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Sample records for monophase solution technique

  1. A Single Step Impression Technique of Flabby Ridges Using Monophase Polyvinylsiloxane Material: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Umesh Y.; Reddy, Vikram Simha; Hosi, Rushad Nariman

    2014-01-01

    Complete denture fabrication in clinically compromised situations such as flabby ridges is a challenging task for the clinician. Accurate impressioning of these tissues plays a major role in ensuring a well-fitting prosthesis. In this paper, the authors have proposed a newer technique of impression making of the flabby tissues using a combination of readily available newer and older materials to ensure an accurate and easy impression of these tissues. PMID:24872897

  2. Monophasic zircon-type tetragonal Eu{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x}VO{sub 4} solid-solution: synthesis, characterization, and optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Juan; Zhao, Zongyan; Wang, Yu’an; Zhou, Dacheng; Ma, Chenshuo; Cao, Yuechan; Qiu, Jianbei

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Complete Eu{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x}VO{sub 4} with zircon-type structure was successfully synthesized. • The band gap of the samples could be adjusted and controlled by bismuth content. • Eu{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x}VO{sub 4} show strong red emission under both near UV and visible-light excitation. - Abstract: By combining the methods of co-precipitation and hydrothermal synthesis methods, the complete solid-solution of Eu{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x}VO{sub 4} with monophasic zircon-type structure was successfully synthesized. The zircon-type structure was determined by X-ray diffractometer and Raman scattering, and the optical properties were characterized by ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectrophotometer. The results indicate that the band gap of Eu{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x}VO{sub 4} could be adjusted and controlled by bismuth content in the range of x = 0–0.9. Meanwhile, the Eu{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x}VO{sub 4} solid-solution phosphors show strong red light emission was shown in 619 nm under both near UV-light and visible-light excitation. Notably, the emission intensity of Eu{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x}VO{sub 4} (x = 0.4) is the strongest in all samples.

  3. A tire contact solution technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielking, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    An efficient method for calculating the contact boundary and interfacial pressure distribution was developed. This solution technique utilizes the discrete Fourier transform to establish an influence coefficient matrix for the portion of the pressurized tire surface that may be in the contact region. This matrix is used in a linear algebra algorithm to determine the contact boundary and the array of forces within the boundary that are necessary to hold the tire in equilibrium against a specified contact surface. The algorithm also determines the normal and tangential displacements of those points on the tire surface that are included in the influence coefficient matrix. Displacements within and outside the contact region are calculated. The solution technique is implemented with a finite-element tire model that is based on orthotropic, nonlinear shell of revolution elements which can respond to nonaxisymmetric loads. A sample contact solution is presented.

  4. Global Astrometric Solutions with Sparse Matrix Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-01

    Global Astrometric Solutions with Sparse Matrix Techniques Richard L. Branham, Jr. Instituto Argentino de Nivologia y Glaciologia (IANIGLA), C.C...Physikalishen Teorien der hoheren Geodasie, 1 Teil, Leipzig: Teubner. Knuth, D., 1973, The Art of Computer Programming, Vol. 3, Sorting and Search- ing

  5. Ordering processes in monophase CeH2+x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratishvili, I. G.; Vajda, P.; Boukraa, A.; Namoradze, N. Z.

    1994-06-01

    The hydrogen ordering processes in the β phase of the rare-earth hydride system CeH2+x are analyzed. It is assumed that, within the discussed concentration range (x<0.75), the stable states of the metal-hydrogen system are homogeneous monophase solutions with fixed concentrations. The description of ordering is based upon the mean-field approximation of the static-concentration-waves theory. The relevant energy constants describing the H-H interactions are determined using available experimental data corresponding to the order-disorder transformation temperatures. It is shown that in the system under consideration there exists (in the concentration range x>=0.35), besides the usual order-disorder transformation, an additional order-order transition at low temperatures which, in some cases (for x>0.44), has a two-step character.

  6. Techniques for Solution- Assisted Optical Contacting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVine, Glenn; Ware, Brent; Wuchenich, Danielle M.; Spero, Robert E.; Klipstein, William M.; McKenzie, Kirk

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses a solution-assisted contacting technique for optical contacting. An optic of surface flatness Lambda/20 was successfully contacted with one of moderate surface quality, or Lambda/4. Optics used were both ultra-low expansion (ULE) glass (Lambda/4 and Lambda/20) and fused silica (Lambda/20). A stainless steel template of the intended interferometer layout was designed and constructed with three contact points per optic. The contact points were all on a common side of the template. The entire contacting jig was tilted at about 30 . Thus, when the isopropanol was applied, each optic slid due to gravity, resting on the contact points. All of the contacting was performed in a relatively dusty laboratory. A number of successful contacts were achieved where up to two or three visible pieces of dust could be seen. These were clearly visible due to refraction patterns between the optic and bench. On a number of optics, the final step of dropping isopropyl between the surfaces was repeated until a successful contact was achieved. The new procedures realized in this work represent a simplification for optical contacting in the laboratory. They will both save time and money spent during the contacting process, and research and development phases. The techniques outlined are suitable for laboratory experiments, research, and initial development stages.

  7. Biphasic versus monophasic shock waveform for conversion of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Rho, Robert W; Page, Richard L

    2003-09-01

    Cardioversion of atrial fibrillation (AF) using traditional monophasic shock waveform is unsuccessful in up to 20% of cases, and often requires several shocks of up to 360 J. Based on the success with biphasic shock waveform in converting ventricular fibrillation, it was postulated that biphasic shocks would allow cardioversion with lower energy. In a international multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial of 203 patients, damped sine wave monophasic shocks were compared with impedance-compensated truncated exponential biphasic waveform shocks. Patients received up to five shocks: 100 J, 150 J, 200 J, a fourth shock at maximum output for the initial waveform (200 J biphasic, 360 J monophasic) and a final cross-over shock at maximum output of the alternate waveform. For each energy level, the biphasic waveform compared favorably to the monophasic waveform in successful cardioversion (100 J: 60% versus 22%, P < 0.0001; 150 J: 77% versus 44%, p < 0.0001; 200 J: 90% versus 53%, p < 0.0001). Success with 200 J biphasic was equivalent to 360 J monophasic shock (91% versus 85%, p = 0.29). Patients randomized to biphasic waveform required fewer shocks and lower total energy delivered; in addition, this waveform was associated with less dermal injury and no blistering. Biphasic shocks converted AF present for less than 48 hours with 80% efficacy, but conversion of AF present for more than 48 hours and more than 1 year the success rate was only 63 and 20%, respectively. The results of this study is similar to other investigations comparing biphasic and monophasic shock waveforms for conversion of atrial fibrillation. We recommend starting with biphasic energy of 100 J for atrial fibrillation of less than 48 hours duration, but using higher energies (150 J, 200 J or greater) when AF has been present for longer periods.

  8. [A clinical trial with the monophasic contraceptive Marvelon].

    PubMed

    Rachev, E; Damianov, L; Katsarova, M

    1994-01-01

    The authors present their clinical experience with a monophasic preparation consisting of 30 mcg ethynyl estradiol and 150 mcg desogestrel (Marvelon, Organon). 121 cycles of 24 fertile women were followed. The results show a full contraceptive success, a stable cycle control as well as a low incidence of the side effects.

  9. Monophasic synovial sarcoma of the pharynx: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Betal, Dibendu; Babu, Ramesh; Mehmet, Veysi

    2009-01-01

    Synovial sarcomas are a rare form of soft tissue sarcomas. We present a case of a 62 year-old male presenting with a left thyroid lump initially though to be a thyroid adenoma but subsequently diagnosed as a monophasic synovial sarcoma of the pharynx. We discuss the diagnosis and treatment of this case. PMID:19335917

  10. Monophasic synovial sarcoma of the pharynx: a case report.

    PubMed

    Betal, Dibendu; Babu, Ramesh; Mehmet, Veysi

    2009-03-31

    Synovial sarcomas are a rare form of soft tissue sarcomas. We present a case of a 62 year-old male presenting with a left thyroid lump initially though to be a thyroid adenoma but subsequently diagnosed as a monophasic synovial sarcoma of the pharynx. We discuss the diagnosis and treatment of this case.

  11. A study of crystal growth by solution technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism of crystal growth by solution technique was studied. A low temperature solution crystal growth setup was developed. Crystals of triglycine sulfate (TGS) were grown using this arrangement. Some additional tasks were performed toward fabrication of experiments for future space flight.

  12. Synthesis of antimicrobial monophase silver-doped hydroxyapatite nanopowders for bone tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanić, Vojislav; Janaćković, Djordje; Dimitrijević, Suzana; Tanasković, Sladjana B.; Mitrić, Miodrag; Pavlović, Mirjana S.; Krstić, Aleksandra; Jovanović, Dragoljub; Raičević, Slavica

    2011-02-01

    Monophase silver-doped hydroxyapatite (AgxCa10-x(PO4)6(OH)2; 0.002 ≤ x ≤ 0.04) nanoparticles were prepared using a neutralization method and investigated with respect to potential medical applications. This method consists of dissolving Ag2O in solution of H3PO4, and the slow addition to suspension of Ca(OH)2 was applied for the purpose of homogenous distribution of silver ions. Characterization studies from XRD, TEM and FTIR spectra showed that obtained crystals are monophase hydroxyapatites and that particles of all samples are of nano size, with average length of 70 nm and about 15-25 nm in diameter. Antimicrobial studies have demonstrated that all silver-doped hydroxyapatite samples exhibit excellent antimicrobial activity in vitro against the following pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The hydroxyapatite sample with the highest content of silver has shown the highest antimicrobial activity; killed all cells of E. coli and brought to more than 99% reduction in viable counts of S. aureus and C. albicans. The atomic force microscopic studies illustrate that silver-doped hydroxyapatite sample causes considerable morphological changes of microorganism cells which might be the cause of cells' death. Hemolysis ratios of the silver-doped hydroxyapatite samples were below 3%, indicating good blood compatibility and that are promising as biomaterials.

  13. Generation of Protein Crystals Using a Solution-Stirring Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Hiroaki; Niino, Ai; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Takano, Kazufumi; Kinoshita, Takayoshi; Warizaya, Masaichi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Sasaki, Takatomo

    2004-06-01

    Crystals of bovine adenosine deaminase (ADA) were grown over a two week period in the presence of an inhibitor, whereas ADA crystals did not form using conventional crystallization methods when the inhibitor was excluded. To obtain ADA crystals in the absence of the inhibitor, a solution-stirring technique was used. The crystals obtained using this technique were found to be of high quality and were shown to have high structural resolution for X-ray diffraction analysis. The results of this study indicate that the stirring technique is a useful method for obtaining crystals of proteins that do not crystallize using conventional techniques.

  14. Application of the multigrid solution technique to hypersonic entry vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Francis A.

    1994-09-01

    Multigrid techniques have been incorporated into an existing hypersonic flow analysis code, the Langley aerothermodynamic upwind relaxation algorithm. The multigrid scheme is based on the full approximation storage approach and uses full multigrid to obtain a well-defined fine-mesh starting solution. Predictions were obtained using standard transfer operators, and a V cycle was used to control grid sequencing. Computed hypersonic flow solutions, compared with experimental data for a 15-deg blunted sphere-cone and a blended-wing body, are presented. It is shown that the algorithm predicts heating rates accurately, and computes solutions in one-third the computational time of the nonmultigrid algorithm.

  15. Durability of Three Different Types of Hyaluronic Acid Fillers in Skin: Are There Differences Among Biphasic, Monophasic Monodensified, and Monophasic Polydensified Products?

    PubMed

    da Costa, Adilson; Biccigo, Danilo Guerreiro Zeolo; de Souza Weimann, Ellem Tatiani; Mercadante, Larissa Mondadori; Oliveira, Paulo Roberto Grimaldi; Prebianchi, Stefânia Bazanelli; Abdalla, Beatrice Martinez Zugaib

    2017-05-01

    Hyaluronic acid fillers are used for facial rejuvenation and are classified as non-cross-linked or cross-linked (monophasic mono- or polydensified). To histologically assess the intradermal durability of three types of fillers (biphasic, monophasic monodensified, and monophasic polydensified), to compare the durability of the products over 6 months, and to evaluate the structural changes after application. In all, 25 volunteers received injections of three different fillers in the dermis of the right lumbar region (in one line), and equal amounts of the fillers were injected into three different sites (in the same column), yielding nine points of application in each patient. Each line was biopsied on days 2, 92, and 184; these skin samples were analyzed histologically, and the presence or absence of these fillers was verified by a dermatopathologist. The histological analysis showed that over 182 days, the amount of the injected monophasic polydensified, monophasic monodensified, and biphasic filler products decreased by 62.5%, 25%, and 12.5%, respectively. The biphasic and monophasic monodensified fillers presented greater intradermal durability than did the monophasic polydensified filler at 6 months after intradermal injection.

  16. Development of solution techniques for nonlinear structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vos, R. G.; Andrews, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Nonlinear structural solution methods in the current research literature are classified according to order of the solution scheme, and it is shown that the analytical tools for these methods are uniformly derivable by perturbation techniques. A new perturbation formulation is developed for treating an arbitrary nonlinear material, in terms of a finite-difference generated stress-strain expansion. Nonlinear geometric effects are included in an explicit manner by appropriate definition of an applicable strain tensor. A new finite-element pilot computer program PANES (Program for Analysis of Nonlinear Equilibrium and Stability) is presented for treatment of problems involving material and geometric nonlinearities, as well as certain forms on nonconservative loading.

  17. Phase behaviors of polymer solutions using molecular simulation technique.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jung Ho; Bae, Young Chan

    2008-08-14

    Phase behaviors of polymer solutions are estimated using a combination of thermodynamic models and molecular simulation technique. In general, many parameters of binary systems are determined by fitting a thermodynamic model with experimental data. In this study, we obtained all parameters using molecular simulation. To take the specific interaction into account, we assume that it only occurs between a solvent molecule and a specific group. Our results show that the theoretical treatment accounting for the specific interaction gives more accurate predictions than those without consideration of specific interaction. Also, our approach describes the phase equilibria of various polymer solutions over the entire concentration remarkably well.

  18. A comparison of solute-transport solution techniques based on inverse modelling results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehl, S.; Hill, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Five common numerical techniques (finite difference, predictor-corrector, total-variation-diminishing, method-of-characteristics, and modified-method-of-characteristics) were tested using simulations of a controlled conservative tracer-test experiment through a heterogeneous, two-dimensional sand tank. The experimental facility was constructed using randomly distributed homogeneous blocks of five sand types. This experimental model provides an outstanding opportunity to compare the solution techniques because of the heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity distribution of known structure, and the availability of detailed measurements with which to compare simulated concentrations. The present work uses this opportunity to investigate how three common types of results-simulated breakthrough curves, sensitivity analysis, and calibrated parameter values-change in this heterogeneous situation, given the different methods of simulating solute transport. The results show that simulated peak concentrations, even at very fine grid spacings, varied because of different amounts of numerical dispersion. Sensitivity analysis results were robust in that they were independent of the solution technique. They revealed extreme correlation between hydraulic conductivity and porosity, and that the breakthrough curve data did not provide enough information about the dispersivities to estimate individual values for the five sands. However, estimated hydraulic conductivity values are significantly influenced by both the large possible variations in model dispersion and the amount of numerical dispersion present in the solution technique.Five common numerical techniques (finite difference, predictor-corrector, total-variation-diminishing, method-of-characteristics, and modified-method-of-characteristics) were tested using simulations of a controlled conservative tracer-test experiment through a heterogeneous, two-dimensional sand tank. The experimental facility was constructed using randomly

  19. Real time solution of parameterised problems via Model Reduction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlotnik, Sergio; Signorini, Marianna; Modesto, David

    2016-04-01

    Parameterised problems, in which the solution depends on space, time and a set of predefined parameters (e.g. material properties, boundary conditions, domain geometry, initial conditions, ...), can be solved with extremely high efficiency with Model Reduction techniques. Among these techniques the Proper Generalized Decomposition (PGD), has some very interesting features that will be investigated and presented in this work. The PGD technique involves two computational phases: first, one "offline" phase that can be computationally expensive but it is executed only once in a lifetime and, second, an "online" phase that is extremely fast and lightweight in computer resources. The possibilities of PGD are shown here via several example problems: i) heat transport parameterised in the material properties, boundary conditions and interface locations, ii) Stokes flow parameterised in the geometry domain, and iii) wave propagation parameterised in boundary conditions, material properties and interface locations. The extremely fast evaluation of PGD-solutions make them ideal to be used within inverse problems where the unknowns are the values of the parameters and the data consist in some partial observation of the solution field.

  20. Molecular Methods for Identification of Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium Strains.

    PubMed

    Madajczak, Grzegorz; Dera-Tomaszewska, Bozena; Wasiak, Monika; Chróst, Anna; Szych, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Two molecular biology methods were used to differentiate Salmonella enterica 1,4,[5],12:i:- strains: "Salmonella Check&Trace microarray" (CT) and multiplex PCR (mPCR). For 92 strains in CT result "Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:-" were obtained. Those strains were confirmed in mPCR as monophasic fljB-lack Salmonella Typhimurium. For 17 strains, which in CT assay were recognized as Salmonella Typhimurium, the same identification was obtained in mPCR. Reference Salmonella strains: Lagos, Agama, Tsevie, Glocester and Tumodi in CT were recognized as Salmonella genovar, in mPCR--as Salmonella O:4, H:i other than Salmonella Typhimurium, the same like Salmonella Farsta, recognized incorrectly in CT as Salmonella Typhimurium.

  1. Monophasic teratoma of the ovarian remnant in a bitch.

    PubMed

    Rota, A; Tursi, M; Zabarino, S; Appino, S

    2013-04-01

    An exploratory laparotomy on a mixed-breed bitch of an estimated age of 5 years revealed that she had undergone ovariectomy in the past, but a cystic structure was present in the area of the right ovary and a whitish mass, approximately 3 cm in diameter, in the area of the left ovary. These structures were removed together with an apparently normal uterus. Histological examination of the cyst showed a thin layer of connective tissue, while the left ovarian mass revealed ovarian tissue and highly differentiated nervous tissue, confirmed through immunohistochemistry. A presumptive diagnosis of mature ovarian teratoma was made. Although teratomas generally contain recognizable elements from more than one of the three germ cell layers, they can also be monophasic, when there is only one germ layer component. Ovarian teratomas are rare in the dog and never before have been reported in an ovarian fragment.

  2. Monophasic estrogen-progestogen therapy and sexuality in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, A M; Bagnoli, V R; Penteado, S R L; Paixão, J S; Cavalcanti, A L; Pinotti, J A

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of monophasic estrogen-progestogen therapy on the sexuality and climacteric symptoms of postmenopausal women. A prospective, randomised, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled, single-centre study was carried out over a total of 12 consecutive months in 40 postmenopausal women with an intact uterus who had no contraindications to hormone therapy. Patients received 17beta-estradiol 2mg in combination with norethisterone acetate 1mg (Cliane) daily for 6 months or one placebo tablet daily for 6 months. The tablets were identical in appearance. After 6 months, the groups were crossed over and the patients were followed up for another 6 months. The groups were homogenous with respect to age, height, bodyweight, body mass index and race. For the statistical analysis, the group receiving hormone therapy was referred to as group A and the placebo group was designated group B, irrespective of the placebo/hormone therapy sequence. In group A there were fewer hot flashes (F=22.85, p<0.01) and an improvement in sexual interest (F=5.55, p<0.05). The sequence in which the medication was received resulted in a statistically significant difference with respect to dyspareunia (F=9.65, p<0.01) and satisfaction with the duration of penetration (F=6.58, p<0.05). In the intrapatient analysis of variation with respect to orgasmic capability and the presence of dialogue with partner regarding the couple's sexual life, whether the placebo was taken prior to or following hormone therapy was significant (F=17.12, p<0.001 and F=7.10, p<0.05, respectively). Monophasic estrogen-progestogen therapy has a beneficial effect on sexuality and on hot flashes in postmenopausal women.

  3. Overview of subtalar arthrodesis techniques: options, pitfalls and solutions.

    PubMed

    Tuijthof, Gabriëlle J M; Beimers, Lijkele; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; Dankelman, Jenny; Dijk, C Niek van

    2010-09-01

    Subtalar arthrodesis (SA) is the preferred treatment for painful isolated subtalar disease. Although results are generally favourable, analysis of current operative techniques will help optimizing this treatment. The aim was to give an overview of SA-techniques and their pitfalls. Possible solutions were identified. A literature search was performed for papers that presented SA operative techniques. The general technique was divided into phases: surgical approach, cartilage removal, bone graft selection, hindfoot deformity correction and fixation. The published series were invariably retrospective reviews of small heterogenous groups of different hindfoot pathologies. The weighted outcome rate for SA was 85% (68-100%) performed in 766 feet and for SA requiring correction of malalignment 65% (36-96%) in 1001 feet. Non-union (weighted percentage 12%), malalignment (18%), and screw removal (17%) were the prevailing late complications. The following pitfalls were identified: 1) early complications related to the incisions made in open approaches, 2) insufficient cartilage removal, improper bone graft selection and fixation techniques, all possibly leading to non-union, 3) morbidity caused by bone graft harvesting and secondary screw removal, 4) under- or overcorrection of the hindfoot possibly due to improper intraoperative verification and 5) inadequate assessment of bony fusion. The review provides solutions to possibly overcome some pitfalls: 1) if applicable use an arthroscopic approach in combination with distraction devices and new burrs, 2) if possible use local bone graft or allografts, 3) use two screws for fixation to prevent rotational micromotion, and 4) improve assessment of operative outcome by application of appropriate assessment of bony fusion and alignment. The review provides practical suggestions to optimize SA-techniques. Copyright (c) 2009 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. External cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: comparison of biphasic vs monophasic waveform shocks.

    PubMed

    Ricard, P; Lévy, S; Boccara, G; Lakhal, E; Bardy, G

    2001-04-01

    It is well established in transthoracic ventricular defibrillation that biphasic truncated waveform shocks are associated with superior defibrillation efficacy when compared with damped sine wave monophasic waveform shocks. The aim of this study was to explore whether biphasic waveform shocks were superior to monophasic waveform shocks for external cardioversion of atrial fibrillation (AF). Fifty-seven patients in whom cardioversion of AF was indicated were randomized in this prospective study, to transthoracic cardioversion with either monophasic damped sine waveform shocks or biphasic impedance compensating waveform shocks. In the group randomized to monophasic waveform shocks (27 patients), a first shock of 150 J was delivered, followed (if necessary) by a 360 J shock. In the biphasic waveform group (30 patients), the first shock had an energy of 150 J and (if necessary) a second 150 J was delivered. All shocks were delivered in the anterolateral chest pad position. Sinus rhythm was restored in 16 patients (51%) with the first monophasic shock and in 27 patients (86%) with the first biphasic shock. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.02). After the second shock, sinus rhythm was obtained in a total of 24 patients (88%) with monophasic shocks and in 28 patients (93%) with biphasic shocks. No complication was observed in either group and cardiac enzymes (CK, CKmb, troponin I, myoglobin) did not show any significant changes. This study suggests that at the same energy level of 150 J, biphasic impedance compensating waveform shocks are superior to monophasic damped sine waveform shocks cardioversion of atrial fibrillation.

  5. New discretization and solution techniques for incompressible viscous flow problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunzburger, M. D.; Nicolaides, R. A.; Liu, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    Several topics arising in the finite element solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are considered. Specifically, the question of choosing finite element velocity/pressure spaces is addressed, particularly from the viewpoint of achieving stable discretizations leading to convergent pressure approximations. The role of artificial viscosity in viscous flow calculations is studied, emphasizing work by several researchers for the anisotropic case. The last section treats the problem of solving the nonlinear systems of equations which arise from the discretization. Time marching methods and classical iterative techniques, as well as some modifications are mentioned.

  6. Obesity prevention: Comparison of techniques and potential solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkepli, Jafri; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-12-01

    Over the years, obesity prevention has been a broadly studied subject by both academicians and practitioners. It is one of the most serious public health issue as it can cause numerous chronic health and psychosocial problems. Research is needed to suggest a population-based strategy for obesity prevention. In the academic environment, the importance of obesity prevention has triggered various problem solving approaches. A good obesity prevention model, should comprehend and cater all complex and dynamics issues. Hence, the main purpose of this paper is to discuss the qualitative and quantitative approaches on obesity prevention study and to provide an extensive literature review on various recent modelling techniques for obesity prevention. Based on these literatures, the comparison of both quantitative and qualitative approahes are highlighted and the justification on the used of system dynamics technique to solve the population of obesity is discussed. Lastly, a potential framework solution based on system dynamics modelling is proposed.

  7. Preconditioning techniques for the iterative solution of scattering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egidi, Nadaniela; Maponi, Pierluigi

    2008-09-01

    We consider a time-harmonic electromagnetic scattering problem for an inhomogeneous medium. Some symmetry hypotheses on the refractive index of the medium and on the electromagnetic fields allow to reduce this problem to a two-dimensional scattering problem. This boundary value problem is defined on an unbounded domain, so its numerical solution cannot be obtained by a straightforward application of usual methods, such as for example finite difference methods, and finite element methods. A possible way to overcome this difficulty is given by an equivalent integral formulation of this problem, where the scattered field can be computed from the solution of a Fredholm integral equation of second kind. The numerical approximation of this problem usually produces large dense linear systems. We consider usual iterative methods for the solution of such linear systems, and we study some preconditioning techniques to improve the efficiency of these methods. We show some numerical results obtained with two well known Krylov subspace methods, i.e., Bi-CGSTAB and GMRES.

  8. Biphasic versus monophasic shock for external cardioversion of atrial flutter: a prospective, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Kai; Risius, Tim; Schwemer, Tjark F; Aydin, Muhammet Ali; Köster, Ralf; Klemm, Hanno U; Lutomsky, Boris; Meinertz, Thomas; Ventura, Rodolfo; Willems, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    External cardioversion is effective to terminate persistent atrial flutter. Biphasic shocks have been shown to be superior to monophasic shocks for ventricular defibrillation and atrial fibrillation cardioversion. The purpose of this trial was to compare the efficacy of rectilinear biphasic versus standard damped sine wave monophasic shocks in symptomatic patients with typical atrial flutter. 135 consecutive patients were screened, 95 (70 males, mean age 62 +/- 13 years) were included. Patients were randomly assigned to a monophasic or biphasic cardioversion protocol. Forty-seven patients randomized to the monophasic protocol received sequential shocks of 100, 150, 200, 300 and 360 J. Forty-eight patients with the biphasic protocol received 50, 75, 100, 150 or 200 J. First-shock efficacy with 50-Joule, biphasic shocks (23/48 patients, 48%) was significantly greater than with the 100-Joule, monophasic waveform (13/47 patients, 28%, p = 0.04). The cumulative second-shock efficacy with the 50- and 75-Joule, biphasic waveform (39/48 patients, 81%) was significantly greater than with the 100- and 150-Joule, monophasic waveform (25/47 patients, 53%, p < 0.05). The cumulative efficacy for the higher energy levels showed naturally no significant difference between the two groups. The amount of the mean delivered energy was significantly lower in the biphasic group (76 +/- 39 J) compared to the monophasic one (177 +/- 78 J, p < 0.05). For transthoracic cardioversion of typical atrial flutter, biphasic shocks have greater efficacy and the mean delivered current is lower than for monophasic shocks. Therefore, biphasic cardioversion with lower starting energies should be recommended. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. A Solution Adaptive Technique Using Tetrahedral Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.

    2000-01-01

    An adaptive unstructured grid refinement technique has been developed and successfully applied to several three dimensional inviscid flow test cases. The method is based on a combination of surface mesh subdivision and local remeshing of the volume grid Simple functions of flow quantities are employed to detect dominant features of the flowfield The method is designed for modular coupling with various error/feature analyzers and flow solvers. Several steady-state, inviscid flow test cases are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method for solving practical three-dimensional problems. In all cases, accurate solutions featuring complex, nonlinear flow phenomena such as shock waves and vortices have been generated automatically and efficiently.

  10. Large matrix solution techniques applied to an electromagnetic scattering problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodworth, Margaret B.

    1988-11-01

    There are many numerical applications where one must solve a large system of linear equations. In order to do this, two issues must be addressed: Storage of the large matrices and finding an efficient technique to solve this large system of equations. This report looks at these issues as they apply to a given electromagnetic scattering problem. Surface integral equations are solved to find the surface currents and the far-field scattering from a three-dimensional conducting cube. This three-dimensional scattering problem is solved by Magnetic-Field Integral Equations (MFIE), Augmented Magnetic-Field Integral Equations (AMFIE), or, the recently developed, dual-surface magnetic-field integral equations. Various methods are reported for dealing with the shortage of memory - Unified Extended Memory (UEM), virtual memory, mass storage, and direct access fields. These methods can be used to increase the size of available matrix memory, without vastly increasing the CPU time beyond the time that would be required with central memory alone. Three techniques of matrix solution are discussed: Gaussian elimination, the conjugate gradient, and the biconjugate gradient methods. The computations reported here were done on three representative scientific computers: A Cyber 860 with NOS 2.5 operating system, a VAX 8650 and a Vax 11/780. Both Vaxes have Vax/VMS version 4.7 operating system.

  11. Advanced techniques in reliability model representation and solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.; Nicol, David M.

    1992-01-01

    The current tendency of flight control system designs is towards increased integration of applications and increased distribution of computational elements. The reliability analysis of such systems is difficult because subsystem interactions are increasingly interdependent. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have been working for several years to extend the capability of Markov modeling techniques to address these problems. This effort has been focused in the areas of increased model abstraction and increased computational capability. The reliability model generator (RMG) is a software tool that uses as input a graphical object-oriented block diagram of the system. RMG uses a failure-effects algorithm to produce the reliability model from the graphical description. The ASSURE software tool is a parallel processing program that uses the semi-Markov unreliability range evaluator (SURE) solution technique and the abstract semi-Markov specification interface to the SURE tool (ASSIST) modeling language. A failure modes-effects simulation is used by ASSURE. These tools were used to analyze a significant portion of a complex flight control system. The successful combination of the power of graphical representation, automated model generation, and parallel computation leads to the conclusion that distributed fault-tolerant system architectures can now be analyzed.

  12. Transthoracic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: comparison of rectilinear biphasic versus damped sine wave monophasic shocks.

    PubMed

    Mittal, S; Ayati, S; Stein, K M; Schwartzman, D; Cavlovich, D; Tchou, P J; Markowitz, S M; Slotwiner, D J; Scheiner, M A; Lerman, B B

    2000-03-21

    Clinical studies have shown that biphasic shocks are more effective than monophasic shocks for ventricular defibrillation. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of a rectilinear biphasic waveform with a standard damped sine wave monophasic waveform for the transthoracic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. In this prospective, randomized, multicenter trial, patients undergoing transthoracic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation were randomized to receive either damped sine wave monophasic or rectilinear biphasic shocks. Patients randomized to the monophasic protocol (n=77) received sequential shocks of 100, 200, 300, and 360 J. Patients randomized to the biphasic protocol (n=88) received sequential shocks of 70, 120, 150, and 170 J. First-shock efficacy with the 70-J biphasic waveform (60 of 88 patients, 68%) was significantly greater than that with the 100-J monophasic waveform (16 of 77 patients, 21%, P<0.0001), and it was achieved with 50% less delivered current (11+/-1 versus 22+/-4 A, P<0.0001). Similarly, the cumulative efficacy with the biphasic waveform (83 of 88 patients, 94%) was significantly greater than that with the monophasic waveform (61 of 77 patients, 79%; P=0.005). The following 3 variables were independently associated with successful cardioversion: use of a biphasic waveform (relative risk, 4.2; 95% confidence intervals, 1.3 to 13.9; P=0.02), transthoracic impedance (relative risk, 0.64 per 10-Omega increase in impedance; 95% confidence intervals, 0.46 to 0.90; P=0.005), and duration of atrial fibrillation (relative risk, 0.97 per 30 days of atrial fibrillation; 95% confidence intervals, 0.96 to 0.99; P=0.02). For transthoracic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation, rectilinear biphasic shocks have greater efficacy (and require less energy) than damped sine wave monophasic shocks.

  13. The use of micellar solutions for novel separation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Bruce Lynn

    1993-01-01

    Surfactant based separation techniques based on the solubilization of organic compounds into the nonpolar interior of a micelle or electrostatic attraction of ionized metals and metal complexes to the charged surface of a micelle were studied in this work. Micellar solutions were used to recover two model volatile organic compounds emitted by the printing and painting industries (toluene and amyl acetate) and to investigate the effect of the most important variables in the surfactant enhanced carbon regeneration (SECR) process. SECR for liquid phase applications was also investigated in which the equilibrium adsorption of cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on activated carbon were measured. Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) was investigated using spiral wound membranes for the simultaneous removal of organic compounds, metals and metal complexes dissolved in water, with emphasis on pollution control applications. Investigations of MEUF to remove 99+ per cent of trichloroethylene (TCE) from contaminated groundwater using criteria such as: membrane flux, solubilization equilibrium constant, surfactant molecular weight, and Krafft temperature led to the selection of an anionic disulfonate with a molecular weight of 642 (DOWFAX 8390). These data and results from supporting experiments were used to design a system which could clean-up water in a 100,000 gallon/day operation. A four stage process was found to be an effective design and estimated cost for such an operation were found to be in the range of the cost of mature competitive technologies.

  14. Biofunctionalization of Si nanowires using a solution based technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Elissa H.; Davydov, Albert V.; Oleshko, Vladimir P.; Lin, Nancy J.; Steffens, Kristen L.; Manocchi, Amy K.; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Rao, Mulpuri V.; Schreifels, John A.

    2012-10-01

    Here we present a solution based functionalization technique for streptavidin (SA) protein conjugation to silicon nanowires (Si NWs). Si NWs, with a diameter of 110 nm to 130 nm and a length of 5 μm to 10 μm, were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) followed by biotin for the selective attachment of SA. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that the Si NWs were conformally coated with 20 nm to 30 nm thick APTES, biotin, and SA layers upon functionalization. Successful attachment of each bio/organic layer was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence microscopy also demonstrated that there was an undesirable non-specific binding of the SA protein as well as a control protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), to the APTES-coated Si NWs. However, inhibition of BSA binding and enhancement of SA binding were achieved following the biotinylation step. The biofunctionalized Si NWs show potential as label-free biosensing platforms for the specific and selective detection of biomolecules.

  15. Solution of linear systems by a singular perturbation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1976-01-01

    An approximate solution is obtained for a singularly perturbed system of initial valued, time invariant, linear differential equations with multiple boundary layers. Conditions are stated under which the approximate solution converges uniformly to the exact solution as the perturbation parameter tends to zero. The solution is obtained by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. Use of the results for obtaining approximate solutions of general linear systems is discussed. An example is considered to illustrate the method and it is shown that the formulas derived give a readily computed uniform approximation.

  16. Solute effects on ice recrystallization: an assessment technique.

    PubMed

    Knight, C A; Hallett, J; DeVries, A L

    1988-02-01

    Reliable assessment of the effect of a solute upon ice recrystallization is accomplished with "splat cooling," the impaction of a small solution droplet onto a very cold metal plate. The ice disc has extremely small crystals, and recrystallization can be followed without confusing effects caused by grain nucleation. This method confirms the exceptionally strong recrystallization inhibition effect of antifreeze protein from Antarctic fish and shows that grain growth rate is a sensitive function of both grain size and solute concentration.

  17. Microevolution of Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium during Epidemic, United Kingdom, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Petrovska, Liljana; Mather, Alison E.; AbuOun, Manal; Branchu, Priscilla; Harris, Simon R.; Connor, Thomas; Hopkins, K.L.; Underwood, A.; Lettini, Antonia A.; Page, Andrew; Bagnall, Mary; Wain, John; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon; Davies, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Microevolution associated with emergence and expansion of new epidemic clones of bacterial pathogens holds the key to epidemiologic success. To determine microevolution associated with monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium during an epidemic, we performed comparative whole-genome sequencing and phylogenomic analysis of isolates from the United Kingdom and Italy during 2005–2012. These isolates formed a single clade distinct from recent monophasic epidemic clones previously described from North America and Spain. The UK monophasic epidemic clones showed a novel genomic island encoding resistance to heavy metals and a composite transposon encoding antimicrobial drug resistance genes not present in other Salmonella Typhimurium isolates, which may have contributed to epidemiologic success. A remarkable amount of genotypic variation accumulated during clonal expansion that occurred during the epidemic, including multiple independent acquisitions of a novel prophage carrying the sopE gene and multiple deletion events affecting the phase II flagellin locus. This high level of microevolution may affect antigenicity, pathogenicity, and transmission. PMID:26982594

  18. Microevolution of Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium during Epidemic, United Kingdom, 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Petrovska, Liljana; Mather, Alison E; AbuOun, Manal; Branchu, Priscilla; Harris, Simon R; Connor, Thomas; Hopkins, K L; Underwood, A; Lettini, Antonia A; Page, Andrew; Bagnall, Mary; Wain, John; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon; Davies, Robert; Kingsley, Robert A

    2016-04-01

    Microevolution associated with emergence and expansion of new epidemic clones of bacterial pathogens holds the key to epidemiologic success. To determine microevolution associated with monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium during an epidemic, we performed comparative whole-genome sequencing and phylogenomic analysis of isolates from the United Kingdom and Italy during 2005-2012. These isolates formed a single clade distinct from recent monophasic epidemic clones previously described from North America and Spain. The UK monophasic epidemic clones showed a novel genomic island encoding resistance to heavy metals and a composite transposon encoding antimicrobial drug resistance genes not present in other Salmonella Typhimurium isolates, which may have contributed to epidemiologic success. A remarkable amount of genotypic variation accumulated during clonal expansion that occurred during the epidemic, including multiple independent acquisitions of a novel prophage carrying the sopE gene and multiple deletion events affecting the phase II flagellin locus. This high level of microevolution may affect antigenicity, pathogenicity, and transmission.

  19. Analytical Solution of the Two-Frequency Lidar Inversion Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Jrg

    1999-12-01

    A two-frequency lidar inversion on the assumptions of a range-independent relationship between the extinction coefficients of the two considered lidar wavelengths and of constant extinction-to-backscatter ratios was originally developed by Potter Appl. Opt. 26, 1250 (1987) . It is an iterative procedure to retrieve the boundary value for solution of the single-scatter lidar equation. This boundary value is expressed by the aerosol transmission along the evaluated lidar path. Recently, Kunz Appl. Opt. 38, 1015 (1999) stated that there is not enough information in the lidar signals of two wavelengths to obtain a unique solution for the boundary value and hence for the aerosol extinction profile. It is shown that a unique solution of the two-frequency lidar inversion exists, for which an analytical expression of the boundary value and, hence, the aerosol extinction profile, is given.

  20. Experimental techniques for determination of the role of diffusion and convection in crystal growth from solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zefiro, L.

    1980-01-01

    Various studies of the concentration of the solution around a growing crystal using interferometric techniques are reviewed. A holographic interferometric technique used in laboratory experiments shows that a simple description of the solution based on the assumption of a purely diffusive mechanism appears inadequate since the convection, effective even in reduced columns, always affects the growth.

  1. A comparison of biphasic and monophasic shocks for external defibrillation. Physio-Control Biphasic Investigators.

    PubMed

    Higgins, S L; Herre, J M; Epstein, A E; Greer, G S; Friedman, P L; Gleva, M L; Porterfield, J G; Chapman, F W; Finkel, E S; Schmitt, P W; Nova, R C; Greene, H L

    2000-01-01

    The ability of a shock to defibrillate the heart depends on its waveform and energy. Past studies of biphasic truncated exponential (BTE) shocks for external defibrillation focused on low energy levels. This prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial compared the first-shock efficacies of 200-joule (J) BTE, 130-J BTE, and 200-J monophasic damped sine wave shocks. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was induced in 115 patients during evaluation of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator function and 39 patients during electrophysiologic evaluation of ventricular arrhythmias. After 19 +/- 10 seconds of VF, a randomized transthoracic shock was administered. Mean first-shock success rates of the three groups were compared using a "Tukey-like" statistical test, adjusting for multiple comparisons. Blood pressures and arterial oxygen saturations were measured before VF induction and 30, 90, and 150 seconds after successful defibrillation. First-shock success rates were 61/68 (90%) for 200-J monophasic, 39/39 (100%) for 200-J biphasic, and 39/47 (83%) for 130-J biphasic shocks. The 200-J biphasic shocks were simultaneously superior in first-shock efficacy to both 200-J monophasic and 130-J biphasic shocks (experimentwise error rate, alpha < 0.01). There was no significant difference between the efficacies of 200-J monophasic and 130-J biphasic shocks, nor was there any significant difference between the three groups in hemodynamic parameters after successful shocks. Biphasic shocks of 200 J provide better first-shock defibrillation efficacy for short-duration VF than 200-J monophasic and 130-J biphasic shocks and thus may allow earlier termination of VF in cardiac arrest patients.

  2. Experimental pressure solution creep of quartz by indenter technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratier, J.; Guiguet, R.; Renard, F.; Jenatton, L.

    2006-12-01

    The principle of the experiment is to measure the displacement-rate of indenter that dissolve mineral under stress in order to establish creep laws. A stainless steel cylindrical indenter (200 microns diameter) mounted under a free-moving piston is put in contact with a crystal of quartz in presence of its saturated solution. A dead weigh put on the piston sets the stress. The device is maintained within pressure vessel during several weeks or months at constant temperature and fluid pressure. The depths of the dissolution holes are measured at the end of the experiments. Various types of experimental protocols have been used with difference (i) about quartz (synthetic or natural), (ii) about the nature of the solution (Na0H N, H20, dry), (iii) about the way the contact solid/solution/solid is filled (iv) about the relation between stress and optical quartz axis. Results are shown as displacement-rate versus stress relations for the 4 configurations, with always the same temperature (350°C), solution (NaOH N) and fluid pressure (200 MPa) and with several weeks or months of duration. When using dry contact or water no significant hole may be seen. Short durations (days) never allowed measurable hole to develop. The results show a large scattering of displacement-rates for same stress values, even for the same protocol. From observations under microscope two explanations are possible either a strong effect of the roughening of the dissolution interface that evolve with time and that seems to play a crucial role in the displacement-rate versus stress relation or some effects of temporary undersaturating during the experiment due to experimental perturbations. The results also show a large overlapping between the displacement-rates obtained with the 4 protocols. Plotting all the results on the same log-log diagram shows a displacement-rate versus stress relation that fit a power law with a stress exponent of 1.75. Due to the relatively high stress values this is not

  3. Development and evaluation of an inverse solution technique for studying helicopter maneuverability and agility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalley, Matthew S.

    1991-01-01

    An inverse solution technique for determining the maximum maneuvering performance of a helicopter using smooth, pilotlike control inputs is presented. Also described is a pilot simulation experiment performed to investigate the accuracy of the solution resulting from this technique. The maneuverability and agility capability of the helicopter math model was varied by varying the pitch and roll damping, the maximum pitch and roll rate, and the maximum load-factor capability. Three maneuvers were investigated: a 180-deg turn, a longitudinal pop-up, and a lateral jink. The inverse solution technique yielded accurate predictions of pilot-in-the-loop maneuvering performance for two of the three maneuvers.

  4. Shock-induced termination of reentrant cardiac arrhythmias: Comparing monophasic and biphasic shock protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Bragard, Jean Simic, Ana; Elorza, Jorge; Grigoriev, Roman O.; Fenton, Flavio H.; Cherry, Elizabeth M.; Gilmour, Robert F.; Otani, Niels F.

    2013-12-15

    In this article, we compare quantitatively the efficiency of three different protocols commonly used in commercial defibrillators. These are based on monophasic and both symmetric and asymmetric biphasic shocks. A numerical one–dimensional model of cardiac tissue using the bidomain formulation is used in order to test the different protocols. In particular, we performed a total of 4.8 × 10{sup 6} simulations by varying shock waveform, shock energy, initial conditions, and heterogeneity in internal electrical conductivity. Whenever the shock successfully removed the reentrant dynamics in the tissue, we classified the mechanism. The analysis of the numerical data shows that biphasic shocks are significantly more efficient (by about 25%) than the corresponding monophasic ones. We determine that the increase in efficiency of the biphasic shocks can be explained by the higher proportion of newly excited tissue through the mechanism of direct activation.

  5. Shock-induced termination of reentrant cardiac arrhythmias: Comparing monophasic and biphasic shock protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragard, Jean; Simic, Ana; Elorza, Jorge; Grigoriev, Roman O.; Cherry, Elizabeth M.; Gilmour, Robert F.; Otani, Niels F.; Fenton, Flavio H.

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we compare quantitatively the efficiency of three different protocols commonly used in commercial defibrillators. These are based on monophasic and both symmetric and asymmetric biphasic shocks. A numerical one-dimensional model of cardiac tissue using the bidomain formulation is used in order to test the different protocols. In particular, we performed a total of 4.8 × 106 simulations by varying shock waveform, shock energy, initial conditions, and heterogeneity in internal electrical conductivity. Whenever the shock successfully removed the reentrant dynamics in the tissue, we classified the mechanism. The analysis of the numerical data shows that biphasic shocks are significantly more efficient (by about 25%) than the corresponding monophasic ones. We determine that the increase in efficiency of the biphasic shocks can be explained by the higher proportion of newly excited tissue through the mechanism of direct activation.

  6. Monophasic action potentials in a patient with multiform ventricular tachycardia without QT prolongation.

    PubMed Central

    Emori, T; Ohe, T; Shimomura, K

    1993-01-01

    A 41 year old woman had multiform ventricular tachycardia without QT prolongation. Monophasic action potentials were recorded from the right ventricle during the attacks of multiform ventricular tachycardia and effective refractory periods were examined at the same sites. There was no abnormal hump to suggest early afterdepolarisation in the monophasic action potentials, but there was dispersion of the effective refractory period in the right ventricle (80 ms). Stimulation from the right ventricular apex, where the effective refractory period was shortest, reproducibly induced multiform ventricular tachycardia. Two weeks after admission, when her condition was stable, multiform ventricular tachycardia could not be induced and the dispersion of the effective refractory period in the right ventricle was 20 ms. PMID:8489870

  7. Shock-induced termination of reentrant cardiac arrhythmias: Comparing monophasic and biphasic shock protocols

    PubMed Central

    Bragard, Jean; Simic, Ana; Elorza, Jorge; Grigoriev, Roman O.; Cherry, Elizabeth M.; Gilmour, Robert F.; Otani, Niels F.; Fenton, Flavio H.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we compare quantitatively the efficiency of three different protocols commonly used in commercial defibrillators. These are based on monophasic and both symmetric and asymmetric biphasic shocks. A numerical one–dimensional model of cardiac tissue using the bidomain formulation is used in order to test the different protocols. In particular, we performed a total of 4.8 × 106 simulations by varying shock waveform, shock energy, initial conditions, and heterogeneity in internal electrical conductivity. Whenever the shock successfully removed the reentrant dynamics in the tissue, we classified the mechanism. The analysis of the numerical data shows that biphasic shocks are significantly more efficient (by about 25%) than the corresponding monophasic ones. We determine that the increase in efficiency of the biphasic shocks can be explained by the higher proportion of newly excited tissue through the mechanism of direct activation. PMID:24387558

  8. Molecular typing of monophasic Salmonella 4,[5]:i:- strains isolated in Belgium (2008-2011).

    PubMed

    Boland, Cécile; Bertrand, Sophie; Mattheus, Wesley; Dierick, Katelijne; Wattiau, Pierre

    2014-01-31

    To assess the distribution of Salmonella 4,[5]:i:- subtypes in the Belgian food chain and compare it to the subtypes associated with human infections, a molecular assessment was initiated. Two hundred fifty-three Salmonella isolates serotyped as 4,[5]:i:- during the period 2008-2011 in Belgium and originating from animal productions, food or human clinical samples were analysed by a specific duplex PCR. One hundred ninety-four isolates (76.7%) fit the profile of a S. Typhimurium monophasic variant as defined by the European Food Safety Authority. The other isolates possessed but did not express the phase II flagellin gene (23.3%). Multiple Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA) revealed many but closely related profiles in the fljB-negative S. Typhimurium monophasic variant isolates. Some MLVA types were associated with both human and animal isolates but no unique source of human contamination could be demonstrated.

  9. The effect on blood pressure of a monophasic oral contraceptive containing ethinylestradiol and gestodene.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, N; Düsterberg, B; Weber-Diehl, F; Mühe, B

    1995-06-01

    To obtain an overview of the effect of monophasic gestodene on blood pressure and to determine the frequency of "OC elevated BP/hypertension," the results of blood pressure monitoring from four clinical studies of contraceptive efficacy and safety have been retrospectively analyzed. A total of 1930 women took part in the studies, which recorded BP for up to 24 cycles. Analysis of results revealed that 97 women (5.0%) showed an increase in blood pressure from previously normal to elevated values while taking monophasic gestodene, with only 26 (1.35%) fulfilling the criteria of "OC elevated BP/hypertension." Only four women dropped out of the trials due to hypertensive blood pressure values, while 67 women (3.5%) experienced a normalization of previously elevated blood pressure measurements. In conclusion, this analysis has confirmed that gestodene has a negligible effect on blood pressure, with increased BP a relatively rare event.

  10. A monophasic extraction strategy for the simultaneous lipidome analysis of polar and nonpolar retina lipids.

    PubMed

    Lydic, Todd A; Busik, Julia V; Reid, Gavin E

    2014-08-01

    Lipid extraction using a monophasic chloroform/methanol/water mixture, coupled with functional group selective derivatization and direct infusion nano-ESI-high-resolution/accurate MS, is shown to facilitate the simultaneous analysis of both highly polar and nonpolar lipids from a single retina lipid extract, including low abundance highly polar ganglioside lipids, nonpolar sphingolipids, and abundant glycerophospholipids. Quantitative comparison showed that the monophasic lipid extraction method yielded similar lipid distributions to those obtained from established "gold standard" biphasic lipid extraction methods known to enrich for either highly polar gangliosides or nonpolar lipids, respectively, with only modest relative ion suppression effects. This improved lipid extraction and analysis strategy therefore enables detailed lipidome analyses of lipid species across a broad range of polarities and abundances, from minimal amounts of biological samples and without need for multiple lipid class-specific extractions or chromatographic separation prior to analysis.

  11. Dissolved nutrients and atrazine removal by column-scale monophasic and biphasic rain garden model systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hanbae; McCoy, Edward L; Grewal, Parwinder S; Dick, Warren A

    2010-08-01

    Rain gardens are bioretention systems that have the potential to reduce peak runoff flow and improve water quality in a natural and aesthetically pleasing manner. We compared hydraulic performance and removal efficiencies of nutrients and atrazine in a monophasic rain garden design versus a biphasic design at a column-scale using simulated runoff. The biphasic rain garden was designed to increase retention time and removal efficiency of runoff pollutants by creating a sequence of water saturated to unsaturated conditions. We also evaluated the effect of C substrate availability on pollutant removal efficiency in the biphasic rain garden. Five simulated runoff events with various concentrations of runoff pollutants (i.e. nitrate, phosphate, and atrazine) were applied to the monophasic and biphasic rain gardens once every 5d. Hydraulic performance was consistent over the five simulated runoff events. Peak flow was reduced by approximately 56% for the monophasic design and 80% for the biphasic design. Both rain garden systems showed excellent removal efficiency of phosphate (89-100%) and atrazine (84-100%). However, significantly (p<0.001) higher removal of nitrate was observed in the biphasic (42-63%) compared to the monophasic rain garden (29-39%). Addition of C substrate in the form of glucose increased removal efficiency of nitrate significantly (p<0.001), achieving up to 87% removal at a treatment C/N ratio of 2.0. This study demonstrates the importance of retention time, environmental conditions (i.e. saturated/unsaturated conditions), and availability of C substrate for bioremediation of pollutants, especially nitrates, in rain gardens. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Monophasic synovial sarcoma of the greater omentum: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Alcalá Serrano, F J; Hernández Hernández, J R; Montenegro Dámaso, T; López-Tomassetti Fernández, E

    2017-07-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a malignant spindle cell neoplasm normally arising from tissues around joints, bursa and tendon sheaths. Several reports involving the gastrointestinal tract, mainly the oesophagus and stomach, have been documented; however, the omentum remains an extremely unusual location. Monophasic type is composed exclusively of spindle cells arranged in fascicles. Establishing the correct diagnosis of these tumours could be challenging because of the similarities with gastrointestinal stromal tumours and other mesenchymal tumours with similar histology.

  13. The Nominal Group Technique as an Evaluation Tool for Solution-Focused Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeden, John M.; Maaskant, Marian A.; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Solution-focused coaching (SFC) helps individuals or groups to achieve their preferred outcomes by evoking and co-constructing solutions. SFC has been shown to be helpful for persons with ID as well as for teams coaching people with ID. Nominal Group Technique (NGT) helps to organize people's thoughts with regard to a single question.…

  14. A comparison of solute-transport solution techniques and their effect on sensitivity analysis and inverse modeling results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehl, S.; Hill, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    Five common numerical techniques for solving the advection-dispersion equation (finite difference, predictor corrector, total variation diminishing, method of characteristics, and modified method of characteristics) were tested using simulations of a controlled conservative tracer-test experiment through a heterogeneous, two-dimensional sand tank. The experimental facility was constructed using discrete, randomly distributed, homogeneous blocks of five sand types. This experimental model provides an opportunity to compare the solution techniques: the heterogeneous hydraulic-conductivity distribution of known structure can be accurately represented by a numerical model, and detailed measurements can be compared with simulated concentrations and total flow through the tank. The present work uses this opportunity to investigate how three common types of results - simulated breakthrough curves, sensitivity analysis, and calibrated parameter values - change in this heterogeneous situation given the different methods of simulating solute transport. The breakthrough curves show that simulated peak concentrations, even at very fine grid spacings, varied between the techniques because of different amounts of numerical dispersion. Sensitivity-analysis results revealed: (1) a high correlation between hydraulic conductivity and porosity given the concentration and flow observations used, so that both could not be estimated; and (2) that the breakthrough curve data did not provide enough information to estimate individual values of dispersivity for the five sands. This study demonstrates that the choice of assigned dispersivity and the amount of numerical dispersion present in the solution technique influence estimated hydraulic conductivity values to a surprising degree.

  15. Compressible seal flow analysis using the finite element method with Galerkin solution technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1974-01-01

    High pressure gas sealing involves not only balancing the viscous force with the pressure gradient force but also accounting for fluid inertia--especially for choked flow. The conventional finite element method which uses a Rayleigh-Ritz solution technique is not convenient for nonlinear problems. For these problems, a finite element method with a Galerkin solution technique (FEMGST) was formulated. One example, a three-dimensional axisymmetric flow formulation has nonlinearities due to compressibility, area expansion, and convective inertia. Solutions agree with classical results in the limiting cases. The development of the choked flow velocity profile is shown.

  16. Discretization and iterative solution techniques for elliptic problems on non-matching grids

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarov, R; Pasciak, J

    2000-11-07

    Construction, analysis and numerical testing of efficient solution techniques for solving elliptic PDEs that allow for parallel implementation have been the focus of the research. A number of discretization and solution methods for solving second order elliptic problems that include mortar and penalty approximations and domain decomposition methods for finite elements and finite volumes have been investigated and analyzed. Techniques for parallel domain decomposition algorithms in the framework of PETC and HYPRE have been studied and tested. Hierarchical parallel grid refinement and adaptive solution methods have been implemented and tested on various model problems.

  17. A comparison of cycle control and effect on well-being of monophasic gestodene-, triphasic gestodene- and monophasic desogestrel-containing oral contraceptives. Gestodene Study Group.

    PubMed

    Bruni, V; Croxatto, H; De La Cruz, J; Dhont, M; Durlot, F; Fernandes, M T; Andrade, R P; Weisberg, E; Rhoa, M

    2000-04-01

    This was an open-label multicenter study to compare the cycle control and effect on well-being of two oral contraceptives containing gestodene and one containing desogestrel. A total of 2419 healthy women < or = 41 years of age were randomized to receive oral contraceptives containing monophasic gestodene (Minulet; n = 806, mean age 24.5 years), triphasic gestodene (Tri-Minulet; n = 808, mean age 24.6 years) or monophasic desogestrel (Mercilon; n = 805, mean age 24.6 years). Subjects were to participate in the study for up to 13 treatment cycles. A modified Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire was used to evaluate menstrual symptoms and to assess overall well-being. A total of 698 women were withdrawn from the study, 154 due to adverse events. Cycle control with gestodene was superior to that with desogestrel at almost all time points, particularly for breakthrough bleeding and/or spotting, which occurred significantly less frequently with gestodene than with desogestrel at cycles 1-7 and 9-11 (p < 0.05). Generally, the proportion of subjects with breakthrough bleeding and/or spotting was almost twice as great with desogestrel as with gestodene. The duration of bleeding was not consistently different between the gestodene and desogestrel groups; however, the intensity of bleeding was greater with gestodene at all time points (p < 0.05). The latent period before withdrawal bleeding was significantly longer for monophasic gestodene at cycles 1-5 and 8-10 (p < 0.05). Treatment significantly improved overall well-being at cycles 6 and 9 with triphasic gestodene and at cycle 13 with desogestrel; however, no statistically significant differences among treatment groups in overall well-being scores or individual factors of well-being could be identified. All three treatments were well tolerated. The most common drug-related adverse events were headache (14.2%), breast pain (6.2%), nausea (4.1%), metrorrhagia (3.9%) and abdominal pain (3.5%). The incidence of adverse

  18. A Framework to Implement IoT Network Performance Modelling Techniques for Network Solution Selection.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Declan T; O'Hare, Gregory M P

    2016-12-01

    No single network solution for Internet of Things (IoT) networks can provide the required level of Quality of Service (QoS) for all applications in all environments. This leads to an increasing number of solutions created to fit particular scenarios. Given the increasing number and complexity of solutions available, it becomes difficult for an application developer to choose the solution which is best suited for an application. This article introduces a framework which autonomously chooses the best solution for the application given the current deployed environment. The framework utilises a performance model to predict the expected performance of a particular solution in a given environment. The framework can then choose an apt solution for the application from a set of available solutions. This article presents the framework with a set of models built using data collected from simulation. The modelling technique can determine with up to 85% accuracy the solution which performs the best for a particular performance metric given a set of solutions. The article highlights the fractured and disjointed practice currently in place for examining and comparing communication solutions and aims to open a discussion on harmonising testing procedures so that different solutions can be directly compared and offers a framework to achieve this within IoT networks.

  19. A Framework to Implement IoT Network Performance Modelling Techniques for Network Solution Selection †

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Declan T.; O’Hare, Gregory M. P.

    2016-01-01

    No single network solution for Internet of Things (IoT) networks can provide the required level of Quality of Service (QoS) for all applications in all environments. This leads to an increasing number of solutions created to fit particular scenarios. Given the increasing number and complexity of solutions available, it becomes difficult for an application developer to choose the solution which is best suited for an application. This article introduces a framework which autonomously chooses the best solution for the application given the current deployed environment. The framework utilises a performance model to predict the expected performance of a particular solution in a given environment. The framework can then choose an apt solution for the application from a set of available solutions. This article presents the framework with a set of models built using data collected from simulation. The modelling technique can determine with up to 85% accuracy the solution which performs the best for a particular performance metric given a set of solutions. The article highlights the fractured and disjointed practice currently in place for examining and comparing communication solutions and aims to open a discussion on harmonising testing procedures so that different solutions can be directly compared and offers a framework to achieve this within IoT networks. PMID:27916929

  20. An interative solution of an integral equation for radiative transfer by using variational technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshikawa, K. K.

    1973-01-01

    An effective iterative technique is introduced to solve a nonlinear integral equation frequently associated with radiative transfer problems. The problem is formulated in such a way that each step of an iterative sequence requires the solution of a linear integral equation. The advantage of a previously introduced variational technique which utilizes a stepwise constant trial function is exploited to cope with the nonlinear problem. The method is simple and straightforward. Rapid convergence is obtained by employing a linear interpolation of the iterative solutions. Using absorption coefficients of the Milne-Eddington type, which are applicable to some planetary atmospheric radiation problems. Solutions are found in terms of temperature and radiative flux. These solutions are presented numerically and show excellent agreement with other numerical solutions.

  1. A study of crystal growth by solution technique. [triglycine sulfate single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    The advantages and mechanisms of crystal growth from solution are discussed as well as the effects of impurity adsorption on the kinetics of crystal growth. Uncertainities regarding crystal growth in a low gravity environment are examined. Single crystals of triglycine sulfate were grown using a low temperature solution technique. Small components were assembled and fabricated for future space flights. A space processing experiment proposal accepted by NASA for the Spacelab-3 mission is included.

  2. Highly trabeculated structure of the human endocardium underlies asymmetrical response to low-energy monophasic shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Adam; Robson, Matthew D.; Schneider, Jürgen; Burton, Rebecca; Plank, Gernot; Bishop, Martin J.

    2017-09-01

    Novel low-energy defibrillation therapies are thought to be driven by virtual-electrodes (VEs), due to the interaction of applied monophasic electric shocks with fine-scale anatomical structures within the heart. Significant inter-species differences in the cardiac (micro)-anatomy exist, however, particularly with respect to the degree of endocardial trabeculations, which may underlie important differences in response to low-energy defibrillation protocols. Understanding the interaction of monophasic electric fields with the specific human micro-anatomy is therefore imperative in facilitating the translation and optimisation of these promising experimental therapies to the clinic. In this study, we sought to investigate how electric fields from implanted devices interact with the highly trabeculated human endocardial surface to better understand shock success in order to help optimise future clinical protocols. A bi-ventricular human computational model was constructed from high resolution (350 μm) ex-vivo MR data, including anatomically accurate endocardial structures. Monophasic shocks were applied between a basal right ventricular catheter and an exterior ground. Shocks of varying strengths were applied with both anodal [positive right ventricle (RV) electrode] and cathodal (negative RV electrode) polarities at different states of tissue refractoriness and during induced arrhythmias. Anodal shocks induced isolated positive VEs at the distal side of "detached" trabeculations, which rapidly spread into hyperpolarised tissue on the surrounding endocardial surfaces following the shock. Anodal shocks thus depolarised more tissue 10 ms after the shock than cathodal shocks where the propagation of activation from VEs induced on the proximal side of "detached" trabeculations was prevented due to refractory endocardium. Anodal shocks increased arrhythmia complexity more than cathodal shocks during failed anti-arrhythmia shocks. In conclusion, multiple detached

  3. Characterization of nanomaterial dispersion in solution prior to in vitro exposure using dynamic light scattering technique.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Richard C; Braydich-Stolle, Laura; Schrand, Amanda M; Schlager, John J; Hussain, Saber M

    2008-02-01

    The need to characterize nanoparticles in solution before assessing the in vitro toxicity is a high priority. Particle size, size distribution, particle morphology, particle composition, surface area, surface chemistry, and particle reactivity in solution are important factors which need to be defined to accurately assess nanoparticle toxicity. Currently, there are no well-defined techniques for characterization of wet nanomaterials in aqueous or biological solutions. Previously reported nanoparticle characterization techniques in aqueous or biological solutions have consisted of the use of ultra-high illumination light microscopy and disc centrifuge sedimentation; however, these techniques are limited by the measurement size range. The current study focuses on characterizing a wide range of nanomaterials using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy, including metals, metal oxides, and carbon-based materials, in water and cell culture media, with and without serum. Cell viability and cell morphology studies were conducted in conjunction with DLS experiments to evaluate toxicological effects from observed agglomeration changes in the presence or absence of serum in cell culture media. Observations of material-specific surface properties were also recorded. It was also necessary to characterize the impact of sonication, which is implemented to aid in particle dispersion and solution mixture. Additionally, a stock solution of nanomaterials used for toxicology studies was analyzed for changes in agglomeration and zeta potential of the material over time. In summary, our results demonstrate that many metal and metal oxide nanomaterials agglomerate in solution and that depending upon the solution particle agglomeration is either agitated or mitigated. Corresponding toxicity data revealed that the addition of serum to cell culture media can, in some cases, have a significant effect on particle toxicity possibly due to changes in agglomeration

  4. Prolonged myocardial protection with St. Thomas' Hospital solution and University of Wisconsin solution. The importance of preservation techniques.

    PubMed

    Karck, M; Frantzen, V; Schwalb, H; Haverich, A; Uretzky, G

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of University of Wisconsin solution (UWS) and oxygenated St. Thomas' Hospital solution (STS) for prolonged myocardial protection was evaluated in isolated working rat hearts preserved for 12 h at 4 degrees C using three different preservation techniques: induction of cardiac arrest and subsequent hypothermic storage with STS (group 1, n = 9) or UWS (group 4, n = 9), intermittent coronary flush (every 90 min) with STS (group 2, n = 9) or UWS (group 5, n = 9), or continuous coronary perfusion with STS (group 2, n = 7) or UWS (group 6, n = 7) before 60 min of reperfusion. In the UWS preserved hearts, recovery of aortic flow was greater when the simple storage technique was employed compared to intermittent or continuous coronary perfusion (groups 5 and 6). In the STS preserved hearts, aortic flow recovery was superior when the intermittent perfusion technique was applied. The same pattern was observed with regard to recovery of left ventricular pressure. Lactate dehydrogenase release during reperfusion was significantly less pronounced in group 4 (UWS, single flush, simple storage) as compared to group 1 (STS, single flush and simple storage), whereas best preservation of myocardial high energy phosphates was observed when hearts were preserved with multiple dose cardioplegia using STS. Simple hypothermic storage with UWS affords the best functional recovery after prolonged myocardial ischemia in all groups. Repetitive or continuous application of this solution is detrimental, possibly due to potassium overloading. In STS treated groups, multiple dose application of oxygenated STS enhances functional and metabolic recovery compared to its single dose application.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Problems and solutions in analyzing partial-reflection drift data by correlation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meek, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    Solutions in analyzing partial reflection drift data by correlation techniques are discussed. The problem of analyzing spaced antenna drift data breaks down into the general categories of raw data collection and storage, correlation calculation, interpretation of correlations, location of time lags for peak correlation, and velocity calculation.

  6. Parallel finite element methods and iterative solution techniques for viscous incompressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barragy, Edward Joseph

    The present work is motivated by a desire to map the solution structure of nonlinear systems of partial differential equations (PDE). Of particular interest are viscous flow problems in 2D, possibly with coupled heat transfer or species transport. Due to the nonlinearity of the governing PDE's, many complicated solution structures may arise. These may include sharp layers, multiple solutions, and the possibility of bifurcation. The existence of spurious solutions, arising from insufficiently refined meshes, underscores the need for highly accurate solution procedures. This, in turn, motivates the use of p type finite element discretizations. Continuation techniques have been developed by several authors for the solution of these types of nonlinear problems. These techniques involve the solution of linear algebraic systems arising from a Newton iteration, for many, possibly hundreds, of discrete parameter values. This large computational burden motivates the use of large scale, parallel supercomputing facilities. A study of the impact of high p finite element discretizations as applied to the continuation solution of viscous incompressible flows in two dimensions is presented. The impact of these methods is considered for a Newton type continuation method coupled with gradient type element-by-element (EBE) iterative solvers. Significant issues considered concern the effect of high p on performance for various supercomputing platforms, implementation issues for EBE schemes in a distributed memory setting, and issues of scalability in a distributed memory multiprocessor setting. These issues are examined in conjunction with the development of preconditioners appropriate for high p methods, and the development of bifurcation detection schemes appropriate for high p methods and gradient type solution schemes.

  7. Salivary SIgA responses to acute moderate-vigorous exercise in monophasic oral contraceptive users.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Harumi; Dolan, Nicola J; Hounsome, Charlotte; Alajmi, Nawal; Bishop, Nicolette C

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of oral contraceptive (OC) use on salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels at rest and in response to an acute bout of moderate-vigorous exercise during 2 phases of the 4-week OC cycle corresponding to different phases of the synthetic menstrual cycle. Ten healthy active females completed a cycling at 70% peak oxygen uptake for 45 min at 2 time points of an OC cycle: during the equivalent in time to the mid-follicular phase (day 8 ± 2) and the mid-luteal phase (day 20 ± 2). Timed unstimulated saliva samples were obtained before, immediately postexercise, and 1 h postexercise and analyzed for salivary SIgA. Salivary SIgA secretion rate was 26% (95% confidence limits (CI) 6-46) lower at postexercise compared with pre-exercise during the synthetic follicular phase (p = 0.019) but no differences were observed during the synthetic luteal trial. Saliva flow rate was 11% (95% CI, 8-30) lower at postexercise compared with pre-exercise (main effect for time; p = 0.025). In conclusion, the pattern of salivary SIgA secretion rate response to moderate-vigorous exercise varies across the early and late phases of a monophasic OC cycle, with a transient reduction in salivary SIgA responses during the synthetic follicular phase. These findings indicate that monophasic OC use should be considered when assessing mucosal immune responses to acute exercise.

  8. An efficient numerical technique for the solution of nonlinear singular boundary value problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Randhir; Kumar, Jitendra

    2014-04-01

    In this work, a new technique based on Green's function and the Adomian decomposition method (ADM) for solving nonlinear singular boundary value problems (SBVPs) is proposed. The technique relies on constructing Green's function before establishing the recursive scheme for the solution components. In contrast to the existing recursive schemes based on the ADM, the proposed technique avoids solving a sequence of transcendental equations for the undetermined coefficients. It approximates the solution in the form of a series with easily computable components. Additionally, the convergence analysis and the error estimate of the proposed method are supplemented. The reliability and efficiency of the proposed method are demonstrated by several numerical examples. The numerical results reveal that the proposed method is very efficient and accurate.

  9. Efficient Steady-State Solution Techniques for Variably Saturated Groundwater Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farthing, M. W.; Kees, C. E.; Coffey, T. S.; Kelley, C. T.; Miller, C. T.

    2002-12-01

    We consider the simulation of steady-state variably saturated groundwater flow using Richards' equation. The difficulties associated with solving Richards' equation numerically are well known. Most discretization approaches for Richards' equation lead to nonlinear systems that are large and difficult to solve. The solution of nonlinear systems for steady-state problems can be particularly challenging, since a good initial guess for the steady-state solution is often hard to obtain, and the resulting linear systems may be poorly scaled. Common approaches like modified Picard iteration or variations of Newton's method have their advantages but perform poorly with standard globalization techniques under certain conditions. Pseudo-transient continuation has been used in computational fluid dynamics for some time to obtain steady-state solutions for problems in which Newton's method with standard line-search strategies fails. It combines aspects of backward Euler time integration and Newton's method to select intermediate estimates of the steady-state solution. In this work, we examine the use of pseudo-transient continuation methods for Richards' equation. We evaluate their performance for steady-state problems in heterogeneous domains by comparing them with Newton's method using standard globalization techniques. We investigate the methods' performance with both direct and preconditioned Krylov iterative linear solvers. We then make recommendations for robust and efficient approaches to obtain steady-state solutions for Richards' equation under a variety of conditions.

  10. Multigrid techniques for the solution of the passive scalar advection-diffusion equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. E.; Schmidt, F. W.

    1985-01-01

    The solution of elliptic passive scalar advection-diffusion equations is required in the analysis of many turbulent flow and convective heat transfer problems. The accuracy of the solution may be affected by the presence of regions containing large gradients of the dependent variables. The multigrid concept of local grid refinement is a method for improving the accuracy of the calculations in these problems. In combination with the multilevel acceleration techniques, an accurate and efficient computational procedure is developed. In addition, a robust implementation of the QUICK finite-difference scheme is described. Calculations of a test problem are presented to quantitatively demonstrate the advantages of the multilevel-multigrid method.

  11. The influence of tray space and repeat pours on the accuracy of monophasic polyvinylsiloxane impression.

    PubMed

    Rajapur, Anand; Dixit, Santosh; Hoshing, Chetan; Raikar, Sonal P

    2012-11-01

    While literature demonstrates that the optimum accuracy is obtained with the custom trays, the use of stock trays for elastomeric impressions appears to be popular in general practice. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of thickness of impression material on the dimensional accuracy of impressions made from monophasic polyvinylsiloxane impression material. This study also studies the dimensional stability of the impressions poured at different time intervals. A metal model simulating two abutment teeth was fabricated along with reference lines inscribed on them. Custom impression trays were fabricated with spacer thickness of 2, 4 and 6 mm. impressions were made using monophasic polyvinyl siloxane impression material. The impressions were poured and stone models were obtained. The dimensional accuracy of the impressions were determined indirectly by measuring the dimensional changes of the recovered stone models. The dimensional stability was also evaluated by pouring the impressions at time intervals of 1 hour, 24 hours and 7 days. The obtained data was statistically analyzed. The results of the study indicated that the impressions made from 2 and 4 mm tray space produced more accurate stone models when compared to 6 mm tray space. There was no significant deviation in the mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions when impressions were made using impression trays with 2, 4 and 6 mm tray spacers. There was a significant decrease in interabutment distance (p = 0.001) and height of the abutment (p = 0.024) when impressions were made using impression trays with a tray space of 6 mm. There were no significant differences found among the stone models obtained from 1 hour, 24 hours and 1 week pour times. The mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of the abutments were not affected by the variations in thickness of impression material. There was a decrease in the height of the abutment which was clinically not significant. As the thickness of the impression

  12. White matter changes in paediatric multiple sclerosis and monophasic demyelinating disorders.

    PubMed

    Longoni, Giulia; Brown, Robert A; MomayyezSiahkal, Parya; Elliott, Colm; Narayanan, Sridar; Bar-Or, Amit; Ann Marrie, Ruth; Ann Yeh, E; Filippi, Massimo; Banwell, Brenda; Arnold, Douglas L

    2017-03-14

    Most children who experience an acquired demyelinating syndrome of the central nervous system will have a monophasic disease course, with no further clinical or radiological symptoms. A subset will be diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, a life-long disorder. Using linear mixed effects models we examined longitudinal diffusion properties of normal-appearing white matter in 505 serial scans of 132 paediatric participants with acquired demyelinating syndromes followed for a median of 4.4 years, many from first clinical presentation, and 106 scans of 80 healthy paediatric participants. Fifty-three participants with demyelinating syndromes eventually received a diagnosis of paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis. Diffusion tensor imaging measures properties of water diffusion through tissue, which normally becomes increasingly restricted and anisotropic in the brain during childhood and adolescence, as fibre bundles develop and myelinate. In the healthy paediatric participants, our data demonstrate the expected trajectory of more restricted and anisotropic white matter diffusivity with increasing age. However, in participants with multiple sclerosis, fractional anisotropy decreased and mean diffusivity of non-lesional, normal-appearing white matter progressively increased after clinical presentation, suggesting not only a failure of age-expected white matter development but also a progressive loss of tissue integrity. Surprisingly, patients with monophasic disease failed to show age-expected changes in diffusion parameters in normal-appearing white matter, although they did not show progressive loss of integrity over time. Further analysis demonstrated that participants with monophasic disease experienced different post-onset trajectories in normal-appearing white matter depending on their presenting phenotype: those with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis demonstrated abnormal trajectories of diffusion parameters compared to healthy paediatric participants, as did

  13. Highly trabeculated structure of the human endocardium underlies asymmetrical response to low-energy monophasic shocks

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Adam; Schneider, Jürgen; Burton, Rebecca; Bishop, Martin J.

    2017-01-01

    Novel low-energy defibrillation therapies are thought to be driven by virtual-electrodes (VEs), due to the interaction of applied monophasic electric shocks with fine-scale anatomical structures within the heart. Significant inter-species differences in the cardiac (micro)-anatomy exist, however, particularly with respect to the degree of endocardial trabeculations, which may underlie important differences in response to low-energy defibrillation protocols. Understanding the interaction of monophasic electric fields with the specific human micro-anatomy is therefore imperative in facilitating the translation and optimisation of these promising experimental therapies to the clinic. In this study, we sought to investigate how electric fields from implanted devices interact with the highly trabeculated human endocardial surface to better understand shock success in order to help optimise future clinical protocols. A bi-ventricular human computational model was constructed from high resolution (350 μm) ex-vivo MR data, including anatomically accurate endocardial structures. Monophasic shocks were applied between a basal right ventricular catheter and an exterior ground. Shocks of varying strengths were applied with both anodal [positive right ventricle (RV) electrode] and cathodal (negative RV electrode) polarities at different states of tissue refractoriness and during induced arrhythmias. Anodal shocks induced isolated positive VEs at the distal side of “detached” trabeculations, which rapidly spread into hyperpolarised tissue on the surrounding endocardial surfaces following the shock. Anodal shocks thus depolarised more tissue 10 ms after the shock than cathodal shocks where the propagation of activation from VEs induced on the proximal side of “detached” trabeculations was prevented due to refractory endocardium. Anodal shocks increased arrhythmia complexity more than cathodal shocks during failed anti-arrhythmia shocks. In conclusion, multiple

  14. Highly trabeculated structure of the human endocardium underlies asymmetrical response to low-energy monophasic shocks.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Adam; Robson, Matthew D; Schneider, Jürgen; Burton, Rebecca; Plank, Gernot; Bishop, Martin J

    2017-09-01

    Novel low-energy defibrillation therapies are thought to be driven by virtual-electrodes (VEs), due to the interaction of applied monophasic electric shocks with fine-scale anatomical structures within the heart. Significant inter-species differences in the cardiac (micro)-anatomy exist, however, particularly with respect to the degree of endocardial trabeculations, which may underlie important differences in response to low-energy defibrillation protocols. Understanding the interaction of monophasic electric fields with the specific human micro-anatomy is therefore imperative in facilitating the translation and optimisation of these promising experimental therapies to the clinic. In this study, we sought to investigate how electric fields from implanted devices interact with the highly trabeculated human endocardial surface to better understand shock success in order to help optimise future clinical protocols. A bi-ventricular human computational model was constructed from high resolution (350 μm) ex-vivo MR data, including anatomically accurate endocardial structures. Monophasic shocks were applied between a basal right ventricular catheter and an exterior ground. Shocks of varying strengths were applied with both anodal [positive right ventricle (RV) electrode] and cathodal (negative RV electrode) polarities at different states of tissue refractoriness and during induced arrhythmias. Anodal shocks induced isolated positive VEs at the distal side of "detached" trabeculations, which rapidly spread into hyperpolarised tissue on the surrounding endocardial surfaces following the shock. Anodal shocks thus depolarised more tissue 10 ms after the shock than cathodal shocks where the propagation of activation from VEs induced on the proximal side of "detached" trabeculations was prevented due to refractory endocardium. Anodal shocks increased arrhythmia complexity more than cathodal shocks during failed anti-arrhythmia shocks. In conclusion, multiple detached

  15. Application of implicit numerical techniques to the solution of the three-dimensional diffusion equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peltier, Leonard Joel; Biringen, Sedat; Chait, Arnon

    1990-01-01

    Implicit techniques for calculating three-dimensional, time-dependent heat diffusion in a cube are tested with emphasis on storage efficiency, accuracy, and speed of calculation. For this purpose, a tensor product technique with both Chebyshev collocation and finite differences and a generalized conjugate gradient technique with finite differences are used in conjunction with Crank-Nicolson discretization. An Euler explicit finite difference calculation is performed for use as a benchmark. The implicit techniques are found to be competitive with the Euler explicit method in terms of storage efficiency and speed of calculation and offer advantages both in accuracy and stability. Mesh stretching in the finite difference calculations is shown to markedly improve the accuracy of the solution.

  16. Application of implicit numerical techniques to the solution of the three-dimensional diffusion equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peltier, Leonard Joel; Biringen, Sedat; Chait, Arnon

    1990-01-01

    Implicit techniques for calculating three-dimensional, time-dependent heat diffusion in a cube are tested with emphasis on storage efficiency, accuracy, and speed of calculation. For this purpose, a tensor product technique with both Chebyshev collocation and finite differences and a generalized conjugate gradient technique with finite differences are used in conjunction with Crank-Nicolson discretization. An Euler explicit finite difference calculation is performed for use as a benchmark. The implicit techniques are found to be competitive with the Euler explicit method in terms of storage efficiency and speed of calculation and offer advantages both in accuracy and stability. Mesh stretching in the finite difference calculations is shown to markedly improve the accuracy of the solution.

  17. General solution for high dynamic range three-dimensional shape measurement using the fringe projection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shijie; Zhang, Yuzhen; Chen, Qian; Zuo, Chao; Li, Rubin; Shen, Guochen

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a general solution for realizing high dynamic range three-dimensional (3-D) shape measurement based on fringe projection. Three concrete techniques are involved in the solution for measuring object with large range of reflectivity (LRR) or one with shiny specular surface. For the first technique, the measured surface reflectivities are sub-divided into several groups based on its histogram distribution, then the optimal exposure time for each group can be predicted adaptively so that the bright as well as dark areas on the measured surface are able to be handled without any compromise. Phase-shifted images are then captured at the calculated exposure times and a composite phase-shifted image is generated by extracting the optimally exposed pixels in the raw fringes images. For the second technique, it is proposed by introducing two orthogonal polarizers which are placed separately in front of the camera and projector into the first technique and the third one is developed by combining the second technique with the strategy of properly altering the angle between the transmission axes of the two polarizers. Experimental results show that the first technique can effectively improve the measurement accuracy of diffuse objects with LRR, the second one is capable of measuring object with weak specular reflection (WSR: e.g. shiny plastic surface) and the third can inspect surface with strong specular reflection (SSR: e.g. highlight on aluminum alloy) precisely. Further, more complex scene, such as the one with LRR and WSR, or even the one simultaneously involving LRR, WSR and SSR, can be measured accurately by the proposed solution.

  18. Protein Crystallization by Combining Laser Irradiation and Solution-Stirring Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Hiroaki; Niino, Ai; Murakami, Satoshi; Takano, Kazufumi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Kinoshita, Takayoshi; Warizaya, Masaichi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Sasaki, Takatomo

    2005-03-01

    Bovine adenosine deaminase in the absence of an inhibitor (free-ADA) does not form crystals when using conventional crystallization methods. Using a solution-stirring technique, we recently succeeded in generating a small number of free-ADA crystals. In this paper, we demonstrate the combination of laser-irradiated growth and stirring (COLAS). This technique was found to be useful for controlling crystal nucleation and growth, which led to the production of a much larger number of high-quality free-ADA crystals.

  19. Solvent and solute ingress into hydrogels resolved by a combination of imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Wagner, D; Burbach, J; Grünzweig, C; Hartmann, S; Lehmann, E; Egelhaaf, S U; Hermes, H E

    2016-05-28

    Using simultaneous neutron, fluorescence, and optical brightfield transmission imaging, the diffusion of solvent, fluorescent dyes, and macromolecules into a crosslinked polyacrylamide hydrogel was investigated. This novel combination of different imaging techniques enables us to distinguish the movements of the solvent and fluorescent molecules. Additionally, the swelling or deswelling of the hydrogels can be monitored. From the sequence of images, dye and solvent concentrations were extracted spatially and temporally resolved. Diffusion equations and different boundary conditions, represented by different models, were used to quantitatively analyze the temporal evolution of these concentration profiles and to determine the diffusion coefficients of solvent and solutes. Solute size and network properties were varied and their effect was investigated. Increasing the crosslinking ratio or partially drying the hydrogel was found to hinder solute diffusion due to the reduced pore size. By contrast, solvent diffusion seemed to be slightly faster if the hydrogel was only partially swollen and hence solvent uptake enhanced.

  20. The solution of the Elrod algorithm for a dynamically loaded journal bearing using multigrid techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Claudia M.; Brewe, David E.

    1988-01-01

    A numerical solution to a theoretical model of vapor cavitation in a dynamically loaded journal bearing is developed utilizing a multigrid iteration technique. The method is compared with a noniterative approach in terms of computational time and accuracy. The computational model is based on the Elrod algorithm, a control volume approach to the Reynolds equation which mimics the Jakobsson-Floberg and Olsson cavitation theory. Besides accounting for a moving cavitation boundary and conservation of mass at the boundary, it also conserves mass within the cavitated region via a smeared mass or striated flow extending to both surfaces in the film gap. The mixed nature of the equations (parabolic in the full film zone and hyperbolic in the cavitated zone) coupled with the dynamic aspects of the problem create interesting difficulties for the present solution approach. Emphasis is placed on the methods found to eliminate solution instabilities. Excellent results are obtained for both accuracy and reduction of computational time.

  1. The solution of the Elrod algorithm for a dynamically loaded journal bearing using multigrid techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, C. M.; Brewe, D. E.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical solution to a theoretical model of vapor cavitation in a dynamically loaded journal bearing is developed utilizing a multigrid iteration technique. The method is compared with a noniterative approach in terms of computational time and accuracy. The computational model is based on the Elrod algorithm, a control volume approach to the Reynolds equation which mimics the Jakobsson-Floberg and Olsson cavitation theory. Besides accounting for a moving cavitation boundary and conservation of mass at the boundary, it also conserves mass within the cavitated region via a smeared mass or striated flow extending to both surfaces in the film gap. The mixed nature of the equations (parabolic in the full film zone and hyperbolic in the cavitated zone) coupled with the dynamic aspects of the problem create interesting difficulties for the present solution approach. Emphasis is placed on the methods found to eliminate solution instabilities. Excellent results are obtained for both accuracy and reduction of computational time.

  2. The solution of the Elrod algorithm for a dynamically loaded journal bearing using multigrid techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, C. M.; Brewe, D. E.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical solution to a theoretical model of vapor cavitation in a dynamically loaded journal bearing is developed utilizing a multigrid iteration technique. The method is compared with a noniterative approach in terms of computational time and accuracy. The computational model is based on the Elrod algorithm, a control volume approach to the Reynolds equation which mimics the Jakobsson-Floberg and Olsson cavitation theory. Besides accounting for a moving cavitation boundary and conservation of mass at the boundary, it also conserves mass within the cavitated region via a smeared mass or striated flow extending to both surfaces in the film gap. The mixed nature of the equations (parabolic in the full film zone and hyperbolic in the cavitated zone) coupled with the dynamic aspects of the problem create interesting difficulties for the present solution approach. Emphasis is placed on the methods found to eliminate solution instabilities. Excellent results are obtained for both accuracy and reduction of computational time.

  3. Monophasic Pulsed 200-μA Current Promotes Galvanotaxis With Polarization of Actin Filament and Integrin α2β1 in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Uemura, Mikiko; Maeshige, Noriaki; Koga, Yuka; Ishikawa-Aoyama, Michiko; Miyoshi, Makoto; Sugimoto, Masaharu; Terashi, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The monophasic pulsed microcurrent is used to promote wound healing, and galvanotaxis regulation has been reported as one of the active mechanisms in the promotion of tissue repair with monophasic pulsed microcurrent. However, the optimum monophasic pulsed microcurrent parameters and intracellular changes caused by the monophasic pulsed microcurrent have not been elucidated in human dermal fibroblasts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the optimum intensity for promoting galvanotaxis and the effects of electrical stimulation on integrin α2β1 and actin filaments in human dermal fibroblasts. Methods: Human dermal fibroblasts were treated with the monophasic pulsed microcurrent of 0, 100, 200, or 300 μA for 8 hours, and cell migration and cell viability were measured 24 hours after starting monophasic pulsed microcurrent stimulation. Polarization of integrin α2β1 and lamellipodia formation were detected by immunofluorescent staining 10 minutes after starting monophasic pulsed microcurrent stimulation. Results: The migration toward the cathode was significantly higher in the cells treated with the 200-μA monophasic pulsed microcurrent than in the controls (P < .01) without any change in cell viability; treatment with 300-μA monophasic pulsed microcurrent did not alter the migration ratio. The electrostimulus of 200 μA also promoted integrin α2β1 polarization and lamellipodia formation at the cathode edge (P < .05). Conclusion: The results show that 200 μA is an effective monophasic pulsed microcurrent intensity to promote migration toward the cathode, and this intensity could regulate polarization of migration-related intracellular factors in human dermal fibroblasts. PMID:26819649

  4. Primary Monophasic Synovial Sarcoma of the Kidney: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Henrique; Pereira, Caio A.D.; Zucca, Luís E.R.; Serrano, Sérgio V.; Silva, Sandra R.M.; Camparoto, Marjori L.; Cárcano, Flavio M.

    2013-01-01

    Primary synovial sarcoma (SS) of the kidney is a rare neoplasm and its presenting features are similar to other common renal tumors, making early diagnosis difficult. To date, few cases have been reported in the literature. Primary renal SSs can exist in either a monophasic or a biphasic pattern, the former being more common and tending to have a better prognosis than the biphasic variant. Herein we describe a case of primary renal SS that was diagnosed based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry after radical nephrectomy. Fusion gene product analysis was also done by FISH and RT-PCR. Patient follow-up and literature review are presented, focused on systemic therapy. We highlight that these tumors should be correctly diagnosed as clinical results and specific treatment are distinct from primary epithelial renal cell carcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy should be tailored for each patient in the management of disease, although its role still remains unclear. PMID:24137053

  5. Biomechanical behaviour of a jawbone loaded with a prosthetic system supported by monophasic and biphasic implants

    PubMed Central

    INCHINGOLO, F.; PARACCHINI, L.; DE ANGELIS, F.; CIELO, A.; OREFICI, A.; SPITALERI, D.; SANTACROCE, L.; GHENO, E.; PALERMO, A.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Modern implantology is based on the use of endosseous dental implants and on the study of osseointegration processes. The loss of marginal bone around a dental implant can be caused by many factors; the proper distribution of the masticatory loads is important and is closely dependent on the quality and quantity of bone tissue surrounding the implant. In fact, bone has the ability to adapt its microstructure, through processes of resorption and neoformation of new bone matrix, as a result of the mechanical stimuli that are generated during the chewing cycles. The purpose of this article is to redefine in a modern key and in light of current industrial and engineering technology, clinical and biomechanical concepts that characterize the monophasic implants, in order to assess proper use by evaluating the biomechanical differences with the biphasic implants. PMID:28280534

  6. Efficient steady-state solution techniques for variably saturated groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farthing, Matthew W.; Kees, Christopher E.; Coffey, Todd S.; Kelley, C. T.; Miller, Cass T.

    We consider the simulation of steady-state variably saturated groundwater flow using Richards' equation (RE). The difficulties associated with solving RE numerically are well known. Most discretization approaches for RE lead to nonlinear systems that are large and difficult to solve. The solution of nonlinear systems for steady-state problems can be particularly challenging, since a good initial guess for the steady-state solution is often hard to obtain, and the resulting linear systems may be poorly scaled. Common approaches like Picard iteration or variations of Newton's method have their advantages but perform poorly with standard globalization techniques under certain conditions. Pseudo-transient continuation has been used in computational fluid dynamics for some time to obtain steady-state solutions for problems in which Newton's method with standard line-search strategies fails. Here, we examine the use of pseudo-transient continuation as well as Newton's method combined with standard globalization techniques for steady-state problems in heterogeneous domains. We investigate the methods' performance with direct and preconditioned Krylov iterative linear solvers. We then make recommendations for robust and efficient approaches to obtain steady-state solutions for RE under a range of conditions.

  7. Longitudinal characterization of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium throughout the pig's life cycle.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Laura; Centeno, Maria Madalena; Couto, Natacha; Nunes, Telmo; Almeida, Virgílio; Alban, Lis; Pomba, Constança

    2016-08-30

    Swine have been described as an important reservoir of multidrug resistant monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium, though information on its ecology is scarce. A longitudinal study was performed in order to elucidate the Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- dynamics throughout the pig's production cycle. A total of 209 faecal samples were collected from 10 sows and in six sampling times during the life of 70 pigs from a Portuguese industrial farm, and 43 isolates of S. 4,[5],12:i:- were identified and characterized regarding clonality and antimicrobial resistance phenotype and genotype. Most isolates (n=42) exhibited resistance to at least ampicillin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and sulfonamides (encoded by blaTEM, aphAI-IAB, strA, strB, tetB and sul2, respectively). Isolates obtained during the finishing phase showed additional resistance to chloramphenicol and florfenicol (floR), gentamicin and netilmicin (aac(3')-IV). To our knowledge, this study is the first description of aphAI-IAB in S. 4,[5],12:i:-. PFGE analysis showed uneven distribution of isolates into three clusters, A (n=34), B (n=8) and C (n=1). PFGE cluster A was predominant in sows (n=5) and piglets in the farrowing phase (n=17) and in pigs in the early finishing phase (n=11) suggesting a carryover from birth to adult age. The introduction of PFGE cluster B isolates in adulthood could have had an external source, reinforcing the relevance of environmental transmission in the farm ecosystem. This study reveals a dynamic interaction between monophasic S. Typhimurium and the pressures exerted under an intensive swine production setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biphasic shocks compared with monophasic damped sine wave shocks for direct ventricular defibrillation during open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Birgit; Bowdle, T Andrew; Jett, G Kimble; Mair, Peter; Lindner, Karl H; Aldea, Gabriel S; Lazzara, Robert G; O'Grady, Sharon G; Schmitt, Paul W; Walker, Robert G; Chapman, Fred W; Tacker, Willis A

    2003-05-01

    Biphasic waveform shocks are more effective than monophasic shocks for transchest ventricular defibrillation, atrial cardioversion, and defibrillation with implantable defibrillators but have not been studied for open chest, intraoperative defibrillation. This prospective, blinded, randomized clinical study compares biphasic and monophasic shock effectiveness and establishes intraoperative energy dose-response curves. Patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery with bypass cardioplegia were randomly assigned to the monophasic or biphasic shock group. Ventricular fibrillation occurring after aortic clamp removal was treated with escalating energies of 2, 5, 7, 10, and 20 J until defibrillation occurred. If ventricular fibrillation persisted, a 20-J crossover shock of the other waveform was used. Cumulative defibrillation success at 5 J, the primary end point of the study, was higher in the biphasic group than in the monophasic group (25 of 50 vs. 9 of 41 defibrillated; P = 0.011). In addition, the biphasic group required lower threshold energy (6.8 vs. 11.0 J; P = 0.003), less cumulative energy (12.6 vs. 23.4 J; P = 0.002), and fewer shocks (2.5 vs. 3.5; P = 0.002). Crossover-shock effectiveness did not differ between groups. Dose-response curves show biphasic shocks to have higher cumulative success rates at all energies tested. Biphasic shocks are substantially more effective than monophasic shocks for direct defibrillation. The dose-response curve guides selection of first-shock energy for traditional step-up protocols. Starting at 5 J optimizes for lowest threshold and cumulative energy, whereas 10 or 20 J optimizes for more rapid defibrillation and fewer shocks.

  9. Biphasic-to-monophasic successive Co-assembly approach to yolk-shell structured mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dang, Meng; Teng, Zhaogang; Su, Xiaodan; Tao, Jun; Hao, Qing; Ma, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yunlei; Li, Yanjiao; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Junjie; Lu, Guangming; Wang, Lianhui

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we report a facile biphasic-to-monophasic successive co-assembly approach to synthesize yolk-shell structured mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (MONs). The yolk-shell structured MONs possess ethane-bridged frameworks, high surface area (1023m(2)g(-1)), radially oriented mesochannels (3.8nm), large pore volume (0.99cm(3)g(-1)), and tunable diameter (147-324nm) and shell thickness (23-53nm). The biphasic-to-monophasic successive co-assembly method is intrinsically simple and requires neither sacrificial templates nor multistep coating processes. The key of the method is that the interiors of the mesostructured organosilica nanospheres grown in the biphasic system have a lower condensation degree and Si-C-C-Si species content than the outer shells formed in the monophasic system. Thus, the interior layer is attracted by OH(-1) anions and dissolved in the monophasic system, forming the yolk-shell structures. In vitro cytotoxicity and haemolysis assays demonstrate that the ethane-bridged yolk-shell MONs possess excellent biocompatibility. Furthermore, the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX) is loaded into the yolk-shell MONs to kill drug-resistant MCF-7/ADR human breast cancer cells. Compared with free DOX and DOX-loaded typical MONs, the DOX-loaded yolk-shell MONs have higher chemotherapeutic efficacy against MCF-7/ADR cells, suggesting the great potential of yolk-shell MONs synthesized via the biphasic-to-monophasic successive co-assembly approach in the biomedical field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gold nanoparticles prepared by electro-exploding wire technique in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Lalit; Kapoor, Akanksha; Meghwal, Mayank; Annapoorni, S.

    2016-05-01

    This article presents an effective approach for the synthesis of Au nanoparticles via an environmentally benevolent electro-exploding wire (EEW) technique. In this process, Au nanoparticles evolve through the plasma generated from the parent Au metal. Compared to other typical chemical methods, electro-exploding wire technique is a simple and economical technique which normally operates in water or organic liquids under ambient conditions. Efficient size control was achieved using different aqueous medium like (1mM) NaCl, deionized water and aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH, pH 9.5) using identical electro-exploding conditions. The gold nanoparticles exhibited the UV-vis absorption spectrum with a maximum absorption band at 530 nm, similar to that of gold nanoparticles chemically prepared in a solution. The mechanism of size variation of Au nanoparticles is also proposed. The results obtained help to develop methodologies for the control of EEW based nanoparticle growth and the functionalization of nanoparticle surfaces by specific interactions.

  11. Polyaniline (PANI) modified bentonite by plasma technique for U(VI) removal from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinghao; Cheng, Cheng; Xiao, Chengjian; Shao, Dadong; Xu, Zimu; Wang, Jiaquan; Hu, Shuheng; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Weijuan

    2017-07-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) modified bentonite (PANI/bentonie) was synthesized by plasma induced polymerization of aniline on bentonite surface, and applied to uptake of uranium(VI) ions from aqueous solution. The as-synthesized PANI/bentonie was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Batch adsorption technique was utilized to investigate the adsorption of U(VI) on bentonite and PANI/bentonite. The adsorption of U(VI) (10 mg/L) on PANI/bentonite surface is fairly depend on solution pH, ionic strength, and temperature in solution. The modified PANI on PANI/bentonite surface significantly enhances its adsorption capability for U(VI). The presence of humic acid (HA) can sound enhance U(VI) adsorption on PANI/bentonite at pH < 6.5 because of the strong complexation, and inhibits U(VI) adsorption at pH > 6.5. According to the thermodynamic parameters, the adsorption of U(VI) on PANI/bentonite surface is a spontaneous and endothermic process. The results highlight the application of PANI/bentonite composites as candidate material for the uptake of trace U(VI) from aqueous solution.

  12. Cloud-point temperatures of lysozyme in electrolyte solutions by thermooptical analysis technique.

    PubMed

    Park, Eung Jo; Bae, Young Chan

    2004-04-01

    Liquid-liquid phase-separation data are obtained for aqueous solutions of lysozyme. Thermooptical analysis (TOA) technique overcomes many defects of the light scattering method, which is most commonly used for this purpose, and provides a simple, rapid and reliable experimental method to determine cloud-point temperatures (CPTs) of aqueous protein solution systems. The TOA apparatus described here needs very small amount of samples (0.02 ml), and CPT can easily be determined in a very short time. The CPTs are measured as a function of salt type and concentration at pH 4.0 and 7.0. Salts used include those from mono and divalent cations and anions, and the modified Perturbed-Hard-Sphere-Chain (PHSC) model that takes into account the shape of protein is used to interpret the effect of salts.

  13. Computational time reduction for sequential batch solutions in GNSS precise point positioning technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín Furones, Angel; Anquela Julián, Ana Belén; Dimas-Pages, Alejandro; Cos-Gayón, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    Precise point positioning (PPP) is a well established Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technique that only requires information from the receiver (or rover) to obtain high-precision position coordinates. This is a very interesting and promising technique because eliminates the need for a reference station near the rover receiver or a network of reference stations, thus reducing the cost of a GNSS survey. From a computational perspective, there are two ways to solve the system of observation equations produced by static PPP either in a single step (so-called batch adjustment) or with a sequential adjustment/filter. The results of each should be the same if they are both well implemented. However, if a sequential solution (that is, not only the final coordinates, but also those observed in previous GNSS epochs), is needed, as for convergence studies, finding a batch solution becomes a very time consuming task owing to the need for matrix inversion that accumulates with each consecutive epoch. This is not a problem for the filter solution, which uses information computed in the previous epoch for the solution of the current epoch. Thus filter implementations need extra considerations of user dynamics and parameter state variations between observation epochs with appropriate stochastic update parameter variances from epoch to epoch. These filtering considerations are not needed in batch adjustment, which makes it attractive. The main objective of this research is to significantly reduce the computation time required to obtain sequential results using batch adjustment. The new method we implemented in the adjustment process led to a mean reduction in computational time by 45%.

  14. Large-Scale Bi-Level Strain Design Approaches and Mixed-Integer Programming Solution Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joonhoon; Reed, Jennifer L.; Maravelias, Christos T.

    2011-01-01

    The use of computational models in metabolic engineering has been increasing as more genome-scale metabolic models and computational approaches become available. Various computational approaches have been developed to predict how genetic perturbations affect metabolic behavior at a systems level, and have been successfully used to engineer microbial strains with improved primary or secondary metabolite production. However, identification of metabolic engineering strategies involving a large number of perturbations is currently limited by computational resources due to the size of genome-scale models and the combinatorial nature of the problem. In this study, we present (i) two new bi-level strain design approaches using mixed-integer programming (MIP), and (ii) general solution techniques that improve the performance of MIP-based bi-level approaches. The first approach (SimOptStrain) simultaneously considers gene deletion and non-native reaction addition, while the second approach (BiMOMA) uses minimization of metabolic adjustment to predict knockout behavior in a MIP-based bi-level problem for the first time. Our general MIP solution techniques significantly reduced the CPU times needed to find optimal strategies when applied to an existing strain design approach (OptORF) (e.g., from ∼10 days to ∼5 minutes for metabolic engineering strategies with 4 gene deletions), and identified strategies for producing compounds where previous studies could not (e.g., malate and serine). Additionally, we found novel strategies using SimOptStrain with higher predicted production levels (for succinate and glycerol) than could have been found using an existing approach that considers network additions and deletions in sequential steps rather than simultaneously. Finally, using BiMOMA we found novel strategies involving large numbers of modifications (for pyruvate and glutamate), which sequential search and genetic algorithms were unable to find. The approaches and solution

  15. Large-scale bi-level strain design approaches and mixed-integer programming solution techniques.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joonhoon; Reed, Jennifer L; Maravelias, Christos T

    2011-01-01

    The use of computational models in metabolic engineering has been increasing as more genome-scale metabolic models and computational approaches become available. Various computational approaches have been developed to predict how genetic perturbations affect metabolic behavior at a systems level, and have been successfully used to engineer microbial strains with improved primary or secondary metabolite production. However, identification of metabolic engineering strategies involving a large number of perturbations is currently limited by computational resources due to the size of genome-scale models and the combinatorial nature of the problem. In this study, we present (i) two new bi-level strain design approaches using mixed-integer programming (MIP), and (ii) general solution techniques that improve the performance of MIP-based bi-level approaches. The first approach (SimOptStrain) simultaneously considers gene deletion and non-native reaction addition, while the second approach (BiMOMA) uses minimization of metabolic adjustment to predict knockout behavior in a MIP-based bi-level problem for the first time. Our general MIP solution techniques significantly reduced the CPU times needed to find optimal strategies when applied to an existing strain design approach (OptORF) (e.g., from ∼10 days to ∼5 minutes for metabolic engineering strategies with 4 gene deletions), and identified strategies for producing compounds where previous studies could not (e.g., malate and serine). Additionally, we found novel strategies using SimOptStrain with higher predicted production levels (for succinate and glycerol) than could have been found using an existing approach that considers network additions and deletions in sequential steps rather than simultaneously. Finally, using BiMOMA we found novel strategies involving large numbers of modifications (for pyruvate and glutamate), which sequential search and genetic algorithms were unable to find. The approaches and solution

  16. Various power quality challenges and solution techniques using FACTS technology for power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, J. Sandeep; Jangalwa, N. K.; Gupta, R.; Palwalia, D. K.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review on the various power quality problems and various solution techniques using FACTS in Power system. The term "Power Quality" is a broad concept and its meaning is taken different by different peoples. It is associated with electrical transmission, distribution and utilization systems those are having experience of any Voltage, current or frequency divergence from normal operation. Due to power quality problems industries have to invest large amount for mitigation of Voltage sags, distortions, harmonics and short term interruptions/disturbances etc. In paper authors tried to cover various possible sources and compensation methods of reactive power in power system.

  17. 'Nano-impacts': An Electrochemical Technique for Nanoparticle Sizing in Optically Opaque Solutions.

    PubMed

    Toh, Her Shuang; Compton, Richard G

    2015-06-01

    Typical laser-dependent methods such as nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) are not able to detect nanoparticles in an optically opaque medium due to scattering or absorption of light. Here, the electrochemical technique of 'nano-impacts' was used to detect nanoparticles in solution in the presence of high levels of alumina particulates causing a milky white suspension. Using the 'nano-impacts' method, silver nanoparticles were successfully detected and sized in the model opaque medium. The results obtained compared well with those using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), an ex situ method for nanoparticle size determination. The ability to use the 'nano-impacts' method in media unmeasurable to competitor techniques confers a significant advantage on the electrochemical approach.

  18. Solution of Hybrid FEM-BEM Systems via Schur Complement Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.; Sharpe, R.; Champagne, N.

    2000-10-01

    We are concerned with the numerical solution linear systems that arise from a hybridization of the Finite Element Method (FEM) and the Boundary Element Method (BEM). Our present focus is hybrid FEM-BEM discretization of the frequency-domain vector Helmholtz equation of electromagnetics, but similar hybrid techniques are used in electrostatics, acoustics, elasticity, etc. The hybrid FEM-BEM technique is used to solve ''open'' or ''infinite'' problems, where the FEM is used to discretize the interior of the problem and the BEM is used to simulate the effect of the infinite domain. This is illustrated generically in two dimensions in Figure 1 below. The FEM is applied to the interior V, the BEM is applied to the fictitious surface S, and the two methods are appropriately coupled to form a well-posed problem.

  19. Influence du traitement thermique sur l'usinabilite du laiton monophase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cholley, Airy

    La connaissance des proprietes et du comportement d'un materiau en usinage est primordiale pour optimiser son utilisation et obtenir une usinabilite maximale. Dans ce but, l'etude de la modification de la ductilite par traitement thermiques sur plusieurs criteres d'usinabilite tels que les efforts de coupe, la rugosite, les bavures et la formation du copeau a ete menee sur le laiton monophase. A cette fin, l'influence du traitement thermique sur la microstructure du laiton a d'abord ete etudiee. La taille des grains et la durete ont permis de determiner les proprietes mecaniques des etats metallurgiques. Des essais de percage ont ensuite ete effectues sur les etats metallurgiques H01 (99HV), OS100 (88HV) et OS250 (47HV) pour regarder l'influence du traitement thermique sur l'usinabilite. Cette etude experimentale a permis de comprendre l'influence du taux de laminage et de la temperature de recuit sur les proprietes mecaniques. Les essais d'usinabilite ont ensuite permis de prouver que les efforts de coupe sont dependants des conditions de coupe mais pas de la ductilite dans les etats metallurgiques testes. La taille des bavures augmente avec la ductilite et la vitesse de coupe, et diminue avec l'avance. La rugosite de la surface des trous apres l'usinage a egalement ete etudiee. Il a aussi ete prouve par une etude sur les copeaux que la temperature croit avec la vitesse de coupe. L'analyse de la segmentation des copeaux n'a en revanche pas permis de trouver une correlation significative avec les traitements thermiques testes. Enfin, le revetement de l'outil a montre une grande importance sur l'usinabilite du materiau. Il a ete conclu que l'usinabilite du laiton C26000 (CuZn30) est meilleure lorsqu'on travaille dans un etat metallurgique dur. Ces conclusions sont valables pour le laiton monophase etudie, il serait interessant d'examiner aussi le cas des laitons biphases.

  20. Simple and reliable quartz crystal microbalance technique for determination of solubility by cooling and heating solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Shang; Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Woo-Sik

    2015-03-17

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is presented as a promising technique for determining the solubility and induction of nucleation via the cooling and reverse heating of a solution. When cooling and heating a solution, the resonant frequency (F) and resonant resistance (R) of the QCM responses change significantly due to vibrational loss related to the viscous and elastic friction that depend on the solution viscosity and solid mass on the sensor, respectively. Thus, obvious refraction points appear in the QCM response profile at the induction point of primary nucleation during cooling crystallization and at the saturated point during heating dissolution. Using an F-R plot of the QCM responses, the phase changes between liquid and solid at the induction and saturated points are confirmed. When compared with focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) and gravimetric methods, the QCM method is confirmed to be highly accurate and reliable for determining the solubility, making it a highly promising method for determining solubility and crystal nucleation with minimal effort based on simple temperature cycling, thereby avoiding precalibration and sampling.

  1. A monophasic extraction strategy for the simultaneous lipidome analysis of polar and nonpolar retina lipids[S

    PubMed Central

    Lydic, Todd A.; Busik, Julia V.; Reid, Gavin E.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid extraction using a monophasic chloroform/methanol/water mixture, coupled with functional group selective derivatization and direct infusion nano-ESI-high-resolution/accurate MS, is shown to facilitate the simultaneous analysis of both highly polar and nonpolar lipids from a single retina lipid extract, including low abundance highly polar ganglioside lipids, nonpolar sphingolipids, and abundant glycerophospholipids. Quantitative comparison showed that the monophasic lipid extraction method yielded similar lipid distributions to those obtained from established “gold standard” biphasic lipid extraction methods known to enrich for either highly polar gangliosides or nonpolar lipids, respectively, with only modest relative ion suppression effects. This improved lipid extraction and analysis strategy therefore enables detailed lipidome analyses of lipid species across a broad range of polarities and abundances, from minimal amounts of biological samples and without need for multiple lipid class-specific extractions or chromatographic separation prior to analysis. PMID:24879804

  2. In vitro study on the dimensional accuracy of selected materials for monophase elastic impression making.

    PubMed

    Piwowarczyk, Andree; Ottl, Peter; Büchler, Alfred; Lauer, Hans-Christoph; Hoffmann, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the dimensional accuracy of various impression materials for monophase elastic impression making. To isolate this parameter, a direct measurement of the impressions was made without taking the model material into consideration. A total of eight materials were tested; six impression materials were addition-curing silicones, and two were polyether impression materials. All materials were processed according to the manufacturers' instructions. A specially developed precision mold made of stainless steel served as basis for measuring the elastomeric impression materials. Using a stereomicroscope at a temperature of 23.0 +/- 1.0 degrees C and with a precision linear adjustment and lathe, sights were set on the marking points of customized posts. The measurement was performed after the earliest time possible for fabricating the model according to the manufacturer (time 1) and after 90 minutes (time 2). In a one-way analysis of variance, multiple average comparisons of dimensional accuracy were made (P < or = .05) between the impression materials under investigation. Under the conditions of this study, the impression materials tested demonstrated a very high dimensional accuracy. The arithmetic means of the dimensional changes ranged from -11 to 19 microns for both measuring times. Since as a rule, no significant dimensional changes occurred for the different impression materials between time 1 and time 2, this time interval for fabricating a model can be recommended.

  3. Mechanical power of ankle plantar flexion and subjective pain by monophasic electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tatsuto; Watanabe, Takashi; Saura, Ryuichi; Uchiyama, Hironobu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical power of the ankle plantar flexion. The investigated power of the ankle plantar flexion would help to improve effectively the FES walking system using the ankle plantar flexion for patients and aged people in slow walking. The subjective pain by electrical stimulation sometimes becomes the burden to use the FES system. We also investigated the relationship between the mechanical power in ankle plantar flexion by electrical stimulation and the subjective pain. We developed the device to measure the ankle movement by electrical stimulation against load resistance torque. The device consisted of pads to support a single lower leg, a rotational footplate with a large pulley and a vertical weight to generate the load resistance torque, and a monophasic electrical stimulator via surface electrodes. Our results showed the proportional relationship between the mechanical power of the ankle plantar flexion and the subjective pain by electrical stimulation. To generate the same level in the ankle plantar flexor power 2.75 W under the maximum voluntary exertion, the subjective pain by electrical stimulation exceeded 70, which means the feeling of crying at the Face Pain Scale. This result would help the better design of the FES walking system using the ankle plantar flexion for patients and aged people.

  4. Effect of Monophasic Pulsed Current on Heel Pain and Functional Activities caused by Plantar Fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, Abdullah K.; Petrofsky, Jerrold S.; Daher, Noha S.; Lohman, Everett; Laymon, Michael; Syed, Hasan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Plantar fasciitis (PF) is a soft tissue disorder considered to be one of the most common causes of inferior heel pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of monophasic pulsed current (MPC) and MPC coupled with plantar fascia-specific stretching exercises (SE) on the treatment of PF. Material/Methods Forty-four participants (22 women and 22 men, with a mean age of 49 years) diagnosed with PF were randomly assigned to receive MPC (n=22) or MPC coupled with plantar fascia-specific SE (n=22). Prior to and after 4 weeks of treatment, participants underwent baseline evaluation; heel pain was evaluated using a visual analogue scale (VAS), heel tenderness threshold was quantified using a handheld pressure algometer (PA), and functional activities level was assessed using the Activities of Daily Living subscale of the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (ADL/FAAM). Results Heel pain scores showed a significant reduction in both groups compared to baseline VAS scores (P<0.001). Heel tenderness improved significantly in both groups compared with baseline PA scores (P<0.001). Functional activity level improved significantly in both groups compared with baseline (ADL/FAAM) scores (P<0.001). However, no significant differences existed between the 2 treatment groups in all post-intervention outcome measures. Conclusions This trial showed that MPC is useful in treating inferior heel symptoms caused by PF. PMID:25791231

  5. A safeguards verification technique for solution homogeneity and volume measurements in process tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Suda, S.; Franssen, F.

    1987-01-01

    A safeguards verification technique is being developed for determining whether process-liquid homogeneity has been achieved in process tanks and for authenticating volume-measurement algorithms involving temperature corrections. It is proposed that, in new designs for bulk-handling plants employing automated process lines, bubbler probes and thermocouples be installed at several heights in key accountability tanks. High-accuracy measurements of density using an electromanometer can now be made which match or even exceed analytical-laboratory accuracies. Together with regional determination of tank temperatures, these measurements provide density, liquid-column weight and temperature gradients over the fill range of the tank that can be used to ascertain when the tank solution has reached equilibrium. Temperature-correction algorithms can be authenticated by comparing the volumes obtained from the several bubbler-probe liquid-height measurements, each based on different amounts of liquid above and below the probe. The verification technique is based on the automated electromanometer system developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The IAEA has recently approved the purchase of a stainless-steel tank equipped with multiple bubbler and thermocouple probes for installation in its Bulk Calibration Laboratory at IAEA Headquarters, Vienna. The verification technique is scheduled for preliminary trials in late 1987.

  6. Biphasic versus monophasic shock waveform for conversion of atrial fibrillation: the results of an international randomized, double-blind multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Page, Richard L; Kerber, Richard E; Russell, James K; Trouton, Tom; Waktare, Johan; Gallik, Donna; Olgin, Jeff E; Ricard, Philippe; Dalzell, Gavin W; Reddy, Ramakota; Lazzara, Ralph; Lee, Kerry; Carlson, Mark; Halperin, Blair; Bardy, Gust H

    2002-06-19

    This study compared a biphasic waveform with a conventional monophasic waveform for cardioversion of atrial fibrillation (AF). Biphasic shock waveforms have been demonstrated to be superior to monophasic shocks for termination of ventricular fibrillation, but data regarding biphasic shocks for conversion of AF are still emerging. In an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, we compared the effectiveness of damped sine wave monophasic versus impedance-compensated truncated exponential biphasic shocks for the cardioversion of AF. Patients received up to five shocks, as necessary for conversion: 100 J, 150 J, 200 J, a fourth shock at maximum output for the initial waveform (200 J biphasic, 360 J monophasic) and a final cross-over shock at maximum output of the alternate waveform. Analysis included 107 monophasic and 96 biphasic patients. The success rate was higher for biphasic than for monophasic shocks at each of the three shared energy levels (100 J: 60% vs. 22%, p < 0.0001; 150 J: 77% vs. 44%, p < 0.0001; 200 J: 90% vs. 53%, p < 0.0001). Through four shocks, at a maximum of 200 J, biphasic performance was similar to monophasic performance at 360 J (91% vs. 85%, p = 0.29). Biphasic patients required fewer shocks (1.7 +/- 1.0 vs. 2.8 +/- 1.2, p < 0.0001) and lower total energy delivered (217 +/- 176 J vs. 548 +/- 331 J, p < 0.0001). The biphasic shock waveform was also associated with a lower frequency of dermal injury (17% vs. 41%, p < 0.0001). For the cardioversion of AF, a biphasic shock waveform has greater efficacy, requires fewer shocks and lower delivered energy, and results in less dermal injury than a monophasic shock waveform.

  7. The efficacy and safety of a monophasic hyaluronic acid filler in the correction of nasolabial folds: A randomized, multicenter, single blinded, split-face study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyun Jung; Ko, Eun Jung; Choi, Sun Young; Choi, Eun Ja; Jang, Yu-Jin; Kim, Beom Joon; Lee, Yang Won

    2017-09-14

    The different rheological properties of hyaluronic acid (HA) filler reflect their specific manufacturing processes and resultant physicochemical characteristics. However, there are few researches about the relationship between product differences and clinical outcome when HA fillers are used for nasolabial folds (NLFs). This study sought to compare the rheological properties, efficacy and safety of a monophasic HA filler, and a well-studied biphasic HA filler, in the treatment of NLFs. A total of 72 Korean subjects with moderate to severe NLFs were randomized to receive injections with monophasic HA or biphasic HA on the left or right side of the face. Efficacy was evaluated by the change in the Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale (WSRS) at 2, 10, 18, 26, and 52 weeks. Safety was assessed on the basis of all abnormal reactions during the clinical test period. To compare the rheological characteristics of two cross-linked HA fillers, viscoelastic analysis was performed. At week 26, the mean WSRS was 2.26±0.56 for the monophasic HA side and 2.24±0.54 for the biphasic HA side. Both treatments were well tolerated. The adverse reactions were mild and transient. Monophasic HA filler had lower elasticity and higher viscosity than biphasic HA filler. Despite a number of different rheological properties, monophasic HA is noninferior to biphasic HA in the treatment of moderate to severe NLFs for 52 weeks. Therefore, monophasic HA provides an alternative option for NLFs correction. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Correction function in the Lidar equation and the solution techniques for CO2 Lidar date reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Y.; Lea, T. K.; Schotland, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    For lidar systems with long laser pulses the unusual behavior of the near-range signals causes serious difficulties and large errors in reduction. The commonly used lidar equation is no longer applicable since the convolution of the laser pulse with the atmospheric parameter distributions should be taken into account. It is important to give more insight into this problem and find the solution techniques. Starting from the original equation, a general form is suggested for the single scattering lidar equation where a correction function Cr is introduced. The correction Function Cr(R) derived from the original equation indicates the departure from the normal lidar equation. Examples of Cr(R) for a coaxial CO2 lidar system are presented. The Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) errors caused by the differences of Cr(R) for H2O measurements are plotted against height.

  9. Ferrite plating in aqueous solution: New technique for preparing magnetic thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Masanori; Tamaura, Yutaka

    1984-03-01

    This paper describes the principle and performance of a new technique which facilitates the formation of crystalline spinel film at low temperature (T<80 °C) without a heat treatment. For a substrate, not only a metal but also oxides and organic compounds can be used. Various transition metals (M=Ni, Co, Mn, Cu, Zn, etc.) are incorporated into the spinel. Hydrolyzed metal ions FeOH+ and MOH(n-1)+ in an aqueous solution (pH=6˜11,T=40˜80 °C) are adsorbed on a substrate surface which react into spinel film associated with anodic or air oxidation of the FeOH+ ion. We have plated Fe3O4 and CoFe2O4 films on a substrate of Cu, polyethylene terephthalate, and stainless steel. They are polycrystalline with no preferred orientation, and exhibit no magnetic anisotropy. The polar Kerr rotation of these films has been measured.

  10. Phase evolution and sintering kinetics of hydroxyapatite synthesized by solution combustion technique.

    PubMed

    Pratihar, Swadesh K; Garg, Mayank; Mehra, Supreet; Bhattacharyya, S

    2006-06-01

    Solution combustion technique has been used to prepare hydroxypatite (HAp) powder from calcium nitrate, di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate and citric acid precursors. Phase evolution has been studied as a function of calcination temperatures. The crystal structure, phase purity and stiochiometry of phase have been studied by Rietveld analysis of the calcined powder. It was observed that the prepared Hap powder was phase pure and stoichiometric. The sintering behaviour and sintering kinetics of the HAp compact has been studied by dilatometer. Activation energy for sintering has been calculated from the dilatometer results. Grain boundary diffusion was found to be the dominant densification mechanism during the initial stage of sintering. The activation energy for sintering (438 kJ/mol) was found to be in excellent agreement with reported value.

  11. Comparison of the NMR solution structures of cyclosporin A determined by different techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachter, Ruth; Altman, Russ B.; Czaplicki, Jerzy; Jardetzky, Oleg

    An evaluation and comparison of the NMR solution structures of Cyclosporin A are presented in this study. A new structure has been calculated by the probability filtered estimate (PROFILE) technique using new NMR data, in addition to the previously reported data. The mean structure, along with explicit estimates of uncertainty in the position of each atom, satisfies the NMR constraints but does not imply a unique structure. A comparison of this structural calculation with models obtained with other computational methods shows large variations in the Ramachandran angles (φ, ψ). These differences are explained on the basis of both the calculated uncertainty in backbone atomic coordinates and the cooperative motion of the backbone dihedral angles.

  12. Note: A novel technique for analysis of aqueous solutions by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rusak, D. A.; Bell, Z. T.; Anthony, T. P.

    2015-11-15

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates typically consist of gold or silver nanoparticles deposited on a non-conductive substrate. In Raman spectroscopy, the nanoparticles produce an enhancement of the electromagnetic field which, in turn, leads to greater electronic excitation of molecules in the local environment. Here, we show that these same surfaces can be used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio obtained in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aqueous solutions. In this case, the SERS substrates not only lower breakdown thresholds and lead to more efficient plasma initiation but also provide an appropriately wettable surface for the deposition of the liquid. We refer to this technique as surface-enhanced laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

  13. The discussion of crucial techniques in the emergency solution of special equipment security systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhao; Liu, Renyi; Liu, Nan

    2007-06-01

    This paper analyzes the necessity and feasibility of the supervision of special equipment security. The emergency solution of special equipment security system aims to integrate the emergency response department, such as police security, fire control, first aid, and traffic police and so on, to conduct the disaster rescue jointly under the command of the government departments. China Special Equipment Inspection and Research Center launched a GIS based system that manages the special equipment security. It designs the database, software and hardware structure, and functional module of the emergency solution of special equipment security based on WebGIS and GPS techniques. This paper analyzes three key issues of this system is explosion model, security patrol vehicles and special vehicles GPS positioning and special equipment monitoring. This system uses the information sharing technology based on Web Service. Transplanting GIS to Internet, designs special equipment spatial data WebGIS web site. B/S architecture is used in the system, and the software SuperMap IS Java of SuperMap Company is used as the GIS server for the spatial data publishing. This system also contains a PDA platform that provide for fieldwork.

  14. Matrix-free Brownian dynamics simulation technique for semidilute polymeric solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadat, Amir; Khomami, Bamin

    2015-09-01

    Evaluating the concentration dependence of static and dynamic properties of macromolecules in semidilute polymer solutions requires accurate calculation of long-range hydrodynamic interactions (HI) and short range excluded volume (EV) forces. In conventional Brownian dynamics simulations (BDS), computation of HI necessitates construction of a dense diffusion tensor commonly performed via Ewald summation. Krylov subspace techniques allow efficient decomposition of this tensor [computational cost scales as O (N2) , where N is the total number of beads in bead-spring representation of macromolecules in a simulation box] and computation of Brownian displacements in the box. In this paper, a matrix-free approach for calculation of HI is implemented which leads to O (N logN ) scaling of computational expense. The fidelity of the algorithm is demonstrated by evaluating the asymptotic value of center-of-mass diffusivity of polymer molecules at very low concentrations and their radius of gyration scaling as a function of number of beads for dilute and semidilute solutions (with concentrations up to 5 times the overlap concentration). In turn, a favorable comparison between our results and the blob theory is shown.

  15. Inhaled corticosteroid metered-dose inhalers: how do variations in technique for solutions versus suspensions affect drug distribution?

    PubMed

    Robinson, Christie A; Tsourounis, Candy

    2013-03-01

    To assess the literature that evaluates how variations in metered-dose inhaler (MDI) technique affect lung distribution for inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) formulated as MDI suspensions and solutions. PubMed (up to November 2012) and Cochrane Library (up to November 2012) were searched using the terms metered-dose inhalers, HFA 134a, Asthma/*drug therapy, and inhaled corticosteroids. In addition, reference citations from publications identified were reviewed. All articles in English from the data sources that assessed MDI technique comparing total lung distribution (TLD) of MDI solutions or suspensions formulated with ICSs were included in the review. Five relevant studies were identified. Five controlled studies compared how variations in MDI technique affect TLD for ICS MDI solutions with suspensions. MDI solutions resulted in greater TLD compared with larger particle MDI suspensions. Delayed or early inspiration upon device actuation of MDI solutions resulted in less TLD than coordinated actuation, but with a 3- to 4-times greater TLD than MDI suspensions inhaled using a standard technique. A sixth study evaluated inspiratory flow rates (IFR) for small, medium, and large particles. Rapid and slow IFRs resulted in similar TLD for small particles, while far fewer particles reached the airways with medium and large particles at rapid, rather than slow, IFRs. Based on the literature evaluated, standard MDI technique should be used for ICS suspensions. ICS MDI solutions can provide a higher average TLD than larger-particle ICS suspensions using standard technique, discoordinated inspiration and medication actuation timing, or rapid and slow IFRs. ICS MDI solutions allow for a more forgiving technique, which makes them uniquely suitable options for patients with asthma who have difficultly with MDI technique.

  16. School Counselors' Use of Solution-Focused Tenets and Techniques in School-Based Site Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cigrand, Dawnette L.; Wood, Susannah M.; Duys, David

    2014-01-01

    The tenets and techniques of solution-focused (SF) theory have potential for application to school counseling site supervision; however, research on the use of these practices in site supervision is needed. This study examined the extent to which school counseling site supervisors integrated SF tenets and techniques into their supervisory…

  17. First evidence on phloem transport of nanoscale calcium oxide in groundnut using solution culture technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepa, Manchala; Sudhakar, Palagiri; Nagamadhuri, Kandula Venkata; Balakrishna Reddy, Kota; Giridhara Krishna, Thimmavajjula; Prasad, Tollamadugu Naga Venkata Krishna Vara

    2015-06-01

    Nanoscale materials, whose size typically falls below 100 nm, exhibit novel chemical, physical and biological properties which are different from their bulk counterparts. In the present investigation, we demonstrated that nanoscale calcium oxide particles (n-CaO) could transport through phloem tissue of groundnut unlike the corresponding bulk materials. n-CaO particles are prepared using sol-gel method. The size of the as prepared n-CaO measured (69.9 nm) using transmission electron microscopic technique (TEM). Results of the hydroponics experiment using solution culture technique revealed that foliar application of n-CaO at different concentrations (10, 50, 100, 500, 1,000 ppm) on groundnut plants confirmed the entry of calcium into leaves and stems through phloem compared to bulk source of calcium sprayed (CaO and CaNO3). After spraying of n-CaO, calcium content in roots, shoots and leaves significantly increased. Based on visual scoring of calcium deficiency correction and calcium content in plant parts, we may establish the fact that nanoscale calcium oxide particles (size 69.9 nm) could move through phloem tissue in groundnut. This is the first report on phloem transport of nanoscale calcium oxide particles in plants and this result points to the use of nanoscale calcium oxide particles as calcium source to the plants through foliar application, agricultural crops in particular, as bulk calcium application through foliar nutrition is restricted due to its non-mobility in phloem.

  18. Imbalance Between Th17 Cells and Regulatory T Cells During Monophasic Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lian; Wan, Fangzhu; Song, Jike; Tang, Kai; Zheng, Fengming; Guo, Junguo; Guo, Dadong; Bi, Hongsheng

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the dynamic changes in IL-17-expressing T cells (Th17)/Treg expression in monophasic experimental autoimmune uveitis (mEAU). mEAU was induced in Lewis rats with IRBP1177-1191 peptide and evaluated clinically and pathologically on days 9, 13, 18, 23, 28, 35, and 48. Lymphocytes isolated from inguinal lymph nodes were subjected to flow cytometry to analyze the frequency of Th17/Treg cells. The levels of cytokines (IL-17, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β) in serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) was used for measuring the levels of IL-17, IL-6, TGF-β, and Foxp3. Clinical and histopathologic assessment showed that mEAU began on day 9, peaked on day 13, and decreased to normal on day 18. The frequency of Th17 cells increased obviously on day 9, peaking on day 13, while the frequency of Treg cells increased on day 13, peaked on day 18, and remained at a high level until day 48. In the serum, the levels of IL-17 and IL-6 peaked on day 9 and gradually decreased to normal on day 28. The level of TGF-β increased on day 9, peaked on day 13, and decreased to normal on day 35. Meanwhile, the level of IL-10 increased on day 9 and stayed at a high level until day 48. Additionally, the above results were further confirmed by RT-PCR. The imbalance between Th17 and Treg cells contributes to the onset and progression of mEAU, and a compartmental imbalance of Treg over Th17 exists in the recovery phase of mEAU.

  19. Whorling cellular perineurioma: A previously undescribed variant closely mimicking monophasic fibrous synovial sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Michal, Michael; Kazakov, Dmitry V; Agaimy, Abbas; Hosova, Marta; Michalova, Kvetoslava; Grossmann, Petr; Steiner, Petr; Skenderi, Faruk; Vranic, Semir; Michal, Michal

    2017-04-01

    The authors present a distinctive perineurioma (PN) variant which morphologically strongly resembles monophasic fibrous synovial sarcoma (MSS). The patients were 3 males and 1 female. The age ranged from 15 to 61years (mean: 44years). Locations included the sole, lower jaw, palm and foot. The tumor size ranged from 1.3cm to 2.5cm in the largest dimension (mean 1.8cm). Morphologically, all tumors had an identical, monotonous appearance. The perineurial cells were closely packed and created a confluent cellular whorls and/or sheets in a scarce stroma, with only focally discernible long, slender cytoplasmic processes typical for perineurial differentiation. The nuclei were rounded or slightly elongated to tapered, without nuclear atypia. Mitoses were rare to completely absent. Atypical mitoses, hemorrhage, necrosis or calcifications were not present. The proliferative index (Ki-67) was 1-3%. All analyzed tumors were positive for EMA, Claudin-1, GLUT-1 and negative with S100 protein, CD34, OSCAR, CK7 and TLE-1. Two cases were tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization and neither showed alterations of the SYT gene. One case studied by electron microscopy showed characteristic features of perineurial differentiation. Follow-up was available for two patients both of which showed no evidence of disease at 8years and 6months, respectively. Based on their bland morphology, perineurial features and presumably benign clinical outcome we propose the term "whorling cellular perineurioma" for these tumors, which may represent an extremely cellular variant of sclerosing PN. Awareness of this PN subtype and its distinction from MSS is of utmost clinical significance.

  20. Technique for Calculating Solution Derivatives With Respect to Geometry Parameters in a CFD Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    A solution has been developed to the challenges of computation of derivatives with respect to geometry, which is not straightforward because these are not typically direct inputs to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver. To overcome these issues, a procedure has been devised that can be used without having access to the mesh generator, while still being applicable to all types of meshes. The basic approach is inspired by the mesh motion algorithms used to deform the interior mesh nodes in a smooth manner when the surface nodes, for example, are in a fluid structure interaction problem. The general idea is to model the mesh edges and nodes as constituting a spring-mass system. Changes to boundary node locations are propagated to interior nodes by allowing them to assume their new equilibrium positions, for instance, one where the forces on each node are in balance. The main advantage of the technique is that it is independent of the volumetric mesh generator, and can be applied to structured, unstructured, single- and multi-block meshes. It essentially reduces the problem down to defining the surface mesh node derivatives with respect to the geometry parameters of interest. For analytical geometries, this is quite straightforward. In the more general case, one would need to be able to interrogate the underlying parametric CAD (computer aided design) model and to evaluate the derivatives either analytically, or by a finite difference technique. Because the technique is based on a partial differential equation (PDE), it is applicable not only to forward mode problems (where derivatives of all the output quantities are computed with respect to a single input), but it could also be extended to the adjoint problem, either by using an analytical adjoint of the PDE or a discrete analog.

  1. Measurement of solute transport in the endothelial glycocalyx using indicator dilution techniques.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lujia; Lipowsky, Herbert H

    2009-09-01

    A new method is presented to quantify changes in permeability of the endothelial glycocalyx to small solutes and fluid flow using techniques of indicator dilution. Following infusion of a bolus of fluorescent solutes (either FITC or FITC conjugated Dextran70) into the rat mesenteric circulation, its transient dispersion through post-capillary venules was recorded and analyzed offline. To represent dispersion of solute as a function of radial position in a microvessel, a virtual transit time (VTT) was calculated from the first moment of fluorescence intensity-time curves. Computer simulations and subsequent in vivo measurements showed that the radial gradient of VTT within the glycocalyx layer (Delta VTT/Delta r) may be related to the hydraulic resistance within the layer along the axial direction in a post-capillary venule and the effective diffusion coefficient within the glycocalyx. Modeling the inflammatory process by superfusion of the mesentery with 10(-7) M fMLP, Delta VTT/Delta r was found to decrease significantly from 0.23 +/- 0.08 SD s/microm to 0.18 +/- 0.09 SD s/microm. Computer simulations demonstrated that Delta VTT/Delta r is principally determined by three independent variables: glycocalyx thickness (delta), hydraulic resistivity (K(r)) and effective diffusion coefficient of the solute (D(eff)) within the glycocalyx. Based upon these simulations, the measured 20% decrease in Delta VTT/Delta r at the endothelial cell surface corresponds to a 20% increase in D(eff) over a broad range in K(r), assuming a constant thickness delta. The absolute magnitude of D(eff) required to match Delta VTT/Delta r between in vivo measurements and simulations was found to be on the order of 2.5 x 10(-3) x D(free), where D(free) is the diffusion coefficient of FITC in aqueous media. Thus the present method may provide a useful tool for elucidating structural and molecular alterations in the glycocalyx as occur with ischemia, metabolic and inflammatory events.

  2. Studies of implicit and explicit solution techniques in transient thermal analysis of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, H. M.; Haftka, R. T.; Robinson, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Studies aimed at an increase in the efficiency of calculating transient temperature fields in complex aerospace vehicle structures are reported. The advantages and disadvantages of explicit and implicit algorithms are discussed and a promising set of implicit algorithms with variable time steps, known as GEARIB, is described. Test problems, used for evaluating and comparing various algorithms, are discussed and finite element models of the configurations are described. These problems include a coarse model of the Space Shuttle wing, an insulated frame tst article, a metallic panel for a thermal protection system, and detailed models of sections of the Space Shuttle wing. Results generally indicate a preference for implicit over explicit algorithms for transient structural heat transfer problems when the governing equations are stiff (typical of many practical problems such as insulated metal structures). The effects on algorithm performance of different models of an insulated cylinder are demonstrated. The stiffness of the problem is highly sensitive to modeling details and careful modeling can reduce the stiffness of the equations to the extent that explicit methods may become the best choice. Preliminary applications of a mixed implicit-explicit algorithm and operator splitting techniques for speeding up the solution of the algebraic equations are also described.

  3. A Novel Solution-Technique Applied to a Novel WAAS Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration has embarked on an historic task of modernizing and significantly improving the national air transportation system. One system that uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) to determine aircraft navigational information is called the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). This paper describes a reliability assessment of one candidate system architecture for the WAAS. A unique aspect of this study regards the modeling and solution of a candidate system that allows a novel cold sparing scheme. The cold spare is a WAAS communications satellite that is fabricated and launched after a predetermined number of orbiting satellite failures have occurred and after some stochastic fabrication time transpires. Because these satellites are complex systems with redundant components, they exhibit an increasing failure rate with a Weibull time to failure distribution. Moreover, the cold spare satellite build-time is Weibull and upon launch is considered to be a good-as-new system with an increasing failure rate and a Weibull time to failure distribution as well. The reliability model for this system is non-Markovian because three distinct system clocks are required: the time to failure of the orbiting satellites, the build time for the cold spare, and the time to failure for the launched spare satellite. A powerful dynamic fault tree modeling notation and Monte Carlo simulation technique with importance sampling are shown to arrive at a reliability prediction for a 10 year mission.

  4. Development of iterative techniques for the solution of unsteady compressible viscous flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, Duane; Sankar, L. N.

    1993-01-01

    During the past two decades, there has been significant progress in the field of numerical simulation of unsteady compressible viscous flows. At present, a variety of solution techniques exist such as the transonic small disturbance analyses (TSD), transonic full potential equation-based methods, unsteady Euler solvers, and unsteady Navier-Stokes solvers. These advances have been made possible by developments in three areas: (1) improved numerical algorithms; (2) automation of body-fitted grid generation schemes; and (3) advanced computer architectures with vector processing and massively parallel processing features. In this work, the GMRES scheme has been considered as a candidate for acceleration of a Newton iteration time marching scheme for unsteady 2-D and 3-D compressible viscous flow calculation; from preliminary calculations, this will provide up to a 65 percent reduction in the computer time requirements over the existing class of explicit and implicit time marching schemes. The proposed method has ben tested on structured grids, but is flexible enough for extension to unstructured grids. The described scheme has been tested only on the current generation of vector processor architecture of the Cray Y/MP class, but should be suitable for adaptation to massively parallel machines.

  5. Synthesis of Perfluorinated Ethers by Solution Phase Direct Fluorination: An Adaptation of the La-Mar Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-22

    by 3 GORDON BENNETT RUTHERFORD, B.S. SUPERVISING PROFESSOR: RICHARD J. LAGOW The synthesis of several perfluorinated ethers of pentaerythritol ...II i SYNTHESIS OF PERFLUORINATED ETHERS BY SOLUTION PHASE 3 DIRECT FLUORINATION: AN ADAPTATION OF THE LA-MAR TECHNIQUEI g oo/z3 - - G 5 / I P I Al 3...g I L__ iI !V I I SYNTHESIS OF PERFLUORINATED ETHERS BY SOLUTION PHASE 3 DIRECT FLUORINATION: AN ADAPTATION OF THE LA-MAR TECHNIQUE 3 GORDON BENNETT

  6. Coordinated gene expression of Th17- and Treg-associated molecules correlated with resolution of the monophasic experimental autoimmune uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiuzhi; Hu, Minghui; Wang, Caihong; Wang, Chunyu; Zhang, Fengyun; Han, Qinglian; Zhao, Ruibo; Huang, Qi; Xu, Hongwei; Yuan, Huiping

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the role of T-cell-mediated immune response in a monophasic experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Methods A monophasic EAU was induced in Lewis rats by immunization with interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein peptide. Optimized quantitative real-time RT–PCR was used for consecutive measurement of the relative expression of Th17-associated molecules, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), interleukin 23p19 (IL-23p19), interleukin 23p40 (IL-23p40), CD4, CD8, major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I), major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II), interleukin 17 (IL-17), interleukin 17F (IL-17F), interleukin 17 receptor A (IL-17RA), retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) and Chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6), in addition to Treg-related forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), C-X-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CXCR5), and cluster of differentiation 25 (CD25) at the initiation, effector, and resolution phases of EAU and compared with those at 14 days post-immunization of control animals. Immunohistochemisty was used to examine IL-17 expression in retinas. Glial fibrillary acidic protein retinal astrocytes, Neuronal class III β-Tubulin(Tuj1+)retinal ganglion cells, and infiltrating CD11b+ microglia were analyzed by fluorescent microscopy in a kinetic manner. Results Our results indicated well organized T-cell activity, measured by relative expression of multiple T-cell-related factors at the mRNA level, synchronized with the initiation of autoimmune inflammation, and thereafter resolution of the monophasic EAU. Immune balance was achieved several times through coordinated expression of Th17- and Treg-related factors. The expression pattern of these factors and results from immunochemistry with an IL-17 antibody indicated that there may be intensive crosstalk between infiltrating immune cells and the resident neural cells, which were significantly activated during the course of disease. Conclusions T

  7. Dynamics of Intraocular IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-10-Producing Cell Populations during Relapsing and Monophasic Rat Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Ulrike; Diedrichs-Möhring, Maria; Wildner, Gerhild

    2012-01-01

    A major limitation of most animal models of autoimmune diseases is that they do not reproduce the chronic or relapsing-remitting pattern characteristic of many human autoimmune diseases. This problem has been overcome in our rat models of experimentally induced monophasic or relapsing-remitting autoimmune uveitis (EAU), which depend on the inducing antigen peptides from retinal S-Antigen (monophasic EAU) or interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (relapsing EAU). These models enable us to compare autoreactive and regulatory T cell populations. Intraocular, but not peripheral T cells differ in their cytokine profiles (IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-10) at distinct time points during monophasic or relapsing EAU. Only intraocular T cells concomitantly produced IFN-γ, IL-17 and/or IL-10. Monophasic EAU presented rising numbers of cells expressing IFN-γ and IL-17 (Th1/Th17) and cells expressing IL-10 or Foxp3. During relapsing uveitis an increase of intraocular IFN-γ+ cells and a concomitant decrease of IL-17+ cells was detected, while IL-10+ populations remained stable. Foxp3+ cells and cells expressing IL-10, even in combination with IFN-γ or IL-17, increased during the resolution of monophasic EAU, suggesting a regulatory role for these T cells. In general, cells producing multiple cytokines increased in monophasic and decreased in relapsing EAU. The distinct appearance of certain intraocular populations with characteristics of regulatory cells points to a differential influence of the ocular environment on T cells that induce acute and monophasic or relapsing disease. Here we provide evidence that different autoantigens can elicit distinct and differently regulated immune responses. IFN-γ, but not IL-17 seems to be the key player in relapsing-remitting uveitis, as shown by increased, synchronized relapses after intraocular application of IFN-γ. We demonstrated dynamic changes of the cytokine pattern during monophasic and relapsing-remitting disease with strongly

  8. Multigrid techniques for nonlinear eigenvalue probems: Solutions of a nonlinear Schroedinger eigenvalue problem in 2D and 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costiner, Sorin; Taasan, Shlomo

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents multigrid (MG) techniques for nonlinear eigenvalue problems (EP) and emphasizes an MG algorithm for a nonlinear Schrodinger EP. The algorithm overcomes the mentioned difficulties combining the following techniques: an MG projection coupled with backrotations for separation of solutions and treatment of difficulties related to clusters of close and equal eigenvalues; MG subspace continuation techniques for treatment of the nonlinearity; an MG simultaneous treatment of the eigenvectors at the same time with the nonlinearity and with the global constraints. The simultaneous MG techniques reduce the large number of self consistent iterations to only a few or one MG simultaneous iteration and keep the solutions in a right neighborhood where the algorithm converges fast.

  9. Determination of Amoebicidal Activities of Multipurpose Contact Lens Solutions by Using a Most Probable Number Enumeration Technique

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, Tara K.; Seal, David V.; Tomlinson, Alan; McFadyen, Angus K.; Grimason, Anthony M.

    2003-01-01

    Six multipurpose contact lens solutions [All-in-One, All-in-One (Light), ReNu MultiPlus, Optifree Express, Complete, and Solo-care soft] were tested for their efficacies against Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and cysts by using a most probable number (MPN) technique for amoebic enumeration. Against trophozoites, All-in-One, ReNu Multiplus, and Optifree Express achieved total kill (log reduction of >3) after the manufacturer's minimum recommended disinfection time (MMRDT), with the remaining solutions failing to reach a log reduction of 1. After 24 h of exposure, all solutions proved trophozoiticidal, achieving, with the exception of Complete (log reduction of 3.13), total kill. Against cysts, All-in-One gave a log reduction of >3 within the MMRDT, with all other solutions failing to achieve a log reduction of 1. After 24 h of exposure, All-in-One achieved total kill of cysts (log reduction of 3.74), ReNu MultiPlus gave a log reduction of 3.15, and the remaining solutions reached log reductions of between 1.09 and 2.27. The MPN technique provides a simple, reliable, and reproducible method of amoebic enumeration that depends on simply establishing the presence or absence of growth on culture plates inoculated with a series of dilutions and determining the MPN of amoebae present from statistical tables. By use of this technique, two of the multipurpose solutions tested, ReNu MultiPlus and Optifree Express, demonstrated effective trophozoiticidal activities within the recommended disinfection times; however, only All-in-One proved effective against both trophozoites and cysts over the same time period. This MPN technique, which uses axenically produced trophozoites and mature, double-walled cysts, has the potential to form the basis of a national standard for amoebicidal efficacy testing of multipurpose contact lens disinfecting solutions. PMID:12843032

  10. Novel technique for phosphorus recovery from aqueous solutions using amorphous calcium silicate hydrates (A-CSHs).

    PubMed

    Okano, Kenji; Uemoto, Masahide; Kagami, Jumpei; Miura, Keiichi; Aketo, Tsuyoshi; Toda, Masaya; Honda, Kohsuke; Ohtake, Hisao

    2013-05-01

    A novel technique for phosphorus (P) recovery from aqueous solutions was developed using amorphous calcium silicate hydrates (A-CSHs). A-CSHs, which have a high Ca/Si molar ratio of 2.0 or greater, could be synthesized using unlimitedly available, inexpensive materials such as siliceous shale and calcium hydroxide. A-CSHs showed high performance for P recovery from an anaerobic sludge digestion liquor (ASDL) and the synthetic model liquor (s-ASDL) containing 89 mg PO4-P/L. After 20 min mixing, 1.5 g/L A-CSHs could remove approximately 69 and 73% PO4-P from ASDL and s-ASDL, respectively. By contrast, autoclaved lightweight concrete particles, which contained crystalline calcium silicate hydrates as a principal component, removed only 10 and 6% PO4-P from ASDL and s-ASDL, respectively, under the same experimental conditions. When A-CSHs were washed with deionized water to remove free Ca(OH)2, P removability was significantly improved (up to 82%) despite the reduction in the amount of Ca(2+) released. Unlike in the case of Ca(OH)2, no significant carbonate inhibition was observed with P removal by A-CSHs. Moreover, P removed by A-CSHs showed better settleability, filterability, and dewaterability than P precipitated with conventional CaCl2 and Ca(OH)2. The present study demonstrated that A-CSHs have great potential as a novel, beneficial material for P recovery and recycling.

  11. Effect of varying Ga content in ZnO:GaN solid solution synthesized by solution combustion technique for photocatalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Sumithra Sivadas; Janani, R.; Baskar, K.; Gupta, Bhavana; Singh, Shubra

    2017-05-01

    ZnO:GaN (oxy)nitride solid solution has been established as the most efficient non-oxide photocatalyst for water splitting under visible irradiation with one step photoexcitation and also boasts a band gap tunability from 2.8 eV to 2.5 eV[1]. The solid solution of GaN in ZnO is formed by the intersubstitution of few of Zn/O ions by Ga/N ions, and this results in the introduction of new defect levels above the valence band which narrows the effective band gap enabling activity under visible region of spectra. In this work, we report the synthesis of ZnO:GaN solid solution by a solution combustion technique where metal nitrates and urea are used as precursors. The Zn/Ga ratio was varied from 16 to 1 in the precursors. The as synthesized samples were characterized as phase pure by X-ray diffraction, where the wurtzite structure was retained up to Zn/Ga ratio of 5. The Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy studies revealed that as the Ga content in the solid solution increases there is a reduction in band gap, from 2.9 eV to 2.4 eV. The reduced band gap of the samples facilitates its photocatalytic activity under visible region of the spectra as evaluated by photoelectrochemical measurements.

  12. Application of symbolic/numeric matrix solution techniques to the NASTRAN program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buturla, E. M.; Burroughs, S. H.

    1977-01-01

    The matrix solving algorithm of any finite element algorithm is extremely important since solution of the matrix equations requires a large amount of elapse time due to null calculations and excessive input/output operations. An alternate method of solving the matrix equations is presented. A symbolic processing step followed by numeric solution yields the solution very rapidly and is especially useful for nonlinear problems.

  13. Measurement of resistance to solute transport across surfactant-laden interfaces using a Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browne, Edward P.; Nivaggioli, Thierry; Hatton, T. Alan

    1994-01-01

    A noninvasive fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique is under development to measure interfacial transport in two phase systems without disturbing the interface. The concentration profiles of a probe solute are measured in both sides of the interface by argon-ion laser, and the system relaxation is then monitored by a microscope-mounted CCD camera.

  14. Solution-Phase Synthesis of Dipeptides: A Capstone Project That Employs Key Techniques in an Organic Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetti, Louis; DeBoef, Brenton

    2015-01-01

    A contemporary approach to the synthesis and purification of several UV-active dipeptides has been developed for the second-year organic laboratory. This experiment exposes students to the important technique of solution-phase peptide synthesis and allows an instructor to highlight the parallel between what they are accomplishing in the laboratory…

  15. Solution-Phase Synthesis of Dipeptides: A Capstone Project That Employs Key Techniques in an Organic Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetti, Louis; DeBoef, Brenton

    2015-01-01

    A contemporary approach to the synthesis and purification of several UV-active dipeptides has been developed for the second-year organic laboratory. This experiment exposes students to the important technique of solution-phase peptide synthesis and allows an instructor to highlight the parallel between what they are accomplishing in the laboratory…

  16. Adsorptive micro-extraction techniques--novel analytical tools for trace levels of polar solutes in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Neng, N R; Silva, A R M; Nogueira, J M F

    2010-11-19

    A novel enrichment technique, adsorptive μ-extraction (AμE), is proposed for trace analysis of polar solutes in aqueous media. The preparation, stability tests and development of the analytical devices using two geometrical configurations, i.e. bar adsorptive μ-extraction (BAμE) and multi-spheres adsorptive μ-extraction (MSAμE) is fully discussed. From the several sorbent materials tested, activated carbons and polystyrene divinylbenzene phases demonstrated the best stability, robustness and to be the most suitable for analytical purposes. The application of both BAμE and MSAμE devices proved remarkable performance for the determination of trace levels of polar solutes and metabolites (e.g. pesticides, disinfection by-products, drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals) in water matrices and biological fluids. By comparing AμE techniques with stir bar sorptive extraction based on polydimethylsiloxane phase, great effectiveness is attained overcoming the limitations of the latter enrichment approach regarding the more polar solutes. Furthermore, convenient sensitivity and selectivity is reached through AμE techniques, since the great advantage of this new analytical technology is the possibility to choose the most suitable sorbent to each particular type of application. The enrichment techniques proposed are cost-effective, easy to prepare and work-up, demonstrating robustness and to be a remarkable analytical tool for trace analysis of priority solutes in areas of recognized importance such as environment, forensic and other related life sciences.

  17. Comparison of outcomes after use of biphasic or monophasic defibrillators among out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients: a nationwide population-based observational study.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Seizan; Yasunaga, Hideo; Ogawa, Toshio; Koike, Soichi; Akahane, Manabu; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Hatanaka, Tetsuo; Yokota, Hiroyuki; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2012-09-01

    The use and popularity of the biphasic waveform defibrillator as a replacement for the monophasic waveform defibrillator are increasing, but it is unclear whether this can improve the rate of survival among out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. This study aimed to verify the hypothesis that the outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients who received defibrillation shock with the biphasic waveform defibrillator was better than that of patients who received defibrillation shock with the monophasic defibrillator. This prospective, nationwide, population-based, observational study included 21 172 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with initial ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2007. Defibrillation shock was performed by monophasic defibrillator on 8224 (39%) patients and by biphasic defibrillator on 12 948 (61%) patients. The rate of survival at 1 month with minimal neurological impairment was 11.6% (951/8192) in the monophasic defibrillator group and 12.8% (1653/12 928) in the biphasic defibrillator group. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis using a generalized estimation equation showed no significant difference between the biphasic and monophasic groups in 1-month survival with minimal neurological impairment (adjusted odds ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-1.26; P=0.42). Confirmatory propensity score analyses showed similar results. Although monophasic defibrillators are being replaced by biphasic defibrillators, our nationwide population-based observational study failed to demonstrate a statistically significant association between defibrillation waveform and 1-month survival rate with minimal neurological impairment.

  18. Extending the Constant Coefficient Solution Technique to Variable Coefficient Ordinary Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Ahmed; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of second-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with variable coefficients whose closed-form solutions can be obtained by the same method used to solve ODEs with constant coefficients. General solutions for the homogeneous case are discussed.

  19. Extending the Constant Coefficient Solution Technique to Variable Coefficient Ordinary Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Ahmed; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of second-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with variable coefficients whose closed-form solutions can be obtained by the same method used to solve ODEs with constant coefficients. General solutions for the homogeneous case are discussed.

  20. A novel numerical technique to obtain an accurate solution to the Thomas-Fermi equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parand, Kourosh; Yousefi, Hossein; Delkhosh, Mehdi; Ghaderi, Amin

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a new algorithm based on the fractional order of rational Euler functions (FRE) is introduced to study the Thomas-Fermi (TF) model which is a nonlinear singular ordinary differential equation on a semi-infinite interval. This problem, using the quasilinearization method (QLM), converts to the sequence of linear ordinary differential equations to obtain the solution. For the first time, the rational Euler (RE) and the FRE have been made based on Euler polynomials. In addition, the equation will be solved on a semi-infinite domain without truncating it to a finite domain by taking FRE as basic functions for the collocation method. This method reduces the solution of this problem to the solution of a system of algebraic equations. We demonstrated that the new proposed algorithm is efficient for obtaining the value of y'(0) , y(x) and y'(x) . Comparison with some numerical and analytical solutions shows that the present solution is highly accurate.

  1. Growth and dissolution of sodium perborate in aqueous solutions by using the RDC technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chianese, A.

    1988-08-01

    Growth and dissolution rates of compressed polycrystalline discs of sodium perborate have been measured in aqueous solutions with and without sodium metaborate as co-solute. Both the dissolution and the growth rates are first order with respect to concentration gradients for the two types of solutions; the presence of sodium metaborate in solution causes a decrease of the dissolution and the overall growth coefficient. The overall growth process is diffusion controlled. From the dissolution runs in pure aqueous solutions, the diffusion coefficient of sodium perborate has first been determined and then compared with the values measured by interferometry or calculated by means of a prediction method. In addition, it has been shown that the overall mass transfer coefficients for dissolution processes are in good agreement with the rate constant for a bulk diffusion step in crystal growth.

  2. Patterning titania with the conventional and modified micromolding in capillaries technique from sol–gel and dispersion solutions

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sajid Ullah; Elshof, Johan E ten

    2012-01-01

    We report TiO2 patterns obtained by a soft-lithographic technique called ‘micromolding in capillaries’ using sol–gel and dispersion solutions. A comparison between patterning with a sol–gel and dispersion solutions has been performed. The patterns obtained from sol–gel solutions showed good adhesion to the substrate and uniform shapes, but large shrinkage, whereas those obtained from dispersion solution had high solid content, but exhibited poor adhesion and non-uniform shapes. A fabrication method of a layer-by-layer structured pattern is also demonstrated. This type of pattern may find application in sensors, waveguides and other photonics elements. The occurrence of an undesirable residue layer, which hinders the fabrication of isolated patterns, is highlighted and a method of prevention is suggested. PMID:27877480

  3. Monophasic versus biphasic defibrillation for pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients: a nationwide population-based study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Conventional monophasic defibrillators for out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest patients have been replaced with biphasic defibrillators. However, the advantage of biphasic over monophasic defibrillation for pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest patients remains unknown. This study aimed to compare the survival outcomes of pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest patients who underwent monophasic defibrillation with those who underwent biphasic defibrillation. Methods This prospective, nationwide, population-based observational study included pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest patients from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2009. The primary outcome measure was survival at 1 month with minimal neurologic impairment. The secondary outcome measures were survival at 1 month and the return of spontaneous circulation before hospital arrival. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent association between defibrillator type (monophasic or biphasic) and outcomes. Results Among 5,628 pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest patients (1 through 17 years old), 430 who received defibrillation shock with monophasic or biphasic defibrillator were analyzed. The number of patients who received defibrillation shock with monophasic defibrillator was 127 (30%), and 303 (70%) received defibrillation shock with biphasic defibrillator. The survival rates at 1 month with minimal neurologic impairment were 17.5% and 24.4%, the survival rates at 1 month were 32.3% and 35.6%, and the rates of return of spontaneous circulation before hospital arrival were 24.4% and 27.4% in the monophasic and biphasic defibrillator groups, respectively. Hierarchic logistic regression analyses by using generalized estimation equations found no significant difference between the two groups in terms of 1-month survival with minimal neurologic impairment (odds ratio (OR), 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.87 to 2.83; P = 0.14) and 1-month survival (OR

  4. Behavior of Dental/Implant Alloys in Commercial Mouthwash Solution Studied by Electrochemical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareci, Daniel; Strugaru, Sorin Iacob; Iacoban, Sorin; Bolat, Georgiana; Munteanu, Corneliu

    2013-03-01

    This study investigates the electrochemical behavior of the various dental materials: Paliag (Ag-Pd based), Wiron 99 (Ni-Cr based), Cp-Ti (commercial pure titanium), and experimental Ti12Mo5Ta alloy in commercial mouthwash solution with 500 ppm F- (Oral B®) and compares it with the behavior of the same dental materials in artificial saliva. Linear potentiodynamic polarization (LPP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are the electrochemical procedures of investigation. The passivation of all dental samples in artificial saliva and mouthwash solution occurred spontaneously at open circuit potential. The corrosion current density of all tested dental materials in mouthwash solution were low (1-2 μA/cm2). The results suggest a non-predominant fluoride effect on the passive layer formed on all samples at open circuit potential. No passivation could be established with Paliag alloy when polarized in mouthwash solution. The EIS results confirm that all dental sample exhibit passivity in mouthwash solution at open circuit potential (polarization resistance was around 5 × 105 Ω cm2). For Paliag alloy after LPP in mouthwash solution the protectiveness passive layer was no more present. The corrosion resistances of four dental materials in mouthwash solution are in the following order: Ti12Mo5Ta > Cp-Ti > Wiron 99 > Paliag.

  5. Prevalence and Characterization of Monophasic Salmonella Serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- of Food Origin in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaojuan; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Huang, Jiahui; Guo, Weipeng; Cai, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- is a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium, which has recently been recognized as an emerging cause of infection worldwide. This bacterium has also ranked among the four most frequent serovars causing human salmonellosis in China. However, there are no reports on its contamination in Chinese food. Serotyping, polymerase chain reaction, antibiotic resistance, virulotyping, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) assays were used to investigate the prevalence of this serological variant in food products in China, and to determine phenotypic and genotypic difference of monophasic isolates and Salmonella Typhimurium isolated over the same period. Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- was prevalent in various food sources, including beef, pork, chicken, and pigeon. The study also confirmed the high prevalence (53.8%) of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline in Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:-, which was higher than that in Salmonella Typhimurium. Moreover, Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates in our study were different from Salmonella Typhimurium isolates by the absence of three plasmid-borne genes (spvC, pefA, and rck) and the presence of gipA in all isolates. All Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates demonstrated MLST pattern ST34. Genomic deletions within the fljBA operon and surrounding genes were only found in Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates, with all isolates containing a deletion of fljB. However, hin and iroB were identified in all Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates. Three different deletion profiles were observed and two of them were different from the reported Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- clones from Spain, America, and Italy, which provided some new evidence on the independent evolution of the multiple successful monophasic clones from Salmonella Typhimurium ancestors. This study is the first report of Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- in food products from China. The data are more

  6. The transport phenomena during the growth of ZnTe crystal by the temperature gradient solution growth technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Liying; Jie, Wanqi; Wang, Tao; Zhou, Boru; Yang, Fan

    2017-03-01

    A numerical model is developed to simulate the temperature field, the thermosolutal convection, the solute segregation and the growth interface morphology during the growth of ZnTe crystal from Te rich solution by the temperature gradient solution growth (TGSG) technique. Effects of the temperature gradient on the transport phenomena, the growth interface morphology and the growth rate are examined. The influences of the latent heat and the thermal conductivity of ZnTe crystal on the transport phenomena and the growth interface are also discussed. We find that the mass transfer of ZnTe in the solution is very slow because of the low diffusion coefficient and the lack of mixing in the lower part of the solution. During the growth, dilute solution with high density and low growth temperature accumulates in the central region of the growth interface, making the growth interface change into two distinct parts. The inner part is very concave, while the outer part is relatively flat. Growth conditions in front of the two parts of the growth interface are different. The crystalline quality of the inner part of the ingot is predicted to be worse than that of the outer part. High temperature gradient can significantly increase the growth rate, and avoid the diffusion controlled growth to some extent.

  7. Comparison of In Situ Polymerization and Solution-Dispersion Techniques in the Preparation of Polyimide/Montmorillonite (MMT) Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Gharayebi, Yadollah; Salit, Mohd. Sapuan; Hussein, Mohd. Zobir; Shameli, Kamyar

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, Polyimide/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites (PI/MMT NCs), based on aromatic diamine (4-Aminophenyl sulfone) (APS) and aromatic dianhydride (3,3′,4,4′-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride) (BTDA) were prepared using in situ polymerization and solution-dispersion techniques. The prepared PI/MMT NCs films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD results showed that at the content of 1.0 wt % Organo Montmorillonite (OMMT) for two techniques and 3.0 wt % OMMT for the in situ polymerization technique, the OMMT was well-intercalated, exfoliated and dispersed into polyimide matrix. The OMMT agglomerated when its amount exceeded 10 wt % and 3.0 wt % for solution-dispersion and in situ polymerization techniques respectively. These results were confirmed by the TEM images of the prepared PI/MMT NCs. The TGA thermograms indicated that thermal stability of prepared PI/MMT NCs were increased with the increase of loading that, the effect is higher for the samples prepared by in situ polymerization technique. PMID:22016643

  8. A new multi-step technique with differential transform method for analytical solution of some nonlinear variable delay differential equations.

    PubMed

    Benhammouda, Brahim; Vazquez-Leal, Hector

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an analytical solution of some nonlinear delay differential equations (DDEs) with variable delays. Such DDEs are difficult to treat numerically and cannot be solved by existing general purpose codes. A new method of steps combined with the differential transform method (DTM) is proposed as a powerful tool to solve these DDEs. This method reduces the DDEs to ordinary differential equations that are then solved by the DTM. Furthermore, we show that the solutions can be improved by Laplace-Padé resummation method. Two examples are presented to show the efficiency of the proposed technique. The main advantage of this technique is that it possesses a simple procedure based on a few straight forward steps and can be combined with any analytical method, other than the DTM, like the homotopy perturbation method.

  9. Probabilistic solution of random SI-type epidemiological models using the Random Variable Transformation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casabán, M.-C.; Cortés, J.-C.; Romero, J.-V.; Roselló, M.-D.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a full probabilistic description of the solution of random SI-type epidemiological models which are based on nonlinear differential equations. This description consists of determining: the first probability density function of the solution in terms of the density functions of the diffusion coefficient and the initial condition, which are assumed to be independent random variables; the expectation and variance functions of the solution as well as confidence intervals and, finally, the distribution of time until a given proportion of susceptibles remains in the population. The obtained formulas are general since they are valid regardless the probability distributions assigned to the random inputs. We also present a pair of illustrative examples including in one of them the application of the theoretical results to model the diffusion of a technology using real data.

  10. Solution of prey-predator problem by numeric-analytic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, M. S. H.; Hashim, I.; Mawa, S.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, an analytical expression for the solution of the prey-predator problem by an adaptation of the classical Adomian decomposition method (ADM). The ADM is treated as an algorithm for approximating the solution of the problem in a sequence of time intervals, i.e. the classical ADM is converted into a hybrid numeric-analytic method called the multistage ADM (MADM). Numerical comparisons with the classical ADM, and the classical fourth-order Rungge-Kutta (RK4) methods are presented.

  11. Solute-solvated cyclodextrin-bonded phase interactions as studied by the spin probe technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, A.J.; Heindl, J.; Wright, P.; Eastman, M.P.; Kooser, R.G.

    1992-06-25

    Using spin probes with {alpha} and {beta} cyclodextrins, the spin probe-{alpha} cyclodextrin surface interaction is due to polar/nonpolar interactions, but the {beta} cyclodextrin interaction has a bimodal behavior depending upon the solute polarity. For nonpolar probes there is partial insertion into the cyclodextrin cavity, but polar probes involve interactions between the solute and the hydroxyl region surrounding the rims of the bound cyclodextrin. This evidence show that surface immobilized cyclodextrins do not interact in the same way as free cyclodextrins. 66 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. The use of surface analytical techniques to measure the loadings of uranium and plutonium sorbed simultaneously from solution onto rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.A.; Bishop, H.E.; Cowper, M.M.; Fozard, P.R.; McMillan, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    Small polished blocks of granite, diorite and dolerite were immersed in solutions containing uranium and plutonium at equal initial concentration.The samples were analyzed by the advanced surface analytical techniques of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and nuclear microprobe analysis. The results show that both actinides sorb onto the same minerals in the three rocks. However, SIMS data show that significantly more uranium was sorbed than plutonium.

  13. Demonstration of a Solution Film Leak Test Technique and Equipment for the S00645 Canister Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Cannell, G.R.

    1999-10-07

    The purpose of this effort was to demonstrate that the SFT technique, when adapted to a DWPF canister nozzle, is capable of detecting leaks not meeting the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) acceptance criterion.

  14. Photopyroelectric technique for the measurement of thermal and optical properties of pigments in liquid solution.

    PubMed

    Balderas-López, J A

    2011-07-01

    The analytical solution for the one-dimensional heat diffusion problem for a two-layer system, in the Beer-Lambert model for light absorption, is shown to be useful for the implementation of a novel photopyroelectric (PPE) methodology, for the measurement of thermal and optical properties for pigments in liquid solution. The PPE signal, as a function of the sample's thickness, is used for this goal. Exponential decay for the PPE amplitude, followed by a constant PPE phase, for solutions at low dye concentration and an exponential decay for the PPE amplitude but a linear PPE phase behavior for the higher concentrated ones are shown and are, respectively, used for the measurement of the optical absorption coefficient and thermal diffusivity for liquid samples. These PPE phase behaviors also provide a criterion to decide on the corresponding limit for optical and thermal properties measurement. This PPE methodology was tested by measuring the optical absorption coefficient (at 658 nm) and thermal diffusivity for solution of methylene blue and copper sulfate in distilled water at various concentrations. Independent measurements of optical properties, using a commercial spectrometer, were done to compare with the corresponding ones obtained with this PPE methodology, finding very good agreement to each other.

  15. Evaluations of cellulose accessibilities of lignocelluloses by solute exclusion and protein adsorption techniques

    Treesearch

    Q.Q. Wang; Z. He; Z. Zhu; Y.-H.P. Zhang; Y. Ni; X.L. Luo; J.Y. Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Cellulose accessibilities of a set of hornified lignocellulosic substrates derived by drying the never dried pretreated sample and a set of differently pretreated lodgepople pine substrates, were evaluated using solute exclusion and protein adsorption methods. Direct measurements of cellulase adsorption onto cellulose surface of the set of pretreated substrates were...

  16. Structural and Optical Properties Thin Film Copper Oxides Formed by Chemical Solution Deposition Process Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lockman, Zainovia; Abidin, Noor Rehan Zainal; Hutagalung, Sabar Derita

    2007-05-09

    Cu2O films were prepared by chemical deposition process (CSD) using solutions of copper nitrate, dip-coated onto glass substrates. The precursor solutions were altered in an effort to seek the best solution for successful deposition. Organic additive of ethanolamine (EA) and (poly)ethylene glycol (PEG, H(OCH2CH2)nOH) was added to the solution and had shown positive effect in terms of the wetability and hence homogenous films resulted. Most films characterised by XRD gave (002) Cu2O, cuprite structure. To avoid films cracking and inhomogeneous coverage, multiple coatings were done with drying in between the successive coatings. Five to eight coatings were carried out for better coverage to ensure surface homogeneity. The microstructure of the surface oxides consisted of nanostructured oxides with uniform size distribution of 60-80nm. The optical transmittance of optimized Cu2O film reaches around 80% at wavelength of {approx} 700nm and the calculated direct optical band gaps were {approx} 2eV for the Cu2O films.

  17. Spectrophotometric technique quantitatively determines NaMBT inhibitor in ethylene glycol-water solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, G. G.

    1967-01-01

    Spectrophotometric method, using a ratio-recording ultraviolet-absorption spectrophotometer, permits analysis of NaMBT in ethylene glycol-water solutions with high accuracy. It reduces analysis time, requires smaller samples, and is able to detect extremely small concentrations of mercaptobenzothiazole.

  18. Infection of chickens with antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT193 and monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium-like variants: an emerging risk to the poultry industry?

    PubMed

    Parsons, B N; Crayford, G; Humphrey, T J; Wigley, P

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica poses a particular risk to public health, and in particular isolates belonging to clonal lineages such as Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 cause epidemics across species including poultry. In recent years, antimicrobial-resistant S. Typhimurium DT193 and specifically the monophasic S. Typhimurium-like variants of this phage type, serotypes 4,12:i:- and 4,5,12:i:-, have become an increasing risk to public health in Europe and the USA and now account for nearly one-half of human S. Typhimurium infections in the UK. Unlike S. Typhimurium that possesses two forms of flagella which can vary between phase 1 and phase 2 during infection, monophasic variants possess only phase 1 flagella. These monophasic antimicrobial-resistant variants have become a major problem in pig production but human cases have also been associated with poultry consumption and have been found in UK flocks through surveillance schemes since 2010. In this study we determined the ability of antimicrobial-resistant DT193 serotype 4,12:i:- and 4,5,12:i:- isolates from pigs to infect chickens. All isolates were found to colonize the caeca and liver. All but one isolate of serotype 4,5,12:i:- also infected the spleen. Levels of infection and pathology were comparable with those found with the virulent S. Typhimurium isolate 4/74. These findings indicate that both S. Typhimurium DT193 and monophasic variants of this phage type usually associated with pigs are capable of colonizing the chicken. This shows that both S. Typhimurium DT193 and monophasic variants represent a significant and potential emerging threat to poultry production from "spill-over" of these isolates from the pig industry or other sources.

  19. Photoacoustic technique for simultaneous measurements of thermal effusivity and absorptivity of pigments in liquid solution.

    PubMed

    Balderas-López, J A; Díaz-Reyes, J; Zelaya-Angel, O

    2011-12-01

    A photoacoustic (PA) methodology, in the transmission configuration, for simultaneous measurements of thermal effusivity and molar absorption coefficient (absorptivity) for pigments in liquid solution is introduced. The analytical treatment involves a self-normalization procedure for the PA signal, as a function of the modulation frequency, for a strong absorbing material in the thermally thin regime, when the light travels across the sample under study. Two fitted parameters are obtained from the analysis of the self-normalized PA amplitude and phase, one of them proportional to the sample's optical absorption coefficient and from which, taking it for a series of samples at different concentrations, the pigment's absorptivity in liquid solution can be measured, the other one yields the sample's thermal effusivity. Methylene blue's absorptivity in distilled water was measured with this methodology at 658 nm, finding good agreement with the corresponding one reported in the literature.

  20. Removal of Reactofix Navy Blue 2 GFN from aqueous solutions using adsorption techniques.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Jain, Rajeev; Varshney, Shaily; Saini, Vipin Kumar

    2007-03-15

    The wheat husk, an agricultural by-product, has been activated and used as an adsorbent for the adsorption of Reactofix Navy Blue 2 GFN from aqueous solution. In this work, adsorption of Reactofix Navy Blue 2 GFN on wheat husk and charcoal has been studied by using batch studies. The equilibrium adsorption level was determined to be a function of the solution pH, adsorbent dosage, dye concentration and contact time. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of wheat husk and charcoal for dye removal were obtained using Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters such as the free energies, enthalpies and entropies of adsorption were also evaluated. Adsorption process is considered suitable for removing color, COD from waste water.

  1. Development of iterative techniques for the solution of unsteady compressible viscous flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Hixon, Duane

    1992-01-01

    The development of efficient iterative solution methods for the numerical solution of two- and three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations is discussed. Iterative time marching methods have several advantages over classical multi-step explicit time marching schemes, and non-iterative implicit time marching schemes. Iterative schemes have better stability characteristics than non-iterative explicit and implicit schemes. In this work, another approach based on the classical conjugate gradient method, known as the Generalized Minimum Residual (GMRES) algorithm is investigated. The GMRES algorithm has been used in the past by a number of researchers for solving steady viscous and inviscid flow problems. Here, we investigate the suitability of this algorithm for solving the system of non-linear equations that arise in unsteady Navier-Stokes solvers at each time step.

  2. Monitoring solute fluxes: Integrating electrical resistivity with multi-compartment sampler techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloem, Esther; Fernandez, Perrine; French, Helen K.

    2016-04-01

    The impact of agriculture, industry, airport activities on soil and water quality is strongly influenced by soil heterogeneity. To improve risk assessment, monitoring, and treatment strategies, we require a better understanding of the effect of soil heterogeneity on contaminant movement and better methods for monitoring heterogeneous contaminated transport. Sufficient characterization of spatial and temporal distribution of contaminant transport requires measurements of water and solute fluxes at multiple locations with a high temporal resolution. During this presentation, we will show a newly developed instrument, which combines multi-compartment sampling with electrical resistivity measurements, to observe spatial and temporal fluxes of contaminants. Solute monitoring is often limited to observations of resident concentrations, while flux concentrations govern the movement of solutes in soils. Bloem et al. (2010) developed a multi-compartment sampler (MCS) which is capable of measuring fluxes at a high spatial resolution under natural conditions. The sampler is divided into 100 separate compartments of 31 by 31 mm. Flux data can be recorded at a high time resolution (every 5 minutes). Tracer leaching can be monitored by frequently sampling the collected leachate while leaving the sampler buried in situ. To optimize the monitoring of tracer leaching and measure real solute fluxes the multi-compartment sampler has been extended with 121 electrodes. The electrodes are mounted at each corner of each compartment to measure the electrical conductivity above each compartment while water percolates through the compartments. By using different electrode couples, the setup can also be used to image above the multi-compartment sampler. The instrument can be used for detailed studies both in the laboratory and in the field. For laboratory experiments a transparent column is used which fits perfect on top of the MCS. We present a selection of the integrated electrical

  3. Some path-following techniques for solution of nonlinear equations and comparison with parametric differentiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barger, R. L.; Walters, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Some path-following techniques are described and compared with other methods. Use of multipurpose techniques that can be used at more than one stage of the path-following computation results in a system that is relatively simple to understand, program, and use. Comparison of path-following methods with the method of parametric differentiation reveals definite advantages for the path-following methods. The fact that parametric differentiation has found a broader range of applications indicates that path-following methods have been underutilized.

  4. Efficient All-Solution Processed Quantum Dot Light Emitting Diodes Based on Inkjet Printing Technique.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Li, Fushan; Xu, Zhongwei; Zheng, Congxiu; Guo, Tailiang; Xie, Xiangwei; Qian, Lei; Fu, Dong; Yan, Xiaolin

    2017-08-02

    Quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs) are increasingly attractive owing to their compatibility with the inkjet printing process and potential application in low-cost large-area full-color pixelated display. The strategy for controlling the morphology of the quantum dot layer is definitely critical for realizing all-solution processed QLEDs with high performance, which certainly requires in-depth thinking regarding the design of ink composition and their optimization in the printing process. Herein, by carefully controlling the quantum dot ink composition and physicochemical properties, we demonstrate that the viscosity, contact angle, and the three-phase contact line moving would affect the final morphology of the quantum dot film formed by inkjet printing. We achieved coffee ring-free and low-roughness quantum dot film, and all-solution processed QLEDs with normal structure were fabricated for the first time. The devices have a low turn-on voltage of 2.0 V, a luminance of 12100 cd/m(2) at the voltage of 12 V, and a maximum current efficiency of 4.44 cd/A at the luminance of 1974 cd/m(2), which is the best result to date for inkjet-printed red QLEDs. The results will pave the way for future application of inkjet printing in solution processed pixelated QLED display.

  5. A hybrid multigrid technique for computing steady-state solutions to supersonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Recently, Li and Sanders have introduced a class of finite difference schemes to approximate generally discontinuous solutions to hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. These equations have the form together with relevant boundary conditions. When modelling hypersonic spacecraft reentry, the differential equations above are frequently given by the compressible Euler equations coupled with a nonequilibrium chemistry model. For these applications, steady state solutions are often sought. Many tens (to hundreds) of super computer hours can be devoted to a single three space dimensional simulation. The primary difficulty is the inability to rapidly and reliably capture the steady state. In these notes, we demonstrate that a particular variant from the schemes presented can be combined with a particular multigrid approach to capture steady state solutions to the compressible Euler equations in one space dimension. We show that the rate of convergence to steady state coming from this multigrid implementation is vastly superior to the traditional approach of artificial time relaxation. Moreover, we demonstrate virtual grid independence. That is, the rate of convergence does not depend on the degree of spatial grid refinement.

  6. Utilizing Solution Planning Techniques in Science To Enhance Success Patterns in Early Adolescents, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbreth, Harold E., Jr.

    Studied were attitude changes as results of instructional procedures for success in problem solving by 350 eighth grade students in two school systems during the 1968-69 school year. Mimeographed instructional materials and techniques incorporating five levels of problem solving difficulty were developed. Procedures for student success…

  7. Fitting Flux Ropes to a Global MHD Solution: A Comparison of Techniques. Appendix 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Pete; Linker, J. A.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Odstrcil, D.; Hidalgo, M. A.; Cid, C.; Hu, Q.; Lepping, R. P.; Lynch, B. J.

    2004-01-01

    Flux rope fitting (FRF) techniques are an invaluable tool for extracting information about the properties of a subclass of CMEs in the solar wind. However, it has proven difficult to assess their accuracy since the underlying global structure of the CME cannot be independently determined from the data. In contrast, large-scale MHD simulations of CME evolution can provide both a global view as well as localized time series at specific points in space. In this study we apply 5 different fitting techniques to 2 hypothetical time series derived from MHD simulation results. Independent teams performed the analysis of the events in "blind tests", for which no information, other than the time series, was provided. F rom the results, we infer the following: (1) Accuracy decreases markedly with increasingly glancing encounters; (2) Correct identification of the boundaries of the flux rope can be a significant limiter; and (3) Results from techniques that infer global morphology must be viewed with caution. In spite of these limitations, FRF techniques remain a useful tool for describing in situ observations of flux rope CMEs.

  8. Fitting flux ropes to a global MHD solution: a comparison of techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Pete; Linker, J. A.; Lionello, R.; Mikić, Z.; Odstrcil, D.; Hidalgo, M. A.; Cid, C.; Hu, Q.; Lepping, R. P.; Lynch, B. J.; Rees, A.

    2004-10-01

    Flux rope fitting (FRF) techniques are an invaluable tool for extracting information about the properties of a sub-class of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the solar wind. However, it has proven difficult to assess their accuracy since the underlying global structure of the CME cannot be independently determined from the data. In contrast, large-scale MHD simulations of CME evolution can provide both a global view as well as localized time series at specific points in space. In this study we apply five different fitting techniques to two hypothetical time series derived from MHD simulation results. Independent teams performed the analysis of the events in "blind tests", for which no information, other than the time series, was provided. From the results, we infer the following: (1) Accuracy decreases markedly with increasingly glancing encounters; (2) Correct identification of the boundaries of the flux rope can be a significant limiter; and (3) Results from techniques that infer global morphology must be viewed with caution. In spite of these limitations, FRF techniques remain a useful tool for describing in situ observations of flux rope CMEs.

  9. Fitting Flux Ropes to a Global MHD Solution: A Comparison of Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Pete; Linker, J. A.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Odstrcil, D.; Hidalgo, M. A.; Cid, C.; Hu, Q.; Lepping, R. P.; Lynch, B. J.; Rees, A.

    2004-01-01

    Flux rope fitting (FRF) techniques are an invaluable tool for extracting information about the properties of a sub-class of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the solar wind. However, it has proven difficult to assess their accuracy since the underlying global structure of the CME cannot be independently determined from the data. In contrast, large-scale MHD simulations of CME evolution can provide both a global view as well as localized time series at specific points in space. In this study we apply five different fitting techniques to two hypothetical time series derived from MHD simulation results. Independent teams performed the analysis of the events in "blind tests", for which no information, other than time series, was provided. From the results, we infer the following: 1) Accuracy decreases markedly with increasingly glancing encounters; 2) Correct identification of the boundaries of the flux rope can be a significant limiter; 3) Results from techniques that infer global morphology must be viewed with caution. In spite of these limitations, FRF techniques remain a useful tool for describing in situ observations of flux rope CMEs.

  10. Multidisciplinary Teams and Group Decision-Making Techniques: Possible Solutions to Decision-Making Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Steven M.; Woodman, Richard W.

    1985-01-01

    In placement decisions necessitated by PL 94-142, the multidimensional team approach may be hindered by group problems. The more structured nominal group technique (NGT) is suggested. NGT has six steps: silent, written generation of ideas; round robin reporting; group discussion for clarification; preliminary priority vote; discussion; and final…

  11. Comparison of soil solution sampling techniques to assess metal fluxes from contaminated soil to groundwater.

    PubMed

    Coutelot, F; Sappin-Didier, V; Keller, C; Atteia, O

    2014-12-01

    The unsaturated zone plays a major role in elemental fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. A representative chemical analysis of soil pore water is required for the interpretation of soil chemical phenomena and particularly to assess Trace Elements (TEs) mobility. This requires an optimal sampling system to avoid modification of the extracted soil water chemistry and allow for an accurate estimation of solute fluxes. In this paper, the chemical composition of soil solutions sampled by Rhizon® samplers connected to a standard syringe was compared to two other types of suction probes (Rhizon® + vacuum tube and Rhizon® + diverted flow system). We investigated the effects of different vacuum application procedures on concentrations of spiked elements (Cr, As, Zn) mixed as powder into the first 20 cm of 100-cm columns and non-spiked elements (Ca, Na, Mg) concentrations in two types of columns (SiO2 sand and a mixture of kaolinite + SiO2 sand substrates). Rhizon® was installed at different depths. The metals concentrations showed that (i) in sand, peak concentrations cannot be correctly sampled, thus the flux cannot be estimated, and the errors can easily reach a factor 2; (ii) in sand + clay columns, peak concentrations were larger, indicating that they could be sampled but, due to sorption on clay, it was not possible to compare fluxes at different depths. The different samplers tested were not able to reflect the elemental flux to groundwater and, although the Rhizon® + syringe device was more accurate, the best solution remains to be the use of a lysimeter, whose bottom is kept continuously at a suction close to the one existing in the soil.

  12. Viscoelastic properties of healthy human artery measured in saline solution by AFM based indentation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lundkvist, A.; Lilleodden, E.; Sickhaus, W.; Kinney, J.; Pruitt, L.; Balooch, M.

    1998-02-09

    Using an Atomic Force Microscope with an attachment for indentation, we have measured local, in vitro mechanical properties of healthy femoral artery tissue held in saline solution. The elastic modulus (34. 3 kPa) and viscoelastic response ({tau}sub{epsilon} {equals} 16.9 s and {tau}sub{sigma} {equals} 29.3 s) of the unstretched,intimal vessel wall have been determined using Sneddon theory and a three element model(standard linear solid) for viscoelastic materials. The procedures necessary to employ the indenting attachment to detect elastic moduli in the kPa range in liquid are described.

  13. Development of iterative techniques for the solution of unsteady compressible viscous flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Hixon, Duane

    1991-01-01

    Efficient iterative solution methods are being developed for the numerical solution of two- and three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Iterative time marching methods have several advantages over classical multi-step explicit time marching schemes, and non-iterative implicit time marching schemes. Iterative schemes have better stability characteristics than non-iterative explicit and implicit schemes. Thus, the extra work required by iterative schemes can also be designed to perform efficiently on current and future generation scalable, missively parallel machines. An obvious candidate for iteratively solving the system of coupled nonlinear algebraic equations arising in CFD applications is the Newton method. Newton's method was implemented in existing finite difference and finite volume methods. Depending on the complexity of the problem, the number of Newton iterations needed per step to solve the discretized system of equations can, however, vary dramatically from a few to several hundred. Another popular approach based on the classical conjugate gradient method, known as the GMRES (Generalized Minimum Residual) algorithm is investigated. The GMRES algorithm was used in the past by a number of researchers for solving steady viscous and inviscid flow problems with considerable success. Here, the suitability of this algorithm is investigated for solving the system of nonlinear equations that arise in unsteady Navier-Stokes solvers at each time step. Unlike the Newton method which attempts to drive the error in the solution at each and every node down to zero, the GMRES algorithm only seeks to minimize the L2 norm of the error. In the GMRES algorithm the changes in the flow properties from one time step to the next are assumed to be the sum of a set of orthogonal vectors. By choosing the number of vectors to a reasonably small value N (between 5 and 20) the work required for advancing the solution from one time step to the next may be kept to (N+1

  14. A high-resolution numerical technique for inviscid gas-dynamic problems with weak solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Warming, R. F.; Harten, A.

    1982-01-01

    The shock resolution of Harten's (1982) second-order explicit method for one-dimensional hyperbolic conservation laws is investigated for a two-dimensional gas-dynamic problem. The possible extension to a high resolution implicit method for both one- and two-dimensional problems is also investigated. Applications of Harten's method to the quasi-one-dimensional nozzle problem with two nozzle shapes (divergent and convergent-divergent) and the two-dimensional shock-reflection problem resulted in high shock resolution steady-state numerical solutions.

  15. Separation and preconcentration of aluminum in parenteral solutions and bottled mineral water using different analytical techniques.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Tasneem G; Khan, Sumaira; Baig, Jameel A; Kolachi, Nida F; Afridi, Hassan I; Kandhro, Ghulam A; Kumar, Sham; Shah, Abdul Q

    2009-12-30

    A new method is reported for the separation of aluminum ions [Al(III)] from interfering elements in parenteral and pharmaceutical solutions (PS) and bottled mineral water (BMW) samples, through solid-phase extraction with 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (quinaldine) adsorbed onto activated silica gel. While the enrichment step of separated Al(III) was carried out by cloud point extraction (CPE) using 8-hydroxyquinoline as complexing reagent, the resulted complex was entrapped in a non-ionic surfactant octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). The enriched Al(III) in sample solutions were determined by spectrofluorometry (SPF) at lambda(excitation) 370 nm and lambda(emission) 510 nm, and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for comparative purpose. The variables affecting the complexation and extraction steps were studied and optimized. The validity of methodology was checked with certified reference material of water and standard addition method. The enrichment factor and detection limit of Al(III) for the preconcentration of 50 ml of PS and BMW were found to be 100 and 0.25 microg/L, respectively. The proposed method has been applied for the determination of trace amount of Al(III) in PS and BMW samples with satisfactory results. In PS the levels of Al(III) are above than permissible limit (25 microg/L).

  16. An efficient numerical technique for the solution of the monodomain and bidomain equations.

    PubMed

    Whiteley, Jonathan P

    2006-11-01

    Most numerical schemes for solving the monodomain or bidomain equations use a forward approximation to some or all of the time derivatives. This approach, however, constrains the maximum timestep that may be used by stability considerations as well as accuracy considerations. Stability may be ensured by using a backward approximation to all time derivatives, although this approach requires the solution of a very large system of nonlinear equations at each timestep which is computationally prohibitive. In this paper we propose a semi-implicit algorithm that ensures stability. A linear system is solved on each timestep to update the transmembrane potential and, if the bidomain equations are being used, the extracellular potential. The remainder of the equations to be solved uncouple into small systems of ordinary differential equations. The backward Euler method may be used to solve these systems and guarantee numerical stability: as these systems are small, only the solution of small nonlinear systems are required. Simulations are carried out to show that the use of this algorithm allows much larger timesteps to be used with only a minimal loss of accuracy. As a result of using these longer timesteps the computation time may be reduced substantially.

  17. Use of the Relaxometry Technique for Quantification of Paramagnetic Ions in Aqueous Solutions and a Comparison with Other Analytical Methods

    PubMed Central

    Burato, Juliana Soares da Silva; Silva Lobo, Carlos Manuel; Colnago, Luiz Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We have demonstrated that the relaxometry technique is very efficient to quantify paramagnetic ions during in situ electrolysis measurements. Therefore, the goal of this work was to validate the relaxometry technique in the determination of the concentration of the ions contained in electrolytic solutions, Cu2+, Ni2+, Cr3+, and Mn2+, and compare it with other analytical methods. Two different NMR spectrometers were used: a commercial spectrometer with a homogeneous magnetic field and a home-built unilateral sensor with an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Without pretreatment, manganese ions do not have absorption bands in the UV-Visible region, but it is possible to quantify them using relaxometry (the limit of quantification is close to 10−5 mol L−1). Therefore, since the technique does not require chemical indicators and is a cheap and robust method, it can be used as a replacement for some conventional quantification techniques. The relaxometry technique could be applied to evaluate the corrosion of metallic surfaces. PMID:27293437

  18. A Novel Experimental Technique to Monitor the Time-Dependent Water and Ions Uptake when Shale Interacts with Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Bazali, Talal

    2013-09-01

    The time-dependent water and ions uptake when shale interacts with aqueous solutions is quantified using a combination of immersion and gravimetric techniques. Results show that when shale interacts with salt solutions, water uptake into shale goes through three distinct stages; water movement out of shale (due to chemical osmosis), water movement into shale (due to diffusion osmosis) and stationary state (equilibrium stage). This work shows that chemical osmosis dominates water movement in early times while diffusion osmosis takes over later. In addition, it is shown that the amount of water movement due to chemical osmosis depends on the chemical potential gradient while the amount of water movement due to diffusion osmosis is highly related to the ionic concentration imbalance. In addition, the amount of ions uptake into shale at equilibrium is shown to depend on the type and concentration of salt solution. Furthermore, this work shows that potassium ion has a strengthening effect on shale while sodium and calcium ions have a weakening effect on shale. Results also show that the shale's compressive strength alteration is greatly influenced by the type and concentration of the salt solution. Furthermore, the shale's compressive strength alteration is shown to be time dependent and correlates very well with the time-dependent flux of water and ions. Finally, it is shown that chemical osmosis and diffusion osmosis take place simultaneously when shale interacts with water-based muds. The overall impact on shale stability is governed by the net water flow resulting from chemical osmosis and diffusion osmosis.

  19. Study of the fabrication parameters of large core Yb 2O 3 doped optical fibre through solution doping technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, M. C.; Upadhyaya, B. N.; Das, S.; Dhar, A.; Pal, M.; Kher, S.; Dasgupta, K.; Bhadra, S. K.; Sen, R.

    2010-03-01

    Double clad large core Yb 2O 3 doped fibres with core diameter up to 20 μm have been fabricated by the solution doping technique through deposition of multiple porous core layers. The process parameters have been optimized with respect to the uniform doping of Al 2O 3 and Yb 2O 3 within the large core preform through soaking of the deposited multiple porous layers of fixed SiO 2-P 2O 5 composition with an alcoholic solution of a mixture of suitable strength of AlCl 3·6H 2O and YbCl 3·6H 2O to get the desired low NA around 0.09-0.11. The most critical parameters associated in this process are the deposition temperature with respect to uniform deposition of un-sintered layers of equal thickness with suitable porosity, viscosity of the soaking solution, pre-sintering temperature, proper mixing of the inlet gas mixture as well as proper drying of the thick porous layer after solution soaking process. This investigation will be very useful for development of large core Yb 2O 3 doped laser fibre technology.

  20. Hybrid vapor phase-solution phase growth techniques for improved CZT(S,Se) photovoltaic device performance

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Liang-Yi; Gershon, Talia S.; Haight, Richard A.; Lee, Yun Seog

    2016-12-27

    A hybrid vapor phase-solution phase CZT(S,Se) growth technique is provided. In one aspect, a method of forming a kesterite absorber material on a substrate includes the steps of: depositing a layer of a first kesterite material on the substrate using a vapor phase deposition process, wherein the first kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se; annealing the first kesterite material to crystallize the first kesterite material; and depositing a layer of a second kesterite material on a side of the first kesterite material opposite the substrate using a solution phase deposition process, wherein the second kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se, wherein the first kesterite material and the second kesterite material form a multi-layer stack of the absorber material on the substrate. A photovoltaic device and method of formation thereof are also provided.

  1. Quantitative analysis of monomer vapor release from two-solution bone cement by using a novel FTIR technique.

    PubMed

    Merkhan, Imad K; Hasenwinkel, Julie M; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2005-07-01

    Methyl methacrylate monomer can evaporate from bone cement to reach cytotoxic levels of concentrations in the implant bed of total joint prosthesis. Therefore, this study was performed by using a novel Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy method to quantify the release of monomer vapor from experimental two-solution bone cement in vitro during polymerization, to examine the effect of surface area versus cement mass, and to explore the effect of initiation chemistry. The results revealed that monomer vapor release is a surface phenomenon. In addition, initiation chemistry plays a major role in controlling the reaction time, and therefore heat concentration and dissipation, which resulted in a higher absorbance peak as initiation chemicals concentration increased. It was concluded that using the FTIR to monitor MMA vapors is an effective technique to obtain quantitative information about monomer vapor release from bone cements during polymerization and provides insight on the polymerization kinetics of two-solution acrylic bone cement.

  2. Solution Layer Deposition: A Technique for the Growth of Ultra-Pure Manganese Oxides on Silica at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Cure, Jérémy; Piettre, Kilian; Coppel, Yannick; Beche, Eric; Esvan, Jérôme; Collière, Vincent; Chaudret, Bruno; Fau, Pierre

    2016-02-24

    With the ever increasing miniaturization in microelectronic devices, new deposition techniques are required to form high-purity metal oxide layers. Herein, we report a liquid route to specifically produce thin and conformal amorphous manganese oxide layers on silicon substrate, which can be transformed into a manganese silicate layer. The undesired insertion of carbon into the functional layers is avoided through a solution metal-organic chemistry approach named Solution Layer Deposition (SLD). The growth of a pure manganese oxide film by SLD takes place through the decoordination of ligands from a metal-organic complex in mild conditions, and coordination of the resulting metal atoms on a silica surface. The mechanism of this chemical liquid route has been elucidated by solid-state (29) Si MAS NMR, XPS, SIMS, and HRTEM. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Navier-Stokes solution on the CYBER-203 by a pseudospectral technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambiotte, J. J.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Bokhari, S.; Orszag, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    A three-level, time-split, mixed spectral/finite difference method for the numerical solution of the three-dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes equations has been developed and implemented on the Control Data Corporation (CDC) CYBER-203. This method uses a spectral representation for the flow variables in the streamwise and spanwise coordinates, and central differences in the normal direction. The five dependent variables are interleaved one horizontal plane at a time and the array of their values at the grid points of each horizontal plane is a typical vector in the computation. The code is organized so as to require, per time step, a single forward-backward pass through the entire data base. The one-and two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transforms are performed using software especially developed for the CYBER-203.

  4. Navier-Stokes solution on the CYBER-203 by a pseudospectral technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambiotte, J. J.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Bokhari, S.; Orszag, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    A three-level, time-split, mixed spectral/finite difference method for the numerical solution of the three-dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes equations has been developed and implemented on the Control Data Corporation (CDC) CYBER-203. This method uses a spectral representation for the flow variables in the streamwise and spanwise coordinates, and central differences in the normal direction. The five dependent variables are interleaved one horizontal plane at a time and the array of their values at the grid points of each horizontal plane is a typical vector in the computation. The code is organized so as to require, per time step, a single forward-backward pass through the entire data base. The one-and two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transforms are performed using software especially developed for the CYBER-203.

  5. Fundamental rotating disk study of platinum recovery from aqueous solution by a reduction/collection technique

    SciTech Connect

    Angelidis, T.N.; Kydros, K.A.; Sklavounos, S.A.

    1997-05-01

    A reduction/collection procedure for the recovery of platinum from aqueous solutions applying metallic iron (in the form of a rotating disk) as reductant and lead or copper ions as reduced platinum collectors was studied. Fundamental kinetic aspects of the process, such as the influence of the pH and of the collector`s concentration on platinum recovery yield, were examined experimentally. The two collectors were compared with respect to the particle size of the precipitant falling from the disk surface. Lead ions seem to give a coarser precipitant compared to copper and increase the pH region at which the reaction takes place. The final product was a mixture of platinum and platinum/lead bimetallic compounds (mainly PbPt).

  6. Novel Surface Passivation Technique for Low-Temperature Solution-Processed Perovskite PV Cells.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Neeti; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Yanagida, Masatoshi; Karen, Akiya; Miyano, Kenjiro

    2016-02-01

    Low-temperature solution-processed perovskite solar cells are attracting immense interest due to their ease of fabrication and potential for mass production on flexible substrates. However, the unfavorable surface properties of planar substrates often lead to large variations in perovskite crystal size and weak charge extractions at interfaces, resulting in inferior performance. Here, we report the improved performance, reproducibility, and high stability of "p-i-n" planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. The key fabrication process is the addition of the amine-polymer poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] (PFN-P1) to a simple spin-coating process. The PFN-P1 works as a surfactant and helps promote uniform crystallization. As a result, perovskite films with PFN-P1 have a uniform distribution of grain sizes and improved open circuit voltage. Devices with PFN-P1 showed the best efficiency (13.2%), with a small standard deviation (0.40), out of 60 cells. Moreover, ∼90% of the initial efficiency was retained over more than 6 months. Additionally, devices fabricated from PFN-P1 mixed perovskite films showed higher stability under continuous operation at maximum power point over 150 h. Our results show that this approach is simple and effective for improving device performance, reproducibility, and stability by modifying perovskite properties with PFN-P1. Because of the simplicity of the fabrication process and reliable performance increase, this approach marks important progress in low-temperature solution-processed perovskite solar cells.

  7. Correlation between ICDAS and histology: Differences between stereomicroscopy and microradiography with contrast solution as histological techniques

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Samara de Azevedo Gomes; Vieira, Maria Lúcia Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Detection of occlusal caries with visual examination using ICDAS correlates strongly with histology under stereomicroscopy (SM), but dentin aspects under SM are ambiguous regarding mineral content. Thus, our aim was to test two null hypotheses: SM and microradiography result in similar correlations between ICDAS and histology; SM and microradiography result in similar positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of ICDAS cut-off 1–2 (scores 0–2 as sound) with histological threshold D3 (demineralization in the inner third of dentin). Occlusal surfaces of extracted permanent teeth (n = 115) were scored using ICDAS. Undemineralized ground sections were histologically scored using both SM without contrast solution and microradiography after immersion in Thoulet’s solution 1.47 for 24 h (MRC). Correlation between ICDAS and histology differed from SM (0.782) to MRC (0.511) (p = 0.0002), with a large effect size “q” of 0.49 (95% CI: 0.638/0.338). For ICDAS cut-off 1–2 and D3, PPV from MRC (0.56) was higher than that from SM (0.28) (p< 0.00001; effect size h = 0.81), and NPV from MRC (0.72) was lower than that from SM (1,00) (p < 0.00001; effect size h = 1.58). In conclusion, SM overestimated the correlation between ICDAS and lesion depth, and underestimated the number of occlusal surfaces with ICDAS cut-off 1–2 and deep dentin demineralization. PMID:28841688

  8. Evaluation of Visualization Using a 50/50 (Contrast Media/Glucose 5% Solution) Technique for Radioembolization as an Alternative to a Standard Sandwich Technique.

    PubMed

    Paprottka, Karolin J; Todica, Andrei; Ilhan, Harun; Rübenthaler, Johannes; Schoeppe, Franziska; Michl, Marlies; Heinemann, Volker; Bartenstein, Peter; Reiser, Maximilian F; Paprottka, Philipp M

    2017-06-05

    Radioembolization (RE) with (90)yttrium ((90)Y) resin microspheres generally employs a sandwich technique with separate sequential administration of contrast medium (CM), followed by vehicle (e.g., glucose 5% [G5] solution), then (90)Y resin microspheres (in G5), then G5, and then CM again to avoid contact of CM and microspheres under fluoroscopic guidance. This study evaluates the visualization quality and safety of a modified sandwich technique with a 50/50-mixture of CM (Imeron 300) and G5 for administration of (90)Y resin microspheres. A retrospective analysis of 81 RE procedures in patients with primary or secondary liver tumors was performed. The quality of angiographic visualization of the hepatic vessels was assessed before the first injection and immediately before the whole dose has been injected. Visualization and flow rate were graded on a 5-point scale: 1 = very good to 5 = not visible/no antegrade flow. Univariate logistic regression models and multiple linear regression models were used to evaluate the prognostic variables associated with visualization and flow scores. Visualization quality was inversely related to flow rate, the lower the flow rate the better the grade of the visualization. Visualization quality was also inversely related to body-mass-index (BMI). Performing RE with the 50/50-CM/G5 mixture resulted in a mean injection time for 1 GBq of 15 min. No clinically significant adverse events, including radiation-induced liver disease were reported. RE with a 50/50-mixture of CM and G5 for administration of (90)Y resin microspheres in a modified sandwich technique is a safe administration alternative and provides good visualization of hepatic vessels, which is inversely dependent on flow rate and BMI. Injection time was reduced compared with our experience with the standard sandwich technique.

  9. A mesh deformation technique based on two-step solution of the elasticity equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guo; Huang, Haiming; Guo, Jin

    2016-12-01

    In the computation of fluid mechanics problems with moving boundaries, including fluid-structure interaction, fluid mesh deformation is a common problem to be solved. An automatic mesh deformation technique for large deformations of the fluid mesh is presented on the basis of a pseudo-solid method in which the fluid mesh motion is governed by the equations of elasticity. A two-dimensional mathematical model of a linear elastic body is built by using the finite element method. The numerical result shows that the proposed method has a better performance in moving the fluid mesh without producing distorted elements than that of the classic one-step methods.

  10. Adhesive solutions: report of a case using multiple adhesive techniques in the management of enamel hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Li, R W

    1999-09-01

    Enamel hypoplasia is a common condition that may present a severe aesthetic problem. Although the teeth affected may not be particularly susceptible to caries, patients may request cosmetic improvement. Adhesive techniques may be useful in such situations. This paper discusses the management of a patient with enamel hypoplasia using a combination of adhesive systems including enamel- and dentine-bonded veneers, dentine-bonded crowns, a cantilever resin-retained bridge, bonded amalgam restorations and chairside tin plating. Where adhesion was contraindicated, conventionally retained crowns were used.

  11. A mesh deformation technique based on two-step solution of the elasticity equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guo; Huang, Haiming; Guo, Jin

    2017-04-01

    In the computation of fluid mechanics problems with moving boundaries, including fluid-structure interaction, fluid mesh deformation is a common problem to be solved. An automatic mesh deformation technique for large deformations of the fluid mesh is presented on the basis of a pseudo-solid method in which the fluid mesh motion is governed by the equations of elasticity. A two-dimensional mathematical model of a linear elastic body is built by using the finite element method. The numerical result shows that the proposed method has a better performance in moving the fluid mesh without producing distorted elements than that of the classic one-step methods.

  12. Ion transfer across a liquid membrane. General solution for the current-potential response of any voltammetric technique.

    PubMed

    Molina, A; Serna, C; Gonzalez, J; Ortuño, J A; Torralba, E

    2009-02-28

    An explicit analytical equation applicable to the study of reversible ion transfer at systems with two liquid/liquid polarizable interfaces is presented. This expression is valid for any multipotential step technique, which are all very adequate for the determination of standard transfer potentials and transport parameters of ions. The expression of the I/E response for linear sweep voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry can also be deduced as a particular case of this equation. The general solution given here is formally similar to that obtained for the application of any multipotential step sequence to a system with a single polarizable interface, since the method followed here is based on the same premises.

  13. Uncollided Flux Techniques for Discrete-Ordinate Radiation Transport Solutions in Rattlesnake

    SciTech Connect

    Ragusa, Jean C.; DeHart, Mark D.

    2016-08-01

    One of the only real-time-resolved measurement tools used at the Transient Test Reactor (TREAT) is the fast-neutron hodoscope. The hodoscope was used for monitoring and measuring fuel motion during a transient pulse. The hodoscope is a line of sight detection and imaging system that provides both temporal and spatial resolution of fuel motion during transients, and in-place measurement of fuel distribution during and after transient experiments. However, the hodoscope relies on fast neutron streaming out of the reactor core, which provides a challenge to transient modeling and simulation. However, use of a first collision source approach can be used to overcome this shortcoming. Hence, the TREAT modeling and simulation team has initiated research to implement such capabilities in the neutron transport code Rattlesnake. This report reviews uncollided flux techniques (first and last collision methods) to be implemented in the Rattlesnake SN code in order to mitigate ray effects in modeling the TREAT reactor+hodoscope system. Angular discretization techniques (SN and PN) for the transport equation are notoriously poor at capturing effectively streaming effects.

  14. Stoichiometry-controlled high-performance LiCoO 2 electrode materials prepared by a spray solution technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinov, K.; Wang, G. X.; Yao, J.; Liu, H. K.; Dou, S. X.

    LiCoO 2 cathode materials have been prepared by a spray-drying technique. The stoichiometry of the materials, their morphology, and the phase composition and electrochemical performance have been studied. The effects of thermal annealing and decomposition processes on the structure are discussed in detail. The changes of Li content in materials were monitored by ICP spectrometry. It was established that the decomposition of the acetates at around 450 °C is a slurry-making process that compacts the powder. It was found that well lithiated samples with good life cycle and high capacity can be prepared using acetate precursors and a spray solution technique. The morphology, grain size and texturing can be controlled by the sintering time and temperature in combination with intermediate grinding.

  15. Application of phosphorus-31 and aluminum-27 NMR spectroscopic techniques to study aqueous and methanolic solutions of tetraphenylammonium aluminophosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudarzi, Nasser; Amin, Amir H.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, aluminum-27 and phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopic techniques were used to investigate and characterize the distribution of aluminophosphate (AlPO) species soluble in the aqueous and methanolic solutions of tetraphenylammonium (TPhA) chloride. The reaction between hexaaquaaluminum cations, [A1(H2O)6]3+, and different phosphate ligands such as H3PO4, H2PO4-, and the acidic dimers H6P2O8 and H5P2O8- resulted in the formation of the soluble AlPO cations. The effective aluminum-27 and phosphorous-31 NMR spectroscopies can be employed to characterize the species present in a solution. Assignment of the peaks present in the aluminum-27 NMR spectra to the aluminate species or aluminate connectivities was done to acquire information about different AlPO complexes. Some resonance lines were observed in the phosphorus-31 {1H} NMR spectra, indicating the existence of different complexes in the AlPO solutions. Some peaks were observed in the methanolic solutions of AlPO at the chemical shifts of -0.41, -6.4, -7.5, -7.9, -13.1, -13.9, -16.6, -18.1, and -20.6 ppm. Four additional peaks were also observed in the phosphorus-31 {1H} NMR spectra of the methanolic solutions of AlPO, whose intensities changed with changes in the methanol:water volume ratio; they were observed in methanol but not in aqueous AlPO.

  16. A patient alignment solution for lung SBRT setups based on a deformable registration technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Bo; Mittauer, Kathryn; Li, Jonathan; Samant, Sanjiv; Dagan, Roi; Okunieff, Paul; Kahler, Darren; Liu, Chihray

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: In this work, the authors propose a novel registration strategy for translation-only correction scenarios of lung stereotactic body radiation therapy setups, which can achieve optimal dose coverage for tumors as well as preserve the consistency of registrations with minimal human interference. Methods: The proposed solution (centroid-to-centroidor CTC solution) uses the average four-dimensional CT (A4DCT) as the reference CT. The cone-beam CT (CBCT) is deformed to acquire a new centroid for the internal target volume (ITV) on the CBCT. The registration is then accomplished by simply aligning the centroids of the ITVs between the A4DCT and the CBCT. Sixty-seven cases using 64 patients (each case is associated with separate isocenters) have been investigated with the CTC method and compared with the conventional gray-value (G) mode and bone (B) mode registration methods. Dosimetric effects among the tree methods were demonstrated by 18 selected cases. The uncertainty of the CTC method has also been studied. Results: The registration results demonstrate the superiority of the CTC method over the other two methods. The differences in the D99 and D95 ITV dose coverage between the CTC method and the original plan is small (within 5%) for all of the selected cases except for one for which the tumor presented significant growth during the period between the CT scan and the treatment. Meanwhile, the dose coverage differences between the original plan and the registration results using either the B or G method are significant, as tumor positions varied dramatically, relative to the rib cage, from their positions on the original CT. The largest differences between the D99 and D95 dose coverage of the ITV using the B or G method versus the original plan are as high as 50%. The D20 differences between any of the methods versus the original plan are all less than 2%. Conclusions: The CTC method can generate optimal dose coverage to tumors with much better consistency

  17. Development of wind tunnel techniques for the solution of problems in planetary Aeolian processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Robert; Lee, Jeffrey; Greeley, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    Kutzbach reports wind profiles over a series of roughness elements on a frozen lake and how the wind profile changed as the surface roughness was varied. The approach of the current study was to duplicate Kutzbach's roughness arrays in the wind tunnel at 1/20 and 1/40 scales, and to compare the wind profiles over these scale models to those derived by Kutzbach at full scale in the field. The effects of scale differences and data reduction techniques are discussed. Although the study suggests that wind tunnel scale models can predict parameters measured in the field, the development of more definitive guidelines requires a field experiment designed specifically for comparison with wind tunnel results.

  18. Generation expansion planning: an analysis of techniques to expedite the approach to an optimal solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lubbers, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    The subject of this dissertation is an analysis of techniques which can be used to expedite the approach to an optimal plan for the installation of new generating units in an electric utility system, using the WASP (Wein Automatic System Planning) program. The objectives are three-fold: to present the details and results of a sensitivity study performed using WASP; to analyze and overcome the logistical problems resulting in the excessive computation time required to complete a generation expansion study using WASP; and to compare WASP's results with those of another widely used generation expansion planning program - OGP (Optimized Generation Planning) - and to analyze how the differing modelling methodologies impact those results. The first objective was accomplished by providing a detailed description of the collection and preparation of input data for a sensitivity study and by reporting on trends noted when various economic and peak load growth data were varied. Accomplishment of the second objective led to the demonstration of three techniques for expediting WASP analyses, namely: employing a yearly optimization scheme, involving the weighting of the objective function with estimated operation and capital costs incurred during a static operation period, to arrive at an initial expansion plan; modelling generating units as a single block of capacity in order to decrease computation time with little sacrifice in precision; and using the static operation period to reduce end effects of the dynamic optimization. The third objective was accomplished through the comparison of the results of a sample planning study carried out using both WASP and OGP. Despite several areas in which modelling methodologies differed, startingly similar results were obtained.

  19. Effect of Instrumentation Techniques, Irrigant Solutions and Artificial accelerated Aging on Fiberglass Post Bond Strength to Intraradicular Dentin.

    PubMed

    Santana, Fernanda Ribeiro; Soares, Carlos José; Silva, Júlio Almeida; Alencar, Ana Helena Gonçalves; Renovato, Sara Rodrigues; Lopes, Lawrence Gonzaga; Estrela, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of instrumentation techniques, irrigant solutions and specimen aging on fiberglass posts bond strength to intraradicular dentine. A total of 120 bovine teeth were prepared and randomized into control and experimental groups resulting from three study factors (instrumentation techniques, irrigant solutions, specimen aging). Posts were cemented with RelyX U100. Samples were submitted to push-out test and failure mode was evaluated under a confocal microscope. In specimens submitted to water artificial aging, nickel-titanium rotary instruments group presented higher bond strength values in apical third irrigated with NaOCl or chlorhexi-dine. Irrigation with NaOCl resulted in higher bond strength than ozonated water. Artificial aging resulted in significant bond strength increase. Adhesive cement-dentin failure was prevalent in all the groups. Root canal preparation with NiTi instruments associated with NaOCl irrigation and ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA) increased bond strength of fiberglass posts cemented with self-adhesive resin cement to intraradicular dentine. Water artificial aging significantly increased post-Clinical significance: The understanding of factors that may influence the optimal bond between post-cement and cement-dentin are essential to the success of endodontically treated tooth restoration.

  20. Electrical, optical and magnetic investigations on LiNiPO{sub 4} based olivines synthesized by solution combustion technique

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayan, Lakshmi; Cheruku, Rajesh; Govindaraj, G.

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • Solution combustion technique and preparation of nanocrystalline olivine materials. • Olivine type LiNiPO{sub 4} based nanocrystalline materials and characterization. • AC electrical studies on olivine type LiNi{sub 1−x}M{sub x}PO{sub 4}(M = Cu{sup 2+}/Mg{sup 2+})based materials. • Enhancement of ionic conductivity in the nanocrystalline phase of LiNiPO{sub 4} material. - Abstract: Citric acid assisted solution combustion technique is explored for synthesis of supervalent Cu{sup 2+}/Mg{sup 2+} ion doped LiNiPO{sub 4} system. XRD, FT-IR and microscopy studies confirmed the formation of a well crystallized material at low concentration of dopants. Ionic conductivity increases for lower concentrations of dopants due to the increased channel size for Li{sup +} diffusion. Owing to inherent anti-site defects, ionic conductivity decreases with increase of dopant concentration. Magnetic studies are explored for confirmation of antiferromagnetic nature of ions. Wagner polarization method is used to elucidate the negligible contribution of electrons to total conductivity.

  1. Czochralski growth of NaNO3-LiNO3 solid solution single crystals using axial vibrational control technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avetissov, Igor; Sadovskiy, Andrei; Belov, Stanislav; Kong Khan, Chan; Mozhevitina, Elena; Sukhanova, Ekaterina; Zharikov, Eugeniy

    2014-09-01

    T-x diagram of LiNO3-NaNO3 quasi-binary system has been improved using an original technique based on Raman measurements of condense phase. (LiNO3)x(NaNO3)1-x solid solution single crystal has been grown at different regimes of axial vibrational control (AVC) technique. Significant difference in segregation coefficient behavior between AVC-CZ and conventional CZ grown crystals has appeared: with AVC intensity increase the segregation coefficient (SC) raises for light molecular weight elements, SC reduces for medium molecular weight elements, and SC remains practically unchangeable for heavy molecular weight elements. Effect of vibrational intensity on vibron and optical characteristics, microhardness of AVC-CZ (LiNO3)x(NaNO3)1-x solid solution single crystals has been studied. For the AVC-CZ crystals has been observed increases in microhardness as well as in optical transmission up to 10 rel% compare to conventional CZ grown crystals.

  2. Mineralisation of amethyst-bearing geodes in Ametista do Sul (Brazil) from low-temperature sedimentary brines: evidence from monophase liquid inclusions and stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilg, H. Albert; Krüger, Yves; Taubald, Heinrich; van den Kerkhof, Alfons M.; Frenz, Martin; Morteani, Giulio

    2014-10-01

    Fluid inclusion studies in combination with hydrogen, oxygen and sulphur isotope data provide novel insights into the genesis of giant amethyst-bearing geodes in Early Cretaceous Paraná continental flood basalts at Amestita do Sul, Brazil. Monophase liquid inclusions in colourless quartz, amethyst, calcite, barite and gypsum were analysed by microthermometry after stimulating bubble nucleation using single femtosecond laser pulses. The salinity of the fluid inclusions was determined from ice-melting temperatures and a combination of prograde and retrograde homogenisation temperatures via the density maximum of the aqueous solutions. Four mineralisation stages are distinguished. In stage I, celadonite, chalcedony and pyrite formed under reducing conditions in a thermally stable environment. Low δ34SV-CDT values of pyrite (-25 to -32 ‰) suggest biogenic sulphate reduction by organotrophic bacteria. During the subsequent stages II (amethyst, goethite and anhydrite), III (early subhedral calcite) and IV (barite, late subhedral calcite and gypsum), the oxidation state of the fluid changed towards more oxidising conditions and microbial sulphate reduction ceased. Three distinct modes of fluid salinities around 5.3, 3.4 and 0.3 wt% NaCl-equivalent characterise the mineralisation stages II, III and IV, respectively. The salinity of the stage I fluid is unknown due to lack of fluid inclusions. Variation in homogenisation temperatures and in δ18O values of amethyst show evidence of repeated pulses of ascending hydrothermal fluids of up to 80-90 °C infiltrating a basaltic host rock of less than 45 °C. Colourless quartz and amethyst formed at temperatures between 40 and 80 °C, while the different calcite generations and late gypsum precipitated at temperatures below 45 °C. Calculated oxygen isotope composition of the amethyst-precipitating fluid in combination with δD values of amethyst-hosted fluid inclusions (-59 to -51 ‰) show a significant 18O-shift from the

  3. Generation of multicomponent polymer blend microparticles using droplet evaporation technique and modeling evaporation of binary droplet containing nonvolatile solute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, Venkat Narayan

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on the generation of nano- and micrometer scale multicomponent polymer particles with specifically tailored mechanical, electrical and optical properties. As only a few polymer-polymer pairs are miscible, the set of multicomponent polymer systems achievable by conventional methods, such as melt blending, is severely limited in property ranges. Therefore, researchers have been evaluating synthesis methods that can arbitrarily blend immiscible solvent pairs, thus expanding the range of properties that are practical. The generation of blended microparticles by evaporating a co-solvent from aerosol droplets containing two dissolved immiscible polymers in solution seems likely to exhibit a high degree of phase uniformity. A second important advantage of this technique is the formation of nano- and microscale particulates with very low impurities, which are not attainable through conventional solution techniques. When the timescale of solvent evaporation is lower than that of polymer diffusion and self-organization, phase separation is inhibited within the atto- to femto-liter volume of the droplet, and homogeneous blends of immiscible polymers can be produced. We have studied multicomponent polymer particles generated from highly monodisperse micrordroplets that were produced using a Vibrating Orifice Aerosol Generator (VOAG). The particles are characterized for both external and internal morphology along with homogeneity of the blends. Ultra-thin slices of polymer particles were characterized by a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and the degree of uniformity was examined using an Electron Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX). To further establish the homogeneity of the polymer blend microparticles, differential scanning calorimeter was used to measure the glass transition temperature of the microparticles obtained. These results have its significance in the field of particulate encapsulation. Also, better control of the

  4. Diagnostic pitfalls associated with fine-needle aspiration biopsy in a patient with the myxoid variant of monophasic fibrous synovial sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Simon; Brownlee, Noel A; Geisinger, Kim R; Ward, William G; Pettenati, Mark J; Koty, Patrick; Ellis, Ezra; Beaty, Michael W; Kilpatrick, Scott E

    2006-11-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is one of the most common soft tissue tumors that typically presents in the extremities of young adults, but may occur at any site and affect children during the first decade. Herein we discuss a 12-yr-old male who complained of left foot pain and plantar mass. A fine-needle aspiration biopsy of an 8 cm subcutaneous mass was performed revealing a myxoid spindle cell neoplasm. The cytologic differential diagnosis included a myxoid neurofibroma, neurothekeoma, and a myxoid sarcoma. Subsequent excision of the mass revealed a monophasic fibrous SS with myxoid features. Examination of the tissue by fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of characteristic SS SYT gene rearrangement at chromosome 18q11.2. This case underscores that the cytologic distinction of mxyoid spindle cell tumors may be challenging. We report the cytologic features of a myxoid monophasic fibrous SS, and discuss its distinction from other benign and malignant myxoid soft tissue neoplasms.

  5. Development of iterative techniques for the solution of unsteady compressible viscous flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, Lakshmi N.; Hixon, Duane

    1992-01-01

    A research effort was initiated at Georgia Tech in February 1991 on the development of efficient techniques for the computation of 2-D and 3-D unsteady compressible flow problems. It was found that in 2-D unsteady viscous flow applications, the generalized minimal residual (GMRES) scheme was able to significantly improve the accuracy and stability characteristics of an existing 2-D ADI (Alternating Direction Implicit) time marching scheme. That is, the GMRES/ADI combination allowed 10 to 20 times larger time steps compared to an ADI scheme. Because the GMRES algorithm requires 5 to 10 times the CPU work compared to the ADI scheme, the combined GMRES/ADI scheme yields a net factor of 2 savings in CPU cost. During the past year, we also experimented with GMRES/multigrid/ADI combination. The purpose of this combination was to compute the low frequency components of the change in the flow properties from one time step to the next on a coarse grid. This strategy reduces the memory requirements of the GMRES method roughly by a factor of 4-8 for steady flow problems.

  6. Light Scattering by Gaussian Particles: A Solution with Finite-Difference Time Domain Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, W.; Nousiainen, T.; Fu, Q.; Loeb, N. G.; Videen, G.; Muinonen, K.

    2003-01-01

    The understanding of single-scattering properties of complex ice crystals has significance in atmospheric radiative transfer and remote-sensing applications. In this work, light scattering by irregularly shaped Gaussian ice crystals is studied with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. For given sample particle shapes and size parameters in the resonance region, the scattering phase matrices and asymmetry factors are calculated. It is found that the deformation of the particle surface can significantly smooth the scattering phase functions and slightly reduce the asymmetry factors. The polarization properties of irregular ice crystals are also significantly different from those of spherical cloud particles. These FDTD results could provide a reference for approximate light-scattering models developed for irregular particle shapes and can have potential applications in developing a much simpler practical light scattering model for ice clouds angular-distribution models and for remote sensing of ice clouds and aerosols using polarized light. (copyright) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy optimization in chiller plants: A novel formulation and solution using a hybrid optimization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravelli, Aparna; Rao, Singiresu S.

    2013-10-01

    The central chilled water plant is one of the major power-consuming units of a building. Even small reductions in power consumption could achieve significant energy conservation. Hence, optimization of a chiller plant is necessary for energy savings without compromising the comfort level of the end user. The present work deals with identifying the system parameters and developing a novel formulation for a chiller plant and its optimization using a hybrid optimization technique. The optimization model formulation is based on finding an optimal mix of equipment and operating parameters in the chiller plant for minimum electrical power consumption. It takes into account the performance characteristics of the chillers, cooling towers and pumps, and optimizes the energy consumed based on the required loads and the ambient atmospheric conditions. Sequential quadratic programming combined with the modified branch and bound method was used to develop the hybrid optimization algorithm. A case study is presented for a typical chiller plant. The results indicate that the present optimization method could be a potential method of making energy savings.

  8. Light Scattering by Gaussian Particles: A Solution with Finite-Difference Time Domain Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, W.; Nousiainen, T.; Fu, Q.; Loeb, N. G.; Videen, G.; Muinonen, K.

    2003-01-01

    The understanding of single-scattering properties of complex ice crystals has significance in atmospheric radiative transfer and remote-sensing applications. In this work, light scattering by irregularly shaped Gaussian ice crystals is studied with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. For given sample particle shapes and size parameters in the resonance region, the scattering phase matrices and asymmetry factors are calculated. It is found that the deformation of the particle surface can significantly smooth the scattering phase functions and slightly reduce the asymmetry factors. The polarization properties of irregular ice crystals are also significantly different from those of spherical cloud particles. These FDTD results could provide a reference for approximate light-scattering models developed for irregular particle shapes and can have potential applications in developing a much simpler practical light scattering model for ice clouds angular-distribution models and for remote sensing of ice clouds and aerosols using polarized light. (copyright) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A prospective study of a monophasic oral contraceptive containing 30 mcg ethinyl oestradiol and 150 mcg desogestrel (Marvelon).

    PubMed

    Ismail, M T

    1994-06-01

    Marvelon, a monophasic oral contraceptive (OC) containing 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol and 150 mcg of desogestrel, has been available to Malaysian women through the national family planning program since 1982. To assess the safety, effectiveness, and side effects associated with this OC, 247 women who requested the pill were enrolled in a multicenter prospective study that included follow-up after the first, third, and sixth cycles of use. 81% of participants had never used any form of contraception before Marvelon. 194 women (79%) completed the 6-month study. There were no pregnancies recorded. Although women reported a slightly increased incidence of nausea, breast tenderness, and headache in the first treatment cycle, these side effects had abated by the end of the third cycle. After six cycles, mean body weight had decreased by an average of 0.4 kg. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were unaffected. An unexpected finding was a decrease in the severity of acne with continuous use of Marvelon. Although both spotting and breakthrough bleeding increased slightly in the first two cycles, irregular bleeding returned to pretreatment levels by the third cycle. The length of the withdrawal bleed in the pill-free week was reduced. The incidence of irregular bleeding and other side effects was substantially lower in this sample of Malaysian women than in Asian and Caucasian Marvelon users surveyed in other studies.

  10. Decreased Photosystem II Core Phosphorylation in a Yellow-Green Mutant of Wheat Showing Monophasic Fluorescence Induction Curve.

    PubMed Central

    Giardi, M. T.; Kucera, T.; Briantais, J. M.; Hodges, M.

    1995-01-01

    In the present work we study the regulation of the distribution of the phosphorylated photosystem II (PSII) core populations present in grana regions of the thylakoids from several plant species. The heterogeneous nature of PSII core phosphorylation has previously been reported (M.T. Giardi, F. Rigoni, R. Barbato [1992] Plant Physiol 100: 1948-1954; M.T. Giardi [1993] Planta 190: 107-113). The pattern of four phosphorylated PSII core populations in the grana regions appears to be ubiquitous in higher plants. In the dark, at least two phosphorylated PSII core populations are always detected. A mutant of wheat (Triticum durum) that shows monophasic room-temperature photoreduction of the primary quinone electron acceptor of PSII as measured by chlorophyll fluorescence increase in the presence and absence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and by fluorescence upon flash illumination in intact leaves also lacks the usual distribution of phosphorylated PSII core populations. In this mutant, the whole PSII core population pattern is changed, probably due to altered threonine kinase activity, which leads to the absence of light-induced phosphorylation of CP43 and D2 proteins. The results, correlated to previous experiments in vivo, support the idea that the functional heterogeneity observed by fluorescence is correlated in part to the PSII protein phosphorylation in the grana. PMID:12228652

  11. Clinical trial of a monophasic estroprogestin oral formulation containing 20 micrograms ethinyl estradiol and 75 micrograms gestodene.

    PubMed

    Lello, S; Monterubbianesi, M; Guardianelli, F; Bianchi, C; Simonelli, C

    2001-08-01

    The attempt to decrease the hormonal components of combined estrogen/progestin-containing oral formulations has led to use of low-dose formulations. The monophasic formulation containing ethinyl estradiol 20 micrograms (EE20) plus gestodene 75 micrograms (GSD75) was studied in an open, non-comparative, multicenter, clinical trial investigating its efficacy, safety, effects on body weight, blood pressure and sexual function. To evaluate the impact on sexual function, the Golombok Rust Questionnaire on Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) was used. The study population comprised 216 women treated for 1 year. The EE20/GSD75 formulation did not show any significant effect on blood pressure, hematological parameters, body weight or sexual function. The treatment was well tolerated with a high compliance rate by the patients, with a low rate of estrogen-dependent symptoms. Moreover, there was no overall effect on sexual function, with no disturbance of sexual behavior or activity. In conclusion, our data show that the EE20/GSD75 has a very good tolerability profile, without any significant side-effects.

  12. Genetic Evolution of the Spanish Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica 4,5,12:i:- Monophasic Variant ▿

    PubMed Central

    Laorden, Lorena; Herrera-León, Silvia; Martínez, Ilargi; Sanchez, Ainhoa; Kromidas, Lefteris; Bikandi, Joseba; Rementeria, Aitor; Echeita, Aurora; Garaizar, Javier

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed a collection of 60 Salmonella enterica 4,5,12:i:- phage type U302 multidrug-resistant monophasic variant strains, isolated in Spain between 2000 and 2007. Most strains showed resistance to ampicillin (A), chloramphenicol (C), sulfamethoxazole (Su), gentamicin (G), streptomycin (S), tetracycline (T), and co-trimoxazole (SxT) (an ACSuGSTSxT resistance pattern). Only one pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) type was detected, with 19 subtypes (Simpson's index of diversity [SID] = 0.89). Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) showed more variability, with 32 profiles (SID = 0.97), but only showed diversity at the STTR5 and STTR6 loci. PCR and sequencing demonstrated all strains contained the same allantoin-glyoxylate pathway deletion. Four types of deletions were detected in the fljAB operon, all starting at the same position, at the STM2758 gene, and followed by an IS26 insertion. Furthermore, a representative set of strains of the four deletion types harbored plasmids with IS26. We propose that a Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium U302 multidrug-resistant (ACSuGSTSxT) strain, defective for the allantoin-glyoxylate pathway and containing IS26 at plasmid pU302L, could be the ancestor of the variant in Spain. PMID:20943866

  13. Activation of ganglion cells in wild-type and rd1 mouse retinas with monophasic and biphasic current pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Ralph J.; Rizzo, Joseph F. III

    2009-06-01

    We and other research groups are designing an electronic retinal prosthesis to provide vision for patients who are blind due to photoreceptor degeneration. In this study, we examined the effect of stimulus waveform on the amount of current needed to activate retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) when the retinal neural network is stimulated. Isolated retinas of wild-type and rd1 mice were stimulated with cathodal and anodal monophasic current pulses of 1 ms duration and symmetric biphasic current pulses (1 ms per phase) delivered through an electrode that was located subretinally. For both wild-type and rd1 mouse retinas, cathodal current pulses were least effective in activating most RGCs. The median threshold current for a cathodal current pulse was 2.0-4.4 fold higher than the median threshold current for either an anodal or a biphasic current pulse. In wild-type mouse retinas, the median threshold current for activating RGCs with anodal current pulses was 23% lower than that with biphasic current pulses. In rd1 mouse retinas, the median threshold currents for anodal and biphasic current pulses were about the same. However, the variance in thresholds of rd1 RGCs for biphasic pulse stimulation was much smaller than for anodal pulse stimulation. Thus, a symmetric biphasic current pulse may be the best stimulus for activating the greatest number of RGCs in retinas devoid of photoreceptors.

  14. Characterization of the invasiveness of monophasic and aphasic Salmonella Typhimurium strains in 1-day-old and point-of-lay chickens.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Francesca; Gosling, Rebecca; Kennedy, Emma; Rabie, André; Reeves, Hannah; Clifton-Hadley, Felicity; Davies, Rob; La Ragione, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Egg-related outbreaks of salmonellosis are a significant health concern. Although Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is the major egg-associated serotype, Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) can also infect the hen's reproductive tract and contaminate eggs. Recently, monophasic and aphasic variants of ST have been reported with increased frequency in Europe, and the isolation of these variants from laying flocks triggers the same legislative restrictions associated with biphasic ST strains. However, little is known about the colonization, invasiveness and persistence of monophasic and aphasic ST strains in laying hens. In this study, seven groups of 1-day-old and point-of-lay commercial Hy-line chicken layers were separately challenged with four different strains of monophasic ST, one aphasic ST, one biphasic ST and one egg-invasive SE strain. Tissue samples and cloacal swabs (point-of-lay chickens only) were collected at regular intervals post challenge in order to recover the Salmonella challenge strains. In 1-day-old chicks, only the aphasic ST strain and the SE strain were recovered after direct plating, suggesting that the number of salmonellas colonizing the tissues of the chicks infected with the other strains was likely to be low. Interestingly, all of the strains colonized well in the point-of-lay chickens, and there was no statistical difference in the overall number of positive samples or Salmonella counts between the seven strains. Salmonella was recovered from the point-of-lay birds to the end of the study (20 days after challenge). Monophasic and aphasic ST strains colonized point-of-lay birds as efficiently as biphasic ST and SE strains. Further studies are necessary to estimate the invasiveness of these strains in naturally-infected vaccinated laying hens, and to assess the impact of natural infection on egg contamination.

  15. Extensive Genetic Variability Linked to IS26 Insertions in the fljB Promoter Region of Atypical Monophasic Variants of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Boland, Cécile; Bertrand, Sophie; Mattheus, Wesley; Dierick, Katelijne; Jasson, Vicky; Rosseel, Toon; Van Borm, Steven; Mahillon, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-nine monophasic Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates, collected in Belgium during the period from 2008 to 2011, have been serotyped as 4,[5]:i:− and shown to harbor an fljB coding sequence. The genetic differences between these strains and phenotypically biphasic Salmonella Typhimurium were analyzed through PCR and DNA sequencing. Genetic alterations in the fljB promoter region affecting expression of the phase 2 flagellin were observed in 53 isolates. Other genetic events in the invertible region carrying the fljB promoter were observed in 2 isolates. For the remaining 4 isolates, no molecular differences with a reference biphasic Salmonella Typhimurium strain could be observed. Next-generation sequencing of one representative isolate affected in the fljB promoter region revealed a 26-kb IS26 composite transposon insertion along with a local genomic rearrangement. Several other IS26 element-mediated alterations of this genomic region were observed. This group of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium isolates was genetically heterogeneous, as revealed by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), PCR, and sequencing. Pigs and pork represented a major source of such monophasic isolates in Belgium, as reported in other countries. Three out of 5 isolates of human origin presented genetic profiles identical to those of food isolates, demonstrating the pathogenic potential of the newly characterized variants and potential dissemination along the food chain. This study highlighted the key role played by IS26 insertions in the loss of phase 2 flagellin expression and the subsequent generation of multiple monophasic variant lineages from biphasic Salmonella Typhimurium ancestors. PMID:25724958

  16. Comparison between two meshless methods based on collocation technique for the numerical solution of four-species tumor growth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghan, Mehdi; Mohammadi, Vahid

    2017-03-01

    As is said in [27], the tumor-growth model is the incorporation of nutrient within the mixture as opposed to being modeled with an auxiliary reaction-diffusion equation. The formulation involves systems of highly nonlinear partial differential equations of surface effects through diffuse-interface models [27]. Simulations of this practical model using numerical methods can be applied for evaluating it. The present paper investigates the solution of the tumor growth model with meshless techniques. Meshless methods are applied based on the collocation technique which employ multiquadrics (MQ) radial basis function (RBFs) and generalized moving least squares (GMLS) procedures. The main advantages of these choices come back to the natural behavior of meshless approaches. As well as, a method based on meshless approach can be applied easily for finding the solution of partial differential equations in high-dimension using any distributions of points on regular and irregular domains. The present paper involves a time-dependent system of partial differential equations that describes four-species tumor growth model. To overcome the time variable, two procedures will be used. One of them is a semi-implicit finite difference method based on Crank-Nicolson scheme and another one is based on explicit Runge-Kutta time integration. The first case gives a linear system of algebraic equations which will be solved at each time-step. The second case will be efficient but conditionally stable. The obtained numerical results are reported to confirm the ability of these techniques for solving the two and three-dimensional tumor-growth equations.

  17. Compositional analysis of passivating surface film formed on carbon electrode in organic electrolytic solution using in-situ spectroelectrochemical technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyun, Su-Il

    1999-02-01

    In-situ spectroelectrochemical technique has been applied to investigate passivating surface film on porous carbon electrode and plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited (PECVD) carbon film electrode in organic electrolytic solution consisting of ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethyl carbonate (DEC) solvent, and 1 M LiPF6 and LiAsF6. Water impurity with the concentration of 0 M, 0.02 M, 0.05 M, and 0.1 M H20 was added to 1 M LiPF6-EC/DEC solution. In-situ Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectra of the surface film on both electrodes with the constituents of ROCO2Li, Li2CO3, and LixPFy suggested that the reduction of EC to ROCO2Li runs via a one-electron transfer pathway as a result of diffusion of water through the surface film, and then Li2CO3 formation proceeds simultaneously by the chemical reaction of ROCO2Li with water. From the measured potential dependence of the amount of the salt reduction products, it is suggested that the surface film formed in 1 M LiPF6EC/DEC solution gives a poorer passivity as compared with that formed in 1 M LiAsF6-EC/DEC solution, which is due to the considerable interference of LiPE6 salt reduction with the compact sedimentation of ROCO2Li on the electrode. In-situ FFIR spectra of the surface film showed that all the peak intensities of the three constituents significantly increase with increasing water content under application of the negative potentials with respect to open circuit potential (OCP). From these experimental results, the dependence of the passivity of the surface film on the carbon electrode on the water concentration of the electrolyte, as well as on the lithium salt type, was discussed in view of the salt and solvent reactivities.

  18. Application of poly (ethyleneimine) solution as a binding agent in DGT technique for measurement of heavy metals in water.

    PubMed

    Sui, Dian-Peng; Fan, Hong-Tao; Li, Jing; Li, You; Li, Qiong; Sun, Ting

    2013-09-30

    A 0.050 mol L(-1) solution of poly (ethyleneimine) (PEI), had been used as a novel binding agent of diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) technique (PEI-DGT) for measuring the concentrations of labile Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) in waters. The binding capacities of the PEI-DGT for Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) were 11.8, 10.2 and 10.6 μmol L(-1), respectively. The performance of PEI-DGT was independence of pH in the range of 4-8 and ionic strength in the range from 1×10(-4) to 0.1 mol L(-1) (as NaNO3). PEI-DGT could measure 104.7±5.2% of the total concentration of Cd(2+) (0.500 mg L(-1)), 95.2±4.3% of the total Cu(2+) (0.500 mg L(-1)) and 99.2±3.4% of the total Pb(2+) (0.500 mg L(-1)) in synthetic solution. Effects of the ligands on the measurement of labile metals were also investigated in synthetic solutions containing the various concentrations of EDTA and humic acid. In EDTA solution, the concentrations of labile metals measured by PEI-DGT showed good agreement with the theoretical concentrations of free metal ions. In humic acid solution, the concentrations of labile metals measured by PEI-DGT decreased with the increase of the concentrations of humic acid. Several DGT devices with various binding agents, including PEI, sodium polyacrylate and poly(4-styrenesulfonate) solution, were used for the measurement of labile fractions of Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) in the spiked waters and in mine wastewaters. The results showed that the concentrations of labile metal measured by DGT devices with different binding agents could be significantly different, indicating that the labile fractions of metals were dependent on the binding strength of the binding agents with metals. By choosing binding agents, the useful information on the speciation and bioavailability of the analytes can be provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparative evaluation of tray spacer thickness and repeat pour on the accuracy of monophasic polyvinyl siloxane impression material: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Yadav, Deepti; Yadav, Reena; Arora, Aman

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effect of various tray spacer thickness and subsequent repeated pours on the accuracy and dimensional stability of the impression made from monophasic polyvinyl siloxane material. Custom trays with different spacer thickness (2, 4 and 6 mm) were used for making an impression of a master model simulating 3 unit fixed partial denture with monophasic polyvinyl siloxane material. These impressions were poured with die stone and repoured. Distance between the reference points were measured and subjected to statistical analysis. Casts obtained from 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd pour of the impression in 2, 4 and 6 mm spacer thickness tray have similar dimensional accuracy amongst each other and with the master model except in molar diameter and inter-abutment distances of cast obtained from 6 mm spacer thickness tray. The vertical distance of stone dies were decreased, whereas horizontal distance increased as the thickness of impression material is increased. There were statistically non-significant changes occurring among the repeated pours in 2, 4 and 6 mm spacer thickness. 2 and 4 mm spacer thickness are acceptable for making an impression for three unit fixed partial denture with monophasic polyvinyl siloxane material and it was not affected by two subsequent (1 st and 2 nd) repeated pours.

  20. Prediction of penicillin V acylase stability in water-organic co-solvent monophasic systems as a function of solvent composition.

    PubMed

    Arroyo; Torres-Guzmán; de la Mata I; Castillón; Acebal

    2000-07-01

    Hydrolytic activity of penicillin V acylase (EC 3.5.1.11) can be improved by using organic cosolvents in monophasic systems. However, the addition of these solvents may result in loss of stability of the enzyme. The thermal stability of penicillin V acylase from Streptomyces lavendulae in water-organic cosolvent monophasic systems depends on the nature of the organic solvent and its concentration in the media. The threshold solvent concentration (at which half enzymatic activity is displayed) is related to the denaturing capacity of the solvent. We found out linear correlations between the free energy of denaturation at 40 degrees C and the concentration of the solvent in the media. On one hand, those solvents with logP values lower than -1.8 have a protective effect that is enhanced when its concentration is increased in the medium. On the other hand, those solvents with logP values higher than -1.8 have a denaturing effect: the higher this value and concentration, the more deleterious. Deactivation constants of PVA at 40 degrees C can be predicted in any monophasic system containing a water-miscible solvent.

  1. A Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) Technique for the Measurement of Solute Transport Across Surfactant-Laden Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browne, Edward P.; Hatton, T. Alan

    1996-01-01

    The technique of Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) has been applied to the measurement of interfacial transport in two-phase systems. FRAP exploits the loss of fluorescence exhibited by certain fluorophores when over-stimulated (photobleached), so that a two-phase system, originally at equilibrium, can be perturbed without disturbing the interface by strong light from an argon-ion laser and its recovery monitored by a microscope-mounted CCD camera as it relaxes to a new equilibrium. During this relaxation, the concentration profiles of the probe solute are measured on both sides of the interface as a function of time, yielding information about the transport characteristics of the system. To minimize the size of the meniscus between the two phases, a photolithography technique is used to selectively treat the glass walls of the cell in which the phases are contained. This allows concentration measurements to be made very close to the interface and increases the sensitivity of the FRAP technique.

  2. A comprehensive probabilistic solution of random SIS-type epidemiological models using the random variable transformation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casabán, M.-C.; Cortés, J.-C.; Navarro-Quiles, A.; Romero, J.-V.; Roselló, M.-D.; Villanueva, R.-J.

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides a complete probabilistic description of SIS-type epidemiological models where all the input parameters (contagion rate, recovery rate and initial conditions) are assumed to be random variables. By applying the Random Variable Transformation technique, the first probability density function, the mean and the variance functions, as well as confidence intervals associated with the solution of SIS-type epidemiological models, are determined. It is done under the general hypothesis that model random inputs have any joint probability density function. The distributions to describe the time until a given proportion of the population remains susceptible and infected are also determined. Finally, a probabilistic description of the so-called basic reproductive number is included. The theoretical results are applied to an illustrative example showing good fitting.

  3. A solution-processed quaternary oxide system obtained at low-temperature using a vertical diffusion technique

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seokhyun; Kim, Si Joon; Tak, Young Jun; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2017-01-01

    We report a method for fabricating solution-processed quaternary In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) at low annealing temperatures using a vertical diffusion technique (VDT). The VDT is a deposition process for spin-coating binary and ternary oxide layers consecutively and annealing at once. With the VDT, uniform and dense quaternary oxide layers were fabricated at lower temperatures (280 °C). Compared to conventional IGZO and ternary In-Zn-O (IZO) thin films, VDT IGZO thin film had higher density of the metal-oxide bonds and lower density of the oxygen vacancies. The field-effect mobility of VDT IGZO TFT increased three times with an improved stability under positive bias stress than IZO TFT due to the reduction in oxygen vacancies. Therefore, the VDT process is a simple method that reduces the processing temperature without any additional treatment for quaternary oxide semiconductors with uniform layers. PMID:28230088

  4. Structure and ion transport in Li3Fe2(PO4)3 synthesized by solution combustion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayan, Lakshmi; Cheruku, Rajesh; Govindaraj, G.

    2012-03-01

    Li3Fe2(PO4)3 is interesting because of its technological application and environmentally benign nature. Nanocrystalline Li3Fe2(PO4)3 is synthesized by a solution combustion technique. The role of fuels/complexing agents in deciding the structural parameters and ac electrical behavior is investigated in this study. Antiferromagnetic nature and direct bandgap energy of 3.09 eV are recognized in the material. Enhanced conduction is established through mobility of Li+ ion in four co-ordination in the modified monoclinic symmetry and high temperature stability through orthorhombic symmetry. Quality of electrical data is confirmed through a Kramers-Kronig test and electrical relaxation parameters are obtained from modulus analysis. Scaling analysis of modulus data confirmed the time-temperature superposition principle.

  5. An Innovative Scalp-Dyeing Technique with Gentian Violet Solution During Follicular Unit Extraction for White-Haired Follicular Units

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Min Seon

    2017-01-01

    There exist some restrictions and difficulties in performing follicular unit extraction (FUE) in white-haired patients, for several reasons. In this paper, we introduce a novel technique for visualizing white hair during the punching procedure and graft preparation in FUE for white-haired patients. In white-haired older male patients, we dyed the surrounding scalp skin purple with a gentian violet solution-stained toothpick. Our method has several advantages: surgeons can easily focus on the center of the follicular unit and rapidly perform punching, they can recognize the condition of the harvested follicular units during FUE, and the hair transplant team can secure a clear view for trimming and loading into the implanter. We suggest that scalp dyeing in difficult FUE procedures, especially in patients with white hair, may be a simple method that provides a good visualization for donor site harvesting and for microdissection. PMID:28352608

  6. Diffusion technique for 15N and inorganic N analysis of low-N aqueous solutions and Kjeldahl digests.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui Rui; Dittert, Klaus

    2008-06-01

    Diffusion of ammonia is a common sample preparation method for the stable isotope analysis of inorganic nitrogen in aqueous solution. Classical diffusion methods usually require 6-12 days of diffusion and often focus on (15)N/(14)N analysis only. More recent studies have discussed whether complete N recovery was necessary for the precise analysis of stable N isotope ratios. In this paper we present a newly revised diffusion technique that allows correct and simultaneous determination of total N and (15)N at% from aqueous solutions and Kjeldahl digests, with N concentrations down to sub-0.5-mg N L(-1) levels, and it is tested under different conditions of (15)N isotope labelling. With the modification described, the diffusion time was reduced to 72 h, while the ratios of measured and expected (15)N at% were greater than 99% and the simultaneous recovery of total N was >95%. Analysis of soil microbial biomass N and its (15)N/(14)N ratio is one of the most important applications of this diffusion technique. An experiment with soil extracts spiked with (15)N-labelled yeast showed that predigestion was necessary to prevent serious N loss during Kjeldahl digestion of aqueous samples (i.e. soil extracts). The whole method of soil microbial biomass N preparation for (15)N/(14)N analysis included chloroform fumigation, predigestion, Kjeldahl digestion and diffusion. An experiment with soil spiked with (15)N-labelled yeast was carried out to evaluate the method. Results showed a highly significant correlation of recovered and added N, with the same recovery rate (0.21) of both total N and (15)N. A k(N) value of 0.25 was obtained based on the data. In conclusion, the diffusion method works for soil extracts and microbial biomass N determination and hence could be useful in many types of soil/water studies.

  7. Effects of endodontic irrigation solutions on mineral content of root canal dentin using ICP-AES technique.

    PubMed

    Ari, Hale; Erdemir, Ali

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate mineral content of root canal dentin after treatment with several endodontic irrigation solutions. Sixty mandibular anterior teeth extracted for periodontal reasons used. The crowns of the teeth were removed at the cemento-enamel junction. Pulp tissues were removed and the teeth were randomly divided into six groups including 10 teeth each. Root canals were enlarged with gates-glidden burs (# 1, 2, and 3). The groups were treated as follows: group 1, 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate for 15 min; group 2, 3% H2O2 for 15 min; group 3, 17% EDTA for 15 min; group 4, 5.25% NaOCl for 15 min; group 5, 2.5% NaOCl for 15 min; and group 6, distilled water (control). Dentin chips were obtained using gates-glidden burs (# 4, 5, and 6). The levels of five elements calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, and sulfur in each specimens were analyzed using ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry) technique. Changes in the levels of the chemical elements were recorded. The results were then statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. There was a significant decrease in the calcium and phosphorus levels after treatment with all irrigation solutions except for 5.25% NaOCl when compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The K, Mg, and S level changes were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). It has been concluded that endodontic irrigation solutions have an effect on mineral contents of root dentin.

  8. Percutaneous method for single-catheter multiple monophasic action potential recordings during magnetocardiographic mapping in spontaneously breathing rodents.

    PubMed

    Brisinda, Donatella; Sorbo, Anna Rita; Venuti, Angela; Fenici, Riccardo

    2012-03-01

    To test the feasibility of a novel method to combine magnetocardiographic (MCG) estimate of ventricular repolarization (VR) and multiple monophasic action potential (MultiMAP) recording in spontaneously breathing rodents with percutaneous sub-xyphoid epicardial placement of a MCG-compatible amagnetic catheter (AC), ten Wistar rats (WRs) and ten guinea pigs (GPs) were studied. Under fluoroscopic control, the AC was moved until four stable MAPs were recorded (fixed inter-electrode distance of 1.2 mm). 36-channel DC-SQUID (sensitivity 20 fT Hz(-½)) were used for MCG mapping. MAPs, differentially amplified (BW: DC-500 Hz), were digitized at 1 kHz. AC pacing provided local ventricular effective refractory period (VERP) estimate. MAP duration (MAPd) was measured at 50% and 90% levels of repolarization. Simultaneous MCG mapping and MultiMAP recording were successful in all animals. Average MAPd50% and MAPd90% were shorter in WRs than in GPs (26.4 ± 2.9 ms versus 110.6 ± 14.3 ms and 60.7 ± 5.4 ms versus 127.7 ± 15.3 ms, respectively). VERP was 51 ± 4.8 ms in WRs and 108.4 ± 12.9 ms in GPs, respectively. The MAP amplitude was 16.9 ± 4.5 in WRs and 16.2 ± 4.2 in GPs. MAP and MCG parameters of VR were in good agreement. All animals survived the procedure. Two also survived a second invasive study; one was followed up until natural death at 52 months. Percutaneous MultiMAP recording is minimally invasive, usually avoids animal sacrifice, is compatible with simultaneous surface MCG mapping and might be used for experimental validation of MCG VR abnormality, to study the arrhythmogenic potential of new drugs and/or animal models of ventricular arrhythmias.

  9. Evaluation of the sensitivity of faecal sampling for detection of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium and other Salmonella in cattle and pigs.

    PubMed

    Arnold, M E; Gosling, R J; Martelli, F; Mueller-Doblies, D; Davies, R H

    2015-06-01

    There has been a rapid rise in the prevalence of cases of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (mST) in both humans and farm animals, and it has been found in pigs, cattle and poultry. It is therefore vital to have a good understanding of how to efficiently detect infected farms. The objective of this project was to determine sample type sensitivity in the detection of Salmonella to detect infected groups of animals on both pig (breeder, grower and finisher sites) and cattle (beef and dairy) farms, using data collected from a study investigating farms that were positive for mST, and to explore any variation between different age groups and management practices. A Bayesian approach in the absence of a gold standard was adopted to analyse the individual and pooled faecal sample data collected from each epidemiological group on each of the farms. The sensitivity of pooled sampling depended on the prevalence of infection in the group being sampled, with a higher prevalence leading to higher sensitivity. Pooled sampling was found to be more efficient at detecting positive groups of animals than individual sampling, with the probability of a random sample from a group of animals with 5% prevalence testing positive being equal to 15·5% for immature pigs (3·6% for an individual faecal sample, taking into account the sensitivity and infection prevalence), 7·1% for adult pigs (1·2% for individual sampling), 30% for outdoor cattle (2% for individual sampling) and 34% for indoor cattle (1% for individual sampling). The mean prevalence of each epidemiological group was higher in outdoor farms than indoor for both pigs and cattle (mean within-farm prevalence of 29·4% and 38·7% for outdoor pigs and cattle, respectively, compared to 19·8% and 22·1% for indoor pigs and cattle).

  10. Electrically Elicited Muscle Torque: Comparison Between 2500-Hz Burst-Modulated Alternating Current and Monophasic Pulsed Current.

    PubMed

    Scott, Wayne; Adams, Cheryl; Cyr, Shantelle; Hanscom, Brianna; Hill, Kevin; Lawson, Jeffrey; Ziegenbein, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Single-blind, block-randomization crossover design. To compare the knee extensor muscle torque production elicited with 2500-Hz burst-modulated alternating current (BMAC) and with a monophasic pulsed current (MPC) at the maximum tolerated stimulation intensity. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is often used for strengthening the quadriceps following knee surgery. Strength gains are dependent on muscle torque production, which is primarily limited by discomfort. Burst-modulated alternating current stimulation is a clinically popular waveform for NMES. Prior research has established that MPC with a relatively long pulse duration is effective for high muscle torque production. Participants in this study were 20 adults with no history of knee injury. A crossover design was used to randomize the order in which each participant's dominant or nondominant lower extremity received NMES and the waveform (MPC or BMAC) this limb received. Stimulation intensity was incrementally increased until participants reached their maximum tolerance. The torque produced was converted to a percentage of each participant's maximum volitional isometric contraction of the respective limb. A general linear model for a 2-treatment, 2-period crossover design was utilized to analyze the results. The mean ± SD electrically induced percent maximum volitional isometric contraction at maximal participant tolerance was 49.5% ± 19.6% for MPC and 29.8% ± 12.4% for BMAC. This difference was statistically significant (P = .002) after accounting for treatment order and limb, which had no effect on torque production. Neuromuscular stimulation using MPC may be more efficacious than using BMAC to achieve a high torque output in patients with quadriceps weakness.

  11. An efficient solution technique for shockwave-boundary layer interactions with flow separation and slot suction effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Jack R.; Mcrae, D. Scott

    1991-01-01

    An efficient method for computing two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes flow fields is presented. The solution algorithm is a fully-implicit approximate factorization technique based on an unsymmetric line Gauss-Seidel splitting of the equation system Jacobian matrix. Convergence characteristics are improved by the addition of acceleration techniques based on Shamanskii's method for nonlinear equations and Broyden's quasi-Newton update. Characteristic-based differencing of the equations is provided by means of Van Leer's flux vector splitting. In this investigation, emphasis is placed on the fast and accurate computation of shock-wave-boundary layer interactions with and without slot suction effects. In the latter context, a set of numerical boundary conditions for simulating the transpiration flow in an open slot is devised. Both laminar and turbulent cases are considered, with turbulent closure provided by a modified Cebeci-Smith algebraic model. Comparisons with computational and experimental data sets are presented for a variety of interactions, and a fully-coupled simulation of a plenum chamber/inlet flowfield with shock interaction and suction is also shown and discussed.

  12. Novel frequency domain techniques and advances in Finite Difference Time domain (FDTD) method for efficient solution of multiscale electromagnetic problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panayappan, Kadappan

    With the advent of sub-micron technologies and increasing awareness of Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility (EMI/EMC) issues, designers are often interested in full- wave solutions of complete systems, taking to account a variety of environments in which the system operates. However, attempts to do this substantially increase the complexities involved in computing full-wave solutions, especially when the problems involve multi- scale geometries with very fine features. For such problems, even the well-established numerical methods, such as the time domain technique FDTD and the frequency domain methods FEM and MoM, are often challenged to the limits of their capabilities. In an attempt to address such challenges, three novel techniques have been introduced in this work, namely Dipole Moment (DM) Approach, Recursive Update in Frequency Domain (RUFD) and New Finite Difference Time Domain ( vFDTD). Furthermore, the efficacy of the above techniques has been illustrated, via several examples, and the results obtained by proposed techniques have been compared with other existing numerical methods for the purpose of validation. The DM method is a new physics-based approach for formulating MoM problems, which is based on the use of dipole moments (DMs), as opposed to the conventional Green's functions. The absence of the Green's functions, as well as those of the vector and scalar potentials, helps to eliminate two of the key sources of difficulties in the conventional MoM formulation, namely the singularity and low-frequency problems. Specifically, we show that there are no singularities that we need to be concerned with in the DM formulation; hence, this obviates the need for special techniques for integrating these singularities. Yet another salutary feature of the DM approach is its ability to handle thin and lossy structures, or whether they are metallic, dielectric-type, or even combinations thereof. We have found that the DM formulation can handle these

  13. Charge translocation by the Na+/K+-ATPase investigated on solid supported membranes: rapid solution exchange with a new technique.

    PubMed Central

    Pintschovius, J; Fendler, K

    1999-01-01

    Adsorption of Na+/K+-ATPase containing membrane fragments from pig kidney to lipid membranes allows the detection of electrogenic events during the Na+/K+-ATPase reaction cycle with high sensitivity and time resolution. High stability preparations can be obtained using solid supported membranes (SSM) as carrier electrodes for the membrane fragments. The SSMs are prepared using an alkanethiol monolayer covalently linked to a gold surface on a glass substrate. The hydrophobic surface is covered with a lipid monolayer (SAM, self-assembled monolayer) to obtain a double layer system having electrical properties similar to those of unsupported bilayer membranes (BLM). As we have previously shown (, Biophys. J. 64:384-391), the Na+/K+-ATPase on a SSM can be activated by photolytic release of ATP from caged ATP. In this publication we show the first results of a new technique which allows rapid solution exchange at the membrane surface making use of the high mechanical stability of SSM preparations. Especially for substrates, which are not available as a caged substance-such as Na+ and K+-this technique is shown to be capable of yielding new results. The Na+/K+-ATPase was activated by rapid concentration jumps of ATP and Na+ (in the presence of ATP). A time resolution of up to 10 ms was obtained in these experiments. The aim of this paper is to present the new technique together with the first results obtained from the investigation of the Na+/K+-ATPase. A comparison with data taken from the literature shows considerable agreement with our experiments. PMID:9929483

  14. Use of complementary neutron techniques in studying the effect of a solid/liquid interface on bulk solution structures

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.D.; Hamilton, W.A.; Magid, L.J.

    1996-12-31

    By appropriate combination of neutron scattering techniques, it is possible to obtain structural information at various distances from a solid/liquid interface and thus probe in some detail how the surface structures evolve into bulk structures. We have used neutron reflectometry (NR) with a newly developed shear cell, near surface small angle neutron scattering (NSSANS) again in combination with the new shear cell, and regular small angle neutron scattering (SANS) with a standard Couette shear cell to probe the structures formed in our aqueous surfactant systems and how they react to a flow field, particularly in the near surface region of a solid/liquid interface. We present data for a 20mM aqueous solutions of 70% cetyltrimethylammonium 3,5-dichlorobenzoate (abbreviated CTA3,5ClBz) and 30% CTAB. This system forms a very viscoelastic solution containing long threadlike micelles. NR only probes to a depth of about 0.5 {mu}m from the surface in these systems and clearly indicates that adsorbed onto the surface is, surfactant layer which is insensitive to shear. The depth probed by the NSSANS is on the order of 20-30 {mu}m and is determined by the transmission of the sample, the angle of incidence, and the wavelength. In this region, the rods align under shear into a remarkably well ordered hexagonal crystal. The SANS from the Couette cell averages over the entire sample, so that the signal is dominated by scattering from the bulk. While the near surface hexagonal structure is clearly visible, these data are not consistent with the crystal structure persisting throughout the bulk, leading to the postulate that the bulk structure is a two dimensional (2D) liquid where the rods align with the flow, but do not order in the other two dimensions.

  15. An efficient near infrared spectroscopy based on aquaphotomics technique for rapid determining the level of Cadmium in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putra, Alfian; Vassileva, Maria; Santo, Ryoko; Tsenkova, Roumina

    2017-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a common industrial pollutant with long biological half-life, which makes it as a cumulative toxicant. Near-infrared spectroscopy has been successfully used for quick and accurate assessment of Cd content in agricultural materials, but the development of a quick detection method for ground and drinking water samples is equal importance for pollution monitoring. Metals have no absorbance in the NIR spectral range, thus the methods developed so far have focused on detection of metal-organic complexes (move to intro). This study focuses on the use of Aquaphotomics technique to measure Cd in aqueous solutions by analyzing the changes in water spectra that occur due to water-metal interaction. Measurements were performed with Cd (II) in 0.1 M HNO3, in the 680-1090 nm (water second and third overtones) and 1110-1800 nm (water first overtone) spectral regions, and were subjected to partial least-square regression analysis. It was found/determined that A concentration of Cd from 1 mg L-1 to 10 mg L-1 could be predicted by this model with average prediction correlation coefficient of 0.897. The model was tested by perturbations with temperature and other metal presence in the solution. The regression coefficient showed consistent peaks at 728, 752, 770, 780, 1362, 1430,1444, 1472/1474 and 1484 nm under various perturbations, indicating that metal to influence the water spectra. The residual predictive deviation values (RPD) were greater than 2, indicating that the model is appropriate for practical use. The result suggested that this newly proposed approach is capable of detecting metal ion in a much simpler, rapid and reliable way.

  16. Combining Solid-state and Solution-based Techniques: Synthesis and Reactivity of Chalcogenidoplumbates(II or IV).

    PubMed

    Thiele, Günther; Donsbach, Carsten; Nußbruch, Isabell; Dehnen, Stefanie

    2016-12-29

    The phases of "PbCh2" (Ch = Se, Te) are obtained from solid-state syntheses (i.e., by the fusion of the elements under inert conditions in silica glass ampules). Reduction of such phases by elemental alkaline metals in amines affords crystalline chalcogenidoplumbate(II) salts comprised of [PbTe3](2)(-) or [Pb2Ch3](2)(-) anions, depending upon which sequestering agent for the cations is present: crown ethers, like 18-crown-6, or cryptands, like [2.2.2]crypt. Reactions of solutions of such anions with transition-metal compounds yield (poly-)chalcogenide anions or transition-metal chalcogenide clusters, including one with a µ-PbSe ligand (i.e., the heaviest-known CO homolog). In contrast, the solid-state synthesis of a phase of the nominal composition "K2PbSe2" by successive reactions of the elements and by the subsequent solvothermal treatment in amines yields the first non-oxide/halide inorganic lead(IV) compound: a salt of the ortho-selenidoplumbate(IV) anion [PbSe4](4)(-). This was unexpected due to the redox potentials of Pb(IV) and Se(-II). Such methods can further be applied to other elemental combinations, leading to the formation of solutions with binary [HgTe2](2)(-) or [BiSe3](3)(-) anions, or to large-scale syntheses of K2Hg2Se3 or K3BiSe3 via the solid-state route. All compounds are characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis; solutions of plumbate salts can be investigated by (205)Pb and (77)Se or (127)Te NMR techniques. Quantum chemical calculations using density functional theory methods enable energy comparisons. They further allow for insights into the electronic configuration and thus, the bonding situation. Molecular Rh-containing Chevrel-type compounds were found to exhibit delocalized mixed valence, whereas similar telluridopalladate anions are electron-precise; the cluster with the µ-PbSe ligand is energetically favored over a hypothetical CO analog, in line with the unsuccessful attempt at its synthesis. The

  17. [A preparation technique for quantitative investigation of SPIO-containing solutions and SPIO-labelled cells by MRI].

    PubMed

    Pintaske, J; Helms, G; Bantleon, R; Kehlbach, R; Wiskirchen, J; Claussen, C D; Schick, F

    2005-06-01

    PURPOSE. This work aims to present a preparation technique for ex-vivo MR examination of SPIO (superparamagnetic iron oxide) containing solutions or SPIO labeled cells. Accumulations of SPIO particles and labeled cells were prepared in different concentrations using agar gel phantoms. Signal extinction around accumulations of magnetic material was examined systematically by gradient echo sequences with variable echo times and spatial resolution. The correlation between local iron concentration and diameter of signal extinction in MR gradient echo images was investigated. Resovist, (SHU 555A) was used as superparamagnetic contrast medium. Different concentrations of SPIO-containing solutions (0.75 - 15 mg Fe/10 ml) and magnetically labeled SK-Mel28 cells (25,000-1,000,000 cells/10 ml) were accommodated inside a defined volume in an agar matrix. Diameters of signal void were assessed in dependence on local iron concentration, echo time (5-25 ms) and isotropic spatial resolution (length of voxel 0.25 - 0.60 mm). Measurements were performed on a clinical MR whole body scanner (3 Tesla) using a spoiled gradient echo sequence (FLASH). For the present experimental conditions sensitivity to detect the magnetic label was maximized using TE 25 ms. In contrast, the area of signal cancellation was minimized using TE 5 ms and isotropic resolution of 0.25 mm. In the latter case the image indicated the area of magnetic material most precisely. Diameter of signal cancellation was a logarithmic function on local iron concentration. In the presented set-up detection of concentrations as low as 0.75 mg Fe/10 ml in SPIO-containing solution or 1.25 mg Fe/10 ml in SPIO-labeled SK-Mel28 cells was certainly possible. The proposed preparation strategy with a well defined spatial distribution of the magnetic material in an agar gel phantom produced reliable results and appears clearly superior compared to set-ups with randomly distributed material in glass tubes. The diameter of the signal

  18. Efficacy of nano-hydroxyapatite prepared by an aqueous solution combustion technique in healing bone defects of goat

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Samit Kumar; Ghosh, Samir Kumar; De, Dipak Kumar; Basu, Debabrata

    2008-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate porous hydroxyapatite (HAp), the powder of which was prepared by a novel aqueous solution combustion technique, as a bone substitute in healing bone defects in vivo, as assessed by radiologic and histopathologic methods, oxytetracycline labeling, and angiogenic features in Bengal goat. Bone defects were created in the diaphysis of the radius and either not filled (group I) or filled with a HAp strut (group II). The radiologic study in group II showed the presence of unabsorbed implants which acted as a scaffold for new bone growth across the defect, and the quality of healing of the bone defect was almost indistinguishable from the control group, in which the defect was more or less similar, although the newly formed bony tissue was more organized when HAp was used. Histologic methods showed complete normal ossification with development of Haversian canals and well-defined osteoblasts at the periphery in group II, whereas the control group had moderate fibro-collagenization and an adequate amount of marrow material, fat cells, and blood vessels. An oxytetracycline labeling study showed moderate activity of new bone formation with crossing-over of new bone trabeculae along with the presence of resorption cavities in group II, whereas in the control group, the process of new bone formation was active from both ends and the defect site appeared as a homogenous non-fluoroscent area. Angiograms of the animals in the control group showed uniform angiogenesis in the defect site with establishment of trans-transplant angiogenesis, whereas in group II there was complete trans-transplant shunting of blood vessel communication. Porous HAp ceramic prepared by an aqueous combustion technique promoted bone formation over the defect, confirming their biologic osteoconductive property. PMID:18487940

  19. Efficacy of nano-hydroxyapatite prepared by an aqueous solution combustion technique in healing bone defects of goat.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Samit Kumar; Kundu, Biswanath; Ghosh, Samir Kumar; De, Dipak Kumar; Basu, Debabrata

    2008-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate porous hydroxyapatite (HAp), the powder of which was prepared by a novel aqueous solution combustion technique, as a bone substitute in healing bone defects in vivo, as assessed by radiologic and histopathologic methods, oxytetracycline labeling, and angiogenic features in Bengal goat. Bone defects were created in the diaphysis of the radius and either not filled (group I) or filled with a HAp strut (group II). The radiologic study in group II showed the presence of unabsorbed implants which acted as a scaffold for new bone growth across the defect, and the quality of healing of the bone defect was almost indistinguishable from the control group, in which the defect was more or less similar, although the newly formed bony tissue was more organized when HAp was used. Histologic methods showed complete normal ossification with development of Haversian canals and well-defined osteoblasts at the periphery in group II, whereas the control group had moderate fibro-collagenization and an adequate amount of marrow material, fat cells, and blood vessels. An oxytetracycline labeling study showed moderate activity of new bone formation with crossing-over of new bone trabeculae along with the presence of resorption cavities in group II, whereas in the control group, the process of new bone formation was active from both ends and the defect site appeared as a homogenous non-fluoroscent area. Angiograms of the animals in the control group showed uniform angiogenesis in the defect site with establishment of trans-transplant angiogenesis, whereas in group II there was complete trans-transplant shunting of blood vessel communication. Porous HAp ceramic prepared by an aqueous combustion technique promoted bone formation over the defect, confirming their biologic osteoconductive property.

  20. Thermal Lens Phenomenon Studied by the Z-Scan Technique: Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity of Highly Absorbing Colloidal Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehnem, A. L.; Espinosa, D.; Gonçalves, E. S.; Figueiredo Neto, A. M.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss the thermal lens phenomenon in high-absorbing colloidal systems, studied by using the Z-scan technique. The characteristics of the experimental setup to avoid undesirable effects are presented, in particular when pulsed laser beam is used. We show that a cumulative effect may appear in the experiment with chopped laser beams and compromise the results obtained with this technique. This artefact is more significative when colloidal suspensions are investigated. These materials have different characteristic times of heat and mass diffusion, which must be carefully considered to choose the appropriate time interval for the laser pulse and the time between pulses. Two experimental cases with a chopped laser beam, with and without a shutter, are discussed. The sample employed is a magnetic colloidal suspension (a ferrofluid). This sample has magnetic nanoparticles electrically charged in an aqueous solution with free ions and counter ions. Besides the thermal lens effect, charge and mass diffusion may take place when the sample is illuminated by the Gaussian beam, which imposes a thermal gradient on it. The results show that, with the experimental setup without a shutter, the sample does not achieve a complete relaxation between two laser pulses. This generates a measurable cumulative effect after the sample is illuminated during a relatively long period of time. A time modulation with longer time interval between chopped pulses allows the complete relaxation of the sample. This procedure is important for the correct analysis of the thermal lens effect. Reliable values of the thermal conductivity of the sample in different temperatures are obtained and discussed.

  1. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Monophasic Variant 4,12:i:- Isolated from Asymptomatic Wildlife in a Catalonian Wildlife Rehabilitation Center, Spain.

    PubMed

    Molina-López, Rafael A; Vidal, Anna; Obón, Elena; Martín, Marga; Darwich, Laila

    2015-07-01

    Wildlife can act as long-term asymptomatic reservoirs for zoonotic bacteria, such as Salmonella. The prevalence and antimicrobial-susceptibility profiles of Salmonella spp. were assessed in 263 cases in wildlife from 22 animal orders from a wildlife rehabilitation center in Catalonia (NE Spain), September 2013-May 2014. Eleven of 263 tested animals were positive for Salmonella spp., representing an overall prevalence of 4.2%. Prevalences by taxonomic categories were 2% in mammals, 4.7% in birds, and 4.5% in reptiles. By species, one each of European hedgehog (Erinaceus europeus; from a sample of n = 26), Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo; n = 2), Barn Owl (Tyto alba; n = 3), Tawny Owl (Strix aluco; n = 20), Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus; n = 1), Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus; n = 1), and Hoopoe (Upupa epops; n = 2), and two each Common Kestrels (Falco tinnunculus; n = 16) and pond sliders (Trachemys scripta; n = 25) were positive for Salmonella. By serotyping, seven of eleven isolates were classified as S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, and five of seven belonged to the monophasic variant 4,12:i:-. All the monophasic variants were isolated from birds (4/5 in raptors) and showed a multidrug-resistance (MDR) profile to at least ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline (R-type ASSuT), and up to 12 antibiotics. The large proportion of S. Typhimurium monophasic MDR strains detected in wildlife never treated with antibiotics, especially in raptors, adds more complexity to the epidemiologic control of one of the most frequent serovars involved in human and livestock infection.

  2. [The monophasic pattern in oral glucose tolerance test as a predictive risk factor of type 2 diabetes in obese paediatric patients].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Martínez, Aura D; Enes, Patricia; Martín-Frías, María; Roldán, Belén; Yelmo, Rosa; Barrio, Raquel

    2017-10-01

    The onset of obesity at young ages is strongly associated with the early development of type 2diabetes (T2D). The shape of the curves of glucose and insulin curves during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) could predict the risk of developing T2D. To analyse the morphology of the OGTT and determine T2D risk factors in a mainly Caucasian population of children and adolescents. Observational retrospective study including 588 patients (309 males, 279 females) with a mean age of 11.1±2years, and of whom 90.3% were Caucasian. Risk factors for T2D were compared in patients with a monophasic or biphasic pattern during the performance of an OGTT, as well as anthropometric and biochemical variables, insulin resistance, and beta-cell function. The shape of the glucose curve was monophasic in 50.2% of patients (50.8% male), biphasic in 48.5% (47.6% males), and indeterminate in 1.3%. The monophasic pattern showed lower insulin-sensitivity and worse beta-cell function. Patients with a biphasic pattern had a higher BMI, waist circumference, and blood pressure, although the results were not significant. Latin-American patients had significantly lower serum glucose levels with higher insulin levels during the OGTT. The pattern of response to an OGTT reflects different metabolic phenotypes. Paediatric patients with a biphasic pattern have lower risk-profiling for T2D. The performing of an OGTT could be useful to implement early intervention strategies in children and adolescents with obesity, in order to prevent the development of pre-diabetes or T2D. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of solution deposition rate on properties of V2O5 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Alghafour, N. M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Hassan, Zai; Mohammad, Sabah M.

    2016-07-01

    Vanadium oxide (V2O5) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by using a cost-efficient spray pyrolysis technique. The films were grown at 350° through thermal decomposition of VCl3 in deionized water with different solution spray rates. The high resolution X-ray diffraction results revealed the formation of nanocrystalline films having orthorhombic structures with preferential orientation along (101) direction. The spray rate influenced the surface morphology and crystallite size of the films. The crystallite size was found to increase whereas the micro-strain was decreased by increasing the spray deposition rates. The increase in crystallite size and decrease in the macrostrain resulted in an improvement in the films' crystallinity. The UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis indicated that the average transmittance of all films lies in the range 75-80 %. The band gap of V2O5 film was decreased from 2.65 to 2.46 eV with increase of the spray deposition rate from 5 ml/min to 10 ml/min. first, second, and third level headings (first level heading).

  4. High Resolution Spatio Temporal Moments Analysis of Solute Migration Captured using Pre-clinical Medical Imaging Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, M.; Moysey, S. M.; Powell, B. A.; DeVol, T. A.

    2016-12-01

    Advances in medical imaging technologies are continuously expanding the range of applications enabled within the earth sciences. While computed x-ray tomography (CT) scans have traditionally been used for investigating the structure of geologic materials, it is now possible to perform 3D time-lapse imaging of dynamic processes, such as monitoring the infiltration of water into a soil, with sub-millimeter resolution. Likewise, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide information on the evolution of solute transport with spatial resolution on the order of a millimeter by tracking the migration of gamma-ray emitting isotopes like 99mTc and 111In. While these imaging techniques are revolutionizing our ability to look within porous media, techniques for the analysis of such rich and large data sets are limited. The spatial and temporal moments of a plume have long been used to provide quantitative measures to describe plume movement in a wide range of settings from the lab to field. Moment analysis can also be used to estimate the hydrologic properties of the porous media. In this research, we investigate the use of moments for analyzing a high resolution 4D SPECT data set collected during a 99mTc transport experiment performed in a heterogeneous column. The 4D nature of the data set makes it amenable to the use of data mining and pattern recognition methods, such as cluster analysis, to identify regions or zones within the data that exhibit abnormal or unexpected behaviors. We then compare anomalous features within the SPECT data to similar features identified within the CT image to relate the flow behavior to pore-scale structures, such as porosity differences and macropores. Such comparisons help to identify whether these features are good predictors of preferential transport. Likewise, we evaluate whether local analysis of moments can be used to infer apparent parameters governing non-conservative transport in a heterogeneous porous media, such

  5. Solute redistribution and constitutional supercooling effects in vertical Bridgman grown indium gallium antimonide by accelerated crucible rotation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, K. Juliet

    The ternary alloy, InxGa1- xSb, is a compound semiconducting material of compositionally tunable bandgap (0.18 - 0.72 eV), making it desirable for use in photovoltaic, photodetector, and other opto-electronic devices in the infra-red regime. In the past, this material has proven to be difficult to synthesize in bulk due to the large phase separation between the constituent binaries. In this work, InxGa1-xSb has been grown in a state-of-the-art, computer-controlled system based on vertical Bridgman technique designed to allow crucible rotation during solidification of the material to reincorporate excess solute and improve material quality. Independent thermocouples allow for in situ monitoring and maintenance of the temperature to 0.2°C precision during crystal growth, reducing compositional inhomogeneities caused by temperature fluctuations. A series of experiments has been performed to evaluate the effect of accelerated crucible rotation technique (ACRT) on the structural quality and compositional homogeneity of bulk-grown InxGa 1-xSb for a starting melt composition of x = 0.25. A lowering rate of 3 mm/hr has been employed, for an overall cooling rate of 5.1°C/hr, which deliberately exceeds the threshold for constitutional supercooling. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been performed on samples of In0.18Ga0.82Sb revealing a 92% percent reduction in micro-cracking with the application of ACRT when compared to synthesis performed without rotation. Furthermore; electron probe microscopy (EPMA) indicates an order of magnitude improvement in compositional homogeneity in the direction of growth with the use of ACRT. Micro-cracking and compositional homogeneity throughout cross-sections of InxGa1-xSb material also indicate areas of improved mixing during solidification, which can be compared to existing models of fluid flow exhibited in ACRT. The boule synthesized with ACRT shows a decrease in compositional deviation of 62% in the first-to-freeze areas of the

  6. Influence of instrumentation techniques and irrigating solutions on bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin.

    PubMed

    Marques, Eduardo Fernandes; Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Veloso, Heloisa Helena Pinho; Almeida, Gustavo; Pinheiro, Sergio Luiz

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate how instrumentation techniques and irrigating solutions affected the bond strength of glass fiber posts. For this study, 80 human maxillary central incisors were selected. Endodontic access was obtained, root canal length was measured, and the coronal third was prepared using Gates-Glidden drills. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin and randomly assigned to 8 groups (n = 10): manual instrumentation only (Group 1), rotary instrumentation only (Group 2), irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (Group 3), irrigation with 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) (Group 4), manual instrumentation and irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl (Group 5), manual instrumentation and irrigation with 2% CHX (Group 6), rotary instrumentation and irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl (Group 7), and rotary instrumentation and irrigation with 2% CHX (Group 8). Specimens in Groups 5-8 also received a 1 minute final rinse with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Canals were filled and the specimens stored for 30 days in distilled water. The restoration material was removed down to the apical 4 mm of the root canal. The glass fiber posts were luted with resin cement and stored for 24 hours at 37°C. Specimens were subjected to a tensile strength test at a constant speed of 1.0 mm/minute and a load of 2,000 kgf. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's test. Irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl reduced the bond strength of fiber posts significantly (P < 0.01), while CHX showed no effect (P > 0.05). It was concluded that irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl has a negative effect on micromechanical retention of glass fiber posts, whether manual or rotary instrumentation is used.

  7. [Characterisation of a phenotypic monophasic variant belonging to Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium from wild birds and its possible transmission to cats and humans].

    PubMed

    Hauser, Elisabeth; Hühn, Stephan; Junker, Ernst; Jaber, Manuela; Schroeter, Andreas; Helmuth, Reiner; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Winterhoff, Nora; Malorny, Burkhard

    2009-01-01

    In the last two years The National Salmonella Reference Laboratory (NRL-Salm) received an accumulating number of salmonellae with sero-formula 4,12:-:1,2 isolated from perished wild birds, particularly siskins. Within these strains flagellar antigen of the first phase was phenotypically not detectable. By PCR a fragment could be amplified coding specifically for the H:i-flagellar antigen. Consequently, this is a phenotypically monophasic variant of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium var. copenhagen with the sero-formula 4,12:-:1,2. Phage-typing showed most of the isolates belonged to phage type DT40. Some other strains harboured the same lysis pattern but could not assign to a definite phage type. Those strains are designated as RDNC (react with phages but does not conform with definite or provisorial types). Pulsed field gel-electrophoresis (PFGE) confirmed those two lineages of the monophasic variant. Phage type DT40 isolates from humans or cats, able to express both flagellar antigens, did not differ in genotypic properties from those not able to express the flagellar antigen of the first phase. Salmonella strains with identical genotypic characteristics have been isolated from wild birds, human cases particular infants and also cats. This refers to a direct or indirect transmission of the pathogen from wild bird to human. By eating or getting in contact with contaminated birds domestic cats could play an important role as vehicle between bird and human.

  8. Epidemiological and microbiological investigation of a large outbreak of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium 4,5,12:i:- in schools associated with imported beef in Poitiers, France, October 2010.

    PubMed

    Raguenaud, M E; Le Hello, S; Salah, S; Weill, F X; Brisabois, A; Delmas, G; Germonneau, P

    2012-10-04

    An outbreak due to the emerging monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium 4,5,12:i:- occurred in four schools in Poitiers in October 2010. Food trace-back investigation led to the identification of beef burgers as the cause of the outbreak and their subsequent withdrawal. The Institute for Public Health Surveillance conducted a retrospective epidemiological investigation to assess the extent of the outbreak and describe cases. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by students and personnel attending each of the four schools affected. Clinical cases were defined as anyone having eaten at the school when the beef burgers were served and reporting diarrhoea or fever with at least one digestive symptom (nausea, vomiting or abdominal pain), within five days after the incriminated school meal or with unknown date of onset within a 15-day period after the incriminated school meal. Of 1,559 persons exposed, 554 clinical cases were identified corresponding to an overall attack rate of 35.5%. Of 554 clinical cases, a total of 286 (53%) sought medical care and 31 (6%) were hospitalised for more than 24 hours. This multi-school outbreak is one of the biggest food-borne outbreaks of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium 4,5,12:i:- described in France. Prompt notification of cases and rapid identification and withdrawal of the incriminated batch of beef burgers was crucial to limit the extension of this outbreak.

  9. Comparative study on the acceptability of two modern monophasic oral contraceptive preparations: 30 microgram ethinyl estradiol combined with 150 microgram desogestrel or 75 microgram gestodene.

    PubMed

    Zichella, L; Sbrignadello, C; Tomassini, A; Di Lieto, A; Montoneri, C; Zarbo, G; Mancone, M; Pietrobattista, P; Bertoli, G; Perrone, G

    1999-01-01

    Cycle control and tolerability of two monophasic oral contraceptive pills containing 30 microg ethinyl estradiol (EE) with either 150 microg desogestrel (DSG) or 75 microg gestodene (GSD) were compared in women starting oral contraception. A minimum of 200 healthy women at risk for pregnancy were to be treated for a total of 6 cycles per patient in a prospective, randomized open parallel-group multicenter trial. Two hundred and forty-one subjects were randomized, 115 to DSG/EE and 126 to GSD/EE. Compliance to the study preparation was high (around 95%) in both groups and no pregnancies occurred during the study. Cycle control was excellent; there were no differences between the two groups with regard to incidence of spotting and breakthrough bleeding or duration and intensity of withdrawal bleeding. Side-effects were mild and in general comparable in the two groups. Both at baseline and during treatment, a higher proportion of women taking GSD/EE complained about breast tenderness. This resulted in more early withdrawals because of breast tenderness in the GSD/EE group. It was concluded that monophasic DSG/EE and GSD/EE are equally effective, have similar cycle control and both are generally well tolerated.

  10. Development of an analytical technique for the detection of alteration minerals formed in bentonite by reaction with alkaline solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, H.; Shibata, M.; Owada, H.; Kaneko, M.; Kuno, Y.; Asano, H.

    and 50.1°, Cu Kα) of the C-S-H gel, which could not be distinguished before the heavy liquid separation, were clearly identified by XRD after separation. The result of the analyses of the light density fraction indicates highest recovery of C-S-H gel and least inclusion of bentonite for separation using heavy liquid with a specific gravity of 2.10 g/cm 3. The traces of bentonite minerals included in the suspension were identified to be montmorillonite, quartz, clinoptilolite, and calcite. The separation technique was also tested for Ca-bentonite prepared by passing a calcium hydroxide solution through a bentonite (Kunigel V1)-silica sand mixture. The results indicated that the technique would also be applicable to separation of C-S-H gel from Ca-bentonite.

  11. A randomized controlled trial of efficacy and ST change following use of the Welch-Allyn MRL PIC biphasic waveform versus damped sine monophasic waveform for external DC cardioversion.

    PubMed

    Ambler, Jonathan J S; Deakin, Charles D

    2006-11-01

    Biphasic waveforms have similar or greater efficacy at cardioverting atrial and ventricular arrhythmias at lower energy levels than monophasic waveforms, and cause less ST depression following defibrillation of ventricular fibrillation. No studies have investigated this effect on ST change with atrial arrhythmias. We studied the efficacy of the Welch Allyn-MRL PIC biphasic defibrillator. One hundred and thirty-nine patients undergoing elective DC cardioversion for atrial arrhythmias were randomised to cardioversion by monophasic (Hewlett Packard Codemaster XL; 100, 200, 300, 360 and 360J) or biphasic (Welch Allyn-MRL PIC; 70, 100, 150, 200 and 300J) defibrillator. We analysed success of cardioversion after 0 and 30min, cumulative energy, number of shocks and energy at successful cardioversion. The ST change in the recorded electrocardiogram was measured at 15s after all shocks using electronic callipers. Immediately after cardioversion 59/68 (86.8%) of the monophasic group versus 56/60 (93.3%) of the biphasic group were in sinus rhythm. Of the monophasic group, 55/67 (82.1%) remained in sinus rhythm at 30min versus 53/58 (91.4%) of the biphasic group. These differences were not significant at 0min (P=0.35) or 30min (P=0.21). The biphasic group required significantly fewer shocks (P=0.006), less cumulative energy (P<0.0001) and required lower total energy for successful cardioversion (P<0.0001). Of the 102 patients with electrocardiogram recordings suitable for analysis, ST segment change was greater in the monophasic group (P=0.037). The Welch Allyn-MRL biphasic waveform for DC cardioversion results in fewer shocks, with less cumulative energy delivered and less post shock ST change than with a Hewlett Packard Codemaster XL damped sine wave monophasic waveform.

  12. Nature inspired computational technique for the numerical solution of nonlinear singular boundary value problems arising in physiology.

    PubMed

    Malik, Suheel Abdullah; Qureshi, Ijaz Mansoor; Amir, Muhammad; Haq, Ihsanul

    2014-01-01

    We present a hybrid heuristic computing method for the numerical solution of nonlinear singular boundary value problems arising in physiology. The approximate solution is deduced as a linear combination of some log sigmoid basis functions. A fitness function representing the sum of the mean square error of the given nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) and its boundary conditions is formulated. The optimization of the unknown adjustable parameters contained in the fitness function is performed by the hybrid heuristic computation algorithm based on genetic algorithm (GA), interior point algorithm (IPA), and active set algorithm (ASA). The efficiency and the viability of the proposed method are confirmed by solving three examples from physiology. The obtained approximate solutions are found in excellent agreement with the exact solutions as well as some conventional numerical solutions.

  13. Nature Inspired Computational Technique for the Numerical Solution of Nonlinear Singular Boundary Value Problems Arising in Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Suheel Abdullah; Qureshi, Ijaz Mansoor; Haq, Ihsanul

    2014-01-01

    We present a hybrid heuristic computing method for the numerical solution of nonlinear singular boundary value problems arising in physiology. The approximate solution is deduced as a linear combination of some log sigmoid basis functions. A fitness function representing the sum of the mean square error of the given nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) and its boundary conditions is formulated. The optimization of the unknown adjustable parameters contained in the fitness function is performed by the hybrid heuristic computation algorithm based on genetic algorithm (GA), interior point algorithm (IPA), and active set algorithm (ASA). The efficiency and the viability of the proposed method are confirmed by solving three examples from physiology. The obtained approximate solutions are found in excellent agreement with the exact solutions as well as some conventional numerical solutions. PMID:24672381

  14. The use of multigrid techniques in the solution of the Elrod algorithm for a dynamically loaded journal bearing. M.S. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Claudia M.

    1988-01-01

    A numerical solution to a theoretical model of vapor cavitation in a dynamically loaded journal bearing is developed, utilizing a multigrid iterative technique. The code is compared with a presently existing direct solution in terms of computational time and accuracy. The model is based on the Elrod algorithm, a control volume approach to the Reynolds equation which mimics the Jakobssen-Floberg and Olsson cavitation theory. Besides accounting for a moving cavitation boundary and conservation of mass at the boundary, it also conserves mass within the cavitated region via liquid striations. The mixed nature of the equations (elliptic in the full film zone and nonelliptic in the cavitated zone) coupled with the dynamic aspects of the problem create interesting difficulties for the present solution approach. Emphasis is placed on the methods found to eliminate solution instabilities. Excellent results are obtained for both accuracy and reduction of computational time.

  15. Solution-based mist CVD technique for CH3NH3Pb(Br1- x Cl x )3 inorganic-organic perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishinaka, Hiroyuki; Yoshimoto, Masahiro

    2016-10-01

    We report the growth of inorganic-organic perovskites using a solution-based mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD) technique and the successful growth of the alloying CH3NH3Pb(Br1- x Cl x )3 using mixture solutions of Br and Cl precursors. The formation mechanism of the inorganic-organic perovskite grown by the laminar flow-type mist CVD is suggested to be a vapor phase reaction, although solution precursors are used. The near-band-edge emissions from photoluminescence can be tuned from 500 to 550 nm by considering Br/Cl ratios in the solution without crystal phase segregation by incorporating Cl into crystalline CH3NH3PbBr3 films.

  16. The use of multigrid techniques in the solution of the Elrod algorithm for a dynamically loaded journal bearing. M.S. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Claudia M.

    1988-01-01

    A numerical solution to a theoretical model of vapor cavitation in a dynamically loaded journal bearing is developed, utilizing a multigrid iterative technique. The code is compared with a presently existing direct solution in terms of computational time and accuracy. The model is based on the Elrod algorithm, a control volume approach to the Reynolds equation which mimics the Jakobssen-Floberg and Olsson cavitation theory. Besides accounting for a moving cavitation boundary and conservation of mass at the boundary, it also conserves mass within the cavitated region via liquid striations. The mixed nature of the equations (elliptic in the full film zone and nonelliptic in the cavitated zone) coupled with the dynamic aspects of the problem create interesting difficulties for the present solution approach. Emphasis is placed on the methods found to eliminate solution instabilities. Excellent results are obtained for both accuracy and reduction of computational time.

  17. An extraction technique for analytical sample preparation in aqueous solution based on controlling dispersion of ionic surfactant assemblies in isotachophoretic migration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianlin; Qin, Yexin; He, Haibo; Lv, Jun; Fan, Yong

    2011-01-07

    An extraction technique for analytical sample preparation in aqueous solution has been developed based on controlling dispersion of ionic surfactant assemblies. An extraction technique was realized based on controlling dispersion of the ionic surfactant assemblies in their isotachophoretic migration during the extraction by arranging the solutions of leading electrolyte, ionic surfactant and terminating electrolyte in order and applying voltage. Potential of the technique for analytical sample preparation in aqueous solution has been demonstrated by extracting a model sample of four alkylphenones, which were analyzed by HPLC after the extraction. The extraction showed concentration effects on all the four alkylphenones of butyrophenone, valerophenone, hexanophenone and heptanophenone in the model sample. The enrichment factors were 5.29, 7.70, 7.25 and 7.49 for the four alkylphenones of butyrophenone, valerophenone, hexanophenone and heptanophenone, respectively. Linear relationship was obtained with all the four alkylphenones between their chromatographic peak areas before and after the extraction in the range of concentration from 0.05 ppm to 1.5 ppm. The RSD of the chromatographic peak areas in triplicate extractions was 7.97%, 3.75%, 2.91% and 4.45% for butyrophenone, valerophenone, hexanophenone and heptanophenone, respectively. Advantages of the extraction technique developed include ease of operation, low reagent cost, no consumption of organic solvents and no requirement for additional phase separation.

  18. Chelating fibers prepared with a wet spinning technique using a mixture of a viscose solution and a polymer ligand for the separation of metal ions in an aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Kagaya, Shigehiro; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Yoshinori; Kato, Toshifumi; Yanai, Hideyuki; Kamichatani, Waka; Kajiwara, Takehiro; Saito, Mitsuru; Tohda, Koji

    2012-02-15

    Chelating fibers containing polymer ligands such as carboxymethylated polyallylamine, carboxymethylated polyethyleneimine, and a copolymer of diallylamine hydrochloride/maleic acid were prepared with a wet spinning technique using mixtures of a viscose solution and the polymer ligands. The chelating fibers obtained effectively adsorbed various metal ions, including Cd(II), Co(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Ti(IV), and Zn(II). The metal ions adsorbed could be readily desorbed using 0.1 or 0.5 mol L(-1) HNO(3). The chelating fiber containing carboxymethylated polyallylamine was available for the separation of some metal ions in synthetic wastewater containing a large amount of Na(2)SO(4). The wet spinning technique using a solution containing a base polymer and a polymer ligand was quite simple and effective and would be applicable for preparing various chelating fibers.

  19. An automated system using spatial oversampling for optical mapping in murine atria. Development and validation with monophasic and transmembrane action potentials

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ting Yue; Syeda, Fahima; Holmes, Andrew P.; Osborne, Benjamin; Dehghani, Hamid; Brain, Keith L.; Kirchhof, Paulus; Fabritz, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    We developed and validated a new optical mapping system for quantification of electrical activation and repolarisation in murine atria. The system makes use of a novel 2nd generation complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera with deliberate oversampling to allow both assessment of electrical activation with high spatial and temporal resolution (128 × 2048 pixels) and reliable assessment of atrial murine repolarisation using post-processing of signals. Optical recordings were taken from isolated, superfused and electrically stimulated murine left atria. The system reliably describes activation sequences, identifies areas of functional block, and allows quantification of conduction velocities and vectors. Furthermore, the system records murine atrial action potentials with comparable duration to both monophasic and transmembrane action potentials in murine atria. PMID:25130572

  20. A study of the verapamil-induced changes in conductivity and refractoriness and monophasic action potentials of the dog heart in situ.

    PubMed

    Landmark, K; Amlie, J P

    1976-12-01

    In the dog heart in situ, verapamil 0.30 mg/kg injected intravenously did not impair intraatrial, His--Purkinje and intraventricular conduction. The monophasic action potential (MAP) derived from the right atrium and ventricle was not altered by the drug. The functional refractory period (FRP) and the effective refractory period (ERP) of the atrium was not changed by verapamil. However, the drug caused a small but statistically significant decrease in the ratio between 50 and 90% repolarization, respectively, and the ERP of the right atrium, i.e. the ERP of the atrium increased in relation to the MAP duration. Verapamil used a marked reduction of the conduction velocity within and a pronounced increase of the AV nodal FRP and ERP. These changes were reversed by a rapid injection of calcium gluconate 40 mg/kg. The sinus node automaticity was not influenced by verapamil.

  1. A review on the solution of Grad-Shafranov equation in the cylindrical coordinates based on the Chebyshev collocation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amerian, Z.; Salem, M. K.; Salar Elahi, A.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2017-03-01

    Equilibrium reconstruction consists of identifying, from experimental measurements, a distribution of the plasma current density that satisfies the pressure balance constraint. Numerous methods exist to solve the Grad-Shafranov equation, describing the equilibrium of plasma confined by an axisymmetric magnetic field. In this paper, we have proposed a new numerical solution to the Grad-Shafranov equation (an axisymmetric, magnetic field transformed in cylindrical coordinates solved with the Chebyshev collocation method) when the source term (current density function) on the right-hand side is linear. The Chebyshev collocation method is a method for computing highly accurate numerical solutions of differential equations. We describe a circular cross-section of the tokamak and present numerical result of magnetic surfaces on the IR-T1 tokamak and then compare the results with an analytical solution.

  2. In vivo potentiostatic studies at the electrode tissue interface: filter properties of the monophasic action potential (Ag/AgCl) electrode in living rat heart.

    PubMed

    Chou, H A; Ovadia, M; Moskowitz, M; Zavitz, D H

    2000-03-01

    The monophasic action potential (Franz) catheter is regarded as the criterion standard for high fidelity recording of a class of physiological signals. However, its signal modulation characteristics have never been reported. Broadband impedance spectroscopy was performed in perfused living rat heart in a three-electrode potentiostatic configuration to determine the filtering characteristics of the MAP and model Ag/AgCl electrode-tissue interfaces. The filter transfer function H(f) (attenuation [dB] vs log(f) [log(Hz)]) was derived for the frequency range 10 Hz-10(6) Hz. As a filter, the MAP interface is characterized by two ranges of filtering behavior. At high frequency the MAP interface is a high-pass filter with passband frequency 54 kHz-549 kHz (median 321 kHz) and with -3 dB cutoff points ranging from 10 kHz to 302 kHz. In this high frequency range the transfer function is characterized by decreasing attenuation per decade. However, in the lower frequency range relevant to physiological signals (the monophasic action potential, 0.1-40 Hz), it is a severely attenuating nondiodic high-pass filter element with an average attenuation of 16.87 dB relative to passband. In this physiological range, rolloff is nonlinear with increasing attenuation per decade. While the MAP electrode and model Ag/AgCl electrodes are high-pass filters with robust transfer functions for high frequency signals in the living heart, the attenuation of signals in a frequency range relevant to in vivo physiological recording imparts extreme attenuation that may distort physiological signals unpredictably. This disadvantage may be mitigated by amplitude scaling to a calibrated pure tone signal within the physiological frequency band to recover a reproducible signal.

  3. Evaluation of surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability and gypsum compatibility of monophase polyvinyl-siloxane and polyether elastomeric impression materials under dry and moist conditions.

    PubMed

    Vadapalli, Sriharsha Babu; Atluri, Kaleswararao; Putcha, Madhu Sudhan; Kondreddi, Sirisha; Kumar, N Suman; Tadi, Durga Prasad

    2016-01-01

    This in vitro study was designed to compare polyvinyl-siloxane (PVS) monophase and polyether (PE) monophase materials under dry and moist conditions for properties such as surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability, and gypsum compatibility. Surface detail reproduction was evaluated using two criteria. Dimensional stability was evaluated according to American Dental Association (ADA) specification no. 19. Gypsum compatibility was assessed by two criteria. All the samples were evaluated, and the data obtained were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's Chi-square tests. When surface detail reproduction was evaluated with modification of ADA specification no. 19, both the groups under the two conditions showed no significant difference statistically. When evaluated macroscopically both the groups showed statistically significant difference. Results for dimensional stability showed that the deviation from standard was significant among the two groups, where Aquasil group showed significantly more deviation compared to Impregum group (P < 0.001). Two conditions also showed significant difference, with moist conditions showing significantly more deviation compared to dry condition (P < 0.001). The results of gypsum compatibility when evaluated with modification of ADA specification no. 19 and by giving grades to the casts for both the groups and under two conditions showed no significant difference statistically. Regarding dimensional stability, both impregum and aquasil performed better in dry condition than in moist; impregum performed better than aquasil in both the conditions. When tested for surface detail reproduction according to ADA specification, under dry and moist conditions both of them performed almost equally. When tested according to macroscopic evaluation, impregum and aquasil performed significantly better in dry condition compared to moist condition. In dry condition, both the materials performed almost equally. In

  4. Estimation of the impact of vaccination on faecal shedding and organ and egg contamination for Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhiumurium and monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Mark E; Gosling, Rebecca J; La Ragione, Roberto M; Davies, Robert H; Martelli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) and, to a lesser extent, Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) are associated with egg-related outbreaks in people. Recently, monophasic strains of ST (mST; lacking one phase of the flagellar antigen) have been described, and they have officially been classified as variants of ST and thus may contribute to human exposure to contaminated eggs. Currently used vaccination programmes are licensed for use against biphasic variants of ST, and their efficacy against mST has not yet been investigated. In this study, the effectiveness of four vaccination programmes currently in use in the UK poultry industry was evaluated against challenge with one SE strain, one ST strain and two mST strains. A Bayesian model was used to estimate the impact of vaccination on the rate of faecal shedding and on egg contamination. For the majority of vaccine/challenge strain combinations, there was little or no effect of vaccination on the proportion of birds shedding Salmonella for either biphasic or monophasic strains. However, vaccination was effective at reducing egg contamination. A significantly lower proportion of eggshells were positive for the vaccinated birds compared with non-vaccinated birds, including the mST strains (vaccination resulted in a 55% and 21% reduction for the two mST strains). Calculated across all strains, the estimated rate of positive egg contents was lower in vaccinated birds (Bayesian median was 0.13% for vaccinated birds versus 0.27% for non-vaccinated birds). For both vaccinated and unvaccinated birds, there was also an apparent difference in the proportion of positive organs between strains, with the SE strain resulting in a lower proportion of positive organs at post-mortem examination compared with the other strains.

  5. Excitons recombination investigation in CdSe/ZnS quantum dots solutions by pump-probe technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulagina, A. S.; Danilov, V. V.; Shilov, V. B.; Grigorenko, K. M.; Vlasov, V. V.; Ermolaeva, G. M.

    2017-07-01

    It reports results of the pump-probe experiment on colloidal solutions of semiconductor CdSe/ZnS quantum dots with 5 nm diameter for intense pulsed resonant excitation at 560 nm wavelength. The dependence of intensity of a transmitted probe pulse on time delay relative to the pump pulse was used to determine relaxation time τexc of excited excitons in the QDs. The intensity of nonlinear reducing of QDs solution transmittance served the reason to set it for pump pulse. We found that the excited states in the QDs recombine within 300 ps after interaction with a 20-ps pump pulse.

  6. A Three-Component Model for Magnetization Transfer. Solution by Projection-Operator Technique, and Application to Cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Ronald S.; Swanson, Scott D.; Yeung, Hong N.

    1996-01-01

    A projection-operator technique is applied to a general three-component model for magnetization transfer, extending our previous two-component model [R. S. Adler and H. N. Yeung,J. Magn. Reson. A104,321 (1993), and H. N. Yeung, R. S. Adler, and S. D. Swanson,J. Magn. Reson. A106,37 (1994)]. The PO technique provides an elegant means of deriving a simple, effective rate equation in which there is natural separation of relaxation and source terms and allows incorporation of Redfield-Provotorov theory without any additional assumptions or restrictive conditions. The PO technique is extended to incorporate more general, multicomponent models. The three-component model is used to fit experimental data from samples of human hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage. The fits of the three-component model are compared to the fits of the two-component model.

  7. Analytical solutions of the QCD⊗QED DGLAP evolution equations based on the Mellin transform technique in NLO approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottaghizadeh, Marzieh; Taghavi Shahri, Fatemeh; Eslami, Parvin

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we present a new and efficient analytical solutions for evolving the QCD⊗QED DGLAP evolution equations in Mellin space and obtain the parton distribution functions (PDFs) in perturbative QCD including the QED corrections. The validity of our analytical solutions, which have done in the next to leading order QCD and the leading order QED approximations, are checked with the initial parton distributions from newly released CT14QED global analysis code (Schmidt et al., 2016 [9]). The evolved parton distribution functions are in good agreement with CT14QED PDFs set and also with those from APFEL (Bertone et al., 2014 [7]) program. Finally, we derived the impact of the NLO QED corrections to the QCD⊗QED DGLAP evolution equations.

  8. Corrosion and corrosion inhibition of Al and some alloys in sulphate solutions containing halide ions investigated by an impedance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehim, Sayed S. Abdel; Hassan, Hamdi H.; Amin, Mohammed A.

    2002-02-01

    This paper reports the results of impedance measurements on the corrosion behaviour of pure Al, (Al+6%Cu) and (Al+6%Si) alloys in Na 2SO 4 solutions in the absence and presence of NaCl, NaBr and NaI under the influence of various experimental variables at the open circuit potential (OCP). We find that in the absence of halide ions the rates of corrosion of the three Al samples are enhanced with increasing concentration, acidity, and alkalinity of the Na 2SO 4 solution and in the presence of halide ions. The corrosion resistance increases in the order Al<(Al+6%Cu)<(Al+6%Si). The aggressiveness of the halide ions towards the corrosion of Al and its two alloys increases in the order: I -
    solution (except NO 3-) are to inhibit the corrosion of the three samples to an extent depending on the nature of the inhibitor.

  9. Improvement of Physico-mechanical Properties of Partially Amorphous Acetaminophen Developed from Hydroalcoholic Solution Using Spray Drying Technique

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Torab, Mansour; Khattab, Mostafa; Homayouni, Alireza; Afrasiabi Garekani, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): This study was performed aiming to investigate the effect of particle engineering via spray drying of hydroalcoholic solution on solid states and physico-mechanical properties of acetaminophen. Materials and Methods: Spray drying of hydroalcoholic solution (25% v/v ethanol/water) of acetaminophen (5% w/v) in the presence of small amounts of polyninylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP) (0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5% w/w based on acetaminophen weight) was carried out. The properties of spray dried particles namely morphology, surface characteristics, particle size, crystallinity, dissolution rate and compactibility were evaluated. Results: Spray drying process significantly changed the morphology of acetaminophen crystals from acicular (rod shape) to spherical microparticle. Differential scanning calorimetery (DSC) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) studies ruled out any polymorphism in spray dried samples, however, a major reduction in crystallinity up to 65%, especially for those containing 5% w/w PVP was observed. Spray dried acetaminophen particles especially those obtained in the presence of PVP exhibited an obvious improvement of the dissolution and compaction properties. Tablets produced from spray dried samples exhibited excellent crushing strengths and no tendency to cap. Conclusions: The findings of this study revealed that spray drying of acetaminophen from hydroalcoholic solution in the presence of small amount of PVP produced partially amorphous particles with improved dissolution and excellent compaction properties. PMID:24379968

  10. Retention of barium and europium radionuclides from aqueous solutions on ash-based sorbents by application of radiochemical techniques.

    PubMed

    Noli, Fotini; Kapnisti, Maria; Buema, Gabriela; Harja, Maria

    2016-10-01

    New materials were synthesized for application in sorption of radionuclides from aqueous solutions. The elaboration was performed by conversion of power plant ash using the hydrothermal method under optimum experimental conditions. Sodalite, Na-Y, and analcime were formed from ash precursor during the treatment, exhibiting thermal stability as revealed by the characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and pore volume were determined and they presented higher values than plant ash. The ability of the new products to retain Ba and Eu radionuclides was studied in aqueous solutions using (133)Ba and (152)Eu as tracers and γ-ray spectroscopy under batch experiments. The experimental data were modeled by the Langmuir and Freundlich equations, whereas sorption kinetics measurements were performed at 293, 308, and 323K and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The release of the sorbed ions into the environment was also tested by leaching experiments. The results of these tests indicated that the synthesized materials are very efficient in removing the aforementioned metals from aqueous solutions and can be considered as potential low-cost sorbents in nuclear waste management.

  11. A refinement of Hong's technique for the removal of stuck dialysis catheters: an easy solution to a complex problem.

    PubMed

    Quaretti, Pietro; Galli, Franco; Fiorina, Ilaria; Moramarco, Lorenzo Paolo; Spina, Monica; Forneris, Giacomo; Torresi, Mario; Bellazzi, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    A long-term tunneled hemodialysis catheter can be difficult or impossible to pull out if a fibrin sleeve has attached it to the venous wall. We report the outcome of a refinement of Hong's technique for removing incarcerated catheters aimed at improving its feasibility and safety. We applied a modification of Hong's technique in four patients (two males, age ranging from 51 to 68 years) with jugular twin hemodialysis catheters (five of eight lines incarcerated). Hong pioneered the technique of endoballooning to expand a stuck central venous catheter, thus freeing it from adhesions. In our technical refinement, we cut the catheter close to its venous entry point in order to facilitate pullout and inserted a valved introducer as access for guide wires as well as for inflations of the catheter balloon. A stiff guide wire was placed in the inferior vena cava to avoid potential damage to heart cavities. Dilation was monitored under fluoroscopy with constrictions showing points where the catheter was incarcerated. If adhesions persisted through the same introducer, endoluminal dilations were repeated with a larger diameter balloon until the catheter was released. New catheters can be positioned using the stiff guide wire already in place. All removals were carried out under local anesthesia in an angiographic room by interventional radiologists. All catheters were successfully removed without complications. Average fluoroscopy time for removal was 12 minutes. In the case of a Tesio catheter removed after 12 years because of infection, a computed tomography scan 2 months later revealed persistence of a calcified fibrin sleeve in the vessel. Hong's technique was confirmed to be a simple, safe and highly effective way to remove incarcerated long-term central venous catheters. The refinements we adopted made the procedure more flexible and possibly less prone to complications. By properly using ordinary tools available anywhere, Hong's technique could be considered Columbus

  12. Comparison of laser-ablation and solution-mode ICP-MS techniques for measuring speleothem 87Sr/86Sr values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wortham, B. E.; Wong, C. I.; Montanez, I. P.; Silva, L. C. R.; Rasbury, T.; Glessner, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Reconstructing past changes in precipitation amount is critical to delineating controls on paleovegetation dynamics in South America. Although speleothem, lake, and ice core δ18O records from the region serve as a proxy of monsoon intensity, δ18O values do not serve as a direct proxy of local precipitation amount. To address this, we are developing a reconstruction of past moisture conditions using 87Sr/86Sr values measured in a fast growing speleothem (~2 mm/yr) from the central Brazilian savanna for which a late Holocene (0-1.8 ka) δ18O record has previously been developed. Speleothem 87Sr/86Sr values reflect the degree of water-rock interaction, as dictated by water residence time, and are used to interpret relative moisture conditions. In this study, we explore the potential of developing a high-resolution speleothem 87Sr/86Sr record using laser-ablation multi-collector ICP-MS by comparing analyses generated using both laser- and solution-mode techniques. Laser-mode techniques allow for sampling of individual speleothem lamina, which provides a higher resolution record than solution-mode techniques and eliminates the potential of contamination from conventional drilling. Preliminary results from a younger portion of the speleothem yield a laser-mode (averaged) value of 0.72294 ± 0.00046 (reproduced with parallel scans) and a solution mode value of 0.72338 ± 0.00002 suggesting that these methods provide analogous 87Sr/86Sr values. However, the preliminary results on an older portion of this speleothem have solution- mode derived values of 0.72239 ± 0.00001 and 0.72166 ± 0.00001, with corresponding laser-mode values of 0.72188 ± 0.00029 and 0.72102 ± 0.00037, respectively. Suggesting that in the older portion of the speleothem, laser-mode techniques do not yield analogous solution-mode 87Sr/86Sr values. These differences in different areas of the speleothem highlight the need for method development and further testing.

  13. In situ solvent formation microextraction based on ionic liquids: a novel sample preparation technique for determination of inorganic species in saline solutions.

    PubMed

    Baghdadi, Majid; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2009-02-23

    In this research, a novel microextraction technique based on ionic liquids (ILs) termed in situ solvent formation microextraction (ISFME) is developed. In this method, small amount of sodium hexafluorophosphate (NaPF(6), as an ion-pairing agent) was added to the sample solution containing very small amount of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Hmim][BF(4)], as hydrophilic IL). A cloudy solution was formed as a result of formation of fine droplets of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [Hmim][PF(6)]. After centrifuging, the fine droplets of the extractant phase settled to the bottom of the conical-bottom glass centrifuge tube. ISFME is a simple and rapid method for extraction and preconcentration of metal ions from water samples and can be applied for the sample solutions containing very high concentrations of salt. Furthermore, this technique is much safer in comparison with the organic solvent extraction. Reliability of the introduced methodology was evaluated by analyzing water reference material. ISFME was successfully applied to determining mercury (II) in several real water samples. Michler thioketone (TMK) was chosen as a complexing agent. Analysis was carried out using spectrophotometric detection method. Type and amount of IL, temperature and the other parameters were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.7 ng mL(-1) and the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was 1.94% for 40 ng mL(-1) mercury.

  14. Development of new techniques for the characterization of crystals and their growth solutions: Center director's discretionary fund

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroes, Roger L.; Reiss, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    The solubility measurement system and the laser scattering microscope system were designed, built, and utilized for the study of crystal growth solutions and crystal characterization measurements. Solubility measurements and crystal defect maps were made with this equipment for a number of new materials. In some cases, where there have been published solubility data (i.e., TGS), more accurate measurements were made and discrepancies in the published data were resolved. The design of these instruments is presented along with a description of their use and some typical data generated using them.

  15. Determination of dextrose in peritoneal dialysis solution by localized surface plasmon resonance technique based on silver nanoparticles formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masrournia, Mahboube; Montazarolmahdi, Maliheh; Sani, Faramarz Aliasghari

    2017-07-01

    Determination of dextrose in peritoneal dialysis with a method based on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) formation was investigated. In a green chemistry method, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in the natural polymeric matrix of gelatin. The nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Absorbance signal of AgNPs could be applied to determine the various concentrations of dextrose solutions. Drop wise and ultrasonic methods were used and compared with each other. The dynamic range of methods with limit of detection and relative standard deviations were obtained. Results for real sample (peritoneal dialysis) were satisfied.

  16. Value-Focused Thinking in the Presence of Weight Ambiguity: A Solution Technique Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    attribute utility model based on multi-attribute utility theory ( MAUT ) described by Keeney and Raiffa (Keeney and Raiffa, 1976: 436-472). The Lavelle et...addresses utility theory and value preferences, the use of weights, properties of decision makers, ambiguity, alternative selection, Monte Carlo...narrowed to discuss utility theory , value theory and Value-Focused Thinking (VFT) specifically. After reviewing these theories and techniques, the

  17. Small‐angle X‐ray scattering as a useful supplementary technique to determine molecular masses of polyelectrolytes in solution

    PubMed Central

    Plazzotta, Beatrice; Diget, Jakob Stensgaard; Zhu, Kaizheng; Nyström, Bo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Determination of molecular masses of charged polymers is often nontrivial and most methods have their drawbacks. For polyelectrolytes, a new possibility for the determination of number‐average molecular masses is represented by small‐angle X‐ray scattering (SAXS) which allows fast determinations with a 10% accuracy. This is done by relating the mass to the position of a characteristic peak feature which arises in SAXS due to the local ordering caused by charge‐repulsions between polyelectrolytes. Advantages of the technique are the simplicity of data analysis, the independency from polymer architecture, and the low sample and time consumption. The method was tested on polyelectrolytes of various structures and chemical compositions, and the results were compared with those obtained from more conventional techniques, such as asymmetric flow field‐flow fractionation, gel permeation chromatography, and classical SAXS data analysis, showing that the accuracy of the suggested method is similar to that of the other techniques. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2016, 54, 1913–1917 PMID:27840558

  18. Small-angle X-ray scattering as a useful supplementary technique to determine molecular masses of polyelectrolytes in solution.

    PubMed

    Plazzotta, Beatrice; Diget, Jakob Stensgaard; Zhu, Kaizheng; Nyström, Bo; Pedersen, Jan Skov

    2016-10-01

    Determination of molecular masses of charged polymers is often nontrivial and most methods have their drawbacks. For polyelectrolytes, a new possibility for the determination of number-average molecular masses is represented by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) which allows fast determinations with a 10% accuracy. This is done by relating the mass to the position of a characteristic peak feature which arises in SAXS due to the local ordering caused by charge-repulsions between polyelectrolytes. Advantages of the technique are the simplicity of data analysis, the independency from polymer architecture, and the low sample and time consumption. The method was tested on polyelectrolytes of various structures and chemical compositions, and the results were compared with those obtained from more conventional techniques, such as asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation, gel permeation chromatography, and classical SAXS data analysis, showing that the accuracy of the suggested method is similar to that of the other techniques. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2016, 54, 1913-1917.

  19. Evaporation-Driven Deposition of ITO Thin Films from Aqueous Solutions with Low-Speed Dip-Coating Technique.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takashi; Uchiyama, Hiroaki; Kozuka, Hiromitsu

    2017-05-30

    We suggest a novel wet coating process for preparing indium tin oxide (ITO) films from simple solutions containing only metal salts and water via evaporation-driven film deposition during low-speed dip coating. Homogeneous ITO precursor films were deposited on silica glass substrates from the aqueous solutions containing In(NO3)3·3H2O and SnCl4·5H2O by dip coating at substrate withdrawal speeds of 0.20-0.50 cm min(-1) and then crystallized by the heat treatment at 500-800 °C for 10-60 min under N2 gas flow of 0.5 L min(-1). The ITO films heated at 600 °C for 30 min had a high optical transparency in the visible range and a good electrical conductivity. Multiple-coating ITO films obtained with five-times dip coating exhibited the lowest sheet (ρS) and volume (ρV) resistivities of 188 Ω sq(-1) and 4.23 × 10(-3) Ω cm, respectively.

  20. Creation technique and nonlinear optics of dynamic one-dimensional photonic crystals in colloidal solution of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. M.; Golinskaya, A. D.; Ezhova, K.; Kozlova, M.; Stebakova, J. V.; Valchuk, Y. V.

    2017-05-01

    One-dimensional dynamic photonic crystal was formed by a periodic spatial modulation of dielectric permittivity induced by the two ultrashort laser pulses interference in semiconductor quantum dots CdSe/ZnS (QDs) colloidal solution intersecting at angle θ. The fundamental differences of dynamic photonic crystals from static ones which determine the properties of these transient structures are the following. I. Dynamic photonic crystals lifetimes are determined by the nature of nonlinear changes of dielectric permittivity. II. The refractive index changing is determined by the intensity of the induced standing wave maxima and nonlinear susceptibility of the sample. We use the pump and probe method to create the dynamic one-dimensional photonic crystal and to analyze its features. Two focused laser beams are the pump beams, that form in the colloidal solution of quantum dots dynamic one-dimensional photonic crystal. The picosecond continuum, generated by the first harmonic of laser (1064 nm) passing through a heavy water is used as the probe beam. The self-diffraction of pumping beams on self induced dynamic one-dimensional photonic crystal provides information about spatial combining of laser beams.

  1. Electrically conductive nanostructured silver doped zinc oxide (Ag:ZnO) prepared by solution-immersion technique

    SciTech Connect

    Afaah, A. N. Asib, N. A. M. Aadila, A. Khusaimi, Z.; Mohamed, R.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-06

    p-type ZnO films have been fabricated on ZnO-seeded glass substrate, using AgNO{sub 3} as a source of silver dopant by facile solution-immersion. Cleaned glass substrate were seeded with ZnO by mist-atomisation, and next the seeded substrates were immersed in Ag:ZnO solution. The effects of Ag doping concentration on the Ag-doped ZnO have been investigated. The substrates were immersed in different concentrations of Ag dopant with variation of 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 at. %. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). In order to investigate the electrical properties, the films were characterized by Current-Voltage (I-V) measurement. FESEM micrographs showed uniform distribution of nanostructured ZnO and Ag:ZnO. Besides, the electrical properties of Ag-doped ZnO were also dependent on the doping concentration. The I-V measurement result indicated the electrical properties of 1 at. % Ag:ZnO thin film owned highest electrical conductivity.

  2. An enhanced security solution for electronic medical records based on AES hybrid technique with SOAP/XML and SHA-1.

    PubMed

    Kiah, M L Mat; Nabi, Mohamed S; Zaidan, B B; Zaidan, A A

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to provide security solutions for implementing electronic medical records (EMRs). E-Health organizations could utilize the proposed method and implement recommended solutions in medical/health systems. Majority of the required security features of EMRs were noted. The methods used were tested against each of these security features. In implementing the system, the combination that satisfied all of the security features of EMRs was selected. Secure implementation and management of EMRs facilitate the safeguarding of the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of e-health organization systems. Health practitioners, patients, and visitors can use the information system facilities safely and with confidence anytime and anywhere. After critically reviewing security and data transmission methods, a new hybrid method was proposed to be implemented on EMR systems. This method will enhance the robustness, security, and integration of EMR systems. The hybrid of simple object access protocol/extensible markup language (XML) with advanced encryption standard and secure hash algorithm version 1 has achieved the security requirements of an EMR system with the capability of integrating with other systems through the design of XML messages.

  3. The innovative safe fixative for histology, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry techniques: "pilot study using shellac alcoholic solution fixative".

    PubMed

    Ali Jamal, Awatif; Abd El-Aziz, Gamal Said; Hamdy, Raid Mahmoud; Al-Hayani, Abdulmonem; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah

    2014-05-01

    The concerns over health and workplace hazards of formalin fixative, joined to its cross-linking of molecular groups that results in suboptimal immunohistochemistry, led us to search for an innovative safe fixative. Shellac is a natural material which is used as a preservative in foods and pharmaceutical industries. This study was undertaken to evaluate the fixation adequacy and staining quality of histopathological specimens fixed in the "shellac alcoholic solution" (SAS), and also to determine the validity of immunohistochemical staining of SAS-fixed material in comparison to those fixed in formalin. Fresh samples from 26 cases from various human tissues were collected at the frozen section room of King Abdulaziz University Hospital, and fixed in SAS fixative or in neutral buffered formaldehyde (NBF) for 12, 18, 24, and 48 h, and processed for paraffin sectioning. Deparaffinized sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunostained for different antigens. The tissues fixed in SAS for >18 h showed best staining quality of H&E comparable to NBF-fixed tissues. Comparison of the immunohistochemical staining of different tissues yielded nearly equivalent readings with good positive nuclear staining quality in both fixatives. These findings support the fixation and preservation adequacy of SAS. Furthermore, it was concluded that the good staining quality obtained with SAS-fixed tissues, which was more or less comparable with the quality obtained with the formalin fixed tissues, supports the validity of this new solution as a good innovative fixative.

  4. Directional spectra of ocean waves from microwave backscatter: A physical optics solution with application to the short-pulse and two-frequency measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, F. C.

    1979-01-01

    Two simple microwave radar techniques that are potentially capable of providing routine satellite measurements of the directional spectrum of ocean waves were developed. One technique, the short pulse technique, makes use of very short pulses to resolve ocean surface wave contrast features in the range direction; the other technique, the two frequency correlation technique makes use of coherency in the transmitted waveform to detect the large ocean wave contrast modulation as a beat or mixing frequency in the power backscattered at two closely separated microwave frequencies. A frequency domain analysis of the short pulse and two frequency systems shows that the two measurement systems are essentially duals; they each operate on the generalized (three frequency) fourth-order statistical moment of the surface transfer function in different, but symmetrical ways, and they both measure the same directional contrast modulation spectrum. A three dimensional physical optics solution for the fourth-order moment was obtained for backscatter in the near vertical, specular regime, assuming Gaussian surface statistics.

  5. Study of influence of fuel on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of bismuth titanate ceramics synthesized using solution based combustion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subohi, Oroosa; Kumar, G. S.; Malik, M. M.; Kurchania, Rajnish

    2015-03-01

    The effect of fuel characteristics on the processing and properties of bismuth titanate (BIT) ceramics obtained by solution combustion route using different fuels are reported in this paper. Dextrose, urea and glycine were used as fuel in this study. The obtained bismuth titanate ceramics were characterized by using XRD, SEM at different stages of sample preparation. It was observed that BIT obtained by using dextrose as fuel shows higher dielectric constant and higher remnant polarization due to smaller grain size and lesser c-axis growth as compared to the samples with urea and glycine as fuel. The electrical behavior of the samples with respect to temperature and frequency was also investigated to understand relaxation phenomenon.

  6. Environmental stability of solution processed Al-doped ZnO naoparticulate thin films using surface modification technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vunnam, Swathi; Ankireddy, Krishnamraju; Kellar, Jon; Cross, William

    2014-12-01

    The environmental stability of solution processed Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films was enhanced by functionalizing the film surface with a thin self-assembled molecular layer. Functionalization of AZO films was performed using two types of molecules having identical 12-carbon alkyl chain termination but different functional groups: dodecanethiol (DDT) and dodecanoic acid (DDA). Surface modified AZO films were examined using electrical resistivity measurements, contact angle measurements and quantitative nanomechanical property mapping atomic force microscopy. The hydrophobic layer inhibits the penetration of oxygen and water into the AZO's grain boundaries thus significantly increasing the environmental stability over unmodified AZO. Surface modified AZO films using DDT exhibited lower electrical resistivity compared to DDA functionalized AZO films. Our study demonstrates a new approach for improving the physical properties of oxide based nanoparticulate films for device applications.

  7. Synthesis of multifunctional nanostructured zinc-iron mixed oxide photocatalyst by a simple solution-combustion technique.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Gajendra Kumar; Martha, Satyabadi; Parida, K M

    2012-02-01

    A series of nanostructure zinc-iron mixed oxide photocatalysts have been fabricated by solution-combustion method using urea as the fuel, and nitrate salts of both iron and zinc as the metal source. Different characterization tools, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectra (DRUV-vis), electron microscopy, and photoelectrochemical measurement were employed to establish the structural, electronic, and optical properties of the material. Electron microscopy confirmed the nanostructure of the photocatalyst. The synthesized photocatalysts were examined towards photodegradation of 4-chloro-2-nitro phenol (CNP), rhodamine 6G (R6G), and photocatalytic hydrogen production under visible light (λ ≥ 400 nm). The photocatalyst having zinc to iron ratio of 50:50 showed best photocatalytic activity among all the synthesized photocatalysts.

  8. Evaluation of surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability and gypsum compatibility of monophase polyvinyl-siloxane and polyether elastomeric impression materials under dry and moist conditions

    PubMed Central

    Vadapalli, Sriharsha Babu; Atluri, Kaleswararao; Putcha, Madhu Sudhan; Kondreddi, Sirisha; Kumar, N. Suman; Tadi, Durga Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This in vitro study was designed to compare polyvinyl-siloxane (PVS) monophase and polyether (PE) monophase materials under dry and moist conditions for properties such as surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability, and gypsum compatibility. Materials and Methods: Surface detail reproduction was evaluated using two criteria. Dimensional stability was evaluated according to American Dental Association (ADA) specification no. 19. Gypsum compatibility was assessed by two criteria. All the samples were evaluated, and the data obtained were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's Chi-square tests. Results: When surface detail reproduction was evaluated with modification of ADA specification no. 19, both the groups under the two conditions showed no significant difference statistically. When evaluated macroscopically both the groups showed statistically significant difference. Results for dimensional stability showed that the deviation from standard was significant among the two groups, where Aquasil group showed significantly more deviation compared to Impregum group (P < 0.001). Two conditions also showed significant difference, with moist conditions showing significantly more deviation compared to dry condition (P < 0.001). The results of gypsum compatibility when evaluated with modification of ADA specification no. 19 and by giving grades to the casts for both the groups and under two conditions showed no significant difference statistically. Conclusion: Regarding dimensional stability, both impregum and aquasil performed better in dry condition than in moist; impregum performed better than aquasil in both the conditions. When tested for surface detail reproduction according to ADA specification, under dry and moist conditions both of them performed almost equally. When tested according to macroscopic evaluation, impregum and aquasil performed significantly better in dry condition compared to moist condition. In dry

  9. Pre-Saturation Technique of the Recycled Aggregates: Solution to the Water Absorption Drawback in the Recycled Concrete Manufacture.

    PubMed

    García-González, Julia; Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-Del Pozo, Julia Mª; Guerra-Romero, M Ignacio

    2014-09-01

    The replacement of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates in the concrete manufacturing has been spreading worldwide as a recycling method to counteract the large amount of construction and demolition waste. Although legislation in this field is still not well developed, many investigations demonstrate the possibilities of success of this trend given that concrete with satisfactory mechanical and durability properties could be achieved. However, recycled aggregates present a low quality compared to natural aggregates, the water absorption being their main drawback. When used untreated in concrete mix, the recycled aggregate absorb part of the water initially calculated for the cement hydration, which will adversely affect some characteristics of the recycled concrete. This article seeks to demonstrate that the technique of pre-saturation is able to solve the aforementioned problem. In order to do so, the water absorption of the aggregates was tested to determine the necessary period of soaking to bring the recycled aggregates into a state of suitable humidity for their incorporation into the mixture. Moreover, several concrete mixes were made with different replacement percentages of natural aggregate and various periods of pre-saturation. The consistency and compressive strength of the concrete mixes were tested to verify the feasibility of the proposed technique.

  10. Pre-Saturation Technique of the Recycled Aggregates: Solution to the Water Absorption Drawback in the Recycled Concrete Manufacture †

    PubMed Central

    García-González, Julia; Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-del Pozo, Julia Mª; Guerra-Romero, M. Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    The replacement of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates in the concrete manufacturing has been spreading worldwide as a recycling method to counteract the large amount of construction and demolition waste. Although legislation in this field is still not well developed, many investigations demonstrate the possibilities of success of this trend given that concrete with satisfactory mechanical and durability properties could be achieved. However, recycled aggregates present a low quality compared to natural aggregates, the water absorption being their main drawback. When used untreated in concrete mix, the recycled aggregate absorb part of the water initially calculated for the cement hydration, which will adversely affect some characteristics of the recycled concrete. This article seeks to demonstrate that the technique of pre-saturation is able to solve the aforementioned problem. In order to do so, the water absorption of the aggregates was tested to determine the necessary period of soaking to bring the recycled aggregates into a state of suitable humidity for their incorporation into the mixture. Moreover, several concrete mixes were made with different replacement percentages of natural aggregate and various periods of pre-saturation. The consistency and compressive strength of the concrete mixes were tested to verify the feasibility of the proposed technique. PMID:28788188

  11. Numerical solution for 5-layer laminate technique to determine saturation solubility of a drug in a thin film of pressure sensitive adhesive.

    PubMed

    Bänsch, Eberhard; Reismann, Simone; Lee, Geoffrey

    2014-08-01

    A numerical solution of the one-dimensional diffusion equation is presented to describe the 5-layer laminate technique for estimating the saturation solubility of a drug in a thin polymer film. The boundary and initial conditions encompass a donor layer, a separating membrane, and an acceptor layer. Alteration of the drug's partition coefficient between donor and separating membrane has little influence on drug accumulation with the acceptor. The diffusivity in the separating membrane should be high to promote a short experimental time to achieve saturation equilibrium in the acceptor layer. The essential parameter to give rapid equilibrium is the thickness of the acceptor polymer film. For values of diffusivity typical for drugs of molecular weight around 500 an acceptor layer thickness of 10 µm-20 µm is required to achieve equilibrium within less than 10 d. These simulations allow the selection of suitable experimental conditions to make the 5-layer laminate technique a viable method for routine use.

  12. Application of dye-tracing techniques for determining solute-transport characteristics of ground water in karst terranes

    SciTech Connect

    Mull, D.S.; Liebermann, T.D.; Smoot, J.L.; Woosley, L.H.

    1988-10-01

    Approximately 20% of the United States is underlain by karst aquifers. This approximation includes roughly 50% of both Kentucky and Tennessee, substantial portions of northern Georgia and Alabama, and parts of other Region IV states. The prevalence of karst aquifers in the southeast, the common use of karst aquifers as drinking water sources and the vulnerability of these aquifers to contamination highlighted the need to provide a mechanism to assist in ground-water management and protection in karst terranes. In an attempt to meet this need, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)--Region IV and the Kentucky District of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), have been cooperating to document the application of dye tracing techniques and concepts to ground-water protection in karst aquifers. These efforts have resulted in the preparation of the manual. The information presented herein should be viewed as another analytical 'tool' to assist in the management and protection of karst water supplies.

  13. On Bi-Grid Local Mode Analysis of Solution Techniques for 3-D Euler and Navier-Stokes Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibraheem, S. O.; Demuren, A. O.

    1994-01-01

    A procedure is presented for utilizing a bi-grid stability analysis as a practical tool for predicting multigrid performance in a range of numerical methods for solving Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. Model problems based on the convection, diffusion and Burger's equation are used to illustrate the superiority of the bi-grid analysis as a predictive tool for multigrid performance in comparison to the smoothing factor derived from conventional von Neumann analysis. For the Euler equations, bi-grid analysis is presented for three upwind difference based factorizations, namely Spatial, Eigenvalue and Combination splits, and two central difference based factorizations, namely LU and ADI methods. In the former, both the Steger-Warming and van Leer flux-vector splitting methods are considered. For the Navier-Stokes equations, only the Beam-Warming (ADI) central difference scheme is considered. In each case, estimates of multigrid convergence rates from the bi-grid analysis are compared to smoothing factors obtained from single-grid stability analysis. Effects of grid aspect ratio and flow skewness are examined. Both predictions are compared with practical multigrid convergence rates for 2-D Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions based on the Beam-Warming central scheme.

  14. Multilayer Growth of Porphyrin-Based Polyurea Thin Film Using Solution-Based Molecular Layer Deposition Technique.

    PubMed

    Uddin, S M Nizam; Nagao, Yuki

    2017-10-12

    Controllable synthesis of organic thin film materials on solid surfaces is a challenging issue in the research field of surface science as it is affected by several physical parameters. In this work, we demonstrated a solution-based molecular layer deposition (MLD) approach to prepare porphyrin-based covalent organic molecular networks on a 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTMS) modified substrate surface using the urea coupling reaction between 1,4-phenylene diisocyanate (1,4-PDI) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-aminophenyl) porphyrin (H2TAPP) at room temperature (22 ± 2 ºC). Multilayer growth was investigated under different relative humidity (RH) conditions of the reaction chamber. Sequential molecular growth at low relative humidity (≤10% RH) was observed using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The high-RH condition shows limited film growth. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed the polyurea bond formation in sequential multilayer thin films, demonstrating that stepwise multilayer film growth was achieved using the urea coupling reaction.

  15. Formalisms for Electron Exchange Kinetics in Aqueous Solution, and the Role of Ab Initio Techniques in Their Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    Formalisms suitable for calculating the rate of electron exchange between transition metal complexes in aqueous solution are reviewed and implemented in conjunction with ab initio quantum chemical calculations which provide crucial off-diagonal Hamiltonian matrix elements as well as other relevant electronic structural data. Rate constants and activation parameters are calculated for the hex-aquo Fe2 +-Fe3+ system, using a simple activated complex theory, a non-adiabatic semi-classical model which includes nuclear tunnelling, and a more detailed quantum mechanical method based on the Golden Rule. Comparisons are made between calculated results and those obtained by extrapolating experimental data to zero ionic strength. All methods yield similar values for the overall rate constant (∾ 0.1 L/(mol-sec)). The experimental activation parameters (δH and δS) are in somewhat better agreement with the semi classical and quantum mechanical results than with those from the simple activated complex theory, thereby providing some indication that non-adiabaticity and nuclear tunnelling may be important in the Fe2+/3+ exchange reaction. It is concluded that a model based on direct metal-metal overlap can account for the observed reaction kinetics provided the reactants are allowed to approach well within the traditional contact distance of 6.9 Å. 6 figures, 7 tables.

  16. Physicochemical, bioactive, and sensory properties of persimmon-based ice cream: technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution to determine optimum concentration.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Safa; Toker, Ömer Said; Yüksel, Ferhat; Çam, Mustafa; Kayacier, Ahmed; Dogan, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, persimmon puree was incorporated into the ice cream mix at different concentrations (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40%) and some physicochemical (dry matter, ash, protein, pH, sugar, fat, mineral, color, and viscosity), textural (hardness, stickiness, and work of penetration), bioactive (antiradical activity and total phenolic content), and sensory properties of samples were investigated. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach was used for the determination of optimum persimmon puree concentration based on the sensory and bioactive characteristics of final products. Increase in persimmon puree resulted in a decrease in the dry matter, ash, fat, protein contents, and viscosity of ice cream mix. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and lactose were determined to be major sugars in the ice cream samples including persimmon and increase in persimmon puree concentration increased the fructose and glucose content. Better melting properties and textural characteristics were observed for the samples with the addition of persimmon. Magnesium, K, and Ca were determined to be major minerals in the samples and only K concentration increased with the increase in persimmon content. Bioactive properties of ice cream samples improved and, in general, acetone-water extracts showed higher bioactivity compared with ones obtained using methanol-water extracts. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach showed that the most preferred sample was the ice cream containing 24% persimmon puree.

  17. Behavior of the thermal diffusivity of native and oxidized human low-density lipoprotein solutions studied by the Z-scan technique.

    PubMed

    Santos, Priscila R; Genaro-Mattos, Thiago C; Monteiro, Andrea M; Miyamoto, Sayuri; Figueiredo Neto, Antonio M

    2012-10-01

    Modifications in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) have emerged as a major pathogenic factor of atherosclerosis, which is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Measurements of the heat diffusivity of human LDL solutions in their native and in vitro oxidized states are presented by using the Z-Scan (ZS) technique. Other complementary techniques were used to obtain the physical parameters necessary to interpret the optical results, e.g., pycnometry, refractometry, calorimetry, and spectrophotometry, and to understand the oxidation phase of LDL particles. To determine the sample's thermal diffusivity using the thermal lens model, an iterative one-parameter fitting method is proposed which takes into account several characteristic ZS time-dependent and the position-dependent transmittance measurements. Results show that the thermal diffusivity increases as a function of the LDL oxidation degree, which can be explained by the increase of the hydroperoxides production due to the oxidation process. The oxidation products go from one LDL to another, disseminating the oxidation process and caring the heat across the sample. This phenomenon leads to a quick thermal homogenization of the sample, avoiding the formation of the thermal lens in highly oxidized LDL solutions.

  18. Behavior of the thermal diffusivity of native and oxidized human low-density lipoprotein solutions studied by the Z-scan technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Priscila R.; Genaro-Mattos, Thiago C.; Monteiro, Andrea M.; Miyamoto, Sayuri; Figueiredo Neto, Antonio M.

    2012-10-01

    Modifications in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) have emerged as a major pathogenic factor of atherosclerosis, which is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Measurements of the heat diffusivity of human LDL solutions in their native and in vitro oxidized states are presented by using the Z-Scan (ZS) technique. Other complementary techniques were used to obtain the physical parameters necessary to interpret the optical results, e.g., pycnometry, refractometry, calorimetry, and spectrophotometry, and to understand the oxidation phase of LDL particles. To determine the sample's thermal diffusivity using the thermal lens model, an iterative one-parameter fitting method is proposed which takes into account several characteristic ZS time-dependent and the position-dependent transmittance measurements. Results show that the thermal diffusivity increases as a function of the LDL oxidation degree, which can be explained by the increase of the hydroperoxides production due to the oxidation process. The oxidation products go from one LDL to another, disseminating the oxidation process and caring the heat across the sample. This phenomenon leads to a quick thermal homogenization of the sample, avoiding the formation of the thermal lens in highly oxidized LDL solutions.

  19. The growth of benzophenone crystals by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method and slow evaporation solution technique (SEST): A comparative investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Senthil Pandian, M.; Boopathi, K.; Ramasamy, P.; Bhagavannarayana, G.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Benzophenone single crystal was grown by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy method which has the sizes of 1060 mm length and 55 mm diameter for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conventional and SR-grown benzophenone crystals were characterized and compared using HRXRD, etching, laser damage threshold, microhardness, UV-transmittance, birefringence and dielectric analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SR-grown benzophenone crystal has higher LDT, microhardness, transparency, dielectric permittivity, birefringence and lower FWHM, EPD, dielectric loss than the crystal grown by conventional method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The probable reason for higher crystalline perfection in SR-grown crystal was discussed. -- Abstract: Longest unidirectional Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket 1 0 0 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket benzophenone (BP) crystal having dimension of 1060 mm length and 55 mm diameter was grown by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy method. The growth rate was measured by monitoring the elevation of the crystal-solution interface at different temperatures. The high resolution X-ray diffraction and etching measurements indicate that the unidirectional grown benzophenone crystal has good crystalline perfection and less density of defects. The optical damage threshold of SEST and SR grown BP crystals has been investigated and found that the SR grown benzophenone crystal has higher laser damage threshold value than the conventional method grown crystal. Microhardness measurement shows that crystals grown by SR method have a higher mechanical stability than the crystals grown by SEST method. Dielectric permittivity and birefringence are high in SR grown crystal compared to SEST grown BP crystal. The UV-vis-NIR results show that SR method grown crystal exhibits 7% higher transmittance as against crystals grown by conventional method.

  20. Use of quantitative microbial risk assessment when investigating foodborne illness outbreaks: the example of a monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium 4,5,12:i:- outbreak implicating beef burgers.

    PubMed

    Guillier, Laurent; Danan, Corinne; Bergis, Hélène; Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure; Granier, Sophie; Rudelle, Sylvie; Beaufort, Annie; Brisabois, Anne

    2013-09-16

    A major community outbreak of salmonellosis occurred in France in October 2010. Classical epidemiological investigations led to the identification of beef burgers as the cause of the outbreak and the presence of the emerging monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium 4,5,12:i:-. The objective of this study was to understand the events that led to this large outbreak, that is to say, what are the contributing factors associated with consumer exposure to Salmonella. To this end, intensive microbiological investigations on several beef burgers were conducted and a risk assessment model was built. The microbiological results confirm the presence of Salmonella in all analysed frozen burgers at high levels of contamination above 1000 MPN/g. These results in frozen burgers combined with a model of thermal destruction were used to estimate the dose ingested by the exposed persons. Most people that consumed cooked beef burgers were exposed from 1.6 to 3.1 log₁₀ (MPN). The number of sick people predicted with a dose-response relationship for Salmonella is consistent with the observed number of salmonellosis cases. The very high initial contamination level in frozen beef burgers is the primary cause of this large outbreak rather than bad cooking practices. Intensive investigations, modelling of the initial contamination and quantitative exposure and risk assessments are complementary to epidemiological investigation. They can be valuable elements for the assessment of missing information or the identification of the primary causes of outbreaks.

  1. Effects of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing nomegestrol acetate and 17β-oestradiol in comparison to one containing levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol on markers of endocrine function

    PubMed Central

    Ågren, Ulla M; Anttilat, Marjatta; Mäenpää-Liukko, Kristiina; Rantala, Maija-Liisa; Rautiainen, Hilkka; Sommer, Werner F; Mommers, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To compare the effects of two monophasic combined oral contraceptives, containing either nomegestrol acetate/17β-oestradiol (NOMAC/E2) or levonorgestrel/ ethinylestradiol (LNG/EE) on endocrine function, androgens, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Methods Randomised, open-label, multi-centre trial involving 121 healthy women, aged 18-50 years old. Participants received NOMAC/E2 (2.5 mg/1.5 mg) in a 24/4-day regimen (n = 60) or LNG/EE (150 μg/30 μg) in a 21/7-day regimen (n = 61) for six cycles. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to cycle 6 in markers of adrenal and thyroid function, androgens, and SHBG. Results Total cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) increased from baseline in both groups, with significantly greater increases in the LNG/EE group. No relevant changes from baseline or differences between the groups were observed for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (T4). Androgens and androgen precursors decreased from baseline in both groups, with significantly greater decreases in the LNG/EE group (except for free testosterone). A greater increase in SHBG was observed with NOMAC/E2 than with LNG/EE. Conclusions NOMAC/E2 has significantly less influence on markers of adrenal and thyroid function and androgens than LNG/EE. The clinical relevance of these findings requires further study. PMID:21942708

  2. Thermal inkjet application in the preparation of oral dosage forms: dispensing of prednisolone solutions and polymorphic characterization by solid-state spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Meléndez, Peter A; Kane, Kevin M; Ashvar, Claudine S; Albrecht, Mary; Smith, Pamela A

    2008-07-01

    The utility of thermal inkjet (TIJ) technology for preparing solid dosage forms of drugs was examined. Solutions of prednisolone in a solvent mixture of ethanol, water, and glycerol (80/17/3 by volume) were dispensed onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene)-coated fiberglass films using TIJ cartridges and a personal printer and using a micropipette for comparison. The post-dried, TIJ-dispensed samples were shown to contain a mixture of prednisolone Forms I and III based on PXRD analyses that were confirmed by Raman analyses. The starting commercial material was determined to be Form I. Samples prepared by dispensing the solution from a micropipette initially showed only Form I; subsequent Raman mapping of these samples revealed the presence of two polymorphs. Raman mapping of the TIJ-dispensed samples also showed both polymorphs. The results indicate that the solvent mixture used in the dispensing solution combined with the thermal treatment of the samples after dispensing were likely the primary reason for the generation of the two polymorphs. The advantages of using a multidisciplinary approach to characterize drug delivery systems are demonstrated using solid state mapping techniques. Both PXRD and Raman spectroscopy were needed to fully characterize the samples. Finally, this report clarifies prednisolone's polymorphic nomenclature existent in the scientific literature.

  3. Development of an integrated BEM approach for hot fluid structure interaction: BEST-FSI: Boundary Element Solution Technique for Fluid Structure Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dargush, G. F.; Banerjee, P. K.; Shi, Y.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the continuing effort at NASA LeRC to improve both the durability and reliability of hot section Earth-to-orbit engine components, significant enhancements must be made in existing finite element and finite difference methods, and advanced techniques, such as the boundary element method (BEM), must be explored. The BEM was chosen as the basic analysis tool because the critical variables (temperature, flux, displacement, and traction) can be very precisely determined with a boundary-based discretization scheme. Additionally, model preparation is considerably simplified compared to the more familiar domain-based methods. Furthermore, the hyperbolic character of high speed flow is captured through the use of an analytical fundamental solution, eliminating the dependence of the solution on the discretization pattern. The price that must be paid in order to realize these advantages is that any BEM formulation requires a considerable amount of analytical work, which is typically absent in the other numerical methods. All of the research accomplishments of a multi-year program aimed toward the development of a boundary element formulation for the study of hot fluid-structure interaction in Earth-to-orbit engine hot section components are detailed. Most of the effort was directed toward the examination of fluid flow, since BEM's for fluids are at a much less developed state. However, significant strides were made, not only in the analysis of thermoviscous fluids, but also in the solution of the fluid-structure interaction problem.

  4. A non-contact mechanical solution for implementing synchronized switching techniques for energy harvesting using reed switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Ya Shan; Vasic, Dejan; Jong Wu, Wen

    2016-12-01

    In this work we proposed a new mechanical method of implementing the synchronized switching technique for piezoelectric energy harvesting based on reed switches. Serving as a mechanical displacement monitor and the switch itself, it holds the merit of non-contact, persistence, and the low voltage threshold of merely a single PN junction. However, as all mechanical switches inherits chattering, or bouncing, energy loss and damping on the inversion was caused. To side pass the chattering, three types of electro-mechanical hybrid switches were furthermore developed to stabilize the interfered current flow: resistor-capacitor snubbers, inductor-capacitor snubbers, and silicon controlled rectifiers (SCRs). Each of the method has its merit and suitable working conditions. Comparing to conventional electrical switches, the proposed switches, greatly reduced the switch impedance since the mechanical switch part provides a physically open switch, and the electrical switch part merely consist of either a diode and a MOSFET pair, or a single SCR. Subsequently, the power loss due to the circuit was efficiently eliminated.

  5. Synthesis and characterizations of hierarchical biomorphic titania oxide by a bio-inspired bottom-up assembly solution technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Qun; Su, Huilan; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Di; Guo, Qixin; Lai, Yijian

    2007-03-01

    As a representative semiconductor metal oxide, hierarchical biomorphic mesoporous TiO 2 with interwoven meshwork conformation was successfully prepared using eggshell membrane (ESM) as a biotemplate by an aqueous soakage technique followed by calcination treatment. The synthesis conditions were systematically investigated by controlling the concentration, the pH value of the precursor impregnant, and so on. The nucleation, growth, and assembly into ESM-biomorphic TiO 2 in our work depended more on the functions of ESM biomacromolecules as well as the processing conditions. As-prepared TiO 2 meshwork exhibiting hierarchical porous structure with the pore size from 2 nm up to 4 μm, was composed of intersectant fibers assembled by nanocrystallites at three dimensions. Based on the researches into the N 2 adsorption-desorption isothermal and corresponding BJH pore-size distribution, the biomorphic TiO 2 would arose interesting applications in some fields such as photocatalysis, gas sensors, antistatic coating, dye-sensitized solar cells, etc. This mild method and the relevant ideas offer a feasible path to synthesize a new family of functional materials by integrating material science, chemistry, and biotechnology.

  6. Combination of acoustic levitation with small angle scattering techniques and synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Application to the study of protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Cristiglio, Viviana; Grillo, Isabelle; Fomina, Margarita; Wien, Frank; Shalaev, Evgenyi; Novikov, Alexey; Brassamin, Séverine; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Pérez, Javier; Hennet, Louis

    2017-01-01

    The acoustic levitation technique is a useful sample handling method for small solid and liquids samples, suspended in air by means of an ultrasonic field. This method was previously used at synchrotron sources for studying pharmaceutical liquids and protein solutions using x-ray diffraction and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). In this work we combined for the first time this containerless method with small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) to study the structural behavior of proteins in solutions during the water evaporation. SANS results are also compared with SAXS experiments. The aggregation behavior of 45μl droplets of lysozyme protein diluted in water was followed during the continuous increase of the sample concentration by evaporating the solvent. The evaporation kinetics was followed at different drying stage by SANS and SAXS with a good data quality. In a prospective work using SRCD, we also studied the evolution of the secondary structure of the myoglobin protein in water solution in the same evaporation conditions. Acoustic levitation was applied for the first time with SANS and the high performances of the used neutron instruments made it possible to monitor fast container-less reactions in situ. A preliminary work using SRCD shows the potentiality of its combination with acoustic levitation for studying the evolution of the protein structure with time. This multi-techniques approach could give novel insights into crystallization and self-assembly phenomena of biological compound with promising potential applications in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industry. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Science for Life" Guest Editor: Dr. Austen Angell, Dr. Salvatore Magazù and Dr. Federica Migliardo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Demonstration of the ITER Power Exhaust Solution Using the Puff and Pump Technique on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, M.R.; West, W.P.; Hill, D.N.; Allen, S.L.; Boedo, J.A.; Brooks, N.H.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Hogan, J.T.; Isler, R.C.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Lasnier, C.J.; Lehmer, R.; Leonard, A.W.; Maingi, R.; Moyer, R.A.; Petrie, T.W.; Schaffer, M.J.; Watkins, J.G.; Whyte, D.G.; Wood, R.D.

    1999-07-01

    In future, high power density fusion devices, the need to prevent excessive local deposition of the plasma energy efflux on the first-wall surfaces is a critical design consideration in order to maintain the integrity of such surfaces. This requirement must be met without significant impact on plasma purity or overall plasma confinement. For the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), these constraints have led to the following design criteria [1] P{sub rad}/(P{sub input} + P{sub {alpha}}) = 83%, P{sub rad,core}/(P{sub input} + P{sub {alpha}}) = 33%, P{sub target}/P{sub loss} = 17%, Z{sub eff} < 1.8, and {tau}{sub E}/{tau}{sub E,ITER93H} > 0.85. Here, P{sub loss} is the power flowing out of the core (i.e., P{sub input} + P{sub {alpha}} - P{sub rad,core})and P{sub target} is the power conducted to the target plate. These criteria represent a compromise between obtaining sufficient radiation to reduce the target heat load to a tolerable level, minimizing core fuel dilution, and maintaining sufficient power flow through the edge plasma to maintain H-mode confinement. Past experiments have had difficulty achieving these conditions simultaneously when using seeded impurities, and therefore there has been some concern regarding the viability of the ITER design. However, recent experiments in DIII-D using the puff and pump technique with argon as the seeded impurity have demonstrated the compatibility of these design constraints. In particular, steady-state plasma conditions have been achieved with P{sub rad}/P{sub input} = 72%, P{sub rad,core}/P{sub input} = 16%, P{sub target}/P{sub loss} = 17%, Z{sub eff} = 1.85, and {tau}{sub E}/{tau}{sub E,ITER93H} = 1.05.

  8. Optical investigations on Tb3+ doped L-Histidine hydrochloride mono hydrate single crystals grown by low temperature solution techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajyalakshmi, S.; Ramachandra Rao, K.; Brahmaji, B.; Samatha, K.; Visweswara Rao, T. K.; Bhagavannarayana, G.

    2016-04-01

    The potential nonlinear optical material of Terbium (Tb3+) ion doped L-Histidine hydrochloride monohydrate (LHHC) single crystals were successfully grown. Tb3+:LHHC crystals of 7 mm × 5 mm × 3 mm and 59 mm length and 15 mm diameter have been grown by the slow solvent evaporation and Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) techniques respectively. The grown crystals were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis to confirm the crystalline structure and morphology. High resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) studies revealed that the SR grown sample shows relatively good crystalline nature with 9″ full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) for the diffraction curve. Functional groups were identified by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The optical transparency and band gaps of grown crystals were measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) studies reveal that the crystal was thermally stable up to 155 °C in SR grown crystal. Surface morphology of the growth plane was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The incorporation of Tb ion was estimated by EDAX. The frequency-dependent dielectric properties of the crystals were carried out for different temperatures. Vickers hardness study carried out on (1 0 0) face at room temperature shows increased hardness of the SR method grown crystal. Second harmonic generation efficiency of SEST and SR grown crystals are 3.2 and 3.5 times greater than that of pure KDP. The Photoluminescence (PL) studies of Tb3+ ions result from the radiative intra-configurational f-f transitions that occur from the 5D4 excited state to the 7Fj (j = 6, 5, 4, 3) ground states. The decay curve of the 5D4 level of emission was observed with a long life time of 319.2041 μs for the SR grown Tb3+:LHHC crystal.

  9. Dimensional Accuracy of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic VPS Impression Materials Using Different Impression Techniques - An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Pilla, Ajai; Pathipaka, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The dimensional stability of the impression material could have an influence on the accuracy of the final restoration. Vinyl Polysiloxane Impression materials (VPS) are most frequently used as the impression material in fixed prosthodontics. As VPS is hydrophobic when it is poured with gypsum products, manufacturers added intrinsic surfactants and marketed as hydrophilic VPS. These hydrophilic VPS have shown increased wettability with gypsum slurries. VPS are available in different viscosities ranging from very low to very high for usage under different impression techniques. Aim To compare the dimensional accuracy of hydrophilic VPS and hydrophobic VPS using monophase, one step and two step putty wash impression techniques. Materials and Methods To test the dimensional accuracy of the impression materials a stainless steel die was fabricated as prescribed by ADA specification no. 19 for elastomeric impression materials. A total of 60 impressions were made. The materials were divided into two groups, Group1 hydrophilic VPS (Aquasil) and Group 2 hydrophobic VPS (Variotime). These were further divided into three subgroups A, B, C for monophase, one-step and two-step putty wash technique with 10 samples in each subgroup. The dimensional accuracy of the impressions was evaluated after 24 hours using vertical profile projector with lens magnification range of 20X-125X illumination. The study was analyzed through one-way ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey HSD test and unpaired t-test for mean comparison between groups. Results Results showed that the three different impression techniques (monophase, 1-step, 2-step putty wash techniques) did cause significant change in dimensional accuracy between hydrophilic VPS and hydrophobic VPS impression materials. One-way ANOVA disclosed, mean dimensional change and SD for hydrophilic VPS varied between 0.56% and 0.16%, which were low, suggesting hydrophilic VPS was satisfactory with all three impression techniques. However, mean

  10. Dimensional Accuracy of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic VPS Impression Materials Using Different Impression Techniques - An Invitro Study.

    PubMed

    Basapogu, Sreeramulu; Pilla, Ajai; Pathipaka, Suman

    2016-02-01

    The dimensional stability of the impression material could have an influence on the accuracy of the final restoration. Vinyl Polysiloxane Impression materials (VPS) are most frequently used as the impression material in fixed prosthodontics. As VPS is hydrophobic when it is poured with gypsum products, manufacturers added intrinsic surfactants and marketed as hydrophilic VPS. These hydrophilic VPS have shown increased wettability with gypsum slurries. VPS are available in different viscosities ranging from very low to very high for usage under different impression techniques. To compare the dimensional accuracy of hydrophilic VPS and hydrophobic VPS using monophase, one step and two step putty wash impression techniques. To test the dimensional accuracy of the impression materials a stainless steel die was fabricated as prescribed by ADA specification no. 19 for elastomeric impression materials. A total of 60 impressions were made. The materials were divided into two groups, Group1 hydrophilic VPS (Aquasil) and Group 2 hydrophobic VPS (Variotime). These were further divided into three subgroups A, B, C for monophase, one-step and two-step putty wash technique with 10 samples in each subgroup. The dimensional accuracy of the impressions was evaluated after 24 hours using vertical profile projector with lens magnification range of 20X-125X illumination. The study was analyzed through one-way ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey HSD test and unpaired t-test for mean comparison between groups. Results showed that the three different impression techniques (monophase, 1-step, 2-step putty wash techniques) did cause significant change in dimensional accuracy between hydrophilic VPS and hydrophobic VPS impression materials. One-way ANOVA disclosed, mean dimensional change and SD for hydrophilic VPS varied between 0.56% and 0.16%, which were low, suggesting hydrophilic VPS was satisfactory with all three impression techniques. However, mean dimensional change and SD for hydrophobic VPS

  11. Influence of peritoneal dialysis solution biocompatibility on long-term survival of patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and the technique itself.

    PubMed

    Stanković-Popović, Verica; Popović, Dragan; Dimković, Nada; Maksić, Djoko; Vasilijić, Sasa; Colić, Miodrag; Vucinić, Zarko; Radjen, Slavica; Milicić, Biljana

    2013-04-01

    Morbidity and mortality of continous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients is still very high. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions (standard vs biocompatible) on long-term patients' and the techique survival. A total of 42 stable patients on CAPD participated in this cross-sectional study. They were prospectively followed-up during the twelve years. Patients with severe anemia (Hb < 10 g/L) and malignant disease ware excluded. Twenty one (50%/0) patients were treated with the standard PD solutions (CAPDP-1) while the other 21 (500/0) were treated with biocompatible PD solutions [(lower level of glucose degradation products, lower concentration of Ca(2+) and neutral pH (CAPDP-2)]. All patients were analyzed for a presence of vascular calcification, nutrition status, and parameters of inflammation after 2.5 +/- 0.6 years of starting CAPD, and these variables considered in the analysis as risk factors. The patients from the group CAPDP-2 compared to those from the group CAPDP-1 had lower level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (p = 0.003), and better nutritional status as confirmed by the mid-arm circumference (p = 0.015), and mid-arm muscle circumference (p = 0.002) and subjective global assessment (p = 0.000). Also, they had lower vascular calcifications as confirmed by intima media thickness (IMT) (p = 0.003), degree of carotid narrowing (p = 0.001) and calcified plaques of common carotid arteries (CCA) (p = 0.008). Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed better survival of patients from the group CAPDP-2 than those from the group CAPDP-1 (1-, 5-, and 10-year patients survival rate was: 100%, 61.9% and 14.3% for the group CAPDP-1, and 100%, 85.7%, and 52.4% for the group CAPDP-2, respectively; p = 0.0345). The 1-, 5-, and 10-year technique survival rate was: 100%, 71.4%, and 38.1% for the group CAPDP-1, and 100%, 85.7%, and 76.2% for the group CAPDP-2, respectively; (p = 0.0719). Duration of dialysis

  12. Numerical simulation and growth of Li2Zn2(MoO4)3 single crystals by the top seeded solution growth technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukharev, V.; Sukhanova, E.; Mozhevitina, E.; Sadovsky, A.; Avetissov, I.

    2017-06-01

    Li2O - ZnO - MoO3 pseudo ternary system was used for the growth of Li2Zn2(MoO4)3 crystals by the top seeded solution growth technique in which MoO3 was used as a solvent. Properties of the melts (density, viscosity) have been experimentally measured at different temperatures and compositions of Li2O - ZnO - MoO3 pseudo ternary system. Heat mass transfer in the crystal growth setup was numerically simulated. Using the simulation results a real growth setup was made, Li2Zn2(MoO4)3 crystals were grown and their properties were studied.

  13. Apollo management: A key to the solution of the social-economical dilemma - The transferability of space-travel managerial techniques to the civil sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puttkamer, J. V.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis has been conducted to find out whether the management techniques developed in connection with the Apollo project could be used for dealing with such urgent problems of modern society as the crisis of the cities, the increasing environmental pollution, and the steadily growing traffic. Basic concepts and definitions of program and system management are discussed together with details regarding the employment of these concepts in connection with the solution of the problems of the Apollo program. Principles and significance of a systems approach are considered, giving attention to planning, system analysis, system integration, and project management. An application of the methods of project management to the problems of the civil sector is possible if the special characteristics of each particular case are taken into account.

  14. Apollo management: A key to the solution of the social-economical dilemma - The transferability of space-travel managerial techniques to the civil sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puttkamer, J. V.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis has been conducted to find out whether the management techniques developed in connection with the Apollo project could be used for dealing with such urgent problems of modern society as the crisis of the cities, the increasing environmental pollution, and the steadily growing traffic. Basic concepts and definitions of program and system management are discussed together with details regarding the employment of these concepts in connection with the solution of the problems of the Apollo program. Principles and significance of a systems approach are considered, giving attention to planning, system analysis, system integration, and project management. An application of the methods of project management to the problems of the civil sector is possible if the special characteristics of each particular case are taken into account.

  15. Three-dimensional electron diffraction as a complementary technique to powder X-ray diffraction for phase identification and structure solution of powders

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Yifeng; Zou, Xiaodong; Hovmöller, Sven; Wan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Phase identification and structure determination are important and widely used techniques in chemistry, physics and materials science. Recently, two methods for automated three-dimensional electron diffraction (ED) data collection, namely automated diffraction tomography (ADT) and rotation electron diffraction (RED), have been developed. Compared with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and two-dimensional zonal ED, three-dimensional ED methods have many advantages in identifying phases and determining unknown structures. Almost complete three-dimensional ED data can be collected using the ADT and RED methods. Since each ED pattern is usually measured off the zone axes by three-dimensional ED methods, dynamic effects are much reduced compared with zonal ED patterns. Data collection is easy and fast, and can start at any arbitrary orientation of the crystal, which facilitates automation. Three-dimensional ED is a powerful technique for structure identification and structure solution from individual nano- or micron-sized particles, while powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) provides information from all phases present in a sample. ED suffers from dynamic scattering, while PXRD data are kinematic. Three-dimensional ED methods and PXRD are complementary and their combinations are promising for studying multiphase samples and complicated crystal structures. Here, two three-dimensional ED methods, ADT and RED, are described. Examples are given of combinations of three-dimensional ED methods and PXRD for phase identification and structure determination over a large number of different materials, from Ni–Se–O–Cl crystals, zeolites, germanates, metal–organic frameworks and organic compounds to intermetallics with modulated structures. It is shown that three-dimensional ED is now as feasible as X-ray diffraction for phase identification and structure solution, but still needs further development in order to be as accurate as X-ray diffraction. It is expected that three-dimensional ED

  16. A sub-second fast Fourier transform-adsorptive voltammetric technique for the nano-level determination of guthion at a gold microelectrode in flowing solutions.

    PubMed

    Nabi Bidhendi, Gholamreza; Norouzi, Parviz; Daneshgar, Parandis; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2007-05-08

    This research demonstrates the quick guthion monitoring with the help of a sensitive method called fast Fourier transformation continuous cyclic voltammetry (FFTCV). Fortunately, FFTCV illustrates the benefits of precision, determination speed, cost-effectiveness, accuracy and simplicity, in comparison with formerly reported techniques. In particular, this method was applied to a gold microelectrode in flowing solutions to detect the guthion concentration in its formulations. The effects of several parameters were examined regarding the sensitivity of the method. After a series of experiments, the detection limit of the method was found to be equal to 1.27 pg/mL, when the optimum conditions were imposed, which is a scan rate value of 40V/s, an accumulation time of 0.4s, an accumulation potential of 0mV and a pH value of 2. During the measurements performance, the integration range of currents included all the potential scan ranges, even the oxidation and reduction of the Au surface electrode, for the achievement of a sensitive determination. Then, the potential waveform, consisting of the potential steps for cleaning, accumulation and the step for the potential ramp, was applied to an Au disk microelectrode in a continuous way. It is also important to refer to the positive points, presented only by the use of this technique. Firstly, it is no longer necessary to remove the oxygen from the test solution. Furthermore, the quick determination of any such compound in many chromatographic methods is possible. Thirdly, the corresponding detection limit is of nanomolar level.

  17. Three-dimensional electron diffraction as a complementary technique to powder X-ray diffraction for phase identification and structure solution of powders.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yifeng; Zou, Xiaodong; Hovmöller, Sven; Wan, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Phase identification and structure determination are important and widely used techniques in chemistry, physics and materials science. Recently, two methods for automated three-dimensional electron diffraction (ED) data collection, namely automated diffraction tomography (ADT) and rotation electron diffraction (RED), have been developed. Compared with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and two-dimensional zonal ED, three-dimensional ED methods have many advantages in identifying phases and determining unknown structures. Almost complete three-dimensional ED data can be collected using the ADT and RED methods. Since each ED pattern is usually measured off the zone axes by three-dimensional ED methods, dynamic effects are much reduced compared with zonal ED patterns. Data collection is easy and fast, and can start at any arbitrary orientation of the crystal, which facilitates automation. Three-dimensional ED is a powerful technique for structure identification and structure solution from individual nano- or micron-sized particles, while powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) provides information from all phases present in a sample. ED suffers from dynamic scattering, while PXRD data are kinematic. Three-dimensional ED methods and PXRD are complementary and their combinations are promising for studying multiphase samples and complicated crystal structures. Here, two three-dimensional ED methods, ADT and RED, are described. Examples are given of combinations of three-dimensional ED methods and PXRD for phase identification and structure determination over a large number of different materials, from Ni-Se-O-Cl crystals, zeolites, germanates, metal-organic frameworks and organic compounds to intermetallics with modulated structures. It is shown that three-dimensional ED is now as feasible as X-ray diffraction for phase identification and structure solution, but still needs further development in order to be as accurate as X-ray diffraction. It is expected that three-dimensional ED methods

  18. Simultaneous determination of iodide and iodate in povidone iodine solution by ion chromatography with homemade and exchange capacity controllable columns and column-switching technique.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhongping; Zhu, Zuoyi; Subhani, Qamar; Yan, Wenwu; Guo, Weiqiang; Zhu, Yan

    2012-08-17

    A simple ion chromatographic method for simultaneous detection of iodide and iodate in a single running was proposed, with columns packed with homemade functionalized polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) resins and column-switching technique. Homemade resins were functionalized with controllable amounts of quaternary ammonium groups. The low-capacity anion-exchange column and high-capacity anion-exchange column were prepared, due to the resins having different exchange capacities. With this method, iodide and iodate in povidone iodine solution were detected simultaneously in a short time with iodide being eluted off first. A series of standard solutions consisting of target anions of various concentrations from 0.01 mg/L to 100 mg/L were analyzed. Each anion exhibited satisfactory linearity, with correlation coefficient r ≥ 0.9990. The detection limits (LODs) for iodide and iodate obtained by injecting 100 μL of sample were 5.66 and 14.83 μg/L (S/N=3), respectively. A spiking study was performed with satisfactory recoveries between 101.2% and 100.6% for iodide and iodate.

  19. Synergistic use of synchrotron radiation techniques for biological samples in solution: a case study on protein-ligand recognition by the peroxisomal import receptor Pex5p.

    PubMed

    Stanley, W A; Sokolova, A; Brown, A; Clarke, D T; Wilmanns, M; Svergun, D I

    2004-11-01

    Circular dichroism spectropolarimetry and X-ray scattering data, obtained using synchrotron radiation, can yield information about the secondary and tertiary structure of proteins in solution. These techniques have been used to analyse the architecture and shape of a complex of two proteins in solution. The crystal structures of two separate proteins, the C-terminal domain of Pex5p and SCP2, are available but their complex has not previously been structurally characterized. Circular dichroism spectropolarimetry indicated that complex formation requires little secondary structure rearrangement. X-ray scattering data fit an elongated irregular 'shoe'-shaped particle of the complex of the two proteins, with dimensions of the order of 30 A x 40 A x 90 A. Comparison with the known crystal structures suggests that this 'shoe' shape requires a conformational change of the C-terminus of SCP2 to appropriately locate its peroxisomal targeting signal type-1 recognition motif into the binding pocket of the Pex5p receptor. Implications of the combined use of synchrotron-based circular dichroism spectropolarimetry and X-ray scattering in structural biology and proteomics are discussed.

  20. Efficacy of Neutral Electrolyzed Water, Quaternary Ammonium and Lactic Acid-Based Solutions in Controlling Microbial Contamination of Food Cutting Boards Using a Manual Spraying Technique.

    PubMed

    Al-Qadiri, Hamzah M; Ovissipour, Mahmoudreza; Al-Alami, Nivin; Govindan, Byju N; Shiroodi, Setareh Ghorban; Rasco, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    Bactericidal activity of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW), quaternary ammonium (QUAT), and lactic acid-based solutions was investigated using a manual spraying technique against Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus that were inoculated onto the surface of scarred polypropylene and wooden food cutting boards. Antimicrobial activity was also examined when using cutting boards in preparation of raw chopped beef, chicken tenders or salmon fillets. Viable counts of survivors were determined as log10 CFU/100 cm(2) within 0 (untreated control), 1, 3, and 5 min of treatment at ambient temperature. Within the first minute of treatment, NEW and QUAT solutions caused more than 3 log10 bacterial reductions on polypropylene surfaces whereas less than 3 log10 reductions were achieved on wooden surfaces. After 5 min of treatment, more than 5 log10 reductions were achieved for all bacterial strains inoculated onto polypropylene surfaces. Using NEW and QUAT solutions within 5 min reduced Gram-negative bacteria by 4.58 to 4.85 log10 compared to more than 5 log10 reductions in Gram-positive bacteria inoculated onto wooden surfaces. Lactic acid treatment was significantly less effective (P < 0.05) compared to NEW and QUAT treatments. A decline in antimicrobial effectiveness was observed (0.5 to <2 log10 reductions were achieved within the first minute) when both cutting board types were used to prepare raw chopped beef, chicken tenders or salmon fillets. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Foodborne Salmonellosis in Italy: Characterization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Monophasic Variant 4,[5],12:i- Isolated from Salami and Human Patients.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, Giuseppina; Merla, Cristina; Valle, Claudia Dalla; Corpus, Francesco; Morganti, Marina; D'incau, Mario; Colmegna, Silvia; Marone, Piero; Fabbi, Massimo; Barco, Lisa; Carra, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STm) and its monophasic variant 4,[5],12:i:- (VMSTm) have been responsible for an increased number of foodborne infections in humans in Europe in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the origin of three foodborne salmonellosis outbreaks that occurred in Pavia Province (Lombardy region, northern Italy) in 2010. Phenotypic and genetic characteristics of the STm and VMSTm isolates from patients and from food that were recovered in the framework of the three outbreaks were evaluated through serotyping, phage typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Salami from three artisan producers, which had all purchased meat from the same slaughterhouse, was the food source of infection in outbreak I. STm isolates were recovered from salami and patients with symptoms of gastroenteritis. These isolates had the same PFGE type and the same rare MLVA profile (3-18-9-NA-211). The same molecular profiles were found in an STm isolate from a salami, which likely was the source of another family outbreak (II). A VMSTm strain with common phenotypic and molecular profiles was isolated from three hospitalized patients and identified as the cause of another putative outbreak (III). During the following 3 years (2011 through 2013), 360 salami produced in Pavia Province were monitored for the presence of S. enterica . In 2011, no STm and VMSTm isolates were recovered from 159 salami tested. During 2012 and 2013, 13.9% of 201 tested salami harbored S. enterica , and half of the isolates were VMSTm, mainly in salami from those artisan producers involved in the previous outbreaks. These isolates were genetically variable, especially in terms of MLVA profiles. The data collected suggest that from 2012, VMSTm has replaced STm in the environments of the salami producers monitored in this study, and these data confirm the dominance of

  2. Clinical comparison of monophasic oral contraceptive preparations of gestodene/ethinyl estradiol and desogestrel/ethinyl estradiol. Latin American Oral Contraceptive Study Group.

    PubMed

    1994-09-01

    The efficacy, cycle control, subjective complaints, and safety of monophasic preparations of the oral contraceptives containing gestodene 75 mcg plus ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg versus desogestrel 150 mcg plus ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg were compared in a 6-cycle, open-label, parallel, randomized, multicenter phase IV clinical study in Latin America. Of a total of 176 women in each group, 163 in the gestodene group and 160 in the desogestrel group completed 6 cycles, providing data for 1,015 and 1,006 cycles, respectively. Subject compliance was excellent; pills were missed during only 6.9% of the cycles in each group. No woman became pregnant during the study. Gestodene group exhibited significantly better cycle control as evidenced by the lower incidence of breakthrough bleeding and spotting. Spotting in some cycles was reported by 11.9% of women taking the gestodene-combination compared with 21% of women taking the desogestrel-combination. Based on number of women, 86.4% of the gestodene group reported all cycles were normal (no BTB) compared with 76.7% of the desogestrel group. Also, the women in the gestodene group reported a significantly lower incidence of nuisance side effects during treatment cycles. No amenorrhea was observed for either group. There were no clinically significant differences between groups with respect to body weight, blood pressure, or laboratory evaluations. Seven women withdrew from the gestodene group and 8 women withdrew from the desogestrel group because of adverse reactions. The results of this study indicate that, although both OCs provided effective contraception, in comparison to the desogestrel-combination, the gestodene-containing OC is associated with better cycle control, less bleeding, and fewer subjective complaints.

  3. Effects of a monophasic combined oral contraceptive containing nomegestrol acetate and 17β-oestradiol compared with one containing levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol on haemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ågren, Ulla M; Anttilat, Marjatta; Mäenpää-Liukko, Kristiina; Rantala, Maija-Liisa; Rautiainen, Hilkka; Sommer, Werner F; Mommers, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To compare the effects of a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing nomegestrol acetate and 17β-oestradiol (NOMAC/E2) on haemostasis, lipids, carbohydrate metabolism, C-reactive protein (CRP) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with those of a COC containing levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol (LNG/EE). Methods In a randomised, open-label study, 121 healthy women, 18-50 years of age, were randomly assigned to receive NOMAC/E2 (2.5 mg/1.5 mg) in a 24/4-day regimen (n = 60) or LNG/EE (150 μg/30 μg) in a 21/7-day regimen (n = 61) for six cycles. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to cycle 6 for all indices. Results All parameters were similar at baseline between the two groups. Over six cycles, NOMAC/E2 had less effect on most haemostatic indices than LNG/EE. Lipids were essentially unchanged with NOMAC/E2, whereas with LNG/EE high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides slightly increased. NOMAC/E2 induced negligible changes in glucose and insulin parameters, in contrast to LNG/EE. A much smaller increase in CRP was observed with NOMAC/E2 than with LNG/EE. NOMAC/E2 was associated with a greater increase in SHBG. Conclusions The monophasic COC NOMAC/E2 had less influence on haemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism than the COC LNG/EE. PMID:22066891

  4. Characterization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolates from Pigs and Pig Environment-Related Sources and Evidence of New Circulating Monophasic Strains in Spain.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Barranco, Sara; Vico, Juan Pablo; Marín, Clara María; Herrera-León, Silvia; Mainar-Jaime, Raú Carlos

    2016-03-01

    A total of 117 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and 59 monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:-) strains isolated between 2008 and 2012 from pig, wild bird, rodent, and farm environment samples from the northeast of Spain were characterized by phage typing, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis in order to evaluate their phenotypic and genetic relatedness. In Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:-, the most prevalent phage types were U311 (40.7%) and DT195 (22%), which did not correspond with the so-called Spanish clone and generally showed a different resistance pattern (ASSuT). Antibiotic resistance was found in 85.8% of the isolates, with 94.1% of them displaying multidrug resistance. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis identified 92 different profiles, six of them shared by both serovars. The minimum spanning tree showed one major cluster that included 95% of the Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- isolates, which came from different animal sources, geographic locations, and time periods, suggesting high clonality among those Salmonella strains and the ability to spread among pig farms. Overall, isolates of Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- were more similar to European strains than to the well-characterized Spanish clone. The spread of these new strains of Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- would likely have been favored by the important pig trade between this Spanish region and other European countries. The overall high prevalence of multidrug resistance observed in these new strains should be noted.

  5. Using nominal group technique among clinical providers to identify barriers and prioritize solutions to scaling up opioid agonist therapies in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Madden, Lynn; Bojko, Martha J; Farnum, Scott; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Fomenko, Tatiana; Marcus, Ruthanne; Barry, Declan; Ivanchuk, Irina; Kolomiets, Viktor; Filippovych, Sergey; Dvoryak, Sergey; Altice, Frederick L

    2017-09-25

    Opioid agonist therapies (OAT) like methadone and buprenorphine maintenance treatment remain markedly under-scaled in Ukraine despite adequate funding. Clinicians and administrators were assembled as part of an implementation science strategy to scale-up OAT using the Network for Improvement of Addiction Treatment (NIATx) approach. Nominal Group Technique (NGT), a key ingredient of the NIATx toolkit, was directed by three trained coaches within a learning collaborative of 18 OAT clinicians and administrators to identify barriers to increase OAT capacity at the regional "oblast" level, develop solutions, and prioritize local change projects. NGT findings were supplemented from detailed notes collected during the NGT discussion. The top three identified barriers included: (1) Strict regulations and inflexible policies dictating distribution and dispensing of OAT; (2) No systematic approach to assessing OAT needs on regional or local level; and (3) Limited funding and financing mechanisms combined with a lack of local/regional control over funding for OAT treatment services. NGT provides a rapid strategy for individuals at multiple levels to work collaboratively to identify and address structural barriers to OAT scale-up. This technique creates a transparent process to address and prioritize complex issues. Targeting these priorities allowed leaders at the regional and national level to advocate collectively for approaches to minimize obstacles and create policies to improve OAT services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. In situ characterization of uranium and americium oxide solid solution formation for CRMP process: first combination of in situ XRD and XANES measurements.

    PubMed

    Caisso, Marie; Picart, Sébastien; Belin, Renaud C; Lebreton, Florent; Martin, Philippe M; Dardenne, Kathy; Rothe, Jörg; Neuville, Daniel R; Delahaye, Thibaud; Ayral, André

    2015-04-14

    Transmutation of americium in heterogeneous mode through the use of U1-xAmxO2±δ ceramic pellets, also known as Americium Bearing Blankets (AmBB), has become a major research axis. Nevertheless, in order to consider future large-scale deployment, the processes involved in AmBB fabrication have to minimize fine particle dissemination, due to the presence of americium, which considerably increases the risk of contamination. New synthesis routes avoiding the use of pulverulent precursors are thus currently under development, such as the Calcined Resin Microsphere Pelletization (CRMP) process. It is based on the use of weak-acid resin (WAR) microspheres as precursors, loaded with actinide cations. After two specific calcinations under controlled atmospheres, resin microspheres are converted into oxide microspheres composed of a monophasic U1-xAmxO2±δ phase. Understanding the different mechanisms during thermal conversion, that lead to the release of organic matter and the formation of a solid solution, appear essential. By combining in situ techniques such as XRD and XAS, it has become possible to identify the key temperatures for oxide formation, and the corresponding oxidation states taken by uranium and americium during mineralization. This paper thus presents the first results on the mineralization of (U,Am) loaded resin microspheres into a solid solution, through in situ XAS analysis correlated with HT-XRD.

  7. Effect of annealing temperature on the optical spectra of CdS thin films deposited at low solution concentrations by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) Technique.

    PubMed

    Rizwan, Zahid; Zakaria, Azmi; Mohd Ghazali, Mohd Sabri; Jafari, Atefeh; Din, Fasih Ud; Zamiri, Reza

    2011-02-22

    Two different concentrations of CdCl(2) and (NH(2))(2)CS were used to prepare CdS thin films, to be deposited on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. CdCl(2) (0.000312 M and 0.000625 M) was employed as a source of Cd(2+) while (NH(2))(2)CS (0.00125 M and 0.000625 M) for S(2-) at a constant bath temperature of 70 °C. Adhesion of the deposited films was found to be very good for all the solution concentrations of both reagents. The films were air-annealed at a temperature between 200 °C to 360 °C for one hour. The minimum thickness was observed to be 33.6 nm for film annealed at 320 °C. XRD analyses reveal that the films were cubic along with peaks of hexagonal phase for all film samples. The crystallite size of the films decreased from 41.4 nm to 7.4 nm with the increase of annealing temperature for the CdCl(2) (0.000312 M). Optical energy band gap (E(g)), Urbach energy (E(u)) and absorption coefficient (α) have been calculated from the transmission spectral data. These parameters have been discussed as a function of annealing temperature and solution concentration. The best transmission (about 97%) was obtained for the air-annealed films at higher temperature at CdCl(2) (0.000312 M).

  8. Growth and optoelectronic characteristic of n-Si/p-CuIn(S 1-xSe x) 2 thin-film solar cell by solution growth technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavhan, S.; Sharma, R.

    2006-07-01

    The p-CuIn(S 1-xSe x) 2 (CISS) thin films have been grown on n-Si substrate by solution growth technique. The deposition parameters, such as pH (10.5), deposition time (60 min), deposition temperature (50 °C), and concentration of bath solution (0.1 M) were optimized. Elemental analysis of the p-CuIn(S 1-xSe x) 2 thin film was confirmed by energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX). The SEM study of absorber layer shows the uniform morphology of film as well as the continuous smooth deposition onto the n-Si substrates, whose grain size is 130 nm. CuIn(S 1-xSe x) 2 ( x=0.5) reveals (1 1 2) orientation peak and exhibits the chalcopyrite structure with lattice constant a=5.28 Å and c=11.45 Å. The J- V characteristics were measured in dark and light. The device parameters have been calculated for solar cell fabrication, V=411.09 mV, and J=14.55 mA. FF=46.55% and η=4.64% under an illumination of 60 mW/cm 2. The J- V characteristics of the device under dark condition were also studied and the ideality factor was calculated, which is equal to 2.2 for n-Si/p-CuIn(S 0.5Se 0.5) 2 heterojunction thin film.

  9. Surface stabilized nanosized Ce(x)Zr(1-x)O(2) solid solutions over SiO(2): characterization by XRD, Raman, and HREM techniques.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Benjaram M; Lakshmanan, Pandian; Khan, Ataullah; Loridant, Stéphane; López-Cartes, Carlos; Rojas, Teresa C; Fernandez, Asunción

    2005-07-21

    Ce(x)Zr(1)(-)(x)O(2) solid solutions deposited over silica surface were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM) techniques in order to understand the role of silica support and the temperature stability of these composite oxides. For the purpose of comparison, an unsupported Ce(x)Zr(1)(-)(x)O(2) was also synthesized and subjected to characterization by various techniques. The Ce(x)Zr(1)(-)(x)O(2)/SiO(2) (CZ/S) (1:1:2 mole ratio based on oxides) was synthesized by depositing Ce(x)Zr(1)(-)(x)O(2) solid solution over a colloidal SiO(2) support by a deposition precipitation method and unsupported Ce(x)Zr(1)(-)(x)O(2) (CZ) (1:1 mole ratio based on oxides) was prepared by a coprecipitation procedure, and the obtained catalysts were subjected to thermal treatments from 773 to 1073 K. The XRD measurements disclose the presence of cubic phases with the composition Ce(0.75)Zr(0.25)O(2) and Ce(0.6)Zr(0.4)O(2) in CZ samples, while CZ/S samples possess Ce(0.75)Zr(0.25)O(2), Ce(0.6)Zr(0.4)O(2), and Ce(0.5)Zr(0.5)O(2) in different proportions. The crystallinity of these phases increased with increasing calcination temperature. The cell a parameter estimations indicate contraction of ceria lattice due to the incorporation of zirconium cations into the CeO(2) unit cell. Raman measurements indicate the presence of oxygen vacancies, lattice defects, and displacement of oxygen ions from their normal lattice positions in both the series of samples. The HREM results reveal, in the case of CZ/S samples, a well-dispersed nanosized Ce-Zr-oxides over the surface of amorphous SiO(2). The structural features of these crystals as determined by digital diffraction analysis of experimental images reveal that the Ce-Zr-oxides are mainly in the cubic geometry and exhibit high thermal stability. Oxygen storage capacity measurements by a thermogravimetric method reveal a substantial enhancement in the oxygen

  10. Oral administration of the Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strain Nal2/Rif9/Rtt to laying hens at day of hatch reduces shedding and caecal colonization of Salmonella 4,12:i:-, the monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Kilroy, Sofie; Raspoet, Ruth; Devloo, Rosalie; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2015-06-01

    A new monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella enterica serotype 4,12:i:-, is rapidly emerging. This serotype is now considered to be among the 10 most common serovars isolated from humans in many countries in Europe and in the United States. The public health risk posed by these emerging monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium strains is considered comparable to that of classical Salmonella Typhimurium strains. The serotype 4,12:i:- is frequently isolated from pigs but also poultry are carrying strains from this serotype. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of the Salmonella Typhimurium strain Nal2/Rif9/Rtt, a strain contained in the commercially available live vaccines AviPro Salmonella Duo and AviPro Salmonella VacT, against infection with the emerging monophasic variant in poultry. Three independent trials were conducted. In all trials, laying type chicks were orally vaccinated with the Salmonella Typhimurium strain Nal2/Rif9/Rtt at d hatch, while the birds were challenged the next d with a different infection dose in each trial (low, high, and intermediate). For the intermediate-dose study, a seeder bird model was used in which one out of 3 animals were infected while all individual birds were infected in the other trials. Data obtained from each independent trial show that oral administration of the Salmonella Typhimurium strain Nal2/Rif9/Rtt at d hatch reduced shedding, caecal, and internal organ colonization of Salmonella Typhimurium 4,12:i:-, administered at d 2 life. This indicates that Salmonella Typhimurium strain Nal2/Rif9/Rtt can help to control Salmonella 4,12:i:- infections in poultry.

  11. Diversity of Plasmids Encoding Virulence and Resistance Functions in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium Monophasic Variant 4,[5],12:i:- Strains Circulating in Europe

    PubMed Central

    García, Patricia; Hopkins, Katie L.; García, Vanesa; Beutlich, Janine; Mendoza, M. Carmen; Threlfall, John; Mevius, Dik; Helmuth, Reiner; Rodicio, M. Rosario; Guerra, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Plasmids encoding resistance and virulence properties in multidrug resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica (S.) serovar Typhimurium monophasic variant 4,[5],12:i:- isolates recovered from pigs and humans (2006-2008) in Europe were characterised. The isolates were selected based on the detection by PCR-amplification of S. Typhimurium virulence plasmid pSLT genes and were analysed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). The resistance genes present in the isolates and the association of these genes with integrons, transposons and insertion sequences were characterised by PCR-sequencing, and their plasmid location was determined by alkaline lysis and by S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) Southern-blot hybridisation. Plasmids were further analysed by replicon typing, plasmid MLST and conjugation experiments. The 10 S. 4,[5],12,i:- selected isolates belonged to ST19. Each isolate carried a large plasmid in which MDR with pSLT-associated virulence genes were located. After analysis, eight different plasmids of three incompatibility groups (IncA/C, IncR and IncF) were detected. Two IncA/C plasmids represented novel variants within the plasmid family of the S. 4,[5],12:i:- Spanish clone, and carried an empty class 1 integron with a conventional qacEΔ1-sul1 3′ conserved segment or an In-sul3 type III with estX-psp-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1-qacH variable region linked to tnpA440-sul3, part of Tn2, Tn21 and Tn1721 transposons, and ISCR2. Four newly described IncR plasmids contained the resistance genes within In-sul3 type I (dfrA12-orfF-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1-qacH/tnpA440-sul3) and part of Tn10 [tet(B)]. Two pSLT-derivatives with FIIs-ST1+FIB-ST17 replicons carried cmlA1-[aadA1-aadA2]-sul3-dfrA12 and blaTEM-1 genes linked to an In-sul3 type I integron and to Tn2, respectively. In conclusion, three emerging European clones of S. 4,[5],12:i:- harboured MDR plasmids encoding additional virulence functions that could contribute significantly to their evolutionary success. PMID

  12. Diversity of plasmids encoding virulence and resistance functions in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium monophasic variant 4,[5],12:i:- strains circulating in Europe.

    PubMed

    García, Patricia; Hopkins, Katie L; García, Vanesa; Beutlich, Janine; Mendoza, M Carmen; Threlfall, John; Mevius, Dik; Helmuth, Reiner; Rodicio, M Rosario; Guerra, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Plasmids encoding resistance and virulence properties in multidrug resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica (S.) serovar Typhimurium monophasic variant 4,[5],12:i:- isolates recovered from pigs and humans (2006-2008) in Europe were characterised. The isolates were selected based on the detection by PCR-amplification of S. Typhimurium virulence plasmid pSLT genes and were analysed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). The resistance genes present in the isolates and the association of these genes with integrons, transposons and insertion sequences were characterised by PCR-sequencing, and their plasmid location was determined by alkaline lysis and by S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) Southern-blot hybridisation. Plasmids were further analysed by replicon typing, plasmid MLST and conjugation experiments. The 10 S. 4,[5],12,i:- selected isolates belonged to ST19. Each isolate carried a large plasmid in which MDR with pSLT-associated virulence genes were located. After analysis, eight different plasmids of three incompatibility groups (IncA/C, IncR and IncF) were detected. Two IncA/C plasmids represented novel variants within the plasmid family of the S. 4,[5],12:i:- Spanish clone, and carried an empty class 1 integron with a conventional qacEΔ1-sul1 3' conserved segment or an In-sul3 type III with estX-psp-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1-qacH variable region linked to tnpA440-sul3, part of Tn2, Tn21 and Tn1721 transposons, and ISCR2. Four newly described IncR plasmids contained the resistance genes within In-sul3 type I (dfrA12-orfF-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1-qacH/tnpA440-sul3) and part of Tn10 [tet(B)]. Two pSLT-derivatives with FIIs-ST1+FIB-ST17 replicons carried cmlA1-[aadA1-aadA2]-sul3-dfrA12 and blaTEM-1 genes linked to an In-sul3 type I integron and to Tn2, respectively. In conclusion, three emerging European clones of S. 4,[5],12:i:- harboured MDR plasmids encoding additional virulence functions that could contribute significantly to their evolutionary success.

  13. Convective solution transport -- An improved technique for the growth of big crystals of the superconducting {alpha}-FeSe using KCl as solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, S. M.; Ling, M. C.; Ke, C. T.; Chen, T. C.; Chen, C. L.; Huang, T. W.; Wu, M. K.; Mok, B. H.; Wu, T. B.; Tsai, I.-M.; Lin, Y.-L.; Liu, H. L.; Hsu, F. C.

    2011-12-01

    An improved technique of convective solution transport using KCl as solvent at 840-790 deg. C (where mass transport takes place across a vertical temperature gradient) is described for the growth of crystals of the recently discovered superconductor {alpha}-FeSe{sub x} (x = 1-0.8). The crystals were annealed in situ at 400-350 deg. C for 20-30 h to improve the superconducting properties. Hexagonal plate like crystals measuring 5-6 mm across and 0.25-0.5 mm thick were obtained. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) measurements show good crystallinity and the energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) gives a composition very close to the starting powders. The zero resistance temperature of the crystals was found to increase from 6.5 to 9 K as the composition is decreased from x = 0.95 to 0.9 and decrease thereafter. Similar behavior was also observed in the powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and Raman spectra with the main peak shifting to higher value until 0.9 and decrease thereafter. In addition the XRD patterns show reducing hexagonal phase reflections as x decreases to 0.9. Anisotropic magnetic behavior was observed when the magnetic field is applied parallel and perpendicular to the (101) face.

  14. Influence of solution deposition rate on properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    SciTech Connect

    Abd–Alghafour, N. M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Hassan, Zai; Mohammad, Sabah M.

    2016-07-19

    Vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by using a cost-efficient spray pyrolysis technique. The films were grown at 350° through thermal decomposition of VCl{sub 3} in deionized water with different solution spray rates. The high resolution X-ray diffraction results revealed the formation of nanocrystalline films having orthorhombic structures with preferential orientation along (101) direction. The spray rate influenced the surface morphology and crystallite size of the films. The crystallite size was found to increase whereas the micro-strain was decreased by increasing the spray deposition rates. The increase in crystallite size and decrease in the macrostrain resulted in an improvement in the films’ crystallinity. The UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis indicated that the average transmittance of all films lies in the range 75-80 %. The band gap of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} film was decreased from 2.65 to 2.46 eV with increase of the spray deposition rate from 5 ml/min to 10 ml/min. first, second, and third level headings (first level heading).

  15. Swelling and contraction of the mitochondrial matrix. II. Quantitative application of the light scattering technique to solute transport across the inner membrane.

    PubMed

    Garlid, K D; Beavis, A D

    1985-11-05

    The relationship between matrix volume and the amount of light scattered by a mitochondrial suspension has been characterized for equilibrium measurements and shown to depend in a complex but predictable manner on native structure of the mitochondrion (Beavis, A. D., Brannan, R. D., and Garlid, K. D. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 13424-13433). In the present report, we show that this characterization also applies to kinetic measurements of salt and nonelectrolyte transport. We derive and evaluate quantitative methods for determining permeability constants from light scattering kinetics. We apply these equations to the problem of whether matrix swelling itself induces permeability changes secondary to membrane stretching or changes in surface available for transport. A study of erythritol transport over a 7-fold range of matrix volume reveals dramatic changes in light scattering rates, as previously observed (Tedeschi, H. (1959) J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 6, 241-252). These transitions correspond exactly to structure-dependent transitions in the relationship between absorbance and matrix volume. When this is taken into account, erythritol permeability is found to be constant over the entire volume range. Factors affecting intrinsic membrane porters, such as Mg2+ depletion and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, are also found to be without effect on erythritol permeability. The broader significance of this study is that the light scattering technique is shown to be capable of providing quantitative answers to important questions about solute transport across the inner membrane.

  16. Convective solution transport — An improved technique for the growth of big crystals of the superconducting α-FeSe using KCl as solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, S. M.; Mok, B. H.; Ling, M. C.; Ke, C. T.; Chen, T. K.; Tsai, I.-M.; Lin, Y.-L.; Liu, H. L.; Chen, C. L.; Hsu, F. C.; Huang, T. W.; Wu, T. B.; Wu, M. K.

    2011-12-01

    An improved technique of convective solution transport using KCl as solvent at 840-790 °C (where mass transport takes place across a vertical temperature gradient) is described for the growth of crystals of the recently discovered superconductor α-FeSex (x = 1-0.8). The crystals were annealed in situ at 400-350 °C for 20-30 h to improve the superconducting properties. Hexagonal plate like crystals measuring 5-6 mm across and 0.25-0.5 mm thick were obtained. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) measurements show good crystallinity and the energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) gives a composition very close to the starting powders. The zero resistance temperature of the crystals was found to increase from 6.5 to 9 K as the composition is decreased from x = 0.95 to 0.9 and decrease thereafter. Similar behavior was also observed in the powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and Raman spectra with the main peak shifting to higher value until 0.9 and decrease thereafter. In addition the XRD patterns show reducing hexagonal phase reflections as x decreases to 0.9. Anisotropic magnetic behavior was observed when the magnetic field is applied parallel and perpendicular to the (101) face.

  17. Influence of temperature on the electric, dielectric and AC conductivity properties of nano-crystalline zinc substituted cobalt ferrite synthesized by solution combustion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Ritu; Kumar, Gagan; Batoo, Khalid M.; Singh, M.

    2014-06-01

    Cobalt-zinc nanoferrites with formulae Co ZnFeO, where x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3, have been synthesized by solution combustion technique. The variation of DC resistivity with temperature shows the semiconducting behavior of all nanoferrites. The dielectric properties such as dielectric constant (') and dielectric loss tangent (tan are investigated as a function of temperature and frequency. Dielectric constant and loss tangent are found to be increasing with an increase in temperature while with an increase in frequency both, ' and tan , are found to be decreasing. The dielectric properties have been explained on the basis of space charge polarization according to Maxwell-Wagner's two-layer model and the hopping of charge between Fe and Fe. Further, a very high value of dielectric constant and a low value of tan are the prime achievements of the present work. The AC electrical conductivity ( is studied as a function of temperature as well as frequency and is observed to be increasing with the increase in temperature and frequency.

  18. Solution preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results.

  19. Pressure and temperature dependence of the elasticity of pyrope-majorite [Py 60Mj 40 and Py 50Mj 50] garnets solid solution measured by ultrasonic interferometry technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwanmesia, Gabriel D.; Wang, Liping; Triplett, Richard; Liebermann, Robert C.

    2009-05-01

    Compressional (P) and shear (S) wave velocities have been measured for two synthetic polycrystalline specimens of pyrope-majorite garnets [Py 60Mj 40 and Py 50Mj 50] by ultrasonic interferometry to 8 GPa and 1000 K, in a DIA-type cubic anvil high pressure apparatus (SAM-85) interfaced with synchrotron X-radiation and X-ray imaging. Elastic bulk ( KS) and shear ( G) moduli data obtained at the end of the cooling cycles were fitted to functions of Eulerian strain to third order yielding pressure derivatives of the elastic moduli (∂ KS/∂ P) T = 4.3 (3); (∂ G/∂ P) T = 1.5 (1) for Py 60Mj 40 garnet and (∂ KS/∂ P) T = 4.4 (1); (∂ G/∂ P) T = 1.3 (1) for Py 50Mj 40 garnet. Both (∂ KS/∂ P) T and (∂ G/∂ P) T are identical for the two garnet compositions and are also consistent with Brillouin scattering data for polycrystalline Py 50Mj 50. Moreover, the new pressure derivatives of the elastic moduli are equal within experimental uncertainties to those of end-member pyrope garnet from ultrasonic studies [Gwanmesia, G.D., Zhang. J, Darling, K., Kung, J., Li, B., Wang, L., Neuville, D., Liebermann, R.C., 2006. Elasticity of polycrystalline pyrope (Mg 3Al 2Si 3O 12) to 9 GPa and 1000 °C. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 155, 179-190] and from Brillouin spectroscopic studies [Sinogeikin, S.V., Bass, J.D., 2002a. Elasticity of majorite and majorite-pyrope solid solution to high pressure: implications for the transition zone. Geophys. Res. 9(2), 1017], thereby demonstrating that the pressure derivatives of the elastic moduli are independent of the physical acoustics technique employed and unaffected by substitution of Si for Mg and Al within the Py-Mj solid solution in the range (Py 100-Py 50) of the present measurements. Temperature dependence of the elastic obtained from linear regression of entire P- T- K and P- T- G data are (∂ KS/∂ T) P = -14.6 (4) MPa/K; (∂ G/∂ T) P = -9.4 (4) MPa/K for Py 60Mj 40 garnet, and (∂ KS/∂ T) P = -14.6 (4) MPa/K; (

  20. An ion-imprinted amino-functionalized silica gel sorbent prepared by hydrothermal assisted surface imprinting technique for selective removal of cadmium (II) from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Hong-Tao; Li, Jing; Li, Zhan-Chao; Sun, Ting

    2012-02-01

    A new ion-imprinted amino-functionalized silica gel sorbent was synthesized by the hydrothermal-assisted surface imprinting technique using Cd2+ as the template, 3-[2-(2-aminoethylamino)ethylamino]propyl-trimethoxysilane (AAAPTS) as the functional monomer, and epichlorohydrin as the cross-linking agent (IIP-AAAPTS/SiO2) for the selective removal of Cd2+ from aqueous solution, and was characterized by FTIR, SEM, nitrogen adsorption and the static adsorption-desorption experiment method. The specific surface area of the IIP-AAAPTS/SiO2 sorbents was found to be 149 m2 g-1. The results showed that the maximum static adsorption capacities of IIP-AAAPTS/SiO2 sorbents by hydrothermal heating method and by the conventional heating method were 57.4 and 31.6 mg g-1, respectively. The IIP-AAAPTS/SiO2 sorbents offered a fast kinetics for the adsorption and desorption of Cd(II). The relative selectivity coefficients of IIP-AAAPTS/SiO2 sorbents for Cd2+/Co2+, Cd2+/Ni2+, Cd2+/Zn2+, Cd2+/Pb2+ and Cd2+/Cu2+ were 30.68, 14.02, 3.00, 3.12 and 6.17, respectively. IIP-AAAPTS/SiO2 sorbents had a substantial binding capacity in the range of pH 4-8 and could be used repeatedly. Equilibrium data fitted perfectly with Langmuir isotherm model compared to Freundlich isotherm model. Kinetic studies indicated that adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order model. Negative values of ΔG° indicated spontaneous adsorption and the degree of spontaneity of the reaction increased with increasing temperature. ΔH° of 26.13 kJ mol-1 due to the adsorption of Cd2+ on the IIP-AAAPTS/SiO2 sorbents indicated that the adsorption was endothermic in the experimental temperature range.

  1. Fabrication of organic FETs based on printing techniques and the improvement of FET properties by the insertion of solution-processable buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Eiji; Kanamori, Akira

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we developed multilayer deposition and patterning processes that can be used to fabricate all-printed, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) on the basis of vacuum-free, solution-processable soft-lithography techniques. We have used regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as a soluble p-type polymer semiconductor and (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as a soluble n-type semiconductor, and cross-linked poly(vinyl phenol) (CL-PVP) as a low-temperature (<150 °C)-curable soluble polymer gate insulator. We have compared the electrical properties of OFETs with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), silver nanoparticles (NPs), and their composites (or multilayers) as printed source-drain (S-D) electrodes in order to fabricate vacuum-free, all-printed OFETs. The P3HT-OFETs with MWCNT S-D electrodes exhibited higher hole mobility and on/off ratios than the devices with Ag NP S-D electrodes owing to better contact at the MWCNT/P3HT interface. On the other hand, Ag/molybdenum oxide (MoO3) S-D electrodes considerably enhanced the hole injection and caused the reduction in the on/off ratio and the difficulty in turning off the devices. The PCBM-OFETs with MWCNT S-D electrodes also exhibited higher electron mobility that is almost comparable to that of P3HT-OFETs and lower threshold voltage, which was considered to be due to the enhanced electron injection at the electrode interface.

  2. Properties of Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3 thin films prepared by metalorganic solution deposition technique for microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. C.; Desu, S. B.

    1998-08-01

    We report on the properties of Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3 thin films prepared by the metalorganic solution deposition technique. Bulk Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3 ceramics have shown excellent dielectric properties at microwave frequencies; however, the high sintering temperature of bulk material is the major obstacle in their use as dielectric resonators to miniaturize microwave circuits. It was possible to obtain an ordered-perovskite phase of 0.3-μm-thick Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3 films with trigonal symmetry at an annealing temperature of 700 °C, which is much lower than the bulk sintering temperatures. The electrical measurements were conducted on Pt/Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3/Pt capacitors. The typical measured small signal dielectric constant and dissipation factor at 100 kHz were 22.2 and 0.009, respectively. The dielectric constant of thin films was comparable to the typical values (ɛr˜23.5-25) reported for bulk ceramics. The temperature coefficient of capacitance was -145 ppm/°C in the measured temperature range of 25-125 °C. The leakage current density was lower than 10-7 A/cm2 at an applied electric field of 0.5 MV/cm. The high dielectric constant, which is comparable to bulk, low dielectric loss, and good temperature and bias stability suggest the suitability of Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3 thin films for microwave communications and integrated capacitor applications.

  3. Solitons and other solutions to nonlinear Schrödinger equation with fourth-order dispersion and dual power law nonlinearity using several different techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayed, Elsayed M. E.; Al-Nowehy, Abdul-Ghani; Elshater, Mona E. M.

    2017-06-01

    The (G^'/G)-expansion method, the improved Sub-ODE method, the extended auxiliary equation method, the new mapping method and the Jacobi elliptic function method are applied in this paper for finding many new exact solutions including Jacobi elliptic solutions, solitary solutions, singular solitary solutions, trigonometric function solutions and other solutions to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with fourth-order dispersion and dual power law nonlinearity whose balance number is not positive integer. The used methods present a wider applicability for handling the nonlinear partial differential equations. A comparison of our new results with the well-known results is made. Also, we compare our results with each other yielding from these five integration tools.

  4. Determining partial differential cross sections for low-energy electron photodetachment involving conical intersections using the solution of a Lippmann-Schwinger equation constructed with standard electronic structure techniques.

    PubMed

    Han, Seungsuk; Yarkony, David R

    2011-05-07

    A method for obtaining partial differential cross sections for low energy electron photodetachment in which the electronic states of the residual molecule are strongly coupled by conical intersections is reported. The method is based on the iterative solution to a Lippmann-Schwinger equation, using a zeroth order Hamiltonian consisting of the bound nonadiabatically coupled residual molecule and a free electron. The solution to the Lippmann-Schwinger equation involves only standard electronic structure techniques and a standard three-dimensional free particle Green's function quadrature for which fast techniques exist. The transition dipole moment for electron photodetachment, is a sum of matrix elements each involving one nonorthogonal orbital obtained from the solution to the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. An expression for the electron photodetachment transition dipole matrix element in terms of Dyson orbitals, which does not make the usual orthogonality assumptions, is derived.

  5. Solitary wave solutions for time fractional third order modified KdV equation using two reliable techniques (G‧ / G) -expansion method and improved (G‧ / G) -expansion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, S.; Saha Ray, S.

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper, we construct the analytical exact solutions of a nonlinear evolution equation in mathematical physics; namely time fractional modified KdV equation by using (G‧ / G)-expansion method and improved (G‧ / G)-expansion method. As a result, new types of exact analytical solutions are obtained.

  6. Application of a local linearization technique for the solution of a system of stiff differential equations associated with the simulation of a magnetic bearing assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibler, K. S.; Mcdaniel, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    A digital local linearization technique was used to solve a system of stiff differential equations which simulate a magnetic bearing assembly. The results prove the technique to be accurate, stable, and efficient when compared to a general purpose variable order Adams method with a stiff option.

  7. Validity of Using Two Numerical Analysis Techniques To Estimate Item and Ability Parameters via MMLE: Gauss-Hermite Quadrature Formula and Mislevy's Histogram Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seong, Tae-Je

    The similarity of item and ability parameter estimations was investigated using two numerical analysis techniques via marginal maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE) with a large simulated data set (n=1,000 examinees) and changing the number of quadrature points. MMLE estimation uses a numerical analysis technique to integrate examinees' abilities…

  8. Micellar solubilization of tributylphosphate in aqueous solutions of Pluronic block copolymers. Part I. Effect of the copolymer structure and temperature on the phase behavior.

    PubMed

    Causse, J; Lagerge, S; de Menorval, L C; Faure, S

    2006-08-15

    Solubilization of tributylphosphate (TBP), a polar oil, in various micellar solutions of Pluronic has been investigated by turbidimetry emphasizing the effect of temperature and the role of the PPO and PEO blocks on the phase behavior of the three components systems (Pluronic-TBP-water). [Temperature-composition] diagrams allow monophasic and diphasic domains to be delimited. Two temperatures are shown to have a determining effect on the phase behavior (TBP solubilization); the well known cloud point temperature (CPT, here defined for the three components system) and the solubilization minimum temperature (SMT) which is defined as the lowest temperature allowing solubilization of TBP in the system. Both temperature depend on the copolymer structure and, interestingly, are directly related to the TBP concentration in the medium. Monophasic microemulsions are observed when the temperature ranges between the SMT and the CPT. When TCPT the system separates in two phase due to the co-precipitation of TBP and Pluronic. Moreover an unexpected evolution of the CPT with the TBP content clearly indicates the occurrence of a structural change of the microemulsions which allows higher quantities of TBP to be solubilized. But the structural change does not allow alone higher quantities of TBP to be solubilized. A well compromise between the SMT and the CPT must be also observed so as to obtain a large extent of monophasic domain after the restructuration. The best compromise is obtained with Pluronics with intermediate hydrophobic character. Reversely, hydrophobic and hydrophilic Pluronics exhibit a very small extent of monophasic domain after the restructuration which does not allow benefit by the structural change.

  9. Task reports on developing techniques for scattering by 3D composite structures and to generate new solutions in diffraction theory using higher order boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volakis, John L.

    1991-01-01

    There are two tasks described in this report. First, an extension of a two dimensional formulation is presented for a three dimensional body of revolution. A Fourier series expansion of the vector electric and magnetic fields is employed to reduce the dimensionality of the system, and an exact boundary condition is employed to terminate the mesh. The mesh termination boundary is chosen such that it leads to convolutional boundary operators for low O(n) memory demand. Second, rigorous uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) diffraction coefficients are presented for a coated convex cylinder simulated with generalized impedance boundary conditions. Ray solutions are obtained which remain valid in the transition region and reduce uniformly those in the deep lit and shadow regions. A uniform asymptotic solution is also presented for observations in the close vicinity of the cylinder.

  10. Radiative transfer equation for predicting light propagation in biological media: comparison of a modified finite volume method, the Monte Carlo technique, and an exact analytical solution.

    PubMed

    Asllanaj, Fatmir; Contassot-Vivier, Sylvain; Liemert, André; Kienle, Alwin

    2014-01-01

    We examine the accuracy of a modified finite volume method compared to analytical and Monte Carlo solutions for solving the radiative transfer equation. The model is used for predicting light propagation within a two-dimensional absorbing and highly forward-scattering medium such as biological tissue subjected to a collimated light beam. Numerical simulations for the spatially resolved reflectance and transmittance are presented considering refractive index mismatch with Fresnel reflection at the interface, homogeneous and two-layered media. Time-dependent as well as steady-state cases are considered. In the steady state, it is found that the modified finite volume method is in good agreement with the other two methods. The relative differences between the solutions are found to decrease with spatial mesh refinement applied for the modified finite volume method obtaining <2.4%. In the time domain, the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is used for the time semi-discretization of the radiative transfer equation. An agreement among the modified finite volume method, Runge-Kutta method, and Monte Carlo solutions are shown, but with relative differences higher than in the steady state.

  11. Insight into selective removal of copper from high-concentration nickel solutions with XPS and DFT: New technique to prepare 5N-nickel with chelating resin.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xuewen; Liu, Fuqiang; Bai, Zhiping; Wei, Dongyang; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wang, Junfei; Gao, Jie; Sun, Xiaowen; Li, Baohua; Li, Chenghui; Li, Aimin

    2016-10-01

    An efficient and profitable separation process was proposed to prepare 5N (the purity of the metal solution reaches 99.999%) high-purity nickel from 3N nickel-solutions using Purolite S984. The adsorption performance of this superior resin, especially its selectivity for metal ions, was explored quantitatively. The maximum adsorption capacity for copper was 2.286mmol/g calculated by the Langmuir model, which was twice as large as that for nickel. In the binary systems, the adsorption capacity for nickel was decreased by 45%, indicating direct competition for the active sites. The infinite separation factor for copper versus nickel exceeded 300, revealing the feasibility of preparing 5N-level high-purity nickel solutions, which was further verified using the 800BV (bed volume) effluent in the column dynamic process. According to the cost-benefit analysis, purification contributed to a profit of approximately 60,000USD per cycle, and the investment return period was less than 1/3years. Density functional theory analysis confirmed that four nitrogen atoms would be involved in the coordination complex and thus a structure involving two five-membered rings could be achieved. The X-ray photoelectron spectra confirmed the involvement of nitrogen atoms, implying a coordination ratio of approximately 1:1. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Departure solutions of the unsteady thin-layer and full Navier-Stokes equations solved using streamline curvature based iteration techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, M.; Turner, D.; Rothmayer, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    The development of a thorough understanding of the mechanisms for vortex eruptions from viscous layers, which are believed to be associated with phenomena such as dynamic stall onset and transition, is crucial if accurate models of such phenomena are to be formulated. The development of such models may, in turn, allow for the possibility that such effects could be accounted for during the design of various aerodynamic devices such as wings, helicopter rotors, and turbomachinery blading and thus lead to designs which are stall free or stall resistant and which have better stall-recovery properties. The present investigation is being conducted as part of an effort to develop analytical and numerical tools which can be used to help improve our understanding of the vortex-eruption mechanism at high Reynolds numbers. The addition of the normal-momentum equation to the classical unsteady boundary-layer equations is crucial according to recent asymptotic analyses of the vortex-eruption problem and is a key feature of the analyses being developed by the present authors. The purpose of this paper is as follows: to describe departure solution behavior observed when using unsteady, streamline-curvature based solution procedures in which nontrivial transverse pressure gradient effects are included; and to show that special treatment of the time-derivative of the normal velocity is needed to eliminate the ill-posed solution behavior, which is observed when small spatial and temporal step sizes are used.

  13. Comparison of the three-dimensional correctness of impression techniques: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Luthardt, Ralph Gunnar; Walter, Michael H; Quaas, Sebastian; Koch, Rainer; Rudolph, Heike

    2010-01-01

    In vitro studies showed superior impression correctness for one-stage impressions. However, clinical data, especially clinical trials, are lacking in this matter. The aim of the study was to investigate the three-dimensional correctness of impressions for final restorations applying three different impression techniques. Three impressions each were made from 48 patients with different techniques using metal stock trays. In a randomized order, one-stage putty-wash, two-stage putty-wash, and monophase impressions (respectively, Dimension Penta H and Garant L, Dimension Penta H Quick and Garant L Quick, Impregum Penta; 3M ESPE) were made with either polyvinyl siloxane or polyether materials. The double-cord technique was applied at all abutment teeth. Factors potentially influencing the correctness of the impressions were recorded. The precision of the impressions was three-dimensionally analyzed using the resulting gypsum models. Discrepancies between the impressions were calculated using the one-stage putty-wash impression as reference. Discrepancies between the one-stage putty-wash impressions and the monophase impressions are significantly lower compared with two-stage putty-wash impressions. The depth of the most subgingival portion of the preparation margin significantly influences the discrepancies between the impression techniques. In light of the major influence of clinical parameters on impression correctness, one-stage procedures should be favored. These findings support the results of in vitro investigations.

  14. Miscibility, Crystallization, and Rheological Behavior of Solution Casting Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(ethylene succinate) Blends Probed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Rheology, and Optical Microscope Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei-hua; Qiao, Xiao-ping; Cao, Qi-kun; Liu, Jie-ping

    2010-02-01

    The miscibility and crystallization of solution casting biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(ethylene succinate) (PHB/PES) blends was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, rheology, and optical microscopy. The blends showed two glass transition temperatures and a depression of melting temperature of PHB with compositions in phase diagram, which indicated that the blend was partially miscible. The morphology observation supported this result. It was found that the PHB and PES can crystallize simultaneously or upon stepwise depending on the crystallization temperatures and compositions. The spherulite growth rate of PHB increased with increasing of PES content. The influence of compositions on the spherulitic growth rate for the partially miscible polymer blends was discussed.

  15. Stabilization of alkane radical-cations, their transport and capture under low temperature irradiation of solutions. Study by the OD ESR technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadjikov, B. M.; Melekhov, V. I.; Anisimov, O. A.; Molin, Yu. N.

    The spectra of stabilized solvent holes were obtained by the method of optically detected ESR (OD ESR) in glassy matrices at 77 K. Using this technique we obtained the spectra for radical-cations of cis-decalin, squalene, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, 3,3-dimethylpentane, 3-methylheptane and 2,3-dimethylbutane. For all matrices except that of squalene, an hf-structure in the OD ESR spectra belonging to the radical-cations of matrices used is detected. Thus an unpaired electron is shown to be localized mainly on one molecule. The efficiency of hole transfer to acceptors with a lower ionization potential is studied in squalene and cis-decalin. It increases with difference in ionization Δ > 0.3 eV. The data on positive charge transfer provided by the OD ESR technique in the present paper, testify in favour of the long range single step tunneling.

  16. Two new species and a new subgenus of toothed Brachyhypopomus electric knifefishes (Gymnotiformes, Hypopomidae) from the central Amazon and considerations pertaining to the evolution of a monophasic electric organ discharge

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, John P.; Zuanon, Jansen; Cox Fernandes, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We describe two new, closely related species of toothed Brachyhypopomus (Hypopomidae: Gymnotiformes: Teleostei) from the central Amazon basin and create a new subgenus for them. Odontohypopomus, new subgenus of Brachyhypopomus, is diagnosed by (1) small teeth present on premaxillae; (2) medialmost two branchiostegal rays thin with blades oriented more vertically than remaining three rays; (3) background color in life (and to lesser extent in preservation) distinctly yellowish with head and sides peppered with small, widely spaced, very dark brown stellate chromatophores that greatly contrast with light background coloration; (4) a dark blotch or bar of subcutaneous pigment below the eye; (5) electric organ discharge waveform of very long duration (head-positive phase approx. 2 milliseconds or longer, head-negative phase shorter or absent) and slow pulse repetition rate (3–16 Hz). The type species of the new subgenus, Brachyhypopomus (Odontohypopomus) walteri sp. n., is diagnosed by the following additional character states: (1) subcutaneous dark pigment at base of orbit particularly prominent, (2) body semi-translucent and nearly bright yellow background coloration in life, (3) a biphasic electric organ discharge (EOD) waveform of very long duration (between 3.5 and 4 milliseconds at 25° C) with head-positive first phase significantly longer than second head-negative phase in both sexes. Brachyhypopomus (Odontohypopomus) bennetti sp. n. is diagnosed by two character states in addition to those used to diagnose the subgenus Odontohypopomus: (1) a deep electric organ, visible as large semi-transparent area, occupying approximately 14–17% body depth directly posterior to the abdominal cavity in combination with a short, but deep, caudal filament, and (2) a monophasic, head-positive EOD waveform, approximately 2.1 milliseconds in duration in both sexes. These are the only described rhamphichthyoid gymnotiforms with oral teeth, and Brachyhypopomus bennetti

  17. Two new species and a new subgenus of toothed Brachyhypopomus electric knifefishes (Gymnotiformes, Hypopomidae) from the central Amazon and considerations pertaining to the evolution of a monophasic electric organ discharge.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, John P; Zuanon, Jansen; Cox Fernandes, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    We describe two new, closely related species of toothed Brachyhypopomus (Hypopomidae: Gymnotiformes: Teleostei) from the central Amazon basin and create a new subgenus for them. Odontohypopomus, new subgenus of Brachyhypopomus, is diagnosed by (1) small teeth present on premaxillae; (2) medialmost two branchiostegal rays thin with blades oriented more vertically than remaining three rays; (3) background color in life (and to lesser extent in preservation) distinctly yellowish with head and sides peppered with small, widely spaced, very dark brown stellate chromatophores that greatly contrast with light background coloration; (4) a dark blotch or bar of subcutaneous pigment below the eye; (5) electric organ discharge waveform of very long duration (head-positive phase approx. 2 milliseconds or longer, head-negative phase shorter or absent) and slow pulse repetition rate (3-16 Hz). The type species of the new subgenus, Brachyhypopomus (Odontohypopomus) walteri sp. n., is diagnosed by the following additional character states: (1) subcutaneous dark pigment at base of orbit particularly prominent, (2) body semi-translucent and nearly bright yellow background coloration in life, (3) a biphasic electric organ discharge (EOD) waveform of very long duration (between 3.5 and 4 milliseconds at 25° C) with head-positive first phase significantly longer than second head-negative phase in both sexes. Brachyhypopomus (Odontohypopomus) bennetti sp. n. is diagnosed by two character states in addition to those used to diagnose the subgenus Odontohypopomus: (1) a deep electric organ, visible as large semi-transparent area, occupying approximately 14-17% body depth directly posterior to the abdominal cavity in combination with a short, but deep, caudal filament, and (2) a monophasic, head-positive EOD waveform, approximately 2.1 milliseconds in duration in both sexes. These are the only described rhamphichthyoid gymnotiforms with oral teeth, and Brachyhypopomus bennetti is the first

  18. Influence of annealing on p-type Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film by dip coating solution growth technique for the application of solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwari, B. Uma; Senthil Kumar, V.

    2014-09-01

    Thin films of Cu2ZnSnS4 have been deposited by solution growth dip coating method. Different Cu/Zn/Sn/S molar ratios were applied, which tells the properties of copper, Zinc, Tin, and Sulfide using X-ray diffraction, UV-vis, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and scanning electron spectroscopy. The pure CZTS thin film showed the phase transformation from Kesterite (tetragonal) to Kesterite (orthorhombic) crystal structure. Optical measurement analysis reveals that layers have relatively high absorption coefficient in the visible spectrum with a band gap reduction of 1.51-1.49 eV with an increase in the annealing temperature from room temperature to 300 °C for 1 h in hot air furnace without any presence of an inert gas. Optical conductivity was observed to increase from 1012 to 1013 (sec)-1 and electrical conductivity was of the order of 102 (Ω cm)-1.

  19. Task reports on developing techniques for scattering by 3D composite structures and to generate new solutions in diffraction theory using higher order boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volakis, John L.

    1990-01-01

    There are two tasks described in this report. First, an extension of a two dimensional formulation is presented for a three dimensional body of revolution. With the introduction of a Fourier expansion of the vector electric and magnetic fields, a coupled two dimensional system is generated and solved via the finite element method. An exact boundary condition is employed to terminate the mesh and the fast fourier transformation is used to evaluate the boundary integrals for low O(n) memory demand when an iterative solution algorithm is used. Second, the diffraction by a material discontinuity in a thick dielectric/ferrite layer is considered by modeling the layer as a distributed current sheet obeying generalized sheet transition conditions (GSTC's).

  20. An innovative fast track solution for food bolus impaction due to Jackhammer esophagus in an emergency department: the "Nitro-Push Blind Technique" case report.

    PubMed

    Marano, Luigi; Cecchi, Alessandro; Chiodo, Federica; Gullo, Francesco; Fiorillo, Pasquale; Roncetti, Luca; Longaroni, Mattia; Silvestri, Gianluca Proietti; Lolli, Silvano; Nicolic, Giorgio; Patriti, Alberto

    2016-08-18

    In the medical literature are described only few clinical cases of esophageal food bolus impaction due to esophageal motility disorders. Moreover, the management of this condition is highly variable with no evidence in the literature to strongly support a clear defined intervention. In this paper we describe for the first time a case of 53-year-old male with food bolus impaction due to Jackhammer esophagus referred to emergency department. On the basis of the known esophageal past medical history as well as the absence of bones in the bolus, the patient was submitted to a new conservative treatment, the "Nitro-Push Blind Technique". The new technique performed with naso-gastric tube thrust after nitrates medication in definite clinical case supported by known functional disease, represents a safe and successful method, with short observational period to minimize exposure to potential morbidity and reduce the inpatient stay in emergency department. It should be recommended, once validated in a larger cohort, as the initial treatment of choice in the selected patients with food boneless bolus impaction in the emergency settings. Indeed, this management provides only minimal deviation from the current practice and is hence technically easy to learn and perform.

  1. Interphase transfer kinetics of thorium between nitric acid and tributyl phosphate solutions using the single drop and the Lewis cell techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, D.E.; Mailen, J.C.; Coggins, J.R. Jr.; Thiel, S.W.; Scott, T.C.; Pih, N.; Yates, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    The kinetic rate constants for the interphase transfer of thorium between an aqueous phase and an organic phase of tributyl phosphate-n-paraffin hydrocarbon have been measured using the single drop and the Lewis cell techniques. Results from individual tests performed with the two techniques agree within experimental error. As with uranium, the data are consistent with a model in which the rate-controlling step is the rate of reaction of the components at the phase interface. An organic-soluble complex, represented by Th(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/.2TBP, forms in the organic phase. The composition of this complex is confirmed by equilibrium, as well as by kinetic, data. The kinetic data include results from tests showing the effects of TBP concentration and nitrate concentration on the values of the forward and the reverse kinetic constants. Other tests show the effect of temperature on the kinetic constant in both the forward and the reverse transfer directions, and the activation energies and enthalpy for the extraction reactions were estimated from these data. Unlike uranium, thorium extraction was shown to have a Marangoni effect under certain conditions. 10 figures, 1 table.

  2. Crystal structure analysis in solution-processed uniaxially oriented polycrystalline thin film of non-peripheral octahexyl phthalocyanine by grazing incidence wide-angle x-ray scattering techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, Masashi; Uno, Takashi; Nakatani, Mitsuhiro; Nakano, Chika; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2016-10-01

    Uniaxially oriented thin films of metal-free non-peripherally octahexyl-substituted phthalocyanine (C6PcH2), which exhibits high carrier mobility, have been fabricated by the bar-coating technique, which is a simple solution process. The molecular orientation and molecular steps in the thin film were observed by the polarized spectroscopy and the atomic force microscopy, respectively. The three-dimensional molecular packing structure in the thin film was investigated by the grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering technique with an in-plane sample rotation. The crystal orientation was clarified, and the three-dimensional molecular packing structure of the thin film was found to match the single crystal structure. Moreover, the X-ray diffraction patterns of the oriented thin films were simulated by using the lattice parameters of C6PcH2 single crystal to reproduce the observed X-ray diffraction patterns.

  3. Efficacy of preparation solutions and cleansing techniques on contamination of the skin in foot and ankle surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yammine, K; Harvey, A

    2013-04-01

    We report a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomised and quasi-randomised trials evaluating the efficacy of pre-operative skin antisepsis and cleansing techniques in reducing foot and ankle skin flora. The post-preparation culture number (Post-PCN) was the primary outcome. The data were evaluated using a modified version of the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool. We identified eight trials (560 participants, 716 feet) that met the inclusion criteria. There was a significant difference in the proportions of Post-PCN between hallux nailfold (HNF) and toe web spaces (TWS) sites: 0.47 vs 0.22, respectively (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.182937 to 0.304097; p < 0.0001). Meta-analyses showed that alcoholic chlorhexidine had better efficacy than alcoholic povidone-iodine (PI) at HNF sites (risk difference 0.19 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.30); p = 0.0005); a two-step intervention using PI scrub and paint (S&P) followed by alcohol showed significantly better efficacy over PI (S&P) alone at TWS sites (risk difference 0.13 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.24); p = 0.0169); and a two-step intervention using chlorhexidine scrub followed by alcohol showed significantly better efficacy over PI (S&P) alone at the combined (HNF with TWS) sites (risk difference 0.27 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.40); p < 0.0001). No significant difference was found between cleansing techniques.

  4. Base Catalytic Approach: A Promising Technique for the Activation of Biochar for Equilibrium Sorption Studies of Copper, Cu(II) Ions in Single Solute System

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abdul; Chowdhury, Zaira Zaman; Zain, Sharifuddin Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of catalytically pretreated biochar derived from the dried exocarp or fruit peel of mangostene with Group I alkali metal hydroxide (KOH). The pretreated char was activated in the presence of carbon dioxide gas flow at high temperature to upgrade its physiochemical properties for the removal of copper, Cu(II) cations in single solute system. The effect of three independent variables, including temperature, agitation time and concentration, on sorption performance were carried out. Reaction kinetics parameters were determined by using linear regression analysis of the pseudo first, pseudo second, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion models. The regression co-efficient, R2 values were best for the pseudo second order kinetic model for all the concentration ranges under investigation. This implied that Cu(II) cations were adsorbed mainly by chemical interactions with the surface active sites of the activated biochar. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were used to interpret the equilibrium data at different temperature. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the sorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The surface area of the activated sample was 367.10 m2/g, whereas before base activation, it was only 1.22 m2/g. The results elucidated that the base pretreatment was efficient enough to yield porous carbon with an enlarged surface area, which can successfully eliminate Cu(II) cations from waste water. PMID:28788595

  5. Monitoring and modeling of water flow and solute transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere system of poplar trees to evaluate the effectiveness of phytoremediation techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palladino, Mario; Di Fiore, Paola; Speranza, Giuseppe; Sica, Benedetto; Romano, Nunzio

    2015-04-01

    This work is part of a series of studies being carried out within the EU-Life+ project ECOREMED (Implementation of eco-compatible protocols for agricultural soil remediation in Litorale Domizio-Agro Aversano NIPS). The project refers to Litorale Domitio-Agro Aversano that has been identified as National Interest Priority Site (NIPS) and includes some polluted agricultural land belonging to more than 61 municipalities in the Naples and Caserta provinces of the Campania Region. The major aim of the project is to define an operating protocol for agriculture-based bioremediation of contaminated agricultural soils, also including the use of plant extracting pollutants to be used as biomasses for renewable energy production. This contribution specifically address the question of evaluating the effectiveness of phytoremediation actions selected by the project in the pilot area of Trentola-Ducenta and will provide some preliminary results of monitoring and modeling activities. A physical and hydraulic characterization has been carried out in this area where poplar trees were planted. Monitoring of water flow, root water uptake and solute transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere is under way with reference to two trees using capacitance soil moisture and matric potential sensors located at three different soil depths, whereas plant water status and evapotranspiration fluxes are indirectly estimated using fast-responding stem dendrometers.

  6. Fabrication of Cu2SnS3 thin films by ethanol-ammonium solution process by doctor-blade technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yaguang; Li, Jianmin; Xue, Cong; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Guoshun; Liu, Weifeng; Zhu, Changfei

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, a low-cost and simple method is applied to fabricate Cu2SnS3 (CTS) thin films. Namely CTS thin films are prepared by a doctor-blade method with a slurry dissolving the Cu2O and SnS powders obtained from CBD reaction solution into ethanol-ammonium solvents. Series of characterization methods including XRD, Raman spectra, SEM and UV-Vis analyses are introduced to investigate the phase structure, morphology and optical properties of CTS thin films. As a result, monoclinic CTS films have been obtained with the disappearance of binary phases CuS and SnS2 while increasing the annealing temperature and time, high quality monoclinic CTS thin films consisting of compact and large grains have been successfully prepared by this ethanol-ammonium method. Moreover, the secondary phase Cu2Sn3S7 is also observed during the annealing process. In addition, the post-annealed CTS film with a band-gap about 0.89 eV shows excellent absorbance between 400 and 1200 nm, which is proper for the bottom layer in multi-junction thin film solar cells. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Thioglycolic acid grafted onto silica gel and its properties in relation to extracting cations from ethanolic solution determined by calorimetric technique.

    PubMed

    Arakaki, Luiza N H; Espínola, José G P; da Fonseca, Maria G; de Oliveira, Severino F; de Sousa, Antonio N; Arakaki, Tomaz; Airoldi, Claudio

    2004-05-01

    Thioglycolic acid was immobilized onto silica gel surface using 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane as precursor silylating agent to yield silica. The amount of thioglycolic acid immobilized was 1.03 mmol per gram of silica. This new surface displayed a chelating moiety containing nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen basic centers which are potentially capable of extracting cations from ethanolic solution, such as MCl3 ( M=Fe, Cr, and Mo). This process of extraction was carried out by the batch method when similar chemisorption isotherms were observed for all cations. The data were adjusted to a modified Langmuir equation. The sequence of the maximum retention capacity was Cr(III) > Mo(III) > Fe(III). The same adsorption was determined by calorimetric titration and the enthalpic values of -35.75 +/- 0.02, 32.90 +/- 0.15, and -84.08 +/- 0.12 kJmol(-1) for chromium, molybdenum, and iron, respectively, were obtained. From the calculated Gibbs free energy -23.4 +/- 0.2, -27.2 +/- 0.2, and -32.7 +/- 0.3 kJmol(-1), the variations in entropy obtained were 42 +/- 1, 201 +/- 1, 172 +/- 1 JK(-1)mol(-1) for the same sequence. All thermodynamic values are in agreement with the spontaneity of the proposed cation-basic center interactions for these chelating processes.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Ba(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x})O{sub 3} Solid Solutions Using Impedance Spectroscopic Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bajpai, P. K.; Mohan, C. R. K.

    2011-11-22

    Technologically important solid solutions of Ba(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x})O{sub 3} are synthesized using conventional solid state route. Relatively dense and single phase ceramics are confirmed using X-ray diffraction. Homogeneous and micron size grain growth is characterized using SEM. Impedance spectroscopy is used to study the electrical properties of ceramics. Broad and diffuse impedance loss peak is observed above 250 deg. C, which shifts towards higher frequency with increase in temperature. The distribution of relaxation frequency may be associated with the B-site cationic disorder due to the random distribution of (Zr{sup 4+}/Ti{sup +4}) having different ionic radii. Impedance relaxation obeys the Arrhenius relation with activation energy, E{tau} is 0.31 eV and 0.48 eV for BZT compositions with x = 0.10 and 0.15 respectively. Equivalent circuit representation using two RC element coupled in parallel is used to analyse the impedance response.

  9. Overcoming the Crystallization Bottleneck: A Family of Gigantic Inorganic {Pdx}L (x=84, 72) Palladium Macrocycles Discovered using Solution Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Lorna G.; Surman, Andrew J.; Scullion, Rachel A.; Xu, Feng; Long, De‐Liang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The {Pd84}Ac wheel, initially discovered serendipitously, is the only reported giant palladium macrocycle—a unique structure that spontaneously assembles from small building blocks. Analogues of this structure are elusive. A new modular route to {Pd84}Ac is described, allowing incorporation of other ligands, and a new screening approach to cluster discovery. Structural assignments were made of new species from solution experiments, overcoming the need for crystallographic analysis. As a result, two new palladium macrocycles were discovered: a structural analogue of the existing {Pd84}Ac wheel with glycolate ligands, {Pd84}Gly, and the next in a magic number series for this cluster family—a new {Pd72}Prop wheel decorated with propionate ligands. These findings confirm predictions of a magic number rule for the family of {Pdx} macrocycles. Furthermore, structures with variable fractions of functional ligands were obtained. Together these discoveries establish palladium clusters as a new class of tunable nanostructures. In facilitating the discovery of species that would not have been discovered by orthodox crystallization approaches, this work also demonstrates the value of solution‐based screening and characterization in cluster chemistry, as a means to decouple cluster formation, discovery, and isolation. PMID:27634480

  10. Comprehensive numerical simulation analysis of flow and mass transfer by tuning inlet conditions in solution circulating technique focused to grow quality KDP crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Cheng, Min; Yang, Sen; Huang, Yi

    2017-04-01

    The inclusions are easily to be generated because of the nonuniform distribution of supersaturation of crystal surface in KDP crystal growth process, and the inclusions can reduce the growth quality of crystal. So in order to increase the growth rate of crystal and improve the uniformity of surface supersaturation, the numerical simulation of hydrodynamics and mass transfer in the growth of KDP crystal by using solution circulating method have been performed in this paper. The KDP crystal is in eccentric motion in the calculation model, and the effects of inlet velocities, positions of inlet pipe, and incident angles on the crystal growth are discussed. The surface supersaturation and standard deviation of supersaturation are obtained as functions of different inlet velocities, positions of inlet pipe, and incident angles. The value of surface supersaturation is higher and the standard deviation of surface supersaturation is lower when the inlet pipe and crystal are at the same height. Besides, the uniformity of crystal is improved obviously when the axis of inlet pipe is tangent to the rotation track of R-Py tip.

  11. A Randomized, Evaluator-Blinded, Split-Face Comparison Study of the Efficacy and Safety of a Novel Mannitol Containing Monophasic Hyaluronic Acid Dermal Filler for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Nasolabial Folds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Wook; Moon, Ik Jun; Yun, Woo Jin; Chung, Bo Young; Kim, Sang Duck; Lee, Ga-Young; Chang, Sung Eun

    2016-06-01

    Mannitol containing monophasic filler with higher crosslinking has not been well studied for moderate and severe nasolabial fold (NLF) correction. To compare the efficacy and safety of a novel mannitol containing hyaluronic acid (HA) filler (HA-G) with biphasic HA filler (HA-P) for moderate and severe NLF correction. Thirteen subjects with symmetric moderate to severe NLF received HA-G (in one NLF) and HA-P (in other NLF) and were evaluated for 24 weeks. At both 12 and 24 weeks, the mean improvement in Genzyme 6-point grading scale from baseline was significantly greater in the side of face that was treated with HA-G than HA-P (1.96±0.91 vs. 1.54±0.73 at week 12; p=0.044, 1.88±0.78 vs. 1.3±0.79 at week 24; p=0.027, respectively). At 12 weeks, the mean Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale score was 2.92±0.93 for HA-G and 2.31±0.95 for HA-P (p=0.008). Both fillers were well tolerated. The HA filler HA-G provides better efficacy and similar local tolerability compared with HA-P in 6 months following treatment for moderate and severe NLF.

  12. The optimal dose of local anaesthetic in the orthogonal two-needle technique. Extent of sensory block after the injection of 20, 30 and 40 mL of anaesthetic solution.

    PubMed

    Rucci, F S; Barbagli, R; Pippa, P; Boccaccini, A

    1997-05-01

    Ninety patients undergoing scheduled upper limb orthopaedic surgery were studied to determine the optimal anaesthetic dose using the 'orthogonal two-needle technique'. The patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups to receive one of three different volumes (20, 30 and 40 mL) (n = 30) of anaesthetic solution (a mixture of equal parts of 0.5% bupivacaine with adrenaline 1:200,000 and 2% lignocaine). A significant correlation was found between the volume injected and the anaesthetic spread for all tested areas. A better analgesic spread to all the major branches of the plexus was obtained when increased volumes of anaesthetic solution were injected. The comparisons between the 20 mL group and the other two groups are significant in all the tested areas, as well as the comparisons between 30 and 40 mL groups in the areas innervated by radial and musculocutaneous nerves. Only the area innervated by the axillary nerve showed a weaker volume-analgesia relation, confirming the elusiveness of this area to anaesthesia in the axillary approaches. The improved results observed using greater amounts of anaesthetic solution might result from a higher intrasheath pressure with disruption of sheath septa, or from a greater availability of drug for all the terminal branches of brachial plexus, or both.

  13. Rapid adsorption of toxic Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution using multiwall carbon nanotubes synthesized by microwave chemical vapor deposition technique.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, Nabisab Mujawar; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Abdullah, Ezzat Chan; Jayakumar, Natesan Subramanian

    2016-07-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized using a tubular microwave chemical vapor deposition technique, using acetylene and hydrogen as the precursor gases and ferrocene as catalyst. The novel MWCNT samples were tested for their performance in terms of Pb(II) binding. The synthesized MWCNT samples were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis, and the adsorption of Pb(II) was studied as a function of pH, initial Pb(II) concentration, MWCNT dosage, agitation speed, and adsorption time, and process parameters were optimized. The adsorption data followed both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. On the basis of the Langmuir model, Qmax was calculated to be 104.2mg/g for the microwave-synthesized MWCNTs. In order to investigate the dynamic behavior of MWCNTs as an adsorbent, the kinetic data were modeled using pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order equations. Different thermodynamic parameters, viz., ∆H(0), ∆S(0) and ∆G(0) were evaluated and it was found that the adsorption was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The statistical analysis revealed that the optimum conditions for the highest removal (99.9%) of Pb(II) are at pH5, MWCNT dosage 0.1g, agitation speed 160r/min and time of 22.5min with the initial concentration of 10mg/L. Our results proved that microwave-synthesized MWCNTs can be used as an effective Pb(II) adsorbent due to their high adsorption capacity as well as the short adsorption time needed to achieve equilibrium.

  14. The Synthesis of [Sn10(Si(SiMe3)3)4]2 - Using a Metastable Sn(I) Halide Solution Synthesized via a Co-condensation Technique.

    PubMed

    Binder, Mareike; Schrenk, Claudio; Schnepf, Andreas

    2016-11-28

    The number of well-characterized metalloid tin clusters, synthesized by applying the disproportionation of a metastable Sn(I) halide in the presence of a sterically demanding ligand, has increased in recent years. The metastable Sn(I) halide is synthesized at "outer space conditions" via the preparative co-condensation technique. Thereby, the subhalide is synthesized in an oven at high temperatures, around 1,300 °C, and at reduced pressure by the reaction of elemental tin with hydrogen halide gas (e.g., HCl). The subhalide (e.g., SnCl) is trapped within a matrix of an inert solvent, like toluene at -196 °C. Heating the solid matrix to -78 °C gives a metastable solution of the subhalide. The metastable subhalide solution is highly reactive but can be stored at -78 °C for several weeks. On heating the solution to room temperature, a disproportionation reaction occurs, leading to elemental tin and the corresponding dihalide. By applying bulky ligands like Si(SiMe3)3, the intermediate metalloid cluster compounds can be trapped before complete disproportionation to elemental tin. Hence, the reaction of a metastable Sn(I)Cl solution with Li-Si(SiMe3)3 gives [Sn10(Si(SiMe3)3)4](2)(-) 1 as black crystals in high yield. 1 is formed via a complex reaction sequence including salt metathesis, disproportionation, and degradation of larger clusters. Further, 1 can be analyzed by various methods like NMR or single crystal X-ray structure analysis.

  15. Dimensional accuracy of two rubber base impression materials as a function of spacer design and techniques in custom trays for fixed partial dentures.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Pankaj; Dhiman, R K; Kumar, Dinesh

    2015-12-01

    A prostheses can't be better than the cast over which it has been fabricated. To make accurate casts, accurate impressions are mandatory. To get an accurate and dimensionally stable impression, various techniques and materials have been advocated. This study compares the most commonly used techniques and materials for dimensional accuracy. Two types of spacers were designed to compare the addition silicon and polyether and their techniques. A metal die was used to make the impressions. A total of 60 impressions were made using multiple mix and monophasic techniques for addition silicon and polyether in custom trays. A travelling microscope was used to measure the dimensional accuracy of die stone casts retrieved from impressions. The results were compared using paired t test and SPSS software. The study was highly significant (p < 0.001). The polyether was more accurate than the addition silicon and spacer design I (adapted to the edentulous area) was more accurate than the design II (spacer over the abutments, not adapted to edentulous area). The multiple mix technique was more accurate than the monophasic for addition silicon. The combination of multiple mix technique with spacer design I for addition silicon gave the best accurate results.

  16. A new technique for the deposition of standard solutions in total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) using pico-droplets generated by inkjet printers and its applicability for aerosol analysis with SR-TXRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fittschen, U. E. A.; Hauschild, S.; Amberger, M. A.; Lammel, G.; Streli, C.; Förster, S.; Wobrauschek, P.; Jokubonis, C.; Pepponi, G.; Falkenberg, G.; Broekaert, J. A. C.

    2006-11-01

    A new technique for the deposition of standard solutions on particulate aerosol samples using pico-droplets for elemental determinations with total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) is described. It enables short analysis times without influencing the sample structure and avoids time consuming scanning of the sample with the exciting beam in SR-TXRF analysis. Droplets of picoliter volume (˜ 5-130 pL) were generated with commercially available and slightly modified inkjet printers operated with popular image processing software. The size of the dried droplets on surfaces of different polarity namely silicone coated and untreated quartz reflectors, was determined for five different printer types and ten different cartridge types. The results show that droplets generated by inkjet printers are between 50 and 200 μm in diameter (corresponding to volumes of 5 to 130 pL) depending on the cartridge type, which is smaller than the width of the synchrotron beam used in the experiments (< 1 mm at an energy of 17 keV at the beamline L at HASYLAB, Hamburg). The precision of the printing of a certain amount of a single element standard solution was found to be comparable to aliquoting with micropipettes in TXRF, where for 2.5 ng of cobalt relative standard deviations of 12% are found. However, it could be shown that the printing of simple patterns is possible, which is important when structured samples have to be analysed.

  17. Ion exchange on resins with temperature-responsive selectivity IV. Influence of solution and column parameters on efficiency of reagentless separation of copper and zinc using thermo-induced concentration waves technique.

    PubMed

    Muraviev, D; Gonzalo, A; Tikhonov, N A; Iljin, M I; Valiente, M

    2000-01-21

    The effect of solution and column parameters such as pH, ratio of metal ions and the height of resin bed on formation of the thermo-induced concentration waves (TICW) in the course of the thermostripping process of Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions from iminodiacetic resin Lewatit TP-207 has been studied. The formation of TICW is attributed by both different diffusivities of metal ions and the presence of the third (H+) ion in the system. This effect makes it possible to carry out a reagentless separation of metal ions by using either the metal depletion or metal concentration mode of operation. The efficiency of the TICW-based separation process by using the metal depletion mode appears to be the higher the lower relative concentration of metal ion under removal (slower diffusing ionic species). The mathematical model proposed allows for qualitative and quantitative description of thermostripping processes in a wide range of pH and solution compositions. The physical model of the TICW process proposed makes it possible to account for the influence of different process parameters and generalise the applicability of the TICW separation technique to the binary mixtures of any metal ions with different diffusivities.

  18. Synthesis, magnetic and dielectric characterization of nanocrystalline solid solutions of In{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15)

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Tokeer; Khatoon, Sarvari; Coolahan, Kelsey

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: Monophasic and crystalline In{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} nanoparticles of size 8–15 nm have been synthesized solvothermally and showed red shift in energy band gap which decreases on increasing Ni{sup 2+} concentration in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} host lattice. - Highlights: • Monophasic Ni-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles by solvothermal method for first time. • Plausible reaction mechanism using thermogravimetric analysis. • High surface area with small particle size obtained. • Solid solutions exhibit paramagnetism with very weak antiferromagnetic interactions. - Abstract: In{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by solvothermal method by the thermal decomposition of oxalate precursor at 450 °C for the first time. X-ray diffraction studies showed the formation of highly crystalline and monophasic cubic structure of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} which is attributed to the formation of solid solution. These nanoparticles show good optical transmittance in the visible region. Optical measurements showed an energy band gap which decreases with increasing Ni concentration. The grain size decreases from 15 nm to 8 nm and surface area increases from 90 to 254 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} on increasing the Ni concentration. High dielectric constant and dielectric loss has been obtained which indicates the conducting nature of these solid solutions. Magnetic measurements showed that the samples are strong paramagnetic in nature with very weak antiferromagnetic interactions. No evidence of ferromagnetism is observed for these solid solutions at room temperature.

  19. Gastroenteric tube feeding: Techniques, problems and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Blumenstein, Irina; Shastri, Yogesh M; Stein, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Gastroenteric tube feeding plays a major role in the management of patients with poor voluntary intake, chronic neurological or mechanical dysphagia or gut dysfunction, and patients who are critically ill. However, despite the benefits and widespread use of enteral tube feeding, some patients experience complications. This review aims to discuss and compare current knowledge regarding the clinical application of enteral tube feeding, together with associated complications and special aspects. We conducted an extensive literature search on PubMed, Embase and Medline using index terms relating to enteral access, enteral feeding/nutrition, tube feeding, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy, endoscopic nasoenteric tube, nasogastric tube, and refeeding syndrome. The literature showed common routes of enteral access to include nasoenteral tube, gastrostomy and jejunostomy, while complications fall into four major categories: mechanical, e.g., tube blockage or removal; gastrointestinal, e.g., diarrhea; infectious e.g., aspiration pneumonia, tube site infection; and metabolic, e.g., refeeding syndrome, hyperglycemia. Although the type and frequency of complications arising from tube feeding vary considerably according to the chosen access route, gastrointestinal complications are without doubt the most common. Complications associated with enteral tube feeding can be reduced by careful observance of guidelines, including those related to food composition, administration rate, portion size, food temperature and patient supervision. PMID:25024606

  20. Solution Techniques in Finite Element Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    7. we show a plane strain rubber block subjected to large deforma- tion. We employ a 4-node element and a Mooney - Rivlin material as described in...0 Rubber Block U: 0.30 Figure 7. Large Deformation Analysis of the R ubber Block with Mooney - Rivlin Material Model. GEOMETRY node iE 10 4 -0.3 1.0 1

  1. Application of Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Technique to Hydrogen/Lithium Insertion into MnO2/LiCoO2 Electrode in Aqueous/Non-aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHOI, Young-Min; PYUN, Su-Il; SHIN, Heon-Cheol

    1998-04-01

    The hydrogen insertion/desertion into/from MnO2 electrode in aqueous solution and the lithium intercalation/ deintercalation into/from LiCoO2 electrode in non-aqueous solution have been investigated by using in-situ electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) technique combined with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge experiment. In the case of the MnO2 electrode, the combined cyclic electrogravimetric and CV results indicated that the redox potentials at the transition in oxidation state of manganese ion measured on the cathodic scan are satisfactorily in accord in value with those thermodynamic e-quilibrium potentials calculated in Pourbaix diagram. The positive/negative slope with a constant value in the plot of mass change rate vs. potential means that the reaction is inclined to proceed in the direction of an oxidation/reduction between two phases. From the electrogravimetric curves obtained simultaneously with galvanostatic discharge curves, the discrepancy between the charge and mass variations was discussed in relation with the hydrogen-induced stress. In the case of the LiCoO2 electrode, the cyclic electrogravimetric data obtained simultaneously with CV indicated that neither solvent nor any of other species but lithium ions are intercalated into and deintercalated from the electrode. From the cyclic electrogravimetric curve obtained simultaneously with galvanostatic charge-discharge curve, the discrepancy between the charge and mass variations was discussed in relation with the change of the molar volume and surface roughness of the electrode during the lithium intercalation and deintercalation.

  2. Horizontal Acquisition of a Multidrug-Resistance Module (R-type ASSuT) Is Responsible for the Monophasic Phenotype in a Widespread Clone of Salmonella Serovar 4,[5],12:i:-

    PubMed Central

    García, Patricia; Malorny, Burkhard; Rodicio, M. Rosario; Stephan, Roger; Hächler, Herbert; Guerra, Beatriz; Lucarelli, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- is a monophasic variant of S. Typhimurium incapable of expressing the second-phase flagellar antigen (fljAB operon), and it is recognized to be one of the most prevalent serovars causing human infections. A clonal lineage characterized by phage type DT193, PulseNet PFGE profile STYMXB.0131 and multidrug resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracycline (R-type ASSuT) is commonly circulating in Europe. In this study we determined the deletions affecting the fljAB operon and the resistance region responsible for the R-type ASSuT in a strain of Salmonella enterica serovar 4,5,12:i:- DT193/STYMXB.0131, through an approach based on PCRs and Southern blot hybridization of genomic DNA. Using a set of nine specific PCRs, the prevalence of the resistance region was assessed in a collection of 144 S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:-/ASSuT/STYMXB.0131 strains isolated from Germany, Switzerland and Italy. A 28 kb-region is embedded between the loci STM2759 and iroB, replacing the DNA located in between, including the fljAB operon. It encompasses the genes blaTEM−1, strA-strB, sul2 and tet(B) responsible for the R-type ASSuT together with genes involved in plasmid replication and orfs of unknown function characteristically located on IncH1 plasmids. Its location and internal structure is fairly conserved in S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:-/ASSuT/STYMXB.0131 strains regardless of the isolation source or country. Hence, in the S. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:-/ASSuT/STYMXB.0131 clonal lineage widespread in Germany, Switzerland and Italy, a resistance region derived from IncH1 plasmids has replaced the chromosomal region encoding the second flagellar phase and is an example of the stabilization of new plasmid-derived genetic material due to integration into the bacterial chromosome. PMID:27242707

  3. Novel method for the fast determination of ultra trace amount of nortriptyline in its pharmaceutical formulations by fast fourier transform continuous cyclic voltammetric technique at Au microelectrode in flowing solutions.

    PubMed

    Norouzi, Parviz; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Shirvani-Arani, Simindokht; Mohammadi, Ali

    2007-04-01

    In this work a novel method for the determination of nortriptyline in flow-injection systems has been developed. The proposed method was used for the fast determination of nortriptyline in its pharmaceutical formulations. The developed technique is very simple, precise, accurate, time saving, and economical, compared to all of the previously reported methods. The effects of various parameters on the sensitivity of the method were investigated. The best performance obtained at pH value of 2, scan rate value of 30 V/s, accumulation potential of 400 mV, and accumulation time of 0.5 s. The proposed method has some advantages over other reported methods such as, no need for the removal of oxygen from the test solution, a subnanomolar detection limit, and finally the method is sufficiently fast for the determination of any such compound, in a wide variety of chromatographic methods. The potential waveform, consisting of the potential steps for cleaning, accumulation and potential ramp of analyte, was continuously applied on an Au disk microelectrode (12.5 microm in radius). The detection limit of the method was 2.0 x 10(-11) M. The relative standard deviation of the method at 1.2 x 10(-8) M was 2.1% for eight runs.

  4. Fostering a culture of engagement: a pilot study of the outcomes of training mental health nurses working in two UK acute admission units in brief solution-focused therapy techniques.

    PubMed

    Hosany, Z; Wellman, N; Lowe, T

    2007-10-01

    It is widely acknowledged that there are major concerns about quality of care, ward atmosphere, the nature of nurse-patient interactions and patient outcomes in UK psychiatric acute admission units. Brief solution-focused therapy (SFT) is an approach which aims to shift the focus of interactions in professional care away from the traditional concentration on an individual's problems and weaknesses towards a more proactive identification of their strengths and positive coping mechanisms. This approach relies on a collaborative engagement with patients, in which the nurse or therapist using simple language aims to help the patient construct a plan to ensure their immediate safety while working to identify, focus on and reinforce their strengths and coping mechanisms in the achievement of identified future goals. This paper reports on a pilot study whose principal objective was to determine whether a short training in brief SFT for psychiatric nurses can produce measurable improvements in nurse-patient interactions in two psychiatric acute admission wards. In this study, 36 nurses undertook a 2-day training course in SFT and were followed up 3 months after training. Positive results were obtained on a number of measures indicating that nurses had acquired knowledge and skills and were applying SFT techniques in their clinical work.

  5. Structure and properties of Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3- Pb(Zr(1-x)Ti(x))O3 ferroelectric single crystals grown by a top-seeded solution growth technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bixia; Wu, Xiaoqing; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2015-06-01

    Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3 (BZT)-modified Pb(Zr(1-x)Ti(x))O3 (PZT) single crystals have been grown using a top-seeded solution growth technique and characterized by various methods. The crystal structure is found to be rhombohedral by means of X-ray powder diffraction. The composition and homogeneity of the as-grown single crystals are studied by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The domain structure of a (001)(cub) platelet is investigated by polarized light microscopy (PLM), which confirms the rhombohedral symmetry. The paraelectric-to-ferroelectric phase transition temperature T(C) is found to be 313°C with the absence of rhombohedral-tetragonal phase transition. The ferroelectric properties of the ternary crystals are enhanced by the BZT substitution with a remanent polarization of 28 μC/cm(2) and a coercive field E(C) of 22.1 kV/cm.

  6. Electromarking solution

    DOEpatents

    Bullock, Jonathan S.; Harper, William L.; Peck, Charles G.

    1976-06-22

    This invention is directed to an aqueous halogen-free electromarking solution which possesses the capacity for marking a broad spectrum of metals and alloys selected from different classes. The aqueous solution comprises basically the nitrate salt of an amphoteric metal, a chelating agent, and a corrosion-inhibiting agent.

  7. Solution Potentials Indicate Aluminum-Alloy Tempers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    Report discusses use of solution potential as measure of temper of aluminum alloys. Technique based on fact that different tempers or heat treatments exhibit different solution potentials as function of aging time.

  8. Control of microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, R. D.

    1994-11-01

    Controlling microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions involves different techniques when targeting the nutrient solution, hardware surfaces in contact with the solution, or the active root zone. This review presents basic principles and applications of a number of treatment techniques, including disinfection by chemicals, ultrafiltration, ultrasonics, and heat treatment, with emphasis on UV irradiation and ozone treatment. Procedures for control of specific pathogens by nutrient solution conditioning also are reviewed.

  9. Control of microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions.

    PubMed

    Evans, R D

    1994-11-01

    Controlling microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions involves different techniques when targeting the nutrient solution, hardware surfaces in contact with the solution, or the active root zone. This review presents basic principles and applications of a number of treatment techniques, including disinfection by chemicals, ultrafiltration, ultrasonics, and heat treatment, with emphasis on UV irradiation and ozone treatment. Procedures for control of specific pathogens by nutrient solution conditioning also are reviewed.

  10. Solid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Go-Eun; Kim, Il-Ho; Lim, Young Soo; Seo, Won-Seon; Choi, Byeong-Jun; Hwang, Chang-Won

    2014-06-01

    Since Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 have the same crystal structure, they form a homogeneous solid solution. Therefore, the thermal conductivity of the solid solution can be reduced by phonon scattering. The thermoelectric figure of merit can be improved by controlling the carrier concentration through doping. In this study, Bi2Te2.85Se0.15:D m (D: dopants such as I, Cu, Ag, Ni, Zn) solid solutions were prepared by encapsulated melting and hot pressing. All specimens exhibited n-type conduction in the measured temperature range (323 K to 523 K), and their electrical conductivities decreased slightly with increasing temperature. The undoped solid solution showed a carrier concentration of 7.37 × 1019 cm-3, power factor of 2.1 mW m-1 K-1, and figure of merit of 0.56 at 323 K. The figure of merit ( ZT) was improved due to the increased power factor by I, Cu, and Ag dopings, and maximum ZT values were obtained as 0.76 at 323 K for Bi2Te2.85Se0.15:Cu0.01 and 0.90 at 423 K for Bi2Te2.85Se0.15:I0.005. However, the thermoelectric properties of Ni- and Zn-doped solid solutions were not enhanced.

  11. Polyelectrolyte Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colby, Ralph H.

    2008-03-01

    Pierre-Gilles de Gennes once described polyelectrolytes as the ``least understood form of condensed matter''. In this talk, I will describe the state of the polyelectrolyte field before and after de Gennes' seminal contributions published 1976-1980. De Gennes clearly explained why electrostatic interactions only stretch the polyelectrolyte chains on intermediate scales in semidilute solution (between the electrostatic blob size and the correlation length) and why the scattering function has a peak corresponding to the correlation length (the distance to the next chain). Despite many other ideas being suggested since then, the simple de Gennes scaling picture of polyelectrolyte conformation in solution has stood the test of time. How that model is used today, including consequences for dynamics in polyelectrolyte solutions, and what questions remain, will clarify the importance of de Gennes' ideas.

  12. Asymptotic solutions in asymptotic safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Martin, Sergio; Morris, Tim R.; Slade, Zoë H.

    2017-05-01

    We explain how to find the asymptotic form of fixed point solutions in functional truncations, in particular f (R ) approximations. We find that quantum fluctuations do not decouple at large R , typically leading to elaborate asymptotic solutions containing several free parameters. By a counting argument, these can be used to map out the dimension of the fixed point solution spaces. They are also necessary to validate the numerical solution and provide the physical part in the limit that the cutoff is removed: the fixed point equation of state. As an example, we apply the techniques to a recent f (R ) approximation by Demmel et al., finding asymptotic matches to their numerical solution. Depending on the value of the endomorphism parameter, we find many other asymptotic solutions and fixed point solution spaces of differing dimensions, yielding several alternative scenarios for the equation of state. Asymptotic studies of other f (R ) approximations are needed to clarify the picture.

  13. Polymer solutions

    DOEpatents

    Krawczyk, Gerhard Erich; Miller, Kevin Michael

    2011-07-26

    There is provided a method of making a polymer solution comprising polymerizing one or more monomer in a solvent, wherein said monomer comprises one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomer that is a multi-functional Michael donor, and wherein said solvent comprises 40% or more by weight, based on the weight of said solvent, one or more multi-functional Michael donor.

  14. -Saturated Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliyan, Faysal Fayez; Alfantazi, Akram

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents an electrochemical study on the corrosion behavior of API-X100 steel, heat-treated to have microstructures similar to those of the heat-affected zones (HAZs) of pipeline welding, in bicarbonate-CO2 saturated solutions. The corrosion reactions, onto the surface and through the passive films, are simulated by cyclic voltammetry. The interrelation between bicarbonate concentration and CO2 hydration is analyzed during the filming process at the open-circuit potentials. In dilute bicarbonate solutions, H2CO3 drives more dominantly the cathodic reduction and the passive films form slowly. In the concentrated solutions, bicarbonate catalyzes both the anodic and cathodic reactions, only initially, after which it drives a fast-forming thick passivation that inhibits the underlying dissolution and impedes the cathodic reduction. The significance of the substrate is as critical as that of passivation in controlling the course of the corrosion reactions in the dilute solutions. For fast-cooled (heat treatment) HAZs, its metallurgical significance becomes more comparable to that of slower-cooled HAZs as the bicarbonate concentration is higher.

  15. Sound Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    Poor classroom acoustics are impairing students' hearing and their ability to learn. However, technology has come up with a solution: tools that focus voices in a way that minimizes intrusive ambient noise and gets to the intended receiver--not merely amplifying the sound, but also clarifying and directing it. One provider of classroom audio…

  16. Sound Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    Poor classroom acoustics are impairing students' hearing and their ability to learn. However, technology has come up with a solution: tools that focus voices in a way that minimizes intrusive ambient noise and gets to the intended receiver--not merely amplifying the sound, but also clarifying and directing it. One provider of classroom audio…

  17. Oral surgery. Basic techniques.

    PubMed

    Ross, D L; Goldstein, G S

    1986-09-01

    Some of the clinical problems most frequently seen in veterinary dentistry and their surgical solutions are discussed. Extraction of teeth, surgical repositioning of teeth, tooth transplant, oral abscesses of tooth origin, impaction of teeth, repair of maxillary canine oronasal fistula, and simple techniques for oral wiring are among the issues considered.

  18. Problem Solving Techniques Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. Six problem-solving techniques are developed in the booklet to assist individuals and groups in making better decisions: problem identification, data gathering, data analysis, solution analysis,…

  19. Survey of Impression Materials and Techniques in Fixed Partial Dentures among the Practitioners in India

    PubMed Central

    Moldi, Arvind; Puranik, Shivakumar; Karan, Smita; Deshpande, Sumit; Neela, Neelima

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Anecdotal evidence suggests that impression materials and techniques used in general dental practice for fixed partial dentures vary from those taught in dental schools. The aim of this survey was to integrate impression techniques evolved all over the years for fixed partial dentures and to know the techniques and materials which are used in the present day by the practitioners. Materials and Methods. A total of 1000 questionnaires were sent to various practitioners in India, out of which 807 questionnaires were filled. Results. The results showed that 84.8% of prosthodontists (65.56%, urban areas) use elastomeric impression materials as well as irreversible hydrocolloids and 15.2% use irreversible hydrocolloid only. Amongst other practitioners, 55.46% use irreversible hydrocolloid (45%, rural and semiurban areas) and 44.54% use elastomeric impression materials. Elastomeric impression technique practiced most commonly is putty reline with/without spacer (77.2%); other techniques are multiple-mix and monophase techniques. Conclusion. The ideal materials, technique, and armamentarium are required for the long-term success of the treatment for fixed partial denture. Also, if the ideal procedure is not followed, it will lead to a compromised fit of the final prosthesis and failure of the treatment. PMID:23691334

  20. Survey of Impression Materials and Techniques in Fixed Partial Dentures among the Practitioners in India.

    PubMed

    Moldi, Arvind; Gala, Vimal; Puranik, Shivakumar; Karan, Smita; Deshpande, Sumit; Neela, Neelima

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Anecdotal evidence suggests that impression materials and techniques used in general dental practice for fixed partial dentures vary from those taught in dental schools. The aim of this survey was to integrate impression techniques evolved all over the years for fixed partial dentures and to know the techniques and materials which are used in the present day by the practitioners. Materials and Methods. A total of 1000 questionnaires were sent to various practitioners in India, out of which 807 questionnaires were filled. Results. The results showed that 84.8% of prosthodontists (65.56%, urban areas) use elastomeric impression materials as well as irreversible hydrocolloids and 15.2% use irreversible hydrocolloid only. Amongst other practitioners, 55.46% use irreversible hydrocolloid (45%, rural and semiurban areas) and 44.54% use elastomeric impression materials. Elastomeric impression technique practiced most commonly is putty reline with/without spacer (77.2%); other techniques are multiple-mix and monophase techniques. Conclusion. The ideal materials, technique, and armamentarium are required for the long-term success of the treatment for fixed partial denture. Also, if the ideal procedure is not followed, it will lead to a compromised fit of the final prosthesis and failure of the treatment.

  1. Improving the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drug by solid dispersion and solid solution: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Chokshi, Rina J; Zia, Hossein; Sandhu, Harpreet K; Shah, Navnit H; Malick, Waseem A

    2007-01-01

    The solid dispersions with poloxamer 188 (P188) and solid solutions with polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVPK30) were evaluated and compared in an effort to improve aqueous solubility and bioavailability of a model hydrophobic drug. All preparations were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, intrinsic dissolution rates, and contact angle measurements. Accelerated stability studies also were conducted to determine the effects of aging on the stability of various formulations. The selected solid dispersion and solid solution formulations were further evaluated in beagle dogs for in vivo testing. Solid dispersions were characterized to show that the drug retains its crystallinity and forms a two-phase system. Solid solutions were characterized to be an amorphous monophasic system with transition of crystalline drug to amorphous state. The evaluation of the intrinsic dissolution rates of various preparations indicated that the solid solutions have higher initial dissolution rates compared with solid dispersions. However, after storage at accelerated conditions, the dissolution rates of solid solutions were lower due to partial reversion to crystalline form. The drug in solid dispersion showed better bioavailability in comparison to solid solution. Therefore, considering physical stability and in vivo study results, the solid dispersion was the most suitable choice to improve dissolution rates and hence the bioavailability of the poorly water soluble drug.

  2. Sterile technique

    MedlinePlus

    ... technique. In: Perry AG, Potter PA, eds. Clinical Nursing Skills and Techniques . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap 8. Read More Stress urinary incontinence Urge incontinence Urinary incontinence Patient Instructions ...

  3. Analysis of earth rotation solution from Starlette

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, B. E.; Cheng, M. K.; Shum, C. K.; Eanes, R. J.; Tapley, B. D.

    1989-01-01

    Earth rotation parameter (ERP) solutions were derived from the Starlette orbit analysis during the Main MERIT Campaign, using a technique of a consider-covariance analysis to assess the effects of errors on the polar motion solutions. The polar motion solution was then improved through the simultaneous adjustment of some dynamical parameters representing identified dominant perturbing sources (such as the geopotential and ocean-tide coefficients) on the polar motion solutions. Finally, an improved ERP solution was derived using the gravity field model, PTCF1, described by Tapley et al. (1986). The accuracy of the Starlette ERP solution was assessed by a comparison with the LAGEOS-derived ERP solutions.

  4. Analysis of earth rotation solution from Starlette

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, B. E.; Cheng, M. K.; Shum, C. K.; Eanes, R. J.; Tapley, B. D.

    1989-01-01

    Earth rotation parameter (ERP) solutions were derived from the Starlette orbit analysis during the Main MERIT Campaign, using a technique of a consider-covariance analysis to assess the effects of errors on the polar motion solutions. The polar motion solution was then improved through the simultaneous adjustment of some dynamical parameters representing identified dominant perturbing sources (such as the geopotential and ocean-tide coefficients) on the polar motion solutions. Finally, an improved ERP solution was derived using the gravity field model, PTCF1, described by Tapley et al. (1986). The accuracy of the Starlette ERP solution was assessed by a comparison with the LAGEOS-derived ERP solutions.

  5. Modulation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Bandwidth efficient digital modulation techniques, proposed for use on and/or applied to satellite channels, are reviewed. In a survey of recent works on digital modulation techniques, the performance of several schemes operating in various environments are compared. Topics covered include: (1) quadrature phase shift keying; (2) offset - QPSK and MSK; (3) combined modulation and coding; and (4) spectrally efficient modulation techniques.

  6. Dismantling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Wiese, E.

    1998-03-13

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule.

  7. Contractile responses in human umbilical arteries to hyper- and hypotonic solutions.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Kojima, M; Dohi, Y

    1994-01-01

    The effects of hyper- and hypotonic solutions on vascular smooth muscle were studied using helical strips from human umbilical arteries. Hypertonic solutions evoked a biphasic contraction that consisted of early and late contractions. Verapamil or Ca(2+)-free conditions inhibited early contraction induced by tonicity of 340-539 mosm/kg. Under these conditions, late contraction induced by 340-407 mosm/kg was inhibited, whereas contraction induced by 539 mosm/kg was not. Hypotonic solutions evoked a monophasic contraction. Verapamil or Ca(2+)-free conditions inhibited contraction induced by tonicity of 249-266 mosm/kg but not by tonicity of 213 mosm/kg. Hyper- or hypotonicity-induced contractions were not affected by the presence or absence of endothelium. These results suggest that a small increase or decrease in tonicity within the pathophysiological range of osmotic pressure (260-340 mosm/kg) evokes contraction in human umbilical arteries by stimulating calcium influx through voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels.

  8. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Paul C; Leong-Hoi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. PMID:26491270

  9. Helping Families Search for Solutions: Working with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paylo, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    In this column, the author focuses on the ways that family counselors can use solution-based therapies (solution-oriented and solution-focused) to work with families with adolescents in individual and/or family therapy. The theoretical foundation for solution-based therapies suggests techniques that help families focus on solutions and not remain…

  10. Multigrid solution of internal flows using unstructured solution adaptive meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Wayne A.; Blake, Kenneth R.

    1992-01-01

    This is the final report of the NASA Lewis SBIR Phase 2 Contract Number NAS3-25785, Multigrid Solution of Internal Flows Using Unstructured Solution Adaptive Meshes. The objective of this project, as described in the Statement of Work, is to develop and deliver to NASA a general three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code using unstructured solution-adaptive meshes for accuracy and multigrid techniques for convergence acceleration. The code will primarily be applied, but not necessarily limited, to high speed internal flows in turbomachinery.

  11. Numerical grid generation techniques. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The state of the art in topology and flow geometry is presented. Solution techniques for partial differential equations are reviewed and included developments in coordinate transformations, conformal mapping, and invariant imbeddings. Applications of these techniques in fluid mechanics, flow geometry, boundary value problems, and fluidics are presented.

  12. Naturally selecting solutions

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Timmy; Sleator, Roy D; Walsh, Paul

    2013-01-01

    For decades, computer scientists have looked to nature for biologically inspired solutions to computational problems; ranging from robotic control to scheduling optimization. Paradoxically, as we move deeper into the post-genomics era, the reverse is occurring, as biologists and bioinformaticians look to computational techniques, to solve a variety of biological problems. One of the most common biologically inspired techniques are genetic algorithms (GAs), which take the Darwinian concept of natural selection as the driving force behind systems for solving real world problems, including those in the bioinformatics domain. Herein, we provide an overview of genetic algorithms and survey some of the most recent applications of this approach to bioinformatics based problems. PMID:23222169

  13. Alloy solution hardening with solute pairs

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, John W.

    1976-08-24

    Solution hardened alloys are formed by using at least two solutes which form associated solute pairs in the solvent metal lattice. Copper containing equal atomic percentages of aluminum and palladium is an example.

  14. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2004-11-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  15. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2003-09-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  16. Numerical Techniques in Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    This is the compilation of abstracts of the Numerical Techniques in Acoustics Forum held at the ASME's Winter Annual Meeting. This forum was for informal presentation and information exchange of ongoing acoustic work in finite elements, finite difference, boundary elements and other numerical approaches. As part of this forum, it was intended to allow the participants time to raise questions on unresolved problems and to generate discussions on possible approaches and methods of solution.

  17. Fiber Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalle, Leona

    1976-01-01

    Describes a course in fiber techniques, which covers design methods involving fibers and fabric, that students in the Art Department at Sleeping Giant Junior High School had the opportunity to learn. (Author/RK)

  18. Stapedectomy technique.

    PubMed

    House, J W

    1993-06-01

    This article reviews the evolution of the author's stapedectomy technique from total footplate removal with single loop wire prosthesis and Gelfoam seal to small fenestra stapedectomy with platinum ribbon piston prosthesis and blood seal. The author concludes that the microdrill is effective, safe, and cost effective for performing this procedure. Since using this technique, the author has had no cases of sensorineural hearing loss and few complaints of dizziness or vertigo.

  19. Luminescence properties of the Ca-alpha-sialon:Eu solid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlik, Tomasz; Michalik, Daniel; Sopicka-Lizer, Malgorzata; Lisiecki, Radosław; Adamczyk, Barbara; Pławecki, Materusz; Mieszczak, Łukasz; Walerczyk, Wiktoria

    2016-09-01

    The Ca,Eu-α-sialon powders with the mixed solid solution composition have been manufactured via the solid-state reaction process in flowing nitrogen in a graphite furnace at a relatively low temperature of 1650 °C without an external overpressure. XRD data with Rielveld refinement and XPS measurements were used for characterization of the lattice constants and the surface chemical composition. The monophase Ca-Eu-α-sialon was obtained with the nominal composition of Eu0.048Ca0.702Si7.75Al2.25O0.75N15.25. The highest emission intensity in a yellow-orange region at 590 nm and quantum efficiency of 66% was found for this pure Ca,Eu-α-sialon. Estimation of m,n values from the lattice constant and EDS results showed a small deviation from the nominal composition of designed α-sialon. XPS results demonstrated significant changes of the chemical composition in the oxidized surface of phosphor particles. Possible reasons of emission redshift and relationship between the actual solid solution composition and luminescence properties are discussed in terms of simultaneous presence of Eu2+ and Eu3+ ions in the sialon crystal lattice and residual oxynitride glass.

  20. Evaluation of ITRF2014 Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dach, Rolf; Grahsl, Andrea; Susnik, Andreja; Villiger, Arturo; Arnold, Daniel; Jäggi, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    For the most recent International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) realization three candidates have been provided, namely an ITRF2014 solution by IGN, DTRF2014 by DGFI-TUM, and JTRF2014 by JPL. There are significant differences in the way how these solutions have been generated, which parametrization has been applied, and how the solutions from the different space-geodetic techniques are combined. The most recent GNSS reprocessing solution generated in the frame of the EGSIEM project (European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management; funded by EC in the frame of Horizon 2020) was used to generate time series of GNSS-based solutions from 2000 to the end of 2014 using these reference frame realizations. The solution contains station coordinates, GNSS satellite orbits, Earth rotation parameters, and troposphere parameters. In order to evaluate the consistency of the contributions from the IGS (GNSS) and ILRS (SLR) in the reference frame solutions, the SLR measurements to the GNSS satellites can be used. Since the microwave-based GNSS satellite orbits obtained in the different reference frames are consistent regarding the orbit modeling differences in the SLR residuals may be interpreted to assess the consistency of the station coordinates between the SLR and GNSS sites in the reference frame solutions. With this contribution we hope to provide an independent contribution to the discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods to generate the IERS-TRF.

  1. Graphical Solution of Polynomial Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grishin, Anatole

    2009-01-01

    Graphing utilities, such as the ubiquitous graphing calculator, are often used in finding the approximate real roots of polynomial equations. In this paper the author offers a simple graphing technique that allows one to find all solutions of a polynomial equation (1) of arbitrary degree; (2) with real or complex coefficients; and (3) possessing…

  2. Bioanalysis: challenges and solutions seminar.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    Industry challenges and solutions for bioanalysis were top of the agenda for the Spring Seminar organized by Quotient Bioresearch in Munich, Germany. The seminar was attended by representatives from pharmaceutical and biotechnology organisations across Europe and featured debates and panel discussions from leading industry speakers on new techniques and hot topics, including the latest industry guidelines.

  3. Decomposition techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  4. Synthesis of the ferroelectric solid solution, Pb(Zr{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x})O{sub 3} on a single substrate using a modified molecular beam epitaxy technique

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P. S.; Guerin, S.; Hayden, B. E.; Khan, M. A.; Bell, A. J.; Han, Y.; Pasha, M.; Whittle, K. R.; Reaney, I. M.

    2007-05-14

    High-throughput synthesis of the ferroelectric solid solution Pb(Zr{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x})O{sub 3} (PZT) on single Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates was demonstrated using a modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system. The PZT films exhibited a phase transition from rhombohehdral to tetragonal symmetry as a function of Zr:Ti ratio, across the substrate diagonal. This was consistent with the presence of a morphotropic phase boundary at Zr:Ti ratio of 0.64:0.36, different from the value of 0.53:0.47 observed for bulk ceramics. All points on the films exhibited ferroelectric hysteresis. Results demonstrate the feasibility of high-throughput MBE for deposition of complex ferroelectric oxides, and pave the way for further materials discovery.

  5. The effectiveness of the Erbium:Yttrium aluminum garnet PIPS technique in comparison to different chemical solutions in removing the endodontic smear layer-an in vitro profilometric study.

    PubMed

    Nasher, Riman; Franzen, Rene; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the degree of endodontic smear layer removal using the Er:YAG PIPS technique (2.94 μm) in comparison with different irrigants. Sixty-four single-rooted teeth were endodontically prepared up to size #40 and were divided into 8 groups (a-h) (n = 8). Groups a, b, c, and d were irrigated with (3 % NaOCl + 20 % EDTA), (0.9 % NaCl), (3 % NaOCl), and (20 % EDTA), respectively. Groups e, f, g, and h were treated with (3 % NaOCl + 20 % EDTA + PIPS), (0.9 % NaCl + PIPS), (3 % NaOCl + PIPS), and (20 % EDTA + PIPS), respectively. The settings of the Er:YAG PIPS technique were (0.3 W, 20 mJ, 15 Hz, 50 μs, no water and air). The root canals were examined under a profilometer to evaluate the degree of smear layer removal using Hülsmann scores. The smear layer was present in the coronal, middle, and apical thirds of groups b, c, f, and g. Groups a, d, e, and h exhibited open dentinal tubules in the coronal and middle thirds. However, none of the apical thirds showed open dentinal tubules. No significant difference was observed between the groups treated only with irrigants and those treated with Er:YAG PIPS and the same irrigants (p ≥ 0.0018). The Er:YAG PIPS technique did not show any improved results in removing the smear layer when compared to the irrigants alone. Moreover, the open dentinal tubules in some groups were a result of the chelating action of 20 % EDTA.

  6. Immunochemical techniques.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    The scope of this book does not allow a complete description of the many techniques available for purification and treatment of reagents for facilitating immunoassays in general. There is a large amount of literature covering techniques, and this can be consulted for specific problems. The examination of many of the catalogs produced by commercial companies is useful as they often include good technical sections describing methods using their products. This chapter contains the practical basics of conjugation (a large field in itself), and details other immediately useful techniques that might be first desired in starting an ELISA. The book Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual (1) should be regarded as definitive in the laboratory because it is extremely "digestible" and covers a large field of methods, all of which are relevant to ELISA.

  7. Generalization of the IDGS technique

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, Duc T.; Li, T. K.

    2004-01-01

    Isotope Dilution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (IDGS) is a method using gamma-ray spectrometry technique to measure plutonium in solutions. To measure the plutonium concentration, the unknown solutions are spiked with plutonium of accurately known plutonium mass and isotopic composition. The isotopic compositions of the unknown solution and the spiked solution are determined by high-resolution gamma-ray measurements. In the traditional IDGS method, the concentration of plutonium in the unknown solution is determined by calculating the differences among the {sup 239}Pu weight percent and isotopic {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios of the spike, the spiked solution, and the unknown solution. To improve the measurement result, we are developing a generalization method for the IDGS technique. The generalized IDGS method utilizes all the plutonium isotopes (except {sup 242}Pu) and americium fractions. This would allow the calculations of the concentration of plutonium in the unknown solution using other plutonium isotopic ratios in addition to the isotopic {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratio.

  8. [Platelet-washing solution optimization].

    PubMed

    Grossin, E; Chamfly, V

    2005-10-01

    Different washing and homogénéisation solutions are hereby analysed by comparing the evolution of functional indicators during the preservation of washed aphaeresis platelet concentrates: physiological pH 4.5 and 6 solutions, buffered physiological pH 6.8 glucose solution, and two physiological pH 7 citrate solutions with acetate. Prior acidification of platelet concentrates proved to be essential. Two washings with manual or automated technique, guarantee residual proteins at a level of less than 0.5 g. Solutions T-Sol Baxter or SSP Macopharma allow us to obtain a product that meet the PSL specifications. Routine since June 2004, washings are done with a physiological pH 6 solution, then homogeneised with T-Sol solution. Platelet recovery, swirling phenomenon, lack of agrgegates, pH maintenance, low increase in the platelet average volume and maintenance of intra-cell potassium level, suggest that platelet entirety is preserved beyond the product's expiration date. The platelet transfusion yield of these products is satisfactory.

  9. Crafting Elegant Solutions: Strategies for Conflict Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Susan J.; Decker, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    The conflict-resolution technique of interpersonal negotiation involves five steps: (1) state your positive intentions; (2) define, analyze, and discuss the problem; (3) summarize progress; (4) explore alternative solutions; and (5) set a time for follow-up. (MLF)

  10. Suitable Candidates for Monte Carlo Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jerome L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses Monte Carlo methods, powerful and useful techniques that rely on random numbers to solve deterministic problems whose solutions may be too difficult to obtain using conventional mathematics. Reviews two excellent candidates for the application of Monte Carlo methods. (ASK)

  11. Crafting Elegant Solutions: Strategies for Conflict Resolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Susan J.; Decker, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    The conflict-resolution technique of interpersonal negotiation involves five steps: (1) state your positive intentions; (2) define, analyze, and discuss the problem; (3) summarize progress; (4) explore alternative solutions; and (5) set a time for follow-up. (MLF)

  12. Note on the stability of mefloquine hydrochloride in aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    Reber-Liske, Rosemaria

    1983-01-01

    Using Desjardins' technique for the testing of antimalarials against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro, a 4-year-old solution of mefloquine in water (10-3 mol/litre) was compared with a freshly prepared solution. The results showed that the two solutions had almost identical activity. There was no evidence for any instability of mefloquine in aqueous solution. PMID:6349842

  13. Titration Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Jerrold J.; Houston Jetzer, Kelly; Patani, Néha; Zimmerman, John; Zweerink, Gerald

    1995-07-01

    Significant attention is paid to the proper technique for reading a meniscus. Video shows meniscus-viewing techniques for colorless and dark liquids and the consequences of not reading a meniscus at eye level. Lessons are provided on approaching the end point, focusing on end point colors produced via different commonly used indicators. The concept of a titration curve is illustrated by means of a pH meter. Carefully recorded images of the entire range of meniscus values in a buret, pipet, and graduated cylinder are included so that you can show your students, in lecture or pre-lab discussion, any meniscus and discuss how to read the buret properly. These buret meniscus values are very carefully recorded at the rate of one video frame per hundredth of a milliliter, so that an image showing any given meniscus value can be obtained. These images can be easily incorporated into a computer-based multimedia environment for testing or meniscus-reading exercises. Two of the authors have used this technique and found the exercise to be very well received by their students. Video on side two shows nearly 100 "bloopers", demonstrating both the right way and wrong ways to do tasks associated with titration. This material can be used in a variety of situations: to show students the correct way to do something; to test students by asking them "What is this person doing wrong?"; or to develop multimedia, computer-based lessons. The contents of Titration Techniques are listed below: Side 1 Titration: what it is. A simple titration; Acid-base titration animation; A brief redox titration; Redox titration animation; A complete acid-base titration. Titration techniques. Hand technique variations; Stopcock; Using a buret to measure liquid volumes; Wait before reading meniscus; Dirty and clean burets; Read meniscus at eye level (see Fig. 1); Meniscus viewing techniques--light colored liquids; Meniscus viewing techniques--dark liquids; Using a magnetic stirrer; Rough titration

  14. Direct Determination of Nonmetals in Solution with Atomic Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, David A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Addresses solution nonmetal determinations on a fundamental level. Characterizes research in this area of chemical instrumentation. Discusses the fundamental limitations of nonmetal atomic spectrometry, the status of nonmetals and atomic spectroscopic techniques, and current directions in solution nonmetal determinations. (CW)

  15. Electrochemical Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-07-20

    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  16. Aseptic technique.

    PubMed

    Bykowski, Tomasz; Stevenson, Brian

    2008-11-01

    This chapter describes common laboratory procedures that can reduce the risk of culture contaminations (sepsis), collectively referred as "aseptic technique." Two major strategies of aseptic work are described: using a Bunsen burner and a laminar flow hood. Both methods are presented in the form of general protocols applicable to a variety of laboratory tasks such as pipetting and dispensing aliquots, preparing growth media, and inoculating, passaging, and spreading microorganisms on petri dishes.

  17. Yb3+-doped LiBi(WO4)2 single crystals fibers grown by micro-pulling down technique and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekik, B.; Derbal, M.; Lebbou, K.; Benammar, M. E. A.

    2016-10-01

    The Yb3+ doped LiBi(WO4)2 fibers single crystals have been pulled using the micro-pulling down technique (μ-PD) with controlled fiber diameter and under stationary stable growth conditions. The corresponding crystallization interface was flat, with meniscus length equal to the fiber radii. The pulling rate used was in the range of 2-6 mm h-1. We have determined the monophased field of LiBi1-xYbx(WO4)2 and observed that the lattice parameters decrease as a function of Yb3+ substitution in Bi3+ sites. The structural characterization has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method and Raman spectroscopy. We also performed micro-luminescence characterizations and drawn the decay time for both of the 1 at% (Yb3+) doped LiBi(WO4)2 fiber and powders.

  18. Thermodynamics of Dilute Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancso, Gabor; Fenby, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses principles and definitions related to the thermodynamics of dilute solutions. Topics considered include dilute solution, Gibbs-Duhem equation, reference systems (pure gases and gaseous mixtures, liquid mixtures, dilute solutions), real dilute solutions (focusing on solute and solvent), terminology, standard states, and reference systems.…

  19. Computational techniques in bioelectromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskander, Magdy F.

    1991-11-01

    Computer modeling and numerical techniques played an important role, found a wide variety of applications, and provided valuable results in the area of bioelectromagnetics. These techniques were used to calculate electromagnetic specific absorption rates (SARs) in various biological models, including humans, and to evaluate a wide variety of applicators used to administer microwave hyperthermia for cancer treatment both noninvasively and interstitially. Computational methods were also used to examine the feasibility of using microwaves in medical diagnosis and imaging. In these biomedical applications, both near- and far-field radiations were modeled and incident radiation from single and phased array antennas were utilized. In this paper, we review some of the computational techniques used in bioelectromagnetics. Example results are presented to illustrate the wide variety of applications involved in the area of bioelectromagnetics research. Advantages, limitations, and the complementary nature of three numerical techniques based on the method of moments, finite-difference time-domain, and the spherical-wave expansion methods are discussed. Tradeoffs involved in selecting a specific solution procedure to analyze the highly diverse applications in bioelectromagnetics are discussed and future needs in bioelectromagnetics research are briefly described.

  20. Progress towards daily "swath" solutions from GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Save, H.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Sakumura, C.

    2015-12-01

    The GRACE mission has provided invaluable and the only data of its kind that measures the total water column in the Earth System over the past 13 years. The GRACE solutions available from the project have been monthly average solutions. There have been attempts by several groups to produce shorter time-window solutions with different techniques. There is also an experimental quick-look GRACE solution available from CSR that implements a sliding window approach while applying variable daily data weights. All of these GRACE solutions require special handling for data assimilation. This study explores the possibility of generating a true daily GRACE solution by computing a daily "swath" total water storage (TWS) estimate from GRACE using the Tikhonov regularization and high resolution monthly mascon estimation implemented at CSR. This paper discusses the techniques for computing such a solution and discusses the error and uncertainty characterization. We perform comparisons with official RL05 GRACE solutions and with alternate mascon solutions from CSR to understand the impact on the science results. We evaluate these solutions with emphasis on the temporal characteristics of the signal content and validate them against multiple models and in-situ data sets.

  1. The Split-Stem Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Roy A.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a procedure useful for investigating the effects of substances on plant growth and development. A bean seedling's stem is partially split, and each half is placed in a different nutrient solution. Suggestions for the instructional use of the technique are made. (AL)

  2. Generalized fast automatic differentiation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtushenko, Yu. G.; Zubov, V. I.

    2016-11-01

    A new efficient technique intended for the numerical solution of a broad class of optimal control problems for complicated dynamical systems described by ordinary and/or partial differential equations is investigated. In this approach, canonical formulas are derived to precisely calculate the objective function gradient for a chosen finite-dimensional approximation of the objective functional.

  3. Uranium Detection - Technique Validation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Colletti, Lisa Michelle; Garduno, Katherine; Lujan, Elmer J.; Mechler-Hickson, Alexandra Marie; May, Iain; Reilly, Sean Douglas

    2016-04-14

    As a LANL activity for DOE/NNSA in support of SHINE Medical Technologies™ ‘Accelerator Technology’ we have been investigating the application of UV-vis spectroscopy for uranium analysis in solution. While the technique has been developed specifically for sulfate solutions, the proposed SHINE target solutions, it can be adapted to a range of different solution matrixes. The FY15 work scope incorporated technical development that would improve accuracy, specificity, linearity & range, precision & ruggedness, and comparative analysis. Significant progress was achieved throughout FY 15 addressing these technical challenges, as is summarized in this report. In addition, comparative analysis of unknown samples using the Davies-Gray titration technique highlighted the importance of controlling temperature during analysis (impacting both technique accuracy and linearity/range). To fully understand the impact of temperature, additional experimentation and data analyses were performed during FY16. The results from this FY15/FY16 work were presented in a detailed presentation, LA-UR-16-21310, and an update of this presentation is included with this short report summarizing the key findings. The technique is based on analysis of the most intense U(VI) absorbance band in the visible region of the uranium spectra in 1 M H2SO4, at λmax = 419.5 nm.

  4. The Split-Stem Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Roy A.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a procedure useful for investigating the effects of substances on plant growth and development. A bean seedling's stem is partially split, and each half is placed in a different nutrient solution. Suggestions for the instructional use of the technique are made. (AL)

  5. Controlling nucleation in protein solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demattei, R. C.; Feigelson, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    A simple one-step technique for controlling the nucleation stage in protein solutions without the use of a seed crystal was developed using a specially designed apparatus in which the nucleation and growth processes can be separated. The method can be applied only to species that have a temperature-dependent solubility. The effectiveness of this 'thermonucleating' device was demonstrated with the nucleation and growth of ice, Rochelle salt, and lysozyme.

  6. Management Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Ball Aerospace Systems Division developed a highly efficient management method known as the "total integrated systems approach" a technique developed of necessity for managing extremely complex aerospace programs involving integration of a great many individual systems. These systems, developed at different times by many different companies, must not only work perfectly when separately tested, they must also perform compatibly when integrated into the complete prime system. Systems approach is essentially a carefully considered, painstakingly executed master plan for coordinated design, development and assembly of the multitude of elements that constitute the end product. Intent is to eliminate problems that may occur when specific parts of total functioning system fail to come together to provide the requisite performance of the prime system.

  7. Fenestration obscuration techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalley, Michael

    2007-10-01

    There are situations where it is advantageous to visually obscure through glass, to an external observer, the movement of people within a well lit room. It may be that the building use has changed or existing measures which had provided obscuration such as 'Bomb-blast' curtains have been discontinued. Recognising that implemented solutions must create the minimum disruption to outward visibility and involve the least procedural effort (be simple to use), the Centre for Protection of National Infrastructure, CPNI, commissioned this study, defining key requirements including: (a) Automatic or simple manual operation (b) Obscuration of movement within the building from outside (c) Varying levels of obscuration depending on the difference in internal and external light levels. (d) Minimum disruption to outward visibility (e) Acceptable for use on heritage and iconic sites (f) Easy to retrofit (g) Low cost This report reviews earlier work carried out into the protection of Guardrooms by the use of lighting techniques coupled with the use of reflective and screen printed films. Other innovative solutions including Electrochromatic controllable glazing which may prove more appropriate to office and commercial buildings are also considered. It is seen that some measures, (window films or blinds), are cost effective and unsophisticated while more complex automatic systems using reactive glazing can offer critical design advantages. It must be noted however that some of the key requirements are mutually exclusive and any solution chosen will always be a compromise based on client needs and circumstances.

  8. Evaluation of the phase properties of hydrating cement composite using simulated nanoindentation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautham, S.; Sindu, B. S.; Sasmal, Saptarshi

    2017-10-01

    Properties and distribution of the products formed during the hydration of cementitious composite at the microlevel are investigated using a nanoindentation technique. First, numerical nanoindentation using nonlinear contact mechanics is carried out on three different phase compositions of cement paste, viz. mono-phase Tri-calcium Silicate (C3S), Di-calcium Silicate (C2S) and Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (CSH) individually), bi-phase (C3S-CSH, C2S-CSH) and multi-phase (more than 10 individual phases including water pores). To reflect the multi-phase characteristics of hydrating cement composite, a discretized multi-phase microstructural model of cement composite during the progression of hydration is developed. Further, a grid indentation technique for simulated nanoindentation is established, and employed to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of the hydrated multi-phase cement paste. The properties obtained from the numerical studies are compared with those obtained from experimental grid nanoindentation. The influence of composition and distribution of individual phase properties on the properties obtained from indentation are closely investigated. The study paves the way to establishing the procedure for simulated grid nanoindentation to evaluate the mechanical properties of heterogeneous composites, and facilitates the design of experimental nanoindentation.

  9. Exact solution to fractional logistic equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Bruce J.

    2015-07-01

    The logistic equation is one of the most familiar nonlinear differential equations in the biological and social sciences. Herein we provide an exact solution to an extension of this equation to incorporate memory through the use of fractional derivatives in time. The solution to the fractional logistic equation (FLE) is obtained using the Carleman embedding technique that allows the nonlinear equation to be replaced by an infinite-order set of linear equations, which we then solve exactly. The formal series expansion for the initial value solution of the FLE is shown to be expressed in terms of a series of weighted Mittag-Leffler functions that reduces to the well known analytic solution in the limit where the fractional index for the derivative approaches unity. The numerical integration to the FLE provides an excellent fit to the analytic solution. We propose this approach as a general technique for solving a class of nonlinear fractional differential equations.

  10. Relaxation solution of the full Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    A numerical procedure for the relaxation solution of the full steady Euler equations is described. By embedding the Euler system in a second order surrogate system, central differencing may be used in subsonic regions while retaining matrix forms well suited to iterative solution procedures and convergence acceleration techniques. Hence, this method allows the development of stable, fully conservative differencing schemes for the solution of quite general inviscid flow problems. Results are presented for both subcritical and shocked supercritical internal flows. Comparisons are made with a standard time dependent solution algorithm.

  11. Relaxation solution of the full Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    A numerical procedure for the relaxation solution of the full steady Euler equations is described. By embedding the Euler system in a second order surrogate system, central differencing may be used in subsonic regions while retaining matrix forms well suited to iterative solution procedures and convergence acceleration techniques. Hence, this method allows the development of stable, fully conservative differencing schemes for the solution of quite general inviscid flow problems. Results are presented for both subcritical and shocked supercritical internal flows. Comparisons are made with a standard time dependent solution algorithm. Previously announced in STAR as N82-24859

  12. Investigation of the hemostatic effect of a transdermal patch containing 0.55 mg ethinyl estradiol and 2.1 mg gestodene compared with a monophasic oral contraceptive containing 0.03 mg ethinyl estradiol and 0.15 mg levonorgestrel: an open-label, randomized, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Junge, Wolfgang; Heger-Mahn, Doris; Trummer, Dietmar; Merz, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Transdermal delivery of contraceptives offers several advantages over combined oral contraceptives (COCs), including effective absorption and the provision of relatively constant serum concentrations. Ethinyl estradiol (EE) and the progestin gestodene are well-absorbed through the skin and, therefore, well-suited for use in a transdermal contraceptive patch. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of a once-weekly transparent, transdermal patch delivering low doses of EE and gestodene equivalent to a COC containing 0.02 mg EE and 0.06 mg gestodene on hemostasis parameters compared with a monophasic COC containing 0.03 mg EE and 0.15 mg levonorgestrel. In this single-center, open-label, randomized, crossover study, 30 women (aged 18-35 years) received three cycles of each treatment, separated by a two-cycle washout period. The primary outcome measure was the absolute change from baseline in prothrombin fragments 1 + 2 and D-dimer. For both treatments, prothrombin fragments 1 + 2 remained stable during the first treatment period, and increased only slightly in the second period (mean absolute change 0.025 and 0.028 nmol/L in the novel Bayer patch and COC groups, respectively). Increases in D-dimer were observed in both periods (mean absolute change 107.0 ± 147.2 ng/L for the novel Bayer patch and 113.7 ± 159.0 ng/L for the COC). There were no statistically significant treatment differences in prothrombin 1 + 2 or D-dimer (p = 0.667 and p = 0.884, respectively) and no statistically significant treatment sequence or period effects. A COC containing 0.03 mg EE and 0.15 mg levonorgestrel and the novel Bayer patch have comparable influence on hemostatic endpoints. Both treatments were well-tolerated by subjects.

  13. Analytical Applications of Monte Carlo Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guell, Oscar A.; Holcombe, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Described are analytical applications of the theory of random processes, in particular solutions obtained by using statistical procedures known as Monte Carlo techniques. Supercomputer simulations, sampling, integration, ensemble, annealing, and explicit simulation are discussed. (CW)

  14. Multimodality imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Sopena, Ramón; Bartumeus, Paula; Sopena, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    In multimodality imaging, the need to combine morphofunctional information can be approached by either acquiring images at different times (asynchronous), and fused them through digital image manipulation techniques or simultaneously acquiring images (synchronous) and merging them automatically. The asynchronous post-processing solution presents various constraints, mainly conditioned by the different positioning of the patient in the two scans acquired at different times in separated machines. The best solution to achieve consistency in time and space is obtained by the synchronous image acquisition. There are many multimodal technologies in molecular imaging. In this review we will focus on those multimodality image techniques more commonly used in the field of diagnostic imaging (SPECT-CT, PET-CT) and new developments (as PET-MR). The technological innovations and development of new tracers and smart probes are the main key points that will condition multimodality image and diagnostic imaging professionals' future. Although SPECT-CT and PET-CT are standard in most clinical scenarios, MR imaging has some advantages, providing excellent soft-tissue contrast and multidimensional functional, structural and morphological information. The next frontier is to develop efficient detectors and electronics systems capable of detecting two modality signals at the same time. Not only PET-MR but also MR-US or optic-PET will be introduced in clinical scenarios. Even more, MR diffusion-weighted, pharmacokinetic imaging, spectroscopy or functional BOLD imaging will merge with PET tracers to further increase molecular imaging as a relevant medical discipline. Multimodality imaging techniques will play a leading role in relevant clinical applications. The development of new diagnostic imaging research areas, mainly in the field of oncology, cardiology and neuropsychiatry, will impact the way medicine is performed today. Both clinical and experimental multimodality studies, in

  15. Numerical solution methods for viscoelastic orthotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramoll, K. C.; Dillard, D. A.; Brinson, H. F.

    1988-01-01

    Numerical solution methods for viscoelastic orthotropic materials, specifically fiber reinforced composite materials, are examined. The methods include classical lamination theory using time increments, direction solution of the Volterra Integral, Zienkiewicz's linear Prony series method, and a new method called Nonlinear Differential Equation Method (NDEM) which uses a nonlinear Prony series. The criteria used for comparison of the various methods include the stability of the solution technique, time step size stability, computer solution time length, and computer memory storage. The Volterra Integral allowed the implementation of higher order solution techniques but had difficulties solving singular and weakly singular compliance function. The Zienkiewicz solution technique, which requires the viscoelastic response to be modeled by a Prony series, works well for linear viscoelastic isotropic materials and small time steps. The new method, NDEM, uses a modified Prony series which allows nonlinear stress effects to be included and can be used with orthotropic nonlinear viscoelastic materials. The NDEM technique is shown to be accurate and stable for both linear and nonlinear conditions with minimal computer time.

  16. Evaluation of taste solutions by sensor fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, Yohichiro; Sato, Eriko; Atobe, Masahiko; Nakashima, Miki; Kato, Yukihisa; Nonoue, Koichi; Yamano, Yoshimasa

    2009-05-23

    In our previous studies, properties of taste solutions were discriminated based on sound velocity and amplitude of ultrasonic waves propagating through the solutions. However, to make this method applicable to beverages which contain many taste substances, further studies are required. In this study, the waveform of an ultrasonic wave with frequency of approximately 5 MHz propagating through a solution was measured and subjected to frequency analysis. Further, taste sensors require various techniques of sensor fusion to effectively obtain chemical and physical parameter of taste solutions. A sensor fusion method of ultrasonic wave sensor and various sensors, such as the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor, to estimate tastes were proposed and examined in this report. As a result, differences among pure water and two basic taste solutions were clearly observed as differences in their properties. Furthermore, a self-organizing neural network was applied to obtained data which were used to clarify the differences among solutions.

  17. Modeling and Solution Techniques for Advanced Economic Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    the assumuption of deterministic, constant interest rates . In addition to the development of models where cash flow and timing of cash flow are...43 Time Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Interest Rate Classification . . . . . . . . . 48 State-of-the-Art...for Further Research . . . . .. . 162 Non-constant Interest Rate .’odels . . . . . 163 Alternate Decision Criteria . o o . . . . 163 Introduction of

  18. Control Techniques for Industrial Electrodeposition from Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, T. N.; Kerby, R. C.; O'Keefe, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Over the years, the basic aspects of electrodeposition have remained relatively unchanged. However, the need to make improved and purer metals at a more competitive price is forcing reevaluation of many existing practices. The advantages offered by electrolysis are fully realized only if the process is optimized for maximum efficiency and the highest quality products. The critical factors in obtaining process improvements are (1) cathode quality and (2) the primary and secondary reactions occurring at the electrodes. Thus, monitoring these factors more effectively while comprehensively improving on-line control during processing have emerged as major challenges in electrometallurgy.

  19. Explicit solution techniques for impact with contact constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, Robert E.

    1993-08-01

    Modern military aircraft transparency systems, windshields and canopies, are complex systems which must meet a large and rapidly growing number of requirements. Many of these transparency system requirements are conflicting, presenting difficult balances which must be achieved. One example of a challenging requirements balance or trade is shaping for stealth versus aircrew vision. The large number of requirements involved may be grouped in a variety of areas including man-machine interface; structural integration with the airframe; combat hazards; environmental exposures; and supportability. Some individual requirements by themselves pose very difficult, severely nonlinear analysis problems. One such complex problem is that associated with the dynamic structural response resulting from high energy bird impact. An improved analytical capability for soft-body impact simulation was developed.

  20. Solution Techniques for Large Eigenvalue Problems in Structural Dynamics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    e (k) = error In R(k) or -(k) X M multiple eigenvalue A, A = diagonal matrix of eigenvalues, jth...B.33), we can * show that 1k R(k) (k) (k) F (0 (I + E ) R (B.41) a.j j where R 1 L 9. PC (B.42) 72 an h ( )th E (k) (k and the (t, m ) element of the...symmetric matrix E , e , is n ,(0) C (k).,(k) a( k ) ( m = 𔃼 " s mm i=’ i O’ j( ) (k) n cit(k) i (k ,I e m (k) - 1 c.(k) i=s+l i - j( (t, m = 1,

  1. Explicit solution techniques for impact with contact constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    Modern military aircraft transparency systems, windshields and canopies, are complex systems which must meet a large and rapidly growing number of requirements. Many of these transparency system requirements are conflicting, presenting difficult balances which must be achieved. One example of a challenging requirements balance or trade is shaping for stealth versus aircrew vision. The large number of requirements involved may be grouped in a variety of areas including man-machine interface; structural integration with the airframe; combat hazards; environmental exposures; and supportability. Some individual requirements by themselves pose very difficult, severely nonlinear analysis problems. One such complex problem is that associated with the dynamic structural response resulting from high energy bird impact. An improved analytical capability for soft-body impact simulation was developed.

  2. Static and stationary multiple soliton solutions to the Einstein equations

    SciTech Connect

    Letelier, P.S.

    1985-03-01

    The application of the Belinsky--Zakharov solution-generating technique, i.e., the inverse scattering method, to generate stationary axially symmetric solutions to the vacuum Einstein equations is reduced to a single quadrature when the seed solution is diagonal. The possibility of having real odd-number soliton solutions is investigated. These solutions represent solitonic perturbations of Euclidean metrics. The possibility of using instantons as seed solutions is also investigated. The one- and two-soliton solutions generated from a diagonal seed solution are studied. As an application, a unified derivation of some well-known static solutions, like the Schwarzschild metric and the Chazy--Curzon metric, as well as other new metrics is presented. By using these metrics as seed solutions, some known stationary solutions, like the Kerr-NUT metric, the double Kerr metric, and the rotating Weyl C-metric, as well as other new metrics are also derived in a unified way.

  3. Fractional Solutions of Bessel Equation with N-Method

    PubMed Central

    Bas, Erdal; Yilmazer, Resat; Panakhov, Etibar

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the design fractional solution of Bessel equation. We obtain explicit solutions of the equation with the help of fractional calculus techniques. Using the N-fractional calculus operator Nν method, we derive the fractional solutions of the equation. PMID:24023534

  4. Solution-Focused Work in Individual Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Marcia

    2006-01-01

    There is one account in the literature of the application of a solution-focused approach to individual teaching development at university level (Devlin, 2003). The solution-focused approach is based on solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT). The current paper elaborates on the existing account, further outlining and illustrating the techniques that…

  5. Solution-Focused Work in Individual Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Marcia

    2006-01-01

    There is one account in the literature of the application of a solution-focused approach to individual teaching development at university level (Devlin, 2003). The solution-focused approach is based on solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT). The current paper elaborates on the existing account, further outlining and illustrating the techniques that…

  6. Solution of plane cascade flow using improved surface singularity methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    A solution method has been developed for calculating compressible inviscid flow through a linear cascade of arbitrary blade shapes. The method uses advanced surface singularity formulations which were adapted from those found in current external flow analyses. The resulting solution technique provides a fast flexible calculation for flows through turbomachinery blade rows. The solution method and some examples of the method's capabilities are presented.

  7. Applications of Electromigration Techniques: Electromigration Techniques in Detection of Microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Buszewski, Bogusław

    The detection and identification of microbes is a challenge and an important aspect in many fields of our lives from medicine to bioterrorism defense. However, the analysis of such complex molecules brings a lot of questions mainly about their behavior. Bacteria are biocolloid, whose surface charge originates from the ionization of carboxyl, phosphate, or amino groups and the adsorption of ions from solution. Consequently, the charged cell wall groups determine the spontaneous formation of the electrical double layer. In this chapter application of electromigration techniques for microorganism's identification and separation are described. This approach represents the possibility to apply electromigration techniques in medical diagnosis, detection of food contamination, and sterility testing.

  8. Reframing: A Therapeutic Technique in Group Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Arthur J.

    1998-01-01

    Reframing is a therapeutic technique that assists individuals in broadening restricted perspectives. Its theoretical underpinnings are clarified in terms of systemic and solution-focused therapies, and Social Constructivism. Application of reframing technique in group counseling is discussed in terms of when to use, how to formulate, and…

  9. Microorganism identification technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sillman, R. E.

    1985-07-02

    An identification technique for micro-organisms in which a dilute solution of a culture medium containing an unknown micro-organism has added thereto an emissive agent such as a radioactive amino acid to produce a mix of emissive products that depends on the metabolic mechanism of the micro-organism. After a predetermined incubation period, the reaction is arrested and the solution layered onto a gel plate where it is subjected to electrophoresis. The plate is then autoradiographed by exposing the gel to a sensitive photographic film for a period sufficient to produce thereon a characteristic band pattern functioning as an identifier for the micro-organism. Identification may be effected by comparing the identifier for the unknown with a collection of identifiers for known micro-organisms to find a match with one of these known identifiers. The comparison is preferably carried out by scanning the unknown identifier to produce a signal which is compared with signals representing known identifiers stored in a computer which, when a match is found, yields identification data. Alternatively, the emissive products, after separation, may be detected by direct scanning to provide an identifier signal for computer processing.

  10. Sucrose diffusion in aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    The diffusion of sugar in aqueous solution is important both in nature and in technological applications, yet measurements of diffusion coefficients at low water content are scarce. We report directly measured sucrose diffusion coefficients in aqueous solution. Our technique utilises a Raman isotope tracer method to monitor the diffusion of non-deuterated and deuterated sucrose across a boundary between the two aqueous solutions. At a water activity of 0.4 (equivalent to 90 wt% sucrose) at room temperature, the diffusion coefficient of sucrose was determined to be approximately four orders of magnitude smaller than that of water in the same material. Using literature viscosity data, we show that, although inappropriate for the prediction of water diffusion, the Stokes–Einstein equation works well for predicting sucrose diffusion under the conditions studied. As well as providing information of importance to the fundamental understanding of diffusion in binary solutions, these data have technological, pharmaceutical and medical implications, for example in cryopreservation. Moreover, in the atmosphere, slow organic diffusion may have important implications for aerosol growth, chemistry and evaporation, where processes may be limited by the inability of a molecule to diffuse between the bulk and the surface of a particle. PMID:27364512

  11. Supersaturated Electrolyte Solutions: Theory and Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izmailov, Alexander F.; Myerson, Allan S.; Na, Han-Soo

    1995-01-01

    Highly supersaturated electrolyte solutions can be prepared and studied employing an electrodynamic levitator trap (ELT) technique. The ELT technique involves containerless suspension of a microdroplet thus eliminating dust, dirt, and container walls which normally cause heterogeneous nucleation. This allows very high supersaturations to be achieved. A theoretical study of the experimental results obtained for the water activity in microdroplets of various electrolyte solutions is based on the development of the Cahn-Hilliard formalism for electrolyte solutions. In the approach suggested the metastable state for electrolyte solutions is described in terms of the conserved order parameter omega(r,t) associated with fluctuations of the mean solute concentration n(sub 0). Parameters of the corresponding Ginzburg-Landau free energy functional which defines the dynamics of metastable state relaxation are determined and expressed through the experimentally measured quantities. A correspondence of 96-99 % between theory and experiment for all solutions studied was achieved and allowed the determination of an analytical expression for the spinodal concentration n(sub spin), and its calculation for various electrolyte solutions at 298 K. The assumption that subcritical solute clusters consist of the electrically neutral Bjerrum pairs has allowed both analytical and numerical investigation of the number-size N(sub c) of nucleation monomers (aggregates of the Bjerrum pairs) which are elementary units of the solute critical clusters. This has also allowed estimations for the surface tension Alpha, and equilibrium bulk energy Beta per solute molecule in the nucleation monomers. The dependence of these properties on the temperature T and on the solute concentration n(sub 0) through the entire metastable zone (from saturation concentration n(sub sat) to spinodal n(sub spin) is examined. It has been demonstrated that there are the following asymptotics: N(sub c), = I at spinodal

  12. Electrochemical Assay of Gold-Plating Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiodo, R.

    1982-01-01

    Gold content of plating solution is assayed by simple method that required only ordinary electrochemical laboratory equipment and materials. Technique involves electrodeposition of gold from solution onto electrode, the weight gain of which is measured. Suitable fast assay methods are economically and practically necessary in electronics and decorative-plating industries. If gold content in plating bath is too low, poor plating may result, with consequent economic loss to user.

  13. Electrochemical Assay of Gold-Plating Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiodo, R.

    1982-01-01

    Gold content of plating solution is assayed by simple method that required only ordinary electrochemical laboratory equipment and materials. Technique involves electrodeposition of gold from solution onto electrode, the weight gain of which is measured. Suitable fast assay methods are economically and practically necessary in electronics and decorative-plating industries. If gold content in plating bath is too low, poor plating may result, with consequent economic loss to user.

  14. Interactive solution-adaptive grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choo, Yung K.; Henderson, Todd L.

    1992-01-01

    TURBO-AD is an interactive solution-adaptive grid generation program under development. The program combines an interactive algebraic grid generation technique and a solution-adaptive grid generation technique into a single interactive solution-adaptive grid generation package. The control point form uses a sparse collection of control points to algebraically generate a field grid. This technique provides local grid control capability and is well suited to interactive work due to its speed and efficiency. A mapping from the physical domain to a parametric domain was used to improve difficulties that had been encountered near outwardly concave boundaries in the control point technique. Therefore, all grid modifications are performed on a unit square in the parametric domain, and the new adapted grid in the parametric domain is then mapped back to the physical domain. The grid adaptation is achieved by first adapting the control points to a numerical solution in the parametric domain using control sources obtained from flow properties. Then a new modified grid is generated from the adapted control net. This solution-adaptive grid generation process is efficient because the number of control points is much less than the number of grid points and the generation of a new grid from the adapted control net is an efficient algebraic process. TURBO-AD provides the user with both local and global grid controls.

  15. ALMA High Frequency Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J. D.; Mason, B.; Impellizzeri, V.; Kameno, S.; Fomalont, E.; Chibueze, J.; Takahashi, S.; Remijan, A.; Wilson, C.; ALMA Science Team

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the ALMA High Frequency Campaign is to improve the quality and efficiency of science observing in Bands 8, 9, and 10 (385-950 GHz), the highest frequencies available to the ALMA project. To this end, we outline observing modes which we have demonstrated to improve high frequency calibration for the 12m array and the ACA, and we present the calibration of the total power antennas at these frequencies. Band-to-band (B2B) transfer and bandwidth switching (BWSW), techniques which improve the speed and accuracy of calibration at the highest frequencies, are most necessary in Bands 8, 9, and 10 due to the rarity of strong calibrators. These techniques successfully enable increased signal-to-noise on the calibrator sources (and better calibration solutions) by measuring the calibrators at lower frequencies (B2B) or in wider bandwidths (BWSW) compared to the science target. We have also demonstrated the stability of the bandpass shape to better than 2.4% for 1 hour, hidden behind random noise, in Band 9. Finally, total power observing using the dual sideband receivers in Bands 9 and 10 requires the separation of the two sidebands; this procedure has been demonstrated in Band 9 and is undergoing further testing in Band 10.

  16. A linear scaling study of solvent-solute interaction energy of drug molecules in aqua solution.

    PubMed

    Bondesson, Laban; Rudberg, Elias; Luo, Yi; Sałek, Paweł

    2007-08-30

    Solvent-solute interaction energies for three well-known drug molecules in water solution are computed at the Hartree-Fock and B3LYP density functional theory levels using a linear scaling technique, which allows one to explicitly include in the model water molecules up to 14 A away from the solute molecule. The dependence of calculated interaction energies on the amount of included solvent has been examined. It is found that it is necessary to account for water molecules within an 8 A radius around the drug molecule to reach the saturated solvent interaction level. Effects of electron correlation and basis set on solvent-solute interaction energies are discussed.

  17. Solute atmospheres at dislocations

    DOE PAGES

    Hirth, John P.; Barnett, David M.; Hoagland, Richard G.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, a two-dimensional plane strain elastic solution is determined for the Cottrell solute atmosphere around an edge dislocation in an infinitely long cylinder of finite radius (the matrix), in which rows of solutes are represented by cylindrical rods with in-plane hydrostatic misfit (axial misfit is also considered). The periphery of the matrix is traction-free, thus introducing an image solute field which generates a solute-solute interaction energy that has not been considered previously. The relevant energy for the field of any distribution of solutes coexistent with a single edge dislocation along the (matrix) cylinder axis is determined, and coherencymore » effects are discussed and studied. Monte Carlo simulations accounting for all pertinent interactions over a range of temperatures are found to yield solute distributions different from classical results, namely, (1) Fermi-Dirac condensations at low temperatures at the free surface, (2) the majority of the atmosphere lying within an unexpectedly large non-linear interaction region near the dislocation core, and (3) temperature-dependent asymmetrical solute arrangements that promote bending. The solute distributions at intermediate temperatures show a 1/r dependence in agreement with previous linearized approximations. With a standard state of solute corresponding to a mean concentration, c0, the relevant interaction energy expression presented in this work is valid when extended to large concentrations for which Henry's Law and Vegard's Law do not apply.« less

  18. Stochastic solution to quantum dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    John, Sarah; Wilson, John W.

    1994-01-01

    The quantum Liouville equation in the Wigner representation is solved numerically by using Monte Carlo methods. For incremental time steps, the propagation is implemented as a classical evolution in phase space modified by a quantum correction. The correction, which is a momentum jump function, is simulated in the quasi-classical approximation via a stochastic process. The technique, which is developed and validated in two- and three- dimensional momentum space, extends an earlier one-dimensional work. Also, by developing a new algorithm, the application to bound state motion in an anharmonic quartic potential shows better agreement with exact solutions in two-dimensional phase space.

  19. Microheterogeneity in frozen protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Alan; Kurata, Kosaku; Nagare, Yutaka; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; Aksan, Alptekin

    2015-06-20

    In frozen and lyophilized systems, the biological to be stabilized (e.g. therapeutic protein, biomarker, drug-delivery vesicle) and the cryo-/lyo-protectant should be co-localized for successful stabilization. During freezing and drying, many factors cause physical separation of the biological from the cryo-/lyo-protectant, called microheterogeneity (MH), which may result in poor stabilization efficiency. We have developed a novel technique that utilized confocal Raman microspectroscopy in combination with counter-gradient freezing to evaluate the effect of a wide range of freezing temperatures (-20solutions tested. Mainly, albumin tended to accumulate near the ice interface, where it was physically separated from the cryoprotectant. In frozen 10wt% trehalose solutions, heterogeneity in FCL was relatively low at any TF. In frozen 20wt% trehalose solutions, the optimum albumin to trehalose ratio in the FCL can only be ensured if the solution was frozen within a narrow range of temperatures (-16solutions, freezing within a much more narrow range (-12

  20. Microheterogeneity in Frozen Protein Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Alan; Kurata, Kosaku; Nagare, Yutaka; Takamatsu, Hiroshi; Aksan, Alptekin

    2015-01-01

    In frozen and lyophilized systems, the biological to be stabilized (e.g. therapeutic protein, biomarker, drug-delivery vesicle) and the cryo-/lyoprotectant should be co-localized for successful stabilization. During freezing and drying, many factors cause physical separation of the biological from the cryo-/lyoprotectant, called microheterogeneity (MH), which may result in poor stabilization efficiency. We have developed a novel technique that utilized confocal Raman microspectroscopy in combination with counter-gradient freezing to evaluate the effect of a wide range of freezing temperatures (−20 < TF < 0°C) on the MH generated within a frozen formulation in only a few experiments. The freezing experiments conducted with a model system (albumin and trehalose) showed the presence of different degrees of MH in the freeze-concentrated liquid (FCL) in all solutions tested. Mainly, albumin tended to accumulate near the ice interface, where it was physically separated from the cryoprotectant. In frozen 10 wt% trehalose solutions, heterogeneity in FCL was relatively low at any TF. In frozen 20 wt% trehalose solutions, the optimum albumin to trehalose ratio in the FCL can only be ensured if the solution was frozen within a narrow range of temperatures (−16 < TF < −10°C). In the 30 wt% trehalose solutions, freezing within a much more narrow range (−12 < TF < −10°C) was needed to ensure a fairly homogeneous FCL. The method developed here will be helpful for the development of uniformly frozen and stable formulations and freezing protocols for biological as MH is presumed to directly impact stability. PMID:25888798

  1. Analytical techniques: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation, containing articles on a number of analytical techniques for quality control engineers and laboratory workers, is presented. Data cover techniques for testing electronic, mechanical, and optical systems, nondestructive testing techniques, and gas analysis techniques.

  2. Solution deposition assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

    2014-01-21

    Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

  3. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Magno, Scott; Wang, Ruiping; Derouane, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  4. The role of artificial intelligence techniques in scheduling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geoffroy, Amy L.; Britt, Daniel L.; Gohring, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques provide good solutions for many of the problems which are characteristic of scheduling applications. However, scheduling is a large, complex heterogeneous problem. Different applications will require different solutions. Any individual application will require the use of a variety of techniques, including both AI and conventional software methods. The operational context of the scheduling system will also play a large role in design considerations. The key is to identify those places where a specific AI technique is in fact the preferable solution, and to integrate that technique into the overall architecture.

  5. Neutron scattering study of dilute supercritical solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, H.D.; Wignall, G.D.; Shah, V.M.; Londono, J.D.; Bienkowski, P.R.

    1994-10-01

    Dilute solutions in supercritical solvents exhibit interesting microstructures that are related to their dramatic macroscopic behavior. In typical attractive solutions, solutes are believed to be surrounded by clusters of solvent molecules, and solute molecules are believed to congregate in the vicinity of one another. Repulsive solutions, on the other hand, exhibit a local region of reduced solvent density around the solute with solute-solute congregation. Such microstructures influence solubility, partial molar volume, reaction kinetics, and many other properties. We have undertaken to observe these interesting microstructures directly by neutron scattering experiments on dilute noble gas systems including Ar. The three partial structure factors for such systems and the corresponding pair correlation functions can be determined by using the isotope substitution technique. The systems studied are uniquely suited for our objectives because of the large coherent neutron scattering length of the isotope {sup 36}Ar and because of the accurate potential energy functions that are available for use in molecular simulations and theoretical calculations to be compared with the scattering results. We will describe our experiment, the unique apparatus we have built for it, and the neutron scattering results from our initial allocations of beam time. We will also describe planned scattering experiments to follow those with noble gases, including study of long-chain molecules in supercritical solvents. Such studies will involve hydrocarbon mixtures with and without deuteration to provide contrast.

  6. Optimal solutions of unobservable orbit determination problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicci, David A.; Tapley, Byron D.

    1988-12-01

    The method of data augmentation, in the form ofa priori covariance information on the reference solution, as a means to overcome the effects of ill-conditioning in orbit determination problems has been investigated. Specifically, for the case when ill-conditioning results from parameter non-observability and an appropriatea priori covariance is unknown, methods by which thea priori covariance is optimally chosen are presented. In problems where an inaccuratea priori covariance is provided, the optimal weighting of this data set is obtained. The feasibility of these ‘ridge-type’ solution methods is demonstrated by their application to a non-observable gravity field recovery simulation. In the simulation, both ‘ridge-type’ and conventional solutions are compared. Substantial improvement in the accuracy of the conventional solution is realized by the use of these ridge-type solution methods. The solution techniques presented in this study are applicable to observable, but ill-conditioned problems as well as the unobservable problems directly addressed. For the case of observable problems, the ridge-type solutions provide an improvement in the accuracy of the ordinary least squares solutions.

  7. Stability of ranitidine in injectable solutions.

    PubMed

    Vehabovic, Midhat; Hadzovic, Sabira; Stambolic, Fatima; Hadzic, Amina; Vranjes, Elvedina; Haracic, Ediba

    2003-04-30

    Injectable solutions of ranitidine were prepared by dissolving ranitidine hydrochloride in water for injections. The following buffering system has been used: disodium phosphate (anhydrous), potassium dihydrogen phosphate, and phenol as a preservative. Inert gas (nitrogen) was used to displace oxygen from a solution and reduce the possibility of oxidative changes in the formulation. The solution was poured into 2-ml brown glass ampoules in asceptic condition. Ampoules samples have been stored at three different temperatures. They have been stored at 55 and 40 degrees C for 6 months, and at 25 degrees C for 12 months. TLC technique has been used for monitoring related substances, and HPLC technique for monitoring phenol and ranitidine content. It has been shown that only those samples that were stored at 25 degrees C were actually stable.

  8. Metalloorganic solution deposition of ferroelectric PZT films.

    PubMed

    Lipeles, R A; Coleman, D J; Leung, M S

    1991-01-01

    The metallo-organic solution deposition (MOSD or sol-gel) technique can be used for preparing lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics with a wide range of compositions and crystal structures for electrooptical applications. Film morphology is affected by the stoichiometry of the film, hydrolysis and polymerization of the sol-gel solution, and thermal treatment of the deposited material. The lattice parameter decreases with the amount of titanium in the PZT, in agreement with ceramic data. A slight initial excess of lead in the coating solution is found to improve film morphology. Unlike traditional powder ceramic processing techniques, MOSD permits the growth of small uniform grains that are conducive to achieving consistent electronic and optical properties. Results show that the properties of films prepared by the MOSD process can be tailored to meet the needs of device applications.

  9. Micellar solubilization of tributylphosphate in aqueous solutions of Pluronic block copolymers. Part II. Structural characterization inferred by 1H NMR.

    PubMed

    Causse, J; Lagerge, S; de Menorval, L C; Faure, S

    2006-08-15

    The solubilization of tributylphosphate (TBP), a polar oil, in various micellar solutions of Pluronic has been investigated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Partial phase diagrams of the three components systems (Pluronic-TBP-water) have shown two characteristic temperatures, called CPT and SMT, which control the phase behavior (see Part I); Both temperature depend on the copolymer structure and, interestingly, are directly related to the TBP concentration in the medium. Monophasic microemulsions are observed only when the temperature ranges between the SMT and the CPT. Moreover, the evolution of the CPT with the TBP content clearly indicated the occurrence of a structural change of the microemulsions which allows higher quantities of TBP to be solubilized. In this second part, (1)H NMR studies of TPB/micellar systems have essentially focused on elucidating the nature of the interactions between TBP and micelle, or on the location of the solubilized species, mainly from the dependence of chemical shifts or linewidths on TBP concentration. Especially, the NMR spectra of the microemulsions before and after the structural change have been compared with those obtained for pure solution of Pluronic in D(2)O at different temperatures and in CDCl(3). The analysis of the (1)H NMR chemical shifts suggests a structural transformation of the TBP-Pluronic micelles in the sense of an hydrophobic TBP-PPO core becoming more and more dense as the TBP concentration increases. Especially, (1)H NMR data evidence an evolution of the hydration state of the hydrophobic core following addition of TBP in the micellar solutions. During the addition of TBP, the microemulsion structure turns from spherical swelled micelles to nanodroplets of pure TBP stabilized by the Pluronic (pure nanophase of TBP stabilized by the copolymer). It is shown that the structural change strongly depends on the temperatures (CPT and SMT, see Part I) and on the copolymer structure.

  10. The Solution Matrix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabinger, R. Scott

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of the preparation of knowledge for problems appropriate for expert systems focuses on relationships among problem attributes and their solutions through the creation of a solution matrix. Two examples are given, one for wine selection and one for decisions that an automobile manufacturer's sales force might have to make. (LRW)

  11. Cromolyn Sodium Nasal Solution

    MedlinePlus

    Cromolyn comes as a solution to use with a special nasal applicator. It usually is inhaled three to six times a day to prevent allergy ... first time, read the instructions provided with the solution. Ask your doctor, pharmacist, or respiratory therapist to ...

  12. Solvent wash solution

    DOEpatents

    Neace, James C.

    1986-01-01

    Process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 volume percent of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  13. Bolting multicenter solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Bossard, Guillaume; Katmadas, Stefanos; Turton, David

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a solvable system of equations that describes non-extremal multicenter solutions to six-dimensional ungauged supergravity coupled to tensor multiplets. The system involves a set of functions on a three-dimensional base metric. We obtain a family of non-extremal axisymmetric solutions that generalize the known multicenter extremal solutions, using a particular base metric that introduces a bolt. We analyze the conditions for regularity, and in doing so we show that this family does not include solutions that contain an extremal black hole and a smooth bolt. We determine the constraints that are necessary to obtain smooth horizonless solutions involving a bolt and an arbitrary number of Gibbons-Hawking centers.

  14. Solvent wash solution

    DOEpatents

    Neace, J.C.

    1984-03-13

    A process is claimed for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 vol % of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  15. The Solution-Focused Debriefing Group: An Integrated Postviolence Group Intervention for Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhnke, Gerald A.; Osborne, W. Larry

    1997-01-01

    Describes a solution-focused debriefing group model for adult survivors of violence, which integrates Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) and solution-focused counseling techniques. Discusses how to debrief team members, group size, the seven stages of CISD, and solution-focused debriefing group techniques. (RJM)

  16. Experimental Techniques for Thermodynamic Measurements of Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Putnam, Robert L.; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    1999-01-01

    Experimental techniques for thermodynamic measurements on ceramic materials are reviewed. For total molar quantities, calorimetry is used. Total enthalpies are determined with combustion calorimetry or solution calorimetry. Heat capacities and entropies are determined with drop calorimetry, differential thermal methods, and adiabatic calorimetry . Three major techniques for determining partial molar quantities are discussed. These are gas equilibration techniques, Knudsen cell methods, and electrochemical techniques. Throughout this report, issues unique to ceramics are emphasized. Ceramic materials encompass a wide range of stabilities and this must be considered. In general data at high temperatures is required and the need for inert container materials presents a particular challenge.

  17. Product Mix Selection Using AN Evolutionary Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoulos, Ioannis G.; Vasant, Pandian

    2009-08-01

    This paper proposes an evolutionary technique for the solution of a real—life industrial problem and particular for the product mix selection problem. The evolutionary technique is a combination of a genetic algorithm that preserves the feasibility of the trial solutions with penalties and some local optimization method. The goal of this paper has been achieved in finding the best near optimal solution for the profit fitness function respect to vagueness factor and level of satisfaction. The findings of the profit values will be very useful for the decision makers in the industrial engineering sector for the implementation purpose. It's possible to improve the solutions obtained in this study by employing other meta-heuristic methods such as simulated annealing, tabu Search, ant colony optimization, particle swarm optimization and artificial immune systems.

  18. Exact solutions for nonlinear foam drainage equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayed, E. M. E.; Al-Nowehy, Abdul-Ghani

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the modified simple equation method, the exp-function method, the soliton ansatz method, the Riccati equation expansion method and the ( G^' }/G)-expansion method are used to construct exact solutions with parameters of the nonlinear foam drainage equation. When these parameters are taken to be special values, the solitary wave solutions and the trigonometric function solutions are derived from the exact solutions. The obtained results confirm that the proposed methods are efficient techniques for analytic treatments of a wide variety of nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics. We compare our results together with each other yielding from these integration tools. Also, our results have been compared with the well-known results of others.

  19. Conduction heat transfer solutions

    SciTech Connect

    VanSant, James H.

    1980-03-01

    This text is a collection of solutions to a variety of heat conduction problems found in numerous publications, such as textbooks, handbooks, journals, reports, etc. Its purpose is to assemble these solutions into one source that can facilitate the search for a particular problem solution. Generally, it is intended to be a handbook on the subject of heat conduction. This material is useful for engineers, scientists, technologists, and designers of all disciplines, particularly those who design thermal systems or estimate temperatures and heat transfer rates in structures. More than 500 problem solutions and relevant data are tabulated for easy retrieval. There are twelve sections of solutions which correspond with the class of problems found in each. Geometry, state, boundary conditions, and other categories are used to classify the problems. A case number is assigned to each problem for cross-referencing, and also for future reference. Each problem is concisely described by geometry and condition statements, and many times a descriptive sketch is also included. At least one source reference is given so that the user can review the methods used to derive the solutions. Problem solutions are given in the form of equations, graphs, and tables of data, all of which are also identified by problem case numbers and source references.

  20. Authentication techniques for smart cards

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.A.

    1994-02-01

    Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system.