Science.gov

Sample records for monophosphate crystalline complex

  1. Visualization of drug-nucleic acid interactions at atomic resolution. VII. Structure of an ethidium/dinucleoside monophosphate crystalline complex, ethidium: uridylyl(3'-5')adenosine

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, S.C.; Sobell, H.M.

    1984-01-01

    Ethidium forms a crystalline complex with the dinucleoside monophosphate, uridylyl (3'-5') adenosine (UpA). The complex crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2/sub 1/ with unit cell dimensions, a = 13.704 A, b = 31.674 A, c = 15.131 A, ..beta.. = 113.8/sup 0/. This light atom structure has been solved to atomic resolution and refined by full matrix least squares to a residual of 0.12, using 3034 observed reflections. The asymmetric unit consists of two ethidium molecules, two UpA molecules and 19 solvent molecules, a total of 145 non-hydrogen atoms. The two UPa molecules are hydrogen-bonded together by Watson-Crick base pairing. Base-pairs in this duplex are separated by 6.7 A; this reflects intercalative binding by one of the ethidium molecules. The other ethidium molecule stacks on either side of the intercalated base-paired dinucleoside monophosphate, being related by a unit cell translation along the a axis. The conformation of the sugar-phosphate backbone accompanying intercalation has been accurately determined in this analysis, and contains the mixed sugar-puckering pattern: C3' endo (3'-5') C2' endo. This same structural feature has been observed in the ethidium-iodoUpA and ethidium-iodoCpG complexes, and exists in two additional structures containing ethidium-CpG. Taken together, these studies confirm the authors earlier sugar-puckering assignments and demonstrate that iodine covalently bound to the C5 position on uridine or cytosine does not alter the basic sugar-phosphate geometry or the mode of ethidium intercalation in these model studies. The authors have proposed this stereochemistry to explain the intercalation of ethidium into both DNA and into double-helical RNA. 15 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Structure of Staphylococcus aureus cytidine monophosphate kinase in complex with cytidine 5'-monophosphate.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, Balvinder; Ren, Jingshan; Lockyer, Michael; Charles, Ian; Hawkins, Alastair R; Stammers, David K

    2006-08-01

    The crystal structure of Staphylococcus aureus cytidine monophosphate kinase (CMK) in complex with cytidine 5'-monophosphate (CMP) has been determined at 2.3 angstroms resolution. The active site reveals novel features when compared with two orthologues of known structure. Compared with the Streptococcus pneumoniae CMK solution structure of the enzyme alone, S. aureus CMK adopts a more closed conformation, with the NMP-binding domain rotating by approximately 16 degrees towards the central pocket of the molecule, thereby assembling the active site. Comparing Escherichia coli and S. aureus CMK-CMP complex structures reveals differences within the active site, including a previously unreported indirect interaction of CMP with Asp33, the replacement of a serine residue involved in the binding of CDP by Ala12 in S. aureus CMK and an additional sulfate ion in the E. coli CMK active site. The detailed understanding of the stereochemistry of CMP binding to CMK will assist in the design of novel inhibitors of the enzyme. Inhibitors are required to treat the widespread hospital infection methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), currently a major public health concern.

  3. Structural Studies of Thiamin Monophosphate Kinase in Complex with Substrates and Products.

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, K.M.; Kinsland, C.; Begley, T.P.; Ealick, S E.

    2008-06-03

    Thiamin monophosphate kinase (ThiL) catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of thiamin monophosphate (TMP) to form thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), the active form of vitamin B1. ThiL is a member of a small ATP binding superfamily that also includes the purine biosynthetic enzymes, PurM and PurL, NiFe hydrogenase maturation protein, HypE, and selenophosphate synthase, SelD. The latter four enzymes are believed to utilize phosphorylated intermediates during catalysis. To understand the mechanism of ThiL and its relationship to the other superfamily members, we determined the structure of Aquifex aeolicus ThiL (AaThiL) with nonhydrolyzable AMP-PCP and TMP, and also with the products of the reaction, ADP and TPP. The results suggest that AaThiL utilizes a direct, inline transfer of the {gamma}-phosphate of ATP to TMP rather than a phosphorylated enzyme intermediate. The structure of ThiL is compared to those of PurM, PurL, and HypE, and the ATP binding site is compared to that of PurL, for which nucleotide complexes are available.

  4. Structure and mechanism of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase in complex with the immunosuppressant mycophenolic acid.

    PubMed

    Sintchak, M D; Fleming, M A; Futer, O; Raybuck, S A; Chambers, S P; Caron, P R; Murcko, M A; Wilson, K P

    1996-06-14

    The structure of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) in complex with IMP and mycophenolic acid (MPA) has been determined by X-ray diffraction. IMPDH plays a central role in B and T lymphocyte replication. MPA is a potent IMPDH inhibitor and the active metabolite of an immunosuppressive drug recently approved for the treatment of allograft rejection. IMPDH comprises two domains: a core domain, which is an alpha/beta barrel and contains the active site, and a flanking domain. The complex, in combination with mutagenesis and kinetic data, provides a structural basis for understanding the mechanism of IMPDH activity and indicates that MPA inhibits IMPDH by acting as a replacement for the nicotinamide portion of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide cofactor and a catalytic water molecule.

  5. Adenosine monophosphate recognition by zinc-salophen complexes: IRMPD spectroscopy and quantum modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciavardini, Alessandra; Dalla Cort, Antonella; Fornarini, Simonetta; Scuderi, Debora; Giardini, Anna; Forte, Gianpiero; Bodo, Enrico; Piccirillo, Susanna

    2017-05-01

    Zn-salophen complexes are a promising class of fluorescent chemosensors for nucleotides and nucleic acids. We have investigated, by means of IRMPD spectroscopy experiments and quantum chemical calculations, the structure of the host-guest complexes formed by two efficient Zn-salophen receptors and dihydrogen phosphate or adenosine 5‧-monophosphate (AMP) anions. In the host-guest complexes the phosphate group is bound with a Znsbnd O(phosphate) bond. In addition, a hydrogen bond can be formed between the POsbnd H group and one of the oxygen atoms of the salophen structure. The complexes with AMP anions are endowed with a hydrogen bonded coordination motif together with a weaker π⋯π interaction. It is thus confirmed that the marked changes of the spectroscopic emission properties of Zn-salophen when complexed with AMP can be associated with the existence of π⋯π stacking interactions between the salophen aromatic rings and those of the adenosine nucleobase.

  6. Atomic Resolution Structure of the Orotidine 5′-Monophosphate Decarboxylase Product Complex Combined with Surface Plasmon Resonance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fujihashi, Masahiro; Mito, Kazuya; Pai, Emil F.; Miki, Kunio

    2013-01-01

    Orotidine 5′-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) accelerates the decarboxylation of its substrate by 17 orders of magnitude. One argument brought forward against steric/electrostatic repulsion causing substrate distortion at the carboxylate substituent as part of the catalysis has been the weak binding affinity of the decarboxylated product (UMP). The crystal structure of the UMP complex of ODCase at atomic resolution (1.03 Å) shows steric competition between the product UMP and the side chain of a catalytic lysine residue. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicates that UMP binds 5 orders of magnitude more tightly to a mutant in which the interfering side chain has been removed than to wild-type ODCase. These results explain the low affinity of UMP and counter a seemingly very strong argument against a contribution of substrate distortion to the catalytic reaction mechanism of ODCase. PMID:23395822

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of adenosine 5′-monophosphate deaminase (AMPD) from Arabidopsis thaliana in complex with coformycin 5′-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Byung Woo; Bingman, Craig A.; Mahnke, Donna K.; Sabina, Richard L.; Phillips, George N. Jr

    2005-08-01

    Adenosine 5′-monophosphate deaminase from A. thaliana has been crystallized in complex with coformycin 5′-phosphate. Diffraction data have been collected to 3.34 Å resolution. Adenosine 5′-monophosphate deaminase (AMPD) is a eukaryotic enzyme that converts adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP) to inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP) and ammonia. AMPD from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtAMPD) was cloned into the baculoviral transfer vector p2Bac and co-transfected along with a modified baculoviral genome into Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells. The resulting recombinant baculovirus were plaque-purified, amplified and used to overexpress recombinant AtAMPD. Crystals of purified AtAMPD have been obtained to which coformycin 5′-phosphate, a transition-state inhibitor, is bound. Crystals belong to space group P6{sub 2}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 131.325, c = 208.254 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Diffraction data were collected to 3.34 Å resolution from a crystal in complex with coformycin 5′-phosphate and to 4.05 Å resolution from a crystal of a mercury derivative.

  8. Crystalline nanocellulose/lauric arginate complexes.

    PubMed

    Chi, Kai; Catchmark, Jeffrey M

    2017-11-01

    As a novel sustainable nanomaterial, crystalline nanocellulose (CNC) possesses many unique characteristics for emerging applications in coatings, emulsions, paints, pharmaceutical formulations, and other aqueous composite systems where interactions with oppositely charged surfactants are commonly employed. Herein, the binding interactions between sulfated CNC and a novel biologically-derived cationic surfactant lauric arginate (LAE) were comprehensively examined. Ionic strength and solution pH are two crucial factors in determining the adsorption of LAE to the CNC surface. Three different driving forces were identified for CNC-LAE binding interactions. Additionally, it was found that the adsorption of LAE to the CNC surface could notably impact the surface potential, aggregation state, hydrophobicity and thermal stability of the CNC. This work provides insights on the binding interactions between oppositely charged CNC and surfactants, and highlights the significance of optimizing the concentration of surfactant required to ionically decorate CNC for its enhanced dispersion and compatibilization in non-polar polymer matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling in the central complex of the grasshopper brain inhibits singing behavior.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Beate; Kunst, Michael; Günther, Cornelia; Ganter, Geoffrey K; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard; Elsner, Norbert; Heinrich, Ralf

    2005-07-25

    Grasshopper sound production, in the context of mate finding, courtship, and rivalry, is controlled by the central body complex in the protocerebrum. Stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the central complex has been demonstrated to stimulate specific singing in various grasshoppers including the species Chorthippus biguttulus. Sound production elicited by stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the central complex is inhibited by co-applications of various drugs activating the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling pathway. The nitric oxide-donor sodium nitroprusside caused a reversible suppression of muscarine-stimulated sound production that could be blocked by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ), which prevents the formation of cGMP by specifically inhibiting soluble guanylyl cyclase. Furthermore, injections of both the membrane-permeable cGMP analog 8-Br-cGMP and the specific inhibitor of the cGMP-degrading phosphodiesterase Zaprinast reversibly inhibited singing. To identify putative sources of nitric oxide, brains of Ch. biguttulus were subjected to both nitric oxide synthase immunocytochemistry and NADPH-diaphorase staining. Among other areas known to express nitric oxide synthase, both procedures consistently labeled peripheral layers in the upper division of the central body complex, suggesting that neurons supplying this neuropil contain nitric oxide synthase and may generate nitric oxide upon activation. Exposure of dissected brains to nitric oxide and 3-(5'hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole (YC-1) induced cGMP-associated immunoreactivity in both the upper and lower division. Therefore, both the morphological and pharmacological data presented in this study strongly suggest a contribution of the nitric oxide/cGMP signaling pathway to the central control of grasshopper sound production.

  10. Isomerization mechanism of aspartate to isoaspartate implied by structures of Ustilago sphaerogena ribonuclease U2 complexed with adenosine 3'-monophosphate.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Shuji

    2010-07-01

    Aspartates in proteins are isomerized non-enzymatically to isoaspartate via succinimide in vitro and in vivo. In order to elucidate the mechanism of isoaspartate formation within the Asp45-Glu46 sequence of Ustilago sphaerogena ribonuclease U2 based on three-dimensional structure, crystal structures of ribonuclease U2 complexed with adenosine 3'-monophosphate have been solved at 0.96 and 0.99 A resolution. The crystal structures revealed that the C(gamma) atom of Asp45 is located just beside the main-chain N atom of Glu46 and that the conformation which is suitable for succinimide formation is stabilized by a hydrogen-bond network mediated by water molecules 190, 219 and 220. These water molecules are suggested to promote the formation of isoaspartate via succinimide: in the succinimide-formation reaction water 219 receives a proton from the N atom of Glu46 as a general base and waters 190 and 220 stabilize the tetrahedral intermediate, and in the succinimide-hydrolysis reaction water 219 provides a proton for the N atom of Glu46 as a general acid. The purine-base recognition scheme of ribonuclease U2 is also discussed.

  11. The crystal structure of ribonuclease A in complex with thymidine-3'-monophosphate provides further insight into ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Nicolas; Jayasundera, Thusitha B; Simonović, Miljan; Loria, J Patrick

    2010-08-15

    Thymidine-3'-monophosphate (3'-TMP) is a competitive inhibitor analogue of the 3'-CMP and 3'-UMP natural product inhibitors of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A). Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments show that 3'-TMP binds the enzyme with a dissociation constant (K(d)) of 15 microM making it one of the strongest binding members of the five natural bases found in nucleic acids (A, C, G, T, and U). To further investigate the molecular properties of this potent natural affinity, we have determined the crystal structure of bovine pancreatic RNase A in complex with 3'-TMP at 1.55 A resolution and we have performed NMR binding experiments with 3'-CMP and 3'-TMP. Our results show that binding of 3'-TMP is very similar to other natural and non-natural pyrimidine ligands, demonstrating that single nucleotide affinity is independent of the presence or absence of a 2'-hydroxyl on the ribose moiety of pyrimidines and suggesting that the pyrimidine binding subsite of RNase A is not a significant contributor of inhibitor discrimination. Accumulating evidence suggests that very subtle structural, chemical, and potentially motional variations contribute to ligand discrimination in this enzyme.

  12. New crystalline complex of quinine and quinidine.

    PubMed

    Paliwoda, Grazyna; Oleksyn, Barbara J; Sliwiński, J

    2002-01-01

    A new complex of diastereoisomeric pair, quinine and quinidine (QQd), was obtained from a mixture of saturated ethanol solutions of quinine and quinidine (0.5:1). The complex crystallises in the triclinic system, space group P1, and contains two molecules of quinine, two molecules of quinidine and four water molecules in the asymmetric unit. The X-ray structure analysis of a single crystal revealed that quinine and quinidine molecules occur in the so-called open conformation, characteristic for Cinchona alkaloids, whenever they are engaged in intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Quinine and quinidine molecules are organized in two very similar kinds of chains. In each chain the links that contain 14-membered rings can be distinguished. Within these rings quinine and quinidine molecules interact via intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the quinuclidine nitrogens and hydroxyl groups, mediated by water molecules. The links are connected with each other by hydrogen bonds between water molecules and nitrogens of the quinoline moieties, which interact via pi-pi stacking. The architecture of the hydrogen bond system in QQd, compared to those observed in the crystal structures of nonhydrated quinidine, cinchonine and cinchonidine, reveals the effect of the co-crystallizing water on the molecular packing. In nonhydrated alkaloid structures the hydrogen-bonded molecules form helical chains, different from those observed in the hydrated QQd complex and hydrated quinine toluene solvate (QTol). Comparison of QQd structure with that of QTol suggests that while the intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the system quinine-water-quinidine-water are very similar to those in quinine-water-quinine-water system, the mode of pi-pi interaction between their quinoline moieties depends on the absolute configuration of the interacting alkaloid molecules.

  13. Bacillus anthracis inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase in action: the first bacterial series of structures of phosphate ion-, substrate-, and product-bound complexes.

    PubMed

    Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Kim, Youngchang; Wu, Ruiying; Wilton, Rosemarie; Gollapalli, Deviprasad R; Wang, Ximi K; Zhang, Rongguang; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Mack, Jamey C; Maltseva, Natalia; Mulligan, Rory; Binkowski, T Andrew; Gornicki, Piotr; Kuhn, Misty L; Anderson, Wayne F; Hedstrom, Lizbeth; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2012-08-07

    Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) catalyzes the first unique step of the GMP branch of the purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway. This enzyme is found in organisms of all three kingdoms. IMPDH inhibitors have broad clinical applications in cancer treatment, as antiviral drugs and as immunosuppressants, and have also displayed antibiotic activity. We have determined three crystal structures of Bacillus anthracis IMPDH, in a phosphate ion-bound (termed "apo") form and in complex with its substrate, inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), and product, xanthosine 5'-monophosphate (XMP). This is the first example of a bacterial IMPDH in more than one state from the same organism. Furthermore, for the first time for a prokaryotic enzyme, the entire active site flap, containing the conserved Arg-Tyr dyad, is clearly visible in the structure of the apoenzyme. Kinetic parameters for the enzymatic reaction were also determined, and the inhibitory effect of XMP and mycophenolic acid (MPA) has been studied. In addition, the inhibitory potential of two known Cryptosporidium parvum IMPDH inhibitors was examined for the B. anthracis enzyme and compared with those of three bacterial IMPDHs from Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, and Vibrio cholerae. The structures contribute to the characterization of the active site and design of inhibitors that specifically target B. anthracis and other microbial IMPDH enzymes.

  14. Kinetic benefits and thermal stability of orotate phosphoribosyltransferase and orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase enzyme complex in human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Kanchanaphum, Panan; Krungkrai, Jerapan

    2009-12-11

    We have previously shown that orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) and orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) in human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum form an enzyme complex, containing two subunits each of OPRT and OMPDC. To enable further characterization, we expressed and purified P. falciparum OPRT-OMPDC enzyme complex in Escherichia coli. The OPRT and OMPDC activities of the enzyme complex co-eluted in the chromatographic columns used during purification. Kinetic parameters (K(m), k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m)) of the enzyme complex were 5- to 125-folds higher compared to the monofunctional enzyme. Interestingly, pyrophosphate was a potent inhibitor to the enzyme complex, but had a slightly inhibitory effect for the monofunctional enzyme. The enzyme complex resisted thermal inactivation at higher temperature than the monofunctional OPRT and OMPDC. The result suggests that the OPRT-OMPDC enzyme complex might have kinetic benefits and thermal stability significantly different from the monofunctional enzyme.

  15. Structural evaluation of crystalline ternary γ-cyclodextrin complex.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Kenjirou; Ideura, Saori; Waraya, Haruka; Moribe, Kunikazu; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2011-01-01

    The structure of a crystalline γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) ternary complex containing salicylic acid (SA) and flurbiprofen (FBP) prepared by sealed heating was investigated. FBP/γ-CD inclusion complex was prepared by coprecipitation; its molar ratio was determined as 1/1. Powder X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the molecular packing of γ-CD changed from hexagonal to monoclinic columnar form by sealed heating of SA with dried FBP/γ-CD inclusion complex, indicating ternary complex formation. The stoichiometry of SA/FBP/γ-CD was estimated as 2/1/1. Solid-state transformation of γ-CD molecular packing upon water vapor adsorption and desorption was irreversible for this ternary complex, in contrast to the reversible transition for the FBP/γ-CD inclusion complex. The ternary complex contained one FBP molecule in the cavity of γ-CD and two SA molecules in the intermolecular space between neighboring γ-CD column stacks. Infrared and (13) C solid-state NMR spectroscopies revealed that the molecular states of SA and FBP changed upon ternary complex formation. In the complex, dimer FBP molecules were sandwiched between two γ-CD molecules whereas each monomer SA molecule was present in the intermolecular space of γ-CD. Ternary complex formation was also observed for other drug-guest systems using naproxen and ketoprofen. Thus, the complex can be used to formulate variety of drugs.

  16. Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent phosphoregulation of mitochondrial complex I is inhibited by nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, Kaleb C. Wallace, Kendall B.

    2008-01-01

    Nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are known to directly inhibit mitochondrial complex I activity as well as various mitochondrial kinases. Recent observations that complex I activity and superoxide production are modulated through cAMP-dependent phosphorylation suggests a mechanism through which NRTIs may affect mitochondrial respiration via kinase-dependent protein phosphorylation. In the current study, we examine the potential for NRTIs to inhibit the cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of complex I and the associated NADH:CoQ oxidoreductase activities and rates of superoxide production using HepG2 cells. Phosphoprotein staining of immunocaptured complex I revealed that 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT; 10 and 50 {mu}M), AZT monophosphate (150 {mu}M), and 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC; 1 {mu}M) prevented the phosphorylation of the NDUFB11 subunit of complex I. This was associated with a decrease in complex I activity with AZT and AZT monophosphate only. In the presence of succinate, superoxide production was increased with 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI; 10 {mu}M) and ddC (1 {mu}M). In the presence of succinate + cAMP, AZT showed an inverse dose-dependent effect on superoxide production. None of the NRTIs examined inhibit PKA activity suggesting that the observed effects are due to a direct interaction with complex I. These data demonstrate a direct effect of NRTIs on cAMP-dependent regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics independent of DNA polymerase-{gamma} activity; in the case of AZT, these observations may provide a mechanism for the observed long-term toxicity with this drug.

  17. Cobalt complex of cinchonine: intermolecular interactions in two crystalline modifications.

    PubMed

    Skórska, Agnieszka; Oleksyn, Barbara J; Sliwiński, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Two crystalline modifications of cinchonine cobalt complex, C19H23Cl3CoN2O, were obtained from mixture of saturated alcohol solutions of CoCl3 x 6H2O and cinchonine. The X-ray structure analysis revealed that the asymmetric unit of one modification, CoCn1, contains only zwitterionic molecules of the complex. In the asymmetric unit of the other, CoCn2, there are two molecules of the title compound and two molecules of ethanol. The influence of the absolute configuration, the CoCl3 coordination with quinoline, and the presence of alcohol molecules on the studied structures was established by comparison of the crystal and molecular structures of both cobalt complexes with the analogous quinine complex and zinc complex of cinchonine. The interactions that dominate in the packing of the molecules in both structures are intermolecular hydrogen bonds. They form characteristic ring systems, depending on the presence of the alcohol molecules. The ring features are also related to the absolute configuration of the alkaloid.

  18. Positronium formation studies in crystalline molecular complexes: Triphenylphosphine oxide - Acetanilide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, F. C.; Denadai, A. M. L.; Guerra, L. D. L.; Fulgêncio, F. H.; Windmöller, D.; Santos, G. C.; Fernandes, N. G.; Yoshida, M. I.; Donnici, C. L.; Magalhães, W. F.; Machado, J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogen bond formation in the triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO), acetanilide (ACN) supramolecular heterosynton system, named [TPPO0.5·ACN0.5], has been studied by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) and supported by several analytical techniques. In toluene solution, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) presented a 1:1 stoichiometry and indicated that the complexation process is driven by entropy, with low enthalpy contribution. X-ray structure determination showed the existence of a three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds, allowing also the confirmation of the existence of a 1:1 crystalline molecular complex in solid state. The results of thermal analysis (TGA, DTA and DSC) and FTIR spectroscopy showed that the interactions in the complex are relatively weaker than those found in pure precursors, leading to a higher positronium formation probability at [TPPO0.5·ACN0.5]. These weak interactions in the complex enhance the possibility of the n- and π-electrons to interact with positrons and consequently, the probability of positronium formation is higher. Through the present work is shown that PALS is a sensible powerful tool to investigate intermolecular interactions in solid heterosynton supramolecular systems.

  19. Dynamics and control of oscillations in a complex crystalline lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aero, Eron; Fradkov, Alexander; Andrievsky, Boris; Vakulenko, Sergey

    2006-04-01

    A highly nonlinear system of acoustic and optical oscillations in a complex crystalline lattice consisting of two sublattices is analyzed. The system is obtained as a generalization of the linear Carman Born Kun Huang theory. Large displacements of atoms up to structure stability loss and restructuring are admitted. It is shown that the system has nontrivial solutions describing movements of fronts, emergence of periodic structures and defects. Strong interaction of acoustic and optical modes of oscillation for media without center of symmetry is demonstrated. A possibility of energy-excitation of the optical mode by means of controlling torque applied to the ends of the lattice is examined. Control algorithm based on speed-gradient method is proposed and analyzed numerically. Simulation results demonstrate that application of control may eliminate or reduce influence of initial conditions. An easily realizable nonfeedback version of control algorithm is proposed possessing similar properties.

  20. Acid-base and metal-ion-binding properties of xanthosine 5'-monophosphate (XMP) in aqueous solution: complex stabilities, isomeric equilibria, and extent of macrochelation.

    PubMed

    Sigel, Helmut; Massoud, Salah S; Song, Bin; Griesser, Rolf; Knobloch, Bernd; Operschall, Bert P

    2006-10-25

    The four acidity constants of threefold protonated xanthosine 5'-monophosphate, H3(XMP)+, reveal that at the physiological pH of 7.5 (XMP-H)(3-) strongly dominates (and not XMP(2-) as given in textbooks); this is in contrast to the related inosine (IMP(2-)) and guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP(2-)) and it means that XMP should better be named as xanthosinate 5'-monophosphate. In addition, evidence is provided for a tautomeric (XMP-HN1)(3-)/(XMP-HN3)(3-) equilibrium. The stability constants of the M(H;XMP)+ species were estimated and those of the M(XMP) and M(XMP-H)- complexes (M2+=Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+) measured potentiometrically in aqueous solution. The primary M2+ binding site in M(XMP) is (mostly) N7 of the monodeprotonated xanthine residue, the proton being at the phosphate group. The corresponding macrochelates involving P(O)2(OH)- (most likely outer-sphere) are formed to approximately 65% for nearly all M2+. In M(XMP-H)- the primary M2+ binding site is (mostly) the phosphate group; here the formation degree of the N7 macrochelates varies widely from close to zero for the alkaline earth ions, to approximately 50% for Mn2+, and approximately 90% or more for Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+. Because for (XMP-H)(3-) the micro stability constants quantifying the M2+ affinity of the xanthosinate and PO3(2-) residues are known, one may apply a recently developed quantification method for the chelate effect to the corresponding macrochelates; this chelate effect is close to zero for the alkaline earth ions and it amounts to about one log unit for Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+. This method also allows calculation of the formation degrees of the monodentatally coordinated isomers; this information is of relevance for biological systems because it demonstrates how metal ions can switch from one site to another through macrochelate formation. These insights are meaningful for metal-ion-dependent reactions of XMP in metabolic pathways; previous

  1. Enhancing the solubility and masking the bitter taste of propiverine using crystalline complex formation.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Daisuke; Ozeki, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    Patient compliance can be reduced when bitter-tasting compounds, such as propiverine hydrochloride, are administered orally. Propiverine hydrochloride is an example of a drug with a bitter taste, used for the treatment of overactive bladders. This study tested whether propiverine free base palatability and aqueous solubility could be improved by crystalline complex formation. We used 42 compounds, and found 9 new propiverine crystalline complexes. The properties and solubility of these complexes were studied using a range of techniques. A taste perception study was carried out using a taste sensor to evaluate the taste masking ability of the crystalline complex formation. The melting points of the crystalline complexes were higher than that of propiverine. The dissolution rates of the crystalline complexes in aqueous buffer solution (pH 6.8) and in purified water were much faster than that of propiverine. Propiverine salicylic acid crystalline complex had substantially less bitterness than propiverine hydrochloride, which was extremely bitter. The present findings indicated that crystalline complex formation provided an effective approach to enhancing propiverine solubility, and to masking its bitter taste. Crystalline complex formation represents a useful and valuable technique for the preparation of orally disintegrating tablets and improving patient compliance, even for substances with bitter tastes.

  2. Unexpected complex formation between coralyne and cyclic diadenosine monophosphate providing a simple fluorescent turn-on assay to detect this bacterial second messenger.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Sayre, David A; Zheng, Yue; Szmacinski, Henryk; Sintim, Herman O

    2014-03-04

    Cyclic diadenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) has emerged as an important dinucleotide that is involved in several processes in bacteria, including cell wall remodeling (and therefore resistance to antibiotics that target bacterial cell wall). Small molecules that target c-di-AMP metabolism enzymes have the potential to be used as antibiotics. Coralyne is known to form strong complexes with polyadenine containing eight or more adenine stretches but not with short polyadenine oligonucleotides. Using a panel of techniques (UV, both steady state fluorescence and fluorescence lifetime measurements, circular dichroism (CD), NMR, and Job plots), we demonstrate that c-di-AMP, which contains only two adenine bases is an exception to this rule and that it can form complexes with coralyne, even at low micromolar concentrations. Interestingly, pApA (the linear analog of c-di-AMP that also contains two adenines) or cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP, another nucleotide second messenger in bacteria) did not form any complex with coralyne. Unlike polyadenine, which forms a 2:1 complex with coralyne, c-di-AMP forms a higher order complex with coralyne (≥6:1). Additionally, whereas polyadenine reduces the fluorescence of coralyne when bound, c-di-AMP enhances the fluorescence of coralyne. We use the quenching property of halides to selectively quench the fluorescence of unbound coralyne but not that of coralyne bound to c-di-AMP. Using this simple selective quenching strategy, the assay could be used to monitor the synthesis of c-di-AMP by DisA or the degradation of c-di-AMP by YybT. Apart from the practical utility of this assay for c-di-AMP research, this work also demonstrates that, when administered to cells, intercalators might not only associate with polynucleotides, such as DNA or RNA, but also could associate with cyclic dinucleotides to disrupt or modulate signal transduction processes mediated by these nucleotides.

  3. Crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 7,8-dihydropteroate synthase in complex with pterin monophosphate: new insight into the enzymatic mechanism and sulfa-drug action.

    PubMed

    Baca, A M; Sirawaraporn, R; Turley, S; Sirawaraporn, W; Hol, W G

    2000-10-06

    The enzyme 7,8-dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) catalyzes the condensation of para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) with 6-hydroxymethyl-7, 8-dihydropterin-pyrophosphate to form 7,8-dihydropteroate and pyrophosphate. DHPS is essential for the de novo synthesis of folate in prokaryotes, lower eukaryotes, and in plants, but is absent in mammals. Inhibition of this enzyme's activity by sulfonamide and sulfone drugs depletes the folate pool, resulting in growth inhibition and cell death. Here, we report the 1.7 A resolution crystal structure of the binary complex of 6-hydroxymethylpterin monophosphate (PtP) with DHPS from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), a pathogen responsible for the death of millions of human beings each year. Comparison to other DHPS structures reveals that the M. tuberculosis DHPS structure is in a unique conformation in which loop 1 closes over the active site. The Mtb DHPS structure hints at a mechanism in which both loops 1 and 2 play important roles in catalysis by shielding the active site from bulk solvent and allowing pyrophosphoryl transfer to occur. A binding mode for pABA, sulfonamides and sulfones is suggested based on: (i) the new conformation of the closed loop 1; (ii) the distribution of dapsone and sulfonamide resistance mutations; (iii) the observed direction of the bond between the 6-methyl carbon atom and the bridging oxygen atom to the alpha-phosphate group in the Mtb DHPS:PtP binary complex; and (iv) the conformation of loop 2 in the Escherichia coli DHPS structure. Finally, the Mtb DHPS structure reveals a highly conserved pterin binding pocket that may be exploited for the design of novel antimycobacterial agents.

  4. Screening for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency, deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase, complex vertebral malformation, bovine citrullinaemia, and factor XI deficiency in Holstein cows reared in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD), deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS), complex vertebral malformation (CVM), bovine citrullinaemia (BC) and factor XI deficiency (FXID) are autosomal recessive hereditary disorders, which have had significant economic impact on dairy cattle breeding worldwide. In this study, 350 Holstein cows reared in Turkey were screened for BLAD, DUMPS, CVM, BC and FXID genotypes to obtain an indication on the importance of these defects in Turkish Holsteins. Methods Genomic DNA was obtained from blood and the amplicons of BLAD, DUMPS, CVM, BC and FXID were obtained by using PCR. PCR products were digested with TaqI, AvaI and AvaII restriction enzymes for BLAD, DUMPS, and BC, respectively. These digested products and PCR product of FXID were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis stained with ethidium bromide. CVM genotypes were detected by DNA sequencing. Additionally, all genotypes were confirmed by DNA sequencing to determine whether there was a mutant allele or not. Results Fourteen BLAD, twelve CVM and four FXID carriers were found among the 350 Holstein cows examined, while carriers of DUMPS and BC were not detected. The mutant allele frequencies were calculated as 0.02, 0.017, and 0.006 for BLAD, CVM and FXID, respectively with corresponding carrier prevalence of 4.0% (BLAD), 3.4% (CVM) and 1.2% (FXID). Conclusion This study demonstrates that carriers of BLAD, CVM and FXID are present in the Turkish Holstein population, although at a low frequency. The actual number of clinical cases is unknown, but sporadic cases may appear. As artificial insemination is widely used in dairy cattle breeding, carriers of BLAD, CVM and FXID are likely present within the population of breeding sires. It is recommended to screen breeding sires for these defective genes in order to avoid an unwanted spread within the population. PMID:20929557

  5. Mechanisms of dielectric polarization in thermotropic liquid-crystalline complexes based on lanthanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrun, L. A.; Kovshik, A. P.; Ryumtsev, E. I.; Knyazev, A. A.; Galyametdinov, Yu. G.

    2016-06-01

    The components of the dielectric constant of a terbium-based liquid-crystalline complex have been measured in the frequency range of 350-5 × 106 Hz. The magnitude and sign of the dielectric anisotropy of the complex have been determined. Dispersion of the dielectric constants in the liquid-crystalline and isotropic phases has been found. The mechanisms responsible for the relaxation phenomena that appear in the studied sample have been determined. The time of dielectric relaxation, the activation energy, and the dipole moment of the complex have been obtained.

  6. Studies on structures of lipid A-monophosphate clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faunce, Chester A.; Reichelt, Hendrik; Paradies, Henrich H.

    2011-03-01

    Single crystalline clusters of lipid A-monophosphate were grown from organic dispersions containing 5-15% (v/v) water at various volume fractions, ϕ, and temperatures. The morphology of the single lipid A-monophosphate crystals was either rhombohedral or hexagonal. The hexagonal crystals were needlelike or cylindrical in shape, with the long dimension parallel to the c axis of the unit cell. The crystalline clusters were studied using electron microscopy and x-ray powder diffraction. Employing molecular location methods following a Rietveld refinement and whole-pattern refinement revealed two monoclinic crystal structures in the space groups P21 and C2, both converged with RF = 0.179. The two monoclinic crystal structures were packing (hydrocarbon chains) and conformational (sugar) polymorphs. Neither of these two structures had been encountered previously. Only intramolecular hydrogen bonding was observed for the polymorphs, which were located between the amide and the carboxyl groups. Another crystalline structure was found in the volume-fraction range 2.00 × 10-3 ≤ ϕ ≤ 2.50 × 10-3, which displayed hexagonal symmetry. The hexagonal symmetry of the self-assembled lipid A-monophosphate crystalline phase might be reconciled with the monoclinic symmetry found at low-volume-fractions. Therefore, lowering the symmetry from cubic, i.e., Ia overline 3d, to rhombohedral R overline 3 m, and finally to the monoclinic space group C2 was acceptable if the lipid A-monophosphate anion was completely orientationally ordered.

  7. Ion-polyether coordination complexes: crystalline ionic conductors for clean energy storage.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Peter G

    2006-03-21

    Ion-polyether complexes are the solid state analogues of crown ether and cryptand complexes. They represent a fascinating class of coordination compounds in their own right, with the ability to support ionic conductivity and the potential to be used as electrolytes in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. Here the recent discovery of ionic conductivity in crystalline ion-polyether complexes, when for 30 years such materials were considered to be insulators, is described, along with their closely related structural chemistry.

  8. Blue and Green Phosphorescent Liquid-Crystalline Iridium Complexes with High Hole Mobility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yafei; Cabry, Christopher P; Xiao, ManJun; Male, Louise; Cowling, Stephen J; Bruce, Duncan W; Shi, Junwei; Zhu, Weiguo; Baranoff, Etienne

    2016-01-26

    Blue- and green-emitting cyclometalated liquid-crystalline iridium complexes are realized by using a modular strategy based on strongly mesogenic groups attached to an acetylacetonate ancillary ligand. The cyclometalated ligand dictates the photophysical properties of the materials, which are identical to those of the parent complexes. High hole mobilities, up to 0.004 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), were achieved after thermal annealing, while amorphous materials show hole mobilities of only approximately 10(-7) -10(-6) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), similar to simple iridium complexes. The design strategy allows the facile preparation of phosphorescent liquid-crystalline complexes with fine-tuned photophysical properties. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Components of Complex Non-crystalline Mineralogy Contribute Differently to Soil Carbon Storage and Turnover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, S. E.; Lazaro, M.; Heckman, K. A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Giardina, C. P.; Litton, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Mineral-control on soil carbon (C) storage is well established, including the overarching role of poorly- or non-crystalline minerals (P-NCM) in C accumulation and stabilization. However, variations within the P-NCM may explain observed patterns in C concentration and turnover within the established relationships and project future C balance. In volcanic ash-derived soils from undisturbed forest along a 5°C mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient on the windward slopes of Mauna Kea on the Island of Hawaii, we observed variations in forms of P-NCM and crystalline iron (Fe)-oxides that better explained C storage and turnover than MAT directly. The organo-complexed Al contributed to higher than average C concentration and lower relative age. Selective dissolution of various Fe and aluminum (Al) phases further indicated that metal-humus complexes were of intermediate mean residence time compared to the light fraction and other mineral phases. These data suggest that C associated with the organo-Al complexation continuously accretes, but may be left vulnerable to microbial activity. Conversely, transition of P-NCM to crystalline Fe-oxides formed concretions that protected and stabilized the older soil C occluded within. In a batch sorption experiment, high concentrations of P-NCM increased sorption of dissolved organic C and the degree of organo-Al complexation was positively related to preferential sorption of aromatics. Although high concentrations of P-NCM decreased the labile C respired, a high index of organo-Al complexation decreased the apparent temperature sensitivity during incubation. The observed combination of high concentrations of P-NCM, high organo-Al complexation index, and protection within concretions of crystalline Fe-oxides that collectively results in extraordinary C storage also likely protects against loss under future, short-term increases in temperature.

  10. Reporter molecules as probes of DNA conformation: structure of a crystalline complex containing 2-methyl-4-nitro-aniline ethylene dimethylammonium hydrobromide - 5-iodocytidylyl(3'-5')guanosine

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, N.K.; Nyas, M.N.; Jain, S.C.; Sobell, H.M.

    1984-05-31

    2-Methyl-4-nitroaniline ethylene dimethylammonium hydrobromide forms a crystalline complex with the self-complementary dinucleoside monophosphate, 5-iodocytidylyl(3'-5')guanosine. The crystals are tetragonal, with a = b = 32.192 A and c = 23.964 A, space group P4/sub 3/2/sub 1/2. The structure has been solved to atomic resolution by Patterson and Fourier methods, and refined by full matrix least squares. 5-Iodocytidylyl(3'-5')guanosine molecules are held together in pairs through Watson-Crick base-pairing, forming an antiparallel duplex structure. Nitroaniline molecules stack above and below guanine-cytosine pairs in this duplex structure. In addition, a third nitroaniline molecule stacks on one of the other two nitroaniline molecules. The asymmetric unit contains two 5-iodocytidylyl(3'-5')guanosine molecules, three nitroaniline molecules, one bromide ion and thirty-one water molecules, at total of 160 atoms. Details of the structure are described. 15 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Circular dichroism spectroscopy study of crystalline-to-amorphous transformation in chiral platinum(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Wu, Tao; Liu, Jian; Zhao, Jin-Cheng; Li, Cheng-Hui; You, Xiao-Zeng

    2013-07-01

    Two couples of enantiomeric platinum(II) complexes: Pt(L1a )Cl (1a), Pt(L1b )Cl (1b) and Pt(L1a )(C ≡ C - Ph) (2a), Pt(L1b )(C ≡ C - Ph) (2b) (L1a  = (+)-1,3-di-(2-(4,5-pinene)pyridyl)benzene, L1b  = (-)-1,3-di-(2-(4,5-pinene)pyridyl)benzene) were synthesized and characterized. Their absolute configurations were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction and further verified by circular dichroism (CD) spectra (including electronic circular dichroism [ECD] and vibrational circular dichroism [VCD]). These complexes show interesting mechanoluminescence and/or vapoluminescence due to crystalline-to-amorphous transformation. The crystalline solids, grinding-induced amorphous powders, and vapor-induced amorphous powders of complexes 2a and 2b were comparatively investigated by solid-state ECD and VCD spectra. The transformation from crystalline solids to amorphous powders was accompanied by significant variances of the spectral feature in both ECD and VCD spectra. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Iridium Complexes and Clusters in Dealuminated Zeolite HY: Distribution between Crystalline and Impurity Amorphous Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Macias, Claudia; Xu, Pinghong; Hwang, Son-Jong; Lu, Jing; Chen, Cong-Yan; Browning, Nigel D.; Gates, Bruce C.

    2014-07-08

    Dealuminated zeolite HY was used to support Ir(CO)2 complexes formed from Ir(CO)2(C5H7O2). Infrared and X-ray absorption spectra and atomic-resolution electron microscopy images identify these complexes, and the images and 27Al NMR spectra identify impurity amorphous regions in the zeolite where the iridium is more susceptible to aggregation than in the crystalline regions. The results indicate a significant stability limitation of metal in amorphous impurity regions of zeolites.

  13. Structural investigation of amylose complexes with small ligands: helical conformation, crystalline structure and thermostability.

    PubMed

    Le Bail, P; Rondeau, C; Buléon, A

    2005-03-01

    Crystalline amylose complexes were prepared with decanal, 1-butanol, menthone and alpha-naphtol. Their crystalline structure and the related helical conformation, determined by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and 13C CPMAS solid state NMR, were assigned to V6I, V6II, V6III and V8 types, respectively. It was possible to propose some hypotheses on the possible nature of interactions and especially intra-/inter-helical inclusion. Some shifts in the NMR C1 carbon signals were attributed to the presence of ligand in specific sites inside the structure for a same type of V6 helical conformation. Moreover, the crystallinity and polymorphic changes induced by desorption/rehydration were studied. A general increase of the carbon resonances sharpness upon rehydration has been observed, but also a V6II-V6I transition when decreasing the water content. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments were also performed to approach the thermostability of the four types of complex and also the way they form again after melting/cooling sequences.

  14. A new crystal form of human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (hHINT1) in complex with adenosine 5′-monophosphate at 1.38 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Dolot, Rafał; Ozga, Magdalena; Włodarczyk, Artur; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Nawrot, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) represents the most ancient and widespread branch of the histidine triad protein superfamily. HINT1 plays an important role in various biological processes and has been found in many species. Here, the structure of the human HINT1–adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP) complex at 1.38 Å resolution obtained from a new monoclinic crystal form is reported. The final structure has R cryst = 0.1207 (R free = 0.1615) and the model exhibits good stereochemical quality. Detailed analysis of the high-resolution data allowed the details of the protein structure to be updated in comparison to the previously published data. PMID:22869114

  15. A new crystal form of human histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (hHINT1) in complex with adenosine 5'-monophosphate at 1.38 Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Dolot, Rafał; Ozga, Magdalena; Włodarczyk, Artur; Krakowiak, Agnieszka; Nawrot, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) represents the most ancient and widespread branch of the histidine triad protein superfamily. HINT1 plays an important role in various biological processes and has been found in many species. Here, the structure of the human HINT1-adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) complex at 1.38 Å resolution obtained from a new monoclinic crystal form is reported. The final structure has R(cryst) = 0.1207 (R(free) = 0.1615) and the model exhibits good stereochemical quality. Detailed analysis of the high-resolution data allowed the details of the protein structure to be updated in comparison to the previously published data.

  16. Conformational remodeling of femtomolar inhibitor-acetylcholinesterase complexes in the crystalline state

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Yves; Radic, Zoran; Taylor, Palmer; Marchot, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    The active center of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a target site for competitive inhibitors, resides centrosymmetric to the subunit at the base of a deep, narrow gorge lined by aromatic residues. At the gorge entry, a peripheral site encompasses overlapping binding loci for non-competitive inhibitors, which alter substrate access to the gorge. The click-chemistry inhibitor TZ2PA6 links the active center ligand, tacrine, to the peripheral site ligand, propidium, through a biorthogonal reaction of an acetylene and an azide that forms either a syn1 or an anti1 triazole. Compared with wild-type mouse AChE, a Tyr337Ala mutant displays full catalytic activity, albeit with two to three orders of magnitude higher affinities for the TZ2PA6 syn1 and anti1 regioisomers, reflected in low femtomolar Kd values, diffusion-limited association and dissociation half-times greater than one month and one week, respectively. Three structures of each of the co-crystallized syn1 and anti1 complexes of the Tyr337Ala mutant were solved at three distinct times of crystal maturation, consistent with or exceeding the half-lives of the complexes in solution, while crystalline complexes obtained from soaked Tyr337Ala crystals led to picturing “freshly formed” complexes. The structures, at 2.55-2.75Å resolution, reveal a range of unprecedented conformations of the bound regioisomers, not observed in the wild-type AChE complexes, associated with concerted positional rearrangements of side chains in the enzyme gorge. Moreover, time-dependent conformational remodeling of the crystalline complexes appears to correlate with the dissociation half-times of the solution complexes. Hence for the tight-binding TZ2PA6 inhibitors, the initial complexes kinetically driven in solution slowly form more stable complexes governed by thermodynamic equilibrium and observable in mature crystals. PMID:21090615

  17. Estrogen regulates energy metabolic pathway and upstream adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase and phosphatase enzyme expression in dorsal vagal complex metabolosensory neurons during glucostasis and hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Tamrakar, Pratistha; Ibrahim, Baher A; Gujar, Amit D; Briski, Karen P

    2015-02-01

    The ability of estrogen to shield the brain from the bioenergetic insult hypoglycemia is unclear. Estradiol (E) prevents hypoglycemic activation of the energy deficit sensor adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in hindbrain metabolosensory A2 noradrenergic neurons. This study investigates the hypothesis that estrogen regulates A2 AMPK through control of fuel metabolism and/or upstream protein kinase/phosphatase enzyme expression. A2 cells were harvested by laser microdissection after insulin or vehicle (V) injection of E- or oil (O)-implanted ovariectomized female rats. Cell lysates were evaluated by immunoblot for glycolytic, tricarboxylic acid cycle, respiratory chain, and acetyl-CoA-malonyl-CoA pathway enzymes. A2 phosphofructokinase (PFKL), isocitrate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and ATP synthase subunit profiles were elevated in E/V vs. O/V; hypoglycemia augmented PFKL and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase expression in E only. Hypoglycemia increased A2 Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-β in O and reduced protein phosphatase in both groups. A2 phospho-AMPK levels were equivalent in O/V vs. E/V but elevated during hypoglycemia in O only. These results implicate E in compensatory upregulation of substrate catabolism and corresponding maintenance of energy stability of A2 metabolosensory neurons during hypoglycemia, outcomes that support the potential viability of molecular substrates for hormone action as targets for therapies alleviating hypoglycemic brain injury.

  18. Immune cell activation from multivalent interactions with liquid-crystalline polycation-DNA complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Nathan; Jin, Fan; Lande, Roberto; Curk, Tine; Xian, Wujing; Frasca, Loredana; Dobnikar, Jure; Frenkel, Daan; Gilliet, Michel; Wong, Gerard

    2014-03-01

    Microbial DNA can trigger type I interferon (IFN) production in plasmacytoid cells (pDCs) by binding to endosomal toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). TLR9 in pDCs do not normally respond to self-DNA, but in certain autoimmune diseases self-DNA can complex with the polycationic antimicrobial peptide LL37 into condensed structures which allow DNA to access endosomal compartments and stimulate TLR9 in pDCs. We use x-ray studies and cell measurements of IFN secretion by pDCs to show that a broad range of polycation-DNA complexes stimulate pDCs and elucidate the criterion for high IFN production. Furthermore, we show via experiments and computer simulations that the distinguishing factor for why certain complexes activate pDCs while others do not is the self-assembled structure of the liquid-crystalline polycation-DNA complex.

  19. Free Energy Calculations of Crystalline Hard Sphere Complexes Using Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gunawardana, K. G.S.H.; Song, Xueyu

    2014-12-22

    Recently developed fundamental measure density functional theory (FMT) is used to study binary hard sphere (HS) complexes in crystalline phases. By comparing the excess free energy, pressure and phase diagram, we show that the fundamental measure functional yields good agreements to the available simulation results of AB, AB2 and AB13 crystals. Additionally, we use this functional to study the HS models of five binary crystals, Cu5Zr(C15b), Cu51Zr14(β), Cu10Zr7(φ), CuZr(B2) and CuZr2 (C11b), which are observed in the Cu-Zr system. The FMT functional gives well behaved minimum for most of the hard sphere crystal complexes in the two dimensional Gaussian space, namely a crystalline phase. However, the current version of FMT functional (white Bear) fails to give a stable minimum for the structure Cu10Zr7(φ). We argue that the observed solid phases for the HS models of the Cu-Zr system are true thermodynamic stable phases and can be used as a reference system in perturbation calculations.

  20. Free Energy Calculations of Crystalline Hard Sphere Complexes Using Density Functional Theory

    DOE PAGES

    Gunawardana, K. G.S.H.; Song, Xueyu

    2014-12-22

    Recently developed fundamental measure density functional theory (FMT) is used to study binary hard sphere (HS) complexes in crystalline phases. By comparing the excess free energy, pressure and phase diagram, we show that the fundamental measure functional yields good agreements to the available simulation results of AB, AB2 and AB13 crystals. Additionally, we use this functional to study the HS models of five binary crystals, Cu5Zr(C15b), Cu51Zr14(β), Cu10Zr7(φ), CuZr(B2) and CuZr2 (C11b), which are observed in the Cu-Zr system. The FMT functional gives well behaved minimum for most of the hard sphere crystal complexes in the two dimensional Gaussian space,more » namely a crystalline phase. However, the current version of FMT functional (white Bear) fails to give a stable minimum for the structure Cu10Zr7(φ). We argue that the observed solid phases for the HS models of the Cu-Zr system are true thermodynamic stable phases and can be used as a reference system in perturbation calculations.« less

  1. Complex structure and biochemical characterization of the Staphylococcus aureus cyclic diadenylate monophosphate (c-di-AMP)-binding protein PstA, the founding member of a new signal transduction protein family.

    PubMed

    Campeotto, Ivan; Zhang, Yong; Mladenov, Miroslav G; Freemont, Paul S; Gründling, Angelika

    2015-01-30

    Signaling nucleotides are integral parts of signal transduction systems allowing bacteria to cope with and rapidly respond to changes in the environment. The Staphylococcus aureus PII-like signal transduction protein PstA was recently identified as a cyclic diadenylate monophosphate (c-di-AMP)-binding protein. Here, we present the crystal structures of the apo- and c-di-AMP-bound PstA protein, which is trimeric in solution as well as in the crystals. The structures combined with detailed bioinformatics analysis revealed that the protein belongs to a new family of proteins with a similar core fold but with distinct features to classical PII proteins, which usually function in nitrogen metabolism pathways in bacteria. The complex structure revealed three identical c-di-AMP-binding sites per trimer with each binding site at a monomer-monomer interface. Although distinctly different from other cyclic-di-nucleotide-binding sites, as the half-binding sites are not symmetrical, the complex structure also highlighted common features for c-di-AMP-binding sites. A comparison between the apo and complex structures revealed a series of conformational changes that result in the ordering of two anti-parallel β-strands that protrude from each monomer and allowed us to propose a mechanism on how the PstA protein functions as a signaling transduction protein.

  2. Crystalline-state reaction of cobaloxime complexes accompanying conformational change1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasada, Yoshio; Ohashi, Yuji

    1985-01-01

    In the crystals of some cobaloxime complexes, racemization of chiral group bonded to Co proceeds by X-ray irradiation without degradation of crystallinity. Racemization of methoxycarbonylethyl (mce) group has been examined for five cobaloxime complexes with different base as the second axial ligand, three of which did not give any indication of the reaction. Their crystal structures well explain the inactivity. Every stage of the change in the reactive crystals (base 4-chloropyridine, I; pyridine, II) has been revealed by X-ray analysis. In I, the mce groups suffer configurational and conformational changes at high temperature cooperatively. In II, rapid desolvation at room temperature is accompanied by conformational change of mce, and at 343 K random inversion occurs.

  3. Complex Quasi-Two-Dimensional Crystalline Order Embedded in VO2 and Other Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovorn, Timothy; Sarker, Sanjoy K.

    2017-07-01

    Metal oxides such as VO2 undergo structural transitions to low-symmetry phases characterized by intricate crystalline order, accompanied by rich electronic behavior. We derive a minimal ionic Hamiltonian based on symmetry and local energetics which describes structural transitions involving all four observed phases, in the correct order. An exact analysis shows that complexity results from the symmetry-induced constraints of the parent phase, which forces ionic displacements to form multiple interpenetrating groups using low-dimensional pathways and distant neighbors. Displacements within each group exhibit independent, quasi-two-dimensional order, which is frustrated and fragile. This selective ordering mechanism is not restricted to VO2 : it applies to other oxides that show similar complex order.

  4. Structure characterization of the non-crystalline complexes of copper salts with native cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Manuel I; Krapacher, Claudio R; de Rossi, Rita H; Rossi, Laura I

    2016-06-28

    The characterization of non-crystalline complexes is particularly difficult when techniques like X-ray diffraction or NMR cannot be used. We propose a simple procedure to characterize the physicochemical properties of amorphous new coordination compounds between cyclodextrins (CD) and Cu(2+) salts, by means of the integration of the information provided by several techniques including elemental analysis, flame atomic absorption, TGA, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance, colorimetry, FT-IR and EPR. On the basis of these procedures, we suggest geometrical and structural approximations resulting in an octahedral or distorted octahedral geometry with diverse positions for the metallic centre. According to the EPR spectrum, only one of the complexes may have rhombic symmetry. We also analyzed enthalpy-entropy compensation and the isokinetic effect. In addition, general trends in thermal stability, spectroscopic properties and inclusion in the cavity were analysed. This complete characterization methodology becomes essential for their future application as catalysts.

  5. Metamorphic and tectonic evolution of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex in Nyalam region, south Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Rubatto, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies evoke dispute whether the Himalayan metamorphic core - Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHC) - was exhumed as a lateral crustal flow or a critical taper wedge during the India-Asia collision. This contribution investigated the evolution of the GHC in the Nyalam region, south Tibet, with comprehensive studies on structural kinematics, metamorphic petrology and geochronology. The GHC in the Nyalam region can be divided into the lower and upper GHC. Phase equilibria modelling and conventional thermobarometric results show that peak temperature conditions are lower in the lower GHC (~660-700°C) and higher in the upper GHC (~740-780°C), whereas corresponding pressure conditions at peak-T decrease from ~9-13 kbar to ~4 kbar northward. Monazite, zircon and rutile U-Pb dating results reveal two distinct blocks within the GHC of the Nyalam region. The upper GHC underwent higher degree of partial melting (15-25%, via muscovite dehydration melting) that initiated at ~32 Ma, peaked at ~29 Ma to 25 Ma, possibly ended at ~20 Ma. The lower GHC underwent lower degree of melting (0-10%) that lasted from 19 to 16 Ma, which was produced mainly via H2O-saturated melting. At different times, both the upper and lower blocks underwent initial slow cooling (35 ± 8 and 10 ± 5°C/Myr, respectively) and subsequent rapid cooling (120 ± 40°C/Myr). The established timescale of metamorphism suggests that high-temperature metamorphism within the GHC lasted a long duration (~15 Myr), whereas duration of partial melting lasted for ~3 Myr in the lower GHC and lasted for 7-12 Myr in the upper GHC. The documented diachronous metamorphism and discontinuity of peak P-T conditions implies the presence of the Nyalam Thrust in the study area. This thrust is probably connected to the other thrusts in Nepal and Sikkim Himalaya, which extends over ~800 km and is named the "High Himalayan Thrust". Timing of activity along this thrust is at ~25-16 Ma, which is coeval with active

  6. Syntheses, structures, photoluminescence and theoretical studies of xanthone in crystalline resorcinarene-based inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shao-Liang; Coppens, Philip

    2005-06-06

    Two new crystalline resorcinarene-based xanthone inclusion complexes, CECRxanthoneMeOH (1), and HECR2 xanthone6 MeOH (2) (CECR = C-ethylcalix[4]resorcinarene, HECR = hexaethylresorcin[6]arene) have been prepared to study the relation between photophysical properties and solid-state structure. Compared with the neat crystals, the xanthone phosphorescence is severely quenched in both solids, but the lifetime is an order of magnitude larger in 2, in which xanthone occurs as a dimer, than in 1, in which it occurs as a monomer. The electronic transitions involved in the photoluminescent process, and the relation between the energy levels of host and guest and emission quenching of the guest in the supramolecular solid have been investigated by means of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations.

  7. Electron tomography of the nucleoid of Gemmata obscuriglobus reveals complex liquid crystalline cholesteric structure

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Benjamin; Sagulenko, Evgeny; Morgan, Garry P.; Webb, Richard I.; Fuerst, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The nucleoid of the planctomycete Gemmata obscuriglobus is unique within the Bacteria in being both highly condensed and enclosed by a double-membrane nuclear envelope, seemingly analogous to the nucleus of eukaryotes. Here we have applied electron tomography to study high-pressure frozen, cryosubstituted cells of G. obscuriglobus and found multiple nested orders of DNA organization within the condensed nucleoid structure. Detailed examination of the nucleoid revealed a series of nested arcs characteristic of liquid crystalline cholesteric DNA structure. The finest fibers were arranged in parallel concentrically in a double-twist organization. At the highest order of nucleoid organization, several of these structures come together to form the core of the G. obscuriglobus nucleoid. The complex structure of DNA within this nucleoid may have implications for understanding the evolutionary significance of compartmentalized planctomycete cells. PMID:22993511

  8. Highly Crystalline FeCO3 Microparticle Synthesis by Hydrothermal Decomposition of Fe-EDTA Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirita, M.; Banica, R.; Ieta, A.; Bucur, A.; Sfiarloaga, P.; Ursu, D. H.; Grozescu, I.

    2010-08-01

    In this article, we present an experimental procedure to synthesize highly crystalline FeCO3 by hydrothermal decomposition of Fe(III)-EDTA complex, starting from Ferric Ammonium Sulfate and Na4EDTA main precursors in urea presence. The structure, morphology and composition of the powders were obtained using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The peaks were founded, indicate that the synthesized products autoclaved 22 h at 250 °C are pure FeCO3, which was well proved experimentally from EDAX further investigated. The size with appreciatively 100 μm was evaluated by SEM images. Magnetic characterization confirmed the magnetic characteristics of FeCO3. This procedure allowed the FeCO3 microparticles formation with good and stabile crystallographic characteristics.

  9. Liquid-crystalline ordering of antimicrobial peptide-DNA complexes controls TLR9 activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Nathan W.; Jin, Fan; Lande, Roberto; Curk, Tine; Xian, Wujing; Lee, Calvin; Frasca, Loredana; Frenkel, Daan; Dobnikar, Jure; Gilliet, Michel; Wong, Gerard C. L.

    2015-07-01

    Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) can trigger the production of type I interferon (IFN) in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) by binding to endosomal Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9; refs , , , , ). It is also known that the formation of DNA-antimicrobial peptide complexes can lead to autoimmune diseases via amplification of pDC activation. Here, by combining X-ray scattering, computer simulations, microscopy and measurements of pDC IFN production, we demonstrate that a broad range of antimicrobial peptides and other cationic molecules cause similar effects, and elucidate the criteria for amplification. TLR9 activation depends on both the inter-DNA spacing and the multiplicity of parallel DNA ligands in the self-assembled liquid-crystalline complex. Complexes with a grill-like arrangement of DNA at the optimum spacing can interlock with multiple TLR9 like a zipper, leading to multivalent electrostatic interactions that drastically amplify binding and thereby the immune response. Our results suggest that TLR9 activation and thus TLR9-mediated immune responses can be modulated deterministically.

  10. Radiation effects and annealing kinetics in crystalline silicates, phosphates and complex Nb-Ta-Ti oxides. FInal Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.C.

    1987-08-10

    Interaction of heavy particles (alpha-recoil nuclei, fission fragments, implanted ions) with ceramics is complex because they have a wide range of structure types, complex compositions and chemical bonding is variable. Radiation damage can produce diverse results, but most commonly, crystalline periodic materials become either polycrystalline or aperiodic (metamict state). We studied the transition from crystalline to aperiodic state in natural materials that have been damaged by alpha recoil nuclei in the U and Th decay series and in synthetic, analogous structure types which have been amorphized by ion implantation. Transition from crystalline to aperiodic was followed by analysis of XRD, high resolution TEM, and EXAFS/XANE spectroscopy. Use of these techniques with increasing dose provided data on an increasing finer scale as the damage process progressed.

  11. Structural Studies of Potassium Transport Protein KtrA Regulator of Conductance of K+ (RCK) C Domain in Complex with Cyclic Diadenosine Monophosphate (c-di-AMP)*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Henna; Youn, Suk-Jun; Kim, Seong Ok; Ko, Junsang; Lee, Jie-Oh; Choi, Byong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Although it was only recently identified as a second messenger, c-di-AMP was found to have fundamental importance in numerous bacterial functions such as ion transport. The potassium transporter protein, KtrA, was identified as a c-di-AMP receptor. However, the co-crystallization of c-di-AMP with the protein has not been studied. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the KtrA RCK_C domain in complex with c-di-AMP. The c-di-AMP nucleotide, which adopts a U-shaped conformation, is bound at the dimer interface of RCK_C close to helices α3 and α4. c-di-AMP interacts with KtrA RCK_C mainly by forming hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. c-di-AMP binding induces the contraction of the dimer, bringing the two monomers of KtrA RCK_C into close proximity. The KtrA RCK_C was able to interact with only c-di-AMP, but not with c-di-GMP, 3′,3-cGAMP, ATP, and ADP. The structure of the KtrA RCK_C domain and c-di-AMP complex would expand our understanding about the mechanism of inactivation in Ktr transporters governed by c-di-AMP. PMID:25957408

  12. Characterization of the alpha-gamma and alpha-beta complex: evidence for an in vivo functional role of alpha-crystallin as a molecular chaperone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, D.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that in vitro, alpha-crystallin can protect other lens proteins against extensive denaturation and aggregation. The mechanism of this protection involves preferential binding of the partially denatured protein to a central region of the native alpha-crystallin complex. To test whether a similar phenomenon might occur in vivo, a high molecular weight aggregate (HMWA) fraction was isolated from the aged bovine lens. Negative staining of this preparation revealed the presence of particles of 13-14 nm diameter, characteristic of alpha-crystallin. Immunolocalization of the same particles using antiserum specific for gamma- and beta-crystallins demonstrated preferential binding of these crystallins to the central region of the alpha-crystallin complex. Together, these results provide evidence that in the intact lens, the alpha-crystallins are functionally important molecular chaperones.

  13. Kinetics of the electronically stimulated formation of a boron-oxygen complex in crystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Derek W.; Bothe, Karsten; Schmidt, Jan

    2007-07-15

    We present experimental data relating to the slow stage of the illumination-induced or electron-injection-induced generation, in crystalline p-type silicon, of the carrier-recombination center believed to be the defect complex (B{sub s}O{sub 2i}){sup +} formed by diffusion of oxygen interstitial dimers O{sub 2i}{sup ++} to substitutional boron atoms B{sub s}{sup -} and, taking account of those data, we consider a detailed theoretical model for the kinetics of the diffusion reaction. The model proposes that the generation rate of the (B{sub s}O{sub 2i}){sup +} defects is controlled by the capture of a majority-carrier hole by the dimer following the capture of a minority-carrier electron and by the Coulomb attraction of the O{sub 2i}{sup ++} to the B{sub s}{sup -} atom, and leads to predictions for the defect generation rate that are in excellent quantitative agreement with experiment.

  14. The synaptonemal complex has liquid crystalline properties and spatially regulates meiotic recombination factors

    PubMed Central

    Rog, Ofer; Köhler, Simone; Dernburg, Abby F

    2017-01-01

    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a polymer that spans ~100 nm between paired homologous chromosomes during meiosis. Its striated, periodic appearance in electron micrographs led to the idea that transverse filaments within this structure ‘crosslink’ the axes of homologous chromosomes, stabilizing their pairing. SC proteins can also form polycomplexes, three-dimensional lattices that recapitulate the periodic structure of SCs but do not associate with chromosomes. Here we provide evidence that SCs and polycomplexes contain mobile subunits and that their assembly is promoted by weak hydrophobic interactions, indicative of a liquid crystalline phase. We further show that in the absence of recombination intermediates, polycomplexes recapitulate the dynamic localization of pro-crossover factors during meiotic progression, revealing how the SC might act as a conduit to regulate chromosome-wide crossover distribution. Properties unique to liquid crystals likely enable long-range signal transduction along meiotic chromosomes and underlie the rapid evolution of SC proteins. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21455.001 PMID:28045371

  15. Solid-state NMR analysis of a complex crystalline phase of ronacaleret hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Frederick G; Williams, Glenn R; Strohmeier, Mark; Johnson, Matthew N; Copley, Royston C B

    2014-08-28

    A crystalline phase of the pharmaceutical compound ronacaleret hydrochloride is studied by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure is determined to contain two independent cationic molecules and chloride anions in the asymmetric unit, which combine with the covalent structure of the molecule to yield complex SSNMR spectra. Experimental approaches based on dipolar correlation, chemical shift tensor analysis, and quadrupolar interaction analysis are employed to obtain detailed information about this phase. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to predict chemical shielding and electric field gradient (EFG) parameters for comparison with experiment. (1)H SSNMR experiments performed at 16.4 T using magic-angle spinning (MAS) and homonuclear dipolar decoupling provide information about hydrogen bonding and molecular connectivity that can be related to the crystal structure. (19)F and (13)C assignments for the Z' = 2 structure are obtained using DFT calculations, (19)F homonuclear dipolar correlation, and (13)C-(19)F heteronuclear dipolar correlation experiments. (35)Cl MAS experiments at 16.4 T observe two chlorine sites that are assigned using calculated chemical shielding and EFG parameters. SSNMR dipolar correlation experiments are used to extract (1)H-(13)C, (1)H-(15)N, (1)H-(19)F, (13)C-(19)F, and (1)H-(35)Cl through-space connectivity information for many positions of interest. The results allow for the evaluation of the performance of a suite of SSNMR experiments and computational approaches as applied to a complex but typical pharmaceutical solid phase.

  16. Zircon geochronology, elemental and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry of two Variscan granitoids from the Odenwald-Spessart crystalline complex (mid-German crystalline rise)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebel, W.; Eroğlu, S.; Shang, C. K.; Rohrmüller, J.

    2012-07-01

    The crystalline parts of the Bergsträsser (western) Odenwald and the southern Spessart expose Variscan I-type granitoids of the mid-German crystalline rise that formed during subduction of the Rheic ocean and collision of Avalonia and Armorica about 365 and 330 Ma ago. We present geochemical, Sr-Nd isotopic, single zircon 207Pb/206Pb evaporation and conventional U -Pb data from a diorite-granodiorite complex of the southern Spessart and from a flasergranitoid of the Bergsträsser Odenwald unit II. Both intrusions provide almost identical zircon ages (332.4 ± 1.6 Ma for Odenwald and 330.4 ± 2.0 Ma for Spessart). Lack of inherited or pre-magmatic zircon components connotes magma genesis in deep crustal hot zones despite low temperature estimates (758-786 °C) derived from zircon saturation thermometry. Investigated rock samples display normal- to high-K calc -alkaline metaluminous (Spessart) and weakly peraluminous (Odenwald) geochemical characteristics. The Spessart pluton has lower ɛNd(T) values (-2.3 to -3.0) and higher 87Sr/86Sri ratios (0.7060 to 0.7066) compared to Odenwald flasergranitoid (ɛNd(T) = -0.8 and 87Sr/86Sri = 0.7048). In terms of the tectonic setting, the diorite-granodiorite complex of the southern Spessart forms the continuation of the north Armorican arc segment exposed in the Bergsträsser Odenwald. Taking into account previously reported geochemical and isotopic results, it is concluded that the Spessart pluton does not match compositions of Odenwald unit II granitoids but likely represents the north-eastward extension of unit III.

  17. Perylenediimide-surfactant complexes: thermotropic liquid-crystalline materials via ionic self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ying; Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Stumpe, Joachim; Antonietti, Markus; Faul, Charl F J

    2003-04-07

    In this communication we present the facile preparation and characterisation of thermotropic liquid-crystalline materials from the ionic self-assembly of a charged perylenediimide derivative and oppositely charged surfactants.

  18. Encapsulation of CO2 into amorphous and crystalline α-cyclodextrin powders and the characterization of the complexes formed.

    PubMed

    Ho, Thao M; Howes, Tony; Bhandari, Bhesh R

    2015-11-15

    Carbon dioxide complexation was undertaken into solid matrices of amorphous and crystalline α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) powders, under various pressures (0.4-1.6 MPa) and time periods (4-96 h). The results show that the encapsulation capacity of crystalline α-CD was significantly lower than that of amorphous α-CD at low pressure and short time (0.4-0.8 MPa and 4-24 h), but was markedly enhanced with an increase of pressure and prolongation of encapsulation time. For each pressure level tested, the time required to reach a near equilibrium encapsulation capacity of the crystalline powder was around 48 h, which was much longer than that of the amorphous one, which only required about 8h. The inclusion complex formation of both types of α-CD powders was confirmed by the appearance of a CO2 peak on the FTIR and NMR spectra. Moreover, inclusion complexes were also characterized by DSC, TGA, SEM and X-ray analyses.

  19. Mismatched changes of the photoluminescence and crystalline structure of a mechanochromic gold(I) isocyanide complex.

    PubMed

    Seki, Tomohiro; Sakurada, Kenta; Ito, Hajime

    2015-09-21

    The mechanochromic compound 1 forms green-emitting crystals (1g) and blue-emitting crystals (1b) that exhibit two intriguing responses to mechanical stimulation. Upon mechanical stimulation, the emission color of 1g does not change but its crystalline structure does. Conversely, 1b shows a clear emission shift, but it retains its molecular arrangement upon grinding.

  20. Assembling an alkyl rotor to access abrupt and reversible crystalline deformation of a cobalt(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Su, Sheng-Qun; Kamachi, Takashi; Yao, Zi-Shuo; Huang, You-Gui; Shiota, Yoshihito; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Azuma, Nobuaki; Miyazaki, Yuji; Nakano, Motohiro; Maruta, Goro; Takeda, Sadamu; Kang, Soonchul; Kanegawa, Shinji; Sato, Osamu

    2015-11-04

    Harnessing molecular motion to reversibly control macroscopic properties, such as shape and size, is a fascinating and challenging subject in materials science. Here we design a crystalline cobalt(II) complex with an n-butyl group on its ligands, which exhibits a reversible crystal deformation at a structural phase transition temperature. In the low-temperature phase, the molecular motion of the n-butyl group freezes. On heating, the n-butyl group rotates ca. 100° around the C-C bond resulting in 6-7% expansion of the crystal size along the molecular packing direction. Importantly, crystal deformation is repeatedly observed without breaking the single-crystal state even though the shape change is considerable. Detailed structural analysis allows us to elucidate the underlying mechanism of this deformation. This work may mark a step towards converting the alkyl rotation to the macroscopic deformation in crystalline solids.

  1. Assembling an alkyl rotor to access abrupt and reversible crystalline deformation of a cobalt(II) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Sheng-Qun; Kamachi, Takashi; Yao, Zi-Shuo; Huang, You-Gui; Shiota, Yoshihito; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Azuma, Nobuaki; Miyazaki, Yuji; Nakano, Motohiro; Maruta, Goro; Takeda, Sadamu; Kang, Soonchul; Kanegawa, Shinji; Sato, Osamu

    2015-11-01

    Harnessing molecular motion to reversibly control macroscopic properties, such as shape and size, is a fascinating and challenging subject in materials science. Here we design a crystalline cobalt(II) complex with an n-butyl group on its ligands, which exhibits a reversible crystal deformation at a structural phase transition temperature. In the low-temperature phase, the molecular motion of the n-butyl group freezes. On heating, the n-butyl group rotates ca. 100° around the C-C bond resulting in 6-7% expansion of the crystal size along the molecular packing direction. Importantly, crystal deformation is repeatedly observed without breaking the single-crystal state even though the shape change is considerable. Detailed structural analysis allows us to elucidate the underlying mechanism of this deformation. This work may mark a step towards converting the alkyl rotation to the macroscopic deformation in crystalline solids.

  2. Structural Analysis of Crystalline R(+)-α-Lipoic Acid-α-cyclodextrin Complex Based on Microscopic and Spectroscopic Studies.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Naoko; Endo, Takatsugu; Hosomi, Shota; Setou, Keita; Tanaka, Shiori; Ogawa, Noriko; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu; Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Arai, Shoji; Okuno, Masayuki; Takahashi, Kenji; Terao, Keiji; Matsugo, Seiichi

    2015-10-16

    R(+)-α-lipoic acid (RALA) is a naturally-occurring substance, and its protein-bound form plays significant role in the energy metabolism in the mitochondria. RALA is vulnerable to a variety of physical stimuli, including heat and UV light, which prompted us to study the stability of its complexes with cyclodextrins (CDs). In this study, we have prepared and purified a crystalline RALA-αCD complex and evaluated its properties in the solid state. The results of ¹H NMR and PXRD analyses indicated that the crystalline RALA-αCD complex is a channel type complex with a molar ratio of 2:3 (RALA:α-CD). Attenuated total reflection/Fourier transform infrared analysis of the complex showed the shift of the C=O stretching vibration of RALA due to the formation of the RALA-αCD complex. Raman spectroscopic analysis revealed the significant weakness of the S-S and C-S stretching vibrations of RALA in the RALA-αCD complex implying that the dithiolane ring of RALA is almost enclosed in glucose ring of α-CD. Extent of this effect was dependent on the direction of the excitation laser to the hexagonal morphology of the crystal. Solid-state NMR analysis allowed for the chemical shift of the C=O peak to be precisely determined. These results suggested that RALA was positioned in the α-CD cavity with its 1,2-dithiolane ring orientated perpendicular to the plane of the α-CD ring.

  3. Structural Analysis of Crystalline R(+)-α-Lipoic Acid-α-cyclodextrin Complex Based on Microscopic and Spectroscopic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ikuta, Naoko; Endo, Takatsugu; Hosomi, Shota; Setou, Keita; Tanaka, Shiori; Ogawa, Noriko; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu; Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Arai, Shoji; Okuno, Masayuki; Takahashi, Kenji; Terao, Keiji; Matsugo, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    R(+)-α-lipoic acid (RALA) is a naturally-occurring substance, and its protein-bound form plays significant role in the energy metabolism in the mitochondria. RALA is vulnerable to a variety of physical stimuli, including heat and UV light, which prompted us to study the stability of its complexes with cyclodextrins (CDs). In this study, we have prepared and purified a crystalline RALA-αCD complex and evaluated its properties in the solid state. The results of 1H NMR and PXRD analyses indicated that the crystalline RALA-αCD complex is a channel type complex with a molar ratio of 2:3 (RALA:α-CD). Attenuated total reflection/Fourier transform infrared analysis of the complex showed the shift of the C=O stretching vibration of RALA due to the formation of the RALA-αCD complex. Raman spectroscopic analysis revealed the significant weakness of the S–S and C–S stretching vibrations of RALA in the RALA-αCD complex implying that the dithiolane ring of RALA is almost enclosed in glucose ring of α-CD. Extent of this effect was dependent on the direction of the excitation laser to the hexagonal morphology of the crystal. Solid-state NMR analysis allowed for the chemical shift of the C=O peak to be precisely determined. These results suggested that RALA was positioned in the α-CD cavity with its 1,2-dithiolane ring orientated perpendicular to the plane of the α-CD ring. PMID:26501268

  4. Crystalline sulfur dioxide: Crystal field splittings, absolute band intensities and complex refractive indices derived from infrared spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, R. K.; Zhao, Guizhi

    1986-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectra of thin crystalline films of sulfur dioxide at 90 K are reported in the 2700 to 450/cm region. The observed multiplicity of the spectral features in the regions of fundamentals is attributed to factor group splittings of the modes in a biaxial crystal lattice and the naturally present minor S-34, S-36, and O-18 isotopic species. Complex refractive indices determined by an iterative Kramers-Kronig analysis of the extinction data, and absolute band strengths derived from them, are also reported in this region.

  5. Partial 13C isotopic enrichment of nucleoside monophosphates: useful reporters for NMR structural studies.

    PubMed

    Kishore, Anita I; Mayer, Michael R; Prestegard, James H

    2005-10-27

    Analysis of the 13C isotopic labeling patterns of nucleoside monophosphates (NMPs) extracted from Escherichia coli grown in a mixture of C-1 and C-2 glucose is presented. By comparing our results to previous observations on amino acids grown in similar media, we have been able to rationalize the labeling pattern based on the well-known biochemistry of nucleotide biosynthesis. Except for a few notable absences of label (C4 in purines and C3' in ribose) and one highly enriched site (C1' in ribose), most carbons are randomly enriched at a low level (an average of 13%). These sparsely labeled NMPs give less complex NMR spectra than their fully isotopically labeled analogs due to the elimination of most 13C-13C scalar couplings. The spectral simplicity is particularly advantageous when working in ordered systems, as illustrated with guanosine diphosphate (GDP) bound to ADP ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) aligned in a liquid crystalline medium. In this system, the absence of scalar couplings and additional long-range dipolar couplings significantly enhances signal to noise and resolution.

  6. Partial 13C isotopic enrichment of nucleoside monophosphates: useful reporters for NMR structural studies

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Anita I.; Mayer, Michael R.; Prestegard, James H.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the 13C isotopic labeling patterns of nucleoside monophosphates (NMPs) extracted from Escherichia coli grown in a mixture of C-1 and C-2 glucose is presented. By comparing our results to previous observations on amino acids grown in similar media, we have been able to rationalize the labeling pattern based on the well-known biochemistry of nucleotide biosynthesis. Except for a few notable absences of label (C4 in purines and C3′ in ribose) and one highly enriched site (C1′ in ribose), most carbons are randomly enriched at a low level (an average of 13%). These sparsely labeled NMPs give less complex NMR spectra than their fully isotopically labeled analogs due to the elimination of most 13C–13C scalar couplings. The spectral simplicity is particularly advantageous when working in ordered systems, as illustrated with guanosine diphosphate (GDP) bound to ADP ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) aligned in a liquid crystalline medium. In this system, the absence of scalar couplings and additional long-range dipolar couplings significantly enhances signal to noise and resolution. PMID:16254075

  7. Effect of germanium doping on the formation kinetics of vacancy-dioxygen complexes in high dose neutron irradiated crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Peng; Yu, Xuegong; Chen, Lin; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2017-09-01

    The effect of germanium (Ge) doping on the formation kinetics of vacancy-dioxygen (VO2) complexes in high dose neutron irradiated crystalline silicon (c-Si) has been quantitatively investigated using infrared spectroscopy at 10 K. It is observed that Ge doping of 1019 cm-3 enhances the formation of vacancy-oxygen (VO) complexes by ˜15% during neutron irradiation and slightly suppresses the conversion of VO into VO2 complexes. By studying the generation kinetics of VO2 complexes in the temperature range of 300-345 °C, it is found that the activation energies of VO2 generation are determined to be 1.52 and 1.71 eV in the reference and Ge-doped c-Si, respectively. According to the theory for diffusion limited reactions, it is suggested that Ge doping can retard the VO diffusion in c-Si and therefore reduce the capture probability of Oi for VO complexes. This may be attributed to the temporary trapping of vacancies by Ge atoms. Hence, the formation of VO2 complexes in c-Si is slightly suppressed by Ge doping.

  8. Review of ''Draft - Area Recommendation Report for the Crystalline Repository Project'', January 1986. [Rolesville pluton and Elk River complex

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.R.

    1986-03-13

    The Draft-Area Recommendation Report identifies portions of crystalline rock bodies as proposed potentially acceptable sites for consideration as repositories of high-level radioactive waste. The review is in three parts. Part I is a general summary of the main comments, written in semi-technical language and without detailed documentation or references. It includes summaries of comments on the two preliminary candidate areas for a nuclear-waste repository in North Carolina (Rolesville pluton and Elk River complex) and on the rest of the report. The following two parts are written in the technical language of a geological report and include both documentation and references for each of the points discussed: Part II - Rolesville pluton, Site SE-4; Part III - Elk River complex, Site SE-5.

  9. Pyrazole binding in crystalline binary and ternary complexes with liver alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Eklund, H; Samama, J P; Wallén, L

    1982-09-28

    Pyrazole is a strong inhibitor of liver alcohol dehydrogenase in combination with oxidized coenzyme NAD+. We have studied three different complexes of the inhibitor with the enzyme by using crystallographic methods: (1) the binary complex with pyrazole to 3.2-A resolution, (2) the ternary ternary complex with NAD+-4-iodopyrazole to 2.9-A resolution. Crystals of the binary complex are isomorphous to the apoenzyme, and pyrazole binds to the active-site zinc atom in a way analogous to imidazole. Crystals of the two ternary complexes are isomorphous with the ternary alcohol dehydrogenase-NADH-dimethyl sulfoxide complex. One of the nitrogen atoms of the pyrazole ring is directly bound to the active-site zinc atom with a Zn-N bond distance of 2.1A. The other nitrogen atom is 2 A from the C4 atom of the nicotinamide ring of the coenzyme. The iodine atom in 4-iodopyrazole is located in the hydrophobic substrate cleft. The effect of substitutions on the pyrazole ring are discussed in relation to the structure of the active site and substrate pocket. Pyrazole derivatives with long alkyl chains bound in the 4 position are outstanding inhibitors, and this property is related to the topography of the hydrophobic substrate cleft. The conformation of the oxidized coenzyme in the ternary complexes is essentially the same as that of the reduced coenzyme NADH in the NADH-dimethyl sulfoxide complex.

  10. Tetrakis(dimethoxyphenyl)adamantane (TDA) and its inclusion complexes in the crystalline state: a versatile carrier for small molecules.

    PubMed

    Schwenger, Alexander; Frey, Wolfgang; Richert, Clemens

    2015-06-08

    Molecular storage solutions for incorporating small molecules in crystalline matrices are of interest in the context of structure elucidation, decontamination, and slow release of active ingredients. Here we report the syntheses of 1,3,5,7-tetrakis(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)adamantane, 1,3,5,7-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)adamantane, 1,3,5,7-tetrakis(4-methoxy-2-methylphenyl)adamantane, and 1,3,5,7-tetrakis(4-methoxy-2-ethylphenyl)adamantane, together with their X-ray crystal structures. All four compounds crystallize readily. Only the octaether shows an unusual level of (pseudo)polymorphism in its crystalline state, combined with the ability to include a number of different small molecules in its crystal lattices. A total of 20 different inclusion complexes with guest molecules as different as ethanol or trifluorobenzene were found. For nitromethane and benzene, schemes for uptake and release are presented. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Cs{sup +} ion exchange kinetics in complex electrolyte solutions using hydrous crystalline silicotitanates

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, D.; Nguyen, L.; Philip, C.V.; Huckman, M.E.; Anthony, R.G.; Miller, J.E.; Trudell, D.E.

    1997-12-01

    TAM-5 is a hydrous crystalline sodium silicotitanate inorganic ion exchanger with a high selectivity for Cs{sup +}. The kinetics of Cs{sup +}-Na{sup +} ion exchange using TAM-5 in multicomponent electrolyte solutions were determined using batch experiments. For the powder, which is composed of crystals, a single-phase, homogeneous model fit the data best. For the granules, which were prepared from the powder, a two-phase, heterogeneous model resulted in an excellent fit of the data. Macropore and crystal diffusivities were determined by fitting the model to experimental data collected on the powder and the granules. Intracrystalline diffusivities were concentration dependent and were on the order of 10{sup {minus}19} m{sup 2}/s. Macropore diffusivities were on the order of 10{sup {minus}10} m{sup 2}/s. Resistance to diffusion in the macropores was not significant for granules with diameters less than 15 {micro}m. A two-phase, homogeneous model, where liquid within the pores is in equilibrium with the solid, was also evaluated for the granules. Surprisingly, for the granules, an excellent fit of the data was obtained; however, the effective macropore diffusivity was 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} m{sup 2}/s, an order of magnitude smaller than the macropore diffusivity found using the two-phase, heterogeneous model.

  12. Nature of the metastable boron-oxygen complex formation in crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, Richard S.

    2010-11-01

    Transient capacitance measurements reveal new physics of metastable defect formation in boron-doped oxygen-containing crystalline silicon solar cells. These measurements demonstrate that holes are deeply trapped during defect formation and removed during thermal annealing with activation energy of 1.3 eV. Previous theoretical models {Du et al., [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 256602 (2006)] and Adey et al., [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 055504 (2004)]} are supported by present findings that defect formation is a slow two-stage process with activation energies of 0.17 eV and 0.4 eV at high and low temperature, respectively. Repulsive hole capture by a positive oxygen-dimer determines the defect formation rate at low temperature {Du et al., [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 256602 (2006)]}. The high temperature process is governed by a structural conversion of the dimer {Du et al., [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 256602 (2006)] and Adey et al., [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 055504 (2004)]}. An abnormally low rate prefactor allows this low-enthalpy reaction to be observed at the higher temperature. This dimer conversion presents an excellent example of an "entropy barrier" that explains the low conversion rate. Disparate formation and annealing results published here and in other publications are related by the Meyer-Neldel rule with an isokinetic temperature of 410 K.

  13. Complex Pattern Formation from Current-Driven Dynamics of Single-Layer Homoepitaxial Islands on Crystalline Conducting Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashish; Dasgupta, Dwaipayan; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2017-07-01

    We report a systematic study of complex pattern formation resulting from the driven dynamics of single-layer homoepitaxial islands on surfaces of face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystalline conducting substrates under the action of an externally applied electric field. The analysis is based on an experimentally validated nonlinear model of mass transport via island edge atomic diffusion, which also accounts for edge diffusional anisotropy. We analyze the morphological stability and simulate the field-driven evolution of rounded islands for an electric field oriented along the fast edge diffusion direction. For larger-than-critical island sizes on {110 } and {100 } fcc substrates, we show that multiple necking instabilities generate complex island patterns, including not-simply-connected void-containing islands mediated by sequences of breakup and coalescence events and distributed symmetrically with respect to the electric field direction. We analyze the dependence of the formed patterns on the original island size and on the duration of application of the external field. Starting from a single large rounded island, we characterize the evolution of the number of daughter islands and their average size and uniformity. The evolution of the average island size follows a universal power-law scaling relation, and the evolution of the total edge length of the islands in the complex pattern follows Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami kinetics. Our study makes a strong case for the use of electric fields, as precisely controlled macroscopic forcing, toward surface patterning involving complex nanoscale features.

  14. Complex dendrimer-lyotropic liquid crystalline systems: structural behavior and interactions.

    PubMed

    Bitan-Cherbakovsky, Liron; Libster, Dima; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2011-10-27

    The incorporation of dendrimer into three lyotropic liquid crystalline (LLCs) mesophases is demonstrated for the first time. A second generation (G2) of poly(propylene imine) dendrimer (PPI) was solubilized into lamellar, diamond reverse cubic, and reverse hexagonal LLCs composed of glycerol monooleate (GMO), and water (and D-α-tocopherol in the H(II) system). The combination of PPI with LLCs may provide an advantageous drug delivery system. Cross-polarized light microscope, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) were utilized to study the structural behavior of the mesophases, the localization of PPI within the system, and the interactions between the guest molecule and the system's components. It was revealed that PPI-G2 functioned as a "water pump", competing with the lipid headgroups for water binding. As a result, L(α)→H(II) and Q(224)→H(II) structural shifts were detected (at 10 wt % PPI-G2 content), probably caused by the dehydration of monoolein headgroups and subsequent increase of the lipid's critical packing parameter (CPP). In the case of H(II), as a result of the balance between the dehydration of the monoolein headgroups and the significant presence of PPI within the interfacial region, increasing the quantity of hydrogen bonds, no structural transitions occurred. ATR-FTIR analysis demonstrated a downward shift of the H-O-H (water), as a result of PPI-G2 embedment, suggesting an increase in the mean water-water H-bond angle resulting from binding PPI-G2 to the water network. Additionally, the GMO hydroxyl groups at β- and γ-C-OH positions revealed a partial interaction of hydrogen bonds with N-H functional groups of the protonated PPI-G2. Other GMO interfacial functional groups were shown to interact with the PPI-G2, in parallel with the GMO dehydration phenomenon. In the future, these outcomes can be used to design advanced drug delivery systems, allowing administration of

  15. The standard enthalpies of combustion and formation of crystalline cobalt tetrakis(4-metoxyphenyl)porphin complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, R. P.; Volkov, A. V.; Bazanov, M. I.; Semeikin, A. S.

    2009-05-01

    The energy of combustion of cobalt tetrakis(4-metoxyphenyl)porphin was determined in an isothermic-shell liquid calorimeter with a stationary calorimetric bomb. The standard enthalpies of combustion and formation of the complex were calculated, -Δ c H o = 27334.06 ± 50.98 kJ/mol and Δf H o = 3062.90 ± 50.97 kJ/mol.

  16. A charge transfer complex nematic liquid crystalline gel with high electrical conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargavi, R.; Nair, Geetha G. E-mail: skpras@gmail.com; Krishna Prasad, S. E-mail: skpras@gmail.com; Majumdar, R.; Bag, Braja G.

    2014-10-21

    We describe the rheological, dielectric and elastic properties of a nematic liquid crystal gel created using an anthrylidene derivative of arjunolic acid, a chiral triterpenoid, obtained from the extracts of the wood of Terminalia arjuna. In this novel gel, having the electron-donor and acceptor components as minority constituents, the gelation and strengthening of charge-transfer complex (CTC) formation are seen to be occurring concomitantly. In addition to being mechanically strong with a large storage modulus, the gel with the maximized CTC exhibits Frank bend elastic constant values that approach nanonewton levels. The highlight of the study is the observation of 4–5 orders of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity for this gel, a value that is higher than even in the CT complexes of 2-d ordered columnar structures. A further important advantage of the present system over the columnar complex is that the high conductivity is seen for ac probing also, and owing to the nematic nature can be switched between its anisotropic limits. Some of these features are ascribed to a specific molecular packing architecture, which reduces the trapping of the charge carriers.

  17. Liquid-crystalline dendrimer Cu(II) complexes and Cu(0) nanoclusters based on the Cu(II) complexes: An electron paramagnetic resonance investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domracheva, N. E.; Mirea, A.; Schwoerer, M.; Torre-Lorente, L.; Lattermann, G.

    2007-07-01

    New nanostructured materials, namely, the liquid-crystalline copper(II) complexes that contain poly(propylene imine) dendrimer ligands of the first (ligand 1) and second (ligand 2) generations and which have a columnar mesophase and different copper contents (x = Cu/L), are investigated by EPR spectroscopy. The influence of water molecules and nitrate counterions on the magnetic properties of complex 2 (x = 7.3) is studied. It is demonstrated that water molecules can extract some of the copper ions from dendrimer complexes and form hexaaqua copper complexes with free ions. The dimer spectra of fully hydrated complex 2 (x = 7.3) are observed at temperatures T < 10 K. For this complex, the structure is identified and the distance between the copper ions is determined. It is shown that the nitrate counterion plays the role of a bridge between the hexaaqua copper(II) complex and the dendrimer copper(II) complex. The temperature-induced valence tautomerism attended by electron transport is revealed for the first time in blue dendrimer complexes 1 (x = 1.9) with a dimer structure. The activation energy for electron transport is estimated to be 0.35 meV. The coordination of the copper ion site (NO4) and the structural arrangement of green complexes 1 (x = 1.9) in the columnar mesophase are determined. Complexes of this type form linear chains in which nitrate counterions serve as bridges between copper centers. It is revealed that green complexes 1 (x = 1.9) dissolved in isotropic inert solvents can be oriented in the magnetic field (B 0 = 8000 G). The degree of orientation of these complexes is rather high (S z = 0.76) and close to that of systems with a complete ordering (S z = 1) in the magnetic field. Copper(0) nanoclusters prepared by reduction of complex 2 (x = 7.3) in two reducing agents (NaBH4, N2H4 · H2O) are examined. A model is proposed for a possible location of Cu(0) nanoclusters in a dendrimer matrix.

  18. Post-Translational Regulation of the Glucose-6-Phosphatase Complex by Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Is a Crucial Determinant of Endogenous Glucose Production and Is Controlled by the Glucose-6-Phosphate Transporter.

    PubMed

    Soty, Maud; Chilloux, Julien; Delalande, François; Zitoun, Carine; Bertile, Fabrice; Mithieux, Gilles; Gautier-Stein, Amandine

    2016-04-01

    The excessive endogenous glucose production (EGP) induced by glucagon participates in the development of type 2 diabetes. To further understand this hormonal control, we studied the short-term regulation by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) of the glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) enzyme, which catalyzes the last reaction of EGP. In gluconeogenic cell models, a 1-h treatment by the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin increased G6Pase activity and glucose production independently of any change in enzyme protein amount or G6P content. Using specific inhibitors or protein overexpression, we showed that the stimulation of G6Pase activity involved the protein kinase A (PKA). Results of site-directed mutagenesis, mass spectrometry analyses, and in vitro phosphorylation experiments suggested that the PKA stimulation of G6Pase activity did not depend on a direct phosphorylation of the enzyme. However, the temperature-dependent induction of both G6Pase activity and glucose release suggested a membrane-based mechanism. G6Pase is composed of a G6P transporter (G6PT) and a catalytic unit (G6PC). Surprisingly, we demonstrated that the increase in G6PT activity was required for the stimulation of G6Pase activity by forskolin. Our data demonstrate the existence of a post-translational mechanism that regulates G6Pase activity and reveal the key role of G6PT in the hormonal regulation of G6Pase activity and of EGP.

  19. Isolation of Elusive HAsAsH in a Crystalline Diuranium(IV) Complex.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Benedict M; Balázs, Gábor; Scheer, Manfred; Wooles, Ashley J; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J L; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J; Liddle, Stephen T

    2015-12-07

    The HAsAsH molecule has hitherto only been proposed tentatively as a short-lived species generated in electrochemical or microwave-plasma experiments. After two centuries of inconclusive or disproven claims of HAsAsH formation in the condensed phase, we report the isolation and structural authentication of HAsAsH in the diuranium(IV) complex [{U(Tren(TIPS))}2(μ-η(2):η(2)-As2H2)] (3, Tren(TIPS)=N(CH2CH2NSiPr(i)3)3; Pr(i)=CH(CH3)2). Complex 3 was prepared by deprotonation and oxidative homocoupling of an arsenide precursor. Characterization and computational data are consistent with back-bonding-type interactions from uranium to the HAsAsH π*-orbital. This experimentally confirms the theoretically predicted excellent π-acceptor character of HAsAsH, and is tantamount to full reduction to the diarsane-1,2-diide form.

  20. Isolation of Elusive HAsAsH in a Crystalline Diuranium(IV) Complex

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Benedict M.; Balázs, Gábor; Wooles, Ashley J.; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J. L.; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The HAsAsH molecule has hitherto only been proposed tentatively as a short‐lived species generated in electrochemical or microwave‐plasma experiments. After two centuries of inconclusive or disproven claims of HAsAsH formation in the condensed phase, we report the isolation and structural authentication of HAsAsH in the diuranium(IV) complex [{U(TrenTIPS)}2(μ‐η2:η2‐As2H2)] (3, TrenTIPS=N(CH2CH2NSiPri 3)3; Pri=CH(CH3)2). Complex 3 was prepared by deprotonation and oxidative homocoupling of an arsenide precursor. Characterization and computational data are consistent with back‐bonding‐type interactions from uranium to the HAsAsH π*‐orbital. This experimentally confirms the theoretically predicted excellent π‐acceptor character of HAsAsH, and is tantamount to full reduction to the diarsane‐1,2‐diide form. PMID:27478272

  1. Biocompatible organic charge transfer complex nanoparticles based on a semi-crystalline cellulose template.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Atsushi; Miller, Jason B; Du, Jia; Kos, Petra; Stefan, Mihaela C; Siegwart, Daniel J

    2015-07-28

    Using a bio-inspired cellulose template, new charge transfer (CT) nanoparticles (NPs) with unique and intriguing emission properties are reported. Pyrene-modified 2,3-di-O-methyl cellulose formed CT complexes with small molecule acceptors, e.g. 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), and exhibited aggregation-induced emission (AIE) in aqueous medium upon nanoparticle formation. The TCNQ-CT NPs showed multicolor fluorescence emissions at 370-400 nm, 602 nm and 777 nm, when excited at 330 nm, 485 nm and 620 nm respectively. The cellulose-TCNQ NPs are biocompatible and demonstrate an advance in the use of the CT mechanism for biomedical imaging applications both in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Crystalline structure of the poly(ethylene oxide)--p-nitrophenol complex; 2: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Damman, P.; Point, J.J. . Service de Chimie-Physique et Thermodynamique)

    1994-07-04

    The authors have previously reported the existence of a crystalline compound made of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and p-nitrophenol (pnp). From x-ray fiber patterns on stretched and spherulitic samples of this complex, a triclinic unit cell (a = 1.172 nm, b = 0.555 nm, c = 1.557 nm, [alpha] = 90.7[degree], [beta] = 87.1[degree], and [gamma] = 104.0[degree]) was deduced; the unit cell contains 6 PEO monomeric units and 4 pnp molecules, in agreement with the stoichiometry deduced from the phase diagram. The aim of this paper is to elucidate the conformation of the PEO chains and the mutual arrangement of the PEO and pnp molecules in the unit cell. To carry out this, the authors studied the dichroism of the IR bands of pnp in two differently oriented samples, namely, in stretched samples and in spherulites. The benzene rings are found to be perpendicular to the c crystallographic parameter (chain axis), and the 1--4 axis of pnp is found to be parallel to the a* reciprocal parameter. These observations completely determine the orientation of the pnp molecules in the unit cell. The conformation of the polymeric chains in the complex is not helical as in pure PEO. From the C[sub 2h] factor group of the PEO molecules, deduced from the FTIR observations, and the normal mode analysis of hydrogenated and deuterated PEO, they propose the (t[sub 2]gt[sub 2]gt[sub 3]t[sub 2]g[prime]t[sub 2]g[prime]t[sub 3]) glide type conformation. In conclusion, it appears that in the PEO--pnp complex a stack of pnp molecules stabilizes the surrounding PEO molecules in this new conformation.

  3. Thermal history and extensional exhumation of a high-temperature crystalline complex (Hırkadağ Massif, Central Anatolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Côme; Kalijn Peters, M.; Wehrens, Philip C.; Brouwer, Fraukje M.; van Roermund, Herman L. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex (CACC) is a large continental domain exposed in central Turkey that was affected by high temperature metamorphism during the Late Cretaceous. As a result of this event, Paleozoic sediments became metamorphosed, initially under Barrovian conditions, then overprinted locally by high temperature-low pressure metamorphism, and intruded by widespread batholiths. In this study we focus on the crystalline Hırkadağ Massif located in the central part of the CACC, where we applied an integrated approach involving metamorphic, structural and geochronological analysis in order to elucidate its tectonic history from burial to exhumation. Our metamorphic study reveals that conditions of metamorphism reached ~ 7-8 kbar/700 °C and were relatively homogeneous at the scale of the Hırkadağ Massif. Coeval with the regional metamorphism, the rocks were intensely deformed as reflected by isoclinal folding, the development of a pervasive foliation and top-to-the-SE shearing. This was followed by decompression to pressures of ~ 3-4 kbar at 800 °C, which may be linked to the emplacement of local granodioritic intrusions at ~ 77 Ma. Subsequent cooling of the Hırkadağ high-grade metamorphic and intrusive rocks is indicated by 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages of 68.8 ± 0.9 Ma (biotite) and 67.0 ± 1.2 Ma (potassium feldspar). Evidence for tectonic exhumation has been identified within the marbles at the NE margin of the Hırkadağ Massif, in the form of discrete protomylonitic and mylonitic shear bands showing a consistent N40-60 top-to-NE sense of shear. Further east, the contact between brecciated mylonitic marbles and non-metamorphic conglomerates preserves the typical structural features of an upper-crustal detachment fault. Restoration of the Hırkadağ Massif and the CACC to their late Cretaceous configuration suggests that the LP-HT metamorphism, magmatism and extensional structures evolved as a result of the development and exhumation of a ~ N

  4. Visualization of drug-nucleic acid interactions at atomic resolution. IX. Structures of two N,N-dimethylproflavine: 5-iodocytidylyl (3'-5') guanosine crystalline complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandary, K.K.; Sakore, T.D.; Sobell, H.M.; King, D.; Gabbay, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes two complexes containing N,N-dimethylproflavine and the dinucleoside monophosphate, 5-iodocytidylyl(3'-5')guanosine (iodoCpG). The first complex is triclinic, space group P1, with unit cell dimensions a = 11.78 A, b = 14.55 A, c = 15.50 A, ..cap alpha.. = 89.2/sup 0/, ..beta.. 86.2/sup 0/, ..gamma.. = 96.4/sup 0/. The second complex is monoclinic, space group P2/sub 1/, with a = 14.20 A, b = 19.00 A, c = 20.73 A, ..beta.. = 103.6/sup 0/. Both structures have been solved to atomic resolution and refined by Fourier and least squares methods. The first structure has been refined anisotropically to a residual of 0.09 on 5025 observed reflections using block diagonal least squares, while the second structure has been refined isotropically to a residual of 0.13 on 2888 reflections with full matrix least squares. The asymmetric unit in both structures contains two dimethylproflavine molecules and two iodoCpG molecules; the first structure has 16 water molecules (a total of 134 non-hydrogen atoms), while the second structure has 18 water molecules (a total of 136 non-hydrogen atoms). Both structures demonstrate intercalation of dimethylproflavine between base-paired iodoCpG dimers. In addition, dimethylproflavine molecules stack on either side of the intercalated duplex, being related by a unit cell translation along b and a axes, respectively. 16 references, 13 figures, 5 tables.

  5. Structural Characterization of the Molecular Events during a Slow Substrate-Product Transition in Orotidine 5'-Monophosphate Decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Fujihashi, Masahiro; Wei, Lianhu; Kotra, Lakshmi P; Pai, Emil F

    2009-04-06

    Crystal structures of substrate-product complexes of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase, obtained at various steps in its catalysis of the unusual transformation of 6-cyano-uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP) into barbituric acid ribosyl monophosphate, show that the cyano substituent of the substrate, when bound to the active site, is first bent significantly from the plane of the pyrimidine ring and then replaced by an oxygen atom. Although the K72A and D70A/K72A mutants are either catalytically impaired or even completely inactive, they still display bending of the C6 substituent. Interestingly, high-resolution structures of the D70A and D75N mutants revealed a covalent bond between C6 of UMP and the Lys72 side chain after the -CN moiety's release. The same covalent bond was observed when the native enzyme was incubated with 6-azido-UMP and 6-iodo-UMP; in contrast, the K72A mutant transformed 6-iodo-UMP to barbituric acid ribosyl 5'-monophosphate. These results demonstrate that, given a suitable environment, native orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase and several of its mutants are not restricted to the physiologically relevant decarboxylation; they are able to catalyze even nucleophilic substitution reactions but consistently maintain distortion on the C6 substituent as an important feature of catalysis.

  6. Multi-crystallin complexes exist in the water-soluble high molecular weight protein fractions of aging normal and cataractous human lenses.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, K; Chaves, J M; Srivastava, O P; Kirk, M

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify non-covalently held complexes that exist in the water-soluble high molecular weight (WS-HMW) protein fractions of normal human lenses of 20-year-old and 60- to 70-year-old, and in the age-matched 60- to 70-year-old cataractous lenses. The WS protein fractions were prepared from five pooled normal lenses of 20-year-old donors or five pooled lenses of 60- to 70-year-old donors or four pooled cataractous lenses (with nuclear opacity) of 60- to 70-year-old donors. Each WS protein fraction was subjected to size-exclusion chromatography using an Agarose A 5m column to recover the void volume WS-HMW protein fraction. A method known as blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE), which allows the isolation of large multi-protein complexes (MPCs) in their native state for further characterization, was used to separate such complexes from individual WS-HMW protein fractions. The protein species that existed as a complex were excised from a gel and trypsin-digested, and the amino acid sequences of the tryptic fragments analyzed by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ES-MS/MS). After the second-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE during BN-PAGE, protein complexes containing a total of 16, 12, and 24 species with M(r) between 10 and 90 kDa were identified in the HMW protein fractions of normal lenses of 20-year-old, 60- to 70-year-old and cataractous lenses of 60- to 70-year-old donors, respectively. Based on the amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides of individual protein species in the complexes by the ES-MS/MS method, the presence of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-crystallin species along with beaded filament proteins (filensin and phakinin) was observed in the 20-year-old normal lenses. The 60- to 70-year-old normal lenses contained filensin and aldehyde dehydrogenase in addition to the above crystallins. Similarly, the age-matched cataractous lenses also contained the above crystallins and aldehyde dehydrogenase but

  7. Dolichyl monophosphate and its sugar derivatives in plants.

    PubMed Central

    Brett, C T; Leloir, L F

    1977-01-01

    A glucose acceptor was isolated from soya beans by extraction with chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v), followed by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography of the extract. This acceptor could not be distinguished from liver dolichyl monophosphate by t.l.c. It could replace dolichyl monophosphate as a mannose acceptor with a liver enzyme and its glucosylated derivative could replace dolichyl monophosphate glucose as a glucose donor in the same system. These results, together with those already reported [Pont Lezica, Brett, Romero Martinez & Dankert (1975) Biochem, Biophys. Res. Commun. 66, 980-987], indicate that the acceptor from soya bean is a dolichyl monophosphate. Gel filtration of its glucosylated derivative on Sephadex G-75 in the presence of sodium deoxycholate indicated that the acceptor contained 17 or 18 isoprene units. An enzyme preparation from pea seedlings was shown to use endogenous acceptors to form lipid phosphate sugars containing mannose and N-acetylglucosamine from GDP-mannose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. Chromatographic and degradative techniques indicated that the compounds formed were lipid monophosphate mannose, lipid pyrophosphate N-acetylglucosamine, lipid pyrophosphate chitobiose and a series of lipid pyrophosphate oligosaccharides containing both mannose and N-acetylglucosamine. None of these compounds was degraded by catalytic hydrogenation, and so the lipid moiety in each case was probably an alpha-saturated polyprenol. The endogenous acceptors for mannose and N-acetylglucosamine in peas may therefore be dolichyl monophosphate, as has been found in mammalian systems. PMID:557975

  8. Single-walled carbon nanotube-induced crystallinity on the electropolymeric film of tetraaminophthalocyaninatonickel(II) complex: Impact on the rate of heterogeneous electron transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillay, Jeseelan; Ozoemena, Kenneth I.

    2007-06-01

    We present a fundamental investigation on the impact of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) on the film structure and redox behaviour of tetraaminophthalocyaninatonickel(II) complex (NiTAPc) electropolymer immobilized on a basal plane pyrolytic graphite electrode (BPPGE). SWCNT induces crystallinity on the NiTAPc electropolymeric film structure and increases its apparent electron transfer rate constant ( kapp). We proved that there is potential advantage of using electrode based on the SWCNT- poly-NiTAPc hybrid for catalytic and sensing applications as it enhances the catalytic current for the detection of nitric oxide more than twice compared to bare BPPGE, BPPGE-SWCNT and other electrodes without SWCNTs.

  9. Analysis of rapidly synthesized guest-filled porous complexes with synchrotron radiation: practical guidelines for the crystalline sponge method

    PubMed Central

    Ramadhar, Timothy R.; Zheng, Shao-Liang; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Clardy, Jon

    2015-01-01

    A detailed set of synthetic and crystallographic guidelines for the crystalline sponge method based upon the analysis of expediently synthesized crystal sponges using third-generation synchrotron radiation are reported. The procedure for the synthesis of the zinc-based metal–organic framework used in initial crystal sponge reports has been modified to yield competent crystals in 3 days instead of 2 weeks. These crystal sponges were tested on some small molecules, with two being unexpectedly difficult cases for analysis with in-house diffractometers in regard to data quality and proper space-group determination. These issues were easily resolved by the use of synchrotron radiation using data-collection times of less than an hour. One of these guests induced a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to create a larger unit cell with over 500 non-H atoms in the asymmetric unit. This led to a non-trivial refinement scenario that afforded the best Flack x absolute stereochemical determination parameter to date for these systems. The structures did not require the use of PLATON/SQUEEZE or other solvent-masking programs, and are the highest-quality crystalline sponge systems reported to date where the results are strongly supported by the data. A set of guidelines for the entire crystallographic process were developed through these studies. In particular, the refinement guidelines include strategies to refine the host framework, locate guests and determine occupancies, discussion of the proper use of geometric and anisotropic displacement parameter restraints and constraints, and whether to perform solvent squeezing/masking. The single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation process for the crystal sponges is also discussed. The presented general guidelines will be invaluable for researchers interested in using the crystalline sponge method at in-house diffraction or synchrotron facilities, will facilitate the collection and analysis of reliable high

  10. Analysis of rapidly synthesized guest-filled porous complexes with synchrotron radiation: practical guidelines for the crystalline sponge method

    SciTech Connect

    Ramadhar, Timothy R.; Zheng, Shao-Liang; Chen, Yu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    This report describes complete practical guidelines and insights for the crystalline sponge method, which have been derived through the first use of synchrotron radiation on these systems, and includes a procedure for faster synthesis of the sponges. These guidelines will be applicable to crystal sponge data collected at synchrotrons or in-house facilities, and will allow researchers to obtain reliable high-quality data and construct chemically and physically sensible models for guest structural determination. A detailed set of synthetic and crystallographic guidelines for the crystalline sponge method based upon the analysis of expediently synthesized crystal sponges using third-generation synchrotron radiation are reported. The procedure for the synthesis of the zinc-based metal–organic framework used in initial crystal sponge reports has been modified to yield competent crystals in 3 days instead of 2 weeks. These crystal sponges were tested on some small molecules, with two being unexpectedly difficult cases for analysis with in-house diffractometers in regard to data quality and proper space-group determination. These issues were easily resolved by the use of synchrotron radiation using data-collection times of less than an hour. One of these guests induced a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to create a larger unit cell with over 500 non-H atoms in the asymmetric unit. This led to a non-trivial refinement scenario that afforded the best Flack x absolute stereochemical determination parameter to date for these systems. The structures did not require the use of PLATON/SQUEEZE or other solvent-masking programs, and are the highest-quality crystalline sponge systems reported to date where the results are strongly supported by the data. A set of guidelines for the entire crystallographic process were developed through these studies. In particular, the refinement guidelines include strategies to refine the host framework, locate guests and determine

  11. Chlorine dioxide oxidation of guanosine 5'-monophosphate.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Michael J; Stewart, David J; Margerum, Dale W

    2006-11-01

    The reactions between aqueous ClO2 and guanosine 5'-monophosphate (5'-GMP) are investigated from pH 5.96 to 8.30. The decay of ClO2 follows mixed first-order and second-order kinetics. The addition of chlorite (0.01-0.05 M) to the reaction mixture suppresses the reaction rate and changes the observed decay of ClO2 to second-order. The reaction rates increase greatly with pH to give oxidized products. The second-order rate constant for the guanosine anion is 4.7 x 10(5 )M-1 s-1 and comprises a mixture of rate constants, k1k2/k-1. The ratio k1/k-1, with a calculated value of 2.4 x 10(-4), corresponds to the reversible reaction between ClO2 and the guanosine anion to generate ClO2- and the guanosyl radical. To determine k1/k-1 and k2, E values for guanosine and ClO2 are used as well as acid dissociation constants for guanosine and its radical. The value of k1 (1.1 x 10(5) M-1 s-1) represents the reaction between ClO2 and the guanosine anion as determined by initial rates. The second-order rate constant k2, with a value of 1.8 x 10(9 )M-1 s-1, represents the reaction between the guanosyl radical with a second molecule of ClO2 to generate a guanosyl-OClO adduct. The consumption of two mol of ClO2 per mol of 5'-GMP corresponds to a four-electron oxidation that gives ClO(2- )in the first step and HOCl in the second step. The 2',3',5'-tri-O-acetylated derivative of guanosine is used to more easily separate guanosine from its ClO2 oxidation products. Imidazolone and monochlorinated imidazolone are identified as products of the reaction between ClO2 and guanosine.

  12. Analysis of rapidly synthesized guest-filled porous complexes with synchrotron radiation: Practical guidelines for the crystalline sponge method

    SciTech Connect

    Ramadhar, Timothy R.; Zheng, Shao -Liang; Chen, Yu -Sheng; Clardy, Jon

    2015-01-01

    A detailed set of synthetic and crystallographic guidelines for the crystalline sponge method based upon the analysis of expediently synthesized crystal sponges using third-generation synchrotron radiation are reported. The procedure for the synthesis of the zinc-based metal–organic framework used in initial crystal sponge reports has been modified to yield competent crystals in 3 days instead of 2 weeks. These crystal sponges were tested on some small molecules, with two being unexpectedly difficult cases for analysis with in-house diffractometers in regard to data quality and proper space-group determination. These issues were easily resolved by the use of synchrotron radiation using data-collection times of less than an hour. One of these guests induced a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to create a larger unit cell with over 500 non-H atoms in the asymmetric unit. This led to a non-trivial refinement scenario that afforded the best Flack x absolute stereochemical determination parameter to date for these systems. The structures did not require the use of PLATON/SQUEEZE or other solvent-masking programs, and are the highest-quality crystalline sponge systems reported to date where the results are strongly supported by the data. A set of guidelines for the entire crystallographic process were developed through these studies. In particular, the refinement guidelines include strategies to refine the host framework, locate guests and determine occupancies, discussion of the proper use of geometric and anisotropic displacement parameter restraints and constraints, and whether to perform solvent squeezing/masking. The single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation process for the crystal sponges is also discussed. The presented general guidelines will be invaluable for researchers interested in using the crystalline sponge method at in-house diffraction or synchrotron facilities, will facilitate the collection and analysis of

  13. Analysis of rapidly synthesized guest-filled porous complexes with synchrotron radiation: Practical guidelines for the crystalline sponge method

    DOE PAGES

    Ramadhar, Timothy R.; Zheng, Shao -Liang; Chen, Yu -Sheng; ...

    2015-01-01

    A detailed set of synthetic and crystallographic guidelines for the crystalline sponge method based upon the analysis of expediently synthesized crystal sponges using third-generation synchrotron radiation are reported. The procedure for the synthesis of the zinc-based metal–organic framework used in initial crystal sponge reports has been modified to yield competent crystals in 3 days instead of 2 weeks. These crystal sponges were tested on some small molecules, with two being unexpectedly difficult cases for analysis with in-house diffractometers in regard to data quality and proper space-group determination. These issues were easily resolved by the use of synchrotron radiation using data-collectionmore » times of less than an hour. One of these guests induced a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation to create a larger unit cell with over 500 non-H atoms in the asymmetric unit. This led to a non-trivial refinement scenario that afforded the best Flack x absolute stereochemical determination parameter to date for these systems. The structures did not require the use of PLATON/SQUEEZE or other solvent-masking programs, and are the highest-quality crystalline sponge systems reported to date where the results are strongly supported by the data. A set of guidelines for the entire crystallographic process were developed through these studies. In particular, the refinement guidelines include strategies to refine the host framework, locate guests and determine occupancies, discussion of the proper use of geometric and anisotropic displacement parameter restraints and constraints, and whether to perform solvent squeezing/masking. The single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation process for the crystal sponges is also discussed. The presented general guidelines will be invaluable for researchers interested in using the crystalline sponge method at in-house diffraction or synchrotron facilities, will facilitate the collection and analysis of reliable high

  14. CRYSTALLINE DESOXYRIBONUCLEASE

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, M.

    1950-01-01

    A crystalline enzyme capable of digesting thymus nucleic acid (desoxyribonucleic acid) has been isolated from fresh beef pancreas. The enzyme called "desoxyribonuclease" is a protein of the albumin type. Its molecular weight is about 60,000 and its isoelectric point is near pH 5.0. It contains about 8 per cent tyrosine and 2 per cent tryptophane. It is readily denatured by heat. The denaturation is reversible if heated in dilute acid at pH about 3.0. The digestion of thymus nucleic acid by crystalline desoxyribonuclease is accompanied by a gradual increase in the specific absorption of ultraviolet light by the acid. The spectrophotometric measurement of the rate of increase in the light absorption can be conveniently used as a general method for estimating desoxyribonuclease activity. Details are given of the method for isolation of crystalline desoxyribonuclease and of the spectrophotometric procedure for the measurement of desoxyribonuclease activity. PMID:15406373

  15. Mechanochemical surface functionalisation of superparamagnetic microparticles with in situ formed crystalline metal-complexes: a fast novel core-shell particle formation method.

    PubMed

    Brede, F A; Mandel, K; Schneider, M; Sextl, G; Müller-Buschbaum, K

    2015-05-21

    An innovative mechanochemical method is reported for the in situ formation of crystalline metal-complexes on the surface of superparamagnetic nanocomposite microparticles. The process is demonstrated for coating Fe3O4 multicore-silica matrix particles with the 1,2,4-1H-triazole complex [ZnCl2(TzH)2]. The use of mechanochemistry demonstrates a flexible process to obtain functional shells on magnetic particle cores without the need for complicated surface-functionalisation reactions in solution. Simple mixing of the desired shell-precursors ZnCl2 and 1,2,4-1H-triazole (TzH) with the magnetic particles in a ball mill is sufficient to tailor the particle surfaces with novel functionalities while retaining the superparamagnetic behaviour.

  16. Crystalline Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsapatsis, Michael (Inventor); Lai, Zhiping (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    In certain aspects, the invention features methods for forming crystalline membranes (e.g., a membrane of a framework material, such as a zeolite) by inducing secondary growth in a layer of oriented seed crystals. The rate of growth of the seed crystals in the plane of the substrate is controlled to be comparable to the rate of growth out of the plane. As a result, a crystalline membrane can form a substantially continuous layer including grains of uniform crystallographic orientation that extend through the depth of the layer.

  17. Uptake of intact nucleoside monophosphates by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J.

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, E G; McCabe, J B; Barke, J I

    1985-01-01

    The degraded nucleic acids and ribosomes of its prey cell provide Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J with a source of ribonucleoside monophosphates and deoxyribonucleoside monophosphates for biosynthesis and respiration. We demonstrate that bdellovibrios, in contrast to almost all other bacteria, take up these nucleoside monophosphates into the cell in an intact, phosphorylated form. In this way they are able to assimilate more effectively the cellular contents of their prey. Studies with UMP and dTMP demonstrate that they are transported and accumulated against a concentration gradient, achieving internal levels at least 10 times the external levels. Treatment of the bdellovibrios with azide or carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone eliminates their ability to either transport or maintain accumulated UMP and suggests the presence of a freely reversible exchange mechanism. There are at least two separate classes of transport systems for nucleoside monophosphates, each exhibiting partial specificity for either ribonucleoside monophosphates or deoxyribonucleoside monophosphates. Kinetic analyses of UMP transport in different developmental stages of strain 109J indicate that each stage expresses a single, saturable uptake system with a distinct apparent substrate affinity constant (Kt) of 104 microM in attack phase cells and 35 microM in prematurely released growth phase filaments. The capacity for transport of UMP by the growth phase filaments was 2.4 times that of the attack phase cells. These data, in addition to the apparent lack of environmental control of UMP transport capacity in attack phase cells, suggest that there are two transport systems for UMP in bdellovibrios and that the high-affinity, high-capacity growth phase system is developmentally regulated. PMID:4030692

  18. Acute toxicity of betagamma-CAT, a naturally existing non-lens betagamma-crystallin and trefoil factor complex from frog Bombina maxima skin secretions.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jin-Qiao; Liu, Shu-Bai; He, Ying-Ying; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2008-07-01

    In vertebrates, non-lens betagamma-crystallins are widely expressed in various tissues, but their functions are unknown. The molecular mechanisms of trefoil factors, initiators of mucosal healing and being greatly involved in tumorigenesis, have remained elusive. betagamma-CAT is the first example of a naturally existing multifunctional protein complex of a non-lens betagamma-crystallin and a trefoil factor from frog Bombina maxima skin secretions. Here we report the investigation of its in vivo toxic effects on mice and rabbits. The LD(50) values of betagamma-CAT on mice were determined to be 0.4 mg/kg and 20 microg/kg under intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intravenous (i.v.) injection, respectively. The mice subcutaneously injected with betagamma-CAT (6 microg/g body weight) showed strong hyperaemia of subcutaneous capillary vessel, but no hemorrhagic spots were observed. Intravenous injection of betagamma-CAT in rabbits (8-22 microg/kg body weight) caused a rapidly hypotensive effect and followed with cardiovascular collapse. Injection with betagamma-CAT (22 microg/kg, i.v.) significantly decreased hematocrit (P<0.05) and mean corpuscular volume (P<0.05) of the rabbits in 5 min. At the same time, the counts of platelets and white blood cells were significantly decreased (P<0.05), while the blood levels of glucose, lactate dehydrogenase and serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase were significantly increased (P<0.05). Furthermore, serials of tissues edema and damages were also observed. These results indicate that betagamma-CAT rapidly caused several in vivo toxic effects on mammals and its lethal toxic potency was mainly contributed by hypotension and cardiovascular collapse, providing new clues for the understanding of the patho-physiological roles of non-lens betagamma-crystallins and trefoil factors.

  19. Production of Xanthosine-5′-Monophosphate and Inosine-5′-Monophosphate by Auxotrophic Mutants of a Coryneform Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Demain, Arnold L.; Jackson, Marion; Vitali, Ronald A.; Hendlin, David; Jacob, Theodore A.

    1965-01-01

    Although most microorganisms with genetic blocks in the purine nucleotide sequence excrete breakdown products, a coryneform bacterium was found to accumulate intact 5′-nucleotides in the extracellular medium. Adenineless mutants accumulated 0.4 to 0.6 g of inosine-5′-monophosphate per liter of broth. The yield of this nucleotide was increased to 0.8 to 0.9 g per liter when such mutants were mutated to xanthine dependence. Induction of a specific guanine requirement in adenineless auxotrophs resulted in cultures capable of producing high yields of xanthosine-5′-monophosphate (3 to 4 g per liter). Pure xanthosine-5′-monophosphate was isolated from broth by a procedure involving ion-exchange chromatography, charcoal adsorption, and barium precipitation. PMID:5867656

  20. Fluoroquinolones as potential photochemotherapeutic agents: covalent addition to guanosine monophosphate.

    PubMed

    Fasani, Elisa; Manet, Ilse; Capobianco, Massimo L; Monti, Sandra; Pretali, Luca; Albini, Angelo

    2010-08-21

    The triplet aryl cation photochemically generated from fluoroquinolones bearing a fluoro atom at position 8 attacks guanosine monophosphate (k(r) > 10(9) M(-1)s(-1)) and forms covalent adducts. The reaction is a model for the implementation of oxygen-independent photochemotherapy.

  1. Rate and Equilibrium Constants for an Enzyme Conformational Change during Catalysis by Orotidine 5'-Monophosphate Decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Goryanova, Bogdana; Goldman, Lawrence M; Ming, Shonoi; Amyes, Tina L; Gerlt, John A; Richard, John P

    2015-07-28

    The caged complex between orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ScOMPDC) and 5-fluoroorotidine 5'-monophosphate (FOMP) undergoes decarboxylation ∼300 times faster than the caged complex between ScOMPDC and the physiological substrate, orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP). Consequently, the enzyme conformational changes required to lock FOMP at a protein cage and release product 5-fluorouridine 5'-monophosphate (FUMP) are kinetically significant steps. The caged form of ScOMPDC is stabilized by interactions between the side chains from Gln215, Tyr217, and Arg235 and the substrate phosphodianion. The control of these interactions over the barrier to the binding of FOMP and the release of FUMP was probed by determining the effect of all combinations of single, double, and triple Q215A, Y217F, and R235A mutations on kcat/Km and kcat for turnover of FOMP by wild-type ScOMPDC; its values are limited by the rates of substrate binding and product release, respectively. The Q215A and Y217F mutations each result in an increase in kcat and a decrease in kcat/Km, due to a weakening of the protein-phosphodianion interactions that favor fast product release and slow substrate binding. The Q215A/R235A mutation causes a large decrease in the kinetic parameters for ScOMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP, which are limited by the rate of the decarboxylation step, but much smaller decreases in the kinetic parameters for ScOMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of FOMP, which are limited by the rate of enzyme conformational changes. By contrast, the Y217A mutation results in large decreases in kcat/Km for ScOMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of both OMP and FOMP, because of the comparable effects of this mutation on rate-determining decarboxylation of enzyme-bound OMP and on the rate-determining enzyme conformational change for decarboxylation of FOMP. We propose that kcat = 8.2 s(-1) for decarboxylation of FOMP by the Y217A mutant is equal to the rate constant for cage formation from the

  2. Low Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition of Crystalline Ga2Te3 and Ga2Se3 Thin Films from Single Source Precursors Using Telluroether and Selenoether Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Kathryn; Groot, C. H. (Kees) de; Gurnani, Chitra; Hector, Andrew L.; Huang, Ruomeng; Jura, Marek; Levason, William; Reid, Gillian

    Neutral telluro- and seleno-ether complexes of the form [GaCl3(nBu2E)] (E = Se, Te) and [(GaCl3)2{nBuE(CH2)nEnBu}] (E = Se, n = 2; E = Te, n = 3) have been synthesised via a facile, high yielding reaction. These complexes have been shown to be suitable precursors for the low pressure chemical vapour deposition of Ga2Te3 and Ga2Se3, the first reported example of a telluroether complex being used for the deposition of a metal telluride. The thin films have been characterised by X- ray diffraction, SEM, EDX, Raman and Hall measurements. The films are crystalline, have good, uniform coverage and Raman spectra match literature values. Hall measurements show that the thin films are p-type semiconductors. Competitive deposition of Ga2Te3 onto photolithographically patterned SiO2/TiN substrates shows a preference for deposition onto TiN.

  3. Symmetric bi-pyridyl banana-shaped molecule and its intermolecular hydrogen bonding liquid-crystalline complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Dan; Hou, Qiufei; Chai, Jia; Ye, Ling; Zhao, Liyan; Li, Min; Jiang, Shimei

    2008-11-01

    A new symmetric bi-pyridyl banana-shaped molecule 1,3-phenylene diisonicotinate (PDI) was designed and synthesized. Its molecular structure was confirmed by FTIR, Elemental analysis and 1H NMR. X-ray crystallographic study reveals that there is an angle of approximate 118° among the centroids of the three rings (pyridyl-phenyl-pyridyl) in each PDI molecule indicating a desired banana shape. In addition, a series of liquid crystal complexes nBA:PDI:nBA induced by intermolecular hydrogen bonding between PDI (proton acceptor) and 4-alkoxybenzoic acids (nBA, proton donor) were synthesized and characterized. The mesomorphism properties and optical textures of the complex of nBA:PDI:nBA were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, polarizing optical microscope and X-ray diffraction.

  4. A Novel Non-Lens βγ−Crystallin and Trefoil Factor Complex from Amphibian Skin and Its Functional Implications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yun; Lee, Wen-Hui; Qian, Jin-Qiao; Lai, Ren; Jin, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Background In vertebrates, non-lens βγ-crystallins are widely expressed in various tissues, but their functions are unknown. The molecular mechanisms of trefoil factors, initiators of mucosal healing and being greatly involved in tumorigenesis, have remained elusive. Principal Findings A naturally existing 72-kDa complex of non-lens βγ-crystallin (α-subunit) and trefoil factor (β-subunit), named βγ-CAT, was identified from frog Bombina maxima skin secretions. Its α-subunit and β-subunit (containing three trefoil factor domains), with a non-covalently linked form of αβ2, show significant sequence homology to ep37 proteins, a group of non-lens βγ-crystallins identified in newt Cynops pyrrhogaster and mammalian trefoil factors, respectively. βγ-CAT showed potent hemolytic activity on mammalian erythrocytes. The specific antiserum against each subunit was able to neutralize its hemolytic activity, indicating that the two subunits are functionally associated. βγ-CAT formed membrane pores with a functional diameter about 2.0 nm, leading to K+ efflux and colloid-osmotic hemolysis. High molecular weight SDS-stable oligomers (>240-kDa) were detected by antibodies against the α-subunit with Western blotting. Furthermore, βγ-CAT showed multiple cellular effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Low dosages of βγ-CAT (25–50 pM) were able to stimulate cell migration and wound healing. At high concentrations, it induced cell detachment (EC50 10 nM) and apoptosis. βγ-CAT was rapidly endocytosed via intracellular vacuole formation. Under confocal microscope, some of the vacuoles were translocated to nucleus and partially fused with nuclear membrane. Bafilomycin A1 (a specific inhibitor of the vacuolar-type ATPase) and nocodazole (an agent of microtuble depolymerizing), while inhibited βγ-CAT induced vacuole formation, significantly inhibited βγ-CAT induced cell detachment, suggesting that βγ-CAT endocytosis is important for its activities

  5. Two conformations of a crystalline human tRNA synthetase–tRNA complex: implications for protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiang-Lei; Otero, Francella J; Ewalt, Karla L; Liu, Jianming; Swairjo, Manal A; Köhrer, Caroline; RajBhandary, Uttam L; Skene, Robert J; McRee, Duncan E; Schimmel, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Aminoacylation of tRNA is the first step of protein synthesis. Here, we report the co-crystal structure of human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase and tRNATrp. This enzyme is reported to interact directly with elongation factor 1α, which carries charged tRNA to the ribosome. Crystals were generated from a 50/50% mixture of charged and uncharged tRNATrp. These crystals captured two conformations of the complex, which are nearly identical with respect to the protein and a bound tryptophan. They are distinguished by the way tRNA is bound. In one, uncharged tRNA is bound across the dimer, with anticodon and acceptor stem interacting with separate subunits. In this cross-dimer tRNA complex, the class I enzyme has a class II-like tRNA binding mode. This structure accounts for biochemical investigations of human TrpRS, including species-specific charging. In the other conformation, presumptive aminoacylated tRNA is bound only by the anticodon, the acceptor stem being free and having space to interact precisely with EF-1α, suggesting that the product of aminoacylation can be directly handed off to EF-1α for the next step of protein synthesis. PMID:16724112

  6. X-ray studies of crystalline complexes involving amino acids and peptides. XLIII. Adipic acid complexes of L- and DL-lysine.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Alok; Thamotharan, S; Roy, Siddhartha; Vijayan, M

    2006-03-01

    The asymmetric unit of the DL-lysine complex of adipic acid [bis(DL-lysinium) adipate], 2C6H15N2O2+.C6H8O(4)2-, contains a zwitterionic singly charged lysinium cation and half a doubly charged adipate anion (the complete anion has inversion symmetry). That of the L-lysine complex (lysinium hydrogen adipate), C6H15N2O2+.C6H9O4-, consists of a lysinium cation and a singly charged hydrogen adipate anion. In both structures, the lysinium cations organize into layers interconnected by adipate or hydrogen adipate anions. However, the arrangement of the molecular ions in the layer is profoundly different in the DL- and L-lysine complexes. The hydrogen adipate anions in the L-lysine complex form linear arrays in which adjacent ions are interconnected by a symmetric O...H...O hydrogen bond.

  7. Ontogeny of human lens crystallins.

    PubMed

    Thomson, J A; Augusteyn, R C

    1985-03-01

    various deamidated and degraded subunits. The major beta-crystallin polypeptide also undergoes rapid deamidation and evidence is presented suggesting that the gamma-crystallins are subject to similar modification. The most dramatic changes were observed in the constituents of the LMW proteins. The synthesis of gamma-crystallins virtually ceases at some time around birth. At the same time, the levels of beta s-crystallin undergo an explosive increase. These and other changes are discussed in terms of their possible functional significance. They are also related to the complex protein status found in old lenses.

  8. Brittle structures and their role in controlling porosity and permeability in a complex Precambrian crystalline-rock aquifer system in the Colorado Rocky Mountain front range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caine, Jonathan S.; Tomusiak, S.R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Expansion of the Denver metropolitan area has resulted in substantial residential development in the foothills of the Rocky Mountain Front Range. This type of sub-urban growth, characteristic of much of the semiarid intermountain west, often relies on groundwater from individual domestic wells and is exemplified in the Turkey Creek watershed. The watershed is underlain by complexly deformed and fractured crystalline bedrock in which groundwater resources are poorly understood, and concerns regarding groundwater mining and degradation have arisen. As part of a pilot project to establish quantitative bounds on the groundwater resource, an outcrop-based geologic characterization and numerical modeling study of the brittle structures and their controls on the flow system was initiated. Existing data suggest that ground-water storage, flow, and contaminant transport are primarily controlled by a heterogeneous array of fracture networks. Inspections of well-permit data and field observations led to a conceptual model in which three dominant lithologic groups underlying sparse surface deposits form the aquifer system-metamorphic rocks, a complex array of granitic intrusive rocks, and major brittle fault zones. Pervasive but variable jointing of each lithologic group forms the "background" permeability structure and is an important component of the bulk storage capacity. This "background" is cut by brittle fault zones of varying structural styles and by pegmatite dikes, both with much higher fracture intensities relative to "background" that likely make them spatially complex conduits. Probabilistic, discrete-fracture-network and finite-element modeling was used to estimate porosity and permeability at the outcrop scale using fracture network data collected in the field. The models were conditioned to limited aquifer test and borehole geophysical data and give insight into the relative hydraulic properties between locations and geologic controls on storage and flow

  9. RECIPIENT PRETRANSPLANT INOSINE MONOPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY IN NONMYELOABLATIVE HCT

    PubMed Central

    Bemer, Meagan J.; Risler, Linda J.; Phillips, Brian R.; Wang, Joanne; Storer, Barry E.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Duan, Haichuan; Raccor, Brianne S.; Boeckh, Michael J.; McCune, Jeannine S.

    2014-01-01

    Mycophenolic acid, the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity. IMPDH is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in de novo synthesis of guanosine nucleotides and catalyzes the oxidation of inosine 5’- monophosphate (IMP) to xanthosine 5’-monophosphate (XMP). We developed a highly sensitive liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method to quantitate XMP concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNC) isolated from the recipient pretransplant and used this method to determine IMPDH activity in 86 nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) patients. The incubation procedure and analytical method yielded acceptable within-sample and within-individual variability. Considerable between-individual variability was observed (12.2-fold). Low recipient pretransplant IMPDH activity was associated with increased day +28 donor T-cell chimerism, more acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), lower neutrophil nadirs, and more cytomegalovirus reactivation, but not with chronic GVHD, relapse, non-relapse mortality, or overall mortality. We conclude that quantitation of the recipient’s pretransplant IMPDH activity in PMNC lysate could provide a useful biomarker to evaluate a recipient’s sensitivity to MMF, but confirmatory studies are needed. Further trials should be conducted to confirm our findings and to optimize postgrafting immunosuppression in nonmyeloablative HCT recipients. PMID:24923537

  10. A QSAR model of benzoxazole derivatives as potential inhibitors for inosine 5`-monophosphate dehydrogenase from Cryptosporidium parvum

    PubMed Central

    Teotia, Pratibha; Prakash Dwivedi, Surya; Dwivedi, Neeraja

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is the common enteric protozoan pathogen causing cryptosporidiosis in human. Available drugs to treat cryptosporidiosis are ineffective and there is yet no vaccine against C. parvum. Therefore, it is of interest to design an improved yet effective drug against C. parvum. Here, we docked benzoxazole derivatives (collected from literature) with inosine 5`- monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) from Cryptosporidium parvum using the program AutoDock 4.2. The docked protein - inhibitor complex structure was optimized using molecular dynamics simulation for 5 ps with the CHARMM-22 force field using NAMD (NAnoscale Molecular Dynamics program) incorporated in visual molecular dynamics (VMD 1.9.2) and then evaluating the stability of complex structure by calculating RMSD values. NAMD is a parallel, object-oriented molecular dynamics code designed for high-performance simulation of large biomolecular systems. A quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model was built using energy-based descriptors as independent variable and pIC50 value as dependent variable of fifteen known benzoxazole derivatives with C. parvum IMPDH protein, yielding correlation coefficient r2 of 0.7948. The predictive performance of QSAR model was assessed using different cross-validation procedures. Our results suggest that a ligand-receptor binding interaction for inosine 5`-monophosphate dehydrogenase using a QSAR model is promising approach to design more potent inosine 5`-monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors prior to their synthesis. PMID:28149045

  11. Structure-Based Design, Synthesis, Evaluation And Crystal Structures of Transition State Analogue Inhibitors of Inosine Monophosphate Cyclohydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, L.; Chong, Y.; Hwang, I.; D'Onofrio, A.; Amore, K.; Beardsley, G.P.; Li, C.; Olson, A.J.; Boger, D.L.; Wilson, I.A.; /Skaggs Inst. Chem. Biol. /Scripps Res. Inst. /Yale U.

    2007-07-13

    The inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase (IMPCH) component (residues 1-199) of the bifunctional enzyme aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase (AICAR Tfase, residues 200-593)/IMPCH (ATIC) catalyzes the final step in the de novo purine biosynthesis pathway that produces IMP. As a potential target for antineoplastic intervention, we designed IMPCH inhibitors, 1,5-dihydroimidazo[4,5-c][1,2,6]thiadiazin-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide (heterocycle, 1), the corresponding nucleoside (2), and the nucleoside monophosphate (nucleotide) (3), as mimics of the tetrahedral intermediate in the cyclization reaction. All compounds are competitive inhibitors against IMPCH (K(i) values = 0.13-0.23 microm) with the simple heterocycle 1 exhibiting the most potent inhibition (K(i) = 0.13 microm). Crystal structures of bifunctional ATIC in complex with nucleoside 2 and nucleotide 3 revealed IMPCH binding modes similar to that of the IMPCH feedback inhibitor, xanthosine 5'-monophosphate. Surprisingly, the simpler heterocycle 1 had a completely different IMPCH binding mode and was relocated to the phosphate binding pocket that was identified from previous xanthosine 5'-monophosphate structures. The aromatic imidazole ring interacts with a helix dipole, similar to the interaction with the phosphate moiety of 3. The crystal structures not only revealed the mechanism of inhibition of these compounds, but they now serve as a platform for future inhibitor improvements. Importantly, the nucleoside-complexed structure supports the notion that inhibitors lacking a negatively charged phosphate can still inhibit IMPCH activity with comparable potency to phosphate-containing inhibitors. Provocatively, the nucleotide inhibitor 3 also binds to the AICAR Tfase domain of ATIC, which now provides a lead compound for the design of inhibitors that simultaneously target both active sites of this bifunctional enzyme.

  12. Structural Basis for the Specificity of Human NUDT16 and Its Regulation by Inosine Monophosphate

    PubMed Central

    Trésaugues, Lionel; Lundbäck, Thomas; Welin, Martin; Flodin, Susanne; Nyman, Tomas; Silvander, Camilla; Gräslund, Susanne; Nordlund, Pär

    2015-01-01

    Human NUDT16 is a member of the NUDIX hydrolase superfamily. After having been initially described as an mRNA decapping enzyme, recent studies conferred it a role as an “housecleaning” enzyme specialized in the removal of hazardous (deoxy)inosine diphosphate from the nucleotide pool. Here we present the crystal structure of human NUDT16 both in its apo-form and in complex with its product inosine monophosphate (IMP). NUDT16 appears as a dimer whose formation generates a positively charged trench to accommodate substrate-binding. Complementation of the structural data with detailed enzymatic and biophysical studies revealed the determinants of substrate recognition and particularly the importance of the substituents in position 2 and 6 on the purine ring. The affinity for the IMP product, harboring a carbonyl in position 6 on the base, compared to purine monophosphates lacking a H-bond acceptor in this position, implies a catalytic cycle whose rate is primarily regulated by the product-release step. Finally, we have also characterized a phenomenon of inhibition by the product of the reaction, IMP, which might exclude non-deleterious nucleotides from NUDT16-mediated hydrolysis regardless of their cellular concentration. Taken together, this study details structural and regulatory mechanisms explaining how substrates are selected for hydrolysis by human NUDT16. PMID:26121039

  13. Crystalline oxides on silicon.

    PubMed

    Reiner, James W; Kolpak, Alexie M; Segal, Yaron; Garrity, Kevin F; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Ahn, Charles H; Walker, Fred J

    2010-07-20

    This review outlines developments in the growth of crystalline oxides on the ubiquitous silicon semiconductor platform. The overall goal of this endeavor is the integration of multifunctional complex oxides with advanced semiconductor technology. Oxide epitaxy in materials systems achieved through conventional deposition techniques is described first, followed by a description of the science and technology of using atomic layer-by-layer deposition with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) to systematically construct the oxide-silicon interface. An interdisciplinary approach involving MBE, advanced real-space structural characterization, and first-principles theory has led to a detailed understanding of the process by which the interface between crystalline oxides and silicon forms, the resulting structure of the interface, and the link between structure and functionality. Potential applications in electronics and photonics are also discussed.

  14. Nucleic acid molecules encoding isopentenyl monophosphate kinase, and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney B.; Lange, Bernd M.

    2001-01-01

    A cDNA encoding isopentenyl monophosphate kinase (IPK) from peppermint (Mentha x piperita) has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID NO:1) is provided which codes for the expression of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase (SEQ ID NO:2), from peppermint (Mentha x piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for isopentenyl monophosphate kinase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding isopentenyl monophosphate kinase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant isopentenyl monophosphate kinase that may be used to facilitate its production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant isopentenyl monophosphate kinase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase in plants in order to enhance the production of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase, or isoprenoids derived therefrom, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase, or the production of its products.

  15. Visualization of drug-nucleic acid interactions at atomic resolution. X. Structure of a N,N-dimethylproflavine: deoxycytidylyl(3'-5')deoxyguanosine crystalline complex

    SciTech Connect

    Sakore, T.D.; Bhandary, K.K.; Sobell, H.M.

    1984-01-01

    N,N-dimethylproflavine forms a crystalline complex with deoxycytidylyl(3'-5')deoxyguanosine (d-CpG), space group P2/sub 1/,2/sub 1/2, with a = 21.37 A, b = 34.05 A, c = 13.63 A. The structure has been solved to atomic resolution and refined by Fourier and least squares methods to a residual of 0.18 of 2032 observed reflections. The structure consists of two N,N-dimethylproflavine molecules, two deoxycytidylyl (3'-5')deoxyguanosine molecules and 16 water molecules, a total of 128 nonhydrogen atoms. As with other structures of this type, N,N-dimethylproflavine molecules intercalate between base-paired d-CpG dimers. In addition, dimethylproflavine molecules stack on either side of the intercalated duplex, being related by a unit cell translation along the c axis. Both sugar-phosphate chains demonstrate the mixed sugar puckering geometry: C3' endo (3'-5') C2' endo. The same intercalative geometry has been seen in two other complexes containing N,N-dimethylproflavine and iodoCpG, described in the accompanying paper. Taken together, these studies indicate a common intercalative geometry present in both RNA- and DNA- model systems. Again, N,N-dimethylproflavine behaves as a simple intercalator, intercalating asymmetrically between guanine-cytosine base-pairs. The free amino- group on the intercalated dimethylproflavine molecule does not hydrogen bond directly to the phosphate oxygen. Other aspects of the structure will be presented. 4 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  16. International Workshop on: Hydrogen Migration and the Stability of Hydrogen Related Complexes in Crystalline Semiconductors Held in Federal Republic of Germany on 3-6 November 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-06

    atomic hydrogen in doped crystalline silicon 53 A. Amore Bonapasta Modeling of hydrogen diffusion in semiconductors 54 D. Mathiot Diffusion and...DEPTH ( pm) Figure 1: Evolution of thc active boron concentration profile as a function of the re- verso -bias annealing time (VfR...the Materials Research Society, Boston, MA, 2-6 December 1991. - 53 - Multitrapping of atomic Hydrogen in doped crystalline silicon. A. Amore

  17. Lithium ion intercalation in partially crystalline TiO 2 electrodeposited on platinum from aqueous solution of titanium(IV) oxalate complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziewoński, Paweł Marek; Grzeszczuk, Maria

    Starting from the aqueous solution of titanium(IV) oxalate complexes and controlling electrochemical conditions using a cyclic voltammetry (CV) method, the thin layers of TiO 2 on platinum were obtained, which after additional heat treatment, at 450 °C, were still of amorphous nature. The amorphous state of the samples, containing an admixture of crystalline anatase, was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and by a variety of electrochemical techniques. The new electrochemical procedure allows preparing the oxide with different morphologies. By the comparison with the peroxotitanium route, the oxalate precursor method offers the possibility of the synthesis of amorphous TiO 2 at higher temperatures that is the essential key for the cycling stability of the oxide if one is used as an anode material in lithium ion batteries. The results from cycling voltammetry revealed that electrodeposited TiO 2 reversibly and fast intercalates lithium ions due to its high internal surface area. Therefore, the nanostructural morphology facilitates lithium ion intercalation which was monitored and confirmed in all electrochemical testing. The specific capacity of the TiO 2 approaches the value of 145 mAh g -1 at 8 C-rate in the best case. From the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in connection with SEM investigations, it was concluded that Li + diffusion is the finite space process and its rate is depending on the size of the crystallites building the oxide films. Evaluated values of the D-coefficients are of the order of 10 -14 cm 2 s -1.

  18. Small molecule adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) modulators and human diseases.

    PubMed

    Rana, Sandeep; Blowers, Elizabeth C; Natarajan, Amarnath

    2015-01-08

    Adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master sensor of cellular energy status that plays a key role in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. AMPK is a serine/threonine kinase that is activated by upstream kinases LKB1, CaMKKβ, and Tak1, among others. AMPK exists as αβγ trimeric complexes that are allosterically regulated by AMP, ADP, and ATP. Dysregulation of AMPK has been implicated in a number of metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Recent studies have associated roles of AMPK with the development of cancer and neurological disorders, making it a potential therapeutic target to treat human diseases. This review focuses on the structure and function of AMPK, its role in human diseases, and its direct substrates and provides a brief synopsis of key AMPK modulators and their relevance in human diseases.

  19. Simulation analysis of formycin 5'-monophosphate analog substrates in the ricin A-chain active site.

    PubMed

    Olson, M A; Scovill, J P; Hack, D C

    1995-06-01

    Ricin is an RNA N-glycosidase that hydrolyzes a single adenine base from a conserved loop of 28S ribosomal RNA, thus inactivating protein synthesis. Molecular-dynamics simulation methods are used to analyze the structural interactions and thermodynamics that govern the binding of formycin 5'-monophosphate (FMP) and several of its analogs to the active site of ricin A-chain. Simulations are carried out initiated from the X-ray crystal structure of the ricin-FMP complex with the ligand modeled as a dianion, monoanion and zwitterion. Relative changes in binding free energies are estimated for FMP analogs constructed from amino substitutions at the 2- and 2'-positions, and from hydroxyl substitution at the 2'-position.

  20. Simulation analysis of formycin 5?-monophosphate analog substrates in the ricin A-chain active site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Mark A.; Scovill, John P.; Hack, Dallas C.

    1995-06-01

    Ricin is an RNA N-glycosidase that hydrolyzes a single adenine base from a conserved loop of 28S ribosomal RNA, thus inactivating protein synthesis. Molecular-dynamics simulation methods are used to analyze the structural interactions and thermodynamics that govern the binding of formycin 5'-monophosphate (FMP) and several of its analogs to the active site of ricin A-chain. Simulations are carried out initiated from the X-ray crystal structure of the ricin-FMP complex with the ligand modeled as a dianion, monoanion and zwitterion. Relative changes in binding free energies are estimated for FMP analogs constructed from amino substitutions at the 2- and 2'-positions, and from hydroxyl substitution at the 2'-position.

  1. Selective adenosine-5'-monophosphate uptake by water-compatible molecularly imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Breton, Florent; Delépée, Raphaël; Jégourel, Damien; Deville-Bonne, Dominique; Agrofoglio, Luigi A

    2008-06-02

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared for adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP), a substrate of AMP-activated protein kinase. The template molecule was formed by the vinylphenylboronate diester of adenosine on which 5'-free hydroxide was protected by tert-butyldimethylsilyl group in order to mimic the steric hindrance of the phosphate moiety of AMP. Molecular imprinting was performed by complexing acrylamide and the template in a highly cross-linked polymer. MIPs were tested in batch experiments with aqueous samples of nucleotides and a number of parameters were investigated. The use of tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) was necessary to obtain a rebinding of nucleotides on MIP. The adsorption of AMP was optimal in 5 mM ammonium acetate buffer solution pH 9.5 for 30 min, with 30 mM of TBAH. The imprinted polymer was selective for AMP towards others nucleotides or deoxi analogues.

  2. Paleoposition of the northern margin of Armorica in Late Devonian times: Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic results from the Frankenstein Intrusive Complex (Mid-German Crystalline Rise)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwing, Alexander; Bachtadse, Valerian

    2000-09-01

    A detailed rockmagnetic and paleomagnetic study of the Frankenstein Intrusive Complex (FIC, 363±7 Ma in age), southwestern Germany, has been carried out in order to test whether the paleomagnetic declinations within the internal parts of the European Variscides follow a common trend controlled by the structural grain of the orogen or whether the distribution of declinations follows a random pattern. In addition, new paleomagnetic data will contribute to further refine the drift history of the Armorican Terrane Assemblage during late Paleozoic times. The unmetamorphosed Frankenstein Igneous Complex forms part of the Mid-German Crystalline Rise within the Armorican Terrane Assemblage, amalgamated to Avalonia and Baltica during the Variscan orogeny, Stepwise thermal and alternating field (AF) demagnetization experiments identify four components (A, B, Cn, and Cr) of magnetization. Component A is a recent viscous overprint that parallels the present-day geomagnetic field. The high unblocking temperatures of A in some samples can be explained by the presence of multidomain magnetite. Component B is carried by hematite and is considered to be a late Carboniferous remagnetization. Components Cr and Cn, found in 110 samples from 20 sites, are antiparallel and pass a class C reversal test. Their primary origin is further supported by a contact test. Cr and Cn have maximum unblocking temperatures of up to 580°C and occasionally above over 600°C, indicating magnetite and hematite to carry the characteristic remanent magnetization. Ore microscopy revealed that primary hematite lamellae in ilmenite carry Cr and Cn and that a secondary generation of hematite is the carrier of B. The overall site mean direction of Cr and Cn (20 sites) based on endpoints and remagnetization circle analysis of 198°/40° (declination/inclination) with a 95% confidence limit (α95) of 4.9° and a precision parameter (k) of 45.0 defines a paleopole at 15°S, 9°W. When comparing to the apparent

  3. Complicated secondary textures in zircon record evolution of the host granitic rocks: Studies from Western Tauern Window and Ötztal-Stubai Crystalline Complex (Eastern Alps, Western Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, Elizaveta; Harlov, Daniel; Klötzli, Urs

    2017-07-01

    Samples of metamorphosed and deformed granitic rocks were collected from two Alpine complexes with well-constrained metamorphic history: Western Tauern Window and Ötztal-Stubai Crystalline Complex. Zircon grains from these samples were investigated in situ by a combination of scanning electron microscope techniques, cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging and Raman spectroscopy. The aims were: to describe and interpret complicated secondary textures and microstructures in zircon; based on cross-cutting relationships between secondary microstructures, reconstruct the sequence of processes, affecting zircon crystals; link the evolution of zircon with the history of the host rocks. The results indicate that zircon in the sampled granitic rocks forms growth twins and multi-grain aggregates, which are unusual for this mineral. Moreover, various secondary textures have been found in the sampled zircon, often cross-cutting each other in a single crystal. These include: distorted oscillatory CL zoning with inner zones forming inward-penetrating, CL-bright embayments, which are the evidence of dry recrystallization via annealing/lattice recovery; CL mosaicism with no preservation of growth zoning, but abundant nano- and micro-scale pores and mineral inclusions, which are the evidence of recrystallization by coupled dissolution-reprecipitation and/or leaching; embayed zircon boundaries filled with apatite, monazite, epidote and mylonitic matrix, indicating mineral-fluid reactions resulting in zircon dissolution and fragmentation; overgrowth CL-dark rims, which contain nano-pores and point to transport and precipitation of dissolved zircon matter. We conclude that zircon in our meta-granites is sensitive to metamorphism/deformation events, and was reactive with metamorphic fluids. Additionally, we have found evidence of crystal-plastic deformation in the form of low angle boundaries and bent grain tips, which is a result of shearing and ductile deformation of the host rock. We

  4. Specific Interactions of Antitumor Metallocenes with Deoxydinucleoside Monophosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, Rahel P.; Hari, Yvonne; Schürch, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    Bent metallocenes Cp2MCl2 (M = Ti, V, Nb, Mo) are known to exhibit cytotoxic activity against a variety of cancer types. Though the mechanism of action is not fully understood yet, the accumulation of the metal ions in the nucleus points towards DNA as one of the primary targets. A set of eight deoxydinucleoside monophosphates was used to study the adduct yields with metallocenes and cisplatin. The binding affinities are reflected by the relative intensities of the adducts and were found to follow the order of Pt > V > Ti > Mo (no adducts were detected with Nb). High-resolution tandem mass spectrometry was applied to locate the binding patterns in the deoxydinucleoside monophosphates. Whereas cisplatin binds to the soft nitrogen atoms in the purine nucleobases, the metallocenes additionally interact with the hard phosphate oxygen, which is in good agreement with the hard and soft (Lewis) acids and bases (HSAB) concept. However, the binding specificities were found to be unique for each metallocene. The hard Lewis acids titanium and vanadium predominantly bind to the deprotonated phosphate oxygen, whereas molybdenum, an intermediate Lewis acid, preferentially interacts with the nucleobases. Nucleobases comprise alternative binding sites for titanium and vanadium, presumably oxygen atoms for the first and nitrogen atoms for the latter. In summary, the intrinsic binding behavior of the different metallodrugs is reflected by the gas-phase dissociation of the adducts. Consequently, MS/MS can provide insights into therapeutically relevant interactions between metallodrugs and their cellular targets. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Specific Interactions of Antitumor Metallocenes with Deoxydinucleoside Monophosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, Rahel P.; Hari, Yvonne; Schürch, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    Bent metallocenes Cp2MCl2 (M = Ti, V, Nb, Mo) are known to exhibit cytotoxic activity against a variety of cancer types. Though the mechanism of action is not fully understood yet, the accumulation of the metal ions in the nucleus points towards DNA as one of the primary targets. A set of eight deoxydinucleoside monophosphates was used to study the adduct yields with metallocenes and cisplatin. The binding affinities are reflected by the relative intensities of the adducts and were found to follow the order of Pt > V > Ti > Mo (no adducts were detected with Nb). High-resolution tandem mass spectrometry was applied to locate the binding patterns in the deoxydinucleoside monophosphates. Whereas cisplatin binds to the soft nitrogen atoms in the purine nucleobases, the metallocenes additionally interact with the hard phosphate oxygen, which is in good agreement with the hard and soft (Lewis) acids and bases (HSAB) concept. However, the binding specificities were found to be unique for each metallocene. The hard Lewis acids titanium and vanadium predominantly bind to the deprotonated phosphate oxygen, whereas molybdenum, an intermediate Lewis acid, preferentially interacts with the nucleobases. Nucleobases comprise alternative binding sites for titanium and vanadium, presumably oxygen atoms for the first and nitrogen atoms for the latter. In summary, the intrinsic binding behavior of the different metallodrugs is reflected by the gas-phase dissociation of the adducts. Consequently, MS/MS can provide insights into therapeutically relevant interactions between metallodrugs and their cellular targets.

  6. On the complex interplay of crystallinity and surface area effects on Li-ion intercalation and pseudocapacitive storage properties of nanocrystalline anatase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, Micah J.; Yasin, Amrita; Demopoulos, George P.

    2014-12-01

    Lithium insertion in anatase is studied by considering simultaneously the effects of crystallinity and surface area on storage mechanism, namely intercalation vs. pseudocapacitive. 6 nm anatase crystallites with high surface area (222 m2 g-1), synthesized via a novel continuous aqueous process and annealed at different temperatures (200 °C, 300 °C, and 400 °C), were electrochemically tested. By annealing, crystallinity was increased, while surface area decreased allowing for the investigation of the contributions of each toward lithiation and delithiation behavior. The as-synthesized and best-annealed (at 300 °C) samples were compared at various rates. At low rate (1C and 2C) the annealed anatase had higher reversible capacity than the as-synthesized, due to increased diffusion-based storage. At high rate however, as-synthesized anatase had much higher capacity due to increased surface area and ability to store Li-ions pseudocapacitively. Increased crystallinity leads to increased diffusivity as determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, explaining why the 300 °C anneal had higher capacity at low rate. Long-term cycling at high rate, however, showed that reliance on diffusion-based storage (intercalation) in the case of the 300 °C anneal causes increased polarization that leads to electrode performance decline. These results point to the importance of simultaneous nanoanatase property (crystallinity and surface area) optimization for achieving stable performance.

  7. Adenosine Monophosphate-Based Detection of Bacterial Spores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Roger G.; Chen, Fei; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Hattori, Nori; Suzuki, Shigeya

    2009-01-01

    A method of rapid detection of bacterial spores is based on the discovery that a heat shock consisting of exposure to a temperature of 100 C for 10 minutes causes the complete release of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) from the spores. This method could be an alternative to the method described in the immediately preceding article. Unlike that method and related prior methods, the present method does not involve germination and cultivation; this feature is an important advantage because in cases in which the spores are those of pathogens, delays involved in germination and cultivation could increase risks of infection. Also, in comparison with other prior methods that do not involve germination, the present method affords greater sensitivity. At present, the method is embodied in a laboratory procedure, though it would be desirable to implement the method by means of a miniaturized apparatus in order to make it convenient and economical enough to encourage widespread use.

  8. A Xanthomonas uridine 5'-monophosphate transferase inhibits plant immune kinases.

    PubMed

    Feng, Feng; Yang, Fan; Rong, Wei; Wu, Xiaogang; Zhang, Jie; Chen, She; He, Chaozu; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2012-04-15

    Plant innate immunity is activated on the detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) at the cell surface, or of pathogen effector proteins inside the plant cell. Together, PAMP-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity constitute powerful defences against various phytopathogens. Pathogenic bacteria inject a variety of effector proteins into the host cell to assist infection or propagation. A number of effector proteins have been shown to inhibit plant immunity, but the biochemical basis remains unknown for the vast majority of these effectors. Here we show that the Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris type III effector AvrAC enhances virulence and inhibits plant immunity by specifically targeting Arabidopsis BIK1 and RIPK, two receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases known to mediate immune signalling. AvrAC is a uridylyl transferase that adds uridine 5'-monophosphate to and conceals conserved phosphorylation sites in the activation loop of BIK1 and RIPK, reducing their kinase activity and consequently inhibiting downstream signalling.

  9. Effects of adenosine 5'-monophosphate on epidermal turnover.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Fukumi; Kanehara, Shoko; Harano, Fumiki; Shinohara, Shigeo; Kamimura, Junko; Kawabata, Shigekatsu; Igarashi, Sachiyo; Kawamura, Mitsuaki; Yamamoto, Yuki; Miyachi, Yoshiki

    2008-10-01

    The structure and function of the epidermis is maintained by cell renewal based on epidermal turnover. Epidermal turnover is delayed by aging, and it is thought that the delay of the epidermal turnover is a cause of aging alternation of skin. The epidermal turnover is related to the energy metabolism of epidermal basal cells. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is needed for cell renewal: cell division, and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) increases the amount of intracellular ATP. These findings suggest that AMP accelerates the epidermal turnover delayed by aging. This study investigated whether AMP and adenosine 5'-monophosphate disodium salt (AMP2Na) accelerates the epidermal turnover. An effect of AMP2Na on cell proliferation was examined by our counting of keratinocytes. An effect of AMP2Na on cell cycle was examined by our counting of basal cells in DNA synthetic period of hairless rats. The effects of AMP2Na (or AMP) on the epidermal turnover were examined by our measuring stratum corneum transit time by use of guinea pigs, and by our measuring stratum corneum surface area by use of hairless rats and in a clinical pharmacological study. The AMP2Na showed two different profiles on the proliferation of primary cultured keratinocytes. At a low concentration it induced cell growth, whereas at a high concentration it inhibited cell growth. The number of basal cells in the DNA synthetic period of AMP2Na was significantly higher than that of the vehicle in hairless rats. The stratum corneum transit time of AMP2Na was significantly shorter than that of the vehicle in guinea pigs. The corneocyte surface area of emulsion containing AMP2Na was significantly smaller than that of the vehicle in volunteers. We conclude that AMP promotes the cell proliferation and the cell cycle progression of epidermal basal cells and accelerates epidermal turnover safely. In addition, AMP is useful for skin rejuvenation in dermatology and aesthetic dermatology.

  10. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Hari S.; Chu, Shaoping; Reimus, Paul William; Makedonska, Nataliia; Hyman, Jeffrey De'Haven; Karra, Satish; Dittrich, Timothy M.

    2015-12-21

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2014 and July 2015 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program.

  11. Impaired adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signalling in dorsal root ganglia neurons is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and peripheral neuropathy in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Darrell R.; Saleh, Ali; Schapansky, Jason; Marquez, Alexandra; Gomes, Suzanne; Akude, Eli; Morrow, Dwane; Calcutt, Nigel A.; Fernyhough, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction occurs in sensory neurons and may contribute to distal axonopathy in animal models of diabetic neuropathy. The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) signalling axis senses the metabolic demands of cells and regulates mitochondrial function. Studies in muscle, liver and cardiac tissues have shown that the activity of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and PGC-1α is decreased under hyperglycaemia. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that deficits in adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/PGC-1α signalling in sensory neurons underlie impaired axonal plasticity, suboptimal mitochondrial function and development of neuropathy in rodent models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Phosphorylation and expression of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/PGC-1α and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex proteins were downregulated in dorsal root ganglia of both streptozotocin-diabetic rats and db/db mice. Adenoviral-mediated manipulation of endogenous adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activity using mutant proteins modulated neurotrophin-directed neurite outgrowth in cultures of sensory neurons derived from adult rats. Addition of resveratrol to cultures of sensory neurons derived from rats after 3–5 months of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, significantly elevated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase levels, enhanced neurite outgrowth and normalized mitochondrial inner membrane polarization in axons. The bioenergetics profile (maximal oxygen consumption rate, coupling efficiency, respiratory control ratio and spare respiratory capacity) was aberrant in cultured sensory neurons from streptozotocin-diabetic rats and was corrected by resveratrol treatment. Finally, resveratrol treatment for the last 2 months of a 5-month period of diabetes reversed thermal hypoalgesia and attenuated foot skin

  12. A first find of retrogressed eclogites in the Odenwald Crystalline Complex, Mid-German Crystalline Rise, Germany: evidence for a so far unrecognised high-pressure metamorphism in the Central Variscides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Thomas M.; Schmädicke, Esther

    2001-11-01

    Metabasic rocks were recently found in the Böllsteiner Odenwald, being part of the Variscan Mid-German Crystalline Rise (MGCR), that give evidence of a so far unrecognised eclogite-facies metamorphic event and testify, for the first time, to high-pressure metamorphism in the MGCR, the assumed suture zone of the European Variscides. Eclogite-facies metamorphism is indicated by both widespread clinopyroxene-plagioclase symplectites—interpreted as breakdown products of omphacite—and the composition of symplectitic clinopyroxene with measured jadeite contents of up to 27 mol%, extending into the omphacite field. Reintegration of numerous clinopyroxene-plagioclase symplectites implies minimum jadeite contents of the former omphacite of at least 38 mol%. For the eclogite stage, the four-phase assemblage omphacite-garnet-quartz-rutile can be reconstructed. A post-eclogitic overprint led to the formation of symplectitic intergrowths of clinopyroxene and plagioclase, amphibole-plagioclase coronas around garnet and domains with recrystallised amphibole and plagioclase. Preliminary P- T estimates for the eclogite-facies metamorphism indicate minimum pressures of some 16-17 kbar and temperatures of approximately 700±50 °C. Geothermobarometry for the subsequent symplectitic breakdown of omphacite yields some 14 kbar and 700 °C. P- T estimates on retrograde amphibolite-facies domains and on prograde mineral assemblages preserved in garnet cores point to a clockwise P- T path experienced by these rocks. The eclogites formed from a tholeiitic protolith, that may have been genetically linked to a continental extension zone or a young oceanic ridge or back-arc environment.

  13. UHP-UHT peak conditions and near-adiabatic exhumation path of diamond-bearing garnet-clinopyroxene rocks from the Eger Crystalline Complex, North Bohemian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haifler, Jakub; Kotková, Jana

    2016-04-01

    Intermediate garnet-clinopyroxene rocks from the Eger Crystalline Complex, North Bohemian Massif, contain microdiamonds enclosed in garnet and zircon. The variable mineral assemblage of these rocks allows for an evaluation of the P-T evolution using numerous univariant equilibria and thermodynamic modelling, in addition to the ternary feldspar solvus, Ti-in-garnet, Zr-in-rutile and Ti-in-zircon thermometry. Zircon mantle domains with diamond inclusions contain 111-189 ppm Ti, reflecting temperatures of 1037-1117 °C. The peak pressure consistent with diamond stability corresponds to c. 4.5-5.0 GPa. Ti-in-garnet thermometry using the Ti content of diamond-bearing garnet core yielded temperatures of 993-1039 °C at c. 5.0 GPa. An omphacite inclusion in garnet (reflecting c. 2.3-2.4 GPa at c. 1050 °C) and metastably preserved kyanite represent relics of eclogite-facies conditions. The dominant high-pressure granulite-facies mineral assemblage of low-Ca garnet, diopsidic clinopyroxene, antiperthitic feldspar and quartz equilibrated at 1.8-2.1 GPa and c. 1050 °C, based on the XGrs isopleth of the garnet mantle, garnet-feldspar-kyanite-quartz univariant equilibria and ternary feldspar solvus. Our thermodynamic modelling shows that a steep decrease of XGrs from a maximum core value of 0.32 to 0.17 at the rim as well as a rimward XMg increase (from 0.42 to 0.50) are consistent with significant decompression without heating. The latter is related to omphacite and kyanite breakdown reactions producing garnet and plagioclase. The Ti content in the rim zone of zircon (13-42 ppm), exsolved plagioclase and K-feldspar associated with matrix diopside and garnet rim, and late biotite reflect temperatures of c. 830-900 °C at c. 1.4 GPa. A similar temperature is recorded by matrix rutile grains, containing 2028-4390 ppm Zr and representing a relatively homogeneous population in contrast to rutile enclosed in garnet with variable Zr content. Our results show that the garnet

  14. X-ray studies on crystalline complexes involving amino acids and peptides. XLII. Adipic acid complexes of L- and DL-arginine and supramolecular association in arginine-dicarboxylic acid complexes.

    PubMed

    Roy, Siddhartha; Singh, Desh Deepak; Vijayan, M

    2005-02-01

    The adipic acid complexes of DL-arginine and L-arginine are made up of zwitterionic, singularly positively charged arginium ions and doubly negatively charged adipate ions, with a 2:1 stoichiometry. One of the two crystallographically independent arginium ions in the L-arginine complex has a conformation hitherto unobserved in crystal structures containing the amino acid. In the present study the structural data on arginine complexes of saturated dicarboxylic acids with 0-5 C atoms separating the two carboxyl functions are given. In terms of molecular aggregation, formic and acetic acid complexes behave in a similar way to those involving fairly long carboxylic acids such as adipic acid. By and large, the supramolecular assembly in complexes involving dicarboxylic acids with 3 or more C atoms separating the carboxyl groups (glutaric, adipic and pimelic acids), and those involving formic and acetic acids, have common features. The aggregation patterns in complexes involving oxalic, malonic and maleic acids do not share striking features among themselves (except for the mode of hydrogen-bonded dimerization of arginium ions) or with those involving larger dicarboxylic acids. Complexes of succinic acid, the shortest linear dicarboxylic acid, share features with those involving shorter as well as longer dicarboxylic acids. The difference in the behaviour of long and short dicarboxylic acids and the ambiguous behaviour of succinic acid can be broadly related to their lengths.

  15. Kinetic mechanism and energetics of binding of phosphoryl group acceptors to Mycobacterium tuberculosis cytidine monophosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Jaskulski, Léia; Rosado, Leonardo A; Rostirolla, Diana C; Timmers, Luis F S M; de Souza, Osmar N; Santos, Diogenes S; Basso, Luiz A

    2013-08-01

    Cytidine monophosphate kinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtCMK) likely plays a role in supplying precursors for nucleic acid synthesis. MtCMK catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphoryl group transfer preferentially to CMP and dCMP. Initial velocity studies and Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurements showed that MtCMK follows a random-order mechanism of substrate (CMP and ATP) binding, and an ordered mechanism for product release, in which ADP is released first followed by CDP. The thermodynamic signatures of CMP and CDP binding to MtCMK showed favorable enthalpy and unfavorable entropy, and ATP binding was characterized by favorable changes in enthalpy and entropy. The contribution of linked protonation events to the energetics of MtCMK:phosphoryl group acceptor binary complex formation suggested a net gain of protons. Values for the pKa of a likely chemical group involved in proton exchange and for the intrinsic binding enthalpy were calculated. The Asp187 side chain of MtCMK is suggested as the likely candidate for the protonation event. Data on thermodynamics of binary complex formation were collected to evaluate the contribution of 2'-OH group to intermolecular interactions. The data are discussed in light of functional and structural comparisons between CMP/dCMP kinases and UMP/CMP ones.

  16. [Identification of thiamine monophosphate hydrolyzing enzymes in chicken liver].

    PubMed

    Kolos, I K; Makarchikov, A F

    2014-01-01

    In animals, thiamine monophosphate (TMP) is an intermediate on the path of thiamine diphosphate, the coenzyme form of vitamin B1, degradation. The enzymes involved in TMP metabolism in animal tissues are not identified hitherto. The aim of this work was to study TMP hydrolysis in chicken liver. Two phosphatases have been found to contribute to TMP hydrolysis in liver homogenate. The first one, possessing a maximal activity at pH 6.0, is soluble, whereas the second one represents a membrane-bound enzyme with a pH optimum of 9.0. Membrane-bound TMPase activity was enhanced 1.7-fold by 5 mM Mg2+ ions and strongly inhibited by levamisole in uncompetitive manner with K1 of 53 μM, indicating the involvement of alkaline phosphatase. An apparent Km of alkaline phosphatase for TMP was calculated from the Hanes plot to be 0.6 mM. The soluble TMPase has an apparent Km of 0.7 mM; this enzyme is Mg2+ independent and insensitive to levamisole. As estimated by gel filtration on a Toyopearl HW-55 column, the soluble enzyme has a molecular mass of 17.8 kDa, TMPase activity being eluted simultaneously with peaks of flavinmononucleotide and p-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity. Thus, TMP appears to be a physiological substrate for a low-molecular weight acid phosphatase, also known as low-molecular-weight protein phosphotyrosine phosphatase.

  17. Quinazolinethiones and quinazolinediones, novel inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase: synthesis and initial structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Buckley, George M; Davies, Natasha; Dyke, Hazel J; Gilbert, Philip J; Hannah, Duncan R; Haughan, Alan F; Hunt, Caroline A; Pitt, William R; Profit, Rachael H; Ray, Nicholas C; Richard, Marianna D; Sharpe, Andrew; Taylor, Alicia J; Whitworth, Justine M; Williams, Sophie C

    2005-02-01

    The development of a series of novel quinazolinethiones and quinazolinediones as inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is described. The synthesis, in vitro inhibitory values for IMPDH II and in vitro inhibitory value for PBMC proliferation are discussed.

  18. Revealing crystalline domains in a mollusc shell single-crystalline prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastropietro, F.; Godard, P.; Burghammer, M.; Chevallard, C.; Daillant, J.; Duboisset, J.; Allain, M.; Guenoun, P.; Nouet, J.; Chamard, V.

    2017-09-01

    Biomineralization integrates complex processes leading to an extraordinary diversity of calcareous biomineral crystalline architectures, in intriguing contrast with the consistent presence of a sub-micrometric granular structure. Hence, gaining access to the crystalline architecture at the mesoscale, that is, over a few granules, is key to building realistic biomineralization scenarios. Here we provide the nanoscale spatial arrangement of the crystalline structure within the `single-crystalline' prisms of the prismatic layer of a Pinctada margaritifera shell, exploiting three-dimensional X-ray Bragg ptychography microscopy. We reveal the details of the mesocrystalline organization, evidencing a crystalline coherence extending over a few granules. We additionally prove the existence of larger iso-oriented crystalline domains, slightly misoriented with respect to each other, around one unique rotation axis, and whose shapes are correlated with iso-strain domains. The highlighted mesocrystalline properties support recent biomineralization models involving partial fusion of oriented nanoparticle assembly and/or liquid droplet precursors.

  19. Revealing crystalline domains in a mollusc shell single-crystalline prism.

    PubMed

    Mastropietro, F; Godard, P; Burghammer, M; Chevallard, C; Daillant, J; Duboisset, J; Allain, M; Guenoun, P; Nouet, J; Chamard, V

    2017-09-01

    Biomineralization integrates complex processes leading to an extraordinary diversity of calcareous biomineral crystalline architectures, in intriguing contrast with the consistent presence of a sub-micrometric granular structure. Hence, gaining access to the crystalline architecture at the mesoscale, that is, over a few granules, is key to building realistic biomineralization scenarios. Here we provide the nanoscale spatial arrangement of the crystalline structure within the 'single-crystalline' prisms of the prismatic layer of a Pinctada margaritifera shell, exploiting three-dimensional X-ray Bragg ptychography microscopy. We reveal the details of the mesocrystalline organization, evidencing a crystalline coherence extending over a few granules. We additionally prove the existence of larger iso-oriented crystalline domains, slightly misoriented with respect to each other, around one unique rotation axis, and whose shapes are correlated with iso-strain domains. The highlighted mesocrystalline properties support recent biomineralization models involving partial fusion of oriented nanoparticle assembly and/or liquid droplet precursors.

  20. Preparation of high crystalline nanoparticles of rare-earth based complex pervoskites and comparison of their structural and magnetic properties with bulk counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basith, M. A.; Islam, M. A.; Ahmmad, Bashir; Sarowar Hossain, M. D.; Mølhave, K.

    2017-07-01

    A simple route to prepare Gd0.7Sr0.3MnO3 nanoparticles by ultrasonication of their bulk powder materials is presented in this article. For comparison, Gd0.7Sr0.3MnO3 nanoparticles are also prepared by ball milling. The prepared samples are characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive x-ray (EDX), x-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. XRD Rietveld analysis is carried out extensively for the determination of crystallographic parameters and the amount of crystalline and amorphous phases. FESEM images demonstrate the formation of nanoparticles with average particle size in the range of 50-100 nm for both ultrasonication and 4 h (h) of ball milling. The bulk materials and nanoparticles synthesized by both ultrasonication and 4 h ball milling exhibit a paramagnetic to spin-glass transition. However, nanoparticles synthesized by 8 h and 12 h ball milling do not reveal any phase transition, rather show an upturn of magnetization at low temperature. The degradation of the magnetic properties in ball milled nanoparticles may be associated with amorphization of the nanoparticles due to ball milling particularly for milling time exceeding 8 h. This investigation demonstrates the potential of ultrasonication as a simple route to prepare high crystalline rare-earth based manganite nanoparticles with improved control compared to the traditional ball milling technique.

  1. Biochemical analysis of the modular enzyme inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Nimmesgern, E; Black, J; Futer, O; Fulghum, J R; Chambers, S P; Brummel, C L; Raybuck, S A; Sintchak, M D

    1999-11-01

    Two prominent domains have been identified in the X-ray crystal structure of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), a core domain consisting of an alpha/beta barrel which contains the active site and an inserted subdomain whose structure is less well defined. The core domain encompassing amino acids 1-108 and 244-514 of wild-type human IMPDH (II) connected by the tetrapeptide linker Ile-Arg-Thr-Gly was expressed. The subdomain including amino acids 99-244 of human wild-type IMPDH (II) was expressed as a His-tagged fusion protein, where the His-tag was removable by enterokinase cleavage. These two proteins as well as wild-type human IMPDH (II), all proteins expressed in Escherichia coli, have been purified to apparent homogeneity. Both the wild-type and core domain proteins are tetrameric and have very similar enzymatic activities. In contrast, the subdomain migrates as a monomer or dimer on a gel filtration column and lacks enzymatic activity. Circular dichroism spectropolarimetry indicates that the core domain retains secondary structure very similar to full-length IMPDH, with 30% alpha-helix and 30% beta-sheet vs 33% alpha-helix and 29% beta-sheet for wild-type protein. Again, the subdomain protein is distinguished from both wild-type and core domain proteins by its content of secondary structure, with only 15% each of alpha-helix and beta-sheet. These studies demonstrate that the core domain of IMPDH expressed separately is both structurally intact and enzymatically active. The availability of the modules of IMPDH will aid in dissecting the architecture of this enzyme of the de novo purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway, which is an important target for immunosuppressive and antiviral drugs.

  2. Identification and characterization of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase from Halobacterium salinarum.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Jin; Joo, Won-A; Choi, Jiyeon; Lee, So-Hee; Kim, Chan-Wha

    2004-11-01

    Extremely halophilic Archaea, Halobacterium salinarum live in hypersaline habitats and maintain an osmotic balance of their cytoplasm by accumulating high concentrations of salt (mainly KCl). Therefore, their enzymes adapted to high NaCl concentrations offer a multitude of acutal or potential applications such as biocatalysts in the presence of high salt concentrations. In this study, the protein expression profile of H. salinarum cultured under different NaCl concentrations (3.5 M, 4.3 M, and 6.0 M) was investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). As a result of 2-DE, the protein spots concentrated in acidic range at pH 3-10 were separated effectively using pH 3.5-4.5 ultrazoom IPG DryStrips. The proteins which proved to be upregulated or downregulated in 2-DE gel were digested with trypsin and identified with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and electrospray ionization quadrupole (ESI-Q) TOF-mass spectrometry. Most proteins were identified as known annotated proteins based on sequence homology and few as unknown hypothetical proteins. Among proteins identified, an enzyme named inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) was selected based on the possibility of its industrial application. IMPDH gene (1.6 kb fragment) expected to exist in H. salinarum was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and expressed in Escherichia coli strain, BL21 (DE3) using a pGEX-KG vector. Recombinant IMPDH purified from H. salinarum has a higher activity in the presence of salt than in the absence of salt.

  3. Resonant Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation Spectroscopy of Anionic Nucleotide Monophosphate Clusters.

    PubMed

    Ligare, Marshall R; Rijs, Anouk M; Berden, Giel; Kabeláč, Martin; Nachtigallova, Dana; Oomens, Jos; de Vries, Mattanjah S

    2015-06-25

    We report mid-infrared spectra and potential energy surfaces of four anionic, 2'-deoxynucleotide-5'-monophosphates (dNMPs) and the ionic DNA pairs [dGMP-dCMP-H](1-), [dAMP-dTMP-H](1-) with a total charge of the complex equal to -1. We recorded IR action spectra by resonant IR multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) using the FELIX free electron laser. The potential energy surface study employed an on-the-fly molecular dynamics quenching method (MD/Q), using a semiempirical AM1 method, followed by an optimization of the most stable structures using density functional theory. By employing infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy in combination with high-level computational methods, we aim at a better understanding of the hydrogen bonding competition between the phosphate moieties and the nucleobases. We find that, unlike in multimer double stranded DNA structures, the hydrogen bonds in these isolated nucleotide pairs are predominantly formed between the phosphate groups. This intermolecular interaction appears to exceed the stabilization energy resulting from base pairing and directs the overall cluster structure and alignment.

  4. A mutational analysis of the active site of human type II inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Futer, Olga; Sintchak, Michael D; Caron, Paul R; Nimmesgern, Elmar; DeCenzo, Maureen T; Livingston, David J; Raybuck, Scott A

    2002-01-31

    The oxidation of IMP to XMP is the rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of guanine ribonucleotides. This NAD-dependent reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). Based upon the recent structural determination of IMPDH complexed to oxidized IMP (XMP*) and the potent uncompetitive inhibitor mycophenolic acid (MPA), we have selected active site residues and prepared mutants of human type II IMPDH. The catalytic parameters of these mutants were determined. Mutations G326A, D364A, and the active site nucleophile C331A all abolish enzyme activity to less than 0.1% of wild type. These residues line the IMP binding pocket and are necessary for correct positioning of the substrate, Asp364 serving to anchor the ribose ring of the nucleotide. In the MPA/NAD binding site, significant loss of activity was seen by mutation of any residue of the triad Arg322, Asn303, Asp274 which form a hydrogen bonding network lining one side of this pocket. From a model of NAD bound to the active site consistent with the mutational data, we propose that these resides are important in binding the ribose ring of the nicotinamide substrate. Additionally, mutations in the pair Thr333, Gln441, which lies close to the xanthine ring, cause a significant drop in the catalytic activity of IMPDH. It is proposed that these residues serve to deliver the catalytic water molecule required for hydrolysis of the cysteine-bound XMP* intermediate formed after oxidation by NAD.

  5. Structural and functional characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis uridine monophosphate kinase: insights into the allosteric regulation.

    PubMed

    Labesse, Gilles; Benkali, Khaled; Salard-Arnaud, Isabelle; Gilles, Anne-Marie; Munier-Lehmann, Hélène

    2011-04-01

    Nucleoside Monophosphate Kinases (NMPKs) family are key enzymes in nucleotide metabolism. Bacterial UMPKs depart from the main superfamily of NMPKs. Having no eukaryotic counterparts they represent attractive therapeutic targets. They are regulated by GTP and UTP, while showing different mechanisms in Gram(+), Gram(-) and archaeal bacteria. In this work, we have characterized the mycobacterial UMPK (UMPKmt) combining enzymatic and structural investigations with site-directed mutagenesis. UMPKmt exhibits cooperativity toward ATP and an allosteric regulation by GTP and UTP. The crystal structure of the complex of UMPKmt with GTP solved at 2.5 Å, was merely identical to the modelled apo-form, in agreement with SAXS experiments. Only a small stretch of residues was affected upon nucleotide binding, pointing out the role of macromolecular dynamics rather than major structural changes in the allosteric regulation of bacterial UMPKs. We further probe allosteric regulation by site-directed mutagenesis. In particular, a key residue involved in the allosteric regulation of this enzyme was identified.

  6. Inhibition of initiation of protein synthesis by 7-methylguanosine-5'-monophosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, E D; Weber, L A; Baglioni, C

    1976-01-01

    Translation of rabbit globin mRNA in a wheat germ protein-synthesizing system is inhibited by the nucleotide 7-methylguanosine-5'-monophosphate (m7G5'p) but not by other guanosine nucleotides without the 7-methyl group or with the phosphate in a different position. Translation of RNA of tobacco mosaic virus and poly(A) + HeLa RNA is also inhibited by m7G5'p. We show that m7G5'p prevents the association of mRNA with ribosomal subunits to form an initiation complex. We propose that m7G5'p interacts with a site on initiation factor(s) or ribosomes which is involved in mRNA recognition, presumably by binding to the 5'-terminal sequence m7G5'ppp. m7G5'p does not inhibit translation of poly(U) and RNA of satellite tobacco necrosis virus, which do not have the 5'-terminal sequence m7G5'ppp. In the case of RNA of satellite tobacco necrosis virus, some stimulation of its translation is consistently observed in the presence of m7G5'p; possible interpretations of this finding are discussed. PMID:1061116

  7. Recognition of nucleoside monophosphate substrates by Haemophilus influenzae class C acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harkewal; Schuermann, Jonathan P; Reilly, Thomas J; Calcutt, Michael J; Tanner, John J

    2010-12-10

    The e (P4) phosphatase from Haemophilus influenzae functions in a vestigial NAD(+) utilization pathway by dephosphorylating nicotinamide mononucleotide to nicotinamide riboside. P4 is also the prototype of class C acid phosphatases (CCAPs), which are nonspecific 5',3'-nucleotidases localized to the bacterial outer membrane. To understand substrate recognition by P4 and other class C phosphatases, we have determined the crystal structures of a substrate-trapping mutant P4 enzyme complexed with nicotinamide mononucleotide, 5'-AMP, 3'-AMP, and 2'-AMP. The structures reveal an anchor-shaped substrate-binding cavity comprising a conserved hydrophobic box that clamps the nucleotide base, a buried phosphoryl binding site, and three solvent-filled pockets that contact the ribose and the hydrogen-bonding edge of the base. The span between the hydrophobic box and the phosphoryl site is optimal for recognizing nucleoside monophosphates, explaining the general preference for this class of substrate. The base makes no hydrogen bonds with the enzyme, consistent with an observed lack of base specificity. Two solvent-filled pockets flanking the ribose are key to the dual recognition of 5'-nucleotides and 3'-nucleotides. These pockets minimize the enzyme's direct interactions with the ribose and provide sufficient space to accommodate 5' substrates in an anti conformation and 3' substrates in a syn conformation. Finally, the structures suggest that class B acid phosphatases and CCAPs share a common strategy for nucleotide recognition.

  8. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-based classification of diabetes pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dutta, D; Kalra, S; Sharma, M

    2016-09-21

    The current classification of both diabetes and antidiabetes medication is complex, preventing a treating physician from choosing the most appropriate treatment for an individual patient, sometimes resulting in patient-drug mismatch. We propose a novel, simple systematic classification of drugs, based on their effect on adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is the master regular of energy metabolism, an energy sensor, activated when cellular energy levels are low, resulting in activation of catabolic process, and inactivation of anabolic process, having a beneficial effect on glycemia in diabetes. This listing of drugs makes it easier for students and practitioners to analyze drug profiles and match them with patient requirements. It also facilitates choice of rational combinations, with complementary modes of action. Drugs are classified as stimulators, inhibitors, mixed action, possible action, and no action on AMPK activity. Metformin and glitazones are pure stimulators of AMPK. Incretin-based therapies have a mixed action on AMPK. Sulfonylureas either inhibit AMPK or have no effect on AMPK. Glycemic efficacy of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor, colesevelam, and bromocriptine may also involve AMPK activation, which warrants further evaluation. Berberine, salicylates, and resveratrol are newer promising agents in the management of diabetes, having well-documented evidence of AMPK stimulation medicated glycemic efficacy. Hence, AMPK-based classification of antidiabetes medications provides a holistic unifying understanding of pharmacotherapy in diabetes. This classification is flexible with a scope for inclusion of promising agents of future.

  9. Recognition of Nucleoside Monophosphate Substrates by Haemophilus influenzae Class C Acid Phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Harkewal; Schuermann, Jonathan P.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Tanner, John J.

    2010-12-08

    The e (P4) phosphatase from Haemophilus influenzae functions in a vestigial NAD{sup +} utilization pathway by dephosphorylating nicotinamide mononucleotide to nicotinamide riboside. P4 is also the prototype of class C acid phosphatases (CCAPs), which are nonspecific 5{prime},3{prime}-nucleotidases localized to the bacterial outer membrane. To understand substrate recognition by P4 and other class C phosphatases, we have determined the crystal structures of a substrate-trapping mutant P4 enzyme complexed with nicotinamide mononucleotide, 5{prime}-AMP, 3{prime}-AMP, and 2{prime}-AMP. The structures reveal an anchor-shaped substrate-binding cavity comprising a conserved hydrophobic box that clamps the nucleotide base, a buried phosphoryl binding site, and three solvent-filled pockets that contact the ribose and the hydrogen-bonding edge of the base. The span between the hydrophobic box and the phosphoryl site is optimal for recognizing nucleoside monophosphates, explaining the general preference for this class of substrate. The base makes no hydrogen bonds with the enzyme, consistent with an observed lack of base specificity. Two solvent-filled pockets flanking the ribose are key to the dual recognition of 5{prime}-nucleotides and 3{prime}-nucleotides. These pockets minimize the enzyme's direct interactions with the ribose and provide sufficient space to accommodate 5{prime} substrates in an anti conformation and 3{prime} substrates in a syn conformation. Finally, the structures suggest that class B acid phosphatases and CCAPs share a common strategy for nucleotide recognition.

  10. Association of partially folded lens betaB2-crystallins with the alpha-crystallin molecular chaperone.

    PubMed

    Evans, Paul; Slingsby, Christine; Wallace, B A

    2008-02-01

    Age-related cataract is a result of crystallins, the predominant lens proteins, forming light-scattering aggregates. In the low protein turnover environment of the eye lens, the crystallins are susceptible to modifications that can reduce stability, increasing the probability of unfolding and aggregation events occurring. It is hypothesized that the alpha-crystallin molecular chaperone system recognizes and binds these proteins before they can form the light-scattering centres that result in cataract, thus maintaining the long-term transparency of the lens. In the present study, we investigated the unfolding and aggregation of (wild-type) human and calf betaB2-crystallins and the formation of a complex between alpha-crystallin and betaB2-crystallins under destabilizing conditions. Human and calf betaB2-crystallin unfold through a structurally similar pathway, but the increased stability of the C-terminal domain of human betaB2-crystallin relative to calf betaB2-crystallin results in the increased population of a partially folded intermediate during unfolding. This intermediate is aggregation-prone and prevents constructive refolding of human betaB2-crystallin, while calf betaB2-crystallin can refold with high efficiency. alpha-Crystallin can effectively chaperone both human and calf betaB2-crystallins from thermal aggregation, although chaperone-bound betaB2-crystallins are unable to refold once returned to native conditions. Ordered secondary structure is seen to increase in alpha-crystallin with elevated temperatures up to 60 degrees C; structure is rapidly lost at temperatures of 70 degrees C and above. Our experimental results combined with previously reported observations of alpha-crystallin quaternary structure have led us to propose a structural model of how activated alpha-crystallin chaperones unfolded betaB2-crystallin.

  11. Adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate levels in Thermomonospora curvata during cellulase biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fennington, G.; Neubauer, D.; Stutzenberger, F.

    1983-01-01

    The enzymatic degradation of cellulose requires the synergistic activity of at least three enzymes: exo-beta-1,4-glucanase (EC3.2.1.91), endo-beta-1,4-glucanase (EC3.2.1.4), and beta-glucosidase (EC3.2.1.21). Despite extensive studies on a variety of cellulolytic bacteria and fungi, the mechanism(s) regulating the biosynthesis of this inducible catabolic enzyme complex remains unknown. The intracellular concentrations of cyclic nucleotides such as adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) have been shown to play a major role in mediating catabolite repression of enzyme biosynthesis. The cAMP acts through a cAMP receptor protein (termed CRP or CAP) which is a dimer having two identical subunits each capable of binding one molecule of cAMP. The N-terminal domain of the CRP binds the cAMP while the C-terminal domain binds to DNA at the promotor region of a cAMP-dependent operon and stimulates transcription by promoting the formation of a preinitiation complex between RNA polymerase and the DNA. Intracellular cAMP levels in E. coli (the prototype organism for such studies) are influenced by the type and availability of carbon source used for growth. High intracellular cAMP levels should lead to higher concentrations of cAMP-CRP complexes which should increase the transcription rates for cAMP-dependent operons (such as the lac operon of beta-galactosidase) and indeed the differential rate of beta-galactosidase biosynthesis correlates to intracellular cAMP levels. In the case of cellulase, catabolite repression by glucose or other readily metabolizable compounds closely controls production in an apparently similar manner and therefore a correlation may exist between enzyme biosynthesis and intracellular cAMP levels. This communication describes the fluctuation in cAMP levels during cellulase induction and repression in the thermophilic actinomycete, Thermomonospora curvata.

  12. Crystalline boron nitride aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Rousseas, Michael; Goldstein, Anna P.; Mickelson, William; Worsley, Marcus A.; Woo, Leta

    2017-04-04

    This disclosure provides methods and materials related to boron nitride aerogels. In one aspect, a material comprises an aerogel comprising boron nitride. The boron nitride has an ordered crystalline structure. The ordered crystalline structure may include atomic layers of hexagonal boron nitride lying on top of one another, with atoms contained in a first layer being superimposed on atoms contained in a second layer.

  13. Gas phase RNA and DNA ions 2. Conformational dependence of the gas-phase H/D exchange of nucleotide-5'-monophosphates.

    PubMed

    Freitas, M A; Marshall, A G

    2001-07-01

    The conformational dependence of the gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange of nucleotide-5-monophosphate anions with the H/D exchange reagent D2S is reported here. The electrospray-generated [M-H]- anions of adenosine-5'-monophosphate, adenosine-5'-carboxylic acid, ribitol-5-phosphate, and 2-deoxy-ribitol-5-phosphate were reacted with D2S in the gas phase. Their reactivity (adenosine-5'-monophosphate exchanged 2 of 5 labile hydrogens, adenosine-5'-carboxylic acid exchanged 1 of 4, ribitol-5-phosphate exchanged 2 of 3, and 2-deoxy-ribitol-5-phosphate exchanged 1 of 2) suggests that the hydroxyl group in the 2 position of the ribose sugar and the amino hydrogen on the nucleobase do not exchange readily with D2S. Semiempirical molecular orbital calculations suggest that the labile hydrogens in these positions are thermodynamically facile to exchange but as a conformation inaccessible to the presumed phosphate anion, consistent with a mechanism in which the phosphate anion complexes with the exchange reagent and assists H/D exchange at a neighboring site.

  14. Rationally fabricating hollow particles of complex oxides by a templateless hydrothermal route: the case of single-crystalline SrHfO3 hollow cuboidal nanoshells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Tiannan; Dong, Zhenghong; Zhao, Yongnan; Yu, Jianguo; Wang, Fengqin; Zhang, Lingling; Zou, Yongcun

    2011-03-21

    Based on the theory of sol-gel science, perovskite SrHfO(3) hollow cuboidal particles with tunable sizes were rationally synthesized by templateless hydrothermal reactions in KOH solutions. The concentrated KOH solution not only elevated the supersaturation of the reactants to promote the grain growth of SrHfO(3) but also controlled the aggregated particle sizes by compressing the electrical double layers of the primary particulates. The following Ostwald ripening process produced hollow particles with sizes ranging from submicrometer to hundred nanometre. The HRTEM image and SAED pattern revealed the single crystal nature of each hollow cuboidal nanoshell. The KOH concentration and reaction time related experiments confirmed that the formation of SrHfO(3) hollow cuboidal nanoshell was driven by the Ostwald ripening process and followed our assumption. The particles experienced solid, core-shell and hollow morphologies as the reaction proceeded. Also, the formation of SrHfO(3) hollow cuboidal nanoshells favored high reaction temperature which initiated and accelerated the ripening process. The as-prepared hollow cuboidal nanoshells displayed blue light emission under UV laser excitation at room temperature. After calcination, the photoluminescence intensity declined due to the improvement of crystallinity.

  15. Kinetics and mechanism of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of a hypermodified nucleoside wyosine and its 5'-monophosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Golankiewicz, B; Zielonacka-Lis, E; Folkman, W

    1985-01-01

    The rates of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of a hypermodified nucleoside, wyosine and its 5'-monophosphate were determined at various pH, temperature and buffer concentrations. The results show that despite distinct differences in structure and the glycosyl bond stability, the hydrolysis of wyosine proceeds via cleavage of the C-N bond by A-1 mechanism, analogously to simple nucleosides. Unlike majority of other monophosphates studied so far, wyosine 5'-monophosphate is not more stable than respective nucleoside. PMID:4000960

  16. Topological crystalline insulator nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Cha, Judy J

    2014-11-06

    Topological crystalline insulators are topological insulators whose surface states are protected by the crystalline symmetry, instead of the time reversal symmetry. Similar to the first generation of three-dimensional topological insulators such as Bi₂Se₃ and Bi₂Te₃, topological crystalline insulators also possess surface states with exotic electronic properties such as spin-momentum locking and Dirac dispersion. Experimentally verified topological crystalline insulators to date are SnTe, Pb₁-xSnxSe, and Pb₁-xSnxTe. Because topological protection comes from the crystal symmetry, magnetic impurities or in-plane magnetic fields are not expected to open a gap in the surface states in topological crystalline insulators. Additionally, because they have a cubic structure instead of a layered structure, branched structures or strong coupling with other materials for large proximity effects are possible, which are difficult with layered Bi₂Se₃ and Bi₂Te₃. Thus, additional fundamental phenomena inaccessible in three-dimensional topological insulators can be pursued. In this review, topological crystalline insulator SnTe nanostructures will be discussed. For comparison, experimental results based on SnTe thin films will be covered. Surface state properties of topological crystalline insulators will be discussed briefly.

  17. Investigation of dissociative electron attachment to 2'-deoxycytidine-3'-monophosphate using DFT method and time dependent wave packet approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmick, Somnath; B, Renjith; Mishra, Manoj K.; Sarma, Manabendra

    2012-08-01

    Effect of electron correlation on single strand breaks (SSBs) induced by low energy electron (LEE) has been investigated in a fragment excised from a DNA, viz., 2'-deoxycytidine-3'-monophosphate [3'-dCMPH] molecule in gas phase at DFT-B3LYP/6-31+G(d) accuracy level and using local complex potential based time dependent wave packet (LCP-TDWP) approach. The results obtained, in conjunction with our earlier investigation, show the possibility of SSB at very low energy (0.15 eV) where the LEE transfers from π* to σ* resonance state which resembles a SN2 type mechanism. In addition, for the first time, an indication of quantum mechanical tunneling in strand breaking is seen from the highest anionic bound vibrational state (χ5), which may have a substantial role during DNA damage.

  18. Synthesis, structure, solution and DFT studies of a pyrazine-bridged binuclear Cu(II) complex: On the importance of noncovalent interactions in the formation of crystalline network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Masoud; Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein; Karrabi, Zahra; Notash, Behrouz; Bauzá, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio; Habibi, Morteza; Ardalani, Mehdi; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    A pyrazine-bridged binuclear Cu(II) complexes with formulae of [Cu2(chel)2(pyz)(H2O)4], (1, pyz = pyrazine, H2chel = chelidamic acid), has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectroscopy and solution studies. The crystal structure of the binuclear Cu(II) complex has been determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction technique. Both copper(II) metal centers are bridged by pyrazine. The coordination environment around each copper(II) atom can be described as a distorted octahedral geometry. The axial positions of each Cu(II) complex are occupied by two water molecules and equatorial positions are occupied by a tridentate chelidamic acid dianion and a pyrazine molecule that functions as a linear bidentate ligand bridging two Cu(II) complexes to form a dimer. Hydrogen bonding and Csbnd O⋯π interactions link the binuclear Cu(II) complex generating the 3D infinite network. These assemblies are described and analyzed by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations since they play an important role in the construction of three-dimensional supramolecular frameworks. The protonation constants of pyrazine and chelidamic acid as the building blocks of the proton transfer systems (H2chel-pyz) and their corresponding stability constants were determined by potentiometric studies. The stoichiometry and stability constants of H2chel-pyz complex with Cu2+ was investigated by potentiometric technique in aqueous solution. The results from solution studies were compared with the solid state data, in details.

  19. Epithelial infectious crystalline keratopathy.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, M S; Sharma, S; Garg, P; Rao, G N

    2001-02-01

    To report 2 cases of epithelial infectious crystalline keratopathy. Two patients (2 eyes) with significant meibomitis presented with minimal inflammation and plaque-like lesions on the corneal surface made of fine crystalline structures. Corneal scrapings of these lesions were performed for microbiological evaluation. The patients were treated with topical ciprofloxacin and artificial tears. Smear examination of the corneal scrapings revealed numerous bacteria and keratinized epithelial cells with no inflammatory cells. Culture showed a significant growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Corynebacterium species in the first case and Pseudomonas aeroginosa in the second case. The response to treatment was poor, with recurrence of the crystalline lesion. Infectious crystalline keratopathy lesions may involve the epithelium and occur on the corneal surface.

  20. Encapsulation of CO2 into amorphous alpha-cyclodextrin powder at different moisture contents - Part 2: Characterization of complexed powders and determination of crystalline structure.

    PubMed

    Ho, Thao M; Howes, Tony; Jack, Kevin S; Bhandari, Bhesh R

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to characterize CO2-α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) inclusion complexes produced from amorphous α-CD powder at moisture contents (MC) close to or higher than the critical level of crystallization (e.g. 13, 15 and 17% MC on wet basis, w.b.) at 0.4 and 1.6MPa pressure for 72h. The results of (13)C NMR, SEM, DSC and X-ray analyses showed that these MC levels were high enough to induce crystallization of CO2-α-CD complexed powders during encapsulation, by which amount of CO2 encapsulated by amorphous α-CD powder was significantly increased. The formation of inclusion complexes were well confirmed by results of FTIR and (13)C NMR analyses through an appearance of a peak associated with CO2 on the FTIR (2334cm(-1)) and NMR (125.3ppm) spectra. Determination of crystal packing patterns of CO2-α-CD complexed powders showed that during crystallization, α-CD molecules were arranged in cage-type structure in which CO2 molecules were entrapped in isolated cavities.

  1. Addition of cysteamine to thymine and thymidine monophosphate, initiated by. gamma. -irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Grachev, S.A.; Kropachev, E.V.; Litvyakova, G.I.

    1986-04-20

    On radiolysis of deaerated solutions containing thymine and cysteamine, or thymidine monophosphate and cysteamine, coupling products of these compounds are formed resulting from the addition of cysteamine to the double bond of the base. The radiochemical yields of the coupling products are dependent on the ratio of the concentration thymine (T) to that of cysteamine (RSH), or of thymidine monophosphate (TMP) to cysteamine in the irradiated solutions, and are at a maximum when (T)/(RSH) = 5-10, and (TMP)/(RSH) = 15-20. The mode of formation of coupling products involves reaction of H-, OH-, and e/sub aq//sup -/-adducts of thymine or thymidine monophosphate with cysteamine thiyl radicals.

  2. Defective cyclic guanosine monophosphate-gated calcium channels and the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Roddie C; Oda, Yuko; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Behne, Martin J; Mauro, Theodora

    2003-01-01

    A positive association between intake of calcium channel blockers and psoriasis has been observed recently. Intake of blockers of voltage-gated calcium ion channels is associated with outbreaks of psoriasis after a latent period in patients with and without a previous family history of psoriasis. This suggests that interfering with calcium influx may trigger psoriasis. Calcium influx also occurs via cyclic guanosine monophosphate-gated channels; human keratinocytes contain functional and non-functional (splice variants) versions of these channels. We show here that keratinocytes and skin from psoriatic individuals express higher levels of mRNA encoding a non-functional cyclic guanosine monophosphate-gated calcium channel and that high expression of the splice variant by transfection of cells in culture leads to loss of protein expression for the functional cyclic guanosine monophosphate-gated Ca2+ channels.

  3. Crystalline Silica Primer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    substance and will present a nontechnical overview of the techniques used to measure crystalline silica. Because this primer is meant to be a starting point for anyone interested in learning more about crystalline silica, a list of selected readings and other resources is included. The detailed glossary, which defines many terms that are beyond the scope of this publication, is designed to help the reader move from this presentation to a more technical one, the inevitable next step.

  4. Models of the Membrane-Bound Cytochromes: Mössbauer Spectra of Crystalline Low-Spin Ferriheme Complexes Having Axial Ligand Plane Dihedral Angles Ranging from 0° to 90°

    PubMed Central

    Teschner, Thomas; Yatsunyk, Liliya; Schünemann, Volker; Paulsen, Hauke; Winkler, Heiner; Hu, Chuanjiang; Scheidt, W. Robert; Walker, F. Ann; Trautwein, Alfred X.

    2006-01-01

    Crystalline samples of four low-spin Fe(III) octaalkyltetraphenylporphyrinate and two low-spin Fe(III) tetramesitylporphyrinate complexes, all of which are models of the bis-histidine-coordinated cytochromes of mitochondrial complexes II, III and IV, and chloroplast complex b6f, and whose molecular structures and EPR spectra have been reported previously, have been investigated in detail by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The six complexes and the dihedral angles between axial ligand planes of each are [(TMP)Fe(1-MeIm)2]ClO4 (0°, paral-[(OMTPP)Fe(1-MeIm)2]Cl (19.5°, paral-[(TMP)Fe(5-MeHIm)2]ClO4 (26°, 30° for two molecules in the unit cell whose EPR spectra overlap), [(OETPP)Fe(4-Me2NPy)2]Cl (70°, perp-[(OETPP)Fe(1-MeIm)2]Cl (73°, and perp-[(OMTPP)Fe(1-MeIm)2]Cl (90°. Of these, the first three have been shown to exhibit normal rhombic EPR spectra with three clearly-resolved g-values, while the last three have been shown to exhibit “large gmax” EPR spectra at 4.2 K. It is found that the hyperfine coupling constants of the complexes are consistent with those reported previously for low-spin ferriheme systems, with the largest-magnitude hyperfine coupling constant, Azz, being considerably smaller for the “parallel” complexes (400-540 kG) than for the strictly perpendicular complex (902 kG), Axx being negative for all six complexes, and Azz and Axx being of similar magnitude for the “parallel” complexes (for example, for [(TMP)Fe(1-MeIm)2]Cl, Azz = 400 kG, Axx = - 400 kG), and finally, Ayy is small, but difficult to estimate with accuracy for all complexes. With results for six structurally-characterized model systems we find qualitative correlations of gzz, Azz, and △EQ with axial ligand plane dihedral angle △φ. PMID:16433558

  5. The crystalline sponge method updated

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Manabu; Khutia, Anupam; Xing, Hongzhu; Inokuma, Yasuhide; Fujita, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Crystalline sponges are porous metal complexes that can absorb and orient common organic molecules in their pores and make them observable by conventional X-ray structure analysis (crystalline sponge method). In this study, all of the steps in the crystalline sponge method, including sponge crystal preparation, pore–solvent exchange, guest soaking, data collection and crystallographic analysis, are carefully examined and thoroughly optimized to provide reliable and meaningful chemical information as chemical crystallography. Major improvements in the method have been made in the guest-soaking and data-collection steps. In the soaking step, obtaining a high site occupancy of the guest is particularly important, and dominant parameters for guest soaking (e.g. temperature, time, concentration, solvents) therefore have to be optimized for every sample compound. When standard conditions do not work, a high-throughput method is useful for efficiently optimizing the soaking conditions. The X-ray experiments are also carefully re-examined. Significant improvement of the guest data quality is achieved by complete data collection at high angle regions. The appropriate disorder treatment of the most flexible ZnI2 portions of the host framework and refinement of the solvents filling the remaining void are also particularly important for obtaining better data quality. A benchmark test for the crystalline sponge method toward an achiral molecule is proposed with a guaiazulene guest, in which the guest structure (with ∼ 100% site occupancy) is refined without applying any restraints or constraints. The obtained data quality with R int = 0.0279 and R 1 = 0.0379 is comparable with that of current conventional crystallographic analysis for small molecules. Another benchmark test for this method toward a chiral molecule is also proposed with a santonin guest. The crystallographic data obtained [R int = 0.0421, R 1 = 0.0312, Flack (Parsons) = −0.0071 (11)] represents the

  6. The crystalline sponge method updated.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Manabu; Khutia, Anupam; Xing, Hongzhu; Inokuma, Yasuhide; Fujita, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    Crystalline sponges are porous metal complexes that can absorb and orient common organic molecules in their pores and make them observable by conventional X-ray structure analysis (crystalline sponge method). In this study, all of the steps in the crystalline sponge method, including sponge crystal preparation, pore-solvent exchange, guest soaking, data collection and crystallographic analysis, are carefully examined and thoroughly optimized to provide reliable and meaningful chemical information as chemical crystallography. Major improvements in the method have been made in the guest-soaking and data-collection steps. In the soaking step, obtaining a high site occupancy of the guest is particularly important, and dominant parameters for guest soaking (e.g. temperature, time, concentration, solvents) therefore have to be optimized for every sample compound. When standard conditions do not work, a high-throughput method is useful for efficiently optimizing the soaking conditions. The X-ray experiments are also carefully re-examined. Significant improvement of the guest data quality is achieved by complete data collection at high angle regions. The appropriate disorder treatment of the most flexible ZnI2 portions of the host framework and refinement of the solvents filling the remaining void are also particularly important for obtaining better data quality. A benchmark test for the crystalline sponge method toward an achiral molecule is proposed with a guaiazulene guest, in which the guest structure (with ∼ 100% site occupancy) is refined without applying any restraints or constraints. The obtained data quality with R int = 0.0279 and R 1 = 0.0379 is comparable with that of current conventional crystallographic analysis for small molecules. Another benchmark test for this method toward a chiral molecule is also proposed with a santonin guest. The crystallographic data obtained [R int = 0.0421, R 1 = 0.0312, Flack (Parsons) = -0.0071 (11)] represents the

  7. Squalenoyl nucleoside monophosphate nanoassemblies: new prodrug strategy for the delivery of nucleotide analogues.

    PubMed

    Caron, Joachim; Reddy, L Harivardhan; Lepêtre-Mouelhi, Sinda; Wack, Séverine; Clayette, Pascal; Rogez-Kreuz, Christine; Yousfi, Rahima; Couvreur, Patrick; Desmaële, Didier

    2010-05-01

    4-(N)-1,1',2-trisnor-squalenoyldideoxycytidine monophosphate (SQddC-MP) and 4-(N)-1,1',2-trisnor-squalenoylgemcitabine monophosphate (SQdFdC-MP) were synthesized using phosphoramidite chemistry. These amphiphilic molecules self-assembled to about hundred nanometers size nanoassemblies in aqueous medium. Nanoassemblies of SQddC-MP displayed significant anti-HIV activity whereas SQdFdC-MP nanoassemblies displayed promising anticancer activity on leukemia cells. These results suggested that squalene conjugate of negatively charged nucleotide analogues efficiently penetrated within cells. Thus, we propose a new prodrug strategy for improved delivery of nucleoside analogues to ameliorate their biological efficacy.

  8. Optimization of benzoxazole-based inhibitors of Cryptosporidium parvum inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Gorla, Suresh Kumar; Kavitha, Mandapati; Zhang, Minjia; Chin, James En Wai; Liu, Xiaoping; Striepen, Boris; Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Kim, Youngchang; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Hedstrom, Lizbeth; Cuny, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is an enteric protozoan parasite that has emerged as a major cause of diarrhea, malnutrition and gastroenteritis as well as posing a potential bioterrorism threat. C. parvum synthesizes guanine nucleotides from host adenosine in a streamlined pathway that relies on inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). We have previously identified several parasite-selective C. parvum IMPDH (CpIMPDH) inhibitors by high-throughput screening. In this paper, we report the structure-activity relationship (SAR) for a series of benzoxazole derivatives with many compounds demonstrating CpIMPDH IC50 values in the nanomolar range and > 500-fold selectivity over human IMPDH (hIMPDH). Unlike previously reported CpIMPDH inhibitors, these compounds are competitive inhibitors versus NAD+. The SAR study reveals that pyridine and other small heteroaromatic substituents are required at the 2-position of the benzoxazole for potent inhibitory activity. In addition, several other SAR conclusions are highlighted with regard to the benzoxazole and the amide portion of the inhibitor, including preferred stereochemistry. An x-ray crystal structure of a representative E•IMP•inhibitor complex is also presented. Overall, the secondary amine derivative 15a (Q67) demonstrated excellent CpIMPDH inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.5 ± 0.1 nM) and moderate stability (t1/2 = 44 min) in mouse liver microsomes. Compound 73, the racemic version of 15a, also displayed superb antiparasitic activity in a Toxoplasma gondii strain that relies on CpIMPDH (EC50 = 20 ± 20 nM), and selectivity versus a wild-type T. gondii strain (200-fold). No toxicity was observed (LD50 > 50 μM) against a panel of four mammalian cells lines. PMID:23668331

  9. Ordering and freezing-in phenomena of nanochannel water in crystalline organic/inorganic self-assembled complex [Cr(H2bim)3](TMA) x 23.5 H2O.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Keisuke; Oguni, Masaharu; Tadokoro, Makoto; Kobayashi, Chiho

    2009-10-29

    The thermal properties of crystalline complex [Cr(H(2)bim)(3)](TMA) x 23.5 H(2)O were studied by adiabatic calorimetry to clarify the structural ordering and dynamic freezing-in behaviors of the nanochannel water within the pores possessing crystalline wall structure, where H(2)bim denotes 2,2'-biimidazole and TMA is 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid. Phase and glass transitions were found to occur at 233 K with the associated entropy of Delta(trs)S = 7.96 J K(-1) mol(-1) and at T(g) = 100 K, respectively, in the hydrated sample. The phase transition was interpreted as attributed to the crystallization-like formation of the hydrogen-bond network of the channel-water molecules. The glass transition was interpreted as a freezing-in phenomenon on the way of the development of the network, and its presence indicates that the network formation achieves no completion even at 100 K. The T(g) value is similar to those found previously in other channel-water systems of [Ni(cyclam)(H(2)O)(2)](3)(TMA)(2) x 24 H(2)O and porous silica. It is noted that the channel water within silica pores with their diameter below 1.8 nm undergoes no structural phase transition while the present one does. The origins of the phase and glass transitions and the implication of their presence are discussed based on the difference in the structures of pore wall interacting with the channel-water molecules.

  10. A label-free and self-assembled electrochemical biosensor for highly sensitive detection of cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) based on RNA riboswitch.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qingyun; Zhao, Fulin; Liu, Hongrui; Shan, Yanke; Liu, Fei

    2015-07-02

    Cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is an important second messenger that regulates a variety of complex physiological processes involved in motility, virulence, biofilm formation and cell cycle progression in several bacteria. Herein we report a simple label-free and self-assembled RNA riboswitch-based biosensor for sensitive and selective detection of c-di-GMP. The detectable concentration range of c-di-GMP is from 50 nM to 1 μM with a detection limit of 50 nM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.

    2004-07-13

    The present invention provides phyllosilicate-polymer compositions which are useful as liquid crystalline composites. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while at the same time be transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles liquid crystalline composite, liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  12. The human crystallin gene families

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Crystallins are the abundant, long-lived proteins of the eye lens. The major human crystallins belong to two different superfamilies: the small heat-shock proteins (α-crystallins) and the βγ-crystallins. During evolution, other proteins have sometimes been recruited as crystallins to modify the properties of the lens. In the developing human lens, the enzyme betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase serves such a role. Evolutionary modification has also resulted in loss of expression of some human crystallin genes or of specific splice forms. Crystallin organization is essential for lens transparency and mutations; even minor changes to surface residues can cause cataract and loss of vision. PMID:23199295

  13. Crystallinity and diagenesis of sedimentary apatites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemesh, Aldo

    1990-09-01

    The crystallinity of sedimentary apatites was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) using the splitting of a triply degenerate antisymmetric bending vibration of orthophosphate. The crystallinity indices of Recent marine apatites are low (3.0-3.6) while those of onland ancient apatites are high (4.5-7.8), indicating post-depositional recrystallization. The infrared spectra reveal that recrystallization is associated with a decrease in carbonate content substituting for PO 43- and an increase in fluoride order within the apatite structure. The relationship between the crystallinity index and PO 43- δ 18O suggests alteration of the primary isotopic composition by exchange reactions between PO 43- oxygens and surrounding waters. The Monterey samples have a large range of crystallinity index that reflects a set of complex and highly variable diagenetic conditions. This demonstrates the use of FT-IR criteria for differentiating between pristine and altered apatites and, as a consequence, for relating geochemical markers to formation or diagenetic environments. It is suggested that only those samples that have low crystallinity indices (C. I. < 3.8) should be considered as pristine apatite. Spectra of fish remains indicate that differences in rare earth element (REE) patterns correspond to variations in crystallinity, carbonate content and F order in the apatite lattice. The fact that crystallinity is not correlated with geologic age suggests that environmental factors, such as accumulation rate and pore water chemistry, govern the recrystallization process. In general, Sr content decreases and δ 18Op exhibits high variability with increasing crystallinity.

  14. Mechanism of the Orotidine 5′-Monophosphate Decarboxylase-Catalyzed Reaction: Evidence for Substrate Destabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, K.; Wood, M; Fedorov, A; Fedorov, E; Imker, H; Amyes, T; Richard, J; Almo, S; Gerlt, J

    2009-01-01

    The reaction catalyzed by orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) involves a stabilized anionic intermediate, although the structural basis for the rate acceleration (kcat/knon, 7.1 x 1016) and proficiency (kcat/KM)/knon, 4.8 x 1022 M-1 is uncertain. That the OMPDCs from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (MtOMPDC) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScOMPDC) catalyze the exchange of H6 of the UMP product with solvent deuterium allows an estimate of a lower limit on the rate acceleration associated with stabilization of the intermediate and its flanking transition states (=1010). The origin of the 'missing' contribution, =107 (1017 total - =1010), is of interest. Based on structures of liganded complexes, unfavorable electrostatic interactions between the substrate carboxylate group and a proximal Asp (Asp 70 in MtOMPDC and Asp 91 in ScOMPDC) have been proposed to contribute to the catalytic efficiency. We investigated that hypothesis by structural and functional characterization of the D70N and D70G mutants of MtOMPDC and the D91N mutant of ScOMPDC. The substitutions for Asp 70 in MtOMPDC significantly decrease the value of kcat for decarboxylation of FOMP (a more reactive substrate analogue) but have little effect on the value of kex for exchange of H6 of FUMP with solvent deuterium; the structures of wild-type MtOMPDC and its mutants are superimposable when complexed with 6-azaUMP. In contrast, the D91N mutant of ScOMPDC does not catalyze exchange of H6 of FUMP; the structures of wild-type ScOMPDC and its D91N mutant are not superimposable when complexed with 6-azaUMP, with differences in both the conformation of the active site loop and the orientation of the ligand vis vis the active site residues. We propose that the differential effects of substitutions for Asp 70 of MtOMPDC on decarboxylation and exchange provide additional evidence for a carbanionic intermediate as well as the involvement of Asp 70 in substrate destabilization.

  15. Topological nonsymmorphic crystalline superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Ze; Liu, Chao-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Topological superconductors possess a nodeless superconducting gap in the bulk and gapless zero energy modes, known as "Majorana zero modes," at the boundary of a finite system. In this work, we introduce a new class of topological superconductors, which are protected by nonsymmorphic crystalline symmetry and thus dubbed "topological nonsymmorphic crystalline superconductors." We construct an explicit Bogoliubov-de Gennes type of model for this superconducting phase in the D class and show how Majorana zero modes in this model are protected by glide plane symmetry. Furthermore, we generalize the classification of topological nonsymmorphic crystalline superconductors to the classes with time reversal symmetry, including the DIII and BDI classes, in two dimensions. Our theory provides guidance to search for new topological superconducting materials with nonsymmorphic crystal structures.

  16. Topological Nonsymmorphic Crystalline Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Ze; Liu, Chao-Xing

    Topological superconductors possess a nodeless superconducting gap in the bulk and gapless zero energy modes, known as ``Majorana zero modes'', at the boundary of a finite system. In this work, we introduce a new class of topological superconductors, which are protected by nonsymmorphic crystalline symmetry and thus dubbed ``topological nonsymmorphic crystalline superconductors''. We construct an explicit Bogoliubov-de Gennes type of model for this superconducting phase in the D class and show how Majorana zero modes in this model are protected by glide symmetry. Furthermore, we generalize the classification of topological nonsymmorphic crystalline superconductors to the classes with time reversal symmetry, including the DIII and BDI classes, in two dimensions. Our theory provides a guidance to search for new topological superconducting materials with nonsymmorphic crystal structures.

  17. Crystalline molecular flasks.

    PubMed

    Inokuma, Yasuhide; Kawano, Masaki; Fujita, Makoto

    2011-05-01

    A variety of host compounds have been used as molecular-scale reaction vessels, protecting guests from their environment or restricting the space available around them, thus favouring particular reactions. Such molecular 'flasks' can endow guest molecules with reactivities that differ from those in bulk solvents. Here, we extend this concept to crystalline molecular flasks, solid-state crystalline networks with pores within which pseudo-solution-state reactions can take place. As the guest molecules can spontaneously align along the walls and channels of the hosts, structural changes in the substrates can be directly observed by in situ X-ray crystallography during reaction. Recently, this has enabled observation of the molecular structures of transient intermediates and other labile species, in the form of sequential structural snapshots of the chemical transformation. Here, we describe the principles, development and applications of crystalline molecular flasks.

  18. Topological crystalline insulators.

    PubMed

    Fu, Liang

    2011-03-11

    The recent discovery of topological insulators has revived interest in the band topology of insulators. In this Letter, we extend the topological classification of band structures to include certain crystal point group symmetry. We find a class of three-dimensional "topological crystalline insulators" which have metallic surface states with quadratic band degeneracy on high symmetry crystal surfaces. These topological crystalline insulators are the counterpart of topological insulators in materials without spin-orbit coupling. Their band structures are characterized by new topological invariants. We hope this work will enlarge the family of topological phases in band insulators and stimulate the search for them in real materials.

  19. The anisotropy1 D604N Mutation in the Arabidopsis Cellulose Synthase1 Catalytic Domain Reduces Cell Wall Crystallinity and the Velocity of Cellulose Synthase Complexes1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Miki; Himmelspach, Regina; Ward, Juliet; Whittington, Angela; Hasenbein, Nortrud; Liu, Christine; Truong, Thy T.; Galway, Moira E.; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Hocart, Charles H.; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple cellulose synthase (CesA) subunits assemble into plasma membrane complexes responsible for cellulose production. In the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) model system, we identified a novel D604N missense mutation, designated anisotropy1 (any1), in the essential primary cell wall CesA1. Most previously identified CesA1 mutants show severe constitutive or conditional phenotypes such as embryo lethality or arrest of cellulose production but any1 plants are viable and produce seeds, thus permitting the study of CesA1 function. The dwarf mutants have reduced anisotropic growth of roots, aerial organs, and trichomes. Interestingly, cellulose microfibrils were disordered only in the epidermal cells of the any1 inflorescence stem, whereas they were transverse to the growth axis in other tissues of the stem and in all elongated cell types of roots and dark-grown hypocotyls. Overall cellulose content was not altered but both cell wall crystallinity and the velocity of cellulose synthase complexes were reduced in any1. We crossed any1 with the temperature-sensitive radial swelling1-1 (rsw1-1) CesA1 mutant and observed partial complementation of the any1 phenotype in the transheterozygotes at rsw1-1’s permissive temperature (21°C) and full complementation by any1 of the conditional rsw1-1 root swelling phenotype at the restrictive temperature (29°C). In rsw1-1 homozygotes at restrictive temperature, a striking dissociation of cellulose synthase complexes from the plasma membrane was accompanied by greatly diminished motility of intracellular cellulose synthase-containing compartments. Neither phenomenon was observed in the any1 rsw1-1 transheterozygotes, suggesting that the proteins encoded by the any1 allele replace those encoded by rsw1-1 at restrictive temperature. PMID:23532584

  20. Crystalline, liquid crystalline, and isotropic phases of sodium deoxycholate in water

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Ziyang; Luthra, Suman; Krzyzaniak, Joseph F.; Agra-Kooijman, Dena M.; Kumar, Satyendra; Byrn, Stephen R.; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y.

    2012-09-06

    Sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) is an important example of bile salts, representing systems with complex phase behavior involving both crystalline and mesophase structures. In this study, properties of NaDC-water mixtures were evaluated as a function of composition and temperature via X-ray diffraction with synchrotron (sXRD) and laboratory radiation sources, water sorption, polarized light, hot-stage microscopy, and freezing-point osmometry. Several phases were detected depending on the composition and temperature, including isotropic solution phase, liquid crystalline (LC) phase, crystalline hydrate, and ice. The LC phase was identified as hexagonal structure by sXRD, with up to 14 high-order reflections detected. The crystalline phase was found to be nonstoichiometric hydrate, based on XRD and water sorption data. The phase diagram of NaDC-water system has been refined based on both results of this study and other reports in literature.

  1. Nano-Crystalline Li1.2Mn0.6Ni0.2O₂ Prepared via Amorphous Complex Precursor and Its Electrochemical Performances as Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    He, Xiangming; Wang, Jixian; Wang, Li; Li, Jianjun

    2016-08-05

    An amorphous complex precursor with uniform Mn/Ni cation distribution is attempted for preparing a nano-structured layered Li-rich oxide (Li1.2Mn0.6Ni0.2O₂)cathode material, using diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as a chelating agent. The materials are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electrochemical tests. The crystal structure of Li-rich materials is found to be closely related to synthesis temperature. As-obtained nano materials sintered at 850 °C for 10 h show an average size of 200 nm with a single crystal phase and good crystallinity. At a current density of 20 mA·g(-1), the specific discharge capacity reaches 221 mAh·g(-1) for the first cycle and the capacity retention is 81% over 50 cycles. Even at a current density of 1000 mA·g(-1), the capacity is as high as 118 mAh·g(-1). The enhanced rate capability can be ascribed to the nano-sized morphology and good crystal structure.

  2. Liquid Crystalline Materials for Biological Applications.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Aaron M; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2012-03-13

    Liquid crystals have a long history of use as materials that respond to external stimuli (e.g., electrical and optical fields). More recently, a series of investigations have reported the design of liquid crystalline materials that undergo ordering transitions in response to a range of biological interactions, including interactions involving proteins, nucleic acids, viruses, bacteria and mammalian cells. A central challenge underlying the design of liquid crystalline materials for such applications is the tailoring of the interface of the materials so as to couple targeted biological interactions to ordering transitions. This review describes recent progress toward design of interfaces of liquid crystalline materials that are suitable for biological applications. Approaches addressed in this review include the use of lipid assemblies, polymeric membranes containing oligopeptides, cationic surfactant-DNA complexes, peptide-amphiphiles, interfacial protein assemblies and multi-layer polymeric films.

  3. Amorphous and Ultradisperse Crystalline Materials,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The book sums up experimental and theoretical findings on amorphous and ultradisperse crystalline materials , massive and film types. Present-day... crystalline materials of metallic systems are presented. Emphasis is placed on inorganic film materials.

  4. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko; David J.

    2007-05-08

    The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  5. Layered Topological Crystalline Insulators.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngkuk; Kane, C L; Mele, E J; Rappe, Andrew M

    2015-08-21

    Topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) are insulating materials whose topological property relies on generic crystalline symmetries. Based on first-principles calculations, we study a three-dimensional (3D) crystal constructed by stacking two-dimensional TCI layers. Depending on the interlayer interaction, the layered crystal can realize diverse 3D topological phases characterized by two mirror Chern numbers (MCNs) (μ1,μ2) defined on inequivalent mirror-invariant planes in the Brillouin zone. As an example, we demonstrate that new TCI phases can be realized in layered materials such as a PbSe (001) monolayer/h-BN heterostructure and can be tuned by mechanical strain. Our results shed light on the role of the MCNs on inequivalent mirror-symmetric planes in reciprocal space and open new possibilities for finding new topological materials.

  6. Crystalline titanate catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Anthony, Rayford G.; Dosch, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

  7. Crystalline titanate catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Anthony, R.G.; Dosch, R.G.

    1993-01-05

    A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

  8. Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-28

    Liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs); fibers ; thermotropic; lyotropic; processing; rheology; nonlinear optical (4L-" properties* blends* Q2 P- USTRACT...CowMnue on reverse if , cevwy and identify by block number) The remarkable mechanical properties and thermal stability of fibers fabricated from liquid...control of orientation falls short of allowing manipula- tion of macroscopic orientation (except for the case of uniaxial fibers ). This report

  9. Colliding crystalline beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.; Sessler, A.M.

    1998-08-01

    The understanding of crystalline beams has advanced to the point where one can now, with reasonable confidence, undertake an analysis of the luminosity of colliding crystalline beams. Such a study is reported here. It is necessary to observe the criteria, previously stated, for the creation and stability of crystalline beams. This requires, firstly, the proper design of a lattice. Secondly, a crystal must be formed, and this can usually be done at various densities. Thirdly, the crystals in a colliding-beam machine are brought into collision. The authors study all of these processes using the molecular dynamics (MD) method. The work parallels what was done previously, but the new part is to study the crystal-crystal interaction in collision. They initially study the zero-temperature situation. If the beam-beam force (or equivalent tune shift) is too large then overlapping crystals can not be created (rather two spatially separated crystals are formed). However, if the beam-beam force is less than but comparable to that of the space-charge forces between the particles, they find that overlapping crystals can be formed and the beam-beam tune shift can be of the order of unity. Operating at low but non-zero temperature can increase the luminosity by several orders of magnitude over that of a usual collider. The construction of an appropriate lattice, and the development of adequately strong cooling, although theoretically achievable, is a challenge in practice.

  10. CRYSTALLINE SOYBEAN TRYPSIN INHIBITOR

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, M.

    1947-01-01

    A study has been made of the general properties of crystalline soybean trypsin inhibitor. The soy inhibitor is a stable protein of the globulin type of a molecular weight of about 24,000. Its isoelectric point is at pH 4.5. It inhibits the proteolytic action approximately of an equal weight of crystalline trypsin by combining with trypsin to form a stable compound. Chymotrypsin is only slightly inhibited by soy inhibitor. The reaction between chymotrypsin and the soy inhibitor consists in the formation of a reversibly dissociable compound. The inhibitor has no effect on pepsin. The inhibiting action of the soybean inhibitor is associated with the native state of the protein molecule. Denaturation of the soy protein by heat or acid or alkali brings about a proportional decrease in its inhibiting action on trypsin. Reversal of denaturation results in a proportional gain in the inhibiting activity. Crystalline soy protein when denatured is readily digestible by pepsin, and less readily by chymotrypsin and by trypsin. Methods are given for measuring trypsin and inhibitor activity and also protein concentration with the aid of spectrophotometric density measurements at 280 mµ. PMID:19873496

  11. Liquid Crystalline 3d Porphyrin Complexes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-06

    derivatives linked in polymeric form through bidentate bridging ligands such as oxide, cyanide or pyrazine . Such materials are expected to manifest...by pyrazine , cyanogen, and . " cyanide bridges. Oxidatively doped members of this family exhibit semiconductivity. Their conductivities are mirrored

  12. Crystalline bipyridinium radical complexes and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Fahrenbach, Albert C.; Barnes, Jonathan C.; Li, Hao; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Basuray, Ashish Neil; Sampath, Srinivasan

    2015-09-01

    Described herein are methods of generating 4,4'-bipyridinium radical cations (BIPY.sup..cndot.+), and methods for utilizing the radical-radical interactions between two or more BIPY.sup..cndot.+ radical cations that ensue for the creation of novel materials for applications in nanotechnology. Synthetic methodologies, crystallographic engineering techniques, methods of physical characterization, and end uses are described.

  13. Novel Characteristics of Trypanosoma brucei Guanosine 5'-monophosphate Reductase Distinct from Host Animals

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Chihiro; Shinohara, Takahiro; Tomiyama, Ai; Imamura, Akira; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Nishimura, Kazuhiko; Fujimori, Ko; Shuto, Satoshi; Ishibashi, Osamu; Kubata, Bruno Kilunga; Inui, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic pathway of purine nucleotides in parasitic protozoa is a potent drug target for treatment of parasitemia. Guanosine 5’-monophosphate reductase (GMPR), which catalyzes the deamination of guanosine 5’-monophosphate (GMP) to inosine 5’-monophosphate (IMP), plays an important role in the interconversion of purine nucleotides to maintain the intracellular balance of their concentration. However, only a few studies on protozoan GMPR have been reported at present. Herein, we identified the GMPR in Trypanosoma brucei, a causative protozoan parasite of African trypanosomiasis, and found that the GMPR proteins were consistently localized to glycosomes in T. brucei bloodstream forms. We characterized its recombinant protein to investigate the enzymatic differences between GMPRs of T. brucei and its host animals. T. brucei GMPR was distinct in having an insertion of a tandem repeat of the cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) domain, which was absent in mammalian and bacterial GMPRs. The recombinant protein of T. brucei GMPR catalyzed the conversion of GMP to IMP in the presence of NADPH, and showed apparent affinities for both GMP and NADPH different from those of its mammalian counterparts. Interestingly, the addition of monovalent cations such as K+ and NH4+ to the enzymatic reaction increased the GMPR activity of T. brucei, whereas none of the mammalian GMPR’s was affected by these cations. The monophosphate form of the purine nucleoside analog ribavirin inhibited T. brucei GMPR activity, though mammalian GMPRs showed no or only a little inhibition by it. These results suggest that the mechanism of the GMPR reaction in T. brucei is distinct from that in the host organisms. Finally, we demonstrated the inhibitory effect of ribavirin on the proliferation of trypanosomes in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting the availability of ribavirin to develop a new therapeutic agent against African trypanosomiasis. PMID:26731263

  14. L-theanine elicits an umami taste with inosine 5'-monophosphate.

    PubMed

    Narukawa, Masataka; Morita, Kanako; Hayashi, Yukako

    2008-11-01

    We investigated the taste synergy between L-theanine and the flavour enhancer, inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), by using a human sensory evaluation. When L-theanine was added to IMP, only the umami taste was enhanced. We then investigated this synergistic effect of L-theanine in mice by gustatory nerve recording. We confirmed the synergism between L-theanine and IMP for the umami taste.

  15. Cyclic 3′,5′-Adenosine Monophosphate Phosphodiesterase of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, L. D.; Monard, D.; Rickenberg, H. V.

    1973-01-01

    The cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (c-AMP) phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli has been partially purified. The enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 30,000, a Michaelis constant of 0.5 mM c-AMP, and a pH optimum of 7. The partially purified enzyme requires for activity the presence of a reducing compound and of either iron or a protein which seemingly acts as iron carrier. PMID:4355491

  16. Recipient pretransplant inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase activity in nonmyeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bemer, Meagan J; Risler, Linda J; Phillips, Brian R; Wang, Joanne; Storer, Barry E; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Duan, Haichuan; Raccor, Brianne S; Boeckh, Michael J; McCune, Jeannine S

    2014-10-01

    Mycophenolic acid, the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity. IMPDH is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in de novo synthesis of guanosine nucleotides and catalyzes the oxidation of inosine 5'-monophosphate to xanthosine 5'-monophosphate (XMP). We developed a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to quantitate XMP concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNCs) isolated from the recipient pretransplant and used this method to determine IMPDH activity in 86 nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) patients. The incubation procedure and analytical method yielded acceptable within-sample and within-individual variability. Considerable between-individual variability was observed (12.2-fold). Low recipient pretransplant IMPDH activity was associated with increased day +28 donor T cell chimerism, more acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), lower neutrophil nadirs, and more cytomegalovirus reactivation but not with chronic GVHD, relapse, nonrelapse mortality, or overall mortality. We conclude that quantitation of the recipient's pretransplant IMPDH activity in PMNC lysate could provide a useful biomarker to evaluate a recipient's sensitivity to MMF. Further trials should be conducted to confirm our findings and to optimize postgrafting immunosuppression in nonmyeloablative HCT recipients.

  17. Identification of a novel phosphatase with high affinity for nucleotides monophosphate from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Cabello-Díaz, Juan Miguel; Quiles, Francisco Antonio; Lambert, Rocío; Pineda, Manuel; Piedras, Pedro

    2012-04-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seedlings accumulate ureides derived from purines after germination. The first step in the conversion of purines to ureides is the removal of the 5'-phosphate group by a phosphatase that has not been established yet. Two main phosphatase activities were detected in the embryonic axes of common bean using inosine monophosphate as substrate in an in-gel assay. Both activities differed in their sensitive to the common phosphatase inhibitor molybdate, with the molybdate-resistant as the first enzyme induced after radicle protrusion. The molybdate-resistant phosphatase has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and this is the first enzyme which shows this resistance purified and characterized from plant tissues. The native enzyme was a monomer of 55 kDa and it showed highest activity with nucleotides as substrates, with the K(m) values in the micromolar range. Among nucleotides, the highest specific constant (V(max)/K(m)) was observed for adenosine monophosphate. Furthermore, the enzyme was inhibited by nucleosides, the products of the enzymatic reaction, with maximum effect for adenosine. Common bean seedlings imbibed in the presence of adenosine monophosphate in vivo showed the highest molybdate-resistant phosphatase activity in the axes in addition to increased ureide content. The data presented suggests that purified phosphatase is involved in nucleotide metabolism in embryonic axes from common bean. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Binding of tissue-specific forms of alpha A-CRYBP1 to their regulatory sequence in the mouse alpha A-crystallin-encoding gene: double-label immunoblotting of UV-crosslinked complexes.

    PubMed

    Kantorow, M; Becker, K; Sax, C M; Ozato, K; Piatigorsky, J

    1993-09-15

    The alpha A-CRYBP1 regulatory sequence (alpha A-CRYBP1RS), at nucleotides -66 to -57 of the mouse alpha A-crystallin-encoding gene (alpha A-CRY) promoter, is an important control element involved in the regulation of mouse alpha A-CRY expression. The gene encoding a protein (alpha A-CRYBP1) that specifically binds to the alpha A-CRYBP1RS sequence has been cloned from a cultured mouse lens cell line. In the present study, we have used an antibody (specific to the alpha A-CRYBP1 protein and made against a synthetic peptide) to directly identify UV-crosslinked protein-DNA complexes via a double-label immunoblotting technique. Multiple alpha A-CRYB1 antigenically related proteins interacted with alpha A-CRYBP1RS in nuclear extracts from both a cloned mouse lens cell line (alpha TN4-1) that expresses alpha A-CRY and a mouse fibroblast line (L929) that does not express the gene. Two sizes (50 kDa and 90 kDa) of proteins reacting with the alpha A-CRYBP1-specific Ab were detected in both cell lines and, in addition, a > 200-kDa protein reacting with the Ab was unique to the fibroblast line. Thus, alpha A-CRYBP1 antigenically related proteins interact with alpha A-CRYBP1RS regardless of alpha A-CRY expression. Moreover, differential processing of the alpha A-CRYBP1 protein and/or alternative splicing of the alpha A-CRY transcript may affect expression of alpha A-CRY.

  19. Pre-eruptive rejuvenations of crystalline mush by reservoir heating: the case of trachy-dacitic lavas of Quetrupillán Volcanic Complex, Chile (39º30' lat. S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahm, R.; Parada, M. Á.; Morgado, E. E.; Contreras, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes is dominated by mainly basaltic to andesitic products, as is the case of the Villarrica 2015 eruption. An exception is the case of the nearby Quetrupillán Volcanic Complex (QVC). The QVC forms part of the NW-SE Villarrica-Quetrupillán-Lanín active volcanic chain and contains products of mainly trachy-dacitic composition that differs from the basaltic and basaltic-andesite composition of the neighboring stratovolcanoes. The studied Holocene QVC trachy-dacites exhibit similar geochemical, mineralogical features. They are crystal-poor (<12% phenocrysts) with phenocrysts occurring as isolated crystals or forming crystal clots within a glass-rich groundmass. Two groups of plagioclase phenocrysts were found: Group 1 plagioclases are commonly associated with pyroxene in crystal clots and with oscillatory zoning of An40-50, and Group 2 plagioclases occur as isolated crystals of variable composition (An70-85), with rims of similar composition to Group 1. Some Group 2 crystals have cores with compositions similar to the rims with resorption features. Clinopyroxenes within clots have compositions of En40-46Fs11-21Wo39-43 similar to the isolated clinopyroxenes. Orthopyroxene phenocrysts have composition of En36-68Fs15-34Wo03-04. Microphenocrysts of magnetite-ilmenite pairs (Mt14-36-Il90-94) were identified. Pyroxene phenocrysts are in disequilibrium with the whole-rock composition, suggesting that they are antecrysts. Two-pyroxene thermometry gives temperatures of 911-980ºC, while the Mt-Il equilibrium gives higher temperatures of 963-1114ºC, for the later stages of lava crystallization. The presence of a crystalline mush is suggested by the abundance of crystal clots in disequilibrium with the host rock composition whose calculated formation conditions of 0.5-1.5 kbar, 950-990ºC and 2.1-3.1 wt% of H2O, were obtained from a Rhyolite-MELTS simulation. Rejuvenation of a crystal mush by reservoir heating events is suggested due to

  20. Nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in the peripheral and central auditory system of the rat.

    PubMed

    Fessenden, J D; Altschuler, R A; Seasholtz, A F; Schacht, J

    1999-02-01

    The neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) were localized in the cochlea, the cochlear nucleus (CN), and the superior olivary complex (SOC) of Fisher 344 rats. In the cochlea, nNOS was identified in spiral ganglion cells by using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase histochemistry and in situ hybridization. NADPH-diaphorase staining also was detected in blood vessels of the modiolus. By using immunohistochemistry against cyclic guanosine monophosphate, cochlear sGC activity was localized to pericytes in the spiral ligament as well as nerve fibers innervating outer hair cells. In the lower auditory brainstem, nNOS was localized to principal cells of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) with NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry and in situ hybridization. NADPH-diaphorase activity also was observed in the lateral and medial superior olive (LSO and MSO, respectively), the superior periolivary nucleus (SPN), the ventral and lateral nuclei of the trapezoid body (VNTB and LNTB, respectively), and the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). Transcripts of the beta-subunit of sGC were localized in rat brainstem by using in situ hybridization. mRNA for sGC was expressed in neurons within the SPN, LSO, MSO, LNTB, MNTB, VNTB, and VCN. Highest levels of sGC expression were seen in the SPN. These results suggest that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved in both the ascending and descending pathways of the auditory brainstem.

  1. Computer-assisted combinatorial design of bicyclic thymidine analogs as inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis thymidine monophosphate kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frecer, Vladimir; Seneci, Pierfausto; Miertus, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    Thymidine monophosphate kinase (TMPKmt) is an essential enzyme for nucleotide metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and thus an attractive target for novel antituberculosis agents. In this work, we have explored the chemical space around the 2',3'-bicyclic thymidine nucleus by designing and in silico screening of a virtual focused library selected via structure based methods to identify more potent analogs endowed with favorable ADME-related properties. In all the library members we have exchanged the ribose ring of the template with a cyclopentane moiety that is less prone to enzymatic degradation. In addition, we have replaced the six-membered 2',3'-ring by a number of five-membered and six-membered heterocyclic rings containing alternative proton donor and acceptor groups, to exploit the interaction with the carboxylate groups of Asp9 and Asp163 as well as with several cationic residues present in the vicinity of the TMPKmt binding site. The three-dimensional structure of the TMPKmt complexed with 5-hydroxymethyl-dUMP, an analog of dTMP, was employed to develop a QSAR model, to parameterize a scoring function specific for the TMPKmt target and to select analogues which display the highest predicted binding to the target. As a result, we identified a small highly focused combinatorial subset of bicyclic thymidine analogues as virtual hits that are predicted to inhibit the mycobacterial TMPK in the submicromolar concentration range and to display favorable ADME-related properties.

  2. An assay for intermolecular exchange of alpha crystallin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    An affinity column of alpha crystallin linked to cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose was developed to study the exchange of alpha subunits. Alpha crystallin bound to the Sepharose-alpha complex was dissociated with 8 mol/l urea, followed by quantitation using high-performance reverse-phase liquid chromatography. The time course of binding at 37 degrees C showed a hyperbolic binding pattern reaching equilibrium between 6-18 hr. Under these conditions, binding of beta and gamma crystallins to the same matrix was less than 10% of the alpha values, as was binding of alpha to glycine-coupled Sepharose. This assay was used to demonstrate changes in the subunit exchange of alpha crystallins present in high molecular weight versus lower molecular weight aggregates of the human lens. These results show that this binding procedure was a specific reproducible assay that might be used to study intermolecular interactions of the alpha crystallins.

  3. An assay for intermolecular exchange of alpha crystallin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    An affinity column of alpha crystallin linked to cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose was developed to study the exchange of alpha subunits. Alpha crystallin bound to the Sepharose-alpha complex was dissociated with 8 mol/l urea, followed by quantitation using high-performance reverse-phase liquid chromatography. The time course of binding at 37 degrees C showed a hyperbolic binding pattern reaching equilibrium between 6-18 hr. Under these conditions, binding of beta and gamma crystallins to the same matrix was less than 10% of the alpha values, as was binding of alpha to glycine-coupled Sepharose. This assay was used to demonstrate changes in the subunit exchange of alpha crystallins present in high molecular weight versus lower molecular weight aggregates of the human lens. These results show that this binding procedure was a specific reproducible assay that might be used to study intermolecular interactions of the alpha crystallins.

  4. Gas-Phase Conformations and Energetics of Protonated 2^'-DEOXYADENOSINE-5^'-MONOPHOSPHATE and ADENOSINE-5^'-MONOPHOSPHATE: Irmpd Action Spectroscopy and Theoretical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ranran; Nei, Y.-W.; He, Chenchen; Hamlow, Lucas; Berden, Giel; Oomens, J.; Rodgers, M. T.

    2015-06-01

    Nature uses protonation to alter the structures and reactivities of molecules to facilitate various biological functions and chemical transformations. For example, in nucleobase repair and salvage processes, protonation facilitates nucleobase removal by lowering the activation barrier for glycosidic bond cleavage. Systematic studies of the structures of protonated 2'-deoxyribonucleotides and ribonucleotides may provide insight into the roles protonation plays in altering the nucleobase orientation relative to the glycosidic bond and sugar puckering. In this study, infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy experiments in conjunction with electronic structure calculations are performed to probe the effects of protonation on the structures and stabilities of 2^'-deoxyadenosine-5^'-monophosphate (pdAdo) and adenosine-5^'-monophosphate (pAdo). Photodissociation as a function of IR wavelength is measured to generate the IRMPD action spectra. Geometry optimizations and frequency analyses performed at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory are used to characterize the stable low-energy structures and to generate their linear IR spectra. Single point energy calculations performed at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,2p) and MP2(full)/6-311+G(2d,2p) levels of theory provide relative stabilities of the optimized conformations. The structures accessed in the experiments are determined by comparing the calculated linear IR spectra for the stable low-energy conformers computed to the measured IRMPD action spectra. The effects of the 2^'-hydroxyl moiety are elucidated by comparing the structures and IRMPD spectra of [pAdo+H]+ to those of its DNA analogue. Comparisons are also made to the deprotonated forms of these nucleotides and the protonated forms of the analogous nucleosides to elucidate the effects of protonation and the phosphate group on the structures.

  5. Complexity.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Hernández, J Jaime

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult to define complexity in modeling. Complexity is often associated with uncertainty since modeling uncertainty is an intrinsically difficult task. However, modeling uncertainty does not require, necessarily, complex models, in the sense of a model requiring an unmanageable number of degrees of freedom to characterize the aquifer. The relationship between complexity, uncertainty, heterogeneity, and stochastic modeling is not simple. Aquifer models should be able to quantify the uncertainty of their predictions, which can be done using stochastic models that produce heterogeneous realizations of aquifer parameters. This is the type of complexity addressed in this article.

  6. Single crystalline magnetite nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zuqin; Zhang, Daihua; Han, Song; Li, Chao; Lei, Bo; Lu, Weigang; Fang, Jiye; Zhou, Chongwu

    2005-01-12

    We descried a method to synthesize single crystalline Fe3O4 nanotubes by wet-etching the MgO inner cores of MgO/Fe3O4 core-shell nanowires. Homogeneous Fe3O4 nanotubes with controllable length, diameter, and wall thickness have been obtained. Resistivity of the Fe3O4 nanotubes was estimated to be approximately 4 x 10-2 Omega cm at room temperature. Magnetoresistance of approximately 1% was observed at T = 77 K when a magnetic field of B = 0.7 T was applied. The synthetic strategy presented here may be extended to a variety of materials such as YBCO, PZT, and LCMO which should provide ideal candidates for fundamental studies of superconductivity, piezoelectricity, and ferromagnetism in nanoscale structures.

  7. Liquid crystalline polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The remarkable mechanical properties and thermal stability of fibers fabricated from liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) have led to the use of these materials in structural applications where weight savings are critical. Advances in processing of LCPs could permit the incorporation of these polymers into other than uniaxial designs and extend their utility into new areas such as nonlinear optical devices. However, the unique feature of LCPs (intrinsic orientation order) is itself problematic, and current understanding of processing with control of orientation falls short of allowing manipulation of macroscopic orientation (except for the case of uniaxial fibers). The current and desirable characteristics of LCPs are reviewed and specific problems are identified along with issues that must be addressed so that advances in the use of these unique polymers can be expedited.

  8. Metformin augments doxorubicin cytotoxicity in mammary carcinoma through activation of adenosine monophosphate protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    El-Ashmawy, Nahla E; Khedr, Naglaa F; El-Bahrawy, Hoda A; Abo Mansour, Hend E

    2017-05-01

    Since the incidence of breast cancer increases dramatically all over the world, the search for effective treatment is an urgent need. Metformin has demonstrated anti-tumorigenic effect both in vivo and in vitro in different cancer types. This work was designed to examine on molecular level the mode of action of metformin in mice bearing solid Ehrlich carcinoma and to evaluate the use of metformin in conjunction with doxorubicin as a combined therapy against solid Ehrlich carcinoma. Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells were inoculated in 60 female mice as a model of breast cancer. The mice were divided into four equal groups: Control tumor, metformin, doxorubicin, and co-treatment. Metformin (15 mg/kg) and doxorubicin (4 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneally (i.p.) for four cycles every 5 days starting on day 12 of inoculation. The anti-tumorigenic effect of metformin was mediated by enhancement of adenosine monophosphate protein kinase activity and elevation of P53 protein as well as the suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B, DNA contents, and cyclin D1 gene expression. Metformin and doxorubicin mono-treatments exhibited opposing action regarding cyclin D1 gene expression, phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate protein kinase, and nuclear factor-kappa B levels. Co-treatment markedly decreased tumor volume, increased survival rate, and improved other parameters compared to doxorubicin group. In parallel, the histopathological findings demonstrated enhanced apoptosis and absence of necrosis in tumor tissue of co-treatment group. Metformin proved chemotherapeutic effect which could be mediated by the activation of adenosine monophosphate protein kinase and related pathways. Combining metformin and doxorubicin, which exhibited different mechanisms of action, produced greater efficacy as anticancer therapeutic regimen.

  9. Fluorescent Sensing of Guanine and Guanosine Monophosphate with Conjugated Receptors Incorporating Aniline and Naphthyridine Moieties.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shao-Hung; Phang, Riping; Fang, Jim-Min

    2016-04-15

    Ethyne-linked naphthyridine-aniline conjugated molecules are selective sensors of decylguanine in dichloromethane and guanosine monophosphate in water (Kass = 16,000 M(-1)). The 2-acetamido-1,8-naphthyridine moiety binds with guanine in a DAA-ADD triply hydrogen-bonded motif. The aniline moiety enhances an electron-donating effect, and the substituent is tuned to attain extra hydrogen bonds, π-π stacking, and electrostatic interactions. The proposed binding modes are supported by a Job plot, ESI-MS, (1)H NMR, UV-vis, and fluorescence spectral analyses.

  10. Synthesis and antimetabolic properties of 4,5-substituted pyrimidine 2'-deoxynucleosides and their 5'-monophosphates.

    PubMed

    Kulikowski, T; Bretner, M; Dzik, J M; Zieliński, Z; Cieśla, J; Rode, W; Vilpo, J A; Shugar, D

    1987-01-01

    Reaction of the reagent of Lawesson, 2,4-bis(p-methoxyphenyl)-1,3,4-dithiadiphosphatane-2,4-disulfide, with blocked uracil nucleosides in dioxane leads to quantitative thionation at C(4). With the bases, thionation occurs at C(4) and, with two equivalents of the reagent, at C(2) and C(4). Enzymatic phosphorylation of 4-thio-FdUrd gave the 5'-monophosphate, which was further converted with NH2OH to N4-hydroxy-FdCMP. Both nucleotides were examined as potential inhibitors of thymidylate synthase, and 4-thio-FdUrd for cytotoxic activities vs monkey and human leukemic cell lines.

  11. Recent advances on the enantioselective synthesis of C-nucleosides inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH).

    PubMed

    Merino, Pedro; Ghirardello, Mattia; Tejero, Tomas; Delso, Ignacio; Matute, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    This review will describe the recent advances in the synthesis of C-nucleosides with inhibitory activity of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides. The review will cover synthetic approaches of structural analogues showing modifications in the furanose ring as well as in the heterocyclic base. Heterocyclic sugar nucleoside analogues in which the furanose ring has been replaced by a different heterocyclic ring including aza analogues, thioanalogues as well as dioxolanyl and isoxazolidinyl analogues are also considered.

  12. COLD DRAWING IN CRYSTALLINE POLYMERS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    alcohols, phenol) in Nylon 6 produced changes in the crystalline structure as well as plasticizer action; these two effects must therefore be carefully...distinguished. Changes in the crystalline structure were followed by changes in the infrared spectrum. Dynamic mechanical and thermogravimetric analysis

  13. Urinary cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate changes in spontaneous and induced onset active labor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Da-Chung; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou F; Su, Her-Young; Lo, Shin-Chieh; Ren, Shin-Sia; Wu, Gwo-Jang

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to investigate the changes in urinary cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) between the latent and the active phases of spontaneous and prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1))-induced labor. Seventy singleton pregnant women at 36-41(+) weeks' gestation without signs of fetal distress were enrolled. The first group consisted of 35 pregnant women in whom labor was induced by PGE(1) applied intravaginally. The second group consisted of 35 women who had spontaneous active labor. Clinical data of the two groups were assessed as labor progressed. After the onset of active labor, urinary cGMP/creatinine (U cGMP/Cr) decreased in both groups with the percentage decline of 35.2 and 9.7, respectively, but this difference was only significant in the PGE(1)-induced group (P=0.033). After the onset of active labor, urinary cAMP/creatinine (U cAMP/Cr) decreased in both groups with the percentage decline of 36.5 and 15.6, respectively, but this difference was only significant in the PGE(1)-induced group (P=0.001). The duration of the latent phase was significantly shortened in the PGE(1)-induced group compared with the spontaneous labor group (P<0.05). Decreased U cGMP/Cr and U cAMP/Cr may be a transition from the latent to the active phase in PGE(1)-induced labor. Our results suggest that U cGMP/Cr and U cAMP/Cr can serve as easily obtained secondary messenger markers of myometrial contractility and cervical ripening at the onset of active labor. The NO-cGMP system and the G-protein alpha-cAMP system in the human uterus may concomitantly contribute to uterine quiescence during pregnancy and show downregulation in U cGMP/Cr and U cAMP/Cr at the initiation of active labor.

  14. Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP)-Activated Protein Kinase: A New Target for Nutraceutical Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Marín-Aguilar, Fabiola; Pavillard, Luis E.; Giampieri, Francesca; Bullón, Pedro; Cordero, Mario D.

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important energy sensor which is activated by increases in adenosine monophosphate (AMP)/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratio and/or adenosine diphosphate (ADP)/ATP ratio, and increases different metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, glucose transport and mitochondrial biogenesis. In this sense, AMPK maintains cellular energy homeostasis by induction of catabolism and inhibition of ATP-consuming biosynthetic pathways to preserve ATP levels. Several studies indicate a reduction of AMPK sensitivity to cellular stress during aging and this could impair the downstream signaling and the maintenance of the cellular energy balance and the stress resistance. However, several diseases have been related with an AMPK dysfunction. Alterations in AMPK signaling decrease mitochondrial biogenesis, increase cellular stress and induce inflammation, which are typical events of the aging process and have been associated to several pathological processes. In this sense, in the last few years AMPK has been identified as a very interesting target and different nutraceutical compounds are being studied for an interesting potential effect on AMPK induction. In this review, we will evaluate the interaction of the different nutraceutical compounds to induce the AMPK phosphorylation and the applications in diseases such as cancer, type II diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases or cardiovascular diseases. PMID:28146060

  15. [Successful treatment of T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) with fludarabine monophosphate].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Akinori; Iwai, Kazuya; Ishibashi, Takafumi

    2009-08-01

    We report a 79-year-old woman with T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) who was successfully treated with fludarabine monophosphate. She was admitted to our hospital because of dyspnea on effort. On admission, anemia and hepatosplenomegaly were apparent but lymphadenopathy was absent. Peripheral blood examination showed anemia and leukocytosis with 29.5% abnormal lymphocytes. The bone marrow was infiltrated with 84.1% abnormal lymphocytes. The nucleolus was visible in some of these abnormal cells. These cells were positive for CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD7, CD38, CD52, and negative for CD8, CD10, CD19, CD20, CD25, CD56. Based on these findings, she was diagnosed as having T-PLL. Therapy with oral cyclophosphamide (50 mg/day) was started, but was discontinued because of agranulocytosis. Then, she received intravenous fludarabine monophosphate (30 mg/day) on days 1-5 every four to five weeks. The reticulocyte count increased gradually, and she became free from red cell transfusions. Unfortunately, she finally died from massive gastro intestinal hemorrhage, but T-PLL was well controlled at the time of death.

  16. An Effect of Dexamethasone on Adenosine 3′,5′ -Monophosphate Content and Adenosine 3′,5′ -Monophosphate Phosphodiesterase Activity of Cultured Hepatoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Manganiello, Vincent; Vaughan, Martha

    1972-01-01

    The effect of dexamethasone on adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP) phosphodiesterase activity in cultured HTC hepatoma cells was investigated. Homogenates of these cells contain phosphodiesterase activity with two apparent Michaelis constants for cAMP (2-5 μm and 50 μm). At all substrate concentrations tested, phosphodiesterase activity was decreased 25-40% in cells incubated for 36 hr or more with 1 μm dexamethasone. Acid phosphatase activity in the same cells was not decreased. α-Methyl testosterone, 1 μm, was without effect on phosphodiesterase activity. Incubation for 10 min with epinephrine plus theophylline increased the cAMP content of the HTC cells 3- to 6-fold. In cells incubated for 72 hr with dexamethasone, the basal concentration of cAMP was slightly increased and the increment produced by epinephrine plus theophylline was markedly increased. We believe that in many cells the so-called permissive effects of steroid hormones on cAMP mediated processes may be due to an effect of these hormones on cAMP phosphodiesterase activity similar to that observed in HTC cells incubated with dexamethasone. PMID:4341439

  17. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate levels and activities of adenylate cyclase and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase in Pseudomonas and Bacteroides.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, L S; Hylemon, P B; Phibbs, P V

    1977-01-01

    A modified Gilman assay was used to determine the concentrations of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) in rapidly filtered cells and in the culture filtrates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli K-12, and Bacteroides fragilis. In P. aeruginosa cultures, levels of cAMP in the filtrate increased with the culture absorbance (3.5 to 19.8 X 10(-9) M) but did not vary significantly with the carbon source used to support growth. Intracellular concentrations (0.8 to 3.2 X 10(-5) M) were substantially higher and did not vary appreciably during growth or with carbon source. Sodium cAMP (5 mM) failed to reverse the catabolite repression of inducible glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49) synthesis caused by the addition of 10 mM succinate. Exogenous cAMP also had no discernible effect on the catabolite repression control of inducible mannitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.67). P. aeruginosa was found to contain both soluble cAMP phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.17) and membrane-associated adenylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1) activity, and these were compared to the activities detected in crude extracts of E. coli. B. fragilis crude cell extracts contain neither of these enzyme activities, and little or no cAMP was detected in cells or culture filtrates of this anaerobic bacterium. PMID:187575

  18. Polymorphic phases of galactocerebrosides: spectroscopic evidence of lamellar crystalline structures.

    PubMed

    Bou Khalil, M; Carrier, D; Wong, P T; Tanphaichitr, N

    2001-06-06

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was applied to study the structural and thermal properties of bovine brain galactocerebroside (GalCer) containing amide linked non-hydroxylated or alpha-hydroxy fatty acids (NFA- and HFA-GalCer, respectively). Over the temperature range 0-90 degrees C, both GalCer displayed complex thermal transitions, characteristic of polymorphic phase behavior. Upon heating, aqueous dispersions of NFA- and HFA-GalCer exhibited high order-disorder transition temperatures near 80 and 72 degrees C, respectively. En route to the chain melting transition, the patterns of the amide I band of NFA-GalCer were indicative of two different lamellar crystalline phases, whereas those of HFA-GalCer were suggestive of lamellar gel and crystalline bilayers. Cooling from the liquid-crystalline phase resulted in the formation of another crystalline phase of NFA-GalCer and a gel phase of HFA-GalCer, with a phase transition near 62 and 66 degrees C, respectively. Prolonged incubation of GalCer bilayers at 38 degrees C revealed conversions among lamellar crystalline phases (NFA-GalCer) or between lamellar gel and crystalline bilayer structures (HFA-GalCer). Spectral changes indicated that the temperature and/or time induced formation of the lamellar crystalline structures of NFA- and HFA-GalCer was accompanied by partial dehydration and by rearrangements of the hydrogen bonding network and bilayer packing mode of GalCer.

  19. Sensitivity studies of crystalline beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.; Sessler, A.M.

    1996-07-01

    The equations of motion are presented, appropriate to interacting charged particles of diverse charge and mass, subject to the external forces produced by various kinds of magnetic fields and rf electric fields in storage rings. These equations have been employed in the molecular dynamics simulations for sensitivity studies of crystalline beams. The two necessary conditions for the formation and maintenance of crystalline beams are summarized. Effects of lattice shear and AG focusing, magnetic field imperfection, and ion neutralization on crystalline beam heating is presented.

  20. Multiple Decay Mechanisms and 2D‐UV Spectroscopic Fingerprints of Singlet Excited Solvated Adenine‐Uracil Monophosphate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Quansong; Giussani, Angelo; Segarra‐Martí, Javier; Nenov, Artur; Rivalta, Ivan; Voityuk, Alexander A.; Mukamel, Shaul; Roca‐Sanjuán, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The decay channels of singlet excited adenine uracil monophosphate (ApU) in water are studied with CASPT2//CASSCF:MM potential energy calculations and simulation of the 2D‐UV spectroscopic fingerprints with the aim of elucidating the role of the different electronic states of the stacked conformer in the excited state dynamics. The adenine 1La state can decay without a barrier to a conical intersection with the ground state. In contrast, the adenine 1Lb and uracil S(U) states have minima that are separated from the intersections by sizeable barriers. Depending on the backbone conformation, the CT state can undergo inter‐base hydrogen transfer and decay to the ground state through a conical intersection, or it can yield a long‐lived minimum stabilized by a hydrogen bond between the two ribose rings. This suggests that the 1Lb, S(U) and CT states of the stacked conformer may all contribute to the experimental lifetimes of 18 and 240 ps. We have also simulated the time evolution of the 2D‐UV spectra and provide the specific fingerprint of each species in a recommended probe window between 25 000 and 38 000 cm−1 in which decongested, clearly distinguishable spectra can be obtained. This is expected to allow the mechanistic scenarios to be discerned in the near future with the help of the corresponding experiments. Our results reveal the complexity of the photophysics of the relatively small ApU system, and the potential of 2D‐UV spectroscopy to disentangle the photophysics of multichromophoric systems. PMID:27113273

  1. A Novel Function for the NTN Hydrolase Fold Demonstrated by the Structure of an Archeal Inosine Monophosphate Cyclohydrolase†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Kang, You-Na; Tran, Anh; White, Robert H.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    Inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP) cyclohydrolase catalyzes the cyclization of 5-formaminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (FAICAR) to IMP in the final step of de novo purine biosynthesis. Two major types of this enzyme have been discovered to date: PurH in Bacteria and Eukarya, and PurO in Archaea. The structure of the MTH1020 gene product from Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus was previously solved without functional annotation but shows high amino acid sequence similarity to other PurOs. We determined the crystal structure of the MTH1020 gene product in complex with either IMP or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) at 2.0 Å and 2.6 Å resolution, respectively. Based on the sequence analysis, ligand-bound structures, and biochemical data, MTH1020 is confirmed as an archaeal IMP cyclohydrolase, thus designated as MthPurO. MthPurO has a four-layered αββα core structure, showing an N-terminal nucleophile (NTN) hydrolase fold. The active site is located at the deep pocket between two central β-sheets and contains residues strictly conserved within PurOs. Comparisons of the two types of IMP cyclohydrolase, PurO and PurH, revealed that there are no similarities in sequence, structure, or the active site architecture, suggesting that they are evolutionarily not related to each other. The MjR31K mutant of PurO from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii showed 76% decreased activity and MjE102Q mutation completely abolished enzymatic activity, suggesting that these highly conserved residues play critical roles in catalysis. Interestingly, green fluorescent protein (GFP), which has no structural homology to either PurO or PurH but catalyzes a similar intramolecular cyclohydrolase reaction required for chromophore maturation, utilizes Arg96 and Glu222 in a mechanism analogous to that of PurO. PMID:17407260

  2. The thermodynamic scale of inorganic crystalline metastability.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenhao; Dacek, Stephen T; Ong, Shyue Ping; Hautier, Geoffroy; Jain, Anubhav; Richards, William D; Gamst, Anthony C; Persson, Kristin A; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2016-11-01

    The space of metastable materials offers promising new design opportunities for next-generation technological materials, such as complex oxides, semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, steels, and beyond. Although metastable phases are ubiquitous in both nature and technology, only a heuristic understanding of their underlying thermodynamics exists. We report a large-scale data-mining study of the Materials Project, a high-throughput database of density functional theory-calculated energetics of Inorganic Crystal Structure Database structures, to explicitly quantify the thermodynamic scale of metastability for 29,902 observed inorganic crystalline phases. We reveal the influence of chemistry and composition on the accessible thermodynamic range of crystalline metastability for polymorphic and phase-separating compounds, yielding new physical insights that can guide the design of novel metastable materials. We further assert that not all low-energy metastable compounds can necessarily be synthesized, and propose a principle of 'remnant metastability'-that observable metastable crystalline phases are generally remnants of thermodynamic conditions where they were once the lowest free-energy phase.

  3. The thermodynamic scale of inorganic crystalline metastability

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenhao; Dacek, Stephen T.; Ong, Shyue Ping; Hautier, Geoffroy; Jain, Anubhav; Richards, William D.; Gamst, Anthony C.; Persson, Kristin A.; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2016-01-01

    The space of metastable materials offers promising new design opportunities for next-generation technological materials, such as complex oxides, semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, steels, and beyond. Although metastable phases are ubiquitous in both nature and technology, only a heuristic understanding of their underlying thermodynamics exists. We report a large-scale data-mining study of the Materials Project, a high-throughput database of density functional theory–calculated energetics of Inorganic Crystal Structure Database structures, to explicitly quantify the thermodynamic scale of metastability for 29,902 observed inorganic crystalline phases. We reveal the influence of chemistry and composition on the accessible thermodynamic range of crystalline metastability for polymorphic and phase-separating compounds, yielding new physical insights that can guide the design of novel metastable materials. We further assert that not all low-energy metastable compounds can necessarily be synthesized, and propose a principle of ‘remnant metastability’—that observable metastable crystalline phases are generally remnants of thermodynamic conditions where they were once the lowest free-energy phase. PMID:28138514

  4. Circumstellar Crystalline Silicates: Evolved Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartar, Josh; Speck, A. K.

    2008-05-01

    One of the most exciting developments in astronomy in the last 15 years was the discovery of crystalline silicate stardust by the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) on board of ISO; discovery of the crystalline grains was indeed one of the biggest surprises of the ISO mission. Initially discovered around AGB stars (evolved stars in the range of 0.8 > M/M¤>8) at far-infrared (IR) wavelengths, crystalline silicates have since been seen in many astrophysical environments including young stellar objects (T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be), comets and Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies. Low and intermediate mass stars (LIMS) comprise 95% of the contributors to the ISM, so study of the formation of crystalline silicates is critical to our understanding of the ISM, which is thought to be primarily amorphous (one would expect an almost exact match between the composition of AGB dust shells and the dust in the ISM). Whether the crystalline dust is merely undetectable or amorphized remains a mystery. The FORCAST instrument on SOFIA as well as the PACS instrument on Herschel will provide exciting observing opportunities for the further study of crystalline silicates.

  5. Structural determinants for the inhibitory ligands of orotidine-5′-monophosphate decarboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Meza-Avina, Maria Elena; Wei, Lianhu; Liu, Yan; Poduch, Ewa; Bello, Angelica M.; Mishra, Ram K.; Pai, Emil F.; Kotra, Lakshmi P.

    2010-06-14

    In recent years, orotidine-5{prime}-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) has gained renewed attention as a drug target. As a part of continuing efforts to design novel inhibitors of ODCase, we undertook a comprehensive study of potent, structurally diverse ligands of ODCase and analyzed their structural interactions in the active site of ODCase. These ligands comprise of pyrazole or pyrimidine nucleotides including the mononucleotide derivatives of pyrazofurin, barbiturate ribonucleoside, and 5-cyanouridine, as well as, in a computational approach, 1,4-dihydropyridine-based non-nucleoside inhibitors such as nifedipine and nimodipine. All these ligands bind in the active site of ODCase exhibiting distinct interactions paving the way to design novel inhibitors against this interesting enzyme. We propose an empirical model for the ligand structure for rational modifications in new drug design and potentially new lead structures.

  6. Increased riboflavin production by manipulation of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase in Ashbya gossypii.

    PubMed

    Buey, Rubén M; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Balsera, Mónica; de Pereda, José María; Revuelta, José Luis

    2015-11-01

    Guanine nucleotides are the precursors of essential biomolecules including nucleic acids and vitamins such as riboflavin. The enzyme inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) catalyzes the ratelimiting step in the guanine nucleotide de novo biosynthetic pathway and plays a key role in controlling the cellular nucleotide pools. Thus, IMPDH is an important metabolic bottleneck in the guanine nucleotide synthesis, susceptible of manipulation by means of metabolic engineering approaches. Herein, we report the functional and structural characterization of the IMPDH enzyme from the industrial fungus Ashbya gossypii. Our data show that the overexpression of the IMPDH gene increases the metabolic flux through the guanine pathway and ultimately enhances 40 % riboflavin production with respect to the wild type. Also, IMPDH disruption results in a 100-fold increase of inosine excretion to the culture media. Our results contribute to the developing metabolic engineering toolbox aiming at improving the production of metabolites with biotechnological interest in A. gossypii.

  7. Hydrogels Based on Ag+-Modulated-Assembly of 5'-Adenosine Monophosphate for Enriching Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jingcheng; Hu, Yuanyuan; Dong, Xie; Wu, Yang; Lin, Nangui; Song, Aixin

    2017-08-22

    The supramolecular hydrogels by combining 5'-adenosine monophosphate (AMP) with Ag+ were fabricated in this work. Their gelation capability was enhanced with the increase in the concentration of Ag+ or decrease in pH. The gels were found to be very sensitive to light which endows the hydrogels potential applications in visible photosensitive materials. The coordination between nucleobase of AMP and Ag+ and stacking of nucleobases are considered to be the main driving force for self-assembly. The hydrogels successfully achieved the encapsulation and enrichment of biomolecules. The hydrogen bonding between the amino group of guest molecules and silver-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) along the nanofibers which drives the enrichment is considered the crucial interaction. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Effect of ionizing irradiation on the physiological activity of cyclic adenosine monophosphate on smooth muscle preparations.

    PubMed

    Schachinger, L; Michailov, M; Owusa Daaku, S; Prechter, I; Klöter, H; Schippel, C

    1982-01-01

    The effect of ionizing irradiation on the physiological activity of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in smooth muscle preparations from frog lung was studied. cAMP, given as dibutyryl salt (dib-cAMP) inhibited the radiation induced contractions of the muscle in a manner similar to the action of theophylline. In vitro irradiation of dib-cAMP resulted in an alteration of the chemical structure of this substance, i.e., formation of monobutyryl-cAMP and further derivatives as well as a decomposition of the purine structure. There was also a loss of the relaxing activity of irradiated cAMP on the muscle tone of frog lung preparations. The physiologically measured inactivation of dib-cAMP was far more pronounced than the chemical alteration. An inhibitory effect of the reaction products is postulated.

  9. Neomycin inhibits the phosphatidylinositol monophosphate and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate stimulation of plasma membrane ATPase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Qiuyun; Boss, W.F. )

    1991-05-01

    The inositol phospholipids, phosphatidylinositol monophosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}), have been shown to increase the vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity of plant plasma membranes. In this paper, the authors show the effect of various concentrations of phosphatidyinositol, PIP, and PIP{sub 2} on the plasma membrane vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity. PIP and PIP{sub 2} at concentrations at 10 nanomoles per 30 microgram membrane protein per milliliter of reaction mixture caused a twofold and 1.8-fold increase in the ATPase activity, respectively. The effect of these negatively charged phospholipids on the ATPase activity was inhibited by adding the positively charged aminoglycoside, neomycin. Neomycin did not affect the endogenous plasma membrane ATPase activity in the absence of exogenous lipids.

  10. Metabolic syndrome: adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and malonyl coenzyme A.

    PubMed

    Ruderman, Neil B; Saha, Asish K

    2006-02-01

    The metabolic syndrome can be defined as a state of metabolic dysregulation characterized by insulin resistance, central obesity, and a predisposition to type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, premature atherosclerosis, and other diseases. An increasing body of evidence has linked the metabolic syndrome to abnormalities in lipid metabolism that ultimately lead to cellular dysfunction. We review here the hypothesis that, in many instances, the cause of these lipid abnormalities could be a dysregulation of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/malonyl coenzyme A (CoA) fuel-sensing and signaling mechanism. Such dysregulation could be reflected by isolated increases in malonyl CoA or by concurrent changes in malonyl CoA and AMPK, both of which would alter intracellular fatty acid partitioning. The possibility is also raised that pharmacological agents and other factors that activate AMPK and/or decrease malonyl CoA could be therapeutic targets.

  11. Adsorption of nucleotides on biomimetic apatite: The case of adenosine 5‧ monophosphate (AMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammami, K.; Feki, H. El; Marsan, O.; Drouet, C.

    2015-10-01

    This work investigates the interaction between the nucleotide adenosine 5‧ monophosphate molecule (AMP) and a biomimetic nanocrystalline carbonated apatite as a model for bone mineral. The analogy of the apatite phase used in this work with biological apatite was first pointed out by complementary techniques. AMP adsorption isotherms were then investigated. Obtained data were fitted to a Sips isotherm with an exponent greater than one suggesting positive cooperativity among adsorbed molecules. The data were compared to a previous study relative to the adsorption of another nucleotide, cytidine monophosphate (CMP) onto a similar substrate, evidencing some effect of the chemical nature of the nucleic base. An enhanced adsorption was observed under acidic (pH 6) conditions as opposed to pH 7.4, which parallels the case of DNA adsorption on biomimetic apatite. An estimated standard Gibbs free energy associated to the adsorption process (ΔG°ads ≅ -22 kJ/mol) intermediate between "physisorption" and "chemisorption" was found. The analysis of the solids after adsorption pointed to the preservation of the main characteristics of the apatite substrate but shifts or enhancements of Raman bands attributed to AMP showed the existence of chemical interactions involving both the phosphate and adenine parts of AMP. This contribution adds to the works conducted in view of better understanding the interaction of DNA/RNA and their constitutive nucleotides and the surface of biomimetic apatites. It could prove helpful in disciplines such as bone diagenesis (DNA/apatite interface in aged bones) or nanomedicine (setup of DNA- or RNA-loaded apatite systems). Also, the adsorption of nucleic acids on minerals like apatites could have played a role in the preservation of such biomolecules in the varying conditions known to exist at the origin of life on Earth, underlining the importance of dedicated adsorption studies.

  12. Histamine release upon adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) nasal provocation in allergic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Polosa, R; Pagano, C; Prosperini, G; Low, J; Dokic, D; Church, M; Crimi, N

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Nasal provocation with adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) elicits nasal symptoms in subjects with rhinitis. Histamine released from mast cells may play a part in AMP induced nasal responses.
METHODS—Symptoms of rhinitis were recorded and histamine release in the fluid obtained by nasal lavage after AMP, guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP), and placebo instillations was measured in nine subjects with allergic rhinitis and nine non-allergic controls in a double blind, randomised, placebo controlled study.
RESULTS—No symptoms or significant increases in histamine were observed after GMP and placebo challenge. Significantly higher levels of histamine were seen in the nasal lavage fluids of allergic subjects following AMP challenge than in non-allergic controls, the median (range) histamine concentration increasing from the baseline value of 1.62 (0.44-6.99) ng/ml to 6.45 (0.81-16.17) ng/ml at three minutes. No increase in histamine levels was seen in the non-allergic subjects in whom the median histamine concentration was 1.13 (0.29-4.25) ng/ml at baseline and 0.97 (0.31-5.89) ng/ml three minutes after AMP challenge.
CONCLUSIONS—AMP elicits an immediate rise in histamine levels in the nasal lavage fluid of allergic subjects compared with non-allergic individuals. These findings indicate that the exaggerated nasal response to adenosine may reflect mast cell priming in vivo, thus supporting its application as a potential new marker of allergic inflammation.

 PMID:10325898

  13. Nanostructures having crystalline and amorphous phases

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Chen, Xiaobo

    2015-04-28

    The present invention includes a nanostructure, a method of making thereof, and a method of photocatalysis. In one embodiment, the nanostructure includes a crystalline phase and an amorphous phase in contact with the crystalline phase. Each of the crystalline and amorphous phases has at least one dimension on a nanometer scale. In another embodiment, the nanostructure includes a nanoparticle comprising a crystalline phase and an amorphous phase. The amorphous phase is in a selected amount. In another embodiment, the nanostructure includes crystalline titanium dioxide and amorphous titanium dioxide in contact with the crystalline titanium dioxide. Each of the crystalline and amorphous titanium dioxide has at least one dimension on a nanometer scale.

  14. Molecular composites from liquid crystalline polymers and liquid crystalline thermosets

    SciTech Connect

    Benicewicz, B.C.; Douglas, E.P.; Hjelm, R.P. Jr.

    1993-07-01

    We propose a new approach to molecular composites. This approach uses a mixture of a liquid crystalline polymer and a liquid crystalline thermoset to enhance the miscibility. Preliminary neutron scattering data is presented on a system of short and long rod aromatic amides. The data is interpreted using the interpenetrating phase model of Debye and Bueche. The analysis indicates that the scattering is consistent with this model and shows a characteristic length scale in the range of 70 to 80 A. The intensity of the scattering is lower than calculated for the strong segregation limit, suggesting that there is some intermixing of the components.

  15. Diverse topics in crystalline beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jie; Draeseke, A.; Sessler, A.M.; Li, Xiao-Ping

    1995-11-27

    Equations of motion are presented, appropriate to interacting charged particles of diverse charge and mass, subject to the external forces produced by various kinds of magnetic fields and radio-frequency (rf) electric fields in storage rings. These equations are employed in the molecular dynamics simulations to study the properties of crystalline beams. The two necessary conditions for the formation and maintenance of crystalline beams are summarized. The transition from ID to 2D, and from 2D to 3D is explored, and the scaling behavior of the heating rates is discussed especially in the high temperature limit. The effectiveness of various cooling techniques in achieving crystalline states has been investigated. Crystalline beams made of two different species of ions via sympathetic cooling are presented, as well as circulating ``crystal balls`` bunched in all directions by magnetic focusing and rf field. By numerically reconstructing the original experimental conditions of the NAP-M ring, it is found that only at extremely low beam intensities, outside of the range of the original measurement, proton particles can form occasionally-passing disks. The proposed New ASTRID ring is shown to be suitable for the formation and maintenance of crystalline beams of all dimensions.

  16. Rotationally Molded Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Martin; Scribben, Eric; Baird, Donald; Hulcher, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Rotational molding is a unique process for producing hollow plastic parts. Rotational molding offers low cost tooling and can produce very large parts with complicated shapes. Products made by rotational molding include water tanks with capacities up to 20,000 gallons, truck bed liners, playground equipment, air ducts, Nylon fuel tanks, pipes, toys, stretchers, kayaks, pallets, and many others. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers are an important class of engineering resins employed in a wide variety of applications. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers resins are composed of semirigid, nearly linear polymeric chains resulting in an ordered mesomorphic phase between the crystalline solid and the isotropic liquid. Ordering of the rigid rod-like polymers in the melt phase yields microfibrous, self-reinforcing polymer structures with outstanding mechanical and thermal properties. Rotational molding of liquid crystalline polymer resins results in high strength and high temperature hollow structures useful in a variety of applications. Various fillers and reinforcements can potentially be added to improve properties of the hollow structures. This paper focuses on the process and properties of rotationally molded liquid crystalline polymers. This paper will also highlight the interactions between academia and small businesses in developing new products and processes.

  17. Rotationally Molded Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Martin; Scribben, Eric; Baird, Donald; Hulcher, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Rotational molding is a unique process for producing hollow plastic parts. Rotational molding offers low cost tooling and can produce very large parts with complicated shapes. Products made by rotational molding include water tanks with capacities up to 20,000 gallons, truck bed liners, playground equipment, air ducts, Nylon fuel tanks, pipes, toys, stretchers, kayaks, pallets, and many others. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers are an important class of engineering resins employed in a wide variety of applications. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers resins are composed of semirigid, nearly linear polymeric chains resulting in an ordered mesomorphic phase between the crystalline solid and the isotropic liquid. Ordering of the rigid rod-like polymers in the melt phase yields microfibrous, self-reinforcing polymer structures with outstanding mechanical and thermal properties. Rotational molding of liquid crystalline polymer resins results in high strength and high temperature hollow structures useful in a variety of applications. Various fillers and reinforcements can potentially be added to improve properties of the hollow structures. This paper focuses on the process and properties of rotationally molded liquid crystalline polymers. This paper will also highlight the interactions between academia and small businesses in developing new products and processes.

  18. Rotationally Molded Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Martin; Stevenson, Paige; Scribben, Eric; Baird, Donald; Hulcher, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Rotational molding is a unique process for producing hollow plastic parts. Rotational molding offers advantages of low cost tooling and can produce very large parts with complicated shapes. Products made by rotational molding include water tanks with capacities up to 20,000 gallons, truck bed liners, playground equipment, air ducts, Nylon fuel tanks, pipes, toys, stretchers, kayaks, pallets, and many others. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers are an important class of engineering resins employed in a wide variety of applications. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers resins are composed of semi-rigid, nearly linear polymeric chains resulting in an ordered mesomorphic phase between the crystalline solid and the isotropic liquid. Ordering of the rigid rod-like polymers in the melt phase yields microfibrous, self-reinforcing polymer structures with outstanding mechanical and thermal properties. Rotational molding of liquid crystalline polymer resins results in high strength and high temperature hollow structures useful in a variety of applications. Various fillers and reinforcements can potentially be added to improve properties of the hollow structures. This paper focuses on the process and properties of rotationally molded liquid crystalline polymers.

  19. Theory of liquid crystalline micelles.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Akihiko

    2013-01-21

    A theory is introduced to describe self-assembly of liquid crystalline AB diblock copolymers, consisting of a homopolymer (A) and a side-chain liquid crystalline polymer (B). We derive the free energy of the liquid crystalline micellar solutions and examine the equilibrium solution properties: critical micelle concentration (CMC), nematic-isotropic phase transition (NIT) of the rigid side-chains inside the micelle core, and phase separations. It is shown that there is a critical micelle size below which the NIT becomes continuous due to a packing effect. We also find re-entrant micellizations near the NIT temperature. The phase diagrams, including binodal, spinodal, CMC, and NIT curves are also examined on the temperature-concentration plane.

  20. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Hochbaum, Allon; Dargas, Daniel; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Yang, Peidong

    2009-08-18

    Herein we demonstrate a novel electroless etching synthesis of monolithic, single-crystalline, mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays with a high surface area and luminescent properties consistent with conventional porous silicon materials. The photoluminescence of these nanowires suggest they are composed of crystalline silicon with small enough dimensions such that these arrays may be useful as photocatalytic substrates or active components of nanoscale optoelectronic devices. A better understanding of this electroless route to mesoporous silicon could lead to facile and general syntheses of different narrow bandgap semiconductor nanostructures for various applications.

  1. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Hochbaum, A.I.; Gargas, Daniel; Jeong Hwang, Yun; Yang, Peidong

    2009-08-04

    Herein we demonstrate a novel electroless etching synthesis of monolithic, single-crystalline, mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays with a high surface area and luminescent properties consistent with conventional porous silicon materials. These porous nanowires also retain the crystallographic orientation of the wafer from which they are etched. Electron microscopy and diffraction confirm their single-crystallinity and reveal the silicon surrounding the pores is as thin as several nanometers. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that the photoluminescence (PL) of these arrays emanate from the nanowires themselves, and their PL spectrum suggests that these arrays may be useful as photocatalytic substrates or active components of nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  2. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Hochbaum, Allon I; Gargas, Daniel; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Yang, Peidong

    2009-10-01

    Herein we demonstrate a novel electroless etching synthesis of monolithic, single-crystalline, mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays with a high surface area and luminescent properties consistent with conventional porous silicon materials. These porous nanowires also retain the crystallographic orientation of the wafer from which they are etched. Electron microscopy and diffraction confirm their single-crystallinity and reveal the silicon surrounding the pores is as thin as several nanometers. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that the photoluminescence (PL) of these arrays emanate from the nanowires themselves, and their PL spectrum suggests that these arrays may be useful as photocatalytic substrates or active components of nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  3. CRYSTALLINE BEAMS AT HIGH ENERGIES.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.; OKAMOTO, H.; YURI, Y.; SESSLER, A.; MACHIDA, S.

    2006-06-23

    Previously it was shown that by crystallizing each of the two counter-circulating beams, a much larger beam-beam tune shift can be tolerated during the beam-beam collisions; thus a higher luminosity can be reached for colliding beams [1]. On the other hand, crystalline beams can only be formed at energies below the transition energy ({gamma}{sub T}) of the accelerators [2]. In this paper, we investigate the formation of crystals in a high-{gamma}{sub T} lattice that also satisfies the maintenance condition for a crystalline beam [3].

  4. Arsenic Sorption on TiO2 Nanoparticles: Size And Crystallinity Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Single solute As (III) and As (V) sorption on nano-sized amorphous and crystalline TiO2 was investigated to determine: size and crystallinity effects on arsenic sorption capacities, possible As (III) oxidation, and the nature of surface complexes. Amorphous and cryst...

  5. Arsenic Sorption on TiO2 Nanoparticles: Size And Crystallinity Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Single solute As (III) and As (V) sorption on nano-sized amorphous and crystalline TiO2 was investigated to determine: size and crystallinity effects on arsenic sorption capacities, possible As (III) oxidation, and the nature of surface complexes. Amorphous and cryst...

  6. Study of the physical properties of crystalline rocks in the southeast Voronezh anteclise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dmitriyevskiy, V. S.; Afanasyev, N. S.; Frolov, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    The physical properties of rocks, in the crystalline mass of the Voronezh anteclise, were studied. The study of the physical properties of rocks is important for the improvement of geophysical methods for mapping crystalline rocks in the foundation and exploration of different geological objects which are associated with the crystalline foundation, covered by the sedimentary mantle. It is found that: (1) rocks in the crystalline foundation are very different in physical properties; (2) the physical properties are closely related to their substance composition and genesis; (3) petrographic properties give clues of rock afficiation to certain complexes; and (4) physical and magnetic properties should be examined by petrography, chemical and X-ray analysis.

  7. Glycation precedes lens crystallin aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Swamy, M.S.; Perry, R.E.; Abraham, E.C.

    1987-05-01

    Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) seems to have the potential to alter the structure of crystallins and make them susceptible to thiol oxidation leading to disulfide-linked high molecular weight (HMW) aggregate formation. They used streptozotocin diabetic rats during precataract and cataract stages and long-term cell-free glycation of bovine lens crystallins to study the relationship between glycation and lens crystallin aggregation. HMW aggregates and other protein components of the water-soluble (WS) and urea-soluble (US) fractions were separated by molecular sieve high performance liquid chromatography. Glycation was estimated by both (/sup 3/H)NaBH/sub 4/ reduction and phenylboronate agarose affinity chromatography. Levels of total glycated protein (GP) in the US fractions were about 2-fold higher than in the WS fractions and there was a linear increase in GP in both WS and US fractions. This increase was parallelled by a corresponding increase in HMW aggregates. Total GP extracted by the affinity method from the US fraction showed a predominance of HMW aggregates and vice versa. Cell-free glycation studies with bovine crystallins confirmed the results of the animals studies. Increasing glycation caused a corresponding increase in protein insolubilization and the insoluble fraction thus formed also contained more glycated protein. It appears that lens protein glycation, HMW aggregate formation, and protein insolubilization are interrelated.

  8. Lens Aging: Effects of Crystallins

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, K. Krishna; Santhoshkumar, Puttur

    2009-01-01

    The primary function of the eye lens is to focus light on the retina. The major proteins in the lens—a, b, and g-crystallins—are constantly subjected to age-related changes such as oxidation, deamidation, truncation, glycation, and methylation. Such age-related modifications are cumulative and affect crystallin structure and function. With time, the modified crystallins aggregate, causing the lens to increasingly scatter light on the retina instead of focusing light on it and causing the lens to lose its transparency gradually and become opaque. Age-related lens opacity, or cataract, is the major cause of blindness worldwide. We review deamidation, and glycation that occur in the lenses during aging keeping in mind the structural and functional changes that these modifications bring about in the proteins. In addition, we review proteolysis and discuss recent observations on how crystallin fragments generated in vivo, through their anti-chaperone activity may cause crystallin aggregation in aging lenses. We also review hyperbaric oxygen treatment induced guinea pig and ‘humanized’ ascorbate transporting mouse models as suitable options for studies on age-related changes in lens proteins. PMID:19463898

  9. Crystalline retinopathy in primary hyperoxaluria.

    PubMed

    Punjabi, Omar S; Riaz, Kamran; Mets, Marilyn B

    2011-04-01

    We present the case of a 2.5-month-old boy with type 1 primary hyperoxaluria and severe systemic oxalosis resulting in massive retinal crystalline deposition. Maculopathy was demonstrated by optical coherence tomography, and nystagmus was present. Electroretinography demonstrated retinal dysfunction, unusual in oxalosis.

  10. Compartmentalized Cyclic Adenosine 3′,5′-Monophosphate at the Plasma Membrane Clusters PDE3A and Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator into Microdomains

    PubMed Central

    Penmatsa, Himabindu; Zhang, Weiqiang; Yarlagadda, Sunitha; Li, Chunying; Conoley, Veronica G.; Yue, Junming; Bahouth, Suleiman W.; Buddington, Randal K.; Zhang, Guangping; Nelson, Deborah J.; Sonecha, Monal D.; Manganiello, Vincent; Wine, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    Formation of multiple-protein macromolecular complexes at specialized subcellular microdomains increases the specificity and efficiency of signaling in cells. In this study, we demonstrate that phosphodiesterase type 3A (PDE3A) physically and functionally interacts with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel. PDE3A inhibition generates compartmentalized cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP), which further clusters PDE3A and CFTR into microdomains at the plasma membrane and potentiates CFTR channel function. Actin skeleton disruption reduces PDE3A–CFTR interaction and segregates PDE3A from its interacting partners, thus compromising the integrity of the CFTR-PDE3A–containing macromolecular complex. Consequently, compartmentalized cAMP signaling is lost. PDE3A inhibition no longer activates CFTR channel function in a compartmentalized manner. The physiological relevance of PDE3A–CFTR interaction was investigated using pig trachea submucosal gland secretion model. Our data show that PDE3A inhibition augments CFTR-dependent submucosal gland secretion and actin skeleton disruption decreases secretion. PMID:20089840

  11. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    SciTech Connect

    Painter, Scott Leroy; Chu, Shaoping; Harp, Dylan Robert; Perry, Frank Vinton; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of orotidine 5′-monophosphate decarboxylase from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Krungkrai, Sudaratana R.; Tokuoka, Keiji; Kusakari, Yukiko; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Adachi, Hiroaki; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Kai, Yasushi; Krungkrai, Jerapan; Horii, Toshihiro

    2006-01-01

    Orotidine 5′-monophosphate (OMP) decarboxylase (OMPDC; EC 4.1.1.23) catalyzes the final step in the de novo synthesis of uridine 5′-monophosphate (UMP) and defects in the enzyme are lethal in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Active recombinant P. falciparum OMPDC (PfOMPDC) was crystallized by the seeding method in a hanging drop using PEG 3000 as a precipitant. A complete set of diffraction data from a native crystal was collected to 2.7 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation at the Swiss Light Source. The crystal exhibits trigonal symmetry (space group R3), with hexagonal unit-cell parameters a = b = 201.81, c = 44.03 Å. With a dimer in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content is 46% (V M = 2.3 Å3 Da−1). PMID:16754976

  13. RELATIONSHIP OF THE HEXOSE MONOPHOSPHATE SHUNT TO THE ENDOGENOUS METABOLISM OF CELL-FREE EXTRACTS OF MYCOBACTERIUM PHLEI

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, W. B.

    1963-01-01

    Sutton, W. B. (The Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, Ind.). Relationship of the hexose monophosphate shunt to the endogenous metabolism of cell-free extracts of Mycobacterium phlei. J. Bacteriol. 85:476–484. 1963.—The endogenous reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol (DPIP) by cell-free extracts of Mycobacterium phlei has been linked to the presence of glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) dehydrogenase functioning in connection with a reduced triphosphopyridine nucleotide (TPN)-DPIP reductase. The necessary substrate and coenzyme, i.e., G-6-P and TPN, are contained in the cell-free bacterial extract. The only required addition to activate the system is a suitable electron acceptor. The accumulation of G-6-P and the presence of 6-phosphogluconic dehydrogenase in the cell-free extract suggest that the hexose monophosphate shunt mechanism is impaired by sonic treatment of M. phlei. PMID:13979428

  14. Controlled supramolecular structure of guanosine monophosphate in the interlayer space of layered double hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Guanosine monophosphates (GMPs) were intercalated into the interlayer space of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and the molecular arrangement of GMP was controlled in LDHs. The intercalation conditions such as GMP/LDH molar ratio and reaction temperature were systematically adjusted. When the GMP/LDH molar ratio was 1:2, which corresponds to the charge balance between positive LDH sheets and GMP anions, GMP molecules were well-intercalated to LDH. At high temperature (100 and 80 °C), a single GMP molecule existed separately in the LDH interlayer. On the other hand, at lower temperature (20, 40 and 60 °C), GMPs tended to form ribbon-type supramolecular assemblies. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the ribbon-type GMP assembly had an intermolecular interaction energy of ≈101 kJ/mol, which corresponds to a double hydrogen bond between guanosine molecules. Once stabilized, the interlayer GMP orientations, single molecular and ribbon phase, were successfully converted to the other phase by adjusting the external environment by stoichiometry or temperature control. PMID:28144541

  15. PHARMACOKINETIC AND PHARMACODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF INOSINE MONOPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE (IMPDH) ACTIVITY IN MMF-TREATED HCT RECIPIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Mager, Donald E.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Storer, Barry E.; Boeckh, Michael J.; Bemer, Meagan J.; Phillips, Brian R.; Risler, Linda J.; McCune, Jeannine S.

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach to personalizing postgrafting immunosuppression in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients is evaluating inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity as a drug-specific biomarker of mycophenolic acid (MPA)-induced immunosuppression. This prospective study evaluated total MPA, unbound MPA, and total MPA glucuronide plasma concentrations and IMPDH activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNC) at five time points after the morning dose of oral mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) on day +21 in 56 nonmyeloablative HCT recipients. Substantial interpatient variability in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics was observed and accurately characterized by the population pharmacokinetic/dynamic model. IMPDH activity decreased with increasing MPA plasma concentration, with maximum inhibition coinciding with maximum MPA concentration in most patients. The overall relationship between MPA concentration and IMPDH activity was described by a direct inhibitory Emax model with an IC50 = 3.23 mg/L total MPA and 57.3 ng/mL unbound MPA. The day +21 IMPDH area under the effect curve (AUEC) was associated with cytomegalovirus reactivation, non-relapse mortality, and overall mortality. In conclusion, a pharmacokinetic/dynamic model was developed that relates plasma MPA concentrations with PMNC IMPDH activity after an MMF dose in HCT recipients. Future studies should validate this model and confirm that day +21 IMPDH AUEC is a predictive biomarker. PMID:24727337

  16. Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase binds nucleic acids in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Jeremy E; Hamaguchi, Nobuko; Belenky, Peter; Mortimer, Sarah E; Stanton, Martin; Hedstrom, Lizbeth

    2004-01-01

    Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides. In addition to the catalytic domain, IMPDH contains a subdomain of unknown function composed of two cystathione beta-synthase domains. Our results, using three different assays, show that IMPDHs from Tritrichomonas foetus, Escherichia coli, and both human isoforms bind single-stranded nucleic acids with nanomolar affinity via the subdomain. Approx. 100 nucleotides are bound per IMPDH tetramer. Deletion of the subdomain decreases affinity 10-fold and decreases site size to 60 nucleotides, whereas substitution of conserved Arg/Lys residues in the subdomain with Glu decreases affinity by 20-fold. IMPDH is found in the nucleus of human cells, as might be expected for a nucleic-acid-binding protein. Lastly, immunoprecipitation experiments show that IMPDH binds both RNA and DNA in vivo. These experiments indicate that IMPDH has a previously unappreciated role in replication, transcription or translation that is mediated by the subdomain. PMID:14766016

  17. Switching direction in electric-signal-induced cell migration by cyclic guanosine monophosphate and phosphatidylinositol signaling.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masayuki J; Kuwayama, Hidekazu; van Egmond, Wouter N; Takayama, Airi L K; Takagi, Hiroaki; van Haastert, Peter J M; Yanagida, Toshio; Ueda, Masahiro

    2009-04-21

    Switching between attractive and repulsive migration in cell movement in response to extracellular guidance cues has been found in various cell types and is an important cellular function for translocation during cellular and developmental processes. Here we show that the preferential direction of migration during electrotaxis in Dictyostelium cells can be reversed by genetically modulating both guanylyl cyclases (GCases) and the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-binding protein C (GbpC) in combination with the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinases (PI3Ks). The PI3K-dependent pathway is involved in cathode-directed migration under a direct-current electric field. The catalytic domains of soluble GCase (sGC) and GbpC also mediate cathode-directed signaling via cGMP, whereas the N-terminal domain of sGC mediates anode-directed signaling in conjunction with both the inhibition of PI3Ks and cGMP production. These observations provide an identification of the genes required for directional switching in electrotaxis and suggest that a parallel processing of electric signals, in which multiple-signaling pathways act to bias cell movement toward the cathode or anode, is used to determine the direction of migration.

  18. [Involvement of cyclic adenosine monophosphate in the control of motile behavior of Physarum polycephalum plasmodium].

    PubMed

    Matveeva, N B; Teplov, V A; Nezvetskiĭ, A R; Orlova, T G; Beĭlina, S I

    2012-01-01

    Possible involvement of autocrine factors into the control of motile behavior via a receptor-mediated mechanism was investigated in Physarum polycephalum plasmodium, a multinuclear amoeboid cell with the auto-oscillatory mode of motility. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and extracellular cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase, its involvement into the control of plasmodium motile behavior was proved by action of its strong inhibitor, were regarded as putative autocrine factors. It was shown that the plasmodium secreted cAMP. When it was introduced into agar support, 0,1-1 mM cAMP induced a delay of the plasmodium spreading and its transition to migration. When locally applied, cAMP at the same concentrations induced typical for attractant action the increase in oscillation frequency and the decrease of ectoplasm elasticity. The ability to exhibit positive chemotaxis in cAMP gradient and the dependence of its realization were shown to depend on the plasmodium state. Chemotaxis test specimens obtained from the migrating plasmodium, unlike those obtained from growing culture, generate alternative fronts which compete effectively with fronts oriented towards the attractant increment. The results obtained support our supposition stated earlier that advance of the Physarum polycephalum plasmodium leading edge is determined by local extracellular cAMP gradients arising from a time delay between secretion and hydrolysis of the nucleotide.

  19. Identification and characterization of inosine 5-monophosphate dehydrogenase in Streptococcus suis type 2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-han; He, Kong-wang; Duan, Zhi-tao; Zhou, Jun-ming; Yu, Zheng-yu; Ni, Yan-xiu; Lu, Cheng-ping

    2009-11-01

    Streptococcus suis type 2 is a swine pathogen responsible for diverse diseases. Although many virulent factors have been identified and studied, relatively little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms of type 2. The aim of the study was to identify and understand the characterization of Inosine 5-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). A 957-bp gene, impdh, was identified in the virulent S. suis serotype 2 (SS2), and analysis of the predicted IMPDH sequence revealed IMP dehydrogenase/GMP reductase domain. The gene encoding for the IMPDH of S. suis was cloned and sequenced. The DNA sequence contained an open reading frame encoding for a 318 amino acid polypeptide exhibiting 23% sequence identity with the IMPDH from Streptococcus pyogenes (YP281355) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (ZP00404150). Using the pET(32) expression plasmid, the impdh gene was inducibly overexpressed in Escherichia coli to produce IMPDH with a hexahistidyl N-terminus to permit its purification. The (His)6 IMPDH protein was found to possess functional IMPDH enzymatic activity after the purification. The impdh-knockout SS2 mutant ( Delta IMPDH) constructed in this study was slower in growth and one pH unit higher than SS2-H after 6 h of culturing, and found to be attenuated in mouse models of infection for 2.5 times and not be capable of causing death in porcine models of infection in contrast with the parent SS2-H.

  20. Ciprofloxacin photosensitized oxidation of 2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-monophosphate in neutral aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yancheng; Zhang, Peng; Li, Haixia; Wang, Wenfeng

    2012-01-01

    Laser flash photolysis studies have been carried out to investigate the reactions of ciprofloxacin (CPX) with 2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-monophosphate (dGMP), N, N, N', N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) and ferulic acid (FCA) in neutral aqueous solutions, respectively. CPX triplet state ((3)CPX*) can be quenched by TMPD, FCA and dGMP, with rate constants of 1.8 × 10(9), 1.5 × 10(9) and 5.8 × 10(7) dm(3) mol(-1) s(-1), respectively. TMPD radical cation (TMPD(·+)) and FCA radical cation (FCA(·+)) were observed directly. The formation rate of CPX radical anion (CPX(·-)) was determined to be 1.5 × 10(9) dm(3) mol(-1) s(-1). Redox reaction of dGMP was investigated through competing reactions using TMPD and FCA as probe. The triplet energy of CPX was determined to be 262 kJ mol(-1). Electron transfer from TMPD, FCA and dGMP to (3)CPX* was proposed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  1. 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mor, Vijay; Unnikrishnan, M K

    2011-09-01

    Lifestyle changes such as physical inactivity combined with calorie-rich, low-fibre diets have triggered an explosive surge in metabolic syndrome, outlined as a cluster of heart attack risk factors such as insulin resistance, raised fasting plasma glucose, abdominal obesity, high cholesterol and high blood pressure. By acting as a master-switch of energy homeostasis and associated pathophysiological phenomena, 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) appears to orchestrate the adaptive physiology of energy deficit, suggesting that the sedentary modern human could be suffering from chronic suboptimal AMPK activation. Addressing individual targets with potent ligands with high specificity may be inappropriate (it has not yielded any molecule superior to the sixty year old metformin) because this strategy cannot address a cluster of interrelated pathologies. However, spices, dietary supplements and nutraceuticals attenuate the multiple symptoms of metabolic syndrome in a collective and perhaps more holistic fashion with fewer adverse events. Natural selection could have favoured races that developed a taste for spices and dietary supplements, most of which are not only antioxidants but also activators of AMPK. The review will outline the various biochemical mechanisms and pathophysiological consequences of AMPK activation involving the cluster of symptoms that embrace metabolic syndrome and beyond. Recent advances that integrate energy homeostasis with a number of overarching metabolic pathways and physiological phenomena, including inflammatory conditions, cell growth and development, malignancy, life span, and even extending into environmental millieu, as in obesity mediated by gut microflora and others will also be outlined.

  2. Lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptors and adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate during and after normal pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    von Mandach, U.; Gubler, H. P.; Engel, G.; Huch, R.; Huch, A.

    1993-01-01

    1. The beta 2-sympathomimetics, used to inhibit preterm labour, bind predominantly to beta 2-adrenoceptors, activating adenylate cyclase to form adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP), a messenger substance which inhibits the enzyme cascade triggering smooth muscle contraction. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP formation can be used as markers of beta 2-adrenergic effect. 2. The present study addresses the influence of pregnancy on the beta-adrenoceptor system. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) in circulating lymphocytes were determined at three points in gestation (16, 29 and 37 weeks) and 9 weeks post partum in 22 normal pregnancies. (-)-[125Iodo]-cyanopindolol was used as the ligand to identify a homogeneous population of beta 2-adrenoceptors on lymphocytes. B- and T-cell fractions were estimated from the same samples. 3. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density decreased significantly during gestation until week 37 (P < 0.01), then increased post partum (P < 0.005). Cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) were significantly lower after 16 weeks of gestation than post partum (P < 0.05). 4. The results, which cannot be explained in terms of a shift in the lymphocyte (B- and T-cell) ratio, indicate that beta-adrenoceptor density and function are reduced in normal pregnancy and only return to normal post partum. These findings may be of significance in devising future tocolytic therapy with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists. PMID:8383562

  3. Lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptors and adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate during and after normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    von Mandach, U; Gubler, H P; Engel, G; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1993-02-01

    1. The beta 2-sympathomimetics, used to inhibit preterm labour, bind predominantly to beta 2-adrenoceptors, activating adenylate cyclase to form adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP), a messenger substance which inhibits the enzyme cascade triggering smooth muscle contraction. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP formation can be used as markers of beta 2-adrenergic effect. 2. The present study addresses the influence of pregnancy on the beta-adrenoceptor system. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) in circulating lymphocytes were determined at three points in gestation (16, 29 and 37 weeks) and 9 weeks post partum in 22 normal pregnancies. (-)-[125Iodo]-cyanopindolol was used as the ligand to identify a homogeneous population of beta 2-adrenoceptors on lymphocytes. B- and T-cell fractions were estimated from the same samples. 3. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density decreased significantly during gestation until week 37 (P < 0.01), then increased post partum (P < 0.005). Cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) were significantly lower after 16 weeks of gestation than post partum (P < 0.05). 4. The results, which cannot be explained in terms of a shift in the lymphocyte (B- and T-cell) ratio, indicate that beta-adrenoceptor density and function are reduced in normal pregnancy and only return to normal post partum. These findings may be of significance in devising future tocolytic therapy with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists.

  4. Metabolism of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and induction of tryptophanase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Botsford, J L

    1975-01-01

    The relationship between cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) metabolism and the induction of tryptophanase and beta-galactosidase was studied in several strains of Escherichia coli grown with succinate, acetate, glycerol, or glucose as the carbon source. No consistent relationship between the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP in the several strains cultured and the various carbon sources was discerned. In E. coli K-12-1 the induction of tryptophanase was found to vary in the order: succinate greater than acetate greater than glycerol greater than glucose, and that of beta-galactosidase was found in the order: glycerol greater than acetate greater than succinate greater than glucose. Rate of accumulation of cyclic AMP in the culture filtrate was in the order: succinate greater than acetate greater than glycerol greater than glucose. The addition of glycerol to E. coli K-12-1 grown in acetate caused inhibition of tryptophanase and slight inhibition of accumulation of extracellular cyclic AMP. These same conditions caused beta-galactosidase induction to be stimulated. The addition of exogenous cyclic AMP to cultures grown with four different carbon sources had an effect characteristic for each of the two enzymes studied as well as each individual carbon source. The results suggest that there are control elements distinct from cyclic AMP and its receptor protein which respond to the catabolic situation of the cell. PMID:170248

  5. Triazole inhibitors of Cryptosporidium parvum inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Sushil K.; Gollapalli, Deviprasad R.; Kirubakaran, Sivapriya; Zhang, Minjia; Johnson, Corey R.; Benjamin, Nicole N.; Hedstrom, Lizbeth; Cuny, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is an important human pathogen and potential bioterrorism agent. This protozoan parasite cannot salvage guanine or guanosine and therefore relies on inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) for biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides and hence for survival. Since C. parvum IMPDH is highly divergent from the host counterpart, selective inhibitors could potentially be used to treat cryptosporidiosis with minimal effects on its mammalian host. A series of 1,2,3-triazole containing ether CpIMPDH inhibitors are described. A structure-activity relationship study revealed that a small alkyl group on the alpha-position of the ether was required with the (R)-enantiomer significantly more active than the (S)-enantiomer. Electron-withdrawing groups in the 3- and/or 4-positions of the pendent phenyl ring were best and conversion of the quinoline containing inhibitors to quinoline-N-oxides retained inhibitory activity both in the presence and absence of bovine serum albumin. The 1,2,3-triazole CpIMPDH inhibitors provide new tools for elucidating the role of IMPDH in C. parvum and may serve as potential therapeutics for treating cryptosporidiosis. PMID:19624136

  6. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate regulation of ion transport in porcine vocal fold mucosae.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Nofziger, Charity; Blazer-Yost, Bonnie

    2008-08-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is an important biological molecule that regulates ion transport and inflammatory responses in epithelial tissue. The present study examined whether the adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, would increase cAMP concentration in porcine vocal fold mucosa and whether the effects of increased cAMP would be manifested as a functional increase in transepithelial ion transport. Additionally, changes in cAMP concentrations following exposure to an inflammatory mediator, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) were investigated. In vitro experimental design with matched treatment and control groups. Porcine vocal fold mucosae (N = 30) and tracheal mucosae (N = 20) were exposed to forskolin, TNFalpha, or vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide) treatment. cAMP concentrations were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ion transport was measured using electrophysiological techniques. Thirty minute exposure to forskolin significantly increased cAMP concentration and ion transport in porcine vocal fold and tracheal mucosae. However, 30-minute and 2-hour exposure to TNFalpha did not significantly alter cAMP concentration. We demonstrate that forskolin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase is present in vocal fold mucosa, and further, that the product, cAMP increases vocal fold ion transport. The results presented here contribute to our understanding of the intracellular mechanisms underlying vocal fold ion transport. As ion transport is important for maintaining superficial vocal fold hydration, data demonstrating forskolin-stimulated ion transport in vocal fold mucosa suggest opportunities for developing pharmacological treatments that increase surface hydration.

  7. A Fluorometric Activity Assay for Light-Regulated Cyclic-Nucleotide-Monophosphate Actuators.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Charlotte Helene; Körschen, Heinz G; Nicol, Christopher; Gasser, Carlos; Seifert, Reinhard; Schwärzel, Martin; Möglich, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As a transformative approach in neuroscience and cell biology, optogenetics grants control over manifold cellular events with unprecedented spatiotemporal definition, reversibility, and noninvasiveness. Sensory photoreceptors serve as genetically encoded, light-regulated actuators and hence embody the cornerstone of optogenetics. To expand the scope of optogenetics, ever more naturally occurring photoreceptors are being characterized, and synthetic photoreceptors with customized, light-regulated function are being engineered. Perturbational control over intracellular cyclic-nucleotide-monophosphate (cNMP) levels is achieved via sensory photoreceptors that catalyze the making and breaking of these second messengers in response to light. To facilitate discovery, engineering and quantitative characterization of such light-regulated cNMP actuators, we have developed an efficient fluorometric assay. Both the formation and the hydrolysis of cNMPs are accompanied by proton release which can be quantified with the fluorescent pH indicator 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). This assay equally applies to nucleotide cyclases, e.g., blue-light-activated bPAC, and to cNMP phosphodiesterases, e.g., red-light-activated LAPD. Key benefits include potential for parallelization and automation, as well as suitability for both purified enzymes and crude cell lysates. The BCECF assay hence stands to accelerate discovery and characterization of light-regulated actuators of cNMP metabolism.

  8. Stacking-unstacking of the dinucleoside monophosphate guanylyl-3',5'-uridine studied with molecular dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Norberg, J; Nilsson, L

    1994-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on two conformations of the dinucleoside monophosphate guanylyl-3',5'-uridine (GpU) in aqueous solution with one sodium counterion. One stacked conformation and one with the C3'-O3'-P-O5' backbone torsion angle twisted 180 degrees to create an unstacked conformation. We observed a relatively stable behavior of the stacked conformation, which remained stacked throughout the simulation, whereas the unstacked conformation showed major changes in the backbone torsion and glycosidic angles. During the simulation the unstacked conformation transformed into a more stacked form and then back again to an unstacked one. The calculated correlation times for rotational diffusion from the molecular dynamics simulations are in agreement with fluorescence anisotropy and nuclear magnetic resonance data. As expected, the correlation times for rotational diffusion of the unstacked conformation were observed to be longer than for the stacked conformation. The 2'OH group may contribute in stabilizing the stacked conformation, where the O2'-H...O4' hydrogen bond occurred in 82.7% of the simulation. Images FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 PMID:7948694

  9. Novel interactions of fluorinated nucleotide derivatives targeting orotidine-5′-monophosphate decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Melissa; Avina, Maria Elena Meza; Wei, Lianhu; Crandall, Ian E.; Bello, Angelica Mara; Poduch, Ewa; Liu, Yan; Paige, Christopher J.; Kain, Kevin C.; Pai, Emil F.; Kotra, Lakshmi P.

    2011-01-01

    Fluorinated nucleosides and nucleotides are of considerable interest to medicinal chemists due to their antiviral, anticancer, and other biological activities. However, their direct interactions at target binding sites are not well understood. A new class of 2′-deoxy-2′-fluoro-C6-substituted uridine and UMP derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of orotidine-5′-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase). These compounds were synthesized from the key intermediate, fully-protected 2′-deoxy-2′-fluorouridine. Among the synthesized compounds, 2′-deoxy-2′-fluoro-6-iodo-UMP covalently inhibited human ODCase with a second-order rate constant of 0.62 ± 0.02 M−1sec−1. Interestingly, the 6-cyano-2′-fluoro derivative covalently interacted with ODCase defying the conventional thinking, where its ribosyl derivative undergoes transformation into BMP by ODCase. This confirms that the 2′-fluoro moiety influences the chemistry at the C6 position of the nucleotides, thus interactions in the active site of ODCase. Molecular interactions of the 2′-fluorinated nucleotides are compared to those with the 3′-fluorinated nucleotides bound to the corresponding target enzyme, and the carbohydrate moieties were shown to bind in different conformations. PMID:21417464

  10. Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Influence on flagellar function and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Rubin, R W; Filner, P

    1973-03-01

    Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) influences both flagellar function and flagellar regeneration in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The methylxanthine, aminophylline, which can cause a tenfold increase in cAMP level in C. reinhardtii, inhibits flagellar movement and flagellar regeneration by wild-type cells, without inhibiting cell multiplication. Caffeine, a closely related inhibitor, also inhibits flagellar movement and regeneration, but it inhibits cell multiplication too. Regeneration by a mutant lacking the central pair of flagellar microtubules was found to be more sensitive than wild type to inhibition by caffeine and to be subject to synergistic inhibition by aminophylline plus dibutyryl cAMP. Regeneration by three out of seven mutants with different flagellar abnormalities was more sensitive than wild type to these inhibitors. We interpret these results to mean that cAMP affects a component of the flagellum directly or indirectly, and that the responsiveness of that component to cAMP is enhanced by mutations which affect the integrity of the flagellum. The component in question could be microtubule protein.

  11. Gemcitabine-based therapy for pancreatic cancer using the squalenoyl nucleoside monophosphate nanoassemblies.

    PubMed

    Maksimenko, Andrei; Caron, Joachim; Mougin, Julie; Desmaële, Didier; Couvreur, Patrick

    2015-03-30

    Gemcitabine is currently the most effective agent against advanced pancreatic cancer. However, the major therapeutic hurdles using gemcitabine include rapid inactivation by blood deaminases and fast development of cell chemoresistance, induced by down-regulation of deoxycytidine kinase or nucleoside transporters. To overcome the above drawbacks we designed recently a novel nanomedicine strategy based on squalenoyl prodrug of 5'-monophosphate gemcitabine (SQdFdC-MP). This amphiphilic conjugate self-organized in water into unilamellar vesicles with a mean diameter of 100 nm. In this study the antitumor efficacy of SQdFdC-MP nanoassemblies (NAs) on chemoresistant and chemosensitive pancreatic adenocarcinoma models have been investigated. Cell viability assays showed that SQdFdC-MP NAs displayed higher antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects, particularly in chemoresistant pancreatic tumor cells. In in vivo studies, SQdFdC-MP NAs decreased significantly the growth (∼70%) of human MiaPaCa2 xenografts, also preventing tumor cell invasion, whereas native dFdC did not display any anticancer activity when tumor growth inhibition was only 35% with SQdFdC NAs. These results correlated with a reduction of Ki-67 antigen and the induction of apoptosis mediated by caspase-3 activation in tumor cells. These findings demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing SQdFdC-MP NAs to make tumor cells more sensitive to gemcitabine and thus providing an efficient new therapeutic alternative for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  12. Deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS) and X-chromosome deletion in fetal mummification in cattle.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Mohamed Elshabrawy; Nakao, Toshihiko; Nishibori, Masahide

    2006-01-01

    Ten mummified fetuses were tested for the deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS), which is known to contribute to the embryonic and fetal mortality in cattle. Genomic DNAs of the mummified fetuses were extracted from tissue samples collected from the mummies and were amplified by GenomiPhi DNA amplification kit. UMPS gene of the mummies was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with DUMPS primers. Out of ten mummies examined, two fetuses were heterozygous (carriers) for DUMPS as indicated by the presences of three bands of 89, 53 and 36 bp. Estimated stage of gestation when the death occurred in the two mummies was 3.5 and 2.5 months, respectively. The other fetuses exhibited only two bands of 53 and 36 bp on the polyacrylamide gel indicated that they were normal. On the other hand, all the mummies were sexed using AMX/Y primers. Specific regions of Y and X chromosomes were amplified by PCR using AMX/Y. The expected 280 bp fragment in the female sample and the 280 and 217 bp in the male sample were observed. Nine mummies had a normal X and Y chromosome bands; however, the other mummified fetus exhibited only Y chromosome band, while the constitutive X chromosome fragment was missing. The estimated stage of gestation when the death occurred in this mummified fetus was 100 days. This might be the first report of DUMPS and X-chromosome deletion at the amelogenin gene in bovine-mummified fetuses in Japan.

  13. Selective and potent urea inhibitors of Cryptosporidium parvum inosine 5′ monophosphate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Gorla, Suresh Kumar; Kavitha, Mandapati; Zhang, Minjia; Liu, Xiaoping; Sharling, Lisa; Gollapalli, Deviprasad R.; Striepen, Boris; Hedstrom, Lizbeth; Cuny, Gregory D.

    2012-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum and related species are zoonotic intracellular parasites of the intestine. Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of diarrhea in small children around the world. Infection can cause severe pathology in children and immunocompromised patients. This waterborne parasite is resistant to common methods of water treatment and therefore a prominent threat to drinking and recreation water even in countries with strong water safety systems. The drugs currently used to combat these organisms are ineffective. Genomic analysis revealed that the parasite relies solely on inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) for the biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides. Herein, we report a selective urea-based inhibitor of C. parvum IMPDH (CpIMPDH) identified by high throughput screening. We performed a SAR study of these inhibitors with some analogues exhibiting high potency (IC50 < 2 nM) against CpIMPDH, excellent selectivity > 1000-fold versus human IMPDH type 2 and good stability in mouse liver microsomes. A subset of inhibitors also displayed potent antiparasitic activity in a Toxoplasma gondii model. PMID:22950983

  14. CMP kinase from Escherichia coli is structurally related to other nucleoside monophosphate kinases.

    PubMed

    Bucurenci, N; Sakamoto, H; Briozzo, P; Palibroda, N; Serina, L; Sarfati, R S; Labesse, G; Briand, G; Danchin, A; Bărzu, O; Gilles, A M

    1996-02-02

    CMP kinase from Escherichia coli is a monomeric protein of 225 amino acid residues. The protein exhibits little overall sequence similarities with other known NMP kinases. However, residues involved in binding of substrates and/or in catalysis were found conserved, and sequence comparison suggested conservation of the global fold found in adenylate kinases or in several CMP/UMP kinases. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity, crystallized, and analyzed for its structural and catalytic properties. The crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6(3), have unit cell parameters a = b = 82.3 A and c = 60.7 A, and diffract x-rays to a 1.9 A resolution. The bacterial enzyme exhibits a fluorescence emission spectrum with maximum at 328 nm upon excitation at 295 nm, which suggests that the single tryptophan residue (Trp30) is located in a hydrophobic environment. Substrate specificity studies showed that CMP kinase from E. coli is active with ATP, dATP, or GTP as donors and with CMP, dCMP, and arabinofuranosyl-CMP as acceptors. This is in contrast with CMP/UMP kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum, an enzyme active on CMP or UMP but much less active on the corresponding deoxynucleotides. Binding of CMP enhanced the affinity of E. coli CMP kinase for ATP or ADP, a particularity never described in this family of proteins that might explain inhibition of enzyme activity by excess of nucleoside monophosphate.

  15. Ion-exclusion chromatography determination of organic acid in uridine 5'-monophosphate fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Niu, Huanqing; Chen, Yong; Xie, Jingjing; Chen, Xiaochun; Bai, Jianxin; Wu, Jinglan; Liu, Dong; Ying, Hanjie

    2012-09-01

    Simultaneous determination of organic acids using ion-exclusion liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection is described. The chromatographic conditions are optimized when an Aminex HPX-87H column (300 × 7.8 mm) is employed, with a solution of 3 mmol/L sulfuric acid as eluent, a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min and a column temperature of 60°C. Eight organic acids (including orotic acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, citric acid, pyruvic acid, malic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid and acetic acid) and one nucleotide are successfully quantified. The calibration curves for these analytes are linear, with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.999. The average recovery of organic acids is in the range of 97.6% ∼ 103.1%, and the relative standard deviation is in the range of 0.037% ∼ 0.38%. The method is subsequently applied to obtain organic acid profiles of uridine 5'-monophosphate culture broth fermented from orotic acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These data demonstrate the quantitative accuracy for nucleotide fermentation mixtures, and suggest that the method may also be applicable to other biological samples.

  16. Myricetin is a novel inhibitor of human inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase with anti-leukemia activity.

    PubMed

    Pan, Huiling; Hu, Qian; Wang, Jingyuan; Liu, Zehui; Wu, Dang; Lu, Weiqiang; Huang, Jin

    2016-09-02

    Human inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (hIMPDH) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo biosynthetic pathway of purine nucleotides, playing crucial roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. Dysregulation of hIMPDH expression and activity have been found in a variety of human cancers including leukemia. In this study, we found that myricetin, a naturally occurring phytochemical existed in berries, wine and tea, was a novel inhibitor of human type 1 and type 2 IMPDH (hIMPDH1/2) with IC50 values of 6.98 ± 0.22 μM and 4.10 ± 0.14 μM, respectively. Enzyme kinetic analysis using Lineweaver-Burk plot revealed that myricetin is a mix-type inhibitor for hIMPDH1/2. Differential scanning fluorimetry and molecular docking simulation data demonstrate that myricetin is capable of binding with hIMPDH1/2. Myricetin treatment exerts potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on K562 human leukemia cells in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, cytotoxicity of myricetin on K562 cells were markedly attenuated by exogenous addition of guanosine, a salvage pathway of maintaining intracellular pool of guanine nucleotides. Taking together, these results indicate that natural product myricetin exhibits potent anti-leukemia activity by interfering with purine nucleotides biosynthetic pathway through the suppression of hIMPDH1/2 catalytic activity.

  17. Predictive value of adenosine 5'-monophosphate challenge in preschool children for the diagnosis of asthma 5 years later.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Shlomo; Avital, Avraham; Hevroni, Avigdor; Avenshtein, Alina; Hadi, Ronen; Springer, Chaim

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated the predictive values of preschool bronchial challenge with nebulized adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) using the auscultation method for having asthma 5 years later. Preschool AMP challenge had a high negative (90%) and a moderate positive (67%) predictive value for asthma 5 years later. Positive predictive value increased with the age at which the challenge was performed. The degree of preschool response to AMP was associated with the severity of asthma at school age.

  18. [Activation parameters for the cleavage reaction of cytidine-2',3'-monophosphate catalyzed by Penicillium brevicompactum and Aspergillus clavatus RNAses].

    PubMed

    Krupianko, V I; Kagan, E S; Ivanova, G S; Bezborodova, S I

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of coincidence of all activation parameters (E, deltaH*, deltaF* and deltaS*) for the reaction of cleavage of cytidine-2';3'-monophosphate catalyzed by "acid" (pH-optimum 4.7) nonspecific RNAses from Aspergillus clavatus and Penicillium brevicompactum (EC 3. 1. 4. 23) it has been proposed that the mechanism of action on this reaction stage (hydrolysis) for both enzymes is equal.

  19. Conformational Changes in Orotidine 5’-Monophosphate Decarboxylase: A Structure-Based Explanation for How the 5’-Phosphate Group Activates the Enzyme†

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Bijoy J.; Wood, McKay; Fedorov, Alexander A.; Fedorov, Elena V.; Goryanova, Bogdana; Amyes, Tina L.; Richard, John P.; Almo, Steven C.; Gerlt, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The binding of a ligand to orotidine 5’-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) is accompanied by a conformational change from an open, inactive conformation (Eo) to a closed, active conformation (Ec). As the substrate traverses the reaction coordinate to form the stabilized vinyl carbanion/carbene intermediate, interactions are enforced that destabilize the carboxylate group of the substrate as well as stabilize the intermediate (in the Ec•S‡ complex). Focusing on the OMPDC from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, the “remote” 5’-phosphate group of the substrate activates the enzyme 2.4 × 108-fold; the activation is equivalently described by an intrinsic binding energy (IBE) of 11.4 kcal/mol. We studied residues in the activation that 1) directly contact the 5’-phosphate group; 2) participate in a hydrophobic cluster near the base of the active site loop that sequesters the bound substrate from solvent; and 3) form hydrogen-bonding interactions across the interface between the “mobile” and “fixed” half-barrel domains of the (β/α8-barrel structure. Our data support a model in which the IBE provided by the 5’-phosphate group is used to enable interactions both near the N-terminus of the active site loop and across the domain interface that stabilize both the Ec•S and Ec•S‡ complexes relative to the Eo•S complex. The conclusion that the IBE of the 5’-phosphate group provides stabilization of both the Ec•S and Ec•S‡ complexes, not just the Ec•S‡ complex, is central to understanding the structural origins of enzymatic catalysis as well as the requirements for the de novo design of enzymes that catalyze novel reactions. PMID:23030629

  20. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of orotidine 5′-monophosphate decarboxylase from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Krungkrai, Sudaratana R.; Tokuoka, Keiji; Kusakari, Yukiko; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Adachi, Hiroaki; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Kai, Yasushi; Krungkrai, Jerapan; Horii, Toshihiro

    2006-06-01

    Orotidine 5′-monophosphate decarboxylase of human malaria parasite P. falciparum was crystallized by the seeding method in a hanging drop using PEG 3000 as a precipitant. A complete set of diffraction data from a native crystal was collected to 2.7 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. Orotidine 5′-monophosphate (OMP) decarboxylase (OMPDC; EC 4.1.1.23) catalyzes the final step in the de novo synthesis of uridine 5′-monophosphate (UMP) and defects in the enzyme are lethal in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Active recombinant P. falciparum OMPDC (PfOMPDC) was crystallized by the seeding method in a hanging drop using PEG 3000 as a precipitant. A complete set of diffraction data from a native crystal was collected to 2.7 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation at the Swiss Light Source. The crystal exhibits trigonal symmetry (space group R3), with hexagonal unit-cell parameters a = b = 201.81, c = 44.03 Å. With a dimer in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content is 46% (V{sub M} = 2.3 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1})

  1. Eye lens crystallins: a component of intraocular pseudoexfoliative material.

    PubMed

    Veromann, Siiri; Sünter, Alar; Juronen, Erkki; Tasa, Gunnar; Panov, Aleksei

    2004-01-01

    Feeding experimental animals (19 pigs) with surplus sucrose and salt (NaCl) caused cataractous changes in lens tissue and triggered the formation of pseudoexfoliative material on the lens capsule. In the control animals (15 pigs) pseudoexfoliative material was absent. The avidin-biotin complex immunohistochemical method was applied to the pseudoexfoliative material obtained from 15 porcine experimental precataractous lenses and 1 spontaneously cataractous eye and revealed crystallins as a component of the intraocular pseudoexfoliative material. To prevent the development of both intraocular pseudoexfoliative material and crystallin-dependent glaucomatous changes in the trabecular meshwork of the eye, it is important to avoid any cataractogenic insult, including surplus sucrose and salt consumption, causing crystallin leakage from the lens. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Crystalline structures in human pancreatic beta cell adenoma.

    PubMed

    Mori, H; Kawai, T; Tanaka, T; Fujii, M; Takahashi, M; Miyashita, T

    1978-05-01

    An electron microscopic observation on a pancreatic tumor removed from a 34-year-old woman revealed the fine structural morphology of a functional beta cell adenoma. Characteristic PAS positive crystalline structures were frequently observed in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells. They were not bounded by a membrane and had a rectangular or irregular hexagonal shape. Highly regular patterns were seen as such as lattice or honeycomb and parallel ripple structures. They are similar to the Reinke's crystal or crystalline structures reported in human hepatocytes suffering from several different diseases and considered as a protein-carbohydrate complex. Occasionally, small paracrystalline structures appeared to indicate an immature type of these structures in the opaque fine fibrillar mass. Crystalline or paracrystalline structures were not detected in the normal pancreatic tissue removed with the tumor from the patient.

  3. Molecular Mechanism of the Chaperone Function of Mini-α-Crystallin, a 19-Residue Peptide of Human α-Crystallin

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    α-Crystallin is the archetypical chaperone of the small heat-shock protein family, all members of which contain the so-called “α-crystallin domain” (ACD). This domain and the N- and C-terminal extensions are considered the main functional units in its chaperone function. Previous studies have shown that a 19-residue fragment of the ACD of human αA-crystallin called mini-αA-crystallin (MAC) shows chaperone properties similar to those of the parent protein. Subsequent studies have confirmed the function of this peptide, but no studies have addressed the mechanistic basis for the chaperone function of MAC. Using human γD-crystallin (HGD), a key substrate protein for parent α-crystallin in the ocular lens, we show here that MAC not only protects HGD from aggregation during thermal and chemical unfolding but also binds weakly and reversibly to HGD (Kd ≈ 200–700 μM) even when HGD is in the native state. However, at temperatures favoring the unfolding of HGD, MAC forms a stable complex with HGD similar to parent α-crystallin. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identify the residues in HGD that are involved in these two modes of binding and show that MAC protects HGD from aggregation by binding to Phe 56 and Val 132 at the domain interface of the target protein, and residues Val 164 to Leu 167 in the core of the C-terminal domain. Furthermore, we suggest that the low-affinity, reversible binding of MAC on the surface of HGD in the native state is involved in facilitating its binding to both the domain interface and core regions during the early stages of the unfolding of HGD. This work highlights some structural features of MAC and MAC-like peptides that affect their chaperone activity and can potentially be manipulated for translational studies. PMID:25478825

  4. Programmable high crystallinity carbon patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuewen; Wang, Hong; Gu, Yang; Fu, Wei; Zheng, Lu; Liu, Guowei; He, Yongmin; Long, Yi; Zhao, Wu; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Zheng

    2017-06-01

    Carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotube and graphene are promising candidates for next-generation flexible electronics. However, the practical application of carbon electronics requires controlled fabrication of those materials with micro-patterned structures on flexible substrate at wafer-scale and low cost. Inspiring from the conventional photolithography process and pyrolysis of photoresist, herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of high-quality micro-patterned high crystallinity carbon. The method employed pre-patterned pyrolyzed photoresist as carbon precursors, in order to minimize the mobility of carbon during the high temperature growth, which results into high quality carbon patterns with a lateral resolution up to ~2 µm. The flexible carbon electronics are demonstrated by transferring the as-patterned high crystallinity carbon patterns to the flexible substrate, and showing asymmetric tensile-compressive response with high output resolution. These results will pave the way to the next-generation carbon-based flexible electronics and mechanical sensors.

  5. Soliton structure in crystalline acetanilide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilbeck, J. C.; Lomdahl, P. S.; Scott, A. C.

    1984-10-01

    The theory of self-trapping of amide I vibrational energy in crystalline acetanilide is studied in detail. A spectrum of stationary, self-trapped (soliton) solutions is determined and tested for dynamic stability. Only those solutions for which the amide I energy is concentrated near a single molecule were found to be stable. Exciton modes were found to be unstable to decay into solitons.

  6. Soliton structure in crystalline acetanilide

    SciTech Connect

    Eilbeck, J.C.; Lomdahl, P.S.; Scott, A.C.

    1984-10-15

    The theory of self-trapping of amide I vibrational energy in crystalline acetanilide is studied in detail. A spectrum of stationary, self-trapped (soliton) solutions is determined and tested for dynamic stability. Only those solutions for which the amide I energy is concentrated near a single molecule were found to be stable. Exciton modes were found to be unstable to decay into solitons.

  7. EELS from organic crystalline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brydson, R.; Eddleston, M. D.; Jones, W.; Seabourne, C. R.; Hondow, N.

    2014-06-01

    We report the use of the electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) for providing light element chemical composition information from organic, crystalline pharmaceutical materials including theophylline and paracetamol and discuss how this type of data can complement transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and electron diffraction when investigating polymorphism. We also discuss the potential for the extraction of bonding information using electron loss near-edge structure (ELNES).

  8. Liquid crystalline order in mucus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viney, C.; Huber, A. E.; Verdugo, P.

    1993-01-01

    Mucus plays an exceptionally wide range of important biological roles. It operates as a protective, exchange, and transport medium in the digestive, respiratory, and reproductive systems of humans and other vertebrates. Mucus is a polymer hydrogel. It is secreted as discrete packages (secretory granules) by specialized secretory cells. Mucus hydrogel is stored in a condensed state inside the secretory granules. Depending upon the architecture of their constituent macromolecules and on the composition of the solvent, polymer gels can form liquid crystalline microstructures, with orientational order being exhibited over optically resolvable distances. Individual mucin molecules consist of alternating rigid segments (heavily glycosylated; hydrophilic) and flexible segments (nonglycosylated; hydrophobic). Polymer molecules consisting of rigid units linked by flexible spacers are frequently associated with liquid crystalline behavior, which again raises the possibility that mucus could form anisotropic fluid phases. Suggestions that mucins may be self-associating in dilute solution have previously been challenged on the basis of sedimentation-equilibrium studies performed on mucus in which potential sites of association were competitively blocked with inhibitors. However, the formation of stable liquid crystalline phases does not depend on the existence of inter- or intramolecular associations; these phases can form on the basis of steric considerations alone.

  9. Inelastic deformation in crystalline rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, H.; Borja, R. I.

    2011-12-01

    The elasto-plastic behavior of crystalline rocks, such as evaporites, igneous rocks, or metamorphic rocks, is highly dependent on the behavior of their individual crystals. Previous studies indicate that crystal plasticity can be one of the dominant micro mechanisms in the plastic deformation of crystal aggregates. Deformation bands and pore collapse are examples of plastic deformation in crystalline rocks. In these cases twinning within the grains illustrate plastic deformation of crystal lattice. Crystal plasticity is governed by the plastic deformation along potential slip systems of crystals. Linear dependency of the crystal slip systems causes singularity in the system of equations solving for the plastic slip of each slip system. As a result, taking the micro-structure properties into account, while studying the overall behavior of crystalline materials, is quite challenging. To model the plastic deformation of single crystals we use the so called `ultimate algorithm' by Borja and Wren (1993) implemented in a 3D finite element framework to solve boundary value problems. The major advantage of this model is that it avoids the singularity problem by solving for the plastic slip explicitly in sub steps over which the stress strain relationship is linear. Comparing the results of the examples to available models such as Von Mises we show the significance of considering the micro-structure of crystals in modeling the overall elasto-plastic deformation of crystal aggregates.

  10. Liquid crystalline order in mucus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viney, C.; Huber, A. E.; Verdugo, P.

    1993-01-01

    Mucus plays an exceptionally wide range of important biological roles. It operates as a protective, exchange, and transport medium in the digestive, respiratory, and reproductive systems of humans and other vertebrates. Mucus is a polymer hydrogel. It is secreted as discrete packages (secretory granules) by specialized secretory cells. Mucus hydrogel is stored in a condensed state inside the secretory granules. Depending upon the architecture of their constituent macromolecules and on the composition of the solvent, polymer gels can form liquid crystalline microstructures, with orientational order being exhibited over optically resolvable distances. Individual mucin molecules consist of alternating rigid segments (heavily glycosylated; hydrophilic) and flexible segments (nonglycosylated; hydrophobic). Polymer molecules consisting of rigid units linked by flexible spacers are frequently associated with liquid crystalline behavior, which again raises the possibility that mucus could form anisotropic fluid phases. Suggestions that mucins may be self-associating in dilute solution have previously been challenged on the basis of sedimentation-equilibrium studies performed on mucus in which potential sites of association were competitively blocked with inhibitors. However, the formation of stable liquid crystalline phases does not depend on the existence of inter- or intramolecular associations; these phases can form on the basis of steric considerations alone.

  11. Highly crystalline 2D superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2017-02-01

    Recent advances in materials fabrication have enabled the manufacturing of ordered 2D electron systems, such as heterogeneous interfaces, atomic layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy, exfoliated thin flakes and field-effect devices. These 2D electron systems are highly crystalline, and some of them, despite their single-layer thickness, exhibit a sheet resistance more than an order of magnitude lower than that of conventional amorphous or granular thin films. In this Review, we explore recent developments in the field of highly crystalline 2D superconductors and highlight the unprecedented physical properties of these systems. In particular, we explore the quantum metallic state (or possible metallic ground state), the quantum Griffiths phase observed in out-of-plane magnetic fields and the superconducting state maintained in anomalously large in-plane magnetic fields. These phenomena are examined in the context of weakened disorder and/or broken spatial inversion symmetry. We conclude with a discussion of how these unconventional properties make highly crystalline 2D systems promising platforms for the exploration of new quantum physics and high-temperature superconductors.

  12. Highly crystalline 2D superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in materials fabrication have enabled the manufacturing of ordered 2D electron systems, such as heterogeneous interfaces, atomic layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy, exfoliated thin flakes and field-effect devices. These 2D electron systems are highly crystalline, and some of them, despite their single-layer thickness, exhibit a sheet resistance more than an order of magnitude lower than that of conventional amorphous or granular thin films. In this Review, we explore recent developments in the field of highly crystalline 2D superconductors and highlight the unprecedented physical properties of these systems. In particular, we explore the quantum metallic state (or possible metallic ground state), the quantum Griffiths phase observed in out-of-plane magnetic fields and the superconducting state maintained in anomalously large in-plane magnetic fields. These phenomena are examined in the context of weakened disorder and/or broken spatial inversion symmetry. We conclude with a discussion of how these unconventional properties make highly crystalline 2D systems promising platforms for the exploration of new quantum physics and high-temperature superconductors.

  13. Biocompatibility of crystalline opal nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Silica nanoparticles are being developed as a host of biomedical and biotechnological applications. For this reason, there are more studies about biocompatibility of silica with amorphous and crystalline structure. Except hydrated silica (opal), despite is presents directly and indirectly in humans. Two sizes of crystalline opal nanoparticles were investigated in this work under criteria of toxicology. Methods In particular, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects caused by opal nanoparticles (80 and 120 nm) were evaluated in cultured mouse cells via a set of bioassays, methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium-bromide (MTT) and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Results 3T3-NIH cells were incubated for 24 and 72 h in contact with nanocrystalline opal particles, not presented significant statistically difference in the results of cytotoxicity. Genotoxicity tests of crystalline opal nanoparticles were performed by the BrdU assay on the same cultured cells for 24 h incubation. The reduction of BrdU-incorporated cells indicates that nanocrystalline opal exposure did not caused unrepairable damage DNA. Conclusions There is no relationship between that particles size and MTT reduction, as well as BrdU incorporation, such that the opal particles did not induce cytotoxic effect and genotoxicity in cultured mouse cells. PMID:23088559

  14. Catalysis by orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase: effect of 5-fluoro and 4'-substituents on the decarboxylation of two-part substrates.

    PubMed

    Goryanova, Bogdana; Spong, Krisztina; Amyes, Tina L; Richard, John P

    2013-01-22

    The syntheses of two novel truncated analogs of the natural substrate orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP) for orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) with enhanced reactivity toward decarboxylation are reported: 1-(β-d-erythrofuranosyl)-5-fluoroorotic acid (FEO) and 5'-deoxy-5-fluoroorotidine (5'-dFO). A comparison of the second-order rate constants for the OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylations of FEO (10 M⁻¹ s⁻¹) and 1-(β-d-erythrofuranosyl)orotic acid (EO, 0.026 M⁻¹ s⁻¹) shows that the vinyl carbanion-like transition state is stabilized by 3.5 kcal/mol by interactions with the 5-F substituent of FEO. The OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylations of FEO and EO are both activated by exogenous phosphite dianion (HPO₃²⁻), but the 5-F substituent results in only a 0.8 kcal stabilization of the transition state for the phosphite-activated reaction of FEO. This provides strong evidence that the phosphite-activated OMPDC-catalyzed reaction of FEO is not limited by the chemical step of decarboxylation of the enzyme-bound substrate. Evidence is presented that there is a change in the rate-limiting step from the chemical step of decarboxylation for the phosphite-activated reaction of EO, to closure of the phosphate gripper loop and an enzyme conformational change at the ternary E•FEO•HPO₃²⁻ complex for the reaction of FEO. The 4'-CH₃ and 4'-CH₂OH groups of 5'-dFO and orotidine, respectively, result in identical destabilizations of the transition state for the unactivated decarboxylation of 2.9 kcal/mol. By contrast, the 4'-CH₃ group of 5'-dFO and the 4'-CH₂OH group of orotidine result in very different 4.7 and 8.3 kcal/mol destabilizations of the transition state for the phosphite-activated decarboxylation. Here, the destabilizing effect of the 4'-CH₃ substituent at 5'-dFO is masked by the rate-limiting conformational change that depresses the third-order rate constant for the phosphite-activated reaction of the parent substrate FEO.

  15. Ostrich crystallins. Structural characterization of delta-crystallin with enzymic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, S H; Lo, C H; Chang, C Y; Itoh, T; Kaji, H; Samejima, T

    1991-01-01

    Lens crystallins from the African ostrich (Struthio camelus) were isolated and characterized. Four crystallin fractions corresponding to alpha-, delta/beta- and beta-crystallins similar to those of duck crystallins were isolated, but epsilon-crystallin was found to be absent. The native molecular masses and subunit structures of the purified fractions were analysed by gel filtration. SDS/PAGE and isoelectric focusing, revealing various extents of heterogeneity in each orthologous crystallin class. An ion-exchange chromatographic method was used for the large-scale preparation of delta-crystallin suitable for structural and enzymic studies. It was unexpectedly found that the purified native delta-crystallin of ostrich lens possessed high argininosuccinate lyase activity, in contrast with chicken delta-crystallin. The c.d. spectra indicated a predominant beta-sheet structure in alpha- and beta-crystallins, and a significant contribution of alpha-helical structure in the delta-crystallin fraction. The estimate of secondary structures from c.d. spectroscopy for each crystallin class bears a resemblance to that of duck crystallins, except that ostrich delta-crystallin possesses much less helical content than duck delta-crystallin. Comparison of crystallin compositions and structures from aquatic and terrestrial birds revealed distinct differences. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:1991029

  16. Association between plasma cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels and hemodynamic instability during liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bezinover, Dmitri; Kadry, Zakiyah; Uemura, Tadahiro; Sharghi, Michael; Mastro, Andrea M; Sosnoski, Donna M; Dalal, Priti; Janicki, Piotr K

    2013-02-01

    The activation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production in patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) has been associated with hemodynamic instability during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The aim of this prospective, observational study was to investigate the involvement of cGMP in the mediation of profound hypotension during liver graft reperfusion. An additional objective was to determine whether preoperative cGMP levels are associated with intraoperative hemodynamic instability. Forty-four consecutive patients undergoing OLT were included in the study. Blood samples for cGMP analysis were obtained from (1) the radial artery before the surgical incision; (2) the radial artery, portal vein, and flush blood during the anhepatic phase; and (3) the radial artery 20 minutes after liver graft reperfusion. On the basis of a statistical analysis, the patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (preoperative cGMP level ≥ 0.05 μmol/L) and group 2 (preoperative cGMP level < 0.05 μmol/L). We demonstrated a significant correlation between the preoperative levels of cGMP and the amount of catecholamine required to maintain hemodynamic stability during reperfusion (r = 0.52, P < 0.001), the length of the hospital stay (r = 0.38, P = 0.01), and the length of the intensive care unit (ICU) stay (r = 0.44, P = 0.004). We also demonstrated a significantly higher intraoperative catecholamine requirement (P < 0.001) and a prolonged postoperative ICU stay (P = 0.02) in group 1 patients versus group 2 patients. In conclusion, this study demonstrates increased baseline cGMP production in patients with ESLD, which is significantly associated with severe hypotension during OLT. We suggest that preoperative levels of cGMP correlate with hemodynamic instability during liver graft reperfusion. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  17. Adsorption of nucleotides on biomimetic apatite: The case of cytidine 5' monophosphate (CMP).

    PubMed

    Choimet, Maëla; Tourrette, Audrey; Drouet, Christophe

    2015-10-15

    The chemical interaction between DNA macromolecules and hard tissues in vertebrate is of foremost importance in paleogenetics, as bones and teeth represent a major substrate for the genetic material after cell death. Recently, the empirical hypothesis of DNA "protection" over time thanks to its adsorption on hard tissues was revisited from a physico-chemical viewpoint. In particular, the existence of a strong interaction between phosphate groups of DNA backbone and the surface of apatite nanocrystals (mimicking bone/dentin mineral) was evidenced on an experimental basis. In the field of nanomedicine, DNA or RNA can be used for gene transport into cells, and apatite nanocarriers then appear promising. In order to shed some more light on interactions between DNA molecules and apatite, the present study focuses on the adsorption of a "model" nucleotide, cytidine 5' monophosphate (CMP), on a carbonated biomimetic apatite sample. The follow-up of CMP kinetics of adsorption pointed out the rapidity of interaction with stabilization reached within few minutes. The adsorption isotherm could be realistically fitted to the Sips model (Langmuir-Freundlich) suggesting the influence of surface heterogeneities and adsorption cooperativity in the adsorption process. The desorption study pointed out the reversible character of CMP adsorption on biomimetic apatite. This contribution is intended to prove helpful in view of better apprehending the molecular interaction of DNA fragments and apatite compounds, independently of the application domain, such as bone diagenesis or nanomedicine. This study may also appear informative for researchers interested in the origins of life on Earth and the occurrence and behavior of primitive biomolecules.

  18. Deciphering the photochemical mechanisms describing the UV-induced processes occurring in solvated guanine monophosphate

    PubMed Central

    Altavilla, Salvatore F.; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Nenov, Artur; Conti, Irene; Rivalta, Ivan; Garavelli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The photophysics and photochemistry of water-solvated guanine monophosphate (GMP) are here characterized by means of a multireference quantum-chemical/molecular mechanics theoretical approach (CASPT2//CASSCF/AMBER) in order to elucidate the main photo-processes occurring upon UV-light irradiation. The effect of the solvent and of the phosphate group on the energetics and structural features of this system are evaluated for the first time employing high-level ab initio methods and thoroughly compared to those in vacuo previously reported in the literature and to the experimental evidence to assess to which extent they influence the photoinduced mechanisms. Solvated electronic excitation energies of solvated GMP at the Franck-Condon (FC) region show a red shift for the ππ* La and Lb states, whereas the energy of the oxygen lone-pair nπ* state is blue-shifted. The main photoinduced decay route is promoted through a ring-puckering motion along the bright lowest-lying La state toward a conical intersection (CI) with the ground state, involving a very shallow stationary point along the minimum energy pathway in contrast to the barrierless profile found in gas-phase, the point being placed at the end of the minimum energy path (MEP) thus endorsing its ultrafast deactivation in accordance with time-resolved transient and photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. The role of the nπ* state in the solvated system is severely diminished as the crossings with the initially populated La state and also with the Lb state are placed too high energetically to partake prominently in the deactivation photo-process. The proposed mechanism present in solvated and in vacuo DNA/RNA chromophores validates the intrinsic photostability mechanism through CI-mediated non-radiative processes accompanying the bright excited-state population toward the ground state and subsequent relaxation back to the FC region. PMID:25941671

  19. Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Accumulation and beta-Adrenergic Binding in Unweighted and Denervated Rat Soleus Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, Christopher R.; Woodman, Christopher R.; Woolridge, Dale; Tischler, Marc E.

    1992-01-01

    Unweighting, but not denervation, of muscle reportedly "spares" insulin receptors, increasing insulin sensitivity. Unweighting also increases beta-adrenergic responses of carbohydrate metabolism. These differential characteristics were studied further by comparing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation and beta-adrenergic binding in normal and 3-day unweighted or denervated soleus muscle. Submaximal amounts of isoproterenol, a p-agonist, increased cAMP accumulation in vitro and in vivo (by intramuscular (IM) injection) to a greater degree (P less than .05) in unweighted muscles. Forskolin or maximal isoproterenol had similar in vitro effects in all muscles, suggesting increased beta-adrenergic sensitivity following unweighting. Increased sensitivity was confirmed by a greater receptor density (B(sub max)) for iodo-125(-)-pindolol in particulate preparations of unweighted (420 x 10(exp -18) mol/mg muscle) than of control or denervated muscles (285 x 10(exp-18) mol/mg muscle). The three dissociation constant (Kd) values were similar (20.3 to 25.8 pmol/L). Total binding capacity (11.4 fmol/muscle) did not change during 3 days of unweighting, but diminished by 30% with denervation. This result illustrates the "sparing" and loss of receptors, respectively, in these two atrophy models. In diabetic animals, IM injection of insulin diminished CAMP accumulation in the presence of theophylline in unweighted muscle (-66% +/- 2%) more than in controls (-42% +'- 6%, P less than .001). These results show that insulin affects CAMP formation in muscle, and support a greater in vivo insulin response following unweighting atrophy. These various data support a role for lysosomal proteolysis in denervation, but not in unweighting, atrophy.

  20. The effects of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and other adenine nucleotides on body temperature.

    PubMed Central

    Dascombe, M J; Milton, A S

    1975-01-01

    1. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP), its dibutyryl derivative (Db-cAMP) and other adenine nucleotides have been micro-injected into the hypothalamic region of the unanaesthetized cat and the effects on body temperature, and on behavioural and autonomic thermoregulatory activities observed. 2. Db-cAMP and cAMP both produced hypothermia when applied to the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus. With Db-cAMP the hypothermia was shown to be dose dependent between 50 and 500 mug (0-096-0-96 mumole). 3. AMP, ADP and ATP also produced hypothermia when injected into the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus. 4. The order of relative potencies of the adenine nucleotides with respect both to the hypothermia produced and to the autonomic thermoregulatory effects observed were similar. Db-cAMP was most potent and cAMP least. 5. Micro-injection into the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus of many substances including saline produced in most cats a non-specific rise in body temperature apparently the result of tissue damage. Intraperitoneal injection of 4-acetamidophenol (paracetamol 50 mg/kg) reduced or abolished this febrile response. 6. The hypothermic effect of the adenine nucleotides has been compared with the effects produced in these same cats by micro-injections of noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine, a mixture of acetylcholine and physostigmine (1:1), EDTA and excess Ca2+ ions. 7. It is concluded that as Db-cAMP and cAMP both produce hypothermia, it is unlikely that endogenous cAMP in the pre-optic anterior hypothalamus mediates the hyperthermic responses to pyrogens and prostaglandins. PMID:170396

  1. Disrupted pulmonary artery cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling in mice with hyperoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keng Jin; Berkelhamer, Sara K; Kim, Gina A; Taylor, Joann M; O'Shea, Kelly M; Steinhorn, Robin H; Farrow, Kathryn N

    2014-02-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) occurs in 25 to 35% of premature infants with significant bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Neonatal mice exposed to 14 days of hyperoxia develop BPD-like lung injury and PH. To determinne the impact of hyperoxia on pulmonary artery (PA) cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling in a murine model of lung injury and PH, neonatal C57BL/6 mice were placed in room air, 75% O2 for 14 days (chronic hyperoxia [CH]) or 75% O2 for 24 hours, followed by 13 days of room air (acute hyperoxia with recovery [AHR]) with or without sildenafil. At 14 days, mean alveolar area, PA medial wall thickness (MWT), right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), and vessel density were assessed. PA protein was analyzed for cGMP, soluble guanylate cyclase, and PDE5 activity. CH and AHR mice had RVH, but only CH mice had increased alveolar area and MWT and decreased vessel density. In CH and AHR PAs, soluble guanylate cyclase activity was decreased, and PDE5 activity was increased. In CH mice, sildenafil attenuated MWT and RVH but did not improve mean alveolar area or vessel density. In CH and AHR PAs, sildenafil decreased PDE5 activity and increased cGMP. Our results indicate that prolonged hyperoxia leads to lung injury, PH, RVH, and disrupted PA cGMP signaling. Furthermore, 24 hours of hyperoxia causes RVH and disrupted PA cGMP signaling that persists for 13 days. Sildenafil reduced RVH and restored vascular cGMP signaling but did not attenuate lung injury. Thus, hyperoxia can rapidly disrupt PA cGMP signaling in vivo with sustained effects, and concurrent sildenafil therapy can be protective.

  2. Exhaled nitric oxide levels and airway responsiveness to adenosine 5'-monophosphate in subjects with nasal polyposis.

    PubMed

    Prieto, L; Seijas, T; Gutiérrez, V; Uixera, S; Bruno, L; López, R

    2004-08-01

    It is widely appreciated that asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways associated with airway hyperresponsiveness, and that nasal polyposis and asthma are related diseases. The objective of this study was to determine differences in exhaled nitric oxide (ENO) levels and airway responsiveness to adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) between nonasthmatic patients with nasal polyposis and healthy controls. Twenty patients without asthma with nasal polyposis and 16 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study. Participants were challenged with increasing concentrations of AMP and methacholine. ENO was measured with the single-exhalation method. Bronchoconstriction in response to AMP was detected in 7 (35%) subjects with nasal polyposis. The geometric mean (95% CI) of ENO for subjects with nasal polyposis was 33.1 parts per billion (ppb) (24.0-45.7 ppb) compared with 12.3 ppb (8.5-18.2 ppb) for the healthy controls (p = 0.0002). ENO values were significantly higher in atopic than in nonatopic subjects with nasal polyposis [51.3 ppb (32.3-83.2 ppb) vs. 24.5 ppb (16.2-37.1 ppb), p = 0.02]. Nonatopic subjects with nasal polyposis also had higher concentrations of ENO than healthy control subjects (p = 0.016). Inhaled AMP causes airway narrowing in a significantly higher proportion of nonasthmatic subjects with nasal polyposis than in healthy controls. Furthermore, increased concentrations of ENO are detected in atopic and nonatopic subjects with nasal polyposis. These results suggest that bronchial inflammation is present in nonasthmatic subjects with nasal polyposis. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Multi-temperature study of potassium uridine-5'-monophosphate: electron density distribution and anharmonic motion modelling.

    PubMed

    Jarzembska, Katarzyna N; Řlepokura, Katarzyna; Kamiński, Radosław; Gutmann, Matthias J; Dominiak, Paulina M; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2017-08-01

    Uridine, a nucleoside formed of a uracil fragment attached to a ribose ring via a β-N1-glycosidic bond, is one of the four basic components of ribonucleic acid. Here a new anhydrous structure and experimental charge density distribution analysis of a uridine-5'-monophosphate potassium salt, K(UMPH), is reported. The studied case constitutes the very first structure of a 5'-nucleotide potassium salt according to the Cambridge Structural Database. The excellent crystal quality allowed the collection of charge density data at various temperatures, i.e. 10, 100, 200 and 300 K on one single crystal. Crystal structure and charge density data were analysed thoroughly in the context of related literature-reported examples. Detailed analysis of the charge density distribution revealed elevated anharmonic motion of part of the uracil ring moiety relatively weakly interacting with the neighbouring species. The effect was manifested by alternate positive and negative residual density patterns observed for these atoms, which `disappear' at low temperature. It also occurred that the potassium cation, quite uniformly coordinated by seven O atoms from all molecular fragments of the UMPH(-) anion, including the O atom from the ribofuranose ring, can be treated as spherical in the charge density model which was supported by theoretical calculations. Apart from the predominant electrostatic interactions, four relatively strong hydrogen bond types further support the stability of the crystal structure. This results in a compact and quite uniform structure (in all directions) of the studied crystal, as opposed to similar cases with layered architecture reported in the literature.

  4. Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Regulation of Ion Transport in Porcine Vocal Fold Mucosae

    PubMed Central

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Nofziger, Charity; Blazer-Yost, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is an important biological molecule that regulates ion transport and inflammatory responses in epithelial tissue. The present study examined whether the adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, would increase cAMP concentration in porcine vocal fold mucosa and whether the effects of increased cAMP would be manifested as a functional increase in transepithelial ion transport. Additionally, changes in cAMP concentrations following exposure to an inflammatory mediator, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) were investigated. Study Design In vitro experimental design with matched treatment and control groups. Methods Porcine vocal fold mucosae (N = 30) and tracheal mucosae (N = 20) were exposed to forskolin, TNFα, or vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide) treatment. cAMP concentrations were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ion transport was measured using electrophysiological techniques. Results Thirty minute exposure to forskolin significantly increased cAMP concentration and ion transport in porcine vocal fold and tracheal mucosae. However, 30-minute and 2-hour exposure to TNFα did not significantly alter cAMP concentration. Conclusions We demonstrate that forskolin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase is present in vocal fold mucosa, and further, that the product, cAMP increases vocal fold ion transport. The results presented here contribute to our understanding of the intracellular mechanisms underlying vocal fold ion transport. As ion transport is important for maintaining superficial vocal fold hydration, data demonstrating forskolin-stimulated ion transport in vocal fold mucosa suggest opportunities for developing pharmacological treatments that increase surface hydration. PMID:18596479

  5. Hindbrain raphe stimulation boosts cyclic adenosine monophosphate and signaling proteins in the injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Carballosa-Gonzalez, Melissa M; Vitores, Alberto; Hentall, Ian D

    2014-01-16

    Early recovery from incomplete spinal cord contusion is improved by prolonged stimulation of the hindbrain's serotonergic nucleus raphe magnus (NRM). Here we examine whether increases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), an intracellular signaling molecule with several known restorative actions on damaged neural tissue, could play a role. Subsequent changes in cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA) and PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the transcription factor "cAMP response element-binding protein" (CREB) are also analyzed. Rats with moderate weight-drop injury at segment T8 received 2h of NRM stimulation beginning three days after injury, followed immediately by separate extraction of cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal cord for immunochemical assay. Controls lacked injury, stimulation or both. Injury reduced cAMP levels to under half of normal in all three spinal regions. NRM stimulation completely restored these levels, while producing no significant change in non-injured rats. Pretreatment with the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist pimozide (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) lowered cAMP in non-injured rats to injury amounts, which were unchanged by NRM stimulation. The phosphorylated fraction of PKA (pPKA) and CREB (pCREB) was reduced significantly in all three regions after SCI and restored by NRM stimulation, except for pCREB in lumbar segments. In conclusion, SCI produces spreading deficits in cAMP, pPKA and pCREB that are reversible by Gs protein-coupled 5-HT receptors responding to raphe-spinal activity, although these signaling molecules are not reactive to NRM stimulation in normal tissue. These findings can partly explain the benefits of NRM stimulation after SCI. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Xylazine Activates Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway in the Central Nervous System of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xing-Xing; Yin, Bai-Shuang; Yang, Peng; Chen, Hao; Li, Xin; Su, Li-Xue; Fan, Hong-Gang; Wang, Hong-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Xylazine is a potent analgesic extensively used in veterinary and animal experimentation. Evidence exists that the analgesic effect can be inhibited using adenosine 5’-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitors. Considering this idea, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the AMPK signaling pathway is involved in the central analgesic mechanism of xylazine in the rat. Xylazine was administrated via the intraperitoneal route. Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed and the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, thalamus and brainstem were collected for determination of liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and AMPKα mRNA expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and phosphorylated LKB1 and AMPKα levels using western blot. The results of our study showed that compared with the control group, xylazine induced significant increases in AMPK activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and cerebellum after rats received xylazine (P < 0.01). Increased AMPK activities were accompanied with increased phosphorylation levels of LKB1 in corresponding regions of rats. The protein levels of phosphorylated LKB1 and AMPKα in these regions returned or tended to return to control group levels. However, in the brainstem, phosphorylated LKB1 and AMPKα protein levels were decreased by xylazine compared with the control (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data indicates that xylazine alters the activities of LKB1 and AMPK in the central nervous system of rats, which suggests that xylazine affects the regulatory signaling pathway of the analgesic mechanism in the rat brain. PMID:27049320

  7. Triazole-containing monophosphate mRNA cap analogs as effective translation inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Piecyk, Karolina; Lukaszewicz, Maciej; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena

    2014-10-01

    Synthetic analogs of the 5' end of mRNA (cap structure) are widely used in molecular studies on mechanisms of cellular processes such as translation, intracellular transport, splicing, and turnover. The best-characterized cap binding protein is translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). Recognition of the mRNA cap by eIF4E is a critical, rate-limiting step for efficient translation initiation and is considered a major target for anticancer therapy. Here, we report a facile methodology for the preparation of N2-triazole-containing monophosphate cap analogs and present their biological evaluation as inhibitors of protein synthesis. Five analogs possessing this unique hetero-cyclic ring spaced from the m7-guanine of the cap structure at a distance of one or three carbon atoms and/or additionally substituted by various groups containing the benzene ring were synthesized. All obtained compounds turned out to be effective translation inhibitors with IC50 similar to dinucleotide triphosphate m(7)GpppG. As these compounds possess a reduced number of phosphate groups and, thereby, a negative charge, which may support their cell penetration, this type of cap analog might be promising in terms of designing new potential therapeutic molecules. In addition, an exemplary dinucleotide from a corresponding mononucleotide containing benzyl substituted 1,2,3-triazole was prepared and examined. The superior inhibitory properties of this analog (10-fold vs. m(7)GpppG) suggest the usefulness of such compounds for the preparation of mRNA transcripts with high translational activity. © 2014 Piecyk et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  8. The cyclic guanosine monophosphate/B-type natriuretic peptide ratio and mortality in advanced heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Patrícia; Araújo, José Paulo; Azevedo, Ana; Ferreira, António; Bettencourt, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    Aims Attenuation of the effects of natriuretic peptides has been demonstrated in animal models but studies in humans are scarce, particularly concerning renal attenuation. We investigated the attenuation of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in chronic advanced heart failure (HF). Methods and results We included 62 outpatients with HF and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Cases had at least one hospital admission or emergency department visit for acute HF in the previous year and were in NYHA class III/IV despite optimized therapy. The individual age- and sex-matched controls were symptomatically controlled (NYHA I and II). We collected 24 h urine and a blood sample from all patients. Plasma BNP and plasma (pcGMP) and urine cyclic guanosine monophosphate (ucGMP) were measured. Patients were followed for 3 months for hospital admission or all-cause death. ucGMP to plasma BNP (ucGMP/BNP) ratio was attenuated in cases vs. controls [median (IQR): 8354 (4293–16 456) vs. 12 693 (6896–22 851)]. There were no differences in pcGMP to BNP (pcGMP/BNP) ratio or urine cGMP excretion. Patients with worse outcome had lower pcGMP/BNP [260 (86–344) vs. 381 (244–728) in patients without adverse outcome events] and lower ucGMP/BNP [4146 (2207–9363) vs. 10 922 (7495–19 971)]. Conclusion Renal NP’s second messenger production is attenuated in advanced HF. Patients with worse outcome have lower ucGMP/BNP and pcGMP/BNP ratios. PMID:19168517

  9. Different Characteristics and Nucleotide Binding Properties of Inosine Monophosphate Dehydrogenase (IMPDH) Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Elaine C.; Gunter, Jennifer H.; Webster, Julie A.; Schieber, Nicole L.; Oorschot, Viola; Parton, Robert G.; Whitehead, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    We recently reported that Inosine Monophosphate Dehydrogenase (IMPDH), a rate-limiting enzyme in de novo guanine nucleotide biosynthesis, clustered into macrostructures in response to decreased nucleotide levels and that there were differences between the IMPDH isoforms, IMPDH1 and IMPDH2. We hypothesised that the Bateman domains, which are present in both isoforms and serve as energy-sensing/allosteric modules in unrelated proteins, would contribute to isoform-specific differences and that mutations situated in and around this domain in IMPDH1 which give rise to retinitis pigmentosa (RP) would compromise regulation. We employed immuno-electron microscopy to investigate the ultrastructure of IMPDH macrostructures and live-cell imaging to follow clustering of an IMPDH2-GFP chimera in real-time. Using a series of IMPDH1/IMPDH2 chimera we demonstrated that the propensity to cluster was conferred by the N-terminal 244 amino acids, which includes the Bateman domain. A protease protection assay suggested isoform-specific purine nucleotide binding characteristics, with ATP protecting IMPDH1 and AMP protecting IMPDH2, via a mechanism involving conformational changes upon nucleotide binding to the Bateman domain without affecting IMPDH catalytic activity. ATP binding to IMPDH1 was confirmed in a nucleotide binding assay. The RP-causing mutation, R224P, abolished ATP binding and nucleotide protection and this correlated with an altered propensity to cluster. Collectively these data demonstrate that (i) the isoforms are differentially regulated by AMP and ATP by a mechanism involving the Bateman domain, (ii) communication occurs between the Bateman and catalytic domains and (iii) the RP-causing mutations compromise such regulation. These findings support the idea that the IMPDH isoforms are subject to distinct regulation and that regulatory defects contribute to human disease. PMID:23236438

  10. Arabidopsis TH2 Encodes the Orphan Enzyme Thiamin Monophosphate Phosphatase[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Niehaus, Thomas D.; Hasnain, Ghulam; Gidda, Satinder K.; Nguyen, Thuy N.D.; Anderson, Erin M.; Brown, Greg; Yakunin, Alexander F.; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Gregory, Jesse F.

    2016-01-01

    To synthesize the cofactor thiamin diphosphate (ThDP), plants must first hydrolyze thiamin monophosphate (ThMP) to thiamin, but dedicated enzymes for this hydrolysis step were unknown and widely doubted to exist. The classical thiamin-requiring th2-1 mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana was shown to reduce ThDP levels by half and to increase ThMP levels 5-fold, implying that the THIAMIN REQUIRING2 (TH2) gene product could be a dedicated ThMP phosphatase. Genomic and transcriptomic data indicated that TH2 corresponds to At5g32470, encoding a HAD (haloacid dehalogenase) family phosphatase fused to a TenA (thiamin salvage) family protein. Like the th2-1 mutant, an insertional mutant of At5g32470 accumulated ThMP, and the thiamin requirement of the th2-1 mutant was complemented by wild-type At5g32470. Complementation tests in Escherichia coli and enzyme assays with recombinant proteins confirmed that At5g32470 and its maize (Zea mays) orthologs GRMZM2G148896 and GRMZM2G078283 are ThMP-selective phosphatases whose activity resides in the HAD domain and that the At5g32470 TenA domain has the expected thiamin salvage activity. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that alternative translation start sites direct the At5g32470 protein to the cytosol and potentially also to mitochondria. Our findings establish that plants have a dedicated ThMP phosphatase and indicate that modest (50%) ThDP depletion can produce severe deficiency symptoms. PMID:27677881

  11. Novel adenosine 3 prime ,5 prime -cyclic monophosphate dependent protein kinases in a marine diatom

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, P.P.C.; Volcani, B.E. )

    1989-08-08

    Two novel adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) dependent protein kinases have been isolated from the diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis. The kinases, designated I and II, are eluted from DEAE-Sephacel at 0.10 and 0.15 M NaCl. They have a high affinity for cAMP and are activated by micromolar cAMP. They exhibit maximal activity at 5 mM Mg{sup 2+} and pH 8 with the preferred phosphate donor ATP and phosphate acceptor histone H1. They phosphorylate sea urchin sperm histone H1 on a single serine site in the sequence Arg-Lys-Gly-Ser({sup 32}P)-Ser-Asn-Ala-Arg and have an apparent M{sub r} of 75,000 as determined by gel filtration and sucrose density sedimentation. In the kinase I preparation a single protein band with an apparent M{sub r} of about 78,000 is photolabeled with 8-azido({sup 32}P)cAMP and is also phosphorylated with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP in a cAMP-dependent manner, after autoradiography following sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. The rate of phosphorylation of the 78,000-dalton band is independent of the enzyme concentration. The results indicate that (i) these diatom cAMP-dependent protein kinases are monomeric proteins, possessing both the cAMP-binding regulatory and catalytic domains on the same polypeptide chain, (ii) the enzymes do not dissociate into smaller species upon activation by binding cAMP, and (iii) self-phosphorylation of the enzymes by an intrapeptide reaction is cAMP dependent. The two diatom cAMP kinases are refractory to the heat-stable protein kinase modulator from rabbit muscle, but they respond differently to proteolytic degradation and to inhibition by arachidonic acid and several microbial alkaloids.

  12. Turning an antiviral into an anticancer drug: nanoparticle delivery of acyclovir monophosphate.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jing; Zhang, Yuan; Ramishetti, Srinivas; Wang, Yuhua; Huang, Leaf

    2013-09-28

    Anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) drug acyclovir (ACV) is phosphorylated by the viral thymidine kinase (TK), but not the cellular TK. Phosphorylated ACV inhibits cellular DNA synthesis and kills the infected cells. We hypothesize that ACV monophosphate (ACVP), which is an activated metabolite of ACV, should be efficient in killing cells independent of HSV-TK. If so, ACVP should be a cytotoxic agent if properly delivered to the cancer cells. The Lipid/Calcium/Phosphate (LCP) nanoparticles (NPs) with a membrane/core structure were used to encapsulate ACVP to facilitate the targeted delivery of ACVP to the tumor. The LCP NPs showed entrapment efficiency of ~70%, the nano-scaled particle size and positive zeta potential. Moreover, ACVP-loaded LCP NPs (A-LCP NPs) exhibited concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against H460 cells and increased S-phase arrest. More importantly, a significant reduction of the tumor volume over 4 days following administration (p<0.05-0.005) of A-LCP NPs, suggests excellent in vivo efficacy. Whereas, two free drugs (ACV and ACVP) and blank LCP NPs showed little or no therapeutic effect. It was also found that the high efficacy of A-LCP NPs was associated with the ability to induce dramatic apoptosis of the tumor cells, as well as significantly inhibit tumor cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. In conclusion, with the help of LCP NPs, monophosphorylation modification of ACV can successfully modify an HSV-TK-dependent antiviral drug into an anti-tumor drug. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Deciphering the photochemical mechanisms describing the UV-induced processes occurring in solvated guanine monophosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altavilla, Salvatore; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Nenov, Artur; Conti, Irene; Rivalta, Ivan; Garavelli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The photophysics and photochemistry of water-solvated guanine monophosphate (GMP) are here characterized by means of a multireference quantum-chemical/molecular mechanics theoretical approach (CASPT2//CASSCF/AMBER) in order to elucidate the main photo-processes occurring upon UV-light irradiation. The effect of the solvent and of the phosphate group on the energetics and structural features of this system are evaluated for the first time employing high-level ab initio methods and thoroughly compared to those in vacuo previously reported in the literature and to the experimental evidence to assess to which extent they influence the photoinduced mechanisms. Solvated electronic excitation energies of solvated GMP at the Franck-Condon (FC) region show a red shift for the ππ* La and Lb states, whereas the energy of the oxygen lone-pair nπ* state is blue-shifted. The main photoinduced decay route is promoted through a ring-puckering motion along the bright lowest-lying La state towards a conical intersection (CI) with the ground state, involving a very shallow stationary point along the minimum energy pathway in contrast to the barrierless profile found in gas-phase, the point being placed at the end of the minimum energy path (MEP) thus endorsing its ultrafast deactivation in accordance with time-resolved transient and photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. The role of the nπ* state in the solvated system is severely diminished as the crossings with the initially populated La state and also with the Lb state are placed too high energetically to partake prominently in the deactivation photo-process. The proposed mechanism present in solvated and in vacuo DNA/RNA chromophores validates the intrinsic photostability mechanism through CI-mediated non-radiative processes accompanying the bright excited-state population towards the ground state and subsequent relaxation back to the FC region.

  14. Designed synthesis of copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes with a tridentate N2O donor Schiff base: Modulation of crystalline architectures through Csbnd H⋯π and anion⋯π interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Mithun; Chattopadhyay, Shouvik

    2013-11-01

    Two copper(II) complexes, Cu(L1)Cl (1), Cu(L1)NCS (3) and two nickel(II) complexes Ni(L1)Cl (2), Ni(L1)NCS (4), where HL1 = 1-[(2-diethylamino-ethylimino)-methyl]-naphthalen-2-ol act as tridentate N2O donor ligand, have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The geometry of the central metal ion in each of the four complexes is square planar. The existence of Csbnd H⋯π interactions in 2 gives rise to one dimensional chain structure. Complex 3 shows two Csbnd H⋯π interactions and one anion⋯π interactions which leads to a two dimensional layer structure. Each mononuclear unit of 4 has two Csbnd H⋯π interactions along b axis to form a double strand one dimensional array of the molecules in crystal packing.

  15. Therapeutic Potential of α-Crystallin

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Ram H.; Nahomi, Rooban B.; Mueller, Niklaus H.; Raghavan, Cibin T.; Ammar, David A.; Petrash, J. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background The findings that α-crystallins are multi-functional proteins with diverse biological functions have generated considerable interest in understanding their role in health and disease. Recent studies have shown that chaperone peptides of α-crystallin could be delivered into cultured cells and in experimental animals with beneficial effects against protein aggregation, oxidation, inflammation and apoptosis. Scope of Review In this review, we will summarize the latest developments on the therapeutic potential of α-crystallins and their functional peptides. Major conclusions α-Crystallins and their functional peptides have shown significant favorable effects against several diseases. Their targeted delivery to tissues would be of great therapeutic benefit. However, α-crystallins can also function as disease-causing proteins. These seemingly contradictory functions must be carefully considered prior to their therapeutic use. General significance αA and αB-Crystallin are members of the small heat shock protein family. These proteins exhibit molecular chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities. The core crystallin domain within these proteins is largely responsible for these prosperities. Recent studies have identified peptides within the crystallin domain of both α- and αB-crystallins with remarkable chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities. Administration of α-crystallin or their functional peptides have shown substantial inhibition of pathologies in several diseases. However, α-crystallins have been shown to promote disease-causing pathways. These two sides of the proteins are discussed in this review. PMID:25840354

  16. Interaction between alpha and upsilon-crystallin, common to the eye of the Australian platypus, by radical probe mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Issa, Samah; Downard, Kevin M

    2006-10-01

    The interaction between alpha-crystallin and upsilon-crystallin, a class recently discovered in the eye of the Australian platypus, has been shown by native shift gel assay and examined by radical probe mass spectrometry in the context of the ability of alpha-crystallin to protect upsilon-crystallin from oxidation and oxidative damage through radical-based oxidative stress mechanisms. Residues 22-41, 132-148, 212-227 and 245-264 of upsilon-crystallin display the greatest protection when interacted with alpha-crystallin at a ratio of 2 : 1 observed for the complex, which is commensurate with their levels measured in the eye of the platypus. Across each domain, a delay in the onset of oxidative damage is observed as the time of exposure to radicals is increased. The results are discussed in the context of the structure of the porcine homologue of upsilon-crystallin.

  17. Effects of alkaline or liquid-ammonia treatment on crystalline cellulose: changes in crystalline structure and effects on enzymatic digestibility

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In converting biomass to bioethanol, pretreatment is a key step intended to render cellulose more amenable and accessible to cellulase enzymes and thus increase glucose yields. In this study, four cellulose samples with different degrees of polymerization and crystallinity indexes were subjected to aqueous sodium hydroxide and anhydrous liquid ammonia treatments. The effects of the treatments on cellulose crystalline structure were studied, in addition to the effects on the digestibility of the celluloses by a cellulase complex. Results From X-ray diffractograms and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, it was revealed that treatment with liquid ammonia produced the cellulose IIII allomorph; however, crystallinity depended on treatment conditions. Treatment at a low temperature (25°C) resulted in a less crystalline product, whereas treatment at elevated temperatures (130°C or 140°C) gave a more crystalline product. Treatment of cellulose I with aqueous sodium hydroxide (16.5 percent by weight) resulted in formation of cellulose II, but also produced a much less crystalline cellulose. The relative digestibilities of the different cellulose allomorphs were tested by exposing the treated and untreated cellulose samples to a commercial enzyme mixture (Genencor-Danisco; GC 220). The digestibility results showed that the starting cellulose I samples were the least digestible (except for corn stover cellulose, which had a high amorphous content). Treatment with sodium hydroxide produced the most digestible cellulose, followed by treatment with liquid ammonia at a low temperature. Factor analysis indicated that initial rates of digestion (up to 24 hours) were most strongly correlated with amorphous content. Correlation of allomorph type with digestibility was weak, but was strongest with cellulose conversion at later times. The cellulose IIII samples produced at higher temperatures had comparable crystallinities to the initial cellulose I samples, but achieved

  18. Effects of alkaline or liquid-ammonia treatment on crystalline cellulose: changes in crystalline structure and effects on enzymatic digestibility.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Ashutosh; Katahira, Rui; Himmel, Michael E; Johnson, David K

    2011-10-19

    In converting biomass to bioethanol, pretreatment is a key step intended to render cellulose more amenable and accessible to cellulase enzymes and thus increase glucose yields. In this study, four cellulose samples with different degrees of polymerization and crystallinity indexes were subjected to aqueous sodium hydroxide and anhydrous liquid ammonia treatments. The effects of the treatments on cellulose crystalline structure were studied, in addition to the effects on the digestibility of the celluloses by a cellulase complex. From X-ray diffractograms and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, it was revealed that treatment with liquid ammonia produced the cellulose IIII allomorph; however, crystallinity depended on treatment conditions. Treatment at a low temperature (25°C) resulted in a less crystalline product, whereas treatment at elevated temperatures (130°C or 140°C) gave a more crystalline product. Treatment of cellulose I with aqueous sodium hydroxide (16.5 percent by weight) resulted in formation of cellulose II, but also produced a much less crystalline cellulose. The relative digestibilities of the different cellulose allomorphs were tested by exposing the treated and untreated cellulose samples to a commercial enzyme mixture (Genencor-Danisco; GC 220). The digestibility results showed that the starting cellulose I samples were the least digestible (except for corn stover cellulose, which had a high amorphous content). Treatment with sodium hydroxide produced the most digestible cellulose, followed by treatment with liquid ammonia at a low temperature. Factor analysis indicated that initial rates of digestion (up to 24 hours) were most strongly correlated with amorphous content. Correlation of allomorph type with digestibility was weak, but was strongest with cellulose conversion at later times. The cellulose IIII samples produced at higher temperatures had comparable crystallinities to the initial cellulose I samples, but achieved higher levels of

  19. Crystalline 1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidenes

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, Guy; Gulsado-Barrios, Gregorio; Bouffard, Jean; Donnadieu, Bruno

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides novel and stable crystalline 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of making 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of using 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes in catalytic reactions.

  20. Geometry of sorbed arsenate on ferrihydrite and crystalline FeOOH: Re-evaluation of EXAFS results and topological factors in predicting sorbate geometry, and evidence for monodentate complexes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waychunas , Glenn A.; Davis, James A.; Fuller, Christopher C.

    1995-01-01

    Manceau's (1995) reinterpretation of some of our EXAFS results (Waychunas et al., 1993) has been analyzed using both old and newly collected data in an attempt to clarify the nature of proposed monodentate and edge-sharing bidentate arsenate complexes on the ferrihydrite surface. It is shown that EXAFS analysis utilizing data with sufficient k-range does indicate the presence of relatively short AsFe bonds, suggestive of an edge-sharing complex as indicated by Manceau (1995). However, a variety of data analysis factors and crystal chemical considerations create doubt in this assignment. Most significantly, X-ray scattering data collected on a sample of ferrihydrite with a large density of sorbed arsenate, which should show a substantial fraction of the edge-sharing complex, does not show any such correlation within fitting uncertainty. We also suggest that it is unnecessary to invoke the presence of edge-sharing bidentate arsenate to explain the surface growth poisoning of ferrihydrite with increasing sorbed arsenate, as Manceau (1995) claims.Further, we show that a model based on the topology of close packed oxygen ions offers a clear explanation why monodentate arsenate should appear on some surfaces and not on others, and why differing AsFe distances might be observed on a single surface with a single type of complex. This model also explains why bidentate sorbed arsenate can occupy positions with consistent “tilt” angles. Without such consistency, the sorbed arsenate would be highly positionally disordered, and difficult to detect accurately via EXAFS methods.

  1. Crystalline order on the paraboloid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giomi, Luca; Bowick, Mark

    2006-03-01

    We describe an experimental and theoretical investigation of crystalline order on a two-dimensional paraboloid. In contrast to the sphere, the paraboloid exhibits both variable Gaussian curvature and a boundary. Both these features must be treated for a thorough theoretical understanding. A macroscopic model of a parabolic crystal can be obtained in the laboratory by assembling a single layer of soap bubbles on the surface of a rotating liquid, thus extending the classic work of Bragg and Nye on planar arrays of soap bubbles.

  2. Spectral Diversity Crystalline Fluoride Lasers,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    2 4.-. i1.34 I R TUNABLE Table IX XeF Pumoe TM3 +: YLF :1 .Tm:YLF exhibits nearly ideal parameters for high energy operation aa3x10-20cm 2 ESAT 0cm e...host crystal, lithium yttrium fluoride, LiYF*4 ( YLF )" 1..0 Introductin Within the realm of crystalline laser materials,. the class of fluorides...on the host crystal, lithium yttrium fluoride, LiYF4 - often shortened as YLF . Tables I and 12 show the mechanical, thermal, and optical properties

  3. Conformational energy calculations for dinucleotide molecules. A study of the component mononucleotide adenosine 3'-monophosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, J M; Bayley, P M

    1975-01-01

    Semi-empirical conformational energy calculations were performed for the mononucleotides 5'-AMP, NMN+ and 3'-AMP. Only intramolecular forces are considered. Essentially all conformational states were explored to investigate the population distribution likely to be found in a non-crystalline environment. The calculations suggest that 5'-AMP and 3'-AMP are relatively flexible and a mixture of conformational states is expected. In contrast, the results for NMN+ suggest that a strong electrostatic interaction between the positively charged nicotinamide nitrogen atom and negatively charged phosphate oxygen is possible, stabilizing a few specific states. This interaction will be most significant in a solvent-free situation or an apolar environment. PMID:1200996

  4. 6-Phosphofructokinase and ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase in methylotrophic Bacillus methanolicus ribulose monophosphate cycle.

    PubMed

    Le, Simone Balzer; Heggeset, Tonje Marita Bjerkan; Haugen, Tone; Nærdal, Ingemar; Brautaset, Trygve

    2017-02-17

    D-Ribulose-5-phosphate-3-epimerase (RPE) and 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK) catalyse two reactions in the ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) cycle in Bacillus methanolicus. The B. methanolicus wild-type strain MGA3 possesses two putative rpe and pfk genes encoded on plasmid pBM19 (rpe1-MGA3 and pfk1-MGA3) and on the chromosome (rpe2-MGA3 and pfk2-MGA3). The wild-type strain PB1 also encodes putative rpe and pfk genes on plasmid pBM20 (rpe1-PB1 and pfk1-PB1*); however, it only harbours a chromosomal pfk gene (pfk2-PB1). Transcription of the plasmid-encoded genes was 10-fold to 15-fold upregulated in cells growing on methanol compared to mannitol, while the chromosomal genes were transcribed at similar levels under both conditions in both strains. All seven gene products were recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli, purified and biochemically characterized. All three RPEs were active as hexamers, catalytically stimulated by Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) and displayed similar K' values (56-75 μM) for ribulose 5-phosphate. Rpe2-MGA3 showed displayed 2-fold lower V max (49 U/mg) and a significantly reduced thermostability compared to the two Rpe1 proteins. Pfk1-PB1* was shown to be non-functional. The PFKs were active both as octamers and as tetramers, were catalytically stimulated by Mg(2+) and Mn(2+), and displayed similar thermostabilities. The PFKs have similar K m values for fructose 6-phosphate (0.61-0.94 μM) and for ATP (0.38-0.82 μM), while Pfk1-MGA3 had a 2-fold lower V max (6.3 U/mg) compared to the two Pfk2 proteins. Our results demonstrate that MGA3 and PB1 exert alternative solutions to plasmid-dependent methylotrophy, including genetic organization, regulation, and biochemistry of RuMP cycle enzymes.

  5. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-mediated protection against bile acid-induced apoptosis in cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Webster, C R; Anwer, M S

    1998-05-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) has been shown to modulate apoptosis. To evaluate the role of cAMP in bile acid-induced hepatocyte apoptosis, we studied the effect of agents that increase cAMP on the induction of apoptosis by glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) in cultured rat hepatocytes. GCDC induced apoptosis in 26.5%+/-1.1% of hepatocytes within 2 hours. Twenty-minute pretreatment of hepatocytes with 100 micromol/L 8-(4-chlorothiophenyl) cAMP (CP-cAMP) resulted in a reduction in the amount of apoptosis to 35.2%+/-3.8% of that seen in hepatocytes treated with GCDC alone. Other agents that increase intracellular cAMP, including dibutyryl cAMP (100 micromol/L), glucagon (200 nmol/L), and a combination of forskolin (20 micromol/L) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (20 micromol/L), also inhibited GCDC-induced apoptosis to a similar extent. Pretreatment with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, KT5720, prevented the protective effect of CP-cAMP and inhibited CP-cAMP-induced activation of PKA activity. Inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), wortmannin (50 nmol/L), or Ly 294002 (20 micromol/L) also prevented the cytoprotective effect of cAMP. PI3K assays confirmed that wortmannin (50 nmol/L) inhibited PI3K activity, while CP-cAMP had no effect on the activity of this lipid kinase. GCDC increased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity, but had no effect on stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) activity in hepatocytes. cAMP decreased basal and GCDC-induced MAPK activity and increased SAPK activity. The MAPK kinase inhibitor, PD 98059, inhibited both GCDC-mediated MAPK activation and GCDC-induced apoptosis. 1) agents that increase intracellular cAMP protect against hepatocyte apoptosis induced by hydrophobic bile acids; 2) activation of MAPK by GCDC may be involved in bile acid-induced apoptosis; and 3) cAMP-mediated cytoprotection against bile acid-induced apoptosis appears to involve PKA, MAPK, and PI3K.

  6. Genetics of Bietti Crystalline Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Ng, Danny S C; Lai, Timothy Y Y; Ng, Tsz Kin; Pang, Chi Pui

    2016-01-01

    Bietti crystalline dystrophy (BCD) is an inherited retinal degenerative disease characterized by crystalline deposits in the retina, followed by progressive atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), choriocapillaris, and photoreceptors. CYP4V2 has been identified as the causative gene for BCD. The CYP4V2 gene belongs to the cytochrome P450 superfamily and encodes for fatty acid ω-hydroxylase of both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The CYP4V2 protein is localized most abundantly within the endoplasmic reticulum in the RPE and is postulated to play a role in the physiological lipid recycling system between the RPE and photoreceptors to maintain visual function. Electroretinographic assessments have revealed progressive dysfunction of rod and cone photoreceptors in patients with BCD. Several genotypes have been associated with more severe phenotypes based on clinical and electrophysiological findings. With the advent of multimodal imaging with spectral domain optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence, and adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, more precise delineation of BCD severity and progression is now possible, allowing for the potential future development of targets for gene therapy.

  7. Lateral topological crystalline insulator heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qilong; Dai, Ying; Niu, Chengwang; Ma, Yandong; Wei, Wei; Yu, Lin; Huang, Baibiao

    2017-06-01

    The emergence of lateral heterostructures fabricated by two-dimensional building blocks brings many exciting realms in material science and device physics. Enriching available nanomaterials for creating such heterostructures and enabling the underlying new physics is highly coveted for the integration of next-generation devices. Here, we report a breakthrough in lateral heterostructure based on the monolayer square transition-metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M  =  W, X  =  S/Se) modules. Our results reveal that the MX2 lateral heterostructure (1S-MX2 LHS) can possess excellent thermal and dynamical stability. Remarkably, the highly desired two-dimensional topological crystalline insulator phase is confirmed by the calculated mirror Chern number {{n}\\text{M}}=-1 . A nontrivial band gap of 65 meV is obtained with SOC, indicating the potential for room-temperature observation and applications. The topologically protected edge states emerge at the edges of two different nanoribbons between the bulk band gap, which is consistent with the mirror Chern number. In addition, a strain-induced topological phase transition in 1S-MX2 LHS is also revealed, endowing the potential utilities in electronics and spintronics. Our predictions not only introduce new member and vitality into the studies of lateral heterostructures, but also highlight the promise of lateral heterostructure as appealing topological crystalline insulator platforms with excellent stability for future devices.

  8. Liquid-crystalline physical gels.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takashi; Hirai, Yuki; Nakaso, Suguru; Moriyama, Masaya

    2007-12-01

    Liquid-crystalline (LC) physical gels are a new class of dynamically functional materials consisting of liquid crystals and fibrous aggregates of molecules that are called "gelators". Liquid-crystalline physical gels, which are macroscopically soft solids, exhibit induced or enhanced electro-optical, photochemical, electronic properties due to the combination of two components that form phase-separated structures. In this tutorial review, we describe the materials design and structure-property relationships of the LC physical gels. The introduction of self-assembled fibers into nematic liquid crystals leads to faster responses in twisted nematic (TN) mode and high contrast switching in light scattering mode. Furthermore, the LC physical gels can be exploited as a new type of materials for electro-optical memory. This function is achieved by the control of reversible aggregation processes of gelators under electric fields in nematic liquid crystals. Electronic properties such as hole mobilities are improved by the introduction of fibrous aggregates into triphenylene-based columnar liquid crystals. The incorporation of photochromic azobenzenes or electroactive tetrathiafulvalenes into the chemical structures of gelators leads to the preparation of ordered functional materials.

  9. Ferromagnetic viscoelastic liquid crystalline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlesier, Cristina; Shibaev, Petr; McDonald, Scott

    2012-02-01

    Novel ferromagnetic liquid crystalline materials were designed by mixing ferromagnetic nanoparticles with glass forming oligomers and low molar mass liquid crystals. The matrix in which nanoparticles are embedded is highly viscous that reduces aggregation of nanoparticles and stabilizes the whole composition. Mechanical and optical properties of the composite material are studied in the broad range of nanoparticle concentrations. The mechanical properties of the viscoelastic composite material resemble those of chemically crosslinked elastomers (elasticity and reversibility of deformations). The optical properties of ferromagnetic cholesteric materials are discussed in detail. It is shown that application of magnetic field leads to the shift of the selective reflection band of the cholesteric material and dramatically change its color. Theoretical model is suggested to account for the observed effects; physical properties of the novel materials and liquid crystalline elastomers are compared and discussed. [1] P.V. Shibaev, C. Schlesier, R. Uhrlass, S. Woodward, E. Hanelt, Liquid Crystals, 37, 1601 (2010) [2] P.V. Shibaev, R. Uhrlass, S. Woodward, C. Schlesier, Md R. Ali, E. Hanelt, Liquid Crystals, 37, 587 (2010)

  10. A new preparation of a bifunctional crystalline heterogeneous copper electrocatalyst by electrodeposition using a Robson-type macrocyclic dinuclear copper complex for efficient hydrogen and oxygen evolution from water.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Samit; Abdel Haleem, Ashraf; Nagaraju, Perumandla; Naruta, Yoshinori

    2017-07-18

    The development of low-cost, stable bifunctional electrocatalysts, which operate in the same electrolyte with a low overpotential for water splitting, including the oxygen evolution reaction and the hydrogen evolution reaction, remains an attractive prospect and a great challenge. In this study, a water soluble Robson-type macrocyclic dicopper(ii) complex has been used for the first time as a catalyst precursor for the generation of a copper-based bifunctional heterogeneous catalyst film, which can be used for both HER and OER at a near neutral pH. In sodium borate buffer at pH 9.20, this complex decomposed to give a Cu(OH)2/Cu2O-based thin film on FTO that catalyzes both hydrogen production and water oxidation. The morphology, nature and composition of the thin film were fully characterized by scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopies. The catalyst film showed high stability during the course of electrolysis in either the cathodic or the anodic direction for more than 4 h. Faradaic efficiencies of ∼92% for HER and ∼96% for OER were achieved. The switch between the two half-reactions of catalytic water splitting was fully reversible in nature.

  11. [Conformation study of cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate and some of its derivatives by means of circular dichroism].

    PubMed

    Tunitskaia, V L; Guliaev, N N; Poletaev, A I; Severin, E S

    1977-04-01

    Circular dichroism spectra of adenosine and cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and their derivatives, having different substituents in 8-position of heterocycle, are studied, cAMP is suggested to have preferable anti-conformation in the solution, while its derivatives with substituents in 8-position of purine base are preferable in sin-conformation. An exception is 8-(beta aminoethylamine-)cAMP, which has an anti-conformation within pH range from 4.5 to 9.5. This is probably due to the formation of intra-molecular ionic bond between cyclophosphate group and aliphatic amino group of 8-position substituent.

  12. [Cloning of the gene controlling catabolite repression with the participation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate in Escherichia coli K-12].

    PubMed

    Lisenkov, A F; Smirnov, Iu V; Sukhodolets, V V

    1983-05-01

    The crp gene coding for cyclic adenosine monophosphate receptor protein has been cloned on the vehicle pBR325 using restriction endonuclease PstI and the recipient strain C600 crp. The pCAP2 hybrid plasmid obtained has a molecular weight 7.0 MD and in the pBR325 with the insertion into a PstI site. Bacterial clones carrying pCAP2 restore Crp+ phenotype, as judged by the capacity of bacteria for utilization of various carbohydrates and by the activity of catabolite sensitive enzymes.

  13. Influence of ischemic injury on vein graft remodeling: role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate second messenger pathway in enhanced vein graft preservation.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Taichi; Asai, Tomohiro; Belov, Dmitri; Okada, Morihito; Pinsky, David J; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Naka, Yoshifumi

    2005-01-01

    Endothelial injury during the harvest of saphenous vein grafts might play an important role in the development of vein graft disease after coronary artery bypass grafting. Using a murine autologous arterialized vein patch model, we tested whether the initial ischemic insult of vein grafts was linked to the later development of graft neointimal hyperplasia and whether the restoration of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate second messenger pathway would attenuate the development of neointimal hyperplasia. A segment of the external jugular vein of a mouse was grafted onto its abdominal aorta. Three weeks after the operation, the degree of neointimal hyperplasia of the implanted graft was compared among (1) grafts without preservation, (2) grafts with 2 hours of preservation (25 degrees C) in heparinized saline, and (3) grafts with 2 hours of preservation in heparinized saline in the presence of a cyclic adenosine monophosphate analog. In addition, cyclic adenosine monophosphate contents of vein grafts and leukocyte adherence to the graft endothelium were assessed. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate contents were significantly decreased after 2 hours of preservation (212 +/- 8 vs 156 +/- 5 pmol/L, P < .01). The grafts preserved for 2 hours showed greater neointimal hyperplasia compared with the grafts without preservation (neointimal expansion, 68.7% +/- 9.6% vs 46.1% +/- 4.8%; P < .01). The addition of a cyclic adenosine monophosphate analog to the preservation solution significantly suppressed neointimal hyperplasia of grafts preserved for 2 hours (44.3% +/- 5.0%). Inhibiting the cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase by adding Rp-cAMPS abrogated the beneficial effects. Furthermore, grafts preserved for 2 hours had significantly more leukocytes adhering to the graft endothelium 24 hours after the operation compared with nonpreserved grafts, which was significantly reduced by the cyclic adenosine monophosphate treatment. Ischemic insult during vein graft

  14. Crystallinity of lyophilised carrot cell wall components.

    PubMed

    Georget, D M; Cairns, P; Smith, A C; Waldron, K W

    1999-12-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of removal of cell wall components on the crystallinity of cell walls using X-ray diffraction. Various insoluble cell wall residues were prepared following a sequential extraction of carrot cell wall material. X-ray diffraction patterns were typical of cellulose although there was a possible contribution of pectic polysaccharides to the crystallinity. As more amorphous material was removed to produce a cellulose rich residue, the crystallinity index increased from 12 to 16%, larger than that estimated from cellulose alone. For the last residue treated with 4M KOH, a lower value of crystallinity was found (14%) which resulted from the change of some crystalline domains of cellulose into amorphous regions. Pressing conditions (temperature, water content) have been investigated and did not alter the crystallinity index significantly.

  15. βB1-Crystallin: Thermodynamic Profiles of Molecular Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Dolinska, Monika B.; Wingfield, Paul T.; Sergeev, Yuri V.

    2012-01-01

    Background β-Crystallins are structural proteins maintaining eye lens transparency and opacification. Previous work demonstrated that dimerization of both βA3 and βB2 crystallins (βA3 and βB2) involves endothermic enthalpy of association (∼8 kcal/mol) mediated by hydrophobic interactions. Methodology/Principal Findings Thermodynamic profiles of the associations of dimeric βA3 and βB1 and tetrameric βB1/βA3 were measured using sedimentation equilibrium. The homo- and heteromolecular associations of βB1 crystallin are dominated by exothermic enthalpy (−13.3 and −24.5 kcal/mol, respectively). Conclusions/Significance Global thermodynamics of βB1 interactions suggest a role in the formation of stable protein complexes in the lens via specific van der Waals contacts, hydrogen bonds and salt bridges whereas those β-crystallins which associate by predominately hydrophobic forces participate in a weaker protein associations. PMID:22238594

  16. A Facile and Sensitive Method for Quantification of Cyclic Nucleotide Monophosphates in Mammalian Organs: Basal Levels of Eight cNMPs and Identification of 2',3'-cIMP

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xin; Fontaine, Benjamin M.; Strobel, Fred; Weinert, Emily E.

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive, versatile and economical method to extract and quantify cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs) using LC-MS/MS, including both 3',5'-cNMPs and 2',3'-cNMPs, in mammalian tissues and cellular systems has been developed. Problems, such as matrix effects from complex biological samples, are addressed and have been optimized. This protocol allows for comparison of multiple cNMPs in the same system and was used to examine the relationship between tissue levels of cNMPs in a panel of rat organs. In addition, the study reports the first identification and quantification of 2',3'-cIMP. The developed method will allow for quantification of cNMPs levels in cells and tissues with varying disease states, which will provide insight into the role(s) and interplay of cNMP signalling pathways. PMID:25513747

  17. A facile and sensitive method for quantification of cyclic nucleotide monophosphates in mammalian organs: basal levels of eight cNMPs and identification of 2',3'-cIMP.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xin; Fontaine, Benjamin M; Strobel, Fred; Weinert, Emily E

    2014-12-12

    A sensitive, versatile and economical method to extract and quantify cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs) using LC-MS/MS, including both 3',5'-cNMPs and 2',3'-cNMPs, in mammalian tissues and cellular systems has been developed. Problems, such as matrix effects from complex biological samples, are addressed and have been optimized. This protocol allows for comparison of multiple cNMPs in the same system and was used to examine the relationship between tissue levels of cNMPs in a panel of rat organs. In addition, the study reports the first identification and quantification of 2',3'-cIMP. The developed method will allow for quantification of cNMPs levels in cells and tissues with varying disease states, which will provide insight into the role(s) and interplay of cNMP signalling pathways.

  18. Soil Crystallinity As a Climate Indicator: Field Experiments on Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horgan, Briony; Scudder, Noel; Rampe, Elizabeth; Rutledge, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Soil crystallinity is largely determined by leaching rates, as high leaching rates favor the rapid precipitation of short order or poorly-crystalline phases like the aluminosilicate allophane. High leaching rates can occur due to high precipitation rates, seasonal monsoons, or weathering of glass, but are also caused by the rapid onset of seasonal melting of snow and ice in cold environments. Thus, cold climate soils are commonly dominated by poorly crystalline phases, which mature into kaolin minerals over time. Thus, we hypothesize that, in some contexts, soils with high abundances of poorly crystalline phases could indicate formation under cold climatic conditions. This model could be helpful in interpreting the poorly-constrained paleoclimate of ancient Mars, as the crystallinity of ancient soils and soil-derived sediments appears to be highly variable in time and space. While strong signatures of crystalline phyllosilicates have been identified in possible ancient paleosols on Mars, Mars Science Laboratory rover investigations of diverse ancient sediments at Gale Crater has shown that they can contain very high abundances (40-50 wt%) of poorly crystalline phases. We hypothesize that these poorly crystalline phases could be the result of weathering by ice/snow melt, perhaps providing support for sustained cold climates on early Mars punctuated by more limited warm climates. Furthermore, such poorly crystalline soils could be highly fertile growth media for future human exploration and colonization on Mars. To test this hypothesis, we are currently using rover-like instrumentation to investigate the mineralogy and chemistry of weathering products generated by snow and ice melt in a Mars analog alpine environment: the glaciated Three Sisters volcanic complex in central Oregon. Alteration in this glacial environment generates high abundances of poorly crystalline phases, many of which have compositions distinct from those identified in previous terrestrial

  19. Thermodynamics of rock forming crystalline solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, S. K.

    1971-01-01

    Analysis of phase diagrams and cation distributions within crystalline solutions as means of obtaining thermodynamic data on rock forming crystalline solutions is discussed along with some aspects of partitioning of elements in coexisting phases. Crystalline solutions, components in a silicate mineral, and chemical potentials of these components were defined. Examples were given for calculating thermodynamic mixing functions in the CaW04-SrW04, olivine-chloride solution, and orthopyroxene systems.

  20. Association of actin with alpha crystallins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; Boyle, D.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The alpha crystallins are cytosolic proteins that co-localize and co-purify with actin-containing microfilaments. Affinity column chromatography employing both covalently-coupled actin or alpha crystallin was used to demonstrate specific and saturable binding of actin with alpha crystallin. This conclusion was confirmed by direct visualization of alpha aggregates bound to actin polymerized in vitro. The significance of this interaction in relation to the functional properties of these two polypeptides will be discussed.

  1. Structure Property Relationships in Liquid Crystalline Thermosets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-25

    Adhesion Science and Technology , 2002, 16, 15-32 Jianxun Feng and Elliot P. Douglas, “Permeability of a liquid crystalline epoxy”, Materials Research...Arthur J. Gavrin and Elliot P. Douglas, “Cure behavior of liquid crystalline thermosets”, poster presentation at POLY Millenial 2000, Waikoloa, HI...December, 2000 Elliot P. Douglas, "Liquid crystalline thermosets", Massachusetts Institute of Technology , Cambridge, MA, April, 2000 Arthur J. Gavrin

  2. Modeling non-crystalline networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ming

    In this thesis, the author reports the modeling of both the static and the dynamical aspects of non-crystalline networks. Porous silicon and silica have attracted attention recently due to their unusual photoelectronic properties. Porosity is central to these striking properties which are not present in non-porous silicon and silica. We propose an algorithm that is effective in building fully-coordinated amorphous networks that are discontinuous in certain regions---that is, they contain large voids of mesoscopic or macroscopic dimensions. Such networks can be both porous and amorphous, and can also be finite in certain dimensions. Voids of arbitrary shapes and sizes are first superimposed on a crystalline silicon network. The atoms in the pore regions are removed. Local "defects" are created, then eliminated, as pairs of them are brought together by a defect migration process. The network is fully coordinated after the defect migration process. The Wooten Winer Weaire (WWW) algorithm, is then applied to make the network amorphous. Oxygen is inserted on every silicon-silicon bond to create a porous silica network. Silica networks in the form of an amorphous fiber and an amorphous film are created by this procedure. Distortions due to surface effects are investigated. The local atomic arrangement in these discontinuous networks is similar to that in bulk amorphous silica. Covalent bond lengths and angles in amorphous networks do not vary much because of the high energies associated with bond length and angle distortions. Therefore, they can be viewed as constraints that do not change with time in any significant way. Proteins, viewed as another type of non-crystalline network, are glued together by covalent bonds, hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and other interactions. The concentration of constraints in some regions of the proteins are so high that these regions are rigid. The other regions are flexible. The flexible regions of protein can exhibit large

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis IMPDH in Complexes with Substrates, Products and Antitubercular Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Kim, Youngchang; Gorla, Suresh Kumar; Wei, Yang; Mandapati, Kavitha; Zhang, Minjia; Maltseva, Natalia; Modi, Gyan; Boshoff, Helena I.; Gu, Minyi; Aldrich, Courtney; Cuny, Gregory D.; Hedstrom, Lizbeth; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a worldwide problem and the need for new drugs is increasingly more urgent with the emergence of multidrug- and extensively-drug resistant TB. Inosine 5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 (IMPDH2) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an attractive drug target. The enzyme catalyzes the conversion of inosine 5’-monophosphate into xanthosine 5’-monophosphate with the concomitant reduction of NAD+ to NADH. This reaction controls flux into the guanine nucleotide pool. We report seventeen selective IMPDH inhibitors with antitubercular activity. The crystal structures of a deletion mutant of MtbIMPDH2 in the apo form and in complex with the product XMP and substrate NAD+ are determined. We also report the structures of complexes with IMP and three structurally distinct inhibitors, including two with antitubercular activity. These structures will greatly facilitate the development of MtbIMPDH2-targeted antibiotics. PMID:26440283

  4. Crystalline imide/arylene ether copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Bass, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Crystalline imide/arylene ether block copolymers are prepared by reacting anhydride terminated poly(amic acids) with amine terminated poly)arylene ethers) in polar aprotic solvents and chemically or thermally cyclodehydrating the resulting intermediate poly(amic acids). The block copolymers of the invention have one glass transition temperature or two, depending on the particular structure and/or the compatibility of the block units. Most of these crystalline block copolymers for tough, solvent resistant films with high tensile properties. While all of the copolymers produced by the present invention are crystalline, testing reveals that copolymers with longer imide blocks or higher imide content have increased crystallinity.

  5. Crystalline structure of sulfur nanowires.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvajal, Eliel; Santiago, Patricia; Mendoza, Doroteo

    2001-03-01

    Sulfur nanowires have been synthesized by a nanoporous alumina template approach. Two types of wires were obtained, some of them straight and very long but the most of them curly. The diameter was 15nm, typically more than 1000nm of length and the longest of these wires seems to be almost monocrystalline.A first sight on them by electron microscopy showed differences, on the crystalline structure, compared to the most stable bulk allotrope. Studying carefully the wires' structure by X-ray diffraction on the confined wires, and by high resolution electron microscopy and electron diffraction, on the released ones, we found that the cell parameters are near the ones for α bulk sulfur.

  6. Digestion of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST)

    SciTech Connect

    DARREL, WALKER

    2004-11-04

    Researchers tested methods for chemically dissolving crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as a substitute for mechanical grinding to reduce particle size before vitrification. Testing used the commercially available form of CST, UOP IONSIV(R) IE-911. Reduction of the particle size to a range similar to that of the glass frit used by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) could reduce problems with coupling cesium ion exchange to the vitrification process. This study found that IONSIV(R) IE-911 dissolves completely using a combination of acid, hydrogen peroxide, and fluoride ion. Neutralization of the resulting acidic solution precipitates components of the IONSIV(R) IE-911. Digestion requires extremely corrosive conditions. Also, large particles may reform during neutralization, and the initiation and rate of gas generation are unpredictable. Therefore, the method is not recommended as a substitute for mechanical grinding.

  7. Elasticity of crystalline molecular explosives

    DOE PAGES

    Hooks, Daniel E.; Ramos, Kyle J.; Bolme, C. A.; ...

    2015-04-14

    Crystalline molecular explosives are key components of engineered explosive formulations. In precision applications a high degree of consistency and predictability is desired under a range of conditions to a variety of stimuli. Prediction of behaviors from mechanical response and failure to detonation initiation and detonation performance of the material is linked to accurate knowledge of the material structure and first stage of deformation: elasticity. The elastic response of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), including aspects of material and measurement variability, and computational methods are described in detail. Experimental determinations of elastic tensors are compared, andmore » an evaluation of sources of error is presented. Furthermore, computed elastic constants are also compared for these materials and for triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), for which there are no measurements.« less

  8. Elasticity of crystalline molecular explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Hooks, Daniel E.; Ramos, Kyle J.; Bolme, C. A.; Cawkwell, Marc J.

    2015-04-14

    Crystalline molecular explosives are key components of engineered explosive formulations. In precision applications a high degree of consistency and predictability is desired under a range of conditions to a variety of stimuli. Prediction of behaviors from mechanical response and failure to detonation initiation and detonation performance of the material is linked to accurate knowledge of the material structure and first stage of deformation: elasticity. The elastic response of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), including aspects of material and measurement variability, and computational methods are described in detail. Experimental determinations of elastic tensors are compared, and an evaluation of sources of error is presented. Furthermore, computed elastic constants are also compared for these materials and for triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), for which there are no measurements.

  9. A novel procedure for purification of uridine 5'-monophosphate based on adsorption methodology using a hyper-cross-linked resin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinglan; Zhu, Hui; Liu, Yanan; Zhou, Jingwei; Zhuang, Wei; Jiao, Pengfei; Ke, Xu; Ying, Hanjie

    2015-05-01

    The conventional ion exchange process used for recovery of uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP) from the enzymatic hydrolysate of RNA is environmentally harmful and cost intensive. In this work, an innovative benign process, which comprises adsorption technology and use of a hyper-cross-linked resin as a stationary phase is proposed. The adsorption properties of this kind of resin in terms of adsorption equilibrium as well as kinetics were evaluated. The influences of the operating conditions, i.e., initial UMP concentration, feed flow rate, and bed height on the breakthrough curves of UMP in the fixed bed system were investigated. Subsequently, a chromatographic column model was established and validated for the prediction of the experimentally attained breakthrough curves of UMP and the main impurity component (phosphate ion) with a real enzymatic hydrolysate of RNA as a feed mixture. At the end of this paper, the crystallization of UMP was carried out. The purity of the final product (uridine 5'-monophosphate disodium, UMPNa2) of over 99.5 % was obtained.

  10. Bietti crystalline dystrophy and choroidal neovascularisation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, B; Parvizi, S; Mohamed, M D

    2011-02-01

    Bietti crystalline dystrophy is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterised by the presence of crystals in the retina and is followed by retinal and choroidal degeneration. We present a novel finding of juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularisation in Bietti crystalline dystrophy and demonstrate a spectral domain optical coherence tomography image of this disorder.

  11. Boundary dislocation structure of crystalline composites

    SciTech Connect

    Regel', V.A.; Stepantsov, E.A.; Tovmasyan, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    The authors perform the first studies of the dislocation structure of intergrowth boundaries and the adjoining regions in the example of crystalline composites of lithium flouride single crystals. It has been established that the intergrowth boundary of a crystalline composite consists of two dislocation networks: a network of immobile dislocations and the usual subboundary that may shift from its original position.

  12. Crystalline mesophases: Structure, mobility, and pharmaceutical properties.

    PubMed

    Shalaev, Evgenyi; Wu, Ke; Shamblin, Sheri; Krzyzaniak, Joseph F; Descamps, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Crystalline mesophases, which are commonly classified according to their translational, orientational, and conformational order as liquid crystals, plastic crystals, and conformationally disordered crystals, represent a common state of condensed matter. As an intermediate state between crystalline and amorphous materials, crystalline mesophases resemble amorphous materials in relation to their molecular mobility, with the glass transition being their common property, and at the same time possessing a certain degree of translational periodicity (with the exception of nematic phase), with corresponding narrow peaks in X-ray diffraction patterns. For example, plastic crystals, which can be formed both by near-spherical molecules and molecules of lower symmetry, such as planar or chain molecules, can have both extremely sharp X-ray diffraction lines and exhibit glass transition. Fundamentals of structural arrangements in mesophases are compared with several types of disorder in crystalline materials, as well as with short-range ordering in amorphous solids. Main features of the molecular mobility in crystalline mesophases are found to be generally similar to amorphous materials, although some important differences do exist, depending on a particular type of mobility modes involved in relaxation processes. In several case studies reviewed, chemical stability appears to follow the extent of disorder, with the stability of crystalline mesophase found to be intermediate between amorphous (least stable) and crystalline (most stable) materials. Finally, detection of crystalline mesophases during manufacturing of two different types of dosage forms is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cold-stable eye lens crystallins of the Antarctic nototheniid toothfish Dissostichus mawsoni Norman.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Andor J; Mirarefi, Amir Y; Ramakrishnan, Subramanian; Zukoski, Charles F; Devries, Arthur L; Cheng, Chi-Hing C

    2004-12-01

    The eye lenses of the Antarctic nototheniid fishes that inhabit the perennially freezing Antarctic seawater are transparent at -2 degrees C, whereas the cold-sensitive mammalian and tropical fish lenses display cold-induced cataract at 20 degrees C and 7 degrees C, respectively. No cold-cataract occurs in the giant Antarctic toothfish Dissostichus mawsoni lens when cooled to temperatures as low as -12 degrees C, indicating highly cold-stable lens proteins. To investigate this cold stability, we characterised the lens crystallin proteins of the Antarctic toothfish, in parallel with those of the sub-tropical bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus and the endothermic cow Bos taurus, representing three disparate thermal climes (-2 degrees C, 18 degrees C and 37 degrees C, respectively). Sizing chromatography resolved their lens crystallins into three groups, alpha/betaH, beta and gamma, with gamma crystallins being the most abundant (>40%) lens proteins in fish, in contrast to the cow lens where they comprise only 19%. The upper thermal stability of these crystallin components correlated with the body temperature of the species. In vitro chaperone assays showed that fish alpha crystallin can protect same-species gamma crystallins from heat denaturation, as well as lysozyme from DTT-induced unfolding, and therefore are small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSP) like their mammalian counterparts. Dynamic light scattering measured an increase in size of alphagamma crystallin mixtures upon heating, which supports formation of the alphagamma complex as an integral part of the chaperone process. Surprisingly, in cross-species chaperone assays, tuna alpha crystallins only partly protected toothfish gamma crystallins, while cow alpha crystallins completely failed to protect, indicating partial and no alphagamma interaction, respectively. Toothfish gamma was likely to be the component that failed to interact, as the supernatant from a cow alpha plus toothfish gamma incubation could chaperone cow

  14. Erythropoietin activates the phosporylated cAMP [adenosine 3'5' cyclic monophosphate] response element-binding protein pathway and attenuates delayed paraplegia after ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Mares, Joshua M; Foley, Lisa S; Bell, Marshall T; Bennett, Daine T; Freeman, Kirsten A; Meng, Xianzhong; Weyant, Michael J; Cleveland, Joseph C; Fullerton, David A; Puskas, Ferenc; Reece, Thomas Brett

    2015-03-01

    Paraplegia remains a devastating complication of complex aortic surgery. Erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to prevent paraplegia after ischemia reperfusion, but the protective mechanism remains poorly described in the spinal cord. We hypothesized that EPO induces the CREB (cAMP [adenosine 3'5' cyclic monophosphate] response element-binding protein) pathway and neurotrophin production in the murine spinal cord, attenuating functional and cellular injury. Adult male mice were subjected to 4 minutes of spinal cord ischemia via an aortic and left subclavian cross-clamp. Experimental groups included EPO treatment 4 hours before incision (n = 7), ischemic control (n = 7), and shams (n = 4). Hind-limb function was assessed using the Basso motor score for 48 hours after reperfusion. Spinal cords were harvested and analyzed for neuronal viability using histology and staining with a fluorescein derivative. Expression of phosphorylated (p)AKT (a serine/threonine-specific kinase), pCREB, B-cell lymphoma 2, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were determined using immunoblotting. By 36 hours of reperfusion, EPO significantly preserved hind-limb function after ischemia-reperfusion injury (P < .01). Histology demonstrated preserved cytoarchitecture in the EPO treatment group. Cords treated with EPO expressed significant increases in pAKT (P = .021) and pCREB (P = .038). Treatment with EPO induced expression of both of the neurotrophins, B-cell lymphoma 2, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, beginning at 12 hours. Erythropoietin-mediated induction of the CREB pathway and production of neurotrophins is associated with improved neurologic function and increased neuronal viability following spinal cord ischemia reperfusion. Further elucidation of EPO-derived neuroprotection will allow for expansion of adjunct mechanisms for spinal cord protection in high-risk thoracoabdominal aortic intervention. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by

  15. Activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase blocks cumulus cell expansion through inhibition of protein synthesis during in vitro maturation in Swine.

    PubMed

    Santiquet, Nicolas; Sasseville, Maxime; Laforest, Martin; Guillemette, Christine; Gilchrist, Robert B; Richard, François J

    2014-08-01

    The serine/threonine kinase 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a heterotrimeric protein known as a metabolic switch, is involved in oocyte nuclear maturation in mice, cattle, and swine. The present study analyzed AMPK activation in cumulus cell expansion during in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC). 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) is a well-known activator of AMPK. It inhibited oocyte meiotic resumption in COC. Moreover, cumulus cell expansion did not occur in the presence of AICAR, demonstrating its marked impact on cumulus cells. Activation of AMPK was supported by AICAR-mediated phosphorylation of alpha AMPK subunits. Furthermore, the presence of AICAR increased glucose uptake, a classical response to activation of this metabolic switch in response to depleted cellular energy levels. Neither nuclear maturation nor cumulus expansion was reversed by glucosamine, an alternative substrate in hyaluronic acid synthesis, through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, which ruled out possible depletion of substrates. Both increased gap junction communication and phosphodiesterase activity in COC are dependent on protein synthesis during the initial hours of IVM; however, both were inhibited in the presence of AICAR, which supports the finding that activation of AMPK by AICAR mediated inhibition of protein synthesis. Moreover, this protein synthesis inhibition was equivalent to that of the well-known protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, as observed on cumulus expansion and protein concentration. Finally, the phosphorylation level of selected kinases was investigated. The pattern of raptor phosphorylation is supportive of activation of AMPK-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis. In conclusion, AICAR-mediated AMPK activation in porcine COC inhibited cumulus cell expansion and protein synthesis. These results bring new considerations to the importance of this kinase in ovarian

  16. Colloidal-crystal-assisted patterning of crystalline materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Qi, Limin

    2010-04-06

    Colloidal crystals have shown great potential as versatile templates for the fabrication of patterned micro- and nanostructures with complex architectures and novel properties. The patterning of functional crystalline materials in two and three dimensions is essential to the realization of their applications in many technologically important fields. This article highlights some recent progress in the fabrication of 2D and 3D patterned crystalline materials with the assistance of colloidal crystals. By combining a bioinspired synthetic strategy based on a transient amorphous phase with a colloidal-crystal templating method, unique 3D ordered macroporous (3DOM) calcite single crystals can be created. Moreover, patterned arrays of regular ZnO nanopillars with controlled size, shape, and orientation can be fabricated via a facile wet chemical approach by using masks derived from monolayer colloidal crystals (MCC).

  17. Alkyl chains acting as entropy reservoir in liquid crystalline materials.

    PubMed

    Sorai, Michio; Saito, Kazuya

    2003-01-01

    The roles played by the conformational disordering of alkyl chains in determining the aggregation states of matter are reviewed for liquid crystalline materials from a thermodynamic perspective. Entropy, which is one of the most macroscopic concepts but which has a clear microscopic meaning, provides crucial microscopic information for complex systems for which a microscopic description is hard to establish. Starting from structural implication by absolute (third-law) entropy for crystalline solids, the existence of successive phase transitions caused by the successive conformational melting of alkyl chains in discotic mesogens is explained. An experimental basis is given for the "quasi-binary picture" of thermotropic liquid crystals, i.e., the highly disordered alkyl chains behave like a second component (solvent). A novel entropy transfer between the "components" of a molecule and the resulting "alkyl chains as entropy reservoir" mechanism are explained for cubic mesogens.

  18. Navigating the Waters of Unconventional Crystalline Hydrates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the crystal structures, transformations, and thermodynamics of the two zwitterionic hydrates (Hy2 and HyA) of 3-(4-dibenzo[b,f][1,4]oxepin-11-yl-piperazin-1-yl)-2,2-dimethylpropanoic acid (DB7) rationalizes the complex interplay of temperature, water activity, and pH on the solid form stability and transformation pathways to three neutral anhydrate polymorphs (Forms I, II°, and III). HyA contains 1.29 to 1.95 molecules of water per DB7 zwitterion (DB7z). Removal of the essential water stabilizing HyA causes it to collapse to an amorphous phase, frequently concomitantly nucleating the stable anhydrate Forms I and II°. Hy2 is a stoichiometric dihydrate and the only known precursor to Form III, a high energy disordered anhydrate, with the level of disorder depending on the drying conditions. X-ray crystallography, solid state NMR, and H/D exchange experiments on highly crystalline phase pure samples obtained by exquisite control over crystallization, filtration, and drying conditions, along with computational modeling, provided a molecular level understanding of this system. The slow rates of many transformations and sensitivity of equilibria to exact conditions, arising from its varying static and dynamic disorder and water mobility in different phases, meant that characterizing DB7 hydration in terms of simplified hydrate classifications was inappropriate for developing this pharmaceutical. PMID:26075319

  19. Diffusion in porous crystalline materials.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Rajamani

    2012-04-21

    The design and development of many separation and catalytic process technologies require a proper quantitative description of diffusion of mixtures of guest molecules within porous crystalline materials. This tutorial review presents a unified, phenomenological description of diffusion inside meso- and micro-porous structures. In meso-porous materials, with pore sizes 2 nm < d(p) < 50 nm, there is a central core region where the influence of interactions of the molecules with the pore wall is either small or negligible; meso-pore diffusion is governed by a combination of molecule-molecule and molecule-pore wall interactions. Within micro-pores, with d(p) < 2 nm, the guest molecules are always under the influence of the force field exerted with the wall and we have to reckon with the motion of adsorbed molecules, and there is no "bulk" fluid region. The characteristics and physical significance of the self-, Maxwell-Stefan, and Fick diffusivities are explained with the aid of data obtained either from experiments or molecular dynamics simulations, for a wide variety of structures with different pore sizes and topology. The influence of adsorption thermodynamics, molecular clustering, and segregation on both magnitudes and concentration dependences of the diffusivities is highlighted. In mixture diffusion, correlations in molecular hops have the effect of slowing-down the more mobile species. The need for proper modeling of correlation effects using the Maxwell-Stefan formulation is stressed with the aid of examples of membrane separations and catalytic reactors.

  20. Dense crystalline packings of ellipsoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Weiwei; Jiao, Yang; Liu, Lufeng; Yuan, Ye; Li, Shuixiang

    2017-03-01

    An ellipsoid, the simplest nonspherical shape, has been extensively used as a model for elongated building blocks for a wide spectrum of molecular, colloidal, and granular systems. Yet the densest packing of congruent hard ellipsoids, which is intimately related to the high-density phase of many condensed matter systems, is still an open problem. We discover an unusual family of dense crystalline packings of self-dual ellipsoids (ratios of the semiaxes α : √{α }:1 ), containing 24 particles with a quasi-square-triangular (SQ-TR) tiling arrangement in the fundamental cell. The associated packing density ϕ exceeds that of the densest known SM2 crystal [ A. Donev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 255506 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.255506] for aspect ratios α in (1.365, 1.5625), attaining a maximal ϕ ≈0.758 06 ... at α = 93 /64 . We show that the SQ-TR phase derived from these dense packings is thermodynamically stable at high densities over the aforementioned α range and report a phase diagram for self-dual ellipsoids. The discovery of the SQ-TR crystal suggests organizing principles for nonspherical particles and self-assembly of colloidal systems.

  1. Stereoselective aminoacylation of a dinucleoside monophosphate by the imidazolides of DL-alanine and N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-DL-alanine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Profy, A. T.; Usher, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The aminoacylation of diinosine monophosphate was studied experimentally. When the acylating agent was the imidazolide of N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-DL-alanine, a 40 percent enantiomeric excess of the isomer was incorporated at the 2' site and the positions of equilibrium for the reversible 2'-3' migration reaction differed for the D and L enantiomers. The reactivity of the nucleoside hydroxyl groups was found to decrease on the order 2'(3') less than internal 2' and less than 5', and the extent of the reaction was affected by the concentration of the imidazole buffer. Reaction of IpI with imidazolide of unprotected DL-alanine, by contrast, led to an excess of the D isomer at the internal 2' site. Finally, reaction with the N-carboxy anhydride of DL-alanine occurred without stereoselection. These results are found to be relevant to the study of the evolution of optical chemical activity and the origin of genetically directed protein synthesis.

  2. Stereoselective aminoacylation of a dinucleoside monophosphate by the imidazolides of DL-alanine and N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-DL-alanine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Profy, A. T.; Usher, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The aminoacylation of diinosine monophosphate was studied experimentally. When the acylating agent was the imidazolide of N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-DL-alanine, a 40 percent enantiomeric excess of the isomer was incorporated at the 2' site and the positions of equilibrium for the reversible 2'-3' migration reaction differed for the D and L enantiomers. The reactivity of the nucleoside hydroxyl groups was found to decrease on the order 2'(3') less than internal 2' and less than 5', and the extent of the reaction was affected by the concentration of the imidazole buffer. Reaction of IpI with imidazolide of unprotected DL-alanine, by contrast, led to an excess of the D isomer at the internal 2' site. Finally, reaction with the N-carboxy anhydride of DL-alanine occurred without stereoselection. These results are found to be relevant to the study of the evolution of optical chemical activity and the origin of genetically directed protein synthesis.

  3. Investigation on the occurrence and significance of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate in phytoplankton and natural aquatic communities

    SciTech Connect

    Francko, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    This study demonstrates, on the basis of several analyanalytical criteria, that the production and extracellular release of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP) is widespread among phytoplankton species. The production and release of CAMP varied markedly among different species grown under similar environmental conditions, and intraspecifically during the life cycle of a given algal species. This investigation marks the first time cAMP has been investigated in natural aquatic systems. An examination of epilimnetic lakewater samples from Lawrence Lake, a hardwater oligotrophic lake, and Wintergreen Lake, a hardwater hypereutrophic lake, both in southwestern Michigan, demonstrated that cAMP existed in both particulate-associated and dissolved forms in these systems.

  4. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in relation to inhibition of cervical smooth muscle activity in early pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Norström, A; Bryman, I

    1991-08-01

    Contractile activity was registered in strips of cervical tissue obtained by needle biopsy from women in the first trimester of pregnancy. Dibutyryl cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate (5 x 10(-6) mol/l), isobutyryl methylxanthine (10(-4) mol/l), and forskolin (10(-5)-10(-4) mol/l), the latter two drugs known to increase the levels of endogenous cAMP, inhibited spontaneous muscle activity. The levels of tissue cAMP were determined in strips during relaxation induced by prostaglandin E2 or purified porcine relaxin and compared with cAMP levels in strips from the same women during contractile activity. Exposure to prostaglandin E2 but not to relaxin was followed by increased levels of cAMP. It is suggested that cAMP has a role as a second messenger in the prostaglandin E2-mediated relaxation of cervical smooth muscle.

  5. Syn- and anti-conformations of 5'-deoxy- and 5'-O-methyl-uridine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate.

    PubMed

    Grabarkiewicz, Tomasz; Hoffmann, Marcin

    2006-01-01

    Two uridine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate (cUMP) derivatives, 5'-deoxy (DcUMP) and 5'-O-methyl (McUMP), were studied by means of quantum chemical methods. Aqueous solvent effects were estimated based on the isodensity-surface polarized-continuum model (IPCM). Gas phase calculations revealed only slight energy differences between the syn- and anti-conformers of both compounds: the relative energies of the syn-structure are -0.9 and 0.2 kcal mol(-1) for DcUMP and McUMP, respectively. According to the results from the IPCM calculations, however, both syn-conformers become about 14 kcal mol(-1) more stable in aqueous solution than their corresponding anti-structures. Additionally, the effects of a countercation and protonation on DcUMP were studied, revealing that the syn-structure is also favored over the anti-one for these systems.

  6. Electroacupuncture preconditioning attenuates ischemic brain injury by activation of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Qiang-qiang; Chen, Huai-long; Liu, Yan-li; Yu, Hai-xia; Shi, Fei; Wang, Ming-shan

    2015-01-01

    Electroacupuncture has therapeutic effects on ischemic brain injury, but its mechanism is still poorly understood. In this study, mice were stimulated by electroacupuncture at the Baihui (GV20) acupoint for 30 minutes at 1 mA and 2/15 Hz for 5 consecutive days. A cerebral ischemia model was established by ligating the bilateral common carotid artery for 15 minutes. At 72 hours after injury, neuronal injury in the mouse hippocampus had lessened, and the number of terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive cells reduced after electroacupuncture treatment. Moreover, expression of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) and phosphorylated AMPKα was up-regulated. Intraperitoneal injection of the AMPK antagonist, compound C, suppressed this phenomenon. Our findings suggest that electroacupuncture preconditioning alleviates ischemic brain injury via AMPK activation. PMID:26330828

  7. Viscothionin isolated from Korean mistletoe improves nonalcoholic fatty liver disease via the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sokho; Lee, Dongho; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Jae-Hun; Park, Jong-Heum; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kwon, Jungkee

    2014-12-10

    The present study investigated the effects of viscothionin, a compound isolated from Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum), on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in both in vitro and in vivo models. A connection was discovered between viscothionin and the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway, which is involved in lipid metabolism. Viscothionin was shown to significantly attenuate lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells treated with oleic acid, which induces lipid accumulation. Moreover, the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase in HepG2 cells was increased by viscothionin treatment. Viscothionin was orally administered to high fat diet-induced obese mice and subsequently histopathological analysis associated with AMPK signaling pathways was evaluated. A significant reduction in the extent of hepatic steatosis was revealed in viscothionin-treated obese mice. Thus, viscothionin mediates its beneficial effects on NAFLD via AMPK signaling pathways, suggesting that it may be a potential target for novel NAFLD treatments.

  8. Evidence Against the Presence of 3′, 5′-Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate and Relevant Enzymes in Lactobacillus plantarum

    PubMed Central

    Sahyoun, N.; Durr, I. F.

    1972-01-01

    Analysis of cells of Lactobacillus plantarum, starved or undergoing induction, showed no 3′, 5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Neither adenyl cyclase nor 3′, 5′-cAMP phosphodiesterase was detected in extracts. Extracts of L. plantarum did not inhibit these two enzymes of Escherichia coli K-12, strain W1435. Incubation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-U-14C with cells or various cell-free fractions of L. plantarum did not produce labeled 3′, 5′-cAMP. Of various 3′, 5′-cyclic and acyclic nucleotides tested, only 3′, 5′-cAMP, ATP, and yeast adenylic acid stimulated l-arabinose isomerase. Yeast adenylic acid was two to four times as effective as 3′, 5′-cAMP or ATP. 2′, 3′-cAMP was not effective. PMID:4342815

  9. Host layer buckling in the compounds formed by exfoliation and restacking of cadmium phosphorus trisulphide with adenosine monophosphate included

    SciTech Connect

    Westreich, Philippe . E-mail: pwestreich@alumni.sfu.ca; Yang Datong; Frindt, Robert F.

    2006-03-09

    Exfoliated single layer cadmium phosphorus trisulphide has been combined with the biological molecule adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to form the novel restacked compound Li{sub x}Cd{sub 0.8}PS{sub 3}(AMP){sub z}(H{sub 2}O){sub y}. Composition was determined using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and the structure of these compounds was studied using X-ray diffraction on oriented films. In the 0-80% relative humidity range, for (AMP){sub 0.5}, a host plane spacing near 19.6 A was found. Electron density calculations based on the X-ray diffraction pattern suggest a model for the arrangement of guest AMP molecules between the host layers, with an accompanying water molecule. The calculations also suggest that there is a buckling in the host layer of about {+-}0.6 A.

  10. Low energy electron attachment to the nucleotide deoxycytidine monophosphate: direct evidence for the molecular mechanisms of electron-induced DNA strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Kopyra, Janina

    2012-06-21

    Reactions induced by the attachment of low energy electrons to an entire gas phase nucleotide (2'-deoxycytidine 5'-monophosphate) are reported for the first time. From the resonant attachment profiles information on the site of initial electron localization and from the observed ionic fragments information on final bond cleavage can be extracted.

  11. The effect of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) on tenderness, microstructure and chemical-physical index of duck breast meat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daoying; Deng, Shaoying; Zhang, Muhan; Geng, Zhiming; Sun, Chong; Bian, Huan; Xu, Weimin; Zhu, Yongzhi; Liu, Fang; Wu, Haihong

    2016-03-30

    Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) is often used in meat and poultry soups as a flavor enhancer (flavor modifier), or as food additives for specific nutritional purposes. Our previous research as well as evidence from others showed that actomyosin could be dissociated into myosin and actin by AMP in extracted muscle solution. However, there is no report available on the application of AMP to dissociate actomyosin and to improve meat tenderness. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of AMP on duck meat tenderness and other quality traits and to explore the mechanism of the action of AMP on meat tenderness. Duck breast muscle was treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 mmol L(-1) AMP at 5 °C for 10 h and examined for shear force, microstructure, actomyosin dissociation, myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), pH, water content, cooking loss, CIE* color (L*, a*, b*), inosine monophosphate (IMP) and free amino acid (FAA) contents. Results showed that shear force, cooking loss, L* and b* of the muscles significantly decreased after AMP treatment (P < 0.05); actomyosin dissociation, MFI, pH, water content, fiber diameter, sarcomere length, IMP and ammonia significantly increased (P < 0.05); no significant change in a* or other FAA content was observed (P > 0.05), and muscle shrinkage in transverse and longitudinal directions were restrained after AMP treatment. The results suggest that AMP could notably improve meat tenderness, and this effect was probably mainly through increasing muscle pH, promoting actomyosin dissociation and disrupting the Z-line; meanwhile, the conversion of AMP to IMP may contribute to the flavor of meat. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. IMPDH2 genetic polymorphism: a promoter single-nucleotide polymorphism disrupts a cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element.

    PubMed

    Garat, Anne; Cauffiez, Christelle; Hamdan-Khalil, Rima; Glowacki, François; Devos, Aurore; Leclerc, Julie; Lionet, Arnaud; Allorge, Delphine; Lo-Guidice, Jean-Marc; Broly, Franck

    2009-12-01

    Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), which catalyzes a key step in the de novo biosynthesis of guanine nucleotide, is mediated by two highly conserved isoforms, IMPDH1 and IMPDH2. In this study, IMPDH2 genetic polymorphism was investigated in 96 individuals of Caucasian origin. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, comprising one previously described single base-pair substitution in the close vicinity of the consensus donor splice site of intron 7 (IVS7+10T>C), and three novel polymorphisms, one silent substitution in exon 9 (c.915C>G), one single base-pair insertion (g.6971_6972insT) within the 3'-untranslated region of the gene, and one substitution located in the promoter region (c.-95T>G) in a transcription factor binding site CRE(A) (cyclic adenosine monophosphate [cAMP] response element). Considering the nature and location of this latter polymorphism, its functional relevance was examined by transfecting HEK293 and Jurkat cell lines with constructs of the related region of IMPDH2/luciferase reporter gene. The c.-95T>G mutation leads to a significant decrease of luciferase activity (HEK293: 55% decrease, p < 0.05; Jurkat: 65% decrease, p < 0.05) compared with the wild-type promoter sequence and, therefore, is likely to determine interindividual differences in IMPDH2 transcriptional regulation. These results might contribute to a better understanding of the variability in clinical outcome and dose adjustments of certain immunosuppressors that are metabolized through the IMPDH pathway or that are IMPDH inhibitors.

  13. A Single Deoxynucleoside Kinase Variant from Drosophila melanogaster Synthesizes Monophosphates of Nucleosides That Are Components of an Expanded Genetic System.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Mariko F; Winiger, Christian B; Shaw, Ryan W; Kim, Myong-Jung; Kim, Myong-Sang; Daugherty, Ashley B; Chen, Fei; Moussatche, Patricia; Moses, Jennifer D; Lutz, Stefan; Benner, Steven A

    2017-03-17

    Deoxynucleoside kinase from D. melanogaster (DmdNK) has broad specificity; although it catalyzes the phosphorylation of natural pyrimidine more efficiently than natural purine nucleosides, it accepts all four 2'-deoxynucleosides and many analogues, using ATP as a phosphate donor to give the corresponding deoxynucleoside monophosphates. Here, we show that replacing a single amino acid (glutamine 81 by glutamate) in DmdNK creates a variant that also catalyzes the phosphorylation of nucleosides that form part of an artificially expanded genetic information system (AEGIS). By shuffling hydrogen bonding groups on the nucleobases, AEGIS adds potentially as many as four additional nucleobase pairs to the genetic "alphabet". Specifically, we show that DmdNK Q81E creates the monophosphates from the AEGIS nucleosides dP, dZ, dX, and dK (respectively 2-amino-8-(1'-β-d-2'-deoxyribofuranosyl)-imidazo[1,2-a]-1,3,5-triazin-4(8H)-one, dP; 6-amino-3-(1'-β-d-2'-deoxyribofuranosyl)-5-nitro-1H-pyridin-2-one, dZ; 8-(1'β-d-2'-deoxy-ribofuranosyl)imidazo[1,2-a]-1,3,5-triazine-2(8H)-4(3H)-dione, dX; and 2,4-diamino-5-(1'-β-d-2'-deoxyribofuranosyl)-pyrimidine, dK). Using a coupled enzyme assay, in vitro kinetic parameters were obtained for three of these nucleosides (dP, dX, and dK; the UV absorbance of dZ made it impossible to get its precise kinetic parameters). Thus, DmdNK Q81E appears to be a suitable enzyme to catalyze the first step in the biosynthesis of AEGIS 2'-deoxynucleoside triphosphates in vitro and, perhaps, in vivo, in a cell able to manage plasmids containing AEGIS DNA.

  14. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-response element-binding protein mediates the proangiogenic or proinflammatory activity of gremlin.

    PubMed

    Corsini, Michela; Moroni, Emanuela; Ravelli, Cosetta; Andrés, Germán; Grillo, Elisabetta; Ali, Imran H; Brazil, Derek P; Presta, Marco; Mitola, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis and inflammation are closely related processes. Gremlin is a novel noncanonical vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) ligand that induces a proangiogenic response in endothelial cells (ECs). Here, we investigated the role of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate-response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) in mediating the proinflammatory and proangiogenic responses of ECs to gremlin. Gremlin induces a proinflammatory response in ECs, leading to reactive oxygen species and cyclic adenosine monophosphate production and the upregulation of proinflammatory molecules involved in leukocyte extravasation, including chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-2 (Ccl2) and Ccl7, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand-1 (Cxcl1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Accordingly, gremlin induces the VEGFR2-dependent phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and transactivating activity of CREB in ECs. CREB activation mediates the early phases of the angiogenic response to gremlin, including stimulation of EC motility and permeability, and leads to monocyte/macrophage adhesion to ECs and their extravasation. All these effects are inhibited by EC transfection with a dominant-negative CREB mutant or with a CREB-binding protein-CREB interaction inhibitor that competes for CREB/CRE binding. Also, both recombinant gremlin and gremlin-expressing tumor cells induce proinflammatory/proangiogenic responses in vivo that are suppressed by the anti-inflammatory drug hydrocortisone. Similar effects were induced by the canonical VEGFR2 ligand VEGF-A165. Together, the results underline the tight cross-talk between angiogenesis and inflammation and demonstrate a crucial role of CREB activation in the modulation of the VEGFR2-mediated proinflammatory/proangiogenic response of ECs to gremlin.

  15. Liquid crystalline elastomers as actuators and sensors.

    PubMed

    Ohm, Christian; Brehmer, Martin; Zentel, Rudolf

    2010-08-17

    This review collects recent developments in the field of liquid crystalline elastomers (LCEs) with an emphasis on their use for actuator and sensor applications. Several synthetic pathways leading to crosslinked liquid crystalline polymers are discussed and how these materials can be oriented into liquid crystalline monodomains are described. By comparing the actuating properties of different systems, general structure-property relationships for LCEs are obtained. In the final section, how these materials can be turned into usable devices using different interdisciplinary techniques are described.

  16. History of crystalline organic conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Keizo

    2017-05-01

    A brief view of crystalline organic conductor is presented. Since the discovery of TTF-TCNQ (tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane) in the mid 1970’s, pressure has been an indispensable tool to develop the physics of this field. From the aspect of charge transfer salt, TTF-TCNQ and its family was specified with partial charge transfer, two chain one-dimensional (1D) system, charge density wave (CDW) and commensurability. On the other hand, in (TMTSF)2X family (TMTSF: tetramethyltetraselenafulvalene, X: electron acceptor such as PF6, ClO4), complete charge transfer, one chain system, spin density wave (SDW), field-induced SDW, quantum Hall effect, superconductivity were discussed. Further, together with pressure itself, cooling rate was noticed to be important for low temperature properties. Recently, coming back to TTF-TCNQ family, i.e., HMTSF-TCNQ, whether or not field-induced CDW, instead of field-induced SDW, and quantum Hall effect is present was discussed (HMTSF: hexamethylene-tetraselenafulvalene). Whether or not the Fermiology in (TMTTF)2X under pressure is similar to that of (TMTSF)2X is discussed as well. In (BEDT-TTF)2X, new aspect of macroscopic polarization of α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3 related to charge order is described. At the end, in contrast to the charge transfer salts, non-charge transfer salt, that is, single component conductor is presented as a new possible example of Dirac cone, which was deeply studied by many researchers in α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3, together with the theoretical calculation of its magnetic susceptibility (BEDT-TTF: bisethylenedithia-tetrathiafulvalene).

  17. Simulation of the kinetics of oxygen complexes in crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo Lee, Young; von Boehm, J.; Nieminen, R. M.

    2002-10-01

    The formation kinetics of thermal double donors (TDD's) is studied by a general kinetic model with parameters based on accurate ab initio total-energy calculations. The kinetic model includes all relevant association, dissociation, and restructuring processes. The simulated kinetics agrees qualitatively and in most cases quantitatively with the experimentally found consecutive kinetics of TDD's. It also supports our earlier assignments of the ring-type oxygen chains to TDD's [Pesola et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5343 (2000)]. We demonstrate with the kinetic model that the most common assumption that only the O2 dimer acts as a fast diffusing species would lead to an unrealistic steady increase of the concentration of O3. The neglect of restructuring processes leads to an anomalous increase of oxygen dimers and negligible concentrations of TDD's. The capture of interstitial oxygens by diffusing oxygen chains and the escaping of interstitial oxygens from the chains fully dominate the formation kinetics.

  18. Thermo stable crystalline complex phosphates for immobilization of HLW

    SciTech Connect

    Kryukova, A.I.; Volkov, Yu.F.; Zyryanov, V.N.

    1993-12-31

    This report describes studies of NZP (sodium-zirconium-phosphate) materials as waste forms for radioactive wastes. Radiation test results, thermal stability, hydrolytic stability, and increase in chemical stability are described.

  19. gammaN-crystallin and the evolution of the betagamma-crystallin superfamily in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Wistow, Graeme; Wyatt, Keith; David, Larry; Gao, Chun; Bateman, Orval; Bernstein, Steven; Tomarev, Stanislav; Segovia, Lorenzo; Slingsby, Christine; Vihtelic, Thomas

    2005-05-01

    The beta and gamma crystallins are evolutionarily related families of proteins that make up a large part of the refractive structure of the vertebrate eye lens. Each family has a distinctive gene structure that reflects a history of successive gene duplications. A survey of gamma-crystallins expressed in mammal, reptile, bird and fish species (particularly in the zebrafish, Danio rerio) has led to the discovery of gammaN-crystallin, an evolutionary bridge between the beta and gamma families. In all species examined, gammaN-crystallins have a hybrid gene structure, half beta and half gamma, and thus appear to be the 'missing link' between the beta and gamma crystallin lineages. Overall, there are four major classes of gamma-crystallin: the terrestrial group (including mammalian gammaA-F); the aquatic group (the fish gammaM-crystallins); the gammaS group; and the novel gammaN group. Like the evolutionarily ancient beta-crystallins (but unlike the terrestrial gammaA-F and aquatic gammaM groups), both the gammaS and gammaN crystallins form distinct clades with members in fish, reptiles, birds and mammals. In rodents, gammaN is expressed in nuclear fibers of the lens and, perhaps hinting at an ancestral role for the gamma-crystallins, also in the retina. Although well conserved throughout vertebrate evolution, gammaN in primates has apparently undergone major changes and possible loss of functional expression.

  20. Luminescent liquid crystalline materials based on palladium(II) imine derivatives containing the 2-phenylpyridine core.

    PubMed

    Micutz, Marin; Iliş, Monica; Staicu, Teodora; Dumitraşcu, Florea; Pasuk, Iuliana; Molard, Yann; Roisnel, Thierry; Cîrcu, Viorel

    2014-01-21

    In this work we report our studies concerning the synthesis and characterisation of a series of imine derivatives that incorporate the 2-phenylpyridine (2-ppy) core. These derivatives were used in the cyclometalating reactions of platinum(II) or palladium(II) in order to prepare several complexes with liquid crystalline properties. Depending on the starting materials used as well as the solvents employed, different metal complexes were obtained, some of them showing both liquid crystalline behaviour and luminescence properties at room temperature. It was found that, even if there are two competing coordination sites, the cyclometalation process takes place always at the 2-ppy core with (for Pt) or without (for Pd) the imine bond cleavage. We successfully showed that it is possible to prepare emissive room temperature liquid crystalline materials based on double cyclopalladated heteroleptic complexes by varying the volume fraction of the long flexible alkyl tails on the ancillary benzoylthiourea (BTU) ligands.

  1. Kinetics of the crystalline-liquid crystalline phase transition of dimyristoyl L-alpha-lecithin bilayers.

    PubMed

    Tsong, T Y

    1974-07-01

    Aqueous dispersions of synthetic dimyristoyl L-alpha-lecithin undergo a sharp decrease in turbidity in the temperature range where the crystalline-liquid crystalline phase transition occurs. Equilibrium transition curves, monitored by the absorbancy change at 300 nm, reproduce all the important features of a calorimetric melting curve [Hinz & Sturtevant (1972) J. Biol. Chem. 247, 6071]. A rapid temperature-jump of the dispersion, measured by the same absorbancy change, has detected several different molecular processes depending on the magnitude of the perturbation. These processes include a phase transition, permeation of ions and water across the membrane, and repture, annealing, or fusion of the bilayer structures. When the temperature-jump is limited to 1 degree, only reactions associated with the phase transition are detectable and no signal is generated after a temperature-jump except for those which end within or extend beyond the transition zones. At least two relaxation times are resolved for the phase transition reactions. The faster one in the millisecond time range is strongly temperature-dependent and has an activation energy close to one million calories per mole. The second one, in the 100-msec time range, appears to have a much smaller activation energy. These observations indicate that strongly cooperative nucleation processes and energy-dependent fast propagation steps occur during the phase transition. Since the kinetics of the transition are complex, intermediate state or transient structures must exist in the transition regions of the bilayer dispersions. These thermal fluctuations of the bilayer structures may have important effects on the lateral diffusion and permeation of molecules and ions in the membrane structure.

  2. Kinetics of the Crystalline-Liquid Crystalline Phase Transition of Dimyristoyl L-α-Lecithin Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Tsong, Tian Yow

    1974-01-01

    Aqueous dispersions of synthetic dimyristoyl L-α-lecithin undergo a sharp decrease in turbidity in the temperature range where the crystalline-liquid crystalline phase transition occurs. Equilibrium transition curves, monitored by the absorbancy change at 300 nm, reproduce all the important features of a calorimetric melting curve [Hinz & Sturtevant (1972) J. Biol. Chem. 247, 6071]. A rapid temperature-jump of the dispersion, measured by the same absorbancy change, has detected several different molecular processes depending on the magnitude of the perturbation. These processes include a phase transition, permeation of ions and water across the membrane, and repture, annealing, or fusion of the bilayer structures. When the temperature-jump is limited to 1 degree, only reactions associated with the phase transition are detectable and no signal is generated after a temperature-jump except for those which end within or extend beyond the transition zones. At least two relaxation times are resolved for the phase transition reactions. The faster one in the millisecond time range is strongly temperature-dependent and has an activation energy close to one million calories per mole. The second one, in the 100-msec time range, appears to have a much smaller activation energy. These observations indicate that strongly cooperative nucleation processes and energy-dependent fast propagation steps occur during the phase transition. Since the kinetics of the transition are complex, intermediate state or transient structures must exist in the transition regions of the bilayer dispersions. These thermal fluctuations of the bilayer structures may have important effects on the lateral diffusion and permeation of molecules and ions in the membrane structure. Images PMID:4527862

  3. Arsenic sorption on TiO[subscript 2] nanoparticles: Size and crystallinity effects

    SciTech Connect

    Jegadeesan, Gautham; Al-Abed, Souhail R.; Sundaram, Vijayakumar; Choi, Hyeok; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.

    2011-09-20

    Single solute As (III) and As (V) sorption on nano-sized amorphous and crystalline TiO{sub 2} was investigated to determine: size and crystallinity effects on arsenic sorption capacities, possible As (III) oxidation, and the nature of surface complexes. Amorphous and crystalline nanoparticles were prepared using sol-gel synthesis techniques. For amorphous TiO{sub 2}, solute pH in the range of 4-9 had a profound impact on only As (V) sorption. As (III) and As (V) sorption isotherms indicated that sorption capacities of the different TiO{sub 2} polymorphs were dependent on the sorption site density, surface area (particle size) and crystalline structure. When normalized to surface area, As (III) surface coverage on the TiO{sub 2} surface remained almost constant for particles between 5 and 20 nm. However, As (V) surface coverage increased with the degree of crystallinity. X-ray absorption spectroscopic analysis provided evidence of partial As (III) oxidation on amorphous TiO{sub 2} rather than crystalline TiO{sub 2}. The data also indicated that As (III) and As (V) form binuclear bidentate inner-sphere complexes with amorphous TiO{sub 2} at neutral pH.

  4. Mapping the solid-state properties of crystalline lysozyme during pharmaceutical unit-operations.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Mohammad Amin; Grimsey, Ian M; Forbes, Robert T

    2015-10-10

    Bulk crystallisation of protein therapeutic molecules towards their controlled drug delivery is of interest to the biopharmaceutical industry. The complexity of biotherapeutic molecules is likely to lead to complex material properties of crystals in the solid state and to complex transitions. This complexity is explored using batch crystallised lysozyme as a model. The effects of drying and milling on the solid-state transformations of lysozyme crystals were monitored using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), FT-Raman, and enzymatic assay. XRPD was used to characterise crystallinity and these data supported those of crystalline lysozyme which gave a distinctive DSC thermogram. The apparent denaturation temperature (Tm) of the amorphous lysozyme was ∼201 °C, while the Tm of the crystalline form was ∼187 °C. Raman spectra supported a more α-helix rich structure of crystalline lysozyme. This structure is consistent with reduced cooperative unit sizes compared to the amorphous lysozyme and is consistent with a reduction in the Tm of the crystalline form. Evidence was obtained that milling also induced denaturation in the solid-state, with the denatured lysozyme showing no thermal transition. The denaturation of the crystalline lysozyme occurred mainly through its amorphous form. Interestingly, the mechanical denaturation of lysozyme did not affect its biological activity on dissolution. Lysozyme crystals on drying did not become amorphous, while milling-time played a crucial role in the crystalline-amorphous-denatured transformations of lysozyme crystals. DSC is shown to be a key tool to monitor quantitatively these transformations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Visual Pattern Memory Requires "Foraging" Function in the Central Complex of "Drosophila"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhipeng; Pan, Yufeng; Li, Weizhe; Jiang, Huoqing; Chatzimanolis, Lazaros; Chang, Jianhong; Gong, Zhefeng; Liu, Li

    2008-01-01

    The role of the "foraging" ("for)" gene, which encodes a cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG), in food-search behavior in "Drosophila" has been intensively studied. However, its functions in other complex behaviors have not been well-characterized. Here, we show experimentally in "Drosophila" that the "for"…

  6. Visual Pattern Memory Requires "Foraging" Function in the Central Complex of "Drosophila"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Zhipeng; Pan, Yufeng; Li, Weizhe; Jiang, Huoqing; Chatzimanolis, Lazaros; Chang, Jianhong; Gong, Zhefeng; Liu, Li

    2008-01-01

    The role of the "foraging" ("for)" gene, which encodes a cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG), in food-search behavior in "Drosophila" has been intensively studied. However, its functions in other complex behaviors have not been well-characterized. Here, we show experimentally in "Drosophila" that the "for"…

  7. Characterization of the major cyanogen bromide fragment of alpha-A crystallin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ifeanyi, F.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    Alpha crystallin from the bovine lens has been digested with cyanogen bromide, and the major fragment (CB-1) has been purified using reverse phase HPLC. Characterization of this fragment by Edman degradation and antisera to synthetic peptides indicates that it originates from alpha-A crystallin, but lacks the N-terminal methionine and the last 35 amino acids from the C-terminus of the molecule. The purified CB-1 fragment binds as well as native alpha crystallin to lens membrane, but is unable to self-assemble into the correct size of high molecular weight oligomeric complexes characteristic of the intact alpha-A chain. Together, these results demonstrate that the alpha-A chain is comprised of at least two functional domains, one of which is involved in binding of alpha-A crystallin to lens membrane, and another which is necessary for correct self-assembly of the molecule into high molecular weight oligomers.

  8. Effect of crystalline organization on toughness.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corte, Laurent; Leibler, Ludwik

    2006-03-01

    Impact resistance of semi-crystalline polymers can be greatly improved by the incorporation of rubber or inorganic particles. We report that the crystalline organization of the polymer matrix is a key-parameter for toughening. Cutting test bars into injected plates of toughened polyamide allows to study the impact behaviour of a same sample volume under various impact directions. When impact is applied perpendicularly to the injection direction, these systems exhibit a ductile behaviour while they become dramatically brittle when impact is parallel to it. More generally, the impact properties of these toughened systems depend strongly on thermo-mechanical history and processing conditions. We show by X-ray and TEM observations that this behaviour is to be correlated to the crystalline organization and propose a theoretical model that links toughness and crystalline organization.

  9. Comparative analysis of crystallins and lipids from the lens of Antarctic toothfish and cow.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Andor J; Devries, Arthur L; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M

    2010-10-01

    Animal model systems of senile cataract and lens crystallin stability are essential to understand the complex nature of lens transparency. Our aim in this study was to assess the long-lived Antarctic toothfish Dissostichus mawsoni (Norman) as a model system to understand long-term lens clarity in terms of solubility changes that occur to crystallins. We compared the toothfish with the mammalian model cow lens, dissecting each species' lens into a cortex and nuclear region. In addition to crystallin distribution, we also assayed fatty acid (FA) composition by negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The majority of toothfish lens crystallins from cortex (90.4%) were soluble, whereas only a third (31.8%) from the nucleus was soluble. Crystallin solubility analysis by SDS-PAGE and immunoblots revealed that relative proportions of crystallins in both soluble and urea-soluble fractions were similar within each species examined and in agreement with previous reports for bovine lens. From our data, we found that both toothfish and cow crystallins follow patterns of insolubility that mirror each animals lens composition with more γ crystallin aggregation seen in the toothfish lens nucleus than in cow. Toothfish lens lipids had a large amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids that were absent in cow resulting in an unsaturation index (I(U)) four-fold higher than that of cow. We identified a novel FA with a molecular mass of 267 mass units in the lens epithelial layer of the toothfish that accounted for well over 50% of the FA abundance. The unidentified lipid in the toothfish lens epithelia corresponds to either an odd-chain (17 carbons) FA or a furanoid. We conclude that long-lived fishes are likely good animal models of lens crystallin solubility and may model post-translational modifications and solubility changes better than short-lived animal models.

  10. Electrochemical synthesis of highly crystalline copper nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Amandeep; Gupta, Tanish; Kumar, Akshay; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, Karamjeet; Thakur, Anup

    2015-05-15

    Copper nanowires were fabricated within the pores of anodic alumina template (AAT) by template synthesis method at pH = 2.9. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to investigate the structure, morphology and composition of fabricated nanowires. These characterizations revealed that the deposited copper nanowires were highly crystalline in nature, dense and uniform. The crystalline copper nanowires are promising in application of future nanoelectronic devices and circuits.

  11. Molecular Engineering of Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-27

    INTRODUCTION TO LIQUID CRYSTALS 14.2.1 Introduction to Low Molar Mass Liquid Crystals and Definitions 14.2.2 Liquid Crystalline Polymers 14.3 ISOMORPHISM...Crystals and Definitions A liquid crystalline or mesomorphic phase or mesophase refers to a state of matter in which the degree of order is between...monotropic, the definition of Gkc being apparent from Figure 7. It is easily seen how crystal perfectioning on annealing can lead to a "conversion" of an

  12. Thick crystalline films on foreign substrates

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Henry I.; Atwater, Harry A.; Geis, Michael W.

    1986-01-01

    To achieve a uniform texture, large crystalline grains or, in some cases, a single crystalline orientation in a thick (>1 .mu.m) film on a foreign substrate, the film is formed so as to be thin (<1 .mu.m) in a certain section. Zone-melting recrystallization is initiated in the thin section and then extended into the thick section. The method may employ planar constriction patterns of orientation filter patterns.

  13. Thick crystalline films on foreign substrates

    DOEpatents

    Smith, H.I.; Atwater, H.A.; Geis, M.W.

    1986-03-18

    To achieve a uniform texture, large crystalline grains or, in some cases, a single crystalline orientation in a thick (>1 [mu]m) film on a foreign substrate, the film is formed so as to be thin (<1 [mu]m) in a certain section. Zone-melting recrystallization is initiated in the thin section and then extended into the thick section. The method may employ planar constriction patterns of orientation filter patterns. 2 figs.

  14. Digital Refractometry of Piezoelectric Crystalline Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    Research and Development Technical Report SLCET-TR-87-0727-1 III DIGITAL REFRACTOMETRY OF PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTALLINE MEDIA CD Dr. Edward Collett...1L 1 DA313485 11. TITLE (include Security Classification) DIGITAL REFRACTOMETRY OF PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTALLINE MEDIA (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Dr...GROUP SUB-GROUP Lasers; quartz; dielectrics; permittivity; refractometry 9 U-1optics; millimeter waves; microwaves; crystals. ,𔄃. ABSTRACT (Continue on

  15. Crystalline Silicon Dielectrics for Superconducting Qubit Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hover, David; Peng, Weina; Sendelbach, Steven; Eriksson, Mark; McDermott, Robert

    2009-03-01

    Superconducting qubit energy relaxation times are limited by microwave loss induced by a continuum of two-level state (TLS) defects in the dielectric materials of the circuit. State-of-the-art phase qubit circuits employ a micron-scale Josephson junction shunted by an external capacitor. In this case, the qubit T1 time is directly proportional to the quality factor (Q) of the capacitor dielectric. The amorphous capacitor dielectrics that have been used to date display intrinsic Q of order 10^3 to 10^4. Shunt capacitors with a Q of 10^6 are required to extend qubit T1 times well into the microsecond range. Crystalline dielectric materials are an attractive candidate for qubit capacitor dielectrics, due to the extremely low density of TLS defects. However, the robust integration of crystalline dielectrics with superconducting qubit circuits remains a challenge. Here we describe a novel approach to the realization of high-Q crystalline capacitor dielectrics for superconducting qubit circuits. The capacitor dielectric is a crystalline silicon nanomembrane. We discuss characterization of crystalline silicon capacitors with low-power microwave transport measurements at millikelvin temperatures. In addition, we report progress on integrating the crystalline capacitor process with Josephson qubit fabrication.

  16. Radiolysis and photolysis of sodium sulfate crystalline hydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenchurina, A. R.; Sal'keeva, A. K.

    2016-03-01

    The thermal treatment of sodium sulfate was found to affect its optical and luminescent properties when activated with trivalent rare-earth ions. The influence of crystal water molecules on radiation processes in sodium sulfate was studied. The interactions of atomic hydrogen with ions and radicals were calculated by the semiempirical MNDO quantum-chemical method. The hydrogen atom was found to form stable complexes with all ions and radicals. The ions and radicals of the sulfate subsystem play the role of traps for hydrogen atoms and escape recombination, giving rise to recombination luminescence at 150 K during UV excitation of the crystalline hydrate.

  17. Time Issues in Semi-Crystalline Thermoplastics Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannone, Michele

    2010-06-01

    Cooling rate of semicrystalline thermoplastic (PEEK) based composite parts has been assessed by means of a thermal flow model. Cold tool thermoforming was found suitable for thin parts, but the use of a preheated tool is suggested. Cooling rate is critical for automated lay-up; consequently the optimization of this technique requires the use of a complex apparatus, able to provide both heating of the part during lay-up and a control of the cooling rate. Alternatively a modified cooling rate vs. crystallinity behavior of the material must be achieved.

  18. Extended point defects in crystalline materials: Ge and Si.

    PubMed

    Cowern, N E B; Simdyankin, S; Ahn, C; Bennett, N S; Goss, J P; Hartmann, J-M; Pakfar, A; Hamm, S; Valentin, J; Napolitani, E; De Salvador, D; Bruno, E; Mirabella, S

    2013-04-12

    B diffusion measurements are used to probe the basic nature of self-interstitial point defects in Ge. We find two distinct self-interstitial forms--a simple one with low entropy and a complex one with entropy ∼30  k at the migration saddle point. The latter dominates diffusion at high temperature. We propose that its structure is similar to that of an amorphous pocket--we name it a morph. Computational modeling suggests that morphs exist in both self-interstitial and vacancylike forms, and are crucial for diffusion and defect dynamics in Ge, Si, and probably many other crystalline solids.

  19. Stability and cytotoxicity of crystallin amyloid nanofibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Manmeet; Healy, Jackie; Vasudevamurthy, Madhusudan; Lassé, Moritz; Puskar, Ljiljana; Tobin, Mark J.; Valery, Celine; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Sasso, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    Previous work has identified crystallin proteins extracted from fish eye lenses as a cheap and readily available source for the self-assembly of amyloid nanofibrils. However, before exploring potential applications, the biophysical aspects and safety of this bionanomaterial need to be assessed so as to ensure that it can be effectively and safely used. In this study, crude crystallin amyloid fibrils are shown to be stable across a wide pH range, in a number of industrially relevant solvents, at both low and high temperatures, and in the presence of proteases. Crystallin nanofibrils were compared to well characterised insulin and whey protein fibrils using Thioflavin T assays and TEM imaging. Cell cytotoxicity assays suggest no adverse impact of both mature and fragmented crystallin fibrils on cell viability of Hec-1a endometrial cells. An IR microspectroscopy study supports long-term structural integrity of crystallin nanofibrils.Previous work has identified crystallin proteins extracted from fish eye lenses as a cheap and readily available source for the self-assembly of amyloid nanofibrils. However, before exploring potential applications, the biophysical aspects and safety of this bionanomaterial need to be assessed so as to ensure that it can be effectively and safely used. In this study, crude crystallin amyloid fibrils are shown to be stable across a wide pH range, in a number of industrially relevant solvents, at both low and high temperatures, and in the presence of proteases. Crystallin nanofibrils were compared to well characterised insulin and whey protein fibrils using Thioflavin T assays and TEM imaging. Cell cytotoxicity assays suggest no adverse impact of both mature and fragmented crystallin fibrils on cell viability of Hec-1a endometrial cells. An IR microspectroscopy study supports long-term structural integrity of crystallin nanofibrils. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: ThT fluorescence graphs of buffers and solvents used for

  20. Localization of putative binding sites for cyclic guanosine monophosphate and the anti-cancer drug 5-fluoro-2′-deoxyuridine-5′-monophosphate on ABCC11 in silico models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Multidrug Resistance Protein ABCC11/MRP8 is expressed in physiological barriers and tumor breast tissues in which it secretes various substrates including cGMP (cyclic guanosine monophosphate) and 5FdUMP (5-fluoro-2′-deoxyuridine-5′-monophosphate), the active metabolite of the anticancer drug 5-FluoroUracil (frequently included to anticancer therapy). Previously, we described that ABCC11 high levels are associated to the estrogen receptor (ER) expression level in breast tumors and in cell lines resistant to tamoxifen. Consequently, by lowering the intracellular concentration of anticancer drugs, ABCC11 likely promotes a multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype and decreases efficiency of anticancer therapy of 5FdUMP. Since no experimental data about binding sites of ABCC11 substrate are available, we decided to in silico localize putative substrate interaction sites of the nucleotide derivatives. Taking advantage of molecular dynamics simulation, we also analysed their evolution under computational physiological conditions and during the time. Results Since ABCC11 crystal structure is not resolved yet, we used the X-ray structures of the mouse mdr3 (homologous to human ABCB1) and of the bacterial homolog Sav1866 to generate two independent ABCC11 homology models in inward- and outward-facing conformations. Based on docking analyses, two putative binding pockets, for cGMP and 5FdUMP, were localized in both inward- and outward-facing conformations. Furthermore, based on our 3D models, and available biochemical data from homologous transporters, we identified several residues, potentially critical in ABCC11 transport function. Additionally, molecular dynamics simulation on our inward-facing model revealed for the first time conformation changes assumed to occur during transport process. Conclusions ABCC11 would present two binding sites for cGMP and for 5FdUMP. Substrates likely first bind at the intracellular side of the transmembrane segment while

  1. Effects of Adenosine Monophosphate Used in Combination with L-Arginine on Female Rabbit Corpus Cavernosum Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Stücker, Olivier; Pons, Catherine; Neuzillet, Yann; Laemmel, Elisabeth; Lebret, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sexual dysfunction is significantly more prevalent in women than in men. However, to date, no satisfactory oral treatment is yet available. Aim The aim of this study was to study the effects of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) alone or its combination with L-Arginine on the relaxation of the female rabbit corpus cavernosum. Methods Cylinder strips from the corporal body of the excised clitoris from female New Zealand White rabbits were incubated in Krebs solution. Phenylephrine (PE) precontraction was achieved, then the drugs AMP and L-Arginine were administered either independently or in sequential combinations to the strips under precontracted conditions. Main Outcome Measures Contraction percentages were compared. Results When precontraction was induced by PE 8 μM or 20 μM, AMP was shown to induce relaxation up to 25% in a dose-dependent manner. The relaxation induced by L-Arginine reached 15.6% at 5.10−4 M vs. 16.5% at AMP 5.10−4 M under the same experimental conditions. Nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine strongly inhibited the relaxing effect provoked by AMP, suggesting that the action mechanism of this nucleotide is related to the NO pathway. The combination of L-Arginine at 5.10−4 M with AMP at different doses ranging from 5.10−4 M to 10−3 M significantly amplified the relaxing response up to 40.7% and 58%, respectively. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that AMP induces a relaxing effect on the female rabbit corpora. They also show that L-Arginine and AMP can potentiate each other and that a synergistic effect can be obtained by their combined use. Because only slight differences exist between both sexes in response to NO donors and/or nucleotide purines or in their use together, it is very likely that close biochemical mechanisms, although not to the same degree and not quite similar, are involved in the engorgement of the penis and the clitoris of New Zealand White rabbits. Stücker O, Pons C, Neuzillet Y

  2. Polymer-mediated disruption of drug crystallinity.

    PubMed

    Rawlinson, Clare F; Williams, Adrian C; Timmins, Peter; Grimsey, Ian

    2007-05-04

    Ibuprofen (IB), a BCS Class II compound, is a highly crystalline substance with poor solubility properties. Here we report on the disruption of this crystalline structure upon intimate contact with the polymeric carrier cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-CL) facilitated by low energy simple mixing. Whilst strong molecular interactions between APIs and carriers within delivery systems would be expected on melting or through solvent depositions, this is not the case with less energetic mixing. Simple mixing of the two compounds resulted in a significant decrease in the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) melting enthalpy for IB, indicating that approximately 30% of the crystalline content was disordered. This structural change was confirmed by broadening and intensity diminution of characteristic IB X-ray powder diffractometry (PXRD) peaks. Unexpectedly, the crystalline content of the drug continued to decrease upon storage under ambient conditions. The molecular environment of the mixture was further investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy. These data suggest that the primary interaction between these components of the physical mix is hydrogen bonding, with a secondary mechanism involving electrostatic/hydrophobic interactions through the IB benzene ring. Such interactions and subsequent loss of crystallinity could confer a dissolution rate advantage for IB.

  3. Improved Josephson Qubits incorporating Crystalline Silicon Dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yuanfeng; Maurer, Leon; Hover, David; Patel, Umeshkumar; McDermott, Robert

    2010-03-01

    Josephson junction phase quibts are a leading candidate for scalable quantum computing in the solid state. Their energy relaxation times are currently limited by microwave loss induced by a high density of two-level state (TLS) defects in the amorphous dielectric films of the circuit. It is expected that the integration of crystalline, defect-free dielectrics into the circuits will yield substantial improvements in qubit energy relaxation times. However, the epitaxial growth of a crystalline dielectric on a metal underlayer is a daunting challenge. Here we describe a novel approach in which the crystalline silicon nanomembrane of a Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafer is used to form the junction shunt capacitor. The SOI wafer is thermocompression bonded to the device wafer. The handle and buried oxide layers of the SOI are then etched away, leaving the crystalline silicon layer for subsequent processing. We discuss device fabrication issues and present microwave transport data on lumped-element superconducting resonators incorporating the crystalline silicon.

  4. CRYSTALLINE INORGANIC PYROPHOSPHATASE ISOLATED FROM BAKER'S YEAST

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, M.

    1952-01-01

    Crystalline inorganic pyrophosphatase has been isolated from baker's yeast. The crystalline enzyme is a protein of the albumin type with an isoelectric point near pH 4.8. Its molecular weight is of the order of 100,000. It contains about 5 per cent tyrosine and 3.5 per cent tryptophane. It is most stable at pH 6.8. The new crystalline protein acts as a specific catalyst for the hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate into orthophosphate ions. It does not catalyze the hydrolysis of the pyrophosphate radical of such organic esters as adenosine di- and triphosphate, or thiamine pyrophosphate. Crystalline pyrophosphatase requires the presence of Mg, Co, or Mn ions as activators. These ions are antagonized by calcium ions. Mg is also antagonized by Co or Mn ions. The rate of the enzymatic hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate is proportional to the concentration of enzyme and is a function of pH, temperature, concentration of substrate, and concentration of activating ion. The approximate conditions for optimum rate are: 40°C. and pH 7.0 at a concentration of 3 to 4 x 10–3 M Na4P2O7 and an equivalent concentration of magnesium salt. The enzymatic hydrolysis of Na4P2O7 or K4P2O7 proceeds to completion and is irreversible under the conditions at which hydrolysis is occurring. Details are given of the method of isolation of the crystalline enzyme. PMID:14898026

  5. Functions of crystallins in and out of lens: Roles in elongated and post-mitotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Slingsby, Christine; Wistow, Graeme J.

    2014-01-01

    The vertebrate lens evolved to collect light and focus it onto the retina. In development, the lens grows through massive elongation of epithelial cells possibly recapitulating the evolutionary origins of the lens. The refractive index of the lens is largely dependent on high concentrations of soluble proteins called crystallins. All vertebrate lenses share a common set of crystallins from two superfamilies (although other lineage specific crystallins exist). The α-crystallins are small heat shock proteins while the β- and γ-crystallins belong to a superfamily that contains structural proteins of uncertain function. The crystallins are expressed at very high levels in lens but are also found at lower levels in other cells, particularly in retina and brain. All these proteins have plausible connections to maintenance of cytoplasmic order and chaperoning of the complex molecular machines involved in the architecture and function of cells, particularly elongated and post-mitotic cells. They may represent a suite of proteins that help maintain homeostasis in such cells that are at risk from stress or from the accumulated insults of aging. PMID:24582830

  6. Vanadium interactions in crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backlund, D. J.; Gibbons, T. M.; Estreicher, S. K.

    2016-11-01

    The properties of interstitial vanadium (Vi) in Si and its interactions with the vacancy and the self-interstitial, as well as with hydrogen, are calculated using first-principles techniques. The stable configurations, gap levels, and binding energies agree well with the available experimental data. The nudged-elastic-band method is used to calculate the activation energies for diffusion of Vi in various charge states. They range from 1.46 (for Vi +) to 2.04 eV (for Vi -). The (trigonal) {Vi,H } pair has a binding energy of 1.15 eV, a donor level at Ec-0.61 eV , and possibly an acceptor level Ec-0.07 eV . Substitutional vanadium (Vs) can also trap H interstitials and form electrically active {Vs,H } and {Vs,H ,H } complexes.

  7. Chemical mechanism of the endogenous argininosuccinate lyase activity of duck lens delta2-crystallin.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, C Y; Lee, H J; Wu, S H; Chen, S T; Chiou, S H; Chang, G G

    1998-01-01

    The endogenous argininosuccinate lyase activity of duck delta2-crystallin was specifically inactivated by the histidine-specific reagent, diethyl pyrocarbonate. The protein was protected by l-citrulline or l-arginine from the diethyl pyrocarbonate inactivation. To characterize further the chemical mechanism of the delta2-crystallin-catalysed reaction, deuterium-labelled argininosuccinate was enzymically synthesized from fumarate and l-arginine with delta2-crystallin in 2H2O. The argininosuccinate synthesized contained about 19% of the anhydride form; however, the deuterium was clearly demonstrated to be incorporated enantioselectively. Only the pro-HR atom at C-9 of the succinate moiety was labelled in the [2H]argininosuccinate-9-d synthesized, which indicates an anti-elimination mechanism for the endogenous argininosuccinate lyase activity of delta2-crystallin. The enzymic activity of duck lens delta2-crystallin in the pH range 5.5-8.5 was investigated using both protium- and deuterium-labelled argininosuccinate as the substrate. From the logkcat versus pH plot, two molecular pKa values of 6.18+/-0.02 and 8.75+/-0.03 were detected in the delta2-crystallin-argininosuccinate binary complex. The former must be dehydronated and the latter hydronated to achieve an optimum reaction rate. The logkcat/Km versus pH plot suggested two molecular pKa values of 5.96+/-0.09 and 8.29+/-0.10 for the free delta2-crystallin to be involved in the substrate binding. Small kinetic isotope effects of 1.17+/-0.02 and 1.05+/-0.09 were found for kcat and kcat/Km respectively. Combining results from labelling and kinetic analysis indicates that the endogenous argininosuccinate lyase activity of duck delta2-crystallin is compatible with a stepwise E1cB mechanism, the rate-limiting step probably at the C-N bond-cleavage step. PMID:9657972

  8. Structure/function studies of dogfish alpha-crystallin, comparison with bovine alpha-crystallin.

    PubMed

    Ghahghaei, A; Rekas, A; Carver, J A; Augusteyn, R C

    2009-11-20

    alpha-Crystallin is the major protein of the mammalian lens where it contributes to the refractive properties needed for vision and possibly to the stability of the tissue. The aim of this study was to determine whether the properties of alpha-crystallin have changed during the course of evolution. Dogfish alpha-crystallin, which appeared over 420 million years ago, has been contrasted with bovine alpha-crystallin, which emerged around 160 million years later, by comparing their sizes, the microenvironments of their cysteine and tryptophan residues, their chaperone-like activities and the flexibility of their COOH-terminal extensions. Dogfish alpha-crystallin consists of alphaA- and alphaB-polypeptides, in a 1:5 ratio, and has a molecular mass of around 400 kDa. By contrast, the bovine protein is around 600-800 kDa in mass and has a 3:1 subunit ratio. Cysteine residues in the proteins were equally accessible to reaction with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid). Quenching of fluorescence with acrylamide indicated tryptophan residues in the two proteins were in similar environments. The chaperone activity of dogfish alpha-crystallin was comparable to that of bovine alpha-crystallin in preventing the heat-induced precipitation of beta(L)-crystallin but the dogfish protein was three times more effective at preventing insulin precipitation after reduction at 37 C. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies showed that the last 17 amino acids of the dogfish alphaB polypeptide (V162-K178) have great conformational flexibility, are highly exposed to solvent and adopt little ordered conformation. This is comparable to, but slightly longer in length, than the COOH-terminal extension observed in mammalian alpha-crystallins. The structure and properties of alpha-crystallin have changed relatively little during the evolutionary period from the emergence of sharks and mammals.

  9. Structure/function studies of dogfish α-crystallin, comparison with bovine α-crystallin

    PubMed Central

    Ghahghaei, A.; Rekas, A.; Carver, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose α-Crystallin is the major protein of the mammalian lens where it contributes to the refractive properties needed for vision and possibly to the stability of the tissue. The aim of this study was to determine whether the properties of α-crystallin have changed during the course of evolution. Methods Dogfish α-crystallin, which appeared over 420 million years ago, has been contrasted with bovine α-crystallin, which emerged around 160 million years later, by comparing their sizes, the microenvironments of their cysteine and tryptophan residues, their chaperone-like activities and the flexibility of their COOH-terminal extensions. Results Dogfish α-crystallin consists of αA- and αB-polypeptides, in a 1:5 ratio, and has a molecular mass of around 400 kDa. By contrast, the bovine protein is around 600-800 kDa in mass and has a 3:1 subunit ratio. Cysteine residues in the proteins were equally accessible to reaction with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid). Quenching of fluorescence with acrylamide indicated tryptophan residues in the two proteins were in similar environments. The chaperone activity of dogfish α-crystallin was comparable to that of bovine α-crystallin in preventing the heat-induced precipitation of βL-crystallin but the dogfish protein was three times more effective at preventing insulin precipitation after reduction at 37 ˚C. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies showed that the last 17 amino acids of the dogfish αB polypeptide (V162-K178) have great conformational flexibility, are highly exposed to solvent and adopt little ordered conformation. This is comparable to, but slightly longer in length, than the COOH-terminal extension observed in mammalian α-crystallins. Conclusions The structure and properties of α-crystallin have changed relatively little during the evolutionary period from the emergence of sharks and mammals. PMID:19956560

  10. Measurement of lactose crystallinity using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Bridget M; Prescott, Stuart W; Larson, Ian

    2005-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy (RS) was used to determine the crystallinity of lactose (a commonly used carrier in dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations). Samples of alpha-lactose monohydrate and amorphous lactose were prepared using ethanol precipitation and lyophilisation respectively. The anomeric forms were confirmed using DSC at a rate of 10 degrees C/min and heated to 250 degrees C. The Raman spectra of both alpha-lactose monohydrate and amorphous lactose were obtained. Distinguishable differences were seen between the two spectra including peak areas and intensities. Depolarisation ratios (rho) of each form were then determined to identify the crystallinity of the lactose carrier samples. At the prominent Raman bands 865 and 1082 cm-1, significant differences in rho values were observed for crystalline (0.80+/-0.07, 0.89+/-0.06 respectively) and amorphous samples (0.44+/-0.07, 0.51+/-0.10).

  11. Topological crystalline insulators in transition metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Kargarian, Mehdi; Fiete, Gregory A

    2013-04-12

    Topological crystalline insulators possess electronic states protected by crystal symmetries, rather than time-reversal symmetry. We show that the transition metal oxides with heavy transition metals are able to support nontrivial band topology resulting from mirror symmetry of the lattice. As an example, we consider pyrochlore oxides of the form A2M2O7. As a function of spin-orbit coupling strength, we find two Z2 topological insulator phases can be distinguished from each other by their mirror Chern numbers, indicating a different topological crystalline insulators. We also derive an effective k·p Hamiltonian, similar to the model introduced for Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Te, and discuss the effect of an on-site Hubbard interaction on the topological crystalline insulator phase using slave-rotor mean-field theory, which predicts new classes of topological quantum spin liquids.

  12. Coordinatively Unsaturated Lanthanide(III) Helicates: Luminescence Sensors for Adenosine Monophosphate in Aqueous Media.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Jashobanta; Arunachalam, Rajendran; Subramanian, Palani S; Suresh, Eringathodi; Valkonen, Arto; Rissanen, Kari; Albrecht, Markus

    2016-08-08

    Coordinatively unsaturated double-stranded helicates [(H2 L)2 Eu2 (NO3 )2 (H2 O)4 ](NO3 )4 , [(H2 L)2 Tb2 (H2 O)6 ](NO3 )6 , and [(H2 L)2 Tb2 (H2 O)6 ]Cl6 (H2 L=butanedioicacid-1,4-bis[2-(2-pyridinylmethylene)hydrazide]) are easily obtained by self-assembly from the ligand and the corresponding lanthanide(III) salts. The complexes are characterized by X-ray crystallography showing the helical arrangement of the ligands. Co-ligands at the metal ions can be easily substituted by appropriate anions. A specific luminescence response of AMP in presence of ADP, ATP, and other anions is observed. Specificity is assigned to the perfect size match of AMP to bridge the two metal centers and to replace quenching co-ligands in the coordination sphere.

  13. Crystallinity of inorganic films grown by atomic layer deposition: Overview and general trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miikkulainen, Ville; Leskelä, Markku; Ritala, Mikko; Puurunen, Riikka L.

    2013-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is gaining attention as a thin film deposition method, uniquely suitable for depositing uniform and conformal films on complex three-dimensional topographies. The deposition of a film of a given material by ALD relies on the successive, separated, and self-terminating gas-solid reactions of typically two gaseous reactants. Hundreds of ALD chemistries have been found for depositing a variety of materials during the past decades, mostly for inorganic materials but lately also for organic and inorganic-organic hybrid compounds. One factor that often dictates the properties of ALD films in actual applications is the crystallinity of the grown film: Is the material amorphous or, if it is crystalline, which phase(s) is (are) present. In this thematic review, we first describe the basics of ALD, summarize the two-reactant ALD processes to grow inorganic materials developed to-date, updating the information of an earlier review on ALD [R. L. Puurunen, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 121301 (2005)], and give an overview of the status of processing ternary compounds by ALD. We then proceed to analyze the published experimental data for information on the crystallinity and phase of inorganic materials deposited by ALD from different reactants at different temperatures. The data are collected for films in their as-deposited state and tabulated for easy reference. Case studies are presented to illustrate the effect of different process parameters on crystallinity for representative materials: aluminium oxide, zirconium oxide, zinc oxide, titanium nitride, zinc zulfide, and ruthenium. Finally, we discuss the general trends in the development of film crystallinity as function of ALD process parameters. The authors hope that this review will help newcomers to ALD to familiarize themselves with the complex world of crystalline ALD films and, at the same time, serve for the expert as a handbook-type reference source on ALD processes and film crystallinity.

  14. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation and suppression of inflammatory response by cell stretching in rabbit synovial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kunanusornchai, Wanlop; Muanprasat, Chatchai; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj

    2016-12-01

    Joint mobilization is known to be beneficial in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. This study aimed to investigate the effect of stretching on adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and its role in modulating inflammation in rabbit synovial fibroblasts. Uniaxial stretching of isolated rabbit synovial fibroblasts for ten min was performed. Stretching-induced AMPK activation, its underlying mechanism, and its anti-inflammatory effect were investigated using Western blot. Static stretching at 20 % of initial length resulted in AMPK activation characterized by expression of phosphorylated AMPK and phosphorylated acetyl-Co A carboxylase. AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation peaked 1 h after stretching and declined toward resting activity. Using cell viability assays, static stretching did not appear to cause cellular damage. Activation of AMPK involves Ca(2+) influx via a mechanosensitive L-type Ca(2+) channel, which subsequently raises intracellular Ca(2+) and activates AMPK via Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ). Interestingly, stretching suppressed TNFα-induced expression of COX-2, iNOS, and phosphorylated NF-κB. These effects were prevented by pretreatment with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. These results suggest that mechanical stretching suppressed inflammatory responses in synovial fibroblasts via a L-type Ca(2+)-channel-CaMKKβ-AMPK-dependent pathway which may underlie joint mobilization's ability to alleviate OA symptoms.

  15. Investigation on the occurrence and significance of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate in phytoplankton and natural aquatic communities

    SciTech Connect

    Francko, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    This study is an investigation into the occurrence and potential functions of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP), a potent and ubiquitous metabolic regulatory molecule in heterotrophic organisms, in phytoplankton and in natural aquatic communities. Laboratory-cultured phytoplankton were grown under both optimal and suboptimal nutrient regimes under constant temperature and illumination regimes. Cellular and extracellular cAMP production, characterized by a number of biochemical techniques, was correlated with growth rate dynamics, chlorophyll a synthesis, /sup 14/C-bicarbonate uptake, alkaline phosphatase activity, and heterocyst formation. The blue-green alga Anabaena flos-aquae was used as a model system in the examination of these metabolic variables. Additionally, this alga was used to test the effects of perturbation of cAMP levels on the aforementioned metabolic variables. Investigations on the occurrence and seasonal dynamics of cAMP in aquatic systems were conducted on Lawrence Lake, a hardwater oligotrophic lake, and on Wintergreen Lake, a hardwater hypereutrophic lake, both in southwestern Michigan. Putative cAMP from both systems was characterized by several biochemical techniques. Weekly sampling of particulate and dissolved cAMP in the epilimnia of both lakes was correlated with data on the rates of primary productivity, alkaline phosphatase activity, chlorophyll a synthesis and changes in phytoplankton community structure.

  16. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT SYMPOSIUM: Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and mitochondria in Rendement Napole pig growth.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, T L; Gerrard, D E

    2016-09-01

    The Rendement Napole mutation (RN-), which is well known to influence pork quality, also has a profound impact on metabolic characteristics of muscle. Pigs with RN- possess a SNP in the γ3 subunit of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK); AMPK, a key energy sensor in skeletal muscle, modulates energy producing and energy consuming pathways to maintain cellular homeostasis. Importantly, AMPK regulates not only acute response to energy stress but also facilitates long-term adaptation via changes in gene and protein expression. The RN- allele increases AMPK activity, which alters the metabolic phenotype of skeletal muscle by increasing mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity. Fibers with greater oxidative capacity typically exhibit increased protein turnover and smaller fiber size, which indicates that RN- pigs may exhibit decreased efficiency and growth potential. However, whole body and muscle growth of RN- pigs appear similar to that of wild-type pigs and despite increased oxidative capacity, fibers maintain the capacity for hypertrophic growth. This indicates that compensatory mechanisms may allow RN- pigs to achieve rates of muscle growth similar to those of wild-type pigs. Intriguingly, lipid oxidation and mitochondria function are enhanced in RN- pig muscle. Thus far, characteristics of RN- muscle are largely based on animals near market weight. To better understand interaction between energy signaling and protein accretion in muscle, further work is needed to define age-dependent relationships between AMPK signaling, metabolism, and muscle growth.

  17. Hypothermia induced by adenosine 5'-monophosphate attenuates early stage injury in an acute gouty arthritis rat model.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhimin; Guo, Weiting; Lu, Shulai; Lv, Wenshan; Li, Changgui; Wang, Yangang; Zhao, Shihua; Yan, Shengli; Tao, Zhenyin; Wang, Yunlong

    2013-08-01

    To investigate whether the hypothermia induced by Adenosine 5'-Monophosphate (5'-AMP) could attenuate early stage injury in a rat acute gouty arthritis model. Ankle joint injection with monosodium urate monohydrate crystals (MSU crystals) in hypothermia rat model which was induced by 5'-AMP and then observe whether hypothermia induced by 5'-AMP could be effectively inhibit the inflammation on acute gouty arthritis in rats. AMP-induced hypothermia has protective effects on our acute gouty arthritis, which was demonstrated by the following criteria: (1) a significant reduction in the ankle swelling (p < 0.001); (2) a significant decrease in the occurrence of leukocyte infiltration and mild hemorrhage; (3) a significant reduction in the presence of serum Interleukin-1β (IL-1β, p < 0.001) and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, p < 0.001); and (4) a significant inhibition in the Nuclear Factor -κappaB (NF-κB) activity (p < 0.001). AMP-induced hypothermia could inhibit acute inflammation reaction and protect the synovial tissue against acute injury in a rat acute gouty arthritis model.

  18. Low-power laser irradiation promotes the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells via cyclic adenosine monophosphate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jyun-Yi; Chen, Chia-Hsin; Yeh, Li-Yin; Yeh, Ming-Long; Ting, Chun-Chan; Wang, Yan-Hsiung

    2013-06-01

    Retaining or improving periodontal ligament (PDL) function is crucial for restoring periodontal defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological effects of low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human PDL (hPDL) cells. Cultured hPDL cells were irradiated (660 nm) daily with doses of 0, 1, 2 or 4 J⋅cm(-2). Cell proliferation was evaluated by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the effect of LPLI on osteogenic differentiation was assessed by Alizarin Red S staining and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Additionally, osteogenic marker gene expression was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our data showed that LPLI at a dose of 2 J⋅cm(-2) significantly promoted hPDL cell proliferation at days 3 and 5. In addition, LPLI at energy doses of 2 and 4 J⋅cm(-2) showed potential osteogenic capacity, as it stimulated ALP activity, calcium deposition, and osteogenic gene expression. We also showed that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a critical regulator of the LPLI-mediated effects on hPDL cells. This study shows that LPLI can promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDL cells. These results suggest the potential use of LPLI in clinical applications for periodontal tissue regeneration.

  19. Determination of the electron-detachment energies of 2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-monophosphate anion: influence of the conformation.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Mercedes; Roca-Sanjuán, Daniel; Serrano-Andrés, Luis; Merchán, Manuela

    2009-02-26

    The vertical electron-detachment energies (VDEs) of the singly charged 2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-monophosphate anion (dGMP-) are determined by using the multiconfigurational second-order perturbation CASPT2 method at the MP2 ground-state equilibrium geometry of relevant conformers. The origin of the unique low-energy band in the gas phase photoelectron spectrum of dGMP-, with maximum at around 5.05 eV, is unambiguously assigned to electron detachment from the highest occupied molecular orbital of pi-character belonging to guanine fragment of a syn conformation. The presence of a short H-bond linking the 2-amino and phosphate groups, the guanine moiety acting as proton donor, is precisely responsible for the pronounced decrease of the computed VDE with respect to that obtained in other conformations. As a whole, the present research supports the nucleobase as the site with the lowest ionization potential in negatively charged (deprotonated) nucleotides at the most stable conformations as well as for B-DNA-like type arrangements, in agreement with experimental evidence.

  20. Metal free columns for determination of deoxynucleotide monophosphate by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and application to oligonucleotide.

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Sachie; Sakamaki, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Taichi; Takatsu, Akiko

    2015-08-07

    We have developed a highly sensitive method for the analysis of deoxynucleotide monophosphates (dNMPs), which involves the use of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and a new metal-free column. The new column solves the problem that the phosphate group in dNMPs interacts with the metal portion of the device or column. After optimization of the analytical conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) of dNMPs were from 5.4ng/g to 6.3ng/g. Those values were 10 times lower than the LODs of previous methods. We applied the method to the determination of the base composition and the quantification of 20-mer oligonucleotide. Despite use of a very small sample amount of 14.5ng, we were able to determine the base composition, and the result was consistent with theoretical values. We were also able to quantify the mass fraction of oligonucleotide with 8.2% expanded uncertainty (k=2). By means of the developed method, we were able to analyze dNMPs with high sensitivity as well as determine the base composition and quantify the mass fraction of oligonucleotide despite use of a small amount of sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Convenient syntheses of 3'-amino-2',3'-dideoxynucleosides, their 5'-monophosphates, and 3'-aminoterminal oligodeoxynucleotide primers.

    PubMed

    Eisenhuth, Ralf; Richert, Clemens

    2009-01-02

    5'-Protected 3'-amino-2',3'-dideoxynucleosides containing any of the four canonical nucleobases (A/C/G/T) were prepared via azides in five to six steps, starting from deoxynucleosides. For pyrimidines, the synthetic route involved nucleophilic opening of anhydronucleosides. For purines, an in situ oxidation/reduction sequence, followed by a Mitsunobu reaction with diphenyl-2-pyridylphosphine and sodium azide, provided the 3'-azidonucleosides in high yield and purity. For solid-phase synthesis of aminoterminal oligonucleotides, aminonucleosides were linked to controlled pore glass through a novel hexafluoroglutaric acid linker. These supports gave 3'-aminoterminal primers in high yield and purity via conventional DNA chain assembly and one-step deprotection/release with aqueous ammonia. Primers thus prepared were successfully tested in enzyme-free chemical primer extension, an inexpensive methodology for genotyping and labeling. Protected 5'-monophosphates of 3'-amino-2',3'-dideoxynucleosides were also prepared, providing starting materials for the preparation of labeled or photolably protected monomers for chemical primer extension.

  2. The Inosine Monophosphate Dehydrogenase, GuaB2, Is a Vulnerable New Bactericidal Drug Target for Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vinayak; Donini, Stefano; Pacitto, Angela; Sala, Claudia; Hartkoorn, Ruben C; Dhar, Neeraj; Keri, Gyorgy; Ascher, David B; Mondésert, Guillaume; Vocat, Anthony; Lupien, Andréanne; Sommer, Raphael; Vermet, Hélène; Lagrange, Sophie; Buechler, Joe; Warner, Digby F; McKinney, John D; Pato, Janos; Cole, Stewart T; Blundell, Tom L; Rizzi, Menico; Mizrahi, Valerie

    2017-01-13

    VCC234718, a molecule with growth inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), was identified by phenotypic screening of a 15344-compound library. Sequencing of a VCC234718-resistant mutant identified a Y487C substitution in the inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, GuaB2, which was subsequently validated to be the primary molecular target of VCC234718 in Mtb. VCC234718 inhibits Mtb GuaB2 with a Ki of 100 nM and is uncompetitive with respect to IMP and NAD(+). This compound binds at the NAD(+) site, after IMP has bound, and makes direct interactions with IMP; therefore, the inhibitor is by definition uncompetitive. VCC234718 forms strong pi interactions with the Y487 residue side chain from the adjacent protomer in the tetramer, explaining the resistance-conferring mutation. In addition to sensitizing Mtb to VCC234718, depletion of GuaB2 was bactericidal in Mtb in vitro and in macrophages. When supplied at a high concentration (≥125 μM), guanine alleviated the toxicity of VCC234718 treatment or GuaB2 depletion via purine salvage. However, transcriptional silencing of guaB2 prevented Mtb from establishing an infection in mice, confirming that Mtb has limited access to guanine in this animal model. Together, these data provide compelling validation of GuaB2 as a new tuberculosis drug target.

  3. The Inosine Monophosphate Dehydrogenase, GuaB2, Is a Vulnerable New Bactericidal Drug Target for Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    VCC234718, a molecule with growth inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), was identified by phenotypic screening of a 15344-compound library. Sequencing of a VCC234718-resistant mutant identified a Y487C substitution in the inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, GuaB2, which was subsequently validated to be the primary molecular target of VCC234718 in Mtb. VCC234718 inhibits Mtb GuaB2 with a Ki of 100 nM and is uncompetitive with respect to IMP and NAD+. This compound binds at the NAD+ site, after IMP has bound, and makes direct interactions with IMP; therefore, the inhibitor is by definition uncompetitive. VCC234718 forms strong pi interactions with the Y487 residue side chain from the adjacent protomer in the tetramer, explaining the resistance-conferring mutation. In addition to sensitizing Mtb to VCC234718, depletion of GuaB2 was bactericidal in Mtb in vitro and in macrophages. When supplied at a high concentration (≥125 μM), guanine alleviated the toxicity of VCC234718 treatment or GuaB2 depletion via purine salvage. However, transcriptional silencing of guaB2 prevented Mtb from establishing an infection in mice, confirming that Mtb has limited access to guanine in this animal model. Together, these data provide compelling validation of GuaB2 as a new tuberculosis drug target. PMID:27726334

  4. Methylene blue induces macroautophagy through 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase pathway to protect neurons from serum deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Luokun; Li, Wenjun; Winters, Ali; Yuan, Fang; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Methylene blue has been shown to be neuroprotective in multiple experimental neurodegenerative disease models. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects have not been fully elucidated. Previous studies have shown that macroautophagy has multiple beneficial roles for maintaining normal cellular homeostasis and that induction of macroautophagy after myocardial ischemia is protective. In the present study we demonstrated that methylene blue could protect HT22 hippocampal cell death induced by serum deprivation, companied by induction of macroautophagy. We also found that methylene blue-mediated neuroprotection was abolished by macroautophagy inhibition. Interestingly, 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, but not inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, was activated at 12 and 24 h after methylene blue treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Methylene blue-induced macroautophagy was blocked by AMPK inhibitor. Consistent with in vitro data, macroautophagy was induced in the cortex and hippocampus of mouse brains treated with methylene blue. Our findings suggest that methylene blue-induced neuroprotection is mediated, at least in part, by macroautophagy though activation of AMPK signaling. PMID:23653592

  5. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent vascular responses to purinergic agonists adenosine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate in the anesthetized mouse.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mrugeshkumar K; Kadowitz, Philip J

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism by which purinergic agonist adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and uridine triphosphate (UTP) decrease systemic arterial pressure in the anesthetized mouse was investigated. Intravenous injections of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and uridine triphosphate (UTP) produced dose-dependent decreases in systemic blood pressure in the mouse. The order of potency was ATP > UTP. Vasodilator responses to ATP and UTP were altered by the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram. The vascular responses to ATP and UTP were not altered by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, a cGMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor, or a particular P2 receptor antagonist. These data suggest that ATP and UTP cause a decrease in systemic arterial pressure in the mouse via a cAMP-dependent pathway via a novel P2 receptor linked to adenylate cyclase and that nitric oxide release, prostaglandin synthesis, cGMP, and P2X1, P2Y1, and P2Y4 receptors play little or no role in the vascular effects of these purinergic agonists in the mouse.

  6. Bi-stage control of dissolved oxygen to enhance cyclic adenosine monophosphate production by Arthrobacter A302.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Chen, Xiaochun; Cheng, Jian; Zhang, Chunwei; Bai, Jianxin; Chen, Yong; Niu, Huanqin; Ying, Hanjie

    2012-10-01

    Experiments confirmed dissolved oxygen (DO) definitely affects cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production by Arthrobacter A302. Production of cAMP by batch fermentation was investigated under various DO conditions. A two-stage DO control strategy was proposed to achieve optimal production of cAMP based on the kinetic analysis: the DO level was controlled at 40% during the first 18 h and then switched to 30%. Relatively high cAMP production (9.9 g L(-1)) was achieved by applying this strategy. The cAMP productivity (0.14 g L(-1) h(-1)) was also successfully improved by 85.1, 59.3, 15.1 and 28.0%, compared to cases in which DO was uncontrolled or DO levels were held at 20, 30 and 40%, respectively. This is the first report of the use of a two-stage DO control strategy in cAMP production, and it was verified to be an effective method for enhancing the cAMP yield via this strain.

  7. Virtual and experimental high-throughput screening (HTS) in search of novel inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase II (IMPDH II) inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkern, Torsten; Prabhu, Arati; Kharkar, Prashant S.; Goebel, Heike; Rolser, Edith; Burckhard-Boer, Waltraud; Arumugam, Premkumar; Makhija, Mahindra T.

    2012-11-01

    IMPDH (Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase) catalyzes a rate-limiting step in the de novo biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides. IMPDH inhibition in sensitive cell types (e.g., lymphocytes) blocks proliferation (by blocking RNA and DNA synthesis as a result of decreased cellular levels of guanine nucleotides). This makes it an interesting target for cancer and autoimmune disorders. Currently available IMPDH inhibitors such as mycophenolic acid (MPA, uncompetitive inhibitor) and nucleoside analogs (e.g., ribavirin, competitive inhibitor after intracellular activation by phosphorylation) have unfavorable tolerability profiles which limit their use. Hence, the quest for novel IMPDH inhibitors continues. In the present study, a ligand-based virtual screening using IMPDH inhibitor pharmacophore models was performed on in-house compound collection. A total of 50,000 virtual hits were selected for primary screen using in vitro IMPDH II inhibition up to 10 μM. The list of 2,500 hits (with >70 % inhibition) was further subjected to hit confirmation for the determination of IC50 values. The hits obtained were further clustered using maximum common substructure based formalism resulting in 90 classes and 7 singletons. A thorough inspection of these yielded 7 interesting classes in terms of mini-SAR with IC50 values ranging from 0.163 μM to little over 25 μM. The average ligand efficiency was found to be 0.3 for the best class. The classes thus discovered represent structurally novel chemotypes which can be taken up for further development.

  8. A Mycobacterium smegmatis mutant with a defective inositol monophosphate phosphatase gene homolog has altered cell envelope permeability.

    PubMed Central

    Parish, T; Liu, J; Nikaido, H; Stoker, N G

    1997-01-01

    A bacteriophage infection mutant (strain LIMP7) of Mycobacterium smegmatis was isolated following transposon mutagenesis. The mutant showed an unusual phenotype, in that all phages tested produced larger plaques on this strain compared to the parent strain. Other phenotypic characteristics of the mutant were slower growth, increased clumping in liquid culture, increased resistance to chloramphenicol and erythromycin, and increased sensitivity to isoniazid and several beta-lactam antibiotics. Permeability studies showed decreases in the accumulation of lipophilic molecules (norfloxacin and chenodeoxycholate) and a small increase with hydrophilic molecules (cephaloridine); taken together, these characteristics indicate an altered cell envelope. The DNA adjacent to the transposon in LIMP7 was cloned and was shown to be highly similar to genes encoding bacterial and mammalian inositol monophosphate phosphatases. Inositol is important in mycobacteria as a component of the major thiol mycothiol and also in the cell wall, with phosphatidylinositol anchoring lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in the cell envelope. In LIMP7, levels of phosphatidylinositol dimannoside, the precursor of LAM, were less than half of those in the wild-type strain, confirming that the mutation had affected the synthesis of inositol-containing molecules. The impA gene is located within the histidine biosynthesis operon in both M. smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, lying between the hisA and hisF genes. PMID:9401044

  9. Attempts to Detect Cyclic Adenosine 3′:5′-Monophosphate in Higher Plants by Three Assay Methods 12

    PubMed Central

    Bressan, Ray A.; Ross, Cleon W.; Vandepeute, Jozef

    1976-01-01

    Endogenous levels of cyclic adenosine-3′:5′-monophosphate in coleoptile first leaf segments of oat (Avena sativa L.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) callus, and germinating seeds of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were measured with a modified Gilman binding assay and a protein kinase activation assay. The incorporation of adenosine-8-14C into compounds with properties similar to those of cyclic AMP was also measured in studies with germinating lettuce seeds. The binding assay proved reliable for mouse and rat liver analyses, but was nonspecific for plant tissues. It responded to various components from lettuce and potato tissues chromatographically similar to but not identical with cyclic AMP. The protein kinase activation assay was much more specific, but it also exhibited positive responses in the presence of compounds not chromatographically identical to cyclic AMP. The concentrations of cyclic AMP in the plant tissues tested were at the lower limits of detection and characterization obtainable with these assays. The estimates of maximal levels were much lower than reported in many previous studies. PMID:16659419

  10. Effect of Sea Buckthorn Leaves on Inosine Monophosphate and Adenylosuccinatelyase Gene Expression in Broilers during Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Chen, Xin; Yan, Changjiang; Liu, Hongnan; Zhang, Zhihong; Wang, Pengzu; Su, Jie; Li, Yao

    2012-01-01

    The trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of sea buckthorn leaves (SBL) on meat flavor in broilers during heat stress. A total 360 one-day-old Arbor Acre (AA) broilers (male) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments with 6 replicates pens pretreatment and 15 birds per pen. The control group was fed a basal diet, the experimental group I, II and III were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% SBL, respectively. During the 4th week, broilers were exposed to heat stress conditions (36±2°C), after which, muscle and liver samples were collected. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to measure the content of inosine monophosphate (IMP); Real-Time PCR was performed to determine the expression of the ADSL gene. The results showed that the content of breast muscle IMP of group I, II and III was significantly increased 68%, 102% and 103% (p<0.01) compared with the control, respectively; the content of thigh muscle IMP of group II and III was significantly increased 56% and 58% (p<0.01), respectively. Additionally, ADSL mRNA expression in group I, II and III was increased significantly 80%, 65% and 49% (p<0.01) compared with the control, respectively. The content of IMP and expression of ADSL mRNA were increased by basal diet supplemented with SBL, therefore, the decrease of meat flavor caused by heat stress was relieved.

  11. Highly selective colorimetric detection of Ni2+ using silver nanoparticles cofunctionalized with adenosine monophosphate and sodium dodecyl sulfonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jiayu; Jin, Weiwei; Huang, Pengcheng; Wu, Fangying

    2017-09-01

    We report a dual-ligand strategy based on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for highly selective detection of Ni2+ using colorimetric techniques. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) were both used as ligands to modify AgNPs. The presence of Ni2+ induces the aggregation of AgNPs through cooperative electrostatic interaction and metal-ligand interaction, resulting in a color change from bright yellow to orange. The cofunctionalized AgNPs showed obvious advantages over the ones functionalized only by AMP or SDS in terms of selectivity. Under the optimized conditions, this sensing platform for Ni2+ works in the concentration range of 4.0 to 60 μM and has a low detection limit of 0.60 μM. In addition, the colorimetric assay is very fast, and the whole analysis can be completed within a few minutes. Thus, it can be directly used in tap water and lake water samples. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Simultaneous liquid chromatographic assessment of thiamine, thiamine monophosphate and thiamine diphosphate in human erythrocytes: a study on alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Mancinelli, Rosanna; Ceccanti, Mauro; Guiducci, Maria Soccorsa; Sasso, Guido Francesco; Sebastiani, Gemma; Attilia, Maria Luisa; Allen, John Paul

    2003-06-15

    An isocratic HPLC procedure for the assessment of thiamine (T), thiamine monophosphate (TMP) and thiamine diphosphate (TDP) in human erythrocytes is described. Several aspects of the procedure make it suitable for both clinical and research purposes: limits of detection and quantification of 1 and 2.5 nmol/l, respectively, recovery of 102% on average (range 93-112%), intra- and inter-day precisions within 5 and 9%, respectively, total elution time 15 min. This analytical methodology was applied to a case-control study on erythrocyte samples from 103 healthy subjects and 36 alcohol-dependent patients at risk of thiamine deficiency. Mean control values obtained were: T=89.6+/-22.7 nmol/l, TMP=4.4+/-6.6 nmol/l and TDP=222.23+/-56.3 nmol/l. T and TDP mean values of alcoholics were significantly lower than those of control cases: T=69.4+/-35.9 nmol/l (P<0.001) and TDP=127.4+/-62.5 nmol/l (P<10(-5)). The diagnostic role of TDP was evaluated and a significant role for thiamine was established in the study of alcohol related problems.

  13. Methylene blue induces macroautophagy through 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase pathway to protect neurons from serum deprivation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Luokun; Li, Wenjun; Winters, Ali; Yuan, Fang; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Methylene blue has been shown to be neuroprotective in multiple experimental neurodegenerative disease models. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects have not been fully elucidated. Previous studies have shown that macroautophagy has multiple beneficial roles for maintaining normal cellular homeostasis and that induction of macroautophagy after myocardial ischemia is protective. In the present study we demonstrated that methylene blue could protect HT22 hippocampal cell death induced by serum deprivation, companied by induction of macroautophagy. We also found that methylene blue-mediated neuroprotection was abolished by macroautophagy inhibition. Interestingly, 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, but not inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, was activated at 12 and 24 h after methylene blue treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Methylene blue-induced macroautophagy was blocked by AMPK inhibitor. Consistent with in vitro data, macroautophagy was induced in the cortex and hippocampus of mouse brains treated with methylene blue. Our findings suggest that methylene blue-induced neuroprotection is mediated, at least in part, by macroautophagy though activation of AMPK signaling.

  14. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase attenuates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through regulation of FOXO3a/MAFbx signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baolin; Wu, Qiang; Xiong, Zhaojun; Ma, Yuedong; Yu, Sha; Chen, Dandan; Huang, Shengwen; Dong, Yugang

    2016-09-01

    Control of cardiac muscle mass is thought to be determined by a dynamic balance of protein synthesis and degradation. Recent studies have demonstrated that atrophy-related forkhead box O 3a (FOXO3a)/muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) signaling pathway plays a central role in the modulation of proteolysis and exert inhibitory effect on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation attenuates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by regulating FOXO3a/MAFbx signaling pathway and its downstream protein degradation. The results showed that activation of AMPK with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) attenuated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (Ang II). The antihypertrophic effects of AICAR were blunted by AMPK inhibitor Compound C. In addition, AMPK dramatically increased the activity of transcription factor FOXO3a, up-regulated the expression of its downstream ubiquitin ligase MAFbx, and enhanced cardiomyocyte proteolysis. Meanwhile, the effects of AMPK on protein degradation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy were blocked after MAFbx was silenced by transfection of cardiomyocytes with MAFbx-siRNA. These results indicate that AMPK plays an important role in the inhibition of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by activating protein degradation via FOXO3a/MAFbx signaling pathway.

  15. The expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element modulator in rat sertoli cells following seminal extract administration

    PubMed Central

    Akmal, Muslim; Siregar, Tongku Nizwan; Wahyuni, Sri; Hamny; Nasution, Mustafa Kamal; Indriati, Wiwik; Panjaitan, Budianto; Aliza, Dwinna

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to determine the effect of seminal vesicle extract on cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element modulator (CREM) expression in rat Sertoli cells. Materials and Methods: This study examined the expression of CREM on 20 male rats (Rattus norvegicus) at 4 months of age, weighing 250-300 g. The rats were divided into four groups: K0, KP1, KP2, and KP3. K0 group was injected with 0.2 ml normal saline; KP1 was injected with 25 mg cloprostenol (Prostavet C, Virbac S. A); KP2 and KP3 were injected with 0.2 and 0.4 ml seminal vesicle extract, respectively. The treatments were conducted 5 times within 12-day interval. At the end of the study, the rats were euthanized by cervical dislocation; then, the testicles were necropsied and processed for histology observation using immunohistochemistry staining. Results: CREM expression in rat Sertoli cells was not altered by the administration of either 0.2 or 0.4 ml seminal vesicle extract. Conclusion: The administration of seminal vesicle extract is unable to increase CREM expression in rat Sertoli cells. PMID:27733803

  16. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase activity in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients treated with mycophenolate mofetil.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Mager, Donald E; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Storer, Barry E; Boeckh, Michael J; Bemer, Meagan J; Phillips, Brian R; Risler, Linda J; McCune, Jeannine S

    2014-08-01

    A novel approach to personalizing postgrafting immunosuppression in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients is evaluating inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity as a drug-specific biomarker of mycophenolic acid (MPA)-induced immunosuppression. This prospective study evaluated total MPA, unbound MPA, and total MPA glucuronide plasma concentrations and IMPDH activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNCs) at 5 time points after the morning dose of oral mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) on day +21 in 56 nonmyeloablative HCT recipients. Substantial interpatient variability in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics was observed and accurately characterized by the population pharmacokinetic-dynamic model. IMPDH activity decreased with increasing MPA plasma concentration, with maximum inhibition coinciding with maximum MPA concentration in most patients. The overall relationship between MPA concentration and IMPDH activity was described by a direct inhibitory maximum effect model with an IC50 of 3.23 mg/L total MPA and 57.3 ng/mL unbound MPA. The day +21 IMPDH area under the effect curve (AUEC) was associated with cytomegalovirus reactivation, nonrelapse mortality, and overall mortality. In conclusion, a pharmacokinetic-dynamic model was developed that relates plasma MPA concentrations with PMNC IMPDH activity after an MMF dose in HCT recipients. Future studies should validate this model and confirm that day +21 IMPDH AUEC is a predictive biomarker.

  17. Adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase and its key role in catabolism: structure, regulation, biological activity, and pharmacological activation.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Sukriti; Richardson, Des R; Sahni, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor, which once activated, plays a role in several processes within the cell to restore energy homeostasis. The protein enhances catabolic pathways, such as β-oxidation and autophagy, to generate ATP, and inhibits anabolic processes that require energy, including fatty acid, cholesterol, and protein synthesis. Due to its key role in the regulation of critical cellular pathways, deregulation of AMPK is associated with the pathology of many diseases, including cancer, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. In fact, AMPK is a target of some pharmacological agents implemented in the treatment of diabetes (metformin and thiazolidinediones) as well as other naturally derived products, such as berberine, which is used in traditional medicine. Due to its critical role in the cell and the pathology of several disorders, research into developing AMPK as a therapeutic target is becoming a burgeoning and exciting field of pharmacological research. A profound understanding of the regulation and activity of AMPK would enhance its development as a promising therapeutic target.

  18. Inosine Monophosphate Dehydrogenase (IMPDH) Activity as a Pharmacodynamic Biomarker of Mycophenolic Acid Effects in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Tsuyoshi; Goebel, Jens; Thøgersen, Håvard; Maseck, Denise; Cox, Shareen; Logan, Barbara; Sherbotie, Joseph; Seikaly, Mouin; Vinks, Alexander A.

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity as a biomarker of mycophenolic acid (MPA)–induced immunosuppression may serve as a novel approach in pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD)–guided therapy. The authors prospectively studied MPA pharmacokinetics and IMPDH inhibition in 28 pediatric de novo kidney transplant recipients. Pretransplant IMPDH activity and full PK/PD profiles were obtained at 3 different occasions: 1 to 3 days, 4 to 9 days, and approximately 6 months after transplant. Large intra- and interpatient variability was noted in MPA pharmacokinetics and exposure and IMPDH inhibition. MPA exposure (AUC0-12 h) was low early posttransplant and increased over time and stabilized at months 3 to 6. Mean pretransplant IMPDH activity (6.4 ± 4.6 nmol/h/mg protein) was lower than previously reported in adults. In most of the patients, IMPDH enzyme activity decreased with increasing MPA plasma concentration, with maximum inhibition coinciding with maximum MPA concentration. The overall relationship between MPA concentration and IMPDH activity was described by a direct inhibitory Emax model (EC50 = 0.97 mg/L). This study suggests the importance of early PK/PD monitoring to improve drug exposure. Because IMPDH inhibition is well correlated to MPA concentration, pre-transplant IMPDH activity may serve as an early marker to guide the initial level of MPA exposure required in a pediatric population. PMID:20418509

  19. A step into the RNA world: Conditional analysis of hydrogel formation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate induced by cyanuric acid.

    PubMed

    Yokosawa, Takumi; Enomoto, Ryota; Uchino, Sho; Hirasawa, Ito; Umehara, Takuya; Tamura, Koji

    2017-09-05

    Nucleotide polymerization occurs by the nucleophilic attack of 3'-oxygen of the 3'-terminal nucleotide on the α-phosphorus of the incoming nucleotide 5'-triphosphate. The π-stacking of mononucleotides is an important factor for prebiotic RNA polymerization in terms of attaining the proximity of two reacting moieties. Adenosine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) are known to form hydrogel in the presence of cyanuric acid at neutral pH. However, we observed that other canonical ribonucleotides did not gel under the same condition. The π-stacking-induced hydrogel formation of AMP was destroyed at pH 2.0, suggesting that the protonation of N at position 1 of adenine abolished hydrogen bonding with the NH of cyanuric acid and resulted in the deformation of the hexad of adenine and cyanuric acid. A liquid-like gel was formed in the case of adenosine with cyanuric acid and boric acid, whereas AMP caused the formation of a solid gel, implying that the negative charge inherent to AMP prevented the formation of esters of boric acid with the cis-diols of ribose. Cyanuric acid-driven oligomerizations of AMP might have been the first crucial event in the foundation of the RNA world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of polystyrene beads on cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate concentration in leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Manganiello, Vincent; Evans, Warren H.; Stossel, Thomas P.; Mason, Robert J.; Vaughan, Martha

    1971-01-01

    After incubation with polystyrene latex beads for 5 min. the cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) content of human peripheral blood leukocyte suspensions was increased severalfold. Preparations enriched in mononuclear cells and containing only 0-20% polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and no visible platelets exhibited a quantitatively similar response. Purified fractions of cells containing 85-90% PMN responded to polystyrene beads with a much smaller increase in cyclic AMP content. Phagocytosis of paraffin oil emulsion in the unfractionated mixed human leukocyte preparation was associated with little or no change in cyclic AMP levels. There was no change in cyclic AMP content of rabbit alveolar macrophages or guinea pig PMN during phagocytosis of polystyrene beads. All of these observations are consistent with the view that particle uptake per se does not increase cyclic AMP levels in phagocytic cells. It seems probable that the increase in cyclic AMP concentration that results when unfractionated human blood leukocytes are incubated with polystyrene beads occurs in cells other than PMN. PMID:4331596

  1. Inosine 5'-Monophosphate Dehydrogenase (IMPDH) as a Potential Target for the Development of a New Generation of Antiprotozoan Agents.

    PubMed

    Fotie, Jean

    2016-06-19

    Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is a metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the critical step in guanine nucleotide biosynthesis, and thus is at the center of cell growth and proliferation. However, although this enzyme has been exploited as potential target for the development of immunosuppressive, anticancer, and antiviral agents, the functional importance of IMPDH as a promising antiprotozoan drug target is still in its infancy mainly because of the availability of alternative nucleotides metabolic pathways in many of these parasites. This situation suggests that the inhibition of IMPDH might have little to no effect on the survival of protozoan parasites. As a result, no IMPDH inhibitor is currently commercially available or has advanced to clinical trials as a potential antiprotozoan drug. Nevertheless, recent advances toward the development of selective inhibitors of the IMPDH enzyme from Crystosporidium parvum as potential drug candidates against cryptosporidiosis should revive further investigations of this drug target in other protozoa parasites. The current review examines the chemical structures and biological activities of reported protozoan's IMPDH inhibitors. SciFinder was used to broadly pinpoint reports published on the topic in the chemical literature, with no specific time frame. Opportunities and challenges towards the development of inhibitors of IMPDH enzymes from protozoa parasites as potential chemotherapies toward the respective diseases they cause are also discussed.

  2. Sustained Delivery of Dibutyryl Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate to the Transected Spinal Cord Via Oligo [(Polyethylene Glycol) Fumarate] Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Gemma E.; Knight, Andrew M.; Madigan, Nicolas N.; Gross, LouAnn; Chen, BingKun; Giraldo, Catalina Vallejo; Seo, Seungmae; Nesbitt, Jarred J.; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Yaszemski, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the use of oligo [(polyethylene glycol) fumarate] (OPF) hydrogel scaffolds as vehicles for sustained delivery of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (dbcAMP) to the transected spinal cord. dbcAMP was encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres, which were embedded within the scaffolds architecture. Functionality of the released dbcAMP was assessed using neurite outgrowth assays in PC12 cells and by delivery to the transected spinal cord within OPF seven channel scaffolds, which had been loaded with Schwann cells or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Our results showed that encapsulation of dbcAMP in microspheres lead to prolonged release and continued functionality in vitro. These microspheres were then successfully incorporated into OPF scaffolds and implanted in the transected thoracic spinal cord. Sustained delivery of dbcAMP inhibited axonal regeneration in the presence of Schwann cells but rescued MSC-induced inhibition of axonal regeneration. dbcAMP was also shown to reduce capillary formation in the presence of MSCs, which was coupled with significant functional improvements. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating PLGA microsphere technology for spinal cord transection studies. It represents a novel sustained delivery mechanism within the transected spinal cord and provides a platform for potential delivery of other therapeutic agents. PMID:21198413

  3. Ratiometric bioluminescence indicators for monitoring cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in live cells based on luciferase-fragment complementation.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Masaki; Nagaoka, Yasutaka; Yamada, Toshimichi; Takakura, Hideo; Ozawa, Takeaki

    2010-11-15

    Bioluminescent indicators for cyclic 3',5'-monophosphate AMP (cAMP) are powerful tools for noninvasive detection with high sensitivity. However, the absolute photon counts are affected substantially by adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and d-luciferin concentrations, limiting temporal analysis in live cells. This report describes a genetically encoded bioluminescent indicator for detecting intracellular cAMP based on complementation of split fragments of two-color luciferase mutants originated from click beetles. A cAMP binding domain of protein kinase A was connected with an engineered carboxy-terminal fragment of luciferase, of which ends were connected with amino-terminal fragments of green luciferase and red luciferase. We demonstrated that the ratio of green to red bioluminescence intensities was less influenced by the changes of ATP and d-luciferin concentrations. We also showed an applicability of the bioluminescent indicator for time-course and quantitative assessments of intracellular cAMP in living cells and mice. The bioluminescent indicator will enable quantitative analysis and imaging of spatiotemporal dynamics of cAMP in opaque and autofluorescent living subjects.

  4. Phenotype, virulence and immunogenicity of Edwardsiella ictaluri cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate receptor protein (Crp) mutants in catfish host.

    PubMed

    Santander, Javier; Mitra, Arindam; Curtiss, Roy

    2011-12-01

    Edwardsiella ictaluri is an Enterobacteriaceae that causes lethal enteric septicemia in catfish. Being a mucosal facultative intracellular pathogen, this bacterium is an excellent candidate to develop immersion-oral live attenuated vaccines for the catfish aquaculture industry. Deletion of the cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) receptor protein (crp) gene in several Enterobacteriaceae has been utilized in live attenuated vaccines for mammals and birds. Here we characterize the crp gene and report the effect of a crp deletion in E. ictaluri. The E. ictaluri crp gene and encoded protein are similar to other Enterobacteriaceae family members, complementing Salmonella enterica Δcrp mutants in a cAMP-dependent fashion. The E. ictaluri Δcrp-10 in-frame deletion mutant demonstrated growth defects, loss of maltose utilization, and lack of flagella synthesis. We found that the E. ictaluri Δcrp-10 mutant was attenuated, colonized lymphoid tissues, and conferred immune protection against E. ictaluri infection to zebrafish (Danio rerio) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Evaluation of the IgM titers indicated that bath immunization with the E. ictaluri Δcrp-10 mutant triggered systemic and skin immune responses in catfish. We propose that deletion of the crp gene in E. ictaluri is an effective strategy to develop immersion live attenuated antibiotic-sensitive vaccines for the catfish aquaculture industry.

  5. Mapping the unconventional orbital texture in topological crystalline insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeljkovic, Ilija; Okada, Yoshinori; Huang, Cheng-Yi; Sankar, R.; Walkup, Daniel; Zhou, Wenwen; Serbyn, Maksym; Chou, Fangcheng; Tsai, Wei-Feng; Lin, Hsin; Bansil, Arun; Fu, Liang; Hasan, M. Zahid; Madhavan, Vidya

    2014-03-01

    The newly discovered topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) harbor a complex band structure involving multiple Dirac cones. These materials are potentially highly tunable by external electric field, temperature or strain and could find future applications in field-effect transistors, photodetectors, and nano-mechanical systems. Theoretically, it has been predicted that different Dirac cones, offset in energy and momentum-space, might harbor vastly different orbital character, a unique property which if experimentally realized, would present an ideal platform for accomplishing new spintronic devices. In this study, we unveil the orbital texture in a prototypical TCI Pb1-xSnxSe by using Fourier-transform (FT) scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) to measure the interference patterns produced by the scattering of surface state electrons. We discover that the intensity and energy dependences of FTs show distinct characteristics, which can directly be attributed to orbital effects. Our experiments also reveal the complex band topology involving two Lifshitz transitions.

  6. Electrochemically synthesized amorphous and crystalline nanowires: dissimilar nanomechanical behavior in comparison with homologous flat films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeshan, M. A.; Esqué-de Los Ojos, D.; Castro-Hartmann, P.; Guerrero, M.; Nogués, J.; Suriñach, S.; Baró, M. D.; Nelson, B. J.; Pané, S.; Pellicer, E.; Sort, J.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of constrained sample dimensions on the mechanical behavior of crystalline materials have been extensively investigated. However, there is no clear understanding of these effects in nano-sized amorphous samples. Herein, nanoindentation together with finite element simulations are used to compare the properties of crystalline and glassy CoNi(Re)P electrodeposited nanowires (φ ~ 100 nm) with films (3 μm thick) of analogous composition and structure. The results reveal that amorphous nanowires exhibit a larger hardness, lower Young's modulus and higher plasticity index than glassy films. Conversely, the very large hardness and higher Young's modulus of crystalline nanowires are accompanied by a decrease in plasticity with respect to the homologous crystalline films. Remarkably, proper interpretation of the mechanical properties of the nanowires requires taking the curved geometry of the indented surface and sink-in effects into account. These findings are of high relevance for optimizing the performance of new, mechanically-robust, nanoscale materials for increasingly complex miniaturized devices.The effects of constrained sample dimensions on the mechanical behavior of crystalline materials have been extensively investigated. However, there is no clear understanding of these effects in nano-sized amorphous samples. Herein, nanoindentation together with finite element simulations are used to compare the properties of crystalline and glassy CoNi(Re)P electrodeposited nanowires (φ ~ 100 nm) with films (3 μm thick) of analogous composition and structure. The results reveal that amorphous nanowires exhibit a larger hardness, lower Young's modulus and higher plasticity index than glassy films. Conversely, the very large hardness and higher Young's modulus of crystalline nanowires are accompanied by a decrease in plasticity with respect to the homologous crystalline films. Remarkably, proper interpretation of the mechanical properties of the nanowires

  7. In Vitro Reconstitution of the Complete Clostridium thermocellum Cellulosome and Synergistic Activity on Crystalline Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Jan; Zverlov, Vladimir V.

    2012-01-01

    Artificial cellulase complexes active on crystalline cellulose were reconstituted in vitro from a native mix of cellulosomal enzymes and CipA scaffoldin. Enzymes containing dockerin modules for binding to the corresponding cohesin modules were prepared from culture supernatants of a C. thermocellum cipA mutant. They were reassociated to cellulosomes via dockerin-cohesin interaction. Recombinantly produced mini-CipA proteins with one to three cohesins either with or without the carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) and the complete CipA protein were used as the cellulosomal backbone. The binding between cohesins and dockerins occurred spontaneously. The hydrolytic activity against soluble and crystalline cellulosic compounds showed that the composition of the complex does not seem to be dependent on which CipA-derived cohesin was used for reconstitution. Binding did not seem to have an obvious local preference (equal binding to Coh1 and Coh6). The synergism on crystalline cellulose increased with an increasing number of cohesins in the scaffoldin. The in vitro-formed complex showed a 12-fold synergism on the crystalline substrate (compared to the uncomplexed components). The activity of reconstituted cellulosomes with full-size CipA reached 80% of that of native cellulosomes. Complexation on the surface of nanoparticles retained the activity of protein complexes and enhanced their stability. Partial supplementation of the native cellulosome components with three selected recombinant cellulases enhanced the activity on crystalline cellulose and reached that of the native cellulosome. This opens possibilities for in vitro complex reconstitution, which is an important step toward the creation of highly efficient engineered cellulases. PMID:22522677

  8. Used fuel disposition in crystalline rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Hadgu, Teklu; Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna; Jerden, James L.; Copple, Jacqueline M.; Cruse, T.; Ebert, W.; Buck, E.; Eittman, R.; Tinnacher, R.; Tournassat, Christophe.; Davis, J.; Viswanathan, H.; Chu, S.; Dittrich, T.; Hyman, F.; Karra, S.; Makedonska, N.; Reimus, P.; Zavarin, Mavrik; Joseph, C.

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Office of Fuel Cycle Technology established the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) in fiscal year 2010 (FY10) to conduct the research and development (R&D) activities related to storage, transportation and disposal of used nuclear fuel and high level nuclear waste. The objective of the Crystalline Disposal R&D Work Package is to advance our understanding of long-term disposal of used fuel in crystalline rocks and to develop necessary experimental and computational capabilities to evaluate various disposal concepts in such media.

  9. Chiral selection on inorganic crystalline surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazen, Robert M.; Sholl, David S.

    2003-01-01

    From synthetic drugs to biodegradable plastics to the origin of life, the chiral selection of molecules presents both daunting challenges and significant opportunities in materials science. Among the most promising, yet little explored, avenues for chiral molecular discrimination is adsorption on chiral crystalline surfaces - periodic environments that can select, concentrate and possibly even organize molecules into polymers and other macromolecular structures. Here we review experimental and theoretical approaches to chiral selection on inorganic crystalline surfaces - research that is poised to open this new frontier in understanding and exploiting surface-molecule interactions.

  10. Chiral selection on inorganic crystalline surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazen, Robert M.; Sholl, David S.

    2003-01-01

    From synthetic drugs to biodegradable plastics to the origin of life, the chiral selection of molecules presents both daunting challenges and significant opportunities in materials science. Among the most promising, yet little explored, avenues for chiral molecular discrimination is adsorption on chiral crystalline surfaces - periodic environments that can select, concentrate and possibly even organize molecules into polymers and other macromolecular structures. Here we review experimental and theoretical approaches to chiral selection on inorganic crystalline surfaces - research that is poised to open this new frontier in understanding and exploiting surface-molecule interactions.

  11. Liquid crystalline thermosetting polyimides. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyt, A.E.; Huang, S.J.

    1993-07-01

    Phase separation of rodlike reinforcing polymers and flexible coil matrix polymers is a common problem in formulating molecular composites. One way to reduce phase separation might be to employ liquid crystalline thermosets as the matrix material. In this work, functionally terminated polyimide oligomers which exhibit lyotropic liquid crystalline behavior were successfully prepared. Materials based on 2,2{prime}-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4{prime}-diaminobiphenyl and 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-biphenylenetetra-carboxylic dianhydride have been synthesized and characterized.

  12. Lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy and vascular function: Role of the nitric oxide-phosphodiesterase type 5-cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate pathway.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Yukihito

    2017-03-22

    It is well known that there is an association of lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy with cardiovascular disease, suggesting that lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy is a risk factor for cardiovascular events. Vascular function, including endothelial function and vascular smooth muscle function, is involved in the pathogenesis, maintenance and development of atherosclerosis, leading to cardiovascular events. Vascular dysfunction per se should also contribute to lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy. Both lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy and vascular dysfunction have cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, aging, obesity and smoking. Inactivation of the phosphodiesterase type 5-cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate-nitric oxide pathway causes lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy through an enhancement of sympathetic nervous activity, endothelial dysfunction, increase in Rho-associated kinase activity and vasoconstriction, and decrease in blood flow of pelvic viscera. Both endogenous nitric oxide and exogenous nitric oxide act as vasodilators on vascular smooth muscle cells through an increase in the content of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate, which is inactivated by phosphodiesterase type 5. In a clinical setting, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors are widely used in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors might have beneficial effects on vascular function through not only inhibition of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate degradation, but also increases in testosterone levels and nitric oxide bioavailability, increase in the number and improvement of the function of endothelial progenitor cells, and decrease in insulin resistance. In the present review, the relationships between lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy, the

  13. STUDIES ON THE MECHANISM OF ACTION OF CYCLIC 3’,5’-ADENOSINE MONOPHOSPHATE ON STEROID HYDROXYLATIONS IN ADRENAL HOMOGENATES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Cyclic 3’,5’-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic 3’,5’AMP) has recently been shown to stimulate selectively steroid C-11- beta hydroxylase activity in rat...to be mediated via stimulation of alpha- glucan phosphorylase, which in turn led to enhanced production of G-6-P from glycogen and a concomitant...increase in NADPH generation. However, if cyclic 3’,5’-AMP stimulated steroid 11- beta -hydroxylation in adrenal homogenates only by this mechanism, its

  14. Mn(2+) and Mg(2+) synergistically enhanced lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus FTDC 8313 via affecting different stages of the hexose monophosphate pathway.

    PubMed

    Lew, L-C; Choi, S-B; Tan, P-L; Liong, M-T

    2014-03-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effects of Mn(2+) and Mg(2+) on lactic acid production using response surface methodology and to further study their effects on interactions between the enzymes and substrates along the hexose monophosphate pathway using a molecular modelling approach. A rotatable central composite design matrix for lactic acid production was generated with two independent factors namely, manganese sulfate and magnesium sulfate. The second-order regression model indicated that the quadratic model was significant (P < 0·05), suggesting that the model accurately represented the data in the experimental region. Three-dimensional response surface showed that lactic acid production was high along the region where the ratio of MnSO4 to MgSO4 was almost 1 : 1, justifying the need for both Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) to be present simultaneously in stimulating the production of lactic acid. Molecular docking simulation was performed on a total of 13 essential enzymes involved in the hexose monophosphate pathway for the production of lactic acid with four different conditions namely in the presence of Mg(2+) , Mn(2+) , both Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) and in the absence of metal ions. Results showed that the presence of both Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) within the binding site improved the binding affinity for substrates in five enzymes namely, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphopyruvate hydratase and pyruvate kinase. Using response surface methodology and molecular modelling approach, we illustrated that Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) synergistically enhanced lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus FTDC 8313 via affecting different stages of the hexose monophosphate pathway. Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) synergistically improved lactic acid production of Lact. rhamnosus via improved binding affinity of the enzyme-substrate along the hexose monophosphate pathway, instead of purely affecting growth as previously

  15. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris), semi-aquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens) and terrestrial (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    Barjau Pérez-Milicua, Myrna; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Crocker, Daniel E; Gallo-Reynoso, Juan P

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea) diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens) can hold their breath for about 30 s. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and reduced blood supply (ischemia) to tissues. Production of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal) (n = 11), semiaquatic (neotropical river otter) (n = 4), and terrestrial (domestic pig) (n = 11). Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX), inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP), guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP), and xanthosine 5'-monophosphate (XMP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP, and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise), aquatic, and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts.

  16. Crystalline lens and refractive development.

    PubMed

    Iribarren, Rafael

    2015-07-01

    Individual refractive errors usually change along lifespan. Most children are hyperopic in early life. This hyperopia is usually lost during growth years, leading to emmetropia in adults, but myopia also develops in children during school years or during early adult life. Those subjects who remain emmetropic are prone to have hyperopic shifts in middle life. And even later, at older ages, myopic shifts are developed with nuclear cataract. The eye grows from 15 mm in premature newborns to approximately 24 mm in early adult years, but, in most cases, refractions are maintained stable in a clustered distribution. This growth in axial length would represent a refractive change of more than 40 diopters, which is compensated by changes in corneal and lens powers. The process which maintains the balance between the ocular components of refraction during growth is still under study. As the lens power cannot be measured in vivo, but can only be calculated based on the other ocular components, there have not been many studies of lens power in humans. Yet, recent studies have confirmed that the lens loses power during growth in children, and that hyperopic and myopic shifts in adulthood may be also produced by changes in the lens. These studies in children and adults give a picture of the changing power of the lens along lifespan. Other recent studies about the growth of the lens and the complexity of its internal structure give clues about how these changes in lens power are produced along life.

  17. Human taste and umami receptor responses to chemosensorica generated by Maillard-type N²-alkyl- and N²-arylthiomethylation of guanosine 5'-monophosphates.

    PubMed

    Suess, Barbara; Brockhoff, Anne; Degenhardt, Andreas; Billmayer, Sylvia; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-11-26

    Structural modification of the exocyclic amino function of guanosine 5'-monophosphate (5'-GMP) by Maillard-type reactions with reducing carbohydrates was recently found to increase the umami-enhancing activity of the nucleotide upon S-N(2)-1-carboxyalkylation and S-N(2)-(1-alkylamino)carbonylalkylation, respectively. Since the presence of sulfur atoms in synthetic N(2)-alkylated nucleotides was reported to be beneficial for sensory activity, a versatile Maillard-type modification of 5'-GMP upon reaction with glycine's Strecker aldehyde formaldehyde and organic thiols was performed in the present study. A series of N(2)-(alkylthiomethyl)guanosine and N(2)-(arylthiomethyl)guanosine 5'-monophosphates was generated and the compounds were evaluated to what extent they enhance the umami response to monosodium L-glutamate in vivo by a paired-choice comparison test using trained human volunteers and in vitro by means of cell-based umami taste receptor assay. Associated with a high umami-enhancing activity (β-value 5.1), N(2)-(propylthiomethyl)guanosine 5'-monophosphate could be generated when 5'-GMP reacted with glucose, glycine, and the onion-derived odorant 1-propanethiol, thus opening a valuable avenue to produce high-potency umami-enhancing chemosensorica from food-derived natural products by kitchen-type chemistry.

  18. Length Scale Discontinuities Between Non-Crystalline And Nano-Crystalline Thin Films: Chemical Bonding Self-Organization, Broken Constraints And Reductions of Macroscopic Strain

    SciTech Connect

    Lucovsky, G.; Phillips, J.C.

    2009-05-19

    This paper identifies different length scales, {lambda}{sub s}, for strain-reducing chemical bonding self-organizations in non-crystalline and nano-crystalline thin films. Length scales have been identified through spectroscopic studies, thermal heat flow measurements, and are analyzed by semi-empirical bond-constraint theory (SE-BCT) and symmetry adapted linear combinations (SALC) of atomic states. In both instances, strain-reducing self-organizations result in reduced defect densities that are minimized and enabling for device applications. The length scale for non-crystalline solids extends to at most 1 nm, and more generally to 0.5-0.8 nm; however, there are two different length scales for nano-crystalline films: one is <2.5 nm and is characterized by suppression of longer range ordering required for complex unit cells based on more than one primitive unit cell and the second is >3-3.5 nm and defines a regime where complex unit cells, comprised of two or more primitive unit cells are stabilized and the electronic structure is changed.

  19. Crystallinity determination by curvefit procedure for a semi-crystalline polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakelyn, N. T.

    1985-01-01

    Wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) data from poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) was resolved into a crystalline contribution represented as four reflections and an amorphous contribution represented as a broad, smoothly varying curve. The crystalline scatter is described as a linear combination of Cauchy and Gaussian functions while that of the amorphous halo is expressed as a cubic polynomial. Statistical analysis of the measured scattered intensity from an amorphous specimen with that calculated from the cubic polynomial, as a function of the combination parameter (fraction of Cauchy and Gaussian functions), suggests that the crystalline fraction of the polymer specimen studied is about 0.39.

  20. Topological crystalline insulator SnTe nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Bishnu R.; Dulal, Rajendra P.; Pegg, Ian L.; Philip, John

    2017-03-01

    Topological crystalline insulators are systems in which a band inversion that is protected by crystalline mirror symmetry gives rise to nontrivial topological surface states. SnTe is a topological crystalline insulator. It exhibits p-type conductivity due to Sn vacancies and Te antisites, which leads to high carrier density in the bulk. Thus growth of high quality SnTe is a prerequisite for understanding the topological crystalline insulating behavior. We have grown SnTe nanoribbons using a solution method. The width of the SnTe ribbons varies from 500 nm to 2 μm. They exhibit rock salt crystal structure with a lattice parameter of 6.32 Å. The solution method that we have adapted uses low temperature, so the Sn vacancies can be controlled. The solution grown SnTe nanoribbons exhibit strong semiconducting behavior with an activation energy of 240 meV. This activation energy matches with the calculated band gap for SnTe with a lattice parameter of 6.32 Å, which is higher than that reported for bulk SnTe. The higher activation energy makes the thermal excitation of bulk charges very difficult on the surface. As a result, the topological surfaces will be free from the disturbance caused by the thermal excitations

  1. Radiolytic Gas Generation in Crystalline Silicotitanate Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    WALKER, DARREL

    2004-03-15

    This study measured the impact of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) solids on the rate of formation and composition of radiolytically generated gases in simulated Savannah River Site liquid waste. The tests used IONSIV (TM) IE-911 (UOP LLC, Molecular Sieves Division, Des Planes, IL), the engineered form of CST.

  2. Pyrolysis-crystallinity relationships in cellulose

    Treesearch

    M. Weinstein; A. Broido

    1970-01-01

    During pyrolysis of pure cellulose, the Crystallinity Index (Crl) remained fairly constant over more than 50% weight loss before dropping rapidly as the X-ray pattern deteriorated. With samples first treated with trace quantities of inorganic salts, heating first increased the Crl—the results implying a preferentially catalyzed decomposition of the amorphous regions....

  3. Ionic conductivity in crystalline polymer electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Gadjourova, Z; Andreev, Y G; Tunstall, D P; Bruce, P G

    2001-08-02

    Polymer electrolytes are the subject of intensive study, in part because of their potential use as the electrolyte in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. These materials are formed by dissolving a salt (for example LiI) in a solid host polymer such as poly(ethylene oxide) (refs 2, 3, 4, 5, 6), and may be prepared as both crystalline and amorphous phases. Conductivity in polymer electrolytes has long been viewed as confined to the amorphous phase above the glass transition temperature, Tg, where polymer chain motion creates a dynamic, disordered environment that plays a critical role in facilitating ion transport. Here we show that, in contrast to this prevailing view, ionic conductivity in the static, ordered environment of the crystalline phase can be greater than that in the equivalent amorphous material above Tg. Moreover, we demonstrate that ion transport in crystalline polymer electrolytes can be dominated by the cations, whereas both ions are generally mobile in the amorphous phase. Restriction of mobility to the lithium cation is advantageous for battery applications. The realization that order can promote ion transport in polymers is interesting in the context of electronically conducting polymers, where crystallinity favours electron transport.

  4. Evidence for variable crystallinity in bivalve shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, D. E.; Wehrmeister, U.

    2012-04-01

    Bivalve shells are used as important palaeoclimate proxy archives and monitor regional climate variations. The shells mostly exist of two crystalline polymorphic phases of calcium carbonate calcite (rombohedric) and aragonite (orthorhombic). Calcite is the most stable polymorph at standard conditions, whereas vaterite (hexagonal) is the least stable and only rarely found in these structures. Shells are characterized by organized structures and several micro architectures of mollusc shell structures have been identified: Nacre shows different types: columnar and bricked forms and consists of composite inorganic- organic at the nano-scale. They are well known to display a "brick and mortar" structure. By AFM and FIB/TEM methods it could be shown, that its nanostructure consists of the structures in the range of 50 - 100 nm [1, 2]. These structures are vesicles, consisting of CaCO3 and are individually coated by a membrane. Most probably, the mantle epithelian cells of the bivalve extrude CaCO3 vesicles. By Raman spectroscopic investigations the crystalline CaCO3 polymorphs calcite, aragonite and vaterite, as well as ACC were determined. For some species (Diplodon chilensis patagonicus, Hyriopsis cumingii) pure ACC (i.e. not intermingled with a crystalline phase) could be identified. The presence of an amorphous phase is generally deduced from the lack of definite lattice modes, whereas a broad Raman band in this region is to observe. In most of the cultured pearls (Pinctada maxima and genus Hyriopsis) the ν1-Raman band of ACC clearly displays an asymmetric shape and splits into two different bands according to a nanocrystalline and an amorphous fraction. The FWHMs of most of the crystalline fractions are too high for well crystallized materials and support the assumption of nanocrystalline calcium carbonate polymorph clusters in ACC. They are primarily composed of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) which is later transformed into a crystalline modification [3

  5. Role of αA-crystallin-derived αA66-80 peptide in guinea pig lens crystallin aggregation and insolubilization

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Murugesan; Mooney, Brian P.; Thakkar, Kavi M.; Giblin, Frank J.; Schey, Kevin L.; Sharma, K. Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Earlier we reported that low molecular weight (LMW) peptides accumulate in aging human lens tissue and that among the LMW peptides, the chaperone inhibitor peptide αA66-80, derived from α-crystallin protein, is one of the predominant peptides. We showed that in vitro αA66-80 induces protein aggregation. The current study was undertaken to determine whether LMW peptides are also present in guinea pig lens tissue subjected to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in vivo. The nuclear opacity induced by HBO in guinea pig lens is the closest animal model for studying age-related cataract formation in humans. A LMW peptide profile by mass spectrometry showed the presence of an increased amount of LMW peptides in HBO-treated guinea pig lenses compared to age-matched controls. Interestingly, the mass spectrometric data also showed that the chaperone inhibitor peptide αA66-80 accumulates in HBO-treated guinea pig lens. Following incubation of synthetic chaperone inhibitor peptide αA66-80 with α-crystallin from guinea pig lens extracts, we observed a decreased ability of α-crystallin to inhibit the amorphous aggregation of the target protein alcohol dehydrogenase and the formation of large light scattering aggregates, similar to those we have observed with human α-crystallin and αA66-80 peptide. Further, time-lapse recordings showed that a preformed complex of α-crystallin and αA66-80 attracted additional crystallin molecules to form even larger aggregates. These results demonstrate that LMW peptide–mediated cataract development in aged human lens and in HBO-induced lens opacity in the guinea pig may have common molecular pathways. PMID:25639202

  6. Myricetin is a novel inhibitor of human inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase with anti-leukemia activity

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Huiling; Hu, Qian; Wang, Jingyuan; Liu, Zehui; Wu, Dang; Lu, Weiqiang; Huang, Jin

    2016-09-02

    Human inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (hIMPDH) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo biosynthetic pathway of purine nucleotides, playing crucial roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. Dysregulation of hIMPDH expression and activity have been found in a variety of human cancers including leukemia. In this study, we found that myricetin, a naturally occurring phytochemical existed in berries, wine and tea, was a novel inhibitor of human type 1 and type 2 IMPDH (hIMPDH1/2) with IC{sub 50} values of 6.98 ± 0.22 μM and 4.10 ± 0.14 μM, respectively. Enzyme kinetic analysis using Lineweaver-Burk plot revealed that myricetin is a mix-type inhibitor for hIMPDH1/2. Differential scanning fluorimetry and molecular docking simulation data demonstrate that myricetin is capable of binding with hIMPDH1/2. Myricetin treatment exerts potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on K562 human leukemia cells in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, cytotoxicity of myricetin on K562 cells were markedly attenuated by exogenous addition of guanosine, a salvage pathway of maintaining intracellular pool of guanine nucleotides. Taking together, these results indicate that natural product myricetin exhibits potent anti-leukemia activity by interfering with purine nucleotides biosynthetic pathway through the suppression of hIMPDH1/2 catalytic activity. - Highlights: • Myricetin, a common dietary flavonoid, is a novel inhibitor of hIMPDH1/2. • Myricetin directly binds with hIMPDH1/2 and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of leukemia cells. • The cytotoxicity of myricetin on K562 cells is markedly attenuated by exogenous addition of guanosine.

  7. The Arabidopsis thiamin deficient mutant pale green1 lacks thiamin monophosphate phosphatase of the vitamin B1 biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Wei-Yu; Liao, Jo-Chien; Wang, Hsin-Tzu; Hung, Tzu-Huan; Tseng, Ching-Chih; Chung, Tsui-Yun; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun

    2017-03-27

    Thiamin diphosphate (TPP, vitamin B1) is an essential coenzyme present in all organisms. Animals obtain TPP from their diets, but plants synthesize TPP de novo. We isolated and characterized an Arabidopsis pale green1 (pale1) mutant that contained higher concentrations of thiamin monophosphate (TMP) and less thiamin and TPP than the wild type. Supplementation with thiamin, but not the thiazole and pyrimidine precursors, rescued the mutant phenotype, indicating that the pale1 mutant is a thiamin-deficient mutant. Map-based cloning and whole-genome sequencing revealed that the pale1 mutant has a mutation in At5g32470 encoding a TMP phosphatase of the TPP biosynthesis pathway. We further confirmed that the mutation of At5g32470 is responsible for the mutant phenotypes by complementing the pale1 mutant with constructs overexpressing full-length At5g32470. Most plant TPP biosynthetic enzymes are located in the chloroplasts and cytosol, but At5g32470-GFP localized to the mitochondrion of the root, hypocotyl, mesophyll, and guard cells of the 35S:At5g32470-GFP complemented plants. The subcellular localization of a functional TMP phosphatase suggests that the complete vitamin B1 biosynthesis pathway may involve the chloroplasts, mitochondria and cytosol in plants. Analysis of PALE1 promoter-GUS activity revealed that PALE1 is mainly expressed in vascular tissues of Arabidopsis seedlings. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of TPP biosynthesis genes and genes encoding the TPP-dependent enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and transketolase revealed that the transcript levels of these genes were up-regulated in the pale1 mutant. These results suggest that endogenous levels of TPP may affect the expression of genes involved in TPP biosynthesis and TPP-dependent enzymes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. p210 Bcr-Abl confers overexpression of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase : an intrinsic pathway to drug resistance mediated by oncogene.

    SciTech Connect

    Gharehbaghi, K.; Burgess, G. S.; Collart, F. R.; Litz-Jackson, S.; Huberman, E.; Jayaram, H. N.; Boswell, H. S.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Lab. for Experimental Oncology; Indiana Univ. School of Medicine

    1994-01-01

    The p210 bcr-abl fusion protein tyrosine kinase oncogene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL). Specific intracellular functions performed by p210 bcr-abl have recently been delineated. We considered the possibility that p210 bcr-abl may also regulate the abundance of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) which is a rate-limiting enzyme for de novo guanylate synthesis. We performed studies of the inhibition of IMPDH by tiazofurin, which acts as a competitive inhibitor through its active species that mimics nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), i.e. thiazole-4-carboxamide adenine dinucleotide (TAD). The mean inhibitory concentration (IC50) of tiazofurin for cellular proliferation inhibition was 2.3-2.8-fold greater in cells expressing p210 bcr-abl than in their corresponding parent cells proliferating under the influence of growth factors or in growth factor-independent derivative cells not expressing detectable p210 bcr-abl. IMPDH activity was 1.5-2.3-fold greater within cells expressing p210 bcr-abl than in their parent cells. This increase in enzyme activity was a result of 2-fold increased IMPDH protein as determined by immunoblotting. In addition, an increase in the Km value for NAD utilization by IMPDH was observed in p210 bcr-abl transformed cells, but this increase was within the range of resident NAD concentrations observed in the cells. Increased IMPDH protein in p210 bcr-abl transformed cells was traced to an increased level of IMP dehydrogenase II messenger RNA. Thus, regulation of IMPDH gene expression is mediated at least in part by the bcr-abl gene product and may therefore be indicative of a specific mechanism of intrinsic resistance to tiazofurin.

  9. Curcumin inhibits aerobic glycolysis in hepatic stellate cells associated with activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Lian, Naqi; Jin, Huanhuan; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Li; Shao, Jiangjuan; Lu, Yin; Zheng, Shizhong

    2016-07-01

    Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is characterized by expression of extracellular matrix and loss of adipogenic phenotype during liver fibrogenesis. Emerging evidence suggests that HSCs adopt aerobic glycolysis during activation. The present work aimed at investigating whether the anti-fibrogenic effects of curcumin was associated with interfering with glycolysis in HSCs. Primary rat HSCs were cultured in vitro. We demonstrated that inhibition of glycolysis by 2-deoxyglucose or galloflavin reduced the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and α1(I)procollagen at both mRNA and protein levels, and increased the intracellular lipid contents and upregulated the gene and protein expression of adipogenic transcription factors C/EBPα and PPAR-γ in HSCs. Curcumin at 20 μM produced similar effects. Moreover, curcumin decreased the expression of hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase-2 (PFK2), and glucose transporter 4 (glut4), three key glycolytic parameters, at both mRNA and protein levels. Curcumin also reduced lactate production concentration-dependently in HSCs. Furthermore, curcumin increased the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), but AMPK inhibitor BML-275 significantly abolished the curcumin downregulation of HK, PFK2, and glut4. In addition, curcumin inhibition of α-SMA and α1(I)procollagen was rescued by BML-275, and curcumin upregulation of C/EBPα and PPAR-γ was abrogated by BML-275. These results collectively indicated that curcumin inhibited glycolysis in an AMPK activation-dependent manner in HSCs. We revealed a novel mechanism for curcumin suppression of HSC activation implicated in antifibrotic therapy. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(7):589-596, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. Neuroprotective effect of activated 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase on cone system function during retinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kamoshita, Mamoru; Fujinami, Kaoru; Toda, Eriko; Tsubota, Kazuo; Ozawa, Yoko

    2016-06-10

    Retinal inflammation can cause retinal neural disorders. In particular, functional disorder in the cone photoreceptor system influences visual acuity. However, the underlying mechanism is not yet fully understood. In this study, we evaluated cone system function and the role of 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) during retinal inflammation. Six to eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice received an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce retinal inflammation, and were treated with an AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR; 250 mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline as vehicle 3 h before the LPS injection. The b-wave of the photopic electroretinogram, which represents cone system function, was decreased 24 h after LPS injection and this reduction was suppressed by AICAR treatment. At this time point, there was no remarkable morphological change in the cone photoreceptor cells. At 1.5 h after LPS injection, the retina mRNA levels of an inflammatory cytokine, Tnf-α, were increased, and those of a regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, Pgc1-α, were decreased. However, AICAR treatment suppressed these changes in mRNA expression. Immunohistochemistry showed that induction of glial fibrillary acidic protein expression was also suppressed by AICAR 24 h after LPS injection. Furthermore, the mouse cone photoreceptor-derived cell line 661W was treated with AICAR to increase the level of phosphorylated and activated AMPK. After 3 h of AICAR incubation, 661W cells showed decreased Tnf-α mRNA levels and increased Pgc1-α mRNA levels. AMPK activation has a neuroprotective effect on cone system function during inflammation, and the effect may, at least in part, involve the regulation of inflammatory cytokines and mitochondrial condition.

  11. Intraventricular injection of agents that enhance cyclic adenosine monophosphate formation leads to inhibition of proestrous luteinizing hormone surge in rats.

    PubMed

    Taleisnik, S; Haymal, B; Caligaris, L

    1993-09-01

    The effect of increasing hypothalamic levels of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) on the preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) and ovulation was studied in cycling rats. Animals hearing chronically implanted guiding cannulae into the third ventricle were injected with agents known to enhance the cellular levels of cAMP. Hourly blood samples from the unanesthetized, unrestrained rats were obtained between 11.00 and 17.00 h through a plastic cannula inserted into the jugular vein. Intraventricular injections of serotonin (7.5 mg/ml; 2 microliters) in the morning of proestrous blocked the preovulatory surge of LH and ovulation. This effect was assigned to an increased neuronal level of cAMP because it was prevented by a serum anti-cAMP. Third-ventricle injections of 2 microliters of forskolin (0.5 mmol/l), guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate)(2 mmol/l) or dibutyryl-cAMP (1 mmol/l) at 11.00 h on the day of proestrus mimicked the inhibitory effect of serotonin on the proestrous release of LH. It is suggested that serotonin inhibits LH surge by acting directly on LH-releasing hormone neurons and/or on neurons that provide inputs to these neurons involving cAMP as a second messenger. Neurons releasing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) may serve as interneurons sensitive to serotonin, as well as to cAMP, inasmuch as the inhibitory effect of forskolin on the release of LH was partially blocked by the GABA antagonists, picrotoxin and bicuculline.

  12. Role of activation of 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in gastric ulcer healing in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Baraka, Azza M; Deif, Maha M

    2011-01-01

    The potential utility of 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-activating agents, such as metformin, in inducing angiogenesis, could be a promising approach to promote healing of gastric ulcers complicated by diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of a drug that activates AMPK, namely metformin, in gastric ulcer healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Forty male Wistar albino rats were made diabetic by intraperitoneal (i.p.) streptozotocin injection and 10 rats were injected i.p. by a single dose of physiological saline. Six weeks following streptozotocin or saline injection, gastric ulcers were induced by serosal application of acetic acid. Three days after acetic acid application, rats were divided into group 1 (nondiabetic control), group 2 (streptozotocin-injected rats), groups 3-5 (streptozotocin-injected rats treated with metformin or metformin and an inhibitor of AMPK, namely compound C or pioglitazone) for 7 days following acetic acid application. Administration of metformin, but not pioglitazone, resulted in a significant decrease in the gastric ulcer area, a significant increase in epithelial regeneration assessed histologically, a significant increase in the number of microvessels in the ulcer margin, a significant increase in gastric vascular endothelial growth factor concentration and gastric von Willebrand factor as well as a significant increase in gastric phospho-AMPK. Compound C, an inhibitor of AMPK, blocked metformin-induced changes in assessed parameters suggesting that the effect of metformin was mediated mainly through activation of AMPK. Our results suggest the feasibility of a novel treatment strategy, namely drugs activating AMPK, for patients in whom impairment of ulcer healing constitutes a secondary complication of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Unhydrolyzable analogues of adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate demonstrating growth inhibition and differentiation in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yokozaki, H; Tortora, G; Pepe, S; Maronde, E; Genieser, H G; Jastorff, B; Cho-Chung, Y S

    1992-05-01

    A set of adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP) analogues that combine exocyclic sulfur substitutions in the equatorial (Rp) or the axial (Sp) position of the cyclophosphate ring with modifications in the adenine base of cAMP were tested for their effect on the growth of HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells and LS-174T human colon carcinoma cells. Both diasteromeres of the phosphorothioate derivatives were growth inhibitory, exhibiting a concentration inhibiting 50% of cell proliferation of 3-100 microM. Among the analogues tested, Rp-8-Cl-cAMPS and Sp-8-Br-cAMPS were the two most potent. Rp-8-Cl-cAMPS was 5- to 10-fold less potent than 8-Cl-cAMP while Sp-8-Br-cAMPS was approximately 6-fold more potent than 8-Br-cAMP. The growth inhibition was not due to a block in a specific phase of the cell cycle or due to cytotoxicity. Rp-8-Cl-cAMPS enhanced its growth-inhibitory effect when added together with 8-Cl-cAMP and increased differentiation in combination with N6-benzyl-cAMP. The binding kinetics data showed that these Sp and Rp modifications brought about a greater decrease in affinity for Site B than for Site A of RI (the regulatory subunit of type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase) and a substantial decrease of affinity for Site A of RII (the regulatory subunit of type II protein kinase) but only a small decrease in affinity for Site B of RII, indicating the importance of the Site B binding of RII in the growth-inhibitory effect. These results show that the phosphorothioate analogues of cAMP are useful tools to investigate the mechanism of action of cAMP in growth control and differentiation and may have practical implication in the suppression of malignancy.

  14. Analysis of nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling during metamorphosis of the nudibranch Phestilla sibogae Bergh (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia)

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Cory D.; Pires, Anthony; Norby, Shong-Wan; Boudko, Dmitri; Moroz, Leonid L.; Hadfield, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The gas nitric oxide (NO), and in some cases its downstream second messenger, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) function in different taxa to regulate the timing of life-history transitions. Increased taxonomic sampling is required to foster conclusions about the evolution and function of NO/cGMP signaling during life-history transitions. We report on the function and localization of NO and cGMP signaling during metamorphosis of the nudibranch Phestilla sibogae. Pharmacological manipulation of NO or cGMP production in larvae modulated responses to a natural settlement cue from the coral Porites compressa in a manner that suggest inhibitory function for NO/cGMP signaling. However, these treatments were not sufficient to induce metamorphosis in the absence of cue, a result unique to this animal. We show that induction of metamorphosis in response to the settlement cue is associated with a reduction in NO production. We documented the expression of putative NO synthase (NOS) and the production of cGMP during larval development and observed no larval cells in which NOS and cGMP were both detected. The production of cGMP in a bilaterally symmetrical group of cells fated to occupy the distal tip of rhinophores is correlated with competence to respond to the coral settlement cue. These results suggest that endogenous NO and cGMP are involved in modulating responses of P. sibogae to a natural settlement cue. We discuss these results with respect to habitat selection and larval ecology. PMID:18460091

  15. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent mechanisms induce von Willebrand factor expression in the Dami megakaryoblastic cell line.

    PubMed

    Deguine, V; Kerbiriou-Nabias, D; Lecoq, D; Greenberg, S M; Meyer, D; Dosne, A M

    1995-02-01

    It has been proposed that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is involved in the differentiation of several cell types and this study analysed whether von Willebrand factor (vWf) synthesis, which is a marker of the megakaryocyte maturation of these cells, would be enhanced by agents acting on cAMP formation. Different compounds known to stimulate cAMP accumulation in cells were used: dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP), isobutyl-methylxanthine (IBMX) or pentoxifylline (PTX) and forskolin. Treatments with db-cAMP or IBMX (10-1,000 microM) induced a dose-dependent increase in vWf synthesis. Associations of IBMX with forskolin produced a synergistic enhancement in vWf synthesis. PTX alone did not enhance vWf synthesis but a latent effect was revealed in the presence of forskolin or db-cAMP. The increase in vWf mRNA shown by Northern blot analysis demonstrates that the protein synthesis correlates with the transcript expression after db-cAMP or IBMX treatments. vWf synthesis paralleled the accumulation of cAMP in the cells. Moreover vWf expression induced by combination of IBMX with forskolin was associated with a moderate increase in the percentage of GPIIb/IIIa positive cells and in the ploidy level related to an important inhibition of cell growth. These data provide evidence that agents acting on cAMP metabolism induce vWf synthesis in the Dami megakaryoblastic cells.

  16. Effect of electromagnetic field on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in a human mu-opioid receptor cell model.

    PubMed

    Ross, Christina L; Teli, Thaleia; Harrison, Benjamin S

    2016-01-01

    During the cell communication process, endogenous and exogenous signaling affect normal as well as pathological developmental conditions. Exogenous influences such as extra-low-frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) have been shown to effect pain and inflammation by modulating G-protein receptors, down-regulating cyclooxygenase-2 activity, and affecting the calcium/calmodulin/nitric oxide pathway. Investigators have reported changes in opioid receptors and second messengers, such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), in opiate tolerance and dependence by showing how repeated exposure to morphine decreases adenylate cyclase activity causing cAMP to return to control levels in the tolerant state, and increase above control levels during withdrawal. Resonance responses to biological systems using exogenous EMF signals suggest that frequency response characteristics of the target can determine the EMF biological response. In our past research we found significant down regulation of inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) using 5 Hz EMF frequency. In this study cAMP was stimulated in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells transfected with human mu-opioid receptors, then exposed to 5 Hz EMF, and outcomes were compared with morphine treatment. Results showed a 23% greater inhibition of cAMP-treating cells with EMF than with morphine. In order to test our results for frequency specific effects, we ran identical experiments using 13 Hz EMF, which produced results similar to controls. This study suggests the use of EMF as a complementary or alternative treatment to morphine that could both reduce pain and enhance patient quality of life without the side-effects of opiates.

  17. Estradiol regulation of hypothalamic astrocyte adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase activity: role of hindbrain catecholamine signaling.

    PubMed

    Tamrakar, Pratistha; Briski, Karen P

    2015-01-01

    Recent work challenges the conventional notion that metabolic monitoring in the brain is the exclusive function of neurons. This study investigated the hypothesis that hypothalamic astrocytes express the ultra-sensitive energy gauge adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and that the ovarian hormone estradiol (E) controls activation of this sensor by insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH). E- or oil (O)-implanted ovariectomized (OVX) rats were pretreated by caudal fourth ventricular administration of the catecholamine neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) prior to sc insulin or vehicle injection. Individual astrocytes identified in situ by glial fibrillary acidic protein immunolabeling were laser-microdissected from the ventromedial (VMH), arcuate (ARH), and paraventricular (PVH) nuclei and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), and pooled within each site for Western blot analysis of AMPK and phosphoAMPK (pAMPK) protein expression. In the VMH, baseline astrocyte AMPK and pAMPK levels were respectively increased or decreased in OVX+E versus OVX+O; these profiles did not differ between E and O rats in other hypothalamic loci. In E animals, astrocyte AMPK protein was reduced [VMH] or augmented [PVH; LHA] in response to either 6-OHDA or IIH. IIH increased astrocyte pAMPK expression in each structure in vehicle-, but not 6-OHDA-pretreated E rats. Results provide novel evidence for hypothalamic astrocyte AMPK expression and hindbrain catecholamine-dependent activation of this cell-specific sensor by hypoglycemia in the presence of estrogen. Further research is needed to determine the role of astrocyte AMPK in reactivity of these glia to metabolic imbalance and contribution to restoration of neuro-metabolic stability.

  18. Covalent modification of Lys19 in the CTP binding site of cytidine 5'-monophosphate N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Tullius, M. V.; Vann, W. F.; Gibson, B. W.

    1999-01-01

    Periodate oxidized CTP (oCTP) was used to investigate the importance of lysine residues in the CTP binding site of the cytidine 5'-monophosphate N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-NeuAc) synthetase (EC 2.7.7.43) from Haemophilus ducreyi. The reaction of oCTP with the enzyme follows pseudo-first-order saturation kinetics, giving a maximum rate of inactivation of 0.6 min(-1) and a K(I) of 6.0 mM at pH 7.1. Mass spectrometric analysis of the modified enzyme provided data that was consistent with beta-elimination of triphosphate after the reaction of oCTP with the enzyme. A fully reduced enzyme-oCTP conjugate, retaining the triphosphate moiety, was obtained by inclusion of NaBH3CN in the reaction solution. The beta-elimination product of oCTP reacted several times more rapidly with the enzyme compared to equivalent concentrations of oCTP. This compound also formed a stable reduced morpholino adduct with CMP-NeuAc synthetase when the reaction was conducted in the presence of NaBH3CN, and was found to be a useful lysine modifying reagent. The substrate CTP was capable of protecting the enzyme to a large degree from inactivation by oCTP and its beta-elimination product. Lys19, a residue conserved in CMP-NeuAc synthetases, was identified as being labeled with the beta-elimination product of oCTP. PMID:10091669

  19. Crystallographic study of Glu58Ala RNase T1 x 2'-guanosine monophosphate at 1.9-A resolution.

    PubMed

    Pletinckx, J; Steyaert, J; Zegers, I; Choe, H W; Heinemann, U; Wyns, L

    1994-02-22

    Glu58 is known to participate in phosphodiester transesterification catalyzed by the enzyme RNase T1. For Glu58 RNase T1, an altered mechanism has been proposed in which His40 replaces Glu58 as the base catalyst [Steyaert, J., Hallenga, K., Wyns, L., & Stanssens, P. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 9064-9072]. Glu58Ala Rnase T1 has been cocrystallized with guanosine 2'-monophosphate (2'-GMP). The crystals are of space group P2(1), with one molecule per asymmetric unit (a = 32.44 A, b = 49.64 A, c = 26.09 A, beta = 99.17 degrees). The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined to a nominal resolution of 1.9 A, yielding a crystallographic R factor of 0.178 for all X-ray data. Comparison of this structure with wild-type structures leads to the following conclusions. The minor changes apparent in the tertiary structure can be explained by either the mutation of Glu58 or by the change in the space group. In the active site, the extra space available through the mutation of Glu58 is occupied by the phosphate group (after a reorientation) and by a solvent molecule replacing a carboxylate oxygen of Glu58. This solvent molecule is a candidate for participation in the altered mechanism of this mutant enzyme. Following up on a study of conserved water sites in RNase T1 crystallized in space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) [Malin, R., Zielenkiewicz, P., & Saenger, W. (1991) J. Mol. Biol. 266, 4848-4852], we investigated the hydration structure for four different packing modes of RNase T1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Airway administration of dexamethasone, 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate, and isobutylmethylxanthine facilitates compensatory lung growth in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Izumi, Yotaro; Kohno, Mitsutomo; Kawamura, Masafumi; Ikeda, Eiji; Nomori, Hiroaki

    2011-03-01

    The combination of dexamethasone, 8-bromo-3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate, and isobutylmethylxanthine, referred to as DCI, has been reported to optimally induce cell differentiation in fetal lung explants and type II epithelial cells. DCI administration is also known to modulate the expression levels of many genes known to be involved in the facilitation of lung growth. Recently, we found that RNA silencing of thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) delayed compensatory lung growth. DCI is also known to induce TTF-1 expression in pulmonary epithelial cells. From these findings, we hypothesized that DCI administration may facilitate compensatory lung growth. In the present study, using a postpneumonectomy lung growth model in 9-wk-old male mice, we found that compensatory lung growth was significantly facilitated by airway administration of DCI immediately following left pneumonectomy, as indicated by the increase in the residual right lung dry weight index. TTF-1 expression was significantly elevated by DCI administration, and transient knockdown of TTF-1 attenuated the facilitation of compensatory lung growth by DCI. These results suggested that DCI facilitated compensatory lung growth, at least in part, through the induction of TTF-1. Morphological analyses suggested that DCI administration increased the number of alveoli, made each of them smaller, and produced a net increase in the calculated surface area of the alveoli per volume of lung. The effect of a single administration was maintained during the observation period, which was 28 days. DCI with further modifications may provide the material to potentially augment residual lung function after resection.

  1. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators for the prevention, treatment and potential reversal of pathological pain

    PubMed Central

    Price, Theodore J.; Das, Vaskar; Dussor, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Pathological pain is an enormous medical problem that places a significant burden on patients and can result from an injury that has long since healed or be due to an unidentifiable cause. Although treatments exist, they often either lack efficacy or have intolerable side effects. More importantly, they do not reverse the changes in the nervous system mediating pathological pain, and thus symptoms often return when therapies are discontinued. Consequently, novel therapies are urgently needed that have both improved efficacy and disease-modifying properties. Here we highlight an emerging target for novel pain therapies, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is capable of regulating a variety of cellular processes including protein translation, activity of other kinases, and mitochondrial metabolism, many of which are thought to contribute to pathological pain. Consistent with these properties, preclinical studies show positive, and in some cases disease-modifying effects of either pharmacological activation or genetic regulation of AMPK in models of nerve injury, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), postsurgical pain, inflammatory pain, and diabetic neuropathy. Given the AMPK-activating ability of metformin, a widely prescribed and well-tolerated drug, these preclinical studies provide a strong rationale for both retrospective and prospective human pain trials with this drug. They also argue for the development of novel AMPK activators, whether orthosteric, allosteric, or modulators of events upstream of the kinase. Together, this review will present the case for AMPK as a novel therapeutic target for pain and will discuss future challenges in the path toward development of AMPK-based pain therapeutics. PMID:26521775

  2. Alteration of sodium, potassium-adenosine triphosphatase activity in rabbit ciliary processes by cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Delamere, N.A.; Socci, R.R.; King, K.L. )

    1990-10-01

    The response of sodium, potassium-adenosine triphosphatase (Na,K-ATPase) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase was examined in membranes obtained from rabbit iris-ciliary body. In the presence of the protein kinase together with 10(-5) M cAMP, Na,K-ATPase activity was reduced. No change in Na,K-ATPase activity was detected in response to the protein kinase without added cAMP. Likewise cAMP alone did not alter Na,K-ATPase activity. Reduction of Na,K-ATPase activity was also observed in the presence of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. The response of the enzyme to the kinase catalytic subunit was also examined in membranes obtained from rabbit ciliary processes. In the presence of 8 micrograms/ml of the catalytic subunit, ciliary process Na,K-ATPase activity was reduced by more than 50%. To examine whether other ATPases were suppressed by the protein kinase, calcium-stimulated ATPase activity was examined; its activity was stimulated by the catalytic subunit. To test whether the response of the ciliary process Na,K-ATPase is unique, experiments were also performed using membrane preparations from rabbit lens epithelium or rabbit kidney; the catalytic subunit significantly reduced the activity of Na,K-ATPase from the kidney but not the lens. These Na,K-ATPase studies suggest that in the iris-ciliary body, cAMP may alter sodium pump activity. In parallel 86Rb uptake studies, we observed that ouabain-inhibitable potassium uptake by intact pieces of iris-ciliary body was reduced by exogenous dibutryl cAMP or by forskolin.

  3. Carnosine, anserine, creatine, and inosine 5'-monophosphate contents in breast and thigh meats from 5 lines of Korean native chicken.

    PubMed

    Jung, Samooel; Bae, Young Sik; Kim, Hyun Joo; Jayasena, Dinesh D; Lee, Jun Heon; Park, Hee Bok; Heo, Kang Nyung; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chicken line on the contents of endogenous compounds, including carnosine, anserine, creatine, and inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), in breast and thigh meats from 5 lines of Korean native chicken for the development of high-quality meat breeds. Additionally, the effects of sex (male or female) and meat type (breast or thigh meat) were examined. In total, 595 F1 progeny [black: 90 (male: 45, female: 45); gray-brown: 110 (male: 52, female: 58); red-brown: 136 (male: 68, female: 68); white: 126 (male: 63, female: 63); and yellow-brown: 133 (male: 62, female: 71)] from 70 full-sib families were used. The male chicken from the red-brown line and the female chicken from the black line showed the highest BW among the 5 lines. Carnosine content was higher in female chicken and breast meat than in male chicken and thigh meat, respectively. Breast meat contained higher anserine content compared with thigh meat. The sex effect on anserine was not consistent between breast and thigh meat. Creatine content was not consistently influenced by sex between breast and thigh meat, and no meat type effect was observed. The IMP contents were higher in female chicken and breast meat compared with male chicken and thigh meat, respectively. In addition, we clearly observed line effects by the comparison of the contents of carnosine, anserine, creatine, and IMP for each meat type according to each sex. These data are useful for selection and development of high-quality, meat-type chicken breeds.

  4. Thiamine diphosphate in whole blood, thiamine and thiamine monophosphate in breast-milk in a refugee population.

    PubMed

    Stuetz, Wolfgang; Carrara, Verena Ilona; McGready, Rose; Lee, Sue Jean; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Nosten, François Henry

    2012-01-01

    The provision of high doses of thiamine may prevent thiamine deficiency in the post-partum period of displaced persons. The study aimed to evaluate a supplementation regimen of thiamine mononitrate (100 mg daily) at the antenatal clinics in Maela refugee camp. Women were enrolled during antenatal care and followed after delivery. Samples were collected at 12 weeks post partum. Thiamine diphosphate (TDP) in whole blood and thiamine in breast-milk of 636 lactating women were measured. Thiamine in breast-milk consisted of thiamine monophosphate (TMP) in addition to thiamine, with a mean TMP to total thiamine ratio of 63%. Mean whole blood TDP (130 nmol/L) and total thiamine in breast-milk (755 nmol/L) were within the upper range reported for well-nourished women. The prevalence of women with low whole blood TDP (<65 nmol/L) was 5% and with deficient breast-milk total thiamine (<300 nmol/L) was 4%. Whole blood TDP predicted both breast-milk thiamine and TMP (R(2) = 0.36 and 0.10, p<0.001). A ratio of TMP to total thiamine ≥63% was associated with a 7.5 and 4-fold higher risk of low whole blood TDP and deficient total breast-milk thiamine, respectively. Routine provision of daily 100 mg of thiamine mononitrate post-partum compared to the previous weekly 10 mg of thiamine hydrochloride resulted in significantly higher total thiamine in breast-milk. Thiamine supplementation for lactating women in Maela refugee camp is effective and should be continued. TMP and its ratio to total thiamine in breast-milk, reported for the first time in this study, provided useful information on thiamine status and should be included in future studies of breast-milk thiamine.

  5. Thiamine Diphosphate in Whole Blood, Thiamine and Thiamine Monophosphate in Breast-Milk in a Refugee Population

    PubMed Central

    Stuetz, Wolfgang; Carrara, Verena Ilona; McGready, Rose; Lee, Sue Jean; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Nosten, François Henry

    2012-01-01

    Background The provision of high doses of thiamine may prevent thiamine deficiency in the post-partum period of displaced persons. Methodology/Principal Findings The study aimed to evaluate a supplementation regimen of thiamine mononitrate (100 mg daily) at the antenatal clinics in Maela refugee camp. Women were enrolled during antenatal care and followed after delivery. Samples were collected at 12 weeks post partum. Thiamine diphosphate (TDP) in whole blood and thiamine in breast-milk of 636 lactating women were measured. Thiamine in breast-milk consisted of thiamine monophosphate (TMP) in addition to thiamine, with a mean TMP to total thiamine ratio of 63%. Mean whole blood TDP (130 nmol/L) and total thiamine in breast-milk (755 nmol/L) were within the upper range reported for well-nourished women. The prevalence of women with low whole blood TDP (<65 nmol/L) was 5% and with deficient breast-milk total thiamine (<300 nmol/L) was 4%. Whole blood TDP predicted both breast-milk thiamine and TMP (R2 = 0.36 and 0.10, p<0.001). A ratio of TMP to total thiamine ≥63% was associated with a 7.5 and 4-fold higher risk of low whole blood TDP and deficient total breast-milk thiamine, respectively. Routine provision of daily 100 mg of thiamine mononitrate post-partum compared to the previous weekly 10 mg of thiamine hydrochloride resulted in significantly higher total thiamine in breast-milk. Conclusions/Significance Thiamine supplementation for lactating women in Maela refugee camp is effective and should be continued. TMP and its ratio to total thiamine in breast-milk, reported for the first time in this study, provided useful information on thiamine status and should be included in future studies of breast-milk thiamine. PMID:22768031

  6. In vitro study of DNA adduct 8-OHDG formation from 2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-monophosphate with benzene through Fenton reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiawan, Erlindah, R.; Handayani, S.; Dani, I. C.

    2017-07-01

    Carcinogenic compounds from air pollution such as benzene could tend to generate free radicals and lead to DNA-radicals interaction producing 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage. This research was conducted by reacting DNA base 2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-monophosphate (dGMP) with benzene in the variation of temperature 37 °C and 60 °C, variation of pH 7.4 and 8.4 during 5 hours of incubation time, and in the variation of Fe(II) and H2O2 as reagent of Fenton reaction. The result of adduct was analyzed by using HPLC reversed phase with UV detector at a wavelength 254 nm. In this research, the retention time of dGMP standard was measured at 7.3 minutes and 8-OHdG was measured at 9.0 minutes. The formation of 8-OHdG from dGMP and benzene interaction in addition of Fe(II) at pH 8.4 and temperature 60 °C were higher than their interaction in the condition of pH 7.4 and temperature 37 °C. The presence of hydrogen peroxide under incubation condition at pH 8.4 and at temperature 60 °C can trigger the higher formation of 8-OHdG compared to the incubation condition at pH 7.4 and temperature 37 °C.

  7. Impact of Subunit Composition on the Uptake of α-Crystallin by Lens and Retina.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Niklaus H; Fogueri, Uma; Pedler, Michelle G; Montana, Kameron; Petrash, J Mark; Ammar, David A

    2015-01-01

    Misfolded protein aggregation, including cataract, cause a significant amount of blindness worldwide. α-Crystallin is reported to bind misfolded proteins and prevent their aggregation. We hypothesize that supplementing retina and lens with α-crystallin may help to delay disease onset. The purpose of this study was to determine if αB-crystallin subunits containing a cell penetration peptide (gC-tagged αB-crystallin) facilitate the uptake of wild type αA-crystallin (WT-αA) in lens and retina. Recombinant human αB-crystallin was modified by the addition of a novel cell penetration peptide derived from the gC gene product of herpes simplex virus (gC-αB). Recombinant gC-αB and wild-type αA-crystallin (WT-αA) were purified from E. coli over-expression cultures. After Alexa-labeling of WT-αA, these proteins were mixed at ratios of 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10, respectively, and incubated at 37°C for 4 hours to allow for subunit exchange. Mixed oligomers were subsequently incubated with tissue culture cells or mouse organ cultures. Similarly, crystallin mixtures were injected into the vitreous of rat eyes. At various times after exposure, tissues were harvested and analyzed for protein uptake by confocal microscopy or flow cytometry. Chaperone-like activity assays were performed on α-crystallins ratios showing optimal uptake using chemically-induced or heat induced substrate aggregation assays. As determined by flow cytometry, a ratio of 1:5 for gC-αB to WT-αA was found to be optimal for uptake into retinal pigmented epithelial cells (ARPE-19). Chaperone-like activity assays demonstrated that hetero-oligomeric complex of gC-αB to WT-αA (in 1:5 ratio) retained protein aggregation protection. We observed a significant increase in protein uptake when optimized (gC-αB to WT-αA (1:5 ratio)) hetero-oligomers were used in mouse lens and retinal organ cultures. Increased levels of α-crystallin were found in lens and retina following intravitreal injection of homo- and

  8. Improved Magnetostrictive Transducer Drive Elements Achieved by Reduction of Crystalline Defects and Improved Crystalline Orientation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-29

    complete line of commercially available flextensional transducers based on TERFENOL-D. Although ETREMA TERFENOL-DO is used for the drive elements in these...Moffett, J.M. Powers, and A.E. Clark; J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol. 90 (2), August 1991, pp. 1184- 3 1185. 13. " Flextensional Transducers Based on TERFENOL... Transducer Drive Elements Achieved by Reduction of Crystalline Defects and Improved Crystalline Orientation (Final Report) IC * A ~DTI PREPARED FOR: Office

  9. Organization and mobility of water in amorphous and crystalline trehalose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilburn, Duncan; Townrow, Sam; Meunier, Vincent; Richardson, Robert; Alam, Ashraf; Ubbink, Job

    2006-08-01

    The disaccharide trehalose is accumulated by microorganisms, such as yeasts, and multicellular organisms, such as tardigrades, when conditions of extreme drought occur. In this way these organisms can withstand dehydration through the formation of an intracellular carbohydrate glass, which, with its high viscosity and hydrogen-bonding interactions, stabilizes and protects the integrity of complex biological structures and molecules. This property of trehalose can also be harnessed in the stabilization of liposomes, proteins and in the preservation of red blood cells, but the underlying mechanism of bioprotection is not yet fully understood. Here we use positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy to probe the free volume of trehalose matrices; specifically, we develop a molecular picture of the organization and mobility of water in both amorphous and crystalline states. Whereas in amorphous matrices, water increases the average intermolecular hole size, in the crystalline dihydrate it is organized as a confined one-dimensional fluid in channels of fixed diameter that allow activated diffusion of water in and out of the crystallites. We present direct real-time evidence of water molecules unloading reversibly from these channels, thereby acting as both a sink and a source of water in low-moisture systems. We postulate that this behaviour may provide the overall stability required to keep organisms viable through dehydration conditions.

  10. Cellulose crystallinity index: measurement techniques and their impact on interpreting cellulase performance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Although measurements of crystallinity index (CI) have a long history, it has been found that CI varies significantly depending on the choice of measurement method. In this study, four different techniques incorporating X-ray diffraction and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were compared using eight different cellulose preparations. We found that the simplest method, which is also the most widely used, and which involves measurement of just two heights in the X-ray diffractogram, produced significantly higher crystallinity values than did the other methods. Data in the literature for the cellulose preparation used (Avicel PH-101) support this observation. We believe that the alternative X-ray diffraction (XRD) and NMR methods presented here, which consider the contributions from amorphous and crystalline cellulose to the entire XRD and NMR spectra, provide a more accurate measure of the crystallinity of cellulose. Although celluloses having a high amorphous content are usually more easily digested by enzymes, it is unclear, based on studies published in the literature, whether CI actually provides a clear indication of the digestibility of a cellulose sample. Cellulose accessibility should be affected by crystallinity, but is also likely to be affected by several other parameters, such as lignin/hemicellulose contents and distribution, porosity, and particle size. Given the methodological dependency of cellulose CI values and the complex nature of cellulase interactions with amorphous and crystalline celluloses, we caution against trying to correlate relatively small changes in CI with changes in cellulose digestibility. In addition, the prediction of cellulase performance based on low levels of cellulose conversion may not include sufficient digestion of the crystalline component to be meaningful. PMID:20497524

  11. Cellulose crystallinity index: measurement techniques and their impact on interpreting cellulase performance.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunkyu; Baker, John O; Himmel, Michael E; Parilla, Philip A; Johnson, David K

    2010-05-24

    Although measurements of crystallinity index (CI) have a long history, it has been found that CI varies significantly depending on the choice of measurement method. In this study, four different techniques incorporating X-ray diffraction and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were compared using eight different cellulose preparations. We found that the simplest method, which is also the most widely used, and which involves measurement of just two heights in the X-ray diffractogram, produced significantly higher crystallinity values than did the other methods. Data in the literature for the cellulose preparation used (Avicel PH-101) support this observation. We believe that the alternative X-ray diffraction (XRD) and NMR methods presented here, which consider the contributions from amorphous and crystalline cellulose to the entire XRD and NMR spectra, provide a more accurate measure of the crystallinity of cellulose. Although celluloses having a high amorphous content are usually more easily digested by enzymes, it is unclear, based on studies published in the literature, whether CI actually provides a clear indication of the digestibility of a cellulose sample. Cellulose accessibility should be affected by crystallinity, but is also likely to be affected by several other parameters, such as lignin/hemicellulose contents and distribution, porosity, and particle size. Given the methodological dependency of cellulose CI values and the complex nature of cellulase interactions with amorphous and crystalline celluloses, we caution against trying to correlate relatively small changes in CI with changes in cellulose digestibility. In addition, the prediction of cellulase performance based on low levels of cellulose conversion may not include sufficient digestion of the crystalline component to be meaningful.

  12. Evolution of crystallins for a role in the vertebrate eye lens

    PubMed Central

    Slingsby, Christine; Wistow, Graeme J; Clark, Alice R

    2013-01-01

    The camera eye lens of vertebrates is a classic example of the re-engineering of existing protein components to fashion a new device. The bulk of the lens is formed from proteins belonging to two superfamilies, the α-crystallins and the βγ-crystallins. Tracing their ancestry may throw light on the origin of the optics of the lens. The α-crystallins belong to the ubiquitous small heat shock proteins family that plays a protective role in cellular homeostasis. They form enormous polydisperse oligomers that challenge modern biophysical methods to uncover the molecular basis of their assembly structure and chaperone-like protein binding function. It is argued that a molecular phenotype of a dynamic assembly suits a chaperone function as well as a structural role in the eye lens where the constraint of preventing protein condensation is paramount. The main cellular partners of α-crystallins, the β- and γ-crystallins, have largely been lost from the animal kingdom but the superfamily is hugely expanded in the vertebrate eye lens. Their structures show how a simple Greek key motif can evolve rapidly to form a complex array of monomers and oligomers. Apart from remaining transparent, a major role of the partnership of α-crystallins with β- and γ-crystallins in the lens is to form a refractive index gradient. Here, we show some of the structural and genetic features of these two protein superfamilies that enable the rapid creation of different assembly states, to match the rapidly changing optical needs among the various vertebrates. PMID:23389822

  13. Cobalt-assisted in situ synthesis of crystalline bismuth nanoparticle arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ho Seok; Noh, Jin-Seo; Suh, Kwang S.

    2014-12-01

    Almost monodisperse, crystalline Bi nanoparticle arrays were synthesized using a newly developed method, magnetically assisted growth of Bi nanoparticles (MAGBINs). The MAGBIN utilizes co-sputtering from Bi and Co targets at an elevated temperature. Crystalline Bi nanoparticles with hexagonal morphology were formed in situ on a Si substrate with a thin surface oxide during this process. The size and density of Bi nanoparticles could be controlled by adjusting the relative powers applied to Bi and Co targets, and they showed opposite trends against the relative powers. Several physical processes such as Co agglomeration, element-selective growth, and Ostwald ripening were proposed to be involved in this Bi nanoparticle growth. The MAGBIN is a facile method to synthesize crystalline Bi nanoparticle arrays, which does not need any chemical agents, complex process, or lithography.

  14. Shaped Ni nanoparticles with an unconventional hcp crystalline structure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chanyeon; Kim, Cheonghee; Lee, Kangtaek; Lee, Hyunjoo

    2014-06-18

    Hourglass-shaped Ni nanoparticles were synthesized with a hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure. The unconventional crystalline structure could be stabilized by intensive utilization of hexadecylamine. The dense organic layer on the surface protected the meta-stable crystalline structure.

  15. Interaction of βA3-Crystallin with Deamidated Mutants of αA- and αB-Crystallins.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Ekta; Hegde, Shylaja; Purushotham, Sangeetha; Deivanayagam, Champion; Srivastava, Om

    2015-01-01

    Interaction among crystallins is required for the maintenance of lens transparency. Deamidation is one of the most common post-translational modifications in crystallins, which results in incorrect interaction and leads to aggregate formation. Various studies have established interaction among the α- and β-crystallins. Here, we investigated the effects of the deamidation of αA- and αB-crystallins on their interaction with βA3-crystallin using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FLIM-FRET) methods. SPR analysis confirmed adherence of WT αA- and WT αB-crystallins