fusing with lipid vesicle bilayers. The nanocrystal assembly structure depended on the hydrocarbon chain length of the lipid fatty acids. Lipid with the shortest fatty acid length studied, dilauroyl-phosphatidylcholine, created extended chains of gold nanocrystals. Lipid with slightly longer fatty acid chains created planar sheets of nanocrystals. Further increases of the fatty acid chain length led to spherical agglomerates. The inclusion of squalene led to lipid- and nanocrystal-coated oil droplets. PMID:23033891

  11. The effect of dolichol on the permeability properties of phosphatidylcholine bilayers.

    PubMed

    Boscoboinik, D O; Feliz, M; Disalvo, E A; Belocopitow, E

    1985-01-01

    The permeability of liposomes to water, glucose, Ca2+ and alkaline cations was monitored by recording the change in absorbance at 450 nm using a rapid reaction stopped-flow spectrophotometer. Liposomes were prepared with egg phosphatidylcholine and concentrations of dolichol ranging from 0.1% to 9% (w/w). Net permeability of phosphatidylcholine bilayers to alkaline cations was induced by the incorporation of dolichol. This effect was not observed in the case of non-charged solutes like glucose or in that of alkaline earth cations such as calcium. Permeation of K+ was significantly increased above the phase transition temperature. These results suggest that dolichols may play a role in biological membranes, besides the well-known glycosyl carrier function in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins.

  12. Comparison of bile salt/phosphatidylcholine mixed micelles in solubilization to sterols and stability.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qin; Cai, Jie; Li, Pengyu; Xu, Dongling; Ni, Xiaomin; Wen, Hui; Liu, Dan; Lin, Suizhen; Hu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Androst-3β,5α,6β-triol (Triol) is a promising neuroprotective agent, but its poor solubility restricts its development into parenteral preparations. In this study, Triol is significantly solubilized by bile salt/phosphatidylcholine mixed micelles (BS/PC-MM). All BS/PC-MM systems are tested to remarkably improve the drug solubility with various stabilities after drug loading. Among them, the sodium glycocholate (SGC)/egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) system with 2:1 ratio in weight and the total concentration of SGC and EPC of 100 mg/mL is proved to produce stable mixed micelles with high drug loading. It is found that the stability of drug-loaded mixed micelles is quite different, which might be related to the change in critical micelle concentration (CMC) after incorporating drugs. SGC/EPC and SGC/soya phosphatidylcholine (SPC) remain transparent under accelerated conditions and manifest a decreased CMC (dropping from 0.105 to 0.056 mg/mL and from 0.067 to 0.024 mg/mL, respectively). In contrast, swine bile acid-sodium salt (SBA-Na)/PC and sodium deoxycholate (SDC)/PC are accompanied by drug precipitation and reached the maximum CMC on the first and the third days, respectively. Interestingly, the variation of CMC under accelerated testing conditions highly matches the drug-precipitating event in the primary stability experiment. In brief, the bile salt/phosphatidylcholine system exists as a potential strategy of improving sterol drug solubility. CMC variation under accelerated testing conditions might be a simple and easy method to predict the stability of drug-loaded mixed micelles.

  13. Systemic phosphatidylcholine pretreatment protects canine esophageal mucosa during acute experimental biliary reflux

    PubMed Central

    Eros, Gabor; Kaszaki, Jozsef; Czobel, Miklos; Boros, Mihaly

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the consequences of short-term exposure to luminal bile on mucosal mast cell reactions in a canine model, and to determine the effects of systemic phosphatidylcholine pretreatment in this condition. METHODS: Twenty mongrel dogs were used for experiments. Group 1 (n  = 5) served as a saline-treated control, while in group 2 (n = 5) the esophagus was exposed to bile for 3 h. In group 3 (n  = 5) the animals were pretreated with 7-nitroindazole to inhibit the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase. In group 4 (n  = 5) phosphatidylcholine solution (50 mg/kg) was administered iv before the biliary challenge. Mucosal microcirculation was observed by intravital videomicroscopy. Myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide synthase activities, the degrees of mast cell degranulation and mucosal damage were evaluated via tissue biopsies. RESULTS: Exposure to bile evoked significant mast cell degranulation and leukocyte accumulation. The red blood cell velocity and the diameter of the postcapillary venules increased significantly. The tissue ATP content and constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity decreased, while the inducible nitric oxide synthase activity increased significantly as compared to the control values. 7-nitroindazole treatment significantly exacerbated the mucosal mast cell degranulation and tissue damage. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine pretreatment prevented the bile-induced ATP depletion, the inducible nitric oxide synthase and myeloperoxidase activity and the mast cell degranulation increased. CONCLUSION: The neuronal nitric oxide synthase - mast cell axis plays an important role in the esophageal mucosal defense system. Systemic phosphatidylcholine pretreatment affords effective protection through ameliorating the bile-induced ATP depletion and secondary inflammatory reaction. PMID:16482629

  14. Comparison of bile salt/phosphatidylcholine mixed micelles in solubilization to sterols and stability

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qin; Cai, Jie; Li, Pengyu; Xu, Dongling; Ni, Xiaomin; Wen, Hui; Liu, Dan; Lin, Suizhen; Hu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Androst-3β,5α,6β-triol (Triol) is a promising neuroprotective agent, but its poor solubility restricts its development into parenteral preparations. In this study, Triol is significantly solubilized by bile salt/phosphatidylcholine mixed micelles (BS/PC-MM). All BS/PC-MM systems are tested to remarkably improve the drug solubility with various stabilities after drug loading. Among them, the sodium glycocholate (SGC)/egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) system with 2:1 ratio in weight and the total concentration of SGC and EPC of 100 mg/mL is proved to produce stable mixed micelles with high drug loading. It is found that the stability of drug-loaded mixed micelles is quite different, which might be related to the change in critical micelle concentration (CMC) after incorporating drugs. SGC/EPC and SGC/soya phosphatidylcholine (SPC) remain transparent under accelerated conditions and manifest a decreased CMC (dropping from 0.105 to 0.056 mg/mL and from 0.067 to 0.024 mg/mL, respectively). In contrast, swine bile acid-sodium salt (SBA-Na)/PC and sodium deoxycholate (SDC)/PC are accompanied by drug precipitation and reached the maximum CMC on the first and the third days, respectively. Interestingly, the variation of CMC under accelerated testing conditions highly matches the drug-precipitating event in the primary stability experiment. In brief, the bile salt/phosphatidylcholine system exists as a potential strategy of improving sterol drug solubility. CMC variation under accelerated testing conditions might be a simple and easy method to predict the stability of drug-loaded mixed micelles. PMID:27895469

  15. Enhanced gene delivery to the lung using biodegradable polyunsaturated cationic phosphatidylcholine-detergent conjugates.

    PubMed

    Pierrat, Philippe; Kereselidze, Dimitri; Lux, Marie; Lebeau, Luc; Pons, Françoise

    2016-09-10

    Lung diseases are among the more representative causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide and gene therapy is considered as a promising therapeutic approach for their treatment. However the design of efficient nucleic acid carriers for airway administration still is a challenge and there is a pressing need for new developments in this field. Herein, new synthetic DNA carriers based on the conjugation of a phospholipid and C12E4, a nonionic detergent, are developed. DNA complexes with phosphatidylcholine-detergent conjugates are administered in mouse airways, and transgene expression and inflammatory activity as an index of toxicity are investigated as a function of time, DNA dose, and presence of helper and stealth lipids. Introduction of a biodegradable linker between the phosphatidylcholine and detergent moieties significantly attenuates the severity of inflammatory response that characterizes cationic lipid-mediated gene transfer. Concurrent introduction of polyunsaturated fatty acid chains in the carrier scaffold improves transgene expression and further reduces airway inflammation. Finally, the biodegradable phosphatidylcholine-detergent conjugates favorably compare to GL67A, the gold standard for DNA delivery to the airway that is currently under clinical evaluation. Our findings indicate that the lipid formulations described herein may have great potential as nucleic acid carriers for gene therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of the gel to liquid crystalline phase transition on the osmotic behaviour of phosphatidylcholine liposomes.

    PubMed

    Blok, M C; van Deenen, L L; De Gier, J

    1976-04-16

    Aspects of osmotic properties of liposomes, prepared from synthetic lecithin, above, at and below the gel to liquid crystalline phase transition temperature are described. The experiments show that liposomal membranes with their lipids in the gel state are still permeable to water. The rate of water permeation changes drastically on passing the transition temperature. The water permeation has activation energies of 9.5 +/- 1.28 and 26.4 +/- 0.9 kcal/mol above and below the transition temperature, respectively, indicating that the diffusion processes take place by different mechanisms. With respect to the barrier properties of the liposomes in the vicinity of the transition temperature, the following conclusions can be made. (1) Studying the osmotic shrinkage of liposomes at a fixed temperature near the transition point, the experiments indicate that dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine membranes are highly permeable to glucose under these conditions, where liquid and solid domains co-exist. Under the same conditions the osmotic experiments did not indicate a strong increase in glucose permeability of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine membranes as compared to the situation above and below the transition temperature. (2) On the other hand, perturbations of the phase equilibrium by temperature varations resulted in a marked increase of the glucose permeation through dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Once a new phase equilibrium of liquid and solid regions is established the permeation rate of glucose is much less.

  17. Interaction of polyene antibiotics with sterols in phosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes as studied by spin probes.

    PubMed

    Ohki, K; Nozawa, Y; Ohnishi, S I

    1979-06-13

    Interaction of filipin and amphotericin B with sterols in phosphatidylcholine membranes has been studied using various spin probes; epiandrosterone, cholestanone, phosphatidylcholine with 12-nitroxide or 5-nitroxide stearate attached to 2 position and also with tempocholine at the head group. Filipin caused increase in the fluidity of cholesterol-containing phosphatidylcholine membranes near the center, while it rather decreased the fluidity near the polar surface. On the other hand, amphotericin B did not apparently affect the fluidity. In the electron spin resonance spectrum of steriod spin probes in the antibiotic-containing membranes, both bound and free signals were observed and the association constant was calculated from the siganal intensity. In the binding of steriods with filipin, both 3 and 17 positions were involved, while the 17 positions was less involved in the binding with amphotericin B. Phase change in the host membrane markedly affected the interaction of filipin with epiandrosterone probe. The bound fraction jumped from 0.4 to 0.8 on going to the crystalline state and increased further with decrease in temperature. The overall splitting of the bound signal also increased on lowering the temperature below phase transition. This change was attributed to aggregate formation of filipin-steriod complexes in the crystalline state. On the other hand, effect of phase transition was much smaller on the interaction of amphotericin B with the steriod probe.

  18. Pulmonary surfactant and its components inhibit secretion of phosphatidylcholine from cultured rat alveolar type II cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, L.G.; Wright, J.R.; Hawgood, S.; Gonzalez, R.; Venstrom, K.; Nellenbogen, J.

    1987-02-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is synthesized and secreted by alveolar type II cells. Radioactive phosphatidylcholine has been used as a marker for surfactant secretion. The authors report findings that suggest that surfactant inhibits secretion of /sup 3/H-labeled phosphatidylcholine by cultured rat type II cells. The lipid components and the surfactant protein group of M/sub r/ 26,000-36,000 (SP 26-36) inhibit secretion to different extents. Surfactant lipids do not completely inhibit release; in concentrations of 100 ..mu..g/ml, lipids inhibit stimulated secretion by 40%. SP 26-36 inhibits release with an EC/sub 50/ of 0.1 ..mu..g/ml. At concentrations of 1.0 ..mu..g/ml, SP 26-36 inhibits basal secretion and reduces to basal levels secretion stimulated by terbutaline, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and the ionophore A23187. The inhibitory effect of SP 26-36 can be blocked by washing type II cells after adding SP 26-36, by heating the proteins to 100/sup 0/C for 10 min, by adding antiserum specific to SP 26-36, or by incubating cells in the presence of 0.2 mM EGTA. SP 26-36 isolated from canine and human sources also inhibits phosphatidylcholine release from rat type II cells. Neither type I collagen nor serum apolipoprotein A-1 inhibits secretion. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that surfactant secretion is under feedback regulatory control.

  19. Studies on the encapsulation of diclofenac in small unilamellar liposomes of soya phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Lopes, L B; Scarpa, M V; Silva, G V J; Rodrigues, D C; Santilli, C V; Oliveira, A G

    2004-12-25

    The encapsulation of acid (AD) and sodium diclofenac (SD) in small unilamellar liposomes (SUV) as well as the interactions of the drug with the bilayer was studied. SUV was prepared by sonication from multilamellar liposomes containing soya phosphatidylcholine and diclofenac at various proportions. The size distribution obtained from dynamic light scattering showed that the incorporation of SD decreases significantly the size of the liposomes suggesting that the drug interacts with the bilayer of the liposomes. This size decrease is related with the phase transition of liposomes to mixed micelar solution. The encapsulation of the hydrophilic dye indocyanine green in the aqueous compartment of liposomes showed that the rate of captured dye decreases with SD concentration suggesting the transition of liposomes to mixed micelles. The (31)P NMR analysis indicates that SD interacts with the phosphate of phosphatidylcholine head groups. A schematic model for interaction of SD with phosphatidylcholine of the liposomes in which the diclofenac anion interacts with the ammonium group of the phospholipid and the dichlorophenyl ring occupies a more internal site of bilayer near phosphate group was proposed.

  20. Phosphatidate phosphatase plays role in zinc-mediated regulation of phospholipid synthesis in yeast.

    PubMed

    Soto-Cardalda, Aníbal; Fakas, Stylianos; Pascual, Florencia; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Carman, George M

    2012-01-06

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the synthesis of phospholipids is coordinately regulated by mechanisms that control the homeostasis of the essential mineral zinc (Carman, G.M., and Han, G. S. (2007) Regulation of phospholipid synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by zinc depletion. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1771, 322-330; Eide, D. J. (2009) Homeostatic and adaptive responses to zinc deficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 18565-18569). The synthesis of phosphatidylcholine is balanced by the repression of CDP-diacylglycerol pathway enzymes and the induction of Kennedy pathway enzymes. PAH1-encoded phosphatidate phosphatase catalyzes the penultimate step in triacylglycerol synthesis, and the diacylglycerol generated in the reaction may also be used for phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway. In this work, we showed that the expression of PAH1-encoded phosphatidate phosphatase was induced by zinc deficiency through a mechanism that involved interaction of the Zap1p zinc-responsive transcription factor with putative upstream activating sequence zinc-responsive elements in the PAH1 promoter. The pah1Δ mutation resulted in the derepression of the CHO1-encoded phosphatidylserine synthase (CDP-diacylglycerol pathway enzyme) and loss of the zinc-mediated regulation of the enzyme. Loss of phosphatidate phosphatase also resulted in the derepression of the CKI1-encoded choline kinase (Kennedy pathway enzyme) but decreased the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine when cells were deficient of zinc. This result confirmed the role phosphatidate phosphatase plays in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway.

  1. Phosphatidate Phosphatase Plays Role in Zinc-mediated Regulation of Phospholipid Synthesis in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Cardalda, Aníbal; Fakas, Stylianos; Pascual, Florencia; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Carman, George M.

    2012-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the synthesis of phospholipids is coordinately regulated by mechanisms that control the homeostasis of the essential mineral zinc (Carman, G.M., and Han, G. S. (2007) Regulation of phospholipid synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by zinc depletion. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1771, 322–330; Eide, D. J. (2009) Homeostatic and adaptive responses to zinc deficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 18565–18569). The synthesis of phosphatidylcholine is balanced by the repression of CDP-diacylglycerol pathway enzymes and the induction of Kennedy pathway enzymes. PAH1-encoded phosphatidate phosphatase catalyzes the penultimate step in triacylglycerol synthesis, and the diacylglycerol generated in the reaction may also be used for phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway. In this work, we showed that the expression of PAH1-encoded phosphatidate phosphatase was induced by zinc deficiency through a mechanism that involved interaction of the Zap1p zinc-responsive transcription factor with putative upstream activating sequence zinc-responsive elements in the PAH1 promoter. The pah1Δ mutation resulted in the derepression of the CHO1-encoded phosphatidylserine synthase (CDP-diacylglycerol pathway enzyme) and loss of the zinc-mediated regulation of the enzyme. Loss of phosphatidate phosphatase also resulted in the derepression of the CKI1-encoded choline kinase (Kennedy pathway enzyme) but decreased the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine when cells were deficient of zinc. This result confirmed the role phosphatidate phosphatase plays in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway. PMID:22128164

  2. Phosphatidylcholine is a major source of phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol in angiotensin II-stimulated vascular smooth-muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lassègue, B; Alexander, R W; Clark, M; Akers, M; Griendling, K K

    1993-06-01

    In cultured vascular smooth-muscle cells, angiotensin II produces a sustained formation of diacylglycerol (DG) and phosphatidic acid (PtdOH). Since the fatty acid composition of these molecules is likely to determine their efficacy as second messengers, it is important to ascertain the phospholipid precursors and the biochemical pathways from which they are produced. Our experiments suggest that phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) hydrolysis is the major source of both DG and PtdOH during the late signalling phase. First, in cells labelled with [3H]myristate, which preferentially labels PtdCho, formation of [3H]PtdOH precedes formation of [3H]DG. Second, in contrast with phospholipase C (PLC) activation, DG mass accumulation is dependent on extracellular Ca2+. Similarly, DG mass accumulation is not attenuated by protein kinase C activation, which we have previously shown to inhibit the phosphoinositide-specific PLC. Third, the fatty acid composition of late-phase DG and PtdOH more closely resembles that of PtdCho than that of phosphatidylinositol. Finally, in cells labelled for a short time with [3H]glycerol, the radioactivity incorporated into [3H]DG and PtdOH was greater than that incorporated into PtdIns, but not into PtdCho. We found no evidence that synthesis de novo or phosphatidylethanolamine breakdown contributes to sustained DG and PtdOH formation. Thus, in angiotensin II-stimulated cultured vascular smooth-muscle cells, PLD-mediated PtdCho hydrolysis is the major source of sustained DG and PtdOH, whereas phosphoinositide breakdown is a minor contributor. Furthermore, PtdOH phosphohydrolase, which determines the relative levels of DG and PtdOH, appears to be regulated by protein kinase C. These results have important implications for the role of these second messengers in growth and contraction.

  3. Phase diagrams of pseudo-binary phospholipid systems. II. Selected calorimetric studies on the influence of branching on the mixing properties of phosphatidylcholines.

    PubMed

    Dörfler, H D; Miethe, P

    1990-04-01

    The miscibility properties of branched phosphatidylcholines in mixtures of aqueous dispersions were studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry. The phase diagrams of four pseudo-binary systems from mixing type unbranched phosphatidylcholine/branched phosphatidylcholine/water (50 wt. % water) were investigated and discussed. The unbranched dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine acts as a reference component of the mixtures. The phase diagrams of these four pseudo-binary phosphatidylcholine systems showed some connections between chain structure of the branched phosphatidylcholines and miscibility of the components. A change of the phase diagram type has been observed according to the branching and/or chain length differences of the phosphatidylcholines: complete miscibility and peritectic mixing behaviour. Generally we observed complete miscibility in the high-temperature phase (La-phase) and demixing in the low-temperature phases (gel phase). This is dependent on the branching and chain length differences of the mixing components.

  4. Effects of diacylglycerols and Ca2+ on structure of phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, E M; Lester, D S; Borchardt, D B; Zidovetzki, R

    1994-01-01

    The combined effects of the diacylglycerols (DAGs) with the various acyl chains and Ca2+ on the structure of phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine (4:1 mole/mole) bilayers were studied using 2H- and 31P NMR. The following DAG- and Ca(2+)-induced bilayer perturbations were identified. 1) Increased tendency to form nonbilayer lipid phases was induced by diolein or stearoylarachidonoylglycerol, and was synergistically enhanced by the addition of Ca2+. 2) "Transverse" bilayer perturbation was induced by dioctanoylglycerol. The addition of this DAG caused increased ordering of the phospholipid acyl side chains in the region adjacent to the headgroup, with the concomitant decrease of the order toward the bilayer interior. 3) Separation of the phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine bilayer components was induced by combinations of relatively high (1:5 mole/mole to phosphatidylserine) Ca2+ and 25 mol% (to the phospholipids) of diolein, stearoylarachidonoylglycerol, or oleoylacetylglycerol. 4) Lateral phase separation of the bilayers on the regions of different fluidities was induced by dipalmitin. These physicochemical effects were correlated with the effects of these DAGs and Ca2+ on the activity of protein kinase C. The increased tendency to form nonbilayer lipid phases and the transverse bilayer perturbations correlated with the increased protein kinase C activity, whereas the actual presence of the nonbilayer lipid phases, as well as the separation of the phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine components, was associated with the decrease in the protein kinase C activity. The lateral phase separation of the bilayer on gel-like and liquid crystalline regions did not have an effect on the activity of the enzyme. These results demonstrate the importance of the physicochemical properties of the membranes in the process of activation of protein kinase C. PMID:8161692

  5. Mastoparan-induced phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by phospholipase D activation in human astrocytoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, K.; Nakahata, N.; Ohizumi, Y.

    1995-01-01

    1. The effect of mastoparan on phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis was examined in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. Mastoparan (3-30 microM) caused an accumulation of diacylglycerol (DG) and phosphatidic acd (PA) accompanied by choline release in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. 2. In the presence of 2% n-butanol, mastoparan (3-100 microM) induced phosphatidylbutanol (PBut) accumulation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, suggesting that mastoparan activates phospholipase D (PLD). Propranolol (30-300 microM), a phosphatidate phosphohydrolase inhibitor, inhibited DG accumulation induced by mastoparan, supporting this idea. 3. Depletion of extracellular free calcium ion did not alter the effect of mastoparan on PLD activity. 4. A protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, calphostin C (1 microM), did not inhibit mastoparan-induce PLD activation but the ability of mastoparan to stimulate phospholipase D activity was decreased in the PKC down regulated cells. 5. PLD activity stimulated by mastoparan was not prevented by pretreatment of the cells with pertussis toxin (PT) or C3 ADP-ribosyltransferase. Furthermore, guanine nucleotides did not affect PLD activity stimulation by mastoparan in membrane preparations. 6. Mastoparan stimulated PLD in several cell lines such as RBL-2H3, RBL-1, HL-60, P388, endothelial cells, as well as 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. 7. These results suggest that mastoparan induces phosphatidylcholine (PC) hydrolysis by activation of PLD, not by activation of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC); mastoparan-induced PLD activation is not mediated by G proteins. PMID:8640350

  6. Radiotracer evidence implicating phosphoryl and phosphatidyl bases as intermediates in betaine synthesis by water-stressed barley leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Hitz, W.D.; Rhodes, D.; Hanson, A.

    1981-10-01

    In pulse-chase experiments with barley wilted leaves, label from (/sup 14/C)-ethanolamine continued to accumulate in betaine as it was being lost from phosphatidylcholine. When (/sup 14/C)monomethylethanolamine was supplied to wilted leaves, phosphatidylcholine was initially more heavily labeled than betaine. These results are qualitatively consistent with a precursor-to-product relationship between phosphatidylcholine and betaine. The following experiments, in which tracer amounts of (/sup 14/C)ethanolamine or (/sup 14/C)formate were supplied to wilted barley leaves, implicated phosphoryl and phosphatidyl bases as intermediates in the methylation steps between ethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Label from both (/sup 14/C)ethanolamine and (/sup 14/C)formate entered phosphorylmonomethylethanolamine and phosphorylcholine very rapidly; these phosphoryl bases were the most heavily labeled products at 15 to 30 minutes after label addition and lost label rapidly as the fed /sup 14/C-labeled precursor was depleted. Phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine were also significantly labeled from (/sup 14/C)ethanolamine and (/sup 14/)formate at early times; the corresponding free bases and nucleotide bases were not. Addition of a trapping pool of phosphorylcholine reduced (/sup 14/C)ethanolamine conversion to both phosphatidylcholine and betaine, and resulted in accumulation of labe in the trap. A computer model of the synthesis of betaine via phosphatidylcholine was developed from /sup 14/C kinetic data. The model indicates that about 20% of the total leaf phosphatidylcholine behaves as an intermediate in betaine biosynthesis and that a marked decrease (greater than or equal to2-fold) in the half-life of this metabolically active phosphatidylcholine fraction accompanies wilting.

  7. Reaction of discoidal complexes of apolipoprotein A-I and various phosphatidylcholines with lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase. Interfacial effects.

    PubMed

    Jonas, A; Zorich, N L; Kézdy, K E; Trick, W E

    1987-03-25

    Complexes of phospholipids-apolipoprotein A-I-cholesterol, containing various bulk phosphatidylcholines or a matrix of the ether analog of 1-palmitoyl 2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine including test phosphatidylcholines were used as substrates for human lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase. The enzymatic reaction rates for both series of complexes were determined as a function of temperature, particle concentration, neutral salt concentration, and the type of anion present in solution. The kinetic results support the hypothesis that phospholipids, in discoidal complexes, modulate the reaction rates by molecular effects at the active site, but also by interfacial effects on the interaction of the enzyme with the particles. The relevant interfacial parameters are the lipid packing at the interface and the structure of apolipoprotein A-I.

  8. Automated monitoring of phosphatidylcholine biosyntheses in Plasmodium falciparum by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry through stable isotope labeling experiments.

    PubMed

    Enjalbal, Christine; Roggero, Rodolphe; Cerdan, Rachel; Martinez, Jean; Vial, Henri; Aubagnac, Jean-Louis

    2004-08-01

    The metabolic pathways contributing to phosphatidylcholine biosyntheses in Plasmodium falciparum, the malaria-causing parasite, was explored by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Phosphatidylcholine produced by the CDP-choline pathway and by the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine was identified and quantified through isotopic labeling experiments. A straightforward method based on cone voltage directed in-source fragmentations and relative abundance measurement of endogenous versus deuterated specific fragment ions was developed for simple and rapid automated data acquisition. Such high-throughput analytical protocol allowed us to measure the relative contribution of two different metabolic pathways leading to phosphatidylcholine without performing technically more demanding and time-consuming MS/MS or LC/MS experiments.

  9. Headgroup conformation and lipid--cholesterol association in phosphatidylcholine vesicles: a 31P(1H) nuclear Overhauser effect study.

    PubMed Central

    Yeagle, P L; Hutton, W C; Huang, C H; Martin, R B

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear Overhauser effect has been observed in the nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of 31P. The information content of the nuclear Overhauser effect has been applied to the structure and dynamic properties of phosphatidylcholine vesicles. In the vesicles only 1/3 of the theoretical maximum nuclear Overhauser effect enhancement is observed. This result is accounted for by dipolar interactions between the N-methyl protons and the phosphate of phosphatidylcholine, and a correlation time for internal motion of 1.4 X 10(-9) sec. Addition of up to 30% cholesterol does not change the nuclear Overhauser effect enhancement or spin-lattice relaxation time of the vesicles. It is argued that the OH group of cholesterol is hydrogen bonded to the ester carbonyl oxygen of the phosphatidylcholine molecules. PMID:1059134

  10. Mitogenic Effects of Phosphatidylcholine Nanoparticles on MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gándola, Yamila B.; Pérez, Sebastián E.; Irene, Pablo E.; Sotelo, Ana I.; Miquet, Johanna G.; Corradi, Gerardo R.; Carlucci, Adriana M.; Gonzalez, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    Lecithins, mainly composed of the phospholipids phosphatidylcholines (PC), have many different uses in the pharmaceutical and clinical field. PC are involved in structural and biological functions as membrane trafficking processes and cellular signaling. Considering the increasing applications of lecithin-based nanosystems for the delivery of therapeutic agents, the aim of the present work was to determine the effects of phosphatidylcholine nanoparticles over breast cancer cellular proliferation and signaling. PC dispersions at 0.01 and 0.1% (w/v) prepared in buffer pH 7.0 and 5.0 were studied in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Neutral 0.1% PC-derived nanoparticles induced the activation of the MEK-ERK1/2 pathway, increased cell viability and induced a 1.2 fold raise in proliferation. These biological effects correlated with the increase of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) content and its altered cellular localization. Results suggest that nanoparticles derived from PC dispersion prepared in buffer pH 7.0 may induce physicochemical changes in the plasma membrane of cancer cells which may affect EGFR cellular localization and/or activity, increasing activation of the MEK-ERK1/2 pathway and inducing proliferation. Results from the present study suggest that possible biological effects of delivery systems based on lecithin nanoparticles should be taken into account in pharmaceutical formulation design. PMID:24772432

  11. Persistence of phase coexistence in disaturated phosphatidylcholine monolayers at high surface pressures.

    PubMed Central

    Crane, J M; Putz, G; Hall, S B

    1999-01-01

    Prior reports that the coexistence of the liquid-expanded (LE) and liquid-condensed (LC) phases in phospholipid monolayers terminates in a critical point have been compromised by experimental difficulties with Langmuir troughs at high surface pressures and temperatures. The studies reported here used the continuous interface of a captive bubble to minimize these problems during measurements of the phase behavior for monolayers containing the phosphatidylcholines with the four different possible combinations of palmitoyl and/or myristoyl acyl residues. Isothermal compression produced surface pressure-area curves for dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) that were indistinguishable from previously published data obtained with Langmuir troughs. During isobaric heating, a steep increase in molecular area corresponding to the main LC-LE phase transition persisted for all four compounds to 45 mN/m, at which collapse of the LE phase first occurred. No other discontinuities to suggest other phase transitions were apparent. Isobars for DPPC at higher pressures were complicated by collapse of the monolayer, but continued to show evidence up to 65 mN/m for at least the onset of the LC-LE transition. The persistence of the main phase transition to high surface pressures suggests that a critical point for these monolayers of disaturated phospholipids is either nonexistent or inaccessible at an air-water interface. PMID:10585934

  12. Dynamics of the sorption of phosphatidylcholine by mesoporous composites based on MCM-41

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinyaeva, L. A.; Belanova, N. A.; Karpov, S. I.; Selemenev, V. F.; Roessner, F.

    2016-11-01

    The possibility of predicting the breakthrough curves of a phospholipid (PL) during its sorption by mesoporous composites based on MCM-41 using models of the dynamics of sorption that consider the kinetics of adsorption (the Thomas model) and mixed diffusion (the asymptotic model) is demonstrated using phosphatidylcholine (PC) as an example. The effect the kinetic parameters have on the tailing of the sorption front with respect to the mixed diffusion limitation of the sorption of nonpolar biologically active substances (BASes) is shown. It is found that the ordered structure of composite materials based on MCM-41 ensures a high rate of mass transfer and thus little tailing of the sorption front, when compared to sorbents with a lower degree of order (silica gel and polymer materials) during the sorption of a phospholipid under dynamic conditions. Based on calculations of the parameter of pattern Λ under the conditions of the dynamic mode of sorption in mixed diffusion kinetics, it is shown that the sorption of phosphatidylcholine from hexane solutions by mesoporous composites based on MCM-41 allows the sorption chromatographic process to proceed in the most advantageous (quasi-equilibrium) mode.

  13. Interferon-. alpha. selectively activates the. beta. isoform of protein kinase C through phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeffer, L.M.; Saltiel, A.R. ); Strulovici, B. )

    1990-09-01

    The early events that occur after interferon binds to discrete cell surface receptors remain largely unknown. Human leukocyte interferon (interferon-{alpha}) rapidly increases the binding of ({sup 3}H)phorbol dibutyrate to intact HeLa cells a measure of protein kinase C activation, and induces the selective translocation of the {beta} isoform of protein kinase C from the cytosol to the particulate fraction of HeLa cells. The subcellular distribution of the {alpha} and {epsilon} isoforms is unaffected by interferon-{alpha} treatment. Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters mimics the inhibitory action of interferon-{alpha} on HeLa cell proliferation and down-regulation of protein kinase C blocks the induction of antiviral activity by interferon-{alpha} in HeLa cells. Increased phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis and phosphorylcholine production is accompanied by diacylglycerol production in response to interferon. However, inositol phospholipid turnover and free intracellular calcium concentration are unaffected. These results suggest that the transient increase in diacylglycerol, resulting from phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis, may selectively activate the {beta} isoform of protein kinase C. Moreover, the activation of protein kinase C is a necessary element in interferon action on cells.

  14. Prediction of water-phosphatidylcholine membrane partition coefficient of some drugs from their molecular structures.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Mohammad Hossein; Moghaddam, Masoomeh Raei

    2012-10-01

    In this work, the phosphatidylcholine membrane-water partition coefficients (MA) of some drugs were estimated from their theoretical derived molecular descriptors by applying quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methodology. The data set consisted of 46 drugs where their log MA were determined experimentally. Descriptors used in this work were calculated by DRAGON (version 1) package, on the basis of optimized molecular structures, and the most relevant descriptors were selected by stepwise multilinear regressions (MLRs). These descriptors were used to developing linear and nonlinear models by using MLR and artificial neural networks (ANNs), respectively. During this investigation, the best QSAR model was identified when using the ANN model that produced a reasonable level of correlation coefficients (R(train) = 0.995, R(test) = 0.948) and low standard error (SE(train) = 0.099, SE(test) = 0.326). The built model was fully assessed by various validation methods, including internal and external validation test, Y-randomization test, and cross-validation (Q(2) = 0.805). The results of this investigation revealed the applicability of QSAR approaches in the estimation of phosphatidylcholine membrane-water partition coefficients.

  15. Gas-Phase Transformation of Phosphatidylcholine Cations to Structurally Informative Anions via Ion/Ion Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Stutzman, John R.; Blanksby, Stephen J.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Gas-phase transformation of synthetic phosphatidylcholine (PC) monocations to structurally informative anions is demonstrated via ion/ion reactions with doubly deprotonated 1,4-phenylenedipropionic acid (PDPA). Two synthetic PC isomers, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PC16:0/18:1) and 1-oleoyl-2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PC18:1/16:0) were subjected to this ion/ion chemistry. The product of the ion/ion reaction is a negatively charged complex, [PC+PDPA-H]−. Collisional activation of the long-lived complex causes transfer of a proton and methyl cation to PDPA, generating [PC-CH3]−. Subsequent collisional activation of the demethylated PC anions produces abundant fatty acid carboxylate anions and low abundance acyl neutral losses as free acids and ketenes. Product ion spectra of [PC-CH3]− suggest favorable cleavage at the sn-2 position over the sn-1 due to distinct differences in the relative abundances. In contrast, collisional activation of PC cations is absent of abundant fatty acid chain-related product ions and typically indicates only the lipid class via formation of the phosphocholine cation. A solution phase method to produce the gas-phase adducted PC anion is also demonstrated. Product ion spectra derived from the solution phase method are similar to the results generated via ion/ion chemistry. This work demonstrates a gas-phase means to increase structural characterization of phosphatidylcholines via ion/ion chemistry. PMID:23469867

  16. Gas-phase transformation of phosphatidylcholine cations to structurally informative anions via ion/ion chemistry.

    PubMed

    Stutzman, John R; Blanksby, Stephen J; McLuckey, Scott A

    2013-04-02

    Gas-phase transformation of synthetic phosphatidylcholine (PC) monocations to structurally informative anions is demonstrated via ion/ion reactions with doubly deprotonated 1,4-phenylenedipropionic acid (PDPA). Two synthetic PC isomers, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PC(16:0/18:1)) and 1-oleoyl-2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PC(18:1/16:0)), were subjected to this ion/ion chemistry. The product of the ion/ion reaction is a negatively charged complex, [PC + PDPA - H](-). Collisional activation of the long-lived complex causes transfer of a proton and methyl cation to PDPA, generating [PC - CH3](-). Subsequent collisional activation of the demethylated PC anions produces abundant fatty acid carboxylate anions and low-abundance acyl neutral losses as free acids and ketenes. Product ion spectra of [PC - CH3](-) suggest favorable cleavage at the sn-2 position over the sn-1 due to distinct differences in the relative abundances. In contrast, collisional activation of PC cations is absent of abundant fatty acid chain-related product ions and typically indicates only the lipid class via formation of the phosphocholine cation. A solution phase method to produce the gas-phase adducted PC anion is also demonstrated. Product ion spectra derived from the solution phase method are similar to the results generated via ion/ion chemistry. This work demonstrates a gas-phase means to increase structural characterization of phosphatidylcholines via ion/ion chemistry.

  17. Structural Characterization of Unsaturated Phosphatidylcholines Using Traveling Wave Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hugh I.; Kim, Hyungjun; Pang, Eric S.; Ryu, Ernest K.; Beegle, Luther W.; Loo, Joseph A.; Goddard, William A.; Kanik, Isik

    2009-01-01

    A number of phosphatidylcholine (PC) cations spanning a mass range of 400 to 1000 Da are investigated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled with traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS). A high correlation between mass and mobility is demonstrated with saturated phosphatidylcholine cations in N2. A significant deviation from this mass-mobility correlation line is observed for the unsaturated PC cation. We found that the double bond in the acyl chain causes a 5% reduction in drift time. The drift time is reduced at a rate of ~1% for each additional double bond. Theoretical collision cross sections of PC cations exhibit good agreement with experimentally evaluated values. Collision cross sections are determined using the recently derived relationship between mobility and drift time in TWIMS stacked ring ion guide (SRIG) and compared to estimate collision cross-sections using empiric calibration method. Computational analysis was performed using the modified trajectory (TJ) method with nonspherical N2 molecules as the drift gas. The difference between estimated collision cross-sections and theoretical collision cross-sections of PC cations is related to the sensitivity of the PC cation collision cross-sections to the details of the ion-neutral interactions. The origin of the observed correlation and deviation between mass and mobility of PC cations is discussed in terms of the structural rigidity of these molecules using molecular dynamic simulations. PMID:19764704

  18. Structural characterization of unsaturated phosphatidylcholines using traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hugh I; Kim, Hyungjun; Pang, Eric S; Ryu, Ernest K; Beegle, Luther W; Loo, Joseph A; Goddard, William A; Kanik, Isik

    2009-10-15

    A number of phosphatidylcholine (PC) cations spanning a mass range of 400-1000 Da are investigated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled with traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS). A high correlation between mass and mobility is demonstrated with saturated phosphatidylcholine cations in N(2). A significant deviation from this mass-mobility correlation line is observed for the unsaturated PC cation. We found that the double bond in the acyl chain causes a 5% reduction in drift time. The drift time is reduced at a rate of approximately 1% for each additional double bond. Theoretical collision cross sections of PC cations exhibit good agreement with experimentally evaluated values. Collision cross sections are determined using the recently derived relationship between mobility and drift time in TWIMS stacked ring ion guide (SRIG) and compared to estimated collision cross sections using an empiric calibration method. Computational analysis was performed using the modified trajectory (TJ) method with nonspherical N(2) molecules as the drift gas. The difference between estimated collision cross sections and theoretical collision cross sections of PC cations is related to the sensitivity of the PC cation collision cross sections to the details of the ion-neutral interactions. The origin of the observed correlation and deviation between mass and mobility of PC cations is discussed in terms of the structural rigidity of these molecules using molecular dynamic simulations.

  19. Quantitative analysis of phosphatidylcholine molecular species using HPLC and light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Brouwers, J F; Gadella, B M; van Golde, L M; Tielens, A G

    1998-02-01

    A number of HPLC chromatographic procedures can be used to separate intact molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (PC), but on-line quantification has remained problematic due to insensitivity of UV-detection for saturated species. Here, a new method is presented, separating all major PC molecular species from a variety of biological samples in intact form using a single, short and isocratic run. Species were separated on two RP18 reverse-phase columns in series and all species displayed an exponential relation between retention time and the percentage of acetonitrile or triethylamine in the mobile phase, allowing optimization of the mobile phase on a theoretical base, rather than on time-consuming test-runs. The use of triethylamine as a volatile additive instead of choline chloride allowed the use of light scattering detection. On a molar base, the response of the detector was invariant between species and allowed quantification of as little as 50 pmoles. The method was tested using phosphatidylcholines with widely different molecular species patterns, such a PC from rat liver, porcine pulmonary surfactant, bovine heart, boar sperm cells, and the parasite Schistosoma mansoni. As only volatile components are present in the solvents, individual molecular species can easily be recovered in pure form from the column effluent, enabling their further analysis (e.g., scintillation counting).

  20. Refined OPLS all-atom force field for saturated phosphatidylcholine bilayers at full hydration.

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Arkadiusz; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Cramariuc, Oana; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Rog, Tomasz

    2014-05-01

    We report parametrization of dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) in the framework of the Optimized Parameters for Liquid Simulations all-atom (OPLS-AA) force field. We chose DPPC as it is one of the most studied phospholipid species and thus has plenty of experimental data necessary for model validation, and it is also one of the highly important and abundant lipid types, e.g., in lung surfactant. Overall, PCs have not been previously parametrized in the OPLS-AA force field; thus, there is a need to derive its bonding and nonbonding parameters for both the polar and nonpolar parts of the molecule. In the present study, we determined the parameters for torsion angles in the phosphatidylcholine and glycerol moieties and in the acyl chains, as well the partial atomic charges. In these calculations, we used three methods: (1) Hartree-Fock (HF), (2) second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and (3) density functional theory (DFT). We also tested the effect of the polar environment by using the polarizable continuum model (PCM), and for acyl chains the van der Waals parameters were also adjusted. In effect, six parameter sets were generated and tested on a DPPC bilayer. Out of these six sets, only one was found to be able to satisfactorily reproduce experimental data for the lipid bilayer. The successful DPPC model was obtained from MP2 calculations in an implicit polar environment (PCM).

  1. Enhanced Bioavailability of Curcumin Nanoemulsions Stabilized with Phosphatidylcholine Modified with Medium Chain Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Flores, Angélica A; Hernández-Becerra, Josafat A; Cavazos-Garduño, Adriana; Soto-Rodríguez, Ida; Sanchez-Otero, Maria Guadalupe; Vernon-Carter, Eduardo J; García, Hugo S

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin is a natural, oil-soluble polyphenolic compound with potent anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. In its free form, it is very poorly absorbed in the gut due to its very low solubility. The use of nanoemulsions as carrier is a feasible way for improving curcumin bioavailability. To this end, the choice of emulsifying agent for stabilizing the nanoemulsions is of the upmost importance for achieving a desired functionality. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidycholine enriched (PCE) with medium chain fatty acids (42.5 mol %) in combination with glycerol as co-surfactant, were used for preparing oil-in water nanoemulsions coded as NEPC and NEPCE, respectively. NEPCE displayed significantly smaller mean droplet size (30 nm), equal entrapment efficiency (100%), better droplet stability and suffered lower encapsulation efficiency loss (3%) during storage time (120 days, 4ºC) than NEPC. Bioavailability, measured in terms of area under the curve of curcumin concentration versus time, and maximum curcumin plasma concentration, was in general terms significantly higher for NEPCE than for NEPC, and for curcumin coarse aqueous suspension (CCS). Also, NEPCE produced significantly higher curcumin concentrations in liver and lung than NEPC and CCS. These data support the role of phosphatidylcholine enriched with medium chain fatty acids to increase the bioavailability of nanoemulsions for therapeutic applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Diacylglycerol production induced by growth hormone in Ob1771 preadipocytes arises from phosphatidylcholine breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Catalioto, R.M.; Ailhaud, G.; Negrel, R. )

    1990-12-31

    Growth Hormone has recently been shown to stimulate the formation of diacylglycerol in Ob1771 mouse preadipocyte cells without increasing inositol lipid turnover. Addition of growth hormone to Ob1771 cells prelabelled with ({sup 3}H)glycerol or ({sup 3}H)choline led to a rapid, transient and stoechiometric formation of labelled diacylglycerol and phosphocholine, respectively. In contrast, no change was observed in the level of choline and phosphatidic acid whereas the release of water-soluble metabolites in ({sup 3}H)ethanolamine prelabelled cells exposed to growth hormone was hardly detectable. Stimulation by growth hormone of cells prelabelled with (2-palmitoyl 9, 10 ({sup 3}H))phosphatidylcholine also induced the production of labelled diacyglycerol. Pertussis toxin abolished both diacylglycerol and phosphocholine formation induced by growth hormone. It is concluded that growth hormone mediates diacylglycerol production in Ob1771 cells by means of phosphatidylcholine breakdown involving a phospholipase C which is likely coupled to the growth hormone receptor via a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein.

  3. The use of zeta potential as a tool to study phase transitions in binary phosphatidylcholines mixtures.

    PubMed

    Sierra, M B; Pedroni, V I; Buffo, F E; Disalvo, E A; Morini, M A

    2016-06-01

    Temperature dependence of the zeta potential (ZP) is proposed as a tool to analyze the thermotropic behavior of unilamellar liposomes prepared from binary mixtures of phosphatidylcholines in the absence or presence of ions in aqueous suspensions. Since the lipid phase transition influences the surface potential of the liposome reflecting a sharp change in the ZP during the transition, it is proposed as a screening method for transition temperatures in complex systems, given its high sensitivity and small amount of sample required, that is, 70% less than that required in the use of conventional calorimeters. The sensitivity is also reflected in the pre-transition detection in the presence of ions. Plots of phase boundaries for these mixed-lipid vesicles were constructed by plotting the delimiting temperatures of both main phase transition and pre-transition vs. the lipid composition of the vesicle. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies, although subject to uncertainties in interpretation due to broad bands in lipid mixtures, allowed the validation of the temperature dependence of the ZP method for determining the phase transition and pre-transition temperatures. The system chosen was dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC/DPPC), the most common combination in biological membranes. This work may be considered as a starting point for further research into more complex lipid mixtures with functional biological importance.

  4. Involvement of phospholipase D and protein kinase C in phorbol ester and fatty acid stimulated turnover of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in neural cells.

    PubMed

    Cook, H W; Ridgway, N D; Byers, D M

    1998-02-05

    Hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) can provide lipid second messengers involved in sustained signal transduction. Four neural-derived cell lines (C6 rat glioma; N1E-115 mouse and SK-N-MC and SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma) express different protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and differentially respond to 4beta-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (beta-TPA)-stimulation of PtdCho synthesis. We examined involvement of PLD and PKC in the hydrolysis and resynthesis of PtdCho and phosphatidylethanolamine stimulated by beta-TPA, bryostatin (a non-phorbol PKC activator) and oleic acid (18:1n-9) in the four cell lines. beta-TPA or bryostatin produced similar enhancement of [3H]Cho incorporation, loss of stimulated synthesis after down regulation of PKC, and activation of PLD. In C6 cells, staurosporine (STS) and bis-indolylmaleimide (BIM) only partially inhibited basal and beta-TPA-stimulated PLD activity measured as choline or ethanolamine release; phosphatidylbutanol formation after prelabeling with [9,10-3H]18:1n-9, [9,10-3H]myristic acid (14:0), [1-14C]eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) or 1-O-[alkyl-1', 2-3H]-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine gave similar results. STS at >200 nM activated PLD in the presence or absence of beta-TPA. In SK-N-SH cells where PtdCho synthesis was stimulated by beta-TPA or bryostatin, no effect of these agents on PLD was observed. 18:1n-9 stimulated PtdCho synthesis and, to a lesser extent, hydrolysis by PLD both with and without beta-TPA present. Fatty acids had no effect on PKC activities and down regulation of PKC with beta-TPA enhanced fatty acid stimulation of PtdCho synthesis. Thus, activation of PLD hydrolysis preceding resynthesis is involved in the stimulatory effects of beta-TPA on PtdCho synthesis in some but not all of these neural derived cells. Further, PLD hydrolysis of PtdCho and PtdEtn appear to have differing aspects of regulation. Fatty acid regulation of PtdCho synthesis occurs independent of PKC activation. Accordingly

  5. C1 Metabolism Inhibition and Nitrogen Deprivation Trigger Triacylglycerol Accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana Cell Cultures and Highlight a Role of NPC in Phosphatidylcholine-to-Triacylglycerol Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Meï, Coline E.; Cussac, Mathilde; Haslam, Richard P.; Beaudoin, Frédéric; Wong, Yung-Sing; Maréchal, Eric; Rébeillé, Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation often occurs in growth limiting conditions such as nutrient deprivations. We analyzed and compared the lipid contents of Arabidopsis cells grown under two conditions that inhibited growth as a way to study interactions between membrane and storage lipids. In order to inhibit C1 metabolism, the first condition utilized methotrexate (MTX), a drug that inhibits methyl transfer reactions and potentially reduces Pi-choline synthesis, the polar head of phosphatidylcholine (PC). MTX-treated cells displayed a 10- to 15-fold increase in TAG compared to that found in control cells. This corresponded to a net increase of lipids as the total amount of membrane glycerolipids was minimally affected. Under this condition, PC homeostasis appeared tightly regulated and not strictly dependent on the rate of Pi-choline synthesis. The second condition we investigated involved nitrogen deprivation. Here, we observed a 40-fold increase of TAG. In these cells, the overall lipid content remained unchanged, but membrane lipids decreased by a factor of two suggesting a reduction of the membrane network and a rerouting of membrane lipids to storage lipids. Under all conditions, fatty acid (FA) analyses showed that the FA composition of TAG was comparable to that in PC, but different from that in acyl-CoA, suggesting that TAG accumulation involved PC-derived DAG moieties. In agreement, analyses by qPCR of genes coding for TAG synthesis showed a strong increase of non-specific phospholipase C (NPC) expressions, and experiments using labeled (fluorescent) PC indicated higher rates of PC-to-TAG conversion under both situations. These results highlight a role for NPC in plant cell oil production. PMID:28101097

  6. C1 Metabolism Inhibition and Nitrogen Deprivation Trigger Triacylglycerol Accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana Cell Cultures and Highlight a Role of NPC in Phosphatidylcholine-to-Triacylglycerol Pathway.

    PubMed

    Meï, Coline E; Cussac, Mathilde; Haslam, Richard P; Beaudoin, Frédéric; Wong, Yung-Sing; Maréchal, Eric; Rébeillé, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation often occurs in growth limiting conditions such as nutrient deprivations. We analyzed and compared the lipid contents of Arabidopsis cells grown under two conditions that inhibited growth as a way to study interactions between membrane and storage lipids. In order to inhibit C1 metabolism, the first condition utilized methotrexate (MTX), a drug that inhibits methyl transfer reactions and potentially reduces Pi-choline synthesis, the polar head of phosphatidylcholine (PC). MTX-treated cells displayed a 10- to 15-fold increase in TAG compared to that found in control cells. This corresponded to a net increase of lipids as the total amount of membrane glycerolipids was minimally affected. Under this condition, PC homeostasis appeared tightly regulated and not strictly dependent on the rate of Pi-choline synthesis. The second condition we investigated involved nitrogen deprivation. Here, we observed a 40-fold increase of TAG. In these cells, the overall lipid content remained unchanged, but membrane lipids decreased by a factor of two suggesting a reduction of the membrane network and a rerouting of membrane lipids to storage lipids. Under all conditions, fatty acid (FA) analyses showed that the FA composition of TAG was comparable to that in PC, but different from that in acyl-CoA, suggesting that TAG accumulation involved PC-derived DAG moieties. In agreement, analyses by qPCR of genes coding for TAG synthesis showed a strong increase of non-specific phospholipase C (NPC) expressions, and experiments using labeled (fluorescent) PC indicated higher rates of PC-to-TAG conversion under both situations. These results highlight a role for NPC in plant cell oil production.

  7. Degradation of mono-oleoylglycerol, trioleoylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine in emulsions and lipoproteins by rat hepatic acylglycerol lipase.

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, J D; Sisson, P J; Waite, M

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the lipolytic activities released by heparin from rat livers. Heparin perfusates of rat livers degraded monooleoylglycerol, trioleoylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine in emulsions as well as in chylomicrons, chylomicron remnants, low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein-1 (LDL/HDL-1) and high-density lipoprotein-2 (HDL-2). The preferred substrate was mono-oleoylglycerol. Heparin perfusates were separated by chromatography on either heparin-Sepharose or N-desulphated, N-acetylated heparin-Sepharose into at least two related lipases which differed in their ability to hydrolyse HDL-2 phosphatidylcholine, but not in their ability to degrade mono-oleoylglycerol, trioleoylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine in emulsions. The sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)/polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoretic patterns of heparin perfusates purified on either normal or N-desulphated N-acetylated heparin-Sepharose were the same, despite differences in their ability to degrade HDL-2 phosphatidylcholine. There was a single band of Mr 56000 without 2-mercaptoethanol in the SDS disruption buffer and three major bands, of Mr 62000, 59000 and 56000, with 2-mercaptoethanol present. When mono-oleoylglycerol lipase was purified 161-fold, there was a concomitant enrichment of the Mr-56000 protein. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:4038271

  8. Quantitation of isobaric phosphatidylcholine species in human plasma using a hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) species in human plasma are used as biomarkers of disease. PC biomarkers are often limited by the inability to separate isobaric PC. In this work, we developed a targeted shotgun approach for analysis of isobaric and isomeric PC. This approach is comprised of two mass spectr...

  9. Twisting of the spermatic cord: ischemia and reperfusion, toxicogenetic evaluation, and the effects of phosphatidylcholine in pre-clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Coelho, H R S; Berno, C R; Falcão, G R; Hildebrand, C R; Oliveira, R J; Antoniolli-Silva, A C M B

    2016-08-29

    Phosphatidylcholine is the main phospholipid present in cell membranes and in lipoproteins, and can interfere with various biological processes. This lipid also has antioxidant activity, and protects against damage caused by free radicals under conditions of ischemia/reperfusion. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate toxicogenetic damage caused by twisting of the spermatic cord in ischemia/reperfusion, and whether phosphatidylcholine plays a role in conditions of ischemia/reperfusion in preclinical trials. The results indicate that spermatic cord torsion does not cause genotoxic damage or mutagenesis. A dose of 300 mg/kg of phosphatidylcholine is toxic and is thus not recommended. However, a dose of 150 mg/kg does not promote toxicogenetic damage, and though it does not statistically prevent tissue damage occurring from lack of oxygenation and nutrition of testicular cells, it has a tendency to reduce this damage. Therefore, this research suggests that further studies should be conducted to clarify this tendency and to provide a better explanation of the possible therapeutic effects of phosphatidylcholine in cytoprotection of germ cells affected by ischemia/reperfusion.

  10. Epigallocatechin gallate decreases the micellar solubility of cholesterol via specific interaction with phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Nishizawa, Masato; Inoue, Nao; Hosoya, Takahiro; Yoshida, Masahito; Ukawa, Yuichi; Sagesaka, Yuko M; Doi, Takayuki; Nakayama, Tsutomu; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Ikeda, Ikuo

    2014-04-02

    The mechanisms underlying the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the micellar solubility of cholesterol were examined. EGCG eliminated both cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine (PC) from bile salt micelles in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. When the bile salt micelles contained a phospholipid other than PC, neither cholesterol nor the phospholipid was eliminated following the addition of EGCG. When vesicles comprised of various phospholipids were prepared and, EGCG was added to the vesicles, EGCG effectively and exclusively eliminated only PC. An intermolecular nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) was observed between PC and EGCG in bile salt micelles with EGCG added, but not between cholesterol and EGCG, by using a NOE-correlated spectroscopy nuclear magnetic resonance method. The results of binding analyses using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) showed that EGCG did not bind to cholesterol. These observations strongly suggest that EGCG decreases the micellar solubility of cholesterol via specific interaction with PC.

  11. Hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine couples Ras to activation of Raf protein kinase during mitogenic signal transduction.

    PubMed Central

    Cai, H; Erhardt, P; Troppmair, J; Diaz-Meco, M T; Sithanandam, G; Rapp, U R; Moscat, J; Cooper, G M

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the relationship between hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and activation of the Raf-1 protein kinase in Ras-mediated transduction of mitogenic signals. As previously reported, cotransfection of a PC-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) expression plasmid bypassed the block to cell proliferation resulting from expression of the dominant inhibitory mutant Ras N-17. In contrast, PC-PLC failed to bypass the inhibitory effect of dominant negative Raf mutants, suggesting that PC-PLC functions downstream of Ras but upstream of Raf. Consistent with this hypothesis, treatment of quiescent cells with exogenous PC-PLC induced Raf activation, even when normal Ras function was blocked by Ras N-17 expression. Further, activation of Raf in response to mitogenic growth factors was blocked by inhibition of endogenous PC-PLC. Taken together, these results indicate that hydrolysis of PC mediates Raf activation in response to mitogenic growth factors. Images PMID:8246981

  12. Density functional theory-based conformational analysis of a phospholipid molecule (dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine).

    PubMed

    Krishnamurty, S; Stefanov, M; Mineva, T; Bégu, S; Devoisselle, J M; Goursot, A; Zhu, R; Salahub, D R

    2008-10-23

    The conformational space of the dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) molecule has been studied using density functional theory (DFT), augmented with a damped empirical dispersion energy term (DFT-D). Fourteen ground-state isomers have been found with total energies within less than 1 kcal/mol. Despite differences in combinations of their torsion angles, all these conformers share a common geometric profile, which includes a balance of attractive, repulsive, and constraint forces between and within specific groups of atoms. The definition of this profile fits with most of the structural characteristics deduced from measured NMR properties of DMPC solutions. The calculated vibrational spectrum of the molecule is in good agreement with experimental data obtained for DMPC bilayers. These results support the idea that DMPC molecules preserve their individual molecular structures in the various assemblies.

  13. A new crystalline phase of L-alpha-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine monohydrate.

    PubMed Central

    Fringeli, U P

    1981-01-01

    A new phase transition of L-alpha-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monohydrate from the "biaxial" phase to a crystalline phase (C phase) has been found at 71 degrees C by means of infrared attenuated total reflection (IR-ATR) spectroscopy. The transition is characterized by drastic conformational changes in the glycerophosphorylcholine moiety, which led on the one hand to an alignment of the turn near the ester group in the hydrocarbon chain at glycerol C(2) position. On the other hand a uniform conformation of the glycerophosphorylcholine moiety is found to be typical for the C phase, in contrast to nonuniform head group conformations of DPPC in other regions of the DPPC/water phase diagram investigated so far. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 PMID:6894555

  14. Reduced cytotoxicity of polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB) by egg phosphatidylcholine while maintaining antimicrobial efficacy.

    PubMed

    Müller, Gerald; Kramer, Axel; Schmitt, Jürgen; Harden, Daniela; Koburger, Torsten

    2011-04-25

    Liposomes or oil-in-water emulsions containing egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EPC) were combined with aqueous polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB). The bactericidal activity of these preparations against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as well as their cytotoxicity on cultured murine fibroblasts (L929 cells) was then assayed for either 30 min or 60 min in the presence of cell culture medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum as surrogate for wound fluid. We used two assay designs: in the first bactericidal activity and cytotoxicity were determined in separate experiments; in the second both were determined in one experiment. Combining PHMB and EPC containing o/w emulsions or liposomes protects mammalian cells without neutralizing the antiseptic effect. From all tested combinations the o/w emulsions containing 0.05% PHMB proved to be superior in this respect to the aqueous preparation.

  15. Intestinal microbial metabolism of phosphatidylcholine: a novel insight in the cardiovascular risk scenario

    PubMed Central

    Sorrentino, Claudia; Principi, Mariabeatrice; Giorgio, Floriana; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Di Leo, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota is a “dynamic organ” influencing host metabolism, nutrition, physiology and immune system. Among its several interactions, the role of a phosphatidylcholine metabolite derived by gut flora activity, i.e., trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), allows perceiving a novel insight in the cardiovascular risk scenario, being a strong predictor of this condition. Based on current reports, including the paper of Tang et al., we describe here: the possible role of intestinal microbiota in cardiovascular risk as well as potential interventions to reduce gut flora TMAO production by diet, probiotics and antibiotics. Finally, we highlight the possibility of evaluating, monitoring and modulating TMAO in order to use its serum levels as a marker of cardiovascular risk in the next future, when the need of controlled studies on large series will be satisfied. PMID:26312245

  16. Production of soybean phosphatidylcholine-chitosan nanovesicles by reverse phase evaporation: a step by step study.

    PubMed

    Mertins, Omar; Sebben, Marcelo; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; da Silveira, Nádya Pesce

    2005-12-01

    In the present work, we describe the preparation of composite nanovesicles containing soybean phosphatidylcholine and polysaccharide chitosan by the reverse phase evaporation method. Nanovesicles free from chitosan prepared in the same way were studied as reference. The production method involves the preparation of reverse micelles followed by the formation of an organogel, which is dispersed in water to yield the final liposomal structures. Structural changes in each step of the nanovesicles preparation were studied by means of static and dynamic light scattering as well as small angle X-ray scattering. Chitosan was also fully characterized in solution. The hydrodynamic radius of the composite nanovesicles is in the range of 174-286 nm, depending on the chitosan contents. A comparison with nanovesicles free from chitosan indicates the existence of higher contents of multilamellae structures in the composites, as well as improved stability in water.

  17. Incorporation of monomethylethanolamine into phosphatidylcholine by way of an exchange reaction followed by methylation

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.S. Jr. )

    1989-04-01

    Recent evidence by Datko and Mudd indicates that phosphatidylcholine (PC) may be synthesized by methylation of phosphatidylmonomethyl-ethanolamine (PMME), but perhaps not by utilization of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) as a source of PMME. They provided evidence that a CDP derivative of monomethylethanolamine (MME) might be the source of the headgroup. Another possibility is incorporation of MME by an exchange reaction. We tested this by incubating MME with ER from castor bean endosperm and radiolabeled S- adenosylmethionine under conditions which would allow incorporation of the headgroup and methylation to PC. Under these conditions the reaction proceeded, with radiolabel appearing in both PC and phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine. Neither ethanolamine nor L-serine, both of which are known to undergo exchange reactions, yielded PC under the same conditions.

  18. Thin phosphatidylcholine films as background surfaces with further possibilities of functionalization for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Tauk, Lara; Thami, Thierry; Ferez, Lynda; Kocer, Armagan; Janot, Jean-Marc; Déjardin, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Non-specific adsorption is a crucial problem in the biomedical field. To produce surfaces avoiding this phenomenon, we functionalized thin (7-180 nm) poly(methylhydrosiloxane) (PMHS) network films at room temperature (≈20°C) with phospholipids (PL) bearing a phosphorylcholine head. Regardless of their mode of preparation (casting or immersion), all surfaces appeared to be very hydrophilic with a captive air-bubble contact angle stabilized around 40°. The thin films were protein-repellent in phosphate saline buffer pH 7.4 according to analysis by normal scanning confocal fluorescence. Neither was any adsorption or spreading of l-α-phosphatidylcholine liposomes on such films observed. In addition, amino functional groups could be easily attached to the surface remaining available for further functionalization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Formation of drug-bearing vesicles in mixed colloids of bile salts and phosphatidylcholine

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelm, R.P.; Mang, J.; Hofmann, A.F.; Schteingart, C.; Alkan-Onyuksel, H.; Ayd, S.

    1997-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors used small-angle neutron scattering to study drug interactions with mixed colloids of bile salt and phosphatidylcholine. Because the mixed colloids form liposomes spontaneously, this system is a model for drug-bile interactions that are important in understanding the efficacy of oral drug formulations and in advanced applications for liposome drug delivery systems. The authors studied particle formation in incorporation of enzymatic products formed in the gut and the effects of cholesteric drugs and taxol on vesicle formation. The studies show that particle morphology is not affected by inclusion of most cholesteric drugs and taxol, and is not affected by incorporation of the products of enzymatic action. The findings suggest that particle form is important for the physiological function of bile and they are beginning to show which drugs affect liposome formation.

  20. Cytochrome c location in phosphatidylcholine/cardiolipin model membranes: resonance energy transfer study.

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, Galina P; Domanov, Yegor A

    2003-03-25

    Resonance energy transfer between lipid-bound fluorescent probe 3-methoxybenzanthrone as a donor and heme group of cytochrome c as an acceptor has been examined to ascertain the protein disposition relative to the surface of model membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine and cardiolipin (10, 50 and 80 mol%). The model of energy transfer in membrane systems has been extended to the case of donors distributed between the two-bilayer leaflets and acceptors located at the outer monolayer taking into account the donor and acceptor orientational behavior. Assuming specific protein orientation relative to the membrane surface and varying lateral distance of the donor-acceptor closest approach in the range from 0 to 3.5 nm the limits for possible heme distances from the bilayer midplane have been found to be 0.8-3 nm (10 mol% CL), 0-2.6 nm (50 mol% CL), and 1.4-3.3 nm (80 mol% CL).

  1. Direct interaction between cholesterol and phosphatidylcholines in hydrated membranes revealed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Arsov, Zoran; Quaroni, Luca

    2007-11-01

    By using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and curve fitting we have examined temperature dependence and composition dependence of the shape of the carbonyl band in phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol model membranes. Membranes were hydrated either in excess water or in excess deuterated water. The studied binary mixtures exhibit different lipid phases at appropriate temperature and amount of cholesterol, among them also the so-called liquid-ordered phase. The results confirm that cholesterol has a significant indirect influence on the carbonyl band through conformational and hydration effects. This influence was interpreted in view of the known temperature composition phase diagrams for inspected binary mixtures. In addition, direct interaction was observed, which could point to the presence of hydrogen bond between cholesterol and carbonyl group. This direct interaction, though weak, might play at least a partial role in the stabilization of cholesterol-rich lipid domains in model and biological membranes.

  2. Enhancement of absorption and hepatoprotective potential through soya-phosphatidylcholine-andrographolide vesicular system.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pushpendra Kumar; Khurana, Navneet; Pounikar, Yogesh; Gajbhiye, Asmita; Kharya, Murli Dhar

    2013-06-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal herb used extensively for various ailments and contains therapeutically active phytoconstituent, andrographolide (AN). Although hepatoprotective activity of AN is established, but their bioavailability is restricted due to its rapid clearance. The aim of this study, therefore, was to formulate AN herbosomes (ANH) through complexation with naturally occurring soya-phosphatidylcholine (SPC), in order to enhance absorption. Prepared andrographolide-soy phosphatidylcholine (AN-SPC) complex prepared was subjected for characterisation of complex and formation of vesicular system known as ANH using rotary evaporation techniques. This complex was subjected to in vitro study using everted small intestine sac technique which showed significantly increased absorption of AN from the ANH as compared to the plain AN. The hepatoprotective potential of ANH and plain AN was evaluated using carbon tetrachloride inducing hepatotoxicity rat model and compared, in which ANH equivalent to 50 mg/kg of plain AN significantly restore serum glutamate oxalacetate transaminase (112.4 ± 9.67 for AN whereas 90.2 ± 4.23 for ANH) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (109.3 ± 7.89 for AN whereas 90.6 ± 4.34 for ANH) level as compared to control group. The ANH showed significantly better absorption than plain AN and this effect of ANH was also comparable to the standard drug (Silymarin). The findings of present study reveal that ANH has better bioavailability as shown by in vitro absorption study and hence improved hepatoprotection as compared to plain AN at equivalent dose.

  3. Identification of phosphatidylcholine transfer protein-like in the parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Piña-Vázquez, Carolina; Reyes-López, Magda; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Bermúdez-Cruz, Rosa María; de la Garza, Mireya

    2014-12-01

    Caveolin is the protein marker of caveola-mediated endocytosis. Previously, we demonstrated by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence that an anti-chick embryo caveolin-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) recognizes a protein in amoeba extracts. Nevertheless, the caveolin-1 gene is absent in the Entamoeba histolytica genome database. In this work, the goal was to isolate, identify and characterize the protein that cross-reacts with chick embryo caveolin-1. We identified the protein using a proteomic approach, and the complete gene was cloned and sequenced. The identified protein, E. histolytica phosphatidylcholine transfer protein-like (EhPCTP-L), is a member of the StAR-related lipid transfer (START) protein superfamily. The human homolog binds and transfers phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) between model membranes in vitro; however, the physiological role of PCTP-L remains elusive. Studies in silico showed that EhPCTP-L has a central START domain and also contains a C-terminal intrinsically disordered region. The anti-rEhPCTP-L antibody demonstrated that EhPCTP-L is found in the plasma membrane and cytosol, which is in agreement with previous reports on the human counterpart. This result points to the plasma membrane as one possible target membrane for EhPCTP-L. Furthermore, assays using filipin and nystatin showed down regulation of EhPCTP-L, in an apparently cholesterol-independent way. Interestingly, EhPCTP-L binds primarily to anionic phospholipids phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidic acid (PA), while its mammalian counterpart HsPCTP-L binds neutral phospholipids PC and PE. The present study provides information that helps reveal the possible function and regulation of PCTP-L expression in the primitive eukaryotic parasite E. histolytica.

  4. Radioiodinated, photoactivatable phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine: transfer properties and differential photoreactive interaction with human erythrocyte membrane proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Schroit, A.J.; Madsen, J.; Ruoho, A.E.

    1987-04-07

    An isotopically labeled cross-linking reagent, succinimido 3-(3-(/sup 125/I)iodo-4-azidophenyl)propionate, has been synthesized and coupled to 1-acyl-2-(aminocaproyl)phosphatidylcholine according to previously described procedures. /sup 125/I- and N/sub 3/-labeled phosphatidylserine (/sup 125/I-N/sub 3/-PS) was produced from the phosphatidylcholine (PC) analog by phospholipase D catalyzed base exchange in the presence of L-serine. These phospholipid analogues are photoactivatable, are labeled with /sup 125/I at high specific activity, completely incorporate into synthetic vesicles, and spontaneously transfer between membranes. When an excess of acceptor vesicles or red blood cells (RBC) was mixed with a population of donor vesicles containing the /sup 125/I-N/sub 3/-phospholipids, approximately 40% of the analogues transferred to the acceptor population. After transfer in the dark to RBC, all of the /sup 125/I-N/sub 3/-PC incorporated into the cells could be removed by washing with serum, whereas the /sup 125/I-N/sub 3/-PS could not. After photolabeling of intact RBC, approx.50% of the PC and 20% of the PS cross-linked to membrane proteins as determined by their insolubility in CHCl/sub 3//MeOH. Analysis of probe distribution by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that /sup 125/I-N/sub 3/-PS preferentially labeled a M/sub r/ 30,000 peptide which contained approx.30% of the protein-bound label.

  5. Cytochrome C interaction with cardiolipin/phosphatidylcholine model membranes: effect of cardiolipin protonation.

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, Galyna P; Molotkovsky, Julian G; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2006-06-01

    Resonance energy transfer between anthrylvinyl-labeled phosphatidylcholine as a donor and heme moiety of cytochrome c (cyt c) as an acceptor has been employed to explore the protein binding to model membranes, composed of phosphatidylcholine and cardiolipin (CL). The existence of two types of protein-lipid complexes has been hypothesized where either deprotonated or partially protonated CL molecules are responsible for cyt c attachment to bilayer surface. To quantitatively describe cyt c membrane binding, the adsorption model based on scaled particle and double layer theories has been employed, with potential-dependent association constants being treated as a function of acidic phospholipid mole fraction, degree of CL protonation, ionic strength, and surface coverage. Multiple arrays of resonance energy transfer data obtained under conditions of varying pH, ionic strength, CL content, and protein/lipid molar ratio have been analyzed in terms of the model of energy transfer in two-dimensional systems combined with the adsorption model allowing for area exclusion and electrostatic effects. The set of recovered model parameters included effective protein charge, intrinsic association constants, and heme distance from the bilayer midplane for both types of protein-lipid complexes. Upon increasing CL mole fraction from 10 to 20 mol % (the value close to that characteristic of the inner mitochondrial membrane), the binding equilibrium dramatically shifted toward cyt c association with partially protonated CL species. The estimates of heme distance from bilayer center suggest shallow bilayer location of cyt c at physiological pH, whereas at pH below 6.0, the protein tends to insert into membrane core.

  6. Cytochrome c Interaction with Cardiolipin/Phosphatidylcholine Model Membranes: Effect of Cardiolipin Protonation

    PubMed Central

    Gorbenko, Galyna P.; Molotkovsky, Julian G.; Kinnunen, Paavo K. J.

    2006-01-01

    Resonance energy transfer between anthrylvinyl-labeled phosphatidylcholine as a donor and heme moiety of cytochrome c (cyt c) as an acceptor has been employed to explore the protein binding to model membranes, composed of phosphatidylcholine and cardiolipin (CL). The existence of two types of protein-lipid complexes has been hypothesized where either deprotonated or partially protonated CL molecules are responsible for cyt c attachment to bilayer surface. To quantitatively describe cyt c membrane binding, the adsorption model based on scaled particle and double layer theories has been employed, with potential-dependent association constants being treated as a function of acidic phospholipid mole fraction, degree of CL protonation, ionic strength, and surface coverage. Multiple arrays of resonance energy transfer data obtained under conditions of varying pH, ionic strength, CL content, and protein/lipid molar ratio have been analyzed in terms of the model of energy transfer in two-dimensional systems combined with the adsorption model allowing for area exclusion and electrostatic effects. The set of recovered model parameters included effective protein charge, intrinsic association constants, and heme distance from the bilayer midplane for both types of protein-lipid complexes. Upon increasing CL mole fraction from 10 to 20 mol % (the value close to that characteristic of the inner mitochondrial membrane), the binding equilibrium dramatically shifted toward cyt c association with partially protonated CL species. The estimates of heme distance from bilayer center suggest shallow bilayer location of cyt c at physiological pH, whereas at pH below 6.0, the protein tends to insert into membrane core. PMID:16565064

  7. Partitioning of anti-inflammatory steroid drugs into phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol small unilamellar vesicles as studied by second-derivative spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Takegami, Shigehiko; Kitamura, Keisuke; Funakoshi, Takako; Kitade, Tatsuya

    2008-05-01

    The partition coefficients (Kps) of six anti-inflammatory steroid drugs, dexamethasone (DMS), betamethasone (BMS), triamcinolone acetonide (TCLA), fluocinolone acetonide (FCLA), betamethasone 17,21-dipropionate (BMSDP), and clobetasole propionate (CBSP), for phosphatidylcholine (PC), and PC-cholesterol small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) were determined by a second-derivative spectrophotometric method. The Kp values were obtained with a relative standard deviation of below 10% and the following order was observed: BMS< or =DMS

  8. Surface properties of bacterial sulfhydryl-activated cytolytic toxins. Interaction with monomolecular films of phosphatidylcholine and various sterols.

    PubMed

    Alouf, J E; Geoffroy, C; Pattus, F; Verger, R

    1984-05-15

    Sulfhydryl-activated cytolysins are a group of bacterial protein toxins which, in the reduced state, lyse eukaryotic cells by disruption of the cytoplasmic membrane. Cell surface cholesterol is thought to be the target of the toxins. In the present work, the monolayer technique was used to investigate the interaction of four SH-activated toxins (streptolysin 0, alveolysin , perfringolysin 0, pneumolysin ) with various lipid films as a model for studying toxin-induced membrane disruption. A surface pressure increase up to very high values was elicited by reduced toxins (approximately equal to 10 nM) on films of cholesterol, other toxin-binding 3 beta-hydroxy-sterols, thiocholesterol and cholesterol-phosphatidylcholine mixtures suggesting deformation or penetration of the films. The surface-active potency of the toxins was of the same order as that of melittin and snake cardiotoxins at similar concentrations. No pressure increase was observed on films made of pure phosphatidylcholine, lanosterol and other sterols lacking the 3 beta-OH group. Optimal efficiency was at cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine molar ratio of 1 to 1. The critical pressures for toxin interaction with phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol monolayers were 25 mN X m-1 and 45 mN X m-1 respectively. Toxin interaction with phosphatidylcholine [14C]-cholesterol films did not modify monolayer radioactivity, indicating no cholesterol desorption. No pressure increase was elicited by toxins inactivated by SH-group reagents, heating or neutralization with antibody. Toxin effect was dependent temperature and pH. The overall potency of the four toxins tested was streptolysin 0 greater than alveolysin approximately equal to perfringolysin 0 greater than pneumolysin . The monolayer system mimicked in several respects toxin interaction with eukaryotic cells.

  9. Lateral mobility of an amphipathic apolipoprotein, ApoC-III, bound to phosphatidylcholine bilayers with and without cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Winchil L. C.; Jacobson, Kenneth; Wu, En-Shinn; Derzko, Zenon

    1979-01-01

    The technique of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching was used to investigate the lateral mobility of a fluorescein-labeled amphipathic apolipoprotein, ApoC-III, bound to multibilayers prepared from dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, egg phosphatidylcholine, and a 1:1 (molar ratio) mixture of egg phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. In dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayers the lateral diffusion coefficient (D) for the protein is about 2 × 10-9 cm2 sec-1 at 20°C and about 9 × 10-8 cm2 sec-1 at 45°C. Plots of D versus temperature in this system show a transition between about 30 and 35°C. Arrhenius activation energies for the diffusion in this case between 15 and 30°C and between 35 and 45°C are 28.5 and 7.0 kcal mol-1, respectively (1 calorie = 4.18 joules). In egg phosphatidylcholine bilayers, D is about 3 × 10-8 cm2 sec-1 at 20°C and the Arrhenius activation energy for diffusion is 8.1 kcal mol-1 between 15 and 35°C in this system. In bilayers prepared from an equimolar mixture of egg phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol D at 20°C is about 1.4 × 10-9 cm2 sec-1 and the Arrhenius activation energy for the diffusion of the protein in this system between 15 and 35°C is 15.1 kcal mol-1. Light-scattering and fluorescence-polarization results indicate that binding of this protein does not affect the gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition of bilayer membranes but does mediate a major, reversible aggregation of the vesicles at about 33°C. These results lend support to the view that ApoC-III resides in the head-group region of the bilayer and suggest that its lateral diffusion coefficient represents an upper bound for integral membrane proteins. PMID:293667

  10. Interaction of alpha-lactalbumin with dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine vesicles. II. A fluorescence polarization study.

    PubMed

    Herreman, W; van Tornout, P; van Cauwelaert, F H; Hanssens, I

    1981-01-22

    The interaction of alpha-lactalbumin with dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine vesicles was studied as a function of temperature, pH and the molar ratio of phospholipid to protein. The method consisted of measuring the fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene used as a probe embedded in the vesicles. After incubation of the protein with the phospholipid for 2 h at 23 degrees C, the polarization of the light emitted by this probe shifted to higher values; the shift was greater at acidic pH than at neutral pH. After incubation at 37 degrees C, no shift in polarization was found at pH 7, 6 and 5 while a strong increase occurred at pH 4. Lowering the temperature, after incubation at 37 degrees C, had little effect on the polarization at neutral pH. At pH 5, however, and in the transition range of the phospholipid, the polarization increased greatly. A kinetic study of the interaction carried out around the transition temperature of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine as a function of pH shows that the speed of complex formation between alpha-lactalbumin and the lipid increases from neutral to acidic pH. From the present results and in agreement with our earlier calorimetric and fluorescence data (Hanssens, I., Houthuys, C., Herreman, W. and van Cauwelaert, F.H. (1980) Biochim. Biophys, Acta 602, 539--557), it is concluded that at neutral pH the interaction mechanism is probably different from that at acidic pH. At neutral pH and at all temperatures, alpha-lactalbumin is mainly absorbed electrostatically to the outer surface of the vesicle with little or no influence on the transition temperature of the phospholipid. At this pH, only around the transition temperature is penetration possible. At pH 4, however, the protein is able to penetrate the vesicle at all temperatures and to interact hydrophobically with the phospholipid fatty acid chains. As a result of this interaction, the transition temperature is increased by about 4 degrees C. This different

  11. Detection of Phosphatidylcholine-Coated Gold Nanoparticles in Orthotopic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma using Hyperspectral Imaging

    PubMed Central

    England, Christopher G.; Huang, Justin S.; James, Kurtis T.; Zhang, Guandong; Gobin, André M.; Frieboes, Hermann B.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle uptake and distribution to solid tumors are limited by reticuloendothelial system systemic filtering and transport limitations induced by irregular intra-tumoral vascularization. Although vascular enhanced permeability and retention can aid targeting, high interstitial fluid pressure and dense extracellular matrix may hinder local penetration. Extravascular diffusivity depends upon nanoparticle size, surface modifications, and tissue vascularization. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with biologically-compatible layers may achieve improved uptake and distribution while enabling cytotoxicity through synergistic combination of chemotherapy and thermal ablation. Evaluation of nanoparticle uptake in vivo remains difficult, as detection methods are limited. We employ hyperspectral imaging of histology sections to analyze uptake and distribution of phosphatidylcholine-coated citrate gold nanoparticles (CGN) and silica-gold nanoshells (SGN) after tail-vein injection in mice bearing orthotopic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. For CGN, the liver and tumor showed 26.5±8.2 and 23.3±4.1 particles/100μm2 within 10μm from the nearest source and few nanoparticles beyond 50μm, respectively. The spleen had 35.5±9.3 particles/100μm2 within 10μm with penetration also limited to 50μm. For SGN, the liver showed 31.1±4.1 particles/100μm2 within 10μm of the nearest source with penetration hindered beyond 30μm. The spleen and tumor showed uptake of 22.1±6.2 and 15.8±6.1 particles/100μm2 within 10μm, respectively, with penetration similarly hindered. CGH average concentration (nanoparticles/μm2) was 1.09±0.14 in the liver, 0.74±0.12 in the spleen, and 0.43±0.07 in the tumor. SGN average concentration (nanoparticles/μm2) was 0.43±0.07 in the liver, 0.30±0.06 in the spleen, and 0.20±0.04 in the tumor. Hyperspectral imaging of histology sections enables analysis of phosphatidylcholine-coated gold-based nanoparticles in pancreatic tumors with the goal to improve

  12. Permeabilisation and solubilisation of soybean phosphatidylcholine bilayer vesicles, as membrane models, by polysorbate, Tween 80.

    PubMed

    Simões, S I; Tapadas, J M; Marques, C M; Cruz, M E M; Martins, M B F; Cevc, G

    2005-11-01

    To understand better the wide-spread pharmaceutical use of non-ionic surfactant Tween 80 (TW), the colloidal properties of the surfactant alone and in combinations with the common phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine (PC), were studied. Static and dynamic light scattering revealed that TW solubilises PC at TW/PC approximately 2.75/1 mol/mol and that TW micelle disintegration occurs on time-scale of 2.5 min, independent of amphipath concentration. This is up to nearly 300-times faster than the TW caused dissolution of PC containing unilamellar vesicles. The apparent dissolution time of TW/PC mixed aggregates, in contrast, decelerates from >700 min to <5 min upon increasing starting total amphipath concentration, with thermal activation energy > or =24 (< or =80) kJ mol(-1). The aggregate dissolution rate in highly concentrated TW/PC suspensions reflects the dissolved polysorbate-aggregate exchange rate (approximately 6.7 x 10(-3)s(-1)) rather than TW flip-flop rate across a bilayer (>0.2 min(-1)). PC solubilisation proceeds linearly with the square-root of time, and is kinetically governed by the speed of surfactant diffusion through the bulk (D approximately 2.8 x 10(-11)m2 s(-1)). Creation of small Tween-phosphatidylcholine mixed micelles is typically preceded by pre-solubilisation structures, first in the form of deformable, strongly fluctuating, bilayer vesicles and then of elongated, presumably thread-like, mixed micelles. TW/PC mixed micelles become smaller with growing surfactant/lipid molar ratio, whereas TW/PC mixed vesicles become more and more leaky with increasing surfactant concentration. Our results highlight the molecular and kinetic aspects of polysorbate-membrane interactions and provide a rationale for the popularity of Tween surfactants in pharmaceutical products: such surfactants can solubilise fatty molecules and bilayer membranes but need quite a long time for this, which is available in pharmaceutical preparations but normally not in vivo; this

  13. Detection of Phosphatidylcholine-Coated Gold Nanoparticles in Orthotopic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma using Hyperspectral Imaging.

    PubMed

    England, Christopher G; Huang, Justin S; James, Kurtis T; Zhang, Guandong; Gobin, André M; Frieboes, Hermann B

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle uptake and distribution to solid tumors are limited by reticuloendothelial system systemic filtering and transport limitations induced by irregular intra-tumoral vascularization. Although vascular enhanced permeability and retention can aid targeting, high interstitial fluid pressure and dense extracellular matrix may hinder local penetration. Extravascular diffusivity depends upon nanoparticle size, surface modifications, and tissue vascularization. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with biologically-compatible layers may achieve improved uptake and distribution while enabling cytotoxicity through synergistic combination of chemotherapy and thermal ablation. Evaluation of nanoparticle uptake in vivo remains difficult, as detection methods are limited. We employ hyperspectral imaging of histology sections to analyze uptake and distribution of phosphatidylcholine-coated citrate gold nanoparticles (CGN) and silica-gold nanoshells (SGN) after tail-vein injection in mice bearing orthotopic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. For CGN, the liver and tumor showed 26.5 ± 8.2 and 23.3 ± 4.1 particles/100 μm2 within 10 μm from the nearest source and few nanoparticles beyond 50 μm, respectively. The spleen had 35.5 ± 9.3 particles/100 μm2 within 10 μm with penetration also limited to 50 μm. For SGN, the liver showed 31.1 ± 4.1 particles/100 μm2 within 10 μm of the nearest source with penetration hindered beyond 30 μm. The spleen and tumor showed uptake of 22.1 ± 6.2 and 15.8 ± 6.1 particles/100 μm2 within 10 μm, respectively, with penetration similarly hindered. CGH average concentration (nanoparticles/μm2) was 1.09 ± 0.14 in the liver, 0.74 ± 0.12 in the spleen, and 0.43 ± 0.07 in the tumor. SGN average concentration (nanoparticles/μm2) was 0.43 ± 0.07 in the liver, 0.30 ± 0.06 in the spleen, and 0.20 ± 0.04 in the tumor. Hyperspectral imaging of histology sections enables analysis of phosphatidylcholine-coated gold-based nanoparticles in

  14. Ultra-low friction between boundary layers of hyaluronan-phosphatidylcholine complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linyi; Seror, Jasmine; Day, Anthony J; Kampf, Nir; Klein, Jacob

    2017-09-01

    The boundary layers coating articular cartilage in synovial joints constitute unique biomaterials, providing lubricity at levels unmatched by any human-made materials. The underlying molecular mechanism of this lubricity, essential to joint function, is not well understood. Here we study the interactions between surfaces bearing attached hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid, or HA) to which different phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids had been added, in the form of small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs or liposomes), using a surface force balance, to shed light on possible cartilage boundary lubrication by such complexes. Surface-attached HA was complexed with different PC lipids (hydrogenated soy PC (HSPC), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-PC (DMPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-PC (POPC)), followed by rinsing. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cryo-scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM) were used to image the HA-PC surface complexes following addition of the SUVs. HA-HSPC complexes provide very efficient lubrication, with friction coefficients as low as μ∼0.001 at physiological pressures P≈150atm, while HA-DMPC and HA-POPC complexes are efficient only at low P (up to 10-20atm). The friction reduction in all cases is attributed to hydration lubrication by highly-hydrated phosphocholine groups exposed by the PC-HA complexes. The greater robustness at high P of the HSPC (C16(15%),C18(85%)) complexes relative to the DMPC ((C14)2) or POPC (C16, C18:1) complexes is attributed to the stronger van der Waals attraction between the HSPC acyl tails, relative to the shorter or un-saturated tails of the other two lipids. Our results shed light on possible lubrication mechanisms at the articular cartilage surface in joints. Can designed biomaterials emulate the unique lubrication ability of articular cartilage, and thus provide potential alleviation to friction-related joint diseases? This is the motivation behind the present study. The principles of cartilage lubrication have

  15. Age-related increases in plasma phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide concentrations in control subjects and patients with hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, M; Oikawa, S; Hayasaka, K; Sekikawa, A; Nagashima, T; Toyota, T; Miyazawa, T

    2000-06-01

    The basal lipid peroxide concentration in the plasma of patients with hyperlipidemia may be related to atherosclerosis. Quantitative determination of lipid peroxides in the plasma is an important step in the overall evaluation of the biochemical processes leading to oxidative injury. Unfortunately, the currently available methods for lipid peroxidation lack specificity and sensitivity. Hyperlipidemic patients (44 males and 50 females), ages 12-82 years (mean +/- SE, 53 +/- 2.3 years for males, 58 +/- 2.0 years for females, and 56 +/- 14 years for total cases), and normolipidemic volunteers (controls, 32 males and 15 females), ages 13-90 years (49 +/- 4 years for males, 65 +/- 4 years for females, and 55 +/- 24 years for total cases), were recruited in the present study. Plasma phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) was determined by chemiluminescence-HPLC (CL-HPLC). Plasma PCOOH concentrations increased with age in both controls and hyperlipidemic patients. However, the mean plasma PCOOH concentration in patients with hyperlipidemia (331 +/- 19 nmol/L; n = 94) was significantly (P <0.001) higher than in the controls (160 +/- 65 nmol/L; n = 47). Plasma PCOOH concentrations were similar in three hyperlipidemic phenotypes: hypercholesterolemia (IIa), hypertriglyceridemia (IV), and combined hyperlipidemia (IIb). The mean plasma PCOOH in patients with treatment-induced normalized plasma lipids was 202 +/- 17 nmol/L. There was no significant correlation between plasma PCOOH concentration and total cholesterol, triglycerides, or phospholipids in hyperlipidemic patients. For all subjects, there was a significantly positive correlation between plasma PCOOH and each lipid (total cholesterol, P = 0.0002; triglycerides, P = 0.0137; and phospholipids, P <0.0001). Analysis of fatty acids composition of plasma phosphatidylcholine showed significantly low concentrations of n-6 fatty acids moieties (linoleic acid and arachidonic acid) in patients compared with controls. Our

  16. Vitamin E alters alveolar type II cell phospholipid synthesis in oxygen and air

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, K.A.; Snyder, J.M.; Stenzel, W.; Saito, K.; Warshaw, J.B. )

    1990-11-01

    Newborn rats were injected with vitamin E or placebo daily until 6 days after birth. The effect of vitamin E pretreatment on in vitro surfactant phospholipid synthesis was examined in isolated type II cells exposed to oxygen or air form 24 h in vitro. Type II cells were also isolated from untreated 6-day-old rats and cultured for 24 h in oxygen or air with control medium or vitamin E supplemented medium. These cells were used to examine the effect of vitamin E exposure in vitro on type II cell phospholipid synthesis and ultrastructure. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis was reduced in cells cultured in oxygen as compared with air. This decrease was not prevented by in vivo pretreatment or in vitro supplementation with vitamin E. Vitamin E pretreatment increased the ratio of disaturated PC to total PC and increased phosphatidylglycerol synthesis. The volume density of lamellar bodies in type II cells was increased in cells maintained in oxygen. Vitamin E did not affect the volume density of lamellar bodies. We conclude that in vitro hyperoxia inhibits alveolar type II cell phosphatidylcholine synthesis without decreasing lamellar body volume density and that supplemental vitamin E does not prevent hyperoxia-induced decrease in phosphatidylcholine synthesis.

  17. Effect of E coli endotoxin on the leakage of /sup 14/C-sucrose from phosphatidylcholine liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Onji, T.; Liu, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of E coli endotoxin on the leakage of /sup 14/C-sucrose from phosphatidylcholine liposomes in the absence or presence of Ca/sup 2 +/ was studied. Endotoxin decreased the leakage from liposomes from 27% to 4% in 5 hr when Ca/sup 2 +/ (1 mM) was incorporated into liposomes during sonication. The effect of endotoxin on the leakiness of liposomes was concentration dependent. Ca/sup 2 +/ alone increased the leakage of /sup 14/C-sucrose from liposomes. Mg/sup 2 +/ at concentrations higher than 5 mM exhibited an effect similar to that of Ca/sup 2 +/. These findings suggest that endotoxin increases the molecular packing of phosphatidylcholine bilayers in the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/ or Mg/sup 2 +/. A change in the physical state of membrane lipid bilayers induced by endotoxin may affect the function of biological membranes.

  18. Characteristics of the mass transfer of phosphatidylcholine during its sorption on mesoporous composites based on MCM-41

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinyaeva, L. A.; Karpov, S. I.; Belanova, N. A.; Roessner, F.; Selemenev, V. F.

    2015-12-01

    The kinetic parameters of sorption of phosphatidylcholine on mesoporous composites based on MCM-41 are considered. It is noted that the possibility of both the diffusion and adsorption rate limitations of the process should be taken into account in the description of the kinetics of sorption of non-polar fat-soluble physiologically active compounds (PACs) from hexane solutions onto mesoporous materials of MCM- 41 type. The adequacy of using the Boyd diffusion model and the Lagergren, Ho and McKay, and Elovich models to describe the kinetics of sorption of phosphatidylcholine on mesoporous composites based on MCM-41 is shown. The contributions from diffusion limitation (internal and external) and the rate of the chemical step of adsorption to the overall rate of the sorption process are determined. It is found that the sorption of the phospholipid is a mixed diffusion process.

  19. Intermolecular Interactions in Dry and Rehydrated Pure and Mixed Bilayers of Phosphatidylcholine and Digalactosyldiacylglycerol: A Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Antoaneta V.; Hincha, Dirk K.

    2003-01-01

    Glycolipids are an important part of almost all biological membranes. Their effects on membrane structure and their interactions with phospholipids, however, have not been extensively studied so far. We have investigated the phase behavior and intermolecular interactions in dry and rehydrated bilayers made from the phospholipid egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) and the plant chloroplast glycolipid digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), or from a mixture (1:1) of these lipids, using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. We show that there are extensive interactions between EPC and DGDG in mixed membranes, and also between DGDG molecules in pure DGDG membranes, involving sugar OH groups and C=O, P=O, and choline moieties in dry membranes. These interactions persist to a certain degree even after rehydration. We present evidence that these interactions influence the mixing behavior in phosphatidylcholine/DGDG membranes and also the phase behavior of both EPC/DGDG and pure DGDG membranes in the dry state. PMID:12944283

  20. Influence of the composition of monoacyl phosphatidylcholine based microemulsions on the dermal delivery of flufenamic acid.

    PubMed

    Hoppel, Magdalena; Ettl, Hanna; Holper, Evelyn; Valenta, Claudia

    2014-11-20

    Although microemulsions are one of the most promising dermal carrier systems, their clinical use is limited due to their skin irritation potential. Therefore, microemulsions based on naturally derived monoacyl phosphatidylcholine (MAPL) were developed. The influence of the water, oil and surfactant content on dermal delivery of flufenamic acid was systematically investigated for the first time. A water-rich microemulsion led to significantly higher in vitro skin penetration of flufenamic acid compared to other microemulsions. The superiority of the water-rich microemulsion over a marketed flufenamic acid containing formulation was additionally confirmed. Differences in drug delivery could be explained by alterations of the microemulsions after application. Evaporation of isopropanol led to crystal-like structures of MAPL on the skin surface from the surfactant- or oleic acid-rich microemulsions. In contrast, the formation of this additional barrier was hindered in case of the water-rich microemulsion. The skin penetration of MAPL was additionally analyzed by combined ATR-FTIR and tape stripping experiments, where MAPL itself penetrated only into the initial layers of the stratum corneum, independent of the microemulsion composition. Since a surfactant must penetrate the skin to cause irritation, MAPL can be presumed as a skin-friendly emulsifier with the ability to stabilize pharmaceutically acceptable microemulsions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Microtubule Formation and Activities of Antioxidative Enzymes in PC12 Cells Exposed to Phosphatidylcholine Hydroperoxides

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Yukako; Yoshida-Yamamoto, Shumi; Doi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Aging increases free radical generation and lipid oxidation and, thereby, mediates neurodegenerative diseases. As the brain is rich in lipids (polyunsaturated fatty acids), the antioxidative system plays an important role in protecting brain tissues from oxidative injury. The changes in microtubule formation and antioxidative enzyme activities have been investigated in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells exposed to various concentrations of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides (PCOOH). We measured three typical antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT). The microtubule assembly system was dependent on the antioxidative enzyme system in cells exposed to oxidative stress. The activities of the three enzymes increased in a PCOOH exposure-dependent manner. In particular, the changes in the activity as a result of PCOOH exposure were similar in the three antioxidative enzymes. This is the first report indicating the compatibility between the tubulin-microtubule and antioxidative enzyme systems in cells that deteriorate as a result of phospholipid hydroperoxide administration from an exterior source. The descending order of sensitivity of the three enzymes to PCOOH is also discussed. PMID:23443078

  2. The Interaction of Melittin with Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine-Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylserine Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Rai, Durgesh K.; Qian, Shuo; Heller, William T.

    2016-08-13

    We report that membrane-active peptides (MAPs), which interact directly with the lipid bilayer of a cell and include toxins and host defense peptides, display lipid composition-dependent activity. Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids are anionic lipids that are found throughout the cellular membranes of most eukaryotic organisms where they serve as both a functional component and as a precursor to phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. The inner leaflet of the plasma membrane contains more PS than the outer one, and the asymmetry is actively maintained. Here, the impact of the MAP melittin on the structure of lipid bilayer vesicles made of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine andmore » phosphatidylserine was studied. Small-angle neutron scattering of the MAP associated with selectively deuterium-labeled lipid bilayer vesicles revealed how the thickness and lipid composition of phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles change in response to melittin. The peptide thickens the lipid bilayer for concentrations up to P/L = 1/500, but membrane thinning results when P/L = 1/200. The thickness transition is accompanied by a large change in the distribution of DMPS between the leaflets of the bilayer. The change in composition is driven by electrostatic interactions, while the change in bilayer thickness is driven by changes in the interaction of the peptide with the headgroup region of the lipid bilayer. Lastly, the results provide new information about lipid-specific interactions that take place in mixed composition lipid bilayer membranes.« less

  3. Comparative evaluation of the emulsifying properties of phosphatidylcholine after enzymatic acyl modification.

    PubMed

    Vikbjerg, Anders F; Rusig, Jean-Yves; Jonsson, Gunnar; Mu, Huiling; Xu, Xuebing

    2006-05-03

    The ability of enzymatically synthesized structured phosphatidylcholine (PC) containing caprylic acid to form and stabilize oil-in-water emulsions prepared with different triglycerides [medium chain triglycerides (MCT), soybean oil, and enzymatically synthesized structured lipids] was examined and compared with natural soybean PC and deoiled lecithin. Emulsions were prepared with varying oil and emulsifier concentrations. The particle size distribution, creaming stability, and viscosity were measured for the evaluation of the emulsifying properties. With an increase in the oil concentration, there was an increase in particle size, viscosity, and creaming layer. With an increase in the phospholipid (PL) concentration, there was usually a decrease in particle size and an increase in viscosity, where the emulsion stability was increased. General emulsions prepared with structured lipids resulted in smaller particle sizes as compared to MCT and soybean oil. Deoiled lecithin was able to increase the viscosity more significantly and give smaller particle sizes as compared to the other emulsifiers, thus producing more stable emulsions. However, in certain cases, structured PC was superior to deoiled lecithin and soybean PC. This observation was made for emulsions prepared with soybean oil or structured lipid at an oil/water ratio of 10:90. At an oil/water ratio of 30:70, the deoiled lecithin performed better as compared to the other PLs with all oil types. However, structured PC produced more stable emulsions as compared to natural soybean PC in MCT and soybean oil.

  4. Physicochemical properties of structured phosphatidylcholine in drug carrier lipid emulsions for drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Emi; Shimokawa, Ken-ichi; Ishii, Fumiyoshi

    2008-03-15

    Drug carrier emulsions were prepared with structured phosphatidylcholine (PC-LM) which has both a long hydrocarbon chain and a medium hydrocarbon chain, and the characteristics of PC-LM as an emulsifier were investigated by measuring the creaming ratio, the surface tension of the emulsion system, and the mean particle size and zeta potential of the oil droplets in emulsions. The emulsion prepared with PC-LM as an emulsifier kept the condition and the ratio of separation was lower than those with purified egg yolk lecithin (PEL). The mean particle size of the emulsion prepared with PC-LM was smaller than that with PEL when using only sonication, approximately 250 nm. When using a high-pressure homogenizer after sonication, the mean emulsion size with PC-LM was also smaller than with PEL, approximately 150 nm. The surface tension of the various emulsions and the zeta potential of the emulsion droplets were measured to investigate the stability of the systems. In emulsions with PC-LM or PEL, the surface tension as an index of stability increased as the pressure of the homogenizer increased. Moreover, the zeta potential of the emulsion droplets prepared with PC-LM also increased with an increase in pressure of the homogenizer. As a result, it was found that the drug carrier emulsion prepared with PC-LM had significant advantages in terms of stability and mean diameter. We considered it could be used for the preparations of nanoparticle dispersion systems in drug delivery systems.

  5. Environmentally friendly slow release formulations of alachlor based on clay-phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Verdejo, Trinidad; Undabeytia, Tomas; Nir, Shlomo; Maqueda, Celia; Morillo, Esmeralda

    2008-08-01

    A new clay-liposome complex was developed for reducing leaching of herbicides and contamination of groundwater. The liposomes were composed of the neutral and Environmental Protection Agency approved phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC). Adsorption of PC liposomes on the clay mineral montmorillonite could exceed the cation exchange capacity of the clay, and was well simulated by the Langmuir equation. X-ray diffraction results for 6 mM PC and 1.6 g/L clay (3 day incubation) yielded a basal spacing of 7.49 nm, which was interpreted as the formation of a supported planar bilayer on montmorillonite platelets. Fluorescence methods demonstrated structural changes which reflected adsorption of PC followed by loss of vesicle integrity as measured by the penetration of dithionite into the internal monolayer of fluorescently labeled liposomes, resulting in a decrease in fluorescence intensity to 18% of initial after 4 h. Energy transfer was demonstrated after 1 h from labeled liposomes to montmorillonite labeled by an acceptor. The neutral herbicide alachlor adsorbed on the liposome-clay complex, yielding a formulation of up to 40% active ingredient, and 1.6-fold reduction in herbicide release in comparison to the commercial formulation. Hence, the PC-montmorillonite complex can form a basis for environmentally friendly formulations of herbicides, which would yield reduced leaching.

  6. Solubilizing effects caused by the nonionic surfactant dodecylmaltoside in phosphatidylcholine liposomes.

    PubMed Central

    de la Maza, A; Parra, J L

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of the nonionic surfactant dodecylmaltoside (DM) with phosphatidylcholine liposomes was investigated. Permeability alterations were detected as a change in 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein released from the interior of vesicles and bilayer solubilization as a decrease in the static light scattered by liposome suspensions. This surfactant showed higher capacity to saturate and solubilize PC liposomes and greater affinity with these structures than those reported for the octyl glucoside. At subsolubilizing level an initial maximum in the bilayer/water partitioning (K) followed by an abrupt decrease of this parameter occurred as the effective molar ratio of surfactant to phospholipid in bilayers (Re) rose. However, at solubilizing level a direct dependence was established between both parameters. A direct correlation took place in the initial interaction steps (Re up to 0.28) between the growth of vesicles, their fluidity, and Re. A similar direct dependence was established during solubilization (Re range from 0.9 to 1.7) between the decrease in both the surfactant-PC aggregate size, the light scattering of the system, and Re (composition of aggregates). The fact that the free DM concentration at subsolubilizing and solubilizing levels showed values lower than and similar to its critical micelle concentration indicates that permeability alterations and solubilization were determined, respectively, by the action of surfactant monomer and by the formation of mixed micelles. Images FIGURE 3 PMID:9083670

  7. Inhibition of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C prevents bone marrow stromal cell senescence in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chunhui; Wang, Nan; Huang, Jie; Xin, Jie; Peng, Fen; Ren, Yinshi; Zhang, Shangli; Miao, Junying

    2009-10-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) can proliferate in vitro and can be transplanted for treating many kinds of diseases. However, BMSCs become senescent with long-term culture, which inhibits their application. To understand the mechanism underlying the senescence, we investigated the activity of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) and levels of integrin beta4, caveolin-1 and ROS with BMSC senescence. The activity of PC-PLC and levels of integrin beta4, caveolin-1 and ROS increased greatly during cell senescence. Selective inhibition of increased PC-PLC activity with D609 significantly decreased the number of senescence-associated beta galactosidase positive cells in BMSCs. Furthermore, D609 restored proliferation of BMSCs and their differentiation into adipocytes. Moreover, D609 suppressed the elevated levels of integrin beta4, caveolin-1 and ROS. The data suggest that PC-PLC is involved in senescence of BMSCs, and its function is associated with integrin beta4, caveolin-1 and ROS.

  8. Interactions between adsorbed hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) vesicles at physiologically high pressures and salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Ronit; Schroeder, Avi; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Klein, Jacob

    2011-05-18

    Using a surface force balance, we measured normal and shear interactions as a function of surface separation between layers of hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) adsorbed from dispersion at physiologically high salt concentrations (0.15 M NaNO₃). Cryo-scanning electron microscopy shows that each surface is coated by a close-packed HSPC-SUV layer with an overlayer of liposomes on top. A clear attractive interaction between the liposome layers is seen upon approach and separation, followed by a steric repulsion upon further compression. The shear forces reveal low friction coefficients (μ = 0.008-0.0006) up to contact pressures of at least 6 MPa, comparable to those observed in the major joints. The spread in μ-values may be qualitatively accounted for by different local liposome structure at different contact points, suggesting that the intrinsic friction of the HSPC-SUV layers at this salt concentration is closer to the lower limit (μ = ~0.0006). This low friction is attributed to the hydration lubrication mechanism arising from rubbing of the hydrated phosphocholine-headgroup layers exposed at the outer surface of each liposome, and provides support for the conjecture that phospholipids may play a significant role in biological lubrication.

  9. Preparation, characterization and in vivo studies of amorphous solid dispersion of berberine with hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chunyang; Tong, Qing; Fang, Jianguo; Wang, Chenguang; Wu, Jizhou; Wang, Wenqing

    2015-07-10

    Berberine, a pure crystalline quaternary ammonium salt with the basic structure of isoquinoline alkaloid, has multiple pharmacological bioactivities. But the poor bioavailability of berberine limited its wide clinical applications. In the present study, we aimed to develop an amorphous solid dispersion of berberine with hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine (HPC) in order to improve its bioavailability. The physical characterization studies such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were conducted to characterize the formation of amorphous berberine HPC solid dispersion (BHPC-SD). The everted intestinal sac and single-pass intestinal perfusion study proved that permeability and intestinal absorption of amorphous BHPC-SD was improved compared with that of pure crystalline berberine, and the pharmacokinetic study results demonstrated that the extent of bioavailability was significantly increased as well. However, the dissolution study indicated that the aqueous cumulative dissolution percentages of berberine remained unchanged or even lower by means of preparation into solid dispersion with HPC. Therefore, according to the previous mechanistic studies, the present results supported that it is the enhanced molecularly dissolved concentration (supersaturation) of berberine by transformation from crystalline structure into amorphous solid dispersions that triggers the enhanced permeability, and consequently results in the improved intestinal absorption and bioavailability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reparameterized United Atom Model for Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Gel and Fluid Phosphatidylcholine Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Tjörnhammar, Richard; Edholm, Olle

    2014-12-09

    A new united atom parametrization of diacyl lipids like dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and the dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) has been constructed based on ab initio calculations to obtain fractional charges and the dihedral potential of the hydrocarbon chains, while the Lennard-Jones parameters of the acyl chains were fitted to reproduce the properties of liquid hydrocarbons. The results have been validated against published experimental X-ray and neutron scattering data for fluid and gel phase DPPC. The derived charges of the lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) headgroup are shown to yield dipole components in the range suggested by experiments. The aim has been to construct a new force field that retains and improves the good agreement for the fluid phase and at the same time produces a gel phase at low temperatures, with properties coherent with experimental findings. The gel phase of diacyl-PC lipids forms a regular triangular lattice in the hydrocarbon region. The global bilayer tilt obtains an azimuthal value of 31° and is aligned between lattice vectors in the bilayer plane. We also show that the model yields a correct heat of melting as well as decent heat capacities in the fluid and gel phase of DPPC.

  11. Revealing Transient Interactions between Phosphatidylinositol-specific Phospholipase C and Phosphatidylcholine--Rich Lipid Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Boqian; He, Tao; Grauffel, Cédric; Reuter, Nathalie; Roberts, Mary; Gershenson, Anne

    2013-03-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) enzymes transiently interact with target membranes. Previous fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) experiments showed that Bacillus thuringiensis PI-PLC specifically binds to phosphatidylcholine (PC)-rich membranes and preferentially interacts with unilamellar vesicles that show larger curvature. Mutagenesis studies combined with FCS measurements of binding affinity highlighted the importance of interfacial PI-PLC tyrosines in the PC specificity. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations of PI-PLC performed in the presence of a PC membrane indicate these tyrosines are involved in specific cation-pi interactions with choline headgroups. To further understand those transient interactions between PI-PLC and PC-rich vesicles, we monitor single fluorescently labeled PI-PLC proteins as they cycle on and off surface-tethered small unilamellar vesicles using total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy. The residence times on vesicles along with vesicle size information, based on vesicle fluorescence intensity, reveal the time scales of PI-PLC membrane interactions as well as the curvature dependence. The PC specificity and the vesicle curvature dependence of this PI-PLC/membrane interaction provide insight into how the interface modulates protein-membrane interactions. This work was supported by the National Institute of General Medical Science of the National Institutes of Health (R01GM060418).

  12. Asymmetric 1-Alkyl-2-acyl Phosphatidylcholine: a Helper Lipid for Enhanced Non-viral Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhaohua; Li, Weijun; Szoka, Francis C.

    2011-01-01

    Rationally designed asymmetrical alkylacyl phosphatidylcholines (APC) have been synthesized and evaluated as helper lipids for non-viral gene delivery. A long aliphatic chain (C22~C24) was introduced at the 1-position of glycerol backbone, a branched lipid chain (C18) at the 2-position, and a phosphocholine head group at the 3-position. The fusogenicity of APC depends on the length and degree of saturation of the alkyl chain. Cationic lipids were formulated with APC as either lipoplexes or nanolipoparticles, and evaluated for their stability, transfection efficiency, and cytotoxicity. APC mediated high in vitro transfection efficiency, and had low cytotoxicity. Small nanolipoparticles (less than 100 nm) can be obtained with APC by applying as low as 0.1% PEG-lipid. Our study extends the type of helper lipids that are suitable for gene transfer and points the way to improve non-viral nucleic acid delivery system other than the traditional cationic lipids optimization. This work is supported by NIH grant EB003008. PMID:21718766

  13. Interactions of tamoxifen with distearoyl phosphatidylcholine multilamellar vesicles: FTIR and DSC studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilge, Duygu; Sahin, Ipek; Kazanci, Nadide; Severcan, Feride

    2014-09-01

    Interactions of a non-steroidal antiestrogen drug, tamoxifen (TAM), with distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) multilamellar liposomes (MLVs) were investigated as a function of drug concentration (1-15 mol%) by using two noninvasive techniques, namely Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). FTIR spectroscopy results show that increasing TAM concentrations (except 1 mol%) increased the wavenumbers of the CH2 stretching modes, implying an disordering effect for DSPC MLVs both in the gel and liquid crystalline phases. The bandwidth values of the CH2 stretchings except for 1 mol% increased when TAM concentrations increased for DSPC liposomes, indicating an increase in the dynamics of liposomes. The Cdbnd O stretching and PO2- antisymmetric double bond stretching bands were analyzed to study interactions of TAM with head groups of lipids. As the concentrations of TAM increased, dehydration occurred around these functional groups in the polar part of the lipids. The DSC studies on thermal properties of DSPC lipids indicate that TAM eliminated the pre transition, shifted the main phase transition to lower temperatures and broadened the phase transition curve of the liposomes.

  14. Partitioning of organophosphorus pesticides into phosphatidylcholine small unilamellar vesicles studied by second-derivative spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Takegami, Shigehiko; Kitamura, Keisuke; Ohsugi, Mayuko; Ito, Aya; Kitade, Tatsuya

    2015-06-15

    In order to quantitatively examine the lipophilicity of the widely used organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) chlorfenvinphos (CFVP), chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPFM), diazinon (DZN), fenitrothion (FNT), fenthion (FT), isofenphos (IFP), profenofos (PFF) and pyraclofos (PCF), their partition coefficient (Kp) values between phosphatidylcholine (PC) small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) and water (liposome-water system) were determined by second-derivative spectrophotometry. The second-derivative spectra of these OPs in the presence of PC SUV showed a bathochromic shift according to the increase in PC concentration and distinct derivative isosbestic points, demonstrating the complete elimination of the residual background signal effects that were observed in the absorption spectra. The Kp values were calculated from the second-derivative intensity change induced by addition of PC SUV and obtained with a good precision of R.S.D. below 10%. The Kp values were in the order of CPFM>FT>PFF>PCF>IFP>CFVP>FNT⩾DZN and did not show a linear correlation relationship with the reported partition coefficients obtained using an n-octanol-water system (R(2)=0.530). Also, the results quantitatively clarified the effect of chemical-group substitution in OPs on their lipophilicity. Since the partition coefficient for the liposome-water system is more effective for modeling the quantitative structure-activity relationship than that for the n-octanol-water system, the obtained results are toxicologically important for estimating the accumulation of these OPs in human cell membranes.

  15. Phosphatidylcholine nanovesicles coated with chitosan or chondroitin sulfate as novel devices for bacteriocin delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Indjara Mallmann; Boelter, Juliana Ferreira; da Silveira, Nádya Pesce; Brandelli, Adriano

    2014-07-01

    There is increased interest on the use of natural antimicrobial peptides in biomedicine and food preservation technologies. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of nisin encapsulated into nanovesicles containing polyanionic polysaccharides was investigated. Nisin was encapsulated in phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes containing chitosan or chondroitin sulfate by the thin-film hydration method and tested for antimicrobial activity against Listeria spp. The mean particle size of PC liposomes was 145 nm and varied to 210 and 134 nm with the incorporation of chitosan and chondroitin sulfate, respectively. Nisin-containing nanovesicles with and without incorporation of polysaccharides had a zeta potential values around -20 mV, showing mostly spherical structures when observed by transmission electron microscopy. Encapsulated nisin had similar efficiency as free nisin in inhibiting Listeria spp. isolated from bovine carcass, and greater efficiency in inhibiting Listeria monocytogenes. The formulation containing chitosan was more stable and more efficient in inhibiting L. monocytogenes when compared to the other nanovesicles tested. After 24 h, the viable cell counts were 2 log lower as compared with the other treatments and 7 log comparing to controls.

  16. Fluidization of a dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine monolayer by fluorocarbon gases: potential use in lung surfactant therapy.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Frédéric; Krafft, Marie Pierre; Vandamme, Thierry F; Goldmann, Michel; Fontaine, Philippe

    2006-05-01

    Fluorocarbon gases (gFCs) were found to inhibit the liquid-expanded (LE)/liquid-condensed (LC) phase transition of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) Langmuir monolayers. The formation of domains of an LC phase, which typically occurs in the LE/LC coexistence region upon compression of DPPC, is prevented when the atmosphere above the DPPC monolayer is saturated with a gFC. When contacted with gFC, the DPPC monolayer remains in the LE phase for surface pressures lower than 38 mN m(-1), as assessed by compression isotherms and fluorescence microscopy (FM). Moreover, gFCs can induce the dissolution of preexisting LC phase domains and facilitate the respreading of the DPPC molecules on the water surface, as shown by FM and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. gFCs have thus a highly effective fluidizing effect on the DPPC monolayer. This gFC-induced fluidizing effect was compared with the fluidizing effect brought about by a mixture of unsaturated lipids and proteins, namely the two commercially available lung surfactant substitutes, Curosurf and Survanta, which are derived from porcine and bovine lung extracts, respectively. The candidate FCs were chosen among those already investigated for biomedical applications, and in particular for intravascular oxygen transport, i.e., perfluorooctyl bromide, perfluorooctylethane, bis(perfluorobutyl)ethene, perfluorodecalin, and perfluorooctane. The fluidizing effect is most effective with the linear FCs. This study suggests that FCs, whose biocompatibility is well documented, may be useful in lung surfactant substitute compositions.

  17. Accumulation of phosphatidylcholine on gut mucosal surface is not dominated by electrostatic interactions.

    PubMed

    Korytowski, Agatha; Abuillan, Wasim; Amadei, Federico; Makky, Ali; Gumiero, Andrea; Sinning, Irmgard; Gauss, Annika; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Tanaka, Motomu

    2017-05-01

    The accumulation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the intestinal mucus layer is crucial for the protection of colon epithelia from the bacterial attack. It has been reported that the depletion of PC is a distinct feature of ulcerative colitis. Here we addressed the question how PC interacts with its binding proteins, the mucins, which may establish the hydrophobic barrier against colonic microbiota. In the first step, the interactions of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) with two mucin preparations from porcine stomach, have been studied using dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurement, and Langmuir isotherms, suggesting that mucin binds to the surface of DOPC vesicles. The enthalpy of mucin-PC interaction could be determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. The high affinity to PC found for both mucin types seems reasonable, as they mainly consist of mucin 2, a major constituent of the flowing mucus. Moreover, by the systematic variation of net charges, we concluded that the zwitterionic DOPC has the strongest binding affinity that cannot be explained within the electrostatic interactions between charged molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Phosphatidylcholine resynthesis from components of internalized phospholipids in rat granular pneumocytes in primary culture

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, A.; Reicherter, J.; Fisher, A.B.

    1986-05-01

    Uptake, degradation and reutilization of surfactant phospholipids was investigated by incubating granular pneumocytes in primary culture with 0.2 mM liposomal phosphatidylcholine containing (/sup 3/H-methyl)choline labeled dipalmitoyl PC. Trypsin-resistant cell associated liposome radioactivity in PC declined steadily with time of incubation to 50% of total radioactivity by 140 min. In the water soluble fraction, most of the radioactivity was present in glycerophosphorylcholine which increased steadily to 13% of total cell associated radioactivity. While the proportion of radioactivity in choline remained unchanged, it increased with time in CDP-choline and phosphorylcholine suggesting reutilization of choline for PC resynthesis. In lamellar bodies isolated from these cells, less than 10% of PC label was present in unsaturated PC. In the microsomal fraction the label in unsaturated PC at 21 min was 56% of total PC which increased to 71% by 140 min of incubation with liposomes (slope = 0.19%/min; r = 0.67) suggesting metabolic reutilization of dipalmitoyl PC in this compartment. These observations indicate that granular pneumocytes degrade internalized PC and resynthesize PC de novo from degradation products.

  19. Characterization of acyl chain position in unsaturated phosphatidylcholines using differential mobility-mass spectrometry[S

    PubMed Central

    Maccarone, Alan T.; Duldig, Jackson; Mitchell, Todd W.; Blanksby, Stephen J.; Duchoslav, Eva; Campbell, J. Larry

    2014-01-01

    Glycerophospholipids (GPs) that differ in the relative position of the two fatty acyl chains on the glycerol backbone (i.e., sn-positional isomers) can have distinct physicochemical properties. The unambiguous assignment of acyl chain position to an individual GP represents a significant analytical challenge. Here we describe a workflow where phosphatidylcholines (PCs) are subjected to ESI for characterization by a combination of differential mobility spectrometry and MS (DMS-MS). When infused as a mixture, ions formed from silver adduction of each phospholipid isomer {e.g., [PC (16:0/18:1) + Ag]+ and [PC (18:1/16:0) + Ag]+} are transmitted through the DMS device at discrete compensation voltages. Varying their relative amounts allows facile and unambiguous assignment of the sn-positions of the fatty acyl chains for each isomer. Integration of the well-resolved ion populations provides a rapid method (< 3 min) for relative quantification of these lipid isomers. The DMS-MS results show excellent agreement with established, but time-consuming, enzymatic approaches and also provide superior accuracy to methods that rely on MS alone. The advantages of this DMS-MS method in identification and quantification of GP isomer populations is demonstrated by direct analysis of complex biological extracts without any prior fractionation. PMID:24939921

  20. Effects of Alkali Cations and Halide Anions on the Self-Assembly of Phosphatidylcholine in Oils.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Ting; Lin, Chen-Shin; Chang, Ya-Ying; Whitten, Andrew E; Sokolova, Anna; Wu, Chun-Ming; Ivanov, Viktor A; Khokhlov, Alexei R; Tung, Shih-Huang

    2016-11-22

    The interactions between ions and phospholipids are closely associated with the structures and functions of cell membrane. Instead of conventional aqueous systems, we systematically investigated the effects of inorganic ions on the self-assembly of lecithin, a zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine, in cyclohexane. Previous studies have shown that addition of inorganic salts with specific divalent and trivalent cations can transform lecithin organosols into organogels. In this study, we focused on the effect of monovalent alkali halides. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to demonstrate that the binding strength of the alkali cations with the phosphate of lecithin is in the order Li(+) > Na(+) > K(+). More importantly, the cation-phosphate interaction is affected by the paired halide anions, and the effect follows the series I(-) > Br(-) > Cl(-). The salts of stronger interactions with lecithin, including LiCl, LiBr, LiI, and NaI, were found to induce cylindrical micelles sufficiently long to form organogels, while others remain organosols. A mechanism based on the charge density of ions and the enthalpy change of the ion exchange between alkali halides and lecithin headgroup is provided to explain the contrasting interactions and the effectiveness of the salts to induce organogelation.

  1. The Interaction of Melittin with Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine-Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylserine Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Durgesh K.; Qian, Shuo; Heller, William T.

    2016-08-13

    We report that membrane-active peptides (MAPs), which interact directly with the lipid bilayer of a cell and include toxins and host defense peptides, display lipid composition-dependent activity. Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids are anionic lipids that are found throughout the cellular membranes of most eukaryotic organisms where they serve as both a functional component and as a precursor to phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. The inner leaflet of the plasma membrane contains more PS than the outer one, and the asymmetry is actively maintained. Here, the impact of the MAP melittin on the structure of lipid bilayer vesicles made of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine was studied. Small-angle neutron scattering of the MAP associated with selectively deuterium-labeled lipid bilayer vesicles revealed how the thickness and lipid composition of phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles change in response to melittin. The peptide thickens the lipid bilayer for concentrations up to P/L = 1/500, but membrane thinning results when P/L = 1/200. The thickness transition is accompanied by a large change in the distribution of DMPS between the leaflets of the bilayer. The change in composition is driven by electrostatic interactions, while the change in bilayer thickness is driven by changes in the interaction of the peptide with the headgroup region of the lipid bilayer. Lastly, the results provide new information about lipid-specific interactions that take place in mixed composition lipid bilayer membranes.

  2. Iron ion and iron hydroxide adsorption to charge-neutral phosphatidylcholine templates

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Honghu; Feng, Shuren; San Emeterio, Josue; Mallapragada, Surya; Vaknin, David

    2016-07-13

    Surface-sensitive X-ray scattering and spectroscopy techniques reveal significant adsorption of iron ions and iron-hydroxide (Fe(III)) complexes to a charge-neutral zwitterionic template of phosphatidylcholine (PC). The PC template is formed by a Langmuir monolayer of dipalmitoyl-PC (DPPC) that is spread on the surface of 2 to 40 μM FeCl3 solutions at physiological levels of KCl (100 mM). At 40 μM of Fe(III) as many as ~3 iron atoms are associated with each PC group. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements indicate a significant disruption in the in-plane ordering of DPPC molecules upon iron adsorption. The binding of iron-hydroxide complexes to a neutral PC surface is yet another example of nonelectrostatic, presumably covalent bonding to a charge-neutral organic template. Furthermore, the strong binding and the disruption of in-plane lipid structure has biological implications on the integrity of PC-derived lipid membranes, including those based on sphingomyelin.

  3. Iron ion and iron hydroxide adsorption to charge-neutral phosphatidylcholine templates

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Honghu; Feng, Shuren; ...

    2016-07-13

    Surface-sensitive X-ray scattering and spectroscopy techniques reveal significant adsorption of iron ions and iron-hydroxide (Fe(III)) complexes to a charge-neutral zwitterionic template of phosphatidylcholine (PC). The PC template is formed by a Langmuir monolayer of dipalmitoyl-PC (DPPC) that is spread on the surface of 2 to 40 μM FeCl3 solutions at physiological levels of KCl (100 mM). At 40 μM of Fe(III) as many as ~3 iron atoms are associated with each PC group. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements indicate a significant disruption in the in-plane ordering of DPPC molecules upon iron adsorption. The binding of iron-hydroxide complexes to a neutralmore » PC surface is yet another example of nonelectrostatic, presumably covalent bonding to a charge-neutral organic template. Furthermore, the strong binding and the disruption of in-plane lipid structure has biological implications on the integrity of PC-derived lipid membranes, including those based on sphingomyelin.« less

  4. Melittin-Induced Lipid Extraction Modulated by the Methylation Level of Phosphatidylcholine Headgroups

    PubMed Central

    Therrien, Alexandre; Lafleur, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Protein- and peptide-induced lipid extraction from membranes is a critical process for many biological events, including reverse cholesterol transport and sperm capacitation. In this work, we examine whether such processes could display specificity for some lipid species. Melittin, the main component of dry bee venom, was used as a model amphipathic α-helical peptide. We specifically determined the modulation of melittin-induced lipid extraction from membranes by the change of the methylation level of phospholipid headgroups. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers were demethylated either by substitution with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or chemically by using mono- and dimethylated PE. It is shown that demethylation reduces the association of melittin with membranes, likely because of the resulting tighter chain packing of the phospholipids, which reduces the capacity of the membranes to accommodate inserted melittin. This reduced binding of the peptide is accompanied by an inhibition of the lipid extraction caused by melittin. We demonstrate that melittin selectively extracts PC from PC/PE membranes. This selectivity is proposed to be a consequence of a PE depletion in the surroundings of bound melittin to minimize disruption of the interphospholipid interactions. The resulting PC-enriched vicinity of melittin would be responsible for the observed formation of PC-enriched lipid/peptide particles resulting from the lipid efflux. These findings reveal that modulating the methylation level of phospholipid headgroups is a simple way to control the specificity of lipid extraction from membranes by peptides/proteins and thereby modulate the lipid composition of the membranes. PMID:26789763

  5. Interactions of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine with cholesteryl polyethoxy neoglycolipids containing N-acetyl- D-glucosamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemoun, Rachida; Gelhausen, Micaèle; Besson, Françoise; Lafont, Dominique; Buchet, René; Boullanger, Paul; Roux, Bernard

    1999-03-01

    Series of neoglycolipids containing cholesteryl and N-acetyl- D-glucosaminyl groups were synthesized with various ethoxy linkers. Their self aggregations and intermolecular interactions, without and with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC), were characterized in dry and hydrated states, by using infrared spectroscopy. The neoglycolipids in the dry state formed intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the CO and N-H or O-H groups of N-acetyl- D-glucosamine (GlcNAc). In the presence of EYPC, these intermolecular interactions were broken and new hydrogen bonds, involving the phosphate group of EYPC and N-H or O-H groups of GlcNAc of neoglycolipid, were formed. The presence of water molecules altered these intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The CO groups of EYPC were not affected by the presence of neoglycolipids, either in hydrated or in dry states, indicating that the GlcNAc polar groups interacted mostly with EYPC phosphate residues. The phase transition-temperature of mixtures of EYPC containing either cholesterol or neoglycolipid were similar, indicating that the cholesteryl group of the neoglycolipid interacted in the same manner as cholesterol with hydrocarbon chains of EYPC. Some structural models of molecular interactions of neoglycolipids were discussed in relation with the molecular recognition of wheat germ agglutinin.

  6. Interactions of saturated diacylglycerols with phosphatidylcholine bilayers: A sup 2 H NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    de Boeck, H.; Zidovetzki, R. )

    1992-01-21

    The interactions of a series of saturated diacylglycerols (DAGs) with fatty acid side chain lengths of 6-14 carbons with multilamellar phospholipid bilayers consisting either of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) or of a mixture of DPPC and bovine liver phosphatidylcholine (BL-PC) extracts were studied by {sup 2}H NMR spectrometry. The authors found that the perturbation induced by the DAGs into the bilayer structure strongly depends on the length of the DAG fatty acid side chain. Shorter chain 1,2-sn-dihexanoylglycerol and, to a larger degree, 1,2-sn-dioctanoylglycerol (diC{sub 8}) induce transverse perturbation of the bilayer structure: the order parameters of the phospholipid side chains are increased by the intercalating DAG molecules in the region adjacent to the phospholipid headgroups and decreased toward the terminal methyls, corresponding to the bilayer interior. Each of the DAGs studied induces a decrease in the area per phospholipid molecule, and a corresponding increase in the lateral surface pressure of the bilayers. Since numerous biochemical studies consistently report that diC{sub 8} is the most effective of saturated DAGs in activating protein kinase C, they may conclude that the activation of this enzyme is associated with a transverse perturbation of the lipid bilayer structure and a decreased ordering in the interior of the bilayer membrane, and is less affected by the lateral phase separation of the lipids into regions of different fluidities, as induced by the longer chain DAGs.

  7. Dynamics of phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol mixed model membranes in the liquid crystalline state.

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Y K; Moscicki, J K; Freed, J H

    1990-01-01

    The effects of cholesterol on the dynamics of cholestane spin probe (CSL) in various phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol mixed model membranes are examined. The lateral diffusion, D of CSL in DMPC/POPC/cholesterol ternary mixtures, is measured utilizing an improved dynamic imaging electron spin resonance method. It shows a factor of two decrease at 10 mol % and 25 degrees C, whereas it shows only a 40% decrease at 50 mol % and 50 degrees C. A comparison with results in POPC/cholesterol mixtures, which show a stronger effect of cholesterol on D, indicates that acyl chain unsaturation leads to stronger self association of cholesterol in PC model membranes. An S2CSL dependence of the activation energy for D, has been confirmed for the DMPC/POPC/cholesterol mixtures. Here SCSL is the order parameter for CSL. A similar correlation of R perpendicular, the perpendicular component of the rotational diffusion coefficient, with SCSL, which is true for all three mixtures (DMPC/cholesterol, POPC/cholesterol, and DMPC/POPC/cholesterol) we have studied, is also found. These are associated with the effects of enhanced local ordering on the free volume needed for translation and reorientation. Such correlations of dynamic properties D and R perpendicular with the thermodynamic quantity S, as well as the consistent interpretations of the effect of acyl chain unsaturation on the dynamics in terms of the activity coefficients, strongly emphasize the interrelation between the dynamic structure and the thermodynamics of the PC/cholesterol mixtures. PMID:2155032

  8. Partitioning of organophosphorus pesticides into phosphatidylcholine small unilamellar vesicles studied by second-derivative spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takegami, Shigehiko; Kitamura, Keisuke; Ohsugi, Mayuko; Ito, Aya; Kitade, Tatsuya

    2015-06-01

    In order to quantitatively examine the lipophilicity of the widely used organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) chlorfenvinphos (CFVP), chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPFM), diazinon (DZN), fenitrothion (FNT), fenthion (FT), isofenphos (IFP), profenofos (PFF) and pyraclofos (PCF), their partition coefficient (Kp) values between phosphatidylcholine (PC) small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) and water (liposome-water system) were determined by second-derivative spectrophotometry. The second-derivative spectra of these OPs in the presence of PC SUV showed a bathochromic shift according to the increase in PC concentration and distinct derivative isosbestic points, demonstrating the complete elimination of the residual background signal effects that were observed in the absorption spectra. The Kp values were calculated from the second-derivative intensity change induced by addition of PC SUV and obtained with a good precision of R.S.D. below 10%. The Kp values were in the order of CPFM > FT > PFF > PCF > IFP > CFVP > FNT ⩾ DZN and did not show a linear correlation relationship with the reported partition coefficients obtained using an n-octanol-water system (R2 = 0.530). Also, the results quantitatively clarified the effect of chemical-group substitution in OPs on their lipophilicity. Since the partition coefficient for the liposome-water system is more effective for modeling the quantitative structure-activity relationship than that for the n-octanol-water system, the obtained results are toxicologically important for estimating the accumulation of these OPs in human cell membranes.

  9. Spectroscopic and morphological studies on interaction between gold nanoparticle and liposome constructed with phosphatidylcholine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, C.; Tsuji, T.; Matsuo, K.; Nomoto, T.; Kutluk, G.; Sawada, M.; Ogawa, S.; Yoshida, T.; Yagi, S.

    2015-03-01

    The gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) colloidal solution and the phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposome aqueous solution are fabricated by the solution plasma method and the extrusion procedure, respectively. When the Au NPs colloidal solution and the PC liposome aqueous solution are mixed, considering the TEM image, we think that the Au NPs firstly are covered with the PC molecules, which do not contribute to form the PC liposome, and subsequently the Au NPs covered with the PC adsorb on the PC liposome surface. We propose that the PC molecule adsorbs on the Au sheet surface at the methyl group of N-CH3 and the oxygen atoms of P-O, P=O, C-O and C=O bonds, because each peak intensity of N, O and P K-edges NEXAFS spectra for the PC/Au sheet is reduced in comparison with that for the PC multilayer. Furthermore, the Au NPs covered with PC seem to be aggregated each other through the hydrophobic groups of PC on Au NPs.

  10. Interactions of acyl-coenzyme A with phosphatidylcholine bilayers and serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan, J.G.; Hamilton, J.A. )

    1992-01-21

    Interactions of oleoyl- and octanoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) with phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated by NMR spectroscopy. Binding of acyl-CoA to small unilamellar PC vesicles and to BSA was detected by changes in {sup 13}C and {sup 31}P chemical shifts relative to the chemical shifts for aqueous acyl-CoA. PC vesicles remained intact with {le} 15 mol % oleoyl-CoA, while higher oleoyl-CoA proportions produced mixed micelles. In contrast, {sup 13}C spectra revealed rapid exchange (ms) of octanoyl-CoA between the aqueous phase and PC vesicles and a low affinity for the bilayer. Thus, the binding affinity of acyl-CoA for PC bilayers is dependent on the acyl chain length. Addition of ({sup 13}C)carboxyl-enriched oleic acid to oleoyl-CoA/BSA mixtures revealed simultaneous binding of oleic acid and oleoyl-CoA to BSA, with some perturbation of binding interactions. Thus, BSA contains multiple binding sites for oleoyl-CoA and can bind fatty acid and acyl-CoA simultaneously.

  11. Interactions of tamoxifen with distearoyl phosphatidylcholine multilamellar vesicles: FTIR and DSC studies.

    PubMed

    Bilge, Duygu; Sahin, Ipek; Kazanci, Nadide; Severcan, Feride

    2014-09-15

    Interactions of a non-steroidal antiestrogen drug, tamoxifen (TAM), with distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) multilamellar liposomes (MLVs) were investigated as a function of drug concentration (1-15 mol%) by using two noninvasive techniques, namely Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). FTIR spectroscopy results show that increasing TAM concentrations (except 1 mol%) increased the wavenumbers of the CH2 stretching modes, implying an disordering effect for DSPC MLVs both in the gel and liquid crystalline phases. The bandwidth values of the CH2 stretchings except for 1 mol% increased when TAM concentrations increased for DSPC liposomes, indicating an increase in the dynamics of liposomes. The CO stretching and PO2- antisymmetric double bond stretching bands were analyzed to study interactions of TAM with head groups of lipids. As the concentrations of TAM increased, dehydration occurred around these functional groups in the polar part of the lipids. The DSC studies on thermal properties of DSPC lipids indicate that TAM eliminated the pre transition, shifted the main phase transition to lower temperatures and broadened the phase transition curve of the liposomes.

  12. Formulation and characterization of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems containing monoacyl phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thuy; Xi, Xi; Rades, Thomas; Müllertz, Anette

    2016-04-11

    The study investigated the use of monoacyl phosphatidylcholine (MAPC) in self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS). A D-optimal design was used to generate two sets of formulations containing long-chain (LC) or medium-chain (MC) glycerides, caprylocaproyl macrogol-8 glycerides (Labrasol), Lipoid S LPC 80 (LPC) (80% MAPC) and ethanol. The formulations were characterized using dynamic light scattering, microscopy, in vitro lipolysis and viscometric measurements. All LC formulations within the investigated range were predicted to generate polydisperse emulsions while MC formulations generated nanoemulsions with droplet sizes from 23 to 167 nm. Using LPC in MC formulations reduced the nanoemulsion droplet sizes in simulated gastric and intestinal media. The nanoemulsion droplet size of MC SNEDDS containing LPC was not affected by gastrointestinal pH, while the zeta potentials increased at low pH. During in vitro lipolysis, less fatty acids were released when LPC was incorporated into the formulations (2.05 ± 0.02 mmol reduced to 1.76 ± 0.05 mmol when incorporating 30% LPC). Replacing Labrasol by LPC increased the formulation dynamic viscosity from 57 ± 1 mPas (0% LPC) to 436 ± 8 mPas (35% LPC) at 25°C, however, this did not considerably prolong the formulation dispersion time. In conclusion, MC SNEDDS containing LPC are promising formulations when desiring to reduce the amount of synthetic surfactants and possibly modify the digestion rate.

  13. Phosphatidylcholine composition of pulmonary surfactant from terrestrial and marine diving mammals

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Danielle B.; Fahlman, Andreas; Gardner, Manuela; Kleinhenz, Danielle; Piscitelli, Marina; Raverty, Stephen; Haulena, Martin; Zimba, Paul V.

    2015-01-01

    Marine mammals are repeatedly exposed to elevated extra-thoracic pressure and alveolar collapse during diving and readily experience alveolar expansion upon inhalation – a unique capability as compared to terrestrial mammals. How marine mammal lungs overcome the challenges of frequent alveolar collapse and recruitment remains unknown. Recent studies indicate that pinniped lung surfactant has more anti-adhesive components compared to terrestrial mammals, which would aid in alveolar opening. However, pulmonary surfactant composition has not yet been investigated in odontocetes, whose physiology and diving behavior differ from pinnipeds. The aim of this study was to investigate the phosphatidylcholine (PC) composition of lung surfactants from various marine mammals and compare these to a terrestrial mammal. We found an increase in anti-adhesive PC species in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) compared to dog (Canus lupus familiaris), as well as an increase in the fluidizing PCs 16:0/14:0 and 16:0/16:1 in pinnipeds compared to odontocetes. The harbor porpoise (a representative of the odontocetes) did not have higher levels of fluidizing PCs compared to dog. Our preliminary results support previous findings that pinnipeds may have adapted unique surfactant compositions that allow them to dive at high pressures for extended periods without adverse effects. Future studies will need to investigate the differences in other surfactant components to fully assess the surfactant composition in odontocetes. PMID:25812797

  14. Phosphatidylcholine composition of pulmonary surfactant from terrestrial and marine diving mammals.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Danielle B; Fahlman, Andreas; Gardner, Manuela; Kleinhenz, Danielle; Piscitelli, Marina; Raverty, Stephen; Haulena, Martin; Zimba, Paul V

    2015-06-01

    Marine mammals are repeatedly exposed to elevated extra-thoracic pressure and alveolar collapse during diving and readily experience alveolar expansion upon inhalation - a unique capability as compared to terrestrial mammals. How marine mammal lungs overcome the challenges of frequent alveolar collapse and recruitment remains unknown. Recent studies indicate that pinniped lung surfactant has more anti-adhesive components compared to terrestrial mammals, which would aid in alveolar opening. However, pulmonary surfactant composition has not yet been investigated in odontocetes, whose physiology and diving behavior differ from pinnipeds. The aim of this study was to investigate the phosphatidylcholine (PC) composition of lung surfactants from various marine mammals and compare these to a terrestrial mammal. We found an increase in anti-adhesive PC species in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) compared to dog (Canus lupus familiaris), as well as an increase in the fluidizing PCs 16:0/14:0 and 16:0/16:1 in pinnipeds compared to odontocetes. The harbor porpoise (a representative of the odontocetes) did not have higher levels of fluidizing PCs compared to dog. Our preliminary results support previous findings that pinnipeds may have adapted unique surfactant compositions that allow them to dive at high pressures for extended periods without adverse effects. Future studies will need to investigate the differences in other surfactant components to fully assess the surfactant composition in odontocetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mixed micelles loaded with silybin-polyene phosphatidylcholine complex improve drug solubility

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Rui-ling; Sun, Xun; Liu, Jie; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhi-rong

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To prepare a novel formulation of phosphatidylcholine (PC)-bile salts (BS)-mixed micelles (MMs) loaded with silybin (SLB)-PC complex for parenteral applications. Methods: SLB-PC-BS-MMs were prepared using the co-precipitation method. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis was used to confirm the formation of the complex and several parameters were optimized to obtain a high quality formulation. The water-solubility, drug loading, particle size, zeta potential, morphology and in vivo properties of the SLB-PC-BS-MMs were determined. Results: The solubility of SLB in water was increased from 40.83±1.18 μg/mL to 10.14±0.36 mg/mL with a high drug loading (DL) of 14.43%±0.44% under optimized conditions. The SLB-PC-BS-MMs were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and showed spherical shapes. The particle size and zeta potential, as measured by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), were about 30±4.8 nm and −39±5.0 mV, respectively. In vivo studies showed that incorporation of the SLB-PC complex into PC-BS-MMs led to a prolonged circulation time of the drug. Conclusion: This novel formulation appears to be a good candidate for drug substances that exhibit poor solubility for parenteral administration. PMID:21170082

  16. The Interaction of Melittin with Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine-Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylserine Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Durgesh K.; Qian, Shuo; Heller, William T.

    2016-08-13

    We report that membrane-active peptides (MAPs), which interact directly with the lipid bilayer of a cell and include toxins and host defense peptides, display lipid composition-dependent activity. Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids are anionic lipids that are found throughout the cellular membranes of most eukaryotic organisms where they serve as both a functional component and as a precursor to phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. The inner leaflet of the plasma membrane contains more PS than the outer one, and the asymmetry is actively maintained. Here, the impact of the MAP melittin on the structure of lipid bilayer vesicles made of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine was studied. Small-angle neutron scattering of the MAP associated with selectively deuterium-labeled lipid bilayer vesicles revealed how the thickness and lipid composition of phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles change in response to melittin. The peptide thickens the lipid bilayer for concentrations up to P/L = 1/500, but membrane thinning results when P/L = 1/200. The thickness transition is accompanied by a large change in the distribution of DMPS between the leaflets of the bilayer. The change in composition is driven by electrostatic interactions, while the change in bilayer thickness is driven by changes in the interaction of the peptide with the headgroup region of the lipid bilayer. Lastly, the results provide new information about lipid-specific interactions that take place in mixed composition lipid bilayer membranes.

  17. Betaine attenuates alcoholic steatosis by restoring phosphatidylcholine generation via the phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase pathway.

    PubMed

    Kharbanda, Kusum K; Mailliard, Mark E; Baldwin, Cheryl R; Beckenhauer, Harriet C; Sorrell, Michael F; Tuma, Dean J

    2007-02-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory implicated ethanol-induced decreases in hepatocellular S-adenosylmethionine to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAM:SAH) ratios in lowering the activity of phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase (PEMT), which is associated with the generation of steatosis. Further in vitro studies showed that betaine supplementation could correct these alterations in the ratio as well as attenuate alcoholic steatosis. Therefore, we sought to determine whether the protective effect of betaine is via its effect on PEMT activity. Male Wistar rats were fed the Lieber DeCarli control or ethanol diet with or without 1% betaine supplementation for 4 weeks. We observed that ethanol feeding resulted in decreased phosphatidylcholine (PC) production by a PEMT-catalyzed reaction. Betaine supplementation corrected the ethanol-induced decrease in hepatic SAM:SAH ratios and by normalizing PC production via the PEMT-mediated pathway, significantly reduced fatty infiltration associated with ethanol consumption. This restoration of hepatocellular SAM:SAH ratio by betaine supplementation was associated with increases in the activity, enzyme mass and gene expression of the enzyme, betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), that remethylates homocysteine. Betaine, by virtue of promoting an alternate remethylation pathway, restores SAM:SAH ratios that, in turn, correct the defective cellular methylation reaction catalyzed by PEMT resulting in protection against the generation of alcoholic steatosis.

  18. Phosphatidylcholine protects against steatosis in mice but not non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Niebergall, Lorissa J; Jacobs, René L; Chaba, Todd; Vance, Dennis E

    2011-12-01

    Several studies suggest that low levels of hepatic phosphatidylcholine (PC) play a role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). CTP: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CT) is the key regulatory enzyme in the CDP-choline pathway for PC biosynthesis. Liver-specific elimination of CTα (LCTα(-/-)) in mice fed a chow diet decreases very-low-density lipoprotein secretion, reduces lipid efflux from liver, and causes mild steatosis. We fed LCTα(-/-) mice a high fat diet to determine if impaired PC biosynthesis played a role in development of NASH. LCTα(-/-) mice developed NASH within one week of high fat feeding. Hepatic CTα deficiency caused hepatic steatosis, a 2-fold increase in ceramide mass, and a 20% reduction in PC content. In an attempt to prevent NASH, LCTα(-/-) mice were either injected daily with CDP-choline or fed the high fat diet supplemented with betaine. In addition, LCTα(-/-) mice were injected with adenoviruses expressing CTα. CDP-choline injections and adenoviral expression of CTα increased hepatic PC, while dietary betaine supplementation normalized hepatic triacylglycerol but did not alter hepatic PC mass in LCTα(-/-) mice. Interestingly, none of the treatments normalized hepatic ceramide mass or fully prevented the development of NASH in LCTα(-/-) mice. These results show that normalizing the amount of hepatic PC is not sufficient to prevent NASH in LCTα(-/-) mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of integral membrane proteins on the lateral mobility of plastoquinone in phosphatidylcholine proteoliposomes

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Mary F.; Whitmarsh, John

    1990-01-01

    Pyrene fluorescence quenching by plastoquinone was used to estimate the rate of plastoquinone lateral diffusion in soybean phosphatidylcholine proteoliposomes containing the following integral membrane proteins: gramicidin D, spinach cytochrome bf complex, spinach cytochrome f, reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, beef heart mitochondrial cytochrome bc1, and beef heart mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The measured plastoquinone lateral diffusion coefficient varied between 1 and 3 · 10-7 cm2 s-1 in control liposomes that lacked protein. When proteins were added, these values decreased: a 10-fold decrease was observed when 16-26% of the membrane surface area was occupied by protein for all the proteins but gramicidin. The larger protein complexes (cytochrome bf, Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction centers, cytochrome bc1, and cytochrome oxidase), whose hydrophobic volumes were 15-20 times as large as that of cytochrome f and the gramicidin transmembrane dimer, were 15-20 times as effective in decreasing the lateral-diffusion coefficient over the range of concentrations studied. These proteins had a much stronger effect than that observed for bacteriorhodopsin in fluorescence photobleaching recovery measurements. The effect of high-protein concentrations in gramicidin proteoliposomes was in close agreement with fluorescence photobleaching measurements. The results are compared with the predictions of several theoretical models of lateral mobility as a function of integral membrane concentration. PMID:19431774

  20. The Interaction of Melittin with Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine-Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylserine Lipid Bilayer Membranes.

    PubMed

    Rai, Durgesh K; Qian, Shuo; Heller, William T

    2016-11-01

    Membrane-active peptides (MAPs), which interact directly with the lipid bilayer of a cell and include toxins and host defense peptides, display lipid composition-dependent activity. Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids are anionic lipids that are found throughout the cellular membranes of most eukaryotic organisms where they serve as both a functional component and as a precursor to phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. The inner leaflet of the plasma membrane contains more PS than the outer one, and the asymmetry is actively maintained. Here, the impact of the MAP melittin on the structure of lipid bilayer vesicles made of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine was studied. Small-angle neutron scattering of the MAP associated with selectively deuterium-labeled lipid bilayer vesicles revealed how the thickness and lipid composition of phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles change in response to melittin. The peptide thickens the lipid bilayer for concentrations up to P/L=1/500, but membrane thinning results when P/L=1/200. The thickness transition is accompanied by a large change in the distribution of DMPS between the leaflets of the bilayer. The change in composition is driven by electrostatic interactions, while the change in bilayer thickness is driven by changes in the interaction of the peptide with the headgroup region of the lipid bilayer. The results provide new information about lipid-specific interactions that take place in mixed composition lipid bilayer membranes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Phosphatidylcholine enrichment with medium chain fatty acids by immobilized phospholipase A(1) -catalyzed acidolysis.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Angélica A; Hernández-Becerra, Josafat A; Cavazos-Garduño, Adriana; García, Hugo S; Vernon-Carter, Eduardo J

    2013-01-01

    Phospholipids are a biologically and industrially important class of compounds whose physical properties can be improved for diverse applications by substitution of medium-chain fatty acids for their native fatty acid chains. In this study, phosphatidylcholine (PC) was enriched with medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) by acidolysis with phospholipase A(1) (PLA(1) ) immobilized on Duolite A568. Response surface methodology was employed to evaluate the effects of the molar ratio of substrates (PC to free MCFAs), enzyme loading, and reaction temperature on the incorporation of free MCFAs into PC and on PC recovery. Enzyme loading and molar ratio of substrates contributed positively, but temperature negatively, to the incorporation of free MCFAs into PC. Increases in enzyme loading and the molar ratio of PC to free MCFAs led to increased incorporation of the latter into the former, but increased temperature had the opposite effect. By contrast, an increase in enzyme loading led to decreased PC recovery. Increased temperature had also a negative effect on PC recovery. Optimal conditions for maximum incorporation and PC recovery were molar ratio of PC to free MCFAs of 1:16, enzyme loading of 16%, and 50°C. Under these conditions, the incorporation of free MCFAs was 41% and the PC recovery was 53%. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  2. Effect of glucosamine sulfate on surface interactions and lubrication by hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) liposomes.

    PubMed

    Gaisinskaya-Kipnis, Anastasia; Jahn, Sabrina; Goldberg, Ronit; Klein, Jacob

    2014-11-10

    Glucosamine sulfate (GAS) is a charged monosaccharide molecule that is widely used as a treatment for osteoarthritis, a joint disease related to friction and lubrication of articular cartilage. Using a surface force balance, we examine the effect of GAS on normal and, particularly, on shear (frictional) interactions between surfaces in an aqueous environment coated with small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs), or liposomes, of hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC). We examine the effect of GAS solution, pure water, and salt solution (0.15 M NaNO3) both inside and outside the vesicles. Cryoscanning electron microscopy shows a closely packed layer of liposomes whose morphology is affected only slightly by GAS. HSPC-SUVs with encapsulated GAS are stable upon shear at high compressions (>100 atm) and provide very good lubrication when immersed both in pure water and physiological-level salt solutions (in the latter case, the liposomes are exceptionally stable and lubricious up to >400 atm). The low friction is attributed to several parameters based on the hydration lubrication mechanism.

  3. Submicellar bile salts stimulate phosphatidylcholine transfer activity of sterol carrier protein 2.

    PubMed

    Leonard, A N; Cohen, D E

    1998-10-01

    To explore a potential role for sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP2, also known as non-specific lipid transfer protein) in hepatocellular phospholipid trafficking, we examined the influence of submicellar bile salt concentrations on phosphatidylcholine (PC) transfer activity of SCP2. We measured rate constants for first-order transfer of sn-1 palmitoyl, sn-2 parinaroyl PC, a naturally fluorescent self-quenching phospholipid between model membranes. Purified bovine liver SCP2 promoted transfer of PC from donor to acceptor small unilamellar vesicles. Taurine- and glycine-conjugated bile salts (anionic steroid detergent-like molecules), at concentrations well below their critical micellar concentrations, stimulated PC transfer activity of SCP2 80- to 140-fold. Rate constants increased in proportion to bile salt concentration, temperature, and bile salt-membrane binding affinity. Sodium taurofusidate, a conjugated fungal bile salt analog, also activated PC transfer whereas no effect was observed with the anionic and non-ionic straight chain detergents sodium dodecyl sulfate and octylglucoside, respectively. Thermodynamic and kinetic analyses of PC transfer support a mechanism in which bile salts stimulate SCP2 activity by partitioning into donor vesicles and enhancing membrane association of SCP2. These results imply that under physiological conditions, SCP2 may contribute to hepatocellular selection and transport of biliary PCs.

  4. A simplified procedure for semi-targeted lipidomic analysis of oxidized phosphatidylcholines induced by UVA irradiation.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Florian; Bicker, Wolfgang; Oskolkova, Olga V; Tschachler, Erwin; Bochkov, Valery N

    2012-06-01

    Oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) are increasingly recognized as signaling mediators that are not only markers of oxidative stress but are also "makers" of pathology relevant to disease pathogenesis. Understanding the biological role of individual molecular species of OxPLs requires the knowledge of their concentration kinetics in cells and tissues. In this work, we describe a straightforward "fingerprinting" procedure for analysis of a broad spectrum of molecular species generated by oxidation of the four most abundant species of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines (OxPCs). The approach is based on liquid-liquid extraction followed by reversed-phase HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization MS/MS. More than 500 peaks corresponding in retention properties to polar and oxidized PCs were detected within 8 min at 99 m/z precursor values using a single diagnostic product ion in extracts from human dermal fibroblasts. Two hundred seventeen of these peaks were fluence-dependently and statistically significantly increased upon exposure of cells to UVA irradiation, suggesting that these are genuine oxidized or oxidatively fragmented species. This method of semitargeted lipidomic analysis may serve as a simple first step for characterization of specific "signatures" of OxPCs produced by different types of oxidative stress in order to select the most informative peaks for identification of their molecular structure and biological role.

  5. The Distribution of Phosphatidylcholine Species in Superficial-Type Pharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hayasaka, Takahiro; Shinriki, Satoru; Masaki, Noritaka; Hirano, Shigeru; Kitamura, Morimasa; Muto, Manabu; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Ito, Juichi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. Superficial-type pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (STPSCC) is defined as carcinoma in situ or microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma without invasion to the muscular layer. An exploration of the biological characteristics of STPSCC could uncover the invasion mechanism of this carcinoma. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) in combination with fatty acids is considered to play an important role in cell motility. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is especially suitable for phospholipid analysis because this technique can distinguish even fatty acid compositions. Study Design. IMS analysis of frozen human specimens. Methods. IMS analysis was conducted to elucidate the distribution of PC species in STPSCC tissues. STPSCC tissue sections from five patients were analyzed, and we identified the signals that showed significant increases in the subepithelial invasive region relative to the superficial region. Results. Three kinds of PC species containing arachidonic acid, that is, PC (16:0/20:4), PC (18:1/20:4), and PC (18:0/20:4), were increased in the subepithelial invasive region. Conclusion. These results may be associated with the invasion mechanism of hypopharyngeal carcinoma. PMID:28373982

  6. ELECTRON MICROSCOPE AND X-RAY DIFFRACTION STUDIES ON A HOMOLOGOUS SERIES OF SATURATED PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES.

    PubMed

    ELBERS, P F; VERVERGAERT, P H

    1965-05-01

    Three homologous saturated phosphatidylcholines were studied by electron microscopy after tricomplex fixation. The results are compared with those obtained by x-ray diffraction analysis of the same and some other homologous compounds, in the dry crystalline state and after tricomplex fixation. By electron microscopy alternating dark and light bands are observed which are likely to correspond to phosphatide double layers. X-Ray diffraction reveals the presence of lamellar structures of regular spacing. The layer spacings obtained by both methods are in good agreement. From the electron micrographs the width of the polar parts of the double layers can be derived directly. The width of the carboxylglycerylphosphorylcholine moiety of the layers is found by extrapolating the x-ray diffraction data to zero chain length of the fatty acids. When from this width the contribution of the carboxylglyceryl part of the molecules is subtracted, again we find good agreement with the electron microscope measurements. An attempt has been made to account for the different layer spacings measured in terms of orientation of the molecules within the double layers.

  7. Hydration and hydrogen bonding of carbonyls in dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine bilayer.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Victor V; Nuti, Francesca; Takaoka, Yuji; Chelli, Riccardo; Papini, Anna Maria; Righini, Roberto

    2006-07-26

    We combine two-color ultrafast infrared spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the hydration of carbonyl moieties in a dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine bilayer. Excitation with femtosecond infrared pulses of the OD stretching mode of heavy water produces a time dependent change of the absorption band of the phospholipid carbonyl groups. This intermolecular vibrational coupling affects the entire C=O band, thus suggesting that the optical inhomogeneity of the infrared response of carbonyl in phospholipid membranes cannot be attributed to the variance in hydration. Both the experimental and the theoretical results demonstrate that sn-1 carbonyl has a higher propensity to form hydrogen bonds with water in comparison to sn-2. The time-resolved experiment allows following the evolution of the system from a nonequilibrium localization of energy in the OD stretching mode to a thermally equilibrated condition and provides the characteristic time constants of the process. The approach opens a new opportunity for investigation of intermolecular structural relations in complex systems, like membranes, polymers, proteins, and glasses.

  8. Fluid Phase Lipid Areas and Bilayer Thicknesses of Commonly Used Phosphatidylcholines as a Function of Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kucerka, Norbert; Nieh, Mu-Ping; Katsaras, John

    2011-01-01

    The structural parameters of fluid phase bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholines with fully saturated, mixed, and branched fatty acid chains, at several temperatures, have been determined by simultaneously analyzing small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering data. Bilayer parameters, such as area per lipid and overall bilayer thickness have been obtained in conjunction with intrabilayer structural parameters (e.g. hydrocarbon region thickness). The results have allowed us to assess the effect of temperature and hydrocarbon chain composition on bilayer structure. For example, we found that for all lipids there is, not surprisingly, an increase in fatty acid chain trans-gauche isomerization with increasing temperature. Moreover, this increase in trans-gauche isomerization scales with fatty acid chain length in mixed chain lipids. However, in the case of lipids with saturated fatty acid chains, trans-gauche isomerization is increasingly tempered by attractive chain-chain van der Waals interactions with increasing chain length. Finally, our results confirm a strong dependence of lipid chain dynamics as a function of double bond position along fatty acid chains.

  9. Iron ion and iron hydroxide adsorption to charge-neutral phosphatidylcholine templates

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Honghu; Feng, Shuren; San Emeterio, Josue; Mallapragada, Surya; Vaknin, David

    2016-07-13

    Surface-sensitive X-ray scattering and spectroscopy techniques reveal significant adsorption of iron ions and iron-hydroxide (Fe(III)) complexes to a charge-neutral zwitterionic template of phosphatidylcholine (PC). The PC template is formed by a Langmuir monolayer of dipalmitoyl-PC (DPPC) that is spread on the surface of 2 to 40 μM FeCl3 solutions at physiological levels of KCl (100 mM). At 40 μM of Fe(III) as many as ~3 iron atoms are associated with each PC group. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction measurements indicate a significant disruption in the in-plane ordering of DPPC molecules upon iron adsorption. The binding of iron-hydroxide complexes to a neutral PC surface is yet another example of nonelectrostatic, presumably covalent bonding to a charge-neutral organic template. Furthermore, the strong binding and the disruption of in-plane lipid structure has biological implications on the integrity of PC-derived lipid membranes, including those based on sphingomyelin.

  10. Bovine insulin-phosphatidylcholine mixed Langmuir monolayers: behavior at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, S; Blanco-Vila, N M; Vila-Romeu, N

    2011-08-04

    The behavior of the binary mixed Langmuir monolayers of bovine insulin (INS) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) spread at the air-water interface was investigated under various subphase conditions. Pure and mixed monolayers were spread on water, on NaOH and phosphate-buffered solutions of pH 7.4, and on Zn(2+)-containing solutions. Miscibility and interactions between the components were studied on the basis of the analysis of the surface pressure (π)-mean molecular area (A) isotherms, surface compression modulus (C(s)(-1))-π curves, and plots of A versus mole fraction of INS (X(INS)). Our results indicate that intermolecular interactions between INS and PC depend on both the monolayer state and the structural characteristics of INS at the interface, which are strongly influenced by the subphase pH and salt content. Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) was applied to investigate the peptide aggregation pattern at the air-water interface in the presence of the studied lipid under any experimental condition investigated. The influence of the lipid on the INS behavior at the interface strongly depends on the subphase conditions.

  11. Effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on fluidity and phase transition of phosphatidylcholine liposomal membranes.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Poornima Budime; Drašler, Barbara; Drobne, Damjana; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Kralj, Slavko; Makovec, Darko; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with multifunctional properties have shown great promise in theranostics. The aim of our work was to compare the effects of SPIONs on the fluidity and phase transition of the liposomal membranes prepared with zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine lipids. In order to study if the surface modification of SPIONs has any influence on these membrane properties, we have used four types of differently functionalized SPIONs, such as: plain SPIONs (primary size was shown to bê11 nm), silica-coated SPIONs, SPIONs coated with silica and functionalized with positively charged amino groups or negatively charged carboxyl groups (the primary size of all the surface-modified SPIONs was ~20 nm). Small unilamellar vesicles prepared with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine lipids and multilamellar vesicles prepared with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine lipids were encapsulated or incubated with the plain and surface-modified SPIONs to determine the fluidity and phase transition temperature of the bilayer lipids, respectively. Fluorescent anisotropy and differential scanning calorimetric measurements of the liposomes that were either encapsulated or incubated with the suspension of SPIONs did not show a significant difference in the lipid ordering and fluidity; though the encapsulated SPIONs showed a slightly increased effect on the fluidity of the model membranes in comparison with the incubated SPIONs. This indicates the low potential of the SPIONs to interact with the nontargeted cell membranes, which is a desirable factor for in vivo applications.

  12. Positional analysis of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine via LC with a charged aerosol detector.

    PubMed

    Kiełbowicz, Grzegorz; Chojnacka, Anna; Gliszczyńska, Anna; Gładkowski, Witold; Kłobucki, Marek; Niezgoda, Natalia; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2015-08-15

    A new method for the positional analysis of egg yolk phospholipids (PLs) (phosphatidylcholine-PC, phosphatidylethanolamine-PE) using liquid chromatography with charge aerosol detector (CAD) is described. The method is based on six-step procedure: 1) extraction of phospholipids from tissue sample, 2) separation of lipid classes by solid phase extraction (SPE), 3) complete regiospecific hydrolysis of phospholipids by phospholipase A2 (PLA2), 4) separation of reaction products (fatty acids from sn-2 position and 1-acyl lysophospholipids) by SPE, 5) chemical hydrolysis of 1-acyl lysophospholipids, and 6) analysis of obtained fatty acids by LC with charge aerosol detection (CAD). Total time of enzymatic hydrolysis of PLs ranged from 10-30min. The reaction products were separated by SPE in three-step gradient elution procedure. Chloroform: methanol mixtures were used as eluents to obtain pure fractions of FAs from sn-2 position of PL and 1-acyl lysoPL (chemically hydrolyzed to FAs). FAs were separated by reversed-phase LC using a gradient elution and detected using CAD detector. This combination enables determination of all fatty acids in a single analysis, and without the sample derivatization. The method was optimized and the response of CAD, linearity, precision and sensitivity of the method were studied.

  13. Charge pairing of headgroups in phosphatidylcholine membranes: A molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed Central

    Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, M; Takaoka, Y; Miyagawa, H; Kitamura, K; Kusumi, A

    1999-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation of the hydrated dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer membrane in the liquid-crystalline phase was carried out for 5 ns to study the interaction among DMPC headgroups in the membrane/water interface region. The phosphatidylcholine headgroup contains a positively charged choline group and negatively charged phosphate and carbonyl groups, although it is a neutral molecule as a whole. Our previous study (Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, M., Y. Takaoka, H. Miyagawa, K. Kitamura, and A. Kusumi. 1997. J. Phys. Chem. 101:3677-3691) showed the formation of water cross-bridges between negatively charged groups in which a water molecule is simultaneously hydrogen bonded to two DMPC molecules. Water bridges link 76% of DMPC molecules in the membrane. In the present study we show that relatively stable charge associations (charge pairs) are formed between the positively and negatively charged groups of two DMPC molecules. Charge pairs link 93% of DMPC molecules in the membrane. Water bridges and charge pairs together form an extended network of interactions among DMPC headgroups linking 98% of all membrane phospholipids. The average lifetimes of DMPC-DMPC associations via charge pairs, water bridges and both, are at least 730, 1400, and over 1500 ps, respectively. However, these associations are dynamic states and they break and re-form several times during their lifetime. PMID:10049307

  14. Effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on fluidity and phase transition of phosphatidylcholine liposomal membranes

    PubMed Central

    Santhosh, Poornima Budime; Drašler, Barbara; Drobne, Damjana; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Kralj, Slavko; Makovec, Darko; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with multifunctional properties have shown great promise in theranostics. The aim of our work was to compare the effects of SPIONs on the fluidity and phase transition of the liposomal membranes prepared with zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine lipids. In order to study if the surface modification of SPIONs has any influence on these membrane properties, we have used four types of differently functionalized SPIONs, such as: plain SPIONs (primary size was shown to bê11 nm), silica-coated SPIONs, SPIONs coated with silica and functionalized with positively charged amino groups or negatively charged carboxyl groups (the primary size of all the surface-modified SPIONs was ~20 nm). Small unilamellar vesicles prepared with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine lipids and multilamellar vesicles prepared with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine lipids were encapsulated or incubated with the plain and surface-modified SPIONs to determine the fluidity and phase transition temperature of the bilayer lipids, respectively. Fluorescent anisotropy and differential scanning calorimetric measurements of the liposomes that were either encapsulated or incubated with the suspension of SPIONs did not show a significant difference in the lipid ordering and fluidity; though the encapsulated SPIONs showed a slightly increased effect on the fluidity of the model membranes in comparison with the incubated SPIONs. This indicates the low potential of the SPIONs to interact with the nontargeted cell membranes, which is a desirable factor for in vivo applications. PMID:26491286

  15. The dependence of lipid asymmetry upon phosphatidylcholine acyl chain structure[S

    PubMed Central

    Son, Mijin; London, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    Lipid asymmetry, the difference in inner and outer leaflet lipid composition, is an important feature of biomembranes. By utilizing our recently developed MβCD-catalyzed exchange method, the effect of lipid acyl chain structure upon the ability to form asymmetric membranes was investigated. Using this approach, SM was efficiently introduced into the outer leaflet of vesicles containing various phosphatidylcholines (PC), but whether the resulting vesicles were asymmetric (SM outside/PC inside) depended upon PC acyl chain structure. Vesicles exhibited asymmetry using PC with two monounsaturated chains of >14 carbons; PC with one saturated and one unsaturated chain; and PC with phytanoyl chains. Vesicles were most weakly asymmetric using PC with two 14 carbon monounsaturated chains or with two polyunsaturated chains. To define the origin of this behavior, transverse diffusion (flip-flop) of lipids in vesicles containing various PCs was compared. A correlation between asymmetry and transverse diffusion was observed, with slower transverse diffusion in vesicles containing PCs that supported lipid asymmetry. Thus, asymmetric vesicles can be prepared using a wide range of acyl chain structures, but fast transverse diffusion destroys lipid asymmetry. These properties may constrain acyl chain structure in asymmetric natural membranes to avoid short or overly polyunsaturated acyl chains. PMID:23093551

  16. High throughput lipidomic profiling of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder brain tissue reveals alterations of free fatty acids, phosphatidylcholines, and ceramides.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Emanuel; Prabakaran, Sudhakaran; Whitfield, Phil; Major, Hilary; Leweke, F M; Koethe, Dagmar; McKenna, Peter; Bahn, Sabine

    2008-10-01

    A mass spectrometry based high throughput approach was employed to profile white and gray matter lipid levels in the prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9) of 45 subjects including 15 schizophrenia and 15 bipolar disorder patients as well as 15 controls samples. We found statistically significant alterations in levels of free fatty acids and phosphatidylcholine in gray and white matter of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder samples compared to controls. Also, ceramides were identified to be significantly increased in white matter of both neuropsychiatric disorders as compared to control levels. The patient cohort investigated in this study includes a number of drug naive as well as untreated patients, allowing the assessment of drug effects on lipid levels. Our findings indicate that while gray matter phosphatidylcholine levels were influenced by antipsychotic medication, this was not the case for phosphatidylcholine levels in white matter. Changes in free fatty acids or ceramides in either white or gray matter also did not appear to be influenced by antipsychotic treatment. To assess lipid profiles in the living patient, we also profiled lipids of 40 red blood cell samples, including 7 samples from drug naive first onset patients. We found significant alterations in the concentrations of free fatty acids as well as ceramide. Overall, our findings suggest that lipid abnormalities may be a disease intrinsic feature of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder reflected by significant changes in the central nervous system as well as peripheral tissues.

  17. Cellular and enzymic synthesis of sphingomyelin.

    PubMed

    Voelker, D R; Kennedy, E P

    1982-05-25

    The synthesis of sphingomyelin was studied in baby hamster kidney cells and in subcellular fractions derived from rat liver. During pulse-chase experiments with [3H]choline in tissue culture cells, the specific radioactivity of sphingomyelin continued to increase after the specific activities of phosphocholine and cytidine 5'-diphosphate choline (CDP-choline) had declined by a factor of 10. The addition of [3H]methionine to cells that were grown in 1 mM dimethylethanolamine efficiently radiolabeled phosphatidylcholine (by methylation of phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine) and sphingomyelin but not phosphocholine or CDP-choline. Thus, the proximal donor of the phosphocholine moiety of sphingomyelin was not CDP-choline but probably phosphatidylcholine. These in vivo results prompted investigation of the enzymic synthesis using phosphatidyl[3H]choline or [3H]ceramide as substrates. With both substrates the subcellular fraction with the highest specific enzyme activity was the plasma membrane. When phosphatidyl[3H]choline was used as the substrate, phospholipid exchange proteins were included in the reaction to effect the transfer of the labeled phospholipid from liposomes into the membrane bilayer in which the enzyme resided. Under these conditions the synthesis of sphingomyelin was almost completely dependent upon the addition of phospholipid exchange proteins. When [3H]ceramide was used as the substrate, the addition of detergents was necessary for sphingomyelin synthesis. The use of phospholipid exchange proteins to introduce lipid substrates to membrane-bound enzymes may have much broader applicability.

  18. Design of a novel curcumin-soybean phosphatidylcholine complex-based targeted drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiajiang; Li, Yanxiu; Song, Liang; Pan, Zhou; Ye, Shefang; Hou, Zhenqing

    2017-11-01

    Recently, the global trend in the field of nanomedicine has been toward the design of combination of nature active constituents and phospholipid (PC) to form a therapeutic drug-phospholipid complex. As a particular amphiphilic molecular complex, it can be a unique bridge of traditional dosage-form and novel drug delivery system. In thisarticle, on the basis of drug-phospholipid complex technique and self-assembly technique, we chose a pharmacologically safe and low toxic drug curcumin (CUR) to increase drug-loading ability, achieve controlled/sustained drug release and improve anticancer activity. A novel CUR-soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) complex and CUR-SPC complex self-assembled nanoparticles (CUR-SPC NPs) were prepared by a co-solvent method and a nanoprecipitation method. DSPE-PEG-FA was further functionalized on the surface of PEG-CUR-SPC NPs (designed as FA-PEG-CUR-SPC NPs) to specifically increase cellular uptake and targetability. The FA-PEG-CUR-SPC NPs showed a spherical shape, a mean diameter of about 180 nm, an excellent physiological stability and pH-triggered drug release. The drug entrapment efficiency and drug-loading content was up to 92.5 and 16.3%, respectively. In vitro cellular uptake and cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that FA-PEG-CUR-SPC NPs and CUR-SPC NPs presented significantly stronger cellular uptake efficacy and anticancer activity against HeLa cells and Caco-2 cells compared to free CUR, CUR-SPC NPs and PEG-CUR-SPC NPs. More importantly, FA-PEG-CUR-SPC NPs showed the prolonged systemic circulation lifetime and enhanced tumor accumulation compared with free CUR and PEG-CUR-SPC NPs. These results suggest that the FA targeted PEGylated CUR-SPC complex self-assembled NPs might be a promising candidate in cancer therapy.

  19. Phosphatidylcholine liposomes as carriers to improve topical ascorbic acid treatment of skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Gabriel; Almudéver, Patricia; Serrano, Juan-Manuel; Milara, Javier; Torrens, Ana; Expósito, Inmaculada; Cortijo, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes have been intensively investigated as carriers for different applications in dermatology and cosmetics. Ascorbic acid has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties preventing photodamage of keratinocytes; however, due to its instability and low skin penetration, an appropriate carrier is mandatory to obtain desirable efficacy. The present work investigates the ability of a specific ascorbate phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposome to overcome the barrier of the stratum corneum and deliver the active agent into the dermis to prevent photodamage. Abdominal skin from ten patients was used. Penetration of PC liposomes was tested ex vivo in whole skin, epidermis, and dermis by means of fluorescein and sodium ascorbate. Histology and Franz diffusion cells were used to monitor the percutaneous absorption. Ultraviolet (UV)-high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze diffusion of sodium ascorbate through the different skin layers, while spectrofluorimetry and fluorescent microscopy were used for fluorescein monitoring. UVA/UVB irradiation of whole skin was applied to analyze the antioxidant capacity by Trolox assay and anti-inflammatory effects by tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta enzyme-linked immunoassay. PC liposomal formulation improved skin penetration of fluorescein and ascorbate. Fluorescein PC liposomes showed better diffusion through epidermis than dermis while ascorbate liposomes showed better diffusion through the dermis than the epidermis. Ascorbate PC liposomes showed preventive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties on whole human skin irradiated with UVA/UVB. In summary, ascorbate PC liposomes penetrate through the epidermis and allow nonstable hydrophilic active ingredients reach epidermis and dermis preventing skin photodamage.

  20. Phosphatidylcholine liposomes as carriers to improve topical ascorbic acid treatment of skin disorders

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Gabriel; Almudéver, Patricia; Serrano, Juan-Manuel; Milara, Javier; Torrens, Ana; Expósito, Inmaculada; Cortijo, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes have been intensively investigated as carriers for different applications in dermatology and cosmetics. Ascorbic acid has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties preventing photodamage of keratinocytes; however, due to its instability and low skin penetration, an appropriate carrier is mandatory to obtain desirable efficacy. The present work investigates the ability of a specific ascorbate phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposome to overcome the barrier of the stratum corneum and deliver the active agent into the dermis to prevent photodamage. Abdominal skin from ten patients was used. Penetration of PC liposomes was tested ex vivo in whole skin, epidermis, and dermis by means of fluorescein and sodium ascorbate. Histology and Franz diffusion cells were used to monitor the percutaneous absorption. Ultraviolet (UV)-high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze diffusion of sodium ascorbate through the different skin layers, while spectrofluorimetry and fluorescent microscopy were used for fluorescein monitoring. UVA/UVB irradiation of whole skin was applied to analyze the antioxidant capacity by Trolox assay and anti-inflammatory effects by tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta enzyme-linked immunoassay. PC liposomal formulation improved skin penetration of fluorescein and ascorbate. Fluorescein PC liposomes showed better diffusion through epidermis than dermis while ascorbate liposomes showed better diffusion through the dermis than the epidermis. Ascorbate PC liposomes showed preventive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties on whole human skin irradiated with UVA/UVB. In summary, ascorbate PC liposomes penetrate through the epidermis and allow nonstable hydrophilic active ingredients reach epidermis and dermis preventing skin photodamage. PMID:26719718

  1. Structure and fluctuations of phosphatidylcholines in the vicinity of the main phase transition.

    PubMed

    Pabst, G; Amenitsch, H; Kharakoz, D P; Laggner, P; Rappolt, M

    2004-08-01

    We have determined the structural properties and bending fluctuations of fully hydrated phosphatidylcholine multibilayers in the fluid (Lalpha) phase, as well as the structure of the ripple (Pbeta') phase near the main phase transition temperature (TM) by x-ray diffraction. The number of carbons, nHC, per acyl chain of the studied disaturated lipids varied from 14 to 22. All lipids exhibit a nonlinear increase of the lamellar repeat distance d in the Lalpha phase upon approaching TM, known as "anomalous swelling." The nonlinear increase reduces with chain length, but levels off at a constant value of about 0.5 A for lipids with more than 18 hydrocarbons per chain. A detailed analysis shows that anomalous swelling has two components. One is due to an expansion of the water layer, which decreases with chain length and finally vanishes for nHC >18. The second component is due to a bilayer thickness increase, which remains unchanged in its temperature dependence, including a nonlinear component of about 0.5 A in the vicinity of TM. Thus, anomalous swelling above 18 hydrocarbons per chain is due to the pretransitional effects on the membrane only. These results are supported by a bending fluctuation analysis revealing increased undulations close to TM only for the short chain lipids. We have further calculated the electron density maps in the ripple phase and find no coupling of the magnitude of the ripple amplitude to the chain length effects observed in the Lalpha phase. Hence, in agreement with an earlier report by Mason et al. [Phys. Rev. E 63, 030902 (2001)] there is no connection between the formation of the ripple phase and anomalous swelling.

  2. Mapping the catalytic pocket of phospholipases A2 and C using a novel set of phosphatidylcholines.

    PubMed Central

    Caramelo, J J; Florín-Christensen, J; Florín-Christensen, M; Delfino, J M

    2000-01-01

    A set of radioiodinatable phosphatidylcholines (PCs) derivatized with the Bolton-Hunter reagent (BHPCs) was synthesized to probe the substrate recognition and activity of phospholipases. A common feature of this series is the presence of a bulky 4-hydroxyphenyl group at the end of the fatty acyl chain attached to position sn-2. The distance between the end group and the glycerol backbone was varied by changing the length of the intervening fatty acyl chain (3-25 atoms). Except for the shortest, this chain includes at least one amide linkage. The usefulness of this series of substrates as a molecular ruler was tested by measuring the hydrolytic activities of Naja naja naja phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) and Bacillus cereus phospholipase C (PLC) in Triton X-100 micelles. The activity of PLA(2) proved to be highly dependent on the length of the fatty acyl chain linker, the shorter compounds (3-10 atoms) being very poor substrates. In contrast, the PLC activity profile exhibited much less discrimination. In both cases, PCs with 16-21 atom chains at position sn-2 yielded optimal activity. We interpret these findings in terms of fatty acyl chain length-related steric hindrance caused by the terminal aromatic group, affecting the activity of PLA(2) and, to a smaller extent, that of PLC. This notion agrees with the more extended recognition of aliphatic chains inside the narrow channel leading to the catalytic site in the former case. Molecular models of these substrates bound to PLA(2) were built on the basis of the crystallographic structure of Naja naja atra PLA(2) complexed with a phospholipid analogue. Docking of these substrates necessarily requires the intrusion of the bulky 4-hydroxyphenyl group inside the binding pocket and also the failure of the amide group to form hydrogen bonds inside the hydrophobic substrate channel. PMID:10698694

  3. Advent of Novel Phosphatidylcholine-Associated Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs with Improved Gastrointestinal Safety

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yun Jeong; Dial, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    The mucosa of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract exhibits hydrophobic, nonwettable properties that protect the underlying epithelium from gastric acid and other luminal toxins. These biophysical characteristics appear to be attributable to the presence of an extracellular lining of surfactant-like phospholipids on the luminal aspects of the mucus gel layer. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) represents the most abundant and surface-active form of gastric phospholipids. PC protected experimental rats from a number of ulcerogenic agents and/or conditions including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are chemically associated with PC. Moreover, preassociating a number of the NSAIDs with exogenous PC prevented a decrease in the hydrophobic characteristics of the mucus gel layer and protected rats against the injurious GI side effects of NSAIDs while enhancing and/or maintaining their therapeutic activity. Bile plays an important role in the ability of NSAIDs to induce small intestinal injury. NSAIDs are rapidly absorbed from the GI tract and, in many cases, undergo enterohepatic circulation. Thus, NSAIDs with extensive enterohepatic cycling are more toxic to the GI tract and are capable of attenuating the surface hydrophobic properties of the mucosa of the lower GI tract. Biliary PC plays an essential role in the detoxification of bile salt micelles. NSAIDs that are secreted into the bile injure the intestinal mucosa via their ability to chemically associate with PC, which forms toxic mixed micelles and limits the concentration of biliary PC available to interact with and detoxify bile salts. We have worked to develop a family of PC-associated NSAIDs that appear to have improved GI safety profiles with equivalent or better therapeutic efficacy in both rodent model systems and pilot clinical trials. PMID:23423874

  4. Muscarinic receptor activation of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis. Relationship to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and diacylglycerol metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, E.A.; Goldstein, D.; Brown, J.H. )

    1989-09-05

    We examined the relationship between phosphatidylcholine (PC) hydrolysis, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, and diacylglycerol (DAG) formation in response to muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) stimulation in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. Carbachol increases the release of (3H)choline and (3H)phosphorylcholine ((3H)Pchol) from cells containing (3H)choline-labeled PC. The production of Pchol is rapid and transient, while choline production continues for at least 30 min. mAChR-stimulated release of Pchol is reduced in cells that have been depleted of intracellular Ca2+ stores by ionomycin pretreatment, whereas choline release is unaffected by this pretreatment. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increases the release of choline, but not Pchol, from 1321N1 cells, and down-regulation of protein kinase C blocks the ability of carbachol to stimulate choline production. Taken together, these results suggest that Ca2+ mobilization is involved in mAChR-mediated hydrolysis of PC by a phospholipase C, whereas protein kinase C activation is required for mAChR-stimulated hydrolysis of PC by a phospholipase D. Both carbachol and PMA rapidly increase the formation of (3H)phosphatidic acid ((3H)PA) in cells containing (3H)myristate-labeled PC. (3H)Diacylglycerol ((3H)DAG) levels increase more slowly, suggesting that the predominant pathway for PC hydrolysis is via phospholipase D. When cells are labeled with (3H)myristate and (14C)arachidonate such that there is a much greater 3H/14C ratio in PC compared with the phosphoinositides, the 3H/14C ratio in DAG and PA increases with PMA treatment but decreases in response to carbachol.

  5. Phospholipid Flippase ATP10A Translocates Phosphatidylcholine and Is Involved in Plasma Membrane Dynamics*

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Tomoki; Takatsu, Hiroyuki; Miyano, Rie; Takada, Naoto; Nakayama, Kazuhisa; Shin, Hye-Won

    2015-01-01

    We showed previously that ATP11A and ATP11C have flippase activity toward aminophospholipids (phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)) and ATP8B1 and that ATP8B2 have flippase activity toward phosphatidylcholine (PC) (Takatsu, H., Tanaka, G., Segawa, K., Suzuki, J., Nagata, S., Nakayama, K., and Shin, H. W. (2014) J. Biol. Chem. 289, 33543–33556). Here, we show that the localization of class 5 P4-ATPases to the plasma membrane (ATP10A and ATP10D) and late endosomes (ATP10B) requires an interaction with CDC50A. Moreover, exogenous expression of ATP10A, but not its ATPase-deficient mutant ATP10A(E203Q), dramatically increased PC flipping but not flipping of PS or PE. Depletion of CDC50A caused ATP10A to be retained at the endoplasmic reticulum instead of being delivered to the plasma membrane and abrogated the increased PC flipping activity observed by expression of ATP10A. These results demonstrate that ATP10A is delivered to the plasma membrane via its interaction with CDC50A and, specifically, flips PC at the plasma membrane. Importantly, expression of ATP10A, but not ATP10A(E203Q), dramatically altered the cell shape and decreased cell size. In addition, expression of ATP10A, but not ATP10A(E203Q), delayed cell adhesion and cell spreading onto the extracellular matrix. These results suggest that enhanced PC flipping activity due to exogenous ATP10A expression alters the lipid composition at the plasma membrane, which may in turn cause a delay in cell spreading and a change in cell morphology. PMID:25947375

  6. Cubic Phases in Phosphatidylcholine-Cholesterol Mixtures: Cholesterol as Membrane 'Fusogen'

    SciTech Connect

    Tenchov, Boris G.; MacDonald, Robert C.; Siegel, David P.

    2010-01-18

    X-ray diffraction reveals that mixtures of some unsaturated phosphatidylcholines (PCs) with cholesterol (Chol) readily form inverted bicontinuous cubic phases that are stable under physiological conditions. This effect was studied in most detail for dioleoyl PC/Chol mixtures with molar ratios of 1:1 and 3:7. Facile formation of Im3m and Pn3m phases with lattice constants of 30-50nm and 25-30nm, respectively, took place in phosphate-buffered saline, in sucrose solution, and in water near the temperature of the L{alpha}HII transition of the mixtures, as well as during cooling of the HII phase. Once formed, the cubic phases displayed an ability to supercool and replace the initial L{sub {alpha}} phase over a broad range of physiological temperatures. Conversion into stable cubic phases was also observed for mixtures of Chol with dilinoleoyl PC but not for mixtures with palmitoyl-linoleoyl PC or palmitoyl-oleoyl PC, for which only transient cubic traces were recorded at elevated temperatures. A saturated, branched-chain PC, diphytanoyl PC, also displayed a cubic phase in mixture with Chol. Unlike the PEs, the membrane PCs are intrinsically nonfusogenic lipids: in excess water they only form lamellar phases and not any of the inverted phases on their own. Thus, the finding that Chol induces cubic phases in mixtures with unsaturated PCs may have important implications for its role in fusion. In ternary mixtures, saturated PCs and sphingomyelin are known to separate into liquid-ordered domains along with Chol. Our results thus suggest that unsaturated PCs, which are excluded from these domains, could form fusogenic domains with Chol. Such a dual role of Chol may explain the seemingly paradoxical ability of cell membranes to simultaneously form rigid, low-curvature raft-like patches while still being able to undergo facile membrane fusion.

  7. Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C and sphingomyelinase activities in bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group.

    PubMed

    Pomerantsev, A P; Kalnin, K V; Osorio, M; Leppla, S H

    2003-11-01

    Bacillus anthracis is nonhemolytic, even though it is closely related to the highly hemolytic Bacillus cereus. Hemolysis by B. cereus results largely from the action of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) and sphingomyelinase (SPH), encoded by the plc and sph genes, respectively. In B. cereus, these genes are organized in an operon regulated by the global regulator PlcR. B. anthracis contains a highly similar cereolysin operon, but it is transcriptionally silent because the B. anthracis PlcR is truncated at the C terminus. Here we report the cloning, expression, purification, and enzymatic characterization of PC-PLC and SPH from B. cereus and B. anthracis. We also investigated the effects of expressing PlcR on the expression of plc and sph. In B. cereus, PlcR was found to be a positive regulator of plc but a negative regulator of sph. Replacement of the B. cereus plcR gene by its truncated orthologue from B. anthracis eliminated the activities of both PC-PLC and SPH, whereas introduction into B. anthracis of the B. cereus plcR gene with its own promoter did not activate cereolysin expression. Hemolytic activity was detected in B. anthracis strains containing the B. cereus plcR gene on a multicopy plasmid under control of the strong B. anthracis protective antigen gene promoter or in a strain carrying a multicopy plasmid containing the entire B. cereus plc-sph operon. Slight hemolysis and PC-PLC activation were found when PlcR-producing B. anthracis strains were grown under anaerobic-plus-CO(2) or especially under aerobic-plus-CO(2) conditions. Unmodified parental B. anthracis strains did not demonstrate obvious hemolysis under the same conditions.

  8. Oxidatively fragmented phosphatidylcholines activate human neutrophils through the receptor for platelet-activating factor.

    PubMed

    Smiley, P L; Stremler, K E; Prescott, S M; Zimmerman, G A; McIntyre, T M

    1991-06-15

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF, 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) activates neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes, PMN) through a receptor that specifically recognizes short sn-2 residues. We oxidized synthetic [2-arachidonoyl]phosphatidylcholine to fragment and shorten the sn-2 residue, and then examined the phospholipid products for the ability to stimulate PMN. 1-Palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was fragmented by ozonolysis to 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. This phospholipid activated human neutrophils at submicromolar concentrations, and is effects were inhibited by specific PAF receptor antagonists WEB2086, L659,989, and CV3988. 1-Palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine next was fragmented by an uncontrolled free radical-catalyzed reaction: it was treated with soybean lipoxygenase to form its sn-2 15-hydroperoxy derivative (which did not activate neutrophils) and then allowed to oxidize under air. The secondary oxidation resulted in the formation of numerous fragmented phospholipids (Stremler, K. E., Stafforini, D. M., Prescott, S. M., and McIntyre, T. M. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 11095-11103), some of which activated PMN. Hydrolysis of sn-2 residues with phospholipase A2 destroyed biologic activity, as did hydrolysis with PAF acetylhydrolase. PAF acetylhydrolase is specific for short or intermediate length sn-2 residues and does not hydrolyze the starting material (Stremler, K. E., Stafforini, D. M., Prescott, S. M., and McIntyre, T. M. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 11095-11103). Neutrophil activation was completely blocked by L659,989, a specific PAF receptor antagonist. We conclude that diacylphosphatidylcholines containing an sn-2 polyunsaturated fatty acyl residue can be oxidatively fragmented to species with sn-2 residues short enough to activate the PAF receptor of neutrophils. This suggests a new mechanism for the appearance of biologically active phospholipids, and shows

  9. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with lower hepatic and erythrocyte ratios of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Bianca M; Ma, David W L; Simons, Brigitte; Noureldin, Seham A; Therapondos, George; Guindi, Maha; Sherman, Morris; Allard, Johane P

    2013-03-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with altered hepatic lipid composition. Animal studies suggest that the hepatic ratio of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) contributes to steatogenesis and inflammation. This ratio may be influenced by dysregulation of the PE N-methyltransferase (PEMT) pathway or by a low-choline diet. Alterations in the liver may also influence lipid composition in circulation such as in erythrocytes, which therefore may have utility as a biomarker of hepatic disease. Currently, no study has assessed both liver and erythrocyte PC/PE ratios in NAFLD. The aim of this study was to compare the PC/PE ratio in the liver and erythrocytes of patients with simple steatosis (SS) or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with that of healthy controls. PC and PE were measured by mass spectrometry in 28 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD (14 SS, 14 NASH) and 9 healthy living liver donors as controls. The hepatic PC/PE ratio was lower in SS patients (median [range]) (1.23 [0.27-3.40]) and NASH patients (1.29 [0.77-3.22]) compared with controls (3.14 [2.20-3.73]); both p < 0.001) but it was not different between SS and NASH. PC was lower and PE higher in the liver of SS patients compared with controls, whereas in NASH patients only PE was higher. The PC/PE ratio in erythrocytes was also lower in SS and NASH patients compared with controls because of lower PC in both patient groups. PE in erythrocytes was not different among the groups. In conclusion, NAFLD patients have a lower PC/PE ratio in the liver and erythrocytes than do healthy controls, which may play a role in the pathogenesis. The underlying mechanisms require further investigation.

  10. Differential effect of surfactant and its saturated phosphatidylcholines on human blood macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gille, Christian; Spring, Bärbel; Bernhard, Wolfgang; Gebhard, Caroline; Basile, Denise; Lauber, Kirsten; Poets, Christian F; Orlikowsky, Thorsten W

    2007-02-01

    Blood monocyte-derived macrophages invading the alveolus encounter pulmonary surfactant, a phospholipoprotein complex that changes composition during lung development. We tested the hypothesis that characteristic phosphatidylcholine (PC) components differentially influence macrophage phenotype and function, as determined by phagocytosis of green fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli and alphaCD3-induced T cell proliferation. Human macrophages were exposed to surfactant (Curosurf(R)), to two of its characteristic phosphadidylcholine (PC) components (dipalmitoyl-PC and palmitoylmyristoyl-PC), and to a ubiquituous PC (palmitoyloleoyl-PC) as control. Interaction of Curosurf and PC species with macrophages was assessed using Lissaminetrade mark-dihexadecanoyl-phosphoethanolamine-labeled liposomes. Curosurf and both saturated surfactant PC species downregulated CD14 expression and upregulated CD206. HLA-DR and CD80 were upregulated by Curosurf and palmitoylmyristoyl-PC, whereas dipalmitoyl-PC showed no effect. The latter upregulated TLR2 and TLR4 expression, whereas Curosurf and palmitoylmyristoyl-PC had no effect. PC species tested were incorporated in comparable amounts by macrophages. Curosurf and PC species inhibited phagocytosis of E. coli. Scavenger receptor CD36, CD68, SR-A, and LOX-1 mRNA expression was upregulated by Curosurf, whereas PC species only upregulated SR-A. Curosurf and palmitoylmyristoyl-PC inhibited alphaCD3-induced T cell proliferation by 50%, whereas dipalmitoyl-PC and palmitoyloleoyl-PC showed no effect. These data identify individual surfactant PC species as modifiers of macrophage differentiation and suggest differential effects on innate and adaptive immune functions.

  11. Ceramides modulate protein kinase C activity and perturb the structure of Phosphatidylcholine/Phosphatidylserine bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, H W; Goldberg, E M; Zidovetzki, R

    1999-01-01

    We studied the effects of natural ceramide and a series of ceramide analogs with different acyl chain lengths on the activity of rat brain protein kinase C (PKC) and on the structure of bovine liver phosphatidylcholine (BLPC)/dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine (DPPS) (3:1:1 molar ratio) bilayers using (2)H-NMR and specific enzymatic assays in the absence or presence of 7.5 mol % diolein (DO). Only a slight activation of PKC was observed upon addition of the short-chain ceramide analogs (C(2)-, C(6)-, or C(8)-ceramide); natural ceramide or C(16)-ceramide had no effect. In the presence of 7.5 mol % DO, natural ceramide and C(16)-ceramide analog slightly attenuated DO-enhanced PKC activity. (2)H-NMR results demonstrated that natural ceramide and C(16)-ceramide induced lateral phase separation of gel-like and liquid crystalline domains in the bilayers; however, this type of membrane perturbation has no direct effect on PKC activity. The addition of both short-chain ceramide analogs and DO had a synergistic effect in activating PKC, with maximum activity observed with 20 mol % C(6)-ceramide and 15 mol % DO. Further increases in C(6)-ceramide and/or DO concentrations led to decreased PKC activity. A detailed (2)H-NMR investigation of the combined effects of C(6)-ceramide and DO on lipid bilayer structure showed a synergistic effect of these two reagents to increase membrane tendency to adopt nonbilayer structures, resulting in the actual presence of such structures in samples exceeding 20 mol % ceramide and 15 mol % DO. Thus, the increased tendency to form nonbilayer lipid phases correlates with increased PKC activity, whereas the actual presence of such phases reduced the activity of the enzyme. Moreover, the results show that short-chain ceramide analogs, widely used to study cellular effects of ceramide, have biological effects that are not exhibited by natural ceramide. PMID:10465759

  12. On the characteristics of mixed Langmuir monolayer templates containing dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine for gold nanoparticle formation.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Fang-Wei; Lee, Yuh-Lang; Chang, Chien-Hsiang

    2009-10-01

    Mixed Langmuir monolayers containing dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were applied as two-dimensional templates to incorporate with gold precursor AuCl4- in the subphases. The organic monolayer templates were then transferred onto solid substrates to form ultra-thin films by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) deposition technique. With an UV irradiation approach, gold nanoparticles were thus fabricated in the LB films of monolayer templates. Characteristics of the monolayer templates were studied by the surface pressure-area isotherm measurements and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) observation. The factors affecting the formation of gold nanoparticle structures in the LB films of organic monolayer templates were elucidated by the atomic force microscopy (AFM). The monolayer isotherms and BAM images suggested that by changing the gold precursor concentration in the subphase, one could control the adsorption behavior of the gold precursor onto the monolayer templates. It was found that the association of the gold precursor with a pure DPPC monolayer template resulted in an unstable Langmuir monolayer, which was inappropriate for the following LB deposition. With the presence of n-hexadecanol in a DPPC monolayer, the monolayer template stability and corresponding LB deposition quality could be tremendously improved. Moreover, the distribution of DPPC molecules in the monolayer templates was possible to be regulated by the addition of n-hexadecanol, and the association behavior of the gold precursor with the monolayer templates was thus controlled. The AFM analysis then indicated that the number and size of gold nanoparticles fabricated in the LB films of the mixed DPPC/n-hexadecanol monolayer templates by a photoreduction reaction could be manipulated by the mole fraction of n-hexadecanol and UV irradiation time.

  13. Plasma phosphatidylcholine docosahexaenoic acid content and risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease: the Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Ernst J; Bongard, Vanina; Beiser, Alexa S; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Robins, Sander J; Au, Rhoda; Tucker, Katherine L; Kyle, David J; Wilson, Peter W F; Wolf, Philip A

    2006-11-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an abundant fatty acid in the brain. In the diet, DHA is found mostly in fatty fish. The content of DHA has been shown to be decreased in the brain and plasma of patients with dementia. To determine whether plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) DHA content is associated with the risk of developing dementia. A prospective follow-up study in 899 men and women who were free of dementia at baseline, had a median age of 76.0 years, and were followed up for a mean of 9.1 years for the development of all-cause dementia and Alzheimer disease. Plasma PC fatty acid levels were measured at baseline. Cox proportional regression analysis was used to assess relative risks of all-cause dementia and Alzheimer disease according to baseline plasma levels. Ninety-nine new cases of dementia (including 71 of Alzheimer disease) occurred during the follow-up. After adjustment for age, sex, apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele, plasma homocysteine concentration, and education level, subjects in the upper quartile of baseline plasma PC DHA levels, compared with subjects in the lower 3 quartiles, had a relative risk of 0.53 of developing all-cause dementia (95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.97; P=.04) and 0.61 of developing Alzheimer disease (95% confidence interval, 0.31-1.18; P=.14). Subjects in the upper quartile of plasma PC DHA levels had a mean DHA intake of 0.18 g/d and a mean fish intake of 3.0 servings per week (P<.001) in a subset of 488 participants. We found no other significant associations. The top quartile of plasma PC DHA level was associated with a significant 47% reduction in the risk of developing all-cause dementia in the Framingham Heart Study.

  14. Transfer of arachidonate from phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol in guinea pig alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Nijssen, J.G.; Oosting, R.S.; Nkamp, F.Pv.; van den Bosch, H.

    1986-10-01

    Guinea pig alveolar macrophages were labeled by incubation with either arachidonate or linoleate. Arachidonate labeled phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and triglycerides (TG) equally well, with each lipid containing about 30% of total cellular radioactivity. In comparison to arachidonate, linoleate was recovered significantly less in PE (7%) and more in TG (47%). To investigate whether redistributions of acyl chains among lipid classes took place, the macrophages were incubated with 1-acyl-2-(1-/sup 14/C)arachidonoyl PC or 1-acyl-2-(1-/sup 14/C)linoleoyl PC. After harvesting, the cells incubated with 1-acyl-2-(1-/sup 14/C)linoleoyl PC contained 86% of the recovered cellular radioactivity in PC, with only small amounts of label being transferred to PE and TG (3 and 6%, respectively). More extensive redistributions were observed with arachidonate-labeled PC. In this case, only 60% of cellular radioactivity was still associated with PC, while 22 and 12%, respectively, had been transferred to PE and TG. Arachidonate transfer from PC to PE was unaffected by an excess of free arachidonate which inhibited this transfer to TG for over 90%, indicating that different mechanisms or arachidonoyl CoA pools were involved in the transfer of arachidonate from PC to PE and TG. Cells prelabeled with 1-acyl-2-(1-/sup 14/C)arachidonoyl PC released /sup 14/C-label into the medium upon further incubation. This release was slightly stimulated by zymosan and threefold higher in the presence of the Ca2+-ionophore A23187. Labeling of macrophages with intact phospholipid molecules appears to be a suitable method for studying acyl chain redistribution and release reactions.

  15. Mass Spectrometric Analyses of Phosphatidylcholines in Alkali-Exposed Corneal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Ashley M.; Hua, Hong-Uyen; Coggin, Andrew D.; Gugiu, Bogdan G.; Lam, Byron L.; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The aims were to determine whether exposure to sodium hydroxide results in predictable changes in phosphatidylcholine (PC) in corneal tissue and if PC profile changes correlate to exposure duration. PCs are major components of the cell membrane lipid bilayer and are often involved in biological processes such as signaling. Methods. Enucleated porcine (n = 140) and cadaver human eyes (n = 20) were exposed to water (control) and 11 M NaOH. The corneas were excised and lipids were extracted using the Bligh and Dyer method with suitable modifications. Class-specific lipid identification was carried out using a ratiometric lipid standard on a TSQ Quantum Access Max mass spectrometer. Protein amounts were determined using Bradford assays. Results. Control and alkali-treated corneas showed reproducible PC spectra for both porcine and human corneas. Over 200 PCs were identified for human and porcine control and each experimental time point. Several PC species (m/z values) consequent upon alkali exposure could not be ascribed to a recorded PC species. Control and treated groups showed 41 and 29 common species among them for porcine and human corneas, respectively. The unique PC species peaked at 12 minutes and at 30 minutes for human and porcine corneas followed by a decline consistent with an interplay of alkali penetration and hydrolyses at various time points. Conclusions. Alkali exposure dramatically changes the PC profile of cornea. Our data are consistent with penetration and hydrolysis as stochastic contributors to changes in PCs due to exposure to alkali for a finite duration and amount. PMID:22956606

  16. Nonideal mixing of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine in the fluid lamellar phase.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, J; Swanson, J E; Dibble, A R; Hinderliter, A K; Feigenson, G W

    1993-01-01

    The mixing of phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) in fluid bilayer model membranes was studied by measuring binding of aqueous Ca2+ ions. The measured [Ca2+]aq was used to derive the activity coefficient for PS, gamma PS, in the lipid mixture. For (16:0, 18:1) PS in binary mixtures with either (16:0, 18:1)PC, (14:1, 14:1)PC, or (18:1, 18:1)PC, gamma PS > 1; i.e., mixing is nonideal, with PS and PC clustered rather than randomly distributed, despite the electrostatic repulsion between PS headgroups. To understand better this mixing behavior, Monte Carlo simulations of the PS/PC distributions were performed, using Kawasaki relaxation. The excess energy was divided into an electrostatic term Uel and one adjustable term including all other nonideal energy contributions, delta Em. Uel was calculated using a discrete charge theory. Kirkwood's coupling parameter method was used to calculate the excess free energy of mixing, delta GEmix, hence In gamma PS,calc. The values of In gamma PS,calc were equalized by adjusting delta Em in order to find the simulated PS/PC distribution that corresponded to the experimental results. We were thus able to compare the smeared charge calculation of [Ca2+]surf with a calculation ("masked evaluation method") that recognized clustering of the negatively charged PS: clustering was found to have a modest effect on [Ca2+]surf, relative to the smeared charge model. Even though both PS and PC tend to cluster, the long-range nature of the electrostatic repulsion reduces the extent of PS clustering at low PS mole fraction compared to PC clustering at an equivalent low PC mole fraction. PMID:8457667

  17. Toward Atomistic Resolution Structure of Phosphatidylcholine Headgroup and Glycerol Backbone at Different Ambient Conditions†

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids are essential building blocks of biological membranes. Despite a vast amount of very accurate experimental data, the atomistic resolution structures sampled by the glycerol backbone and choline headgroup in phoshatidylcholine bilayers are not known. Atomistic resolution molecular dynamics simulations have the potential to resolve the structures, and to give an arrestingly intuitive interpretation of the experimental data, but only if the simulations reproduce the data within experimental accuracy. In the present work, we simulated phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid bilayers with 13 different atomistic models, and compared simulations with NMR experiments in terms of the highly structurally sensitive C–H bond vector order parameters. Focusing on the glycerol backbone and choline headgroups, we showed that the order parameter comparison can be used to judge the atomistic resolution structural accuracy of the models. Accurate models, in turn, allow molecular dynamics simulations to be used as an interpretation tool that translates these NMR data into a dynamic three-dimensional representation of biomolecules in biologically relevant conditions. In addition to lipid bilayers in fully hydrated conditions, we reviewed previous experimental data for dehydrated bilayers and cholesterol-containing bilayers, and interpreted them with simulations. Although none of the existing models reached experimental accuracy, by critically comparing them we were able to distill relevant chemical information: (1) increase of choline order parameters indicates the P–N vector tilting more parallel to the membrane, and (2) cholesterol induces only minor changes to the PC (glycerol backbone) structure. This work has been done as a fully open collaboration, using nmrlipids.blogspot.fi as a communication platform; all the scientific contributions were made publicly on this blog. During the open research process, the repository holding our simulation trajectories and files (https

  18. Beneficial effect of phosphatidylcholine supplementation in alleviation of hypomania and insomnia in a Chinese bipolar hypomanic boy and a possible explanation to the effect at the genetic level.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shitao; Lam, Marco H B; Wing, Yun Kwok; Yim, Larina C L; Chu, Winnie C W; Yeung, Venus S Y; Waye, Mary M Y

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicated that supplementation of phosphatidylcholine has been found to be beneficial for psychiatric diseases and Diacylglycerol Kinase, Eta (DGKH) protein was involved in regulating the metabolism of phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol. This study reported a case of a 16-year-old Chinese boy with bipolar hypomania symptoms receiving supplementation of phosphatidylcholine, and a genetic study of a risk variant of DGKH gene was performed in an attempt to provide an explanation for the potential beneficial effect of phosphatidylcholine supplementation. We described a case of a 16-year-old boy with bipolar disorder, who suffered from monthly episodes of insomnia accompanied by hypomania for 5 months despite adherence to medication. After supplementation of phosphatidylcholine, he returned to a normal sleeping pattern and recovered from hypomania symptoms for approximately 14 months. Furthermore, genotyping results showed that this boy carries the risk genotype (G/C) in DGKH variant rs77072822 (adjusted p-value = 0.025 after 2000 permutation tests). The 16-year-old boy appears to have benefited from the supplementation with phosphatidylcholine and recovered from hypomania symptoms. He carries a risk genotype in rs77072822 which lies in the first intron of DGKH gene that was mostly reported to be associated with bipolar disorder. Thus, this finding is consistent with the hypothesis that alleviating the phosphatidylcholine deficiencies might accompany with the risk variants of DGKH gene, which might improve the efficacies of such supplementation and design new treatment strategies for bipolar disorder. This study illustrated that a 16-year-old boy with hypomania symptoms responded well to supplementation of phosphatidylcholine and the boy carries a risk genotype in DGKH gene for bipolar disorder, which provides a possible explanation for the boy's beneficial effect at the genetic level.

  19. Properties of discoidal complexes of human apolipoprotein A-I with phosphatidylcholines containing various fatty acid chains.

    PubMed

    Zorich, N L; Kézdy, K E; Jonas, A

    1987-06-02

    In this study we demonstrate that apolipoprotein A-I determined the common size classes of discoidal particles formed with numerous phosphatidylcholines, and with ether analogs of phosphatidylcholines. We show furthermore, that the nature of the lipids dictates the distribution of particles among the different size classes. These experiments were performed with discoidal complexes containing various phospholipids (phosphatidylcholines with saturated and unsaturated fatty acid chains of different lengths and the ether analog of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine), cholesterol, and human apolipoprotein A-I, prepared by the sodium cholate dialysis method, and fractionated by Bio-Gel A-5m gel-filtration chromatography. The complex preparations were analyzed in terms of their average composition, spectral properties of the apolipoprotein, and the dynamic behavior of the lipid domains. Nondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the size classes of particles present in the complex preparations. Starting with reaction mixtures containing around 100:1, phospholipid/apolipoprotein A-I molar ratios, complexes were isolated with molar ratios from 40:1 to 100:1. In most complexes apolipoprotein A-I had high levels of alpha-helical structure (65-77% alpha-helix), and tryptophan residues in a nonpolar environment. The lipid domains of complexes exhibited the dynamic behavior expected of the main phospholipid components. In the average size range from 90 to 100 A diameters, discrete particle classes with 80, 87, 102, 108, or 112 A Stokes diameters were observed for all the complexes containing different phospholipids. These discrete, recurring particle sizes are attributed to distinct apolipoprotein A-I conformations and variable lipid content.

  20. Change in the positional specificity of lipoxygenase 1 due to insertion of fatty acids into phosphatidylcholine deoxycholate mixed micelles.

    PubMed

    Began, G; Sudharshan, E; Appu Rao, A G

    1999-10-19

    Linoleic and arachidonic acids were inserted into phosphatidylcholine deoxycholate mixed micelles (PDM-micelles) with their tail groups buried inside and carboxylic groups exposed outside. The fatty acid hydrophobic tail had a high affinity for the hydrophobic region of phosphatidylcholine micelles. The fatty acids inserted into phosphatidylcholine micelles were better substrates for soybean lipoxygenase 1 (LOX1) with two distinct pH optima at 7.0 and 10.0. With Tween 20-solubilized linoleic acid, the enzyme had a pH optimum at 9.0, exclusively forming 13-hydroperoxides. However, with linoleic and arachidonic acids inserted into PDM-micelles, LOX1 synthesized exclusively 9- and 5-hydroperoxides, respectively. The enzyme brought about the transformation of the substrate either at pH 7.4 or at 10.0, less efficiently at pH 10.0. However, the regioselectivity of the enzyme was not altered by increasing the pH from 7.4 to 10.0. Thus, LOX1 could utilize fatty acids bound to membranes as physiological substrates. The enzyme utilized the carboxylic group of linoleic and arachidonic acids inserted into the PDM-micelles as a recognition site to convert the compounds into 9- and 5-hydroperoxides, respectively. This was confirmed by activity measurements using methyl linoleate as the substrate. Circular dichroism measurement of LOX1 with PDM-micelles suggested that while there was a small change in the tertiary structure of LOX1, the secondary structure was unaffected. Soybean LOX1, which is arachidonate 15-LOX, acted as "5-LOX", thus making it possible to change the regiospecificity of the LOX1-catalyzed reaction by altering the physical state of the substrate.

  1. Protective effects of a phosphatidylcholine-enriched diet in lipopolysaccharide-induced experimental neuroinflammation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tokés, Tünde; Eros, Gábor; Bebes, Attila; Hartmann, Petra; Várszegi, Szilvia; Varga, Gabriella; Kaszaki, József; Gulya, Károly; Ghyczy, Miklós; Boros, Mihály

    2011-11-01

    Our goal was to characterize the neuroprotective properties of orally administered phosphatidylcholine (PC) in a rodent model of systemic inflammation. Sprague-Dawley rats were killed at 3 h, 1 day, 3 days, or 7 days after i.p. administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to determine the plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 cytokines. The control group and one group of LPS-treated animals were nourished with standard laboratory chow, whereas another LPS-treated group received a special diet enriched with 1% PC for 5 days before the administration of LPS and thereafter during the 7-day observation period. Immunohistochemistry was performed to visualize the bromodeoxyuridine and doublecortin-positive neuroprogenitor cells and Iba1-positive microglia in the hippocampus, whereas the degree of mucosal damage was evaluated on ileal and colon biopsy samples after hematoxylin-eosin staining. The activities of proinflammatory myeloperoxidase and xanthine-oxidoreductase and the tissue nitrite/nitrate (NOx) level were additionally determined, and the cognitive functions were monitored via Morris water maze testing. The inflammatory challenge transiently increased the hippocampal NOx level and led to microglia accumulation and decreased neurogenesis. The intestinal damage, mucosal myeloperoxidase, xanthine-oxidoreductase, and NOx changes were less pronounced, and long-lasting behavioral alterations were not observed. Phosphatidylcholine pretreatment reduced the plasma TNF-α and hippocampal NOx changes and prevented the decreased neurogenesis. These data demonstrated the relative susceptibility of the brain to the consequences of transient peripheral inflammatory stimuli. Phosphatidylcholine supplementation did not reduce the overall extent of peripheral inflammatory activation, but efficiently counteracted the disturbed hippocampal neurogenesis by lowering circulating TNF-α concentrations.

  2. Phospholipase-mediated preparation of 1-ricinoleoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine from soya and egg phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Vijeeta, T; Reddy, J R C; Rao, B V S K; Karuna, M S L; Prasad, R B N

    2004-07-01

    1-Ricinoleoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was prepared by incorporating ricinoleic acid completely in the sn-1 position of egg and soya phosphatidylcholine (PC) using immobilized phospholipase A(1) as the catalyst. The optimum reaction conditions for maximum incorporation of ricinoleic acid into PC through transesterification were 10% (w/w) immobilized enzyme (116 mg), a 1:5 mol ratio of PC (soya, 387 mg; egg, 384 mg) to methyl ricinoleate (780 mg) at 50 degrees C for 24 h in hexane.

  3. Interactions of the amphiphiles arbutin and tryptophan with phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine bilayers in the dry state

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Water is essential for life, but some organisms can survive complete desiccation, while many more survive partial dehydration during drying or freezing. The function of some protective molecules, such as sugars, has been extensively studied, but much less is known about the effects of amphiphiles such as flavonoids and other aromatic compounds. Amphiphiles may be largely soluble under fully hydrated conditions, but will partition into membranes upon removal of water. Little is known about the effects of amphiphiles on membrane stability and how amphiphile structure and function are related. Here, we have used two of the most intensively studied amphiphiles, tryptophan (Trp) and arbutin (Arb), along with their isolated hydrophilic moieties glycine (Gly) and glucose (Glc) to better understand structure-function relationships in amphiphile-membrane interactions in the dry state. Results Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to measure gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition temperatures (Tm) of liposomes formed from phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in the presence of the different additives. In anhydrous samples, both Glc and Arb strongly depressed Tm, independent of lipid composition, while Gly had no measurable effect. Trp, on the other hand, either depressed or increased Tm, depending on lipid composition. We found no evidence for strong interactions of any of the compounds with the lipid carbonyl or choline groups, while all additives except Gly seemed to interact with the phosphate groups. In the case of Arb and Glc, this also had a strong effect on the sugar OH vibrations in the FTIR spectra. In addition, vibrations from the hydrophobic indole and phenol moieties of Trp and Arb, respectively, provided evidence for interactions with the lipid bilayers. Conclusions The two amphiphiles Arb and Trp interact differently with dry bilayers. The interactions of Arb are dominated by contributions of the Glc moiety, while

  4. Effect of soybean phosphatidylcholine on lipid profile of bovine oocytes matured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pitangui-Molina, Caroline P; Vireque, Alessandra A; Tata, Alessandra; Belaz, Katia Roberta A; Santos, Vanessa G; Ferreira, Christina R; Eberlin, Marcos N; Silva-de-Sá, Marcos Felipe; Ferriani, Rui A; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina J S

    2017-04-01

    The phospholipid (PL) composition of embryo and oocyte membranes affects thermal phase behavior and several physicochemical properties such as fluidity and permeability. The characterization of PL profiles and the development of suitable in vitro maturation (IVM) protocols, that are able to modify membrane's composition, may result in significant improvements in oocyte developmental potential and cryotolerance. Using soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) as a model supplement, we evaluated the effect of PL supplementation during IVM on bovine cumulus-oocyte-complex (COC). Substantial changes in the lipid profiles of oocyte membrane were observed and associated with pre-implantation data. The propensity of the PC supplement to become soluble in the maturation medium and/or diffuse into mineral oil was also assessed. Oocytes were matured in TCM without supplementation, i.e. control, (n=922) or supplemented with 50 or 100μM PC (n=994). The maturation media and mineral oil pre- and post- IVM, along with control and PC-treated oocytes were then analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), and the lipid profiles were compared via principal component analysis (PCA). Soybean PCs are bioavailable and stable in IVM medium; further, PCs did not diffuse to the mineral oil, which also remained unaltered by the metabolism of treated oocytes. PC supplementation at 100μM resulted in substantially greater relative abundances of polyunsatured PL, namely PC (32:1), PC (34:2), PC (36:6), PC (36:4), and PC (38:6), in oocyte membrane. These differences indicated that short-term exposure to the PC supplement could indeed modify the lipid composition of IVM-oocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Membrane incorporation of polyunsaturated molecular species of PC was favored, and does so without compromising the viability of the subsequent embryo in regards to cleavage, blastocyst development and hatching rate. The reported approach will allow for the

  5. Effects of alcohols on the phase transition temperatures of mixed-chain phosphatidylcholines.

    PubMed Central

    Li, S; Lin, H N; Wang, G; Huang, C

    1996-01-01

    The biphasic effect of ethanol on the main phase transition temperature (Tm) of identical-chain phosphatidyl-cholines (PCs) in excess H2O is now well known. This biphasic effect can be attributed to the transformation of the lipid bilayer, induced by high concentrations of ethanol, from the partially interdigitated L beta, phase to the fully interdigitated L beta I phase at T < Tm. The basic packing unit of the L beta I phase has been identified recently as a binary mixture of PC/ethanol at the molar ratio of 1:2. The ethanol effect on mixed-chain PCs, however, is not known. We have thus in this study investigated the alcohol effects on the Tm of mixed-chain PCs with different delta C values, where delta C is the effective acyl chain length difference between the sn-1 and sn-2 acyl chains. Initially, molecular mechanics (MM) simulations are employed to calculate the steric energies associated with a homologous series of mixed-chain PCs packed in the partially and the fully interdigitated L beta I motifs. Based on the energetics, the preference of each mixed-chain PC for packing between these two different motifs can be estimated. Guided by MM results, high-resolution differential scanning calorimetry is subsequently employed to determine the Tm values for aqueous lipid dispersions prepared individually from a series of mixed-chain PCs (delta C = 0.5-6.5 C-C bond lengths) in the presence of various concentrations of ethanol. Results indicate that aqueous dispersions prepared from mixed-chain PCs with a delta C value of less than 4 exhibit a biphasic profile in the plot of Tm versus ethanol concentration. In contrast, highly asymmetric PCs (delta C > 4) do not exhibit such biphasic behavior. In the presence of a longer chain n-alcohol, however, aqueous dispersions of highly asymmetric C(12):C(20)PC (delta C = 6.5) do show such biphasic behavior against ethanol. Our results suggest that the delta C region in a highly asymmetric PC packed in the L beta I phase is most

  6. Apparent Role of Phosphatidylcholine in the Metabolism of Petroselinic Acid in Developing Umbelliferae Endosperm.

    PubMed Central

    Cahoon, E. B.; Ohlrogge, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize the metabolism of the unusual fatty acid petroselinic acid (18:1cis[delta]6) in developing endosperm of the Umbelliferae species coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and carrot (Daucus carota L.). Analyses of fatty acid compositions of glycerolipids of these tissues revealed a dissimilar distribution of petroselinic acid in triacylglycerols (TAG) and the major polar lipids phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Petroselinic acid comprised 70 to 75 mol% of the fatty acids of TAG but only 9 to 20 mol% of the fatty acids of PC and PE. Although such data appeared to suggest that petroselinic acid is at least partially excluded from polar lipids, results of [1-14C]acetate radiolabeling experiments gave a much different picture of the metabolism of this fatty acid. In time-course labeling of carrot endosperm, [1-14C]acetate was rapidly incorporated into PC in high levels. Through 30 min, radiolabel was most concentrated in PC, and of this, 80 to 85% was in the form of petroselinic acid. One explanation for the large disparity in amounts of petroselinic acid in PC as determined by fatty acid mass analyses and 14C radiolabeling is that turnover of these lipids or the fatty acids of these lipids results in relatively low accumulation of petroselinic acid mass. Consistent with this, the kinetics of [1-14C]acetate time-course labeling of carrot endosperm and "pulse-chase" labeling of coriander endosperm suggested a possible flux of fatty acids from PC into TAG. In time-course experiments, radiolabel initially entered PC at the highest rates but accumulated in TAG at later time points. Similarly, in pulse-chase studies, losses in absolute amounts of radioactivity from PC were accompanied by significant increases of radiolabel in TAG. In addition, stereospecific analyses of unlabeled and [1-14C]acetate-labeled PC of coriander endosperm indicated that petroselinic acid can be readily incorporated into both the sn-1 and sn

  7. Interaction between amphipathic triblock copolymers and L-α-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine large unilamellar vesicles.

    PubMed

    Palominos, M A; Vilches, D; Bossel, E; Soto-Arriaza, M A

    2016-12-01

    This study contributes to an understanding of how different polymeric structures, in special triblock copolymers can interact with the lipid bilayer. To study the phospholipid-copolymer vesicles system, we report the effect of two amphipathic triblock copolymers of the type BAB, i.e., hydrophobic-hydrophilic-hydrophobic triblock copolymers arranged as poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCLn-PEOm-PCLn), where n=12 and m=45 for COP1 and n=16 and m=104 for COP2, on the dynamic and structural properties of dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs). The interaction between the copolymers and DPPC LUVs was evaluated by means of several techniques: (a) Photographs of the dispersion for evaluation of colloidal stability; (b) Thermotropic behavior from generalized polarization of Laurdan and fluorescence anisotropy of DPH (c) Main phase transition temperature determination; (d) Order parameters and limiting anisotropy by time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements; (e) Water outflow through the lipid bilayer and (f) Calcein release from DPPC LUVs. Steady-state fluorescence measurements as a function of temperature show a typical behavior. Laurdan and DPH are fluorescent probes that sense the interface and the inner part of the bilayer, respectively. Both copolymers increase the Tm value of DPPC LUVs sensed by DPH, i.e., in the inner part of the bilayer. On the contrary, only COP2 had an effect on increasing the Tm value at the interface of the bilayer. At low temperature, in the gel phase, the presence of the copolymers produced a slight decrease in generalized polarization of Laurdan sensed in the interface of the lipid bilayer, but in the liquid-crystalline phase it produced an increase. In contrast, the order parameters obtained from time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy of DPH show an increase in the presence of the copolymers in the gel phase, but a decrease in the liquid-crystalline phase. COP2

  8. Lipid raft components cholesterol and sphingomyelin increase H+/OH− permeability of phosphatidylcholine membranes

    PubMed Central

    Gensure, Rebekah H.; Zeidel, Mark L.; Hill, Warren G.

    2006-01-01

    H+/OH− permeation through lipid bilayers occurs at anomalously high rates and the determinants of proton flux through membranes are poorly understood. Since all life depends on proton gradients, it is important to develop a greater understanding of proton leak phenomena. We have used stopped-flow fluorimetry to probe the influence of two lipid raft components, chol (cholesterol) and SM (sphingomyelin), on H+/OH− and water permeability. Increasing the concentrations of both lipids in POPC (palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine) liposomes decreased water permeability in a concentration-dependent manner, an effect that correlated with increased lipid order. Surprisingly, proton flux was increased by increasing the concentration of chol and SM. The chol effect was complex with molar concentrations of 17.9, 33 and 45.7% giving 2.8-fold (P<0.01), 2.2-fold (P<0.001) and 5.1-fold (P<0.001) increases in H+/OH− permeability from a baseline of 2.4×10−2 cm/s. SM at 10 mole% effected a 2.8-fold increase (P<0.01), whereas 20 and 30 mole% enhanced permeability by 3.6-fold (P<0.05) and 4.1-fold respectively (P<0.05). Supplementing membranes containing chol with SM did not enhance H+/OH− permeability. Of interest was the finding that chol addition to soya-bean lipids decreased H+/OH− permeability, consistent with an earlier report [Ira and Krishnamoorthy (2001) J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1484–1488]. We speculate that the presence of proton carriers in crude lipid extracts might contribute to this result. We conclude that (i) chol and SM specifically and independently increase rates of proton permeation in POPC bilayers, (ii) domains enriched in these lipids or domain interfaces may represent regions with high H+/OH− conductivity, (iii) H+/OH− fluxes are not governed by lipid order and (iv) chol can inhibit or promote H+/OH− permeability depending on the total lipid environment. Theories of proton permeation are discussed in the light of these results. PMID

  9. Increased phosphatidylcholine concentration in saliva reduces surface tension and improves airway patency in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Kawai, M; Kirkness, J P; Yamamura, S; Imaizumi, K; Yoshimine, H; Oi, K; Ayuse, T

    2013-10-01

    Surface tension may have important role for maintaining upper airway patency in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. It has been demonstrated that elevated surface tension increases the pharyngeal pressures required to reopen the upper airway following collapse. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between the concentrations of endogenous surfactants in saliva with indices of upper airway patency in obstructive sleep apnoea. We studied 20 male patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (age: 60·3 ± 10·3 years; BMI: 25·9 ± 4·6 kg m(-2); AHI: 41·5 ± 18·6 events h(-1)). We obtained 100-μL samples of saliva prior to overnight polysomnographic sleep study. The surface tension was determined using the pull-off force technique. The concentration of phosphatidylcholine (PC) was evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Regression analysis between apnoea, hypopnoea and apnoea/hypopnoea indices and the ratio of hypopnoea time/total disordered breathing time (HT/DBT) with surface tension and PC were performed. P < 0·05 was considered significant. The mean saliva surface tension was 48·8 ± 8·0 mN m(-1) and PC concentration was 15·7 ± 11·1 nM. The surface tension was negatively correlated with the PC concentration (r = -0·48, P = 0·03). There was a significant positive correlation between surface tension with hypopnoea index (r = 0·50, P = 0·03) and HT/DBT (r = 0·6, P = 0·006), but not apnoea or apnoea/hypopnoea index (P > 0·11). Similarly, PC concentration negatively correlated with hypopnoea index (r = -0·45, P = 0·04) and HT/DBT (r = -0·6, P = 0·004), but not with apnoea index or AHI (P > 0·08). An increase in salivary PC concentration may increase upper airway patency in obstructive sleep apnoea through a reduction in surface tension.

  10. Phosphocholine-Specific Antibodies Improve T-Dependent Antibody Responses against OVA Encapsulated into Phosphatidylcholine-Containing Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Leal, Yoelys; López-Requena, Alejandro; Lopetegui-González, Isbel; Machado, Yoan; Alvarez, Carlos; Pérez, Rolando; Lanio, María E.

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes containing phosphatidylcholine have been widely used as adjuvants. Recently, we demonstrated that B-1 cells produce dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)-specific IgM upon immunization of BALB/c mice with DPPC-liposomes encapsulating ovalbumin (OVA). Although this preparation enhanced the OVA-specific humoral response, the contribution of anti-DPPC antibodies to this effect was unclear. Here, we demonstrate that these antibodies are secreted by B-1 cells independently of the presence of OVA in the formulation. We also confirm that these antibodies are specific for phosphocholine. The anti-OVA humoral response was partially restored in B-1 cells-deficient BALB/xid mice by immunization with the liposomes opsonized with the serum total immunoglobulin (Ig) fraction containing anti-phosphocholine antibodies, generated in wild-type animals. This result could be related to the increased phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages of the particles opsonized with the serum total Ig or IgM fractions, both containing anti-phosphocholine antibodies. In conclusion, in the present work, it has been demonstrated that phosphocholine-specific antibodies improve T-dependent antibody responses against OVA carried by DPPC-liposomes. PMID:27713745

  11. Tb3+ and Ca2+ binding to phosphatidylcholine. A study comparing data from optical, NMR, and infrared spectroscopies.

    PubMed Central

    Petersheim, M; Halladay, H N; Blodnieks, J

    1989-01-01

    The paramagnetic and luminescent lanthanides are unique probes of cation-phospholipid interactions. Their spectroscopic properties provide the means to characterize and monitor complexes formed with lipids in ways not possible with biochemically more interesting cations, such as Ca2+. In this work, Tb3+-phosphatidylcholine complexes are described using the luminescence properties of Tb3+, the effect of its paramagnetism on the 31P NMR and 13C NMR spectra of the lipid, and changes in the infrared spectrum of the lipid induced by the cation. There are two Tb3+-phosphatidylcholine complexes with very different coordination environments, as evidenced by changes in the optical excitation spectrum of the lanthanide. The NMR experiments indicate that the two complexes differ in the number of phosphate groups directly coordinating Tb3+. Tb3+ binding induces changes in the phosphodiester infrared bands that are most consistent with bidentate chelation of Tb3+ by each phosphate, whereas Ca2+-induced changes are more consistent with monodentate coordination. The significance of this discrepancy is discussed. PMID:2790138

  12. RNAi targeting putative genes in phosphatidylcholine turnover results in significant change in fatty acid composition in Crambe abyssinica seed oil.

    PubMed

    Guan, Rui; Li, Xueyuan; Hofvander, Per; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Wang, Danni; Stymne, Sten; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of three enzymes, LPCAT, PDCT and PDAT, involved in acyl turnover in phosphatidylcholine in order to explore the possibility of further increasing erucic acid (22:1) content in Crambe seed oil. The complete coding sequences of LPCAT1-1 and LPCAT1-2 encoding lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), PDCT1 and PDCT2 encoding phosphatidylcholine:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase (PDCT), and PDAT encoding phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) were cloned from developing Crambe seeds. The alignment of deduced amino acid sequences displayed a high similarity to the Arabidopsis homologs. Transgenic lines expressing RNA interference (RNAi) targeting either single or double genes showed significant changes in the fatty acid composition of seed oil. An increase in oleic acid (18:1) was observed, to varying degrees, in all of the transgenic lines, and a cumulative effect of increased 18:1 was shown in the LPCAT-PDCT double-gene RNAi. However, LPCAT single-gene RNAi led to a decrease in 22:1 accumulation, while PDCT or PDAT single-gene RNAi had no obvious effect on the level of 22:1. In agreement with the abovementioned oil phenotypes, the transcript levels of the target genes in these transgenic lines were generally reduced compared to wild-type levels. In this paper, we discuss the potential to further increase the 22:1 content in Crambe seed oil through downregulation of these genes in combination with fatty acid elongase and desaturases.

  13. Combined Reversed Phase HPLC, Mass Spectrometry, and NMR Spectroscopy for a Fast Separation and Efficient Identification of Phosphatidylcholines

    PubMed Central

    Willmann, Jan; Thiele, Herbert; Leibfritz, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    In respect of the manifold involvement of lipids in biochemical processes, the analysis of intact and underivatised lipids of body fluids as well as cell and tissue extracts is still a challenging task, if detailed molecular information is required. Therefore, the advantage of combined use of high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry (MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy will be shown analyzing three different types of extracts of the ubiquitous membrane component phosphatidylcholine. At first, different reversed phase modifications were tested on phosphatidylcholines (PC) with the same effective carbon number (ECN) for their applicability in lipid analysis. The results were taken to improve the separation of three natural PC extract types and a new reversed phase (RP)-HPLC method was developed. The individual species were characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR and positive or negative ion mode quadrupole time of flight (q-TOF)-MS as well as MS/MS techniques. Furthermore, ion suppression effects during electrospray ionisation (ESI), difficulties, limits, and advantages of the individual analytical techniques are addressed. PMID:20871812

  14. The Phosphatidylcholine Diacylglycerol Cholinephosphotransferase Is Required for Efficient Hydroxy Fatty Acid Accumulation in Transgenic Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhaohui; Ren, Zhonghai; Lu, Chaofu

    2012-01-01

    We previously identified an enzyme, phosphatidylcholine diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase (PDCT), that plays an important role in directing fatty acyl fluxes during triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. The PDCT mediates a symmetrical interconversion between phosphatidylcholine (PC) and diacylglycerol (DAG), thus enriching PC-modified fatty acids in the DAG pool prior to forming TAG. We show here that PDCT is required for the efficient metabolism of engineered hydroxy fatty acids in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. When a fatty acid hydroxylase (FAH12) from castor (Ricinus communis) was expressed in Arabidopsis seeds, the PDCT-deficient mutant accumulated only about half the amount of hydroxy fatty acids compared with that in the wild-type seeds. We also isolated a PDCT from castor encoded by the RcROD1 (Reduced Oleate Desaturation1) gene. Seed-specific coexpression of this enzyme significantly increased hydroxy fatty acid accumulation in wild type-FAH12 and in a previously produced transgenic Arabidopsis line coexpressing a castor diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2. Analyzing the TAG molecular species and regiochemistry, along with analysis of fatty acid composition in TAG and PC during seed development, indicate that PDCT acts in planta to enhance the fluxes of fatty acids through PC and enrich the hydroxy fatty acids in DAG, and thus in TAG. In addition, PDCT partially restores the oil content that is decreased in FAH12-expressing seeds. Our results add a new gene in the genetic toolbox for efficiently engineering unusual fatty acids in transgenic oilseeds. PMID:22371508

  15. Phosphatidylserine biosynthesis in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. III. Genetic evidence for utilization of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine as precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Kuge, O.; Nishijima, M.; Akamatsu, Y.

    1986-05-05

    We reported that Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells contain two different serine-exchange enzymes (I and II) which catalyze the base-exchange reaction of phospholipid(s) with serine and that a phosphatidylserine-requiring mutant (strain PSA-3) of CHO cells is defective in serine-exchange enzyme I and lacks the ability to synthesize phosphatidylserine. In this study, we examined precursor phospholipids for phosphatidylserine biosynthesis in CHO cells. When mutant PSA-3 and parent (CHO-K1) cells were cultured with (/sup 32/P)phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine in the parent accumulated radioactivity while that in the mutant was not labeled significantly. On the contrary, when cultured with (/sup 32/P)phosphatidylethanolamine, the mutant incorporated the label into phosphatidylserine more efficiently than the parent. Furthermore, we found that mutant PSA-3 grew normally in growth medium supplemented with 30 microM phosphatidylethanolamine as well as phosphatidylserine and that the biosynthesis of phosphatidylserine in the mutant was normal when cells were cultured in the presence of exogenous phosphatidylethanolamine. The simplest interpretation of these findings is that phosphatidylserine in CHO cells is biosynthesized through the following sequential reactions: phosphatidylcholine----phosphatidylserine----phosphatidylethanolamine--- - phosphatidylserine. The three reactions are catalyzed by serine-exchange enzyme I, phosphatidylserine decarboxylase, and serine-exchange enzyme II, respectively.

  16. Spectroscopic and calorimetric studies on trazodone hydrochloride-phosphatidylcholine liposome interactions in the presence and absence of cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Yonar, Dilek; Sünnetçioğlu, M Maral

    2014-10-01

    The interaction of antidepressant drug trazodone hydrochloride (TRZ) with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) multilamellar liposomes (MLVs) in the presence and absence of cholesterol (CHO) was investigated as a function of temperature by using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spin labeling, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) techniques. These interactions were also examined for dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) multilamellar liposomes by using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spin labeling technique. In the EPR spin labeling studies, 5- and 16-doxyl stearic acid (5-DS and 16-DS) spin labels were used to monitor the head group and alkyl chain region of phospholipids respectively. The results indicated that TRZ incorporation causes changes in the physical properties of PC liposomes by decreasing the main phase transition temperature, abolishing the pre-transition, broadening the phase transition profile, and disordering the system around the head group region. The interaction of TRZ with unilamellar (LUV) DPPC liposomes was also examined. The most pronounced effect of TRZ on DPPC LUVs was observed as the further decrease of main phase transition temperature in comparison with DPPC MLVs. The mentioned changes in lipid structure and dynamics caused by TRZ may modulate the biophysical activity of membrane associated receptors and in turn the pharmacological action of TRZ.

  17. Phosphatidylcholine and cholesteryl esters identify the infiltrating behaviour of a clear cell renal carcinoma: 1H, 13C and 31P MRS evidence.

    PubMed

    Tugnoli, V; Poerio, A; Tosi, M R

    2004-08-01

    This study presents a multinuclear (1H, 13C and 31P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy characterization of the total lipid fraction extracted from different regions of a human kidney affected by a clear cell renal carcinoma. It was thus possible to demonstrate that cholesteryl esters and phosphatidylcholine are markers of the tumor infiltration, histologically confirmed, in the kidney medulla. The tumor tissue contains twice the amount of phosphatidylcholine compared to normal cortex. The results appear relevant in light of new clinical applications based on the biochemical composition of human tissues.

  18. C Tracer Evidence for Synthesis of Choline and Betaine via Phosphoryl Base Intermediates in Salinized Sugarbeet Leaves.

    PubMed

    Hanson, A D; Rhodes, D

    1983-03-01

    Like other chenopods, sugarbeets (Beta vulgaris L. cv Great Western D-2) accumulate glycine betaine when salinized; this may be an adaptive response to stress. The pathway of betaine synthesis in leaves of salinized (150-200 millimolar NaCl) sugarbeet plants was investigated by supplying [(14)C]formate, phosphoryl[(14)C]monomethylethanolamine ([(14)C][unk] MME) or phosphoryl[(14)C]choline ([(14)C][unk] choline) to leaf discs and following (14)C incorporation into prospective intermediates. The (14)C kinetic data were used to develop a computer model of the betaine pathway.When [(14)C]formate was fed, [unk] MME, phosphoryldimethylethanolamine ([unk] DME) and [unk] choline were the most prominent methylated products at short labeling times, after which (14)C appeared in free choline and in betaine. Phosphatidylcholine labeled more slowly than [unk] choline, choline, and betaine, and behaved as a minor end product. Very little (14)C entered the free methylethanolamines. When [(14)C][unk] MME was supplied, a small amount was hydrolyzed to the free base but the major fate was conversion to [unk] DME, [unk] choline, free choline, and betaine; label also accumulated slowly in phosphatidylcholine. Label from supplied [(14)C][unk] choline entered choline and betaine rapidly, while phosphatidylcholine labeled only slowly and to a small extent.These results are consistent with the pathway [unk] MME -->[unk] DME --> [unk] choline --> choline --> --> betaine, with a minor side branch leading from [unk] choline into phosphatidylcholine. This contrasts markedly (a) with the pathway of stress-induced choline and betaine synthesis in barley, in which phosphatidylcholine apparently acts as an intermediate (Hitz, Rhodes, Hanson 1981, Plant Physiol 68: 814-822); (b) with choline biogenesis in mammalian liver and microorganisms. Computer modeling of the experimental data pointed strongly to regulation at the [unk] choline --> choline step, and also indicated that the rate of [unk

  19. Effects of fatty acid composition and β-carotene on the chlorophyll photosensitized oxidation of W/O emulsion affected by phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoosung; Choe, Eunok

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophyll photosensitized oxidation of W/O emulsion consisting of oils with different fatty acid composition was studied and β-carotene effects on the singlet oxygen oxidation affected by phosphatidylcholine were evaluated by determining peroxide value (PV) and conjugated dienoic acid (CDA) contents. An emulsion was composed of purified oil (sunflower, soybean, canola, or olive oil), water, and xanthan gum (50:50:0.35, w/w/w) with addition of phosphatidylcholine (0 or 250 ppm) and β-carotene (0, 1, 5, or 10 ppm). PV and CDA content of oil in the emulsion were increased with time under chlorophyll photosensitized oxidation, and the oxidation rate was higher in the emulsion consisting of sunflower or soybean oil whose polyunsaturated fatty acids content was high compared to canola or olive oil. Addition of β-carotene to the emulsion significantly decreased the oil oxidation under chlorophyll photosensitization, however, co-addition of phosphatidylcholine decreased the antioxidant activity of β-carotene, suggesting an antagonistic antioxidation between them. The results of this study can be applied to the area of emulsion foods such as salad dressing to have improved texture and stability by decreasing the oil oxidation and providing desirable color by use of β-carotene with phosphatidylcholine as emulsifier. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. [Dynamics of clinical changes and healing of purulent wounds in application of nanocapsules of phosphatidylcholine in complex of treatment of patients, suffering the oral cavity floor phlegmon].

    PubMed

    Avetikov, D S; Kuong, Vu Vyet; Stavytskiy, S O; Lokes, K P; Voloshyna, L I

    2015-03-01

    Substantiation of expediency for nanocapsules of phosphatidylcholine (lipin) application, owing antihypoxant, antioxydant and immunostimulating action in complex of treatment of patients, suffering odontogenic phlegmon of oral cavity floor (OPHOCF), is presented. The preparation application have promoted a trustworthy reduction of exudation of purulent content, as well as more rapid occurrence of granulations and the wound epithelization.

  1. Plasma phosphatidylcholine concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids are differentially associated with hop bone mineral density and hip fracture in older adults: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may influence bone health. Our objective was to examine associations between plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) PUFA concentrations and hip measures: 1) femoral neck bone mineral density (FN-BMD) (n=765); 2) 4-y change in FN-BMD (n=556); and 3) hip fracture risk (n=76...

  2. Effect of phosphatidylcholine on the level expression of plc genes of Aspergillus fumigatus by real time PCR method and investigation of these genes using bioinformatics analysis.

    PubMed

    Dehghan-Noodeh, Ali; Nasir, Abdulshakor; Robson, Geoff David

    2014-04-01

    Phosphlipases are a group of enzymes that breakdown phosphatidylcholine (phospholipids) molecules producing second products. These produced products have a divers role in the cell like signal transduction and digestion in humans. In this research the effect of phosphatidylcholine on the expression of plc genes of A. fumigatus was studied. The plc genes of this fungus were also interrogated using bioinformatics studies. Real-time PCR was performed to study the expression of plc genes and these genes were interrogated using bioinformatics studies. There was more significant expression for all three plc genes when A. fumigatus was grown on the presence of phosphatidylcholine in the medium. The sequence of plc genes of A. fumigatus was also interrogated using bioinformatics analysis and their relationship with the other microorganisms was investigated. Real-time PCR revealed that afplc1, afplc2 and afplc3 were up-regulated in the presence of phosphatidylcholine. In this study we suggest either the plc's of A. fumigatus were present in an ancestral genome and have become lost in some lineages, or that they have been acquired from other organisms by horizontal gene transfer. We also found that plc's of this fungus appeared to be more closely related to the plant plc's than the bacterial plc's.

  3. Ion channel behavior of amphotericin B in sterol-free and cholesterol- or ergosterol-containing supported phosphatidylcholine bilayer model membranes investigated by electrochemistry and spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weimin; Zhang, Zheling; Han, Xiaojun; Tang, Jilin; Wang, Jianguo; Dong, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang

    2002-01-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) is a popular drug frequently applied in the treatment of systemic fungal infections. In the presence of ruthenium (II) as the maker ion, the behavior of AmB to form ion channels in sterol-free and cholesterol- or ergosterol-containing supported phosphatidylcholine bilayer model membranes were studied by cyclic votammetry, AC impedance spectroscopy, and UV/visible absorbance spectroscopy. Different concentrations of AmB ranging from a molecularly dispersed to a highly aggregated state of the drug were investigated. In a fixed cholesterol or ergosterol content (5 mol %) in glassy carbon electrode-supported model membranes, our results showed that no matter what form of AmB, monomeric or aggregated, AmB could form ion channels in supported ergosterol-containing phosphatidylcholine bilayer model membranes. However, AmB could not form ion channels in its monomeric form in sterol-free and cholesterol-containing supported model membranes. On the one hand, when AmB is present as an aggregated state, it can form ion channels in cholesterol-containing supported model membranes; on the other hand, only when AmB is present as a relatively highly aggregated state can it form ion channels in sterol-free supported phosphatidylcholine bilayer model membranes. The results showed that the state of AmB played an important role in forming ion channels in sterol-free and cholesterol-containing supported phosphatidylcholine bilayer model membranes. PMID:12496093

  4. Glycerosomes: Use of hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine mixture and its effect on vesicle features and diclofenac skin penetration.

    PubMed

    Manca, Maria Letizia; Cencetti, Claudia; Matricardi, Pietro; Castangia, Ines; Zaru, Marco; Sales, Octavio Diez; Nacher, Amparo; Valenti, Donatella; Maccioni, Anna Maria; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria

    2016-09-10

    In this work, diclofenac was encapsulated, as sodium salt, in glycerosomes containing 10, 20 or 30% of glycerol in the water phase with the aim to ameliorate its topical efficacy. Taking into account previous findings, glycerosome formulation was modified, in terms of economic suitability, using a cheap and commercially available mixture of hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (P90H). P90H glycerosomes were spherical and multilamellar; photon correlation spectroscopy showed that obtained vesicles were ∼131nm, slightly larger and more polydispersed than those made with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) but, surprisingly, they were able to ameliorate the local delivery of diclofenac, which was improved with respect to previous findings, in particular using glycerosomes containing high amount of glycerol (20 and 30%). Finally, this drug delivery system showed a high in vitro biocompatibility toward human keratinocytes.

  5. Study of relaxation process of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine monolayers at air-water interface: effect of electrostatic energy.

    PubMed

    Ou-Yang, Wei; Weis, Martin; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2011-04-21

    The instability of organic monolayer composed of polar molecules at the air-water interface has been a spotlight in interface science for many decades. However, the effect of electrostatic energy contribution to the free energy in the system is still not understood. Herein, we investigate the mechanical and electrical properties by studying the isobaric relaxation process of a dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine monolayer on water subphase with various concentrations of divalent ions to reveal the effect of electrostatic energy on thermodynamics and kinetics of the collapse mechanism. Our results demonstrate that electrical energy among the dipolar molecules plays an important role in the stability of monolayer and enhances the formation of micelles into subphase under high pressure. In addition, to confirm the electrostatic energy contribution, the well-known thermal effect on the stability of the film is compared. Hence, the general description of the monolayer free energy with contribution of electrostatic energy is suggested to describe the phase transition.

  6. Fluorescence lifetime distributions of parinaroyl phospholipids in choline plasmalogen and phosphatidylcholine bilayers containing different amounts of cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Loidl, J; Paltauf, F; Hermetter, A

    1990-11-01

    The fluorescence decay of alkenylparinaroyl- and palmitoylparinaroyl glycerophosphocholines in vesicles of the unlabeled alkenyloleoyl and palmitoyloleoyl analogs was determined by multifrequency phase and modulation fluorometry. The measured phase angles and demodulations could be equally well fitted to a biexponential decay, as well as unimodal or bimodal continuous lifetime distributions. The latter model was applied to study the influence of cholesterol on parinaroyl phospholipid fluorescence in vesicles. The long-living component of a bimodal lifetime distribution was sensitive toward the presence of the sterol. Upon increasing cholesterol concentrations, its lifetime center increased and its distribution widths decreased. Lifetime distribution widths in vesicles of alkenyloleoyl- or palmitoyloleoyl-glycerophosphocholine (choline plasmalogen and phosphatidylcholine, respectively) were reduced by the sterol to the same extent. We interprete the sterol-induced lifetime distribution narrowing as an effect due to an increase of membrane homogeneity in cholesterol-phospholipid membranes.

  7. First order melting transitions of highly ordered dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine gel phase membranes in molecular dynamics simulations with atomistic detail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Thomas; Schneck, Emanuel; Tanaka, Motomu

    2011-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations with atomistic detail of the gel phase and melting transitions of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayers in water reveal the dependency of many thermodynamic and structural parameters on the initial system ordering. We quantitatively compare different methods to create a gel phase system and we observe that a very high ordering of the gel phase starting system is necessary to observe behavior which reproduces experimental data. We performed heating scans with speeds down to 0.5 K/ns and could observe sharp first order phase transitions. Also, we investigated the transition enthalpy as the natural intrinsic parameter of first order phase transitions, and obtained a quantitative match with experimental values. Furthermore, we performed systematic investigations of the statistical distribution and heating rate dependency of the microscopic phase transition temperature.

  8. Interaction of polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB) with phosphatidylcholine containing o/w emulsion and consequences for microbicidal efficacy and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Müller, Gerald; Koburger, Torsten; Kramer, Axel

    2013-01-25

    Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions containing egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EPC) were combined with aqueous polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB). The PHMB concentration in the aqueous phase was estimated by filtration centrifugation experiments. In parallel, PHMB concentration was assessed utilizing cytotoxicity assays (neutral red) on cultured murine fibroblasts (L929 cells) and tests of bactericidal efficacy on either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus. Biological tests were performed in cell culture medium. Filtration centrifugation experiments demonstrated much higher aqueous PHMB concentrations than did the assays for biologically effective PHMB. Therefore, biological test systems should preferably be used to verify effective PHMB concentrations. Tests of microbicidal efficacy in which the same 0.05% PHMB o/w emulsion was re-used 8 times revealed a drug delivery system activated by the presence of test bacteria.

  9. First order melting transitions of highly ordered dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine gel phase membranes in molecular dynamics simulations with atomistic detail.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Thomas; Schneck, Emanuel; Tanaka, Motomu

    2011-08-07

    Molecular dynamics simulations with atomistic detail of the gel phase and melting transitions of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayers in water reveal the dependency of many thermodynamic and structural parameters on the initial system ordering. We quantitatively compare different methods to create a gel phase system and we observe that a very high ordering of the gel phase starting system is necessary to observe behavior which reproduces experimental data. We performed heating scans with speeds down to 0.5 K/ns and could observe sharp first order phase transitions. Also, we investigated the transition enthalpy as the natural intrinsic parameter of first order phase transitions, and obtained a quantitative match with experimental values. Furthermore, we performed systematic investigations of the statistical distribution and heating rate dependency of the microscopic phase transition temperature.

  10. PIEZO1 gene mutation in a Japanese family with hereditary high phosphatidylcholine hemolytic anemia and hemochromatosis-induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Imashuku, Shinsaku; Muramatsu, Hideki; Sugihara, Takashi; Okuno, Yusuke; Wang, Xinan; Yoshida, Kenichi; Kato, Ayako; Kato, Koichi; Tatsumi, Yasuaki; Hattori, Ai; Kita, Shinya; Oe, Keishi; Sueyoshi, Atsushi; Usui, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Ogawa, Seishi; Kojima, Seiji; Kanno, Hitoshi

    2016-07-01

    Hereditary xerocytosis (HX) or dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (DHS) [OMIM 194380], in which PIEZO1 gene mutation has recently been identified, is difficult to diagnose. We report here the discovery of a PIEZO1 gene mutation in a Japanese family (father, daughter, and son) who were previously diagnosed with hereditary high phosphatidylcholine hemolytic anemia (HPCHA). All of the affected family members had non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia associated with severe hemochromatosis-related diabetes mellitus. Although the causative correlation between HPCHA and PIEZO1-gene mutated HX/DHS remains to be clarified, our findings raise an important question as to whether any of the HPCHA cases previously diagnosed in Japan may have in fact been the form of hemolytic anemia known as HX/DHS with PIEZO1 gene mutation.

  11. Cytochrome c induces lipid demixing in weakly charged phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylglycerol model membranes as evidenced by resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, Galyna P; Trusova, Valeriya M; Molotkovsky, Julian G; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2009-06-01

    Resonance energy transfer (RET) between anthrylvinyl-labeled phosphatidylcholine (AV-PC) or phosphatidylglycerol (AV-PG) as donors and the heme groups of cytochrome c (cyt c) as acceptors was examined in PC/PG model membranes containing 10, 20 or 40 mol% PG with an emphasis on evaluating lipid demixing caused by this protein. The differences between AV-PC and AV-PG RET profiles observed at PG content 10 mol% were attributed to cyt c ability to produce segregation of acidic lipids into lateral domains. The radius of lipid domains recovered using Monte-Carlo simulation approach was found not to exceed 4 nm pointing to the local character of cyt c-induced lipid demixing. Increase of the membrane PG content to 20 or 40 mol% resulted in domain dissipation as evidenced by the absence of any RET enhancement while recruiting AV-PG instead of AV-PC.

  12. Phosphatidylcholine is transferred from chemically-defined liposomes to chloroplasts through proteins of the chloroplast outer envelope membrane.

    PubMed

    Yin, Congfei; Andersson, Mats X; Zhang, Hongsheng; Aronsson, Henrik

    2015-01-02

    Chloroplasts maintain their lipid balance through a tight interplay with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts contains a large proportion of the phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC), which is synthesized in the ER and also a possible precursor for thylakoid galactolipids. The mechanism for PC transport from the ER to chloroplasts is not known. Using isolated chloroplasts and liposomes containing radiolabeled PC we investigated non-vesicular transport of PC in vitro. PC uptake in chloroplasts was time and temperature dependent, but nucleotide independent. Increased radius of liposomes stimulated PC uptake, and protease treatment of the chloroplasts impaired PC uptake. This implies that the chloroplast outer envelopes contains an exposed proteinaceous machinery for the uptake of PC from closely apposed membranes. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Properties of mixtures of cholesterol with phosphatidylcholine or with phosphatidylserine studied by (13)C magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Epand, Richard M; Bain, Alex D; Sayer, Brian G; Bach, Diana; Wachtel, Ellen

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of cholesterol is different in mixtures with phosphatidylcholine as compared with phosphatidylserine. In (13)C cross polarization/magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, resonance peaks of the vinylic carbons of cholesterol are a doublet in samples containing 0.3 or 0.5 mol fraction cholesterol with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylserine (POPS) or in cholesterol monohydrate crystals, but a singlet with mixtures of cholesterol and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC). At these molar fractions of cholesterol with POPS, resonances of the C-18 of cholesterol appear at the same chemical shifts as in pure cholesterol monohydrate crystals. These resonances do not appear in samples of POPS with 0.2 mol fraction cholesterol or with POPC up to 0.5 mol fraction cholesterol. In addition, there is another resonance from the cholesterol C18 that appears in all of the mixtures of phospholipid and cholesterol but not in pure cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Using direct polarization, the fraction of cholesterol present as crystallites in POPS with 0.5 mol fraction cholesterol is found to be 80%, whereas with the same mol fraction of cholesterol and POPC none of the cholesterol is crystalline. After many hours of incubation, cholesterol monohydrate crystals in POPS undergo a change that results in an increase in the intensity of certain resonances of cholesterol monohydrate in (13)C cross polarization/magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, indicating a rigidification of the C and D rings of cholesterol but not other regions of the molecule. PMID:12324423

  14. Increased phospholipase A2 and lyso-phosphatidylcholine levels are associated with surfactant dysfunction in lung contusion injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Machado-Aranda, David; Wang, Zhengdong; Yu, Bi; Suresh, M V; Notter, Robert H; Raghavendran, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    Surfactant dysfunction is an important pathologic disturbance in various forms of acute inflammatory lung injury. Previously we reported the presence of marked alterations in the composition and activity of pulmonary surfactant in bilateral lung contusions (LC) injury induced by blunt trauma in rats. This is extended here to a mouse model of unilateral LC with a focus on compositional and functional changes in surfactant associated with permeability injury and increases in activity of secretory phospholipase A2. Surfactant-associated gene expression was not altered in mice with unilateral LC injury on the basis of Affymetrix analysis. LC mice had significant permeability injury with increased albumin and total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage at 5, 24, 48, and 72 hours after insult compared with uninjured controls. The percent content of large surfactant aggregates was depleted at all postinjury times, and pulmonary pressure-volume (P-V) mechanics and compliance were abnormal during this period. Surfactant dysfunction was evaluated in 24 hours, when permeability injury and P-V changes were most prominent. At this time, activity levels of secretory phospholipase A2 were increased in bronchoalveolar lavage, and chromatographic analysis showed that large surfactant aggregates had decreased levels of phosphatidylcholine and increased levels of lyso-phosphatidylcholine. These changes were accompanied by severe detriments in large aggregate surface activity by pulsating bubble surfactometry. Large aggregates from LC mice at 24 hours had minimum surface tensions of only 12.6 ± 1.1 mN/m after prolonged bubble pulsation (20 min) compared with 0.7 ± 0.03 mN/m for uninjured controls. These results document important detriments in the composition and activity of pulmonary surfactant in LC injury in mice and suggest that active synthetic phospholipase-resistant exogenous surfactants may have utility in treating surfactant dysfunction in this clinically important condition

  15. Insights about α-tocopherol and Trolox interaction with phosphatidylcholine monolayers under peroxidation conditions through Brewster angle microscopy.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carla M; Pinheiro, Marina; Lúcio, Marlene; Giner-Casares, Juan J; Camacho, Luis; Lima, José L F C; Reis, Salette; Segundo, Marcela A

    2013-11-01

    Membranes are major targets to oxidative damage, particularly due to lipid oxidation, which has been associated to aging. The role, efficacy and membrane interaction of antioxidants is still unclear, requiring further understanding of molecular interaction. Hence, the objective of this work was to evaluate the interaction between antioxidants (α-tocopherol and its aqueous soluble analog Trolox) and the monolayer formed by phosphatidylcholine molecules at air/liquid interface upon peroxidation conditions, promoted by peroxyl radicals from thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) (AAPH). The interaction with three different monolayers, containing (i) 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), (ii) DDPC+α-linolenic acid, or (iii) egg yolk l-α-phosphatidylcholine (EPC), was ascertain by surface pressure (π)-molecular area (A) isotherms and by monitoring monolayer features through Brewster angle microscopy (BAM). The interaction of antioxidants with DPPC monolayers was confirmed by modifications on DPPC domain shape for α-tocopherol and through the maintenance of typical multilobed domain shape during an extended surface pressure interval for Trolox. Under peroxidation conditions, BAM images showed a clear interaction between components of AAPH subphase with the monolayer through changes on DPPC domain shape and appearance of white dots, located mainly at the frontier between the condensed and expanded liquid phases. White branched structures were also observed whenever both α-linolenic acid and α-tocopherol were present, indicating the segregation of these components within the monolayer, which is highly significant in biological systems. For EPC monolayers, no information from BAM was obtained but π-A isotherms confirmed the existence of the same interactions observed within the other two monolayers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Blood Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Originates from Microbiota Mediated Breakdown of Phosphatidylcholine and Absorption from Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Stremmel, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Kathrin V.; Schuhmann, Vera; Kratzer, Frank; Garbade, Sven F.; Langhans, Claus-Dieter; Fricker, Gert; Okun, Jürgen G.

    2017-01-01

    Elevated serum trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) was previously reported to be associated with an elevated risk for cardiovascular events. TMAO originates from the microbiota-dependent breakdown of food-derived phosphatidylcholine (PC) to trimethylamine (TMA), which is oxidized by hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenases to TMAO. Our aim was to investigate the predominant site of absorption of the bacterial PC-breakdown product TMA. A healthy human proband was exposed to 6.9 g native phosphatidylcholine, either without concomitant treatment or during application with the topical antibiotic rifaximin, or exposed only to 6.9 g of a delayed-release PC formulation. Plasma and urine concentrations of TMA and TMAO were determined by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (plasma) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (urine). Native PC administration without concomitant treatment resulted in peak plasma TMAO levels of 43 ± 8 μM at 12 h post-ingestion, which was reduced by concomitant rifaximin treatment to 22 ± 8 μM (p < 0.05). TMAO levels observed after delayed-release PC administration were 20 ± 3 μM (p < 0.001). Accordingly, the peak urinary concentration at 24 h post-exposure dropped from 252 ± 33 to 185 ± 31 mmol/mmol creatinine after rifaximin treatment. In contrast, delayed-release PC resulted in even more suppressed urinary TMAO levels after the initial 12-h observation period (143 ± 18 mmol/mmol creatinine) and thereafter remained within the control range (24 h: 97 ± 9 mmol/mmol creatinine, p < 0.001 24 h vs. 12 h), indicating a lack of substrate absorption in distal intestine and large bowel. Our results showed that the microbiota in the small intestine generated the PC breakdown product TMA. The resulting TMAO, as a cardiovascular risk factor, was suppressed by topical-acting antibiotics or when PC was presented in an intestinally delayed release preparation. PMID:28129384

  17. Methylmercury-induced toxicity is mediated by enhanced intracellular calcium through activation of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Mi Sun; Jeong, Ju Yeon; Seo, Ji Heui; Jeon, Hyung Jun; Jung, Kwang Mook; Chin, Mi-Reyoung; Moon, Chang-Kiu; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Jung, Sung Yun; Kim, Dae Kyong . E-mail: proteinlab@hanmail.net

    2006-10-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant to which humans can be exposed by ingestion of contaminated food. MeHg has been suggested to exert its toxicity through its high reactivity to thiols, generation of arachidonic acid and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and elevation of free intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}). However, the precise mechanism has not been fully defined. Here we show that phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is a critical pathway for MeHg-induced toxicity in MDCK cells. D609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC, significantly reversed the toxicity in a time- and dose-dependent manner with concomitant inhibition of the diacylglycerol (DAG) generation and the phosphatidylcholine (PC)-breakdown. MeHg activated the group IV cytosolic phospholipase A{sub 2} (cPLA{sub 2}) and acidic form of sphingomyelinase (A-SMase) downstream of PC-PLC, but these enzymes as well as protein kinase C (PKC) were not linked to the toxicity by MeHg. Furthermore, MeHg produced ROS, which did not affect the toxicity. Addition of EGTA to culture media resulted in partial decrease of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and partially blocked the toxicity. In contrast, when the cells were treated with MeHg in the presence of Ca{sup 2+} in the culture media, D609 completely prevented cell death with parallel decrease in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. Our results demonstrated that MeHg-induced toxicity was linked to elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} through activation of PC-PLC, but not attributable to the signaling pathways such as cPLA{sub 2}, A-SMase, and PKC, or to the generation of ROS.

  18. Resistance of lung fatty acid synthesis to inhibition by dietary fat in the meal-fed rat.

    PubMed

    Clarke, S D; Wilson, M D; Ibnoughazala, T

    1984-03-01

    One-half of the palmitate utilized by the lung for production of the surfactant phospholipid, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, originates from de novo palmitate synthesis in the lung. In this report the lung was examined for the influence of dietary fat on the lung de novo fatty acid synthesis pathway. Lung lipogenesis was reduced by fasting and accelerated by carbohydrate refeeding or insulin injection. However, in general lung fatty acid synthesis was unaffected by dietary fat. Supplementing one meal (high glucose diet) with as much as 36% additional fat kilocalories did not suppress lung fatty acid synthesis. An inhibition of fatty acid synthesis resulted from a fat supplement of +60 and +120% of meal kilocalories, but this inhibition was likely due to an attenuated rate of glucose absorption. Ingestion of a high carbohydrate diet supplemented with 10, 17, or 30% added kilocalories as safflower oil or palmitate had no effect on lipogenesis after 10 days. On the other hand, liver fatty acid synthesis and acetyl-CoA carboxylase were selectively suppressed by safflower oil, whereas dietary palmitate was ineffective as an inhibitor of lipogenesis. These data clearly demonstrate that the well-characterized preferential suppression of liver lipogenesis by dietary polyunsaturated fats does not extend to lung tissue, and, more importantly, the inhibition of liver lipogenesis is not secondary to an essential fatty acid deficiency. The marked resistance of lung fatty acid synthesis to inhibition by dietary fat might be a biological protective mechanism to ensure adequate palmitate for dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine synthesis.

  19. Plasmenylethanolamine synthesis in Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Pawlowic, Mattie C; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Moitra, Samrat; Biyani, Neha; Zhang, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Ethanolamine glycerophospholipids are ubiquitous cell membrane components. Trypanosomatid parasites of the genus Leishmania synthesize the majority of their ethanolamine glycerophospholipids as 1-O-alk-1'-enyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine or plasmenylethanolamine (PME) through the Kennedy pathway. PME is a subtype of ether phospholipids also known as ethanolamine plasmalogen whose functions are not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of PME synthesis in Leishmania major through the characterization of an ethanolamine phosphotransferase (EPT) mutant. EPT-null parasites are largely devoid of PME and fully viable in regular medium but fail to proliferate in the absence of fetal bovine serum. They exhibit significant abnormalities in the synthesis and localization of GPI-anchored surface molecules. EPT-null mutants also show attenuated virulence in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, in addition to PME synthesis, ethanolamine also contributes to the production of phosphatidylcholine, the most abundant class of lipids in Leishmania. Together, these findings suggest that ethanolamine production is likely required for Leishmania promastigotes to generate bulk phospholipids, to handle stress, and to control the expression of membrane bound virulence factors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effect of exogenous surfactant on the development of surfactant synthesis in premature rabbit lung.

    PubMed

    Amato, Maurizio; Petit, Kevin; Fiore, Humberto H; Doyle, Cynthia A; Frantz, Ivan D; Nielsen, Heber C

    2003-04-01

    Surfactant replacement is an effective therapy for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Full recovery from respiratory distress syndrome requires development of endogenous surfactant synthesis and metabolism. The influence of exogenous surfactant on the development of surfactant synthesis in premature lungs is not known. We hypothesized that different exogenous surfactants have different effects on the development of endogenous surfactant production in the premature lung. We treated organ cultures of d 25 fetal rabbit lung for 3 d with 100 mg/kg body weight of natural rabbit surfactant, Survanta, and Exosurf and measured their effects on the development of surfactant synthesis. Additional experiments tested how these surfactants and Curosurf affected surfactant protein (SP) SP-A, SP-B, and SP-C mRNA expression. Surfactant synthesis was measured as the incorporation of 3H-choline and 14C-glycerol into disaturated phosphatidylcholine recovered from lamellar bodies. Randomized-block ANOVA showed significant differences among treatments for incorporation of both labels (p < 0.01), with natural rabbit surfactant less than control, Survanta greater than control, and Exosurf unchanged. Additional experiments with natural rabbit surfactant alone showed no significant effects in doses up to 1000 mg/kg. Survanta stimulated disaturated phosphatidylcholine synthesis (173 +/- 41% of control; p = 0.01), increased total lamellar body disaturated phosphatidylcholine by 22% (p < 0.05), and increased 14C-disat-PC specific activity by 35% (p < 0.05). The response to Survanta was dose-dependent up to 1000 mg/kg. Survanta did not affect surfactant release. No surfactant altered the expression of mRNA for SP-A, SP-B, or SP-C. We conclude that surfactant replacement therapy can enhance the maturation of surfactant synthesis, but this potential benefit differs with different surfactant preparations.

  1. Synthesis and biophysical characterization of chlorambucil anticancer ether lipid prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Palle J; Christensen, Mikkel S; Ruysschaert, Tristan; Linderoth, Lars; Andresen, Thomas L; Melander, Fredrik; Mouritsen, Ole G; Madsen, Robert; Clausen, Mads H

    2009-05-28

    The synthesis and biophysical characterization of four prodrug ether phospholipid conjugates are described. The lipids are prepared from the anticancer drug chlorambucil and have C16 and C18 ether chains with phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylglycerol headgroups. All four prodrugs have the ability to form unilamellar liposomes (86-125 nm) and are hydrolyzed by phospholipase A(2), resulting in chlorambucil release. Liposomal formulations of prodrug lipids displayed cytotoxicity toward HT-29, MT-3, and ES-2 cancer cell lines in the presence of phospholipase A(2), with IC(50) values in the 8-36 microM range.

  2. Transcription Factor RUNX1 Regulates Platelet PCTP (Phosphatidylcholine Transfer Protein): Implications for Cardiovascular Events: Differential Effects of RUNX1 Variants.

    PubMed

    Mao, Guangfen; Songdej, Natthapol; Voora, Deepak; Goldfinger, Lawrence E; Del Carpio-Cano, Fabiola E; Myers, Rachel A; Rao, A Koneti

    2017-09-05

    PCTP (phosphatidylcholine transfer protein) regulates the intermembrane transfer of phosphatidylcholine. Higher platelet PCTP expression is associated with increased platelet responses on activation of protease-activated receptor 4 thrombin receptors noted in black subjects compared with white subjects. Little is known about the regulation of platelet PCTP. Haplodeficiency of RUNX1, a major hematopoietic transcription factor, is associated with thrombocytopenia and impaired platelet responses on activation. Platelet expression profiling of a patient with a RUNX1 loss-of-function mutation revealed a 10-fold downregulation of the PCTP gene compared with healthy controls. We pursued the hypothesis that PCTP is regulated by RUNX1 and that PCTP expression is correlated with cardiovascular events. We studied RUNX1 binding to the PCTP promoter using DNA-protein binding studies and human erythroleukemia cells and promoter activity using luciferase reporter studies. We assessed the relationship between RUNX1 and PCTP in peripheral blood RNA and PCTP and death or myocardial infarction in 2 separate patient cohorts (587 total patients) with cardiovascular disease. Platelet PCTP protein in the patient was reduced by ≈50%. DNA-protein binding studies showed RUNX1 binding to consensus sites in ≈1 kB of PCTP promoter. PCTP expression was increased with RUNX1 overexpression and reduced with RUNX1 knockdown in human erythroleukemia cells, indicating that PCTP is regulated by RUNX1. Studies in 2 cohorts of patients showed that RUNX1 expression in blood correlated with PCTP gene expression; PCTP expression was higher in black compared with white subjects and was associated with future death/myocardial infarction after adjustment for age, sex, and race (odds ratio, 2.05; 95% confidence interval 1.6-2.7; P<0.0001). RUNX1 expression is known to initiate at 2 alternative promoters, a distal P1 and a proximal P2 promoter. In patient cohorts, there were differential effects of RUNX1

  3. Inositol induces a profound alteration in the pattern and rate of synthesis and turnover of membrane lipids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Maria L; Aregullin, Manuel A; Jesch, Stephen A; Henry, Susan A

    2006-08-11

    The addition of inositol to actively growing yeast cultures causes a rapid increase in the rate of synthesis of phosphatidylinositol and, simultaneously, triggers changes in the expression of hundreds of genes. We now demonstrate that the addition of inositol to yeast cells growing in the presence of choline leads to a dramatic reprogramming of cellular lipid synthesis and turnover. The response to inositol includes a 5-6-fold increase in cellular phosphatidylinositol content within a period of 30 min. The increase in phosphatidylinositol content appears to be dependent upon fatty acid synthesis. Phosphatidylcholine turnover increased rapidly following inositol addition, a response that requires the participation of Nte1p, an endoplasmic reticulum-localized phospholipase B. Mass spectrometry revealed that the acyl species composition of phosphatidylinositol is relatively constant regardless of supplementation with inositol or choline, whereas phosphatidylcholine acyl species composition is influenced by both inositol and choline. In medium containing inositol, but lacking choline, high levels of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine were detected. Within 60 min following the addition of inositol, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine levels had decreased from approximately 40% of total phosphatidylcholine to a basal level of less than 5%. nte1Delta cells grown in the absence of inositol and in the presence of choline exhibited lower levels of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine than wild type cells grown under these same conditions, but these levels remained largely constant after the addition of inositol. These results are discussed in relationship to transcriptional regulation known to be linked to lipid metabolism in yeast.

  4. Retrograde lipid traffic in yeast: identification of two distinct pathways for internalization of fluorescent-labeled phosphatidylcholine from the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Digital, video-enhanced fluorescence microscopy and spectrofluorometry were used to follow the internalization into the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae of phosphatidylcholine molecules labeled on one acyl chain with the fluorescent probe 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl (NBD). Two pathways were found: (1) transport by endocytosis to the vacuole and (2) transport by a non-endocytic pathway to the nuclear envelope and mitochondria. The endocytic pathway was inhibited at low temperature (< 2 degrees C) and by ATP depletion. Mutations in secretory (SEC) genes that are necessary for membrane traffic through the secretory pathway (including SEC1, SEC2, SEC4, SEC6, SEC7, SEC12, SEC14, SEC17, SEC18, and SEC21) almost completely blocked endocytic uptake. In contrast, mutations in the SEC63, SEC65, or SEC11 genes, required for translocation of nascent secretory polypeptides into the ER or signal peptide processing in the ER, only slightly reduced endocytic uptake. Phospholipid endocytosis was also independent of the gene encoding the clathrin heavy chain, CHC1. The correlation of biochemical analysis with fluorescence microscopy indicated that the fluorescent phosphatidylcholine was degraded in the vacuole and that degradation was, at least in part, dependent on the vacuolar proteolytic cascade. The non-endocytic route functioned with a lower cellular energy charge (ATP levels 80% reduced) and was largely independent of the SEC genes. Non-endocytic transport of NBD-phosphatidylcholine to the nuclear envelope and mitochondria was inhibited by pretreatment of cells with the sulfhydryl reagents N-ethylmaleimide and p- chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid, suggesting the existence of protein- mediated transmembrane transfer (flip-flop) of phosphatidylcholine across the yeast plasma membrane. These data establish a link between lipid movement during secretion and endocytosis in yeast and suggest that phospholipids may also gain access to intracellular organelles through non

  5. Quantitation of isobaric phosphatidylcholine species in human plasma using a hybrid quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zacek, Petr; Bukowski, Michael; Rosenberger, Thad A; Picklo, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) species in human plasma are used as biomarkers of disease. PC biomarkers are often limited by the inability to separate isobaric PCs. In this work, we developed a targeted shotgun approach for analysis of isobaric and isomeric PCs. This approach is comprised of two MS methods: a precursor ion scanning (PIS) of mass m/z 184 in positive mode (PIS m/z +184) and MS(3) fragmentation in negative mode, both performed on the same instrument, a hybrid triple quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer. The MS(3) experiment identified the FA composition and the relative abundance of isobaric and sn-1, sn-2 positional isomeric PC species, which were subsequently combined with absolute quantitative data obtained by PIS m/z +184 scan. This approach was applied to the analysis of a National Institute of Standards and Technology human blood plasma standard reference material (SRM 1950). We quantified more than 70 PCs and confirmed that a majority are present in isobaric and isomeric mixtures. The FA content determined by this method was comparable to that obtained using GC with flame ionization detection, supporting the quantitative nature of this MS method. This methodology will provide more in-depth biomarker information for clinical and mechanistic studies.

  6. Effect of monoacyl phosphatidylcholine content on the formation of microemulsions and the dermal delivery of flufenamic acid.

    PubMed

    Hoppel, Magdalena; Juric, Sonja; Ettl, Hanna; Valenta, Claudia

    2015-02-01

    The choice of appropriate excipients is crucial for the success of a dermal drug delivery system. Especially surfactants should be chosen carefully, because of their possible interactions with the skin or the applied drug. Since monoacyl phosphatidylcholine (MAPL) exhibits great emulsification properties and can be derived from natural sources, it is of great interest as surfactant in microemulsions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the MAPL content on the formation of microemulsions. The great emulsification power of MAPL was confirmed by increased isotropic areas with increasing MAPL content. Moreover, a decrease in particle size, particle size distribution and viscosity with increasing MAPL content was determined. Besides its effects on microemulsion structure, MAPL exhibited a significant influence on the skin permeation of flufenamic acid. Interestingly, the higher the MAPL content, the lower was the skin permeation of flufenamic acid. A possible explanation might be that the hydrophilic MAPL could hinder the permeation of the lipophilic drug. In contrast, the skin permeation enhancing effects of the microemulsion with the lowest MAPL content might be attributed to formation of a patch-like structure and therefore better contact between the formulation and the skin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitation of isobaric phosphatidylcholine species in human plasma using a hybrid quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometer[S

    PubMed Central

    Zacek, Petr; Bukowski, Michael; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Picklo, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) species in human plasma are used as biomarkers of disease. PC biomarkers are often limited by the inability to separate isobaric PCs. In this work, we developed a targeted shotgun approach for analysis of isobaric and isomeric PCs. This approach is comprised of two MS methods: a precursor ion scanning (PIS) of mass m/z 184 in positive mode (PIS m/z +184) and MS3 fragmentation in negative mode, both performed on the same instrument, a hybrid triple quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer. The MS3 experiment identified the FA composition and the relative abundance of isobaric and sn-1, sn-2 positional isomeric PC species, which were subsequently combined with absolute quantitative data obtained by PIS m/z +184 scan. This approach was applied to the analysis of a National Institute of Standards and Technology human blood plasma standard reference material (SRM 1950). We quantified more than 70 PCs and confirmed that a majority are present in isobaric and isomeric mixtures. The FA content determined by this method was comparable to that obtained using GC with flame ionization detection, supporting the quantitative nature of this MS method. This methodology will provide more in-depth biomarker information for clinical and mechanistic studies. PMID:27688258

  8. Mass spectrometry images acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelin in MDA-MB-231 breast tumor models[S

    PubMed Central

    Chughtai, Kamila; Jiang, Lu; Greenwood, Tiffany R.; Glunde, Kristine; Heeren, Ron M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The lipid compositions of different breast tumor microenvironments are largely unknown due to limitations in lipid imaging techniques. Imaging lipid distributions would enhance our understanding of processes occurring inside growing tumors, such as cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Recent developments in MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enable rapid and specific detection of lipids directly from thin tissue sections. In this study, we performed multimodal imaging of acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines (PC), a lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and a sphingomyelin (SM) from different microenvironments of breast tumor xenograft models, which carried tdTomato red fluorescent protein as a hypoxia-response element-driven reporter gene. The MSI molecular lipid images revealed spatially heterogeneous lipid distributions within tumor tissue. Four of the most-abundant lipid species, namely PC(16:0/16:0), PC(16:0/18:1), PC(18:1/18:1), and PC(18:0/18:1), were localized in viable tumor regions, whereas LPC(16:0/0:0) was detected in necrotic tumor regions. We identified a heterogeneous distribution of palmitoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine, PC(16:0/22:1), and SM(d18:1/16:0) sodium adduct, which colocalized primarily with hypoxic tumor regions. For the first time, we have applied a multimodal imaging approach that has combined optical imaging and MALDI-MSI with ion mobility separation to spatially localize and structurally identify acylcarnitines and a variety of lipid species present in breast tumor xenograft models. PMID:22930811

  9. Solubilization and localization of weakly polar lipids in unsonicated egg phosphatidylcholine: A sup 13 C MAS NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.A. ); Fujito, D.T.; Hammer, C.F. )

    1991-03-19

    The weakly polar lipids cholesteryl ester, triacylglycerol, and diacylglycerol incorporate to a limited extent into the lamellar structure of small unilamellar vesicles. The localization of the carbonyl group(s) at the aqueous interface was detected by ({sup 13}C)carbonyl chemical shift changes relative to the neat unhydrated lipid. This study uses {sup 13}C NMR to investigate the interactions of thes lipids with unsonicated (multilamellar) phosphatidylcholine, a model system for cellular membranes and surfaces of emulsion particles with low curvature. Magic angle spinning reduced the broad lines of the unsonicated dispersions to narrow lines comparable to those from sonicated dispersions. ({sup 13}C)Carbonyl chemical shifts revealed incorporation of the three lipids into the lamellar structure of the unsonicated phospholipids and a partial hydration of the carbonyl groups similar to that observed in small vesicles. Other properties of interfacial weakly polar lipids in multilayers were similar to those in small unilamellar bilayers. There is thus a general tendency of weakly polar lipids to incorparate at least to a small extent into the lamellar structure of phospholipids and take on interfacial properties that are distinct from their bulk-phase properties. This pool of surface-located lipid is likely to be directly involved in enzymatyic transformations and protein-mediated transport. The {sup 13}C magic angle spinning NMR method may be generally useful for determining the orientation of molecules in model membranes.

  10. The phosphatidylcholine-hydrolysing phospholipase C NPC4 plays a role in response of Arabidopsis roots to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Kocourková, Daniela; Krcková, Zuzana; Pejchar, Premysl; Veselková, Stepánka; Valentová, Olga; Wimalasekera, Rinukshi; Scherer, Günther F E; Martinec, Jan

    2011-07-01

    Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolysing phospholipase C, also known as non-specific phospholipase C (NPC), is a new member of the plant phospholipase family that reacts to environmental stresses such as phosphate deficiency and aluminium toxicity, and has a role in root development and brassinolide signalling. Expression of NPC4, one of the six NPC genes in Arabidopsis, was highly induced by NaCl. Maximum expression was observed from 3 h to 6 h after the salt treatment and was dependent on salt concentration. Results of histochemical analysis of P(NPC4):GUS plants showed the localization of salt-induced expression in root tips. On the biochemical level, increased NPC enzyme activity, indicated by accumulation of diacylglycerol, was observed as early as after 30 min of salt treatment of Arabidopsis seedlings. Phenotype analysis of NPC4 knockout plants showed increased sensitivity to salinity as compared with wild-type plants. Under salt stress npc4 plants had shorter roots, lower fresh weight, and reduced seed germination. Expression levels of abscisic acid-related genes ABI1, ABI2, RAB18, PP2CA, and SOT12 were substantially reduced in salt-treated npc4 plants. These observations demonstrate a role for NPC4 in the response of Arabidopsis to salt stress.

  11. Adsorption equilibria between liposome membrane formed of phosphatidylcholine and aqueous sodium chloride solution as a function of pH.

    PubMed

    Kotyńska, J; Figaszewski, Z A

    2005-12-30

    The effect has been studied of the adsorption of ions (H(+), Na(+), OH(-), Cl(-)) which are present in solution upon the electric charge of the liposome membrane formed of phosphatidylcholine (PC). The surface charge density of the membrane was determined as a function of pH and electrolyte concentration from electrophoretic mobility measurements. The measurements were carried out by the laser-Doppler microelectrophoresis method. A four-equilibria model has been proposed to describe the phenomena occurring on the membrane surface. The equilibria in which the adsorption of other ions on the liposome membrane surface was involved were assumed to exist beside the equilibria in which the H(+) and OH(-) ions were engaged. The idea was confirmed by mathematical calculations. Association constants of the liposome membrane surface with ions of solution (K(AH), K(ANa), K(BOH), K(BCl)) were determined. The proposed model has been proved to be correct by comparing the resulting theoretic charge variation curves of the lecithin membrane with the experimental data.

  12. Distribution of plasma phosphatidylcholine molecular species in rabbits fed fish oil is modulated by dietary n-6 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Koba, K; Horrobin, D F; DeMarco, A C; Ni, I H; Huang, Y S

    1995-12-01

    The present study examined the distribution of plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecular species in rabbits fed a chow diet supplemented with fish oil (FO) in combination with either hydrogenated coconut oil or the n-6 fatty acid-rich evening primrose oil (EPO) for 4 weeks. Significant proportions of plasma PC molecular species contained long-chain n-3 fatty acids. Addition of EPO to the FO supplemented diet increased the incorporation of n-6 fatty acids into plasma PC molecules; it also raised the proportions of 16:0-18:2, n-6, 18:1-18:2, n-6, 18:2, n-6-18:2, n-6, and 16:0-20:4, n-6. The increase of n-6 fatty acid-containing PC was at the expense of n-3 fatty acid containing PC species. However, feeding n-6 fatty acids did not affect the distribution of PC molecular species based on total carbon chain length. The most interesting observation was that dietary suplementation with EPO, raised the ratio of 22:6, n-3-containing to 20:5, n-3-containing molecular species, suggesting an enhanced conversion of 20:5, n-3 to 22:6, n-3.

  13. Increased Expression of Phosphatidylcholine (16:0/18:1) and (16:0/18:2) in Thyroid Papillary Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Seiji; Tateya, Ichiro; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Masaki, Noritaka; Takizawa, Yoshinori; Ohno, Satoshi; Kojima, Tsuyoshi; Kitani, Yoshiharu; Kitamura, Morimasa; Hirano, Shigeru; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Ito, Juichi

    2012-01-01

    A good prognosis can be expected for most, but not all, cases of thyroid papillary cancer. Numerous molecular studies have demonstrated beneficial treatment and prognostic factors in various molecular markers. Whereas most previous reports have focused on genomics and proteomics, few have focused on lipidomics. With the advent of mass spectrometry (MS), it has become possible to identify many types of molecules, and this analytical tool has become critical in the field of omics. Recently, imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) was developed. After a simple pretreatment process, IMS can be used to examine tissue sections on glass slides with location information. Here, we conducted an IMS analysis of seven cases of thyroid papillary cancer by comparison of cancerous with normal tissues, focusing on the distribution of phospholipids. We identified that phosphatidylcholine (16:0/18:1) and (16:0/18:2) and sphingomyelin (d18:0/16:1) are significantly higher in thyroid papillary cancer than in normal thyroid tissue as determined by tandem mass (MS/MS) analysis. These distributional differences may be associated with the biological behavior of thyroid papillary cancer. PMID:23139822

  14. Use of a biomimetic chromatographic stationary phase for study of the interactions occurring between inorganic anions and phosphatidylcholine membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wenzhi; Haddad, Paul R; Hasebe, Kiyoshi; Mori, Masanobu; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Ohno, Masako; Kamo, Naoki

    2002-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method for the study of ion-membrane interactions is reported. A phosphatidylcholine biomimetic stationary phase was established by loading dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) onto a reversed-phase octadecylsilica packed column. This column was then used to study the interaction of some inorganic anions with the stationary phase by UV and conductivity detection. Ten inorganic anions were selected as model ions and were analyzed with the proposed chromatographic system. Anion-DMPC interactions of differing magnitudes were observed for all of the model anions. Perchlorate-DMPC interactions were strongest, followed by thiocyanate-DMPC, iodide-DMPC, chlorate-DMPC, nitrate-DMPC, bromide-DMPC, chloride-DMPC, fluoride-DMPC, and then sulfate-DMPC. Cations in the eluent, especially H(+) ions and divalent cations such as Ca(2+), showed strong effects on anion-DMPC interactions. The chromatographic data suggest that DMPC interacts with both the anions and the cations. Anion-DMPC interactions were dependent on the surface potential of the stationary phase: at low surface potentials anion-DMPC interactions were predominantly solvation dependent in nature whereas at more positive surface potentials anion-DMPC interactions were predominantly electrostatic in nature. Cation-DMPC interactions served to raise the surface potential, causing the anion-DMPC interactions to vary from solvation dependent to electrostatic. The chromatographic data were used to provide quantitative estimates of the enthalpies of the anion-DMPC interactions. PMID:12496102

  15. Key Amino Acid Residues of Ankyrin-Sensitive Phosphatidylethanolamine/Phosphatidylcholine-Lipid Binding Site of βI-Spectrin

    PubMed Central

    Wolny, Marcin; Grzybek, Michał; Bok, Ewa; Chorzalska, Anna; Lenoir, Marc; Czogalla, Aleksander; Adamczyk, Klaudia; Kolondra, Adam; Diakowski, Witold; Overduin, Michael; Sikorski, Aleksander F.

    2011-01-01

    It was shown previously that an ankyrin-sensitive, phosphatidylethanolamine/phosphatidylcholine (PE/PC) binding site maps to the N-terminal part of the ankyrin-binding domain of β-spectrin (ankBDn). Here we have identified the amino acid residues within this domain which are responsible for recognizing monolayers and bilayers composed of PE/PC mixtures. In vitro binding studies revealed that a quadruple mutant with substituted hydrophobic residues W1771, L1775, M1778 and W1779 not only failed to effectively bind PE/PC, but its residual PE/PC-binding activity was insensitive to inhibition with ankyrin. Structure prediction and analysis, supported by in vitro experiments, suggests that “opening” of the coiled-coil structure underlies the mechanism of this interaction. Experiments on red blood cells and HeLa cells supported the conclusions derived from the model and in vitro lipid-protein interaction results, and showed the potential physiological role of this binding. We postulate that direct interactions between spectrin ankBDn and PE-rich domains play an important role in stabilizing the structure of the spectrin-based membrane skeleton. PMID:21738695

  16. MALDI-TOF/TOF Mass Spectrometric Determination and Antioxidative Activity of Purified Phosphatidylcholine Fractions from Shrimp Species.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Yan; Wang, Xiaolin; Liang, Yi; Huang, Zheng; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2017-02-15

    Purification, characterization, and antioxidative activity in vitro of shrimp phosphatidylcholines (PCs) were investigated. The molecular structures of shrimp PCs were determined by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The MS(2) fragments produced from protonated PC precursors and sodiated PC precursors were identified. The specific fragments including [M + Na - trimethylamine](+), [M + Na - 205](+), [M + Na - RCOOH - trimethylamine](+), and [M + H - RCOOH - trimethylamine](+) could distinguish the precursor type to confirm PC molecular structures. The antioxidative activities of purified shrimp PC fractions were evaluated by assay of DPPH free radical scavenging activity, and their effects on the oxidative stability of camellia oil were measured by monitoring changes in the peroxide value assay during oxidation. The PC fractions from Penaeus chinesis and Macrobranchium nipponense showed stronger antioxidative activities than those of other species. All of the shrimp PCs at 0.2% (w/w) improved the oxidative stability of camellia oil significantly (P < 0.05) compared to controls. The experimental findings suggest that shrimp PCs might be a valuable source of natural antioxidants for edible oils or other food dispersions.

  17. Comparative Study of EPA-enriched Phosphatidylcholine and EPA-enriched Phosphatidylserine on Lipid Metabolism in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lin; Wang, Dan; Zhou, Miaomiao; Du, Lei; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that EPA enriched PLs have beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. Our previous study has demonstrated that the anti-obesity and hypolipidemic effects of EPA-PL were superior to DHA-PL. In the present study, we comparatively evaluated the effects of EPA-enriched phosphatidylcholine (EPA-PC) and EPA-enriched phosphatidylserine (EPA-PS) on lipid metabolism in mice. Both 2% dietary EPA-PC and EPA-PS significantly improved serum and hepatic lipid levels in mice. The HDL-c level in mice on EPA-PC diet was significantly higher than the other two groups. The level of DHA in hepatic TG and PL were significantly increased in both EPA-PC and EPA-PS fed groups (98.3 and 117.8%, respectively; p < 0.05). Notably, the proportion of DHA in EPA-PS group was significantly higher than the EPA-PC group. EPA-PC and EPA-PS suppressed hepatic SREBP-1c mediated lipogenesis and activated PPARα mediated fatty acid β-oxidation in the liver. These data are the first to indicate that EPA-PS has beneficial effects on lipid metabolism.

  18. Photolabeling identifies an interaction between phosphatidylcholine and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gut2p) in yeast mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Marjolein J F W; van Voorst, Frank; Ploeger, Ginette E J; Larsen, Peter Mose; Larsen, Martin R; de Kroon, Anton I P M; de Kruijff, Ben

    2002-05-07

    In search of mitochondrial proteins interacting with phosphatidylcholine (PC), a photolabeling approach was applied, in which photoactivatable probes were incorporated into isolated yeast mitochondria. Only a limited number of proteins were labeled upon photoactivation, using either the PC analogue [125I]TID-PC or the small hydrophobic probe [125I]TID-BE. The most prominent difference was the very specific labeling of a 70 kDa protein by [125I]TID-PC. Mass spectrometric analysis of a tryptic digest of the corresponding 2D-gel spot identified the protein as the GUT2 gene product, the FAD-dependent mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. This was confirmed by the lack of specific labeling in mitochondria from a gut2 deletion strain. Only under conditions where the inner membrane was accessible to the probe, Gut2p was labeled by [125I]TID-PC, in parallel with increased labeling of the phosphate carrier (P(i)C) in the inner membrane. A hemagglutinin-tagged version of Gut2p was shown to be membrane-bound. Carbonate extraction released the protein from the membrane, whereas a high concentration of NaCl did not, demonstrating that Gut2p is a peripheral membrane protein bound to the inner membrane via hydrophobic interactions. The significance of the observed interactions between Gut2p and PC is discussed.

  19. Reduction of HIV-1 antigen production by phosphatidylcholine containing formulations via growth inhibition of HIV-1-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Willer, A; Heinzmann, U; Mellert, W; Kleinschmidt, A; Goebel, F D; Erfle, V

    1993-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and licensed formulations containing PC were tested for their influence on the proliferation and viability of cells permanently infected with HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1). PC alone, as well as pharmaceutical formulations containing PC, selectively inhibited the growth of productively infected lymphoid cells. The strongest growth inhibition was observed with formulations containing PC, glycerol and triglyceride together. The growth inhibition was dose-dependent for HIV-1-infected cells. Additionally, PC-containing formulations dramatically reduced antigen production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) infected in vitro with HIV-1. In vivo experiments with Rauscher-MuLV-infected mice showed that PC administered either intraperitoneally or orally was able to inhibit Rauscher-virus-induced splenomegaly. PC-containing formulations are currently used in man for supportive therapy at doses, which in vitro induced 50% growth inhibition of HIV-1-infected cells in vitro. Such doses have been used in man without side effects for many years. Thus, PC-containing formulations may be valuable for the treatment of HIV-1-infected individuals.

  20. Lipid transfer between phosphatidylcholine vesicles and human erythrocytes: exponential decrease in rate with increasing acyl chain length.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, J E; Lee, K J; Huestis, W H

    1985-06-04

    The rate of phospholipid transfer from sonicated phospholipid vesicles to human erythrocytes has been studied as a function of membrane concentration and lipid acyl chain composition. Phospholipid transfer exhibits saturable first-order kinetics with respect to both cell and vesicle membrane concentrations. This kinetic behavior is consistent either with transfer during transient contact between cell and vesicle surfaces (but only if the fraction of the cell surface susceptible to such interaction is small) or with transfer of monomers through the aqueous phase. The acyl chain composition of the transferred phospholipid affects the transfer kinetics profoundly; for homologous saturated phosphatidylcholines, the rate of transfer decreases exponentially with increasing acyl chain length. This behavior is consistent with passage of phospholipid monomers through a polar phase, which might be the bulk aqueous phase( as in the monomer transfer model) or the hydrated head-group regions of a cell-vesicle complex (transient collision model). Collisional transfer also predicts that intercell transfer of phospholipids should be slow compared to cell-vesicle transfer, as surface charge and steric effects should prevent close apposition of donor and acceptor membranes. This is not found; dilauroylphosphatidylcholine transfers rapidly between red cells. Thus, the observed relationship between acyl chain length and intermembrane phospholipid transfer rates likely reflects the energetics of monomer transfer through the aqueous phase.

  1. Does Whole-Body Hypothermia in Neonates with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Affect Surfactant Disaturated-Phosphatidylcholine Kinetics?

    PubMed

    Nespeca, Matteo; Giorgetti, Chiara; Nobile, Stefano; Ferrini, Ilaria; Simonato, Manuela; Verlato, Giovanna; Cogo, Paola; Carnielli, Virgilio Paolo

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether Whole-Body Hypothermia (WBH) affects pulmonary function. In vitro studies, at relatively low temperatures, suggest that hypothermia may induce significant changes to the surfactant composition. The effect of WBH on surfactant kinetics in newborn infants is unknown. We studied in vivo kinetics of disaturated-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) in asphyxiated newborns during WBH and in normothermic controls (NTC) with no or mild asphyxia. Both groups presented no clinically apparent lung disease. Twenty-seven term or near term newborns requiring mechanical ventilation were studied (GA 38.6±2.2 wks). Fifteen during WBH and twelve NTC. All infants received an intra-tracheal dose of 13C labelled DSPC and tracheal aspirate were performed. DSPC amount, DSPC half-life (HL) and pool size (PS) were calculated. DSPC amount in tracheal aspirates was 0.42 [0.22-0.54] and 0.36 [0.10-0.58] mg/ml in WBH and NTC respectively (p = 0.578). DSPC HL was 24.9 [15.7-52.5] and 25.3 [15.8-59.3] h (p = 0.733) and DSPC PS was 53.2 [29.4-91.6] and 40.2 [29.8-64.6] mg/kg (p = 0.598) in WBH and NTC respectively. WBH does not alter DSPC HL and PS in newborn infants with no clinical apparent lung disease.

  2. Effects of ethanol and diclofenac on the organization of hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine bilayer vesicles and their ability as skin carriers.

    PubMed

    Castangia, Ines; Manca, Maria Letizia; Matricardi, Pietro; Catalán-Latorre, Ana; Nácher, Amparo; Diez-Sales, Octavio; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the effects of ethanol and/or diclofenac on vesicle bilayer structure have been studied. Liposomes with hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and two different concentrations of diclofenac sodium (5 and 10 mg/ml) were obtained. In addition, ethanol was mixed in the water phase at different concentrations (5, 10 and 20 % v/v) to obtain ethosomes. To characterize vesicles, rehological analysis were carried out to investigate the intervesicle interactions, while bilayer structure was evaluated by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. Finally, the ethanol and/or diclofenac concentration-dependent ability to improve diclofenac skin delivery was evaluated in vitro. The addition of 20 % ethanol and/or diclofenac led to solid-like ethosome dispersion due to the formation of a new intervesicle structure, as previously found in transcutol containing vesicle dispersions. However, when using 5-10 % of ethanol the induction to form vesicle interconnections was less evident but the simultaneous presence of the drug at the highest concentration facilitated this phenomenon. Ethosomes containing the highest amount of both, drug (10 mg/ml) and ethanol (20 % v/v), improved the drug deposition in the skin strata and in the receptor fluid up to 1.5-fold, relative to liposomes. Moreover this solid-like formulation can easily overcome drawbacks of traditional liquid liposome formulations which undergo a substantial loss at the application site.

  3. Differences in phosphatidylcholine and bile acids in bile from Egyptian and UK patients with and without cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hashim Abdalla, Mohamed S; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D; Sharif, Amar W; Williams, Horace R T; Crossey, Mary M E; Badra, Gamal A; Thillainayagam, Andrew V; Bansi, Devinder S; Thomas, Howard C; Waked, Imam A; Khan, Shahid A

    2011-06-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a fatal malignancy, the incidence of which is increasing worldwide, with substantial regional variation. Current diagnostic techniques to distinguish benign from malignant biliary disease are unsatisfactory. Metabolic profiling of bile may help to differentiate benign from malignant disease. No previous studies have compared the metabolic profiles of bile from two geographically and racially distinct groups of CC patients. This study aimed to compare metabolic profiles of bile, using in vitro proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, from CC patients from Egypt and the UK, and from patients with CC and patients with non-malignant biliary disease. A total of 29 bile samples, collected at cholangiography, were analysed using an 11.7-T system. Samples were from eight CC patients in either Egypt (n = 4) or the UK (n = 4) and 21 patients with benign biliary disease (choledocholithiasis [n = 8], sphincter of Oddi dysfunction [n = 8], primary sclerosing cholangitis [n = 5]). Bile phosphatidylcholine (PtC) was significantly reduced in CC patients. Egyptian CC patients had significantly lower biliary PtC levels compared with UK patients. Taurine- and glycine-conjugated bile acids (H-26 and H-25 protons, respectively) were significantly elevated in bile from patients with CC compared with bile from patients with benign diseases (P = 0.013 and P < 0.01, respectively). Biliary PtC levels potentially differentiate CC from benign biliary disease. Reduced biliary PtC in Egyptian compared with UK patients may reflect underlying carcinogenic mechanisms. © 2011 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  4. Efficacy and safety of Meriva®, a curcumin-phosphatidylcholine complex, during extended administration in osteoarthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, Gianni; Cesarone, Maria Rosaria; Dugall, Mark; Pellegrini, Luciano; Ledda, Andrea; Grossi, Maria Giovanna; Togni, Stefano; Appendino, Giovanni

    2010-12-01

    In a previous three-month study of Meriva, a proprietary curcumin-phosphatidylcholine phytosome complex, decreased joint pain and improvement in joint function were observed in 50 osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Since OA is a chronic condition requiring prolonged treatment, the long-term efficacy and safety of Meriva were investigated in a longer (eight months) study involving 100 OA patients. The clinical end points (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities [WOMAC] score, Karnofsky Performance Scale Index, and treadmill walking performance) were complemented by the evaluation of a series of inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-1beta, IL-6, soluble CD40 ligand [sCD40L], soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]). This represents the most ambitious attempt, to date, to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of curcumin as an anti-inflammatory agent. Significant improvements of both the clinical and biochemical end points were observed for Meriva compared to the control group. This, coupled with an excellent tolerability, suggests that Meriva is worth considering for the long-term complementary management of osteoarthritis.

  5. A Biomimetic Phosphatidylcholine-Terminated Monolayer Greatly Improves the In Vivo Performance of Electrochemical Aptamer-Based Sensors.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Dauphin-Ducharme, Philippe; Arroyo-Currás, Netzahualcóyotl; Tran, Claire H; Vieira, Philip A; Li, Shaoguang; Shin, Christina; Somerson, Jacob; Kippin, Tod E; Plaxco, Kevin W

    2017-03-28

    The real-time monitoring of specific analytes in situ in the living body would greatly advance our understanding of physiology and the development of personalized medicine. Because they are continuous (wash-free and reagentless) and are able to work in complex media (e.g., undiluted serum), electrochemical aptamer-based (E-AB) sensors are promising candidates to fill this role. E-AB sensors suffer, however, from often-severe baseline drift when deployed in undiluted whole blood either in vitro or in vivo. We demonstrate that cell-membrane-mimicking phosphatidylcholine (PC)-terminated monolayers improve the performance of E-AB sensors, reducing the baseline drift from around 70 % to just a few percent after several hours in flowing whole blood in vitro. With this improvement comes the ability to deploy E-AB sensors directly in situ in the veins of live animals, achieving micromolar precision over many hours without the use of physical barriers or active drift-correction algorithms.

  6. High-throughput quantification of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isotope correction algorithm.

    PubMed

    Liebisch, Gerhard; Lieser, Bernd; Rathenberg, Jan; Drobnik, Wolfgang; Schmitz, Gerd

    2004-11-08

    The choline head group containing phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SPM) are major eukaryotic lipid components playing an important role in forming membrane microdomains and serve as precursor of signaling molecules. Both lipids can be monitored by positive ion mode electrospray tandem mass spectrometry using a parent ion scan of m/z 184. Although PC species appear at even m/z and SPM species at odd m/z, there may be a significant overlap of their isotopes. In order to separate PC and SPM species, an isotope correction algorithm was established, which utilizes calculated isotope percentages to correct the measured peak intensities for their isotopic overlap. We could demonstrate that this approach was applicable to correct the isotope overlap resulting from spiked PC and SPM species. Quantification was achieved by addition of different PC and SPM species prior to lipid extraction. The developed assay showed a precision, detection limit and robustness sufficient for routine analysis. Furthermore, an analysis time of only 1.3 min combined with automated data analysis using self-programmed Excel Macros allows high-throughput analysis. In summary, this assay may be a valuable tool for detailed lipid analysis of PC and SPM species in a variety of sample materials.

  7. Numerical simulation of physicochemical interactions between oxygen atom and phosphatidylcholine due to direct irradiation of atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasma to biological membrane with quantum mechanical molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Satoshi; Yoshida, Taketo; Tochikubo, Fumiyoshi

    2017-10-01

    Plasma medicine is one of the most attractive applications using atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasma. With respect to direct contact of the discharge plasma with a biological membrane, reactive oxygen species play an important role in induction of medical effects. However, complicated interactions between the plasma radicals and membrane have not been understood well. In the present work, we simulated elemental processes at the first stage of physicochemical interactions between oxygen atom and phosphatidylcholine using the quantum mechanical molecular dynamics code in a general software AMBER. The change in the above processes was classified according to the incident energy of oxygen atom. At an energy of 1 eV, the abstraction of a hydrogen atom and recombination to phosphatidylcholine were simultaneously occurred in chemical attachment of incident oxygen atom. The exothermal energy of the reaction was about 80% of estimated one based on the bond energies of ethane. An oxygen atom over 10 eV separated phosphatidylcholine partially. The behaviour became increasingly similar to physical sputtering. The reaction probability of oxygen atom was remarkably high in comparison with that of hydrogen peroxide. These results suggest that we can uniformly estimate various physicochemical dynamics of reactive oxygen species against membrane lipids.

  8. Structural changes of biocompatible neutral microemulsions stabilized by mixed surfactant containing soya phosphatidylcholine and their relationship with doxorubicin release.

    PubMed

    Formariz, T P; Chiavacci, L A; Sarmento, V H V; Franzini, C M; Silva-, A A; Scarpa, M V; Santilli, C V; Egito, E S T; Oliveira, A G

    2008-06-01

    Depending on the composition, the mixture of surfactant, oil and water, may form supramolecular aggregates with different structures which can significantly influence the drug release. In this work several microemulsion (ME) systems containing soya phosphatidylcholine (SPC) and eumulgin HRE40 (EU) as surfactant, cholesterol (O) as oil phase, and ultra-pure water as an aqueous phase were studied. MEs with and without the antitumoral drug doxorubicin (DOX) were prepared. The microstructures of the systems were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy, rheological behavior, polarized light microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results reveal that the diameter of the oil droplets was dependent on the surfactant (S) amount added to formulations. The apparent viscosity was dependent on the O/S ratio. High O/S ratio leads to the crystallization of cholesterol polymorphs phases which restricts the mobility of the DOX molecules into the ME structure. Droplets with short-range spatial correlation were formed from the ME with the low O/S ratio. The increase of the cholesterol fraction in the O/S mixture leads to the formation of ordered structures with lamellar arrangements. These different structural organizations directly influenced the drug release profiles. The in vitro release assay showed that the increase of the O/S ratio in the formulations inhibited the constant rate of DOX release. Since the DOX release ratio was directly dependent on the ratio of O/S following an exponential decay profile, this feature can be used to control the DOX release from the ME formulations.

  9. Increased phospholipase A2 and lyso-phosphatidylcholine levels are associated with surfactant dysfunction in lung contusion injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Machado-Aranda, David; Wang, Zhengdong; Yu, Bi; Suresh, M V; Notter, Robert H.; Raghavendran, Krishnan

    2012-01-01

    Objective Surfactant dysfunction is an important pathological disturbance in various forms of acute inflammatory lung injury. Previously we reported the presence of significant alterations in the composition and activity of pulmonary surfactant in blunt trauma-induced bilateral lung contusion (LC) injury in rats. This is extended here to a mouse model of unilateral LC, with a focus on compositional and functional surfactant changes associated with permeability injury and increases in activity of secretory phospholipase A2. Results Surfactant-associated gene expression was not significantly altered in mice with unilateral LC injury based on Affymetrix analysis. LC mice had significant permeability injury with increased albumin and total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at 5, 24, 48 and 72 h post-insult compared to uninjured controls. The percent content of large surfactant aggregates was significantly depleted at all post-injury times, and pulmonary pressure-volume (P-V) mechanics and compliance were abnormal over this period. Surfactant dysfunction was evaluated in mechanistic detail at 24 h, when permeability injury and P-V changes were most prominent. At this time, activity levels of secretory phospholipase A2 (PLA2) were increased in BAL, and chromatographic analysis showed that large surfactant aggregates had decreased levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and increased levels of lyso-PC. These changes were accompanied by severe detriments in large aggregate surface activity by pulsating bubble surfactometry. Large aggregates from LC mice at 24 h had minimum surface tensions of only 12.6±1.1 mN/m after prolonged bubble pulsation (20 min) compared to 0.7±0.03 mN/m for uninjured controls. Conclusion These results document significant detriments in the composition and activity of pulmonary surfactant in LC injury in mice, and suggest that active synthetic phospholipase-resistant exogenous surfactants may have future utility in treating surfactant dysfunction

  10. Relationships between membrane water molecules and Patman equilibration kinetics at temperatures far above the phosphatidylcholine melting point.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Alexandra R; Bell, Thomas A; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Askew, Caitlin; Franchino, Hannabeth; Hirsche, Kelsey; Kemsley, Linea; Melchor, Stephanie; Moulton, Emma; Schwab, Morgan; Nelson, Jennifer; Bell, John D

    2015-04-01

    The naphthalene-based fluorescent probes Patman and Laurdan detect bilayer polarity at the level of the phospholipid glycerol backbone. This polarity increases with temperature in the liquid-crystalline phase of phosphatidylcholines and was observed even 90°C above the melting temperature. This study explores mechanisms associated with this phenomenon. Measurements of probe anisotropy and experiments conducted at 1M NaCl or KCl (to reduce water permittivity) revealed that this effect represents interactions of water molecules with the probes without proportional increases in probe mobility. Furthermore, comparison of emission spectra to Monte Carlo simulations indicated that the increased polarity represents elevation in probe access to water molecules rather than increased mobility of relevant bilayer waters. Equilibration of these probes with the membrane involves at least two steps which were distinguished by the membrane microenvironment reported by the probe. The difference in those microenvironments also changed with temperature in the liquid-crystalline phase in that the equilibrium state was less polar than the initial environment detected by Patman at temperatures near the melting point, more polar at higher temperatures, and again less polar as temperature was raised further. Laurdan also displayed this level of complexity during equilibration, although the relationship to temperature differed quantitatively from that experienced by Patman. This kinetic approach provides a novel way to study in molecular detail basic principles of what happens to the membrane environment around an individual amphipathic molecule as it penetrates the bilayer. Moreover, it provides evidence of unexpected and interesting membrane behaviors far from the phase transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An oxidized derivative of phosphatidylcholine is a substrate for the platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Stremler, K E; Stafforini, D M; Prescott, S M; Zimmerman, G A; McIntyre, T M

    1989-04-05

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a glycerophospholipid that has diverse potent biological actions. A plasma enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of the sn-2 acetoyl group of PAF and thereby abolishes its bioactivity. This PAF acetylhydrolase is specific for phospholipids, such as PAF, with a short acyl group at the sn-2 position. The majority of it (60-70%) is associated with low density lipoprotein (LDL), and the remainder is with high density lipoprotein (HDL). LDL also has a phospholipase A2 activity that is specific for oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids, which may be important in determining how LDL is recognized by cellular receptors. We previously have purified and characterized the PAF acetylhydrolase from human plasma. We now have found that the purified PAF acetylhydrolase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the oxidized fragments of arachidonic acid from the sn-2 position of phosphatidylcholine. One of the preferred substrates appeared by mass spectrometry to have 5-oxovalerate at the sn-2 position. We synthesized 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and found that the PAF acetylhydrolase had the same apparent Km for it (11.3 microM) as for PAF (12.5 microM), with Vmax values of 100 and 167 mumol/h/mg of protein, respectively. We also conclude that the PAF acetylhydrolase is the sole activity in LDL that degrades oxidized phospholipids since we found co-localization of the activity against both substrates to LDL and HDL, and precipitation of enzyme activity with an antibody to the PAF acetylhydrolase. Thus, the PAF acetylhydrolase in human plasma degrades oxidized phospholipids, which may be involved in the modification of apolipoprotein B100 and other pathological processes.

  12. Gas-Phase Chemical Separation of Phosphatidylcholine and Phosphatidylethanolamine Cations via Charge Inversion Ion/Ion Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Betancourt, Stella; Stutzman, John R; Londry, Frank A; Blanksby, Stephen J; McLuckey, Scott A

    2015-11-17

    The [M + H](+) cations formed upon electrospray ionization of the glycerophospholipids phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) show distinct reactivities upon gas-phase reactions with doubly deprotonated 1,4-phenylenedipropionic acid (PDPA). PC cations undergo charge inversion via adduct formation with subsequent methyl cation and proton transfer to the acid to yield [PC - CH3](-) anions. These demethylated PC anions fragment upon ion trap collision-induced dissociation (CID) to yield products that reveal fatty acid chain lengths and degrees of unsaturation. PE cations, on the other hand, undergo charge inversion via double proton transfer to the two carboxylate moieties in doubly deprotonated PDPA to yield [PE - H](-) anions. These anions also fragment upon ion trap CID to yield product ions indicative of chain lengths and degrees of unsaturation in the fatty acyl moieties. Advantage is taken of this distinct reactivity to separate isomeric and isobaric PC and PE cations present in mass spectra of lipid mixtures. A cation precursor ion population containing a mixture of PE and PC cations is mass-selected and subjected to ion/ion charge inversion reactions that result in separation of PC and PE anions into different mass-to-charge ratios. Mass selection and subsequent ion trap CID of the lipid anions allows for the characterization of the isomeric lipids within each subclass. The charge inversion approach described here is demonstrated to provide increased signal-to-noise ratios for detection of PCs and PEs relative to the standard negative ionization approach as well as improved mixture analysis performance.

  13. Interfacial Recognition of Acetylcholine by an Amphiphilic p-Sulfonatocalix[8]arene Derivative Incorporated into Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Takashi; Fujii, Fumihiko; Ooi, Yasuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Dodecyl ether derivatives 1-3 of p-sulfonatocalix[n]arene were incorporated into dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) vesicles, and their binding abilities for acetylcholine (ACh) were examined by using steady-state fluorescence/fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). For the detection of ACh binding to the DMPC vesicles containing 5 mol % of 1-3, competitive fluorophore displacement experiments were performed, where rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) was used as a fluorescent guest. The addition of Rh6G to the DMPC vesicles containing 3 resulted in a decrease in the fluorescence intensity of Rh6G with an increase of its fluorescence anisotropy, indicating that Rh6G binds to the DMPC-3 vesicles. In the case of DMPC-1 and DMPC-2 vesicles, significant changes in the fluorescence spectra of Rh6G were not observed. When ACh was added to the DMPC-3 vesicles in the presence of Rh6G ([3]/[Rh6G]=100), the fluorescence intensity of Rh6G increased with a decrease in its fluorescence anisotropy. From the analysis of fluorescence titration data, the association constants were determined to be 7.1×105 M-1 for Rh6G-3 complex and 1.1×102 M-1 for ACh-3 complex at the DMPC-3 vesicles. To get a direct evidence for the binding of Rh6G and its displacement by ACh at the DMPC-3 vesicles, diffusion times of the Rh6G were measured by using FCS. Binding selectivity of the DMPC-3 vesicles for ACh, choline, GABA, l-aspartic acid,l-glutamic acid, l-arginine, l-lysine, l-histamine and ammonium chloride was also evaluated using FCS. PMID:27873899

  14. Structural effects of the dispersing agent polysorbate 80 on liquid crystalline nanoparticles of soy phosphatidylcholine and glycerol dioleate.

    PubMed

    Wadsäter, Maria; Barauskas, Justas; Rogers, Sarah; Skoda, Maximilian W A; Thomas, Robert K; Tiberg, Fredrik; Nylander, Tommy

    2015-02-14

    Well-defined, stable and highly structured I2 (Fd3̅m) liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNP) of 50/50 (wt/wt) soy phosphatidylcholine (SPC)/glycerol dioleate (GDO), can be formed by using a low fraction (5-10 wt%) of the dispersing polymeric surfactant polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (polysorbate 80 or P80). In the present study we used small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and deuterated P80 (d-P80) to determine the location and concentration of P80 within the LCNP and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to reveal the internal structure. SANS data suggests that some d-P80 already penetrates the particle core at 5%. However, the content of d-P80 is still low enough not to significantly change the internal Fd3̅m structure of the LCNP. At higher fractions of P80 a phase separation occurs, in which a SPC and P80 rich phase is formed at the particle surface. The surface layer becomes gradually richer in both solvent and d-P80 when the surfactant concentration is increased from 5 to 15%, while the core of the particle is enriched by GDO, resulting in loss of internal structure and reduced hydration. We have used neutron reflectometry to reveal the location of the stabiliser within the adsorbed layer on an anionic silica and cationic (aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) silanized) surface. d-P80 is enriched closest to the supporting surface and slightly more so for the cationic APTES surface. The results are relevant not only for the capability of LCNPs as drug delivery vehicles but also as means of preparing functional surface coatings.

  15. Does Whole-Body Hypothermia in Neonates with Hypoxic–Ischemic Encephalopathy Affect Surfactant Disaturated-Phosphatidylcholine Kinetics?

    PubMed Central

    Nespeca, Matteo; Giorgetti, Chiara; Nobile, Stefano; Ferrini, Ilaria; Simonato, Manuela; Verlato, Giovanna; Cogo, Paola; Carnielli, Virgilio Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether Whole-Body Hypothermia (WBH) affects pulmonary function. In vitro studies, at relatively low temperatures, suggest that hypothermia may induce significant changes to the surfactant composition. The effect of WBH on surfactant kinetics in newborn infants is unknown. We studied in vivo kinetics of disaturated-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) in asphyxiated newborns during WBH and in normothermic controls (NTC) with no or mild asphyxia. Both groups presented no clinically apparent lung disease. Methods Twenty-seven term or near term newborns requiring mechanical ventilation were studied (GA 38.6±2.2 wks). Fifteen during WBH and twelve NTC. All infants received an intra-tracheal dose of 13C labelled DSPC and tracheal aspirate were performed. DSPC amount, DSPC half-life (HL) and pool size (PS) were calculated. Results DSPC amount in tracheal aspirates was 0.42 [0.22–0.54] and 0.36 [0.10–0.58] mg/ml in WBH and NTC respectively (p = 0.578). DSPC HL was 24.9 [15.7–52.5] and 25.3 [15.8–59.3] h (p = 0.733) and DSPC PS was 53.2 [29.4–91.6] and 40.2 [29.8–64.6] mg/kg (p = 0.598) in WBH and NTC respectively. Conclusions WBH does not alter DSPC HL and PS in newborn infants with no clinical apparent lung disease. PMID:27070307

  16. Inverse relations of serum phosphatidylcholines and lysophosphatidylcholines with vascular damage and heart rate in patients with atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Paapstel, K; Kals, J; Eha, J; Tootsi, K; Ottas, A; Piir, A; Jakobson, M; Lieberg, J; Zilmer, M

    2017-08-02

    The rapidly growing discipline of lipidomics allows the study of a wide spectrum of lipid species in body fluids and provides new insights into the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. We investigated serum phosphatidylcholine (PC) and lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) species in relation to arterial stiffness, hemodynamics, and endothelial dysfunction in symptomatic patients with atherosclerosis and in healthy controls. Thirty-two patients with peripheral arterial disease (age 61.7 ± 9.0 years), 52 patients with coronary artery disease (age 63.2 ± 9.2 years), and 40 apparently healthy controls (age 60.3 ± 7.1 years) were studied. Serum levels of 90 glycerophospholipids were determined with the AbsoluteIDQ™ p180 kit (BIOCRATES Life Sciences AG, Innsbruck, Austria). The technique of applanation tonometry was used for non-invasive pulse wave analysis and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) assessment. Decreased serum levels of several individual PC and lysoPC species (e.g., PC aa C28:1, PC aa C30:0, PC aa C32:2, PC ae C30:0 and PC ae C34:2, lysoPC a C18:2) were observed for the patient groups in comparison to the healthy subjects. In addition, a considerable number of PCs and lysoPCs were inversely related to either cf-PWV, heart rate, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) or ADMA/arginine for patients with symptomatic atherosclerosis but not for the controls. We found altered relationships between PC and lysoPC profiles, inflammation, and arterial function in atherosclerotic patients, compared to healthy subjects. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Interaction of cholesterol-like molecules in polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers as revealed by a self-consistent field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leermakers, F. A. M.; Rabinovich, A. L.

    2007-09-01

    Cholesterol is one of the most abundant components in biological membranes. In this paper we apply a detailed state-of-the-art self-consistent field (SCF) theory to predict the influence of cholesterol-look-alikes in the bilayer composed of 1-stearoyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine ( 18:0/22:6ω3cis PC) lipids with a polyunsaturated 22:6 and a fully saturated 18:0 tail. The cholesterol-like molecule is composed of a hydroxyl group, a rigid chain fragment with length n segments and a branched semiflexible moiety with methylene side groups. We vary both the length of the rigid fragment in the cholesterol-look-alikes and their mole fraction in the tensionless bilayers. We find that these additives significantly increase the order of the saturated tails, but influence the conformational properties of the unsaturated tail much less. With increasing loading the bilayer thickness and the area available per PC head group increase. The hydroxyl group anchors close to the membrane-water interface, but with increasing loading the distribution of this polar group widens. The orientational order of the rigid part is high and we conclude that the cholesterol has significant mobility in the normal direction in the hydrophobic region of the bilayer indicating that one singly hydroxyl group is giving only a weak anchoring to the water-interface. Cholesterol-look-alikes increase the fluctuation of the tail ends and decrease the interdigitation of the tails. Several of our predictions correspond to molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results, but there are also important differences. Most notably the cholesterol-look-alikes can visit the membrane symmetry-plane more easily in SCF than in MD. Possible reasons for this are discussed.

  18. Hydration lubrication and shear-induced self-healing of lipid bilayer boundary lubricants in phosphatidylcholine dispersions.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Raya; Kampf, Nir; Zhu, Linyi; Klein, Jacob

    2016-03-14

    Measurements of normal and shear (frictional) forces between mica surfaces across small unilamellar vesicle (SUV) dispersions of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids DMPC (14:0), DPPC (16:0) and DSPC (18:0) and POPC (16:0, 18:1), at physiologically high pressures, are reported. We have previously studied the normal and shear forces between two opposing surfaces bearing PC vesicles across pure water and showed that liposome lubrication ability improved with increasing acyl chain length, and correlated strongly with the SUV structural integrity on the substrate surface (DSPC > DPPC > DMPC). In the current study, surprisingly, we discovered that this trend is reversed when the measurements are conducted in SUV dispersions, instead of pure water. In their corresponding SUV dispersion, DMPC SUVs ruptured and formed bilayers, which were able to provide reversible and reproducible lubrication with extremely low friction (μ < 10(-4)) up to pressures of 70-90 atm. Similarly, POPC SUVs also formed bilayers which exhibited low friction (μ < 10(-4)) up to pressures as high as 160 atm. DPPC and DSPC SUVs also provided good lubrication, but with slightly higher friction coefficients (μ = 10(-3)-10(-4)). We believe these differences originate from fast self-healing of the softer surface layers (which are in their liquid disordered phase, POPC, or close to it, DMPC), which renders the robustness of the DPPC or DSPC (both in their solid ordered phase) less important in these conditions. Under these circumstances, the enhanced hydration of the less densely packed POPC and DMPC surface layers is now believed to play an important role, and allows enhanced lubrication via the hydration lubrication mechanism. Our findings may have implications for the understanding of complex biological systems such us biolubrication of synovial joints.

  19. The role of retinal in the long-range protein-lipid interactions in bacteriorhodopsin-phosphatidylcholine vesicles.

    PubMed

    Bryl, K; Yoshihara, K

    2001-01-01

    The effects of bacteriorhodopsin analogues and the analogues of a bacteriorhodopsin mutant (D96N) on the lateral organization of lipids have been investigated with lipid species with a variety of acyl chain lengths. The analogues, obtained by regeneration of bacterioopsin or mutant opsin with 14-, 12-, 10-, or 8-fluororetinal, were reconstituted with 1,2-didodecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1,2-ditetradecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and 1,2-dioctadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. The phase behavior of the protein-lipid systems was investigated at different temperatures and different protein/lipid molar ratios by analyzing the fluorescence and phase properties of the 1-acyl-2-[8-(2-anthroyl)octanol]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine probe. The (8,10,12)-bacteriorhodopsins had a similar effect on the lipid phase transition to that induced by native bacteriorhodopsin: a rigidifying effect on the three shorter lipid species and a fluidifying effect on the longest-chain lipids used. The substitution of retinal with 14-fluororetinal resulted in much stronger effects of the protein on the lipids: a more pronounced up-shift of the lipid phase transition temperature, a rigidifying effect on all the lipids used, and an elongation of the distance over which the hydrophobic thickness of the lipid bilayer was perturbed by the protein. Evidence was provided that retinal contributed to the long-range protein-lipid interactions in bacteriorhodopsin-phosphatidylcholine vesicles. The extent of this contribution was dependent on the retinal structure in close vicinity to the Shiff base and on the compactness of the protein structure.

  20. sup 31 P and sup 2 H NMR studies of structure and motion in bilayers of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, R. )

    1988-10-04

    The structural and motional properties of mixed bilayers of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) have been examined by using wide-line {sup 31}P, {sup 14}N, and {sup 2H} NMR. {sup 2}H and {sup 14}N NMR data showed that in mixed bilayers containing both PC and PE the conformations of the head-group moieties are essentially identical with those observed for bilayers containing a single phospholipid species. Equimolar amounts of cholesterol induce also only a small change in head-group conformation. For all phospholipid mixtures studied, the {sup 31}P T{sub 1} relaxation was homogeneous over the whole powder spectrum and could be fitted to a single-exponential decay. The {sup 31}P vs temperature profiles were analyzed by a simple correlation model. The presence of equimolar amounts of PE containing either the same (POPE) or a different (Escherichia coli PE) fatty acid composition had essentially no effect on the rate of rotational diffusion of the phosphate groups, with the correlation time being found to be 0.68 ns at 20{degree}C. The presence of equimolar amounts of cholesterol decreased the correlation time to 0.65 ns, and also the activation energy was reduced to 22.6 kJ mol{sup {minus}1}. The authors interpret the decrease in activation energy as being due to the spacing effect of cholesterol which reduces the H-bonding interactions between head-groups, allowing them to rotate more freely. For all cases examined, the rotational diffusion of the phosphate moieties was slower than that observed for the rigid glycerol backbone of the molecule, the latter probably corresponding to overall phospholipid rotation.

  1. Assessment of oxidative stress in leukocytes and granulocyte function following oral administration of a silibinin-phosphatidylcholine complex in cats.

    PubMed

    Webb, Craig B; McCord, Kelly W; Twedt, David C

    2009-01-01

    To determine the effect of oral administration of a silibinin-phosphatidylcholine complex (SPC) on oxidative stress in leukocytes and granulocyte function in healthy cats. 10 purpose-bred adult cats. Cats were administered SPC (10 mg/kg/d) orally for 5 days; blood samples were collected prior to and immediately after the 5-day treatment period. Leukocytes were incubated with monochlorobimane for detection of reduced glutathione (GSH) via flow cytometry. Leukocytes were also incubated with dihydrorhodamine 123 and mixed with Escherichia coli conjugated to a fluorescent marker to measure E coli phagocytosis and the subsequent oxidative burst via flow cytometry. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, along with the reduced glutathione-to-oxidized glutathione (GSH:GSSG) ratio and a measure of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde concentration [micromol/L of blood]), were measured spectrophotometrically. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI), representing GSH content, increased significantly in feline lymphocytes and granulocytes following 5 days of oral administration of SPC. Mean +/- SD lymphocyte MFI significantly increased from 27.8 +/- 9.0 to 39.6 +/- 6.7, and the granulocyte MFI increased from 508.6 +/- 135.6 to 612.1 +/- 122.9. Following 5 days of SPC administration, the percentage of phagocytic cells that were responding optimally significantly increased (from 37 +/- 11.8% to 45 +/- 17.5%). Other measures of oxidative stress did not change significantly. In cats, oral administration of supplemental SPC appears to increase granulocyte GSH content and phagocytic function, both of which would be potentially beneficial in cats with diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  2. Differential Effects of Cholesterol, Ergosterol and Lanosterol on a Dipalmitoyl Phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) membrane: A Molecular Dynamics Simulations Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cournia, Zoe; Ullmann, G. Matthias; Smith, Jeremy C

    2007-02-01

    Lipid raft/domain formation may arise as a result of the effects of specific sterols on the physical properties of membranes. Here, using molecular dynamics simulation, we examine the effects of three closely-related sterols, ergosterol, cholesterol, and lanosterol, at a biologically relevant concentration (40 mol %) on the structural properties of a model dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) membrane at 309 and 323 K. All three sterols are found to order the DPPC acyl tails and condense the membrane relative to the DPPC liquid-phase membrane, but each one does this to a significantly different degree. The smooth {alpha}-face of ergosterol, together with the presence of tail unsaturation in this sterol, leads to closer interaction of ergosterol with the lipids and closer packing of the lipids with each other, so ergosterol has a higher condensing effect on the membrane, as reflected by the area per lipid. Moreover, ergosterol induces a higher proportion of trans lipid conformers, a thicker membrane, and higher lipid order parameters and is aligned more closely with the membrane normal. Ergosterol also positions itself closer to the bilayer/water interface. In contrast, the rough {alpha}-face of lanosterol leads to a less close interaction of the steroid ring system with the phospholipid acyl chains, and so lanosterol orders, straightens, and packs the lipid acyl chains less well and is less closely aligned with the membrane normal. Furthermore, lanosterol lies closer to the relatively disordered membrane center than do the other sterols. The behavior of cholesterol in all the above respects is intermediate between that of lanosterol and ergosterol. The findings here may explain why ergosterol is the most efficient of the three sterols at promoting the liquid-ordered phase and lipid domain formation and may also furnish part of the explanation as to why cholesterol is evolutionarily preferred over lanosterol in higher-vertebrate plasma membranes.

  3. StarD7 Protein Deficiency Adversely Affects the Phosphatidylcholine Composition, Respiratory Activity, and Cristae Structure of Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Horibata, Yasuhiro; Ando, Hiromi; Zhang, Peixiang; Vergnes, Laurent; Aoyama, Chieko; Itoh, Masahiko; Reue, Karen; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki

    2016-11-25

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major phospholipid of mitochondria, comprising 40-50% of both the outer and the inner membranes. However, PC must be imported from its production organelles because mitochondria lack the enzymes essential for PC biosynthesis. In a previous study, we found that StarD7 mediates the intracellular transfer of PC to mitochondria. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the contribution of StarD7 to the maintenance of mitochondrial phospholipid content and function using siRNA-mediated knockdown and knock-out (KO) of the StarD7 gene in HEPA-1 cells. Real time analysis of respiratory activity demonstrated that the oxygen consumption rate and activity of mitochondrial complexes were impaired in StarD7-KD cells. To confirm these results, we established StarD7-KO HEPA-1 cells by double nicking using CRISPR/Cas9n. As expected, StarD7-KD and -KO cells showed a significant reduction in mitochondrial PC content. The ATP level and growth rate of KO cells were notably lower compared with wild-type cells when cultured in glucose-free galactose-containing medium to force cells to rely on mitochondrial ATP production. In KO cells, the level of the MTCO1 protein, a primary subunit of complex IV, was reduced without a concomitant decrease in its mRNA, but the level was restored when StarD7-I was overexpressed. StarD7-KO cells showed impaired formation of the mitochondrial supercomplexes and exhibited a disorganized cristae structure, with no changes in optic atrophy 1 protein. These findings indicate that StarD7 plays important roles in maintaining the proper composition of mitochondrial phospholipids as well as mitochondrial function and morphogenesis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Effective bilayer expansion and erythrocyte shape change induced by monopalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine. Quantitative light microscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements.

    PubMed Central

    Chi, L M; Wu, W G

    1990-01-01

    When human erythrocytes are treated with exogenous monopalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (MPPC), the normal biconcave disk shape red blood cells (RBC) become spiculate echinocytes. The present study examines the quantitative aspect of the relationship between effective bilayer expansion and erythrocyte shape change by a newly developed method. This method is based on the combination of direct surface area measurement of micropipette and relative bilayer expansion measurement of 13C crosspolarization/magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Assuming that 13C NMR chemical shift of fatty acyl chain can be used as an indicator of lateral packing of membrane bilayers, it is possible for us to estimate the surface area expansion of red cell membrane induced by MPPC from that induced by ethanol. Partitions of lipid molecules into cell membrane were determined by studies of shape change potency as a function of MPPC and red cell concentration. It is found that 8(+/- 0.5) x 10(6) molecules of MPPC per cell will effectively induce stage three echinocytes and yield 3.2(+/- 0.2)% expansion of outer monolayer surface area. Surface area of normal cells determined by direct measurements from fixed geometry of red cells aspirated by micropipette was 118.7 +/- 8.5 microns2. The effective cross-sectional area of MPPC molecules in the cell membrane therefore was determined to be 48(+/- 4) A2, which is in agreement with those determined by x-ray from model membranes and crystals of lysophospholipids. We concluded that surface area expansion of RBC can be explained by a simple consideration of cross-sectional area of added molecules and that erythrocyte shape changes correspond quantitatively to the incorporated lipid molecules. Images FIGURE 3 PMID:2393706

  5. Cholesterol modulates interaction between an amphipathic class A peptide, Ac-18A-NH2, and phosphatidylcholine bilayers.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Masashi; Gorbenko, Galyna; Tanaka, Masafumi; Saito, Hiroyuki; Molotkovsky, Julian; Nakano, Minoru; Handa, Tetsurou

    2002-03-26

    Cholesterol (Chol) in phosphatidylcholine large unilamellar vesicles (PC LUV) modulated interaction of the bilayers with a class A amphipathic peptide, Ac-18A-NH2: Chol increased the peptide binding capacity and reduced the affinity together with the peptide-induced leakage of calcein from LUV. Similar effects of Chol have been observed on the interaction of LUV with apoA-I [Saito, H., Miyako, Y., Handa, T., and Miyajima, K. (1997) J. Lipid Res. 38, 287-294]. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the peptide indicated a similar helical structure formation in LUV with and without Chol. The fluorescence spectral shift, quantum yield, anisotropy, and acrylamide-quenching of the peptide Trp indicated that in PC:Chol (3:2) LUV, Ac-18A-NH2 was located in a more polar membrane environment with increased motional freedom and greater accessibility to the aqueous medium. Fluorescence energy transfer from the Trp indole ring to acceptors situated at different depths in the bilayers revealed that the amphipathic peptide penetrated the hydrophobic interior of PC bilayers, while the peptide was located at the polar zwitterionic surface in PC:Chol LUV. The inclusion of Chol causes the headgroup separation of PC at the surface of LUV and increases the binding maximum of the wedge-shaped amphipathic peptide without disrupting the membrane structure. In addition, the rigidifying effect of Chol on PC acyl chains prevents the penetration of the peptide into the bilayer interior. These findings imply that Chol in membranes affects the binding and motional freedom of exchangeable plasma apolipoproteins containing class A amphipathic sequences, e.g., apoA-I and apoCs.

  6. Efficient synthesis of phosphatidylserine in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran.

    PubMed

    Duan, Zhang-Qun; Hu, Fei

    2013-01-10

    2-Methyltetrahydrofuran has recently been described as a promising and green solvent. Herein, it was successfully used as the reaction medium for enzyme-mediated transphosphatidylation of phosphatidylcholine with L-serine with the aim of phosphatidylserine synthesis for the first time. Our results indicated that as high as 90% yield of phosphatidylserine could be achieved after 12 h combined with no byproduct (phosphatidic acid) forming. The present work accommodated a facilely and efficiently enzymatic strategy for preparing phosphatidylserine, which possessed obvious advantages over the reported processes in terms of high efficiency and environmental friendliness. This work is also a proof-of-concept opening the use of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran in biosynthesis as well.

  7. The vertical location of α-tocopherol in phosphatidylcholine membranes is not altered as a function of the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acyl chains.

    PubMed

    Ausili, Alessio; de Godos, Ana M; Torrecillas, Alejandro; Aranda, Francisco J; Corbalán-García, Senena; Gómez-Fernández, Juan C

    2017-03-01

    α-Tocopherol is a natural preservative that prevents free radical chain oxidations in biomembranes. We have studied the location of α-tocopherol in model membranes formed by different unsaturated phosphatidylcholines, namely 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PLPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PAPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PDPC). Small angle X-ray diffraction revealed that α-tocopherol was well mixed with all the phospholipids. In all the cases only one lamellar phase was detected. Very modest changes occasioned by α-tocopherol were observed in the electron density profiles. The results obtained from quenching of α-tocopherol intrinsic fluorescence by acrylamide showed that this vitamin was inefficiently quenched in the four types of membranes, indicating that the fluorescent chromanol ring was poorly accessible for this hydrophilic quencher. Compatible with that, quenching by doxyl derivatives of phosphatidylcholines indicated that the chromanol ring was close in the four membranes to the nitroxide probe located at position 5. Quenching by doxyl-phosphatidylcholines also indicated that the efficiency of quenching was higher in POPC than in the other unsaturated phospholipids. (1)H-MAS-NMR showed that α-tocopherol induced chemical shifts of protons from the phospholipids, especially of those bonded to carbons 2 and 3 of the acyl chains of the four phospholipids studied. The (1)H-MAS-NMR NOESY results suggested that the lower part of the chromanol ring was located between the C3 of the fatty acyl chains and the centre of the hydrophobic monolayer for the four phospholipid membranes studied. Taken together, these results suggest that α-tocopherol is located, in all the membranes studied, with the chromanol ring within the hydrophobic palisade but not far away from the lipid-water interface.

  8. Activation of Phosphatidylcholine-Specific Phospholipase C in Breast and Ovarian Cancer: Impact on MRS-Detected Choline Metabolic Profile and Perspectives for Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Podo, Franca; Paris, Luisa; Cecchetti, Serena; Spadaro, Francesca; Abalsamo, Laura; Ramoni, Carlo; Ricci, Alessandro; Pisanu, Maria Elena; Sardanelli, Francesco; Canese, Rossella; Iorio, Egidio

    2016-01-01

    Elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying the aberrant phosphatidylcholine cycle in cancer cells plays in favor of the use of metabolic imaging in oncology and opens the way for designing new targeted therapies. The anomalous choline metabolic profile detected in cancer by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging provides molecular signatures of tumor progression and response to therapy. The increased level of intracellular phosphocholine (PCho) typically detected in cancer cells is mainly attributed to upregulation of choline kinase, responsible for choline phosphorylation in the biosynthetic Kennedy pathway, but can also be partly produced by activation of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC). This hydrolytic enzyme, known for implications in bacterial infection and in plant survival to hostile environmental conditions, is reported to be activated in mitogen- and oncogene-induced phosphatidylcholine cycles in mammalian cells, with effects on cell signaling, cell cycle regulation, and cell proliferation. Recent investigations showed that PC-PLC activation could account for 20–50% of the intracellular PCho production in ovarian and breast cancer cells of different subtypes. Enzyme activation was associated with PC-PLC protein overexpression and subcellular redistribution in these cancer cells compared with non-tumoral counterparts. Moreover, PC-PLC coimmunoprecipitated with the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) and EGFR in HER2-overexpressing breast and ovarian cancer cells, while pharmacological PC-PLC inhibition resulted into long-lasting HER2 downregulation, retarded receptor re-expression on plasma membrane and antiproliferative effects. This body of evidence points to PC-PLC as a potential target for newly designed therapies, whose effects can be preclinically and clinically monitored by metabolic imaging methods. PMID:27532027

  9. Energy-minimized structures and packing states of a homologous series of mixed-chain phosphatidylcholines: a molecular mechanics study on the diglyceride moieties.

    PubMed Central

    Li, S; Wang, Z Q; Lin, H N; Huang, C

    1993-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholines or C(X):C(Y)PC, quantitatively the most abundant lipids in animal cell membranes, are structurally composed of two parts: a headgroup and a diglyceride. The diglyceride moiety consists of the glycerol backbone and two acyl chains. It is the wide diversity of the acyl chains, or the large variations in X and Y in C(X):C(Y)PC, that makes the family of phosphatidylcholines an extremely complex mixture of different molecular species. Since most of the physical properties of phospholipids with the same headgroup depend strongly on the structures of the lipid acyl chains, the energy-minimized structure and steric energy of each diglyceride moiety of a series of 14 molecular species of phosphatidylcholines with molecular weights identical to that of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine without the headgroup are determined in this communication by molecular mechanics (MM) calculations. Results of two types of trans-bilayer dimer for each of the 14 molecular species of phosphatidylcholines are also presented; specifically, the dimeric structures are constructed initially based on the partially interdigitated and mixed interdigitated packing motifs followed subsequently by the energy-minimized refinement with MM calculations. Finally, tetramers with various structures to model the lateral lipid-lipid interactions in a lipid bilayer are considered. Results of laborious MM calculations show that saturated diacyl C(X):C(Y)PC with delta C/CL values greater than 0.41 prefer topologically to assemble into tetramers of the mixed interdigitated motif, and those with delta C/CL values less than 0.41 prefer to assemble into tetramers with a repertoire of the partially interdigitated motif. Here, delta C/CL, a lipid asymmetry parameter, is defined as the normalized acyl chain length difference between the sn-1 and sn-2 acyl chains for a C(X):C(Y)PC molecule; an increase in delta C/CL value is an indication of increasing asymmetry between the two lipid acyl chains. These

  10. Probing the ethanol-induced chain interdigitations in gel-state bilayers of mixed-chain phosphatidylcholines.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, C; McIntosh, T J

    1997-01-01

    Using high-resolution differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), we have studied the effects of ethanol concentrations, [EtOH], on the main phase transition temperatures (T[m]) of the following mixed-chain phosphatidylcholines (PCs): C(15):C(17)PC, C(17):C(15)PC, and C(12):C(20)PC. These lipids have a common molecular weight; however, their apparent acyl chain-length differences between the sn-1 and sn-2 acyl chains, delta C, are distinctively different. The delta C values for these three mixed-chain PCs are, respectively, 0.5, 3.5, and 6.5 C-C bond lengths. DSC results show that the T(m) profiles for C(15):C(17)PC and C(17):C(15)PC bilayers in the plot of T(m) versus [EtOH] are V-shaped biphasic curves, with the minimum T(m) occurring at 50 and 73 mg/ml of ethanol, respectively. In contrast, the C(12):C(20)PC bilayer exhibits a nearly linear decrease in T(m) with increasing [EtOH]. In addition, x-ray diffraction experiments were also performed to assess the structural changes of these three mixed-chain PCs in the gel-state bilayers, at 20 degrees C, in response to high concentrations of ethanol. X-ray diffraction data indicate that, in the absence of ethanol, these three lamellar lipids are all packed in the normal (L beta') gel phase in aqueous media. In the presence of 120 mg/ml of ethanol, however, the C(15):C(17)PC and C(17):C(15)PC lamellae are packed in the fully interdigitated (L beta[I]) gel phase. The V-shaped T(m) curves detected calorimetrically for these two lipids in response to [EtOH] can thus be explained by the ethanol-induced L beta' --> L beta[I] isothermal phase transition. Interestingly, the results of x-ray diffraction study reveal, for the first time, that an ethanol-induced L beta' --> L(MI) (mixed interdigitated phase) isothermal phase transition occurs in the gel-state bilayer of highly asymmetrical C(12):C(20)PC. Therefore, the chain asymmetry is recognized to play an important role in the ethanol-induced chain interdigitation at T < T

  11. Inhibition of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C downregulates HER2 overexpression on plasma membrane of breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Overexpression on plasma membrane of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is reported in 25% to 30% of breast cancers. Heterodimer formation with cognate members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, such as HER3 and EGFR, activates abnormal cell-signalling cascades responsible for tumorigenesis and further transcriptional HER2 gene upregulation. Targeting the molecular mechanisms controlling HER2 overexpression and recycling may effectively deactivate this feedback-amplification loop. We recently showed that inactivation of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) may exert a pivotal role in selectively modulating the expression on the membrane of specific receptors or proteins relevant to cell function. In the present study, we investigated the capability of PC-PLC inhibition to target the molecular mechanisms controlling HER2 overexpression on the membrane of breast cancer cells by altering the rates of its endocytosis and lysosomal degradation. Methods Localization on the membrane and interaction of PC-PLC with HER2, EGFR, and HER3 were investigated on HER2-overexpressing and HER2-low breast cancer cell lines, by using confocal laser scanning microscopy, flow cytometry, cell-surface biotinylation, isolation of lipid rafts, and immunoprecipitation experiments. The effects of the PC-PLC inhibitor tricyclodecan-9-yl-potassium xanthate (D609) on HER2 expression on the membrane and on the levels of overall HER2, HER2-HER3, and HER2-EGFR contents were monitored in the HER2-overexpressing SKBr3 cells, after either transient or continuous receptor engagement with anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies, including trastuzumab. Changes of HER2 expression and cell proliferation were examined in SKBr3, BT-474, and MDA-MB-453 cells continuously exposed to D609 alone or combined with trastuzumab. Results PC-PLC selectively accumulates on the plasma membrane of HER2-overexpressing cells, where it colocalizes and associates with

  12. Inhibition of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C results in loss of mesenchymal traits in metastatic breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Acquisition of mesenchymal characteristics confers to breast cancer (BC) cells the capability of invading tissues different from primary tumor site, allowing cell migration and metastasis. Regulators of the mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) may represent targets for anticancer agents. Accruing evidence supports functional implications of choline phospholipid metabolism in oncogene-activated cell signaling and differentiation. We investigated the effects of D609, a xanthate inhibiting phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) and sphingomyelin synthase (SMS), as a candidate regulator of cell differentiation and MET in the highly metastatic BC cell line MDA-MB-231. Methods PC-PLC expression and activity were investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), immunoblotting and enzymatic assay on human MDA-MB-231 compared with MCF-7 and SKBr3 BC cells and a nontumoral immortalized counterpart (MCF-10A). The effects of D609 on PC-PLC and SMS activity, loss of mesenchymal markers and changes in migration and invasion potential were monitored in MDA-MB-231 cells by enzymatic assays, CLSM, immunoblotting and transwell chamber invasion combined with scanning electron microscopy examinations. Cell proliferation, formation and composition of lipid bodies and cell morphology were investigated in D609-treated BC cells by cell count, CLSM, flow-cytometry of BODIPY-stained cells, nuclear magnetic resonance and thin-layer chromatography. Results PC-PLC (but not phospholipase D) showed 2- to 6-fold activation in BC compared with nontumoral cells, the highest activity (up to 0.4 pmol/μg protein/min) being detected in the poorly-differentiated MDA-MB-231 cells. Exposure of the latter cells to D609 (50 μg/mL, 24-72 h) resulted into 60-80% PC-PLC inhibition, while SMS was transiently inhibited by a maximum of 21%. These features were associated with progressive decreases of mesenchymal traits such as vimentin and N-cadherin expression

  13. Conformational response of the phosphatidylcholine headgroup to bilayer surface charge: torsion angle constraints from dipolar and quadrupolar couplings in bicelles.

    PubMed

    Semchyschyn, Darlene J; Macdonald, Peter M

    2004-02-01

    The effects of bilayer surface charge on the conformation of the phosphocholine group of phosphatidylcholine were investigated using a torsion angle analysis of quadrupolar and dipolar splittings in, respectively, (2)H and (13)C NMR spectra of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) labelled in the phosphocholine group with either deuterons (POPC-alpha-d(2), POPC-beta-d(2) and POPC-gamma-d(9)) or carbon-13 (POPC-alpha-(13)C and POPC-alphabeta-(13)C(2)) and incorporated into magnetically aligned bicelles containing various amounts of either the cationic amphiphile 1,2-dimyristoyl-3-trimethylammoniumpropane (DMTAP) or the anionic amphiphile 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DMPG). Three sets of quadrupolar splittings, one from each of the three deuteron labelling positions, and three sets of dipolar splittings ((13)C(alpha)-(31)P, (13)C(alpha)-(13)C(beta), (13)C(beta)-(14)N), were measured at each surface charge, along with the (31)P residual chemical shift anisotropy. The torsion angle analysis assumed fast anisotropic rotation of POPC about its long molecular axis, thus projecting all NMR interactions onto that director axis of motion. Dipolar, quadrupolar and chemical shift anisotropies were calculated as a function of the phosphocholine internal torsion angles by first transforming into a common reference frame affixed to the phosphocholine group prior to motional averaging about the director axis. A comparison of experiment and calculation provided the two order parameters specifying the director orientation relative to the molecule, plus the torsion angles alpha(3), alpha(4) and alpha(5). Surface charge was found to have little effect on the torsion angle alpha(5) (rotations about C(alpha)-C(beta)), but to have large and inverse effects on torsion angles alpha(3) [rotations about P-O(11)] and alpha(4) [rotations about O(11)-C(alpha)], yielding a net upwards tilt of the P-N vector in the presence of cationic surface charge, and a

  14. Influence of chloride on modification of unsaturated phosphatidylcholines by the myeloperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide/bromide system.

    PubMed

    Panasenko, Oleg M; Vakhrusheva, Tatyana; Tretyakov, Vadim; Spalteholz, Holger; Arnhold, Juergen

    2007-01-01

    The leukocyte enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) is capable of catalyzing the oxidation of chloride and bromide ions, at physiological concentrations of these substrates, by hydrogen peroxide, generating hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hypobromous acid (HOBr), respectively. Our previous results showed that the hypohalous acids formed react with double bonds in phosphatidylcholines (PCs) to produce chloro- and bromohydrins. Lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC) is additionally formed in PCs with two or more double bonds. This study was conducted to determine the effect physiological chloride concentration (140 mM) has on the formation of bromohydrins and lyso-PC from unsaturated PC upon treatment with the myeloperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide/bromide (MPO/H2O2/Br-) system using physiological bromide concentrations (20-100 microM). The composition of reaction products was analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). With monounsaturated PC, we demonstrated that the rate and extent of mono-bromohydrin formation were higher in the samples with 140 mM chloride compared to those with no added chloride. Moreover, mono-bromohydrin came to be the major product and no mono-chlorohydrin was observed already at 60 microM bromide. We attributed these effects to the involvement of HOBr arising from the reaction of MPO-derived HOCl with bromide rather than to the exchange of bromide with chlorine atoms of chlorohydrins or direct formation of HOBr by MPO. The presence of chloride shifted the pH optimum for mono-bromohydrin formation (pH 5.0) toward neutral values, and a significant yield of mono-bromohydrin was detected at physiological pH values (7.0-7.4). For polyunsaturated PC, chloride enhanced also lyso-PC production, the effect being pronounced at bromide concentrations below 40 microM. The results indicate that at physiological levels of chloride and bromide, chloride promotes MPO-mediated formation of bromohydrins and lyso

  15. Thermodynamics and dynamics of phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol mixed model membranes in the liquid crystalline state: effects of water.

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Y K; Budil, D E; Freed, J H

    1993-01-01

    A method for obtaining the thermodynamic activity of each membrane component in phosphatidylcholine (PC)/cholesterol mixtures, that is based upon ESR spin labeling is examined. The thermodynamic activity coefficients, gamma PC and gamma chol, for the PC and cholesterol, respectively, are obtained from the measured orientational order parameters, SPC and S(chol), as a function of cholesterol content for a spin-labeled PC and the sterol-type cholestane spin probe (CSL), respectively, and the effects of water concentration are also considered. At water content of 24 weight%, the thermodynamics of DMPC/cholesterol/water mixtures in the liquid-crystalline state may be treated as a two-component solution ignoring the water, but at lower water content the role of water is important, especially at lower cholesterol concentrations. At lower water content (17 wt%), gamma chol decreases with increasing cholesterol content which implies aggregation. However, at higher water content (24 wt%), gamma chol is found initially to increase as a function of cholesterol content before decreasing at higher cholesterol content. This implies a favorable accommodation for the cholesterol in the membrane at high water and low cholesterol content. Good thermodynamic consistency according to the Gibbs-Duhem equation was obtained for gamma PC and gamma chol at 24 wt% water. The availability of gamma chol (and gamma PC) as a function of cholesterol concentration permits the estimate of the boundary for phase separation. The rotational diffusion coefficients of the labeled PC and of CSL were also obtained from the ESR spectra. A previously proposed universal relation for the perpendicular component of the rotational diffusion tensor, R perpendicular, for CSL in PC/cholesterol mixtures (i.e., R perpendicular = R0 perpendicular exp(-AS2chol/RT)) is confirmed. A change in composition of cholesterol or of water for DMPC/cholesterol/water mixtures affects R perpendicular only through the dependence

  16. Quantitative determination of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides during copper oxidation of LDL and HDL by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hui, Shu-Ping; Taguchi, Yudai; Takeda, Seiji; Ohkawa, Futaba; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Yamaki, Shinobu; Jin, Shigeki; Fuda, Hirotoshi; Kurosawa, Takao; Chiba, Hitoshi

    2012-06-01

    1-Palmitoyl-2-linoleoylphosphatidylcholine monohydroperoxide (PC 16:0/18:2-OOH) and 1-stearoyl-2-linoleoylphosphatidylcholine monohydroperoxide (PC 18:0/18:2-OOH) were measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) using nonendogenous 1-palmitoyl-2-heptadecenoylphosphatidylcholine monohydroperoxide as an internal standard. The calibration curves for synthetic PC 16:0/18:2-OOH and PC 18:0/18:2-OOH, which were obtained by direct injection of the internal standard into the LC/MS system, were linear throughout the calibration range (0.8-12.8 pmol). Within-day and between-day coefficients of variation were less than 10%, and the recoveries were between 86% and 105%. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were determined using synthetic standards. The LOD (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) was 0.01 pmol, and the LOQ (signal-to-noise ratio 6:1) was 0.08 pmol for both PC 16:0/18:2-OOH and PC 18:0/18:2-OOH. With use of this method, the concentrations of PC 16:0/18:2-OOH and PC 18:0/18:2-OOH in the lipoprotein fractions during copper-mediated oxidation were determined. We prepared oxLDL and oxHDL by incubating native LDL and native HDL from human plasma (n =  10) with CuSO(4) for up to 4 h. The time course of the PC 16:0/18:2-OOH and PC 18:0/18:2-OOH levels during oxidation consisted of three phases. For oxidized LDL, both compounds exhibited a slow lag phase and a subsequent rapidly increasing propagation phase, followed by a gradually decreasing degradation phase. In contrast, for oxidized HDL, both compounds initially exhibited a prompt propagation phase with a subsequent plateau phase, followed by a rapid degradation phase. The analytical LC/MS method for phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides might be useful for the analysis of biological samples.

  17. Impact of phosphatidylcholine liposomes on the compositional changes of VLDL during lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Ćwiklińska, Agnieszka; Gliwińska, Anna; Senderowska, Zuzanna; Kortas-Stempak, Barbara; Kuchta, Agnieszka; Dąbkowski, Kamil; Jankowski, Maciej

    2016-02-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolysis in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) is accompanied by the release of surface material containing phospholipids (PL), free cholesterol (FC) and apolipoproteins, E (apoE) and Cs (apoCII, apoCIII). The released molecules are accepted by high density lipoprotein (HDL), and new HDL-sized apoE-containing particles are also generated. A decrease in the number of HDL particles or abnormalities in their structure is associated with unfavourable changes in the features of VLDL remnants. Phosphatidylcholine liposomes (PC-L) can also act as acceptors of surface material components released from lipoproteins. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of liposomes on compositional changes of VLDL during its LPL-mediated lipolysis. VLDL isolated from human sera was incubated with LPL (LPL:VLDLTAG; 24 μg/ml:90 mg/dl) and/or PC-L (VLDLPL:PC-LPL; 1:30 weight ratio). After incubation (2h, 37 °C) VLDL was separated from other reaction products, and VLDL lipid and apolipoprotein content were analysed. Newly generated HDL-sized apoE-containing lipoproteins were separated by two-dimensional non-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGGE). The reaction of VLDL with PC-L in the presence or absence of LPL significantly affected the VLDL composition. The ratio of core (TAG+cholesteryl ester) to surface (PL+FC) lipids in VLDL decreased 1.8-fold with PC-L, 1.2-fold with LPL and 3-fold with PC-L+LPL. The reaction with PC-L and PC-L+LPL caused a 3.7-fold and 3.2-fold decrease of apoCs/apoE average weight ratio, respectively. Compositional changes in VLDL under the influence of PC-L were accompanied by an increase in the efficiency of VLDL lipolysis and the generation of apoE-containing HDL-sized particles, heterogeneous in size (from ∼ 9 to ∼ 18.8 nm) and mobility (γ and preβ). We conclude that PL-rich particles, similarly to HDL, promote the release of surface material components from VLDL during LPL

  18. Increased palmitoyl-myristoyl-phosphatidylcholine in neonatal rat surfactant is lung specific and correlates with oral myristic acid supply.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Wolfgang; Raith, Marco; Pynn, Christopher J; Gille, Christian; Stichtenoth, Guido; Stoll, Dieter; Schleicher, Erwin; Poets, Christian F

    2011-08-01

    Surfactant predominantly comprises phosphatidylcholine (PC) species, together with phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols, neutral lipids, and surfactant proteins-A to -D. Together, dipalmitoyl-PC (PC16:0/16:0), palmitoyl-myristoyl-PC (PC16:0/14:0), and palmitoyl-palmitoleoyl-PC (PC16:0/16:1) make up 75-80% of mammalian surfactant PC, the proportions of which vary during development and in chronic lung diseases. PC16:0/14:0, which exerts specific effects on macrophage differentiation in vitro, increases in surfactant during alveolarization (at the expense of PC16:0/16:0), a prenatal event in humans but postnatal in rats. The mechanisms responsible and the significance of this reversible increase are, however, not understood. We hypothesized that, in rats, myristic acid (C14:0) enriched milk is key to lung-specific PC16:0/14:0 increases in surfactant. We found that surfactant PC16:0/14:0 in suckling rats correlates with C14:0 concentration in plasma chylomicrons and lung tissue triglycerides, and that PC16:0/14:0 fractions reflect exogenous C14:0 supply. Significantly, C14:0 was increased neither in plasma PC, nor in liver triglycerides, free fatty acids, or PC. Lauric acid was also abundant in triglycerides, but was not incorporated into surfactant PC. Comparing a C14:0-rich milk diet with a C14:0-poor carbohydrate diet revealed increased C14:0 and decreased C16:0 in plasma and lung triglycerides, respectively. PC16:0/14:0 enrichment at the expense of PC16:0/16:0 did not impair surfactant surface tension function. However, the PC profile of the alveolar macrophages from the milk-fed animals changed from PC16:0/16:0 rich to PC16:0/14:0 rich. This was accompanied by reduced reactive oxygen species production. We propose that nutritional supply with C14:0 and its lung-specific enrichment may contribute to decreased reactive oxygen species production during alveolarization.

  19. TNF-α-induced up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines is reduced by phosphatidylcholine in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major lipid of the gastrointestinal mucus layer. We recently showed that mucus from patients suffering from ulcerative colitis has low levels of PC. Clinical studies reveal that the therapeutic addition of PC to the colonic mucus using slow release preparations is beneficial. The positive role of PC in this disease is still unclear; however, we have recently shown that PC has an intrinsic anti-inflammatory property. It could be demonstrated that the exogenous application of PC inhibits membrane-dependent actin assembly and TNF-α-induced nuclear NF-κB activation. We investigate here in more detail the hypothesis that the exogenous application of PC has anti-inflammatory properties. Methods PC species with different fatty acid side chains were applied to differentiated and non-differentiated Caco-2 cells treated with TNF-α to induce a pro-inflammatory response. We analysed TNF-α-induced NF-κB-activation via the transient expression of a NF-κB-luciferase reporter system. Pro-inflammatory gene transcription was detected with the help of a quantitative real time (RT)-PCR analysis. We assessed the binding of TNF-α to its receptor by FACS and analysed lipid rafts by isolating detergent resistant membranes (DRMs). Results The exogenous addition of all PC species tested significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory signalling. The expression levels of IL-8, ICAM-1, IP-10, MCP-1, TNF-α and MMP-1 were significantly reduced after PC pre-treatment for at least two hours. The effect was comparable to the inhibition of NF-kB by the NF-kB inhibitor SN 50 and was not due to a reduced binding of TNF-α to its receptor or a decreased surface expression of TNF-α receptors. PC was also effective when applied to the apical side of polarised Caco-2 cultures if cells were stimulated from the basolateral side. PC treatment changed the compartmentation of the TNF-α-receptors 1 and 2 to DRMs. Conclusion PC induces a prolonged

  20. Major Alterations of Phosphatidylcholine and Lysophosphotidylcholine Lipids in the Substantia Nigra Using an Early Stage Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Kyle; Smith, Catherine A.; Hayley, Shawn; Smith, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting the nigrostriatal pathway, where patients do not manifest motor symptoms until >50% of neurons are lost. Thus, it is of great importance to determine early neuronal changes that may contribute to disease progression. Recent attention has focused on lipids and their role in pro- and anti-apoptotic processes. However, information regarding the lipid alterations in animal models of PD is lacking. In this study, we utilized high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) and novel HPLC solvent methodology to profile phosphatidylcholines and sphingolipids within the substantia nigra. The ipsilateral substantia nigra pars compacta was collected from rats 21 days after an infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), or vehicle into the anterior dorsal striatum. We identified 115 lipid species from their mass/charge ratio using the LMAPS Lipid MS Predict Database. Of these, 19 lipid species (from phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphotidylcholine lipid classes) were significantly altered by 6-OHDA, with most being down-regulated. The two lipid species that were up-regulated were LPC (16:0) and LPC (18:1), which are important for neuroinflammatory signalling. These findings provide a first step in the characterization of lipid changes in early stages of PD-like pathology and could provide novel targets for early interventions in PD. PMID:26274953

  1. Light-regulated Arabidopsis ACBP4 and ACBP5 encode cytosolic acyl-CoA-binding proteins that bind phosphatidylcholine and oleoyl-CoA ester.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shi; Chen, Qin-Fang; Chye, Mee-Len

    2009-10-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, six genes encode acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) that show conservation of an acyl-CoA-binding domain. These ACBPs display varying affinities for acyl-CoA esters, suggesting of different cellular roles. We have recently reported that three members (ACBP4, ACBP5 and ACBP6) are subcellularly localized to the cytosol by biochemical fractionation, confocal microscopy of transgenic Arabidopsis expressing autofluorescence-tagged fusions and immuno-electron microscopy using ACBP-specific antibodies. In this study, we observed by Northern blot analysis that ACBP4 and ACBP5 mRNAs in rosettes were up-regulated by light and dampened-off in darkness, mimicking FAD7 which encodes omega-3-fatty acid desaturase, an enzyme involved in plastidial lipid metabolism. Results from in vitro binding assays indicate that recombinant ACBP4 and ACBP5 proteins bind [(14)C]oleoyl-CoA esters better than recombinant ACBP6, suggesting that light-regulated ACBP4 and ACBP5 encode cytosolic ACBPs that are potential candidates for the intracellular transport of oleoyl-CoA ester exported from the chloroplast to the endoplasmic reticulum for the biosynthesis of non-plastidial membrane lipids. Nonetheless, His-tagged ACBP4 and ACBP5 resemble ACBP6 in their ability to bind phosphatidylcholine suggesting that all three ACBPs are available for the intracellular transfer of phosphatidylcholine.

  2. The roles of phospholipase D and a GTP-binding protein in guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate-stimulated hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine in rat liver plasma membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, K M; Hughes, B P; Barritt, G J

    1990-01-01

    1. Guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) stimulated by 50% the rate of release of [3H]choline and [3H]phosphorylcholine in rat liver plasma membranes labelled with [3H]choline. About 70% of the radioactivity released in the presence of GTP[S] was [3H]choline and 30% was [3H]phosphorylcholine. 2. The hydrolysis of phosphorylcholine to choline and the conversion of choline to phosphorylcholine did not contribute to the formation of [3H]choline and [3H]phosphorylcholine respectively. 3. The release of [3H]choline from membranes was inhibited by low concentrations of SDS or Triton X-100. Considerably higher concentrations of the detergents were required to inhibit the release of [3H]phosphorylcholine. 4. Guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate and guanosine 5'-[alpha beta-methylene]triphosphate, but not adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]-triphosphate, stimulated [3H]choline release to the same extent as did GTP[S]. The GTP[S]-stimulated [3H]choline release was inhibited by guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate, GDP and GTP but not by GMP. 5. It is concluded that, in rat liver plasma membranes, (a) GTP[S]-stimulated hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine is catalysed predominantly by phospholipase D with some contribution from phospholipase C, and (b) the stimulation of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by GTP[s] occurs via a GTP-binding regulatory protein. PMID:2125211

  3. Protein kinase C-independent expression of stromelysin by platelet-derived growth factor, ras oncogene, and phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Meco, M T; Quiñones, S; Municio, M M; Sanz, L; Bernal, D; Cabrero, E; Saus, J; Moscat, J

    1991-11-25

    Changes in the expression of several genes play critical roles in cell growth and tumor transformation. A number of proteases are increased in some tumors, and the level of these enzymes correlates with the metastatic potential of several cancer cell lines. Stromelysin, with the widest substrate specificity, can degrade the extracellular matrix conferring metastatic potential to tumor cells. The mechanisms whereby growth factors and oncogenes control the expression of stromelysin are beginning to be characterized. In the study shown here we also identify a region in the stromelysin promoter which is involved in the induction of stromelysin in response to platelet-derived growth factor, phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C, and ras oncogene. Our results are consistent with the notion that platelet-derived growth factor/phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C induces stromelysin gene expression through a phorbol myristate acetate/protein kinase C-independent mechanism by acting through elements in the stromelysin promoter distinct from the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-responsive element.

  4. Structure and dynamic properties of diunsaturated 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer from molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed Central

    Hyvönen, M T; Rantala, T T; Ala-Korpela, M

    1997-01-01

    Unsaturated fatty acid chains are known to be an essential structural part of biomembranes, but only monounsaturated chains have been included in the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of membrane systems. Here we present a 1-ns MD simulation for a diunsaturated 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (PLPC; 16:0/18:2[delta9,12]) bilayer. The structural behavior of the phosphatidylcholine headgroup, the glycerol backbone, and the hydrating water were assessed and found to be consistent with the existing information about similar systems from both experimental and computational studies. Further analysis was focused on the structure of the double bond region and the effects of the diunsaturation on the bilayer interior. The behavior of the diunsaturated sn-2 chains is affected by the tilted beginning of the chain and the four main conformations of the double bond region. The double bonds of the sn-2 chains also influenced the characteristics of the saturated chains in the sn-1 position. Furthermore, extreme conformations of the sn-2 chains existed that are likely to be related to the functional role of the double bonds. The results here point out the importance of polyunsaturation for the biological interpretations deduced from the membrane MD simulations. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 16 PMID:9414205

  5. Reductive metabolism of carbon tetrachloride by human cytochromes P-450 reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles: mass spectral identification of trichloromethyl radical bound to dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed Central

    Trudell, J R; Bösterling, B; Trevor, A J

    1982-01-01

    It has been proposed that covalent binding of reactive metabolites to liver membrane constituents may be responsible for the hepatoxicity of carbon tetrachloride. This study demonstrates that trichloromethyl free radical is the major reductive metabolite of carbon tetrachloride by cytochrome P-450 and that this free radical is capable of binding to double bonds of fatty acyl chains of the phospholipids in the membrane surrounding cytochrome P-450. The structural identification of the reactive free radical metabolite and the product of its addition to phospholipids was accomplished by use of a reconstituted system of human cytochromes P-450, NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase, and cytochrome b5 in phospholipid vesicles. The reconstituted vesicles contained a mixture of dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine and egg phosphatidylethanolamine that served as both structural components and targets for trichloromethyl free radical binding. After incubation of these vesicles under a N2 atmosphere in the presence of NADPH with 14CCl4, the phospholipids were extracted and then separated by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine fraction was transesterified and the resulting single 14C-labeled fatty acid methyl ester was purified by reverse-phase chromatography. Desorption chemical ionization mass spectrometry with ammonia as reagent gas as well as desorption electron-impact mass spectrometry permitted identification of the molecular structure as a mixture of 9- and 10-(trichloromethyl)stearate methyl esters. PMID:6953422

  6. Gene cloning, structural gene and promoter identification, and active assay of the phosphatidylcholine synthase of Pseudomonas sp. strain 593.

    PubMed

    He, Huoguang; Wu, Bin; Xiong, Min; Li, Yang; Wu, Wenhua; Wang, Xingguo

    2011-10-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain 593, a soil bacterium, is able to use exogenous choline to synthesize phosphatidylcholine via phosphatidylcholine synthase (Pcs). A 2020 bp DNA fragment that hybridized to a Pcs probe was cloned. This fragment contained a large open reading frame (ORF) with two potential ATG start sites that would encode for 293 and 231 amino acid proteins. Fragments containing the two ORFs encoded Pcs when they were inserted into the expression vector pET23a and expressed under the control of the T7 promoter in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) pLysS. However, when the two ORFs were inserted into the cloning vector pMD18-T and expressed without control of the plasmid promoter in E. coli DH5α, only the larger clone exhibited Pcs activity. This suggested that the larger fragment contained a native promoter driving expression of the smaller ORF. A promoter activity assay, in which DNA fragments were inserted into the promoter-probe plasmid pCB182 and β-galactosidase activity of E. coli transformants was tested, demonstrated that a promoter is indeed present in the DNA region. All results together indicate that the 696 bp ORF, not the larger 897 bp ORF, encodes the Pcs in Pseudomonas sp. strain 593 and carries a promoter in front of its 5' terminus.

  7. Investigation of phospholipid synthesis and the disposition of amino acid and carbohydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Boehme, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    The synthesis of pulmonary phospholipids by offspring of diabetic female rats was assessed by means of high performance liquid chromatography combined with automated phosphate analysis. No changes in the pool sizes of the major phospholipids or their precursors were observed. However, offspring of both insulin-treated and untreated diabetic mothers displayed increased pulmonary lyso-phosphatidylcholine. The concentration of glycerylphosphorylcholine, the metabolic product of lyso-phosphatidylcholine, was also increased in these offspring, providing further evidence of a reduced reacylation pathway in the offspring of diabetic mothers. The concentration of phosphatidylglycerol was reduced in the lungs from offspring of diabetic mothers. Preliminary investigation suggested that the mechanism of insulin action on lungs from offspring of diabetic rats may be the diversion of substrate from lipid synthetic pathways into protein synthesis. The utilization of (14C)-labeled amino acids and carbohydrates by normal fetal rat lung, however, revealed no direct insulin effect on protein synthesis. The ability of the fetal lung to convert amino acids into Krebs Cycle intermediates was demonstrated.

  8. Regulation of phospholipid synthesis in phosphatidylserine synthase-deficient (chol) mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Letts, V A; Henry, S A

    1985-01-01

    chol mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are deficient in the synthesis of the phospholipid phosphatidylserine owing to lowered activity of the membrane-associated enzyme phosphatidylserine synthase. chol mutants are auxotrophic for ethanolamine or choline and, in the absence of these supplements, cannot synthesize phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylcholine (PC). We exploited these characteristics of the chol mutants to examine the regulation of phospholipid metabolism in S. cerevisiae. Macromolecular synthesis and phospholipid metabolism were examined in chol cells starved for ethanolamine. As expected, when chol mutants were starved for ethanolamine, the rates of synthesis of the phospholipids phosphatidylethanolamine and PC declined rapidly. Surprisingly, however, coupled to the decline in PC biosynthesis was a simultaneous decrease in the overall rate of phospholipid synthesis. In particular, the rate of synthesis of phosphatidylinositol decreased in parallel with the decline in PC biosynthesis. The results obtained suggest that the slowing of PC biosynthesis in ethanolamine-starved chol cells leads to a coordinated decrease in the synthesis of all phospholipids. However, under conditions of ethanolamine deprivation in chol cells, the cytoplasmic enzyme inositol-1-phosphate synthase could not be repressed by exogenous inositol, and the endogenous synthesis of the phospholipid precursor inositol appeared to be elevated. The implications of these findings with respect to the coordinated regulation of phospholipid synthesis are discussed. Images PMID:2991194

  9. Hyperreactivity of Blood Leukocytes in Patients with NAFLD to Ex Vivo Lipopolysaccharide Treatment Is Modulated by Metformin and Phosphatidylcholine but Not by Alpha Ketoglutarate

    PubMed Central

    Daniluk, Jadwiga; Słabczyńska, Olga; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Toll-like receptor 4 and proinflammatory cytokines play a central role in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We investigated IL-1, IL-6 and TNFα production and toll-like receptor 4 in both—obese and lean patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease who met different sets of metabolic syndrome criteria and linked the results with the disease burden. Materials and Methods 95 subjects were divided into four groups depending on the following criteria: presence or absence of metabolic syndrome and/or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, glucose tolerance (prediabetes or normoglycemia) and BMI value (obese or lean). We determined the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and monocyte toll-like receptor 4 expression in fresh blood as well as in blood cultures treated with lipopolysaccharide with or without metformin, alphaketoglutarate or phosphatidylcholine supplementation. Results The blood leukocytes of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are hypersensitive to lipopolysaccharide treatment and produce elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to ex vivo treatment with lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, they overexpress toll-like receptor-4. Hyperreactivity was typical mainly for obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease together with metabolic syndrome and decreased with the severity of disease. Metformin was the most effective in attenuation of hyperreactivity in all groups of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, but in obese patients the effectiveness of metformin was weaker than in lean. The reduction of cytokine level by metformin was accompanied by the decrease in toll-like receptor-4 expression. phosphatidylcholine also attenuated hyperreactivity to lipopolysaccharide but mainly in obese patients. Alpha ketoglutarate did not modulate cytokines’ level and toll-like receptor 4 expression in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients. Conclusions Metformin and phosphatidylcholine

  10. A role for phospholipase D (Pld1p) in growth, secretion, and regulation of membrane lipid synthesis in yeast.

    PubMed

    Sreenivas, A; Patton-Vogt, J L; Bruno, V; Griac, P; Henry, S A

    1998-07-03

    The SEC14 gene encodes a phosphatidylinositol/phosphatidylcholine transfer protein essential for secretion and growth in yeast (1). Mutations (cki1, cct1, and cpt1) in the CDP-choline pathway for phosphatidylcholine synthesis suppress the sec14 growth defect (2), permitting sec14(ts) cki1, sec14(ts) cct1, and sec14(ts) cpt1 strains to grow at the sec14(ts) restrictive temperature. Previously, we reported that these double mutant strains also excrete the phospholipid metabolites, choline and inositol (3). We now report that these choline and inositol excretion phenotypes are eliminated when the SPO14 (PLD1) gene encoding phospholipase D1 is deleted. In contrast to sec14(ts) cki1 strains, sec14(ts) cki1 pld1 strains are not viable at the sec14(ts) restrictive temperature and exhibit a pattern of invertase secretion comparable with sec14(ts) strains. Thus, the PLD1 gene product appears to play an essential role in the suppression of the sec14(ts) defect by CDP-choline pathway mutations, indicating a role for phospholipase D1 in growth and secretion. Furthermore, sec14(ts) strains exhibit elevated Ca2+-independent, phophatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-stimulated phospholipase D activity. We also propose that phospholipase D1-mediated phosphatidylcholine turnover generates a signal that activates transcription of INO1, the structural gene for inositol 1-phosphate synthase.

  11. A nitrobenzofuran-conjugated phosphatidylcholine (C12-NBD-PC) as a stain for membrane lamellae for both microscopic imaging and spectrofluorimetry.

    PubMed

    Hope-Roberts, M; Wainwright, M; Horobin, R W

    2008-02-01

    The use of C12-nitrobenzofuran-conjugated phosphatidylcholine (NBD-PC) for staining intracellular lipid in the form of membrane lamellae present in cultured cell monolayers, which recently was reported by Kasahara et al., is summarized and commented on. This is the first report of this fluorochrome's application as a "dye" rather than as a fluorescent lipid analogue. Analysis using the log P parameter suggests that the observed efficacy of the C12 form, compared to the non-staining character of the C6 form, may be attributed to insufficient partitioning of the latter into lipid. Confusion of the terms "dye" or "stain" and "fluorescent lipid analogue" in the current literature is addressed here. Optical and other physicochemical properties of the stain useful for practical laboratory purposes are summarized from various sources.

  12. Regulatory Role for Phosphatidylcholine Transfer Protein/StarD2 in the Metabolic Response to Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Alpha (PPARα)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hye Won; Kanno, Keishi; Scapa, Erez F.; Cohen, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP, a.k.a. StarD2) is abundantly expressed in liver and is regulated by PPARα. When fed the synthetic PPARα ligand fenofibrate, Pctp−/− mice exhibited altered lipid and glucose metabolism. Microarray profiling of livers from fenofibrate fed wild type and Pctp−/− mice revealed differential expression of a broad array of metabolic genes, as well as their regulatory transcription factors. PC-TP expression in cell culture controlled the activities of both PPARα and HNF4α, suggesting that the mechanism by which it modulates hepatic metabolism is at least in part via activation of transcription factors that govern nutrient homeostasis. PMID:20045742

  13. Evaluation of sphingomyelin, cholester, and phosphatidylcholine-based immobilized artificial membrane liquid chromatography to predict drug penetration across the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    De Vrieze, Mike; Verzele, Dieter; Szucs, Roman; Sandra, Pat; Lynen, Frédéric

    2014-10-01

    Over the past decades, several in vitro methods have been tested for their ability to predict drug penetration across the blood-brain barrier. So far, in high-performance liquid chromatography, most attention has been paid to micellar liquid chromatography and immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) LC. IAMLC has been described as a viable approach, since the stationary phase emulates the lipid environment of a cell membrane. However, research in IAMLC has almost exclusively been limited to phosphatidylcholine (PC)-based stationary phases, even though PC is only one of the lipids present in cell membranes. In this article, sphingomyelin and cholester stationary phases have been tested for the first time towards their ability to predict drug penetration across the blood-brain barrier. Upon comparison with the PC stationary phase, the sphingomyelin- and cholester-based columns depict similar predictive performance. Combining data from the different stationary phases did not lead to improvements of the models.

  14. PEG-PE/phosphatidylcholine mixed immunomicelles specifically deliver encapsulated taxol to tumor cells of different origin and promote their efficient killing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Z; Lukyanov, A N; Chakilam, A R; Torchilin, V P

    2003-02-01

    Mixed micelles were prepared from poly(ethyleneglycol)-distearyl phosphoethanolamine (PEG2000-PE) and egg phosphatidylcholine. The micelles were covalently modified with the nucleosome-specific monoclonal antibody 2C5 known to recognize and bind a variety of tumor cells via their surface-bound nucleosomes. Covalent attachment of 2C5 antibody was performed via a micelle-incorporated PEG-PE with the distal terminus of the PEG block activated with p-nitrophenylcarbonyl group (pNP-PEG-PE). Micelle surface-attached 2C5 antibody maintained its specific activity. 2C5-targeted immunomicelles were able to carry more than 3 wt% of taxol. Taxol-loaded immunomicelles specifically recognized tumor cell lines of several types. The cytotoxicity of 2C5-targeted taxol-loaded immunomicelles in a cell culture model was much higher when compared with free taxol or taxol in non-targeted micelles.

  15. Density, DSC, X-ray and NMR measurements through the gel and lamellar phase transitions of 1-myristoyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (MSPC) and 1-stearoyl-2-myristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (SMPC): observation of slow relaxation processes and mechanisms of phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Jones, J W; Lue, L; Saiani, A; Tiddy, G J T

    2012-04-28

    Dialkyl lecithin dispersions in water exhibit two phase transitions upon cooling from the lamellar phase (L(α)). At the main transition (T(M)) the L(α) phase changes to a ripple (gel) phase (P(β')) which then transforms to a second gel phase (L(β')) at the "pretransition" (T(P)). We have made accurate density measurements through the various phases for two lecithins having unequal chains: 1-myristoyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (MSPC) and 1-stearoyl-2-myristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (SMPC). The measurements were carried out over five heat/cool cycles from 5 to 55 °C, followed by cooling back to 5 °C. The samples were then held at 50 °C for 24 hours, followed by a further three cool/heat cycles. For SMPC we observe an increase in density of the gel phases over the first 5 cycles, followed by much smaller changes after incubation at 50 °C. The lamellar phase also shows an increase in density, albeit much smaller. This parallels the behaviour of 1,2-di-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and 1,2-di-myristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) reported earlier (Jones et al., Liquid Crystals 32, 1465 (2005)). For MSPC we observe a decrease in density within the gel phases while T(P) almost disappears after the first cycle. The lamellar phase shows little evidence of any change with each cycle. Within the lamellar phases there is a marked reduction in density on approaching T(M), which is attributed to the formation of transitory gel phase domains. Additional measurements by DSC and X-ray diffraction show that the changes in densities are not accompanied by large changes in transition enthalpies or phase structures. NMR data indicate that the pretransitional event within the L(α) phase is accompanied by ordering of the alkyl chains. The results indicate that the exact nature of the lipid alkyl chains could play a key role in the formation of gel phase patches within membrane bilayers. Their detailed chemical

  16. Plant phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipases C NPC3 and NPC4 with roles in root development and brassinolide signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wimalasekera, Rinukshi; Pejchar, Premysl; Holk, André; Martinec, Jan; Scherer, Günther F E

    2010-05-01

    Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C (PC-PLC) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to generate phosphocholine and diacylglycerol (DAG). PC-PLC has a long tradition in animal signal transduction to generate DAG as a second messenger besides the classical phosphatidylinositol splitting phospholipase C (PI-PLC). Based on amino acid sequence similarity to bacterial PC-PLC, six putative PC-PLC genes (NPC1 to NPC6) were identified in the Arabidopsis genome. RT-PCR analysis revealed overlapping expression pattern of NPC genes in root, stem, leaf, flower, and silique. In auxin-treated P(NPC3):GUS and P(NPC4):GUS seedlings, strong increase of GUS activity was visible in roots, leaves, and shoots and, to a weaker extent, in brassinolide-treated (BL) seedlings. P(NPC4):GUS seedlings also responded to cytokinin with increased GUS activity in young leaves. Compared to wild-type, T-DNA insertional knockouts npc3 and npc4 showed shorter primary roots and lower lateral root density at low BL concentrations but increased lateral root densities in response to exogenous 0.05-1.0 μM BL. BL-induced expression of TCH4 and LRX2, which are involved in cell expansion, was impaired but not impaired in repression of CPD, a BL biosynthesis gene, in BL-treated npc3 and npc4. These observations suggest NPC3 and NPC4 are important in BL-mediated signaling in root growth. When treated with 0.1 μM BL, DAG accumulation was observed in tobacco BY-2 cell cultures labeled with fluorescent PC as early as 15 min after application. We hypothesize that at least one PC-PLC is a plant signaling enzyme in BL signal transduction and, as shown earlier, in elicitor signal transduction.

  17. Dioctanoylglycerol stimulates accumulation of [methyl-14C]choline and its incorporation into acetylcholine and phosphatidylcholine in a human cholinergic neuroblastoma cell line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, B. E.; Richardson, U. I.; Nitsch, R. M.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Dioctanoylglycerol, a synthetic diacylglycerol, stimulated [14C]choline uptake in cultured human neuroblastoma (LA-N-2) cells. As this effect has not, to our knowledge, been reported before, it was of interest to characterize it in more detail. In the presence of 500 microM dioctanoylglycerol the levels of [14C]choline attained during a 2 hour labeling period were elevated by 78 +/- 12%, while [14C]acetylcholine and long fatty acyl chain [14C]phosphatidylcholine levels increased by 26 +/- 2% and 19 +/- 5%, respectively (mean +/- S.E.M.). Total (long chain plus dioctanoyl-) [14C]phosphatidylcholine was increased by 198 +/- 33%. Kinetic analysis showed that dioctanoylglycerol reduced the apparent Km for choline uptake to 56 +/- 9% of control (n = 4). The Vmax was not significantly altered. The stimulation of [14C]choline accumulation by dioctanoylglycerol was not dependent on protein kinase C activation; the effect was not mimicked by phorbol ester or by 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol, and was not inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitors H-7 or staurosporine, or by prolonged pretreatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The effect of dioctanoylglycerol was slightly (but not significantly) reduced by EGTA and strongly inhibited by the cell-permeant calcium chelator bis(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, tetra(acetoxymethyl)ester. Although these results implicate elevated intracellular calcium in the response, dioctanoylglycerol did not increase phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis in LA-N-2 cells, and its effect was not inhibited by the diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R 59 022 (which blocks the conversion of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid, a known stimulator of phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  18. Effect of water-soluble polymers on the state of aggregation, vesicle size, and phase transformations in mixtures of phosphatidylcholine and sodium cholate.

    PubMed Central

    Meyuhas, D; Lichtenberg, D

    1996-01-01

    The state of aggregation and the steady-state size of mixed aggregates made of phospholipids and surfactants are both determined by the surfactant/lipid ratio in the mixed aggregates (Re). Water-soluble polymers, such as dextrans and polyethylene glycols (PEGs) of different molecular weights, induce reversible aggregation of phospholipid vesicles, mostly due to dehydration of the vesicle surface and depletion forces, and only at much higher concentrations, PEGs (but not dextran) also induce irreversible size growth of the vesicles. Here we show that the water-soluble polymers dextrans and PEGs do not affect the vesicle-micelle phase boundaries in mixtures of phosphatidylcholine and the anionic surfactant sodium cholate. By contrast, these polymers affect markedly the steady-state size of cholate-containing vesicles. As compared with pure phosphatidylcholine vesicles, the cholate-containing vesicles have a lower tendency to undergo polymer-induced aggregation, probably due to the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged vesicles, but a higher tendency to undergo irreversible size growth at relatively low polymer concentrations. Such irreversible size growth was observed not only for PEG but also for dextran, which in the absence of cholate is incapable of inducing vesicle size growth. These findings are consistent with the prevailing concept that the polymer-induced size growth is due to the effect of large structural fluctuations in the bilayers of deformed aggregated vesicles, the surface of which is dehydrated by the polymer. The presence of cholate in the bilayers at sufficiently high concentrations induces such fluctuations, yielding irreversible size growth within the clusters of dehydrated vesicles formed upon mixing with polymers. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:8913599

  19. Development, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of phosphatidylcholine-sodium cholate-based nanoparticles for siRNA delivery to MCF-7 human breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Sebastián Ezequiel; Gándola, Yamila; Carlucci, Adriana Mónica; González, Lorena

    2015-03-01

    Phosphatidylcholine-sodium cholate (SC)-based nanoparticles were designed, characterized, and evaluated as plausible oligonucleotides delivery systems. For this purpose, formulation of the systems was optimized to obtain low cytotoxic vehicles with high siRNA-loading capacity and acceptable transfection ability. Mixtures of soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) and SC were prepared at different molar ratios with 2 % w/v total concentration; distilled water and two different buffers were used as dispersion medium. Nanoparticles below 150 nm were observed showing spherical shape which turned smaller in diameter as the SC molar proportion increased, accounting for small unilamellar vesicles when low proportions of SC were present in the formulation, but clear mixed micellar solutions at higher SC percentages. Macroscopic characteristics along with physico-chemical parameters values supported the presence of these types of structures. SYBR green displacement assays demonstrated an important oligonucleotide binding that increased as bile salt relative content got higher. Within the same molar ratio, nanoparticles showed the following binding efficiency order: pH 7.4 > pH 5.0 > distilled water. siRNA-loading capacity assays confirmed the higher siRNA binding by the mixed micelles containing higher SC proportion; moreover, the complexes formed were smaller as the SC:SPC ratio increased. Considering cytotoxicity and siRNA-loading capacity, 1:2 and 1:4 SPC:SC formulations were selected for further biological assays. Nanoparticles prepared in any of the three media were able to induce dsRNA uptake and efficiently transfect RNA for gene silencing, for the compositions prepared in buffer pH 5.0 being the most versatile.

  20. Dioctanoylglycerol stimulates accumulation of [methyl-14C]choline and its incorporation into acetylcholine and phosphatidylcholine in a human cholinergic neuroblastoma cell line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, B. E.; Richardson, U. I.; Nitsch, R. M.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Dioctanoylglycerol, a synthetic diacylglycerol, stimulated [14C]choline uptake in cultured human neuroblastoma (LA-N-2) cells. As this effect has not, to our knowledge, been reported before, it was of interest to characterize it in more detail. In the presence of 500 microM dioctanoylglycerol the levels of [14C]choline attained during a 2 hour labeling period were elevated by 78 +/- 12%, while [14C]acetylcholine and long fatty acyl chain [14C]phosphatidylcholine levels increased by 26 +/- 2% and 19 +/- 5%, respectively (mean +/- S.E.M.). Total (long chain plus dioctanoyl-) [14C]phosphatidylcholine was increased by 198 +/- 33%. Kinetic analysis showed that dioctanoylglycerol reduced the apparent Km for choline uptake to 56 +/- 9% of control (n = 4). The Vmax was not significantly altered. The stimulation of [14C]choline accumulation by dioctanoylglycerol was not dependent on protein kinase C activation; the effect was not mimicked by phorbol ester or by 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol, and was not inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitors H-7 or staurosporine, or by prolonged pretreatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The effect of dioctanoylglycerol was slightly (but not significantly) reduced by EGTA and strongly inhibited by the cell-permeant calcium chelator bis(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, tetra(acetoxymethyl)ester. Although these results implicate elevated intracellular calcium in the response, dioctanoylglycerol did not increase phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis in LA-N-2 cells, and its effect was not inhibited by the diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R 59 022 (which blocks the conversion of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid, a known stimulator of phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  1. Ammonia synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mandelik, B.G.; Cassata, J.R.; Katy, P.J.S.; Van Dijk, C.P.

    1986-02-04

    In a process for producing ammonia in a synthesis loop in which fresh synthesis gas containing hydrogen, nitrogen and, lesser amounts of argon and methane is combined with a hydrogen enriched recycle gas to provide combined synthesis gas, the combined synthesis is introduced to and reacted over ammonia synthesis catalyst under synthesis conditions to provide converted gas containing ammonia, hydrogen, and nitrogen. The ammonia is recovered from the converted gas to provide recycle gas, and a purge stream is removed from the synthesis loop. A hydrogen-rich gas is recovered from the purge stream, and the hydrogen-rich gas is combined with the recycle gas to provide the hydrogen enriched gas. The improvement described in this patent consists of (a) providing the fresh synthesis gas at a hydrogen to nitrogen molar ratio between 1.7 and 2.5 and providing the hydrogen enriched recycle gas at a hydrogen to nitrogen molar ratio between 0.5 and 1.7 to provide the combined synthesis gas at a hydrogen to nitrogen molar ratio between 0.8 and 1.8. The volumetric flow rate ratio of the hydrogen enriched recycle gas to the fresh synthesis gas is between 2.2 and 3.7; and (b) introducing the combined synthesis gas from step (a) to an ammonia synthesis catalyst at a temperature between 315/sup 0/C. and 400/sup 0/C. and a pressure between 50 kg/cm/sup 2/ and 150 kg/cm/sup 2/.

  2. Influence of trimetazidine on the synthesis of complex lipids in the heart and other target organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sentex, E.; Helies-Toussaint, C.; Rousseau, D.; Lucien, A.; Ferrary, E.; Grynberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    Trimetazidine exerts antianginal properties at the cellular level, without haemodynamic effect in clinical and experimental conditions. This cytoprotection was attributed to a decreased utilization of fatty acids for energy production, balanced by an increased incorporation in structural lipids. This study evaluated the influence of Trimetazidine on complex lipid synthesis from [2-(3)H] glycerol, in ventricular myocytes, isolated rat hearts and in vivo in the myocardium and several other tissues. In cardiomyocytes, Trimetazidine increased the synthesis of phosphatidyl-choline (+ 80%), phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (+ 210%), phosphatidyl-inositol (+ 250%) and cardiolipid (+ 100%). The common precursor diacylglycerol was also increased (+ 40%) whereas triacylglycerol was decreased (-70%). Similar results were obtained in isolated hearts with 10 microm Trimetazidine (phosphatidyl-choline + 60%, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine + 60%, phosphatidyl-inositol + 100% and cardiolipid + 50%), the last two phospholipids containing 85% of the radioactivity. At 1 microm, Trimetazidine still stimulated the phospholipid synthesis although the difference was found significant only in phosphatidyl-inositol and cardiolipid. In vivo studies (10 mg/kg per day for 7 days and 5 mg/kg, i.p. before the experiment) revealed significant changes in the intracellular lipid biosynthesis, with increased labelling of phospholipids and reduced incorporation of glycerol in nonphosphorous lipids. Trimetazidine increased the glycerol uptake from plasma to the other tissues (liver, cochlea, retina), resulting in an altered lipid synthesis. The anti-anginal properties of Trimetazidine involve a reorganisation of the glycerol-based lipid synthesis balance in cardiomyocytes, associated with an increased uptake of plasma glycerol that may contribute to explain the pharmacological properties reported in other organs.

  3. Influence of trimetazidine on the synthesis of complex lipids in the heart and other target organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sentex, E.; Helies-Toussaint, C.; Rousseau, D.; Lucien, A.; Ferrary, E.; Grynberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    Trimetazidine exerts antianginal properties at the cellular level, without haemodynamic effect in clinical and experimental conditions. This cytoprotection was attributed to a decreased utilization of fatty acids for energy production, balanced by an increased incorporation in structural lipids. This study evaluated the influence of Trimetazidine on complex lipid synthesis from [2-(3)H] glycerol, in ventricular myocytes, isolated rat hearts and in vivo in the myocardium and several other tissues. In cardiomyocytes, Trimetazidine increased the synthesis of phosphatidyl-choline (+ 80%), phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (+ 210%), phosphatidyl-inositol (+ 250%) and cardiolipid (+ 100%). The common precursor diacylglycerol was also increased (+ 40%) whereas triacylglycerol was decreased (-70%). Similar results were obtained in isolated hearts with 10 microm Trimetazidine (phosphatidyl-choline + 60%, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine + 60%, phosphatidyl-inositol + 100% and cardiolipid + 50%), the last two phospholipids containing 85% of the radioactivity. At 1 microm, Trimetazidine still stimulated the phospholipid synthesis although the difference was found significant only in phosphatidyl-inositol and cardiolipid. In vivo studies (10 mg/kg per day for 7 days and 5 mg/kg, i.p. before the experiment) revealed significant changes in the intracellular lipid biosynthesis, with increased labelling of phospholipids and reduced incorporation of glycerol in nonphosphorous lipids. Trimetazidine increased the glycerol uptake from plasma to the other tissues (liver, cochlea, retina), resulting in an altered lipid synthesis. The anti-anginal properties of Trimetazidine involve a reorganisation of the glycerol-based lipid synthesis balance in cardiomyocytes, associated with an increased uptake of plasma glycerol that may contribute to explain the pharmacological properties reported in other organs.

  4. Impairment of brain mitochondrial functions by β-hemolytic Group B Streptococcus. Effect of cardiolipin and phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Macchioni, Lara; Fettucciari, Katia; Davidescu, Magdalena; Vitale, Rita; Ponsini, Pamela; Rosati, Emanuela; Corcelli, Angela; Marconi, Pierfrancesco; Corazzi, Lanfranco

    2013-12-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) causes severe infection in the central nervous system. In this study, brain mitochondrial function was investigated by simulating infection of isolated mitochondria with GBS, which resulted in loss of mitochondrial activity. The β-hemolysin expressing strains GBS-III-NEM316 and GBS-III-COH31, but not the gGBS-III-COH31 that does not express β-hemolysin, caused dissipation of preformed mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm). This indicates that β-hemolysin is responsible for decreasing of the reducing power of mitochondria. GBS-III-COH31 interacted with mitochondria causing increase of oxygen consumption, due to uncoupling of respiration, blocking of ATP synthesis, and cytochrome c release outside mitochondria. Moreover, the mitochondrial systems contributing to the control of cellular Ca(2+) uptake were lost. In spite of these alterations, mitochondrial phospholipid content and composition did not change significantly, as evaluated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. However, exogenous cardiolipin (CL) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) attenuated the uncoupling effect of GBS-III-COH31, although with different mechanisms. CL was effective only when fused to the inner mitochondrial membrane, probably reducing the extent of GBS-induced proton leakage. DPPC, which is not able to fuse with mitochondrial membranes, exerted its effect outside mitochondria, likely by shielding mitochondria against GBS β-hemolysin attack.

  5. Multiple sources of 1,2-diacylglycerol in isolated rat pancreatic acini stimulated by cholecystokinin. Involvement of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate and phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Matozaki, T; Williams, J A

    1989-09-05

    Changes in the cellular content of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) in isolated rat pancreatic acini in response to agonist stimulation were studied using a sensitive mass assay. When acini were stimulated by 10 nM COOH-terminal cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK8), the increase in DAG was biphasic, consisting of an early peak at 5 s and a second, larger, gradual increase that was maximal by 15 min. The basal level of DAG in acini was 1.04 nmol/mg of protein, which was increased to 1.24 nmol/mg of protein at 5 s and 2.76 nmol/mg of protein at 30 min. In comparison, the increase in DAG stimulated by 30 pM CCK8, a submaximal concentration for amylase release, was monophasic, increasing without an early peak but sustained to 60 min. Other Ca2+-mobilizing secretagogues such as carbamylcholine and bombesin increased DAG in acini, whereas vasoactive intestinal peptide, which acts to increase cAMP, had no effect. Phorbol ester and Ca2+ ionophore also stimulated DAG production. Analysis of the mass level of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (1,4,5-IP3) showed that the generation of 1,4,5-IP3 stimulated by 10 nM CCK8 peaked at 5 s, a finding consistent with the early peak of DAG. The basal level was 4.7 pmol/mg of protein, which was increased to 144.6 pmol/mg of protein at 5 s by 10 nM CCK8. The levels of 1,4,5-IP3 then returned toward basal in contrast to the gradual and sustained increase of DAG. The dose dependencies of 1,4,5-IP3 and DAG formation at 5 s with respect to CCK8 were almost identical. This suggests that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis is a major source of the early increase in DAG but not of the sustained increase in DAG. Therefore, a possible contribution of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis to DAG formation was examined utilizing acini prelabeled with [3H]choline. CCK8 (1 nM) maximally increased [3H]choline metabolite release by 133% of control at 30 min. Separation of these metabolites by thin layer chromatography showed that the products of CCK8

  6. Synthesis of 5,9-hexacosadienoic acid phospholipids. 11. Phospholipid studies of marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Mena, P L; Djerassi, C

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis of phosphatidylcholines (PC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) and phosphatidylserines (PS) containing two acyl chains of the naturally occurring sponge fatty acid (5Z,9Z)-5,9-hexacosadienoic acid as well as its hitherto unknown geometrical isomers is described. The PCs were prepared by deacylation of natural lecithins, followed by reacylation with fatty acid anhydrides. The synthesis of mixed-acid PCs is also reported: a diacyl product was converted to the lyso-PC by treatment with phospholipase A2 and subsequent acylation of the secondary hydroxyl group to give the desired mixed-acid PCs. The PEs and the PSs were prepared from the corresponding PCs by enzymatic transphosphatidylation catalyzed by phospholipase D. Structural assignments of the compounds were confirmed by spectroscopy (1H-NMR and MS). Ammonia chemical ionization mass spectrometry provided molecular ion and significant fragment peaks for PCs and PEs.

  7. Solid state 13C NMR of unlabeled phosphatidylcholine bilayers: spectral assignments and measurement of carbon-phosphorus dipolar couplings and 13C chemical shift anisotropies.

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, C R

    1993-01-01

    The direct measurement of 13C chemical shift anisotropies (CSA) and 31P-13C dipolar splitting in random dispersions of unlabeled L alpha-phase phosphatidylcholine (PC) has traditionally been difficult because of extreme spectral boradening due to anisotropy. In this study, mixtures of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) with three different detergents known to promote the magnetic orientation of DMPC were employed to eliminate the powder-pattern nature of signals without totally averaging out spectral anisotropy. The detergents utilized were CHAPSO, Triton X-100, and dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC). Using such mixtures, many of the individual 13C resonances from DMPC were resolved and a number of 13C-31P dipolar couplings were evident. In addition, differing line widths were observed for the components of some dipolar doublets, suggestive of dipolar/chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) relaxation interference effects. Oriented sample resonance assignments were made by varying the CHAPSO or DHPC to DMPC ratio to systematically scale overall bilayer order towards the isotropic limit. In this manner, peaks could be identified based upon extrapolation to their isotropic positions, for which assignments have previously been made (Lee, C.W.B., and R.G. Griffin. 1989. Biophys. J. 55:355-358; Forbes, J., J. Bowers, X. Shan, L. Moran, E. Oldfield, and M.A. Moscarello. 1988. J. Chem. Soc., Faraday, Trans. 1 84:3821-3849). It was observed that the plots of CSA or dipolar coupling versus overall bilayer order obtained from DHPC and CHAPSO titrations were linear. Estimates of the intrinsic dipolar couplings and chemical shift anisotropies for pure DMPC bilayers were made by extrapolating shifts and couplings from the detergent titrations to zero detergent. Both detergent titrations led to similar "intrinsic" CSAs and dipolar couplings. Results extracted from an oriented Triton-DMPC mixture also led to similar estimates for the detergent-free DMPC shifts and couplings. The

  8. Regulation of phospholipid synthesis in phosphatidylserine synthase-deficient (chol) mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Letts, V.A.; Henry, S.A.

    1985-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants, chol, are deficient in the synthesis of the phospholipid phosphatidylserine owing to lowered activity of the membrane-associated enzyme phosphatidylserine synthase. These mutants are auxotrophic for ethanolamine or choline and, in the absence of these supplements, cannot synthesize phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylcholine (PC). The authors exploited these characteristics of the chol mutants to examine the regulation of phospholipid metabolism in S. cerevisiae. Macromolecular synthesis and phospholipid metabolism were examined in chol cells starved for ethanolamine. Coupled to the decline in PC biosynthesis was a simultaneous decrease in the overall rate of phospholipid synthesis. In particular, the rate of synthesis of phosphatidylinositol decreased in parallel with the decline in PC biosynthesis. However, under conditions of ethanolamine deprivation in chol cells, the cytoplasmic enzyme inositol-1-phosphate synthase could not be repressed by exogenous inositol, and the endogenous synthesis of the phospholipid precursor inositol appeared to be elevated. The implications of these findings with respect to the coordinated regulation of phospholipid synthesis are discussed.

  9. Eicosapentaenoic Acid-Enriched Phosphatidylcholine Attenuated Hepatic Steatosis Through Regulation of Cholesterol Metabolism in Rats with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjun; Shi, Di; Tian, Yingying; Liu, Yuntao; Zhan, Qiping; Xu, Jie; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu

    2017-02-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the world. Disturbed cholesterol metabolism plays a crucial role in the development of NAFLD. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of EPA-PC extracted from sea cucumber on liver steatosis and cholesterol metabolism in NAFLD. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups (normal control group, model group, lovastatin group, low- and high-dose EPA groups, and low- and high-dose EPA-PC groups). Model rats were established by administering a diet containing 1% orotic acid. To determine the possible cholesterol metabolism promoting mechanism of EPA-PC, we analyzed the transcription of key genes and transcriptional factors involved in hepatic cholesterol metabolism. EPA-PC dramatically alleviated hepatic lipid accumulation, reduced the serum TC concentration, and elevated HDLC levels in NAFLD rats. Fecal neutral cholesterol excretion was also promoted by EPA-PC administration. Additionally, EPA-PC decreased the mRNA expression of hydroxymethyl glutaric acid acyl (HMGR) and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A), and increased the transcription of sterol carrying protein 2 (SCP2). Moreover, EPA-PC stimulated the transcription of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor α (PPARα) and adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) as well as its modulators, liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase (CAMKK). Based on the results, the promoting effects of EPA-PC on NAFLD may be partly associated with the suppression of cholesterol synthesis via HMGR inhibition and the enhancement of fecal cholesterol excretion through increased SCP2 transcription. The underlying mechanism may involve stimulation of PPARα and AMPK.

  10. Zirconium phosphatidylcholine-based nanocapsules as an in vivo degradable drug delivery system of MAP30, a momordica anti-HIV protein.

    PubMed

    Caizhen, Guo; Yan, Gao; Ronron, Chang; Lirong, Yang; Panpan, Chu; Xuemei, Hu; Yuanbiao, Qiao; Qingshan, Li

    2015-04-10

    An essential in vivo drug delivery system of a momordica anti-HIV protein, MAP30, was developed through encapsulating in chemically synthesized matrices of zirconium egg- and soy-phosphatidylcholines, abbreviated to Zr/EPC and Zr/SPC, respectively. Matrices were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffractometry studies. Zr/EPC granule at an approximate diameter of 69.43±7.78 nm was a less efficient encapsulator than the granule of Zr/SPC. Interlayer spacing of the matrices encapsulating MAP30 increased from 8.8 and 9.7 Å to 7.4 and 7.9 nm, respectively. In vivo kinetics on degradation and protein release was performed by analyzing the serum sampling of intravenously injected SPF chickens. The first order and biphasic variations were obtained for in vivo kinetics using equilibrium dialysis. Antimicrobial and anti-HIV assays yielded greatly decreased MIC50 and EC50 values of nanoformulated MAP30. An acute toxicity of MAP30 encapsulated in Zr/EPC occurred at a single intravenous dose above 14.24 mg/kg bw in NIH/KM/ICR mice. The folding of MAP30 from Zr/EPC sustained in vivo chickens for more than 8 days in high performance liquid chromatography assays. These matrices could protect MAP30 efficiently with strong structure retention, lowered toxicity and prolonged in vivo life.

  11. Phosphatidylcholine passes through lateral tight junctions for paracellular transport to the apical side of the polarized intestinal tumor cell-line CaCo2.

    PubMed

    Stremmel, Wolfgang; Staffer, Simone; Gan-Schreier, Hongying; Wannhoff, Andreas; Bach, Margund; Gauss, Annika

    2016-09-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant phospholipid in intestinal mucus, indicative of a specific transport system across the mucosal epithelium to the intestinal lumen. To elucidate this transport mechanism, we employed a transwell tissue culture system with polarized CaCo2 cells. It was shown that PC could not substantially be internalized by the cells. However, after basal application of increasing PC concentrations, an apical transport of 47.1±6.3nmolh(-1)mMPC(-1) was observed. Equilibrium distribution studies with PC applied in equal concentrations to the basal and apical compartments showed a 1.5-fold accumulation on the expense of basal PC. Disruption of tight junctions (TJ) by acetaldehyde or PPARγ inhibitors or by treatment with siRNA to TJ proteins suppressed paracellular transport by at least 50%. Transport was specific for the choline containing the phospholipids PC, lysoPC and sphingomyelin. We showed that translocation is driven by an electrochemical gradient generated by apical accumulation of Cl(-) and HCO3(-) through CFTR. Pretreatment with siRNA to mucin 3 which anchors in the apical plasma membrane of mucosal cells inhibited the final step of luminal PC secretion. PC accumulates in intestinal mucus using a paracellular, apically directed transport route across TJs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A 10-kDa acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) from Brassica napus enhances acyl exchange between acyl-CoA and phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Yurchenko, Olga P; Nykiforuk, Cory L; Moloney, Maurice M; Ståhl, Ulf; Banaś, Antoni; Stymne, Sten; Weselake, Randall J

    2009-09-01

    The gene encoding a 10-kDa acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) from Brassica napus was over-expressed in developing seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana. Biochemical analysis of T(2) and T(3) A. thaliana seeds revealed a significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) (18:2(cisDelta9,12) and 18:3(cisDelta9,12,15)) at the expense of very long monounsaturated FA (20:1(cisDelta11)) and saturated FAs. In vitro assays demonstrated that recombinant B. napus ACBP (rBnACBP) strongly increases the formation of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the absence of added lysophosphatidylcholine in microsomes from DeltaYOR175c yeast expressing A. thaliana lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (AthLPCAT) cDNA or in microsomes from microspore-derived cell suspension cultures of B. napus L. cv. Jet Neuf. rBnACBP or bovine serum albumin (BSA) were also shown to be crucial for AthLPCAT to catalyse the transfer of acyl group from PC into acyl-CoA in vitro. These data suggest that the cytosolic 10-kDa ACBP has an effect on the equilibrium between metabolically active acyl pools (acyl-CoA and phospholipid pools) involved in FA modifications and triacylglycerol bioassembly in plants. Over-expression of ACBP during seed development may represent a useful biotechnological approach for altering the FA composition of seed oil.

  13. Response to “Comment on ‘Structural Determinants of Drug Partitioning in Surrogates of Phosphatidylcholine Bilayer Strata’”

    PubMed Central

    Balaz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We used the solvatochromic correlation to explain the influence of characteristics of studied compounds on the partition coefficients (P) measured using n-hexadecane (C16) and the novel headgroup surrogate (diacetyl phosphatidylcholine - DAcPC), and compare them with those in other systems, including the C16/water (W) system. The comment analyzes, why our correlation for the C16/W system has the standard deviation (SD) higher than that published previously. The main reason is that in our, much smaller, data set the measured P values are complemented by the P values predicted by a reliable, unrelated method. We believe that this approach is acceptable for the aforementioned comparison. We did not use just experimental values, as suggested in the comment, because the solvatochromic correlation, although exhibiting 35 % reduction in the SD, was accompanied by a sign change of one of the regression coefficients. The recommended use of special solvatochromic solute characteristics for a few compounds, and replacement of a predicted PC16/W value by the experimental value resulted in improved correlations. The observed differences between our correlation and those published in the comment and in a previous paper do not affect our main conclusions regarding the solvation of solutes in the surrogates (DAcPC and C16) of intrabilayer strata. PMID:25812003

  14. Substance P Activates Ca2+-Permeable Nonselective Cation Channels through a Phosphatidylcholine-Specific Phospholipase C Signaling Pathway in nNOS-Expressing GABAergic Neurons in Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Endo, Toshiaki; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Komatsu, Yukio

    2016-02-01

    To understand the functions of the neocortex, it is essential to characterize the properties of neurons constituting cortical circuits. Here, we focused on a distinct group of GABAergic neurons that are defined by a specific colocalization of intense labeling for both neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and substance P (SP) receptor [neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors]. We investigated the mechanisms of the SP actions on these neurons in visual cortical slices obtained from young glutamate decarboxylase 67-green fluorescent protein knock-in mice. Bath application of SP induced a nonselective cation current leading to depolarization that was inhibited by the NK1 antagonists in nNOS-immunopositive neurons. Ruthenium red and La(3+), transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blockers, suppressed the SP-induced current. The SP-induced current was mediated by G proteins and suppressed by D609, an inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), but not by inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC, adenylate cyclase or Src tyrosine kinases. Ca(2+) imaging experiments under voltage clamp showed that SP induced a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) that was abolished by removal of extracellular Ca(2+) but not by depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. These results suggest that SP regulates nNOS neurons by activating TRP-like Ca(2+)-permeable nonselective cation channels through a PC-PLC-dependent signaling pathway.

  15. Investigation of natural phosphatidylcholine sources: separation and identification by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS2) of molecular species.

    PubMed

    Le Grandois, Julie; Marchioni, Eric; Zhao, Minjie; Giuffrida, Francesca; Ennahar, Saïd; Bindler, Françoise

    2009-07-22

    This study is a contribution to the exploration of natural phospholipid (PL) sources rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) with nutritional interest. Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) were purified from total lipid extracts of different food matrices, and their molecular species were separated and identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS(2)). Fragmentation of lithiated adducts allowed for the identification of fatty acids linked to the glycerol backbone. Soy PC was particularly rich in species containing essential fatty acids, such as (18:2-18:2)PC (34.0%), (16:0-18:2)PC (20.8%), and (18:1-18:2)PC (16.3%). PC from animal sources (ox liver and egg yolk) contained major molecular species, such as (16:0-18:2)PC, (16:0-18:1)PC, (18:0-18:2)PC, or (18:0-18:1)PC. Finally, marine source (krill oil), which was particularly rich in (16:0-20:5)PC and (16:0-22:6)PC, appeared to be an interesting potential source for food supplementation with LC-PUFA-PLs, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  16. Metastability and polymorphism in the gel phase of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-SN-phosphatidylcholine. A Fourier transform infrared study of the subtransition.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, D G; Mantsch, H H

    1982-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to study the metastability of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) at temperatures near 0 degrees C. It was found that when DPPC is incubated at 2 degrees C for three days the two-dimensional acyl chain packing changes from one resulting in spectra typical of an orthorhombic subcell to one resembling that found in triclinically packed acyl systems. This transition proceeds in two stages. The first step, requiring less than one day, approximates first-order kinetics; the second stage proceeds with second- or higher-order kinetics. Comparison of spectra recorded at -36 degrees C with and without prior incubation at 2 degrees C shows that there are two stable low temperature forms of DPPC; that is, DPPC is metastable only within a narrow temperature range. A study of the thermotropic behavior in the range 0-45 degrees C shows that the subtransition near 15 degrees C is a transition from the alternate form to one with orthorhombic characteristics. Spectral changes at the pretransition and the main phase transition demonstrate that there are differences in behavior that are related to the thermal history of the sample. PMID:6896464

  17. Friction and wear behavior of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene as a function of crystallinity in the presence of the phospholipid dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Bruck, Angela L; Karuppiah, K S Kanaga; Sundararajan, Sriram; Wang, Jun; Lin, Zhiqun

    2010-05-01

    In this study, the friction and wear behavior of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were evaluated as a function of polymer crystallinity in the presence of the phospholipid dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) dissolved in ethanol. Samples of UHMWPE were separately heat treated to get high and low crystallinity samples. Degree of crystallinity was evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry. Quantitative friction and wear experiments were conducted using a custom-made microtribometer with commercially available spherical Si(3)N(4) probes in controlled and phospholipid-dissolved lubricants. The higher crystallinity sample exhibited slightly lower friction than the lower crystallinity in the control and decreased significantly when phospholipids were present. The higher crystallinity sample showed a higher wear resistance than the lower crystallinity sample during all reciprocating wear tests. DPPC acting as a lubricant had a marginal effect on the wear resistance of high crystallinity UHMWPE, whereas the low crystallinity sample became more prone to wear. Atomic force microscopy topography images and contact angle measurements of both samples before and after phospholipid exposure indicate that the higher crystallinity sample absorbed a greater density of DPPC. Increasing crystallinity is a way of escalating adsorption of surface active phospholipids onto UHMWPE to make it a more wear-resistant load-bearing material for total joint replacements. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Binding interaction of differently charged fluorescent probes with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and the effect of β-cyclodextrin on the lipid-probe complexes: A fluorometric investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Pronab; Ghosh, Saptarshi; Jana, Barnali; Chattopadhyay, Nitin

    2015-05-01

    Interaction of cationic phenosafranin (PSF), anionic 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) and non-ionic nile red (NR) have been studied with the zwitterionic phospholipid, egg yolk L-α-phosphatidylcholine (EYPC). The study reveals discernible binding interactions of the three fluorescent probes with the EYPC lipid vesicle. Once the binding of the probes with the lipid is established, the effect of cyclic oligosaccharide, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), on these lipid bound probes has been investigated. Different fluorometric techniques suggest that addition of β-CD to the probe-lipid complexes leads to the release of the probes from the lipid medium through the formation of probe-β-CD inclusion complexes. A competitive binding of the probes between β-cyclodextrin and the lipid is ascribed to be responsible for the effect. This provides an easy avenue for the removal of the probe molecules from the lipid environment. Extension of this work with drug molecules in cell membranes is expected to give rise to a strategy for the removal of adsorbed drugs from the cell membranes by the use of non-toxic β-cyclodextrin.

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid promotes micron scale liquid-ordered domains. A comparison study of docosahexaenoic versus oleic acid containing phosphatidylcholine in raft-like mixtures.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, R; Chachaty, C; Hazarosova, R; Tessier, C; Nuss, P; Momchilova, A; Staneva, G

    2015-06-01

    The understanding of the functional role of the lipid diversity in biological membranes is a major challenge. Lipid models have been developed to address this issue by using lipid mixtures generating liquid-ordered (Lo)/liquid-disordered (Ld) immiscibility. The present study examined mixtures comprising Egg sphingomyelin (SM), cholesterol (chol) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) either containing docosahexaenoic (PDPC) or oleic acid (POPC). The mixtures were examined in terms of their capability to induce phase separation at the micron- and nano-scales. Fluorescence microscopy, electron spin resonance (ESR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and calorimetry methods were used to analyze the lateral organization of the mixtures. Fluorescence microscopy of giant vesicles could show that the temperature of the micron-scale Lo/Ld miscibility is higher for PDPC than for POPC ternary mixtures. At 37°C, no micron-scale Lo/Ld phase separation could be identified in the POPC containing mixtures while it was evident for PDPC. In contrast, a phase separation was distinguished for both PC mixtures by ESR and XRD, indicative that PDPC and POPC mixtures differed in micron vs nano domain organization. Compared to POPC, the higher line tension of the Lo domains observed in PDPC mixtures is assumed to result from the higher difference in Lo/Ld order parameter rather than hydrophobic mismatch.

  20. Biocompatible phosphatidylcholine bilayer coated on magnetic nanoparticles and their application in the extraction of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental water and milk samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengxiao; Niu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Junshen; Shi, Yali; Zhang, Xiaole; Cai, Yaqi

    2012-05-18

    In this work, phosphatidylcholine (PC) was coated on magnetic nanoparticles to form lipid bilayer as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents for the enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from environmental water and milk samples. The lipid bilayer was coated on Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles using a modified dry lipid film hydration method. The resulted Fe(3)O(4)/PC could be readily isolated from solution with a magnet, and exhibited excellent adsorption performance to organic pollutants. Only 0.1g of sorbents was enough to extract PAHs from 500 mL aqueous solution, and 6 mL of acetonitrile was required to desorb them. The method was fast and relied on 10 min extraction time and 5 min magnetic separation. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine PAHs in some environmental water and milk samples. The detection limit was in the range of 0.2-0.6 ng L(-1). The recoveries of the spiked water samples ranged from 89% to 115% with relative standard deviations (RSD) varying from 1% to 8%. For spiked milk samples, RSD was satisfactory (1-9%), but the recoveries were relatively low (42-62%). We show the potentials of Fe(3)O(4)/PC sorbents in environmental water and biological sample analyses.

  1. Micropolarities of lipid bilayers and micelles. 3. Effect of monovalent ions on the dielectric constant of the water-membrane interface of unilamellar phosphatidylcholine vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, J.G.; Fragata, M.

    1986-02-27

    A study was undertaken of the effect of monovalent cations (Li/sup +/, Na/sup +/, K/sup +/) on the dielectric constant (epsilon) of the water-lipid interface of unilamellar phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles, i.e., the ester carbonyl oxygen region of the PC molecules or the neighborhood of the oxygen atoms of the phosphorylcholine moiety. epsilon was determined by reacting the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl with ..cap alpha..-tocopherol incorporated in the lipid vesicles. The results are consistent with a decrease of epsilon (LiCl: 35.5 to 29.5; NaCl: 34 to 29; KCl: 33 to 29) as the concentration of the salts in the solvent media increases from 0.025 to 0.5 M. These effects can be rationalized in terms of dielectric saturation at the water-lipid interface brought about by ion-induced local electric fields. In the unilamellar PC vesicles the effect of the ions on epsilon follows the sequence K/sup +/ > Na/sup +/ > Li/sup +/ which contrasts strikingly with what happens in the liquid state where this is Li/sup +/ > Na/sup +/ > K/sup +/. These effects are related to the degree of hydration of the dissociated ions at the water-lipid interface which must differ in a considerable way from that in the liquid state. 43 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  2. An integrated strategy for the rapid extraction and screening of phosphatidylcholines and lysophosphatidylcholines using semi-automatic solid phase extraction and data processing technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenzhu; Zhang, Yani; Yin, Jia; Li, Yubo

    2016-08-26

    This study attempts to establish a comprehensive strategy for the rapid extraction and screening of phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoPCs) in biological samples using semi-automatic solid phase extraction (SPE) and data processing technology based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). First, the Ostro sample preparation method (i.e., semi-automatic SPE) was compared with the Bligh-Dyer method in terms of substance coverage, reproducibility and sample preparation time. Meanwhile, the screening method for PCs and LysoPCs was built through mass range screening, mass defect filtering and diagnostic fragments filtering. Then, the Ostro sample preparation method and the aforementioned screening method were combined under optimal conditions to establish a rapid extraction and screening platform. Finally, this developed method was validated and applied to the preparation and data analysis of tissue samples. Through a systematic evaluation, this developed method was shown to provide reliable and high-throughput experimental results and was suitable for the preparation and analysis of tissue samples. Our method provides a novel strategy for the rapid extraction and analysis of functional phospholipids. In addition, this study will promote further study of phospholipids in disease research.

  3. Visualization of phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin in mouse tongue body by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Hirofumi; Sugiura, Yuki; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Zaima, Nobuhiro

    2011-06-01

    The mammalian tongue is one of the most important organs during food uptake because it is helpful for mastication and swallowing. In addition, taste receptors are present on the surface of the tongue. Lipids are the second most abundant biomolecules after water in the tongue. Lipids such as phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and sphingomyelin (SM) are considered to play fundamental roles in the mediation of cell signaling. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is powerful tool for determining and visualizing the distribution of lipids across sections of dissected tissue. In this study, we identified and visualized the PC, LPC, and SM species in a mouse tongue body section with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-IMS. The ion image constructed from the peaks revealed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing PC, LPC, linoleic acid-containing PC and SM (d18:1/16:0), and oleic acid-containing PC were mainly distributed in muscle, connective tissue, stratified epithelium, and the peripheral nerve, respectively. Furthermore, the distribution of SM (d18:1/16:0) corresponded to the distribution of nerve tissue relating to taste in the stratified epithelium. This study represents the first visualization of PC, LPC and SM localization in the mouse tongue body.

  4. Visualization of the cell-selective distribution of PUFA-containing phosphatidylcholines in mouse brain by imaging mass spectrometry[S

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Yuki; Konishi, Yoshiyuki; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Kajihara, Shigeki; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Taguchi, Ryo; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that MALDI-imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) can be used to visualize the distribution of various biomolecules, especially lipids, in the cells and tissues. In this study, we report the cell-selective distribution of PUFA-containing glycerophospholipids (GPLs) in the mouse brain. We established a practical experimental procedure for the IMS of GPLs. We demonstrated that optimization of the composition of the matrix solution and spectrum normalization to the total ion current (TIC) is critical. Using our procedure, we simultaneously differentiated and visualized the localizations of specific molecular species of GPLs in mouse brain sections. The results showed that PUFA-containing phosphatidylcholines (PCs) were distributed in a cell-selective manner: arachidonic acid- and docosahexaenoic acid-containing PCs were seen in the hippocampal neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells, respectively. Furthermore, these characteristic localizations of PUFA-PCs were formed during neuronal maturation. The phenomenon of brain cell-selective production of specific PUFA-GPLs will help elucidate the potential physiological functions of PUFAs in specific brain regions. PMID:19417221

  5. X-ray diffraction study of lipid bilayer membranes interacting with amphiphilic helical peptides: diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine with alamethicin at low concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Y; He, K; Ludtke, S J; Huang, H W

    1995-01-01

    A variety of amphiphilic helical peptides have been shown to exhibit a transition from adsorbing parallel to a membrane surface at low concentrations to inserting perpendicularly into the membrane at high concentrations. Furthermore, this transition has been correlated to the peptides' cytolytic activities. X-ray lamellar diffraction of diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine-alamethicin mixtures revealed the changes of the bilayer structure with alamethicin concentration. In particular, the bilayer thickness decreases with increasing peptide concentration in proportion to the peptide-lipid molar ratio from as low as 1:150 to 1:47; the latter is near the threshold of the critical concentration for insertion. From the decreases of the bilayer thickness, one can calculate the cross sectional expansions of the lipid chains. For all of the peptide concentrations studied, the area expansion of the chain region for each adsorbed peptide is a constant 280 +/- 20 A2, which is approximately the cross sectional area of an adsorbed alamethicin. This implies that the peptide is adsorbed at the interface of the hydrocarbon region, separating the lipid headgroups laterally. Interestingly, the chain disorder caused by a peptide adsorption tends to spread over a large area, as much as 100 A in diameter. The theoretical basis of the long range nature of bilayer deformation is discussed. PMID:7647240

  6. Diacylglycerol kinase δ phosphorylates phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C-dependent, palmitic acid-containing diacylglycerol species in response to high glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiromichi; Kado, Sayaka; Taketomi, Akinobu; Sakane, Fumio

    2014-09-19

    Decreased expression of diacylglycerol (DG) kinase (DGK) δ in skeletal muscles is closely related to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. To identify DG species that are phosphorylated by DGKδ in response to high glucose stimulation, we investigated high glucose-dependent changes in phosphatidic acid (PA) molecular species in mouse C2C12 myoblasts using a newly established liquid chromatography/MS method. We found that the suppression of DGKδ2 expression by DGKδ-specific siRNAs significantly inhibited glucose-dependent increases in 30:0-, 32:0-, and 34:0-PA and moderately attenuated 30:1-, 32:1-, and 34:1-PA. Moreover, overexpression of DGKδ2 also enhanced the production of these PA species. MS/MS analysis revealed that these PA species commonly contain palmitic acid (16:0). D609, an inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), significantly inhibited the glucose-stimulated production of the palmitic acid-containing PA species. Moreover, PC-PLC was co-immunoprecipitated with DGKδ2. These results strongly suggest that DGKδ preferably metabolizes palmitic acid-containing DG species supplied from the PC-PLC pathway, but not arachidonic acid (20:4)-containing DG species derived from the phosphatidylinositol turnover, in response to high glucose levels. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Lyso-myristoyl phosphatidylcholine micelles sustain the activity of Dengue non-structural (NS) protein 3 protease domain fused with the full-length NS2B.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiwei; Li, Qingxin; Joy, Joma; Chen, Angela Shuyi; Ruiz-Carrillo, David; Hill, Jeffrey; Lescar, Julien; Kang, Congbao

    2013-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV), a member of the flavivirus genus, affects 50-100 million people in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The DENV protease domain is located at the N-terminus of the NS3 protease and requires for its enzymatic activity a hydrophilic segment of the NS2B that acts as a cofactor. The protease is an important antiviral drug target because it plays a crucial role in virus replication by cleaving the genome-coded polypeptide into mature functional proteins. Currently, there are no drugs to inhibit DENV protease activity. Most structural and functional studies have been conducted using protein constructs containing the NS3 protease domain connected to a soluble segment of the NS2B membrane protein via a nine-residue linker. For in vitro structural and functional studies, it would be useful to produce a natural form of the DENV protease containing the NS3 protease domain and the full-length NS2B protein. Herein, we describe the expression and purification of a natural form of DENV protease (NS2BFL-NS3pro) containing the full-length NS2B protein and the protease domain of NS3 (NS3pro). The protease was expressed and purified in detergent micelles necessary for its folding. Our results show that this purified protein was active in detergent micelles such as lyso-myristoyl phosphatidylcholine (LMPC). These findings should facilitate further structural and functional studies of the protease and will facilitate drug discovery targeting DENV.

  8. Formulation and characterization of a liquid crystalline hexagonal mesophase region of phosphatidylcholine, sorbitan monooleate, and tocopherol acetate for sustained delivery of leuprolide acetate.

    PubMed

    Báez-Santos, Yahira M; Otte, Andrew; Mun, Ellina A; Soh, Bong-Kwan; Song, Chang-Geun; Lee, Young-Nam; Park, Kinam

    2016-11-30

    Although liquid crystal (LC) systems have been studied before, their utility in drug delivery applications has not been explored in depth. This study examined the development of a 1-month sustained release formulation of leuprolide acetate using an in situ-forming LC matrix. The phase progression upon water absorption was tested through construction of ternary phase diagrams of phosphatidylcholine, sorbitan monooleate, and tocopherol acetate (TA) at increasing water content. Small angle X-ray scattering revealed the presence of lamellar and hexagonal mesophases. The physicochemical characteristics and in vitro drug release were evaluated as a function of the ternary component ratio and its resultant phase behavior. Formulations with increased water uptake capacity displayed greater drug release and enhanced erodability. Removal of TA resulted in increased water uptake capacity and drug release, where 8% (w/w) TA was determined as the critical concentration threshold for divergence of release profiles. In conclusion, characterization of the resultant HII mesophase region provided information of the impact the individual components have on the physicochemical properties and potential drug release mechanisms. This high mitigating impact of TA on drug release indicates the use of TA as a tailoring agent, broadening the therapeutic applications of this LC system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Diacylglycerol Kinase δ Phosphorylates Phosphatidylcholine-specific Phospholipase C-dependent, Palmitic Acid-containing Diacylglycerol Species in Response to High Glucose Levels*

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Hiromichi; Kado, Sayaka; Taketomi, Akinobu; Sakane, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    Decreased expression of diacylglycerol (DG) kinase (DGK) δ in skeletal muscles is closely related to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. To identify DG species that are phosphorylated by DGKδ in response to high glucose stimulation, we investigated high glucose-dependent changes in phosphatidic acid (PA) molecular species in mouse C2C12 myoblasts using a newly established liquid chromatography/MS method. We found that the suppression of DGKδ2 expression by DGKδ-specific siRNAs significantly inhibited glucose-dependent increases in 30:0-, 32:0-, and 34:0-PA and moderately attenuated 30:1-, 32:1-, and 34:1-PA. Moreover, overexpression of DGKδ2 also enhanced the production of these PA species. MS/MS analysis revealed that these PA species commonly contain palmitic acid (16:0). D609, an inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), significantly inhibited the glucose-stimulated production of the palmitic acid-containing PA species. Moreover, PC-PLC was co-immunoprecipitated with DGKδ2. These results strongly suggest that DGKδ preferably metabolizes palmitic acid-containing DG species supplied from the PC-PLC pathway, but not arachidonic acid (20:4)-containing DG species derived from the phosphatidylinositol turnover, in response to high glucose levels. PMID:25112873

  10. Thioesterase Superfamily Member 2 (Them2) and Phosphatidylcholine Transfer Protein (PC-TP) Interact To Promote Fatty Acid Oxidation and Control Glucose Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Yuki; Ersoy, Baran A.; Li, Yingxia; Nishiumi, Shin; Yoshida, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Thioesterase superfamily member 2 (Them2) is a mitochondrion-associated long-chain fatty acyl coenzyme A (CoA) thioesterase that is highly expressed in the liver and oxidative tissues. Them2 activity in vitro is increased when it interacts with phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP), a cytosolic lipid binding protein. Them2−/− and Pctp−/− mice exhibit enhanced hepatic insulin sensitivity and increased adaptive thermogenesis, and Them2−/− mice are also resistant to diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Although we showed previously that a Them2–PC-TP complex suppresses insulin signaling, the enzymatic activity of Them2 suggests additional direct involvement in regulating hepatic nutrient homeostasis. Here we used cultured primary hepatocytes to elucidate biochemical and cellular mechanisms by which Them2 and PC-TP regulate lipid and glucose metabolism. Under conditions simulating fasting, Them2−/− and Pctp−/− hepatocytes each exhibited decreased rates of fatty acid oxidation and gluconeogenesis. In results indicative of Them2-dependent regulation by PC-TP, chemical inhibition of PC-TP failed to reproduce these changes in Them2−/− hepatocytes. In contrast, rates of glucose oxidation and lipogenesis in the presence of high glucose concentrations were decreased only in Them2−/− hepatocytes. These findings reveal a primary role for Them2 in promoting mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids and glucose in the liver. PMID:24732803

  11. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, wortmannin, inhibits insulin-induced activation of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis and associated protein kinase C translocation in rat adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Standaert, M L; Avignon, A; Yamada, K; Bandyopadhyay, G; Farese, R V

    1996-01-01

    We questioned whether phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and protein kinase C (PKC) function as interrelated signalling mechanisms during insulin action in rat adipocytes. Insulin rapidly activated a phospholipase D that hydrolyses phosphatidylcholine (PC), and this activation was accompanied by increases in diacylglycerol and translocative activation of PKC-alpha and PKC-beta in the plasma membrane. Wortmannin, an apparently specific PI 3-kinase inhibitor, inhibited insulin-stimulated, phospholipase D-dependent PC hydrolysis and subsequent translocation of PKC-alpha and PKC-beta to the plasma membrane. Wortmannin did not inhibit PKC directly in vitro, or the PKC-dependent effects of phorbol esters on glucose transport in intact adipocytes. The PKC inhibitor RO 31-8220 did not inhibit PI 3-kinase directly or its activation in situ by insulin, but inhibited both insulin-stimulated and phorbol ester-stimulated glucose transport. Our findings suggest that insulin acts through PI 3-kinase to activate a PC-specific phospholipase D and causes the translocative activation of PKC-alpha and PKC-beta in plasma membranes of rat adipocytes. PMID:8611143

  12. Remodeling of host phosphatidylcholine by Chlamydia acyltransferase is regulated by acyl-CoA binding protein ACBD6 associated with lipid droplets

    PubMed Central

    Soupene, Eric; Wang, Derek; Kuypers, Frans A

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis invades cells as an infectious elementary body (EB). The EB is internalized into a vacuole that is hidden from the host defense mechanism, and is modified to sustain the development of the replicative reticulate body (RB). Inside this parasitophorous compartment, called the inclusion, the pathogen survives supported by an active exchange of nutrients and proteins with the host cell. We show that host lipids are scavenged and modified into bacterial-specific lipids by the action of a shared