Science.gov

Sample records for monopolies

  1. Monopoly is not the answer.

    PubMed

    Havighurst, Clark C

    2005-01-01

    Certificate-of-need (CON) regulation was originally intended to correct market failures that no longer afflict health care markets. It is ironic that Sujit Choudhry and colleagues now invoke it to deal with situations where, in their view, competition is working altogether too well. Protectionist regulation, long discredited in other areas, is particularly misguided in health care, where health insurance greatly increases the profitability of monopoly and imposes the resulting higher costs on unwilling premium payers. To use cross-subsidies to finance even worthy (let alone unworthy) health care projects is to put public burdens unfairly (regressively) on the backs of working Americans.

  2. Unnatural monopoly: natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Copulos, M.

    1984-07-01

    There appears to be no change in position despite the annual congressional debate over natural gas issues. A fresh look is needed, particularly at the idea that interstate gas pipelines are a natural monopoly that require a government franchise. The Natural Gas Act of 1938 giving the Federal Power Commission jurisdiction over gas pipelines was intended to correct abuses, but resulted in encouraging the pipelines to assume a monopolistic behavior. This was not a serous problem until natural gas prices began rising and shortages appeared due to uneven distribution. The Natural Gas Policy Act reinforced the monopolistic behavior by extending federal controls to the intrastate market. Contract carriage is a remedy that would allow firms and utilities to contract for gas on their own. They would pay pipelines for transport costs only. Competition would increase because there would be new buyers and sellers, and pipelines would have an incentive to seek lower wellhead prices for their contract gas.

  3. Vertical Integration, Monopoly, and the First Amendment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    This paper addresses the relationship between the First Amendment, monopoly of transmission media, and vertical integration of transmission and content provision. A survey of some of the incentives a profit-maximizing transmission monopolist may have with respect to content is followed by a discussion of how vertical integration affects those…

  4. Monopoly Profits: The Market for Taxi Licenses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Presents a case study dealing with open versus closed markets for use in college economics classes. Using the example of the taxi license monopoly in Dublin, Ireland, students examine how theories of supply and demand explain the characteristics of open and closed markets. (AM)

  5. DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY: A Simulation Game on Poverty and Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansoms, An; Geenen, Sara

    2012-01-01

    DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY is a simulation game that allows players to experience how power relations influence the agency of different socioeconomic groups, and how this can induce poverty and inequality. Players alter the original rules of the MONOPOLY board game so that they more accurately reflect social stratification and inequalities in the…

  6. DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY: A Simulation Game on Poverty and Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansoms, An; Geenen, Sara

    2012-01-01

    DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY is a simulation game that allows players to experience how power relations influence the agency of different socioeconomic groups, and how this can induce poverty and inequality. Players alter the original rules of the MONOPOLY board game so that they more accurately reflect social stratification and inequalities in the…

  7. Route Monopolie and Optimal Nonlinear Pricing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tournut, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    To cope with air traffic growth and congested airports, two solutions are apparent on the supply side: 1) use larger aircraft in the hub and spoke system; or 2) develop new routes through secondary airports. An enlarged route system through secondary airports may increase the proportion of route monopolies in the air transport market.The monopoly optimal non linear pricing policy is well known in the case of one dimension (one instrument, one characteristic) but not in the case of several dimensions. This paper explores the robustness of the one dimensional screening model with respect to increasing the number of instruments and the number of characteristics. The objective of this paper is then to link and fill the gap in both literatures. One of the merits of the screening model has been to show that a great varieD" of economic questions (non linear pricing, product line choice, auction design, income taxation, regulation...) could be handled within the same framework.VCe study a case of non linear pricing (2 instruments (2 routes on which the airline pro_ddes customers with services), 2 characteristics (demand of services on these routes) and two values per characteristic (low and high demand of services on these routes)) and we show that none of the conclusions of the one dimensional analysis remain valid. In particular, upward incentive compatibility constraint may be binding at the optimum. As a consequence, they may be distortion at the top of the distribution. In addition to this, we show that the optimal solution often requires a kind of form of bundling, we explain explicitly distortions and show that it is sometimes optimal for the monopolist to only produce one good (instead of two) or to exclude some buyers from the market. Actually, this means that the monopolist cannot fully apply his monopoly power and is better off selling both goods independently.We then define all the possible solutions in the case of a quadratic cost function for a uniform

  8. Extraction of an exhaustible resource by a monopoly

    SciTech Connect

    Moussavian, M.; Samuelson, L.

    1984-06-01

    Hotelling's r-percent rule does not hold for monopoly extractors of durable exhaustible resources. An example with a nondurable resource in which the rule also fails to hold is presented. An economy with a fixed average propensity to save is modelled. The monopoly extractor recognizes that resource extraction, by affecting output and hence capital accumulation, affects future demand. The firm exploits this effect by causing the marginal profitability of extraction to grow faster or slower than the rate of interest, depending upon initial conditions. Conditions are developed under which the growth rate will be less than the interest rate.

  9. Gender Stratified Monopoly: Why Do I Earn Less and Pay More?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stacy L.

    2017-01-01

    A modified version of Monopoly has long been used as a simulation exercise to teach inequality. Versions of Modified Monopoly (MM) have touched on minority status relative to inequality but without an exploration of the complex interaction between minority status and class. This article introduces Gender Stratified Monopoly (GSM), an adaptation…

  10. Local Monopoly in the Newspaper Industry: Some Skepticism about Its Economic Inevitability and Governmental Embrace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Stephen R.

    This is one of several papers presented at a Federal Trade Commission Symposium on Media Concentration. Local newspaper monopolies exist in over 97% of U. S. cities. However, inevitable economic forces are not the only cause of monopoly as some have suggested. Two other contributors to monopoly have been economic practices by daily newspapers and…

  11. Collapse of Monopoly Privilege: From College to University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Soen, Dan; Iram, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the erosion of the monopoly by universities of the higher education system in Israel. The hegemony of the universities, the major player in the academic field, has been shattered by the development of the regional colleges that unsettled the preconceptions concerning the higher education system in Israel, including the…

  12. Using "Monopoly" to Introduce Concepts of Race and Ethnic Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waren, Warren

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I suggest a technique which uses the familiar Parker Brother's game "Monopoly" to introduce core concepts of race and ethnic relations. I offer anecdotes from my classes where an abbreviated version of the game is used as an analog to highlight the sociological concepts of direct institutional discrimination, the legacy of…

  13. Collapse of Monopoly Privilege: From College to University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Soen, Dan; Iram, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the erosion of the monopoly by universities of the higher education system in Israel. The hegemony of the universities, the major player in the academic field, has been shattered by the development of the regional colleges that unsettled the preconceptions concerning the higher education system in Israel, including the…

  14. Factor Demand Theory Under Perfect Competition, Monopoly, and Monopsony,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    MC(p 1,. . . , p , q *) = 0 (13) and -~~~~~~~ > 0. Holding p constant and different iat ing Eq. (13) as an f implicit function yields -~~~\\I...Charles , and C. E. Ferguson , “Factor Demand Elasticity under Monopoly and Monopsony ,” Economica , Vol. 40, May 19-73, pp. 180— 186. -• [5] Sato

  15. The Rules of the Game: Experiencing Global Capitalism on a Monopoly Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Benjamin J.; Cohen, Alexander H.

    2016-01-01

    Sociologists have long recognized the utility of modified forms of Monopoly as tools for teaching about social stratification within the United States. We present an adaptation of Monopoly to help instructors teach students how capitalism plays out in a liberalizing world economy. By taking on roles as CEOs of global companies based in different…

  16. An Accident of History: Breaking the District Monopoly on Public School Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Traditional public school districts hold a monopoly over the financing and ownership of public education facilities. With rare exceptions, public charter schools have no legal claim to these buildings. This monopoly is an accident of history. It would never have developed had there been substantial numbers of other public schools, not supervised…

  17. The Rules of the Game: Experiencing Global Capitalism on a Monopoly Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Benjamin J.; Cohen, Alexander H.

    2016-01-01

    Sociologists have long recognized the utility of modified forms of Monopoly as tools for teaching about social stratification within the United States. We present an adaptation of Monopoly to help instructors teach students how capitalism plays out in a liberalizing world economy. By taking on roles as CEOs of global companies based in different…

  18. Joint Profit Maximization, Negotiation, and the Determinacy of Price in Bilateral Monopoly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truett, Dale B.; Truett, Lila J.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the case of bilateral monopoly in the context of joint profit-maximizing solutions. Asserts that, although bilateral monopoly is sometimes viewed as a theoretical model with few real-world applications, the elements of negotiations it contains form the basis for contracts between input sellers and input buyers. (CFR)

  19. Everything I know about business I learned from monopoly.

    PubMed

    Orbanes, Phil

    2002-03-01

    How do game designers approach their work? Perhaps in the same way that managers should. Here, the author, an expert in board-game design and the world's foremost authority on Monopoly, translates six tenets of game design into management principles. Three tenets focus on giving players the right level of structure. First, design simple and unambiguous rules: That also holds true in business; people engage most when responsibilities, objectives, and evaluation criteria are clear. Second, avoid frustrating the casual player. Just as not every game player aspires to be a grand master, not every employee wants to think like an executive. Third, establish a rhythm so that players know intuitively whether they are at the beginning, middle, or end of the game. Managers can also engineer such shifts of momentum and motivation for workers. Three more principles focus on providing entertainment. The most important is to tune into what's happening off the board. For many people, the real joy of a great game--or a great job--comes from the larger social experience surrounding it. Another key is to offer chances to come from behind. Even struggling employees want to believe, "The odds may be stacked against me, but just one great stroke and I'm right back in it." Finally, managers, like game designers, should provide outlets for latent talents. Games themselves can be useful in the workplace. For instance, an afternoon of game playing builds relationships and increases an organization's social capital. And simulation games can sharpen employees' business judgment. Managers may come to appreciate that games succeed depending on how well designed they are--and that many design challenges have their equivalents in the art of management.

  20. Quasi-State Monopoly of the Education System and Socio-Economic Segregation in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narodowski, Mariano; Gottau, Verónica; Moschetti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the provision of education in Argentina in systemic terms. Using the concept of quasi-monopoly and the notions of exit, voice and loyalty, we study the logic of organization and distribution of students within the educational system. We support the idea that the provision of private and public education makes a coherent whole,…

  1. Diversity of Voice? The FCC's Bright-Line "Anti-Monopoly" Rule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddock, David D.; Polsby, Daniel D.

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has long had rules that prohibit anyone from owning more than one television station in any given location. Two of the stated purposes behind the FCC's anti-monopoly rules are to foster diversity of programming for the sake of First Amendment interests, and to promote programming among media outlets in…

  2. 'Preparing ourselves to become an international organization': Thailand Tobacco Monopoly's regional and global strategies.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Ross; Ross, Hana; Lee, Kelley

    2017-03-01

    The Thailand Tobacco Monopoly (TTM) controlled the country's tobacco industry from its formation in the 1940s, until the government dropped restrictions on imported cigarettes in the late 1980s in response to pressure from the United States. The TTM has since competed with transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) in a semi-monopoly market in which TTCs have steadily increased their market share. Coupled with a decline in national smoking prevalence, the result of Thailand's stringent tobacco control agenda, the TTM now accounts for a diminishing share of a contracting market. In response, the monopoly has looked to regional trade liberalisation, and proximity to markets with some of the world's highest smoking rates to expand its operations. Expansion strategies have gone largely unrealised however, and the TTM effectively remains a domestic operation. Using TTM publications, market and trade reports, industry publications, tobacco industry documents and other resources, this paper analyses TTM expansion strategies, and the limited extent to which they have been achieved. This inability to expand its operations has left the monopoly potentially vulnerable to global strategies of its transnational competitors. This article is part of the special issue 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance'.

  3. An overview of the China National Tobacco Corporation and State Tobacco Monopoly Administration.

    PubMed

    He, Peisen; Takeuchi, Takeaki; Yano, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    China is facing a serious public health problem in active and passive smokers. Confronted with this, China has taken some measures to control tobacco. However, this information has not been surveyed at academic level. Our aim is to investigate information relating to tobacco controls in China. To find information relating to tobacco control, we reviewed and analysed the China National Tobacco Corporation (CNTC) and State Tobacco Monopoly Administration (STMA) mainly by systematic examination of documents made available in the University of California, San Francisco Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and China Tobacco database. Eleven relevant documents met our research purpose, and 18 further relevant documents were found on the CNTC, STMA and Tobacco China database websites. As a result, 29 relevant articles were included in our analysis. We describe the CNTC and STMA's history, structure, and relation to the Chinese Government ministry and to other tobacco companies, and China's tobacco control in detail. The Chinese cigarette market is dominated by a state-owned monopoly, the STMA. Under the protection of the Law of the People's Republic of China on Tobacco Monopoly, the STMA controls all aspects of the tobacco industry. As far as the Chinese tobacco monopoly is concerned, although smoking harms people's health, restraining smoking threatens social stability and government income, which may be more serious problems for any government. China still has a long way to go in creating smoke-free environments.

  4. Revision Cycles for Economics Textbooks: An Application of the Theory of Durable Goods Monopoly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xin

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, I study economics textbook markets as an example of durable goods monopoly. Textbooks are protected by copyrights, and from a student's point of view, different textbooks are not good substitutes because students wish to use the textbook adopted by their instructors. Therefore sellers have market power. Textbooks can be…

  5. Revision Cycles for Economics Textbooks: An Application of the Theory of Durable Goods Monopoly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xin

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, I study economics textbook markets as an example of durable goods monopoly. Textbooks are protected by copyrights, and from a student's point of view, different textbooks are not good substitutes because students wish to use the textbook adopted by their instructors. Therefore sellers have market power. Textbooks can be…

  6. Gambling in Finland: problem gambling in the context of a national monopoly in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Tammi, Tuukka; Castrén, Sari; Lintonen, Tomi

    2015-05-01

    To describe and analyse the Finnish gambling market, regulatory system and the state of gambling research as well as the treatment system in operation for problem gamblers. A review of the literature and official documents relating to gambling in Finland, focusing primarily on the 1990s and 2000s. Only in recent years have gambling problems become a major issue for public debate in Finland. One reason for the increase in activity to address gambling problems is that, after Finland became a member of the European Union in 1995, the Finnish state gambling monopoly and its compatibility with European Union (EU) regulations have been questioned repeatedly. Since 2000, the Finnish government has put significant new resources into the research as well as the prevention and treatment of gambling problems. The resources grew from almost nothing to several million Euros in less than 10 years. This could be seen as an attempt to protect the national gambling monopoly system by showing that the Finnish monopoly system meets EU requirements. Since joining the European Union in 1995, the Finnish government has been able to maintain its gambling monopoly by providing substantial resources to signal a commitment to minimizing problem gambling. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Quasi-State Monopoly of the Education System and Socio-Economic Segregation in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narodowski, Mariano; Gottau, Verónica; Moschetti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the provision of education in Argentina in systemic terms. Using the concept of quasi-monopoly and the notions of exit, voice and loyalty, we study the logic of organization and distribution of students within the educational system. We support the idea that the provision of private and public education makes a coherent whole,…

  8. Creating Knowledge: A Monopoly? Participatory Research in Development. Participatory Research Network Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Budd, Ed.; And Others

    This book, consisting of 13 papers, deals with the theory, practice, and reactions to participatory research in the area of social research for development. Included in the volume are the following papers: "Breaking the Monopoly of Knowledge: Research Methods, Participation, and Development," by Budd Hall; "Creating Alternative…

  9. From Natural Monopoly to Public Utility: Technological Determinism and the Political Economy of Infrastructure in Progressive-Era America.

    PubMed

    Plaiss, Adam

    In present-day debates regarding telecommunication policy, one frequently hears the terms natural monopoly and public utility. This article investigates the origins of these ideas, finding that Richard T. Ely-a celebrated American economist of the late nineteenth century-embedded in the term "natural monopoly" a narrative of technological determinism. By arguing that certain services had monopolizing tendencies hardwired into them, Ely argued for their regulation. Ely's theory of natural monopoly formed the basis of Wisconsin's 1907 public utilities law, which served as a model for many other states' regulatory policies. The modern notion of public utility thus carries with it the technological determinism of Ely's natural monopoly idea. By tracing the lineage of these two terms, this article recaptures the influence that activists and progressive politicians exercised over the formation of large technological systems during the Second Industrial Revolution.

  10. Welfare loss to monopoly under public ownership: A study of the municipal natural gas distribution industry

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Government ownership is one of the policy approaches to the control of monopoly power in the utility industry. Welfare loss estimates will be biased downwards if potential cost increases under monopoly are not taken into consideration. The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the extent of deadweight welfare loss in publicly-owned utilities, using a methodolgy that incorporates failure to minimize costs onto the allocative loss measure. Municipal gas utilities are the subjects of the study which comprises an economic analysis of one of the lesser-examined segments of the utility industry. Three customer classes-residential, commercial, and industrial-are examined. The hypothesis of separability in outputs and inputs could not be rejected. All other restrictions on production were rejected at the .05 level. The hypothesis that municipal gas utilities achieve relative price efficiency in the use of inputs could not be rejected. The separable, minimum cost function was therefore used to obtain estimates of long run marginal cost for the welfare analysis. For the residential class the mean welfare loss equal to 4.4% of utility total residential revenue. Corresponding values for the commercial and industrial classes were 1.8 and 3.3%, respectively. The only statistically significant difference in means occurred between the residential and commercial classes. Analysis of ratios of price to marginal cost indicates that municipal gas utilities engage in third degree price discrimination, with nonresidential customers as the beneficaries. Deadweight welfare loss was found to exist in publicly-owned gas utilities. The adverse effects of monopoly seem to be the most severe for the residential class. However, there was also evidence of scope economies between the residential and nonresidential outputs.

  11. KT&G: From Korean monopoly to 'a global name in the tobacco industry'.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kelley; Gong, Lucy; Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris; Lee, Sungkyu

    2017-03-01

    Until the late 1980s, the former South Korean tobacco monopoly KT&G was focused on the protected domestic market. The opening of the market to foreign competition, under pressure from the U.S. Trade Representative, led to a steady erosion of market share over the next 10 years. Drawing on company documents and industry sources, this paper examines the adaptation of KT&G to the globalization of the South Korean tobacco industry since the 1990s. It is argued that KT&G has shifted from a domestic monopoly to an outward-looking, globally oriented business in response to the influx of transnational tobacco companies. Like other high-income countries, South Korea has also seen a decline in smoking prevalence as stronger tobacco control measures have been adopted. Faced with a shrinking domestic market, KT&G initially focused on exporting Korean-manufactured cigarettes. Since the mid-2000s, a broader global business strategy has been adopted including the building of overseas manufacturing facilities, establishing strategic partnerships and acquiring foreign companies. Trends in KT&G sales suggest an aspiring transnational tobacco company poised to become a major player in the global tobacco market. This article is part of the special issue 'The emergence of Asian tobacco companies: Implications for global health governance'.

  12. KT&G: From Korean monopoly to ‘a global name in the tobacco industry’

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley; Gong, Lucy; Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris; Lee, Sungkyu

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Until the late 1980s, the former South Korean tobacco monopoly KT&G was focused on the protected domestic market. The opening of the market to foreign competition, under pressure from the U.S. Trade Representative, led to a steady erosion of market share over the next 10 years. Drawing on company documents and industry sources, this paper examines the adaptation of KT&G to the globalization of the South Korean tobacco industry since the 1990s. It is argued that KT&G has shifted from a domestic monopoly to an outward-looking, globally oriented business in response to the influx of transnational tobacco companies. Like other high-income countries, South Korea has also seen a decline in smoking prevalence as stronger tobacco control measures have been adopted. Faced with a shrinking domestic market, KT&G initially focused on exporting Korean-manufactured cigarettes. Since the mid-2000s, a broader global business strategy has been adopted including the building of overseas manufacturing facilities, establishing strategic partnerships and acquiring foreign companies. Trends in KT&G sales suggest an aspiring transnational tobacco company poised to become a major player in the global tobacco market. This article is part of the special issue ‘The emergence of Asian tobacco companies: Implications for global health governance’. PMID:28139963

  13. Using the Monopoly[R] Board Game as an In-Class Economic Simulation in the Introductory Financial Accounting Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, Stephen B.; Ehlen, Craig R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses using the Monopoly[R] board game as an economic simulation exercise to reinforce an understanding of how the accounting cycle impacts financial statements used to evaluate management performance. This approach uses the rules and strategies of a familiar board game to create a simulation of business and economic realities,…

  14. Using the Monopoly[R] Board Game as an In-Class Economic Simulation in the Introductory Financial Accounting Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, Stephen B.; Ehlen, Craig R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses using the Monopoly[R] board game as an economic simulation exercise to reinforce an understanding of how the accounting cycle impacts financial statements used to evaluate management performance. This approach uses the rules and strategies of a familiar board game to create a simulation of business and economic realities,…

  15. Potential consequences from possible changes to Nordic retail alcohol monopolies resulting from European Union membership.

    PubMed

    Holder, H D; Giesbrecht, N; Horverak, O; Nordlund, S; Norström, T; Olsson, O; Osterberg, E; Skog, O J

    1995-12-01

    This paper projects the consequences of modifying or eliminating the current national alcohol retail monopolies in Sweden, Norway and Finland as a possible result of those countries' membership in the European Union (EU). First, the authors project absolute alcohol consumption in each country based on different possible changes in alcohol price and availability. Then they predict the future levels of alcohol-related problems likely to result from increased per capita alcohol consumption (Sweden and Norway only). All of the scenarios examined in this paper are expected to lead to increases in per capita alcohol consumption. The smallest increase in consumption would result from a partial elimination of the current monopoly and a modest reduction in alcohol prices. In that case, projected per capita consumption in Sweden for inhabitants 15 years and older would rise from 6.3 to 9.3 litres; in Norway, from 4.7 to 6.7 litres; and in Finland, from 8.4 to 11.1 litres. The greatest projected increase in consumption would result from a complete elimination of the state monopolies such that all beer, wine and spirits were sold in food shops, grocery stores and gasoline stations, along with a substantial drop in alcohol prices as a result of private competition within each country and increased cross-border alcohol purchases. That scenario would result in projected per capita consumption of 12.7 litres in Sweden, 11.1 litres in Norway and 13.7 litres in Finland. The authors project that a 1-litre increase in consumption would result in a 9.5% increase in total alcohol-related mortality in Sweden and a 9.7% increase in Norway. Further, alcohol-related assaults would increase by 9% in Sweden and 9.6% in Norway. A 5-litre increase in consumption would result in a 62% increase in alcohol-related mortality in Sweden and a 60% increase in Norway, and a 57% increase in alcohol-involved assaults in both countries.

  16. Understanding the role and value of marketing communications by a regulated, monopoly firm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzek, Frederick J.

    2003-10-01

    Expenditures on advertising and other marketing efforts have been found to generate profits for the firm and savings for the consumer in competitive industries. However, prior research has not addressed the use of these practices by price-regulated monopolies such as electric utility companies. Surprisingly, many utilities spend substanstially on advertising and sales despite having a captive customer base. Moreover, a unique feature within electric utilities is that much utility advertising involves demarketing, with a view to lessen strain on the system and to help avoid situations demanding high-cost energy. In this context, I ask the following questions: Is spending on marketing by monopoly firms justified? Does the consumer pay a higher price for electricity because of marketing or do shareholders pay for it? Do such activities provide a net welfare benefit? Finally, do measurable differences in marketing expenditures exist along the continuum from heavily regulated to nearly competitive markets? I analyze data from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and from the National Regulatory Research Institute. I find a significant positive relationship between advertising and net income, supporting the notion that advertising expenditures benefit the utility firm. I do not, however, find a significant relationship between marketing effort and consumer price, suggesting that consumers may not be bearing the expense of such practices. I also investigate the manner in which advertising improves net earnings. Speciifically, I find that advertising is negatively related to indirect expenses in this industry. Surprisingly, advertising is also negatively related to electricity consumption. Overall, the results suggest that advertising creates value by reducing indirect expenses without raising prices. These finds thus support the premise of a net welfare gain. Finally, I also find that progress toward deregulation and the level of advertising expenditures are

  17. Costs to Australian taxpayers of pharmaceutical monopolies and proposals to extend them in the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Deborah H; Moir, Hazel; Lopert, Ruth

    2015-04-06

    Intellectual property (IP) protections proposed by the United States for the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) have sparked widespread alarm about the potential negative impact on access to affordable medicines. The most recently leaked draft of the IP chapter shows some shifts in the US position, presumably in response to ongoing resistance from other countries. While some problematic provisions identified in earlier drafts have been removed or mitigated, major concerns remain unresolved. Three of the greatest concerns for Australia in the recent draft include provisions that would further entrench secondary patenting and evergreening, lock in extensions to patent terms and extend monopoly rights over clinical trial data for certain medicines. Data from the 2013 Pharmaceutical Patents Review, and from various submissions made to it, show that pharmaceutical monopoly protections already cost Australian taxpayers hundreds of millions of dollars each year. Provisions still being considered for the TPPA would further entrench and extend costly monopolies, with serious implications for the budget bottom line and the sustainability of the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme.

  18. Balancing public health, trade and intellectual monopoly privileges: recent Australian IP legislation and the TPPA.

    PubMed

    Vines, Tim; Crow, Kim; Faunce, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Over the past year, several significant reforms to Australia's intellectual property regime have been proposed and passed by Parliament. The Intellectual Property Laws Amendment (Raising the Bar) Act 2012 (Cth) made various improvements to Australian patent law, including an improved threshold for patentability, greater clarity around "usefulness" requirements, and the introduction of an experimental use exemption from infringement. Another Bill, the Intellectual Property Laws Amendment Bill 2012 (Cth), currently out for public consultation, would implement a 2003 decision of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) General Council and the 2005 Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health (Doha Declaration). If enacted, this Bill would facilitate equitable access to essential medicines by amending the compulsory licensing regime set out in the Patents Act 1990 (Cth). The underlying intention of this Bill--meeting public health goals outlined in the 2005 Doha Declaration--stands in juxtaposition to proposed reforms to intellectual property standards pursuant to the Trans-Pacific Partnership Trade and Investment Agreement (TPPA) that Australia is involved in. Although at a preliminary stage, leaked drafts of relevant intellectual property provisions in the TPPA suggest a privileging of patent monopoly privileges over public health goals. This column weighs the sentiments of the proposed Bill against those of the proposed provisions in the TPPA.

  19. Potential consequences of replacing a retail alcohol monopoly with a private licence system: results from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Norström, Thor; Miller, Ted; Holder, Harold; Osterberg, Esa; Ramstedt, Mats; Rossow, Ingeborg; Stockwell, Tim

    2010-12-01

    To examine the potential effects of replacing the Swedish alcohol retail system with a private licensing system on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. Two possible scenarios were analysed: (1) replacing the current alcohol retail monopoly with private licensed stores that specialize in alcohol sales or (2) making all alcohol available in grocery stores. We utilized a multiplicative model that projected effects of changes in a set of key factors including hours of sale, retail prices, promotion and advertising and outlet density. Next, we estimated the effect of the projected consumption increase on a set of harm indicators. Values for the model parameters were obtained from the research literature. Measures of alcohol-related harm included explicitly alcohol-related mortality, accident mortality, suicide, homicide, assaults, drinking driving and sickness absence. According to the projections, scenario 1 yields a consumption increase of 17% (1.4 litres/capita), which in turn would cause an additional 770 deaths, 8500 assaults, 2700 drinking driving offences and 4.5 million sick days per year. The corresponding figures for scenario 2 are a consumption increase of 37.4% (3.1 litres/capita) leading to an additional annual toll of 2000 deaths, 20 000 assaults, 6600 drinking driving offences and 11.1 million days of sick leave. Projections based on the research literature suggest that privatization of the Swedish alcohol retail market would significantly increase alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Strategies for price reduction of HIV medicines under a monopoly situation in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Hasenclever, Lia; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze Government strategies for reducing prices of antiretroviral medicines for HIV in Brazil. METHODS Analysis of Ministry of Health purchases of antiretroviral medicines, from 2005 to 2013. Expenditures and costs of the treatment per year were analyzed and compared to international prices of atazanavir. Price reductions were estimated based on the terms of a voluntary license of patent rights and technology transfer in the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement for atazanavir. RESULTS Atazanavir, a patented medicine, represented a significant share of the expenditures on antiretrovirals purchased from the private sector. Prices in Brazil were higher than international references, and no evidence was found of a relationship between purchase volume and price paid by the Ministry of Health. Concerning the latest strategy to reduce prices, involving local production of the 200 mg capsule, the price reduction was greater than the estimated reduction. As for the 300 mg capsule, the amounts paid in the first two years after the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement were close to the estimated values. Prices in nominal values for both dosage forms remained virtually constant between 2011 (the signature of the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement), 2012 and 2013 (after the establishment of the Partnership). CONCLUSIONS Price reduction of medicines is complex in limited-competition environments. The use of a Partnership for Productive Development Agreement as a strategy to increase the capacity of local production and to reduce prices raises issues regarding its effectiveness in reducing prices and to overcome patent barriers. Investments in research and development that can stimulate technological accumulation should be considered by the Government to strengthen its bargaining power to negotiate medicines prices under a monopoly situation. PMID:26759969

  1. Strategies for price reduction of HIV medicines under a monopoly situation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Hasenclever, Lia; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora

    2015-01-01

    To analyze Government strategies for reducing prices of antiretroviral medicines for HIV in Brazil. Analysis of Ministry of Health purchases of antiretroviral medicines, from 2005 to 2013. Expenditures and costs of the treatment per year were analyzed and compared to international prices of atazanavir. Price reductions were estimated based on the terms of a voluntary license of patent rights and technology transfer in the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement for atazanavir. Atazanavir, a patented medicine, represented a significant share of the expenditures on antiretrovirals purchased from the private sector. Prices in Brazil were higher than international references, and no evidence was found of a relationship between purchase volume and price paid by the Ministry of Health. Concerning the latest strategy to reduce prices, involving local production of the 200 mg capsule, the price reduction was greater than the estimated reduction. As for the 300 mg capsule, the amounts paid in the first two years after the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement were close to the estimated values. Prices in nominal values for both dosage forms remained virtually constant between 2011 (the signature of the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement), 2012 and 2013 (after the establishment of the Partnership). Price reduction of medicines is complex in limited-competition environments. The use of a Partnership for Productive Development Agreement as a strategy to increase the capacity of local production and to reduce prices raises issues regarding its effectiveness in reducing prices and to overcome patent barriers. Investments in research and development that can stimulate technological accumulation should be considered by the Government to strengthen its bargaining power to negotiate medicines prices under a monopoly situation.

  2. Bib Pharma Monopoly: Why Consumers Keep Landing on "Park Place" and How the Game is Rigged.

    PubMed

    Levy, Mark S

    pharmaceutical industry, giving stronger credence to generic challengers. In addition to finding brand-name tactics exclusionary, this Comment also proposes that courts adopt a bright-line rule prohibiting brand-name firms from exploiting the "legitimate business" defense to immunize their destructive conduct. The current framework perpetuates abuse and grants brand-name firms ostensibly indefinite monopolies. Analyzing brand-name defensive tactics under federal antitrust law would facilitate generic market entry and consequently moderate drug prices. Even after sacrificing their entire financial portfolios, patients are still unable to afford their medication. This Comment interprets Actavis as prohibiting the “legitimate business” defense and provides a remedy to deserving consumers by preventing REMS abuse and product hopping, fostering generic competition, and tempering excessive drug prices.

  3. Service quality and asymmetric information in the regulation of monopolies: The Chilean electricity distribution industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Oscar Alfredo

    This study is an enquiry about the role that service quality, asymmetric information, scope of regulation and regulator's preferences play in the regulation of monopolies, with an application to the case of the Chilean electricity distribution industry. In Chapter 1, I present the problem of regulating a monopolist and introduce the special conditions that the electricity sector has. Later I discuss the main characteristics of the electricity system that operates in Chile. The literature on regulation is reviewed in Chapter 2. A special emphasis is given to the problems of quality and information, and the lack of its proper joint treatment. In Chapter 3, I develop four theoretical models of regulation that explicitly consider the regulation of price and quality versus price-only regulation, and a symmetric versus asymmetric information structure where only the regulator knows its true costs. In these models, I also consider the effect of a regulator that may have a preference between consumers and the regulated monopolistic firms. I conclude that with symmetric information and independent of the scope of regulation, having a regulator that prefers consumers or producers does not affect the efficiency of the outcome. I also show that the regulator's inability to set quality, thus regulating only price, leads to an inefficient outcome, away from the first best solution that can be achieved by regulating both price and quality, even with asymmetric information, as long as the regulator does not have a "biased" preference for consumers or the monopolistic producers. If the regulator has a "bias," then the equilibrium will be inefficient with asymmetric information. But the effect on equilibrium price and quality depends on the direction of the effect of quality on the marginal effect of price in demand. More importantly, no closed-form solution can be derived unless drastic simplifications are made. To further investigate the outcome of the models, I use numerical

  4. Extending the Use and Effectiveness of the Monopoly® Board Game as an In-Class Economic Simulation in the Introductory Financial Accounting Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, Stephen B.; Ehlen, Craig R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper extends the use of the Monopoly® board game as an economic simulation exercise designed to reinforce an understanding of how the accounting cycle impacts the financial statements used to evaluate management performance. This extension adds elements of debt not previously utilized to allow for an introduction of the fundamentals of ratio…

  5. "They'd Better Hope for a Lot of Free Parking:" Using "Monopoly" to Teach about Classical Liberalism, Marginalization, and Restorative Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerringer, Christopher Michael

    2013-01-01

    The activity outlined here, using the "Monopoly" board game, is designed to illustrate the way that classical liberalism fails to provide justice for societies marked by historical and ongoing oppression. Taking up roles in a game that simulates some of the conditions of late capitalism can help students begin to understand how economic…

  6. "They'd Better Hope for a Lot of Free Parking:" Using "Monopoly" to Teach about Classical Liberalism, Marginalization, and Restorative Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerringer, Christopher Michael

    2013-01-01

    The activity outlined here, using the "Monopoly" board game, is designed to illustrate the way that classical liberalism fails to provide justice for societies marked by historical and ongoing oppression. Taking up roles in a game that simulates some of the conditions of late capitalism can help students begin to understand how economic…

  7. Media Monopoly in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Roberto; Guimaraes, Cesar

    1994-01-01

    Documents the process of broadcasting media development in Brazil, the failure of new technologies to produce democratization, and the barriers to democratization erected by monopolization and "metastasis." (SR)

  8. Media Monopoly in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Roberto; Guimaraes, Cesar

    1994-01-01

    Documents the process of broadcasting media development in Brazil, the failure of new technologies to produce democratization, and the barriers to democratization erected by monopolization and "metastasis." (SR)

  9. Monopoly Power and Electronic Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    Rising periodical prices and lagging library budgets have many academics hoping that scholarly print journals will migrate to online versions. Examines economic factors shaping the electronic journal market, emerging new electronic journals, access versus ownership, consortial purchasing, self-maintained infrastructures, elimination of tenure and…

  10. Information Technology Monopolies: Implications for Library Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercado, Marina I.

    1998-01-01

    Explores library-related implications of the U.S. Department of Justice's investigations into the operations of Microsoft and Intel and suggests that developing a broader understanding of information technology marketing is crucial to the short- and long-term future of libraries. (MES)

  11. Information Technology Monopolies: Implications for Library Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercado, Marina I.

    1998-01-01

    Explores library-related implications of the U.S. Department of Justice's investigations into the operations of Microsoft and Intel and suggests that developing a broader understanding of information technology marketing is crucial to the short- and long-term future of libraries. (MES)

  12. Breaking Radical Monopolies: Towards Political Economy of Digital Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaden, Tere; Suoranta, Juha

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue for a leap from a "weak" digital literacy (skills of interpretation and strategies of reception) to strong digital literacy (authorship and autonomous skills and capacities). Strong digital literacy implies politico-structural analysis of the information societies to come. Given the current forms of economic…

  13. USA Stratified Monopoly: A Simulation Game about Social Class Stratification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Edith M.

    2008-01-01

    Effectively teaching college students about social class stratification is a difficult challenge. Explanations for this difficulty tend to focus on the students who often react with resistance, paralysis, or rage. Sociologists have been using games and simulations as alternative methods for several decades to teach about these sensitive subjects.…

  14. Let's Stop Playing Monopoly with the Child Welfare Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Robin Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Although the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is a specific focus of Stoesz's article, a more expansive and thought-provoking critique is made of the NCWWI within the context of a purported overreliance and dependency on the Children's Bureau, concerns regarding the quality of social work education, and the development of a…

  15. Monopoly pricing of an antibiotic subject to bacterial resistance.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Markus

    2010-01-01

    We develop a dynamic bio-economic model of bacterial resistance and disease transmission in which we characterize the pricing policy of a monopolist who is protected by a patent. After expiration, the monopolist behaves competitively in a generic industry having open access to the common pool of antibiotic efficacy and infection. The monopolist manages endogenously the levels of antibiotic efficacy as well as the infected population, which represent quality and market size respectively and achieves, at least temporarily, higher such levels than a hypothetically myopic monopolist who does not take into account the dynamic externalities. The pricing policy and the biological system is characterized by the turnpike property. Before the patent vanishes, the monopolist behaves more and more myopically, leading to a continuous decrease in the price of the antibiotic. Once the generic industry takes over, a discontinuous fall in price occurs. Whether a prolongation of the patent is socially desirable depends on the relative levels of antibiotic efficacy and infection.

  16. Monopoly of Force: The Nexus of DDR and SSR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    enemy to accept defeat and cease fighting, you do not possess a viable dis- armament, demobilization, and reintegration situation— you have a war. So...the ensuing enthusiasm has dissipated—there is often a multitude of donors, sponsors, and other benefactors ready to help. This is both a blessing and...a curse. The blessing is in the resources, both human and capital, brought to the peace consolidation process. The curse comes in the form of the

  17. From Monopoly to Competition: The Changing Library Network Scene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Gennaro, Richard

    1979-01-01

    Our task in the next decade is to keep the bibliographic utilities and regional networks or service centers lean and flexible and responsive to the needs and desires of the libraries that created and support them. It will not be easy, but healthy competition may help. (Author)

  18. Disrupting the Education Monopoly: A Conversation with Reed Hastings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    This article features an interview with Netflix CEO, Reed Hastings. In this interview, Hastings relates that he told the "Wall Street Journal" in 2008 that he started looking at education--trying to figure out why our education is lagging when our technology is increasing at great rates and there's great innovation in so many other areas…

  19. Markets versus Monopolies in Education: The Historical Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, Andrew

    1996-01-01

    Historical data are presented to show that teachers and schools are affected by the financial incentives of the systems in which they operate. Economic pressures have forced schools in competitive markets to meet the needs of families, while centralized bureaucratic systems have been coercive and pedagogically stagnant. (Author/SLD)

  20. Breaking Radical Monopolies: Towards Political Economy of Digital Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaden, Tere; Suoranta, Juha

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue for a leap from a "weak" digital literacy (skills of interpretation and strategies of reception) to strong digital literacy (authorship and autonomous skills and capacities). Strong digital literacy implies politico-structural analysis of the information societies to come. Given the current forms of economic…

  1. Disrupting the Education Monopoly: A Conversation with Reed Hastings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    This article features an interview with Netflix CEO, Reed Hastings. In this interview, Hastings relates that he told the "Wall Street Journal" in 2008 that he started looking at education--trying to figure out why our education is lagging when our technology is increasing at great rates and there's great innovation in so many other areas…

  2. Let's Stop Playing Monopoly with the Child Welfare Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Robin Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Although the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is a specific focus of Stoesz's article, a more expansive and thought-provoking critique is made of the NCWWI within the context of a purported overreliance and dependency on the Children's Bureau, concerns regarding the quality of social work education, and the development of a…

  3. Everything I know about business I learned from monopoly.

    PubMed

    Orbanes, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Is there an analogy for business to the beginning, middle, and end rhythm in games? Phil Orbanes thinks so. A good manager might engineer these types of shifts over the course of a critical project--and be prepared for different moods and levels of motivation from people. In this article, one of the world's foremost board game designers reflects on what makes people want to compete--and win.

  4. USA Stratified Monopoly: A Simulation Game about Social Class Stratification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Edith M.

    2008-01-01

    Effectively teaching college students about social class stratification is a difficult challenge. Explanations for this difficulty tend to focus on the students who often react with resistance, paralysis, or rage. Sociologists have been using games and simulations as alternative methods for several decades to teach about these sensitive subjects.…

  5. Games: Team Tag; Live Monopoly a.k.a Monopoly Kinesthetics a.k.a. the Game; The Whole Truth and Nothin' but....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Larry; Everest, John; Clark, Adam

    1999-01-01

    Describes three games for all ages, used in adventure- and experiential-education settings. Includes target group, group size, time and space requirements, activity level, props, instructions, and tips for post-activity group reflection and processing where appropriate. The games demonstrate the tenets of adventure programming, involve group…

  6. Games: Team Tag; Live Monopoly a.k.a Monopoly Kinesthetics a.k.a. the Game; The Whole Truth and Nothin' but....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Larry; Everest, John; Clark, Adam

    1999-01-01

    Describes three games for all ages, used in adventure- and experiential-education settings. Includes target group, group size, time and space requirements, activity level, props, instructions, and tips for post-activity group reflection and processing where appropriate. The games demonstrate the tenets of adventure programming, involve group…

  7. Bargaining Tactics and Strategy in a Government/Contractor Bilateral Monopoly.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    under Uncertainty, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Southern Economic Journal, Volume 60, October, 1993, pp. 479-489. Druckman , Daniel, Zechmeister...Defensibility, Behavioral Sciences, Volume 17, 1972, pp. 514-531. Druckman , Daniel and Bonoma, Thomas V., Determinants of Bargaining Behavior in a...1952, pp. 24-42. Ponssard, Jean-Pierre, Competitive Strategies, Amsterdam, North-Holland Publishing Company, 1981. Raiffa, Howard , The Art and

  8. Biosurveillance as a Terrain of Innovation in an Era of Monopoly Finance Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Situated in a context of higher education policy, this article examines the institutionalization of "innovation" as a national neoliberal economic strategy. As neoliberal capital has become increasingly financialized, this innovation strategy has come to be woven through biotechnological innovation as an economic strategy, and oriented…

  9. Beyond the Mouse Monopoly: Studying the Male Germ Line in Domestic Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    González, Raquel; Dobrinski, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the foundation of spermatogenesis and essential to maintain the continuous production of spermatozoa after the onset of puberty in the male. The study of the male germ line is important for understanding the process of spermatogenesis, unravelling mechanisms of stemness maintenance, cell differentiation, and cell-to-cell interactions. The transplantation of SSCs can contribute to the preservation of the genome of valuable individuals in assisted reproduction programs. In addition to the importance of SSCs for male fertility, their study has recently stimulated interest in the generation of genetically modified animals because manipulations of the male germ line at the SSC stage will be maintained in the long term and transmitted to the offspring. Studies performed mainly in the mouse model have laid the groundwork for facilitating advancements in the field of male germ line biology, but more progress is needed in nonrodent species in order to translate the technology to the agricultural and biomedical fields. The lack of reliable markers for isolating germ cells from testicular somatic cells and the lack of knowledge of the requirements for germ cell maintenance have precluded their long-term maintenance in domestic animals. Nevertheless, some progress has been made. In this review, we will focus on the state of the art in the isolation, characterization, culture, and manipulation of SSCs and the use of germ cell transplantation in domestic animals. PMID:25991701

  10. MONOPOLY and Critical Theory: Gaming in a Class on the Sociology of Deviance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paino, Maria; Chin, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate how they modified a well-known game to use it as an educational simulation to help students understand difficult material, specifically critical theory. The goals for the simulation focus on improving the comprehension levels of critical theory for students in a course on the Sociology of Deviance, although…

  11. Monopoly Money: The Effect of Payment Coupling and Form on Spending Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghubir, Priya; Srivastava, Joydeep

    2008-01-01

    This article examines consumer spending as a function of payment mode both when the modes differ in terms of payment coupling (association between purchase decision and actual parting of money) and physical form as well as when the modes differ only in terms of form. Study 1 demonstrates that consumers are willing to spend more when a credit card…

  12. Biosurveillance as a Terrain of Innovation in an Era of Monopoly Finance Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Situated in a context of higher education policy, this article examines the institutionalization of "innovation" as a national neoliberal economic strategy. As neoliberal capital has become increasingly financialized, this innovation strategy has come to be woven through biotechnological innovation as an economic strategy, and oriented…

  13. From monopoly to markets: Milestones along the road. Occasional paper {number_sign}25

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, W.P.

    1998-08-01

    This report analyzes developments in the electric utility industry using the tools of transaction cost economics. During the last thirty years, the tools of economic analysis have been substantially expanded--notably, Oliver Williamson, building on the insights of Coase and others, has made significant contributions through his work in developing the new institutional economics, of which transaction cost economics reasoning plays a major role. Because of the relevance of the new institutional economics to public utilities and public utility regulation, the theoretical insights of the new institutional economics have been applied to many aspects of public utility industry structure, governance, and regulation. The contributions of Joskow and Schmalensee are most notable, but many other economists have made theoretical and empirical contributions. These insights are very applicable to the issues that policymakers and regulators are likely to address as electric restructuring progresses. The goal of this report is to synthesize the theoretical work on the new institutional economics with the recent developments in the electric utility industry--most notably, the rapid trend toward competition in electric generation, both in the US and abroad. Transaction-cost-economics reasoning provides an analytical structure for understanding the implications of asset specificity, asymmetric and imperfect information, reputation effects, ex ante contracting costs, ex post contract maladaption issues, and issues that arise because contracts are incomplete. The insights that transaction cost economics can provide are very timely to the debates currently going on with respect to electric restructuring issues.

  14. The Untold Story of Mexico’s Rise and Eventual Monopoly of the Methamphetamine Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    ground vis-à-vis the Mexican Cartels. The Cali Cartel was a major contributor to the campaign of PRI presidential candidate Ernesto Zedillo in 1994...the Methamphetamine Problem in the United States. Statement of Rogelio E. Guevara , Chief of Operations, Drug Enforcement Administration, Before the

  15. Restricted Monopolies or Regulated Competitors? The Case of the Bell Operating Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Robert; Brotman, Stuart N.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the theory and rationale for prohibiting the possible monopolistic practices of the divested Bell Operating Companies. Suggests some reasons that the latest Justice Department recommendations are moving from restriction to regulation. (JD)

  16. Modernising the regulation of medical migration: moving from national monopolies to international markets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional top-down national regulation of internationally mobile doctors and nurses is fast being rendered obsolete by the speed of globalisation and digitisation. Here we propose a bottom-up system in which responsibility for hiring and accrediting overseas staff begins to be shared by medical employers, managers, and insurers. Discussion In this model, professional Boards would retain authority for disciplinary proceedings in response to local complaints, but would lose their present power of veto over foreign practitioners recruited by employers who have independently evaluated and approved such candidates' ability. Evaluations of this kind could be facilitated by globally accessible National Registers of professional work and conduct. A decentralised system of this kind could also dispense with time-consuming national oversight of continuing professional education and license revalidation, which tasks could be replaced over time by tighter institutional audit supported by stronger powers to terminate underperforming employees. Summary Market forces based on the reputation (and, hence, financial and political viability) of employers and institutions could continue to ensure patient safety in the future, while at the same time improving both national system efficiency and international professional mobility. PMID:23039098

  17. Monopoly money: the effect of payment coupling and form on spending behavior.

    PubMed

    Raghubir, Priya; Srivastava, Joydeep

    2008-09-01

    This article examines consumer spending as a function of payment mode both when the modes differ in terms of payment coupling (association between purchase decision and actual parting of money) and physical form as well as when the modes differ only in terms of form. Study 1 demonstrates that consumers are willing to spend more when a credit card logo is present versus absent. Study 2 shows that the credit card effect can be attenuated when people estimate their expenses using a decomposition strategy (vs. a holistic one). Noting that credit card and cash payments differ in terms of payment coupling and form, Studies 3 and 4 examine consumer spending when the payment mode differs only in physical form. Study 3 demonstrates that consumers spend more when they are spending scrip (a form of stored value certificate) versus cash of the same face value. Study 4 shows that the difference in spending across payment modes (cash and gift certificates) is attenuated by altering the salience of parting with money through contextual manipulations of the differences between cash and gift certificates. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Rescaling the Local: Multi-Academy Trusts, Private Monopoly and Statecraft in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    For the past six years successive UK governments in England have introduced reforms intended to usher in less aggregated, top-down, bureaucratically overloaded models of service delivery. Yet the "hollowing out" of local government has not resulted in less bureaucracy on the ground or less regulation from above, nor has it diminished…

  19. Beyond the Ingelfinger Rule: the intellectual property ethics after the end of biomedical journals' monopoly.

    PubMed

    Germenis, A E

    1999-01-01

    According to the so-called Ingelfinger Rule (IR), biomedical journals do not accept for publication papers which have already been publicized elsewhere. This rule was subjected to fierce criticism which was mainly based on the fact that authors transfer the intellectual rights of their work to the journals. With the emergence of the Internet, the scientific community has a golden opportunity to re-evaluate the IR concept. Scientists no longer have to depend on the debatable benefits (i.e. publicity and review) stemming from journal publications; rather they can be free to explore novel communication opportunities and, subsequently, to tackle the emerging intellectual property issues. This approach should take into account the tight bond between applied research and the world economy, the need for teamwork instead of individual effort for effective scientific research, and the added value of journal publications. Based on such an analysis, it would appear that the inherent characteristics of the Internet promote a re-assessment of the intellectual property theory on three levels: the cognitive (the way in which knowledge is made up from its building blocks), the morphological (the use of hypertext) and finally the sociological (the formation of virtual scientific communities). It is concluded that publishing on the Internet necessitates a different approach to the question of intellectual property based on the primal values of science. This can be achieved only if the scientific community embraces and nourishes the academic nature of the Internet as well as laying down the rules to control the dissemination of ideas without the intervention of non-scientific third parties.

  20. Monopoly Money: The Effect of Payment Coupling and Form on Spending Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghubir, Priya; Srivastava, Joydeep

    2008-01-01

    This article examines consumer spending as a function of payment mode both when the modes differ in terms of payment coupling (association between purchase decision and actual parting of money) and physical form as well as when the modes differ only in terms of form. Study 1 demonstrates that consumers are willing to spend more when a credit card…

  1. Clinicians' satisfaction with a hospital blood transfusion service: a marketing analysis of a monopoly supplier.

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, S J; McClelland, D B; Murphy, W G

    1993-01-01

    One of the objectives of the NHS reforms is to improve customer focus within the health service. In a study to assess the quality of customer service provided by the Edinburgh and South East Scotland Blood Transfusion Service a 19 item questionnaire survey of the main clinical users of the service was performed to ascertain their satisfaction, measured on a 5 point anchored scale, with important aspects of the service, including medical consultation, diagnostic services, blood and blood components or products and their delivery, and general satisfaction with the service. Of 122 clinicians in medical and surgical disciplines in five hospitals in Edinburgh, 72 (59%) replied. Fourteen (22%) indicated dissatisfaction with any aspect of the medical consultation service, owing to inadequate follow up of clinical contacts and unsatisfactory routing of incoming calls. Diagnostic services were criticised for the presentation, communication, and interpretation of results. The restricted availability of whole blood, the necessity to order platelets and plasma through the duty blood transfusion service doctor, and the use of a group and screen policy, attracted criticism from a small number of clinicians. Ten of 68 respondents expressed dissatisfaction with delivery of blood and components to the wards and theatres. The findings indicate that the clinicians served by this blood transfusion service are largely satisfied with the service. Changes are being implemented to improve reporting of laboratory results and measures taken to improve liaison with clinicians. PMID:10132458

  2. Markets vs. Monopolies in Education: A Global Review of the Evidence. Policy Analysis. No. 620

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    Would large-scale, free-market reforms improve educational outcomes for American children? That question cannot be answered by looking at domestic evidence alone. Though innumerable "school choice" programs have been implemented around the United States, none has created a truly free and competitive education marketplace. Existing…

  3. The Public School Monopoly: A Critical Analysis of Education and the State in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhart, Robert B., Ed.

    The following 14 essays consider relationships among schooling, education, and the state; alternatives to existing systems; and educating minorities and the disadvantaged: (1) "Growing Up Blighted: Reflections on the 'Secret Power' in the American Experience" (C. Burgess); (2) "The Evolving Political Structure of American…

  4. Modernising the regulation of medical migration: moving from national monopolies to international markets.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard J; Epstein, Stephen D

    2012-10-05

    Traditional top-down national regulation of internationally mobile doctors and nurses is fast being rendered obsolete by the speed of globalisation and digitisation. Here we propose a bottom-up system in which responsibility for hiring and accrediting overseas staff begins to be shared by medical employers, managers, and insurers. In this model, professional Boards would retain authority for disciplinary proceedings in response to local complaints, but would lose their present power of veto over foreign practitioners recruited by employers who have independently evaluated and approved such candidates' ability. Evaluations of this kind could be facilitated by globally accessible National Registers of professional work and conduct. A decentralised system of this kind could also dispense with time-consuming national oversight of continuing professional education and license revalidation, which tasks could be replaced over time by tighter institutional audit supported by stronger powers to terminate underperforming employees. Market forces based on the reputation (and, hence, financial and political viability) of employers and institutions could continue to ensure patient safety in the future, while at the same time improving both national system efficiency and international professional mobility.

  5. Restricted Monopolies or Regulated Competitors? The Case of the Bell Operating Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Robert; Brotman, Stuart N.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the theory and rationale for prohibiting the possible monopolistic practices of the divested Bell Operating Companies. Suggests some reasons that the latest Justice Department recommendations are moving from restriction to regulation. (JD)

  6. MONOPOLY and Critical Theory: Gaming in a Class on the Sociology of Deviance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paino, Maria; Chin, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate how they modified a well-known game to use it as an educational simulation to help students understand difficult material, specifically critical theory. The goals for the simulation focus on improving the comprehension levels of critical theory for students in a course on the Sociology of Deviance, although…

  7. Medicines, monopolies and mortars: the chemical laboratory and pharmaceutical trade at the Society of Apothecaries in the eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Anna

    2006-11-01

    In 1672, a laboratory was founded by the Society of Apothecaries at its premises in Blackfriars, London, to manufacture chemical medicines. By exploring the society's motivations for constructing a laboratory and its development during the eighteenth century, this paper examines the roles that chemistry played within the activities of the institution. While the chemistry's primary utility was in drug manufacturing for the society's pharmaceutical trade, through its laboratory, the society used chemistry to develop its corporate and educational aims, thus helping to secure its institutional authority in London's medical marketplace.

  8. Transnational Tobacco Company Influence on Tax Policy During Privatization of a State Monopoly: British American Tobacco and Uzbekistan

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Anna; Collin, Jeff; Townsend, Joy

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. The International Monetary Fund encourages privatization of state-owned tobacco industries. Privatization tends to lower cigarette prices, which encourages consumption. This could be countered with effective tax policies. We explored how investment by British American Tobacco (BAT) influenced tax policy in Uzbekistan during privatization there. Methods. We obtained internal documents from BAT and analyzed them using a hermeneutic process to create a chronology of events. Results. BAT thoroughly redesigned the tobacco taxation system in Uzbekistan. It secured (1) a reduction of approximately 50% in the excise tax on cigarettes, (2) an excise system to benefit its brands and disadvantage those of its competitors (particularly Philip Morris), and (3) a tax stamp system from which it hoped to be exempted, because this would likely facilitate its established practice of cigarette smuggling and further its competitive advantage.. Conclusions. Privatization can endanger effective tobacco excise policies. The International Monetary Fund should review its approach to privatization and differentiate the privatization of an industry whose product kills from privatization of other industries. PMID:17138915

  9. Relationships Between Minimum Alcohol Pricing and Crime During the Partial Privatization of a Canadian Government Alcohol Monopoly

    PubMed Central

    Stockwell, Tim; Zhao, Jinhui; Marzell, Miesha; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Macdonald, Scott; Ponicki, William R.; Martin, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate the independent effects of increases in minimum alcohol prices and densities of private liquor stores on crime outcomes in British Columbia, Canada, during a partial privatization of off-premise liquor sales. Method: A time-series cross-sectional panel study was conducted using mixed model regression analysis to explore associations between minimum alcohol prices, densities of liquor outlets, and crime outcomes across 89 local health areas of British Columbia between 2002 and 2010. Archival data on minimum alcohol prices, per capita alcohol outlet densities, and ecological demographic characteristics were related to measures of crimes against persons, alcohol-related traffic violations, and non–alcohol-related traffic violations. Analyses were adjusted for temporal and regional autocorrelation. Results: A 10% increase in provincial minimum alcohol prices was associated with an 18.81% (95% CI: ±17.99%, p < .05) reduction in alcohol-related traffic violations, a 9.17% (95% CI: ±5.95%, p < .01) reduction in crimes against persons, and a 9.39% (95% CI: ±3.80%, p < .001) reduction in total rates of crime outcomes examined. There was no significant association between minimum alcohol prices and non–alcohol-related traffic violations (p > .05). Densities of private liquor stores were not significantly associated with alcohol-involved traffic violations or crimes against persons, though they were with non–alcohol-related traffic violations. Conclusions: Reductions in crime events associated with minimum-alcohol-price changes were more substantial and specific to alcohol-related events than the countervailing increases in densities of private liquor stores. The findings lend further support to the application of minimum alcohol prices for public health and safety objectives. PMID:26098040

  10. Relationships Between Minimum Alcohol Pricing and Crime During the Partial Privatization of a Canadian Government Alcohol Monopoly.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Tim; Zhao, Jinhui; Marzell, Miesha; Gruenewald, Paul J; Macdonald, Scott; Ponicki, William R; Martin, Gina

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the independent effects of increases in minimum alcohol prices and densities of private liquor stores on crime outcomes in British Columbia, Canada, during a partial privatization of off-premise liquor sales. A time-series cross-sectional panel study was conducted using mixed model regression analysis to explore associations between minimum alcohol prices, densities of liquor outlets, and crime outcomes across 89 local health areas of British Columbia between 2002 and 2010. Archival data on minimum alcohol prices, per capita alcohol outlet densities, and ecological demographic characteristics were related to measures of crimes against persons, alcohol-related traffic violations, and non-alcohol-related traffic violations. Analyses were adjusted for temporal and regional autocorrelation. A 10% increase in provincial minimum alcohol prices was associated with an 18.81% (95% CI: ±17.99%, p < .05) reduction in alcohol-related traffic violations, a 9.17% (95% CI: ±5.95%, p < .01) reduction in crimes against persons, and a 9.39% (95% CI: ±3.80%, p < .001) reduction in total rates of crime outcomes examined. There was no significant association between minimum alcohol prices and non-alcohol-related traffic violations (p > .05). Densities of private liquor stores were not significantly associated with alcohol-involved traffic violations or crimes against persons, though they were with non-alcohol-related traffic violations. Reductions in crime events associated with minimum-alcohol-price changes were more substantial and specific to alcohol-related events than the countervailing increases in densities of private liquor stores. The findings lend further support to the application of minimum alcohol prices for public health and safety objectives.

  11. Transnational tobacco company influence on tax policy during privatization of a state monopoly: British American Tobacco and Uzbekistan.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Anna; Collin, Jeff; Townsend, Joy

    2007-11-01

    The International Monetary Fund encourages privatization of state-owned tobacco industries. Privatization tends to lower cigarette prices, which encourages consumption. This could be countered with effective tax policies. We explored how investment by British American Tobacco (BAT) influenced tax policy in Uzbekistan during privatization there. We obtained internal documents from BAT and analyzed them using a hermeneutic process to create a chronology of events. BAT thoroughly redesigned the tobacco taxation system in Uzbekistan. It secured (1) a reduction of approximately 50% in the excise tax on cigarettes, (2) an excise system to benefit its brands and disadvantage those of its competitors (particularly Philip Morris), and (3) a tax stamp system from which it hoped to be exempted, because this would likely facilitate its established practice of cigarette smuggling and further its competitive advantage.. Privatization can endanger effective tobacco excise policies. The International Monetary Fund should review its approach to privatization and differentiate the privatization of an industry whose product kills from privatization of other industries.

  12. Changes in per capita alcohol sales during the partial privatization of British Columbia's retail alcohol monopoly 2003-2008: a multi-level local area analysis.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Tim; Zhao, Jinhui; Macdonald, Scott; Pakula, Basia; Gruenewald, Paul; Holder, Harold

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the independent effects on liquor sales of an increase in (a) the density of liquor outlets and (b) the proportion of liquor stores in private rather than government ownership in British Columbia between 2003/4 and 2007/8. The British Columbia Liquor Distribution Branch provided data on litres of ethanol sold through different types of outlets in 89 local health areas of the province by beverage type. Multi-level regression models were used to examine the relationship between per capita alcohol sales and outlet densities for different types of liquor outlet after adjusting for potential confounding social, economic and demographic factors as well as spatial and temporal autocorrelation. Liquor outlets in 89 local health areas of British Columbia, Canada. The number of private stores per 10,000 residents was associated significantly and positively with per capita sales of ethanol in beer, coolers, spirits and wine, while the reverse held for government liquor stores. Significant positive effects were also identified for the number of bars and restaurants per head of population. The percentage of liquor stores in private versus government ownership was also associated significantly with per capita alcohol sales when controlling for density of liquor stores and of on-premise outlets (P < 0.01). The trend towards privatisation of liquor outlets between 2003/04 and 2007/08 in British Columbia has contributed to increased per capita sales of alcohol and hence possibly also to increased alcohol-related harm.

  13. JPRS Report, East Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    direct representa- tives of the enterprise or department and the socialist state in relations with foreign countries. Monopoly Is Not a Fetish One of...the importance of the human factor. State monopoly cannot be considered anony- mous, and even less as a fetish . Monopoly is created by living

  14. Statement of Roger B. Andewelt, Deputy Assistant Attorney General, Antitrust Division, before the Subcommittee on Monopolies and Commercial Law Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, concerning H.R. 557, Intellectual Property Licensing Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andewelt, Roger B.

    The recent increased awareness of the importance to our economy of innovation and the development of new technologies has been coupled with the crafting of new legislation to increase the level of intellectual property protection available to innovators. Because one of the key methods of encouraging the efficient use of intellectual property is…

  15. Cournot and Bertrand Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Steven R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a series of matrix choice games that illustrate for students the concepts of monopoly, shared monopoly, Cournot, Bertrand, and Stackelberg behavior given either perfect complements or perfect substitutes. Suggests that the use of the games also allows for student dialogue about international trade and price wars. (JEH)

  16. Cournot and Bertrand Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Steven R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a series of matrix choice games that illustrate for students the concepts of monopoly, shared monopoly, Cournot, Bertrand, and Stackelberg behavior given either perfect complements or perfect substitutes. Suggests that the use of the games also allows for student dialogue about international trade and price wars. (JEH)

  17. Demand Economics: What Happens Before the Swap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, H. Doyle

    Although this book is about how things work, it is also about flaws in the U.S. economic system. It is difficult to realize that every economic activity gravitates toward monopoly or rebellion against monopoly. This is the subject of the book, which is the result of 50 years of actual experience, informed observations, and trained readings. The…

  18. Information Technology and the Marginalisation of Regional Cultures: Rambling Thoughts from the University of Calgary Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pannekoek, Frits

    In the past decade, significant advances in information technologies in the Euro-American world have fostered the creation of information monopolies. The prices imposed by the monopolies, whose products are largely in the English language, have caused academic libraries to focus almost exclusively on international scientific and cultural materials…

  19. Copyright and Distance Education: The Impact of the Technology, Education, and Copyright Harmonization Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Copyright in the United States can be traced back to the U.S. Constitution in 1787. To encourage authorship of creative works, Congress created a limited monopoly in Section 106 of the Copyright Act of 1790. To balance this monopoly, Congress drafted Section 107 which provides public access to creative works through fair use. Revisions were…

  20. Copyright and Distance Education: The Impact of the Technology, Education, and Copyright Harmonization Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Copyright in the United States can be traced back to the U.S. Constitution in 1787. To encourage authorship of creative works, Congress created a limited monopoly in Section 106 of the Copyright Act of 1790. To balance this monopoly, Congress drafted Section 107 which provides public access to creative works through fair use. Revisions were…

  1. Towards the Knowledge Democracy? Knowledge Production and the Civic Role of the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I ask whether the University has a special role to play in democratic societies. I argue that the modern University can no longer lay claim to a research monopoly since nowadays research is conducted in many places outside of the University. The University can, however, still lay claim to a kind of knowledge monopoly which has to…

  2. Health Insurance as a Two-Part Pricing Contract *

    PubMed Central

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Sood, Neeraj

    2013-01-01

    Monopolies appear throughout health care. We show that health insurance operates like a conventional two-part pricing contract that allows monopolists to extract profits without inefficiently constraining quantity. When insurers are free to offer a range of insurance contracts to different consumer types, health insurance markets perfectly eliminate deadweight losses from upstream health care monopolies. Frictions limiting the sorting of different consumer types into different insurance contracts restore some of these upstream monopoly losses, which manifest as higher rates of uninsurance, rather than as restrictions in quantity utilized by insured consumers. Empirical analysis of pharmaceutical patent expiration supports the prediction that heavily insured markets experience little or no efficiency loss under monopoly, while less insured markets exhibit behavior more consistent with the standard theory of monopoly. PMID:23997354

  3. Toward allocative efficiency in the prescription drug industry.

    PubMed

    Guell, R C; Fischbaum, M

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally, monopoly power in the pharmaceutical industry has been measured by profits. An alternative method estimates the deadweight loss of consumer surplus associated with the exercise of monopoly power. Although upper and lower bound estimates for this inefficiency are far apart, they at least suggest a dramatically greater welfare loss than measures of industry profitability would imply. A proposed system would have the U.S. government employing its power of eminent domain to "take" and distribute pharmaceutical patents, providing as "just compensation" the present value of the patent's expected future monopoly profits. Given the allocative inefficiency of raising taxes to pay for the program, the impact of the proposal on allocative efficiency would be at least as good at our lower bound estimate of monopoly costs while substantially improving efficiency at or near our upper bound estimate.

  4. Piaget, Marx and the Political Ideology of Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Barry A.

    1978-01-01

    Examines Jean Piaget's developmental theories and evaluates how his psychology of constructivism relates to contemporary behavioral sciences, modern education, and modern monopoly capitalism. Concludes that Piaget's constructivism is inconsistent with capitalist ideology and is widely misunderstood by educators. (DB)

  5. High-cost generic drugs--implications for patients and policymakers.

    PubMed

    Alpern, Jonathan D; Stauffer, William M; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2014-11-13

    Some older generic drugs have become very expensive, owing to factors including drug shortages, supply disruptions, and consolidations in the generic-drug industry. But generics manufacturers that legally obtain a market monopoly can also unilaterally raise prices.

  6. Selling College Graduates to Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Daniel R.; Biehl, Kimberly A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a University of Pittsburgh placement office program to increase placement of graduates with local businesses. To challenge the employment agencies' monopoly on this market, an advertising and direct communications program was launched with continuing good results. (JAC)

  7. Environmental Protest and Civil Society in China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    to maintain its political monopoly. Yet, the increased dissemination of information may slowly allow China’s civil society to coalesce and reach past...reported incidents of protest is growing, and their influence is felt throughout civil society.

  8. Proceedings of the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (73rd, Minneapolis, Minnesota, August 1-4, 1990). Part VIII: Journalism Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The journalism studies section of the proceedings includes the following 12 papers: "Characteristics of Newspaper Journalists' Best Work" (Lori Bergen); "The Disappearing Newspaper Reader" (Robert L. Stevenson); "JOAs and Advertising Rates: A Comparison with Monopoly Markets" (Martha N. Matthews); "Newspaper…

  9. Proceedings of the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (73rd, Minneapolis, Minnesota, August 1-4, 1990). Part VIII: Journalism Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The journalism studies section of the proceedings includes the following 12 papers: "Characteristics of Newspaper Journalists' Best Work" (Lori Bergen); "The Disappearing Newspaper Reader" (Robert L. Stevenson); "JOAs and Advertising Rates: A Comparison with Monopoly Markets" (Martha N. Matthews); "Newspaper…

  10. Piaget, Marx and the Political Ideology of Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Barry A.

    1978-01-01

    Examines Jean Piaget's developmental theories and evaluates how his psychology of constructivism relates to contemporary behavioral sciences, modern education, and modern monopoly capitalism. Concludes that Piaget's constructivism is inconsistent with capitalist ideology and is widely misunderstood by educators. (DB)

  11. USSR Report, International Affairs, The Working Class and the Contemporary World, No. 6, November-December 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-23

    which have been manifested in recent years. The growth of transnational monopoly complexes signifies the creation of an international system of...working people’s international solidarity and, specifically, the close interaction of persons employed at enterprises of the transnational ...the huge debt dependency of the developing countries and in an end to the tyranny of the transnational monopolies. And one more point, last but not

  12. Abandoned Ideology: How the Iranian Revolution Failed Islamic Economics and Embraced Populism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    dealing in certain financial and economic activities—such as the receipt or paying of interest or dealing with pork products —due to their haram...practices (riba, deceit, theft, production of alcohol and pork , monopoly, conspiracy, and price fixing to create monopolies), not state intervention in the...Pahlavi regime, to $1 billion at the close of 1981. While the government initially relied on oil production to sustain the economy, the increases of

  13. Does Intellectual Property Restrict Output? An Analysis of Pharmaceutical Markets*

    PubMed Central

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Standard normative analysis of intellectual property focuses on the balance between incentives for research and the static welfare costs of reduced price-competition from monopoly. However, static welfare loss from patents is not universal. While patents restrict price competition, they may also provide static welfare benefits by improving incentives for marketing, which is a form of non-price competition. We show theoretically how stronger marketing incentives mitigate, and can even offset, the static costs of monopoly pricing. Empirical analysis in the pharmaceutical industry context suggests that, in the short-run, patent expirations reduce consumer welfare as a result of decreased marketing effort. In the long-run, patent expirations do benefit consumers, but by 30% less than would be implied by the reduction in price alone. The social value of monopoly marketing to consumers alone is roughly on par with its costs to firms. PMID:25221349

  14. Does Intellectual Property Restrict Output? An Analysis of Pharmaceutical Markets.

    PubMed

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2012-02-01

    Standard normative analysis of intellectual property focuses on the balance between incentives for research and the static welfare costs of reduced price-competition from monopoly. However, static welfare loss from patents is not universal. While patents restrict price competition, they may also provide static welfare benefits by improving incentives for marketing, which is a form of non-price competition. We show theoretically how stronger marketing incentives mitigate, and can even offset, the static costs of monopoly pricing. Empirical analysis in the pharmaceutical industry context suggests that, in the short-run, patent expirations reduce consumer welfare as a result of decreased marketing effort. In the long-run, patent expirations do benefit consumers, but by 30% less than would be implied by the reduction in price alone. The social value of monopoly marketing to consumers alone is roughly on par with its costs to firms.

  15. Hospital quality choice and market structure in a regulated duopoly.

    PubMed

    Beitia, Arantza

    2003-11-01

    This paper analyzes the optimal structure of a regulated health care industry in a model in which the regulator cannot enforce what hospitals do (unverifiable quality of health) or does not know what hospitals know (incomplete information about production costs) or both. We show that if quality is unverifiable the choice between monopoly and duopoly does not change with respect to the verifiable case but, if there are fixed costs (assumed to be quality dependent) and the monopoly is the optimal market structure, the quality level of the operative hospital decreases. Asymmetry of information introduces informational rents that can be reduced by increasing the most efficient hospital's market share. A monopoly is chosen more often.

  16. Violent societies: an application of orbital decomposition to the problem of human violence.

    PubMed

    Spohn, M

    2008-01-01

    This study uses orbital decomposition to analyze the patterns of how governments lose their monopolies on violence, therefore allowing those societies to descend into violent states from which it is difficult to recover. The nonlinear progression by which the governing body loses its monopoly is based on the work of criminologist Lonnie Athens and applied from the individual to the societal scale. Four different kinds of societies are considered: Those where the governing body is both unwilling and unable to assert its monopoly on violence (former Yugoslavia); where it is unwilling (Peru); where it is unable (South Africa); and a smaller pocket of violent society within a larger, more stable one (Gujarat). In each instance, orbital decomposition turns up insights not apparent in the qualitative data or through linear statistical analysis, both about the nature of the descent into violence and about the progression itself.

  17. Direct to confusion: lessons learned from marketing BRCA testing.

    PubMed

    Matloff, Ellen; Caplan, Arthur

    2008-06-01

    Myriad Genetics holds a patent on testing for the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, and therefore has a forced monopoly on this critical genetic test. Myriad launched a Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) marketing campaign in the Northeast United States in September 2007 and plans to expand that campaign to Florida and Texas in 2008. The ethics of Myriad's patent, forced monopoly and DTC campaign will be reviewed, as well as the impact of this situation on patient access and care, physician liability, and the future of DTC campaigns for genetic testing.

  18. Coase and Hotelling: A Meeting of the Minds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Johannes; Kamien, Morton I.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we tie together the two literatures of durable goods monopoly and exhaustible resource pricing. We show that the intertemporal no-arbitrage condition that arises if the durable good monopolist seller can commit to a price path mirrors the intertemporal no-arbitrage condition if the monopsonist buyer of an exhaustible resource can…

  19. Case studies in electric utility competition litigation

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J.A.; Hawks, B.K.

    1994-12-31

    Although electric utilities in the US in many ways operate as highly regulated monopolies, federal and state regulation has not eliminated competition in the electric utility industry. This article describes trends in utility competition litigation as they have evolved in Georgia and other parts of the country.

  20. ‘Preparing ourselves to become an international organization’: Thailand Tobacco Monopoly’s regional and global strategies

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, Ross; Ross, Hana; Lee, Kelley

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Thailand Tobacco Monopoly (TTM) controlled the country’s tobacco industry from its formation in the 1940s, until the government dropped restrictions on imported cigarettes in the late 1980s in response to pressure from the United States. The TTM has since competed with transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) in a semi-monopoly market in which TTCs have steadily increased their market share. Coupled with a decline in national smoking prevalence, the result of Thailand’s stringent tobacco control agenda, the TTM now accounts for a diminishing share of a contracting market. In response, the monopoly has looked to regional trade liberalisation, and proximity to markets with some of the world’s highest smoking rates to expand its operations. Expansion strategies have gone largely unrealised however, and the TTM effectively remains a domestic operation. Using TTM publications, market and trade reports, industry publications, tobacco industry documents and other resources, this paper analyses TTM expansion strategies, and the limited extent to which they have been achieved. This inability to expand its operations has left the monopoly potentially vulnerable to global strategies of its transnational competitors. This article is part of the special issue ‘The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance’. PMID:28139965

  1. Essays on Strategy VII

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    advanced ballis- tic payloads.1" For decades Israel and its Arab neighbors have faced each other like proverbial scorpions in a bottle. As bio- chemical...the sting of a formidable, potentially lethal attack. In the past Israel has enjoyed a regional monopoly over weapons of mass destruction. The one

  2. Technological Systems and Momentum Change: American Electric Utilities, Restructuring, and Distributed Generation Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Richard F.; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2006-01-01

    The American electric utility system has been massively transformed during the last three decades. Viewed previously as a staid, secure, and heavily regulated natural monopoly, the system has shed elements of government oversight and now appears to be increasingly susceptible to terrorist attacks and other disruptions. Overturning the conventional…

  3. The Top of the World Is Flat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, H. Justin

    1977-01-01

    Argues that the disappearance of the traditional family and the emergence of a new feudalism of monopolies and interest groups are the prime reasons for a declining American society. Suggests that political and business leaders will have to lead the search for a restoration of lost values. (Author/JG)

  4. The ''optimal'' structure of the deregulated electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Switzer, Sheldon; Trout, Jeffrey P.

    2007-07-15

    The optimal structure is one that does not adopt policies that interfere with competitive markets nor create price incentives or subsidies to serve special interests in an attempt to artificially stimulate retail competition. It needs to recognize that the ''natural monopoly'' and public interest criteria still require the regulation of delivery service. (author)

  5. Economics of Scholarly Publishing: Exploring the Causes of Subscription Price Variations of Scholarly Journals in Business Subject-Specific Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lewis G.

    2011-01-01

    This empirical research investigates subscription price variations of scholarly journals in five business subject-specific areas using the semilogarithmic regression model. It has two main purposes. The first is to address the unsettled debate over whether or not and to what extent commercial publishers reap monopoly profits by overcharging…

  6. From the Adam Smith Institute to the Zapatistas: An Internet Gateway to all Development Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Alex

    2002-01-01

    Examines the World Bank Internet initiative, the Development Gateway. Describes the importance of the Bank as a knowledge bank and the threats posed by the Internet to its near monopoly of development thinking. Argues that the initiative reveals biases and misunderstandings in the World Bank's approach to knowledge for development. (CAJ)

  7. Statement of the Authors Guild, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Irwin

    This paper is related to a similar statement presented at a Federal Trade Commission Symposium on Media Concentration. It was submitted by the Authors Guild to Senator Edward Kennedy's Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly on May 10, 1978. It is one of several memoranda by the Guild opposing the acquisitions and mergers they feel have given…

  8. Telecommunications Tutorial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawkell, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    Provides background on telecommunications in the nineteenth century and discusses briefly the organization of telephone networks, including the arguments for and against monopolies. Some fundamentals of telecommunications transmission, particularly wideband services, are presented, and the process of speech digitization is described. (three…

  9. Eliot Freidson's Contribution to the Sociology of Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brint, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Freidson's contributions include a new concept of professions rooted in social organization of labor markets; analysis of professional control resulting from knowledge monopolies and gatekeeping activities; and defense of professions against critics who view their powers as unnecessary or harmful. (SK)

  10. Opening of Dead Sea Scrolls Archive Underlines Problems That Can Complicate Access to Research Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Ellen K.

    1991-01-01

    The Huntington Library (California) decision to make generally accessible, for the first time, copies of photographs of the Dead Sea Scrolls, previously tightly controlled by a small group of editors, is hailed as breaking a scholarly monopoly over an important intellectual resource, reaffirming the mission of the research library and the…

  11. Will Boston Be the Proof of the Choice Pudding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    Since March 1989, Boston has attempted to implement three elements deemed successful for successful school choice programs: fair assignment procedures, an effective parent information system, and interventions to help certain schools become more competitive. The Boston experience shows the difficulties involved in reforming a monopoly governed by…

  12. The Top of the World Is Flat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, H. Justin

    1977-01-01

    Argues that the disappearance of the traditional family and the emergence of a new feudalism of monopolies and interest groups are the prime reasons for a declining American society. Suggests that political and business leaders will have to lead the search for a restoration of lost values. (Author/JG)

  13. Universal(ly Bad) Service: Providing Infrastructure Services to Rural and Poor Urban Consumers. Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, George R. G.; Wallsten, Scott J.

    Utility services (telecommunications, power, water, and gas) throughout the world were traditionally provided by large, usually state-owned, monopolies. However, encouraged by technological change, regulatory innovation, and pressure from international organizations, many developing countries are privatizing state-owned companies and introducing…

  14. The Browser War: An Ethical Analysis of the Struggle between Microsoft and the U.S. Department of Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Dennis

    1999-01-01

    Examines two ethical questions regarding the ongoing antitrust battle between the U.S. Department of Justice and Microsoft Corporation using traditional rights-based ethical theory, utilitarianism, and John Rawls's principles of justice. Concludes that it is neither good nor fair for a company having a near-monopoly over a market to sell products…

  15. Persuasive and Informative Advertising: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeborn, Beth A.; Hulbert, Jason P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors outline a pair of classroom activities designed to provide an intuitive foundation to the theoretical introduction of advertising in monopoly markets. The roles of both informative and persuasive advertising are covered. Each student acts as a monopolist and chooses the number of (costly) advertisements and the price. The experiments…

  16. Simulating Poverty and Inequality Dynamics in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansoms, An; Geenen, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This article considers how the simulation game of DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY provides insight into poverty and inequality dynamics in a development context. It first discusses how the game is rooted in theoretical and conceptual frameworks on poverty and inequality. Subsequently, it reflects on selected playing experiences, with special focus on the…

  17. Universal(ly Bad) Service: Providing Infrastructure Services to Rural and Poor Urban Consumers. Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, George R. G.; Wallsten, Scott J.

    Utility services (telecommunications, power, water, and gas) throughout the world were traditionally provided by large, usually state-owned, monopolies. However, encouraged by technological change, regulatory innovation, and pressure from international organizations, many developing countries are privatizing state-owned companies and introducing…

  18. First-Day Strategies for Millennial Students in Introductory Accounting Courses: It's All Fun and Games until Something Gets Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastilak, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Millennial students often possess characteristics at odds with typical lecture-based approaches to introductory accounting courses. The author introduces an approach for reaching millennial students early in introductory accounting courses in ways that fit millennials' characteristics. This article describes the use of the board game Monopoly[R]…

  19. The Canadian Forces Use of Private Security in Afghanistan: A Consequence of National Decisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-10

    rise of PSCs, Elke Krahmann, Senior Lecturer in International Relations at the University of Bristol, stated three primary causes that have...International Security: the Rise of Private Military Companies. Contemporary Security Studies. New York: Rutledge, 2006. 49 Krahmann, Elke , Simon...2009. Krahmann, Elke . Private Security Companies and the State Monopoly on Violence:A Case of Norm. Peace Research Institute Frankfurt, 2009. Krugman

  20. Learning from Public Television and the Web: Positioning Continuing Education as a Knowledge Portal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedro, Steven R.

    1999-01-01

    Digital convergence--the merging of television and computing--challenges localized monopolies of public television and continuing education. Continuing educators can reposition themselves in the electronic marketplace by serving as an educational portal, bringing their strengths of "brand recognition," local customer base, and access to…

  1. The Legitimisation of Knowledge: A Work-Based Learning Perspective of APEL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armsby, Pauline; Costley, Carol; Garnett, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Accreditation of Prior Experiential Learning (APEL) is now an established but relatively under used process in higher education (HE). In our review article, we argue that this is because APEL not only challenges the traditional university monopoly of knowledge but also challenges other established processes and social constructions. Work-Based…

  2. Is That All There Is? Taking Education to New Levels in the Social-Media Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandviwalla, Munir; Schuff, David; Chacko, Manoj; Miller, Laurel

    2013-01-01

    Higher education in the United States faces major challenges: increased competition from non-traditional players, online programs that are eroding regional monopolies, shifting demographics, the perceived irrelevance of some degrees, and the development of low-cost certification alternatives to those degrees. In other industries, information…

  3. First-Day Strategies for Millennial Students in Introductory Accounting Courses: It's All Fun and Games until Something Gets Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastilak, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Millennial students often possess characteristics at odds with typical lecture-based approaches to introductory accounting courses. The author introduces an approach for reaching millennial students early in introductory accounting courses in ways that fit millennials' characteristics. This article describes the use of the board game Monopoly[R]…

  4. Deployment of Recommender Systems: Operational and Strategic Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghoshal, Abhijeet

    2011-01-01

    E-commerce firms are increasingly adopting recommendation systems to effectively target customers with products and services. The first essay examines the impact that improving a recommender system has on firms that deploy such systems. A market with customers heterogeneous in their search costs is considered. We find that in a monopoly, a firm…

  5. The Information Society, Schools, and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balle, Francis

    This report begins by examining the transition from the industrial society to the informatics society which began in the 1960s, when the newspaper's monopoly on information was destroyed by radio and television, followed by the development of an information-based economy. The salient features of the new area are identified as: (1) the ever…

  6. Farmworkers in Rural America, 1971-1972: Part 5A, Appendix. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Migratory Labor of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, 92d Congress, 1st and 2d Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    During the hearings of the Subcommittee on Migratory Labor, various statements prepared for the Subcommittee on Monopoly of the Senate Select Committee on Small Business hearing on the role of giant corporations in the American and world economies were included. This appendix includes some of those statements. The statements given cover: (1)…

  7. Understanding Market Concentration: Internet-Based Applications from the Banking Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Fred H.; Ward, Sidne Gail

    2011-01-01

    Market structure is an essential topic in economics and finance courses, including bank management as well as many other business school courses, for example marketing, human resources and strategic management. Instructors explain the virtues of perfect competition and the evils of monopoly along with alternative market models. Often conversations…

  8. Welfare Triangles and Economic Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    Shows how the concepts of consumer's surplus and producer's surplus can be related to basic welfare economics. Provides illustrations of the ways in which these concepts can be applied in introductory economics courses. Examines the social cost of monopoly, the tax burden, free trade, tariffs, and the English Channel Tunnel. (KO)

  9. Ideas, Their Time Has Come: An Argument and a Proposal for Copyrighting Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, David B.

    1982-01-01

    Exclusion of ideas from copyright protection is an antiquated and indefensible notion. Traditional infringement tests do not provide adequate incentive or protection to idea creators. Innovations such as limited duration monopoly or own/sell option are reasonable. (AVAIL: Albany Law School of Union University, 80 New Scotland Ave., Albany, NY…

  10. The Peace Movement: An Exercise in Micro-Macro Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galtung, Johan

    1998-01-01

    Provides information on the socio-historical background of the peace movement explaining that it stands not only for a challenge to governmental monopoly but also for a general reduction of the instruments of violence. Offers various remarks on the peace movement strategy. (CMK)

  11. A Classroom Demonstration for Teaching Network Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawler, James

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of the concept of network effects is useful at the principles level to facilitate discussions of the determinants of monopoly, the need for standards in high-tech industries, and the general complexity of real-world competition. The author describes a demonstration and an extension that help students understand how consumers make…

  12. Deregulation? Early Radio Policy Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Louise M.

    In debating the merits of the deregulation of broadcasting, policy makers should be cognizant of the conditions that led originally to that regulation. An examination of (1) the letters and speeches of Secretary of Commerce, Herbert Hoover, the first regulator of broadcasting; (2) the congressional debate over the regulatory issues of monopoly,…

  13. Deregulation of the Electric Industry and Its Potential Benefits for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkiss, Jeffrey D.

    1997-01-01

    The electric utility industry is the last bastion of regulated monopolies in the United States. An overview of recent competition in the electric-power industry at both the federal and state levels and how this may affect school districts is offered in this article. The text identifies and evaluates how school districts can obtain cheaper power…

  14. Should We Have Faith in Not-for-Profit Providers of Schooling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Geoff; Davies, Peter; Adnett, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Western governments appear increasingly dissatisfied with the rising costs and apparent static performance of their education systems. This dissatisfaction has been manifested in a critical re-examination of the near-monopoly of publicly provided schooling. Elsewhere in the public sector, privatization and competitive tendering have been…

  15. 12 CFR 26.6 - General exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... a monopoly or substantial lessening of competition and would not present safety and soundness... of competition if the depository organization seeking to add a management official: (1) Primarily serves low-and moderate-income areas; (2) Is controlled or managed by persons who are members of...

  16. 12 CFR 348.6 - General exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in a monopoly or substantial lessening of competition and would not present safety and soundness... of competition if the depository organization seeking to add a management official: (1) Primarily serves low-and moderate-income areas; (2) Is controlled or managed by persons who are members of...

  17. 12 CFR 711.6 - General exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... interlock would not result in a monopoly or substantial lessening of competition, and would not present... or substantial lessening of competition if the depository organization seeking to add a management official: (1) Primarily serves, low- and moderate-income areas; (2) Is controlled or managed by persons...

  18. 12 CFR 563f.6 - General exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... lessening of competition and would not present safety and soundness concerns. A depository organization may... an interlock will not result in a monopoly or substantial lessening of competition if the depository organization seeking to add a management official: (1) Primarily serves low- and moderate-income areas; (2)...

  19. State Consolidation through Liberalization of Telecommunications Services in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mody, Bella

    1995-01-01

    Traces changing state-capital relations in telecommunications in India since its beginning as a law-and-order maintenance tool of the British Empire. Focuses on how the state included the interests of particular external and internal forces (foreign capital, domestic capital, the World Bank, workers and managers in the state monopoly, and users)…

  20. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journalism Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents summaries of research dealing with (1) news coverage of Africa, (2) diffusion of information about cyanide-laced Tylenol, (3) gender representation in elite newspapers, (4) agreement between reporters and editors in Mississippi, (5) monopoly metropolitan dailies and intercity competition, and (6) the effect of endorsements on the…

  1. The News as a Post-Literary Spectacle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keppler, Joseph F.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the news of the Persian Gulf War from a critical reader/viewer perspective. Proposes that video news works like an intriguing alphabet, the forms and meanings of which are pronounced by a monopoly of interpreter reporters, anchors, and media guests. Notes the facility with which rhetorical strategies governed the principles and actions of…

  2. "That's Not Fair!": A Simulation Exercise in Social Stratification and Structural Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coghlan, Catherine L.; Huggins, Denise W.

    2004-01-01

    Social stratification may be one of the most difficult topics covered in sociology classes. This article describes an interactive learning exercise, using a modified version of the game Monopoly, intended to stress the structural nature of social inequality and to stimulate student reflection and class discussion on social stratification in the…

  3. Wind Power in Australia: Overcoming Technological and Institutional Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Gerard; Bunting, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, Australia had little installed wind capacity, although there had been many investigations into its potential during the preceding decades. Formerly, state-owned monopoly utilities showed only token interest in wind power and could dictate the terms of energy debates. This situation changed in the late 1990s: Installed wind capacity…

  4. Game-Based Remedial Instruction in Mastery Learning for Upper-Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chun-Hung; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Chen, Yu-Liang; Liou, Pey-Yan; Chang, Maiga; Wu, Cheng-Hong; Yuan, Shyan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the effectiveness of using computer games for after-school remedial mastery learning. We incorporated instructional materials related to "area of a circle" into the popular Monopoly game to enhance the performance of sixth-grade students learning mathematics. The program requires that students enter the answers to…

  5. Telecoms: Restructuring and the Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doohan, John

    1993-01-01

    Provides case studies and data from the major telecommunications service providers in most of the industrialized countries. Discusses reasons for the persistence of monopolies and the difficulty of affecting organizational change. Looks at privatization, challenges facing the workforce, and new job opportunities that would result. (JOW)

  6. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journalism Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents summaries of research dealing with (1) news coverage of Africa, (2) diffusion of information about cyanide-laced Tylenol, (3) gender representation in elite newspapers, (4) agreement between reporters and editors in Mississippi, (5) monopoly metropolitan dailies and intercity competition, and (6) the effect of endorsements on the…

  7. ARTIST (Asian regional tobacco industry scientist team): Philip Morris' attempt to exert a scientific and regulatory agenda on Asia.

    PubMed

    Tong, E K; Glantz, S A

    2004-12-01

    To describe how the transnational tobacco industry has collaborated with local Asian tobacco monopolies and companies to promote a scientific and regulatory agenda. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Transnational tobacco companies began aggressively entering the Asia market in the 1980s, and the current tobacco industry in Asia is a mix of transnational and local monopolies or private companies. Tobacco industry documents demonstrate that, in 1996, Philip Morris led an organisation of scientific representatives from different tobacco companies called the Asian Regional Tobacco Industry Science Team (ARTIST), whose membership grew to include monopolies from Korea, China, Thailand, and Taiwan and a company from Indonesia. ARTIST was initially a vehicle for PM's strategies against anticipated calls for global smoke-free areas from a World Health Organization secondhand smoke study. ARTIST evolved through 2001 into a forum to present scientific and regulatory issues faced primarily by Philip Morris and other transnational tobacco companies. Philip Morris' goal for the organisation became to reach the external scientific and public health community and regulators in Asia. The Asian tobacco industry has changed from an environment of invasion by transnational tobacco companies to an environment of participation with Philip Morris' initiated activities. With this participation, tobacco control efforts in Asia face new challenges as Philip Morris promotes and integrates its scientific and regulatory agenda into the local Asian tobacco industry. As the local Asian tobacco monopolies and companies can have direct links with their governments, future implementation of effective tobacco control may be at odds with national priorities.

  8. Learning from Public Television and the Web: Positioning Continuing Education as a Knowledge Portal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedro, Steven R.

    1999-01-01

    Digital convergence--the merging of television and computing--challenges localized monopolies of public television and continuing education. Continuing educators can reposition themselves in the electronic marketplace by serving as an educational portal, bringing their strengths of "brand recognition," local customer base, and access to…

  9. Economics of Scholarly Publishing: Exploring the Causes of Subscription Price Variations of Scholarly Journals in Business Subject-Specific Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lewis G.

    2011-01-01

    This empirical research investigates subscription price variations of scholarly journals in five business subject-specific areas using the semilogarithmic regression model. It has two main purposes. The first is to address the unsettled debate over whether or not and to what extent commercial publishers reap monopoly profits by overcharging…

  10. 75 FR 34740 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... a monopoly on organ procurement within its donation service area, CMS must hold OPOs to high... collection; Title of Information Collection: Conditions of Coverage for Organ Procurement Organizations and... procuring organs for transplant centers to be reimbursable ] under the Medicare and Medicaid programs....

  11. Lighting the Way for Systemic Reform: The Edison Project Launches Its Version of a Public-Private Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGriff, Deborah M.

    1995-01-01

    The Edison Project, advocating a new form of public-private partnership to reinvent education, has repeatedly encountered barriers such as state regulations, professional isolation, inertia, bureaucracy, miscommunication, and a finance and governance monopoly. Four communities will open Edison Project schools this fall. Superintendent Larry Vaughn…

  12. Deployment of Recommender Systems: Operational and Strategic Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghoshal, Abhijeet

    2011-01-01

    E-commerce firms are increasingly adopting recommendation systems to effectively target customers with products and services. The first essay examines the impact that improving a recommender system has on firms that deploy such systems. A market with customers heterogeneous in their search costs is considered. We find that in a monopoly, a firm…

  13. Some Ways of Helping Underachievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willings, David; Greenwood, Bill

    1990-01-01

    A program of intervention called therapeutic tutoring to help underachievers is described. Intervention centers around students' loci of control, through a process of identifying areas in which students feel empowered and relating academic experiences to these areas. Academic exercises based on Monopoly, cricket, rugby, soap operas, field hockey,…

  14. The Mirror in the Corner; People's Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Peter

    The BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) during its period of monopoly television, the coming of ITV (independent television), the reaction and adaptation of the BBC to a competitive situation, and the effect on British television programing are the subjects of this history of British television. (RH)

  15. The Information Society, Schools, and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balle, Francis

    This report begins by examining the transition from the industrial society to the informatics society which began in the 1960s, when the newspaper's monopoly on information was destroyed by radio and television, followed by the development of an information-based economy. The salient features of the new area are identified as: (1) the ever…

  16. Wealth and Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue examines three historical and current problems surrounding wealth and power. The first article looks at King Leopold of Belgium and his exploitation of the Congo. The second article explores John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil monopoly. The final article examines the antitrust case against the Microsoft Corporation. Each…

  17. Women's Struggle against Tradition in Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Mainus

    1994-01-01

    In rural Bangladesh, women's participation in a literacy program was opposed by Mullahs for several reasons: content encouraged decision making, monopoly of the Qur'anic schools was threatened, Mullahs' leadership and spiritual roles were potentially subverted, and it conflicted with the practice of polygamy. (SK)

  18. Game-Based Remedial Instruction in Mastery Learning for Upper-Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chun-Hung; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Chen, Yu-Liang; Liou, Pey-Yan; Chang, Maiga; Wu, Cheng-Hong; Yuan, Shyan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the effectiveness of using computer games for after-school remedial mastery learning. We incorporated instructional materials related to "area of a circle" into the popular Monopoly game to enhance the performance of sixth-grade students learning mathematics. The program requires that students enter the answers to…

  19. Wind Power in Australia: Overcoming Technological and Institutional Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Gerard; Bunting, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, Australia had little installed wind capacity, although there had been many investigations into its potential during the preceding decades. Formerly, state-owned monopoly utilities showed only token interest in wind power and could dictate the terms of energy debates. This situation changed in the late 1990s: Installed wind capacity…

  20. Coase and Hotelling: A Meeting of the Minds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Johannes; Kamien, Morton I.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we tie together the two literatures of durable goods monopoly and exhaustible resource pricing. We show that the intertemporal no-arbitrage condition that arises if the durable good monopolist seller can commit to a price path mirrors the intertemporal no-arbitrage condition if the monopsonist buyer of an exhaustible resource can…

  1. Maintaining an Effective Research Environment in Australia. Submission to IP Australia Patents Law Reform Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    It is widely stated that a purpose of patent law is to encourage inventors to innovate and to disclose their inventions for the benefit of society. In return for this disclosure they receive a limited exploitation monopoly defined essentially by commercial pursuits. A necessary implication of the requirement of disclosure is that knowledge…

  2. Persuasive and Informative Advertising: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeborn, Beth A.; Hulbert, Jason P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors outline a pair of classroom activities designed to provide an intuitive foundation to the theoretical introduction of advertising in monopoly markets. The roles of both informative and persuasive advertising are covered. Each student acts as a monopolist and chooses the number of (costly) advertisements and the price. The experiments…

  3. Supporting Friendly Atmosphere in a Classroom by Technology Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaš, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    Extremely rapid development of information technology and the lack of monopoly in the technological market have resulted in a sudden price reduction of the informatic equipment and gadgets enabling them to be used in all segments of a human life, hence the education as well. In the modern, digital era it is almost impossible to make any…

  4. Using Students' Favorite Collectibles To Teach Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Cynthia; Meyer, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Provides two economics lessons that each deal with a type of collectible (beanbag toys and Pokemon cards) that interests students. Reinforces such concepts as markets, scarcity, equilibrium, supply and demand, monopolies, and government regulation. Provides a sample quiz and a glossary of terms with examples. (CMK)

  5. Pay Premiums for Economic Sector and Race: A Decomposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daymont, Thomas N.

    Using data from the older men's file of the National Longitudinal Surveys, two issues related to the labor market implications of dual economy theory were examined: variations in rates of pay among economic sectors (competitive, monopoly, and public) and variation in relative opportunities for blacks across sectors. The primary analytical problem…

  6. Simulating Poverty and Inequality Dynamics in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansoms, An; Geenen, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This article considers how the simulation game of DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY provides insight into poverty and inequality dynamics in a development context. It first discusses how the game is rooted in theoretical and conceptual frameworks on poverty and inequality. Subsequently, it reflects on selected playing experiences, with special focus on the…

  7. Rethinking the European Countryside--Can We Learn from the South?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korf, Benedikt; Oughton, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    A new paradigm of multi-dimensional rural development has emerged which advocates a broader conception of the rurality where the rural is no longer the monopoly of the farmer. This new, broader paradigm needs to be reflected in the "methodology" of social scientific research, both generic and applied. In this paper we are primarily…

  8. Degrees of Durability and the New World of Credentialing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The erosion of the college credit monopoly, the devaluation of the degree and the rise of new forms of credentialing suggest a generation of students and higher education institutions somewhat different than the previous generation. Consider a higher learning environment where students create their own academic portfolios and shape their…

  9. Rent Seeking: A Textbook Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecorino, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The author argues that the college textbook market provides a clear example of monopoly seeking as described by Tullock (1967, 1980). This behavior is also known as rent seeking. Because this market is important to students, this example of rent seeking will be of particular interest to them. (Contains 24 notes.)

  10. Access to Special Collections in the Humanities: Who's Guarding the Gates and Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Barbara; Xu, Ying

    1994-01-01

    Discusses problems and ethical issues associated with access to special collections in the humanities. Topics include access to the Dead Sea Scrolls; scholastic monopolies and access barriers; access restrictions and destroyed documents; privacy rights and professional codes of confidentiality; fair use of unpublished manuscripts; and the Freedom…

  11. Opening of Dead Sea Scrolls Archive Underlines Problems That Can Complicate Access to Research Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Ellen K.

    1991-01-01

    The Huntington Library (California) decision to make generally accessible, for the first time, copies of photographs of the Dead Sea Scrolls, previously tightly controlled by a small group of editors, is hailed as breaking a scholarly monopoly over an important intellectual resource, reaffirming the mission of the research library and the…

  12. Is That All There Is? Taking Education to New Levels in the Social-Media Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandviwalla, Munir; Schuff, David; Chacko, Manoj; Miller, Laurel

    2013-01-01

    Higher education in the United States faces major challenges: increased competition from non-traditional players, online programs that are eroding regional monopolies, shifting demographics, the perceived irrelevance of some degrees, and the development of low-cost certification alternatives to those degrees. In other industries, information…

  13. Nutritionopoly: Let Healthy Choices "Monopolize" Your Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Person, Ashley L.; Colby, Sarah E.; Eubanks, Janie W.

    2011-01-01

    Nutritionopoly, an interactive educational program based on the popular board game, Monopoly, was held at a college university dining hall. Students actively participated in the game while learning important nutrition and health-related information. Feedback showed that it was effective in increasing awareness and knowledge while being fun and…

  14. How Massive Multiplayer Online Games Incorporate Principles of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Joshua H.; Archambault, Leanna

    2010-01-01

    Games have always been a part of the human experience. Even the earliest of civilizations created games for enjoyment and entertainment. However, the educational value of those games is a relatively recent consideration. Over the previous fifty years, scholars have questioned the potential positive lessons learned from games such as Monopoly[R],…

  15. 500 Channels: Wasteland or Wonderland?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Eric J.

    1993-01-01

    Considers the changes that new digital technology will bring to the cable television industry. Topics addressed include the media industry, including telephone companies, television networks, and cable companies; federal regulation; increased channel capacity; costs of mass media; monopolies; education on cable; electronic delivery of newspapers…

  16. How Massive Multiplayer Online Games Incorporate Principles of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Joshua H.; Archambault, Leanna

    2010-01-01

    Games have always been a part of the human experience. Even the earliest of civilizations created games for enjoyment and entertainment. However, the educational value of those games is a relatively recent consideration. Over the previous fifty years, scholars have questioned the potential positive lessons learned from games such as Monopoly[R],…

  17. Welfare Triangles and Economic Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    Shows how the concepts of consumer's surplus and producer's surplus can be related to basic welfare economics. Provides illustrations of the ways in which these concepts can be applied in introductory economics courses. Examines the social cost of monopoly, the tax burden, free trade, tariffs, and the English Channel Tunnel. (KO)

  18. Institutional Authority and Traces of Intergenerational Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufan, Ismail; Kilic, Sultan; Tokgoz, Nimet; Howe, Jurgen; Yaman, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    While society's level of education increases in a modernization process, the knowledge monopoly is taken over by the young. Increasing demand on knowledge attained through organized education leads to increasing power by the young. In the modernizing society of Turkey, this kind of struggle will occur between intellectual groups. Results of this…

  19. National Responses to International Satellite Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakar, Krishna P.

    Star TV, the first international satellite broadcast system in Asia, has had a profound effect on national broadcasting systems, most of which are rigidly controlled, state owned monopoly organizations. The purpose of this paper was to study the response of national governments, media industries, and the general public to this multichannel direct…

  20. Some Ways of Helping Underachievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willings, David; Greenwood, Bill

    1990-01-01

    A program of intervention called therapeutic tutoring to help underachievers is described. Intervention centers around students' loci of control, through a process of identifying areas in which students feel empowered and relating academic experiences to these areas. Academic exercises based on Monopoly, cricket, rugby, soap operas, field hockey,…

  1. Privacy and the Private Eye in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William E.

    Land remote-sensing satellites are developing as a commercial communications technology after years under a government monopoly. The shift to the private sector and improving quality of the pictures produced have given rise to increased concerns about the potential for violations of privacy rights. Although satellites can currently photograph only…

  2. Professionnalisation ou Deprofessionnalisation: Une Base Conceptuelle pour L'evaluation de La Competence en Psychologie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perron, Jacques; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Elements of professionalization--systematic body of theory, social recognition, monopoly, and degree of organization--are presented and applied to the development of professional psychology in Quebec. The concept of deprofessionalization is introduced as an alternative basis for evaluating competence in professional psychology. (Author)

  3. Literacy in Contemporary English Society. Occasional Paper, 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Jane

    For thousands of years the craft of reading and writing was the closely guarded monopoly of small elites. Only relatively recently has literacy become available to most people in developed nations. Historical surveys of literacy have used a wide range of definitions of the skills involved, one of the more important of which views reading as a…

  4. Quelques Facteurs Sociaux Agissant sur la Formation Permanente et l'Education Informelle en Algerie (Social Factors Acting upon Lifelong Learning and Informal Education in Algeria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddab, Mustapha

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes conditions that have led to an increase in private and collective educational initiatives in Algeria, highlighting political and socioeconomic changes since 1988. Indicates that after a long period of a public education monopoly, social factors have led to the development of alternative educational opportunities that are more responsive…

  5. State Consolidation through Liberalization of Telecommunications Services in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mody, Bella

    1995-01-01

    Traces changing state-capital relations in telecommunications in India since its beginning as a law-and-order maintenance tool of the British Empire. Focuses on how the state included the interests of particular external and internal forces (foreign capital, domestic capital, the World Bank, workers and managers in the state monopoly, and users)…

  6. 12 CFR 391.46 - Determination by the FDIC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... POLICY FORMER OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION REGULATIONS Acquisition of Control of State Savings... country may be substantially to lessen competition or to tend to create a monopoly or the proposed... effect of the transaction in meeting the convenience and needs of the community to be served; (3)...

  7. 12 CFR 391.46 - Determination by the FDIC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... POLICY FORMER OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION REGULATIONS Acquisition of Control of State Savings... country may be substantially to lessen competition or to tend to create a monopoly or the proposed... effect of the transaction in meeting the convenience and needs of the community to be served; (3)...

  8. 12 CFR 391.46 - Determination by the FDIC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... POLICY FORMER OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION REGULATIONS Acquisition of Control of State Savings... country may be substantially to lessen competition or to tend to create a monopoly or the proposed... effect of the transaction in meeting the convenience and needs of the community to be served; (3)...

  9. Access to Student Loans. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    Hearings are presented on the proliferation of interstate guarantee arrangements in the area of student loans, and the effect of such arrangements on student access to loan capital. Topics include: the desirability of establishing territorial monopolies for student loan guarantee agencies, the views of the Higher Education Assistance Foundation…

  10. Declining Support for Higher-Education Leadership Preparation Programs: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibulka, James G.

    2009-01-01

    University-based leadership preparation programs no longer enjoy a near monopoly on the right to prepare school principals and other administrative leaders, and now compete with a growing number of alternative providers. This article utilizes the new institutionalism literature to analyze this shift. Practitioners and policymakers demanded reforms…

  11. An Evaluation of the Award Fee Determination Process in Cost-Plus-Award- Fee Contracts in Major Weapon Systems Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    contractors should be treated as "public utilities" and implied that these corporate giants have a monopoly over the supply of their unique defense product...1. Superior Performance: Depresents 80 to 100 percent of the nnotnti.a! award fee. The contractor has demonstrated an overall level of perfocmance

  12. Education, Commerce, and Communications: The Era of Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turoff, Murray

    Consequences of the coming worldwide competition in courses, degree programs, and training, and what it may mean for higher education in the future are discussed. Traditionally, institutions of higher education had some security in what amounted to geographical monopolies corresponding to the physical campus location. The educational consumer is…

  13. Rethinking the European Countryside--Can We Learn from the South?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korf, Benedikt; Oughton, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    A new paradigm of multi-dimensional rural development has emerged which advocates a broader conception of the rurality where the rural is no longer the monopoly of the farmer. This new, broader paradigm needs to be reflected in the "methodology" of social scientific research, both generic and applied. In this paper we are primarily…

  14. Algeria to use gas to meet energy demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Sonelgaz, Algeria's natural gas distribution monopoly, plans to supply all major towns in the country with natural gas for domestic energy demands by 1989. The utility uses copper tubing in residences and plastic pipe for distribution mains and services to the houses for new construction and conversion to natural gas from LPG systems.

  15. Religion, Education, and the State in Post-Communist Europe: Making Sense of the Diversity of New Church-State Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2009-01-01

    The demise of the Communist Party's monopoly over education in Europe created a new dilemma for educational leaders in post-Communist states. They faced a difficult question: How should a nation-state that accepts ideological pluralism handle the difficult relationship between religion and education? As is well known, Western liberal democracies…

  16. Providing Security: The Strategic Importance of Policing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    legitimate monopoly on violence, gaining acceptance of the Kosovo Protection Corps ( KPC ) and establishing police presence backed by a perceived...KFOR forces remained the legitimate This idea of developing an integrated KPC was an integral part of the demobilization, demilitarization and

  17. Regulatory Reform: Low Risk, High Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanenbaum, Morris

    The press of telecommunication technologies and their progeny have undermined the natural monopoly basis for long distance telecommunications and customer premise products, forced open regulatory doors, toppled barriers to market entry, and led to the reshaping of regulatory philosophy as regulators have seen new, wider horizons for the industry.…

  18. 75 FR 1785 - Agrium Inc. and CF Industries Holding, Inc.; Analysis of the Agreement Containing Consent Orders...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... (``AA'') terminals in Ritzville, Washington, and Marseilles, Illinois to Terra Industries Inc. (``Terra... distribute the AA produced by Rentech at Rentech's East Dubuque, Illinois manufacturing plant back to Rentech... tend to create a monopoly in the distribution and sale of AA in the Pacific Northwest (``PNW'') and...

  19. Disputes Involving US Private Direct Foreign Investment: March 1, 1980-September 30, 1982,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-15

    Chad Agricola du Tchad Inactive 1975 Ethiopia 33 miscellaneous claims Active 1975-1978 Ghana Mobil Inactive 1975 Texaco Inactive 1975 Madagascar Caltex... Tchad -Agricola Me2tals Corporationl In 1975 the Government of Chad abrogated Agricola’s monopoly right to collect wild gum in Chad, on the grounds that

  20. The Legitimisation of Knowledge: A Work-Based Learning Perspective of APEL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armsby, Pauline; Costley, Carol; Garnett, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Accreditation of Prior Experiential Learning (APEL) is now an established but relatively under used process in higher education (HE). In our review article, we argue that this is because APEL not only challenges the traditional university monopoly of knowledge but also challenges other established processes and social constructions. Work-Based…

  1. The Browser War: An Ethical Analysis of the Struggle between Microsoft and the U.S. Department of Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Dennis

    1999-01-01

    Examines two ethical questions regarding the ongoing antitrust battle between the U.S. Department of Justice and Microsoft Corporation using traditional rights-based ethical theory, utilitarianism, and John Rawls's principles of justice. Concludes that it is neither good nor fair for a company having a near-monopoly over a market to sell products…

  2. Inquiring "Tree of Life" at Home: Persian Classic Literature in English Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsaiyan, Seyyeded Fahimeh; Ghajar, Sue-San Ghahremani; Salahimoghaddam, Soheila; Janahmadi, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    The recent decades of English Language Teaching (ELT) appear to be particularly concerned with the marginalisation caused by English linguistic, cultural, and academic colonisation and imperialism. Bold footprints of this academic monopoly can be seen in the wide incorporation of abridged or unabridged British and American literary works in…

  3. Privacy and the Private Eye in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William E.

    Land remote-sensing satellites are developing as a commercial communications technology after years under a government monopoly. The shift to the private sector and improving quality of the pictures produced have given rise to increased concerns about the potential for violations of privacy rights. Although satellites can currently photograph only…

  4. Liberating Schools: Education in the Inner City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boaz, David, Ed.

    This volume offers the analysis and suggestions for reform of leading educational experts on the topic of education in the inner cities. An introduction provides an overview of the problems of American education and a proposed solution: educational choice. The 12 chapters are as follows: (1) "The Public School Monopoly: America's Berlin…

  5. Reference Five. Five Easy games of Referencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Jamie-Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Presents five easy games of referencing in academic writing: Risk--the art of assembling powerful coalitions; Poker--using citations to finesse a bluff; Dominoes and the logic of citations; Monopoly--using citations to create an empire; and Trivial Pursuit. (Author/VWL)

  6. The Twentieth Century Fund Annual Report 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twentieth Century Fund, New York, NY.

    Research continued and new studies were launched in four major areas: communications, urban problems, politics, and economic issues. The foci of these studies are described briefly. Projects in communications are examining flows of news, media monopoly, press freedoms under pressure, public affairs broadcasting, press councils, political access to…

  7. 43 CFR 3105.4-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation Provisions... will not result in any concentration of control over the production or sale of oil and gas which would be inconsistent with the anti-monopoly provisions of law. ...

  8. Religion, Education, and the State in Post-Communist Europe: Making Sense of the Diversity of New Church-State Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2009-01-01

    The demise of the Communist Party's monopoly over education in Europe created a new dilemma for educational leaders in post-Communist states. They faced a difficult question: How should a nation-state that accepts ideological pluralism handle the difficult relationship between religion and education? As is well known, Western liberal democracies…

  9. Ideas, Their Time Has Come: An Argument and a Proposal for Copyrighting Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, David B.

    1982-01-01

    Exclusion of ideas from copyright protection is an antiquated and indefensible notion. Traditional infringement tests do not provide adequate incentive or protection to idea creators. Innovations such as limited duration monopoly or own/sell option are reasonable. (AVAIL: Albany Law School of Union University, 80 New Scotland Ave., Albany, NY…

  10. Statement of the Authors Guild, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Irwin

    This paper is related to a similar statement presented at a Federal Trade Commission Symposium on Media Concentration. It was submitted by the Authors Guild to Senator Edward Kennedy's Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly on May 10, 1978. It is one of several memoranda by the Guild opposing the acquisitions and mergers they feel have given…

  11. The Changing Dynamics of PhDs and the Future of Higher Educational Development in Asia and the Rest of the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambor, Zoltan Paul

    2009-01-01

    Industries in developing countries could counterbalance the western monopoly on higher education by investing more in research at local universities and consequently improving the local human resources talent pools and the overall world rankings of the local universities. What is more, with the perceived lack of necessity for university faculty…

  12. Quelques Facteurs Sociaux Agissant sur la Formation Permanente et l'Education Informelle en Algerie (Social Factors Acting upon Lifelong Learning and Informal Education in Algeria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddab, Mustapha

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes conditions that have led to an increase in private and collective educational initiatives in Algeria, highlighting political and socioeconomic changes since 1988. Indicates that after a long period of a public education monopoly, social factors have led to the development of alternative educational opportunities that are more responsive…

  13. Is Licensing Public Protection of Professional Protectionism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Daniel B.

    1979-01-01

    Granting of licenses to practice has long been linked to academic credentials, but this system offers more protection to the professions than to the public. There is an immediate need to break the credentials monopoly by opening up alternative routes to obtaining credentials. (Author/MLW)

  14. The Crisis of Educational Technology, and the Prospect of Reinventing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albirini, Abdulkafi

    2007-01-01

    With the fading monopoly of the industrial mode of production and the emergence of the "information revolution," modern technology has pervaded almost every aspect of human life. In education, however, information technology has yet to find a place, despite the unceasing attempts to "fit" it into the existing educational system. The paper argues…

  15. Nutritionopoly: Let Healthy Choices "Monopolize" Your Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Person, Ashley L.; Colby, Sarah E.; Eubanks, Janie W.

    2011-01-01

    Nutritionopoly, an interactive educational program based on the popular board game, Monopoly, was held at a college university dining hall. Students actively participated in the game while learning important nutrition and health-related information. Feedback showed that it was effective in increasing awareness and knowledge while being fun and…

  16. Liberating Schools: Education in the Inner City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boaz, David, Ed.

    This volume offers the analysis and suggestions for reform of leading educational experts on the topic of education in the inner cities. An introduction provides an overview of the problems of American education and a proposed solution: educational choice. The 12 chapters are as follows: (1) "The Public School Monopoly: America's Berlin…

  17. Lighting the Way for Systemic Reform: The Edison Project Launches Its Version of a Public-Private Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGriff, Deborah M.

    1995-01-01

    The Edison Project, advocating a new form of public-private partnership to reinvent education, has repeatedly encountered barriers such as state regulations, professional isolation, inertia, bureaucracy, miscommunication, and a finance and governance monopoly. Four communities will open Edison Project schools this fall. Superintendent Larry Vaughn…

  18. The Law and Its Illicit Desires: Transversing Free Market Claustrophobia and the Zombie Imaginary in "Dredd 3-D"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orpana, Simon

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of biopolitical modernity, states justify both the existence of zombies and their monopoly on coercive violence via an imperative to care for the populations within their purview. But biopolitics' intrinsic link to the rise of a neoliberal model of governance, demonstrated by Foucault (2008), places a contradiction at the heart…

  19. Equal Time for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolata, Gina

    1984-01-01

    Examines social influences which discourage women from pursuing studies in computer science, including monopoly of computer time by boys at the high school level, sexual harassment in college, movies, and computer games. Describes some initial efforts to encourage females of all ages to study computer science. (JM)

  20. The Mobile Satellite Services Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Samuel

    Mobile satellite (MSAT) technology is the basis for a new component of the telecommunications industry capable of providing services to small inexpensive subscriber terminals located almost any place in the world. The market for MSAT space segment capacity (bandwidth and power) is a natural monopoly that can be logically and technically…

  1. American business ethics and health care costs.

    PubMed

    Garrett, T M; Klonoski, R J; Baillie, H W

    1993-01-01

    The health care industry operates in the margin between market competition and social welfare programs. Violations of business ethics on the market side add considerably to costs. When the inefficient use of resources and market distortions due to power and ignorance as well as legal and subsidized monopolies are added, increased costs can approach $100 billion. Modest remedies are suggested.

  2. Rent Seeking: A Textbook Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecorino, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The author argues that the college textbook market provides a clear example of monopoly seeking as described by Tullock (1967, 1980). This behavior is also known as rent seeking. Because this market is important to students, this example of rent seeking will be of particular interest to them. (Contains 24 notes.)

  3. From the Adam Smith Institute to the Zapatistas: An Internet Gateway to all Development Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Alex

    2002-01-01

    Examines the World Bank Internet initiative, the Development Gateway. Describes the importance of the Bank as a knowledge bank and the threats posed by the Internet to its near monopoly of development thinking. Argues that the initiative reveals biases and misunderstandings in the World Bank's approach to knowledge for development. (CAJ)

  4. The Mobile Satellite Services Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Samuel

    Mobile satellite (MSAT) technology is the basis for a new component of the telecommunications industry capable of providing services to small inexpensive subscriber terminals located almost any place in the world. The market for MSAT space segment capacity (bandwidth and power) is a natural monopoly that can be logically and technically…

  5. Degrees of Durability and the New World of Credentialing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The erosion of the college credit monopoly, the devaluation of the degree and the rise of new forms of credentialing suggest a generation of students and higher education institutions somewhat different than the previous generation. Consider a higher learning environment where students create their own academic portfolios and shape their…

  6. Is Licensing Public Protection of Professional Protectionism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Daniel B.

    1979-01-01

    Granting of licenses to practice has long been linked to academic credentials, but this system offers more protection to the professions than to the public. There is an immediate need to break the credentials monopoly by opening up alternative routes to obtaining credentials. (Author/MLW)

  7. A Graphical Analysis of the Cournot-Nash and Stackelberg Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Murray

    1997-01-01

    Shows how the Cournot-Nash and Stackelberg equilibria can be represented in the familiar supply-demand graphical framework, allowing a direct comparison with the monopoly, competitive, and industrial organization models. This graphical analysis is represented throughout the article. (MJP)

  8. Federal Educational Funding and the Professional Labor Market Entry of African American Women: The Impact of the Reagan-Bush Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodeheaver, Daniel G.; Williams, James L.

    1991-01-01

    Explores the idea that the Reagan and Bush administrations, through their policies on the funding of higher education in particular, have had a negative impact on gains in the comparative rate of entry into professional occupations of African-American women. Such effects are the result of attempts to reestablish monopoly capitalism. (SLD)

  9. "I Prefer to Think for Myself": Upper Secondary School Pupils' Attitudes Towards Computer-Based Spanish Grammar Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredholm, Kent

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing pressure from school leaders in many countries for teaching to be based solely on ICT tools. The present study is interested in what this does to pupils' attitudes towards ICT in language classrooms. Is a digital monopoly a good way for pupils to learn languages? Is it what they want? To understand for which tasks students…

  10. Communications Satellites: A New Channel for International Communications, A New Source of International Tension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Sig

    Communications satellites could be the subject of bitter and potentially dangerous international controversy. They threaten to upset the comfortable monopoly of internal national communications systems which have enrolled national governments to screen intrusions of unwanted information or ideas. The United Nations Working Committee on Direct…

  11. Job Placement in Germany: Developments before and after Deregulation. IAB Labour Market Research Topics No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walwei, Ulrich

    Since 1994, the German public employment service has not had a monopoly on placement. A new law permits private job placement as an independent activity, but only with a license from the public employment service. Since deregulation, the number of job placement licenses has increased continuously, but the number of placements made by private…

  12. Why Does Private School Enrollment Grow? Evidence from Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narodowski, Mariano; Moschetti, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    During the second half of the twentieth century, a process of privatization took place in the Argentine education system. This paper seeks to explain the growth of private enrollments in Argentina over the last years. Drawing on the concept of quasi-monopoly, we run a random-effects estimation on panel data to analyze the determinants of the…

  13. Handbook of Research on School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berends, Mark, Ed.; Springer, Matthew G., Ed.; Ballou, Dale, Ed.; Walberg, Herbert J., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1990s when the nation's first charter school was opened in Minneapolis, the scope and availability of school-based options to parents has steadily expanded. No longer can public education be characterized as a monopoly. Sponsored by the National Center on School Choice (NCSC), this handbook makes readily available the most rigorous…

  14. French Television News: Practices of Encoding and Theories of Trivialisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Susan

    This study examines one aspect of the television medium--television news and its encoding practices--that was expected to be affected by changes instituted when socialists took office in France in 1981. It is noted that this government's legal reform advocated a more decentralized system of governance and a liberalization of the state monopoly on…

  15. The News as a Post-Literary Spectacle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keppler, Joseph F.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the news of the Persian Gulf War from a critical reader/viewer perspective. Proposes that video news works like an intriguing alphabet, the forms and meanings of which are pronounced by a monopoly of interpreter reporters, anchors, and media guests. Notes the facility with which rhetorical strategies governed the principles and actions of…

  16. The Economics of Professional Journal Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoller, Michael A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates the literature on journal pricing that emphasizes three types of price discrimination practiced by publishers. Concludes that the monopoly power of commercial publishers and a third party payment system are the cause of increasing journal costs. Recommends incentives to journal users, adoption of equitable pricing systems, and employing…

  17. The Military’s Role in Drug Interdiction Can Be Successful

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    community in New York. (3:lU5) La Cosa Nostra joined the importation process in the 1930s, obtaining the drugs from France and Asia. World War II saw 14 a...shift to Mexico as the major supplier. After World War II, La Cosa Nostra again asserted itself and held a virtual monopoly until 1972 when Turkey banned

  18. 75 FR 46940 - Nufarm Limited; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ..., and take certain additional measures to restore competition in the markets for three phenoxy herbicide... competition in the United States markets for the sale of the phenoxy herbicides: MCPA, MCPP-P, and 2,4DB. The.... Marks, Nufarm obtained monopoly positions in the United States markets for two phenoxy herbicide markets...

  19. Why Does Private School Enrollment Grow? Evidence from Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narodowski, Mariano; Moschetti, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    During the second half of the twentieth century, a process of privatization took place in the Argentine education system. This paper seeks to explain the growth of private enrollments in Argentina over the last years. Drawing on the concept of quasi-monopoly, we run a random-effects estimation on panel data to analyze the determinants of the…

  20. The Radio Phenomenon in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faenza, Roberto

    One in a series of studies of experiments in new audiovisual techniques in Europe and the situations in some member countries, this paper traces the development of radio in Italy. Opposing views about radio broadcasting (public monopoly vs. freedom of broadcasting) are examined, and the various political and legal aspects of communications in…

  1. Koreans in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonacich, Edna; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Two questions about Koreans in business are left unanswered in this article. First, what will happen to Korean entrepreneurship if monopoly capitalism continues to extend its influence into all branches of the economy. The second question concerns the issue of race relations. (Author/AM)

  2. Small Business Among Koreans in Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonacich, Edna; And Others

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the character of small business among Koreans in Los Angeles, to examine the means by which Koreans are able to enter small business in an economy which clearly is moving in the opposite direction, and to consider why it is that immigrant small business should flourish within monopoly capitalism. Korean…

  3. Professionnalisation ou Deprofessionnalisation: Une Base Conceptuelle pour L'evaluation de La Competence en Psychologie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perron, Jacques; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Elements of professionalization--systematic body of theory, social recognition, monopoly, and degree of organization--are presented and applied to the development of professional psychology in Quebec. The concept of deprofessionalization is introduced as an alternative basis for evaluating competence in professional psychology. (Author)

  4. Does Agency Competition Improve the Quality of Policy Analysis? Evidence from OMB and CBO Fiscal Projections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, George A.; Douglas, James W.

    2006-01-01

    Public management scholars often claim that agency competition provides an effective institutional check on monopoly authority, and hence, leads to improvement of administrative performance in public sector agencies. This logic was central for creating the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) in 1975 to challenge the policy information provided by…

  5. The Law and Its Illicit Desires: Transversing Free Market Claustrophobia and the Zombie Imaginary in "Dredd 3-D"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orpana, Simon

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of biopolitical modernity, states justify both the existence of zombies and their monopoly on coercive violence via an imperative to care for the populations within their purview. But biopolitics' intrinsic link to the rise of a neoliberal model of governance, demonstrated by Foucault (2008), places a contradiction at the heart…

  6. Ships at a distance: Energy choice and economic challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, P.A.

    1997-12-31

    Several restructurings of Vermont`s electric utilities were attempted earlier. At best, the successes were compromises, whose benefits were a fraction of what might have been achieved. At worst, monopoly power triumphed outright, leaving Vermonters and Vermont economy in thrall to distant energy and financial forces. To understand the interplay between today`s restructuring and the Vermont economy, the author examines those earlier restructuring. They establish that electricity really is different from other industries, not just because it cannot be stored or because the strandable investment is so much larger or the monopoly linkages are so much more extensive. More important is the extent of the electric industry`s place in the national political consciousness and its environmental impact.

  7. Russian national security and foreign policy in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Rumer, E.B.

    1995-11-01

    February 7, 1990, was a day of unprecedented change in the history of the Soviet Union. On that day the Communist Party (CPSU) leadership surrendered its constitutional monopoly on the country`s political life and process by agreeing to amend Article VI of the Soviet Constitution, which had previously guaranteed it that right. As often happened during the perestroyka years, that decision lagged behind the real course of political events in the Soviet Union and represented, as many measures taken by the Soviet leaders, a half step that left both opponents and proponents of reforms dissatisfied. But the importance of that highly symbolic step should not be underestimated. The CPSU, which for nearly three-quarters of the 20th century had enjoyed an absolute constitutional monopoly on ideas, had in effect sanctioned political competition and ideological challenge to its dogma. For the first time in Soviet history, citizens were allowed to form and join political parties other than the CPSU.

  8. State regulation of electric and gas utilities: energy policy study. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Taschjian, M.; Hewlett, J.

    1980-01-01

    State regulation of electric and gas utilities is examined. The concept of natural monopoly is reviewed, and alternative approaches to the problem are examined, using current economic literature. Private monopoly, public ownership, and regulatory intervention are compared as the chief alternatives. Various forms of regulatory intervention are discussed, ranging from franchise auction through rate-of-return regulation. The latter approach is then examned in detail, discussing the Averch-Johnson effect, regulatory lag, and the impact on technological choice and development of new technology. Alternative price structures are examined and contrasted with the free market case of an unregulated monopolist. The main conclusion is that current regulatory intervention appears to be the least desirable of the alternatives in terms of efficiency of resource use, price, output, and distribution of consumer surplus. 9 figures, 9 tables.

  9. An economic justification for open access to essential medicine patents in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Sean; Hollis, Aidan; Palmedo, Mike

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers an economic rationale for compulsory licensing of needed medicines in developing countries. The patent system is based on a trade-off between the "deadweight losses" caused by market power and the incentive to innovate created by increased profits from monopoly pricing during the period of the patent. However, markets for essential medicines under patent in developing countries with high income inequality are characterized by highly convex demand curves, producing large deadweight losses relative to potential profits when monopoly firms exercise profit-maximizing pricing strategies. As a result, these markets are systematically ill-suited to exclusive marketing rights, a problem which can be corrected through compulsory licensing. Open licenses that permit any qualified firm to supply the market on the same terms, such as may be available under licenses of right or essential facility legal standards, can be used to mitigate the negative effects of government-granted patents, thereby increasing overall social welfare.

  10. British American Tobacco’s failure in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, S

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) considered Turkey an important, potential investment market because of its high consumption rates and domestic commitment to tobacco. This paper outlines how British American Tobacco (BAT) attempted to establish a joint venture with the government monopoly TEKEL, while waiting for privatisation and a private tender. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents from the Guildford Depository and online tobacco document sources. Results BAT failed to establish a market share in Turkey until 2000 despite repeated attempts to form a joint venture with Turkey’s tobacco monopoly, TEKEL, once the market liberalised in the mid 1980s. Conclusions BAT’s failure in the Turkish market was due to a misguided investment strategy focused solely on acquiring TEKEL and is contrasted with Philip Morris success in Turkey despite both TTCs working within Turkey’s unstable and corrupt investing climate. PMID:18845622

  11. Healthcare innovation and patent law's 'pharmaceutical privilege': is there a pharmaceutical privilege? And if so, should we remove it?

    PubMed

    Dutfield, Graham

    2017-10-01

    This article reviews current trends in patent claims regarding personalised, stratified and precision medicine. These trends are not particularly well understood by policymakers, even less by the public, and are quite recent. Consequently, their implications for the public interest have hardly been thought out. Some see personalised and other secondary drug patent claims as promoting better targeted treatment. Others are inclined to see them as \\manifestations of 'evergreening' whereby companies are, in some cases quite cynically, trying to extend market monopolies in old products or creating new monopolies based on supposedly improved versions of such earlier drugs. The article claims that the relaxation of 'novelty' is a privilege unavailable to inventions in other fields and that on balance the patent system does privilege this industry and that no adequate case has yet been made thus far to prove the public benefits overall.

  12. Producing, controlling, and stabilizing Pasteur's anthrax vaccine: creating a new industry and a health market.

    PubMed

    Cassier, Maurice

    2008-06-01

    When Pasteur and Chamberland hastily set up their small biological industry to meet the agricultural demand for the anthrax vaccine, their methods for preparation and production had not yet been stabilized. The process of learning how to standardize biological products was accelerated in 1882 when vaccination accidents required the revision of production norms as the first hypotheses on fixity, inalterability, and transportability of vaccines were invalidated and replaced by procedures for continuous monitoring of the calibration of vaccines and the renewal of vaccine strains. Initially, the incompleteness and ongoing development of production standards justified Pasteur's monopoly on the production of the anthrax vaccine under his immediate supervision. Later on, the Pasteur Institute maintained control of these standards in the framework of a commercial monopoly that it established on the veterinary vaccines first sent and then cultivated abroad by the Société de Vulgarisation du Vaccin Charbonneux Pasteur, founded in 1886.

  13. The outlook for US oil dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Jones, D.W.; Leiby, P.N.

    1995-05-11

    Market share OPEC lost in defending higher prices from 1979-1985 is being steadily regained and is projected to exceed 50% by 2000. World oil markets are likely to be as vulnerable to monopoly influence as they were 20 years ago, as OPEC regains lost market share. The U.S. economy appears to be as exposed as it was in the early 1970s to losses from monopoly oil pricing. A simulated 2-year supply reduction in 2005-6 boosts OPEC revenues by roughly half a trillion dollars and costs the U.S. economy an approximately equal amount. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve appears to be of little benefit against such a determined, multi-year supply curtailment either in reducing OPEC revenues or protecting the U.S. economy. Increasing the price elasticity of oil demand and supply in the U.S. and the rest of the world, however, would be an effective strategy.

  14. The Outlook for U.S. Oil Dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Market share OPEC lost in defending higher prices from 1979-1985 is being steadily regained and is projected to exceed 50% by 2000. World oil markets are likely to be as vulnerable to monopoly influence as they were 20 years ago, as OPEC regains lost market share. The US economy appears to be as exposed as it was in the early 1970s to losses from monopoly oil pricing. A simulated 2-year supply reduction in 2005-6 boosts OPEC revenues by roughly half a trillion dollars and costs the US economy an approximately equal amount. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve appears to be of little benefit against such a determined, multi-year supply curtailment either in reducing OPEC revenues or protecting the US economy. Increasing the price elasticity of oil demand and supply in the US and the rest of the world, however, would be an effective strategy.

  15. Sharing the atom bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Chace, J.

    1996-01-01

    Shaken by the devastation of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and fearful that the American atomic monopoly would spark an arms race, Dean Acheson led a push in 1946 to place the bomb-indeed, all atomic energy-under international control. But as the memories of wartime collaboration faded, relations between the superpowers grew increasingly tense, and the confrontational atmosphere undid his proposal. Had Acheson succeeded, the Cold War might not have been. 2 figs.

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    countries. It dumped large amounts of a given material from its strategic reserves on the market , Causing the price to plunge. Indonesia, Malaysia ...of big financially than those whose output financiers and state-monopoly group- finds no market . ings. Speeding up the...have now been joined by the CIA and the Pentagon. These agencies are now openly pointing out the growing depen- dence of the U.S. market on Japanese

  17. Beyond Hearts and Minds: Evaluating U.S. Unconventional Warfare Doctrine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    aspects of warfare will either be immediately destroyed or be slowly drained of power until it becomes irrelevant in the international arena . While...one in which the government possesses a monopoly on violence, has sovereignty in a given territory, and is recognized in the international arena ...openly oppose the U.S in the international arena . According to Luttwak, the natural choice becomes a relational-maneuver force that targets the gaps

  18. JPRS Report, East Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-29

    their vital problem. Marx showed that "Depend- ing on the degree of industrial development, ownership has always been the vital problem of a certain...As Marx noted, "The monopoly of capital is becoming a chain on the production method that once flourished with it and by it. Centralization of the...economic sources of their power, which is an obstacle to socialist construction. In Marx ’ and Engels’ words, the first step in socialist revolution is "to

  19. Japanese Aggression in Asia (1895-1930). Japan’s Dream of ’Hakko Ichuo’ (Eight Corners of the World under Japanese Rule).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    no longer in any realistic sense its tributary, and the immediate casus belli in 1894 was the Chinese effort to reassert and strengthen shadowy...financial cliques . The Zaibatsu, notable Mitsui, Mitsubushi, Sumitomo, and Yasuda, formed great monopolies, encour- aged and supported the modern military...the bank s. 154 In due course, the powerful financial cliques grad- ually established themselves as zaibatsu, the most not- able being the Mitsui and

  20. Mining and Exploitation of Rare Earth Elements in Africa as an Engagement Strategy in US Africa Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-17

    WARFIGHTING SCHOOL MINING AND EXPLOITATION OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS IN AFRICA AS AN ENGAGEMENT STRATEGY IN US AFRICA COMMAND By Eugene...earth mining and exploitation until the late 1990s when China gained monopoly status. They now supply over 95% of rare earths to the world...government approach including United States Africa Command, can achieve several national objectives by assisting African nations in mining and

  1. CTC Sentinel. Volume 9, Issue 8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    violence in Iraq, it should not be forgotten that AQI/ISI was established and became one of the most active and successful regional al-Qa`ida affiliates...the Islamic State turned against their erstwhile allies and systematically attempted to establish a monopoly of violence by targeting competing...increased the Sunni Arabs’ willingness to cooperate with U.S. forces. This drew ISI into a spiral of violence against the Sunni community that turned into

  2. In the Tracks of Tamerlane: Central Asia’s Path to the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    tion of trying to collect from countries like Ukraine that have a habit of not paying for the gas they use. 22 Shoemaker, 194. 23 C. Fairbanks, S...prospects of the five states—Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan—reflect little of the millennial history of the region...Soviet regimes possess better instruments of domes- tic repression combined with the habits of an ideological monopoly of power. Central African rulers

  3. Echoes Across the Pond: Understanding EU-US Defense Industrial Relationships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-05

    usually as a result of monopoly influence. The applicability of the familiar efficiency argument for a simple market exchange is based upon the...seller’s product name is familiar . Thus, in the first decade and a half or so of its life, most informed stories in the press referred not to the F-16...armed forces: CASA (Construcciones Aeronáuticas, S. A.); BAZAN for the Navy; and ENSB ( Empresa Nacional Santa Bárbara), which produced land armaments

  4. The Role of Security Assistance in the Andean Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    national values and institutions, and the domestic violence generated by the trade in drugs is all to familiar . President George Bush, in National...of radio reports. One must keep in mind that the use of such a service is not without potential pitfalls. One pitfall is a lack of familiarity with the...monopoly, ENACO ( Empresa Nacional de la Coca) , with two purposes: 1) 53 to control the flow of coca leaves between producers and consumers; and 2) to

  5. Echoes Across the Pond: Understanding EU-US Defense Industrial Relationships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-20

    competitive market, usually as a result of monopoly influence. The applicability of the familiar efficiency argument for a simple market exchange is...seller’s product name is familiar . Thus, in the first decade and a half or so of its life, most informed stories in the press referred not to the F...associated with one of the three armed forces: CASA (Construcciones Aeronáuticas, S. A.); BAZAN for the Navy; and ENSB ( Empresa Nacional Santa Bárbara

  6. Commander’s Guide to Public Involvement in the Army’s Installation, Restoration Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    socially responsible performance, based on mutually satisfactory two-way communication. Public Involvement is a planned effort to involve citizens in the...not to place chairs behind them PRACTICE. PRACTICE - Conducta dry run of the Public meeting It possible, the dry run should be conducted at tne...possible. Social agencies do not have a monopoly on the milk of human kindness or social responsibility. Informed media will strive in almost every

  7. Mobile satellite services: International co-ordination, co-operation and competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundberg, Olof

    1988-01-01

    In the context of a discussion of international cooperation, coordination and competition regarding mobile satellite services, it is asserted that: there will be more than one civil mobile satellite service in the 1990's; competition between these separate mobile satellite systems is inevitable; no system should enjoy monopoly protection or subsidies; and coordination and cooperation are desirable and necessary, since the available L-band spectrum is in short supply.

  8. Hungary petroleum privatization limited by economic concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-04

    Once the leading economic hope of eastern Europe, a newly doubt-filled, postelection Hungary is deciding on limited oil privatization amid strategic worries and falling production. Those worries contrast with the bright promise seen in Hungary after the collapse of communism. The paper discusses energy supplies; profile of the former petroleum monopoly, Magyar Olaj es Gaz (MOL); the state owned Mineralimpex; strategic supplies; MOL privatization; post-election politics; and MOL's subsidiaries.

  9. Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Revisions for Telecommunications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    have depended on monopolies to provide telecommun for over 75 years. In light of the Federal Commu Commission (FCC) deregulation of the telecommunic...effects deregulation and divestiture have had on of telecommunication services and adjust its acqu and procedures to assure continued commercial...34). In addition to this simplified "pricing" approach to tariffed telephone services (i.e., acceptance of tariffed prices), the ASPR established

  10. Current status of orphan disease drug development.

    PubMed

    Thoene, J G

    1994-04-01

    The Orphan Drug Act has successfully stimulated the production of many orphan products for a number of orphan diseases. The success of its exclusive marketing provision in bringing otherwise unprofitable products to market has attracted the attention of manufacturers who use this provision to gain a monopoly for products with much larger annual sales than were contemplated by the original legislation. Corrective legislation to close this loophole is being prepared for introduction to Congress.

  11. Long-Term Rights for New Resources: A Crucial Missing Ingredient in RTO Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Bogorad, Cynthia; Huang, William

    2005-09-01

    Unless generation that can produce low-cost energy is brought back into the mix, regional transmission organizations will become just a very expensive means to deliver high-cost energy and to allocate increasingly scarce, natural monopoly transmission resources to those prepared to pay the most. For baseload as well as renewable generation that cannot be located close to load, long-term transmission rights ensure delivery of their output at a predictable price.

  12. A Platform Across the Valley of Death: Tech Transition Via Open Enterprise Information System Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    34square peg" of iterative software development in the round hole of a traditional waterfall model ................ 28 Figure 5: Conceptual model for...traditional waterfall model G. MOVE FROM MONOPOLY TO MARKET Defense policy recognizes that IT, and software in particular, are critically important...acquisition projects away from the serial waterfall acquisition process. Use the same, continuous, rapid, adaptive, software development process as a

  13. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    8217Conversation’ on Economic Management Mechanism (Vientiane Domestic Service, 25 Jan 87) 10 Briefs PRK Photo Exhibition 12 MALAYSIA Rais...Agricultural Production Statistics Reported as of 5 Feb (Hanoi Domestic Service, 10 Feb 87) 114 Briefs Tay Ninh Gram Collection LLI /9987 HEALTH... production will fall into the hands of indivi- duals who are in power." Sources from among those who support the existence of monopolies reason that the

  14. ARTIST (Asian regional tobacco industry scientist team): Philip Morris' attempt to exert a scientific and regulatory agenda on Asia

    PubMed Central

    Tong, E; Glantz, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe how the transnational tobacco industry has collaborated with local Asian tobacco monopolies and companies to promote a scientific and regulatory agenda. Methods: Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Results: Transnational tobacco companies began aggressively entering the Asia market in the 1980s, and the current tobacco industry in Asia is a mix of transnational and local monopolies or private companies. Tobacco industry documents demonstrate that, in 1996, Philip Morris led an organisation of scientific representatives from different tobacco companies called the Asian Regional Tobacco Industry Science Team (ARTIST), whose membership grew to include monopolies from Korea, China, Thailand, and Taiwan and a company from Indonesia. ARTIST was initially a vehicle for PM's strategies against anticipated calls for global smoke-free areas from a World Health Organization secondhand smoke study. ARTIST evolved through 2001 into a forum to present scientific and regulatory issues faced primarily by Philip Morris and other transnational tobacco companies. Philip Morris' goal for the organisation became to reach the external scientific and public health community and regulators in Asia. Conclusion: The Asian tobacco industry has changed from an environment of invasion by transnational tobacco companies to an environment of participation with Philip Morris' initiated activities. With this participation, tobacco control efforts in Asia face new challenges as Philip Morris promotes and integrates its scientific and regulatory agenda into the local Asian tobacco industry. As the local Asian tobacco monopolies and companies can have direct links with their governments, future implementation of effective tobacco control may be at odds with national priorities. PMID:15564214

  15. Social Change and Dissent in Iran

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    The students’ actions made the new regime vulnerable to American military retaliation and economic embargo. In effect, the American hostage crisis ...The new regime initiated a campaign of repression and executions , which by the mid 1980s assured the monopoly of state power in the hands of a...Islamic] Order , known as the Expediency Council). The Expediency Council initially consisted of 13 members of the Majlis, the executive branch of the

  16. Lithuanian Energy Security: Lithuania’s Dependence on Energy Supply From Russia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-16

    unsuccessful aspirations to purchase the oil refinery Mazeikiu nafta , which provides vitally needed tax revenue for Lithuania (accounting for 10 percent...and oil is used as a means of bribing and blackmail against Eastern European countries. This monopoly assists Moscow in creating alternative transit...great energy resources – its territory contains 1/3 of the world natural gas reserves, 1/10 of oil reserves, 1/5 of coal reserves and 14 % of uranium

  17. Transnational Pipelines and Naval Expansion: Examining China’s Oil Insecurities in the Indian Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Analysis, “the threat of economic stagnation raises real risks of social instability, which could in turn threaten the continued political monopoly of...Renmin University of China and a heavy consumer of Baijiu toasts at banquets , submits: Although the risk of military conflict in the Taiwan Strait...that would link Kunming city – the capital of China’s Yunnan 103 “Musharraf Makes Chinese Oil Plea

  18. Will electricity market reform likely reduce retail rates?

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, C.K.; Zarnikau, Jay

    2009-03-15

    To win public support, proponents for electricity market reform to introduce competition often promise that the post-reform retail rates will be lower than the average embedded cost rates that would have prevailed under the status quo of a regulated monopoly. A simple economic analysis shows that such a promise is unlikely to occur without the critical assumption that the post-reform market has marginal costs below average costs. (author)

  19. Central Asian Energy: A Point of Contention or Collaboration in Russia-China Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Central Asian oil and gas resources, especially when energy prices surge on the global market . It is widely acknowledged that Russia’s economic...exports could ensure Russia’s monopoly in the regional oil market . This control is doubly important because Kazakh oil is of higher quality than...Central Asia could contribute to satisfying Russia’s growing domestic energy market and increasing Russia’s capability to regulate or gradually liberate

  20. The Current Situation and Regulations of Telecommunications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    wen, Wang Yan; Baozhen, Li; Jing, Ge; Guihua, Guo

    With the development of economy, telecommunications have gradually broken the monopoly and introduced competitive mechanism. Then, universal service of telecommunications becomes the key point concerned by our government and academia. The original development of telecom cannot fit for competition, and the universal service of telecommunication is still arduous task. It is a real significance to study the policy of universal service This paper analyses the shortcomings of current policy, and comes up with several recommendations of our country for policy and regulation

  1. Optimal Pricing and Advertising Policies for New Product Oligopoly Models. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    The problem of characterizing an optimal pricing and advertising policy over time is an important question in the field of marketing as well as in the...the effects of the learning curve phenomenon and market saturation are most pronounced. We isider first the monopoly case with linear advertising cost...Another sur- prising result i that, after the market is at least half saturated, a pulse of advertising must be preceded by a significant drop in

  2. IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANTS OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR I. KESAR (SAFFRON)

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, T. N.; Rajasekharan, S.; Badola, D. P.; Shah, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Kesar has been an important ingredient of the recipes of our ancient physicians in the field of Indian systems of medicine and its cultivation is a monopoly of Jammu and Kashmir. This paper presents in detail the historical review, botanical description, vernacular names, distribution in India and world, cultivation, collection, preservation and storage, adulterants, purity tests, chemical composition, action and uses, folk – lore claims and markets with special reference to its medicinal utility. PMID:22557503

  3. USSR Report, Military Affairs, Military History Journal, No. 8, August 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Strategic Operation consisted in the simultaneous launching of two main pincer attacks (from Mongolian territory and the Maritime Area) converging on...strategists again and again increased the stakes in the game, grasping for one and then another technical innovation in the hope of using it as a...means of political blackmail and achieving military superiority over the Soviet Union. Having lost the monopoly on the atomic bomb, they grasped the

  4. China Report, Economic Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    namely: No clear distinction was drawn between the functions of the government and those of the enterprises; barriers exist between different...enterprise functions in state-owned enterprises became more manifest, administrative control by state organs over economic affairs was strengthened...planned economy as incompatible with the commodity economy; seeing the functions of the socialist state in managing the economy as a monopoly in which

  5. Enduring values of municipal utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Telly, C.S.; Grove, J.F.

    1981-05-01

    The value of municipal utilities is assessed in terms of their social responsibility, the political responsiveness of the owners, and pricing policy - issues which conflict with the traditional concept of corporate responsibility to the shareholder and which reveal a growing demand for accountability. Although municipal utilities are only a small part of the economic, legal, and political setting, they contribute as a small, locally-controlled natural monopoly to the American goals of democracy and self-determination. (DCK)

  6. China’s New Media Milieu: Commercialization, Continuity, and Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    focused on propaganda and dedicated to the service of the party-state to an industry serving multiple social functions. As the relative autonomy of the...and insurance. State monopolies have reaped significant profits from these capital and technology-intensive industries despite their low quality of... service . In the 1990s, the telecommunications industry registered a profit margin of 33 percent per year, compared with 24.6 percent of the tertiary

  7. What Is the Extent of Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb and Where Does It Derive Its Strength in the Sahelian-Saharan Region: A Case Study of Northern Mali

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    22, 2010. This translates into “Special Program for Peace and Development in the North.” Above all, AQIM is a metamorphism of the Islamic Salvation...phenomenon is cristalized in the music of Ishumar Rock through the Tinariwene and its singer Ibrahim Ag Lahbib (alias Abareibone). The cultural Essuf...concept of Essuf and Imushar rock 3. The absence of the state monopoly of force 4. The importance of criminal networks along drug escort and weapons

  8. Effect of the Health and Social Security Bill 1984 on the profession of optometry in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S P

    1986-05-01

    The United Kingdom government introduced a Bill to Parliament in 1984 called The Health and Social Security Bill. This was, according to the government, introduced to break the monopoly on the supply of spectacles by qualified opticians. The subsequent changes in the law brought about by the new Act are outlined, and brief comments presented on the consequences of the new Act on the profession of optometry in the United Kingdom.

  9. The Rare Earth Collision: A Hit and Run on the Third Offset Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-29

    company bought 25%, and the company is currently projecting that mining operations will start in 2019 with ore processing being done in a “to-be...but currently enacting this policy, which the U.S. and other nations have already done defacto by individually denying China’s companies from buying...monopoly to coerce companies to move the manufacturing that required REE to China, which allowed China to procure the intellectual property of the

  10. The economics of short-term leasing.

    PubMed

    Flath, D

    1980-04-01

    Short-term leasing is an everyday occurrence. Tax savings cannot account for the ubiquity of leasing by temporary users. Monopoly explanations are inconsistent with concurrent leasing and selling markets for perfect substitutes. Leasing economizes upon the costs of detecting, assuring, and maintaining quality, costs of search, and costs of risk-bearing. This view is based on standard economic reasoning and has numerous specific implications.

  11. Regulation in Sweden and institutional changes

    SciTech Connect

    Goethe, S. )

    1993-10-01

    This article addresses changes to the structure and competitive nature that have recently occurred in Sweden. The changes were introduced to lower the costs to the customer and increase the efficiency of the production and distribution systems, while opening the market to nonutility generators. In principle, the competition will be on the production side, while network costs will be supplied for and through new monopolies.

  12. Michurinist Biology in the People's Republic of China, 1948-1956.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Michurinist biology was introduced to China in 1948; granted a state supported monopoly in 1952; and reduced to parity with western genetics from 1956. The Soviets exported it through the propaganda agencies Sino Soviet Friendship Association (SSFA) and VOKS (Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries). China's Ministry of Agriculture achieved broad public awareness and acceptance of Michurinist biology through a translation, publication, and Soviet guest speakers campaign - all managed by a team of agriculturalists led by Luo Tianyu, a veteran CCP (Communist Party) cadre. The campaign grew exponentially, but did not affect university or Chinese Academy of Sciences biology. Luo Tianyu's failed attempt to force Michurinist biology on a Beijing university triggered its second stage: monopoly status and a ban on "Mendelist-Morganist" biology in teaching, research, and publication. The CCP Central Committee supported this policy believing that Michurinst biology would increase agricultural production for the forthcoming first Five Year Plan; whereas, western genetics had no practical value. Michurinist biology flourished at all levels of education, research, and science literature; Western genetics was completely shut down. This only began to change when the CCP Central Committee became wary of China's dependency on Soviet technical expertise and failure to fully utilize that of China. Change was further promoted by significant attacks on Michurinist biology by Soviet and East German biologists. Soon, these developments informed China's "genetics question," which became a test case for larger questions about the definition of science and the relationship between scientists and the state. Under the guidance of Lu Dingyi's Central Committee Propaganda Department, the CCP eventually decided that, henceforth, science controversies would only be resolved by the science community; and that monopolies or ideological orthodoxies would not be imposed on science. At the same time

  13. Space WARC 1985 - Legal Issues and Implications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    both an international governmental organization, and an international corporation 165. INTELSAT Operating Agreement, T.I.A.S. 7532 (1971). The Operating...by their PTT. In the U.S. , government monopoly over telecommunications does not exist; the Communications Satellite Corporation (COMSAT) signed the...Arab Corporation for Space Communications (ARABSAT), was - formed by the countries of the Arab League in 1976, with the objective of establishing

  14. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    negotiate, and to develop a joint strategy to serve the greater cause. The placement of an advertisement by one of the negotiating partners at this time...price policy must assure that these develop - ments do not result in the formation of undesirable monopolies. Complete denationalization and...would require the expenditure of 30,000-40,000 forints per car. In more developed countries the consumers are encour- aged by tax breaks to purchase

  15. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Volume 3 of the 2003 Air Transport Reserch Society (ATRS) World Conference includes papers on topics relevant to airline operations worldwide. Specific topics include: European Union and civil aviation regimens;simulating decision making in airline operations, passenger points of view on convenient airports; route monopolies and nonlinear pricing; cooperation among airports in Europe; fleet modernizaiton in Brazil;the effects of deregulation on the growth of air transportation in Europe and the United States.

  16. [The nutmeg story].

    PubMed

    Uchibayashi, M

    2001-01-01

    A brief historical account of the spice islands, the Moluccas, in the Age of Discovery with particular reference to the Dutch monopoly of nutmeg is presented. The etymologies of such English terms as nutmeg (nut+musk), mace, myristica, date, and phoenix, as well as Chinese róu dóu kóu (Engl. nutmeg) and Japanese natsume (Engl. jujube) and natsume-yashi (Engl. date palm) are given.

  17. [Etymology of clove].

    PubMed

    Uchibayashi, M

    2001-01-01

    A very brief history of clove in Europe and Indonesia with particular reference to Dutch monopoly of clove in the spice islands, the Moluccas, is presented. The etymology of clove originates from the Greek word karuóphullon (káruon=nut+phúllon=leaf) and the Latin word caryophyllon, which were transformed to clou de girofle in Old French and clow of gilofer in Middle English. Further modification resulted in a separation into clove and gilly-flower.

  18. Air Power in the New Counterinsurgency Era: The Strategic Importance of USAF Advisory and Assistance Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    the Urban Challenge,” Population Reports, Vol. XXX, No. 4, Fall 2002. 38 Mike Davis, “Planet of Slums : Urban Involution and the Informal Proletariat...of Slums : Urban Involution and the Informal Prole- tariat,” New Left Review, No. 26, March–April 2004. Donovan, Nick, Malcolm Smart, Magui Moreno...that are challenging the state’s monopoly on the use of force.35 However, this rural locus for insurgents is gradually being eclipsed by urban

  19. A free market solution for prescription drug crises.

    PubMed

    Baker, Dean

    2004-01-01

    The cost of prescription drugs is imposing an ever greater burden on families and varying levels of government. The vast majority of this cost is attributable to patent protection, since most drugs are actually relatively cheap to produce. The temporary monopolies provided by patent protection have been the main mechanism through which corporations have financed their drug research. This article examines the efficiency of publicly supported drug research relative to the current patent system. The author shows that even if publicly funded research were considerably less efficient on a dollar-per-dollar basis than patent-supported research, there would still be enormous gains from switching to a system of publicly supported research. The main reason for this conclusion is that patent monopolies lead to enormous economic distortions, including expensive sales promotion efforts, research into "copycat drugs," incentives to conceal unfavorable research findings, and other inefficiencies that economic theory predicts would result from a government-created monopoly. The gains from publicly supported research, coupled with a free market in the production of drugs, could reach into several hundred billion dollars annually within a decade.

  20. Differences in liquor prices between control state-operated and license-state retail outlets in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Albers, Alison B.; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study aims to compare the average price of liquor in the United States between retail alcohol outlets in states that have a monopoly ('control' states) with those that do not ('licence' states). Design A cross-sectional study of brand-specific alcohol prices in the United States. Setting We determined the average prices in February 2012 of 74 brands of liquor among the 13 control states that maintain a monopoly on liquor sales at the retail level and among a sample of 50 license-state liquor stores, using their online-available prices. Measurements We calculated average prices for 74 brands of liquor by control vs. license state. We used a random effects regression model to estimate differences between control and license state prices – overall and by alcoholic beverage type. We also compared prices between the 13 control states. Findings The overall mean price for the 74 brands was $27.79 in the license states (95% confidence interval [CI], $25.26–$30.32) and $29.82 in the control states (95% CI, $26.98–$32.66). Based on the random effects linear regression model, the average liquor price was approximately two dollars lower (6.9% lower) in license states. Conclusions In the United States monopoly of alcohol retail outlets appears to be associated with slightly higher liquor prices. PMID:22934914

  1. Today's utility business (or, Boy Scouts in the Temple of Mammon)

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, L.S.

    1993-06-01

    In the good old days of monopoly, it didn't matter so much how assets or liabilities were carried on the books. Today it matters very much. But in today's competitive environment it is even more important that utilities have a corporate strategy that takes advantage of their assets and is sensitive to both their customers and their competitors. In the good old days, electric utilities were natural monopolies. Regulators substituted their judgments for those of the marketplace, the utility's engineers managed the production process, its lawyers managed the regulators, and nobody managed the utility as a business. The utility was not a business. It was a quasi-governmental public service institution that - incidentally - threw off an ever-increasing dividend stream to shareholders who thought that they had purchased the equivalent of a bond that had an attached inflation hedge. The good old days are gone. The business is becoming a real one. Customers have choices. Yet the utility's accounting, managerial, and regulatory policies are rooted in the precepts of the old natural monopoly: the utility will always be the cheapest source of electricity, and customers will always need electricity.

  2. Responsibly managing the medical school--teaching hospital power relationship.

    PubMed

    Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2005-07-01

    The relationship between medical schools and their teaching hospitals involves a complex and variable mixture of monopoly and monopsony power, which has not been previously been ethically analyzed. As a consequence, there is currently no ethical framework to guide leaders of both institutions in the responsible management of this complex power relationship. The authors define these two forms of power and, using economic concepts, analyze the nature of such power in the medical school-teaching hospital relationship, emphasizing the potential for exploitation. Using concepts from both business ethics and medical ethics, the authors analyze the nature of transparency and co-fiduciary responsibility in this relationship. On the basis of both rational self-interest, drawn from business ethics, and co-fiduciary responsibility, drawn from medical ethics, they argue for the centrality of transparency in the medical school-teaching hospital relationship. Understanding the ethics of monopoly and monopsony power is essential for the responsible management of the complex relationship between medical schools and their teaching hospitals and can assist the leadership of academic health centers in carrying out one of their major responsibilities: to prevent the exploitation of monopoly power and monopsony power in this relationship.

  3. Can Increases in the Cigarette Tax Rate be Linked to Cigarette Retail Prices? Solving mysteries related to the cigarette pricing mechanism in China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Song; Zheng, Rong; Hu, Teh-wei

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explain China’s cigarette pricing mechanism and the role of the Chinese State Tobacco Monopoly Administration (STMA) on cigarette pricing and taxation. Methods Published government tobacco tax documentation and statistics published by the Chinese State Tobacco Monopoly Administration (STMA) are used to analyze the interrelations among industry profits, taxes, and retail price of cigarettes in China. Results The 2009 excise tax increase on cigarettes in China has not translated into higher retail prices because the Chinese STMA used its policy authority to ensure that retail cigarette prices did not change. The government tax increase is being collected at both the producer and wholesale levels. As a result, the 2009 excise tax increase in China has resulted in higher tax revenue for the government and lower profits for the tobacco industry, with no increase in the retail price of cigarettes for consumers. Conclusions Numerous studies have found that taxation is one of the most effective policy instruments for tobacco control. However, these findings come from countries that have market economies where market forces determine prices and influence how cigarette taxes are passed to the consumers in retail prices. China’s tobacco industry is not a market economy; therefore, nonmarket forces and the current Chinese tobacco monopoly system determine cigarette prices. The result is that tax increases do not necessarily get passed on to the retail price. PMID:23076787

  4. Differences in liquor prices between control state-operated and license-state retail outlets in the United States.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Albers, Alison B; Naimi, Timothy S; Jernigan, David H

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to compare the average price of liquor in the United States between retail alcohol outlets in states that have a monopoly ('control' states) with those that do not ('licence' states). A cross-sectional study of brand-specific alcohol prices in the United States. We determined the average prices in February 2012 of 74 brands of liquor among the 13 control states that maintain a monopoly on liquor sales at the retail level and among a sample of 50 license-state liquor stores, using their online-available prices. We calculated average prices for 74 brands of liquor by control versus license state. We used a random-effects regression model to estimate differences between control and license state prices-overall and by alcoholic beverage type. We also compared prices between the 13 control states. The overall mean price for the 74 brands was $27.79 in the license states [95% confidence interval (CI): $25.26-30.32] and $29.82 in the control states (95% CI: $26.98-32.66). Based on the random-effects linear regression model, the average liquor price was approximately $2 lower (6.9% lower) in license states. In the United States monopoly of alcohol retail outlets appears to be associated with slightly higher liquor prices. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Landscape and flux theory of non-equilibrium open economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kun; Wang, Jin

    2017-09-01

    The economy is open and never in true equilibrium due to the exchanges with outside. However, most of the quantitative studies have been focused on the equilibrium economy. Despite of the recent efforts, it is still challenging to formulate a quantitative theory for uncovering the principles of non-equilibrium open economy. In this study, we developed a landscape and flux theory for non-equilibrium economy. We quantified the states of economy and identify the multi-stable states as the basins of attractions on the underlying landscape. We found the global driving force of the non-equilibrium economy is determined by both the underlying landscape gradient and the curl probability flux measuring the degree of non-equilibriumness through the detailed balance breaking. The non-equilibrium thermodynamics, the global stability, the optimal path and speed of the non-equilibrium economy can be formulated and quantified. In the conventional economy, the supply and demand usually has only one equilibrium. By considering nonlinear supply-demand dynamics, we found that both bi-stable states and limit cycle oscillations can emerge. By shifting the slope of demand curve, we can see how the bi-stability transforms to the limit cycle dynamics and vice versa. By parallel shifting the demand curve, we can also see how the monopoly, the competition, and the bistable monopoly and competition states emerge and transform to one other. We can also see how the mono-stable monopoly, the limit cycle and the mono-stable competition states emerge and transform to one another.

  6. The social costs to the US of monopolization of the world oil market, 1972--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Leiby, P.N.

    1993-03-01

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the US over the period 1972--1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the US and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel's ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972--1991 period to a hypothetical more competitive'' world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader's judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing US oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing theeconomic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy's potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy's inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972--1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US's primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison.

  7. Generation expansion planning in a competitive electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Angela Shu-Woan

    This work investigates the application of non-cooperative game theory to generation expansion planning (GEP) in a competitive electricity industry. We identify fundamental ways competition changes the nature of GEP, review different models of oligopoly behavior, and argue that assumptions of the Cournot model are compatible with GEP. Applying Cournot theory of oligopoly behavior, we formulate a GEP model that may characterize expansion in the new competitive regime, particularly in pool-dominated generation supply industries. Our formulation incorporates multiple markets and is patterned after the basic design of the California ISO/PX system. Applying the model, we conduct numerical experiments on a test system, and analyze generation investment and market participation decisions of different candidate expansion units that vary in costs and forced outage rates. Simulations are performed under different scenarios of competition. In particular, we observe higher probabilistic measures of reliability from Cournot expansion compared to the expansion plan of a monopoly with an equivalent minimum reserve margin requirement. We prove several results for a subclass of problems encompassed by our formulation. In particular, we prove that under certain conditions Cournot competition leads to greater total capacity expansion than a situation in which generators collude in a cartel. We also show that industry output after introduction of new technology is no less than monopoly output. So a monopoly may lack sufficient incentive to introduce new technologies. Finally, we discuss the association between capacity payments and the issue of pricing reliability. And we derive a formula for computing ideal capacity payment rates by extending the Value of Service Reliability technique.

  8. Regulation and competition without privatization: Norway`s experience

    SciTech Connect

    Moen, J.; Hamrin, J.

    1996-03-01

    The competitive market for the hydro-based Norwegian electricity system is working well, with end-user prices only slightly above the wholesale market. Pool prices are reflecting only weather-related variations, and no market power abuses are evident. The challenge now is to restructure ownership of the wires and retail suppliers to lower wheeling costs and avoid cross-subsidization. Since the Norwegian Energy Act came into effect in 1991, the electricity industry in Norway has operated as one of the most deregulated electricity industries in the world. The Energy Act introduced third party access to the retail market and competition in electricity production. The generation, sale and purchase of electricity is now highly competitive, with customers free to buy electricity from any generator, trader or the electricity Pool. Transmission pricing was separated from power purchasing arrangements, so that the buying and selling of electricity as a product is distinct from the transmission of electricity as a service. Transmission and distribution networks continue to maintain natural monopolies, with network owners providing wheeling service across their networks to customers who are connected to them. These monopoly sectors of the industry are subject to regulation by the government-appointed regulatory body, Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration (NVE). Regulation is on a cost-of-service basis, with the revenue allowance determined by NVE. The main force behind the Norwegian reform was the desire for efficiency gains to be achieved through a total restructure of the commercial character of the energy service industry (ESI). Unlike the U.K., in Norway the monopoly franchise for both generation and retail supply was removed in one step without any transition period, and the old pool was reformed to provide the needed structure for this new competitive energy market.

  9. Processing of Spontaneous Emotional Responses in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effect of Stimulus Type

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Peter; Chapman, Peter; Ropar, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulty interpreting others' emotional responses, in order to work out what actually happened to them. It is unclear what underlies this difficulty; important cues may be missed from fast paced dynamic stimuli, or spontaneous emotional responses may be too complex for those with ASD to successfully recognise. To explore these possibilities, 17 adolescents and adults with ASD and 17 neurotypical controls viewed 21 videos and pictures of peoples' emotional responses to gifts (chocolate, a handmade novelty or Monopoly money), then inferred what gift the person received and the emotion expressed by the person while eye movements were measured. Participants with ASD were significantly more accurate at distinguishing who received a chocolate or homemade gift from static (compared to dynamic) stimuli, but significantly less accurate when inferring who received Monopoly money from static (compared to dynamic) stimuli. Both groups made similar emotion attributions to each gift in both conditions (positive for chocolate, feigned positive for homemade and confused for Monopoly money). Participants with ASD only made marginally significantly fewer fixations to the eyes of the face, and face of the person than typical controls in both conditions. Results suggest adolescents and adults with ASD can distinguish subtle emotion cues for certain emotions (genuine from feigned positive) when given sufficient processing time, however, dynamic cues are informative for recognising emotion blends (e.g. smiling in confusion). This indicates difficulties processing complex emotion responses in ASD. Autism Res 2015, 8: 534–544. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25735657

  10. Pushing up smoking incidence: plans for a privatised tobacco industry in Moldova.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Anna B; Radu-Loghin, Cornel; Zatushevski, Irina; McKee, Martin

    Moldova, one of the former Soviet republics and Europe's poorest country, has so far resisted pressure to privatise its tobacco industry. This paper examines the policies pursued by the transnational tobacco companies in Moldova in order to inform the ongoing debate about tobacco industry privatisation. We analysed relevant internal industry documents made public through litigation. The documents suggest that although a competitive tender for the state owned monopoly was later announced, British American Tobacco (BAT) and the German manufacturer Reemtsma each initially sought to secure a closed deal, with BAT accusing Reemtsma of underhand tactics. Imperial Tobacco, which now owns Reemstma, was unable to comment on these allegations as it only acquired Reemstma after the events in question. BAT sought to acquire a monopoly position, bolstered by excise rules developed by the company that would uniquely favour its products. Despite hoping to establish a monopoly, it planned intensive marketing, as if in a competitive market, aiming to target young urban dwellers, particularly opinion leaders. In so doing it predicted that smoking uptake would increase, especially among women. The documents also suggest that BAT was aware of the sensitive nature of its plans to cull the processing workforce and aimed to present "sanitised" information on future employment levels to the Moldovans. The potential for tobacco industry privatisation to undermine tobacco control and promote cigarette consumption is highlighted and is consistent with economic theory. Countries planning tobacco industry privatisation should ensure a transparent and competitive privatisation process, seek to prevent the predicted increase in consumption by implementing effective tobacco control policies and consider the impacts on employment. Multilateral financial organisations promoting tobacco industry privatisation could ensure their loan conditions protect public health by making the implementation of

  11. [Medicinal plants in France, between pharmacy and herb trade: historical and legislative aspects].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, H

    2015-09-01

    Medicinal plants are registered on the French Pharmacopoeia in its successive editions, the first dated 1818. The edition which is currently in force, the XIth (2012), comprises two plant lists drawn up by a working group of experts belonging to the ANSM: List A (medicinal plants traditionally used [365 plants]) and list B (medicinal plants with the ratio benefit/risk's evaluation negative [123 plants]). Moreover, a list of medicinal plants with non exclusive therapeutic use has been established. This last list is composed of 147 plants which are thus liberated from the pharmaceutical monopoly, in application of decrees n(o) 2008-839 and 2008-841 dated August 22nd 2008. Medicinal plants are a matter, in France, from pharmaceutical monopoly, which means that they can only be dispensed to public in pharmacy, according to article L. 4211-1/5° of the Public Health Code, except however for a certain number of plants "liberated" from this monopoly. Nevertheless, besides officinal pharmacists, herbalists who obtained their diploma as far as 1941, were habilitated to deliver medicinal plants, even non "liberated", on condition that they are not registered on a list of venomous substances nor classified among the stupefacients, according to the article L. 4211-7 of Public Health Code. Concerning plants for herbal teas, which should be differentiated from herbal teas classified among the herbal medicines, they can be delivered in mixtures form, which are considered as officinal preparations, according to the new French Pharmacopoeia monography of August 1st 2013.

  12. Competition in prescription drug markets: the roles of trademarks, advertising, and generic names.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Roger; Lobo, Félix

    2013-08-01

    We take on two subjects of controversy among economists-advertising and trademarks-in the context of the market for generic drugs. We outline a model in which trademarks for drug names reduce search costs but increase product differentiation. In this particular framework, trademarks may not benefit consumers. In contrast, the generic names of drugs or "International Nonproprietary Names" (INN) have unquestionable benefits in both economic theory and empirical studies. We offer a second model where advertising of a brand-name drug creates recognition for the generic name. The monopoly patent-holder advertises less than in the absence of a competitive spillover.

  13. [Production of cinchona in the French empire: A. Yersin and E. Perrot].

    PubMed

    Delaveau, P; Clair, G

    1995-01-01

    In the wake of the war of 1914-1918, Professor E. Perrot and Dr A. Yersin were concerned with providing various territories of the French empire with sufficient cinchona resources to fight off malaria. This aim was particularly important in case of a conflict which could impede the supply of quinine due to the quasi-monopoly held by the Netherlands with their overseas possessions in Indonesia. Beginning with documents, in particular the correspondence held by the Museum of Materia Medica at the Faculty of Pharmacy in Paris, an attempt is made to illustrate the policy carried out with difficulty by Perrot and Yersin.

  14. Public or private water management: Experience from different European Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wackerbauer, Johann

    2008-11-01

    Faced with liberalisation proposals and an increasing internationalisation of water resource management, the question arises as to how a change of the regulatory framework would affect the market structure and the supply conditions in this area. While the term "privatisation" relates to the ownership structure of the providers, the term "liberalisation" implies extensive free market ideas. Privatisation involves the outsourcing of public services from the public authorities to a privately organised organisation. Through this, however, nothing needs to change in terms of the market or the intensity of competition for the commodity in question. Within the framework of privatisation it can also occur that the public monopoly is only transferred to a private monopoly. The term "liberalisation" in addition refers to the basic regulatory constraints: liberalisation signifies the cessation of limitations to competition and supply monopolies, and open competition between several suppliers for the consumers. In the EU-15, the only country where the provision of operational services in the water supply has been totally passed to the private sector is the UK, but this is only true for UK and Wales. Another singular case is France, where there is a mix of mainly private operating companies and municipalities which have divided the regional supply areas among themselves. In six other EU-15 countries where some privatisation took place, either the municipalities or (majority) publicly owned companies are controlling water supply. In the remaining seven countries, the water supply is organised by municipality companies only. In an international comparison, there are three basic models for the regulation of natural monopolies in the public water supply: the Anglo-Saxon, the French and the German model. The delimitation between supervisory bodies and operations in the water supply is strongest in the first model and weakest in the last. This has led to three basic types of

  15. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-21

    or as party leaders put it "anti-monopoly, anti-capitalist and anti-feudal forces." In this case, parties like the Lok Dal, Telugu Desam or even the...welcomed the Telugu Desam govern- ment’s decision to order a judicial probe into the mur- ders and said that it would help in bringing the culprits to...Tamil Nadu, the CPM will keep faith with the Telugu Desam and the DMK [Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam] respectively. The trend of the "pol-org

  16. JPRS Report, China.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    centage points from its current base of more than one-half reform, but we cannot make a fetish of the market. In sum, and that, by the year 2000 at the end...of the Ninth we have to do away with the fetishes . We will first discuss Five-Year Plan, it will again have increased a certain not making a fetish ...Implementing a Market Orientation, We Must with monopolies and unfair competition inevitably occur-Not Make a Fetish of the Market; In Adhering to aPlanned

  17. [The regulatory regime and the health insurance industry in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the regulatory regime for health insurance and prepayment schemes in Brazil. It describes the ideas that have influenced the creation of the Agência Nacional de Saúde Suplementar-ANS (National Agency of Supplementary Health) in 2000, showing that the independent agency model was a direct result of the privatization process and of the induction of new competition mechanisms in a natural state monopoly. The paper concludes that the prepayment firms in Brazil are facing a new institutional environment as refers to their market entry or exit conditions.

  18. Competitive Electricity Market Regulation in the United States: A Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Flores-Espino, Francisco; Tian, Tian; Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya; Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya; Miller, Mackay

    2016-12-01

    The electricity system in the United States is a complex mechanism where different technologies, jurisdictions and regulatory designs interact. Today, two major models for electricity commercialization operate in the United States. One is the regulated monopoly model, in which vertically integrated electricity providers are regulated by state commissions. The other is the competitive model, in which power producers can openly access transmission infrastructure and participate in wholesale electricity markets. This paper describes the origins, evolution, and current status of the regulations that enable competitive markets in the United States.

  19. Croatian Civil-Military Reform and Its Impact on NATO Membership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    Webber , “Who’s Next?: The Ongoing Story of NATO Enlargement,” ESRC ‘One Europe or Several?’ Programme, 2. 17 Ronald Asmus and Charles Grant, “Debate...Continent.’ President Francois Mitterrand evidently interpreted U.S. interest in enlargement as an attempt by the United States ‘to extend its...application. The security sector should be seen along the lines that Max Weber identified as a state’s monopoly of the use of legitimate force.2 This use

  20. Pricing and welfare implications of parallel imports in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Jelovac, Izabela; Bordoy, Catalina

    2005-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the implications of permitting parallel imports of pharmaceuticals produced by a monopoly, from one country to another. We use a model where countries differ in the patients' level of co-payment for buying pharmaceuticals, and patients differ in the utility obtained from the consumption of pharmaceuticals. We show that the effects of parallel imports on total welfare are as follows: On the one hand, when countries differ in their health system only, parallel imports decrease total welfare; On the other hand, when countries differ in the health needs of their patients only, parallel imports enhance total welfare.

  1. Federal role and activities in energy research and development 1946-1980: an historical summary

    SciTech Connect

    Hewlett, R.G.; Dierenfield, B.J.

    1983-02-01

    The federal role in energy research and development has changed substantially in the three decades since World War II. In nuclear technology, the federal presence shifted from government monopoly in the 1940s and early 1950s, to a lesser federal role in the mid-1950s, as the private sector commercialized nuclear power, to an increasing federal role in the 1960s, but now focused on the breeder reactor as a long-term option. Conventional fuel technologies such as coal and oil enjoyed only modest federal support in the immediate postwar years, with only slow increases before 1974. Renewable energy technologies have received substantial federal support only since 1973.

  2. The delicate balance: Gazprom and Russia's competing and complementary roles in 21st century international relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, David

    Since the fall of the Soviet Union, many have accused Russia of using its energy monopoly Gazprom as a foreign policy tool in Europe. Those who believe this point to three gas disputes between Russia and Ukraine, which they see as punishment for Ukraine's democratic reforms. However, this argument fails to consider Gazprom's actions in terms of its goals of a corporation. This paper shows, through qualitative research and interviews, that Gazprom has goals independent of Russian foreign policy objectives, and that the company has embraced corporate values at a time when Russia is moving away from western liberal ideals.

  3. Application of Core Theory to the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghavan, Sunder

    2003-01-01

    Competition in the airline industry has been fierce since the industry was deregulated in 1978. The proponents of deregulation believed that more competition would improve efficiency and reduce prices and bring overall benefits to the consumer. In this paper, a case is made based on core theory that under certain demand and cost conditions more competition can actually lead to harmful consequences for industries like the airline industry or cause an empty core problem. Practices like monopolies, cartels, price discrimination, which is considered inefficient allocation of resources in many other industries, can actually be beneficial in the case of the airline industry in bringing about an efficient equilibrium.

  4. Patent Pools: Intellectual Property Rights and Competition

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article is to present the relationship between patents and competition in a broad context. PMID:20200607

  5. An Analysis Of The Desirable Molecular Features For A Polymer Optical Fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsden, J. Conti; Glen, R. M.; Murray, R. T.

    1987-08-01

    The very high bandwidth distance product of monomode silica fibres has given them an almost total monopoly of trunk telecommunications installations over the last 3 years. As this market saturates, attention is being concentrated on lower echelons of the telecoms hierarchy and on other local communications needs often bunched together under the title Local Area Networks. While these newer targets will also appreciate high bandwidth the existing media, e.g., copper twisted pair or coaxial cable are in many situations adequate and would presently be cheaper. To challenge in this area it is therefore necessary to lower costs and to offer alternative advantages than pure bandwidth.

  6. "Such a smoking nation as this I never saw...": smoking, nationalism, and manliness in nineteenth-century Hungary.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco smoking became an important marker of Hungarian national identity during the nineteenth century. this national symbol ultimately had an economic origin: Hungarian tobacco producers resisted the tobacco monopoly of the Habsburg central government, and led an ultimately successful consumer boycott of Austrian products. Tobacco nationalism, however, became a common theme in Hungarian popular culture in its own right, as tobacco use came to symbolize community and fraternity. The use of tobacco was also highly gendered; smoking as a metaphor for membership shows that the Hungarian nation was a gender-exclusive "national brotherhood."

  7. Government Procurement. Crimes and Offenses (Thesis I of a Two-Thesis Project)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    itching palm; To sell and mart your offices for gold To Undeservers. Cam. I an itching palm! You know that you are Brutus that speak this. Or, by the gods...whether to accept its speaking .- invitation. Hovde said this week that because the department’s total travel budget has been cut, it is "perfectly...code-named "the folks" -- of Mexico’s state owned oil monopoly, Petroleos Mexicanos , or Pemex. The case is by far the biggest yet prosecuted under

  8. Public-Private Partnerships in China's Urban Water Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lijin; Mol, Arthur P. J.; Fu, Tao

    2008-06-01

    During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China’s water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China.

  9. Public-Private Partnerships in China’s Urban Water Sector

    PubMed Central

    Mol, Arthur P. J.; Fu, Tao

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China’s water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China. PMID:18256780

  10. [Generic and biosimilar drug substitution: a panacea?].

    PubMed

    Daly, M J; Guignard, B; Nendaz, M

    2015-10-14

    Drugs are the third largest source of expenditure under Switzerland's compulsory basic health insurance. Generics, the price of which should be at least 30 per cent less than the cost of the original drugs, can potentially allow substantial savings. Their approval requires bioequivalence studies and their use is safe, although some factors may influence patients' and physicians' acceptance. The increased substitution of biosimilar drugs for more expensive biotech drugs should allow further cost savings. In an attempt to extend the monopoly granted by the original drug patent, some pharmaceutical companies implement "evergreening" strategies including small modifications of the original substance for which the clinical benefit is not always demonstrated.

  11. Principles of economics crucial to pharmacy students' understanding of the prescription drug market.

    PubMed

    Rattinger, Gail B; Jain, Rahul; Ju, Jing; Mullins, C Daniel

    2008-06-15

    Many pharmacy schools have increased the amount of economics coursework to which pharmacy students are exposed in their prepharmacy and pharmacy curriculums. Students obtain competencies aimed at understanding the basic concepts of microeconomic theory, such as supply and demand. However, pharmacy students often have trouble applying these principles to real world pharmaceuticals or healthcare markets. Our objective is to make economics more relevant for pharmacy students. Specifically, we detail and provide pharmacy-relevant examples of the effects of monopoly power, barriers to marketplace entry, regulatory environment, third party insurance, information asymmetry and unanticipated changes in the marketplace on the supply and demand for pharmaceuticals and healthcare services.

  12. Estimating population ecology models for the WWW market: evidence of competitive oligopolies.

    PubMed

    de Cabo, Ruth Mateos; Gimeno, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes adapting a particle filtering algorithm to model online Spanish real estate and job search market segments based on the Lotka-Volterra competition equations. For this purpose the authors use data on Internet information searches from Google Trends to proxy for market share. Market share evolution estimations are coherent with those observed in Google Trends. The results show evidence of low website incompatibility in the markets analyzed. Competitive oligopolies are most common in such low-competition markets, instead of the monopolies predicted by theoretical ecology models under strong competition conditions.

  13. Retail competition in the electric-utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelmfelt, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    Regulation discourages competition between electric utilities that would lead to the duplication of distribution facilities or overlapping service territories. Fringe-area restraints can take the form of municipal franchise, state law, or some other form of agreement. Economists who believe that competition improves efficiency argue that regulation is inadequate as a substitute for competition and that natural monopoly theories are not always applied appropriately. Case studies confirm that the traditional assumptions are not compatible with the fact that competition between publicly-owned and investor-owned utilities has led to lower prices and increased sales. 1 figure. (DCK)

  14. The Quest for Market Exclusivity in Biotechnology: Navigating the Patent Minefield

    PubMed Central

    Gersten, Judge David M.

    2005-01-01

    Summary: A patent is a legal device that grants an inventor market exclusivity over a new invention or medication. Market exclusivity can mean tremendous economic rewards for the patent holder because it provides the inventor with a monopoly over the invention for the 20-year patent term. Obtaining a patent and retaining market exclusivity can be a treacherous process, especially in the arena of biotechnology patents. Scientific, legal, and practical considerations must be carefully weighed to best protect an inventor's rights. This article explores some common patenting pitfalls as well as emerging issues that are specific to the area of biotechnology patenting. PMID:16489366

  15. Converting your Continental

    SciTech Connect

    Wirz, B.M.

    1981-07-01

    Inflation and higher fuel and environmental costs make conventional-generated power as unaffordable (as a Lincoln Continental in the automobile market) for retail and industrial customers, many of whom are looking for alternatives to purchase electric power. The loss of revenue from competing energy sources eliminates the monopoly status that utilities have enjoyed and is forcing utilities to provide what customers want and do it better than the competition. Utilities have only research and development or fuel switching to improve efficiency unless they rethink their approach and come up with new alternatives. 1 table. (DCK)

  16. The energy services revolution: New opportunities for commercial and industrial end-users

    SciTech Connect

    Hoggard, J.

    1997-07-01

    The changing energy services industry presents significant cost-control opportunities for end-users. However, the transition period from a monopoly to a deregulated market will be chaotic and confusing. For end-users, knowing who to turn to is the first step in taking advantage of the energy services revolution. For energy and energy services providers, bridging the gap between what suppliers perceive as key customer needs and what large energy users actually want will be the key in producing mutually successful ventures.

  17. The global tobacco epidemic. The next 25 years.

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, J

    1998-01-01

    The Transnational Commercial Tobacco Companies are expanding their empires--denying the health evidence on the effects of smoking; advertising and promoting their products in every corner of the earth; obstructing government action; overpowering national monopolies; and selling more and more cigarettes. Their grip on the big markets in developing countries will become stronger as they move their agriculture and manufacturing processes out of the United States, and by 2025 there may be no tobacco grown in the United States. Images p15-a p16-a p18-a p19-a PMID:9475929

  18. Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-19

    its 42-year-old Druzhba pipeline as the cause. Skeptics, however, claim Russia’s LUKoil company is using the cutoff as a weapon after its bid to buy...Gazprom in for a major share, in light of the sharp increase in the price of gas. On October 3, 2006, the Russian state oil and gas pipeline monopoly...neighbors to use pipelines running through Russia. This became a contentious issue as U.S. and other western oil firms entered the Caspian and Central Asian

  19. Some limits to evidence-based medicine: a case study from elective orthopaedics

    PubMed Central

    Ferlie, E.; Wood, M.; Fitzgerald, L.

    1999-01-01

    There has been growing interest in recent years in the application of the principles of evidence-based medicine (EBM), although implementation is complex. Scientific, organisational, and behavioural factors all combine to shape clinical behaviour change. Case study based qualitative data are presented which illuminate such processes within one clinical setting (elective orthopaedics), drawn from a larger study. It is suggested that (1) there are alternative models of what constitutes "evidence" in use; (2) scientific knowledge is in part socially constructed; and (3) clinical professionals retain a monopoly of technical knowledge. The implication is that there may be severe obstacles to the rapid or broad implementation of EBM. PMID:10557685

  20. "IN ALL ITS HIDEOUS AND APPALLING NAKEDNESS AND TRUTH": THE RECEPTION OF SOME ANATOMICAL COLLECTIONS IN GEORGIAN AND VICTORIAN ENGLAND.

    PubMed

    Talairach-Vielmas, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the reception of some anatomical collections in Georgian and Victorian England. Both private medical museums and public anatomical museums reflected the central role played by anatomy in medical knowledge and education in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. However, because they were associated with death and sexuality, anatomical museums were both products of enlightenment science and potentially immoral loci likely to corrupt young and innocent women. But, as this article shows, the reasons behind the hostile receptions of some collections varied throughout the centuries, revealing in so doing the gradual professionalization of the medical field and growing monopoly of medical professionals over medical knowledge.

  1. Radio frequency identification applications in hospital environments.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Angela M; Visich, John K; Li, Suhong

    2006-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has recently begun to receive increased interest from practitioners and academicians. This interest is driven by mandates from major retailers such as Wal-Mart, Target and Metro Group, and the United States Department of Defense, in order to increase the efficiency and visibility of material and information flows in the supply chain. However, supply chain managers do not have a monopoly on the deployment of RFID. In this article, the authors discuss the potential benefits, the areas of applications, the implementation challenges, and the corresponding strategies of RFID in hospital environments.

  2. Dynamical behavior of a discrete time Hogg-Huberman model with three resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, M.; Tanaka, T.; Takagi, N.; Shibata, J.

    2002-09-01

    The dynamical behavior of a discrete time Hogg-Huberman model with three resources 1-3 is investigated. The payoff function of resource 3 is assumed to be the same function as that of resource 2. It is found that when the control parameter takes certain values there are various states which are called the monopoly state of resource 1, and synchronized and asynchronized chaotic states with respect to the fractions of agents using resources 2 and 3. The effect of a reward mechanism based on the actual performance of agents is also calculated in this system.

  3. Jewish Medical Students and Graduates at the Universities of Padua and Leiden: 1617–1740*

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The first Jewish medical graduates at the University of Padua qualified in the fifteenth century. Indeed, Padua was the only medical school in Europe for most of the medieval period where Jewish students could study freely. Though Jewish students came to Padua from many parts of Europe the main geographical sources of its Jewish students were the Venetian lands. However, the virtual Padua monopoly on Jewish medical education came to an end during the seventeenth century as the reputation of the Dutch medical school in Leiden grew. For aspiring medieval Jewish physicians Padua was, for around three hundred years, the first, simplest, and usually the only choice. PMID:23908853

  4. The economics of ideas and intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Michele; Levine, David K

    2005-01-25

    Innovation and the adoption of new ideas is fundamental to economic progress. Here we examine the underlying economics of the market for ideas. From a positive perspective, we examine how such markets function with and without government intervention. From a normative perspective, we examine the pitfalls of existing institutions, and how they might be improved. We highlight recent research by us and others challenging the notion that government awards of monopoly through patents and copyright are "the way" to provide appropriate incentives for innovation.

  5. Involuntary hospitalization of the mentally ill as a moral issue.

    PubMed

    Chodoff, P

    1984-03-01

    Conflict exists between medical model and civil liberties approaches to involuntary hospitalization for mental illness. The amassing and analysis of data will not resolve this conflict because the two sides view the problem from differing moral vantage points. Medical model adherents are influenced chiefly by utilitarian or consequentialist considerations, while the civil libertarians take more of a deontological or absolutist position. Opinions about such issues as hospitalization criteria of dangerousness versus medical necessity and the relative role of rights versus obligations and of autonomy versus paternalism can be seen largely to depend on such underlying value judgments. Neither side has a monopoly on truth or right in the question of involuntary hospitalization.

  6. Bring real capitalism to electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, B.F.

    1991-01-15

    This article examines the reasons that the electric utilities are price regulated and makes an argument for market-based economics to regulate prices and stimulate revolutionary improvements in the industry. The author examines and refutes the arguments that: The industry is a natural monopoly; Competition leads to unnecessary duplication of facilities; and The industry is so vital to the economy and security of the US that it cannot be trusted to the risks inherent in capitalism, including the success and failure of companies.

  7. Public-private partnerships in China's urban water sector.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lijin; Mol, Arthur P J; Fu, Tao

    2008-06-01

    During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China's water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China.

  8. The advisability of competitive international satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhalgh, D. I.

    This analysis examines the legal, political, and economic issues raised by the applications of Orion Satellites Corporation and International Satellite, Inc., before the Federal Communications Commission. The proposals request approval for the establishment of communications satellite systems potentially competitive with the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT), a consortium of 109 member nations, which currently maintains a monopoly of international communications satellite traffic. The breadth of consequences resulting from a positive FCC action warrants a close scrutiny of U.S. international foreign policy objectives.

  9. Power to the people: working-class demand for household power in 1930s Britain.

    PubMed

    Scott, Peter; Walker, James

    2011-01-01

    The 1930s witnessed an intense struggle between gas and electricity suppliers for the working class market, where the incumbent utility—gas—was also a reasonably efficient (and cheaper) General Purpose Technology for most domestic uses. Local monopolies for each supplier boosted substitution effects between fuel types—as alternative fuels constituted the only local competition. Using newly-rediscovered returns from a major national household expenditure survey, we employ geographically-determined instrumental variables, more commonly used in the industrial organization literature, to show that gas provided a significant competitor, tempering electricity prices, while electricity demand was also responsive to marketing initiatives.

  10. Principles of Economics Crucial to Pharmacy Students' Understanding of the Prescription Drug Market

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rahul; Ju, Jing; Mullins, C. Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Many pharmacy schools have increased the amount of economics coursework to which pharmacy students are exposed in their prepharmacy and pharmacy curriculums. Students obtain competencies aimed at understanding the basic concepts of microeconomic theory, such as supply and demand. However, pharmacy students often have trouble applying these principles to real world pharmaceuticals or healthcare markets. Our objective is to make economics more relevant for pharmacy students. Specifically, we detail and provide pharmacy-relevant examples of the effects of monopoly power, barriers to marketplace entry, regulatory environment, third party insurance, information asymmetry and unanticipated changes in the marketplace on the supply and demand for pharmaceuticals and healthcare services. PMID:18698403

  11. From patenting genes to proteins: the search for utility via function.

    PubMed

    Ilag, Lawrence L; Ilag, Leodegario M; Ilag, Leodevico L

    2002-05-01

    The debate regarding the patenting of genes has extended into the post-genome era. With only approximately 35000 genes deduced from the draft sequence of the human genome, there are fears that a few companies have already gained monopoly on the potential benefits from this knowledge. Nevertheless, it is accepted that proteins determine gene function and function is not readily predicted from gene sequence. Furthermore, genes can encode multiple proteins and a single protein can have multiple functions. Here, we argue that unraveling the intrinsic complexity of proteins and their functions is the key towards determining the utility requirement for patenting protein inventions and consider the possible socioeconomic impact.

  12. User’s Epistle on Text Chat Tool Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    predict inevitable failure and a monopoly of ideologues’ insist that only the purest implementation can succeed. The rest of us plug away-testing...innovating, and using the new technology in any way in which it works better than the old way. It is often said in the C3 world that amateurs talk...mIRC). mIRC is a Windows Internet Relay Chat (IRC) client written by Khaled Mardam-Bey. Although it has not been approved for use within the DOD

  13. The Politics of Revolutionary Development: Civil-Military Relations in Cuba, 1959-1976,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    la Revoluci ~ n Socialista," Cbra Revolucionarla, No. 46 (December 2 1961), 11-55. 14. The fusion of civilian and military roles In Cuba was first...document in and to ali ’t, o" n Of the author. are Protcte by law. ’- Cnet reproducton. of ,s4C in-:~whole or in Part !3~t~unz T h i q n rI af lv -.-r...dominant force in the revolu- ti nary movement. It held a mmopoly of arm and, In the person of its am- mner- n -hief, a monopoly of popular support. WM

  14. The Panama Canal: An Analysis of Its Value and Defense.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-05

    8217! ’,20. AB’ST’-ACT ( ’mrth~ue an reversIe£ * fibI rac~saury affd idertf, by block number) ,’"."From the earliest days of European colonization , the...European colonization , the traffic crossing the Isthmus of Panama has been a primary source of income for the inhabitants. Surveys for the building of...purpose relating to the canal; the power to take, by eminent domain, lands, buildings or water rights in Panama City and Colon ; and a "monopoly" over

  15. A trade agreement's impact on access to generic drugs.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Brenner, Joseph E

    2009-01-01

    Millions of people lack access to affordable medicines. The intellectual property rules in the Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) provide pharmaceutical companies with monopoly protections that allow them to market some drugs without competition by less costly generics. We examined availability of certain drugs in Guatemala and found that CAFTA intellectual property rules reduced access to some generic drugs already on the market and delayed new entry of other generics. Some drugs protected from competition in Guatemala will become open for generic competition in the United States before generic versions will be legally available in Guatemala.

  16. Condensation in AN Economic Model with Brand Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casillas, L.; Espinosa, F. J.; Huerta-Quintanilla, R.; Rodriguez-Achach, M.

    We present a linear agent based model on brand competition. Each agent belongs to one of the two brands and interacts with its nearest neighbors. In the process the agent can decide to change to the other brand if the move is beneficial. The numerical simulations show that the systems always condenses into a state when all agents belong to a single brand. We study the condensation times for different parameters of the model and the influence of different mechanisms to avoid condensation, like anti monopoly rules and brand fidelity.

  17. USGS Telecommunications Responding to Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hott, James L.

    1985-01-01

    The telecommunications industry is undergoing tremendous change due to the court ordered breakup of the monopoly once enjoyed by American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T). This action has resulted in a plethora of new services and products in all of the communications fields, including traditional voice and data. The new products are making extensive use of computer technology. At the same time, costs of telecommunications services have risen dramatically over the past three years. This article reviews some of the major actions that the Geological Survey has taken in response to these changes.

  18. Applying commodity chain analysis to changing modes of alcohol supply in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, D H

    2000-12-01

    Development sociology has used global commodity chains as one way of analyzing the dynamics of power and profit-taking in globalized production networks made up of multiple firms and occurring in multiple national settings. A substantial portion of the alcohol supply in developing countries is now produced through such production networks. Particularly in the beer and spirits trade, a small number of transnational firms control networks of local producers, importers, advertisers and distributors. These networks serve to embed transnational or transnationally backed brands in the local culture, using the tools of market research, product design and marketing to influence local drinking practices. Case materials from Malaysia's beer industry help to illustrate how the transnational firms dominate in those links of the commodity chain in which monopoly or oligopoly control is most likely to be found: the design/recipe and marketing/advertising nodes. Their control of the commodity chains and extraction of monopoly or oligopoly profits from them places substantial resources and influence over drinking settings and practices in foreign hands. The impact of this influence on state efficacy and autonomy in setting alcohol policy is an important subject for future research on the creation and implementation of effective alcohol policies in developing societies.

  19. Smuggling as the “key to a combined market”: British American Tobacco in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Nakkash, R; Lee, K

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To understand the strategy of British American Tobacco (BAT) and other transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) to gain access to the Lebanese market, which has remained relatively closed under monopoly ownership and political instability. Methods: Analysis of internal industry documents, local language secondary sources and industry publications. Results: TTCs have relied on legal and illegal channels to supply the Lebanese market since at least the 1970s. Available documents suggest smuggling has been an important component of BAT’s market entry strategy, transported in substantial quantities via middlemen for sale in Lebanon and neighbouring countries. TTCs took advantage of weak and unstable governance, resulting in uncertainty over the Regie’s legal status, and continued to supply the contraband trade despite appeals by the government to cease undermining its revenues. Since the end of the civil war in the early 1990s, continued uncertainty about the tobacco monopoly amid political instability has encouraged TTCs to seek a legal presence in the country, while continuing to achieve substantial sales through contraband. Conclusion: Evidence of the complicity of TTCs in cigarette smuggling extends to Lebanon and the Middle East where this trade has especially benefited from weak governance and chronic political instability. The regional nature of TTC strategy supports strong international cooperation under the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to tackle the problem. PMID:18818226

  20. The entry of Colombian-sourced heroin into the US market: the relationship between competition, price, and purity.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Unick, George Jay; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    There have been large structural changes in the US heroin market over the past 20 years. Colombian-sourced heroin entered the market in the mid-1990s, followed by a large fall in the price per pure gram and the exit of Asian heroin. By the 2000s, Colombian-sourced heroin had become a monopoly on the east coast and Mexican-sourced heroin a monopoly on the west coast with competition between the two in the middle. We estimate the relationship between these changes in competitive market structure on retail-level heroin price and purity. We find that the entry of Colombian-sourced heroin is associated with less competition and a lower price per pure gram of heroin at the national level. However, there is wide variation in changes in market concentration across the US. Controlling for the national fall in the heroin price, more competition in a region or city is associated with a lower price per pure gram.

  1. Raising the Barriers to Access to Medicines in the Developing World - The Relentless Push for Data Exclusivity.

    PubMed

    Diependaele, Lisa; Cockbain, Julian; Sterckx, Sigrid

    2017-04-01

    Since the adoption of the WTO-TRIPS Agreement in 1994, there has been significant controversy over the impact of pharmaceutical patent protection on the access to medicines in the developing world. In addition to the market exclusivity provided by patents, the pharmaceutical industry has also sought to further extend their monopolies by advocating the need for additional 'regulatory' protection for new medicines, known as data exclusivity. Data exclusivity limits the use of clinical trial data that need to be submitted to the regulatory authorities before a new drug can enter the market. For a specified period, generic competitors cannot apply for regulatory approval for equivalent drugs relying on the originator's data. As a consequence, data exclusivity lengthens the monopoly for the original drug, impairing the availability of generic drugs. This article illustrates how the pharmaceutical industry has convinced the US and the EU to impose data exclusivity on their trade partners, many of them developing countries. The key arguments formulated by the pharmaceutical industry in favor of adopting data exclusivity and their underlying ethical assumptions are described in this article, analyzed, and found to be unconvincing. Contrary to industry's arguments, it is unlikely that data exclusivity will promote innovation, especially in developing countries. Moreover, the industry's appeal to a property rights claim over clinical test data and the idea that data exclusivity can prevent the generic competitors from 'free-riding' encounters some important problems: Neither legitimize excluding all others. © 2016 The Authors Developing World Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Electronic publishing in radiology: economics and the future.

    PubMed

    Chew, Felix S; Llewellyn, Kevin T; Olsen, Kathryn M

    2004-11-01

    Scholarly publishing is a large market involving thousands of peer-reviewed journals but a decreasing number of publishers. An economic model can be described in which authors give their work to publishers who then sell access to this work. Because each published article is a unique work with few if any substitutes, publishers have some degree of monopoly power and can price their products accordingly. The advent of desktop publishing using personal computers made it possible for individuals to publish material without publishers, an activity that gained momentum when the publishing medium shifted from paper to electronic, and from electronic publishing to the Internet. This activity destabilized the industry, and in the rush to gain market share by providing free content, unsustainable business models were created. Scholarly publishing is now dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that acquired many smaller publishing operations. As these companies have exercised their monopoly power, an open access movement has gained traction in which authors (or their institutions) initially pay for publication, but readers have free and open access to the published articles. This movement is in diametric opposition to the commercial publishing model, and it remains to be seen whether and how well the two can coexist in the future.

  3. The rise of essentialism and the medicalization of sexuality.

    PubMed

    Stulhofer, A

    2000-01-01

    During the last decade of the 20th century, biological explanations of social behavior have been steadily growing in popularity, slowly replacing previously dominant sociocultural explanations. This trend is clearly visible in the field of sex research. The first part of the paper provides an overview of the theoretical foundations of the two confronted paradigms, evolutionary essentialism and social constructionism. Although the current dominance of essentialism is the outcome of various factors, social and scientific, a major role in its rise to prominence was played by mass media demand for simplistic, pop-scientific statements. In the second part of the paper, three currently propulsive areas in sexology are presented as case studies: (a) etiology of homosexuality, (b) gender identity of intersex children, and (c) re-conceptualization of sexual disorders. Two conclusions are offered: 1) the demise of the 'nurture monopoly' was necessary for the further development of sexology; and 2) the present trend toward a 'nature monopoly' represents a new and serious danger--as shown by the emerging medicalization of sexuality.

  4. The Entry of Colombian-Sourced Heroin into the US Market: The Relationship between Competition, Price, and Purity

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Unick, Jay; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    There have been large structural changes in the US heroin market over the past 20 years. Colombian-sourced heroin entered the market in the mid-1990s, followed by a large fall in the price per pure gram and the exit of Asian heroin. By the 2000s, Colombian-sourced heroin had become a monopoly on the east coast and Mexican-sourced heroin a monopoly on the west coast with competition between the two in the middle. We estimate the relationship between these changes in competitive market structure on retail-level heroin price and purity. We find that the entry of Colombian-sourced heroin is associated with less competition and a lower price per pure gram of heroin at the national level. However, there is wide variation in changes in market concentration across the US. Controlling for the national fall in the heroin price, more competition in a region or city is associated with a lower price per pure gram. PMID:24211155

  5. Do recent US Supreme Court rulings on patenting of genes and genetic diagnostics affect the practice of genetic screening and diagnosis in prenatal and reproductive care?

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; McGuire, Amy L; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B

    2014-10-01

    Thousands of patents have been awarded that claim human gene sequences and their uses, and some have been challenged in court. In a recent high-profile case, Association for Molecular Pathology, et al. v. Myriad Genetics, Inc., et al., the US Supreme Court ruled that genes are natural occurring substances and therefore not patentable through 'composition of matter' claims. The consequences of this ruling will extend well beyond ending Myriad's monopoly over BRCA testing and may affect similar monopolies of other commercial laboratories for tests involving other genes. It could also simplify intellectual property issues surrounding genome-wide clinical sequencing, which can generate results for genes covered by intellectual property. Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for common aneuploidies using cell-free fetal (cff) DNA in maternal blood is currently offered through commercial laboratories and is also the subject of ongoing patent litigation. The recent Supreme Court decision in the Myriad case has already been invoked by a lower district court in NIPT litigation and resulted in invalidation of primary claims in a patent on currently marketed cffDNA-based testing for chromosomal aneuploidies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Electric industry restructuring in Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, J.W.

    1998-07-01

    A law restructuring the electric utility industry in Massachusetts became effective on November 25, 1997. The law will break up the existing utility monopolies into separate generation, distribution and transmission entities, and it will allow non-utility generators access to the retail end user market. The law contains many compromises aimed at protecting consumers, ensuring savings, protecting employees and protecting the environment. While it appears that the legislation recognizes the sanctity of independent power producer contracts with utilities, it attempts to provide both carrots and sticks to the utilities and the IPP generators to encourage renegotiations and buy-down of the contracts. Waste-to-energy contracts are technically exempted from some of the obligations to remediate. Waste-to-energy facilities are classified as renewable energy sources which may have positive effects on the value to waste-to-energy derived power. On November 25, 1997, the law restructuring the electric utility industry in Massachusetts became effective. The law will have two primary effects: (1) break up the existing utility monopolies into separate generation, distribution and transmission entities, and (2) allow non-utility generators access to the retail end-user market.

  7. Can increases in the cigarette tax rate be linked to cigarette retail prices? Solving mysteries related to the cigarette pricing mechanism in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Zheng, Rong; Hu, Teh-wei

    2012-11-01

    To explain China's cigarette pricing mechanism and the role of the Chinese State Tobacco Monopoly Administration (STMA) on cigarette pricing and taxation. Published government tobacco tax documentation and statistics published by the Chinese STMA are used to analyse the interrelations among industry profits, taxes and retail price of cigarettes in China. The 2009 excise tax increase on cigarettes in China has not translated into higher retail prices because the Chinese STMA used its policy authority to ensure that retail cigarette prices did not change. The government tax increase is being collected at both the producer and wholesale levels. As a result, the 2009 excise tax increase in China has resulted in higher tax revenue for the government and lower profits for the tobacco industry, with no increase in the retail price of cigarettes for consumers. Numerous studies have found that taxation is one of the most effective policy instruments for tobacco control. However, these findings come from countries that have market economies where market forces determine prices and influence how cigarette taxes are passed to the consumers in retail prices. China's tobacco industry is not a market economy; therefore, non-market forces and the current Chinese tobacco monopoly system determine cigarette prices. The result is that tax increases do not necessarily get passed on to the retail price.

  8. Patents Associated with High-Cost Drugs in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Andrew F.; Dent, Chris; McIntyre, Peter; Wilson, Lachlan; Studdert, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Australia, like most countries, faces high and rapidly-rising drug costs. There are longstanding concerns about pharmaceutical companies inappropriately extending their monopoly position by “evergreening” blockbuster drugs, through misuse of the patent system. There is, however, very little empirical information about this behaviour. We fill the gap by analysing all of the patents associated with 15 of the costliest drugs in Australia over the last 20 years. Specifically, we search the patent register to identify all the granted patents that cover the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the high-cost drugs. Then, we classify the patents by type, and identify their owners. We find a mean of 49 patents associated with each drug. Three-quarters of these patents are owned by companies other than the drug's originator. Surprisingly, the majority of all patents are owned by companies that do not have a record of developing top-selling drugs. Our findings show that a multitude of players seek monopoly control over innovations to blockbuster drugs. Consequently, attempts to control drug costs by mitigating misuse of the patent system are likely to miss the mark if they focus only on the patenting activities of originators. PMID:23577165

  9. Determinants of Market Exclusivity for Prescription Drugs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Avorn, Jerry

    2017-09-11

    The high prices of brand-name prescription drugs are a growing source of controversy in the United States. Manufacturers of brand-name drugs can command high prices because they are protected from generic competition by two types of government-granted monopoly rights. The first are patents on the drugs that generally define the basic period of brand-name-only sales. The second is awarded at the time of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and usually defines the minimum time until a generic can be sold. The initial patents last for 20 years and may be extended to account for time spent in clinical trials and regulatory review; other laws prevent approval of other manufacturers' versions of new drugs for about 6 to 7 years, and for new biologics for 12 years. Overall, most new drugs receive about 12 to 16 years of market exclusivity from both kinds of monopoly protection combined. We reviewed the peer-reviewed medical and health policy literature to identify studies that described the different types of patent protection and regulatory exclusivities that shield brand-name prescription drugs from competition and thus help to sustain high drug prices. We also identified potential policy reforms intended to modify exclusivity periods to address public health needs by balancing drug affordability and industry revenue. The goal of policy in this area should be to ensure that drug market exclusivity periods provide for fair return on investment but do not indefinitely block availability of lower-cost generic drugs.

  10. The new structure of the gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, J.A.J.

    1998-07-01

    The rapidly increasing availability of natural gas is leading to a significant increase in the importance of the gas industry in Brazil. This new era is already causing major changes in the existing gas distribution companies. Gas distribution concessions are a natural monopoly and the growth in demand for this energy source will require that these growing concessions are regulated. The south/south-east of Brazil is the center of the country's industrial base and the State of Sao Paulo is where most of the manufacturing activity is located. In addition, natural gas from Bolivia is scheduled to arrive in the State of Sao Paulo at the end of 1998. These two facts combined will mean major changes in the operations of manufacturing industry and in the gas supply business. Comparing the experience faced by other countries where a competitive environment in the gas industry has been introduced with privatization programs and the dismantlement of monopolies, this paper attempts to look into the future of the natural gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo in respect to the possible regulation that might be applicable, focusing on the new regulatory framework proposed to the gas industry sector and the perspectives for the introduction of the competition in gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo.

  11. Gambling and gambling-related problems in France.

    PubMed

    Valleur, Marc

    2015-12-01

    To provide an overview of the gambling landscape and gambling-related problems in France, including the history, legislation, gambling policy and epidemiological data on excessive gambling. A literature review, using Medline, PsycInfo and Toxibase/OFDT databases, based on the systematic monitoring of scientific literature since 2008 (including French and international papers). Since 1776 and the creation of the royal lottery, state monopoly has been the main pillar of gambling policy in France. Increases in gambling venues and opportunities, growing evidence of gambling-related problems, pressures from the European Commission and the growth of on-line gambling have led to major changes in this policy: while land-based gambling remains mainly in the form of a state monopoly, on-line gambling was partially liberalized in 2010, and regulation authorities were established. The first epidemiological survey was conducted in 2010. Rates of problematic gambling in France are within the average of other European countries. Treatment has begun to be made available within addiction centres. A majority of on-line gamblers in France use legal websites, which was one of the initial goals of liberalization. Recent studies confirm that the prevalence of problem gambling in France is far higher among on-line gamblers than among land-based gamblers; however, this difference cannot be attributed only to greater addictiveness of on-line gambling. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Patents associated with high-cost drugs in Australia.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew F; Dent, Chris; McIntyre, Peter; Wilson, Lachlan; Studdert, David M

    2013-01-01

    Australia, like most countries, faces high and rapidly-rising drug costs. There are longstanding concerns about pharmaceutical companies inappropriately extending their monopoly position by "evergreening" blockbuster drugs, through misuse of the patent system. There is, however, very little empirical information about this behaviour. We fill the gap by analysing all of the patents associated with 15 of the costliest drugs in Australia over the last 20 years. Specifically, we search the patent register to identify all the granted patents that cover the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the high-cost drugs. Then, we classify the patents by type, and identify their owners. We find a mean of 49 patents associated with each drug. Three-quarters of these patents are owned by companies other than the drug's originator. Surprisingly, the majority of all patents are owned by companies that do not have a record of developing top-selling drugs. Our findings show that a multitude of players seek monopoly control over innovations to blockbuster drugs. Consequently, attempts to control drug costs by mitigating misuse of the patent system are likely to miss the mark if they focus only on the patenting activities of originators.

  13. Do recent US Supreme Court rulings on patenting of genes and genetic diagnostics affect the practice of genetic screening and diagnosis in prenatal and reproductive care?

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; McGuire, Amy L.; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B.

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of patents have been awarded that claim human gene sequences and their uses, and some have been challenged in court. In a recent high-profile case, Association for Molecular Pathology, et al. vs. Myriad Genetics, Inc., et al., the United States Supreme Court ruled that genes are natural occurring substances and therefore not patentable through “composition of matter” claims. The consequences of this ruling will extend well beyond ending Myriad's monopoly over BRCA testing, and may affect similar monopolies of other commercial laboratories for tests involving other genes. It could also simplify intellectual property issues surrounding genome-wide clinical sequencing, which can generate results for genes covered by intellectual property. Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for common aneuploidies using cell-free fetal (cff) DNA in maternal blood is currently offered through commercial laboratories and is also the subject of ongoing patent litigation. The recent Supreme Court decision in the Myriad case has already been invoked by a lower district court in NIPT litigation and resulted in invalidation of primary claims in a patent on currently marketed cffDNA-based testing for chromosomal aneuploidies. PMID:24989832

  14. Using MatContM in the study of a nonlinear map in economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neirynck, Niels; Al-Hdaibat, Bashir; Govaerts, Willy; Kuznetsov, Yuri A.; Meijer, Hil G. E.

    2016-02-01

    MatContM is a MATLAB interactive toolbox for the numerical study of iterated smooth maps, their Lyapunov exponents, fixed points, and periodic, homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits as well as their stable and unstable invariant manifolds. The bifurcation analysis is based on continuation methods, tracing out solution manifolds of various types of objects while some of the parameters of the map vary. In particular, MatContM computes codimension 1 bifurcation curves of cycles and supports the computation of the normal form coefficients of their codimension two bifurcations, and allows branch switching from codimension 2 points to secondary curves. MatContM builds on an earlier command-line MATLAB package CL MatContM but provides new computational routines and functionalities, as well as a graphical user interface, enabling interactive control of all computations, data handling and archiving. We apply MatContM in our study of the monopoly model of T. Puu with cubic price and quadratic marginal cost functions. Using MatContM, we analyze the fixed points and their stability and we compute branches of solutions of period 5, 10, 13 17. The chaotic and periodic behavior of the monopoly model is further analyzed by computing the largest Lyapunov exponents.

  15. Consumer preferences for over-the-counter drug retailers in the reregulated Swedish pharmacy market.

    PubMed

    Håkonsen, Helle; Sundell, Karolina Andersson; Martinsson, Johan; Hedenrud, Tove

    2016-03-01

    Following a large regulatory reform in 2009, which ended the state's pharmacy monopoly, non-pharmacy retailers in Sweden today sell certain over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate consumer preferences regarding OTC drug retailers and the reasons for choosing a pharmacy versus non-pharmacy retailer. We conducted a web survey aimed at Swedish adults. Out of a stratified sample of 4058 persons, 2594 agreed to take part (48% women; mean age: 50.3 years). Questions related to OTC drug use, retailer choice and factors affecting the participants' preferences for OTC drug retailers. Logistic regression was conducted to analyse OTC drug use and reasons for retailer choice in relation to sex, age and education. Nine in ten participants reported OTC drug use in the 6 months prior to the study. For their last OTC purchase, 76% had gone to a pharmacy, 20% to a grocery shop and 4% to a convenience store, gas station or online. Geographic proximity, opening hours and product range were reported as the most important factors in retailer choice. Counselling by trained staff was important to 57% of participants. The end of the state's pharmacy monopoly and the increase in number of pharmacies seem to have impacted more on Swedish consumers' purchase behaviours compared with the deregulation of OTC drug sales. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Does market exclusivity hinder the development of Follow-on Orphan Medicinal Products in Europe?

    PubMed

    Brabers, Anne E M; Moors, Ellen H M; van Weely, Sonja; de Vrueh, Remco L A

    2011-09-05

    We determined whether the market exclusivity incentive of the European Orphan Drug Regulation results in a market monopoly or that absence of another Orphan Medicinal Product (OMP) for the same rare disorder, a so-called follow-on OMP, is a matter of time or market size. In the interest of rare disorder patients better understanding of the effect of the market exclusivity incentive on follow-on OMP development is warranted. First, the impact of various market-, product- and disease-related characteristics on follow-on OMP development in the EU was determined by comparing rare disorders with an approved OMP and at least one follow-on OMP (N = 26), with rare disorders with an approved OMP and no follow-on OMP (N = 18). Next, we determined whether manufacturers continued development of a follow-on OMP upon approval of the first OMP for the intended rare disorder. Since in the EU significant benefit of an OMP has to be established, we determined for each follow-on OMP for which development was continued on what grounds significant benefit was assumed by the sponsor. Data were collected from the public domain only. The likelihood of a rare disorder with an approved OMP to obtain at least one follow-on OMP development was strongly associated with disease prevalence, turnover of the first OMP, disease class, disease-specific scientific output and age of onset. Out of a total of 120 follow-on OMPs only one follow-on OMP could be identified for which development was discontinued upon approval of the first OMP for the same rare disorder. Only a substantial level of discontinuation of follow-on OMP development would have indicated the existence of a market monopoly. Moreover, sponsors that continued development of a follow-on OMP predominantly assumed that their product had an improved efficacy compared to the first approved OMP. This study provides evidence that absence of follow-on OMP development is a matter of time or market size, rather than that the market exclusivity

  17. The political economy of institutional change in the electricity supply industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufin, Carlos Ramon

    2000-09-01

    In the first part, a positive political economy model of the behavior of public enterprise, consumer electoral preferences, electoral platform choices of political parties, and side payments by production factors ("suppliers") to political parties, is used to analyze the political economy of choices among three alternative institutional arrangements: competition among private firms, private monopoly, or public enterprise monopoly. The analysis shows that political choices will be biased in favor of public enterprise, because consumers and suppliers benefit from its behavior. Voter and politician ideologies can temper or exacerbate this logic. Competition for economic rents increases the likelihood of public enterprise. Lastly, a weak judiciary can also make public enterprise likelier, but it creates uncertainty about parties' future actions and therefore it lowers the effectiveness of supplier side payments. In Part 2, the model's conclusions are tested for the electricity supply industry (ESI) across a cross-section of more than 80 countries. Coding is used to compute scores for observed outcomes with regard to reliance on competition versus monopoly and on private versus public ownership. Multiple indicators for the hypothesized explanatory variables are aggregated using factor analysis. OLS regressions show that ideology plays an important role in both competition and property outcomes, and to a lesser extent, distributional conflict, while judicial independence does not in general have a clear effect. In the last part, the validity of the same hypotheses is tested by means of a comparison of the process of restructuring of the ESI in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Chile. The case studies show that ideology plays a major role in shaping the outcomes of the institutional change process; distributional conflict, or the conflict over the economic rents that can be extracted from the electricity industry, also has a significant influence on institutional change

  18. Influence in the Policy Making Process: the Rise of Economics at the Expense of Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2007-12-01

    Scientific influence in resource policy making reached a zenith in the early 1970s during the legislative monopoly in the United States Congress that produced command and control regulatory protection policies. This congressional consensus began in 1879 with legislation producing the U.S. Geological Survey. Other scientific agencies followed. The Congresses of the first half of the 20th century merely strengthened the influence of science in policy outcomes that was present in the earliest congressional debates. What then happened at the turn of the 21st century when representatives in the administration frequently dismissed sound science in their policy deliberations? Policy monopolies arise from agreement in principle, and alternately decline as rival ideas gain hold in policy space. The science policy monopoly began to face competition from economics when cost benefit analysis was introduced into political parlance in 1936, again in the 1950s as a successful blocking tactic by the minority in opposition to western dams, and in 1961 when systems analysis was introduced to the Department of Defense under Robert McNamara. As businessmen replaced farmers as the modal profession of legislators, the language of politics increasingly contained economic terms and concepts. A ternary diagram and a budget simplex have the same shape, but have different theoretical meanings and imply different processes. Policy consensus is not dissimilar to a mineral phase diagram, with boundary conditions marked by election magnitudes and majority parties. The 1980 elections brought economic principles into all aspects of government decision-making, with a particular long-term interest in reducing the size and scope of government. Since then the shift in policy jargon from science to economics has been incremental. With the 1994 Republican legislative majority, scientists, their programs, and the funds required to maintain data collection projects became targets. The Conservative

  19. Petroleum policy and Mexican domestic politics: left opposition, regional dissidence, and official apostasy

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, E.J.

    1980-07-01

    The economic significance of petroleum is affecting Mexico's political system and will challenge socio-economic changes as they develop. A case study of Mexico illustrates how a developing petroleum industry can lubricate the process of political change to a more-participatory democracy as increased mobilization and rising expectations trigger political reforms. The analysis traces opposition forces reacting to the state oil monopoly PEMEX's decision to build a gas pipeline to the US, the disruption of massive labor migrations to the oil fields, and the initiatives to amend the constitution to allow land appropriations. It suggests that these forces can push the political structure to either the right or the left. The analysis is compared with the situations in Iran and Venezuela, where the socio-economic picture is less encouraging than in Mexico. 69 references. (DCK)

  20. Using auctions for contracting with hospitals when quality matters.

    PubMed

    Mougeot, Michel; Naegelen, Florence

    2003-03-01

    This paper analyzes the problem of contracting with hospitals with hidden information when the number of patients wanting treatment depends on the quality of health care services offered. The optimal policy is characterized in the case of a single hospital. It is demonstrated that the regulator can reduce the information rent by decreasing the quality. When the regulator is assumed to be able to organize an auction for awarding the right to provide the service, we characterize the optimal auction and the first score tendering procedure implementing it. The regulator can reimburse a unit price per treated patient and let the hospital choose the level of quality. It is proved that the expected quality of health care services is greater and the expected payment is lower than in the monopoly case.

  1. Competition among hospitals.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, Martin; Vogt, William B

    2003-01-01

    We examine competition in the hospital industry, in particular the effect of ownership type (for-profit, not-for-profit, government). We estimate a structural model of demand and pricing in the hospital industry in California, then use the estimates to simulate the effect of a merger. California hospitals in 1995 face an average price elasticity of demand of -4.85. Not-for-profit hospitals face less elastic demand and act as if they have lower marginal costs. Their prices are lower than those of for-profits, but markups are higher. We simulate the effects of the 1997 merger of two hospital chains. In San Luis Obispo County, where the merger creates a near monopoly, prices rise by up to 53%, and the predicted price increase would not be substantially smaller were the chains not-for-profit.

  2. Views on world markets - Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Passmore, J.

    1996-12-31

    If {open_quotes}market{close_quotes} is defined by hardware in the ground (as it should be), then the Canadian wind power market has been virtually non-existent (only 23 MW to date). The potential on the other hand is enormous (6400 MW likely to be developed). This potential has not been pursued because of unregulated electric utility monopolies, lack of political knowledge and interest, and punitive tax treatment for renewables. Recent initiatives including utility restructuring, federal plans for green power procurement, and proposed tax measures suggest that situation has potential for change. Interested parties should start familiarizing themselves with the Canadian players / market now, in order to be ready to move when the time comes (likely in the next three years). 3 tabs.

  3. Introduction to Intellectual Property: A U.S. Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Amanda; Stramiello, Michael; Lewis, Stacy; Irving, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This review introduces patents and trade secrets, the two mechanisms that U.S. law provides inventors to protect their inventions. These mechanisms are mutually exclusive: One demands disclosure and the other calls for concealment. Many biotechnology innovators opt for patents, which grant legal, time-limited monopolies to eligible inventions. To obtain a patent in the United States, an invention must be useful to the public and made or altered by the hand of man. It must then clear the hurdles of novelty and nonobviousness. If an invention can do that, obtaining a patent becomes a matter of form: Who qualifies as an inventor? Does the application demonstrate possession, stake a clear claim to the protection sought, and enable “ordinary” colleagues to replicate it? Has the inventor purposely withheld anything? This review addresses each of these hurdles as they apply to biotech inventions. PMID:25818665

  4. Professionalism and medicine's social contract with society.

    PubMed

    Cruess, Sylvia R

    2006-08-01

    Medicine's relationship with society has been described as a social contract: an "as if" contract with obligations and expectations on the part of both society and medicine, "each of the other". The term is often used without elaboration by those writing on professionalism in medicine. Based on the literature, society's expectations of medicine are: the services of the healer, assured competence, altruistic service, morality and integrity, accountability, transparency, objective advice, and promotion of the public good. Medicine's expectations of society are: trust, autonomy, self-regulation, a health care system that is value-driven and adequately funded, participation in public policy, shared responsibility for health, a monopoly, and both non-financial and financial rewards. The recognition of these expectations is important as they serve as the basis of a series of obligations which are necessary for the maintenance of medicine as a profession. Mutual trust and reasonable demands are required of both parties to the contract.

  5. Policies for regulation of direct broadcast satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setzer, F. O.; Franca, B. A.; Cornell, N. W.

    1980-09-01

    The potential market for satellite to home television broadcasting was examined and recommendations were made to the FCC concerning appropriate regulatory policies for direct broadcast satellites (DBS) for the period following the 1983 Regional Administrative Radio Conference (RARC). It is concluded that many substitutes for DBS will be available in the market for subscription video programming. Either conventional broadcast regulation, which assumes scarcity of channels, nor common carrier regulation, which assumes monopoly power will be appropriate. The report recommends several functions the Commission should perform because of its spectrum allocation responsibilities, but recommends that the Commission make no rules concerning compatibility, signal quality, ownership of receiving equipment, program content, prices, service offerings, or control of channels.

  6. [Social actors and phenomenologic modelling].

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Simon

    2012-05-01

    The phenomenological approach has a quasi-monopoly in the individual and subjectivity analyses in social sciences. However, the conceptual apparatus associated with this approach is very restrictive. The human being has to be understood as rational, conscious, intentional, interested, and autonomous. Because of this, a large dimension of human activity cannot be taken into consideration: all that does not fit into the analytical categories (nonrational, nonconscious, etc.). Moreover, this approach cannot really move toward a relational analysis unless it is between individuals predefined by its conceptual apparatus. This lack of complexity makes difficult the establishment of links between phenomenology and systemic analysis in which relation (and its derivatives such as recursiveness, dialectic, correlation) plays an essential role. This article intends to propose a way for systemic analysis to apprehend the individual with respect to his complexity.

  7. The changing face of international space cooperation - One view of NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    It is pointed out that from its earliest years NASA has incorporated international participation into many of its programs. Guidelines were developed with the objective to maximize the benefits of international cooperation. The cooperative guidelines were accepted because they reflected conditions which applied during much or all of the 1960-1980 period. There existed a clear technology and experience gap between the U.S. and even its largest cooperative partners. Thus, the U.S. enjoyed a virtual Free World monopoly on launching large satellites, especially those destined for geostationary or interplanetary orbits. However, on the basis of new developments, NASA faces now a modified international operating environment, in which the U.S. technological lead has been significantly reduced. The results of this situation are examined, taking into account the equalization of capabilities, the rise of commercial competition, Soviet competition, multinational patterns, and reduced cooperative opportunities.

  8. Why medical professionals have no moral claim to conscientious objection accommodation in liberal democracies.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, Udo; Smalling, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    We describe a number of conscientious objection cases in a liberal Western democracy. These cases strongly suggest that the typical conscientious objector does not object to unreasonable, controversial professional services-involving torture, for instance-but to the provision of professional services that are both uncontroversially legal and that patients are entitled to receive. We analyse the conflict between these patients' access rights and the conscientious objection accommodation demanded by monopoly providers of such healthcare services. It is implausible that professionals who voluntarily join a profession should be endowed with a legal claim not to provide services that are within the scope of the profession's practice and that society expects them to provide. We discuss common counterarguments to this view and reject all of them.

  9. Can hospitals compete on quality? Hospital competition.

    PubMed

    Sadat, Somayeh; Abouee-Mehrizi, Hossein; Carter, Michael W

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we consider two hospitals with different perceived quality of care competing to capture a fraction of the total market demand. Patients select the hospital that provides the highest utility, which is a function of price and the patient's perceived quality of life during their life expectancy. We consider a market with a single class of patients and show that depending on the market demand and perceived quality of care of the hospitals, patients may enjoy a positive utility. Moreover, hospitals share the market demand based on their perceived quality of care and capacity. We also show that in a monopoly market (a market with a single hospital) the optimal demand captured by the hospital is independent of the perceived quality of care. We investigate the effects of different parameters including the market demand, hospitals' capacities, and perceived quality of care on the fraction of the demand that each hospital captures using some numerical examples.

  10. Public health insurance under a nonbenevolent state.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Pierre

    2008-10-01

    This paper explores the consequences of the oft ignored fact that public health insurance must actually be supplied by the state. Depending how the state is modeled, different health insurance outcomes are expected. The benevolent model of the state does not account for many actual features of public health insurance systems. One alternative is to use a standard public choice model, where state action is determined by interaction between self-interested actors. Another alternative--related to a strand in public choice theory--is to model the state as Leviathan. Interestingly, some proponents of public health insurance use an implicit Leviathan model, but not consistently. The Leviathan model of the state explains many features of public health insurance: its uncontrolled growth, its tendency toward monopoly, its capacity to buy trust and loyalty from the common people, its surveillance ability, its controlling nature, and even the persistence of its inefficiencies and waiting lines.

  11. Patterns of ownership and accessibility to information and media facilities in democratizing the media in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okwudishu, C

    1988-01-01

    Nigeria needs to embrace technology and pursue private media ownership in order to achieve a democratic media. In recent years, mass media in Africa has become a force with augmenting power that has influenced government and regimes. A democratization of the African media is reliant on media ownership and accessibility of information. Within Nigeria, there is a government monopoly of the media and therefore a road block in the free flow of information. As well, Nigeria's current economic situation has made media accessibility an extravagance. The electronic media is far from effective as many areas have poor reception, no electricity, or face a language barrier. Because most of the print media is written in English, many Nigerians cannot comprehend the printed news.

  12. Historical Review: Problematic Malaria Prophylaxis with Quinine.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2016-08-03

    Quinine, a bitter-tasting, short-acting alkaloid drug extracted from cinchona bark, was the first drug used widely for malaria chemoprophylaxis from the 19th century. Compliance was difficult to enforce even in organized groups such as the military, and its prophylaxis potential was often questioned. Severe adverse events such as blackwater fever occurred rarely, but its relationship to quinine remains uncertain. Quinine prophylaxis was often counterproductive from a public health viewpoint as it left large numbers of persons with suppressed infections producing gametocytes infective for mosquitoes. Quinine was supplied by the first global pharmaceutical cartel which discouraged competition resulting in a near monopoly of cinchona plantations on the island of Java which were closed to Allied use when the Japanese Imperial Army captured Indonesia in 1942. The problems with quinine as a chemoprophylactic drug illustrate the difficulties with medications used for prevention and the acute need for improved compounds. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. Historical Review: Problematic Malaria Prophylaxis with Quinine

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, G. Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Quinine, a bitter-tasting, short-acting alkaloid drug extracted from cinchona bark, was the first drug used widely for malaria chemoprophylaxis from the 19th century. Compliance was difficult to enforce even in organized groups such as the military, and its prophylaxis potential was often questioned. Severe adverse events such as blackwater fever occurred rarely, but its relationship to quinine remains uncertain. Quinine prophylaxis was often counterproductive from a public health viewpoint as it left large numbers of persons with suppressed infections producing gametocytes infective for mosquitoes. Quinine was supplied by the first global pharmaceutical cartel which discouraged competition resulting in a near monopoly of cinchona plantations on the island of Java which were closed to Allied use when the Japanese Imperial Army captured Indonesia in 1942. The problems with quinine as a chemoprophylactic drug illustrate the difficulties with medications used for prevention and the acute need for improved compounds. PMID:27185766

  14. Can Dentistry Have Two Contracts with the Public?

    PubMed

    Nash, David A

    2015-01-01

    The social contract is an implicit agreement between parts of society and society as a whole. Since the Middle Ages, the learned professions, recently including dentistry, have had a covenantal relationship with the public based on trust, exchanging monopoly privileges for benefiting the public good. Unlike commercial trade in commodities, professional relationships are grounded in ensuring an adequate level of oral health to all. A second contract is emerging where dentists relate to society as business operators, exchanging commodity services for a price. Recent actions by the Federal Trade Commission and the U.S. Supreme Court make it unlikely that dentistry will be able to enjoy only selected aspects of each contract while avoiding obligations that it finds unfavorable.

  15. A thing patented is a thing divulged: Francis E. Stewart, George S. Davis, and the legitimization of intellectual property rights in pharmaceutical manufacturing, 1879-1911.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Joseph M

    2009-04-01

    This article examines the efforts of pharmacist and physician Francis E. Stewart to legitimize the commercial introduction of new drugs by reinterpreting the ethical status of patent rights in pharmaceutical manufacturing. I argue that patents had long been understood by the orthodox medical community as an unethical form of medical monopoly and that, as a result, drug companies that marketed their goods primarily to physicians in the years immediately following the Civil War had little room to develop or introduce new products. In collaboration with George S. Davis and the pharmaceutical manufacturing firm Parke, Davis, & Company, Stewart worked to redefine patents as an ethical means of encouraging scientific and commercial innovation. In doing so, he sought to reconcile medical science and commerce so that they were mutually beneficial to one another. However, I also suggest that his efforts had an ironic effect in that they helped legitimatize a form of patent protection that Stewart himself came to believe to be unethical in nature.

  16. Can Dufour's gland compounds honestly signal fertility in the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Aniruddha; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2011-02-01

    Unlike queens of typical primitively eusocial species, Ropalidia marginata queens are docile and non-interactive, and hence cannot be using dominance to maintain their status. It appears that the queen maintains reproductive monopoly through a pheromone, of which the Dufour's gland is at least one source. Here, we reconfirm earlier results showing that queens and workers can be correctly classified on a discriminant function using the compositions of their respective Dufour's glands, and also demonstrate consistent queen-worker differences based on categories of compounds and on single compounds also in some cases. Since the queen pheromone is expected to be an honest signal of the fecundity of a queen, we investigate the correlation of Dufour's gland compounds with ovarian activation of queens. Our study shows that Dufour's gland compounds in R. marginata correlate with the state of ovarian activation of queens, suggesting that such compounds may portray the fecundity of a queen, and may indeed function as honest signals of fertility.

  17. Entomology: Asian honeybees parasitize the future dead.

    PubMed

    Nanork, Piyamas; Paar, Jürgen; Chapman, Nadine C; Wongsiri, Siriwat; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2005-10-06

    The queen of a honeybee colony has a reproductive monopoly because her workers' ovaries are normally inactive and any eggs that they do lay are eaten by their fellow workers. But if a colony becomes queenless, the workers start to lay eggs, stop policing and rear a last batch of males before the colony finally dies out. Here we show that workers of the Asian dwarf red honeybee Apis florea from other colonies exploit this interval as an opportunity to move in and lay their own eggs while no policing is in force. Such parasitism of queenless colonies does not occur in the western honeybee A. mellifera and may be facilitated by the accessibility of A. florea nests, which are built out in the open.

  18. Reducing Medicare and Medicaid entitlements: a contentious environment ensues.

    PubMed Central

    Weil, T. P.

    1995-01-01

    Since our public officials now lack the courage and political will to raise taxes or to constrain Medicare and Medicaid benefits, we can expect that: 1) the private sector and future generations will pay an increasing share of these entitlements, 2) major cutbacks in Medicare, Medicaid, and health maintenance organization (HMO) reimbursement will result in the aged and poor experiencing decreased access to care and will hasten the current thrust of physicians, hospitals, and insurers forming powerful health networks, 3) these new regional alliances functioning as virtual monopolies will result in the public demanding that state-sponsored health services commissions be established, and 4) the weakest health networks, often in underserved areas, will be fiscally squeezed by inadequate reimbursement, so that by the turn of the century, many of these facilities and HMOs will seek bankruptcy protection as a means of restructuring their long-term debt. PMID:9583964

  19. Stranded cost recovery presents stumbling block to open access

    SciTech Connect

    Del Roccili, J.A.

    1996-04-01

    Much of the impetus for the movement to competitive power markets is a result of the tremendous variance in energy prices across the country. Large commercial and industrial customers are becoming increasingly aware of these discrepancies and are marshaling the market and political forces required to guarantee the eventual development of a national open-access transmission policy. Such a policy will facilitate competition and equalize prices on a regional, and to some extent, national level. The stumbling block, however, is the recovery of stranded investment. Under traditional regulation, historical costs could be collected through approved rates for a bundled service. With the protection of a monopoly franchise, average electricity prices provide the possibility of cost recovery for assets that might not be recoverable in a competitive market.

  20. Focus on finance

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, L.S.

    1986-02-01

    Current controversy over utility regulation addresses the need to see that utilities do not take advantage of their monopoly position to charge unjustified rates. The motivation for recent debate appears to be political. If regulation does not allow a fair rate of return to the investor, the utility will not be able to attract the investment funds it needs to provide the service required by its franchise. The move toward deregulation would only be a negative step if it cuts off the investor, and would be a plus for those utilities not saddled with expensive construction projects and excess capacity. Fairness is the key to positive deregulation. It is possible that nuclear companies will be the long-term winners in a competitive environment.

  1. Building a more connected DSMB: better integrating ethics review and safety monitoring.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Data and Safety Monitoring Boards (DSMBs) have become an increasingly common feature of clinical trial oversight, yet a paucity of legal or ethical frameworks govern these Boards' composition or operation, or their relationship with other actors with monitoring responsibilities. This paper argues that prevailing structural gaps are impeding harmonized systems for monitoring the ongoing ethical acceptability of clinical trials. Particular tensions stem from DSMBs' sweeping discretion in deciding whether and when to recommend that a trial should be terminated or amended based on safety and efficacy information. This discretion becomes especially challenging in light of DSMBs' monopoly over emerging trial data, which prevents Institutional Review Boards, sponsors, and investigators from participating in certain pivotal and ethically charged decisions. To address these disconnects, I advocate for strengthened pre-trial and post-trial communication in addition to innovative strategies to support DSMB decision making through the life of a trial.

  2. Opiate addiction and the entanglements of imperialism and patriarchy in Manchukuo, 1932-45.

    PubMed

    Smith, Norman

    2005-01-01

    In the Japanese colonial state of Manchukuo, opiate addiction was condemned by officials and critics alike. But the state-sponsored creation of a monopoly, opium laws, and rehabilitation programs failed to reduce rates of addiction. Further, official media condemnation of opiate addiction melded with local Chinese-language literature to stigmatise addiction, casing a negative light over the state's failure to realise its own anti-opiate agenda. Chinese writers were thus transfixed in a complex colonial environment in which they applauded measures to reduce harm to the local population while levelling critiques of Japanese colonial rule. This paper demonstrates how the Chinese-language literature of Manchukuo did not simply parrot official politics. It also delegitimised Japanese rule through opiate narratives that are gendered, consistently negative, and more critical of the state than might be expected in a colonial literature.

  3. Classical distributive justice and the European healthcare system: rethinking the foundations of European health care in an age of crises.

    PubMed

    Bauzon, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    The state subvention and distribution of health care not only jeopardize the financial sustainability of the state, but also restrict without a conclusive rational basis the freedom of patients to decide how much health care and of what quality is worth what price. The dominant biopolitics of European health care supports a healthcare monopoly in the hands of the state and the medical profession, which health care should be (re)opened to the patient's authority to deal directly for better basic health care. In a world where it is impossible for all to receive equal access to the best of basic health care, one must critically examine the plausible scope of the authority of the state to limit access to better basic health care. Classical distributive justice affords a basis for re-examining the current European ideology of equality, human dignity, and solidarity that supports healthcare systems with unsustainable egalitarian concerns.

  4. Real versus facsimile reinforcers on the Iowa Gambling Task.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Caroline H; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2003-11-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (([Bechara et al., 1994]) is an effective neuropsychological tool for the assessment of 'real-life' decision-making in a laboratory environment. It has been employed in a wide range of circumstances, though researchers have sometimes employed real money reinforcers instead of the facsimile (or 'monopoly'-type) money used by. The present study investigated whether the type of reinforcer produced any differences in performance. There were no significant differences between the two conditions, though the Facsimile Money condition produced a greater range (and a higher standard deviation) than the Real Money condition. This finding is especially important when considering the Gambling Task as a tool in clinical neuropsychology--where there are risks, at the individual subject level, of both false positive and false negative classification errors.

  5. Interdisciplinary teamwork and leadership: issues for psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Alan; Callaly, Tom

    2005-09-01

    To review the constructs and applications of interdisciplinary teams in mental health services, with a particular view to ascertaining the most effective types of teams and their leadership. Some of the most challenging questions from a psychiatrist's viewpoint regarding the functions of interdisciplinary teams in the mental health service are addressed. The effectiveness of the interdisciplinary team in mental health services is supported by an extensive literature that is much more qualitative and descriptive than quantitative and empirically rigorous, except as part of packages of variables subjected to randomized controlled trials. Effective interdisciplinary teamwork in mental health services involves both retaining differentiated disciplinary roles and developing shared core tasks. It requires sound leadership, effective team management, clinical supervision and explicit mechanisms for resolving role conflicts and ensuring safe practices. No one profession should hold a monopoly on leadership.

  6. The dynamics of mergers and acquisitions: ancestry as the seminal determinant

    PubMed Central

    Viegas, Eduardo; Cockburn, Stuart P.; Jensen, Henrik J.; West, Geoffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the fundamental mechanisms behind the complex landscape of corporate mergers and acquisitions is of crucial importance to economies across the world. Adapting ideas from the fields of complexity and evolutionary dynamics to analyse business ecosystems, we show here that ancestry, i.e. the cumulative sum of historical mergers across all ancestors, is the key characteristic to company mergers and acquisitions. We verify this by comparing an agent-based model to an extensive range of business data, covering the period from the 1830s to the present day and a range of industries and geographies. This seemingly universal mechanism leads to imbalanced business ecosystems, with the emergence of a few very large, but sluggish ‘too big to fail’ entities, and very small, niche entities, thereby creating a paradigm where a configuration akin to effective oligopoly or monopoly is a likely outcome for free market systems. PMID:25383025

  7. The dynamics of mergers and acquisitions: ancestry as the seminal determinant.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Eduardo; Cockburn, Stuart P; Jensen, Henrik J; West, Geoffrey B

    2014-11-08

    Understanding the fundamental mechanisms behind the complex landscape of corporate mergers and acquisitions is of crucial importance to economies across the world. Adapting ideas from the fields of complexity and evolutionary dynamics to analyse business ecosystems, we show here that ancestry, i.e. the cumulative sum of historical mergers across all ancestors, is the key characteristic to company mergers and acquisitions. We verify this by comparing an agent-based model to an extensive range of business data, covering the period from the 1830s to the present day and a range of industries and geographies. This seemingly universal mechanism leads to imbalanced business ecosystems, with the emergence of a few very large, but sluggish 'too big to fail' entities, and very small, niche entities, thereby creating a paradigm where a configuration akin to effective oligopoly or monopoly is a likely outcome for free market systems.

  8. Advertising cadavers in the republic of letters: anatomical publications in the early modern Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Margócsy, Dániel

    2009-06-01

    This paper sketches how late seventeenth-century Dutch anatomists used printed publications to advertise their anatomical preparations, inventions and instructional technologies to an international clientele. It focuses on anatomists Frederik Ruysch (1638-1732) and Lodewijk de Bils (1624-69), inventors of two separate anatomical preparation methods for preserving cadavers and body parts in a lifelike state for decades or centuries. Ruysch's and de Bils's publications functioned as an 'advertisement' for their preparations. These printed volumes informed potential customers that anatomical preparations were aesthetically pleasing and scientifically important but did not divulge the trade secrets of the method of production. Thanks to this strategy of non-disclosure and advertisement, de Bils and Ruysch could create a well-working monopoly market of anatomical preparations. The 'advertising' rhetorics of anatomical publications highlight the potential dangers of equating the growth of print culture with the development of an open system of knowledge exchange.

  9. [Dentistry in Argentina: The history of a subordinated profession].

    PubMed

    Schapira, Marta V

    2003-01-01

    Approaching from the perspective of social and historical construction, the article addresses the professionalization of dentistry in Argentina from the late nineteenth century to 1940. The study analyzes the weight of different actors and dimensions, particularly the introduction of dentistry studies into Argentinean universities and the conflicts between dentists and those in related fields (especially physicians, mecánicos dentales, and informal practitioners like barbers and bleeders) as well as conflicts with the State. The article explores the union, political, and academic strategies developed in an effort to define a space for exclusive intervention, and also looks at the earliest successes in tracing out a specific domain that would ensure professional autonomy and monopoly in the practice of dentistry. A review of documentation reveals the weight of craftsmanship and the mercantile tradition in dental practice, very limited collective participation in the union environment and the field's weak commitment to public health.

  10. Child toy safety: An interdisciplinary approach to unravel the microbiological hazard posed by soap bubbles.

    PubMed

    Amoruso, Irene; Bertoncello, Chiara; Caravello, Gianumberto; Giaccone, Valerio; Baldovin, Tatjana

    2015-11-01

    In 2012 some children developed sepsis after playing together with a soap bubble toy. Microbiological testing revealed heavy contamination of the soap solution, which reasonably represented the vehicle of infection. We investigated the issue with a multidisciplinary approach: review of toy safety legislation; microbiological testing of additional samples; query of the RAPEX database for non-compliant soap bubbles; identification of major manufacturing districts. Microbiological contamination of industrial soap bubbles was widespread. Sixty-three notifications of batches contaminated by environmental microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens had been reported. The Chinese had a virtual monopoly of the soap bubble market. We identified two main manufacturing districts in Guangdong Province, both notable for degradation of their water resources. The use of untreated water for the industrial production of soap bubbles may explain the bacterial contamination. Existing legislation provides an unsatisfactory approach for managing microbiological hazards in sensitive toy categories and for identifying responsible parties in import and export of the products.

  11. Compulsory licenses: a tool to improve global access to the HPV vaccine?

    PubMed

    Maybarduk, Peter; Rimmington, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer disproportionately affects women in lower- and middle-income countries. But the new vaccines developed to prevent infection with some strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV) that cause cervical cancer are priced beyond the reach of most women and health agencies in these regions, due in part to the monopoly pricing power of brand-name companies that hold the patents on the vaccines. Compulsory licenses, which authorize generic competition with patented products, could expand access to HPV vaccines under certain circumstances. If high-quality biogeneric HPV vaccines can be produced at low cost and be broadly and efficiently registered, and if Merck and GSK are unwilling to grant licenses on a voluntary basis, compulsory licensing could play a pivotal role in ensuring vaccinations against HPVare available to all, around the world, regardless of ability to pay.

  12. Managing the NHS market.

    PubMed Central

    Ham, C.; Maynard, A.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the present NHS reforms is to introduce a managed market; developing some of the incentives for greater efficiency that are often found in markets while still being able to regulate proceedings to prevent market failures. If government intervenes too much there will be no incentive to improve efficiency and streamline operations: too little intervention may result in some areas having inadequate health service cover or monopoly powers abusing their position. Effective management of the NHS market requires eight core elements: openness of information, control of labour and capital markets, regulation of mergers and takeovers, arbitrating in disputes, protection of unprofitable functions such as research and development, overseeing national provision of health services, protection of basic principles of the NHS, and handling of closures and redundancy. Management of the market would best be performed by the NHS management executive and health authority purchasers acting within a framework set by politicians. Images p846-a p847-a PMID:8167496

  13. A familiar ring?

    SciTech Connect

    Camack, M.J.

    1995-05-01

    These days, the 1984 divestiture of the regional Bell operating companies from AT&T and the succeeding competitive struggles among long-distance companies and equipment providers seem to ring loud and clear for those in the electric power business. The similarities are compelling: Advancements in technology, the clamor of customers for choice, and other natural pressures in the marketplace challenge the traditional structure of a natural monopoly, creating an opening for competition. Voila, deregulation. To gain expertise from the divestiture experience, several electric utility companies have dialed up former telecommunications executives and managers for their insights, hiring them for key positions in senior management. Veterans of telecommunications have instructive views on the similarities, differences, and lessons learned, especially in the areas of marketing and customer focus.

  14. Uncovering the Global Life Cycles of the Rare Earth Elements

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T. E.

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging, critical technologies. Knowledge of the life cycles of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in their future availability. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supplies vulnerable to short and long-term disruption. To provide an improved perspective we derived the first quantitative life cycles (for the year 2007) for ten REE: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), and yttrium (Y). Of these REE, Ce and Nd in-use stocks are highest; the in-use stocks of most REE show significant accumulation in modern society. Industrial scrap recycling occurs only from magnet manufacture. We believe there is no post-customer recycling of any of these elements. PMID:22355662

  15. Epidemiology of oral cavity cancer in taiwan with emphasis on the role of betel nut chewing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Jen, Yee-Min; Wang, Bill-B; Lee, Jih-Chin; Kang, Bor-Hwang

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the epidemiological characteristics and the possible contributing etiology of oral cavity cancer in Taiwan. Data on oral cavity cancer from the period between 1986 and 1997 were compiled from the Taiwan Cancer Registry Annual Report. The amount of average annual consumption per person of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nut were extracted from the Annual Report of Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau and the Agriculture Counsel of Taiwan. The incidence of oral cavity cancer increased annually. Both the total and male incidence have increased substantially since 1993. Regarding the peak incidence, most cases were seen in the sixth to eighth decades of life. Multiple regression models indicated that 86.2% variation in the incidence of oral cavity cancer was explained by the annual average betel nut consumption per person. These results imply that those who chew betel nut belong to a high-risk group and require special consideration and attention regarding health education and health promotion.

  16. Public and private sector interactions: an economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Maynard, A

    1986-01-01

    The debate about the public-private mix for health care has been dominated by rhetoric and the failure to evaluate the characteristics of the outcomes of public and private health care systems and to relate these to policy targets. After a brief analysis of the competing, liberal (conservative) and collectivist (socialist), objectives, the nature of the private health care sector in Britain is described and it is shown that growth has faltered due to cost containment problems. This outcome is the product of characteristics of the private health care system, paralleled precisely in the NHS: asymmetry information, monopoly power, moral hazard and third party pays. The final section discusses briefly some remedies for the inefficient and inequitable outcomes which are seen in all health care markets and it is argued that competition within public and private health care systems may enable each system type to achieve its own particular objectives more efficiently.

  17. Introduction to Intellectual Property: A U.S. Perspective.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Amanda; Stramiello, Michael; Lewis, Stacy; Irving, Tom

    2015-03-27

    This review introduces patents and trade secrets, the two mechanisms that U.S. law provides inventors to protect their inventions. These mechanisms are mutually exclusive: One demands disclosure and the other calls for concealment. Many biotechnology innovators opt for patents, which grant legal, time-limited monopolies to eligible inventions.To obtain a patent in the United States, an invention must be useful to the public and made or altered by the hand of man. It must then clear the hurdles of novelty and nonobviousness. If an invention can do that, obtaining a patent becomes a matter of form: Who qualifies as an inventor? Does the application demonstrate possession, stake a clear claim to the protection sought, and enable "ordinary" colleagues to replicate it? Has the inventor purposely withheld anything? This review addresses each of these hurdles as they apply to biotech inventions. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  18. Natural gas demand surges among European customers

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1993-12-27

    Europe's view of natural gas as a clean fuel is driving demand faster than European producers can supply the fuel. By 2010 European gas demand is expected to rise by 50%, so imports will need to rise in step. There are plenty of gas reserves within and in reach of the European market to meet increasing needs. But current low gas prices in Europe are a barrier to development of gas projects, which are large, long term investments. Meanwhile, the structure of Europe and its gas markets is changing. There is a trend to privatization and uncertainty over the future role of state gas monopolies. The paper discusses European production, natural gas as a primary energy source, gas sources, price requirements, megaprojects, the Middle East promise, new infrastructure, power generation, privatization, and third party access.

  19. [Study of changes in Chinese herbal medicine distribution channel].

    PubMed

    Lv, Hua; Yang, Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-07-01

    Distribution channel of Chinese herbal medicines has been changing. From Han to Ming Dynasty, Chinese herbal medicine were mainly trafficked to urban by dealers or farmers; From the Ming Dynasty to the foundation of new China, distribution channels are primarily intermediated with township "bazaar" and national distribution center with fixed place and regularly trading hours. In the planned economy period, the state-owned herbal medicine company was the sole medium with monopoly nature. From the mid1980s to the end of last century, planned economy and market economy have been co-existing. Stepping into 21st century, producing area highlighted in the distribution channels. Presence or absence and rise or fall of different types of distribution market went throughout the changing process of distribution channels, which became an important clue. Changes were motivated by economical consideration of channel subject, which originated from commodity characteristic and social environment changes.

  20. Buyer and seller data from pay what you want and name your own price laboratory markets.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Florentin; Schmidt, Klaus M; Spann, Martin; Stich, Lucas

    2017-06-01

    Pay What You Want (PWYW) and Name Your Own Price (NYOP) are customer-driven pricing mechanisms that give customers (some) pricing power and that have been used in service industries with high fixed costs to price discriminate without setting a reference price. This paper describes buyer and seller data in a series of induced-value laboratory experiments that compare PWYW and NYOP in monopoly and competitive situations. Sellers are in a one-shot interaction with buyers. Sellers using customer-driven pricing mechanisms may exogenously or endogenously receive additional promotional benefits, for instance through word-of-mouth effects. The major findings based on the data presented here are reported in the paper "Delegating Pricing Power to Customers: Pay What You Want or Name Your Own Price?" (Krämer et al., 2017) [3].

  1. Elusive marketing concept

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, D.R.; Capella, L.M.

    1985-09-19

    Utilities need something more than what is now practiced to compete effectively and adapt to the everchanging environment. Utilities must cope with customers wanting electricity on demand, continual supply, steady supply, guaranteed supply, and lower costs. Utilities are also turning to other electricity-related products as potential revenue generators, such as security lights, electric water heaters, and heat pumps. However, these may be short-run solutions that do not address longer-run issues, such as the possibilities for increased competition, cogeneration of electricity by larger customers, relaxed monopoly protection, and more freedom to get into other types of businesses. Long-run survival and prosperity will be based on utilities ability to establish and improve a competitive position. The marketing concept can help provide a long-run perspective from which a utility can successfully compete in the ever-changing marketplace.

  2. Limitations on the obligation to provide access to electric transmission and distribution lines

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.L. IV; Early, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    The authors examine the limited availability of wheeling under the Federal Power Act, as amended by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act. They demonstrate that the adoption of the essential facilities doctrine to determine possession of monopoly power may be a positive step toward more realistic analysis of refusals to deal by regulated companies. Without objective cost standards, however, to determine whether a facility is essential, this step may be counterproductive or even meaningless. In the context of requests to wheel, they identify the specific competition to be protected and the proper standards for determining whether a facility is essential. The obligation to wheel remains an uncertainty which the courts will resolve on a case-by-case basis. The scope of legitimate business conduct, however, can be clarified by the courts and, potentially, could be resolved to limit further a utility's obligation to wheel. 146 references.

  3. [The impact of researchers loyal to Big Pharma on the ethics and quality of clinical trials in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Ugalde, Antonio; Homedes, Núria

    2015-03-01

    This article explains the difficulties innovative pharmaceutical firms have in repaying shareholders with attractive dividends. The problem is the result of the expiration of the patents of blockbuster drugs and the difficulties that the firms have in bringing new blockbuster drugs to the market. One of the solutions companies have found has been to accelerate the implementation of clinical trials in order to expedite the commercialization of new drugs. Doing so increases the period in which they can sell drugs at monopoly prices. We therefore discuss how innovative pharmaceutical firms shorten the implementation time of clinical trials in Latin America and the consequences such actions have on the quality of the collected data, the protection of human rights of the subjects of experimentation, and compliance with the ethical principles approved in international declarations.

  4. Ocular Defect Rehabilitation Using Photography and Digital Imaging: A Clinical Report.

    PubMed

    Buzayan, Muaiyed M; Ariffin, Yusnidar T; Yunus, Norsiah; Mahmood, Wan Adida Azina Binti

    2015-08-01

    Ocular disorders occasionally necessitate surgical intervention that may lead to eye defects. The primary objective in restoring and rehabilitating such defects with an ocular prosthesis is to enable patients to cope better with associated psychological stress and to return to their accustomed lifestyle. A series of detailed steps for custom-made ocular prosthesis fabrication using the advantages of digital photography to replace the conventional oil paint and monopoly iris painting technique are presented in this article. In the present case, a digital photograph of the patient's iris was captured using a digital camera and manipulated on a computer using graphic software to produce a replica of the natural iris. The described technique reduces treatment time, increases simplicity, and permits the patient's natural iris to be replicated without the need for iris painting and special artistic skills.

  5. Expertise, wisdom and moral philosophers: a response to Gesang.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Christopher

    2012-07-01

    In a recent issue of Bioethics, Bernard Gesang asks whether a moral philosopher possesses greater moral expertise than a non-philosopher, and his answer is a qualified yes, based not so much on his infallible access to the truth, but on the quality of his theoretically-informed moral justifications. I reject Gesang's claim that there is such a thing as moral expertise, although the moral philosopher may well make a valid contribution to the ethics committee as a concerned and educated citizen. I suggest that wisdom is a lot more interesting to examine than moral expertise. Again, however, moral philosophers have no monopoly on wisdom, and the study of philosophy may even impede its cultivation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. The dilemma of good clinical practice in the study of compromised standards of care.

    PubMed

    Barilan, Yechiel M

    2010-01-01

    Four ethical issues loom over the study by Lieberman and colleagues--the absence of informed consent, the study being non-interventional in situations that typically call for life-saving interventions, the bias involved in doctors that study their own problematic practice and monopoly over intensive care unit triage, and ageism. We learn that the Israeli doctors in this study never make no-treatment decisions regarding patients in need of mechanical ventilation. They are complicit with botched standards of care for these patients, however, accepting without much doubt an ethos of scarce resources and poor managerial habits. The main two practical lessons to be taken from this study are that, for patients in need of mechanical ventilation, compromised care is better than a policy of intubation only when the intensive care unit is available, and that vigorous efforts are needed in order to extirpate ageism.

  7. Pricing of NASA Space Shuttle transportation system cargo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    A two-part pricing policy is investigated as the most feasible method of pricing the transportation services to be provided by NASA's SSTS. Engineering cost estimates and a deterministic operating cost model generate a data base and develop a procedure for pricing the services of the SSTS. It is expected that the SSTS will have a monopoly on space material processing in areas of crystal growth, glass processing, metallurgical space applications, and biomedical processes using electrophoresis which will require efficient pricing. Pricing problems, the SSTS operating costs based on orbit elevation, number of launch sites, and number of flights, capital costs of the SSTS, research and development costs, allocation of joint transportation costs of the SSTS to a particular space processing activity, and rates for the SSTS are discussed. It is concluded that joint costs for commercial cargoes carried in the SSTS can be most usefully handled by making cost allocations based on proportionate capacity utilization.

  8. Study on spatial structure of retailing based on GIS in the city of Wuhan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-liang; Tian, Ying

    2008-10-01

    With the agility of market economy, the characteristic of market spatial structure becomes more complex since the reformation and open policy. The spatial structure has broken through the traditional framework which is non-equilibriums and scattered, and represented such modern development character as diversification, grade, network, and non-equilibrium. This paper chooses 200 stochastic retailing stores whose acreages all exceed 40m2 in the four circles of Wuhan city, after the analysis of spatial difference on acreages, number, population density, and manage forms with GIS spatial methods, and makes a conclusion that the retailing spatial structure of Wuhan city has took on figure of rating circle wholly and frame of centralization-diffusion and enchasing partially; as location is concerned, centralization and diffusion takes place simultaneously, has behaved that retailing concentrated in heartland of city with more favorable traffic and market location by the means of market infiltration, and distributed in suburb more dispersive by market monopoly.

  9. Uncovering the global life cycles of the rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T E

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging, critical technologies. Knowledge of the life cycles of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in their future availability. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supplies vulnerable to short and long-term disruption. To provide an improved perspective we derived the first quantitative life cycles (for the year 2007) for ten REE: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), and yttrium (Y). Of these REE, Ce and Nd in-use stocks are highest; the in-use stocks of most REE show significant accumulation in modern society. Industrial scrap recycling occurs only from magnet manufacture. We believe there is no post-customer recycling of any of these elements.

  10. Uncovering the Global Life Cycles of the Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T. E.

    2011-11-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging, critical technologies. Knowledge of the life cycles of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in their future availability. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supplies vulnerable to short and long-term disruption. To provide an improved perspective we derived the first quantitative life cycles (for the year 2007) for ten REE: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), and yttrium (Y). Of these REE, Ce and Nd in-use stocks are highest; the in-use stocks of most REE show significant accumulation in modern society. Industrial scrap recycling occurs only from magnet manufacture. We believe there is no post-customer recycling of any of these elements.

  11. The changing face of international space cooperation - One view of NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    It is pointed out that from its earliest years NASA has incorporated international participation into many of its programs. Guidelines were developed with the objective to maximize the benefits of international cooperation. The cooperative guidelines were accepted because they reflected conditions which applied during much or all of the 1960-1980 period. There existed a clear technology and experience gap between the U.S. and even its largest cooperative partners. Thus, the U.S. enjoyed a virtual Free World monopoly on launching large satellites, especially those destined for geostationary or interplanetary orbits. However, on the basis of new developments, NASA faces now a modified international operating environment, in which the U.S. technological lead has been significantly reduced. The results of this situation are examined, taking into account the equalization of capabilities, the rise of commercial competition, Soviet competition, multinational patterns, and reduced cooperative opportunities.

  12. Status of the profession

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Peter B.; Beichman, Charles A.; Abt, Helmut A.; Bauer, Wendy Hagen; Burbidge, Geoffrey; Cochran, Anita L.; Dorfman, Robert; Harris, Hugh; Havlen, Robert; Jones, Christine

    1991-01-01

    The number of astronomers has grown by about 40 percent over the past decade. The number of astronomers with jobs in industry, or with long-term, non-tenured, jobs has increased dramatically compared with traditional faculty positions. The increase in the number of astronomers and the declining share of the NSF budget going to astronomy has led to extreme difficulties in the NSF grant program and in support of the National Observatories. In 1989, direct NASA support of astronomers through the grants program exceeds that of NSF, although the total of the NSF grants program over decade far exceeds that of NASA. Access to major new telescopes will be important issue for the 1990s. US astronomers, who once had a monopoly on telescopes larger than 3 meters, will, by the year 2000, have access to just half of the world's optical telescope area.

  13. Political economy of tobacco control in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chantornvong, S.; McCargo, D.

    2001-01-01

    Thailand has some of the world's strongest anti-tobacco legislation. This paper examines the political economy of tobacco control in Thailand, emphasising the identification of forces which have supported and opposed the passage of strong anti-tobacco measures. It argues that while a powerful tobacco control coalition was created in the late 1980s, the gains won by this coalition are now under threat from systematic attempts by transnational tobacco companies to strengthen their share of the Thai cigarette market. The possible privatisation of the Thailand Tobacco Monopoly could threaten the tobacco control cause, but the pro-control alliance is fighting back with a proposed Health Promotion Act which would challenge the tobacco industry with a hypothecated excise tax dedicated to health awareness campaigns.


Keywords: anti-tobacco legislation; political economy; Thailand; transnational tobacco companies PMID:11226361

  14. AJOG against homebirth.

    PubMed

    Cohain, Judy Slome

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, while 99.3% of US women delivered in hospital, 0.7% delivered at home. In response to this slight rise in homebirths, The American Journal of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (AJOG) issued a warning to all doctors and midwives to refuse to attend homebirth under all circumstances. In the absence of respected medical research showing planned homebirth to be unsafe, their recommendation is based on a single maternal death reported in the Daily Mail. American obstetrics is so profit-orientated that it is willing to use misquoted newspaper articles as ammunition and pretend that 277 women don't die in the US annually from cesarean surgery at planned hospital births. AJOG articles are nothing more than publicity stunts created in an effort to maintain a monopoly on birth and not to forfeit even a small amount of business to competitors.

  15. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today`s electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry`s transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment.

  16. The invisible hand: how British American Tobacco precluded competition in Uzbekistan.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Anna B; McKee, Martin; Collin, Jeff

    2007-08-01

    Tobacco industry documents provide a unique opportunity to explore the role transnational corporations (TNCs) played in shaping the poor outcomes of privatisation in the former Soviet Union (FSU). This paper examines British American Tobacco's (BAT's) business conduct in Uzbekistan where large-scale smuggling of BAT's cigarettes, BAT's reversal of tobacco control legislation and its human rights abuses of tobacco farmers have been documented previously. This paper focuses, instead, on BAT's attitude to competition, compares BAT's conduct with international standards and assesses its influence on the privatisation process. Analysis of BAT documents released through litigation. BAT secured sole negotiator status precluding the Uzbekistan government from initiating discussions with other parties. Recognising that a competitive tender would greatly increase the cost of investment, BAT went to great lengths to avoid one, ultimately securing President Karimov's support and negotiating a monopoly position in a closed deal. It simultaneously secured exclusion from the monopolies committee, ensuring freedom to set prices, on the basis of a spurious argument that competition would exist from imports. Other anticompetitive moves comprised including all three plants in the deal despite intending to close down two, exclusive dealing and implementing measures designed to prevent market entry by competitors. BAT also secured a large number of exemptions and privileges that further reduced the government's revenue both on a one-off and ongoing basis. BAT's corporate misbehaviour included a wide number of anticompetitive practices, contravened Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development's and BAT's own business standards on competition and restricted revenue arising from privatisation. This suggests that TNCs have contributed to the failure of privatisation in the FSU. Conducting open tenders and using enforceable codes to regulate corporate conduct would help deal with

  17. Worldwide expansion of transnational tobacco industry.

    PubMed

    Connolly, G N

    1992-01-01

    As smoking rates fall in North America and western Europe, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) from the United States and Great Britain turn to cigarette markets of the developing world to replace those smokers who have quit or died from smoking. The majority of these markets are dominated by state tobacco monopolies that advertise and promote smoking minimally. Few women or adolescents smoke in those nations. The majority of men do, but they smoke far fewer cigarettes per year than their counterparts in developed nations. Trade barriers in the developing world prevent foreign cigarette companies from entering. TTCs employ various techniques to force open those markets, including trade pressure from the US government. Once the market is open, Western cigarette advertising and promotions target nonsmoking women and children. Retail tobacco outlets increase, smoking rates rise, and more death and disease result. Latin America was the TTC target in the 1960s, the newly developed nations of Asia during the 1980s, and, today, the tobacco giants are pushing into eastern Europe, China, and Africa. If nothing is done, emerging national smoking-control programs will be overwhelmed, and state-owned cigarette monopolies will be taken over by the TTCs. Policies and programs to curb smoking exist, but for various reasons many lesser developed countries have not adopted them. The threat of TTC entry into a closed market offers an opportunity to form national coalitions against smoking, educate the public about the dangers of tobacco use, and implement public health policies and programs to restrict marketing and use of cigarettes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. The invisible hand: how British American Tobacco precluded competition in Uzbekistan

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Anna B; McKee, Martin; Collin, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Background Tobacco industry documents provide a unique opportunity to explore the role transnational corporations (TNCs) played in shaping the poor outcomes of privatisation in the former Soviet Union (FSU). This paper examines British American Tobacco's (BAT's) business conduct in Uzbekistan where large‐scale smuggling of BAT's cigarettes, BAT's reversal of tobacco control legislation and its human rights abuses of tobacco farmers have been documented previously. This paper focuses, instead, on BAT's attitude to competition, compares BAT's conduct with international standards and assesses its influence on the privatisation process. Methods Analysis of BAT documents released through litigation. Results BAT secured sole negotiator status precluding the Uzbekistan government from initiating discussions with other parties. Recognising that a competitive tender would greatly increase the cost of investment, BAT went to great lengths to avoid one, ultimately securing President Karimov's support and negotiating a monopoly position in a closed deal. It simultaneously secured exclusion from the monopolies committee, ensuring freedom to set prices, on the basis of a spurious argument that competition would exist from imports. Other anticompetitive moves comprised including all three plants in the deal despite intending to close down two, exclusive dealing and implementing measures designed to prevent market entry by competitors. BAT also secured a large number of exemptions and privileges that further reduced the government's revenue both on a one‐off and ongoing basis. Conclusions BAT's corporate misbehaviour included a wide number of anticompetitive practices, contravened Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development's and BAT's own business standards on competition and restricted revenue arising from privatisation. This suggests that TNCs have contributed to the failure of privatisation in the FSU. Conducting open tenders and using enforceable codes to

  19. The DHL EuroCup: shots on goal.

    PubMed

    Hemp, Paul

    2003-11-01

    Deutsche Post World Net, the German postal monopoly, faced significant challenges as it began the process of integrating three businesses: Deutsche Post Euro Express, its own ground-based parcel delivery service, and two companies it had acquired-DHL, the worldwide express delivery service, and Danzas, a worldwide air and ocean freight company. The cultural differences alone were imposing. For example, DHL was a privately held, entrepreneurial company in which most managers had international experience; Deutsche Post was until recently a state-owned monopoly in which few managers had worked outside their home country. Enter EuroCup. For 20 years, DHL employees had held a soccer tournament to strengthen company culture across national boundaries. Canceled the previous year due to budget constraints, the EuroCup tournament was revived in 2003-in part to help with the postmerger integration. But did the event really help? HBR senior editor Paul Hemp attended EuroCup 2003, joining nearly 2,500 DHL employees--about 600 of them players, the rest cheerleaders and other supporters--in the small Belgian town of Lommel. He set out to answer a number of questions relevant to any company staging an ambitious off-site intended to encourage teamwork and boost morale. How does a company determine whether such a large-scale event, even one that generates goodwill, is worth the investment? Does the team building extend to those back home who don't get to attend? Can intense competition between teams begin to overshadow the spirit of cooperation that such an event is meant to engender? In short, can a soccer tournament help a company achieve its corporate goal of creating a strong common culture?

  20. Carbohydrate-based immune adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Petrovsky, Nikolai; Cooper, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    The role for adjuvants in human vaccines has been a matter of vigorous scientific debate, with the field hindered by the fact that for over 80 years, aluminum salts were the only adjuvants approved for human use. To this day, alum-based adjuvants, alone or combined with additional immune activators, remain the only adjuvants approved for use in the USA. This situation has not been helped by the fact that the mechanism of action of most adjuvants has been poorly understood. A relative lack of resources and funding for adjuvant development has only helped to maintain alum’s relative monopoly. To seriously challenge alum’s supremacy a new adjuvant has many major hurdles to overcome, not least being alum’s simplicity, tolerability, safety record and minimal cost. Carbohydrate structures play critical roles in immune system function and carbohydrates also have the virtue of a strong safety and tolerability record. A number of carbohydrate compounds from plant, bacterial, yeast and synthetic sources have emerged as promising vaccine adjuvant candidates. Carbohydrates are readily biodegradable and therefore unlikely to cause problems of long-term tissue deposits seen with alum adjuvants. Above all, the Holy Grail of human adjuvant development is to identify a compound that combines potent vaccine enhancement with maximum tolerability and safety. This has proved to be a tough challenge for many adjuvant contenders. Nevertheless, carbohydrate-based compounds have many favorable properties that could place them in a unique position to challenge alum’s monopoly over human vaccine usage. PMID:21506649

  1. [Opposition to Myriad Genetics patents and their total or partial revocation in Europe: early conclusions].

    PubMed

    Cassier, Maurice; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    The proceedings instituted against three European patents held by the US company Myriad Genetics, on the BRCA1 gene and the breast cancer diagnosis gene, resulted in the total or partial revocation of these patents. These decisions put an end to the legal monopoly claimed by Myriad Genetics on the BRCA1 gene and on breast cancer gene tests, and left the field open to European geneticists to develop and implement their test methods within the framework of a clinical not-for-profit organization. The opposition procedure, through which any actor is allowed to challenge European patents, was used by geneticists doctors in Europe to refuse the emergence of an industrial monopoly on a medical service offered in a clinical context. The decision to revoke or strongly limit these patents was based on the European Patent Office's refusal to establish an invention priority on a sequence that had errors at the time the application was filed by the patent holder, in September 1994. The patent holder was granted an invention priority only on 24 March 1995, when it filed an application for a corrected sequence of the gene. But by then the BRCA1 gene sequence had already been divulged in a public data base, Genbank, from October 1994, notably by Myriad. Myriad Genetics' patents were thus victims of the patent race that prompted the firm to file multiple patent applications on insufficiently validated sequences, and of the conflict between diffusion in the public domain and the novelty requirement. Opposition to the patents, undertaken by a coalition of medical institutions, human genetic societies, two States, Holland and Austria, an environmental protection organization (Greenpeace), and the Swiss Labour Party, made it possible to preserve and develop the clinical economy of genetic tests in Europe. It resulted in amendments to intellectual property laws in France and thus extended the possibility of using compulsory licences for public health purposes to in vitro diagnosis.

  2. Grain Handling and Transportation Policy in Canada: Implications for the United States

    DOE PAGES

    Nolan, James; Peterson, Steven K

    2015-08-01

    The grain handling and transportation system in Canada (GHTS) is currently going through a major transition, both with respect to handling and transportation. Historically, the system has pitted farmers against the railways with respect to securing individual fair shares of grain revenues. But with the removal of the single desk marketing and logistics function of the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) in late 2012, a very interesting and potentially game-changing outcome is emerging with respect to the new functionality of the grain companies in the Canadian system. While historical awareness of rail s natural monopoly position in the grain handling systemmore » has kept that sector regulated (in several ways) for close to a century, we are now starting to see the effects of a less than competitive Canadian grain handling sector on revenue sharing, along with renewed movement in the industry with respect to buyouts and potential mergers. This overview will highlight some of the changes now occurring and how they are potentially going to interact or evolve as the system moves forward. For example, the on-going regulatory instrument used to regulate grain transportation rates in Canada (called the maximum revenue entitlement (MRE) or revenue cap) is under current debate because of the introduction a few months ago of a modification to an old regulatory instrument known as extended (or reciprocal) interswitching. As opposed to the revenue cap which is a direct intervention on monopoly behavior, extended interswitching is designed to encourage the major Canadian grain carriers to compete with one another and potentially seek out new traffic (Nolan and Skotheim, 2008). But the most intriguing aspect of extended interswitching is how it might allow a major rail carrier from the U.S. to solicit grain traffic in some areas of the Canadian grain transportation system.« less

  3. Grain Handling and Transportation Policy in Canada: Implications for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, James; Peterson, Steven K

    2015-08-01

    The grain handling and transportation system in Canada (GHTS) is currently going through a major transition, both with respect to handling and transportation. Historically, the system has pitted farmers against the railways with respect to securing individual fair shares of grain revenues. But with the removal of the single desk marketing and logistics function of the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) in late 2012, a very interesting and potentially game-changing outcome is emerging with respect to the new functionality of the grain companies in the Canadian system. While historical awareness of rail s natural monopoly position in the grain handling system has kept that sector regulated (in several ways) for close to a century, we are now starting to see the effects of a less than competitive Canadian grain handling sector on revenue sharing, along with renewed movement in the industry with respect to buyouts and potential mergers. This overview will highlight some of the changes now occurring and how they are potentially going to interact or evolve as the system moves forward. For example, the on-going regulatory instrument used to regulate grain transportation rates in Canada (called the maximum revenue entitlement (MRE) or revenue cap) is under current debate because of the introduction a few months ago of a modification to an old regulatory instrument known as extended (or reciprocal) interswitching. As opposed to the revenue cap which is a direct intervention on monopoly behavior, extended interswitching is designed to encourage the major Canadian grain carriers to compete with one another and potentially seek out new traffic (Nolan and Skotheim, 2008). But the most intriguing aspect of extended interswitching is how it might allow a major rail carrier from the U.S. to solicit grain traffic in some areas of the Canadian grain transportation system.

  4. Essays on incomplete contracts in regulatory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Eduardo Humberto

    This dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay, The Hold-Up Problem in Public Infrastructure Franchising, characterizes the equilibria of the investment decisions in public infrastructure franchising under incomplete contracting and ex-post renegotiation. The parties (government and a firm) are unable to credibly commit to the contracted investment plan, so that a second step investment is renegotiated by the parties at the revision stage. As expected, the possibility of renegotiation affects initial non-verifiable investments. The main conclusion of this essay is that not only underinvestment but also overinvestment in infrastructure may arise in equilibrium, compared to the complete contracting case. The second essay, Alternative Institutional Arrangements in Network Utilities: An Incomplete Contracting Approach, presents a theoretical assessment of the efficiency implications of privatizing natural monopolies which are vertically related to potential competitive firms. Based on the incomplete contracts and asymmetric information paradigm. I develop a model that analyzes the relative advantages of different institutional arrangements---alternative ownership and market structures in the industry--- in terms of their allocative and productive efficiencies. The main policy conclusion of this essay is that both ownership and the existence of conglomerates in network industries matter. Among other conclusions, this essay provides an economic rationale for a mixed economy in which the network is public and vertical separation of the industry when the natural monopoly is under private ownership. The last essay, Opportunistic Behavior and Legal Disputes in the Chilean Electricity Sector, analyzes post-contractual disputes in this newly privatized industry. It discusses the presumption that opportunistic behavior and disputes arise due to inadequate market design, ambiguous regulation, and institutional weaknesses. This chapter also assesses the presumption

  5. High Generic Drug Prices and Market Competition: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Dave, Chintan V; Kesselheim, Aaron S; Fox, Erin R; Qiu, Peihua; Hartzema, Abraham

    2017-08-01

    Prices for some generic drugs have increased in recent years, adversely affecting patients who rely on them. To determine the association between market competition levels and the change in generic drug prices in the United States. Retrospective cohort study. Prescription claims from commercial health plans between 2008 and 2013. The 5.5 years of data were divided into 11 study periods of 6 months each. The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI)-calculated by summing the squares of individual manufacturers' market shares, with higher values indicating a less competitive market-and average drug prices were estimated for the generic drugs in each period. The HHI value estimated in the baseline period (first half of 2008) was modeled as a fixed covariate. Models estimated price changes over time by level of competition, adjusting for drug shortages, market size, and dosage forms. From 1.08 billion prescription claims, a cohort of 1120 generic drugs was identified. After adjustment, drugs with quadropoly (HHI value of 2500, indicating relatively high levels of competition), duopoly (HHI value of 5000), near-monopoly (HHI value of 8000), and monopoly (HHI value of 10 000) levels of baseline competition were associated with price changes of -31.7% (95% CI, -34.4% to -28.9%), -11.8% (CI, -18.6% to -4.4%), 20.1% (CI, 5.5% to 36.6%), and 47.4% (CI, 25.4% to 73.2%), respectively, over the study period. Study findings may not be generalizable to drugs that became generic after 2008. Market competition levels were associated with a change in generic drug prices. Such measurements may be helpful in identifying older prescription drugs at higher risk for price change in the future. None.

  6. Popularizing right food and feeding practices in Spain (1847-1950). The handbooks of domestic economy.

    PubMed

    Perdiguero-Gil, Enrique; Castejón-Bolea, Ramón

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze a sample of domestic economy handbooks in order to assess the popularization of correct food and feeding practices in Spain between 1847 and 1950. With this contribution, we wish to evaluate another factor that would influence the Spanish food transition. We are aware that this is a very indirect source, given the high levels of illiteracy among women in Spain during the last third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. A further factor to be considered is the low proportion of girls attending school. We have analyzed the handbooks published in three periods. The first ranges from the last third of the 19th century to the first decade of the 20th. These handbooks are considered in order to provide background for a comparison with the works published from 1900 onwards. The second period focuses on the 1920s and the 1930s. The last period covers the handbooks published after the Civil War under the monopoly of the Sección Femenina (women's section of the Falange). Over the years under consideration, recommendations underwent a progressive modification from the very simple leaflets used in the 19th century to the introduction of scientific factors into the teaching of domestic economy.The work of Rosa Sensat represented the beginnings of this trend. A further modernizing factor was the appearance of vitamins in some of the handbooks. After the war, the number of handbooks decreased and they were, in general, very poor. If we consider the content on vitamins, there was a lack or shortage of information in comparison with some of the books published in the same period outside the monopoly of the Sección Femenina. In conclusion, we can state that the repetition of recommendations on good feeding habits and the increase in girls attending school would exert a positive influence on the food transition of the Spanish population.

  7. Impacts of international trade, services and investment treaties on alcohol regulation.

    PubMed

    Grieshaber-Otto, J; Sinclair, S; Schacter, N

    2000-12-01

    There is an underlying incompatibility between government efforts to minimize the harm associated with alcohol, particularly by regulating its supply, and international commercial treaties that promote the freer flow of goods, services and investment. These treaties have already forced changes to many government measures affecting alcohol availability and control, primarily by constraining the activities of government alcohol monopolies and by altering taxation regimes. The North American Free Trade Agreement and the World Trade Organization agreements open new avenues for challenges against alcohol control measures. Some of these agreements extend beyond trade, border measures and differential taxation and allow challenges that intrude into areas of non-discriminatory domestic regulation affecting market access, intellectual property, investment and services. Effective protection from these agreements for vital public health measures has rarely been obtained, although it is increasingly essential. The WTO "services" agreement, basically unknown to the public, is currently being re-negotiated and poses the gravest new challenge to policies designed to influence patterns of alcohol use and minimize alcohol-related harm. In future, these international agreements will probably affect adversely those alcohol approaches considered to be the most effective or promising. These include: maintaining effective state monopolies, restricting the number and locations of retail outlets, taxing and regulating beverages according to alcohol strength, restricting commercial advertising, and maintaining and enhancing public alcohol education and treatment programs. These effects can, in turn, be expected to increase the availability and access to alcohol, to lower alcohol taxes, and to increase advertising and promotion, resulting in increased alcohol consumption and associated health problems. Until more balanced international rules are developed, the challenge facing alcohol

  8. The High Cost of Prescription Drugs in the United States: Origins and Prospects for Reform.

    PubMed

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Avorn, Jerry; Sarpatwari, Ameet

    The increasing cost of prescription drugs in the United States has become a source of concern for patients, prescribers, payers, and policy makers. To review the origins and effects of high drug prices in the US market and to consider policy options that could contain the cost of prescription drugs. We reviewed the peer-reviewed medical and health policy literature from January 2005 to July 2016 for articles addressing the sources of drug prices in the United States, the justifications and consequences of high prices, and possible solutions. Per capita prescription drug spending in the United States exceeds that in all other countries, largely driven by brand-name drug prices that have been increasing in recent years at rates far beyond the consumer price index. In 2013, per capita spending on prescription drugs was $858 compared with an average of $400 for 19 other industrialized nations. In the United States, prescription medications now comprise an estimated 17% of overall personal health care services. The most important factor that allows manufacturers to set high drug prices is market exclusivity, protected by monopoly rights awarded upon Food and Drug Administration approval and by patents. The availability of generic drugs after this exclusivity period is the main means of reducing prices in the United States, but access to them may be delayed by numerous business and legal strategies. The primary counterweight against excessive pricing during market exclusivity is the negotiating power of the payer, which is currently constrained by several factors, including the requirement that most government drug payment plans cover nearly all products. Another key contributor to drug spending is physician prescribing choices when comparable alternatives are available at different costs. Although prices are often justified by the high cost of drug development, there is no evidence of an association between research and development costs and prices; rather, prescription

  9. Contract-based electricity markets in developing countries: Overcoming inefficiency constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, M. N. Susantha

    The electric utility sector throughout the world has been undergoing significant changes. It is changing from its traditional, central-station generation model managed under a vertically integrated monopoly to a more market-dependent business. In the rich industrialized countries, this change has progressed rapidly with the emergence of competitive markets---not only in the area of electricity generation, but also in the extension of such markets down to the level of retail domestic consumer. Developing countries, on the other hand, are trying to attract much-needed investment capital for their power sector expansion activities, particularly for the expansion of generating capacity, through the involvement of the private sector. Unlike their industrialized counterparts, they are facing many limitations in transforming the mostly government-owned monopolies into market-driven businesses, thereby creating an environment that is conducive to private sector participation. Amongst these limitations are the lack of a well-developed, local private sector or domestic financial market that can handle the sophisticated power sector financing; inadequate legal and regulatory frameworks that can address the many complexities of private power development; and numerous risk factors including political risks. This dissertation research addresses an important inefficiency faced by developing countries in the new contract-based market structure that has emerged within these countries. It examines the inefficiencies brought on by restrictions in the contracts, specifically those arising from the guaranteed purchase conditions that are typically included in contracts between the purchasing utility and independent power producers in this new market. The research attempts to provide a solution for this problem and proposes a methodology that enables the parties to conduct their businesses in a cost-efficient manner within a cooperative environment. The situation described above is

  10. Low Cost Micro-Mini-Satellite Remote Sensing Capabilities: in-Orbit Results &Imminent Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Paul; Sun, Wei; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    Micro- and mini-satellites are in the process or revolutionising the economics of Earth observation. This will jointly affect the space super-powers who have, since the dawn of the space age, enjoyed an effective monopoly of Earth observation from the high vantage-point of space and also the commercial provision of EO data to value added information producers. The monopoly has been due to the enormous cost hitherto required to build, launch and operate EO satellites. SSTL (UK) has pioneered the development of successful micro and mini-satellites which have demonstrated highly capable Earth Observation functions at a mission cost at least an order of magnitude less than conventional such missions. This dramatic development has brought independent ownership of Earth observation satellites within the affordable reach of every developing nation and even medium-sized commercial concerns. Indeed, the performance of these tiny satellites now exceeds the capability of many of the civil EO satellites in operation only 5 years ago. In 2002, SSTL will launch the first satellite in a constellation that will deliver the first routine 24-hour revisit EO data released into the commercial marketplace. This paper describes the in-orbit EO image data produced by typical micro and minisatellites including the latest imagery from the UoSAT-12 mini satellite launched in April 1999 which carries a 32-metre ground sampling distance multispectral imager and a 10-metre GSD panchromatic camera. In addition, data is presented from the TiungSat-1 and Tsinghua-1 microsatellites launched in 2000, and AlSat-1 (launch scheduled in September 2002). AlSat-1 carries a unique imaging system designed as part of the innovative Disaster Monitoring Constellation providing 32-metre GSD multispectral images with a 600km swath width - together with its five companion microsatellites, the Disaster Monitoring Constellation can provide daily revisit imaging world-wide from orbit. The paper also describes the

  11. Economics of mining law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures

  12. Whaling: will the Phoenix rise again?

    PubMed

    Holt, Sidney J

    2007-08-01

    It is argued that Japan's authorities and entrepreneurs involved in whaling and the whale-meat trade have a long-term goal of rebuilding a large and profitable industry of pelagic whaling, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere, in the next 20 years or so. They have made large investments in this enterprise since the so-called moratorium on commercial whaling was adopted by the International Whaling Commission in 1982. These include, but are not confined to, state subsidizing of an expanding and diversifying 20-year programme of commercial whaling under provisions in all relevant international agreements since 1937 that permit unlimited and unilaterally decreed whaling, supposedly for scientific purposes, provided that the commodities from the whales killed are fully utilized. The context of this is the monopoly of technical knowledge, special skills and the market for valuable whale-meat that Japanese enterprises acquired in the post-world war II period, having broken - in 1937 - the strongly defended de facto Anglo-Norwegian monopoly of technology, skills, access to Antarctic whaling grounds and the market for whale-oil that had existed until then. The attraction of 'scientific whaling' is not only that it by-passes any internationally agreed catch-limits but that it also circumvents all other rules - many dating fr/om the League of Nations whaling convention of 1931 - regarding protected species, closed areas, killing of juveniles, less inhumane killing methods, etc. The groundwork is being laid to justify that resumed whaling on partially recovered whale stocks will be at the unsustainable levels that will be profitable again. This justification is based on spurious assertions that numerous and hungry whales threaten the world's fisheries, and that the abundance and possible increase in some whale species is impeding the recovery of other, severely depleted, and potentially more valuable species such as the blue whale. If the scenario presented here is correct

  13. Regulatory reform for natural gas pipelines: The effect on pipeline and distribution company share prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurman, Elisabeth Antonie

    1997-08-01

    The natural gas shortages in the 1970s focused considerable attention on the federal government's role in altering energy consumption. For the natural gas industry these shortages eventually led to the passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) in 1978 as part of the National Energy Plan. A series of events in the decade of the 1980s has brought about the restructuring of interstate natural gas pipelines which have been transformed by regulators and the courts from monopolies into competitive entities. This transformation also changed their relationship with their downstream customers, the LDCs, who no longer had to deal with pipelines as the only merchants of gas. Regulatory reform made it possible for LDCs to buy directly from producers using the pipelines only for delivery of their purchases. This study tests for the existence of monopoly rents by analyzing the daily returns of natural gas pipeline and utility industry stock price data from 1982 to 1990, a period of regulatory reform for the natural gas industry. The study's main objective is to investigate the degree of empirical support for claims that regulatory reforms increase profits in the affected industry, as the normative theory of regulation expects, or decrease profits, as advocates of the positive theory of regulation believe. I also test Norton's theory of risk which predicts that systematic risk will increase for firms undergoing deregulation. Based on a sample of twelve natural gas pipelines, and 25 utilities an event study concept was employed to measure the impact of regulatory event announcements on daily natural gas pipeline or utility industry stock price data using a market model regression equation. The results of this study provide some evidence that regulatory reforms did not increase the profits of pipeline firms, confirming the expectations of those who claim that excess profits result from regulation and will disappear, once that protection is removed and the firms are operating in

  14. Another development with women: a view from Asia.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, V

    1982-01-01

    course of history in most Asian countries during the last few decades displays certain marked similarities on the women's question despite differences in political systems and differing priorities in patterns of development. The 3 major instruments for maintaining the current structure of inequality within and between nations are the monopolies of economic, political, and knowledge power. The majority of women in Asia do not share in any of these monopolies. The invisibility, undervaluation, and nonvaluation of women's contribution to the economy is closely linked with their lower social status.

  15. Six principles to enhance health workforce flexibility.

    PubMed

    Nancarrow, Susan A

    2015-04-07

    principles are already being applied, albeit on a small scale. This paper discusses the implications of these reforms. 1. Is person-centred care at odds with professional monopolies? 2. Should the state regulate professions and, by doing so, protect professional monopolies or, instead, regulate tasks or competencies? 3. Can health-care efficiency be enhanced by reducing the number of clinical transactions required to meet patient needs?

  16. Global health equity in United Kingdom university research: a landscape of current policies and practices.

    PubMed

    Gotham, Dzintars; Meldrum, Jonathan; Nageshwaran, Vaitehi; Counts, Christopher; Kumari, Nina; Martin, Manuel; Beattie, Ben; Post, Nathan

    2016-10-10

    Universities are significant contributors to research and technologies in health; however, the health needs of the world's poor are historically neglected in research. Medical discoveries are frequently licensed exclusively to one producer, allowing a monopoly and inequitable pricing. Similarly, research is often published in ways that make it inaccessible. Universities can adopt policies and practices to overcome neglect and ensure equitable access to research and its products. For 25 United Kingdom universities, data on health research funding were extracted from the top five United Kingdom funders' databases and coded as research on neglected diseases (NDs) and/or health in low- and lower-middle-income countries (hLLMIC). Data on intellectual property licensing policies and practices and open-access policies were obtained from publicly available sources and by direct contact with universities. Proportions of research articles published as open-access were extracted from PubMed and PubMed Central. Across United Kingdom universities, the median proportion of 2011-2014 health research funds attributable to ND research was 2.6% and for hLLMIC it was 1.7%. Overall, 79% of all ND funding and 74% of hLLMIC funding were granted to the top four institutions within each category. Seven institutions had policies to ensure that technologies developed from their research are affordable globally. Mostly, universities licensed their inventions to third parties in a way that confers monopoly rights. Fifteen institutions had an institutional open-access publishing policy; three had an institutional open-access publishing fund. The proportion of health-related articles with full-text versions freely available online ranged from 58% to 100% across universities (2012-2013); 23% of articles also had a creative commons CC-BY license. There is wide variation in the amount of global health research undertaken by United Kingdom universities, with a large proportion of total research

  17. Is bigger better? An empirical analysis of waste management in New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha; Dollery, Brian

    2015-05-01

    Across the world, rising demand for municipal solid waste services has seen an ongoing increase in the costs of providing these services. Moreover, municipal waste services have typically been provided through natural or legal monopolies, where few incentives exist to reduce costs. It is thus vital to examine empirically the cost structure of these services in order to develop effective public policies which can make these services more cost efficient. Accordingly, this paper considers economies of size and economies of output density in the municipal waste collection sector in the New South Wales (NSW) local government system in an effort to identify the optimal size of utilities from the perspective of cost efficiency. Our results show that - as presently constituted - NSW municipal waste services are not efficient in terms of costs, thereby demonstrating that 'bigger is not better.' The optimal size of waste utilities is estimated to fall in the range 12,000-20,000 inhabitants. However, significant economies of output density for unsorted (residual) municipal waste collection and recycling waste collection were found, which means it is advantageous to increase the amount of waste collected, but maintaining constant the number of customers and the intervention area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High-precision radiocarbon dating and historical biblical archaeology in southern Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Thomas E.; Higham, Thomas; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Smith, Neil G.; Ben-Yosef, Erez; Robinson, Mark; Münger, Stefan; Knabb, Kyle; Schulze, Jürgen P.; Najjar, Mohammad; Tauxe, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Recent excavations and high-precision radiocarbon dating from the largest Iron Age (IA, ca. 1200–500 BCE) copper production center in the southern Levant demonstrate major smelting activities in the region of biblical Edom (southern Jordan) during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE. Stratified radiocarbon samples and artifacts were recorded with precise digital surveying tools linked to a geographic information system developed to control on-site spatial analyses of archaeological finds and model data with innovative visualization tools. The new radiocarbon dates push back by 2 centuries the accepted IA chronology of Edom. Data from Khirbat en-Nahas, and the nearby site of Rujm Hamra Ifdan, demonstrate the centrality of industrial-scale metal production during those centuries traditionally linked closely to political events in Edom's 10th century BCE neighbor ancient Israel. Consequently, the rise of IA Edom is linked to the power vacuum created by the collapse of Late Bronze Age (LB, ca. 1300 BCE) civilizations and the disintegration of the LB Cypriot copper monopoly that dominated the eastern Mediterranean. The methodologies applied to the historical IA archaeology of the Levant have implications for other parts of the world where sacred and historical texts interface with the material record. PMID:18955702

  19. New business with the new military.

    PubMed

    Apgar, Mahlon; Keane, John M

    2004-09-01

    A $200 billion market has appeared on your business horizon, but you may not have noticed it. It's the U.S. military--the new U.S. military. Virtually all aspects of the military are changing to ensure it can fight unpredictable threats while sustaining the infrastructure needed to support and train forces. The military is turning to non-traditional business partners to meet a wide range of needs, from health care to housing to information technology. The Defense Department is yielding its monopoly on every aspect of national security and adopting a more businesslike model in which the military's warfighting capabilities are supported through outsourcing and business alliances. Civilians are replacing military personnel in many noncombat roles. Military functions with corporate equivalents are candidates for outsourcing and privatization. Market standards are replacing the heavy customization that has locked many companies out of this marketplace. The authors have participated in the transformation process from different perspectives--one civilian, the other military. Together, they highlight the prospects that transformation is creating for companies outside the traditional defense industry and reveal paths to success in this complex market. They also present six principles for doing business with the military that require persistence, integrity, and a willingness to master the intricacies of a distinctive culture. By understanding the logic of military transformation, executives can identify and create vast new business opportunities. And by mastering the six principles, they can build profitable long-term relationships.

  20. The TRITON versus PLATO trials: differences beyond platelet inhibition.

    PubMed

    Serebruany, V L

    2010-02-01

    Clopidogrel monopoly as an exclusive oral antiplatelet agent used in combination with aspirin or as a monotherapy for treatment or/and prevention of occlusive thrombotic vascular events has been recently challenged. Based on the indirect comparison of TRITON and PLATO trial data, ticagrelor is clearly superior to prasugrel in a population of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) because of absolute mortality reduction, realistic second myocardial infarction (MI) prevention, growing over time vascular outcome benefit, fewer haemorrhagic fatalities, potentially less coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)- related bleeding events, and lack of cancer risks. Despite an unfavourable immediate safety profile, ticagrelor has a lot of room to compensate for agitation, dyspnea, and ventricular pauses, if used in appropriate patients. It will be naïve and wrong to assume that ticagrelor will completely substitute clopidogrel, especially considering higher discontinuation rates after ticagrelor, generic competition, and other health economics issues. However, unless the regulatory authorities discover some unexpected serious flaws with PLATO, the ticagrelor will substantially change the present landscape of oral antiplatelet therapy, especially in high-risk patients, diabetics, and those with repeated vascular events including stent thrombosis. In contrast, a too exclusive trial design, a lack of persistent vascular benefit despite issues with event adjudication, growing-over-time bleeding complications, an issue with cancer, and finally an increase in mortality risk among unstable angina and non ST-elevated myocardial infarction will likely prevent a broad prasugrel implementation, unless more reassuring evidence becomes available.

  1. Dual effect of wasp queen pheromone in regulating insect sociality.

    PubMed

    Oi, Cintia A; Van Oystaeyen, Annette; Caliari Oliveira, Ricardo; Millar, Jocelyn G; Verstrepen, Kevin J; van Zweden, Jelle S; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-06-15

    Eusocial insects exhibit a remarkable reproductive division of labor between queens and largely sterile workers [1, 2]. Recently, it was shown that queens of diverse groups of social insects employ specific, evolutionarily conserved cuticular hydrocarbons to signal their presence and inhibit worker reproduction [3]. Workers also recognize and discriminate between eggs laid by the queen and those laid by workers, with the latter being destroyed by workers in a process known as "policing" [4, 5]. Worker policing represents a classic example of a conflict-reducing mechanism, in which the reproductive monopoly of the queen is maintained through the selective destruction of worker-laid eggs [5, 6]. However, the exact signals used in worker policing have thus far remained elusive [5, 7]. Here, we show that in the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris, the pheromone that signals egg maternity and enables the workers to selectively destroy worker-laid eggs is in fact the same as one of the sterility-inducing queen signals that we identified earlier [3]. These results imply that queen pheromones regulate insect sociality in two distinct and complementary ways, i.e., by signaling the queen's presence and inhibiting worker reproduction, and by facilitating the recognition and policing of worker-laid eggs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Marketing ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes is a key strategy of the industry to counter tobacco control in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-01-01

    While the ‘low-tar’ scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of ‘less harmful, low tar’ was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration/China National Tobacco Corporation and began to gain traction during the last decade. Despite the fact that no sufficient research evidence supports the claims made by the industry that these cigarettes are safer, the Chinese tobacco industry has continued to promote them using various health claims. As a result, the production and sales of ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes have increased dramatically since 2000. Recently, a tobacco industry senior researcher, whose main research area is ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes, was elected as an Academician to the prestigious Chinese Academy of Engineering for his contribution to developing ‘less harmful, low-tar’ cigarettes. The tobacco researcher's election caused an outcry from the tobacco control community and the general public in China. This paper discusses the Chinese tobacco industry's ‘less harmful, low-tar’ initiatives and calls for the Chinese government to stop the execution of this deceptive strategy for tobacco marketing. PMID:23349230

  3. Academic Institutionalization of Community Health Services: Way Ahead in Medical Education Reforms

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raman

    2012-01-01

    Policy on medical education has a major bearing on the outcome of health care delivery system. Countries plan and execute development of human resource in health, based on the realistic assessments of health system needs. A closer observation of medical education and its impact on the delivery system in India reveals disturbing trends. Primary care forms backbone of any system for health care delivery. One of the major challenges in India has been chronic deficiency of trained human resource eager to work in primary care setting. Attracting talent and employing skilled workforce seems a distant dream. Talking specifically of the medical education, there are large regional variations, urban - rural divide and issues with financing of the infrastructure. The existing design of medical education is not compatible with the health care delivery system of India. Impact is visible at both qualitative as well as quantitative levels. Medical education and the delivery system are working independent of each other, leading outcomes which are inequitable and unjust. Decades of negligence of medical education regulatory mechanism has allowed cropping of multiple monopolies governed by complex set of conflict of interest. Primary care physicians, supposed to be the community based team leaders stand disfranchised academically and professionally. To undo the distorted trajectory, a paradigm shift is required. In this paper, we propose expansion of ownership in medical education with academic institutionalization of community health services. PMID:24478994

  4. Stress and the suppression of subordinate reproduction in cooperatively breeding meerkats.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew J; Carlson, Anne A; Monfort, Steven L; Russell, Andrew F; Bennett, Nigel C; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2006-08-08

    In many animal societies, dominant individuals monopolize reproduction, but the tactics they employ to achieve this are poorly understood. One possibility is that aggressive dominants render their subordinates infertile by inducing chronic physiological "stress." However, this hypothesis has been discarded largely for cooperatively breeding species, where reproductive monopolies are often extreme. Here we provide strong support for the stress-related suppression hypothesis in a cooperative mammal, the meerkat (Suricata suricatta). When pregnant, dominant females subject some subordinate females to escalating aggression, culminating in temporary evictions from the group. While evicted, subordinate females suffer chronic elevation of their glucocorticoid adrenal hormone levels, reproductive down-regulation (reduced pituitary sensitivity to gonadotropin-releasing hormone), reduced conception rates, and increased abortion rates. Rather than constantly harassing all subordinate females, dominants only become aggressive when pregnant themselves (when subordinate reproduction would otherwise conflict with their own) and target those females with whom reproductive conflict is most likely (older, pregnant, and more distantly related females). Our findings suggest that dominant female meerkats employ stressful evictions to suppress reproduction among their probable competitors, when attempting to breed themselves. Given the lack of evidence for stress-related suppression in other cooperative breeders to date, it is clear that social stress alone cannot account for the reproductive failure of subordinates across such societies. However, our findings raise the possibility that, in some cooperative breeders at least, dominants may employ stress-related suppression as a backup mechanism to guard against lapses in reproductive restraint by their subordinates.

  5. Epistemic brokerage in the bio-property narrative: contributions to explaining opposition to transgenic technologies in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Herring, Ronald J

    2010-11-30

    Unlike some global contentions - abolition of slavery, or universal franchise, for example - the rift over rDNA crops is not about ultimate values. Improvement of farmer welfare and enhanced sustainability of agriculture are universally valued goals. However, means to those ends are politically disputed; that dispute depends on alternative empirical stories about biotechnology, sometimes even alternative epistemologies. Opposition revolves around two fundamental dimensions: bio-safety and bio-property. There is convergence of these dimensions around exceptional risk and vulnerability to corporate control of farmers, but these are analytically separable questions of fact. This paper concentrates on bio-property. Epistemic brokers have successfully established knowledge claims that simultaneously undermine the case for rDNA technologies as potential contributors to development and motivate opposition. Epistemic brokers command authority from their positions at junctures of networks, enabling the screening, weighting, theorizing and diffusion of contentious empirical accounts. In contentions of low information, high information costs and diffuse anxiety, these claims provide cognitive support for opposition to 'GMOs'. Specifically, claims of patents, monopoly corporate control and terminator technology have diffused to and from India in global networks. Though effective in transnational advocacy networks, these claims have proved either false or inconsistent with dynamics on the ground.

  6. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946-1953.

    PubMed

    Creager, Angela N H

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear "piles," soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchase to civilian institutions. This program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from scientists outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate about whether the Commission should or even could export radioisotopes. This controversy manifested the tension in U.S. politics between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country's atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism. This essay examines the various ways in which radioisotopes were used as political instruments-both by the U.S. federal government in world affairs, and by critics of the civilian control of atomic energy-in the early Cold War.

  7. Patenting the bomb: nuclear weapons, intellectual property, and technological control.

    PubMed

    Wellerstein, Alex

    2008-03-01

    During the course of the Manhattan Project, the U.S. government secretly attempted to acquire a monopoly on the patent rights for inventions used in the production of nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. The use of patents as a system of control, while common for more mundane technologies, would seem at first glance to conflict with the regimes of secrecy that have traditionally been associated with nuclear weapons. In explaining the origins and operations of the Manhattan Project patent system, though, this essay argues that the utilization of patents was an ad hoc attempt at legal control of the atomic bomb by Manhattan Project administrators, focused on the monopolistic aspects of the patent system and preexisting patent secrecy legislation. From the present perspective, using patents as a method of control for such weapons seems inadequate, if not unnecessary; but at the time, when the bomb was a new and essentially unregulated technology, patents played an important role in the thinking of project administrators concerned with meaningful postwar control of the bomb.

  8. Electronic management: Exploring its impact on small business

    SciTech Connect

    Bewayo, E.D.

    1994-12-31

    Macworld magazine recently reported that more than one in five companies eavesdrops electronically on its employees. Electronic eavesdropping is one name given to electronic management Besides being known as electronic eaves-dropping, electronic management also goes by electronic monitoring, electronic supervision, electronic snooping, electronic sweat-shopping, electronic surveillance, electronic Big Brothering, and computerized performance monitoring. Some of these labels connote negative things about electronic management, and relate to applications of electronic management to extreme and unreasonable levels. In the rest of this paper the terms electronic management and electronic monitoring will be used interchangeably. In this paper we discuss the impacts of electronic management, positive and negative, on workplaces, with emphasis on small businesses. This small business emphasis is partly because of the author`s research interests, and partly because most of what has been written on electronic management has been based on large business contexts. This large business bias has been partly due to the fact that the early inroads of electronic management were almost exclusively limited to large companies--beginning with telephone service observation in the late 1800s. However, now with the growing affordability and, consequently, the proliferation of electronic technology (especially the computer), electronic management is no longer the monopoly of large corporations. Electronic management has now reached restaurants, drug stores, liquor stores, convenience stores, and trucking companies. And in some industries, e.g., banking, every business, regardless of size, uses electronic monitoring.

  9. The future of partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Malthouse, Theo; Kasivisvanathan, Veeru; Raison, Nicholas; Lam, Wayne; Challacombe, Ben

    2016-12-01

    Innovation in recent times has accelerated due to factors such as the globalization of communication; but there are also more barriers/safeguards in place than ever before as we strive to streamline this process. From the first planned partial nephrectomy completed in 1887, it took over a century to become recommended practice for small renal tumours. At present, identified areas for improvement/innovation are 1) to preserve renal parenchyma, 2) to optimise pre-operative eGFR and 3) to reduce global warm ischaemia time. All 3 of these, are statistically significant predictors of post-operative renal function. Urologists, have a proud history of embracing innovation & have experimented with different clamping techniques of the renal vasculature, image guidance in robotics, renal hypothermia, lasers and new robots under development. The DaVinci model may soon no longer have a monopoly on this market, as it loses its stranglehold with novel technology emerging including added features, such as haptic feedback with reduced costs. As ever, our predictions of the future may well fall wide of the mark, but in order to progress, one must open the mind to the possibilities that already exist, as evolution of existing technology often appears to be a revolution in hindsight.

  10. [The history of tobacco consumption and nicotine addiction in Europe until the middle of the XXth century].

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco, a plant unknown in the Mediterranean civilization, has made a world-wide carreer in the social and economic areas for the last 500 years. The cultivation of tobacco, although originally taking place mostly in North and South America, quickly spread to the other continents, mainly to Europe and Africa. The huge profit from the cultivation of tobacco, based also on the ruthless exploitation of black slaves brought from Africa, founded the welth of such American states, as Virginia, North Caroline and Louisiana. Also European countries such as England, Spain and Portugal, gained a great deal from tobacco trading imposing monopoly and high taxes. The aforementioned factors created the raising supply of tobacco, which reached its the apogee in the XXth century. On the other hand, the demand for tobacco was the function of unreasonable beliefs in its therapeutic properties, religious prejudices, fashions and social rituals, and most of all by gradually increasing tobacco addiction. The purpose of this study is to analize different factors influencing the consumption of tobacco until the middle of the XXth century.

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of Tubulipora flabellaris (Bryozoa: Stenolaemata): the first representative from the class Stenolaemata with unique gene order.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming'an; Shen, Xin; Liu, Huilian; Liu, Xixing; Wu, Zhigang; Liu, Bin

    2011-09-01

    Mitochondrial genomes play a significant role in the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships within metazoans. There are still many controversies concerning the phylogenetic position of the phylum Bryozoa. In this research, we have finished the complete mitochondrial genome of one bryozoan (Tubulipora flabellaris), which is the first representative from the class Stenolaemata. The complete mitochondrial genome of T. flabellaris is 13,763bp in length and contains 36 genes, which lacks the atp8 gene in contrast to the typical metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Gene arrangement comparisons indicate that the mitochondrial genome of T. flabellaris has unique gene order when compared with other metazoans. The four known bryozoans complete mitochondrial genomes also have very different gene arrangements, indicates that bryozoan mitochondrial genomes have experienced drastic rearrangements. To investigate the phylogenetic relationship of Bryozoa, phylogenetic analyses based on amino acid sequences of 11 protein coding genes (excluding atp6 and atp8) from 26 metazoan complete mitochondrial genomes were made utilizing Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian methods, respectively. The results indicate the monopoly of Lophotrochozoa and a close relationship between Chaetognatha and Bryozoa. However, more evidences are needed to clarify the relationship between two groups. Lophophorate appeared to be polyphyletic according to our analyses. Meanwhile, neither analysis supports close relationship between Branchiopod and Phoronida. Four bryozoans form a clade and the relationship among them is T. flabellaris+(F. hispida+(B. neritina+W. subtorquata)), which is in coincidence with traditional classification system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A dual track system to give more-rapid access to new drugs: applying a systems mindset to the US food and drug administration (FDA).

    PubMed

    Madden, Bartley J

    2009-02-01

    A widely applicable lesson learned from systems analysis is that a proposed change should always be studied in terms of value to the customer and not a gain in efficiency of any particular component of the system. A systems mindset reveals invalid assumptions that have caused the FDA to substitute its own needs for the needs of its customers (patients). Further, the key constraint to overall system improvement is the lack of consumer choice and competition due to FDA's monopoly over access to drugs. Therefore, we need legislation to implement a proposed dual track system for access to drugs that have successfully passed Phase I safety trials. On one track, an experimental drug would continue with conventional FDA clinical trials. On a new, free-to-choose track, patients, advised by their doctors, would make informed decisions about immediate access to not-yet-approved drugs. Internet access to a government-operated tradeoff evaluation database would provide patients and doctors with up-to-date information on all drug treatment outcomes for both tracks. Dual tracking is a dynamic process that overcomes the limitations of a static FDA regulatory process that ignores individual risk preferences.

  13. Aspects of molecular diagnostics and therapy in obstetrics and gynecology.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Matthias W; Strick, Reiner; Strissel, Pamela L; Fasching, Peter A; Oppelt, Peter; Pöhls, Uwe D; Malur, Sabine U; Ackermann, Sven

    2003-05-01

    Scientific progress and information relating to the theoretical and clinical work being carried out in the field of obstetrics and gynecology has dramatically increased due to recent developments in molecular biology. Molecular obstetrics and gynecology is therefore the link between the different sections in obstetrics and gynecology. At present, the molecular understanding of cellular pathways is much greater than that of the direct integration of molecular diagnostics and therapy in routine clinical practice. The use of molecular diagnostics, such as preimplantation diagnostics or predictive genetic testing, still has technical problems as well as novel, and to date unclear, social, ethical and legal implications. To date, the technical elements of molecular therapy have not yet fulfilled their expectations. In the broad spectrum of obstetrics and gynecology, new molecular discoveries are influenced not only by technical but also by socioeconomic and political considerations. These include, for example, free access to genetic testing, patents for genes and the financial monopoly over molecular medication. Society must propose rules for the potential integration of the knowledge of molecular obstetrics and gynecology into the daily care of those seeking aid or advice.

  14. Professionalism for Medicine: Opportunities and Obligations*

    PubMed Central

    Cruess, Sylvia R; Cruess, Richard L; Johnston, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Physicians' dual roles-as healer and professional-are linked by codes of ethics governing behaviour and are empowered by science.Being part of a profession entails a societal contract. The profession is granted a monopoly over the use of a body of knowledge and the privilege of self-regulation and, in return, guarantees society professional competence, integrity and the provision of altruistic service.Societal attitudes to professionalism have changed from supportive to increasingly critical-with physicians being criticised for pursuing their own financial interests, and failing to self-regulate in a way that guarantees competence.Professional values are also threatened by many other factors. The most important are the changes in healthcare delivery in the developed world, with control shifting from the profession to the State and/or the corporate sector.For the ideal of professionalism to survive, physicians must understand it and its role in the social contract. They must meet the obligations necessary to sustain professionalism and ensure that healthcare systems support, rather than subvert, behaviour that is compatible with professionalism's values. PMID:15296199

  15. Full employment and competition in the Aspen economic model: implications for modeling acts of terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Sprigg, James A.; Ehlen, Mark Andrew

    2004-11-01

    Acts of terrorism could have a range of broad impacts on an economy, including changes in consumer (or demand) confidence and the ability of productive sectors to respond to changes. As a first step toward a model of terrorism-based impacts, we develop here a model of production and employment that characterizes dynamics in ways useful toward understanding how terrorism-based shocks could propagate through the economy; subsequent models will introduce the role of savings and investment into the economy. We use Aspen, a powerful economic modeling tool developed at Sandia, to demonstrate for validation purposes that a single-firm economy converges to the known monopoly equilibrium price, output, and employment levels, while multiple-firm economies converge toward the competitive equilibria typified by lower prices and higher output and employment. However, we find that competition also leads to churn by consumers seeking lower prices, making it difficult for firms to optimize with respect to wages, prices, and employment levels. Thus, competitive firms generate market ''noise'' in the steady state as they search for prices and employment levels that will maximize profits. In the context of this model, not only could terrorism depress overall consumer confidence and economic activity but terrorist acts could also cause normal short-run dynamics to be misinterpreted by consumers as a faltering economy.

  16. Funny money: the attentional role of monetary feedback detached from expected value.

    PubMed

    Roper, Zachary J J; Vecera, Shaun P

    2016-10-01

    Stimuli associated with monetary reward can become powerful cues that effectively capture visual attention. We examined whether such value-driven attentional capture can be induced with monetary feedback in the absence of an expected cash payout. To this end, we implemented images of U.S. dollar bills as reward feedback. Participants knew in advance that they would not receive any money based on their performance. Our reward stimuli-$5 and $20 bill images-were thus dissociated from any practical utility. Strikingly, we observed a reliable attentional capture effect for the mere images of bills. Moreover, this finding generalized to Monopoly money. In two control experiments, we found no evidence in favor of nominal or symbolic monetary value. Hence, we claim that bill images are special monetary representations, such that there are strong associations between the defining visual features of bills and reward, probably due to a lifelong learning history. Together, we show that the motivation to earn cash plays a minor role when it comes to monetary rewards, while bill-defining visual features seem to be sufficient. These findings have the potential to influence human factor applications, such as gamification, and can be extended to novel value systems, such as the electronic cash Bitcoin being developed for use in mobile banking. Finally, our procedure represents a proof of concept on how images of money can be used to conserve expenditures in the experimental context.

  17. Justus Liebig and animal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2003-10-01

    Justus Liebig was one of the individuals making chemistry almost a German monopoly in the 19th century. At Giessen he established the first organic chemistry laboratory and offered a systematic course for training new chemists. His comprehensive survey of plant nutrition changed the nature of scientific agriculture. In a study of animal chemistry, Liebig treated physiologic processes as chemical reactions and inferred the transformations from the chemical properties of the elements and compounds in laboratory reactions. He constructed hypothetical chemical equations derived from the formulae of the participating compounds. Liebig generalized that all organic nitrogenous constituents of the body are derived from plant protein and demonstrated how the application of quantitative methods of organic chemistry can be applied to the investigation of the animal organism. Liebig's theories were attractive, but his method of converting one substance to another by moving atoms around on paper was speculative because of the lack of knowledge as to how the elements were arranged. His dynamic personality helped win widespread acceptance by many, but others were antagonized by his wishful thinking and speculative excesses. Liebig's views on catalysis and fermentation brought him into a controversy with Louis Pasteur. Liebig's Animal Chemistry stimulated an interest in clinical chemistry because it introduced a quantitative method into physiological chemistry. However, the isolated pieces of test results on blood and urine were unconnected and did not fit anywhere. Physicians found that chemistry was not helpful at the bedside and they lost interest in its application.

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis in markets with high fixed costs.

    PubMed

    Cutler, David M; Ericson, Keith M Marzilli

    2010-01-01

    We consider how to conduct cost-effectiveness analysis when the social cost of a resource differs from the posted price. From the social perspective, the true cost of a medical intervention is the marginal cost of delivering another unit of a treatment, plus the social cost (deadweight loss) of raising the revenue to fund the treatment. We focus on pharmaceutical prices, which have high markups over marginal cost due to the monopoly power granted to pharmaceutical companies when drugs are under patent. We find that the social cost of a branded drug is approximately one-half the market price when the treatment is paid for by a public insurance plan and one-third the market price for mandated coverage by private insurance. We illustrate the importance of correctly accounting for social costs using two examples: coverage for statin drugs and approval for a drug to treat kidney cancer (sorafenib). In each case, we show that the correct social perspective for cost-effectiveness analysis would be more lenient than researcher recommendations.

  19. A review of the impacts of tobacco industry privatisation: Implications for policy

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Anna B.; Fooks, Gary; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    State owned tobacco monopolies, which still account for 40% of global cigarette production, face continued pressure from, among others, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), to be privatised. This review of available literature on tobacco industry privatisation suggests that any economic benefits of privatisation may be lower than supposed because private owners avoid competitive tenders (thus underpaying for assets), negotiate lengthy tax holidays and are complicit in the smuggling of cigarettes to avoid import and excise duties. It outlines how privatisation leads to increased marketing, more effective distribution and lower prices, creating additional demand for cigarettes among new and existing smokers, leading to increased cigarette consumption, higher smoking prevalence and lower age of smoking initiation. Privatisation also weakens tobacco control because private owners, in their drive for profits, lobby aggressively against effective policies and ignore or overturn existing policies. This evidence suggests that further tobacco industry privatisation is likely to increase smoking and that instead of transferring assets from state to private ownership, alternative models of supply should be explored. PMID:21790502

  20. Marketing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes is a key strategy of the industry to counter tobacco control in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-03-01

    While the 'low-tar' scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of 'less harmful, low tar' was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration/China National Tobacco Corporation and began to gain traction during the last decade. Despite the fact that no sufficient research evidence supports the claims made by the industry that these cigarettes are safer, the Chinese tobacco industry has continued to promote them using various health claims. As a result, the production and sales of 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes have increased dramatically since 2000. Recently, a tobacco industry senior researcher, whose main research area is 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes, was elected as an Academician to the prestigious Chinese Academy of Engineering for his contribution to developing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes. The tobacco researcher's election caused an outcry from the tobacco control community and the general public in China. This paper discusses the Chinese tobacco industry's 'less harmful, low-tar' initiatives and calls for the Chinese government to stop the execution of this deceptive strategy for tobacco marketing.