Science.gov

Sample records for monopolies

  1. Monopoly is not the answer.

    PubMed

    Havighurst, Clark C

    2005-01-01

    Certificate-of-need (CON) regulation was originally intended to correct market failures that no longer afflict health care markets. It is ironic that Sujit Choudhry and colleagues now invoke it to deal with situations where, in their view, competition is working altogether too well. Protectionist regulation, long discredited in other areas, is particularly misguided in health care, where health insurance greatly increases the profitability of monopoly and imposes the resulting higher costs on unwilling premium payers. To use cross-subsidies to finance even worthy (let alone unworthy) health care projects is to put public burdens unfairly (regressively) on the backs of working Americans.

  2. Unnatural monopoly: natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Copulos, M.

    1984-07-01

    There appears to be no change in position despite the annual congressional debate over natural gas issues. A fresh look is needed, particularly at the idea that interstate gas pipelines are a natural monopoly that require a government franchise. The Natural Gas Act of 1938 giving the Federal Power Commission jurisdiction over gas pipelines was intended to correct abuses, but resulted in encouraging the pipelines to assume a monopolistic behavior. This was not a serous problem until natural gas prices began rising and shortages appeared due to uneven distribution. The Natural Gas Policy Act reinforced the monopolistic behavior by extending federal controls to the intrastate market. Contract carriage is a remedy that would allow firms and utilities to contract for gas on their own. They would pay pipelines for transport costs only. Competition would increase because there would be new buyers and sellers, and pipelines would have an incentive to seek lower wellhead prices for their contract gas.

  3. DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY: A Simulation Game on Poverty and Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansoms, An; Geenen, Sara

    2012-01-01

    DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY is a simulation game that allows players to experience how power relations influence the agency of different socioeconomic groups, and how this can induce poverty and inequality. Players alter the original rules of the MONOPOLY board game so that they more accurately reflect social stratification and inequalities in the…

  4. Route Monopolie and Optimal Nonlinear Pricing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tournut, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    To cope with air traffic growth and congested airports, two solutions are apparent on the supply side: 1) use larger aircraft in the hub and spoke system; or 2) develop new routes through secondary airports. An enlarged route system through secondary airports may increase the proportion of route monopolies in the air transport market.The monopoly optimal non linear pricing policy is well known in the case of one dimension (one instrument, one characteristic) but not in the case of several dimensions. This paper explores the robustness of the one dimensional screening model with respect to increasing the number of instruments and the number of characteristics. The objective of this paper is then to link and fill the gap in both literatures. One of the merits of the screening model has been to show that a great varieD" of economic questions (non linear pricing, product line choice, auction design, income taxation, regulation...) could be handled within the same framework.VCe study a case of non linear pricing (2 instruments (2 routes on which the airline pro_ddes customers with services), 2 characteristics (demand of services on these routes) and two values per characteristic (low and high demand of services on these routes)) and we show that none of the conclusions of the one dimensional analysis remain valid. In particular, upward incentive compatibility constraint may be binding at the optimum. As a consequence, they may be distortion at the top of the distribution. In addition to this, we show that the optimal solution often requires a kind of form of bundling, we explain explicitly distortions and show that it is sometimes optimal for the monopolist to only produce one good (instead of two) or to exclude some buyers from the market. Actually, this means that the monopolist cannot fully apply his monopoly power and is better off selling both goods independently.We then define all the possible solutions in the case of a quadratic cost function for a uniform

  5. Collapse of Monopoly Privilege: From College to University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Soen, Dan; Iram, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the erosion of the monopoly by universities of the higher education system in Israel. The hegemony of the universities, the major player in the academic field, has been shattered by the development of the regional colleges that unsettled the preconceptions concerning the higher education system in Israel, including the…

  6. Using "Monopoly" to Introduce Concepts of Race and Ethnic Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waren, Warren

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I suggest a technique which uses the familiar Parker Brother's game "Monopoly" to introduce core concepts of race and ethnic relations. I offer anecdotes from my classes where an abbreviated version of the game is used as an analog to highlight the sociological concepts of direct institutional discrimination, the legacy of…

  7. Factor Demand Theory Under Perfect Competition, Monopoly, and Monopsony,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    MC(p 1,. . . , p , q *) = 0 (13) and -~~~~~~~ > 0. Holding p constant and different iat ing Eq. (13) as an f implicit function yields -~~~\\I...Charles , and C. E. Ferguson , “Factor Demand Elasticity under Monopoly and Monopsony ,” Economica , Vol. 40, May 19-73, pp. 180— 186. -• [5] Sato

  8. An Accident of History: Breaking the District Monopoly on Public School Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Traditional public school districts hold a monopoly over the financing and ownership of public education facilities. With rare exceptions, public charter schools have no legal claim to these buildings. This monopoly is an accident of history. It would never have developed had there been substantial numbers of other public schools, not supervised…

  9. Technology Adoption and Welfare under a Monopoly: An Illustration of Microeconomic Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Uses a graphical analysis to determine the importance of quantity for consumer welfare and to examine the manner in which private and social welfare diverge in a monopoly. Criticizes the opinion that technology adoption by a monopoly always assumes a uniformly downward shift in the marginal cost curve. (MJP)

  10. The Rules of the Game: Experiencing Global Capitalism on a Monopoly Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Benjamin J.; Cohen, Alexander H.

    2016-01-01

    Sociologists have long recognized the utility of modified forms of Monopoly as tools for teaching about social stratification within the United States. We present an adaptation of Monopoly to help instructors teach students how capitalism plays out in a liberalizing world economy. By taking on roles as CEOs of global companies based in different…

  11. Everything I know about business I learned from monopoly.

    PubMed

    Orbanes, Phil

    2002-03-01

    How do game designers approach their work? Perhaps in the same way that managers should. Here, the author, an expert in board-game design and the world's foremost authority on Monopoly, translates six tenets of game design into management principles. Three tenets focus on giving players the right level of structure. First, design simple and unambiguous rules: That also holds true in business; people engage most when responsibilities, objectives, and evaluation criteria are clear. Second, avoid frustrating the casual player. Just as not every game player aspires to be a grand master, not every employee wants to think like an executive. Third, establish a rhythm so that players know intuitively whether they are at the beginning, middle, or end of the game. Managers can also engineer such shifts of momentum and motivation for workers. Three more principles focus on providing entertainment. The most important is to tune into what's happening off the board. For many people, the real joy of a great game--or a great job--comes from the larger social experience surrounding it. Another key is to offer chances to come from behind. Even struggling employees want to believe, "The odds may be stacked against me, but just one great stroke and I'm right back in it." Finally, managers, like game designers, should provide outlets for latent talents. Games themselves can be useful in the workplace. For instance, an afternoon of game playing builds relationships and increases an organization's social capital. And simulation games can sharpen employees' business judgment. Managers may come to appreciate that games succeed depending on how well designed they are--and that many design challenges have their equivalents in the art of management.

  12. Revision Cycles for Economics Textbooks: An Application of the Theory of Durable Goods Monopoly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xin

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, I study economics textbook markets as an example of durable goods monopoly. Textbooks are protected by copyrights, and from a student's point of view, different textbooks are not good substitutes because students wish to use the textbook adopted by their instructors. Therefore sellers have market power. Textbooks can be…

  13. Diversity of Voice? The FCC's Bright-Line "Anti-Monopoly" Rule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddock, David D.; Polsby, Daniel D.

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has long had rules that prohibit anyone from owning more than one television station in any given location. Two of the stated purposes behind the FCC's anti-monopoly rules are to foster diversity of programming for the sake of First Amendment interests, and to promote programming among media outlets in…

  14. 'Preparing ourselves to become an international organization': Thailand Tobacco Monopoly's regional and global strategies.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Ross; Ross, Hana; Lee, Kelley

    2017-03-01

    The Thailand Tobacco Monopoly (TTM) controlled the country's tobacco industry from its formation in the 1940s, until the government dropped restrictions on imported cigarettes in the late 1980s in response to pressure from the United States. The TTM has since competed with transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) in a semi-monopoly market in which TTCs have steadily increased their market share. Coupled with a decline in national smoking prevalence, the result of Thailand's stringent tobacco control agenda, the TTM now accounts for a diminishing share of a contracting market. In response, the monopoly has looked to regional trade liberalisation, and proximity to markets with some of the world's highest smoking rates to expand its operations. Expansion strategies have gone largely unrealised however, and the TTM effectively remains a domestic operation. Using TTM publications, market and trade reports, industry publications, tobacco industry documents and other resources, this paper analyses TTM expansion strategies, and the limited extent to which they have been achieved. This inability to expand its operations has left the monopoly potentially vulnerable to global strategies of its transnational competitors. This article is part of the special issue 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance'.

  15. Quasi-State Monopoly of the Education System and Socio-Economic Segregation in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narodowski, Mariano; Gottau, Verónica; Moschetti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the provision of education in Argentina in systemic terms. Using the concept of quasi-monopoly and the notions of exit, voice and loyalty, we study the logic of organization and distribution of students within the educational system. We support the idea that the provision of private and public education makes a coherent whole,…

  16. The Untold Story of Mexico’s Rise and Eventual Monopoly of the Methamphetamine Trade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    clandestine methamphetamine production and abuse in the United States.64 64 U.S. Drug Enforcement...reported that: Meth remains the largest drug threat throughout Wyoming, and methamphetamine arrests exceed arrests for all other drugs. Clandestine ...MEXICO’S RISE AND EVENTUAL MONOPOLY OF THE METHAMPHETAMINE TRADE by Steven Scott Whitworth June 2008 Thesis Advisor: Jeanne Giraldo

  17. KT&G: From Korean monopoly to 'a global name in the tobacco industry'.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kelley; Gong, Lucy; Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris; Lee, Sungkyu

    2017-03-01

    Until the late 1980s, the former South Korean tobacco monopoly KT&G was focused on the protected domestic market. The opening of the market to foreign competition, under pressure from the U.S. Trade Representative, led to a steady erosion of market share over the next 10 years. Drawing on company documents and industry sources, this paper examines the adaptation of KT&G to the globalization of the South Korean tobacco industry since the 1990s. It is argued that KT&G has shifted from a domestic monopoly to an outward-looking, globally oriented business in response to the influx of transnational tobacco companies. Like other high-income countries, South Korea has also seen a decline in smoking prevalence as stronger tobacco control measures have been adopted. Faced with a shrinking domestic market, KT&G initially focused on exporting Korean-manufactured cigarettes. Since the mid-2000s, a broader global business strategy has been adopted including the building of overseas manufacturing facilities, establishing strategic partnerships and acquiring foreign companies. Trends in KT&G sales suggest an aspiring transnational tobacco company poised to become a major player in the global tobacco market. This article is part of the special issue 'The emergence of Asian tobacco companies: Implications for global health governance'.

  18. Using the Monopoly[R] Board Game as an In-Class Economic Simulation in the Introductory Financial Accounting Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, Stephen B.; Ehlen, Craig R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses using the Monopoly[R] board game as an economic simulation exercise to reinforce an understanding of how the accounting cycle impacts financial statements used to evaluate management performance. This approach uses the rules and strategies of a familiar board game to create a simulation of business and economic realities,…

  19. Potential consequences from possible changes to Nordic retail alcohol monopolies resulting from European Union membership.

    PubMed

    Holder, H D; Giesbrecht, N; Horverak, O; Nordlund, S; Norström, T; Olsson, O; Osterberg, E; Skog, O J

    1995-12-01

    This paper projects the consequences of modifying or eliminating the current national alcohol retail monopolies in Sweden, Norway and Finland as a possible result of those countries' membership in the European Union (EU). First, the authors project absolute alcohol consumption in each country based on different possible changes in alcohol price and availability. Then they predict the future levels of alcohol-related problems likely to result from increased per capita alcohol consumption (Sweden and Norway only). All of the scenarios examined in this paper are expected to lead to increases in per capita alcohol consumption. The smallest increase in consumption would result from a partial elimination of the current monopoly and a modest reduction in alcohol prices. In that case, projected per capita consumption in Sweden for inhabitants 15 years and older would rise from 6.3 to 9.3 litres; in Norway, from 4.7 to 6.7 litres; and in Finland, from 8.4 to 11.1 litres. The greatest projected increase in consumption would result from a complete elimination of the state monopolies such that all beer, wine and spirits were sold in food shops, grocery stores and gasoline stations, along with a substantial drop in alcohol prices as a result of private competition within each country and increased cross-border alcohol purchases. That scenario would result in projected per capita consumption of 12.7 litres in Sweden, 11.1 litres in Norway and 13.7 litres in Finland. The authors project that a 1-litre increase in consumption would result in a 9.5% increase in total alcohol-related mortality in Sweden and a 9.7% increase in Norway. Further, alcohol-related assaults would increase by 9% in Sweden and 9.6% in Norway. A 5-litre increase in consumption would result in a 62% increase in alcohol-related mortality in Sweden and a 60% increase in Norway, and a 57% increase in alcohol-involved assaults in both countries.

  20. Understanding the role and value of marketing communications by a regulated, monopoly firm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzek, Frederick J.

    2003-10-01

    Expenditures on advertising and other marketing efforts have been found to generate profits for the firm and savings for the consumer in competitive industries. However, prior research has not addressed the use of these practices by price-regulated monopolies such as electric utility companies. Surprisingly, many utilities spend substanstially on advertising and sales despite having a captive customer base. Moreover, a unique feature within electric utilities is that much utility advertising involves demarketing, with a view to lessen strain on the system and to help avoid situations demanding high-cost energy. In this context, I ask the following questions: Is spending on marketing by monopoly firms justified? Does the consumer pay a higher price for electricity because of marketing or do shareholders pay for it? Do such activities provide a net welfare benefit? Finally, do measurable differences in marketing expenditures exist along the continuum from heavily regulated to nearly competitive markets? I analyze data from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and from the National Regulatory Research Institute. I find a significant positive relationship between advertising and net income, supporting the notion that advertising expenditures benefit the utility firm. I do not, however, find a significant relationship between marketing effort and consumer price, suggesting that consumers may not be bearing the expense of such practices. I also investigate the manner in which advertising improves net earnings. Speciifically, I find that advertising is negatively related to indirect expenses in this industry. Surprisingly, advertising is also negatively related to electricity consumption. Overall, the results suggest that advertising creates value by reducing indirect expenses without raising prices. These finds thus support the premise of a net welfare gain. Finally, I also find that progress toward deregulation and the level of advertising expenditures are

  1. Costs to Australian taxpayers of pharmaceutical monopolies and proposals to extend them in the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Deborah H; Moir, Hazel; Lopert, Ruth

    2015-04-06

    Intellectual property (IP) protections proposed by the United States for the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) have sparked widespread alarm about the potential negative impact on access to affordable medicines. The most recently leaked draft of the IP chapter shows some shifts in the US position, presumably in response to ongoing resistance from other countries. While some problematic provisions identified in earlier drafts have been removed or mitigated, major concerns remain unresolved. Three of the greatest concerns for Australia in the recent draft include provisions that would further entrench secondary patenting and evergreening, lock in extensions to patent terms and extend monopoly rights over clinical trial data for certain medicines. Data from the 2013 Pharmaceutical Patents Review, and from various submissions made to it, show that pharmaceutical monopoly protections already cost Australian taxpayers hundreds of millions of dollars each year. Provisions still being considered for the TPPA would further entrench and extend costly monopolies, with serious implications for the budget bottom line and the sustainability of the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme.

  2. Balancing public health, trade and intellectual monopoly privileges: recent Australian IP legislation and the TPPA.

    PubMed

    Vines, Tim; Crow, Kim; Faunce, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Over the past year, several significant reforms to Australia's intellectual property regime have been proposed and passed by Parliament. The Intellectual Property Laws Amendment (Raising the Bar) Act 2012 (Cth) made various improvements to Australian patent law, including an improved threshold for patentability, greater clarity around "usefulness" requirements, and the introduction of an experimental use exemption from infringement. Another Bill, the Intellectual Property Laws Amendment Bill 2012 (Cth), currently out for public consultation, would implement a 2003 decision of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) General Council and the 2005 Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health (Doha Declaration). If enacted, this Bill would facilitate equitable access to essential medicines by amending the compulsory licensing regime set out in the Patents Act 1990 (Cth). The underlying intention of this Bill--meeting public health goals outlined in the 2005 Doha Declaration--stands in juxtaposition to proposed reforms to intellectual property standards pursuant to the Trans-Pacific Partnership Trade and Investment Agreement (TPPA) that Australia is involved in. Although at a preliminary stage, leaked drafts of relevant intellectual property provisions in the TPPA suggest a privileging of patent monopoly privileges over public health goals. This column weighs the sentiments of the proposed Bill against those of the proposed provisions in the TPPA.

  3. Strategies for price reduction of HIV medicines under a monopoly situation in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Hasenclever, Lia; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze Government strategies for reducing prices of antiretroviral medicines for HIV in Brazil. METHODS Analysis of Ministry of Health purchases of antiretroviral medicines, from 2005 to 2013. Expenditures and costs of the treatment per year were analyzed and compared to international prices of atazanavir. Price reductions were estimated based on the terms of a voluntary license of patent rights and technology transfer in the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement for atazanavir. RESULTS Atazanavir, a patented medicine, represented a significant share of the expenditures on antiretrovirals purchased from the private sector. Prices in Brazil were higher than international references, and no evidence was found of a relationship between purchase volume and price paid by the Ministry of Health. Concerning the latest strategy to reduce prices, involving local production of the 200 mg capsule, the price reduction was greater than the estimated reduction. As for the 300 mg capsule, the amounts paid in the first two years after the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement were close to the estimated values. Prices in nominal values for both dosage forms remained virtually constant between 2011 (the signature of the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement), 2012 and 2013 (after the establishment of the Partnership). CONCLUSIONS Price reduction of medicines is complex in limited-competition environments. The use of a Partnership for Productive Development Agreement as a strategy to increase the capacity of local production and to reduce prices raises issues regarding its effectiveness in reducing prices and to overcome patent barriers. Investments in research and development that can stimulate technological accumulation should be considered by the Government to strengthen its bargaining power to negotiate medicines prices under a monopoly situation. PMID:26759969

  4. Bib Pharma Monopoly: Why Consumers Keep Landing on "Park Place" and How the Game is Rigged.

    PubMed

    Levy, Mark S

    pharmaceutical industry, giving stronger credence to generic challengers. In addition to finding brand-name tactics exclusionary, this Comment also proposes that courts adopt a bright-line rule prohibiting brand-name firms from exploiting the "legitimate business" defense to immunize their destructive conduct. The current framework perpetuates abuse and grants brand-name firms ostensibly indefinite monopolies. Analyzing brand-name defensive tactics under federal antitrust law would facilitate generic market entry and consequently moderate drug prices. Even after sacrificing their entire financial portfolios, patients are still unable to afford their medication. This Comment interprets Actavis as prohibiting the “legitimate business” defense and provides a remedy to deserving consumers by preventing REMS abuse and product hopping, fostering generic competition, and tempering excessive drug prices.

  5. "They'd Better Hope for a Lot of Free Parking:" Using "Monopoly" to Teach about Classical Liberalism, Marginalization, and Restorative Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerringer, Christopher Michael

    2013-01-01

    The activity outlined here, using the "Monopoly" board game, is designed to illustrate the way that classical liberalism fails to provide justice for societies marked by historical and ongoing oppression. Taking up roles in a game that simulates some of the conditions of late capitalism can help students begin to understand how economic…

  6. Media Monopoly in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Roberto; Guimaraes, Cesar

    1994-01-01

    Documents the process of broadcasting media development in Brazil, the failure of new technologies to produce democratization, and the barriers to democratization erected by monopolization and "metastasis." (SR)

  7. Information Technology Monopolies: Implications for Library Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercado, Marina I.

    1998-01-01

    Explores library-related implications of the U.S. Department of Justice's investigations into the operations of Microsoft and Intel and suggests that developing a broader understanding of information technology marketing is crucial to the short- and long-term future of libraries. (MES)

  8. Monopoly of Force: The Nexus of DDR and SSR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    promote women’s scholarship on security issues. 4. Ensure Women in the Community Experience the Peace Dividend of Greater Security a. Through...tangible peace dividend to various groups in the Three Areas and South. It has also contributed to the man- agement of a looming fiscal and social...diploma in International Relations and Security from the Institut d’Etudes Politiques , Toulouse, France. Jennifer M. Hazen is a Research Fellow at

  9. Disrupting the Education Monopoly: A Conversation with Reed Hastings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    This article features an interview with Netflix CEO, Reed Hastings. In this interview, Hastings relates that he told the "Wall Street Journal" in 2008 that he started looking at education--trying to figure out why our education is lagging when our technology is increasing at great rates and there's great innovation in so many other areas…

  10. Everything I know about business I learned from monopoly.

    PubMed

    Orbanes, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Is there an analogy for business to the beginning, middle, and end rhythm in games? Phil Orbanes thinks so. A good manager might engineer these types of shifts over the course of a critical project--and be prepared for different moods and levels of motivation from people. In this article, one of the world's foremost board game designers reflects on what makes people want to compete--and win.

  11. Let's Stop Playing Monopoly with the Child Welfare Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Robin Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Although the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is a specific focus of Stoesz's article, a more expansive and thought-provoking critique is made of the NCWWI within the context of a purported overreliance and dependency on the Children's Bureau, concerns regarding the quality of social work education, and the development of a…

  12. Monopoly pricing of an antibiotic subject to bacterial resistance.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Markus

    2010-01-01

    We develop a dynamic bio-economic model of bacterial resistance and disease transmission in which we characterize the pricing policy of a monopolist who is protected by a patent. After expiration, the monopolist behaves competitively in a generic industry having open access to the common pool of antibiotic efficacy and infection. The monopolist manages endogenously the levels of antibiotic efficacy as well as the infected population, which represent quality and market size respectively and achieves, at least temporarily, higher such levels than a hypothetically myopic monopolist who does not take into account the dynamic externalities. The pricing policy and the biological system is characterized by the turnpike property. Before the patent vanishes, the monopolist behaves more and more myopically, leading to a continuous decrease in the price of the antibiotic. Once the generic industry takes over, a discontinuous fall in price occurs. Whether a prolongation of the patent is socially desirable depends on the relative levels of antibiotic efficacy and infection.

  13. USA Stratified Monopoly: A Simulation Game about Social Class Stratification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Edith M.

    2008-01-01

    Effectively teaching college students about social class stratification is a difficult challenge. Explanations for this difficulty tend to focus on the students who often react with resistance, paralysis, or rage. Sociologists have been using games and simulations as alternative methods for several decades to teach about these sensitive subjects.…

  14. Breaking Radical Monopolies: Towards Political Economy of Digital Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaden, Tere; Suoranta, Juha

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue for a leap from a "weak" digital literacy (skills of interpretation and strategies of reception) to strong digital literacy (authorship and autonomous skills and capacities). Strong digital literacy implies politico-structural analysis of the information societies to come. Given the current forms of economic…

  15. Games: Team Tag; Live Monopoly a.k.a Monopoly Kinesthetics a.k.a. the Game; The Whole Truth and Nothin' but....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Larry; Everest, John; Clark, Adam

    1999-01-01

    Describes three games for all ages, used in adventure- and experiential-education settings. Includes target group, group size, time and space requirements, activity level, props, instructions, and tips for post-activity group reflection and processing where appropriate. The games demonstrate the tenets of adventure programming, involve group…

  16. Clinicians' satisfaction with a hospital blood transfusion service: a marketing analysis of a monopoly supplier.

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, S J; McClelland, D B; Murphy, W G

    1993-01-01

    One of the objectives of the NHS reforms is to improve customer focus within the health service. In a study to assess the quality of customer service provided by the Edinburgh and South East Scotland Blood Transfusion Service a 19 item questionnaire survey of the main clinical users of the service was performed to ascertain their satisfaction, measured on a 5 point anchored scale, with important aspects of the service, including medical consultation, diagnostic services, blood and blood components or products and their delivery, and general satisfaction with the service. Of 122 clinicians in medical and surgical disciplines in five hospitals in Edinburgh, 72 (59%) replied. Fourteen (22%) indicated dissatisfaction with any aspect of the medical consultation service, owing to inadequate follow up of clinical contacts and unsatisfactory routing of incoming calls. Diagnostic services were criticised for the presentation, communication, and interpretation of results. The restricted availability of whole blood, the necessity to order platelets and plasma through the duty blood transfusion service doctor, and the use of a group and screen policy, attracted criticism from a small number of clinicians. Ten of 68 respondents expressed dissatisfaction with delivery of blood and components to the wards and theatres. The findings indicate that the clinicians served by this blood transfusion service are largely satisfied with the service. Changes are being implemented to improve reporting of laboratory results and measures taken to improve liaison with clinicians. PMID:10132458

  17. Markets vs. Monopolies in Education: A Global Review of the Evidence. Policy Analysis. No. 620

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    Would large-scale, free-market reforms improve educational outcomes for American children? That question cannot be answered by looking at domestic evidence alone. Though innumerable "school choice" programs have been implemented around the United States, none has created a truly free and competitive education marketplace. Existing…

  18. Beyond the Mouse Monopoly: Studying the Male Germ Line in Domestic Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    González, Raquel; Dobrinski, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the foundation of spermatogenesis and essential to maintain the continuous production of spermatozoa after the onset of puberty in the male. The study of the male germ line is important for understanding the process of spermatogenesis, unravelling mechanisms of stemness maintenance, cell differentiation, and cell-to-cell interactions. The transplantation of SSCs can contribute to the preservation of the genome of valuable individuals in assisted reproduction programs. In addition to the importance of SSCs for male fertility, their study has recently stimulated interest in the generation of genetically modified animals because manipulations of the male germ line at the SSC stage will be maintained in the long term and transmitted to the offspring. Studies performed mainly in the mouse model have laid the groundwork for facilitating advancements in the field of male germ line biology, but more progress is needed in nonrodent species in order to translate the technology to the agricultural and biomedical fields. The lack of reliable markers for isolating germ cells from testicular somatic cells and the lack of knowledge of the requirements for germ cell maintenance have precluded their long-term maintenance in domestic animals. Nevertheless, some progress has been made. In this review, we will focus on the state of the art in the isolation, characterization, culture, and manipulation of SSCs and the use of germ cell transplantation in domestic animals. PMID:25991701

  19. Biosurveillance as a Terrain of Innovation in an Era of Monopoly Finance Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Situated in a context of higher education policy, this article examines the institutionalization of "innovation" as a national neoliberal economic strategy. As neoliberal capital has become increasingly financialized, this innovation strategy has come to be woven through biotechnological innovation as an economic strategy, and oriented…

  20. Restricted Monopolies or Regulated Competitors? The Case of the Bell Operating Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Robert; Brotman, Stuart N.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the theory and rationale for prohibiting the possible monopolistic practices of the divested Bell Operating Companies. Suggests some reasons that the latest Justice Department recommendations are moving from restriction to regulation. (JD)

  1. Modernising the regulation of medical migration: moving from national monopolies to international markets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional top-down national regulation of internationally mobile doctors and nurses is fast being rendered obsolete by the speed of globalisation and digitisation. Here we propose a bottom-up system in which responsibility for hiring and accrediting overseas staff begins to be shared by medical employers, managers, and insurers. Discussion In this model, professional Boards would retain authority for disciplinary proceedings in response to local complaints, but would lose their present power of veto over foreign practitioners recruited by employers who have independently evaluated and approved such candidates' ability. Evaluations of this kind could be facilitated by globally accessible National Registers of professional work and conduct. A decentralised system of this kind could also dispense with time-consuming national oversight of continuing professional education and license revalidation, which tasks could be replaced over time by tighter institutional audit supported by stronger powers to terminate underperforming employees. Summary Market forces based on the reputation (and, hence, financial and political viability) of employers and institutions could continue to ensure patient safety in the future, while at the same time improving both national system efficiency and international professional mobility. PMID:23039098

  2. Monopoly Money: The Effect of Payment Coupling and Form on Spending Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghubir, Priya; Srivastava, Joydeep

    2008-01-01

    This article examines consumer spending as a function of payment mode both when the modes differ in terms of payment coupling (association between purchase decision and actual parting of money) and physical form as well as when the modes differ only in terms of form. Study 1 demonstrates that consumers are willing to spend more when a credit card…

  3. Beyond the Ingelfinger Rule: the intellectual property ethics after the end of biomedical journals' monopoly.

    PubMed

    Germenis, A E

    1999-01-01

    According to the so-called Ingelfinger Rule (IR), biomedical journals do not accept for publication papers which have already been publicized elsewhere. This rule was subjected to fierce criticism which was mainly based on the fact that authors transfer the intellectual rights of their work to the journals. With the emergence of the Internet, the scientific community has a golden opportunity to re-evaluate the IR concept. Scientists no longer have to depend on the debatable benefits (i.e. publicity and review) stemming from journal publications; rather they can be free to explore novel communication opportunities and, subsequently, to tackle the emerging intellectual property issues. This approach should take into account the tight bond between applied research and the world economy, the need for teamwork instead of individual effort for effective scientific research, and the added value of journal publications. Based on such an analysis, it would appear that the inherent characteristics of the Internet promote a re-assessment of the intellectual property theory on three levels: the cognitive (the way in which knowledge is made up from its building blocks), the morphological (the use of hypertext) and finally the sociological (the formation of virtual scientific communities). It is concluded that publishing on the Internet necessitates a different approach to the question of intellectual property based on the primal values of science. This can be achieved only if the scientific community embraces and nourishes the academic nature of the Internet as well as laying down the rules to control the dissemination of ideas without the intervention of non-scientific third parties.

  4. From monopoly to markets: Milestones along the road. Occasional paper {number_sign}25

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, W.P.

    1998-08-01

    This report analyzes developments in the electric utility industry using the tools of transaction cost economics. During the last thirty years, the tools of economic analysis have been substantially expanded--notably, Oliver Williamson, building on the insights of Coase and others, has made significant contributions through his work in developing the new institutional economics, of which transaction cost economics reasoning plays a major role. Because of the relevance of the new institutional economics to public utilities and public utility regulation, the theoretical insights of the new institutional economics have been applied to many aspects of public utility industry structure, governance, and regulation. The contributions of Joskow and Schmalensee are most notable, but many other economists have made theoretical and empirical contributions. These insights are very applicable to the issues that policymakers and regulators are likely to address as electric restructuring progresses. The goal of this report is to synthesize the theoretical work on the new institutional economics with the recent developments in the electric utility industry--most notably, the rapid trend toward competition in electric generation, both in the US and abroad. Transaction-cost-economics reasoning provides an analytical structure for understanding the implications of asset specificity, asymmetric and imperfect information, reputation effects, ex ante contracting costs, ex post contract maladaption issues, and issues that arise because contracts are incomplete. The insights that transaction cost economics can provide are very timely to the debates currently going on with respect to electric restructuring issues.

  5. MONOPOLY and Critical Theory: Gaming in a Class on the Sociology of Deviance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paino, Maria; Chin, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate how they modified a well-known game to use it as an educational simulation to help students understand difficult material, specifically critical theory. The goals for the simulation focus on improving the comprehension levels of critical theory for students in a course on the Sociology of Deviance, although…

  6. Transnational Tobacco Company Influence on Tax Policy During Privatization of a State Monopoly: British American Tobacco and Uzbekistan

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Anna; Collin, Jeff; Townsend, Joy

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. The International Monetary Fund encourages privatization of state-owned tobacco industries. Privatization tends to lower cigarette prices, which encourages consumption. This could be countered with effective tax policies. We explored how investment by British American Tobacco (BAT) influenced tax policy in Uzbekistan during privatization there. Methods. We obtained internal documents from BAT and analyzed them using a hermeneutic process to create a chronology of events. Results. BAT thoroughly redesigned the tobacco taxation system in Uzbekistan. It secured (1) a reduction of approximately 50% in the excise tax on cigarettes, (2) an excise system to benefit its brands and disadvantage those of its competitors (particularly Philip Morris), and (3) a tax stamp system from which it hoped to be exempted, because this would likely facilitate its established practice of cigarette smuggling and further its competitive advantage.. Conclusions. Privatization can endanger effective tobacco excise policies. The International Monetary Fund should review its approach to privatization and differentiate the privatization of an industry whose product kills from privatization of other industries. PMID:17138915

  7. Relationships Between Minimum Alcohol Pricing and Crime During the Partial Privatization of a Canadian Government Alcohol Monopoly

    PubMed Central

    Stockwell, Tim; Zhao, Jinhui; Marzell, Miesha; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Macdonald, Scott; Ponicki, William R.; Martin, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate the independent effects of increases in minimum alcohol prices and densities of private liquor stores on crime outcomes in British Columbia, Canada, during a partial privatization of off-premise liquor sales. Method: A time-series cross-sectional panel study was conducted using mixed model regression analysis to explore associations between minimum alcohol prices, densities of liquor outlets, and crime outcomes across 89 local health areas of British Columbia between 2002 and 2010. Archival data on minimum alcohol prices, per capita alcohol outlet densities, and ecological demographic characteristics were related to measures of crimes against persons, alcohol-related traffic violations, and non–alcohol-related traffic violations. Analyses were adjusted for temporal and regional autocorrelation. Results: A 10% increase in provincial minimum alcohol prices was associated with an 18.81% (95% CI: ±17.99%, p < .05) reduction in alcohol-related traffic violations, a 9.17% (95% CI: ±5.95%, p < .01) reduction in crimes against persons, and a 9.39% (95% CI: ±3.80%, p < .001) reduction in total rates of crime outcomes examined. There was no significant association between minimum alcohol prices and non–alcohol-related traffic violations (p > .05). Densities of private liquor stores were not significantly associated with alcohol-involved traffic violations or crimes against persons, though they were with non–alcohol-related traffic violations. Conclusions: Reductions in crime events associated with minimum-alcohol-price changes were more substantial and specific to alcohol-related events than the countervailing increases in densities of private liquor stores. The findings lend further support to the application of minimum alcohol prices for public health and safety objectives. PMID:26098040

  8. Statement of Roger B. Andewelt, Deputy Assistant Attorney General, Antitrust Division, before the Subcommittee on Monopolies and Commercial Law Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, concerning H.R. 557, Intellectual Property Licensing Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andewelt, Roger B.

    The recent increased awareness of the importance to our economy of innovation and the development of new technologies has been coupled with the crafting of new legislation to increase the level of intellectual property protection available to innovators. Because one of the key methods of encouraging the efficient use of intellectual property is…

  9. Information Technology and the Marginalisation of Regional Cultures: Rambling Thoughts from the University of Calgary Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pannekoek, Frits

    In the past decade, significant advances in information technologies in the Euro-American world have fostered the creation of information monopolies. The prices imposed by the monopolies, whose products are largely in the English language, have caused academic libraries to focus almost exclusively on international scientific and cultural materials…

  10. Demand Economics: What Happens Before the Swap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, H. Doyle

    Although this book is about how things work, it is also about flaws in the U.S. economic system. It is difficult to realize that every economic activity gravitates toward monopoly or rebellion against monopoly. This is the subject of the book, which is the result of 50 years of actual experience, informed observations, and trained readings. The…

  11. Cournot and Bertrand Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Steven R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a series of matrix choice games that illustrate for students the concepts of monopoly, shared monopoly, Cournot, Bertrand, and Stackelberg behavior given either perfect complements or perfect substitutes. Suggests that the use of the games also allows for student dialogue about international trade and price wars. (JEH)

  12. Copyright and Distance Education: The Impact of the Technology, Education, and Copyright Harmonization Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Copyright in the United States can be traced back to the U.S. Constitution in 1787. To encourage authorship of creative works, Congress created a limited monopoly in Section 106 of the Copyright Act of 1790. To balance this monopoly, Congress drafted Section 107 which provides public access to creative works through fair use. Revisions were…

  13. Towards the Knowledge Democracy? Knowledge Production and the Civic Role of the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I ask whether the University has a special role to play in democratic societies. I argue that the modern University can no longer lay claim to a research monopoly since nowadays research is conducted in many places outside of the University. The University can, however, still lay claim to a kind of knowledge monopoly which has to…

  14. Health Insurance as a Two-Part Pricing Contract *

    PubMed Central

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Sood, Neeraj

    2013-01-01

    Monopolies appear throughout health care. We show that health insurance operates like a conventional two-part pricing contract that allows monopolists to extract profits without inefficiently constraining quantity. When insurers are free to offer a range of insurance contracts to different consumer types, health insurance markets perfectly eliminate deadweight losses from upstream health care monopolies. Frictions limiting the sorting of different consumer types into different insurance contracts restore some of these upstream monopoly losses, which manifest as higher rates of uninsurance, rather than as restrictions in quantity utilized by insured consumers. Empirical analysis of pharmaceutical patent expiration supports the prediction that heavily insured markets experience little or no efficiency loss under monopoly, while less insured markets exhibit behavior more consistent with the standard theory of monopoly. PMID:23997354

  15. Piaget, Marx and the Political Ideology of Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Barry A.

    1978-01-01

    Examines Jean Piaget's developmental theories and evaluates how his psychology of constructivism relates to contemporary behavioral sciences, modern education, and modern monopoly capitalism. Concludes that Piaget's constructivism is inconsistent with capitalist ideology and is widely misunderstood by educators. (DB)

  16. Toward allocative efficiency in the prescription drug industry.

    PubMed

    Guell, R C; Fischbaum, M

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally, monopoly power in the pharmaceutical industry has been measured by profits. An alternative method estimates the deadweight loss of consumer surplus associated with the exercise of monopoly power. Although upper and lower bound estimates for this inefficiency are far apart, they at least suggest a dramatically greater welfare loss than measures of industry profitability would imply. A proposed system would have the U.S. government employing its power of eminent domain to "take" and distribute pharmaceutical patents, providing as "just compensation" the present value of the patent's expected future monopoly profits. Given the allocative inefficiency of raising taxes to pay for the program, the impact of the proposal on allocative efficiency would be at least as good at our lower bound estimate of monopoly costs while substantially improving efficiency at or near our upper bound estimate.

  17. Selling College Graduates to Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Daniel R.; Biehl, Kimberly A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a University of Pittsburgh placement office program to increase placement of graduates with local businesses. To challenge the employment agencies' monopoly on this market, an advertising and direct communications program was launched with continuing good results. (JAC)

  18. Proceedings of the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (73rd, Minneapolis, Minnesota, August 1-4, 1990). Part VIII: Journalism Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The journalism studies section of the proceedings includes the following 12 papers: "Characteristics of Newspaper Journalists' Best Work" (Lori Bergen); "The Disappearing Newspaper Reader" (Robert L. Stevenson); "JOAs and Advertising Rates: A Comparison with Monopoly Markets" (Martha N. Matthews); "Newspaper…

  19. Experimental Studies of Bargaining as Analogues of Civil Disputes,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    reported; thus it is worthy of further attention. Bilateral Monopoly Games The Bilateral Monopoly game is a simulation of an economic market with two...are a variety of ways in which a third party can influence a dyad of bargainers, ranging from merely being present at the negotiations to interrupting...economic system simulation outlined earlier, found that the influence of the third party was higher when he was perceived as a tougher negotiator (as

  20. USSR Report, International Affairs, The Working Class and the Contemporary World, No. 6, November-December 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-23

    which have been manifested in recent years. The growth of transnational monopoly complexes signifies the creation of an international system of...working people’s international solidarity and, specifically, the close interaction of persons employed at enterprises of the transnational ...the huge debt dependency of the developing countries and in an end to the tyranny of the transnational monopolies. And one more point, last but not

  1. The patenting of medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Loughlan, P L

    1995-04-03

    The Full Federal Court of Australia recently held, in a decisive break with long-established legal principle, that methods of medical treatment are patentable inventions. The judgment signals the advent of monopolies and therefore monopoly prices on new therapeutic procedures until now made freely available to the medical profession. It also heralds delays in the dissemination of information about discoveries of such procedures through teaching and publication until a patent application can be prepared for and made.

  2. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-13

    monopolies" ( naturally one company for each field is more efficient) and it is not so good to leave such mononc lies to the private sector...However, in certain areas where no com- panies as natural monopolies are required, the pri- vate sector can play a competitive role and such competition...the smaller number of remaining (undivisible) votes is national rather than regional in nature . This means it will be done only for seats contested

  3. Hospital quality choice and market structure in a regulated duopoly.

    PubMed

    Beitia, Arantza

    2003-11-01

    This paper analyzes the optimal structure of a regulated health care industry in a model in which the regulator cannot enforce what hospitals do (unverifiable quality of health) or does not know what hospitals know (incomplete information about production costs) or both. We show that if quality is unverifiable the choice between monopoly and duopoly does not change with respect to the verifiable case but, if there are fixed costs (assumed to be quality dependent) and the monopoly is the optimal market structure, the quality level of the operative hospital decreases. Asymmetry of information introduces informational rents that can be reduced by increasing the most efficient hospital's market share. A monopoly is chosen more often.

  4. Does Intellectual Property Restrict Output? An Analysis of Pharmaceutical Markets.

    PubMed

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2012-02-01

    Standard normative analysis of intellectual property focuses on the balance between incentives for research and the static welfare costs of reduced price-competition from monopoly. However, static welfare loss from patents is not universal. While patents restrict price competition, they may also provide static welfare benefits by improving incentives for marketing, which is a form of non-price competition. We show theoretically how stronger marketing incentives mitigate, and can even offset, the static costs of monopoly pricing. Empirical analysis in the pharmaceutical industry context suggests that, in the short-run, patent expirations reduce consumer welfare as a result of decreased marketing effort. In the long-run, patent expirations do benefit consumers, but by 30% less than would be implied by the reduction in price alone. The social value of monopoly marketing to consumers alone is roughly on par with its costs to firms.

  5. Does Intellectual Property Restrict Output? An Analysis of Pharmaceutical Markets*

    PubMed Central

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Standard normative analysis of intellectual property focuses on the balance between incentives for research and the static welfare costs of reduced price-competition from monopoly. However, static welfare loss from patents is not universal. While patents restrict price competition, they may also provide static welfare benefits by improving incentives for marketing, which is a form of non-price competition. We show theoretically how stronger marketing incentives mitigate, and can even offset, the static costs of monopoly pricing. Empirical analysis in the pharmaceutical industry context suggests that, in the short-run, patent expirations reduce consumer welfare as a result of decreased marketing effort. In the long-run, patent expirations do benefit consumers, but by 30% less than would be implied by the reduction in price alone. The social value of monopoly marketing to consumers alone is roughly on par with its costs to firms. PMID:25221349

  6. Violent societies: an application of orbital decomposition to the problem of human violence.

    PubMed

    Spohn, M

    2008-01-01

    This study uses orbital decomposition to analyze the patterns of how governments lose their monopolies on violence, therefore allowing those societies to descend into violent states from which it is difficult to recover. The nonlinear progression by which the governing body loses its monopoly is based on the work of criminologist Lonnie Athens and applied from the individual to the societal scale. Four different kinds of societies are considered: Those where the governing body is both unwilling and unable to assert its monopoly on violence (former Yugoslavia); where it is unwilling (Peru); where it is unable (South Africa); and a smaller pocket of violent society within a larger, more stable one (Gujarat). In each instance, orbital decomposition turns up insights not apparent in the qualitative data or through linear statistical analysis, both about the nature of the descent into violence and about the progression itself.

  7. Technological Systems and Momentum Change: American Electric Utilities, Restructuring, and Distributed Generation Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Richard F.; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2006-01-01

    The American electric utility system has been massively transformed during the last three decades. Viewed previously as a staid, secure, and heavily regulated natural monopoly, the system has shed elements of government oversight and now appears to be increasingly susceptible to terrorist attacks and other disruptions. Overturning the conventional…

  8. An Evaluation of the Award Fee Determination Process in Cost-Plus-Award- Fee Contracts in Major Weapon Systems Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    contractors should be treated as "public utilities" and implied that these corporate giants have a monopoly over the supply of their unique defense product...1. Superior Performance: Depresents 80 to 100 percent of the nnotnti.a! award fee. The contractor has demonstrated an overall level of perfocmance

  9. Education, Commerce, and Communications: The Era of Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turoff, Murray

    Consequences of the coming worldwide competition in courses, degree programs, and training, and what it may mean for higher education in the future are discussed. Traditionally, institutions of higher education had some security in what amounted to geographical monopolies corresponding to the physical campus location. The educational consumer is…

  10. The Law and Its Illicit Desires: Transversing Free Market Claustrophobia and the Zombie Imaginary in "Dredd 3-D"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orpana, Simon

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of biopolitical modernity, states justify both the existence of zombies and their monopoly on coercive violence via an imperative to care for the populations within their purview. But biopolitics' intrinsic link to the rise of a neoliberal model of governance, demonstrated by Foucault (2008), places a contradiction at the heart…

  11. Statement of the Authors Guild, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Irwin

    This paper is related to a similar statement presented at a Federal Trade Commission Symposium on Media Concentration. It was submitted by the Authors Guild to Senator Edward Kennedy's Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly on May 10, 1978. It is one of several memoranda by the Guild opposing the acquisitions and mergers they feel have given…

  12. The Mirror in the Corner; People's Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Peter

    The BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) during its period of monopoly television, the coming of ITV (independent television), the reaction and adaptation of the BBC to a competitive situation, and the effect on British television programing are the subjects of this history of British television. (RH)

  13. Is That All There Is? Taking Education to New Levels in the Social-Media Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandviwalla, Munir; Schuff, David; Chacko, Manoj; Miller, Laurel

    2013-01-01

    Higher education in the United States faces major challenges: increased competition from non-traditional players, online programs that are eroding regional monopolies, shifting demographics, the perceived irrelevance of some degrees, and the development of low-cost certification alternatives to those degrees. In other industries, information…

  14. Some Ways of Helping Underachievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willings, David; Greenwood, Bill

    1990-01-01

    A program of intervention called therapeutic tutoring to help underachievers is described. Intervention centers around students' loci of control, through a process of identifying areas in which students feel empowered and relating academic experiences to these areas. Academic exercises based on Monopoly, cricket, rugby, soap operas, field hockey,…

  15. Privacy and the Private Eye in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William E.

    Land remote-sensing satellites are developing as a commercial communications technology after years under a government monopoly. The shift to the private sector and improving quality of the pictures produced have given rise to increased concerns about the potential for violations of privacy rights. Although satellites can currently photograph only…

  16. Ideas, Their Time Has Come: An Argument and a Proposal for Copyrighting Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, David B.

    1982-01-01

    Exclusion of ideas from copyright protection is an antiquated and indefensible notion. Traditional infringement tests do not provide adequate incentive or protection to idea creators. Innovations such as limited duration monopoly or own/sell option are reasonable. (AVAIL: Albany Law School of Union University, 80 New Scotland Ave., Albany, NY…

  17. The Changing Dynamics of PhDs and the Future of Higher Educational Development in Asia and the Rest of the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambor, Zoltan Paul

    2009-01-01

    Industries in developing countries could counterbalance the western monopoly on higher education by investing more in research at local universities and consequently improving the local human resources talent pools and the overall world rankings of the local universities. What is more, with the perceived lack of necessity for university faculty…

  18. Quelques Facteurs Sociaux Agissant sur la Formation Permanente et l'Education Informelle en Algerie (Social Factors Acting upon Lifelong Learning and Informal Education in Algeria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddab, Mustapha

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes conditions that have led to an increase in private and collective educational initiatives in Algeria, highlighting political and socioeconomic changes since 1988. Indicates that after a long period of a public education monopoly, social factors have led to the development of alternative educational opportunities that are more responsive…

  19. Reference Five. Five Easy games of Referencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Jamie-Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Presents five easy games of referencing in academic writing: Risk--the art of assembling powerful coalitions; Poker--using citations to finesse a bluff; Dominoes and the logic of citations; Monopoly--using citations to create an empire; and Trivial Pursuit. (Author/VWL)

  20. Access to Special Collections in the Humanities: Who's Guarding the Gates and Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Barbara; Xu, Ying

    1994-01-01

    Discusses problems and ethical issues associated with access to special collections in the humanities. Topics include access to the Dead Sea Scrolls; scholastic monopolies and access barriers; access restrictions and destroyed documents; privacy rights and professional codes of confidentiality; fair use of unpublished manuscripts; and the Freedom…

  1. Opening of Dead Sea Scrolls Archive Underlines Problems That Can Complicate Access to Research Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Ellen K.

    1991-01-01

    The Huntington Library (California) decision to make generally accessible, for the first time, copies of photographs of the Dead Sea Scrolls, previously tightly controlled by a small group of editors, is hailed as breaking a scholarly monopoly over an important intellectual resource, reaffirming the mission of the research library and the…

  2. The Browser War: An Ethical Analysis of the Struggle between Microsoft and the U.S. Department of Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Dennis

    1999-01-01

    Examines two ethical questions regarding the ongoing antitrust battle between the U.S. Department of Justice and Microsoft Corporation using traditional rights-based ethical theory, utilitarianism, and John Rawls's principles of justice. Concludes that it is neither good nor fair for a company having a near-monopoly over a market to sell products…

  3. 43 CFR 3105.4-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation Provisions... will not result in any concentration of control over the production or sale of oil and gas which would be inconsistent with the anti-monopoly provisions of law....

  4. Pay Premiums for Economic Sector and Race: A Decomposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daymont, Thomas N.

    Using data from the older men's file of the National Longitudinal Surveys, two issues related to the labor market implications of dual economy theory were examined: variations in rates of pay among economic sectors (competitive, monopoly, and public) and variation in relative opportunities for blacks across sectors. The primary analytical problem…

  5. National Responses to International Satellite Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakar, Krishna P.

    Star TV, the first international satellite broadcast system in Asia, has had a profound effect on national broadcasting systems, most of which are rigidly controlled, state owned monopoly organizations. The purpose of this paper was to study the response of national governments, media industries, and the general public to this multichannel direct…

  6. Using Students' Favorite Collectibles To Teach Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Cynthia; Meyer, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Provides two economics lessons that each deal with a type of collectible (beanbag toys and Pokemon cards) that interests students. Reinforces such concepts as markets, scarcity, equilibrium, supply and demand, monopolies, and government regulation. Provides a sample quiz and a glossary of terms with examples. (CMK)

  7. American business ethics and health care costs.

    PubMed

    Garrett, T M; Klonoski, R J; Baillie, H W

    1993-01-01

    The health care industry operates in the margin between market competition and social welfare programs. Violations of business ethics on the market side add considerably to costs. When the inefficient use of resources and market distortions due to power and ignorance as well as legal and subsidized monopolies are added, increased costs can approach $100 billion. Modest remedies are suggested.

  8. The Mobile Satellite Services Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Samuel

    Mobile satellite (MSAT) technology is the basis for a new component of the telecommunications industry capable of providing services to small inexpensive subscriber terminals located almost any place in the world. The market for MSAT space segment capacity (bandwidth and power) is a natural monopoly that can be logically and technically…

  9. State Consolidation through Liberalization of Telecommunications Services in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mody, Bella

    1995-01-01

    Traces changing state-capital relations in telecommunications in India since its beginning as a law-and-order maintenance tool of the British Empire. Focuses on how the state included the interests of particular external and internal forces (foreign capital, domestic capital, the World Bank, workers and managers in the state monopoly, and users)…

  10. 12 CFR 238.15 - Factors considered in acting on applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... may be substantially to lessen competition in any section of the country, tend to create a monopoly... community; (3) The applicant has failed to provide the Board with adequate assurances that it will make... in its home country, as provided in § 211.24(c)(1)(ii) of the Board's Regulation K (12 CFR...

  11. 12 CFR 225.13 - Factors considered in acting on bank acquisition proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... competition in any section of the country, tend to create a monopoly, or in any other manner be in restraint... outweighed by its probable effect in meeting the convenience and needs of the community; (3) The applicant... supervision or regulation on a consolidated basis by the appropriate authorities in its home country,...

  12. 12 CFR 225.13 - Factors considered in acting on bank acquisition proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... competition in any section of the country, tend to create a monopoly, or in any other manner be in restraint... outweighed by its probable effect in meeting the convenience and needs of the community; (3) The applicant... supervision or regulation on a consolidated basis by the appropriate authorities in its home country,...

  13. 12 CFR 391.46 - Determination by the FDIC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... POLICY FORMER OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION REGULATIONS Acquisition of Control of State Savings... country may be substantially to lessen competition or to tend to create a monopoly or the proposed... effect of the transaction in meeting the convenience and needs of the community to be served; (3)...

  14. 12 CFR 238.15 - Factors considered in acting on applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... may be substantially to lessen competition in any section of the country, tend to create a monopoly... community; (3) The applicant has failed to provide the Board with adequate assurances that it will make... in its home country, as provided in § 211.24(c)(1)(ii) of the Board's Regulation K (12 CFR...

  15. 12 CFR 238.15 - Factors considered in acting on applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... may be substantially to lessen competition in any section of the country, tend to create a monopoly... community; (3) The applicant has failed to provide the Board with adequate assurances that it will make... in its home country, as provided in § 211.24(c)(1)(ii) of the Board's Regulation K (12 CFR...

  16. 12 CFR 391.46 - Determination by the FDIC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... POLICY FORMER OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION REGULATIONS Acquisition of Control of State Savings... country may be substantially to lessen competition or to tend to create a monopoly or the proposed... effect of the transaction in meeting the convenience and needs of the community to be served; (3)...

  17. 12 CFR 225.13 - Factors considered in acting on bank acquisition proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... substantially to lessen competition in any section of the country, tend to create a monopoly, or in any other... are clearly outweighed by its probable effect in meeting the convenience and needs of the community... authorities in its home country, as provided in § 211.24(c)(1)(ii) of the Board's Regulation K (12 CFR...

  18. 12 CFR 225.13 - Factors considered in acting on bank acquisition proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... substantially to lessen competition in any section of the country, tend to create a monopoly, or in any other... are clearly outweighed by its probable effect in meeting the convenience and needs of the community... authorities in its home country, as provided in § 211.24(c)(1)(ii) of the Board's Regulation K (12 CFR...

  19. 12 CFR 391.46 - Determination by the FDIC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... POLICY FORMER OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION REGULATIONS Acquisition of Control of State Savings... country may be substantially to lessen competition or to tend to create a monopoly or the proposed... effect of the transaction in meeting the convenience and needs of the community to be served; (3)...

  20. Religion, Education, and the State in Post-Communist Europe: Making Sense of the Diversity of New Church-State Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2009-01-01

    The demise of the Communist Party's monopoly over education in Europe created a new dilemma for educational leaders in post-Communist states. They faced a difficult question: How should a nation-state that accepts ideological pluralism handle the difficult relationship between religion and education? As is well known, Western liberal democracies…

  1. Algeria to use gas to meet energy demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Sonelgaz, Algeria's natural gas distribution monopoly, plans to supply all major towns in the country with natural gas for domestic energy demands by 1989. The utility uses copper tubing in residences and plastic pipe for distribution mains and services to the houses for new construction and conversion to natural gas from LPG systems.

  2. Economics of Scholarly Publishing: Exploring the Causes of Subscription Price Variations of Scholarly Journals in Business Subject-Specific Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lewis G.

    2011-01-01

    This empirical research investigates subscription price variations of scholarly journals in five business subject-specific areas using the semilogarithmic regression model. It has two main purposes. The first is to address the unsettled debate over whether or not and to what extent commercial publishers reap monopoly profits by overcharging…

  3. Learning from Public Television and the Web: Positioning Continuing Education as a Knowledge Portal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedro, Steven R.

    1999-01-01

    Digital convergence--the merging of television and computing--challenges localized monopolies of public television and continuing education. Continuing educators can reposition themselves in the electronic marketplace by serving as an educational portal, bringing their strengths of "brand recognition," local customer base, and access to…

  4. Access to Student Loans. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    Hearings are presented on the proliferation of interstate guarantee arrangements in the area of student loans, and the effect of such arrangements on student access to loan capital. Topics include: the desirability of establishing territorial monopolies for student loan guarantee agencies, the views of the Higher Education Assistance Foundation…

  5. Professionnalisation ou Deprofessionnalisation: Une Base Conceptuelle pour L'evaluation de La Competence en Psychologie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perron, Jacques; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Elements of professionalization--systematic body of theory, social recognition, monopoly, and degree of organization--are presented and applied to the development of professional psychology in Quebec. The concept of deprofessionalization is introduced as an alternative basis for evaluating competence in professional psychology. (Author)

  6. Degrees of Durability and the New World of Credentialing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The erosion of the college credit monopoly, the devaluation of the degree and the rise of new forms of credentialing suggest a generation of students and higher education institutions somewhat different than the previous generation. Consider a higher learning environment where students create their own academic portfolios and shape their…

  7. Nutritionopoly: Let Healthy Choices "Monopolize" Your Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Person, Ashley L.; Colby, Sarah E.; Eubanks, Janie W.

    2011-01-01

    Nutritionopoly, an interactive educational program based on the popular board game, Monopoly, was held at a college university dining hall. Students actively participated in the game while learning important nutrition and health-related information. Feedback showed that it was effective in increasing awareness and knowledge while being fun and…

  8. From the Adam Smith Institute to the Zapatistas: An Internet Gateway to all Development Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Alex

    2002-01-01

    Examines the World Bank Internet initiative, the Development Gateway. Describes the importance of the Bank as a knowledge bank and the threats posed by the Internet to its near monopoly of development thinking. Argues that the initiative reveals biases and misunderstandings in the World Bank's approach to knowledge for development. (CAJ)

  9. Liberating Schools: Education in the Inner City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boaz, David, Ed.

    This volume offers the analysis and suggestions for reform of leading educational experts on the topic of education in the inner cities. An introduction provides an overview of the problems of American education and a proposed solution: educational choice. The 12 chapters are as follows: (1) "The Public School Monopoly: America's Berlin…

  10. "That's Not Fair!": A Simulation Exercise in Social Stratification and Structural Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coghlan, Catherine L.; Huggins, Denise W.

    2004-01-01

    Social stratification may be one of the most difficult topics covered in sociology classes. This article describes an interactive learning exercise, using a modified version of the game Monopoly, intended to stress the structural nature of social inequality and to stimulate student reflection and class discussion on social stratification in the…

  11. A Classroom Demonstration for Teaching Network Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawler, James

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of the concept of network effects is useful at the principles level to facilitate discussions of the determinants of monopoly, the need for standards in high-tech industries, and the general complexity of real-world competition. The author describes a demonstration and an extension that help students understand how consumers make…

  12. Deregulation? Early Radio Policy Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Louise M.

    In debating the merits of the deregulation of broadcasting, policy makers should be cognizant of the conditions that led originally to that regulation. An examination of (1) the letters and speeches of Secretary of Commerce, Herbert Hoover, the first regulator of broadcasting; (2) the congressional debate over the regulatory issues of monopoly,…

  13. Case studies in electric utility competition litigation

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J.A.; Hawks, B.K.

    1994-12-31

    Although electric utilities in the US in many ways operate as highly regulated monopolies, federal and state regulation has not eliminated competition in the electric utility industry. This article describes trends in utility competition litigation as they have evolved in Georgia and other parts of the country.

  14. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    government’s negligence in liqui- munity and by taking into considerations the problems dating monopolies and pseduocooperatives, which in of Polonia ...formed. In and a majority of them are in operation) and Polonia and the future, this will also be a meaningful source of foreign companies which are

  15. Deregulation of the Electric Industry and Its Potential Benefits for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkiss, Jeffrey D.

    1997-01-01

    The electric utility industry is the last bastion of regulated monopolies in the United States. An overview of recent competition in the electric-power industry at both the federal and state levels and how this may affect school districts is offered in this article. The text identifies and evaluates how school districts can obtain cheaper power…

  16. Should We Have Faith in Not-for-Profit Providers of Schooling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Geoff; Davies, Peter; Adnett, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Western governments appear increasingly dissatisfied with the rising costs and apparent static performance of their education systems. This dissatisfaction has been manifested in a critical re-examination of the near-monopoly of publicly provided schooling. Elsewhere in the public sector, privatization and competitive tendering have been…

  17. 12 CFR 26.6 - General exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... a monopoly or substantial lessening of competition and would not present safety and soundness... of competition if the depository organization seeking to add a management official: (1) Primarily serves low-and moderate-income areas; (2) Is controlled or managed by persons who are members of...

  18. 12 CFR 348.6 - General exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in a monopoly or substantial lessening of competition and would not present safety and soundness... of competition if the depository organization seeking to add a management official: (1) Primarily serves low-and moderate-income areas; (2) Is controlled or managed by persons who are members of...

  19. 12 CFR 711.6 - General exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... interlock would not result in a monopoly or substantial lessening of competition, and would not present... or substantial lessening of competition if the depository organization seeking to add a management official: (1) Primarily serves, low- and moderate-income areas; (2) Is controlled or managed by persons...

  20. 12 CFR 563f.6 - General exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... lessening of competition and would not present safety and soundness concerns. A depository organization may... an interlock will not result in a monopoly or substantial lessening of competition if the depository organization seeking to add a management official: (1) Primarily serves low- and moderate-income areas; (2)...

  1. 12 CFR 212.6 - General exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... monopoly or substantial lessening of competition, and would not present safety and soundness concerns. (b... competition if the depository organization seeking to add a management official: (1) Primarily serves low- and moderate-income areas; (2) Is controlled or managed by persons who are members of a minority group,...

  2. 12 CFR 225.13 - Factors considered in acting on bank acquisition proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in any part of the United States; (2) The effect of the transaction may be substantially to lessen competition in any section of the country, tend to create a monopoly, or in any other manner be in restraint of trade, unless the Board finds that the transaction's anti-competitive effects are...

  3. Women's Struggle against Tradition in Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Mainus

    1994-01-01

    In rural Bangladesh, women's participation in a literacy program was opposed by Mullahs for several reasons: content encouraged decision making, monopoly of the Qur'anic schools was threatened, Mullahs' leadership and spiritual roles were potentially subverted, and it conflicted with the practice of polygamy. (SK)

  4. Strategic Appraisal 1996.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    America. His election in October 1994 over the populist social democrat Luis Inacio " Lula " da Silva is widely attributed to measures introduced to stem...to reach its true potential. However, events like the strike by workers at Petrobras , the state-run oil monopoly, demonstrate the threat of reform

  5. 75 FR 10799 - Transitions Optical, Inc.; Analysis to Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... acts and practices to maintain its monopoly power in the photochromic lens industry in violation of Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act, 15 U.S.C. Sec. 45. Photochromic lenses are corrective... photochromic lens industry. Consumers of corrective ophthalmic lenses (lenses used for vision correction...

  6. Lighting the Way for Systemic Reform: The Edison Project Launches Its Version of a Public-Private Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGriff, Deborah M.

    1995-01-01

    The Edison Project, advocating a new form of public-private partnership to reinvent education, has repeatedly encountered barriers such as state regulations, professional isolation, inertia, bureaucracy, miscommunication, and a finance and governance monopoly. Four communities will open Edison Project schools this fall. Superintendent Larry Vaughn…

  7. Wind Power in Australia: Overcoming Technological and Institutional Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Gerard; Bunting, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, Australia had little installed wind capacity, although there had been many investigations into its potential during the preceding decades. Formerly, state-owned monopoly utilities showed only token interest in wind power and could dictate the terms of energy debates. This situation changed in the late 1990s: Installed wind capacity…

  8. Telecommunications Tutorial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawkell, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    Provides background on telecommunications in the nineteenth century and discusses briefly the organization of telephone networks, including the arguments for and against monopolies. Some fundamentals of telecommunications transmission, particularly wideband services, are presented, and the process of speech digitization is described. (three…

  9. Eliot Freidson's Contribution to the Sociology of Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brint, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Freidson's contributions include a new concept of professions rooted in social organization of labor markets; analysis of professional control resulting from knowledge monopolies and gatekeeping activities; and defense of professions against critics who view their powers as unnecessary or harmful. (SK)

  10. 75 FR 46940 - Nufarm Limited; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ..., and take certain additional measures to restore competition in the markets for three phenoxy herbicide... competition in the United States markets for the sale of the phenoxy herbicides: MCPA, MCPP-P, and 2,4DB. The.... Marks, Nufarm obtained monopoly positions in the United States markets for two phenoxy herbicide...

  11. First-Day Strategies for Millennial Students in Introductory Accounting Courses: It's All Fun and Games until Something Gets Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastilak, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Millennial students often possess characteristics at odds with typical lecture-based approaches to introductory accounting courses. The author introduces an approach for reaching millennial students early in introductory accounting courses in ways that fit millennials' characteristics. This article describes the use of the board game Monopoly[R]…

  12. "I Prefer to Think for Myself": Upper Secondary School Pupils' Attitudes Towards Computer-Based Spanish Grammar Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredholm, Kent

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing pressure from school leaders in many countries for teaching to be based solely on ICT tools. The present study is interested in what this does to pupils' attitudes towards ICT in language classrooms. Is a digital monopoly a good way for pupils to learn languages? Is it what they want? To understand for which tasks students…

  13. The Legitimisation of Knowledge: A Work-Based Learning Perspective of APEL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armsby, Pauline; Costley, Carol; Garnett, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Accreditation of Prior Experiential Learning (APEL) is now an established but relatively under used process in higher education (HE). In our review article, we argue that this is because APEL not only challenges the traditional university monopoly of knowledge but also challenges other established processes and social constructions. Work-Based…

  14. Disputes Involving US Private Direct Foreign Investment: March 1, 1980-September 30, 1982,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-15

    Chad Agricola du Tchad Inactive 1975 Ethiopia 33 miscellaneous claims Active 1975-1978 Ghana Mobil Inactive 1975 Texaco Inactive 1975 Madagascar Caltex... Tchad -Agricola Me2tals Corporationl In 1975 the Government of Chad abrogated Agricola’s monopoly right to collect wild gum in Chad, on the grounds that

  15. Providing Security: The Strategic Importance of Policing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    legitimate monopoly on violence, gaining acceptance of the Kosovo Protection Corps ( KPC ) and establishing police presence backed by a perceived...KFOR forces remained the legitimate This idea of developing an integrated KPC was an integral part of the demobilization, demilitarization and

  16. Inquiring "Tree of Life" at Home: Persian Classic Literature in English Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsaiyan, Seyyeded Fahimeh; Ghajar, Sue-San Ghahremani; Salahimoghaddam, Soheila; Janahmadi, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    The recent decades of English Language Teaching (ELT) appear to be particularly concerned with the marginalisation caused by English linguistic, cultural, and academic colonisation and imperialism. Bold footprints of this academic monopoly can be seen in the wide incorporation of abridged or unabridged British and American literary works in…

  17. Coase and Hotelling: A Meeting of the Minds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Johannes; Kamien, Morton I.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we tie together the two literatures of durable goods monopoly and exhaustible resource pricing. We show that the intertemporal no-arbitrage condition that arises if the durable good monopolist seller can commit to a price path mirrors the intertemporal no-arbitrage condition if the monopsonist buyer of an exhaustible resource can…

  18. Supporting Friendly Atmosphere in a Classroom by Technology Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaš, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    Extremely rapid development of information technology and the lack of monopoly in the technological market have resulted in a sudden price reduction of the informatic equipment and gadgets enabling them to be used in all segments of a human life, hence the education as well. In the modern, digital era it is almost impossible to make any…

  19. Persuasive and Informative Advertising: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeborn, Beth A.; Hulbert, Jason P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors outline a pair of classroom activities designed to provide an intuitive foundation to the theoretical introduction of advertising in monopoly markets. The roles of both informative and persuasive advertising are covered. Each student acts as a monopolist and chooses the number of (costly) advertisements and the price. The experiments…

  20. Maintaining an Effective Research Environment in Australia. Submission to IP Australia Patents Law Reform Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    It is widely stated that a purpose of patent law is to encourage inventors to innovate and to disclose their inventions for the benefit of society. In return for this disclosure they receive a limited exploitation monopoly defined essentially by commercial pursuits. A necessary implication of the requirement of disclosure is that knowledge…

  1. Institutional Authority and Traces of Intergenerational Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufan, Ismail; Kilic, Sultan; Tokgoz, Nimet; Howe, Jurgen; Yaman, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    While society's level of education increases in a modernization process, the knowledge monopoly is taken over by the young. Increasing demand on knowledge attained through organized education leads to increasing power by the young. In the modernizing society of Turkey, this kind of struggle will occur between intellectual groups. Results of this…

  2. Welfare Triangles and Economic Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    Shows how the concepts of consumer's surplus and producer's surplus can be related to basic welfare economics. Provides illustrations of the ways in which these concepts can be applied in introductory economics courses. Examines the social cost of monopoly, the tax burden, free trade, tariffs, and the English Channel Tunnel. (KO)

  3. Deployment of Recommender Systems: Operational and Strategic Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghoshal, Abhijeet

    2011-01-01

    E-commerce firms are increasingly adopting recommendation systems to effectively target customers with products and services. The first essay examines the impact that improving a recommender system has on firms that deploy such systems. A market with customers heterogeneous in their search costs is considered. We find that in a monopoly, a firm…

  4. Simulating Poverty and Inequality Dynamics in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansoms, An; Geenen, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This article considers how the simulation game of DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY provides insight into poverty and inequality dynamics in a development context. It first discusses how the game is rooted in theoretical and conceptual frameworks on poverty and inequality. Subsequently, it reflects on selected playing experiences, with special focus on the…

  5. The Canadian Forces Use of Private Security in Afghanistan: A Consequence of National Decisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-10

    rise of PSCs, Elke Krahmann, Senior Lecturer in International Relations at the University of Bristol, stated three primary causes that have...International Security: the Rise of Private Military Companies. Contemporary Security Studies. New York: Rutledge, 2006. 49 Krahmann, Elke , Simon...2009. Krahmann, Elke . Private Security Companies and the State Monopoly on Violence:A Case of Norm. Peace Research Institute Frankfurt, 2009. Krugman

  6. Game-Based Remedial Instruction in Mastery Learning for Upper-Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chun-Hung; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Chen, Yu-Liang; Liou, Pey-Yan; Chang, Maiga; Wu, Cheng-Hong; Yuan, Shyan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the effectiveness of using computer games for after-school remedial mastery learning. We incorporated instructional materials related to "area of a circle" into the popular Monopoly game to enhance the performance of sixth-grade students learning mathematics. The program requires that students enter the answers to…

  7. Universal(ly Bad) Service: Providing Infrastructure Services to Rural and Poor Urban Consumers. Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, George R. G.; Wallsten, Scott J.

    Utility services (telecommunications, power, water, and gas) throughout the world were traditionally provided by large, usually state-owned, monopolies. However, encouraged by technological change, regulatory innovation, and pressure from international organizations, many developing countries are privatizing state-owned companies and introducing…

  8. Will Boston Be the Proof of the Choice Pudding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    Since March 1989, Boston has attempted to implement three elements deemed successful for successful school choice programs: fair assignment procedures, an effective parent information system, and interventions to help certain schools become more competitive. The Boston experience shows the difficulties involved in reforming a monopoly governed by…

  9. Wealth and Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue examines three historical and current problems surrounding wealth and power. The first article looks at King Leopold of Belgium and his exploitation of the Congo. The second article explores John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil monopoly. The final article examines the antitrust case against the Microsoft Corporation. Each…

  10. JPRS Report, Latin America.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Grenada Minor Spices Society which has the monopoly on the export of spices such as cinnamon and clove . Addressing a farmers meeting here, Jones...nutmegs, cloves and spices from Grenada a SnStry of Information release said. The team’s visit to Grenada is the result of discussions between President

  11. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journalism Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents summaries of research dealing with (1) news coverage of Africa, (2) diffusion of information about cyanide-laced Tylenol, (3) gender representation in elite newspapers, (4) agreement between reporters and editors in Mississippi, (5) monopoly metropolitan dailies and intercity competition, and (6) the effect of endorsements on the…

  12. How Massive Multiplayer Online Games Incorporate Principles of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Joshua H.; Archambault, Leanna

    2010-01-01

    Games have always been a part of the human experience. Even the earliest of civilizations created games for enjoyment and entertainment. However, the educational value of those games is a relatively recent consideration. Over the previous fifty years, scholars have questioned the potential positive lessons learned from games such as Monopoly[R],…

  13. Understanding Market Concentration: Internet-Based Applications from the Banking Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Fred H.; Ward, Sidne Gail

    2011-01-01

    Market structure is an essential topic in economics and finance courses, including bank management as well as many other business school courses, for example marketing, human resources and strategic management. Instructors explain the virtues of perfect competition and the evils of monopoly along with alternative market models. Often conversations…

  14. Why Does Private School Enrollment Grow? Evidence from Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narodowski, Mariano; Moschetti, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    During the second half of the twentieth century, a process of privatization took place in the Argentine education system. This paper seeks to explain the growth of private enrollments in Argentina over the last years. Drawing on the concept of quasi-monopoly, we run a random-effects estimation on panel data to analyze the determinants of the…

  15. French Television News: Practices of Encoding and Theories of Trivialisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Susan

    This study examines one aspect of the television medium--television news and its encoding practices--that was expected to be affected by changes instituted when socialists took office in France in 1981. It is noted that this government's legal reform advocated a more decentralized system of governance and a liberalization of the state monopoly on…

  16. JPRS Report. Science & Technology: Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-29

    cesium is present negative hydrogen ions are formed which are removed from the discharge chamber by a positive voltage of 18 keV (18 000 Volts...PTT does not however, have a monopoly of the French market- place. The French Mobile Telephone Company ( SFR ) plans to run a competitive GSM network

  17. The Information Society, Schools, and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balle, Francis

    This report begins by examining the transition from the industrial society to the informatics society which began in the 1960s, when the newspaper's monopoly on information was destroyed by radio and television, followed by the development of an information-based economy. The salient features of the new area are identified as: (1) the ever…

  18. Handbook of Research on School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berends, Mark, Ed.; Springer, Matthew G., Ed.; Ballou, Dale, Ed.; Walberg, Herbert J., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1990s when the nation's first charter school was opened in Minneapolis, the scope and availability of school-based options to parents has steadily expanded. No longer can public education be characterized as a monopoly. Sponsored by the National Center on School Choice (NCSC), this handbook makes readily available the most rigorous…

  19. Communications Satellites: A New Channel for International Communications, A New Source of International Tension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Sig

    Communications satellites could be the subject of bitter and potentially dangerous international controversy. They threaten to upset the comfortable monopoly of internal national communications systems which have enrolled national governments to screen intrusions of unwanted information or ideas. The United Nations Working Committee on Direct…

  20. The Military’s Role in Drug Interdiction Can Be Successful

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    community in New York. (3:lU5) La Cosa Nostra joined the importation process in the 1930s, obtaining the drugs from France and Asia. World War II saw 14 a...shift to Mexico as the major supplier. After World War II, La Cosa Nostra again asserted itself and held a virtual monopoly until 1972 when Turkey banned

  1. Job Placement in Germany: Developments before and after Deregulation. IAB Labour Market Research Topics No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walwei, Ulrich

    Since 1994, the German public employment service has not had a monopoly on placement. A new law permits private job placement as an independent activity, but only with a license from the public employment service. Since deregulation, the number of job placement licenses has increased continuously, but the number of placements made by private…

  2. The Radio Phenomenon in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faenza, Roberto

    One in a series of studies of experiments in new audiovisual techniques in Europe and the situations in some member countries, this paper traces the development of radio in Italy. Opposing views about radio broadcasting (public monopoly vs. freedom of broadcasting) are examined, and the various political and legal aspects of communications in…

  3. The Top of the World Is Flat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, H. Justin

    1977-01-01

    Argues that the disappearance of the traditional family and the emergence of a new feudalism of monopolies and interest groups are the prime reasons for a declining American society. Suggests that political and business leaders will have to lead the search for a restoration of lost values. (Author/JG)

  4. A Graphical Analysis of the Cournot-Nash and Stackelberg Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Murray

    1997-01-01

    Shows how the Cournot-Nash and Stackelberg equilibria can be represented in the familiar supply-demand graphical framework, allowing a direct comparison with the monopoly, competitive, and industrial organization models. This graphical analysis is represented throughout the article. (MJP)

  5. Federal Educational Funding and the Professional Labor Market Entry of African American Women: The Impact of the Reagan-Bush Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodeheaver, Daniel G.; Williams, James L.

    1991-01-01

    Explores the idea that the Reagan and Bush administrations, through their policies on the funding of higher education in particular, have had a negative impact on gains in the comparative rate of entry into professional occupations of African-American women. Such effects are the result of attempts to reestablish monopoly capitalism. (SLD)

  6. Is Licensing Public Protection of Professional Protectionism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Daniel B.

    1979-01-01

    Granting of licenses to practice has long been linked to academic credentials, but this system offers more protection to the professions than to the public. There is an immediate need to break the credentials monopoly by opening up alternative routes to obtaining credentials. (Author/MLW)

  7. The Economics of Professional Journal Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoller, Michael A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates the literature on journal pricing that emphasizes three types of price discrimination practiced by publishers. Concludes that the monopoly power of commercial publishers and a third party payment system are the cause of increasing journal costs. Recommends incentives to journal users, adoption of equitable pricing systems, and employing…

  8. The News as a Post-Literary Spectacle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keppler, Joseph F.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the news of the Persian Gulf War from a critical reader/viewer perspective. Proposes that video news works like an intriguing alphabet, the forms and meanings of which are pronounced by a monopoly of interpreter reporters, anchors, and media guests. Notes the facility with which rhetorical strategies governed the principles and actions of…

  9. Ships at a distance: Energy choice and economic challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, P.A.

    1997-12-31

    Several restructurings of Vermont`s electric utilities were attempted earlier. At best, the successes were compromises, whose benefits were a fraction of what might have been achieved. At worst, monopoly power triumphed outright, leaving Vermonters and Vermont economy in thrall to distant energy and financial forces. To understand the interplay between today`s restructuring and the Vermont economy, the author examines those earlier restructuring. They establish that electricity really is different from other industries, not just because it cannot be stored or because the strandable investment is so much larger or the monopoly linkages are so much more extensive. More important is the extent of the electric industry`s place in the national political consciousness and its environmental impact.

  10. Producing, controlling, and stabilizing Pasteur's anthrax vaccine: creating a new industry and a health market.

    PubMed

    Cassier, Maurice

    2008-06-01

    When Pasteur and Chamberland hastily set up their small biological industry to meet the agricultural demand for the anthrax vaccine, their methods for preparation and production had not yet been stabilized. The process of learning how to standardize biological products was accelerated in 1882 when vaccination accidents required the revision of production norms as the first hypotheses on fixity, inalterability, and transportability of vaccines were invalidated and replaced by procedures for continuous monitoring of the calibration of vaccines and the renewal of vaccine strains. Initially, the incompleteness and ongoing development of production standards justified Pasteur's monopoly on the production of the anthrax vaccine under his immediate supervision. Later on, the Pasteur Institute maintained control of these standards in the framework of a commercial monopoly that it established on the veterinary vaccines first sent and then cultivated abroad by the Société de Vulgarisation du Vaccin Charbonneux Pasteur, founded in 1886.

  11. An economic justification for open access to essential medicine patents in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Sean; Hollis, Aidan; Palmedo, Mike

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers an economic rationale for compulsory licensing of needed medicines in developing countries. The patent system is based on a trade-off between the "deadweight losses" caused by market power and the incentive to innovate created by increased profits from monopoly pricing during the period of the patent. However, markets for essential medicines under patent in developing countries with high income inequality are characterized by highly convex demand curves, producing large deadweight losses relative to potential profits when monopoly firms exercise profit-maximizing pricing strategies. As a result, these markets are systematically ill-suited to exclusive marketing rights, a problem which can be corrected through compulsory licensing. Open licenses that permit any qualified firm to supply the market on the same terms, such as may be available under licenses of right or essential facility legal standards, can be used to mitigate the negative effects of government-granted patents, thereby increasing overall social welfare.

  12. Russian national security and foreign policy in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Rumer, E.B.

    1995-11-01

    February 7, 1990, was a day of unprecedented change in the history of the Soviet Union. On that day the Communist Party (CPSU) leadership surrendered its constitutional monopoly on the country`s political life and process by agreeing to amend Article VI of the Soviet Constitution, which had previously guaranteed it that right. As often happened during the perestroyka years, that decision lagged behind the real course of political events in the Soviet Union and represented, as many measures taken by the Soviet leaders, a half step that left both opponents and proponents of reforms dissatisfied. But the importance of that highly symbolic step should not be underestimated. The CPSU, which for nearly three-quarters of the 20th century had enjoyed an absolute constitutional monopoly on ideas, had in effect sanctioned political competition and ideological challenge to its dogma. For the first time in Soviet history, citizens were allowed to form and join political parties other than the CPSU.

  13. British American Tobacco’s failure in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, S

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) considered Turkey an important, potential investment market because of its high consumption rates and domestic commitment to tobacco. This paper outlines how British American Tobacco (BAT) attempted to establish a joint venture with the government monopoly TEKEL, while waiting for privatisation and a private tender. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents from the Guildford Depository and online tobacco document sources. Results BAT failed to establish a market share in Turkey until 2000 despite repeated attempts to form a joint venture with Turkey’s tobacco monopoly, TEKEL, once the market liberalised in the mid 1980s. Conclusions BAT’s failure in the Turkish market was due to a misguided investment strategy focused solely on acquiring TEKEL and is contrasted with Philip Morris success in Turkey despite both TTCs working within Turkey’s unstable and corrupt investing climate. PMID:18845622

  14. State regulation of electric and gas utilities: energy policy study. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Taschjian, M.; Hewlett, J.

    1980-01-01

    State regulation of electric and gas utilities is examined. The concept of natural monopoly is reviewed, and alternative approaches to the problem are examined, using current economic literature. Private monopoly, public ownership, and regulatory intervention are compared as the chief alternatives. Various forms of regulatory intervention are discussed, ranging from franchise auction through rate-of-return regulation. The latter approach is then examned in detail, discussing the Averch-Johnson effect, regulatory lag, and the impact on technological choice and development of new technology. Alternative price structures are examined and contrasted with the free market case of an unregulated monopolist. The main conclusion is that current regulatory intervention appears to be the least desirable of the alternatives in terms of efficiency of resource use, price, output, and distribution of consumer surplus. 9 figures, 9 tables.

  15. The Outlook for U.S. Oil Dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Market share OPEC lost in defending higher prices from 1979-1985 is being steadily regained and is projected to exceed 50% by 2000. World oil markets are likely to be as vulnerable to monopoly influence as they were 20 years ago, as OPEC regains lost market share. The US economy appears to be as exposed as it was in the early 1970s to losses from monopoly oil pricing. A simulated 2-year supply reduction in 2005-6 boosts OPEC revenues by roughly half a trillion dollars and costs the US economy an approximately equal amount. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve appears to be of little benefit against such a determined, multi-year supply curtailment either in reducing OPEC revenues or protecting the US economy. Increasing the price elasticity of oil demand and supply in the US and the rest of the world, however, would be an effective strategy.

  16. The outlook for US oil dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Jones, D.W.; Leiby, P.N.

    1995-05-11

    Market share OPEC lost in defending higher prices from 1979-1985 is being steadily regained and is projected to exceed 50% by 2000. World oil markets are likely to be as vulnerable to monopoly influence as they were 20 years ago, as OPEC regains lost market share. The U.S. economy appears to be as exposed as it was in the early 1970s to losses from monopoly oil pricing. A simulated 2-year supply reduction in 2005-6 boosts OPEC revenues by roughly half a trillion dollars and costs the U.S. economy an approximately equal amount. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve appears to be of little benefit against such a determined, multi-year supply curtailment either in reducing OPEC revenues or protecting the U.S. economy. Increasing the price elasticity of oil demand and supply in the U.S. and the rest of the world, however, would be an effective strategy.

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: The Working Class & The Contemporary World, No. 5, September-October 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-24

    several varieties differing mainly in the methods of computing the workers’ contribution to the increase in the firm’s profits and, correspondingly...number of particular features. It is distinguished by particular intensity and scale. Together with the extensive use of the entire arsenal of methods ...of suppressing the unions tested in the past the monopolies are resorting to new tactical methods . With the aid of the latter and given the active

  18. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    A significant change was the Aquino government’s dismantling of the monopolies of Mr. Marcos and his associates in the sugar, coconut , flour and...Southern Tagalog alone, KMP-led peasants "confiscated" idle lands such as the 1,000-hectare plantation of Southern Luzon Coconut Mills said to have...HK061329 Quezon City BUSINESS DAY in English 5 Feb 87 p 2 [By reporter Michael D. Marasigan] [Text] Coconut farmers, estimated at 15 million, are

  19. Optimal Pricing and Advertising Policies for New Product Oligopoly Models. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    The problem of characterizing an optimal pricing and advertising policy over time is an important question in the field of marketing as well as in the...the effects of the learning curve phenomenon and market saturation are most pronounced. We isider first the monopoly case with linear advertising cost...Another sur- prising result i that, after the market is at least half saturated, a pulse of advertising must be preceded by a significant drop in

  20. The economics of short-term leasing.

    PubMed

    Flath, D

    1980-04-01

    Short-term leasing is an everyday occurrence. Tax savings cannot account for the ubiquity of leasing by temporary users. Monopoly explanations are inconsistent with concurrent leasing and selling markets for perfect substitutes. Leasing economizes upon the costs of detecting, assuring, and maintaining quality, costs of search, and costs of risk-bearing. This view is based on standard economic reasoning and has numerous specific implications.

  1. U.S. Stabilization and Reconstruction Doctrine: A Failure to Address the Specifics of Authoritarian Regime Transition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-21

    but none so much as Hobbes , Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire and Montesquieu. In Leviathan , Thomas Hobbes asserted that life in the state of nature was...Lessons in Authority and Control. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2000. Hobbes , Thomas . Leviathan . 1660. Huntington, Samuel P...monopoly of the legitimate use of violence in the enforcement of its order.”98 Thomas Hobbes also supported a strong central government contending that

  2. IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANTS OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR I. KESAR (SAFFRON)

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, T. N.; Rajasekharan, S.; Badola, D. P.; Shah, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Kesar has been an important ingredient of the recipes of our ancient physicians in the field of Indian systems of medicine and its cultivation is a monopoly of Jammu and Kashmir. This paper presents in detail the historical review, botanical description, vernacular names, distribution in India and world, cultivation, collection, preservation and storage, adulterants, purity tests, chemical composition, action and uses, folk – lore claims and markets with special reference to its medicinal utility. PMID:22557503

  3. The Political Economy of the United States Military Market: 1963-2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    means. Additionally, there are certain markets, e.g. in declining cost industries, where a monopoly supplier may be most efficient. Riordan and...civilian world rightfully dominated by the tenets and rights of individual liberty" (p. 20). Hillen (1999) provides a similar perspective. 114 Ricks ...Armed Forces, National Defense University, Fort McNair, Washington, D.C. 20319-5062. Ricks , Thomas E. (1997). Making the Corps. New York: Simon

  4. USSR Report, Military Affairs, Military History Journal, No. 8, August 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Strategic Operation consisted in the simultaneous launching of two main pincer attacks (from Mongolian territory and the Maritime Area) converging on...strategists again and again increased the stakes in the game, grasping for one and then another technical innovation in the hope of using it as a...means of political blackmail and achieving military superiority over the Soviet Union. Having lost the monopoly on the atomic bomb, they grasped the

  5. Effect of the Health and Social Security Bill 1984 on the profession of optometry in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S P

    1986-05-01

    The United Kingdom government introduced a Bill to Parliament in 1984 called The Health and Social Security Bill. This was, according to the government, introduced to break the monopoly on the supply of spectacles by qualified opticians. The subsequent changes in the law brought about by the new Act are outlined, and brief comments presented on the consequences of the new Act on the profession of optometry in the United Kingdom.

  6. Mexico-United States Dialogue on Migration and Border Issues, 2001-2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-02

    reach a migration accord with Mexico that addresses the key issues of concern in both countries, opens the Mexican petroleum monopoly ( PEMEX ) to reform...Committee-reported provisions related to PEMEX and extradition as an intrusion in the domestic affairs of Mexico. The Office of the Mexican Presidency issued...K. Larry Storrs. exchange for opening up Petróleos Mexicanos (the state oil industry - PEMEX ) to foreign investment would be wholly unacceptable.”7

  7. Running on Fumes: A Critical Look at Mexico’s Natural Gas Transportation and Distribution Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-27

    behind existing laws and policies that are hampering growth and development in Mexico’s petrochemical industry. 3 Petroleos Mexicanos ( PEMEX ...is the state-owned company created in 1938 to run the national oil and natural gas monopoly. In the decades that followed, PEMEX often utilized...privatization of PEMEX and its subsidiaries. The PRD has proposed an alternate plan, developed by founding PRD member 4 and adviser to the National

  8. Southeast Asia Report, Vietnam, Tap Chi Cong San, No. 11, November 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    country is an exceedingly diverse process, because temperature and humidity change at a rapid rate and because the mechanism by which the seasonal...market and price fixing by multinational monopolies). On the other hand, the objects of commerce on the capitalist market are diverse and the modes of...achievements of biotechnology, such as genetic engineering, in order to develop new varieties of crops and breeds of livestock. In addition to

  9. Long-Term Rights for New Resources: A Crucial Missing Ingredient in RTO Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Bogorad, Cynthia; Huang, William

    2005-09-01

    Unless generation that can produce low-cost energy is brought back into the mix, regional transmission organizations will become just a very expensive means to deliver high-cost energy and to allocate increasingly scarce, natural monopoly transmission resources to those prepared to pay the most. For baseload as well as renewable generation that cannot be located close to load, long-term transmission rights ensure delivery of their output at a predictable price.

  10. An Examination of Chinese Foreign Direct Investment into the Economies of Sub-Saharan Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    facto monopoly in the Sudanese oil market . Its policy of non-interference, long begrudged by the western world,70 has given China access to a reliable...50 Figure 17. Relationship of Sudan’s Oil Exports to GDP ..................................................53...author with data from JODI, “JODI Oil World Database,” http://www.jodidata.org/database/access-database.aspx (accessed December 3, 2013). China’s

  11. Sharing the atom bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Chace, J.

    1996-01-01

    Shaken by the devastation of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and fearful that the American atomic monopoly would spark an arms race, Dean Acheson led a push in 1946 to place the bomb-indeed, all atomic energy-under international control. But as the memories of wartime collaboration faded, relations between the superpowers grew increasingly tense, and the confrontational atmosphere undid his proposal. Had Acheson succeeded, the Cold War might not have been. 2 figs.

  12. Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Revisions for Telecommunications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    have depended on monopolies to provide telecommun for over 75 years. In light of the Federal Commu Commission (FCC) deregulation of the telecommunic...effects deregulation and divestiture have had on of telecommunication services and adjust its acqu and procedures to assure continued commercial...34). In addition to this simplified "pricing" approach to tariffed telephone services (i.e., acceptance of tariffed prices), the ASPR established

  13. Current status of orphan disease drug development.

    PubMed

    Thoene, J G

    1994-04-01

    The Orphan Drug Act has successfully stimulated the production of many orphan products for a number of orphan diseases. The success of its exclusive marketing provision in bringing otherwise unprofitable products to market has attracted the attention of manufacturers who use this provision to gain a monopoly for products with much larger annual sales than were contemplated by the original legislation. Corrective legislation to close this loophole is being prepared for introduction to Congress.

  14. Commander’s Guide to Public Involvement in the Army’s Installation, Restoration Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    socially responsible performance, based on mutually satisfactory two-way communication. Public Involvement is a planned effort to involve citizens in the...not to place chairs behind them PRACTICE. PRACTICE - Conducta dry run of the Public meeting It possible, the dry run should be conducted at tne...possible. Social agencies do not have a monopoly on the milk of human kindness or social responsibility. Informed media will strive in almost every

  15. Hungary petroleum privatization limited by economic concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-04

    Once the leading economic hope of eastern Europe, a newly doubt-filled, postelection Hungary is deciding on limited oil privatization amid strategic worries and falling production. Those worries contrast with the bright promise seen in Hungary after the collapse of communism. The paper discusses energy supplies; profile of the former petroleum monopoly, Magyar Olaj es Gaz (MOL); the state owned Mineralimpex; strategic supplies; MOL privatization; post-election politics; and MOL's subsidiaries.

  16. Southeast Asia Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Reports on Rice Planting Situation (Hanoi Domestic Service, 10 Mar 87) 125 NHAN DAN Urges Expansion of Subsidiary Food Crop Planting (Editorial...monopolies; and i j management structures. ■■ ! Remember, too, that ! those organisations are al- ready operating and until now rio one has ever...not impressed on the people that it was ready to take on the country. Sir Robert said until recently peo~. pie had had the inv pression Labour

  17. ARTIST (Asian regional tobacco industry scientist team): Philip Morris' attempt to exert a scientific and regulatory agenda on Asia

    PubMed Central

    Tong, E; Glantz, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe how the transnational tobacco industry has collaborated with local Asian tobacco monopolies and companies to promote a scientific and regulatory agenda. Methods: Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Results: Transnational tobacco companies began aggressively entering the Asia market in the 1980s, and the current tobacco industry in Asia is a mix of transnational and local monopolies or private companies. Tobacco industry documents demonstrate that, in 1996, Philip Morris led an organisation of scientific representatives from different tobacco companies called the Asian Regional Tobacco Industry Science Team (ARTIST), whose membership grew to include monopolies from Korea, China, Thailand, and Taiwan and a company from Indonesia. ARTIST was initially a vehicle for PM's strategies against anticipated calls for global smoke-free areas from a World Health Organization secondhand smoke study. ARTIST evolved through 2001 into a forum to present scientific and regulatory issues faced primarily by Philip Morris and other transnational tobacco companies. Philip Morris' goal for the organisation became to reach the external scientific and public health community and regulators in Asia. Conclusion: The Asian tobacco industry has changed from an environment of invasion by transnational tobacco companies to an environment of participation with Philip Morris' initiated activities. With this participation, tobacco control efforts in Asia face new challenges as Philip Morris promotes and integrates its scientific and regulatory agenda into the local Asian tobacco industry. As the local Asian tobacco monopolies and companies can have direct links with their governments, future implementation of effective tobacco control may be at odds with national priorities. PMID:15564214

  18. Arms Industries: New Suppliers and Regional Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Britain, France, Sweden, and West Germany broke the US monopoly. The United States came to face increasingly stiff competition in the Free World arms...which gives a better performance in hot climates. 18 HAL produces the Orpheus turbojet engine for use in the Ajeet trainer. Under license from the...industrializing countries. First, it sells outright, provides credits for and provides free grants of finished military items. Second, it strives to

  19. Mobile satellite services: International co-ordination, co-operation and competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundberg, Olof

    1988-01-01

    In the context of a discussion of international cooperation, coordination and competition regarding mobile satellite services, it is asserted that: there will be more than one civil mobile satellite service in the 1990's; competition between these separate mobile satellite systems is inevitable; no system should enjoy monopoly protection or subsidies; and coordination and cooperation are desirable and necessary, since the available L-band spectrum is in short supply.

  20. Transnational Pipelines and Naval Expansion: Examining China’s Oil Insecurities in the Indian Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Analysis, “the threat of economic stagnation raises real risks of social instability, which could in turn threaten the continued political monopoly of...Renmin University of China and a heavy consumer of Baijiu toasts at banquets , submits: Although the risk of military conflict in the Taiwan Strait...that would link Kunming city – the capital of China’s Yunnan 103 “Musharraf Makes Chinese Oil Plea

  1. Central Asian Energy: A Point of Contention or Collaboration in Russia-China Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Central Asian oil and gas resources, especially when energy prices surge on the global market . It is widely acknowledged that Russia’s economic...exports could ensure Russia’s monopoly in the regional oil market . This control is doubly important because Kazakh oil is of higher quality than...Central Asia could contribute to satisfying Russia’s growing domestic energy market and increasing Russia’s capability to regulate or gradually liberate

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of big financially than those whose output financiers and state-monopoly group- finds no market . ings. Speeding up the...have now been joined by the CIA and the Pentagon. These agencies are now openly pointing out the growing depen- dence of the U.S. market on Japanese...lop and broaden cooperation in cuHure, health car*, educa- tion, the mass media , tourism and sports. The Soviet mission of peace evoked broad

  3. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    a proper conduct of socia ist com- petition in the production preparation sectors, and an ef e^veapplication of the socialist performance principle...rapacious and extortionist policy of the most aggressive monopoly capital circles for conquering by military means export markets , spheres for capital...warfare" conducted with electronic mass media around the clock for the minds of people, where everything is being used that seems suitable to sustain and

  4. Democracy in the Middle East: A Goal or an Impossibility?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    markets ; free competition; government regulation of trade and investment to ensure ab monopolies, presence of fair trade standards, competition, health...the cities, literacy and the media , their Islamists leaders have succeeded in best articulating their political aspirations. After all, Islam comes...whole body of literature by historians and socia scientists loosely labeled “secularization theory” is essentially mistaken.”49 Furthermore, the

  5. Enduring values of municipal utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Telly, C.S.; Grove, J.F.

    1981-05-01

    The value of municipal utilities is assessed in terms of their social responsibility, the political responsiveness of the owners, and pricing policy - issues which conflict with the traditional concept of corporate responsibility to the shareholder and which reveal a growing demand for accountability. Although municipal utilities are only a small part of the economic, legal, and political setting, they contribute as a small, locally-controlled natural monopoly to the American goals of democracy and self-determination. (DCK)

  6. On Equilibria of Bid-Ask Markets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    impetus by Arrow, Gerard Debreu , and their colleagues. The demonstration that ’per- fectly* competitive complete markets, characterized by universal...192. "Noncooperative Equilibrium Concepts for Oligopoly Theory," by L. A. Gerard -Varet, 193. "Infiation and Costs of Price Adjustment," by Eytan...Andre Gerard -Varet. 338. "Qualitative Response Models: A Survey," by Takeshi Amemiya. 339. "The Social Costs of Monopoly and Regulation: A Game

  7. China Report, Economic Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    namely: No clear distinction was drawn between the functions of the government and those of the enterprises; barriers exist between different...enterprise functions in state-owned enterprises became more manifest, administrative control by state organs over economic affairs was strengthened...planned economy as incompatible with the commodity economy; seeing the functions of the socialist state in managing the economy as a monopoly in which

  8. Japanese Aggression in Asia (1895-1930). Japan’s Dream of ’Hakko Ichuo’ (Eight Corners of the World under Japanese Rule).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    no longer in any realistic sense its tributary, and the immediate casus belli in 1894 was the Chinese effort to reassert and strengthen shadowy...financial cliques . The Zaibatsu, notable Mitsui, Mitsubushi, Sumitomo, and Yasuda, formed great monopolies, encour- aged and supported the modern military...the bank s. 154 In due course, the powerful financial cliques grad- ually established themselves as zaibatsu, the most not- able being the Mitsui and

  9. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Volume 3 of the 2003 Air Transport Reserch Society (ATRS) World Conference includes papers on topics relevant to airline operations worldwide. Specific topics include: European Union and civil aviation regimens;simulating decision making in airline operations, passenger points of view on convenient airports; route monopolies and nonlinear pricing; cooperation among airports in Europe; fleet modernizaiton in Brazil;the effects of deregulation on the growth of air transportation in Europe and the United States.

  10. JPRS Report, Supplement. East Europe: Recent Legislation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Section 3 of Law No. 63/1950 Sb. on the regulation on usage of tobacco , salt, and alcohol and on the aboli- tion of state financial monopolies. Section 2...the water of a swimming pool mg/cubic dm No less than 0.2 At the drain 13 Chromium (Cr6+) mg/cubic dm 0.01 14 Free cyanides (CN) mg/cubic dm 0.02

  11. Air Power in the New Counterinsurgency Era: The Strategic Importance of USAF Advisory and Assistance Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    the Urban Challenge,” Population Reports, Vol. XXX, No. 4, Fall 2002. 38 Mike Davis, “Planet of Slums : Urban Involution and the Informal Proletariat...of Slums : Urban Involution and the Informal Prole- tariat,” New Left Review, No. 26, March–April 2004. Donovan, Nick, Malcolm Smart, Magui Moreno...that are challenging the state’s monopoly on the use of force.35 However, this rural locus for insurgents is gradually being eclipsed by urban

  12. Transforming the Army Division in an Era of Persistent Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-21

    conflict, where the future environment and adversary are less known and ill-defined, adaptive characteristics of Army units become increasingly important ...favor of other concepts. In fact, neither is true. The intent of transformation has not been realized, important aspects of transformation are...developing future. The Army and U.S. Marine Corps introduced Fourth Generation Warfare in 1989 as the end of the nation-state monopoly on organized

  13. [The nutmeg story].

    PubMed

    Uchibayashi, M

    2001-01-01

    A brief historical account of the spice islands, the Moluccas, in the Age of Discovery with particular reference to the Dutch monopoly of nutmeg is presented. The etymologies of such English terms as nutmeg (nut+musk), mace, myristica, date, and phoenix, as well as Chinese róu dóu kóu (Engl. nutmeg) and Japanese natsume (Engl. jujube) and natsume-yashi (Engl. date palm) are given.

  14. [Etymology of clove].

    PubMed

    Uchibayashi, M

    2001-01-01

    A very brief history of clove in Europe and Indonesia with particular reference to Dutch monopoly of clove in the spice islands, the Moluccas, is presented. The etymology of clove originates from the Greek word karuóphullon (káruon=nut+phúllon=leaf) and the Latin word caryophyllon, which were transformed to clou de girofle in Old French and clow of gilofer in Middle English. Further modification resulted in a separation into clove and gilly-flower.

  15. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    negotiate, and to develop a joint strategy to serve the greater cause. The placement of an advertisement by one of the negotiating partners at this time...price policy must assure that these develop - ments do not result in the formation of undesirable monopolies. Complete denationalization and...would require the expenditure of 30,000-40,000 forints per car. In more developed countries the consumers are encour- aged by tax breaks to purchase

  16. Michurinist Biology in the People's Republic of China, 1948-1956.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Michurinist biology was introduced to China in 1948; granted a state supported monopoly in 1952; and reduced to parity with western genetics from 1956. The Soviets exported it through the propaganda agencies Sino Soviet Friendship Association (SSFA) and VOKS (Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries). China's Ministry of Agriculture achieved broad public awareness and acceptance of Michurinist biology through a translation, publication, and Soviet guest speakers campaign - all managed by a team of agriculturalists led by Luo Tianyu, a veteran CCP (Communist Party) cadre. The campaign grew exponentially, but did not affect university or Chinese Academy of Sciences biology. Luo Tianyu's failed attempt to force Michurinist biology on a Beijing university triggered its second stage: monopoly status and a ban on "Mendelist-Morganist" biology in teaching, research, and publication. The CCP Central Committee supported this policy believing that Michurinst biology would increase agricultural production for the forthcoming first Five Year Plan; whereas, western genetics had no practical value. Michurinist biology flourished at all levels of education, research, and science literature; Western genetics was completely shut down. This only began to change when the CCP Central Committee became wary of China's dependency on Soviet technical expertise and failure to fully utilize that of China. Change was further promoted by significant attacks on Michurinist biology by Soviet and East German biologists. Soon, these developments informed China's "genetics question," which became a test case for larger questions about the definition of science and the relationship between scientists and the state. Under the guidance of Lu Dingyi's Central Committee Propaganda Department, the CCP eventually decided that, henceforth, science controversies would only be resolved by the science community; and that monopolies or ideological orthodoxies would not be imposed on science. At the same time

  17. Space WARC 1985 - Legal Issues and Implications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    both an international governmental organization, and an international corporation 165. INTELSAT Operating Agreement, T.I.A.S. 7532 (1971). The Operating...by their PTT. In the U.S. , government monopoly over telecommunications does not exist; the Communications Satellite Corporation (COMSAT) signed the...Arab Corporation for Space Communications (ARABSAT), was - formed by the countries of the Arab League in 1976, with the objective of establishing

  18. Today's utility business (or, Boy Scouts in the Temple of Mammon)

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, L.S.

    1993-06-01

    In the good old days of monopoly, it didn't matter so much how assets or liabilities were carried on the books. Today it matters very much. But in today's competitive environment it is even more important that utilities have a corporate strategy that takes advantage of their assets and is sensitive to both their customers and their competitors. In the good old days, electric utilities were natural monopolies. Regulators substituted their judgments for those of the marketplace, the utility's engineers managed the production process, its lawyers managed the regulators, and nobody managed the utility as a business. The utility was not a business. It was a quasi-governmental public service institution that - incidentally - threw off an ever-increasing dividend stream to shareholders who thought that they had purchased the equivalent of a bond that had an attached inflation hedge. The good old days are gone. The business is becoming a real one. Customers have choices. Yet the utility's accounting, managerial, and regulatory policies are rooted in the precepts of the old natural monopoly: the utility will always be the cheapest source of electricity, and customers will always need electricity.

  19. The social costs to the US of monopolization of the world oil market, 1972--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Leiby, P.N.

    1993-03-01

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the US over the period 1972--1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the US and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel's ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972--1991 period to a hypothetical more competitive'' world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader's judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing US oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing theeconomic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy's potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy's inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972--1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US's primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison.

  20. Generation expansion planning in a competitive electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Angela Shu-Woan

    This work investigates the application of non-cooperative game theory to generation expansion planning (GEP) in a competitive electricity industry. We identify fundamental ways competition changes the nature of GEP, review different models of oligopoly behavior, and argue that assumptions of the Cournot model are compatible with GEP. Applying Cournot theory of oligopoly behavior, we formulate a GEP model that may characterize expansion in the new competitive regime, particularly in pool-dominated generation supply industries. Our formulation incorporates multiple markets and is patterned after the basic design of the California ISO/PX system. Applying the model, we conduct numerical experiments on a test system, and analyze generation investment and market participation decisions of different candidate expansion units that vary in costs and forced outage rates. Simulations are performed under different scenarios of competition. In particular, we observe higher probabilistic measures of reliability from Cournot expansion compared to the expansion plan of a monopoly with an equivalent minimum reserve margin requirement. We prove several results for a subclass of problems encompassed by our formulation. In particular, we prove that under certain conditions Cournot competition leads to greater total capacity expansion than a situation in which generators collude in a cartel. We also show that industry output after introduction of new technology is no less than monopoly output. So a monopoly may lack sufficient incentive to introduce new technologies. Finally, we discuss the association between capacity payments and the issue of pricing reliability. And we derive a formula for computing ideal capacity payment rates by extending the Value of Service Reliability technique.

  1. Pushing up smoking incidence: plans for a privatised tobacco industry in Moldova.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Anna B; Radu-Loghin, Cornel; Zatushevski, Irina; McKee, Martin

    Moldova, one of the former Soviet republics and Europe's poorest country, has so far resisted pressure to privatise its tobacco industry. This paper examines the policies pursued by the transnational tobacco companies in Moldova in order to inform the ongoing debate about tobacco industry privatisation. We analysed relevant internal industry documents made public through litigation. The documents suggest that although a competitive tender for the state owned monopoly was later announced, British American Tobacco (BAT) and the German manufacturer Reemtsma each initially sought to secure a closed deal, with BAT accusing Reemtsma of underhand tactics. Imperial Tobacco, which now owns Reemstma, was unable to comment on these allegations as it only acquired Reemstma after the events in question. BAT sought to acquire a monopoly position, bolstered by excise rules developed by the company that would uniquely favour its products. Despite hoping to establish a monopoly, it planned intensive marketing, as if in a competitive market, aiming to target young urban dwellers, particularly opinion leaders. In so doing it predicted that smoking uptake would increase, especially among women. The documents also suggest that BAT was aware of the sensitive nature of its plans to cull the processing workforce and aimed to present "sanitised" information on future employment levels to the Moldovans. The potential for tobacco industry privatisation to undermine tobacco control and promote cigarette consumption is highlighted and is consistent with economic theory. Countries planning tobacco industry privatisation should ensure a transparent and competitive privatisation process, seek to prevent the predicted increase in consumption by implementing effective tobacco control policies and consider the impacts on employment. Multilateral financial organisations promoting tobacco industry privatisation could ensure their loan conditions protect public health by making the implementation of

  2. Processing of Spontaneous Emotional Responses in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effect of Stimulus Type

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Peter; Chapman, Peter; Ropar, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulty interpreting others' emotional responses, in order to work out what actually happened to them. It is unclear what underlies this difficulty; important cues may be missed from fast paced dynamic stimuli, or spontaneous emotional responses may be too complex for those with ASD to successfully recognise. To explore these possibilities, 17 adolescents and adults with ASD and 17 neurotypical controls viewed 21 videos and pictures of peoples' emotional responses to gifts (chocolate, a handmade novelty or Monopoly money), then inferred what gift the person received and the emotion expressed by the person while eye movements were measured. Participants with ASD were significantly more accurate at distinguishing who received a chocolate or homemade gift from static (compared to dynamic) stimuli, but significantly less accurate when inferring who received Monopoly money from static (compared to dynamic) stimuli. Both groups made similar emotion attributions to each gift in both conditions (positive for chocolate, feigned positive for homemade and confused for Monopoly money). Participants with ASD only made marginally significantly fewer fixations to the eyes of the face, and face of the person than typical controls in both conditions. Results suggest adolescents and adults with ASD can distinguish subtle emotion cues for certain emotions (genuine from feigned positive) when given sufficient processing time, however, dynamic cues are informative for recognising emotion blends (e.g. smiling in confusion). This indicates difficulties processing complex emotion responses in ASD. Autism Res 2015, 8: 534–544. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25735657

  3. Regulation and competition without privatization: Norway`s experience

    SciTech Connect

    Moen, J.; Hamrin, J.

    1996-03-01

    The competitive market for the hydro-based Norwegian electricity system is working well, with end-user prices only slightly above the wholesale market. Pool prices are reflecting only weather-related variations, and no market power abuses are evident. The challenge now is to restructure ownership of the wires and retail suppliers to lower wheeling costs and avoid cross-subsidization. Since the Norwegian Energy Act came into effect in 1991, the electricity industry in Norway has operated as one of the most deregulated electricity industries in the world. The Energy Act introduced third party access to the retail market and competition in electricity production. The generation, sale and purchase of electricity is now highly competitive, with customers free to buy electricity from any generator, trader or the electricity Pool. Transmission pricing was separated from power purchasing arrangements, so that the buying and selling of electricity as a product is distinct from the transmission of electricity as a service. Transmission and distribution networks continue to maintain natural monopolies, with network owners providing wheeling service across their networks to customers who are connected to them. These monopoly sectors of the industry are subject to regulation by the government-appointed regulatory body, Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration (NVE). Regulation is on a cost-of-service basis, with the revenue allowance determined by NVE. The main force behind the Norwegian reform was the desire for efficiency gains to be achieved through a total restructure of the commercial character of the energy service industry (ESI). Unlike the U.K., in Norway the monopoly franchise for both generation and retail supply was removed in one step without any transition period, and the old pool was reformed to provide the needed structure for this new competitive energy market.

  4. [Medicinal plants in France, between pharmacy and herb trade: historical and legislative aspects].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, H

    2015-09-01

    Medicinal plants are registered on the French Pharmacopoeia in its successive editions, the first dated 1818. The edition which is currently in force, the XIth (2012), comprises two plant lists drawn up by a working group of experts belonging to the ANSM: List A (medicinal plants traditionally used [365 plants]) and list B (medicinal plants with the ratio benefit/risk's evaluation negative [123 plants]). Moreover, a list of medicinal plants with non exclusive therapeutic use has been established. This last list is composed of 147 plants which are thus liberated from the pharmaceutical monopoly, in application of decrees n(o) 2008-839 and 2008-841 dated August 22nd 2008. Medicinal plants are a matter, in France, from pharmaceutical monopoly, which means that they can only be dispensed to public in pharmacy, according to article L. 4211-1/5° of the Public Health Code, except however for a certain number of plants "liberated" from this monopoly. Nevertheless, besides officinal pharmacists, herbalists who obtained their diploma as far as 1941, were habilitated to deliver medicinal plants, even non "liberated", on condition that they are not registered on a list of venomous substances nor classified among the stupefacients, according to the article L. 4211-7 of Public Health Code. Concerning plants for herbal teas, which should be differentiated from herbal teas classified among the herbal medicines, they can be delivered in mixtures form, which are considered as officinal preparations, according to the new French Pharmacopoeia monography of August 1st 2013.

  5. [Production of cinchona in the French empire: A. Yersin and E. Perrot].

    PubMed

    Delaveau, P; Clair, G

    1995-01-01

    In the wake of the war of 1914-1918, Professor E. Perrot and Dr A. Yersin were concerned with providing various territories of the French empire with sufficient cinchona resources to fight off malaria. This aim was particularly important in case of a conflict which could impede the supply of quinine due to the quasi-monopoly held by the Netherlands with their overseas possessions in Indonesia. Beginning with documents, in particular the correspondence held by the Museum of Materia Medica at the Faculty of Pharmacy in Paris, an attempt is made to illustrate the policy carried out with difficulty by Perrot and Yersin.

  6. Application of Core Theory to the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghavan, Sunder

    2003-01-01

    Competition in the airline industry has been fierce since the industry was deregulated in 1978. The proponents of deregulation believed that more competition would improve efficiency and reduce prices and bring overall benefits to the consumer. In this paper, a case is made based on core theory that under certain demand and cost conditions more competition can actually lead to harmful consequences for industries like the airline industry or cause an empty core problem. Practices like monopolies, cartels, price discrimination, which is considered inefficient allocation of resources in many other industries, can actually be beneficial in the case of the airline industry in bringing about an efficient equilibrium.

  7. Principles of economics crucial to pharmacy students' understanding of the prescription drug market.

    PubMed

    Rattinger, Gail B; Jain, Rahul; Ju, Jing; Mullins, C Daniel

    2008-06-15

    Many pharmacy schools have increased the amount of economics coursework to which pharmacy students are exposed in their prepharmacy and pharmacy curriculums. Students obtain competencies aimed at understanding the basic concepts of microeconomic theory, such as supply and demand. However, pharmacy students often have trouble applying these principles to real world pharmaceuticals or healthcare markets. Our objective is to make economics more relevant for pharmacy students. Specifically, we detail and provide pharmacy-relevant examples of the effects of monopoly power, barriers to marketplace entry, regulatory environment, third party insurance, information asymmetry and unanticipated changes in the marketplace on the supply and demand for pharmaceuticals and healthcare services.

  8. "IN ALL ITS HIDEOUS AND APPALLING NAKEDNESS AND TRUTH": THE RECEPTION OF SOME ANATOMICAL COLLECTIONS IN GEORGIAN AND VICTORIAN ENGLAND.

    PubMed

    Talairach-Vielmas, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the reception of some anatomical collections in Georgian and Victorian England. Both private medical museums and public anatomical museums reflected the central role played by anatomy in medical knowledge and education in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. However, because they were associated with death and sexuality, anatomical museums were both products of enlightenment science and potentially immoral loci likely to corrupt young and innocent women. But, as this article shows, the reasons behind the hostile receptions of some collections varied throughout the centuries, revealing in so doing the gradual professionalization of the medical field and growing monopoly of medical professionals over medical knowledge.

  9. The global tobacco epidemic. The next 25 years.

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, J

    1998-01-01

    The Transnational Commercial Tobacco Companies are expanding their empires--denying the health evidence on the effects of smoking; advertising and promoting their products in every corner of the earth; obstructing government action; overpowering national monopolies; and selling more and more cigarettes. Their grip on the big markets in developing countries will become stronger as they move their agriculture and manufacturing processes out of the United States, and by 2025 there may be no tobacco grown in the United States. Images p15-a p16-a p18-a p19-a PMID:9475929

  10. Competition in prescription drug markets: the roles of trademarks, advertising, and generic names.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Roger; Lobo, Félix

    2013-08-01

    We take on two subjects of controversy among economists-advertising and trademarks-in the context of the market for generic drugs. We outline a model in which trademarks for drug names reduce search costs but increase product differentiation. In this particular framework, trademarks may not benefit consumers. In contrast, the generic names of drugs or "International Nonproprietary Names" (INN) have unquestionable benefits in both economic theory and empirical studies. We offer a second model where advertising of a brand-name drug creates recognition for the generic name. The monopoly patent-holder advertises less than in the absence of a competitive spillover.

  11. Federal role and activities in energy research and development 1946-1980: an historical summary

    SciTech Connect

    Hewlett, R.G.; Dierenfield, B.J.

    1983-02-01

    The federal role in energy research and development has changed substantially in the three decades since World War II. In nuclear technology, the federal presence shifted from government monopoly in the 1940s and early 1950s, to a lesser federal role in the mid-1950s, as the private sector commercialized nuclear power, to an increasing federal role in the 1960s, but now focused on the breeder reactor as a long-term option. Conventional fuel technologies such as coal and oil enjoyed only modest federal support in the immediate postwar years, with only slow increases before 1974. Renewable energy technologies have received substantial federal support only since 1973.

  12. The delicate balance: Gazprom and Russia's competing and complementary roles in 21st century international relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, David

    Since the fall of the Soviet Union, many have accused Russia of using its energy monopoly Gazprom as a foreign policy tool in Europe. Those who believe this point to three gas disputes between Russia and Ukraine, which they see as punishment for Ukraine's democratic reforms. However, this argument fails to consider Gazprom's actions in terms of its goals of a corporation. This paper shows, through qualitative research and interviews, that Gazprom has goals independent of Russian foreign policy objectives, and that the company has embraced corporate values at a time when Russia is moving away from western liberal ideals.

  13. Competitive Electricity Market Regulation in the United States: A Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Flores-Espino, Francisco; Tian, Tian; Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya; Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya; Miller, Mackay

    2016-12-01

    The electricity system in the United States is a complex mechanism where different technologies, jurisdictions and regulatory designs interact. Today, two major models for electricity commercialization operate in the United States. One is the regulated monopoly model, in which vertically integrated electricity providers are regulated by state commissions. The other is the competitive model, in which power producers can openly access transmission infrastructure and participate in wholesale electricity markets. This paper describes the origins, evolution, and current status of the regulations that enable competitive markets in the United States.

  14. "Such a smoking nation as this I never saw...": smoking, nationalism, and manliness in nineteenth-century Hungary.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco smoking became an important marker of Hungarian national identity during the nineteenth century. this national symbol ultimately had an economic origin: Hungarian tobacco producers resisted the tobacco monopoly of the Habsburg central government, and led an ultimately successful consumer boycott of Austrian products. Tobacco nationalism, however, became a common theme in Hungarian popular culture in its own right, as tobacco use came to symbolize community and fraternity. The use of tobacco was also highly gendered; smoking as a metaphor for membership shows that the Hungarian nation was a gender-exclusive "national brotherhood."

  15. USGS Telecommunications Responding to Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hott, James L.

    1985-01-01

    The telecommunications industry is undergoing tremendous change due to the court ordered breakup of the monopoly once enjoyed by American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T). This action has resulted in a plethora of new services and products in all of the communications fields, including traditional voice and data. The new products are making extensive use of computer technology. At the same time, costs of telecommunications services have risen dramatically over the past three years. This article reviews some of the major actions that the Geological Survey has taken in response to these changes.

  16. From patenting genes to proteins: the search for utility via function.

    PubMed

    Ilag, Lawrence L; Ilag, Leodegario M; Ilag, Leodevico L

    2002-05-01

    The debate regarding the patenting of genes has extended into the post-genome era. With only approximately 35000 genes deduced from the draft sequence of the human genome, there are fears that a few companies have already gained monopoly on the potential benefits from this knowledge. Nevertheless, it is accepted that proteins determine gene function and function is not readily predicted from gene sequence. Furthermore, genes can encode multiple proteins and a single protein can have multiple functions. Here, we argue that unraveling the intrinsic complexity of proteins and their functions is the key towards determining the utility requirement for patenting protein inventions and consider the possible socioeconomic impact.

  17. Public-Private Partnerships in China’s Urban Water Sector

    PubMed Central

    Mol, Arthur P. J.; Fu, Tao

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China’s water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China. PMID:18256780

  18. Public-Private Partnerships in China's Urban Water Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lijin; Mol, Arthur P. J.; Fu, Tao

    2008-06-01

    During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China’s water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China.

  19. Power to the people: working-class demand for household power in 1930s Britain.

    PubMed

    Scott, Peter; Walker, James

    2011-01-01

    The 1930s witnessed an intense struggle between gas and electricity suppliers for the working class market, where the incumbent utility—gas—was also a reasonably efficient (and cheaper) General Purpose Technology for most domestic uses. Local monopolies for each supplier boosted substitution effects between fuel types—as alternative fuels constituted the only local competition. Using newly-rediscovered returns from a major national household expenditure survey, we employ geographically-determined instrumental variables, more commonly used in the industrial organization literature, to show that gas provided a significant competitor, tempering electricity prices, while electricity demand was also responsive to marketing initiatives.

  20. Jewish Medical Students and Graduates at the Universities of Padua and Leiden: 1617–1740*

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The first Jewish medical graduates at the University of Padua qualified in the fifteenth century. Indeed, Padua was the only medical school in Europe for most of the medieval period where Jewish students could study freely. Though Jewish students came to Padua from many parts of Europe the main geographical sources of its Jewish students were the Venetian lands. However, the virtual Padua monopoly on Jewish medical education came to an end during the seventeenth century as the reputation of the Dutch medical school in Leiden grew. For aspiring medieval Jewish physicians Padua was, for around three hundred years, the first, simplest, and usually the only choice. PMID:23908853

  1. [Generic and biosimilar drug substitution: a panacea?].

    PubMed

    Daly, M J; Guignard, B; Nendaz, M

    2015-10-14

    Drugs are the third largest source of expenditure under Switzerland's compulsory basic health insurance. Generics, the price of which should be at least 30 per cent less than the cost of the original drugs, can potentially allow substantial savings. Their approval requires bioequivalence studies and their use is safe, although some factors may influence patients' and physicians' acceptance. The increased substitution of biosimilar drugs for more expensive biotech drugs should allow further cost savings. In an attempt to extend the monopoly granted by the original drug patent, some pharmaceutical companies implement "evergreening" strategies including small modifications of the original substance for which the clinical benefit is not always demonstrated.

  2. Patent Pools: Intellectual Property Rights and Competition

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article is to present the relationship between patents and competition in a broad context. PMID:20200607

  3. Dynamical behavior of a discrete time Hogg-Huberman model with three resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, M.; Tanaka, T.; Takagi, N.; Shibata, J.

    2002-09-01

    The dynamical behavior of a discrete time Hogg-Huberman model with three resources 1-3 is investigated. The payoff function of resource 3 is assumed to be the same function as that of resource 2. It is found that when the control parameter takes certain values there are various states which are called the monopoly state of resource 1, and synchronized and asynchronized chaotic states with respect to the fractions of agents using resources 2 and 3. The effect of a reward mechanism based on the actual performance of agents is also calculated in this system.

  4. Some limits to evidence-based medicine: a case study from elective orthopaedics

    PubMed Central

    Ferlie, E.; Wood, M.; Fitzgerald, L.

    1999-01-01

    There has been growing interest in recent years in the application of the principles of evidence-based medicine (EBM), although implementation is complex. Scientific, organisational, and behavioural factors all combine to shape clinical behaviour change. Case study based qualitative data are presented which illuminate such processes within one clinical setting (elective orthopaedics), drawn from a larger study. It is suggested that (1) there are alternative models of what constitutes "evidence" in use; (2) scientific knowledge is in part socially constructed; and (3) clinical professionals retain a monopoly of technical knowledge. The implication is that there may be severe obstacles to the rapid or broad implementation of EBM. PMID:10557685

  5. Estimating population ecology models for the WWW market: evidence of competitive oligopolies.

    PubMed

    de Cabo, Ruth Mateos; Gimeno, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes adapting a particle filtering algorithm to model online Spanish real estate and job search market segments based on the Lotka-Volterra competition equations. For this purpose the authors use data on Internet information searches from Google Trends to proxy for market share. Market share evolution estimations are coherent with those observed in Google Trends. The results show evidence of low website incompatibility in the markets analyzed. Competitive oligopolies are most common in such low-competition markets, instead of the monopolies predicted by theoretical ecology models under strong competition conditions.

  6. Public or private water management: Experience from different European Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wackerbauer, Johann

    2008-11-01

    Faced with liberalisation proposals and an increasing internationalisation of water resource management, the question arises as to how a change of the regulatory framework would affect the market structure and the supply conditions in this area. While the term "privatisation" relates to the ownership structure of the providers, the term "liberalisation" implies extensive free market ideas. Privatisation involves the outsourcing of public services from the public authorities to a privately organised organisation. Through this, however, nothing needs to change in terms of the market or the intensity of competition for the commodity in question. Within the framework of privatisation it can also occur that the public monopoly is only transferred to a private monopoly. The term "liberalisation" in addition refers to the basic regulatory constraints: liberalisation signifies the cessation of limitations to competition and supply monopolies, and open competition between several suppliers for the consumers. In the EU-15, the only country where the provision of operational services in the water supply has been totally passed to the private sector is the UK, but this is only true for UK and Wales. Another singular case is France, where there is a mix of mainly private operating companies and municipalities which have divided the regional supply areas among themselves. In six other EU-15 countries where some privatisation took place, either the municipalities or (majority) publicly owned companies are controlling water supply. In the remaining seven countries, the water supply is organised by municipality companies only. In an international comparison, there are three basic models for the regulation of natural monopolies in the public water supply: the Anglo-Saxon, the French and the German model. The delimitation between supervisory bodies and operations in the water supply is strongest in the first model and weakest in the last. This has led to three basic types of

  7. [The regulatory regime and the health insurance industry in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the regulatory regime for health insurance and prepayment schemes in Brazil. It describes the ideas that have influenced the creation of the Agência Nacional de Saúde Suplementar-ANS (National Agency of Supplementary Health) in 2000, showing that the independent agency model was a direct result of the privatization process and of the induction of new competition mechanisms in a natural state monopoly. The paper concludes that the prepayment firms in Brazil are facing a new institutional environment as refers to their market entry or exit conditions.

  8. Retail competition in the electric-utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelmfelt, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    Regulation discourages competition between electric utilities that would lead to the duplication of distribution facilities or overlapping service territories. Fringe-area restraints can take the form of municipal franchise, state law, or some other form of agreement. Economists who believe that competition improves efficiency argue that regulation is inadequate as a substitute for competition and that natural monopoly theories are not always applied appropriately. Case studies confirm that the traditional assumptions are not compatible with the fact that competition between publicly-owned and investor-owned utilities has led to lower prices and increased sales. 1 figure. (DCK)

  9. The Panama Canal: An Analysis of Its Value and Defense.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-05

    8217! ’,20. AB’ST’-ACT ( ’mrth~ue an reversIe£ * fibI rac~saury affd idertf, by block number) ,’"."From the earliest days of European colonization , the...European colonization , the traffic crossing the Isthmus of Panama has been a primary source of income for the inhabitants. Surveys for the building of...purpose relating to the canal; the power to take, by eminent domain, lands, buildings or water rights in Panama City and Colon ; and a "monopoly" over

  10. Condensation in AN Economic Model with Brand Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casillas, L.; Espinosa, F. J.; Huerta-Quintanilla, R.; Rodriguez-Achach, M.

    We present a linear agent based model on brand competition. Each agent belongs to one of the two brands and interacts with its nearest neighbors. In the process the agent can decide to change to the other brand if the move is beneficial. The numerical simulations show that the systems always condenses into a state when all agents belong to a single brand. We study the condensation times for different parameters of the model and the influence of different mechanisms to avoid condensation, like anti monopoly rules and brand fidelity.

  11. The Politics of Revolutionary Development: Civil-Military Relations in Cuba, 1959-1976,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    la Revoluci ~ n Socialista," Cbra Revolucionarla, No. 46 (December 2 1961), 11-55. 14. The fusion of civilian and military roles In Cuba was first...document in and to ali ’t, o" n Of the author. are Protcte by law. ’- Cnet reproducton. of ,s4C in-:~whole or in Part !3~t~unz T h i q n rI af lv -.-r...dominant force in the revolu- ti nary movement. It held a mmopoly of arm and, In the person of its am- mner- n -hief, a monopoly of popular support. WM

  12. Raising the Barriers to Access to Medicines in the Developing World - The Relentless Push for Data Exclusivity.

    PubMed

    Diependaele, Lisa; Cockbain, Julian; Sterckx, Sigrid

    2017-04-01

    Since the adoption of the WTO-TRIPS Agreement in 1994, there has been significant controversy over the impact of pharmaceutical patent protection on the access to medicines in the developing world. In addition to the market exclusivity provided by patents, the pharmaceutical industry has also sought to further extend their monopolies by advocating the need for additional 'regulatory' protection for new medicines, known as data exclusivity. Data exclusivity limits the use of clinical trial data that need to be submitted to the regulatory authorities before a new drug can enter the market. For a specified period, generic competitors cannot apply for regulatory approval for equivalent drugs relying on the originator's data. As a consequence, data exclusivity lengthens the monopoly for the original drug, impairing the availability of generic drugs. This article illustrates how the pharmaceutical industry has convinced the US and the EU to impose data exclusivity on their trade partners, many of them developing countries. The key arguments formulated by the pharmaceutical industry in favor of adopting data exclusivity and their underlying ethical assumptions are described in this article, analyzed, and found to be unconvincing. Contrary to industry's arguments, it is unlikely that data exclusivity will promote innovation, especially in developing countries. Moreover, the industry's appeal to a property rights claim over clinical test data and the idea that data exclusivity can prevent the generic competitors from 'free-riding' encounters some important problems: Neither legitimize excluding all others.

  13. Electric industry restructuring in Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, J.W.

    1998-07-01

    A law restructuring the electric utility industry in Massachusetts became effective on November 25, 1997. The law will break up the existing utility monopolies into separate generation, distribution and transmission entities, and it will allow non-utility generators access to the retail end user market. The law contains many compromises aimed at protecting consumers, ensuring savings, protecting employees and protecting the environment. While it appears that the legislation recognizes the sanctity of independent power producer contracts with utilities, it attempts to provide both carrots and sticks to the utilities and the IPP generators to encourage renegotiations and buy-down of the contracts. Waste-to-energy contracts are technically exempted from some of the obligations to remediate. Waste-to-energy facilities are classified as renewable energy sources which may have positive effects on the value to waste-to-energy derived power. On November 25, 1997, the law restructuring the electric utility industry in Massachusetts became effective. The law will have two primary effects: (1) break up the existing utility monopolies into separate generation, distribution and transmission entities, and (2) allow non-utility generators access to the retail end-user market.

  14. Consumer preferences for over-the-counter drug retailers in the reregulated Swedish pharmacy market.

    PubMed

    Håkonsen, Helle; Sundell, Karolina Andersson; Martinsson, Johan; Hedenrud, Tove

    2016-03-01

    Following a large regulatory reform in 2009, which ended the state's pharmacy monopoly, non-pharmacy retailers in Sweden today sell certain over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate consumer preferences regarding OTC drug retailers and the reasons for choosing a pharmacy versus non-pharmacy retailer. We conducted a web survey aimed at Swedish adults. Out of a stratified sample of 4058 persons, 2594 agreed to take part (48% women; mean age: 50.3 years). Questions related to OTC drug use, retailer choice and factors affecting the participants' preferences for OTC drug retailers. Logistic regression was conducted to analyse OTC drug use and reasons for retailer choice in relation to sex, age and education. Nine in ten participants reported OTC drug use in the 6 months prior to the study. For their last OTC purchase, 76% had gone to a pharmacy, 20% to a grocery shop and 4% to a convenience store, gas station or online. Geographic proximity, opening hours and product range were reported as the most important factors in retailer choice. Counselling by trained staff was important to 57% of participants. The end of the state's pharmacy monopoly and the increase in number of pharmacies seem to have impacted more on Swedish consumers' purchase behaviours compared with the deregulation of OTC drug sales.

  15. Patents Associated with High-Cost Drugs in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Andrew F.; Dent, Chris; McIntyre, Peter; Wilson, Lachlan; Studdert, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Australia, like most countries, faces high and rapidly-rising drug costs. There are longstanding concerns about pharmaceutical companies inappropriately extending their monopoly position by “evergreening” blockbuster drugs, through misuse of the patent system. There is, however, very little empirical information about this behaviour. We fill the gap by analysing all of the patents associated with 15 of the costliest drugs in Australia over the last 20 years. Specifically, we search the patent register to identify all the granted patents that cover the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the high-cost drugs. Then, we classify the patents by type, and identify their owners. We find a mean of 49 patents associated with each drug. Three-quarters of these patents are owned by companies other than the drug's originator. Surprisingly, the majority of all patents are owned by companies that do not have a record of developing top-selling drugs. Our findings show that a multitude of players seek monopoly control over innovations to blockbuster drugs. Consequently, attempts to control drug costs by mitigating misuse of the patent system are likely to miss the mark if they focus only on the patenting activities of originators. PMID:23577165

  16. Applying commodity chain analysis to changing modes of alcohol supply in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, D H

    2000-12-01

    Development sociology has used global commodity chains as one way of analyzing the dynamics of power and profit-taking in globalized production networks made up of multiple firms and occurring in multiple national settings. A substantial portion of the alcohol supply in developing countries is now produced through such production networks. Particularly in the beer and spirits trade, a small number of transnational firms control networks of local producers, importers, advertisers and distributors. These networks serve to embed transnational or transnationally backed brands in the local culture, using the tools of market research, product design and marketing to influence local drinking practices. Case materials from Malaysia's beer industry help to illustrate how the transnational firms dominate in those links of the commodity chain in which monopoly or oligopoly control is most likely to be found: the design/recipe and marketing/advertising nodes. Their control of the commodity chains and extraction of monopoly or oligopoly profits from them places substantial resources and influence over drinking settings and practices in foreign hands. The impact of this influence on state efficacy and autonomy in setting alcohol policy is an important subject for future research on the creation and implementation of effective alcohol policies in developing societies.

  17. Do recent US Supreme Court rulings on patenting of genes and genetic diagnostics affect the practice of genetic screening and diagnosis in prenatal and reproductive care?

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; McGuire, Amy L; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B

    2014-10-01

    Thousands of patents have been awarded that claim human gene sequences and their uses, and some have been challenged in court. In a recent high-profile case, Association for Molecular Pathology, et al. v. Myriad Genetics, Inc., et al., the US Supreme Court ruled that genes are natural occurring substances and therefore not patentable through 'composition of matter' claims. The consequences of this ruling will extend well beyond ending Myriad's monopoly over BRCA testing and may affect similar monopolies of other commercial laboratories for tests involving other genes. It could also simplify intellectual property issues surrounding genome-wide clinical sequencing, which can generate results for genes covered by intellectual property. Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for common aneuploidies using cell-free fetal (cff) DNA in maternal blood is currently offered through commercial laboratories and is also the subject of ongoing patent litigation. The recent Supreme Court decision in the Myriad case has already been invoked by a lower district court in NIPT litigation and resulted in invalidation of primary claims in a patent on currently marketed cffDNA-based testing for chromosomal aneuploidies.

  18. Electronic publishing in radiology: economics and the future.

    PubMed

    Chew, Felix S; Llewellyn, Kevin T; Olsen, Kathryn M

    2004-11-01

    Scholarly publishing is a large market involving thousands of peer-reviewed journals but a decreasing number of publishers. An economic model can be described in which authors give their work to publishers who then sell access to this work. Because each published article is a unique work with few if any substitutes, publishers have some degree of monopoly power and can price their products accordingly. The advent of desktop publishing using personal computers made it possible for individuals to publish material without publishers, an activity that gained momentum when the publishing medium shifted from paper to electronic, and from electronic publishing to the Internet. This activity destabilized the industry, and in the rush to gain market share by providing free content, unsustainable business models were created. Scholarly publishing is now dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that acquired many smaller publishing operations. As these companies have exercised their monopoly power, an open access movement has gained traction in which authors (or their institutions) initially pay for publication, but readers have free and open access to the published articles. This movement is in diametric opposition to the commercial publishing model, and it remains to be seen whether and how well the two can coexist in the future.

  19. Smuggling as the “key to a combined market”: British American Tobacco in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Nakkash, R; Lee, K

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To understand the strategy of British American Tobacco (BAT) and other transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) to gain access to the Lebanese market, which has remained relatively closed under monopoly ownership and political instability. Methods: Analysis of internal industry documents, local language secondary sources and industry publications. Results: TTCs have relied on legal and illegal channels to supply the Lebanese market since at least the 1970s. Available documents suggest smuggling has been an important component of BAT’s market entry strategy, transported in substantial quantities via middlemen for sale in Lebanon and neighbouring countries. TTCs took advantage of weak and unstable governance, resulting in uncertainty over the Regie’s legal status, and continued to supply the contraband trade despite appeals by the government to cease undermining its revenues. Since the end of the civil war in the early 1990s, continued uncertainty about the tobacco monopoly amid political instability has encouraged TTCs to seek a legal presence in the country, while continuing to achieve substantial sales through contraband. Conclusion: Evidence of the complicity of TTCs in cigarette smuggling extends to Lebanon and the Middle East where this trade has especially benefited from weak governance and chronic political instability. The regional nature of TTC strategy supports strong international cooperation under the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to tackle the problem. PMID:18818226

  20. The Entry of Colombian-Sourced Heroin into the US Market: The Relationship between Competition, Price, and Purity

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Unick, Jay; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    There have been large structural changes in the US heroin market over the past 20 years. Colombian-sourced heroin entered the market in the mid-1990s, followed by a large fall in the price per pure gram and the exit of Asian heroin. By the 2000s, Colombian-sourced heroin had become a monopoly on the east coast and Mexican-sourced heroin a monopoly on the west coast with competition between the two in the middle. We estimate the relationship between these changes in competitive market structure on retail-level heroin price and purity. We find that the entry of Colombian-sourced heroin is associated with less competition and a lower price per pure gram of heroin at the national level. However, there is wide variation in changes in market concentration across the US. Controlling for the national fall in the heroin price, more competition in a region or city is associated with a lower price per pure gram. PMID:24211155

  1. Appropriation and commercialization of the Pasteur anthrax vaccine.

    PubMed

    Cassier, Maurice

    2005-12-01

    Whereas Pasteur patented the biotechnological processes that he invented between 1857 and 1873 in the agro-food domain, he did not file any patents on the artificial vaccine preparation processes that he subsequently developed. This absence of patents can probably be explained by the 1844 patent law in France that established the non-patentable status of pharmaceutical preparations and remedies, including those for use in veterinary medicine. Despite the absence of patents, the commercial exploitation of the anthrax vaccine in the 1880s and 1890s led to a technical and commercial monopoly by Pasteur's laboratory as well as the founding of a commercial company to diffuse the vaccine abroad. Pasteur repeatedly refused to transfer his know-how and anthrax vaccine production methods to foreign laboratories, on the grounds that he wished to control the quality of the vaccines produced. Indeed, it was relatively difficult to transfer a method that was not yet perfectly stabilized in the early 1880s. Pasteur also wanted to maintain the monopoly of his commercial company and to increase the profits from vaccine sales so that the Institut Pasteur could be financially independent. The 'Pasteur anthrax vaccine' operating licences are described and analysed in detail in this article.

  2. The entry of Colombian-sourced heroin into the US market: the relationship between competition, price, and purity.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Unick, George Jay; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    There have been large structural changes in the US heroin market over the past 20 years. Colombian-sourced heroin entered the market in the mid-1990s, followed by a large fall in the price per pure gram and the exit of Asian heroin. By the 2000s, Colombian-sourced heroin had become a monopoly on the east coast and Mexican-sourced heroin a monopoly on the west coast with competition between the two in the middle. We estimate the relationship between these changes in competitive market structure on retail-level heroin price and purity. We find that the entry of Colombian-sourced heroin is associated with less competition and a lower price per pure gram of heroin at the national level. However, there is wide variation in changes in market concentration across the US. Controlling for the national fall in the heroin price, more competition in a region or city is associated with a lower price per pure gram.

  3. Using MatContM in the study of a nonlinear map in economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neirynck, Niels; Al-Hdaibat, Bashir; Govaerts, Willy; Kuznetsov, Yuri A.; Meijer, Hil G. E.

    2016-02-01

    MatContM is a MATLAB interactive toolbox for the numerical study of iterated smooth maps, their Lyapunov exponents, fixed points, and periodic, homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits as well as their stable and unstable invariant manifolds. The bifurcation analysis is based on continuation methods, tracing out solution manifolds of various types of objects while some of the parameters of the map vary. In particular, MatContM computes codimension 1 bifurcation curves of cycles and supports the computation of the normal form coefficients of their codimension two bifurcations, and allows branch switching from codimension 2 points to secondary curves. MatContM builds on an earlier command-line MATLAB package CL MatContM but provides new computational routines and functionalities, as well as a graphical user interface, enabling interactive control of all computations, data handling and archiving. We apply MatContM in our study of the monopoly model of T. Puu with cubic price and quadratic marginal cost functions. Using MatContM, we analyze the fixed points and their stability and we compute branches of solutions of period 5, 10, 13 17. The chaotic and periodic behavior of the monopoly model is further analyzed by computing the largest Lyapunov exponents.

  4. Do recent US Supreme Court rulings on patenting of genes and genetic diagnostics affect the practice of genetic screening and diagnosis in prenatal and reproductive care?

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; McGuire, Amy L.; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B.

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of patents have been awarded that claim human gene sequences and their uses, and some have been challenged in court. In a recent high-profile case, Association for Molecular Pathology, et al. vs. Myriad Genetics, Inc., et al., the United States Supreme Court ruled that genes are natural occurring substances and therefore not patentable through “composition of matter” claims. The consequences of this ruling will extend well beyond ending Myriad's monopoly over BRCA testing, and may affect similar monopolies of other commercial laboratories for tests involving other genes. It could also simplify intellectual property issues surrounding genome-wide clinical sequencing, which can generate results for genes covered by intellectual property. Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for common aneuploidies using cell-free fetal (cff) DNA in maternal blood is currently offered through commercial laboratories and is also the subject of ongoing patent litigation. The recent Supreme Court decision in the Myriad case has already been invoked by a lower district court in NIPT litigation and resulted in invalidation of primary claims in a patent on currently marketed cffDNA-based testing for chromosomal aneuploidies. PMID:24989832

  5. The political economy of institutional change in the electricity supply industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufin, Carlos Ramon

    2000-09-01

    In the first part, a positive political economy model of the behavior of public enterprise, consumer electoral preferences, electoral platform choices of political parties, and side payments by production factors ("suppliers") to political parties, is used to analyze the political economy of choices among three alternative institutional arrangements: competition among private firms, private monopoly, or public enterprise monopoly. The analysis shows that political choices will be biased in favor of public enterprise, because consumers and suppliers benefit from its behavior. Voter and politician ideologies can temper or exacerbate this logic. Competition for economic rents increases the likelihood of public enterprise. Lastly, a weak judiciary can also make public enterprise likelier, but it creates uncertainty about parties' future actions and therefore it lowers the effectiveness of supplier side payments. In Part 2, the model's conclusions are tested for the electricity supply industry (ESI) across a cross-section of more than 80 countries. Coding is used to compute scores for observed outcomes with regard to reliance on competition versus monopoly and on private versus public ownership. Multiple indicators for the hypothesized explanatory variables are aggregated using factor analysis. OLS regressions show that ideology plays an important role in both competition and property outcomes, and to a lesser extent, distributional conflict, while judicial independence does not in general have a clear effect. In the last part, the validity of the same hypotheses is tested by means of a comparison of the process of restructuring of the ESI in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Chile. The case studies show that ideology plays a major role in shaping the outcomes of the institutional change process; distributional conflict, or the conflict over the economic rents that can be extracted from the electricity industry, also has a significant influence on institutional change

  6. Influence in the Policy Making Process: the Rise of Economics at the Expense of Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2007-12-01

    Scientific influence in resource policy making reached a zenith in the early 1970s during the legislative monopoly in the United States Congress that produced command and control regulatory protection policies. This congressional consensus began in 1879 with legislation producing the U.S. Geological Survey. Other scientific agencies followed. The Congresses of the first half of the 20th century merely strengthened the influence of science in policy outcomes that was present in the earliest congressional debates. What then happened at the turn of the 21st century when representatives in the administration frequently dismissed sound science in their policy deliberations? Policy monopolies arise from agreement in principle, and alternately decline as rival ideas gain hold in policy space. The science policy monopoly began to face competition from economics when cost benefit analysis was introduced into political parlance in 1936, again in the 1950s as a successful blocking tactic by the minority in opposition to western dams, and in 1961 when systems analysis was introduced to the Department of Defense under Robert McNamara. As businessmen replaced farmers as the modal profession of legislators, the language of politics increasingly contained economic terms and concepts. A ternary diagram and a budget simplex have the same shape, but have different theoretical meanings and imply different processes. Policy consensus is not dissimilar to a mineral phase diagram, with boundary conditions marked by election magnitudes and majority parties. The 1980 elections brought economic principles into all aspects of government decision-making, with a particular long-term interest in reducing the size and scope of government. Since then the shift in policy jargon from science to economics has been incremental. With the 1994 Republican legislative majority, scientists, their programs, and the funds required to maintain data collection projects became targets. The Conservative

  7. Compulsory licenses: a tool to improve global access to the HPV vaccine?

    PubMed

    Maybarduk, Peter; Rimmington, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer disproportionately affects women in lower- and middle-income countries. But the new vaccines developed to prevent infection with some strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV) that cause cervical cancer are priced beyond the reach of most women and health agencies in these regions, due in part to the monopoly pricing power of brand-name companies that hold the patents on the vaccines. Compulsory licenses, which authorize generic competition with patented products, could expand access to HPV vaccines under certain circumstances. If high-quality biogeneric HPV vaccines can be produced at low cost and be broadly and efficiently registered, and if Merck and GSK are unwilling to grant licenses on a voluntary basis, compulsory licensing could play a pivotal role in ensuring vaccinations against HPVare available to all, around the world, regardless of ability to pay.

  8. Public and private sector interactions: an economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Maynard, A

    1986-01-01

    The debate about the public-private mix for health care has been dominated by rhetoric and the failure to evaluate the characteristics of the outcomes of public and private health care systems and to relate these to policy targets. After a brief analysis of the competing, liberal (conservative) and collectivist (socialist), objectives, the nature of the private health care sector in Britain is described and it is shown that growth has faltered due to cost containment problems. This outcome is the product of characteristics of the private health care system, paralleled precisely in the NHS: asymmetry information, monopoly power, moral hazard and third party pays. The final section discusses briefly some remedies for the inefficient and inequitable outcomes which are seen in all health care markets and it is argued that competition within public and private health care systems may enable each system type to achieve its own particular objectives more efficiently.

  9. The dynamics of mergers and acquisitions: ancestry as the seminal determinant.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Eduardo; Cockburn, Stuart P; Jensen, Henrik J; West, Geoffrey B

    2014-11-08

    Understanding the fundamental mechanisms behind the complex landscape of corporate mergers and acquisitions is of crucial importance to economies across the world. Adapting ideas from the fields of complexity and evolutionary dynamics to analyse business ecosystems, we show here that ancestry, i.e. the cumulative sum of historical mergers across all ancestors, is the key characteristic to company mergers and acquisitions. We verify this by comparing an agent-based model to an extensive range of business data, covering the period from the 1830s to the present day and a range of industries and geographies. This seemingly universal mechanism leads to imbalanced business ecosystems, with the emergence of a few very large, but sluggish 'too big to fail' entities, and very small, niche entities, thereby creating a paradigm where a configuration akin to effective oligopoly or monopoly is a likely outcome for free market systems.

  10. The dynamics of mergers and acquisitions: ancestry as the seminal determinant

    PubMed Central

    Viegas, Eduardo; Cockburn, Stuart P.; Jensen, Henrik J.; West, Geoffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the fundamental mechanisms behind the complex landscape of corporate mergers and acquisitions is of crucial importance to economies across the world. Adapting ideas from the fields of complexity and evolutionary dynamics to analyse business ecosystems, we show here that ancestry, i.e. the cumulative sum of historical mergers across all ancestors, is the key characteristic to company mergers and acquisitions. We verify this by comparing an agent-based model to an extensive range of business data, covering the period from the 1830s to the present day and a range of industries and geographies. This seemingly universal mechanism leads to imbalanced business ecosystems, with the emergence of a few very large, but sluggish ‘too big to fail’ entities, and very small, niche entities, thereby creating a paradigm where a configuration akin to effective oligopoly or monopoly is a likely outcome for free market systems. PMID:25383025

  11. Entomology: Asian honeybees parasitize the future dead.

    PubMed

    Nanork, Piyamas; Paar, Jürgen; Chapman, Nadine C; Wongsiri, Siriwat; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2005-10-06

    The queen of a honeybee colony has a reproductive monopoly because her workers' ovaries are normally inactive and any eggs that they do lay are eaten by their fellow workers. But if a colony becomes queenless, the workers start to lay eggs, stop policing and rear a last batch of males before the colony finally dies out. Here we show that workers of the Asian dwarf red honeybee Apis florea from other colonies exploit this interval as an opportunity to move in and lay their own eggs while no policing is in force. Such parasitism of queenless colonies does not occur in the western honeybee A. mellifera and may be facilitated by the accessibility of A. florea nests, which are built out in the open.

  12. [Study of changes in Chinese herbal medicine distribution channel].

    PubMed

    Lv, Hua; Yang, Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-07-01

    Distribution channel of Chinese herbal medicines has been changing. From Han to Ming Dynasty, Chinese herbal medicine were mainly trafficked to urban by dealers or farmers; From the Ming Dynasty to the foundation of new China, distribution channels are primarily intermediated with township "bazaar" and national distribution center with fixed place and regularly trading hours. In the planned economy period, the state-owned herbal medicine company was the sole medium with monopoly nature. From the mid1980s to the end of last century, planned economy and market economy have been co-existing. Stepping into 21st century, producing area highlighted in the distribution channels. Presence or absence and rise or fall of different types of distribution market went throughout the changing process of distribution channels, which became an important clue. Changes were motivated by economical consideration of channel subject, which originated from commodity characteristic and social environment changes.

  13. Introduction to Intellectual Property: A U.S. Perspective.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Amanda; Stramiello, Michael; Lewis, Stacy; Irving, Tom

    2015-03-27

    This review introduces patents and trade secrets, the two mechanisms that U.S. law provides inventors to protect their inventions. These mechanisms are mutually exclusive: One demands disclosure and the other calls for concealment. Many biotechnology innovators opt for patents, which grant legal, time-limited monopolies to eligible inventions.To obtain a patent in the United States, an invention must be useful to the public and made or altered by the hand of man. It must then clear the hurdles of novelty and nonobviousness. If an invention can do that, obtaining a patent becomes a matter of form: Who qualifies as an inventor? Does the application demonstrate possession, stake a clear claim to the protection sought, and enable "ordinary" colleagues to replicate it? Has the inventor purposely withheld anything? This review addresses each of these hurdles as they apply to biotech inventions.

  14. Real versus facsimile reinforcers on the Iowa Gambling Task.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Caroline H; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2003-11-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (([Bechara et al., 1994]) is an effective neuropsychological tool for the assessment of 'real-life' decision-making in a laboratory environment. It has been employed in a wide range of circumstances, though researchers have sometimes employed real money reinforcers instead of the facsimile (or 'monopoly'-type) money used by. The present study investigated whether the type of reinforcer produced any differences in performance. There were no significant differences between the two conditions, though the Facsimile Money condition produced a greater range (and a higher standard deviation) than the Real Money condition. This finding is especially important when considering the Gambling Task as a tool in clinical neuropsychology--where there are risks, at the individual subject level, of both false positive and false negative classification errors.

  15. Epidemiology of oral cavity cancer in taiwan with emphasis on the role of betel nut chewing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Jen, Yee-Min; Wang, Bill-B; Lee, Jih-Chin; Kang, Bor-Hwang

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the epidemiological characteristics and the possible contributing etiology of oral cavity cancer in Taiwan. Data on oral cavity cancer from the period between 1986 and 1997 were compiled from the Taiwan Cancer Registry Annual Report. The amount of average annual consumption per person of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nut were extracted from the Annual Report of Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau and the Agriculture Counsel of Taiwan. The incidence of oral cavity cancer increased annually. Both the total and male incidence have increased substantially since 1993. Regarding the peak incidence, most cases were seen in the sixth to eighth decades of life. Multiple regression models indicated that 86.2% variation in the incidence of oral cavity cancer was explained by the annual average betel nut consumption per person. These results imply that those who chew betel nut belong to a high-risk group and require special consideration and attention regarding health education and health promotion.

  16. Opiate addiction and the entanglements of imperialism and patriarchy in Manchukuo, 1932-45.

    PubMed

    Smith, Norman

    2005-01-01

    In the Japanese colonial state of Manchukuo, opiate addiction was condemned by officials and critics alike. But the state-sponsored creation of a monopoly, opium laws, and rehabilitation programs failed to reduce rates of addiction. Further, official media condemnation of opiate addiction melded with local Chinese-language literature to stigmatise addiction, casing a negative light over the state's failure to realise its own anti-opiate agenda. Chinese writers were thus transfixed in a complex colonial environment in which they applauded measures to reduce harm to the local population while levelling critiques of Japanese colonial rule. This paper demonstrates how the Chinese-language literature of Manchukuo did not simply parrot official politics. It also delegitimised Japanese rule through opiate narratives that are gendered, consistently negative, and more critical of the state than might be expected in a colonial literature.

  17. Classical distributive justice and the European healthcare system: rethinking the foundations of European health care in an age of crises.

    PubMed

    Bauzon, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    The state subvention and distribution of health care not only jeopardize the financial sustainability of the state, but also restrict without a conclusive rational basis the freedom of patients to decide how much health care and of what quality is worth what price. The dominant biopolitics of European health care supports a healthcare monopoly in the hands of the state and the medical profession, which health care should be (re)opened to the patient's authority to deal directly for better basic health care. In a world where it is impossible for all to receive equal access to the best of basic health care, one must critically examine the plausible scope of the authority of the state to limit access to better basic health care. Classical distributive justice affords a basis for re-examining the current European ideology of equality, human dignity, and solidarity that supports healthcare systems with unsustainable egalitarian concerns.

  18. A Hard Sell: Factors Influencing the Interwar Adoption of Tungsten Carbide Cutting Tools in Germany, Britain, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Giffard, Hermione

    2015-10-01

    Cemented tungsten carbide cutting tools-virtually unknown to historians-came on the market in the late 1920s. Although existing literature alleges that their adoption was rapid and universal, contemporary data indicate that the rate of adoption in fact took many decades and varied greatly between the world's three leading industrialized economies of the time: Germany, England, and the United States. This article suggests that the explanation lies in differing national environments for innovation in the interwar period. It looks at many features that influence adoption by users and argues that the feature emphasized in the literature, increased cutting speed, was not the primary consideration behind adoption, but rather metal shortages. It thereby casts doubt on what measures of national productivity show. The case raises important questions about the use of production efficiency to make international comparisons and about the role of patent monopolies in introducing production innovations.

  19. Historical Review: Problematic Malaria Prophylaxis with Quinine.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2016-08-03

    Quinine, a bitter-tasting, short-acting alkaloid drug extracted from cinchona bark, was the first drug used widely for malaria chemoprophylaxis from the 19th century. Compliance was difficult to enforce even in organized groups such as the military, and its prophylaxis potential was often questioned. Severe adverse events such as blackwater fever occurred rarely, but its relationship to quinine remains uncertain. Quinine prophylaxis was often counterproductive from a public health viewpoint as it left large numbers of persons with suppressed infections producing gametocytes infective for mosquitoes. Quinine was supplied by the first global pharmaceutical cartel which discouraged competition resulting in a near monopoly of cinchona plantations on the island of Java which were closed to Allied use when the Japanese Imperial Army captured Indonesia in 1942. The problems with quinine as a chemoprophylactic drug illustrate the difficulties with medications used for prevention and the acute need for improved compounds.

  20. [The impact of researchers loyal to Big Pharma on the ethics and quality of clinical trials in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Ugalde, Antonio; Homedes, Núria

    2015-03-01

    This article explains the difficulties innovative pharmaceutical firms have in repaying shareholders with attractive dividends. The problem is the result of the expiration of the patents of blockbuster drugs and the difficulties that the firms have in bringing new blockbuster drugs to the market. One of the solutions companies have found has been to accelerate the implementation of clinical trials in order to expedite the commercialization of new drugs. Doing so increases the period in which they can sell drugs at monopoly prices. We therefore discuss how innovative pharmaceutical firms shorten the implementation time of clinical trials in Latin America and the consequences such actions have on the quality of the collected data, the protection of human rights of the subjects of experimentation, and compliance with the ethical principles approved in international declarations.

  1. Views on world markets - Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Passmore, J.

    1996-12-31

    If {open_quotes}market{close_quotes} is defined by hardware in the ground (as it should be), then the Canadian wind power market has been virtually non-existent (only 23 MW to date). The potential on the other hand is enormous (6400 MW likely to be developed). This potential has not been pursued because of unregulated electric utility monopolies, lack of political knowledge and interest, and punitive tax treatment for renewables. Recent initiatives including utility restructuring, federal plans for green power procurement, and proposed tax measures suggest that situation has potential for change. Interested parties should start familiarizing themselves with the Canadian players / market now, in order to be ready to move when the time comes (likely in the next three years). 3 tabs.

  2. A thing patented is a thing divulged: Francis E. Stewart, George S. Davis, and the legitimization of intellectual property rights in pharmaceutical manufacturing, 1879-1911.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Joseph M

    2009-04-01

    This article examines the efforts of pharmacist and physician Francis E. Stewart to legitimize the commercial introduction of new drugs by reinterpreting the ethical status of patent rights in pharmaceutical manufacturing. I argue that patents had long been understood by the orthodox medical community as an unethical form of medical monopoly and that, as a result, drug companies that marketed their goods primarily to physicians in the years immediately following the Civil War had little room to develop or introduce new products. In collaboration with George S. Davis and the pharmaceutical manufacturing firm Parke, Davis, & Company, Stewart worked to redefine patents as an ethical means of encouraging scientific and commercial innovation. In doing so, he sought to reconcile medical science and commerce so that they were mutually beneficial to one another. However, I also suggest that his efforts had an ironic effect in that they helped legitimatize a form of patent protection that Stewart himself came to believe to be unethical in nature.

  3. Ocular Defect Rehabilitation Using Photography and Digital Imaging: A Clinical Report.

    PubMed

    Buzayan, Muaiyed M; Ariffin, Yusnidar T; Yunus, Norsiah; Mahmood, Wan Adida Azina Binti

    2015-08-01

    Ocular disorders occasionally necessitate surgical intervention that may lead to eye defects. The primary objective in restoring and rehabilitating such defects with an ocular prosthesis is to enable patients to cope better with associated psychological stress and to return to their accustomed lifestyle. A series of detailed steps for custom-made ocular prosthesis fabrication using the advantages of digital photography to replace the conventional oil paint and monopoly iris painting technique are presented in this article. In the present case, a digital photograph of the patient's iris was captured using a digital camera and manipulated on a computer using graphic software to produce a replica of the natural iris. The described technique reduces treatment time, increases simplicity, and permits the patient's natural iris to be replicated without the need for iris painting and special artistic skills.

  4. Limitations on the obligation to provide access to electric transmission and distribution lines

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, F.L. IV; Early, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    The authors examine the limited availability of wheeling under the Federal Power Act, as amended by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act. They demonstrate that the adoption of the essential facilities doctrine to determine possession of monopoly power may be a positive step toward more realistic analysis of refusals to deal by regulated companies. Without objective cost standards, however, to determine whether a facility is essential, this step may be counterproductive or even meaningless. In the context of requests to wheel, they identify the specific competition to be protected and the proper standards for determining whether a facility is essential. The obligation to wheel remains an uncertainty which the courts will resolve on a case-by-case basis. The scope of legitimate business conduct, however, can be clarified by the courts and, potentially, could be resolved to limit further a utility's obligation to wheel. 146 references.

  5. Why medical professionals have no moral claim to conscientious objection accommodation in liberal democracies.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, Udo; Smalling, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    We describe a number of conscientious objection cases in a liberal Western democracy. These cases strongly suggest that the typical conscientious objector does not object to unreasonable, controversial professional services-involving torture, for instance-but to the provision of professional services that are both uncontroversially legal and that patients are entitled to receive. We analyse the conflict between these patients' access rights and the conscientious objection accommodation demanded by monopoly providers of such healthcare services. It is implausible that professionals who voluntarily join a profession should be endowed with a legal claim not to provide services that are within the scope of the profession's practice and that society expects them to provide. We discuss common counterarguments to this view and reject all of them.

  6. Political economy of tobacco control in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chantornvong, S.; McCargo, D.

    2001-01-01

    Thailand has some of the world's strongest anti-tobacco legislation. This paper examines the political economy of tobacco control in Thailand, emphasising the identification of forces which have supported and opposed the passage of strong anti-tobacco measures. It argues that while a powerful tobacco control coalition was created in the late 1980s, the gains won by this coalition are now under threat from systematic attempts by transnational tobacco companies to strengthen their share of the Thai cigarette market. The possible privatisation of the Thailand Tobacco Monopoly could threaten the tobacco control cause, but the pro-control alliance is fighting back with a proposed Health Promotion Act which would challenge the tobacco industry with a hypothecated excise tax dedicated to health awareness campaigns.


Keywords: anti-tobacco legislation; political economy; Thailand; transnational tobacco companies PMID:11226361

  7. Can Dufour's gland compounds honestly signal fertility in the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Aniruddha; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2011-02-01

    Unlike queens of typical primitively eusocial species, Ropalidia marginata queens are docile and non-interactive, and hence cannot be using dominance to maintain their status. It appears that the queen maintains reproductive monopoly through a pheromone, of which the Dufour's gland is at least one source. Here, we reconfirm earlier results showing that queens and workers can be correctly classified on a discriminant function using the compositions of their respective Dufour's glands, and also demonstrate consistent queen-worker differences based on categories of compounds and on single compounds also in some cases. Since the queen pheromone is expected to be an honest signal of the fecundity of a queen, we investigate the correlation of Dufour's gland compounds with ovarian activation of queens. Our study shows that Dufour's gland compounds in R. marginata correlate with the state of ovarian activation of queens, suggesting that such compounds may portray the fecundity of a queen, and may indeed function as honest signals of fertility.

  8. Natural gas demand surges among European customers

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1993-12-27

    Europe's view of natural gas as a clean fuel is driving demand faster than European producers can supply the fuel. By 2010 European gas demand is expected to rise by 50%, so imports will need to rise in step. There are plenty of gas reserves within and in reach of the European market to meet increasing needs. But current low gas prices in Europe are a barrier to development of gas projects, which are large, long term investments. Meanwhile, the structure of Europe and its gas markets is changing. There is a trend to privatization and uncertainty over the future role of state gas monopolies. The paper discusses European production, natural gas as a primary energy source, gas sources, price requirements, megaprojects, the Middle East promise, new infrastructure, power generation, privatization, and third party access.

  9. Advertising cadavers in the republic of letters: anatomical publications in the early modern Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Margócsy, Dániel

    2009-06-01

    This paper sketches how late seventeenth-century Dutch anatomists used printed publications to advertise their anatomical preparations, inventions and instructional technologies to an international clientele. It focuses on anatomists Frederik Ruysch (1638-1732) and Lodewijk de Bils (1624-69), inventors of two separate anatomical preparation methods for preserving cadavers and body parts in a lifelike state for decades or centuries. Ruysch's and de Bils's publications functioned as an 'advertisement' for their preparations. These printed volumes informed potential customers that anatomical preparations were aesthetically pleasing and scientifically important but did not divulge the trade secrets of the method of production. Thanks to this strategy of non-disclosure and advertisement, de Bils and Ruysch could create a well-working monopoly market of anatomical preparations. The 'advertising' rhetorics of anatomical publications highlight the potential dangers of equating the growth of print culture with the development of an open system of knowledge exchange.

  10. Petroleum policy and Mexican domestic politics: left opposition, regional dissidence, and official apostasy

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, E.J.

    1980-07-01

    The economic significance of petroleum is affecting Mexico's political system and will challenge socio-economic changes as they develop. A case study of Mexico illustrates how a developing petroleum industry can lubricate the process of political change to a more-participatory democracy as increased mobilization and rising expectations trigger political reforms. The analysis traces opposition forces reacting to the state oil monopoly PEMEX's decision to build a gas pipeline to the US, the disruption of massive labor migrations to the oil fields, and the initiatives to amend the constitution to allow land appropriations. It suggests that these forces can push the political structure to either the right or the left. The analysis is compared with the situations in Iran and Venezuela, where the socio-economic picture is less encouraging than in Mexico. 69 references. (DCK)

  11. Can hospitals compete on quality? Hospital competition.

    PubMed

    Sadat, Somayeh; Abouee-Mehrizi, Hossein; Carter, Michael W

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we consider two hospitals with different perceived quality of care competing to capture a fraction of the total market demand. Patients select the hospital that provides the highest utility, which is a function of price and the patient's perceived quality of life during their life expectancy. We consider a market with a single class of patients and show that depending on the market demand and perceived quality of care of the hospitals, patients may enjoy a positive utility. Moreover, hospitals share the market demand based on their perceived quality of care and capacity. We also show that in a monopoly market (a market with a single hospital) the optimal demand captured by the hospital is independent of the perceived quality of care. We investigate the effects of different parameters including the market demand, hospitals' capacities, and perceived quality of care on the fraction of the demand that each hospital captures using some numerical examples.

  12. Child toy safety: An interdisciplinary approach to unravel the microbiological hazard posed by soap bubbles.

    PubMed

    Amoruso, Irene; Bertoncello, Chiara; Caravello, Gianumberto; Giaccone, Valerio; Baldovin, Tatjana

    2015-11-01

    In 2012 some children developed sepsis after playing together with a soap bubble toy. Microbiological testing revealed heavy contamination of the soap solution, which reasonably represented the vehicle of infection. We investigated the issue with a multidisciplinary approach: review of toy safety legislation; microbiological testing of additional samples; query of the RAPEX database for non-compliant soap bubbles; identification of major manufacturing districts. Microbiological contamination of industrial soap bubbles was widespread. Sixty-three notifications of batches contaminated by environmental microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens had been reported. The Chinese had a virtual monopoly of the soap bubble market. We identified two main manufacturing districts in Guangdong Province, both notable for degradation of their water resources. The use of untreated water for the industrial production of soap bubbles may explain the bacterial contamination. Existing legislation provides an unsatisfactory approach for managing microbiological hazards in sensitive toy categories and for identifying responsible parties in import and export of the products.

  13. Stranded cost recovery presents stumbling block to open access

    SciTech Connect

    Del Roccili, J.A.

    1996-04-01

    Much of the impetus for the movement to competitive power markets is a result of the tremendous variance in energy prices across the country. Large commercial and industrial customers are becoming increasingly aware of these discrepancies and are marshaling the market and political forces required to guarantee the eventual development of a national open-access transmission policy. Such a policy will facilitate competition and equalize prices on a regional, and to some extent, national level. The stumbling block, however, is the recovery of stranded investment. Under traditional regulation, historical costs could be collected through approved rates for a bundled service. With the protection of a monopoly franchise, average electricity prices provide the possibility of cost recovery for assets that might not be recoverable in a competitive market.

  14. Focus on finance

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, L.S.

    1986-02-01

    Current controversy over utility regulation addresses the need to see that utilities do not take advantage of their monopoly position to charge unjustified rates. The motivation for recent debate appears to be political. If regulation does not allow a fair rate of return to the investor, the utility will not be able to attract the investment funds it needs to provide the service required by its franchise. The move toward deregulation would only be a negative step if it cuts off the investor, and would be a plus for those utilities not saddled with expensive construction projects and excess capacity. Fairness is the key to positive deregulation. It is possible that nuclear companies will be the long-term winners in a competitive environment.

  15. Can Dentistry Have Two Contracts with the Public?

    PubMed

    Nash, David A

    2015-01-01

    The social contract is an implicit agreement between parts of society and society as a whole. Since the Middle Ages, the learned professions, recently including dentistry, have had a covenantal relationship with the public based on trust, exchanging monopoly privileges for benefiting the public good. Unlike commercial trade in commodities, professional relationships are grounded in ensuring an adequate level of oral health to all. A second contract is emerging where dentists relate to society as business operators, exchanging commodity services for a price. Recent actions by the Federal Trade Commission and the U.S. Supreme Court make it unlikely that dentistry will be able to enjoy only selected aspects of each contract while avoiding obligations that it finds unfavorable.

  16. Competition among hospitals.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, Martin; Vogt, William B

    2003-01-01

    We examine competition in the hospital industry, in particular the effect of ownership type (for-profit, not-for-profit, government). We estimate a structural model of demand and pricing in the hospital industry in California, then use the estimates to simulate the effect of a merger. California hospitals in 1995 face an average price elasticity of demand of -4.85. Not-for-profit hospitals face less elastic demand and act as if they have lower marginal costs. Their prices are lower than those of for-profits, but markups are higher. We simulate the effects of the 1997 merger of two hospital chains. In San Luis Obispo County, where the merger creates a near monopoly, prices rise by up to 53%, and the predicted price increase would not be substantially smaller were the chains not-for-profit.

  17. Professionalism and medicine's social contract with society.

    PubMed

    Cruess, Sylvia R

    2006-08-01

    Medicine's relationship with society has been described as a social contract: an "as if" contract with obligations and expectations on the part of both society and medicine, "each of the other". The term is often used without elaboration by those writing on professionalism in medicine. Based on the literature, society's expectations of medicine are: the services of the healer, assured competence, altruistic service, morality and integrity, accountability, transparency, objective advice, and promotion of the public good. Medicine's expectations of society are: trust, autonomy, self-regulation, a health care system that is value-driven and adequately funded, participation in public policy, shared responsibility for health, a monopoly, and both non-financial and financial rewards. The recognition of these expectations is important as they serve as the basis of a series of obligations which are necessary for the maintenance of medicine as a profession. Mutual trust and reasonable demands are required of both parties to the contract.

  18. Policies for regulation of direct broadcast satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setzer, F. O.; Franca, B. A.; Cornell, N. W.

    1980-09-01

    The potential market for satellite to home television broadcasting was examined and recommendations were made to the FCC concerning appropriate regulatory policies for direct broadcast satellites (DBS) for the period following the 1983 Regional Administrative Radio Conference (RARC). It is concluded that many substitutes for DBS will be available in the market for subscription video programming. Either conventional broadcast regulation, which assumes scarcity of channels, nor common carrier regulation, which assumes monopoly power will be appropriate. The report recommends several functions the Commission should perform because of its spectrum allocation responsibilities, but recommends that the Commission make no rules concerning compatibility, signal quality, ownership of receiving equipment, program content, prices, service offerings, or control of channels.

  19. Using auctions for contracting with hospitals when quality matters.

    PubMed

    Mougeot, Michel; Naegelen, Florence

    2003-03-01

    This paper analyzes the problem of contracting with hospitals with hidden information when the number of patients wanting treatment depends on the quality of health care services offered. The optimal policy is characterized in the case of a single hospital. It is demonstrated that the regulator can reduce the information rent by decreasing the quality. When the regulator is assumed to be able to organize an auction for awarding the right to provide the service, we characterize the optimal auction and the first score tendering procedure implementing it. The regulator can reimburse a unit price per treated patient and let the hospital choose the level of quality. It is proved that the expected quality of health care services is greater and the expected payment is lower than in the monopoly case.

  20. [Social actors and phenomenologic modelling].

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Simon

    2012-05-01

    The phenomenological approach has a quasi-monopoly in the individual and subjectivity analyses in social sciences. However, the conceptual apparatus associated with this approach is very restrictive. The human being has to be understood as rational, conscious, intentional, interested, and autonomous. Because of this, a large dimension of human activity cannot be taken into consideration: all that does not fit into the analytical categories (nonrational, nonconscious, etc.). Moreover, this approach cannot really move toward a relational analysis unless it is between individuals predefined by its conceptual apparatus. This lack of complexity makes difficult the establishment of links between phenomenology and systemic analysis in which relation (and its derivatives such as recursiveness, dialectic, correlation) plays an essential role. This article intends to propose a way for systemic analysis to apprehend the individual with respect to his complexity.

  1. Study on spatial structure of retailing based on GIS in the city of Wuhan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-liang; Tian, Ying

    2008-10-01

    With the agility of market economy, the characteristic of market spatial structure becomes more complex since the reformation and open policy. The spatial structure has broken through the traditional framework which is non-equilibriums and scattered, and represented such modern development character as diversification, grade, network, and non-equilibrium. This paper chooses 200 stochastic retailing stores whose acreages all exceed 40m2 in the four circles of Wuhan city, after the analysis of spatial difference on acreages, number, population density, and manage forms with GIS spatial methods, and makes a conclusion that the retailing spatial structure of Wuhan city has took on figure of rating circle wholly and frame of centralization-diffusion and enchasing partially; as location is concerned, centralization and diffusion takes place simultaneously, has behaved that retailing concentrated in heartland of city with more favorable traffic and market location by the means of market infiltration, and distributed in suburb more dispersive by market monopoly.

  2. Status of the profession

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Peter B.; Beichman, Charles A.; Abt, Helmut A.; Bauer, Wendy Hagen; Burbidge, Geoffrey; Cochran, Anita L.; Dorfman, Robert; Harris, Hugh; Havlen, Robert; Jones, Christine

    1991-01-01

    The number of astronomers has grown by about 40 percent over the past decade. The number of astronomers with jobs in industry, or with long-term, non-tenured, jobs has increased dramatically compared with traditional faculty positions. The increase in the number of astronomers and the declining share of the NSF budget going to astronomy has led to extreme difficulties in the NSF grant program and in support of the National Observatories. In 1989, direct NASA support of astronomers through the grants program exceeds that of NSF, although the total of the NSF grants program over decade far exceeds that of NASA. Access to major new telescopes will be important issue for the 1990s. US astronomers, who once had a monopoly on telescopes larger than 3 meters, will, by the year 2000, have access to just half of the world's optical telescope area.

  3. Uncovering the global life cycles of the rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T E

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging, critical technologies. Knowledge of the life cycles of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in their future availability. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supplies vulnerable to short and long-term disruption. To provide an improved perspective we derived the first quantitative life cycles (for the year 2007) for ten REE: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), and yttrium (Y). Of these REE, Ce and Nd in-use stocks are highest; the in-use stocks of most REE show significant accumulation in modern society. Industrial scrap recycling occurs only from magnet manufacture. We believe there is no post-customer recycling of any of these elements.

  4. Uncovering the Global Life Cycles of the Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T. E.

    2011-11-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging, critical technologies. Knowledge of the life cycles of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in their future availability. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supplies vulnerable to short and long-term disruption. To provide an improved perspective we derived the first quantitative life cycles (for the year 2007) for ten REE: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), and yttrium (Y). Of these REE, Ce and Nd in-use stocks are highest; the in-use stocks of most REE show significant accumulation in modern society. Industrial scrap recycling occurs only from magnet manufacture. We believe there is no post-customer recycling of any of these elements.

  5. The changing face of international space cooperation - One view of NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    It is pointed out that from its earliest years NASA has incorporated international participation into many of its programs. Guidelines were developed with the objective to maximize the benefits of international cooperation. The cooperative guidelines were accepted because they reflected conditions which applied during much or all of the 1960-1980 period. There existed a clear technology and experience gap between the U.S. and even its largest cooperative partners. Thus, the U.S. enjoyed a virtual Free World monopoly on launching large satellites, especially those destined for geostationary or interplanetary orbits. However, on the basis of new developments, NASA faces now a modified international operating environment, in which the U.S. technological lead has been significantly reduced. The results of this situation are examined, taking into account the equalization of capabilities, the rise of commercial competition, Soviet competition, multinational patterns, and reduced cooperative opportunities.

  6. AJOG against homebirth.

    PubMed

    Cohain, Judy Slome

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, while 99.3% of US women delivered in hospital, 0.7% delivered at home. In response to this slight rise in homebirths, The American Journal of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (AJOG) issued a warning to all doctors and midwives to refuse to attend homebirth under all circumstances. In the absence of respected medical research showing planned homebirth to be unsafe, their recommendation is based on a single maternal death reported in the Daily Mail. American obstetrics is so profit-orientated that it is willing to use misquoted newspaper articles as ammunition and pretend that 277 women don't die in the US annually from cesarean surgery at planned hospital births. AJOG articles are nothing more than publicity stunts created in an effort to maintain a monopoly on birth and not to forfeit even a small amount of business to competitors.

  7. Worldwide expansion of transnational tobacco industry.

    PubMed

    Connolly, G N

    1992-01-01

    As smoking rates fall in North America and western Europe, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) from the United States and Great Britain turn to cigarette markets of the developing world to replace those smokers who have quit or died from smoking. The majority of these markets are dominated by state tobacco monopolies that advertise and promote smoking minimally. Few women or adolescents smoke in those nations. The majority of men do, but they smoke far fewer cigarettes per year than their counterparts in developed nations. Trade barriers in the developing world prevent foreign cigarette companies from entering. TTCs employ various techniques to force open those markets, including trade pressure from the US government. Once the market is open, Western cigarette advertising and promotions target nonsmoking women and children. Retail tobacco outlets increase, smoking rates rise, and more death and disease result. Latin America was the TTC target in the 1960s, the newly developed nations of Asia during the 1980s, and, today, the tobacco giants are pushing into eastern Europe, China, and Africa. If nothing is done, emerging national smoking-control programs will be overwhelmed, and state-owned cigarette monopolies will be taken over by the TTCs. Policies and programs to curb smoking exist, but for various reasons many lesser developed countries have not adopted them. The threat of TTC entry into a closed market offers an opportunity to form national coalitions against smoking, educate the public about the dangers of tobacco use, and implement public health policies and programs to restrict marketing and use of cigarettes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Grain Handling and Transportation Policy in Canada: Implications for the United States

    DOE PAGES

    Nolan, James; Peterson, Steven K

    2015-08-01

    The grain handling and transportation system in Canada (GHTS) is currently going through a major transition, both with respect to handling and transportation. Historically, the system has pitted farmers against the railways with respect to securing individual fair shares of grain revenues. But with the removal of the single desk marketing and logistics function of the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) in late 2012, a very interesting and potentially game-changing outcome is emerging with respect to the new functionality of the grain companies in the Canadian system. While historical awareness of rail s natural monopoly position in the grain handling systemmore » has kept that sector regulated (in several ways) for close to a century, we are now starting to see the effects of a less than competitive Canadian grain handling sector on revenue sharing, along with renewed movement in the industry with respect to buyouts and potential mergers. This overview will highlight some of the changes now occurring and how they are potentially going to interact or evolve as the system moves forward. For example, the on-going regulatory instrument used to regulate grain transportation rates in Canada (called the maximum revenue entitlement (MRE) or revenue cap) is under current debate because of the introduction a few months ago of a modification to an old regulatory instrument known as extended (or reciprocal) interswitching. As opposed to the revenue cap which is a direct intervention on monopoly behavior, extended interswitching is designed to encourage the major Canadian grain carriers to compete with one another and potentially seek out new traffic (Nolan and Skotheim, 2008). But the most intriguing aspect of extended interswitching is how it might allow a major rail carrier from the U.S. to solicit grain traffic in some areas of the Canadian grain transportation system.« less

  9. Grain Handling and Transportation Policy in Canada: Implications for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, James; Peterson, Steven K

    2015-08-01

    The grain handling and transportation system in Canada (GHTS) is currently going through a major transition, both with respect to handling and transportation. Historically, the system has pitted farmers against the railways with respect to securing individual fair shares of grain revenues. But with the removal of the single desk marketing and logistics function of the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) in late 2012, a very interesting and potentially game-changing outcome is emerging with respect to the new functionality of the grain companies in the Canadian system. While historical awareness of rail s natural monopoly position in the grain handling system has kept that sector regulated (in several ways) for close to a century, we are now starting to see the effects of a less than competitive Canadian grain handling sector on revenue sharing, along with renewed movement in the industry with respect to buyouts and potential mergers. This overview will highlight some of the changes now occurring and how they are potentially going to interact or evolve as the system moves forward. For example, the on-going regulatory instrument used to regulate grain transportation rates in Canada (called the maximum revenue entitlement (MRE) or revenue cap) is under current debate because of the introduction a few months ago of a modification to an old regulatory instrument known as extended (or reciprocal) interswitching. As opposed to the revenue cap which is a direct intervention on monopoly behavior, extended interswitching is designed to encourage the major Canadian grain carriers to compete with one another and potentially seek out new traffic (Nolan and Skotheim, 2008). But the most intriguing aspect of extended interswitching is how it might allow a major rail carrier from the U.S. to solicit grain traffic in some areas of the Canadian grain transportation system.

  10. The DHL EuroCup: shots on goal.

    PubMed

    Hemp, Paul

    2003-11-01

    Deutsche Post World Net, the German postal monopoly, faced significant challenges as it began the process of integrating three businesses: Deutsche Post Euro Express, its own ground-based parcel delivery service, and two companies it had acquired-DHL, the worldwide express delivery service, and Danzas, a worldwide air and ocean freight company. The cultural differences alone were imposing. For example, DHL was a privately held, entrepreneurial company in which most managers had international experience; Deutsche Post was until recently a state-owned monopoly in which few managers had worked outside their home country. Enter EuroCup. For 20 years, DHL employees had held a soccer tournament to strengthen company culture across national boundaries. Canceled the previous year due to budget constraints, the EuroCup tournament was revived in 2003-in part to help with the postmerger integration. But did the event really help? HBR senior editor Paul Hemp attended EuroCup 2003, joining nearly 2,500 DHL employees--about 600 of them players, the rest cheerleaders and other supporters--in the small Belgian town of Lommel. He set out to answer a number of questions relevant to any company staging an ambitious off-site intended to encourage teamwork and boost morale. How does a company determine whether such a large-scale event, even one that generates goodwill, is worth the investment? Does the team building extend to those back home who don't get to attend? Can intense competition between teams begin to overshadow the spirit of cooperation that such an event is meant to engender? In short, can a soccer tournament help a company achieve its corporate goal of creating a strong common culture?

  11. Impacts of international trade, services and investment treaties on alcohol regulation.

    PubMed

    Grieshaber-Otto, J; Sinclair, S; Schacter, N

    2000-12-01

    There is an underlying incompatibility between government efforts to minimize the harm associated with alcohol, particularly by regulating its supply, and international commercial treaties that promote the freer flow of goods, services and investment. These treaties have already forced changes to many government measures affecting alcohol availability and control, primarily by constraining the activities of government alcohol monopolies and by altering taxation regimes. The North American Free Trade Agreement and the World Trade Organization agreements open new avenues for challenges against alcohol control measures. Some of these agreements extend beyond trade, border measures and differential taxation and allow challenges that intrude into areas of non-discriminatory domestic regulation affecting market access, intellectual property, investment and services. Effective protection from these agreements for vital public health measures has rarely been obtained, although it is increasingly essential. The WTO "services" agreement, basically unknown to the public, is currently being re-negotiated and poses the gravest new challenge to policies designed to influence patterns of alcohol use and minimize alcohol-related harm. In future, these international agreements will probably affect adversely those alcohol approaches considered to be the most effective or promising. These include: maintaining effective state monopolies, restricting the number and locations of retail outlets, taxing and regulating beverages according to alcohol strength, restricting commercial advertising, and maintaining and enhancing public alcohol education and treatment programs. These effects can, in turn, be expected to increase the availability and access to alcohol, to lower alcohol taxes, and to increase advertising and promotion, resulting in increased alcohol consumption and associated health problems. Until more balanced international rules are developed, the challenge facing alcohol

  12. [Opposition to Myriad Genetics patents and their total or partial revocation in Europe: early conclusions].

    PubMed

    Cassier, Maurice; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    The proceedings instituted against three European patents held by the US company Myriad Genetics, on the BRCA1 gene and the breast cancer diagnosis gene, resulted in the total or partial revocation of these patents. These decisions put an end to the legal monopoly claimed by Myriad Genetics on the BRCA1 gene and on breast cancer gene tests, and left the field open to European geneticists to develop and implement their test methods within the framework of a clinical not-for-profit organization. The opposition procedure, through which any actor is allowed to challenge European patents, was used by geneticists doctors in Europe to refuse the emergence of an industrial monopoly on a medical service offered in a clinical context. The decision to revoke or strongly limit these patents was based on the European Patent Office's refusal to establish an invention priority on a sequence that had errors at the time the application was filed by the patent holder, in September 1994. The patent holder was granted an invention priority only on 24 March 1995, when it filed an application for a corrected sequence of the gene. But by then the BRCA1 gene sequence had already been divulged in a public data base, Genbank, from October 1994, notably by Myriad. Myriad Genetics' patents were thus victims of the patent race that prompted the firm to file multiple patent applications on insufficiently validated sequences, and of the conflict between diffusion in the public domain and the novelty requirement. Opposition to the patents, undertaken by a coalition of medical institutions, human genetic societies, two States, Holland and Austria, an environmental protection organization (Greenpeace), and the Swiss Labour Party, made it possible to preserve and develop the clinical economy of genetic tests in Europe. It resulted in amendments to intellectual property laws in France and thus extended the possibility of using compulsory licences for public health purposes to in vitro diagnosis.

  13. Essays on incomplete contracts in regulatory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Eduardo Humberto

    This dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay, The Hold-Up Problem in Public Infrastructure Franchising, characterizes the equilibria of the investment decisions in public infrastructure franchising under incomplete contracting and ex-post renegotiation. The parties (government and a firm) are unable to credibly commit to the contracted investment plan, so that a second step investment is renegotiated by the parties at the revision stage. As expected, the possibility of renegotiation affects initial non-verifiable investments. The main conclusion of this essay is that not only underinvestment but also overinvestment in infrastructure may arise in equilibrium, compared to the complete contracting case. The second essay, Alternative Institutional Arrangements in Network Utilities: An Incomplete Contracting Approach, presents a theoretical assessment of the efficiency implications of privatizing natural monopolies which are vertically related to potential competitive firms. Based on the incomplete contracts and asymmetric information paradigm. I develop a model that analyzes the relative advantages of different institutional arrangements---alternative ownership and market structures in the industry--- in terms of their allocative and productive efficiencies. The main policy conclusion of this essay is that both ownership and the existence of conglomerates in network industries matter. Among other conclusions, this essay provides an economic rationale for a mixed economy in which the network is public and vertical separation of the industry when the natural monopoly is under private ownership. The last essay, Opportunistic Behavior and Legal Disputes in the Chilean Electricity Sector, analyzes post-contractual disputes in this newly privatized industry. It discusses the presumption that opportunistic behavior and disputes arise due to inadequate market design, ambiguous regulation, and institutional weaknesses. This chapter also assesses the presumption

  14. The invisible hand: how British American Tobacco precluded competition in Uzbekistan

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Anna B; McKee, Martin; Collin, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Background Tobacco industry documents provide a unique opportunity to explore the role transnational corporations (TNCs) played in shaping the poor outcomes of privatisation in the former Soviet Union (FSU). This paper examines British American Tobacco's (BAT's) business conduct in Uzbekistan where large‐scale smuggling of BAT's cigarettes, BAT's reversal of tobacco control legislation and its human rights abuses of tobacco farmers have been documented previously. This paper focuses, instead, on BAT's attitude to competition, compares BAT's conduct with international standards and assesses its influence on the privatisation process. Methods Analysis of BAT documents released through litigation. Results BAT secured sole negotiator status precluding the Uzbekistan government from initiating discussions with other parties. Recognising that a competitive tender would greatly increase the cost of investment, BAT went to great lengths to avoid one, ultimately securing President Karimov's support and negotiating a monopoly position in a closed deal. It simultaneously secured exclusion from the monopolies committee, ensuring freedom to set prices, on the basis of a spurious argument that competition would exist from imports. Other anticompetitive moves comprised including all three plants in the deal despite intending to close down two, exclusive dealing and implementing measures designed to prevent market entry by competitors. BAT also secured a large number of exemptions and privileges that further reduced the government's revenue both on a one‐off and ongoing basis. Conclusions BAT's corporate misbehaviour included a wide number of anticompetitive practices, contravened Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development's and BAT's own business standards on competition and restricted revenue arising from privatisation. This suggests that TNCs have contributed to the failure of privatisation in the FSU. Conducting open tenders and using enforceable codes to

  15. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today`s electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry`s transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment.

  16. Popularizing right food and feeding practices in Spain (1847-1950). The handbooks of domestic economy.

    PubMed

    Perdiguero-Gil, Enrique; Castejón-Bolea, Ramón

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze a sample of domestic economy handbooks in order to assess the popularization of correct food and feeding practices in Spain between 1847 and 1950. With this contribution, we wish to evaluate another factor that would influence the Spanish food transition. We are aware that this is a very indirect source, given the high levels of illiteracy among women in Spain during the last third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. A further factor to be considered is the low proportion of girls attending school. We have analyzed the handbooks published in three periods. The first ranges from the last third of the 19th century to the first decade of the 20th. These handbooks are considered in order to provide background for a comparison with the works published from 1900 onwards. The second period focuses on the 1920s and the 1930s. The last period covers the handbooks published after the Civil War under the monopoly of the Sección Femenina (women's section of the Falange). Over the years under consideration, recommendations underwent a progressive modification from the very simple leaflets used in the 19th century to the introduction of scientific factors into the teaching of domestic economy.The work of Rosa Sensat represented the beginnings of this trend. A further modernizing factor was the appearance of vitamins in some of the handbooks. After the war, the number of handbooks decreased and they were, in general, very poor. If we consider the content on vitamins, there was a lack or shortage of information in comparison with some of the books published in the same period outside the monopoly of the Sección Femenina. In conclusion, we can state that the repetition of recommendations on good feeding habits and the increase in girls attending school would exert a positive influence on the food transition of the Spanish population.

  17. Economics of mining law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures

  18. Whaling: will the Phoenix rise again?

    PubMed

    Holt, Sidney J

    2007-08-01

    It is argued that Japan's authorities and entrepreneurs involved in whaling and the whale-meat trade have a long-term goal of rebuilding a large and profitable industry of pelagic whaling, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere, in the next 20 years or so. They have made large investments in this enterprise since the so-called moratorium on commercial whaling was adopted by the International Whaling Commission in 1982. These include, but are not confined to, state subsidizing of an expanding and diversifying 20-year programme of commercial whaling under provisions in all relevant international agreements since 1937 that permit unlimited and unilaterally decreed whaling, supposedly for scientific purposes, provided that the commodities from the whales killed are fully utilized. The context of this is the monopoly of technical knowledge, special skills and the market for valuable whale-meat that Japanese enterprises acquired in the post-world war II period, having broken - in 1937 - the strongly defended de facto Anglo-Norwegian monopoly of technology, skills, access to Antarctic whaling grounds and the market for whale-oil that had existed until then. The attraction of 'scientific whaling' is not only that it by-passes any internationally agreed catch-limits but that it also circumvents all other rules - many dating fr/om the League of Nations whaling convention of 1931 - regarding protected species, closed areas, killing of juveniles, less inhumane killing methods, etc. The groundwork is being laid to justify that resumed whaling on partially recovered whale stocks will be at the unsustainable levels that will be profitable again. This justification is based on spurious assertions that numerous and hungry whales threaten the world's fisheries, and that the abundance and possible increase in some whale species is impeding the recovery of other, severely depleted, and potentially more valuable species such as the blue whale. If the scenario presented here is correct

  19. Contract-based electricity markets in developing countries: Overcoming inefficiency constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, M. N. Susantha

    The electric utility sector throughout the world has been undergoing significant changes. It is changing from its traditional, central-station generation model managed under a vertically integrated monopoly to a more market-dependent business. In the rich industrialized countries, this change has progressed rapidly with the emergence of competitive markets---not only in the area of electricity generation, but also in the extension of such markets down to the level of retail domestic consumer. Developing countries, on the other hand, are trying to attract much-needed investment capital for their power sector expansion activities, particularly for the expansion of generating capacity, through the involvement of the private sector. Unlike their industrialized counterparts, they are facing many limitations in transforming the mostly government-owned monopolies into market-driven businesses, thereby creating an environment that is conducive to private sector participation. Amongst these limitations are the lack of a well-developed, local private sector or domestic financial market that can handle the sophisticated power sector financing; inadequate legal and regulatory frameworks that can address the many complexities of private power development; and numerous risk factors including political risks. This dissertation research addresses an important inefficiency faced by developing countries in the new contract-based market structure that has emerged within these countries. It examines the inefficiencies brought on by restrictions in the contracts, specifically those arising from the guaranteed purchase conditions that are typically included in contracts between the purchasing utility and independent power producers in this new market. The research attempts to provide a solution for this problem and proposes a methodology that enables the parties to conduct their businesses in a cost-efficient manner within a cooperative environment. The situation described above is

  20. Regulatory reform for natural gas pipelines: The effect on pipeline and distribution company share prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurman, Elisabeth Antonie

    1997-08-01

    The natural gas shortages in the 1970s focused considerable attention on the federal government's role in altering energy consumption. For the natural gas industry these shortages eventually led to the passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) in 1978 as part of the National Energy Plan. A series of events in the decade of the 1980s has brought about the restructuring of interstate natural gas pipelines which have been transformed by regulators and the courts from monopolies into competitive entities. This transformation also changed their relationship with their downstream customers, the LDCs, who no longer had to deal with pipelines as the only merchants of gas. Regulatory reform made it possible for LDCs to buy directly from producers using the pipelines only for delivery of their purchases. This study tests for the existence of monopoly rents by analyzing the daily returns of natural gas pipeline and utility industry stock price data from 1982 to 1990, a period of regulatory reform for the natural gas industry. The study's main objective is to investigate the degree of empirical support for claims that regulatory reforms increase profits in the affected industry, as the normative theory of regulation expects, or decrease profits, as advocates of the positive theory of regulation believe. I also test Norton's theory of risk which predicts that systematic risk will increase for firms undergoing deregulation. Based on a sample of twelve natural gas pipelines, and 25 utilities an event study concept was employed to measure the impact of regulatory event announcements on daily natural gas pipeline or utility industry stock price data using a market model regression equation. The results of this study provide some evidence that regulatory reforms did not increase the profits of pipeline firms, confirming the expectations of those who claim that excess profits result from regulation and will disappear, once that protection is removed and the firms are operating in

  1. Another development with women: a view from Asia.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, V

    1982-01-01

    course of history in most Asian countries during the last few decades displays certain marked similarities on the women's question despite differences in political systems and differing priorities in patterns of development. The 3 major instruments for maintaining the current structure of inequality within and between nations are the monopolies of economic, political, and knowledge power. The majority of women in Asia do not share in any of these monopolies. The invisibility, undervaluation, and nonvaluation of women's contribution to the economy is closely linked with their lower social status.

  2. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946-1953.

    PubMed

    Creager, Angela N H

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear "piles," soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchase to civilian institutions. This program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from scientists outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate about whether the Commission should or even could export radioisotopes. This controversy manifested the tension in U.S. politics between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country's atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism. This essay examines the various ways in which radioisotopes were used as political instruments-both by the U.S. federal government in world affairs, and by critics of the civilian control of atomic energy-in the early Cold War.

  3. Patenting the bomb: nuclear weapons, intellectual property, and technological control.

    PubMed

    Wellerstein, Alex

    2008-03-01

    During the course of the Manhattan Project, the U.S. government secretly attempted to acquire a monopoly on the patent rights for inventions used in the production of nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. The use of patents as a system of control, while common for more mundane technologies, would seem at first glance to conflict with the regimes of secrecy that have traditionally been associated with nuclear weapons. In explaining the origins and operations of the Manhattan Project patent system, though, this essay argues that the utilization of patents was an ad hoc attempt at legal control of the atomic bomb by Manhattan Project administrators, focused on the monopolistic aspects of the patent system and preexisting patent secrecy legislation. From the present perspective, using patents as a method of control for such weapons seems inadequate, if not unnecessary; but at the time, when the bomb was a new and essentially unregulated technology, patents played an important role in the thinking of project administrators concerned with meaningful postwar control of the bomb.

  4. Electronic management: Exploring its impact on small business

    SciTech Connect

    Bewayo, E.D.

    1994-12-31

    Macworld magazine recently reported that more than one in five companies eavesdrops electronically on its employees. Electronic eavesdropping is one name given to electronic management Besides being known as electronic eaves-dropping, electronic management also goes by electronic monitoring, electronic supervision, electronic snooping, electronic sweat-shopping, electronic surveillance, electronic Big Brothering, and computerized performance monitoring. Some of these labels connote negative things about electronic management, and relate to applications of electronic management to extreme and unreasonable levels. In the rest of this paper the terms electronic management and electronic monitoring will be used interchangeably. In this paper we discuss the impacts of electronic management, positive and negative, on workplaces, with emphasis on small businesses. This small business emphasis is partly because of the author`s research interests, and partly because most of what has been written on electronic management has been based on large business contexts. This large business bias has been partly due to the fact that the early inroads of electronic management were almost exclusively limited to large companies--beginning with telephone service observation in the late 1800s. However, now with the growing affordability and, consequently, the proliferation of electronic technology (especially the computer), electronic management is no longer the monopoly of large corporations. Electronic management has now reached restaurants, drug stores, liquor stores, convenience stores, and trucking companies. And in some industries, e.g., banking, every business, regardless of size, uses electronic monitoring.

  5. Epistemic brokerage in the bio-property narrative: contributions to explaining opposition to transgenic technologies in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Herring, Ronald J

    2010-11-30

    Unlike some global contentions - abolition of slavery, or universal franchise, for example - the rift over rDNA crops is not about ultimate values. Improvement of farmer welfare and enhanced sustainability of agriculture are universally valued goals. However, means to those ends are politically disputed; that dispute depends on alternative empirical stories about biotechnology, sometimes even alternative epistemologies. Opposition revolves around two fundamental dimensions: bio-safety and bio-property. There is convergence of these dimensions around exceptional risk and vulnerability to corporate control of farmers, but these are analytically separable questions of fact. This paper concentrates on bio-property. Epistemic brokers have successfully established knowledge claims that simultaneously undermine the case for rDNA technologies as potential contributors to development and motivate opposition. Epistemic brokers command authority from their positions at junctures of networks, enabling the screening, weighting, theorizing and diffusion of contentious empirical accounts. In contentions of low information, high information costs and diffuse anxiety, these claims provide cognitive support for opposition to 'GMOs'. Specifically, claims of patents, monopoly corporate control and terminator technology have diffused to and from India in global networks. Though effective in transnational advocacy networks, these claims have proved either false or inconsistent with dynamics on the ground.

  6. A rare opportunity beckons

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, K

    2011-02-01

    There is a great deal of uncertainty for the future of rare-earth production. Rare-earths are a collection of 17 chemical elements in the periodic table, which include scandium and yttrium as well as the 15 lanthanides, such as dysprosium and ytterbium. China has a stranglehold on today's rare-earth market, which was worth about $3bn in 2010, with the country accounting for about 95% of worldwide production. Yet China's future actions can only be guessed at best. In September it halted shipments of rare-earth elements to Japan over a diplomatic spat concerning the detention of a Chinese trawler captain. Although the ban was later lifted, the episode raised concerns around the world about China's rare-earth monopoly and its use in diplomacy. China has already warned that it will not export any rare-earth material in the coming years as it expects its own consumption of rare-earth metals to increase. The country has introduced export taxes as well as production and export quotas, and also refused to grant any new rare-earth mining licences. Furthermore, because its reserves are limited and China's internal markets are growing so rapidly, the country has suggested it will no longer export products that require rare-earth elements, especially those that need heavy rare-earth elements, such as terbium and dysprosium. China's actions have led to huge rises in the cost of rare-earth materials and products. Dysprosium oxide, for example, has shot up from $36 per kilogram in 2005 to a massive $305 per kilogram by late last year. This could have a huge impact on much of today's electronics industry, given that rare-earth elements are ubiquitous in electric motors, computers, batteries, liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) and mobile phones. Neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets, for example, are used as computer spindle drives. The question is: what can be done to ensure that China's dominance of the rare-earth industry does not affect the military and energy security of the US

  7. Stress and the suppression of subordinate reproduction in cooperatively breeding meerkats.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew J; Carlson, Anne A; Monfort, Steven L; Russell, Andrew F; Bennett, Nigel C; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2006-08-08

    In many animal societies, dominant individuals monopolize reproduction, but the tactics they employ to achieve this are poorly understood. One possibility is that aggressive dominants render their subordinates infertile by inducing chronic physiological "stress." However, this hypothesis has been discarded largely for cooperatively breeding species, where reproductive monopolies are often extreme. Here we provide strong support for the stress-related suppression hypothesis in a cooperative mammal, the meerkat (Suricata suricatta). When pregnant, dominant females subject some subordinate females to escalating aggression, culminating in temporary evictions from the group. While evicted, subordinate females suffer chronic elevation of their glucocorticoid adrenal hormone levels, reproductive down-regulation (reduced pituitary sensitivity to gonadotropin-releasing hormone), reduced conception rates, and increased abortion rates. Rather than constantly harassing all subordinate females, dominants only become aggressive when pregnant themselves (when subordinate reproduction would otherwise conflict with their own) and target those females with whom reproductive conflict is most likely (older, pregnant, and more distantly related females). Our findings suggest that dominant female meerkats employ stressful evictions to suppress reproduction among their probable competitors, when attempting to breed themselves. Given the lack of evidence for stress-related suppression in other cooperative breeders to date, it is clear that social stress alone cannot account for the reproductive failure of subordinates across such societies. However, our findings raise the possibility that, in some cooperative breeders at least, dominants may employ stress-related suppression as a backup mechanism to guard against lapses in reproductive restraint by their subordinates.

  8. Equilibrium pricing and ordering policies in a two-echelon supply chain in the presence of strategic customers.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Seyed J; Naeij, Jafar; Shavandi, Hasan; Makui, Ahmad

    2016-06-07

    This paper studying the impact of strategic customer behavior on decentralized supply chain gains and decisions, which includes a supplier, and a monopoly firm as a retailer who sells a single product over a finite two periods of selling season. We consider three types of customers: myopic, strategic and low-value customers. The problem is formulated as a bi-level game where at the second level (e.g. horizontal game), the retailer determines his/her equilibrium pricing strategy in a non-cooperative simultaneous general game with strategic customers who choose equilibrium purchasing strategy to maximize their expected surplus. At the first level (e.g. vertical game), the supplier competes with the retailer as leader and follower in the Stackelberg game. They set the wholesale price and initial stocking capacity to maximize their profits. Finally, a numerical study is presented to demonstrate the impacts of strategic behavior on supply chain gain and decisions; subsequently the effects of market parameters on decision variables and total profitability of supply chain's members is studied through a sensitivity analysis.

  9. High-precision radiocarbon dating and historical biblical archaeology in southern Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Thomas E.; Higham, Thomas; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Smith, Neil G.; Ben-Yosef, Erez; Robinson, Mark; Münger, Stefan; Knabb, Kyle; Schulze, Jürgen P.; Najjar, Mohammad; Tauxe, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Recent excavations and high-precision radiocarbon dating from the largest Iron Age (IA, ca. 1200–500 BCE) copper production center in the southern Levant demonstrate major smelting activities in the region of biblical Edom (southern Jordan) during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE. Stratified radiocarbon samples and artifacts were recorded with precise digital surveying tools linked to a geographic information system developed to control on-site spatial analyses of archaeological finds and model data with innovative visualization tools. The new radiocarbon dates push back by 2 centuries the accepted IA chronology of Edom. Data from Khirbat en-Nahas, and the nearby site of Rujm Hamra Ifdan, demonstrate the centrality of industrial-scale metal production during those centuries traditionally linked closely to political events in Edom's 10th century BCE neighbor ancient Israel. Consequently, the rise of IA Edom is linked to the power vacuum created by the collapse of Late Bronze Age (LB, ca. 1300 BCE) civilizations and the disintegration of the LB Cypriot copper monopoly that dominated the eastern Mediterranean. The methodologies applied to the historical IA archaeology of the Levant have implications for other parts of the world where sacred and historical texts interface with the material record. PMID:18955702

  10. Women healers of the middle ages: selected aspects of their history.

    PubMed

    Minkowski, W L

    1992-02-01

    The stellar role of women as healers during the Middle Ages has received some attention from medical historians but remains little known or appreciated. In the three centuries preceding the Renaissance, this role was heightened by two roughly parallel developments. The first was the evolution of European universities and their professional schools that, for the most part, systematically excluded women as students, thereby creating a legal male monopoly of the practice of medicine. Ineligible as healers, women waged a lengthy battle to maintain their right to care for the sick and injured. The 1322 case of Jacqueline Felicie, one of many healers charged with illegally practicing medicine, raises serious questions about the motives of male physicians in discrediting these women as incompetent and dangerous. The second development was the campaign--promoted by the church and supported by both clerical and civil authorities--to brand women healers as witches. Perhaps the church perceived these women, with their special, often esoteric, healing skills, as a threat to its supremacy in the lives of its parishioners. The result was the brutal persecution of unknown numbers of mostly peasant women.

  11. Competition in health care: what does it mean for nurse managers?

    PubMed

    Maynard, Alan

    2005-09-01

    The English Government has launched a series of radical market-orientated reforms whose goal is to get the National Health Service to 'act smarter' by undermining with public-private competition the monopoly power of providers, in particular 'inflexible' National Health Service hospitals and medical practitioners. The failure of nurses and managers to remedy well established problems in the delivery of health care, for instance variations in medical practice, medical errors and the continued absence of measures of patient outcome or clinical success, together with slow changes in waiting time performance, has persuaded Mr Blair to use the market to induce more rapid change. Whether this unevaluated and radical social experiment will succeed is impossible to forecast precisely. However, it will oblige nurse managers to have increased recourse to the evidence base and the need to translate such material in improved practice. It will also oblige them to be able to access and use in their day-to-day management improved administrative data about practice activity and patient outcomes.

  12. Developing a sustainable energy strategy for a water utility. Part I: A review of the UK legislative framework.

    PubMed

    Zakkour, P D; Gaterell, M R; Griffin, P; Gochin, R J; Lester, J N

    2002-10-01

    Increasing political effort to improve water quality across the UK and Europe has led to water and sewerage companies investing heavily in high-tech wastewater treatment plants capable of producing high quality effluents. Consequently, amounts of bought-in electricity used for wastewater treatment has and will continue to increase significantly over coming years, while greater provision of enhanced sewage treatment also produces greater volumes of sewage sludge requiring treatment and disposal. Over the same period, tougher controls on the quality of biosolids applied to agricultural land have also been introduced, while there has been an international attempt to reduce the use of fossil-fuel derived power sources because of concerns over global warming. The latter has brought about the introduction of financial instruments, such as the Climate Change Levy, to curb energy use, promote energy efficiency and encourage the development of renewable energy technologies. These factors are set to drive-up the costs of providing adequate sewage treatment services, while at the same time, a tough regulatory line taken to control profits on regional monopolies held by the UK water companies will significantly reduce their revenues over the period 2000-05. The result is that, financially, UK water and sewerage companies face their most challenging period since privatisation in 1989. This paper briefly outlines the current regulations relating to water quality and energy use that will affect water company operations over coming years.

  13. Funny money: the attentional role of monetary feedback detached from expected value.

    PubMed

    Roper, Zachary J J; Vecera, Shaun P

    2016-10-01

    Stimuli associated with monetary reward can become powerful cues that effectively capture visual attention. We examined whether such value-driven attentional capture can be induced with monetary feedback in the absence of an expected cash payout. To this end, we implemented images of U.S. dollar bills as reward feedback. Participants knew in advance that they would not receive any money based on their performance. Our reward stimuli-$5 and $20 bill images-were thus dissociated from any practical utility. Strikingly, we observed a reliable attentional capture effect for the mere images of bills. Moreover, this finding generalized to Monopoly money. In two control experiments, we found no evidence in favor of nominal or symbolic monetary value. Hence, we claim that bill images are special monetary representations, such that there are strong associations between the defining visual features of bills and reward, probably due to a lifelong learning history. Together, we show that the motivation to earn cash plays a minor role when it comes to monetary rewards, while bill-defining visual features seem to be sufficient. These findings have the potential to influence human factor applications, such as gamification, and can be extended to novel value systems, such as the electronic cash Bitcoin being developed for use in mobile banking. Finally, our procedure represents a proof of concept on how images of money can be used to conserve expenditures in the experimental context.

  14. The Rules of Ferrous Metallurgy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The ways in which the sciences have been delineated and categorized throughout history provide insights into the formation, stabilization, and establishment of scientific systems of knowledge. The Dresdener school’s approach for explaining and categorizing the genesis of the engineering disciplines is still valid, but needs to be complemented by further-reaching methodological and theoretical reflections. Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of social practice is applied to the question of how individual agents succeed in influencing decisively a discipline’s changing object orientation, institutionalisation and self-reproduction. Through the accumulation of social, cultural and economic capital, they succeed in realising their own organisational ideas and scientific programs. Key concepts for the analysis include the struggle for power and resources, monopolies of interpretation, and the degree of autonomy. A case study from the Aachener Technische Hochschule shows that the consolidation of ferrous metallurgy can be conceived as a symbolical struggle between Fritz Wüst, professor for ferrous metallurgy, and the German Iron and Steel Institute, leading to a construction of a system of differences in which scientists accepted being scientists rather than entrepreneurs, and entrepreneurs accepted becoming entrepreneurs and renounced science.

  15. Quantum Metropolis sampling.

    PubMed

    Temme, K; Osborne, T J; Vollbrecht, K G; Poulin, D; Verstraete, F

    2011-03-03

    The original motivation to build a quantum computer came from Feynman, who imagined a machine capable of simulating generic quantum mechanical systems--a task that is believed to be intractable for classical computers. Such a machine could have far-reaching applications in the simulation of many-body quantum physics in condensed-matter, chemical and high-energy systems. Part of Feynman's challenge was met by Lloyd, who showed how to approximately decompose the time evolution operator of interacting quantum particles into a short sequence of elementary gates, suitable for operation on a quantum computer. However, this left open the problem of how to simulate the equilibrium and static properties of quantum systems. This requires the preparation of ground and Gibbs states on a quantum computer. For classical systems, this problem is solved by the ubiquitous Metropolis algorithm, a method that has basically acquired a monopoly on the simulation of interacting particles. Here we demonstrate how to implement a quantum version of the Metropolis algorithm. This algorithm permits sampling directly from the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian, and thus evades the sign problem present in classical simulations. A small-scale implementation of this algorithm should be achievable with today's technology.

  16. Unbundled infrastructure firms: Competition and continuing regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogendorn, Christiaan Paul

    Unbundled infrastructure firms provide conduits for electricity transmission, residential communications, etc. but are vertically disintegrated from "content" functions such as electricity generation or world-wide-web pages. These conduits are being deregulated, and this dissertation examines whether the deregulated conduits will behave in an efficient and competitive manner. The dissertation presents three essays, each of which develops a theoretical model of the behavior of conduit firms in a market environment. The first essay considers the prospects for competition between multiple conduits in the emerging market for broadband (high-speed) residential Internet access. It finds that such competition is likely to emerge as demand for these services increase. The second essay shows how a monopoly electricity or natural gas transmission conduit can facilitate collusion between suppliers of the good. It shows that this is an inefficient effect of standard price-cap regulation. The third essay considers the supply chain of residential Internet access and evaluates proposed "open access" regulation that would allow more than one firm to serve customers over the same physical infrastructure. It shows that the amount of content available to consumers does not necessarily increase under open access.

  17. Medical ethics in its American context. An historical survey.

    PubMed

    Toulmin, S

    1988-01-01

    Until the 1950's, moral aspects of clinical practice were handled in the USA within the medical profession. Over the last 30 years, these issues have become subjects for public debate, and have changed the public perception of medicine, in four steps. In the 1950's, moral theologians questioned the implications of medical technology at the edges of life. In the late '60s and '70s, these theologians were joined by political activists, whose zeal provoked a counter-reaction from physicians. In the late '70s and early '80s, the debate became largely theoretical; but in the late '80s it is once again "clinical", though respecting the rights of patients, their families, and other nonphysicians to participate in the relevant moral decisions. In part, these four steps reflect the special feature of American social history in the last 30 years; but in part they also had counterparts in Britain and elsewhere. Either way, the monopoly control over the ethics of medical practice exercised by doctors before the 1950s is unlikely to return.

  18. Women healers of the middle ages: selected aspects of their history.

    PubMed Central

    Minkowski, W L

    1992-01-01

    The stellar role of women as healers during the Middle Ages has received some attention from medical historians but remains little known or appreciated. In the three centuries preceding the Renaissance, this role was heightened by two roughly parallel developments. The first was the evolution of European universities and their professional schools that, for the most part, systematically excluded women as students, thereby creating a legal male monopoly of the practice of medicine. Ineligible as healers, women waged a lengthy battle to maintain their right to care for the sick and injured. The 1322 case of Jacqueline Felicie, one of many healers charged with illegally practicing medicine, raises serious questions about the motives of male physicians in discrediting these women as incompetent and dangerous. The second development was the campaign--promoted by the church and supported by both clerical and civil authorities--to brand women healers as witches. Perhaps the church perceived these women, with their special, often esoteric, healing skills, as a threat to its supremacy in the lives of its parishioners. The result was the brutal persecution of unknown numbers of mostly peasant women. Images p290-a p291-a PMID:1739168

  19. [General Agreement on Trade in Services and its implications for public health].

    PubMed

    Umaña-Peña, Román; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Due to the economic importance of the service sector and its trade potential, in 1995 the World Trade Organization (WTO) launched the General Agreement on Trade in Services with the objective of liberalizing trade in services worldwide and of establishing rules and disciplines to regulate it. Until now, the Agreement has produced few case laws on its rules and some of them are in the process of being developed, which makes the Agreement ambiguous and hampers accurate forecasting of its implications. Nevertheless, some analysts consider that certain characteristics and rules represent a threat to the funding mechanisms of public services and to the sovereignty of governments to generate their own rules. Moreover, the Agreement would lead to irreversible formalization of commitments, without the possibility of returning to previous conditions in the case of failure of the market and/or private participation. In addition, the Agreement acts against exclusive monopolies and providers and to a certain extent this will affect subsidies to local providers. The ability of the European Communities Court of Justice to enforce the implementation of competitive measures in public services has produced uncertainty because of the implications for health services. The Spanish Agreement with the WTO contains many questions that remain open, representing an opportunity for the participation of the health sector in the next negotiation rounds.

  20. Fabrication and feasibility study of an absorbable diacetyl chitin surgical suture for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Shao, Kai; Han, Baoqin; Gao, Jinning; Jiang, Zhiwen; Liu, Weizhi; Liu, Wanshun; Liang, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Diacetyl chitin (DAC) is an acidylated chitin obtained using acetic anhydride mixed perchloric acid system. By wet spinning and weaving technique, DAC has been successfully developed into a novel absorbable surgical suture. Thanks to the unique properties of chitins, the potential application of this novel monocomponent multifilament DAC suture may break the monopoly of synthetic polymer sutures in wound closure area. In this study, DAC was synthesized and characterized by multiple approaches including elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, we performed the feasibility assessment of DAC suture (USP 2-0) as absorbable suture for wound healing. Several lines of evidences suggested that DAC suture had comparable mechanical properties as synthetic polymer sutures. Moreover, DAC suture retained approximately 63% of the original strength at 14 days and completely absorbed in 42 days with no remarkable tissue reaction in vivo. Most important of all, DAC suture significantly promoted skin regeneration with faster tissue reconstruction and higher wound breaking strength on a linear incisional wound model. All these results demonstrated the potential use of DAC suture in short- or middle-term wound healing, such as epithelial and connective tissue.

  1. A methodology for assessing the market benefits of alternative motor fuels: The Alternative Fuels Trade Model

    SciTech Connect

    Leiby, P.N.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes a modeling methodology for examining the prospective economic benefits of displacing motor gasoline use by alternative fuels. The approach is based on the Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). AFTM development was undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a longer term study of alternative fuels issues. The AFTM is intended to assist with evaluating how alternative fuels may be promoted effectively, and what the consequences of substantial alternative fuels use might be. Such an evaluation of policies and consequences of an alternative fuels program is being undertaken by DOE as required by Section 502(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Interest in alternative fuels is based on the prospective economic, environmental and energy security benefits from the substitution of these fuels for conventional transportation fuels. The transportation sector is heavily dependent on oil. Increased oil use implies increased petroleum imports, with much of the increase coming from OPEC countries. Conversely, displacement of gasoline has the potential to reduce US petroleum imports, thereby reducing reliance on OPEC oil and possibly weakening OPEC`s ability to extract monopoly profits. The magnitude of US petroleum import reduction, the attendant fuel price changes, and the resulting US benefits, depend upon the nature of oil-gas substitution and the supply and demand behavior of other world regions. The methodology applies an integrated model of fuel market interactions to characterize these effects.

  2. Addressing Pricing Power in Integrated Delivery: The Limits of Antitrust.

    PubMed

    Berenson, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Prices are the major driver of why the United States spends so much more on health care than other countries do. The pricing power that hospitals have garnered recently has resulted from consolidated delivery systems and concentrated markets, leading to enhanced negotiating leverage. But consolidation may be the wrong frame for viewing the problem of high and highly variable prices; many "must-have" hospitals achieve their pricing power from sources other than consolidation, for example, reputation. Further, the frame of consolidation leads to unrealistic expectations for what antitrust's role in addressing pricing power should be, especially because in the wake of two periods of merger "manias" and "frenzies" many markets already lack effective competition. It is particularly challenging for antitrust to address extant monopolies lawfully attained. New payment and delivery models being pioneered in Medicare, especially those built around accountable care organizations (ACOs), offer an opportunity to reduce pricing power, but only if they are implemented with a clear eye on the impact on prices in commercial insurance markets. This article proposes approaches that public and private payers should consider to complement the role of antitrust to assure that ACOs will actually help control costs in commercial markets as well as in Medicare and Medicaid.

  3. Lessons from the 'Humanitarian Golden Rice' project: regulation prevents development of public good genetically engineered crop products.

    PubMed

    Potrykus, Ingo

    2010-11-30

    Compared to a non-Genetically Engineered (GE) variety, the deployment of Golden Rice has suffered from a delay of at least ten years. The cause of this delay is exclusively GE-regulation. Considering the potential impact of Golden Rice on the reduction in vitamin A-malnutrition, this delay is responsible for an unjustifiable loss of millions of lives, mostly children and women. GE-regulation is also responsible for the fact that no public institution can deliver a public good GE-product and that thus we have a de facto monopoly in favour of a few potent industries. Considering the forgone benefits from prevented public good GE-products, GE-regulation is responsible for hundreds of millions of lives, all of them, of course, in developing countries. As there is no scientific justification for present GE-regulation, and as it has, so far, not prevented any harm, our society has the urgent responsibility to reconsider present regulation, which is based on an extreme interpretation of the precautionary principle, and change it to science-based regulation on the basis of traits instead of technology. GE-technology has an unprecedented safety record and is far more precise and predictable than any other 'traditional' and unregulated breeding technology. Not to change GE-regulation to a scientific basis is considered by the author 'a crime against humanity'.

  4. Partnership between small biotech and big pharma.

    PubMed

    Wiederrecht, Gregory J; Hill, Raymond G; Beer, Margaret S

    2006-08-01

    The process involved in the identification and development of novel breakthrough medicines at big pharma has recently undergone significant changes, in part because of the extraordinary complexity that is associated with tackling diseases of high unmet need, and also because of the increasingly demanding requirements that have been placed on the pharmaceutical industry by investors and regulatory authorities. In addition, big pharma no longer have a monopoly on the tools and enabling technologies that are required to identify and discover new drugs, as many biotech companies now also have these capabilities. As a result, researchers at biotech companies are able to identify credible drug leads, as well as compounds that have the potential to become marketed medicinal products. This diversification of companies that are involved in drug discovery and development has in turn led to increased partnering interactions between the biotech sector and big pharma. This article examines how Merck and Co Inc, which has historically relied on a combination of internal scientific research and licensed products, has poised itself to become further engaged in partnering with biotech companies, as well as academic institutions, to increase the probability of success associated with identifying novel medicines to treat unmet medical needs--particularly in areas such as central nervous system disorders, obesity/metabolic diseases, atheroma and cancer, and also to cultivate its cardiovascular, respiratory, arthritis, bone, ophthalmology and infectious disease franchises.

  5. Patent issues in drug development: perspectives of a pharmaceutical scientist-attorney.

    PubMed

    Melethil, Srikumaran

    2005-10-27

    The major purpose of this article is to emphasize the need for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Economic incentives for drug discovery and development clash with societal needs for low-cost pharmaceuticals in the United States and all over the world. The Hatch-Waxman Act of 1984 was enacted to promote public health by balancing the interests of brand name and generic companies. Patent protection, which provides a monopoly for a limited time, is aimed to provide such incentives. Creation of patents requires the interaction between scientists and lawyers, an endeavor made difficult by the differing intellectual spheres of their respective disciplines. Therefore, in the first place, a thorough understanding of patent fundamentals among pharmaceutical scientists will help them work more efficiently with patent attorneys. Second, it will enable them to appreciate the strengths and weaknesses of individual patents, which is critical in developing strategies amidst the ongoing patent tug-of-war between brand-name and generic companies.

  6. Gambling market and individual patterns of gambling in Germany.

    PubMed

    Albers, N; Hübl, L

    1997-01-01

    In this paper individual patterns of gambling in Germany are estimated for the first time. The probit technique is used to test the influence of a set of individual characteristics on the probability of participating in each of the various legal games. A sample size of 1,586 adults collected for the pool of German lotteries provides a reliable set of data. All disaggregated estimations of participation are statistically significant at least at the 5 percent level. The basic findings suggest that gambling is a widespread normal (superior) consumption good because gambling participation tends to rise with income. Moreover, no demand anomaly can be found to justify assessing gambling as a social demerit. Only the participation in gaming machines is higher for younger, unemployed and less educated adults. While a moral evaluation of gambling is beyond the scope of this paper, the legislator's preference for a highly taxed state monopoly in gambling markets is to be rejected, at least for Germany. Additional statistical findings suggest distinct consumer perceptions of the characteristics of the various games and may be used for market segmentation. The paper starts with a descriptive introduction to the German gambling market.

  7. Public policy responsibilities in a restructured electric industry: An analysis of values, objectives, and approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.; Schweitzer, M.

    1996-03-01

    Discussions and decisions in states as diverse as California, Wisconsin, and Rhode Island are focusing on moving the United States electric industry from one dominated by vertically-integrated and highly regulated utility-based electricity monopolies to one characterized by largely divested and independent generation, transmission, and distribution sectors and by vigorous wholesale and retail competition. Numerous issues must be solved for this transition to be successful. Three of the most important are how to deal with stranded investments, how to provide open access to transmission systems, and how to deal with potentially stranded benefits, which is the current term being used to describe environmental and social programs such as demand-side management, low income programs, and renewable energy. This report explores how to meet public policy responsibilities, which are growing more acute, in a proactive fashion in a restructured United States electric industry. The specific goals of this report are to (1) assess trade-offs in the short-term in meeting public policy responsibilities associated with stranded benefits and (2) introduce a series of new ideas that, if enacted, could substantially satisfy important public policy considerations.

  8. The metaphorical and mythical use of the kidney in antiquity.

    PubMed

    Maio, G

    1999-01-01

    While the Syrians and the Arabs viewed the liver as the center of life, the kidneys, in contrast, held a primary place of importance in Israel. In Hebrew tradition, they were considered to be the most important internal organs along with the heart. In the Old Testament most frequently the kidneys are associated with the most inner stirrings of emotional life. But they are also viewed as the seat of the secret thoughts of the human; they are used as an omen metaphor, as a metaphor for moral discernment, for reflection and inspiration. This field of tension in metaphoric usage is resolved under the conception of the kidneys as life center. In the Old Testament the kidneys thus are primarily used as metaphor for the core of the person, for the area of greatest vulnerability. For us today, this metaphorical use of the kidneys has lost its meaning. One reason for its disappearance is certainly the monopoly of causal-analytic rationality in science of today. The kidney has developed from myth to organ, and with this transition a variety of perspectives and ways of looking at knowledge inherent in imaginative thought have been lost. But the metaphor uncovers a deeper level of truth, it represents another form of reconstruction of reality which needs not necessarily be subordinate to the scientific rationality. Today as well, these imaginative ideas can provide an approach to an essential level of reality which may otherwise remain hidden.

  9. Computation Through Neuronal Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepp, K.

    Some of us believe that natural sciences are governed by simple and predictive general principles. This hope has not yet been fulfilled in physics for unifying gravitation and quantum mechanics. Epigenetics has shaken the monopoly of the genetic code to determine inheritance (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell. Garland, New York, 2008). It is therefore not surprising that quantum mechanics does not explain consciousness or more generally the coherence of the brain in perception, action and cognition. In an other context, others (Tegmark, Phys Rev E 61:4194-4206, 2000) and we (Koch and Hepp, Nature 440:611-612, 2006; Koch and Hepp, Visions of Discovery: New Light on Physics, Cosmology, and Consciousness. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2011) have strongly argued against the absurdity of such a claim, because consciousness is a higher brain function and not a molecular binding mechanism. Decoherence in the warm and wet brain is by many orders of magnitude too strong. Moreover, there are no efficient algorithms for neural quantum computations. However, the controversy over classical and quantum consciousness will probably never be resolved (see e.g. Hepp, J Math Phys 53:095222, 2012; Hameroff and Penrose, Phys Life Rev 11:39-78, 2013).

  10. Integration: the firm and the health care sector.

    PubMed

    Laugesen, Miriam J; France, George

    2014-07-01

    Integration in health care is a key goal of health reform in United States and England. Yet past efforts in the 1990s to better integrate the delivery system were of limited success. Building on work by Bevan and Janus on delivery integration, this article explores integration through the lens of economic theories of integration. Firms generally integrate to increase efficiency through economies of scale, to improve their market power, and resolve the transaction costs involved with multiple external suppliers. Using the United States and England as laboratories, we apply concepts of economic integration to understand why integration does or does not occur in health care, and whether expectations of integrating different kinds of providers (hospital, primary care) and health and social services are realistic. Current enthusiasm for a more integrated health care system expands the scope of integration to include social services in England, but retains the focus on health care in the United States. We find mixed applicability of economic theories of integration. Economies of scale have not played a significant role in stimulating integration in both countries. Managerial incentives for monopoly or oligopoly may be more compelling in the United States, since hospitals seek higher prices and more leverage over payers. In both countries the concept of transaction costs could explain the success of new payment and budgeting methods, since health care integration ultimately requires resolving transaction costs across different delivery organizations.

  11. Implementing competition in the pharmacy sector: lessons from Iceland and Norway.

    PubMed

    Anell, Anders; Hjelmgren, Jonas

    2002-01-01

    The pharmacy market in many European countries is characterised by individual, privately-owned pharmacies that operate under tight government control regarding barriers to entry, scope of activities and profit margins. In Iceland, many of these restrictions were relaxed in 1996 in the hope of stimulating competition. Similar changes were introduced in Norway in 2001. In both countries, the new structural conditions led to horizontal mergers and coalitions between pharmacies; and in Norway, the emerging pharmacy groups integrated vertically with wholesalers. The number of independent decision units decreased and the markets rapidly transformed into oligopolies with remaining institutional barriers to entry. The rapid change took both governments by surprise, and intervention was needed to prevent monopolies from emerging. Additional intervention to strengthen competition may be needed in the future to prevent unfavourable developments, and the tradition of maintaining equal access of services may prove more difficult to uphold. Experiences in both Iceland and Norway highlight the complexity of reforms that fundamentally influence competitive behaviour.

  12. The Effects of Intellectual Property Rights on Access to Medicines and Catastrophic Expenditure.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youn; Kwon, Soonman

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in 1995, there has been considerable concern that poor access to essential medicines in developing countries would be exacerbated because strengthening intellectual property rights (IPR) leads to monopoly of pharmaceutical markets and delayed entry of lower-cost generic drugs. However, despite extensive research and disputes regarding this issue, there are few empirical studies on the topic. In this study, we investigated the effect of IPR on access to medicines and catastrophic expenditure for medicines, using data from World Health Surveys 2002-2003. The index of patent rights developed by Ginarte and Park (1997) was used to measure the IPR protection level of each country. Estimates were adjusted for individual and country characteristics. In the results of multilevel logistic regression analyses, higher level of IPR significantly increased the likelihood of nonaccess to prescribed medicines even after controlling for individual socioeconomic status and national characteristics associated with access to medicines. This study's finding on the negative impact of IPR on access to medicines calls for the implementation of more active policy at the supra-national level to improve access in low- and middle-income countries.

  13. Plants genetic manipulation: an approach from intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Anisley Negrin; Rivero, Lazaro Pino

    2013-01-01

    From the end of the 20th century the Biotechnology has experimented a vertiginous advance so far, putting on approval concepts like bio-security and bioethics; becoming this way, the work with the genome of the plants, in a matter is worthy to be reconsidered by the juridical mark that regulates it, in order to moderate the norm to the new scientific context. The Intellectual Property, when recognizing patent rights on products that have incorporate biological material, as well as to the obtainer about the new vegetable varieties obtained, could mean an obstacle that impedes or hinder the access from the society to that product or that variety. In the same way is worthy of consideration, the fact that such products or varieties can be a risk for the human health or the Environment, and a monopoly of commercial exploitation for the holder of the patent or of the obtainer certificate. This study is about this topic; and valuation about aspects of Biotechnology related with the genome of the plants and their juridical protection, in the international sand as well in Cuba.

  14. Patents, Innovation, and the Welfare Effects of Medicare Part D*

    PubMed Central

    Gailey, Adam; Lakdawalla, Darius; Sood, Neeraj

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficiency consequences of the Medicare Part D program. Methods We develop and empirically calibrate a simple theoretical model to examine the static and dynamic welfare effects of Medicare Part D. Findings We show that Medicare Part D can simultaneously reduce static deadweight loss from monopoly pricing of drugs and improve incentives for innovation. We estimate that even after excluding the insurance value of the program, the welfare gain of Medicare Part D roughly equals its social costs. The program generates $5.11 billion of annual static deadweight loss reduction, and at least $3.0 billion of annual value from extra innovation. Implications Medicare Part D and other public prescription drug programs can be welfare-improving, even for risk-neutral and purely self-interested consumers. Furthermore, negotiation for lower branded drug prices may further increase the social return to the program. Originality This study demonstrates that pure efficiency motives, which do not even surface in the policy debate over Medicare Part D, can nearly justify the program on their own merits. PMID:20575239

  15. Sub-Saharan Africa's media and neocolonialism.

    PubMed

    Domatob, J K

    1988-01-01

    Given the heavy Western metropolitan bias of the media in sub-Saharan Africa, the ideology of neocolonialism continues to exert a dominant influence on economic, social, political, and cultural life. This neocolonial influence is further reinforced by advertising that champions a consumerist culture centered around Western goods. The capital of multinational firms plays a crucial role in the strategy of media imperialism. The dramatic growth of monopolies and the creation of military-industrial-information conglomerates in the 1970s and 1980s have been reflected in the international exchange of information and the interlinkage of mass communication systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Another media strategy that reinforces neocolonialism is the use of satellite communication. If cultural autonomy is defined as sub-Saharan Africa's capacity to decide on the allocation of its environmental resources, then cultural synchronization is a massive threat to that autonomy. Few African nations have the resources or expertise necessary to design, establish, or maintain communication systems that could accurately reflect their own culture. Nonetheless, there are some policy options. Personnel can be trained to respect African values and to recognize the dangers of neocolonial domination. The production of indigenous programs could reduce the media's foreign content. The incorporation of traditional drama and dance in the media could enhance this process. Above all, a high degree of planning is necessary if sub-Saharan African states intend to tackle the media and its domination by neocolonialist ideology.

  16. Sir Kenelm Digby (1603-1665): diplomat, entrepreneur, privateer, duellist, scientist and philosopher.

    PubMed

    Mellick, Sam A

    2011-12-01

    Kenelm Digby was a man with widely differing interests. He studied at Oxford but left without a degree. At the age of 20, he was involved in a dramatic street brawl in Madrid; the following year saw him as a successful privateer in the Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic waters, and he was then appointed a naval administrator with lucrative trade monopolies. He practised medicine without formal qualifications and gained notoriety by promoting the use of 'sympathetic' powder for healing wounds. Befriended by King James I and his son who succeeded him, he became chancellor to Queen Henrietta and was knighted by King James I on 21 October 1623 and appointed to the Privy Council. At one time, he even spent a brief time in prison, but he later became a founding member of the Royal Society and published two major philosophical treatises as well as a popular cookbook. He designed and manufactured wine bottles with tapered necks for simpler pouring and square sides for easy stacking. He dabbled in mathematics and corresponded with Fermat of 'Last Theorem' fame. In 1641, he challenged a French nobleman who publicly cast a slur on the British King to a 'digladiation' (a sword duel) and quickly dispatched him. He was a friend and admirer of Sir Thomas Browne whose 'Religio Medici' he helped to publish. The Cowlishaw Library holds a 1659 5th edition copy of this remarkable book, with Digby's name on the spine. Truly, Digby must qualify as a Renaissance man.

  17. [The effects of narcissism and self-esteem on immersion in social network games and massively multiplayer online role-playing games].

    PubMed

    Jin, Kato; Igarashi, Tasuku

    2016-04-01

    Recent research has shown growing interest in the process by which narcissism triggers immersion in social network games (SNG). Highly narcissistic individuals are motivated not only by the achievement of goals and monopoly of materials (i:e., self-enhancement), but also by comparison and competition with others (i.e., social comparison) We predicted that the common rules and environments of SNG and massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG), such as systems of exchanging items and ranking players, facilitate immersion of highly narcissistic individuals during the game. Structural equation modeling of data from 378 SNG players and 150 MMORPG players recruited online showed that self-esteem inhibited game immersion, whereas narcissism increased game immersion via motivation for goal attainment. SNG players were more likely to be immersed in the game via motivation for goal attainment than MMORPG players. These findings suggest that, compared with MMORPG, the environments of SNG provide strong incentives not for those high in self-esteem who seek acceptance of others, but for those high in narcissism who are motivated by self-enhancement via competition with others.

  18. How to Control Airline Routes from the Supply Side: The Case of TAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Kenneth; Costa, Alvaro; Reis, Vasco

    2005-01-01

    Competition in the European airline industry is currently fierce in the face of depressed demand conditions, and in the wake of privatizations and liberalization. The Portuguese flag carrier, TAP Air Portugal, operates within this environment. It is a medium sized carrier that was part of the defunct Qualiflyer Group alliance and has recently joined the Star Alliance. It controls more than 50% of the air market between Europe and Brazil and Europe and Angola. Nevertheless, it has been experiencing financial losses. One reason for this is that, following the reasoning of Ronald Coase (1946), it is difficult for any company with decreasing average costs to recover full costs in a highly competitive market. One way of approaching the problem is to establish quasi-monopoly power and airlines have done this through such things as frequent flyer programs and hub-and-spoke operations. Other airlines, notably charter carriers, have sought to adjust capacity and services to meet an anticipated cash flow. In practice, many have used a combination of measures with mixed success. This paper focuses on how TAP has responded to changing conditions by adjusting its supply-side activities in terms of restructuring its network to maximize potential revenues.

  19. Adaptive regulation or governmentality: patient safety and the changing regulation of medicine.

    PubMed

    Waring, Justin

    2007-03-01

    This paper explores how current 'patient safety' reforms offer to change the regulation of medicine. Drawing on existing literature, it is argued that this policy agenda represents a new frontier in medical/managerial relations, introducing a disciplinary expertise within the health service that provides managers with the knowledge and legitimacy to survey and scrutinise medical performance, made real through procedures for incident reporting and root-cause analysis. The extent of regulatory change is investigated, drawing on an ethnographic case study of one hospital. It is shown that, as with other organisational and managerial reforms, doctors are resisting managerial prerogatives through seeking to subvert and 'capture' components of reform. I describe this as 'adaptive regulation' to account for how doctors seek to maintain their regulatory monopoly and limit managerial encroachment. It is speculated, however, that this process could signal the future 'modernisation' of medical professionalism where emerging managerial discourses, within the wider context of public sector reform, are increasingly internalised with medical practice and culture. This leads to new and rearticulated forms of self-surveillance, self-management or 'governmentality', ultimately negating the need for external groups to explicitly manage or regulate professional practice.

  20. Is the medical loss ratio a good target measure for regulation in the individual market for health insurance?

    PubMed

    Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Abraham, Jean M; Simon, Kosali

    2015-01-01

    Effective January 1, 2011, individual market health insurers must meet a minimum medical loss ratio (MLR) of 80%. This law aims to encourage 'productive' forms of competition by increasing the proportion of premium dollars spent on clinical benefits. To date, very little is known about the performance of firms in the individual health insurance market, including how MLRs are related to insurer and market characteristics. The MLR comprises one component of the price-cost margin, a traditional gauge of market power; the other component is percent of premiums spent on administrative expenses. We use data from the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (2001-2009) to evaluate whether the MLR is a good target measure for regulation by comparing the two components of the price-cost margin between markets that are more competitive versus those that are not, accounting for firm and market characteristics. We find that insurers with monopoly power have lower MLRs. Moreover, we find no evidence suggesting that insurers' administrative expenses are lower in more concentrated insurance markets. Thus, our results are largely consistent with the interpretation that the MLR could serve as a target measure of market power in regulating the individual market for health insurance but with notable limited ability to capture product and firm heterogeneity.

  1. A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on the Air Transport Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charfeddine, Souhir; DeColigny, Marc; Camino, Felix Mora; Cosenza, Carlos Alberto Nunes

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this communication is to study with a new scope the conditions of the equilibrium in an air transport market where two competitive airlines are operating. Each airline is supposed to adopt a strategy maximizing its profit while its estimation of the demand has a fuzzy nature. This leads each company to optimize a program of its proposed services (frequency of the flights and ticket prices) characterized by some fuzzy parameters. The case of monopoly is being taken as a benchmark. Classical convex optimization can be used to solve this decision problem. This approach provides the airline with a new decision tool where uncertainty can be taken into account explicitly. The confrontation of the strategies of the companies, in the ease of duopoly, leads to the definition of a fuzzy equilibrium. This concept of fuzzy equilibrium is more general and can be applied to several other domains. The formulation of the optimization problem and the methodological consideration adopted for its resolution are presented in their general theoretical aspect. In the case of air transportation, where the conditions of management of operations are critical, this approach should offer to the manager elements needed to the consolidation of its decisions depending on the circumstances (ordinary, exceptional events,..) and to be prepared to face all possibilities. Keywords: air transportation, competition equilibrium, convex optimization , fuzzy modeling,

  2. Gazprom and Russia: The economic rationality of Russian foreign energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloudis, Stergos Carl Thornton

    Charges of imperialism underpinned by coercive economic tactics are some of the accusations leveled against Vladimir Putin's foreign energy policy during his presidential tenure. However, after the traditional policies of coercion failed to secure Russian interests in Europe during the 1990's, this dissertation argues Putin adopted a radically different approach upon his rise to the Presidency. Driven by public demand to continue the domestic subsidization of natural gas and realizing that the chief avenue for securing revenue was in gas sales to Europe, this project suggests that Putin developed a new foreign energy policy approach meant to secure Russian interests. This transformation was accomplished by the Presidential Administration's efforts during Putin's tenure to bring the Russian natural gas monopoly, Gazprom, under its control. Dubbed Persuasive Politics, this paradigm suggests that the foreign energy policies of the Presidential Administration and Gazprom during Putin's tenure were underpinned by the rational economic argument that the only route to Russian resurgence in the medium term was through profitable economic relations with the European states. To test this theoretical approach the author employs a case study analysis of Russian relations with the European Union member state Greece as well as the non-EU state of Ukraine. The intent is to identify how a mutually beneficial relationship was constructed to persuade both governments through the utilization of economic inducements that cooperation with Russia in the natural gas sphere was in their own best interest.

  3. Risk equalisation and voluntary health insurance markets: The case of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, John

    2010-11-01

    Ireland has a system of private health insurance (PHI) which acts as a voluntary alternative to the benefits provided under the Irish public health system. As part of this, community rating has long been a cornerstone of the Irish private health insurance market with the objective to make PHI affordable to everyone regardless of their risk profile. Until the mid-1990s one insurer had a legal monopoly. However, in 1996, following the Third Non-Life Insurance Directive, the market was opened up to competition and a number of regulations were introduced to support community rating. This includes the introduction of a risk equalisation system. Its aim was to prevent selection and thus protect the community rating system while still enabling a competitive health insurance market. There have been significant obstacles to the introduction of risk equalisation due to political, legal and implementation issues. The objective of this paper is to review the history, structure and likely effectiveness of risk equalisation in Ireland. The paper provides lessons for other countries with risk equalisation systems or seeking to introduce such a system. Amongst other conclusions, it outlines the difficulties in introducing risk equalisation.

  4. Electric power competition & the economic doctrine of contestable markets

    SciTech Connect

    Owan, R.E.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses electric power competition and ascribes a prototypical market structure for the utility industry. The advent of {open_quotes}limited{close_quotes} competition in the electric utility industry has created interesting market challenges for incumbent companies and those eager to enter the fray. Competition is viewed as limited in the sense that not all aspects of the utility industry have been deregulated. While transmission and distribution remain protected market segments, the metamorphosis is most evident in the generation component of the utility industry. The changes have been orchestrated by favorable actions by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). Because of the industry changes, the classical view of the electric utility company as a vertical monopoly is arguable. Welfare considerations not withstanding, part of the rationale for the deregulation of power generation is that the technology and techniques are sufficiently common (i.e. not proprietary) as to allow others to provide the same product or service at competitive prices.

  5. Silver Pharmacology: Past, Present and Questions for the Future.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Silver pharmacology is at the cross-roads. It has a long history as a chemosterilent but is currently denigrated by some vested interests and other 'knowledge monopolies'. It deserves better--particularly in these critical times of ever mounting incidence of antibiotic resistance. This reappraisal outlines some approaches to a dispassionate debate as to why we should, or should not, be reconsidering silver as an addition to (not a substitute for) other antibiotics at the front line of medicine. This will require more understanding about (i) the chemistry of silver in a biological environment; (ii) the different physical and bio-reactive properties of ionised silver (Ag(I)) and nanoparticulate metallic silver (Ag(o)); (iii) the antibiotic potential of both Ag(I) and Ag(o); and (iv) establishing objective Quality Controls for potential silver therapies. Six appendices (A-F) provide some technical data and focus further upon the need to clearly define (a) procedures for manufacturing nanoparticulate metallic silver (NMS); and (b) the purity and properties of NMS preparations--especially stability, antibiotic efficacy and safety of products offered for clinical evaluation. A further appendix (G) deals with some political considerations currently impeding impartial clinical research on silver therapeutics.

  6. The Raising of Minimum Alcohol Prices in Saskatchewan, Canada: Impacts on Consumption and Implications for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinhui; Giesbrecht, Norman; Macdonald, Scott; Thomas, Gerald; Wettlaufer, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We report impacts on alcohol consumption following new and increased minimum alcohol prices in Saskatchewan, Canada. Methods. We conducted autoregressive integrated moving average time series analyses of alcohol sales and price data from the Saskatchewan government alcohol monopoly for 26 periods before and 26 periods after the intervention. Results. A 10% increase in minimum prices significantly reduced consumption of beer by 10.06%, spirits by 5.87%, wine by 4.58%, and all beverages combined by 8.43%. Consumption of coolers decreased significantly by 13.2%, cocktails by 21.3%, and liqueurs by 5.3%. There were larger effects for purely off-premise sales (e.g., liquor stores) than for primarily on-premise sales (e.g., bars, restaurants). Consumption of higher strength beer and wine declined the most. A 10% increase in minimum price was associated with a 22.0% decrease in consumption of higher strength beer (> 6.5% alcohol/volume) versus 8.17% for lower strength beers. The neighboring province of Alberta showed no change in per capita alcohol consumption before and after the intervention. Conclusions. Minimum pricing is a promising strategy for reducing the public health burden associated with hazardous alcohol consumption. Pricing to reflect percentage alcohol content of drinks can shift consumption toward lower alcohol content beverage types. PMID:23078488

  7. Regulating availability: how access to alcohol affects drinking and problems in youth and adults.

    PubMed

    Gruenewald, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Regulations on the availability of alcohol have been used to moderate alcohol problems in communities throughout the world for thousands of years. In the latter half of the 20th century, quantitative studies of the effects of these regulations on drinking and related problems began in earnest as public health practitioners began to recognize the full extent of the harmful consequences related to drinking. This article briefly outlines the history of this work over four areas, focusing on the minimum legal drinking age, the privatization of alcohol control systems, outlet densities, and hours and days of sale. Some historical background is provided to emphasize the theoretical and empirical roots of this work and to highlight the substantial progress that has been made in each area. In general, this assessment suggests that higher minimum legal drinking ages, greater monopoly controls over alcohol sales, lower outlet numbers and reduced outlet densities, and limited hours and days of sale can effectively reduce alcohol sales, use, and problems. There are, however, substantial gaps in the research literature and a near absence of the quantitative theoretical work needed to direct alcohol-control efforts. Local community responses to alcohol policies are complex and heterogeneous, sometimes reinforcing and sometimes mitigating the effects of availability regulations. Quantitative models of policy effects are essential to accelerate progress toward the formulation and testing of optimal control strategies for the reduction of alcohol problems.

  8. Mexico's open door to cogeneration and independent power

    SciTech Connect

    Mathis, J.P. ); Escobedo, M.S. )

    1993-01-01

    The Mexican Government recently reformed its laws governing the generation of electric energy. Notwithstanding its Constitutional monopoly on electric power service, the Mexican government authorized domestic and foreign firms to generate power for (1) private consumption, (2) for sale to the Commission Federal de Electricidad (CFE), and (3) for export. This restructuring of the generation of electric power in Mexico has far-reaching implications both for Mexican consumers and for firms desiring to tap the increasing demand for electric power in Mexico. To place this important legislative and political event in its proper historical context, Part 1 of this article provides a brief overview of the development of the electricity industry in Mexico over the past century. Part 2 of the article describes and analyzes the 1992 Amendment to the Law on the Public Service of Electric Power and its implementing regulations. Finally, Part 3 discusses the significance of the 1992 Amendment for American utility and independent power companies, especially in light of the passage by the US Congress of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

  9. The tools of competition: Differentiation, segmentation and the microprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Piepmeier, J.M. ); Jermain, D.O. ); Egnor, T.L. )

    1993-11-01

    The microprocessor enables electric utilities to recover product differentiation and market segmentation tools that they relinquished decades ago. These tools present a [open quotes]double-edged[close quotes] opportunity to the industry. Product differentiation and market segmentation are deeply and permanently embedded in the corporate strategy and culture of virtually every successful firm. Most electric utilities, however, continue to promote a generic product to an undifferentiated captive audience. This approach was also common in the pre-Yeltsin USSR, where advertisements simply read, Buy Beer, or Eat Potatoes'. Electric utilities relinquished the differentiation/segmentation function in the far distant past to the suppliers of end-use energy appliances such as GE and Carrier. By default they assigned themselves the role of commodity supplier. Historically, this role has been protected in the marketplace and insulated from competition by two strong barriers: economies of scale and status as a legally franchised monopoly in a well-defined geographic territory. These two barriers do not exist independently; the second depends on the first. When scale economies cease and then reverse, the industry's legally protected position in the marketplace begins to erode. The lack of product differentiation and market segmentation, which was inconsequential before, now becomes a serious handicap: These same relinquished tools seem to be essential for success in a competitive environment.

  10. The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: challenges for Australian health and medicine policies.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas A; Townsend, Ruth

    2011-01-17

    Four formal rounds of Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) negotiations took place in 2010. They involved over 200 officials from Australia, the United States, New Zealand, Chile, Singapore, Brunei, Peru, Vietnam and Malaysia. Future negotiations officially are set to include three issues with public health and medicines policy implications for Australia and our region: ways to approach regulatory coherence and transparency; how to benefit multinational and small-medium enterprises; and multilateral investor-state dispute settlement. US-based multinational pharmaceutical companies are lobbying for TPPA provisions like those in the Australia-US Free Trade Agreement, which reduce government cost-effectiveness regulatory control of pharmaceuticals, threatening equitable access to medicines. They also advocate increased TPPA intellectual monopoly privilege protection, which will further limit the development of Australian generic medicine enterprises and restrict patient access to cheap, bioequivalent prescription drugs. Of particular concern is that proposed TPPA multilateral investor-state dispute settlement procedures would allow US corporations (as well as those of other TPPA nations) to obtain damages against Australian governments through international arbitral proceedings if their investments are impeded by Australian public health and environment protection legislation.

  11. [Alternatives to pharmaceutical distribution and reimbursement].

    PubMed

    Meneu, R

    2002-01-01

    In Spain pharmaceutical distribution is carried out mainly thorugh the 20,000 independent pharmacies located throughout the country. This situation contrasts with that in other countries where other health care providers play a major role in drug dispensation or where pharmacies form part of industrial conglomerates or commercial chains. We describe the pharmaceutical distribution chain in Spain wholesale and through the pharmacies and place particular emphasis on five aspects of relevance when considering alternatives: ownership of the pharmacy and norms of professional service, criteria for setting up a pharmacy, monopoly on dispensing, automatic ageement with the Spanish national health system and reimbursement system. Several alternatives found in comparable countries are described: mail order and on-line distribution, sale of over-the counter pharmaceutical products in establishments other than pharmacies, the estabilishment of pharmaceutical chains, dispensing by providers, the repercussions of electronic prescribing and the possibilities of the still-emerging Pharmacuetical Care. The characteristics of pharmacy reimbursement systems are also reviewed. We recommend modification of limitations on ownership of pharmacies, the establishment of optional agreements between pharmacies and the Spanish national health system and the authorization of alternative or complementary channels of distribution for some products. We propose a mixed model of reimbursement that would include: a) a ficed price for dispensing; b) almost total return of the cost of the product; c) reimbursement for services explicity defined by the financer, and d) the possibility of a selective fixed payment for certain situations depending on the agreed services or a guaranteed minimum income.

  12. Does natural selection organize ecosystems for the maintenance of high productivity and diversity?

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Egbert Giles; Vermeij, Geerat Jacobus

    2002-01-01

    Three types of evidence suggest that natural ecosystems are organized for high productivity and diversity: (i) changes not previously experienced by a natural ecosystem, such as novel human disturbances, tend to diminish its productivity and/or diversity, just as 'random' changes in a machine designed for a function usually impair its execution of that function; (ii) humans strive to recreate properties of natural ecosystems to enhance productivity of artificial ones, as farmers try to recreate properties of natural soils in their fields; and (iii) productivity and diversity have increased during the Earth's history as a whole, and after every major biotic crisis. Natural selection results in ecosystems organized to maintain high productivity of organic matter and diversity of species, just as competition among individuals in Adam Smith's ideal economy favours high production of wealth and diversity of occupations. In nature, poorly exploited energy attracts more efficient users. This circumstance favours the opening of new ways of life and more efficient recycling of resources, and eliminates most productivity-reducing 'ecological monopolies'. Ecological dominants tend to be replaced by successors with higher metabolism, which respond to more stimuli and engage in more varied interactions. Finally, increasingly efficient predators and herbivores favour faster turnover of resources. PMID:12079531

  13. Antitrust concerns in the modern public utility environment

    SciTech Connect

    Meeks, J.E.

    1996-04-01

    Direct regulation of public utility activity and behavior has been the predominant approach to protect the public interest in this country. Changes in technology, as well as new thinking about the optimum role of regulation, have created a changing atmosphere in all of the traditional public utility industries. Competitive markets for many of the products and services in these industries have been developing. While monopoly power will continue to exist in certain parts of these industries and require direct regulation, in many areas a growing reliance upon competition as the best method of serving the public interest is developing. With this shift in emphasis from regulation to free markets, the antitrust laws take on new importance for these industries. In the absence of direct regulator control, those laws are society`s primary method of insuring the markets necessary to make competition an effective device for protecting the public interest. This study provides an overview of the antitrust laws, briefly describes the applicable theoretical underpinnings, and then turns to areas where public utility activity may pose special problems or conflicts with prevailing antitrust policy.

  14. The evolution of disarmament and arms control thought, 1945-1963

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.E. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The onset of the Cold War and the total failure of nuclear disarmament efforts at the United Nations were only the most obvious of several factors prompting a reexamination of the disarmament approach in the early 1950s. The end of the American nuclear monopoly, the development of the hydrogen bomb, the experience with limited war in Korea, and the rise of concerns about the possibility of nuclear surprise attack (exacerbated by Sputnik) all prompted the Eisenhower administration and the community of strategic thinkers to question the feasibility and even the desirability of nuclear disarmament. To replace disarmament, the strategic community developed the arms-control approach; this approach, the intellectual foundations of which were largely completed in 1961, has been the basis of American policy for the regulation of nuclear weapons since the Kennedy administration. Since its development, the new thinking has been challenged both by disarmers, who regard it as a conservative approach designed merely to perpetuate mutual nuclear deterrence, and traditionalists, who perceive many similarities to the disarmament approach and are skeptical of its faith in the ability of adversaries to act together to reduce the threat that weapons pose.

  15. Blue gods, blue oil, and blue people.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Studies of the composition of coal tar, which began in Prussia in 1834, profoundly affected the economies of Germany, Great Britain, India, and the rest of the world, as well as medicine and surgery. Such effects include the collapse of the profits of the British indigo monopoly, the growth in economic power of Germany based on coal tar chemistry, and an economic crisis in India that led to more humane tax laws and, ultimately, the independence of India and the end of the British Empire. Additional consequences were the development of antiseptic surgery and the synthesis of a wide variety of useful drugs that have eradicated infections and alleviated pain. Many of these drugs, particularly the commonly used analgesics, sulfonamides, sulfones, and local anesthetics, are derivatives of aniline, originally called "blue oil" or "kyanol." Some of these aniline derivatives, however, have also caused aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and methemoglobinemia (that is, "blue people"). Exposure to aniline drugs, particularly when two or three aniline drugs are taken concurrently, seems to be the commonest cause of methemoglobinemia today.

  16. Specialized Science

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C.

    2014-01-01

    As the body of scientific knowledge in a discipline increases, there is pressure for specialization. Fields spawn subfields that then become entities in themselves that promote further specialization. The process by which scientists join specialized groups has remarkable similarities to the guild system of the middle ages. The advantages of specialization of science include efficiency, the establishment of normative standards, and the potential for greater rigor in experimental research. However, specialization also carries risks of monopoly, monotony, and isolation. The current tendency to judge scientific work by the impact factor of the journal in which it is published may have roots in overspecialization, as scientists are less able to critically evaluate work outside their field than before. Scientists in particular define themselves through group identity and adopt practices that conform to the expectations and dynamics of such groups. As part of our continuing analysis of issues confronting contemporary science, we analyze the emergence and consequences of specialization in science, with a particular emphasis on microbiology, a field highly vulnerable to balkanization along microbial phylogenetic boundaries, and suggest that specialization carries significant costs. We propose measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of scientific specialism. PMID:24421049

  17. The ethical foundations of professionalism: a sociologic history.

    PubMed

    Sox, Harold C

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to trace the development of medical professionalism in medicine from its origins to the present. Codes of professional conduct are the tangible expressions of professionalism. I use them as a window into contemporary circumstances of medical practice. The medieval guilds are my framework for examining the relationship of the medical profession in relation to society. The craft guilds of postmedieval Europe wielded considerable power. They controlled entry into a craft, training, and standards of quality. By controlling the volume of production, they controlled price. The craft guilds flourished until their monopoly powers began to hinder the forces of capitalism, which influenced the state to limit the powers of the guild. The professions are the offspring of the medieval craft guilds. Since the early 19th century, the medical profession in the United States has sought guild powers. The triangular relationship between state, capitalism, and the medical profession explains the rise of the profession during the 19th century and its decline since the mid-20th century. I argue that the codes of conduct of the profession reflect what it needs to maintain its guild powers against the forces of capitalism and the state. The Charter on Medical Professionalism calls on physicians to take into account both the individual patient's needs and those of society. I believe this important clause reflects the conflict of the profession with the state and capitalism over the aggregate costs of medical care.

  18. Full employment and competition in the Aspen economic model: implications for modeling acts of terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Sprigg, James A.; Ehlen, Mark Andrew

    2004-11-01

    Acts of terrorism could have a range of broad impacts on an economy, including changes in consumer (or demand) confidence and the ability of productive sectors to respond to changes. As a first step toward a model of terrorism-based impacts, we develop here a model of production and employment that characterizes dynamics in ways useful toward understanding how terrorism-based shocks could propagate through the economy; subsequent models will introduce the role of savings and investment into the economy. We use Aspen, a powerful economic modeling tool developed at Sandia, to demonstrate for validation purposes that a single-firm economy converges to the known monopoly equilibrium price, output, and employment levels, while multiple-firm economies converge toward the competitive equilibria typified by lower prices and higher output and employment. However, we find that competition also leads to churn by consumers seeking lower prices, making it difficult for firms to optimize with respect to wages, prices, and employment levels. Thus, competitive firms generate market ''noise'' in the steady state as they search for prices and employment levels that will maximize profits. In the context of this model, not only could terrorism depress overall consumer confidence and economic activity but terrorist acts could also cause normal short-run dynamics to be misinterpreted by consumers as a faltering economy.

  19. A dual track system to give more-rapid access to new drugs: applying a systems mindset to the US food and drug administration (FDA).

    PubMed

    Madden, Bartley J

    2009-02-01

    A widely applicable lesson learned from systems analysis is that a proposed change should always be studied in terms of value to the customer and not a gain in efficiency of any particular component of the system. A systems mindset reveals invalid assumptions that have caused the FDA to substitute its own needs for the needs of its customers (patients). Further, the key constraint to overall system improvement is the lack of consumer choice and competition due to FDA's monopoly over access to drugs. Therefore, we need legislation to implement a proposed dual track system for access to drugs that have successfully passed Phase I safety trials. On one track, an experimental drug would continue with conventional FDA clinical trials. On a new, free-to-choose track, patients, advised by their doctors, would make informed decisions about immediate access to not-yet-approved drugs. Internet access to a government-operated tradeoff evaluation database would provide patients and doctors with up-to-date information on all drug treatment outcomes for both tracks. Dual tracking is a dynamic process that overcomes the limitations of a static FDA regulatory process that ignores individual risk preferences.

  20. An intellectual property primer.

    PubMed

    Penner, Mark D

    2008-06-01

    While many may think of it as an "invention" of the modern age, intellectual property ("IP") has existed since at least as early as the 17th Century with the advent of the Statute of Monopolies in the U.K. Intellectual property has evolved significantly since then into an important aspect of modern day society touching all of our lives in some form or another Canadian health care in the 21st Century is no exception. This article attempts to provide health care professionals who may not be familiar with this subject matter with a general overview of what is "intellectual property". Many readers may be aware ofintellectual property on some level but may not understand how the various types of IP function and interrelate, as well as the possible impact on the nature and scope of health care services. The purpose of this article is to attempt to provide the reader with the tools, definition and 'jargon" to understand IP so that they can appreciate the issues discussed in greater detail in the remaining papers of this special edition.

  1. Genetically Modified Plants: Public and Scientific Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The potential of genetically modified plants to meet the requirements of growing population is not being recognized at present. This is a consequence of concerns raised by the public and the critics about their applications and release into the environment. These include effect on human health and environment, biosafety, world trade monopolies, trustworthiness of public institutions, integrity of regulatory agencies, loss of individual choice, and ethics as well as skepticism about the real potential of the genetically modified plants, and so on. Such concerns are enormous and prevalent even today. However, it should be acknowledged that most of them are not specific for genetically modified plants, and the public should not forget that the conventionally bred plants consumed by them are also associated with similar risks where no information about the gene(s) transfer is available. Moreover, most of the concerns are hypothetical and lack scientific background. Though a few concerns are still to be disproved, it is viewed that, with proper management, these genetically modified plants have immense potential for the betterment of mankind. In the present paper, an overview of the raised concerns and wherever possible reasons assigned to explain their intensity or unsuitability are reviewed. PMID:25937981

  2. Discourses of Linguistic dominance: A Historical Consideration of French Language Ideology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuya, Keisuke

    2001-07-01

    The paper offers a historical perspective on the linguistic and cultural imperialism embedded in the struggle to maintain French as a leading international language. France was the nation-state where the ideology of national language was first clearly formulated and directly extended to overseas colonies. This shows the close relationship between linguistic nationalism and imperialism. It was believed that French was the language of universal human reason and had the power to civilize people who spoke it. This myth of the "clarté française" and the "mission civilisatrice" had a strong influence on various kinds of metalinguistic discourses that created the taken-for-granted representation of French as dominant language. It is the essential strategy of language dominance to establish the hierarchy of languages as if it were natural order of things. When French was obliged to yield the status of international language to English, there emerged the ideology of "Francophonie" which tried to defend its privilege against the monopoly of English, but the same ideology is also directed against minorities' claims for their own linguistic human right. It could be said that these discourses form a recursive prototype of language dominance whose variations are to be found in other shapes almost all over the world.

  3. Rural and indigenous women speak out on the impact of globalization.

    PubMed

    Kelkar, G

    1998-01-01

    This article describes approach papers, proposed strategies, and closing agreements among those attending the May 1998 Asian Pacific Forum on Women, Law, and Development (APWLD) among rural, indigenous women (IW). IW spoke of their experiences with globalization. The aim was to examine the effects of deregulation and privatization, liberalization, and global market and foreign monopoly capital on rural, IW in Asia. The expected outcome was an advocacy directive for APWLD in the forthcoming APEC and People's Summit in November 1998. Approach papers included F. N. Burnad's paper on the "Impact of Globalization on Rural Women" and V. Tauli-Corpuz's paper on "Globalization and its Impacts on Indigenous Women: The Philippine Experience." These papers emphasized the multiple roles of women, their increasing resourcefulness which leads to their enslavement, links between globalization and continuing colonization by transnationals and international institutions, access to ancestral resources, and promotion of export led production that threatens food security. Suggested strategies were to mobilize opposition to globalization and greater control over traditional resources and knowledge by IW. Several important questions were raised about nation states, dominant cultures, human rights violations, technology, and the close link between militarization and globalization. Participants agreed to mobilize for effectively resisting and eliminating unjust and unequal systems that exploit and oppress rural, poor, and indigenous people, especially women.

  4. High-precision radiocarbon dating and historical biblical archaeology in southern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Levy, Thomas E; Higham, Thomas; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Smith, Neil G; Ben-Yosef, Erez; Robinson, Mark; Münger, Stefan; Knabb, Kyle; Schulze, Jürgen P; Najjar, Mohammad; Tauxe, Lisa

    2008-10-28

    Recent excavations and high-precision radiocarbon dating from the largest Iron Age (IA, ca. 1200-500 BCE) copper production center in the southern Levant demonstrate major smelting activities in the region of biblical Edom (southern Jordan) during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE. Stratified radiocarbon samples and artifacts were recorded with precise digital surveying tools linked to a geographic information system developed to control on-site spatial analyses of archaeological finds and model data with innovative visualization tools. The new radiocarbon dates push back by 2 centuries the accepted IA chronology of Edom. Data from Khirbat en-Nahas, and the nearby site of Rujm Hamra Ifdan, demonstrate the centrality of industrial-scale metal production during those centuries traditionally linked closely to political events in Edom's 10th century BCE neighbor ancient Israel. Consequently, the rise of IA Edom is linked to the power vacuum created by the collapse of Late Bronze Age (LB, ca. 1300 BCE) civilizations and the disintegration of the LB Cypriot copper monopoly that dominated the eastern Mediterranean. The methodologies applied to the historical IA archaeology of the Levant have implications for other parts of the world where sacred and historical texts interface with the material record.

  5. The Taiwan Tobacco and Liquor Corporation: To 'join the ranks of global companies'.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Fang, Jennifer; Lee, Kelley

    2017-03-01

    Until the late 1990s, the Taiwan Tobacco and Liquor Corporation (TTL) focused almost exclusively on serving the domestic market as a highly protected monopoly. This paper describes how the company has adopted a more outward looking strategy since 2000, with ambitions to become a regional, and eventually global, business by 2021. Drawing on company documents and industry sources, the paper argues that this shift in strategy was a direct reaction to the decline in domestic market share following liberalisation of the Taiwanese tobacco market and adoption of tougher domestic tobacco control measures. Market opening occurred as a result of pressure from the U.S. Trade Representative in the 1980s, as well as World Trade Organization membership in 2002. It is argued that TTL's efforts to globalise operations have been limited by bureaucratic company management and structures, and ongoing political tension between Taiwan and China. However, the relative success of TTL's alcohol branch, and potential détente as the Taiwanese government reaches out to improve relations with China, may provide TTL with new opportunities to achieve its goal of becoming a regional player with global ambitions. This article is part of the special issue 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance.'

  6. [Patents in pharmaceutical industry: between ethics and property rights].

    PubMed

    Martínez Cárdenas, Edgar E

    2003-01-01

    The article presents a reflection on one of the greater challenges which the contemporary State is confronted with, related to guaranteeing the effective application of the fundamental rights, besides having to solve the conflicts that arise due to the rivalry between either fundamental rights or between some of these and others known as second or third generation rights. The conflict between the protection to the intellectual property rights, as in the case of the patents of the pharmaceutical multinationals, and the fundamental right to life is considered. It is observed that the interests of these companies have prevailed, as if the fundamental value to protect was the profit of these multinationals, or their efficiency, and not the right to health of the individuals which bears a direct relation with the right to the life. This situation is aggravated still more when the State, instead of being on the side of the weaker and offering him protection, safeguards the stronger who abuse of their dominant position, exerting the monopoly on the production of many essential medicines.

  7. A political economic theory of the dental care market.

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, J; Douglass, C W

    1982-01-01

    A theory of the dental care market is introduced which proposes that the vertically integrated (local/state/national) structure of the profession services as an organizational vehicle both for intra-professional debate and for developing provider-oriented dental care policy. We suggest that a special relationship exists between professionalism and professional regulation. Such regulation has functioned simultaneously to limit competition and to foster a prized consumption commodity for providers: professionalism and professional esteem. The organized pursuit of this commodity inherently dampens competition. Professionalism itself plays a crucial role in: 1) securing for organized dentistry a form of state regulation in which the providers themselves are the principal decision-makers; and 2) influencing provider and consumer market behavior in several significant respects, the net result being the formation of maintenance of a type of "leadership cartel" in the local market. Thus, a political-economic theory of the dental care market formally acknowledges professionalism as valued by established dentists and recent graduates as a central determining influence. Traditional models of pure competition and monopoly emerge as special, extreme cases of the general theory. Hypotheses are offered regarding consumer and provider behavior, market dynamics, and health policy and regulation. PMID:7091455

  8. Environmentally conscious patent histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, Dennis D.; Crouch, Henry L.

    2004-02-01

    There is a need for investigators, legislators, and business leaders to understand the magnitude of innovation and discovery in the field of environmentally conscious technologies (ECTs). Knowledge of the "big picture" is important to providing a national and global account of actual environmental stewardship over the last twenty-five years. A recitation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supported Acts which have been enacted into law reveals one facet of the multifaceted dynamic of environmental consciousness. The popular discussion and debate, as well as partisan lobbying, which created the political forces leading to environmentally conscious legislation is another facet. A third facet is the corporate response to the threats and opportunities predicted by CEO"s and others through environmental scanning. This paper examines changes in environmentally conscious inventive effort by comparing data from United States Patents issued from 1976 through 2003. Patents are useful tool for measuring technological innovation because they are publicly available records of innovative activity. Although not all inventions result in patent applications, the monopoly rights granted on the invention give the inventor a strong incentive to obtain patents on any viable product or process. Among the results, we found a significant increase in patents relating to environmentally conscious products and processes during the period in question. Specifically, a dramatic increase in patent activity was seen for the decade of the 1990"s. Surprisingly, the patenting rate from 2000 to 2003 seems to have stabilized. Additionally public discussion of ECTs appears to have a positive impact on patent filings.

  9. [Starting with camphor--the progress of Nippon Fine Chemical].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    In 1918, Nippon Fine Chemical Co., Ltd. (NFC) was founded under the name, Nippon Camphor Co., Ltd. for the purpose of unifying the camphor business throughout Japan. The company manufactured purified camphor as a government-monopolized good. Camphor was used as a plasticizer for nitrocellulose, as a moth repellent, as an antimicrobial substance, as a rust inhibitor, and as an active ingredient in medicine. It was also a very important good exported in order to obtain foreign currency. Later on, after World War II and the abolition of the camphor monopoly, the company started manufacturing products related to oils and fats, including higher fatty acids, and expanded its business by developing a new field of chemical industry. In 1971 the company changed its name to Nippon Fine Chemical Co., Ltd., and made a new start as a diversified fine chemicals company. Recently, the fine chemicals division of NFC has concentrated on rather complex molecules, such as active pharmaceutical ingredients, and other chemicals. Since 2000, NFC have started to supply "Presome", precursors of liposome DDS drugs. NFC is strengthening marketing strategies in foreign countries with unique technologies and products.

  10. The value of public health research and the division between basic vs. applied science.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Filho, Namoar; Goldbaum, Moisés

    2003-02-01

    We question the movement towards exclusion of population and social health research from the field of science. The background under analysis is contemporary Brazil, where the scientific field that hosts this kind of research is known as Collective Health. First, the problem is formalized on logical grounds, evaluating the pertinence of considering unscientific the many objects and methods of public health research. Secondly, the cases of pulmonary tuberculosis and external causes are brought in as illustrations of the kind of scientific problem faced in health research today. The logical and epistemological basis of different forms of "scientific segregation" based on biomedical reductionism is analyzed, departing from three theses: (i) the ethics of the general application of science; (ii) the inappropriateness of monopolies for objectivity in the sciences; (iii) the specificity of scientific fields. In the current panorama of health research in Brazil, a residual hegemonic position that defends a narrow and specific definition of the object of knowledge was found. The denial of validity and specificity to objects, methods and research techniques that constitute social and population research in health is linked to elements of irrationality in reductionism approaches. Nevertheless, efforts should be directed to overcome this scientific division, in order to develop a pluralist and interdisciplinary national science, committed to the health care realities of our country.

  11. A stab in the dark: chick killing by brood parasitic honeyguides

    PubMed Central

    Spottiswoode, Claire N.; Koorevaar, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    The most virulent avian brood parasites obligately kill host young soon after hatching, thus ensuring their monopoly of host parental care. While the host eviction behaviour of cuckoos (Cuculidae) is well documented, the host killing behaviour of honeyguide (Indicatoridae) chicks has been witnessed only once, 60 years ago, and never in situ in host nests. Here, we report from the Afrotropical greater honeyguide the first detailed observations of honeyguides killing host chicks with their specially adapted bill hooks, based on repeated video recordings (available in the electronic supplementary material). Adult greater honeyguides puncture host eggs when they lay their own, but in about half of host nests at least one host egg survived, precipitating chick killing by the honeyguide hatchling. Hosts always hatched after honeyguide chicks, and were killed within hours. Despite being blind and in total darkness, honeyguides attacked host young with sustained biting, grasping and shaking motions. Attack time of 1–5 min was sufficient to cause host death, which took from 9 min to over 7 h from first attack. Honeyguides also bit unhatched eggs and human hands, but only rarely bit the host parents feeding them. PMID:21900311

  12. Solar PV Project Financing: Regulatory and Legislative Challenges for Third-Party PPA System Owners

    SciTech Connect

    Kollins, K.; Speer, B.; Cory, K.

    2009-11-01

    Residential and commercial end users of electricity who want to generate electricity using on-site solar photovoltaic (PV) systems face challenging initial and O&M costs. The third-party ownership power purchase agreement (PPA) finance model addresses these and other challenges. It allows developers to build and own PV systems on customers? properties and sell power back to customers. However, third-party electricity sales commonly face five regulatory challenges. The first three challenges involve legislative or regulatory definitions of electric utilities, power generation equipment, and providers of electric services. These definitions may compel third-party owners of solar PV systems to comply with regulations that may be cost prohibitive. Third-party owners face an additional challenge if they may not net meter, a practice that provides significant financial incentive to owning solar PV systems. Finally, municipalities and cooperatives worry about the regulatory implications of allowing an entity to sell electricity within their service territories. This paper summarizes these challenges, when they occur, and how they have been addressed in five states. This paper also presents alternative to the third-party ownership PPA finance model, including solar leases, contractual intermediaries, standardized contract language, federal investment tax credits, clean renewable energy bonds, and waived monopoly powers.

  13. Dual effect of wasp queen pheromone in regulating insect sociality.

    PubMed

    Oi, Cintia A; Van Oystaeyen, Annette; Caliari Oliveira, Ricardo; Millar, Jocelyn G; Verstrepen, Kevin J; van Zweden, Jelle S; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-06-15

    Eusocial insects exhibit a remarkable reproductive division of labor between queens and largely sterile workers [1, 2]. Recently, it was shown that queens of diverse groups of social insects employ specific, evolutionarily conserved cuticular hydrocarbons to signal their presence and inhibit worker reproduction [3]. Workers also recognize and discriminate between eggs laid by the queen and those laid by workers, with the latter being destroyed by workers in a process known as "policing" [4, 5]. Worker policing represents a classic example of a conflict-reducing mechanism, in which the reproductive monopoly of the queen is maintained through the selective destruction of worker-laid eggs [5, 6]. However, the exact signals used in worker policing have thus far remained elusive [5, 7]. Here, we show that in the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris, the pheromone that signals egg maternity and enables the workers to selectively destroy worker-laid eggs is in fact the same as one of the sterility-inducing queen signals that we identified earlier [3]. These results imply that queen pheromones regulate insect sociality in two distinct and complementary ways, i.e., by signaling the queen's presence and inhibiting worker reproduction, and by facilitating the recognition and policing of worker-laid eggs.

  14. Global artificial photosynthesis project: a scientific and legal introduction.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    With the global human population set to exceed 10 billion by 2050, its collective energy consumption to rise from 400 to over 500 EJ/yr and with the natural environment under increasing pressure from these sources as well as from anthropogenic climate change, political solutions such as the creation of an efficient carbon price and trading scheme may arrive too late. In this context, the scientific community is exploring technological remedies. Central to these options is artificial photosynthesis--the creation, particularly through nanotechnology, of devices capable to doing what plants have done for millions of years - transforming sunlight, water and carbon dioxide into food and fuel. This article argues that a Global Artificial Photosynthesis (GAP) project can raise the public profile and encourage the pace, complexity and funding of scientific collaborations in artificial photosynthesis research. The legal structure of a GAP project will be critical to prevent issues such as state sovereignty over energy and food resources and corporate intellectual monopoly privileges unduly inhibiting the important contribution of artificial photosynthesis to global public health and environmental sustainability. The article presents an introduction to the scientific and legal concepts behind a GAP project.

  15. Managed care, market power, and monopsony.

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, M V

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the theoretical possibility of monopsony behavior under managed care insurance. STUDY DESIGN: Use of microeconomic theory to examine how managed care plans with market power would be expected to behave, and effects of that behavior on consumer and supplier welfare. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The article shows that, under managed care monopsony, the welfare of consumers may be increased but overall economic welfare will necessarily be reduced. It offers a test for whether the lower prices paid by managed care buyers with larger market share represent welfare-reducing monopsony or a welfare-increasing movement away from provider monopoly. The test says that, if the quantity of inputs (supplied under conditions of increasing long-run marginal cost) declines, monopsony is present. The article also argues that the translation of lower provider prices into lower premiums is consistent with welfare-reducing monopsony by nonprofit health plans. In contrast, for-profit health plans that obtain monopsony may reduce the welfare of consumers as well as that of input suppliers. These theoretical conclusions are shown to be consistent with recent empirical research indicating a negative relationship between buyer market power and cost per enrollee. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional antitrust policy has not been able to deal well with monopsony. The article concludes that health plans that use their market power to reduce medical spending may harm the well-being both of specialized medical workers and of consumers of medical care. Antitrust policy may need to be modified to deal with this situation. PMID:9865228

  16. The Questionable Economic Case for Value-Based Drug Pricing in Market Health Systems.

    PubMed

    Pauly, Mark V

    2017-02-01

    This article investigates the economic theory and interpretation of the concept of "value-based pricing" for new breakthrough drugs with no close substitutes in a context (such as the United States) in which a drug firm with market power sells its product to various buyers. The interpretation is different from that in a country that evaluates medicines for a single public health insurance plan or a set of heavily regulated plans. It is shown that there will not ordinarily be a single value-based price but rather a schedule of prices with different volumes of buyers at each price. Hence, it is incorrect to term a particular price the value-based price, or to argue that the profit-maximizing monopoly price is too high relative to some hypothesized value-based price. When effectiveness of treatment or value of health is heterogeneous, the profit-maximizing price can be higher than that associated with assumed values of quality-adjusted life-years. If the firm sets a price higher than the value-based price for a set of potential buyers, the optimal strategy of the buyers is to decline to purchase that drug. The profit-maximizing price will come closer to a unique value-based price if demand is less heterogeneous.

  17. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946–1953

    PubMed Central

    Creager, Angela N. H.

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear “piles,” soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchase to civilian institutions. This program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from scientists outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate about whether the Commission should or even could export radioisotopes. This controversy manifested the tension in U.S. politics between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country’s atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism. This essay examines the various ways in which radioisotopes were used as political instruments—both by the U.S. federal government in world affairs, and by critics of the civilian control of atomic energy—in the early Cold War. PMID:20725612

  18. Uncovering the end uses of the rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T E

    2013-09-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging and conventional established technologies. However, quantitative knowledge of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in future availability of the resources. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supply vulnerable to short term disruption. We have drawn upon the published literature and unpublished materials in different languages to derive the first quantitative annual domestic production by end use of individual rare earth elements from 1995 to 2007. The information is illustrated in Sankey diagrams for the years 1995 and 2007. Other years are available in the supporting information. Comparing 1995 and 2007, the production of the rare earth elements in China, Japan, and the US changed dramatically in quantities and structure. The information can provide a solid foundation for industries, academic institutions and governments to make decisions and develop strategies.

  19. Nova is an old hand at big deals in Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.

    1980-09-10

    Nova, an Alberta Corporation, formerly Alberta Gas Trunk Line Co. Ltd., and Shell Canada Resources Ltd. will build a 600 million lb/yr styrene plant near Edmonton, Alberta. For feedstock, 5000 bbl/day of benzene will come from a $350 million, 100,000 bbl/day refinery that will be built by Shell at Edmonton. Husky Oil Ltd., which is controlled by Nova, will take a 40% equity in the refinery. According to Nova, which has a monopoly on gas transmission in Alberta, continued collaboration with Shell could lead to the spending of an additional $2 billion in the next few years. Dow Chemical of Canada Ltd. and Nova will put together an ethane extraction system in Alberta which will feed their jointly owned 1.2 billion lb/yr ethylene plant near Red Deer, Alberta. Dow uses the entire output of the ethylene plant at its recently completed Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, complex. Alberta Gas Ethylene Co. Ltd., a Nova subsidiary, has begun work on a second 1.2 billion lb/yr ethylene unit scheduled for completion in early 1984, and will soon start work on a third ethylene unit at Red Deer. According to J. Sutherland (Nova, Alberta Corp.), Nova is rapidly expanding its ethylene capacity because, for at least a certain period of time, world-scale plants using Alberta natural gas will be very competitive.

  20. 'Government Patent Use': A Legal Approach To Reducing Drug Spending.

    PubMed

    Kapczynski, Amy; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-05-01

    The high cost of patent-protected brand-name drugs can strain budgets and curb the widespread use of new medicines. An example is the case of direct-acting antiviral drugs for the treatment of hepatitis C. While prices for these drugs have come down in recent months, they still create barriers to treatment. Additionally, prescribing restrictions imposed by insurers put patients at increased risk of medical complications and contribute to transmission of the hepatitis C virus. We propose that the federal government invoke its power under an existing "government patent use" law to reduce excessive prices for important patent-protected medicines. Using this law would permit the government to procure generic versions of patented drugs and in exchange pay the patent-holding companies reasonable royalties to compensate them for research and development. This would allow patients in federal programs, and perhaps beyond, to be treated with inexpensive generic medicines according to clinical need-meaning that many more patients could be reached for no more, and perhaps far less, money than is currently spent. Another benefit would be a reduction in the opportunity for companies to extract monopoly profits that far exceed their risk-adjusted costs of research and development.

  1. Changing roles for primary-care physicians: addressing challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, C P; Kaluzny, A D; Kibbe, D C; Tredway, R

    2005-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising is but one example of a process called disintermediation that is directly affecting primary-care physicians and their patients. This paper examines the trends and the actors involved in disintermediation, which threatens the traditional patient-physician relationship. The paper outlines the social forces behind these threats and illustrates the resulting challenges and opportunities. A rationale and strategies are presented to rebuild, maintain and strengthen the patient-physician relationship in an era of growing disintermediation and anticipated advancements in cost-effective office-based information systems. Primary care--as we know it--is under siege from a number of trends in healthcare delivery, resulting in loss of physician autonomy, disrupted continuity of care and potential erosion of professional values (Rastegar 2004; Future of Family Medicine Project Leadership Committee 2004). The halcyon days of medicine as a craft guild with a monopoly on (1) technical knowledge and (2) the means of implementation, reached its zenith in the mid-twentieth century and has been under pressure ever since (Starr 1982; Schlesinger 2002). While this is a trend within the US health system, it is likely to affect other delivery systems in the years ahead.

  2. Liberty and the Limits to the Extraterrestrial State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockell, C. S.

    The physical conditions that inhere in extraterrestrial environments have a tendency to drive society toward collectivist mechanisms of political and economic order to successfully cope with, and prevent possible disaster caused by, the lethal external conditions. Liberty will therefore be eroded by deliberate human action, through extraterrestrial authorities, and through a natural restriction in concepts of liberty that will attend the development and behaviour of people in confined environments. The emergence of extraterrestrial governance that nurtures liberty in outer space will require the formation of many institutions that encourage competition and reduce political and economic monopolies - with the legal system to sustain them. This problem is most clearly manifest in oxygen production. These considerations allow the purpose and limits of the extraterrestrial state and precursor forms of governance to be circumscribed. Far from being a purely speculative enquiry, this discussion allows requirements in physical architecture and social organisation to be identified that can be considered from the earliest stages of space exploration and settlement.

  3. Reunification, democratization and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jee-Hun

    1990-06-01

    The division of the nation into two separate political entities and the later development of dependent capitalism in South Korea have created two important eductional tasks, to do with reunification and democratization. Reunification requires liberation from the influence of foreign powers involved in the national partition and the development of dependent capitalism. Reunification-oriented education emphasizes understanding foreign influences in every sphere of the people's life, understanding the true realities of the two Koreas which have developed in different ways, and overcoming anti-communist ideological obfuscation. Democratization implies the enhancement of people's participation in the exercise and control of political and economic power at every level. For this purpose people need to be educated to participate in order to prevent the abuse of highly centralized power. United and collective action by teachers is required to protect schools from the state monopoly in education and to maintain the integrity and independence of a teaching profession so that pupils can learn and practise democratic values at school.

  4. Professionalism for Medicine: Opportunities and Obligations*

    PubMed Central

    Cruess, Sylvia R; Cruess, Richard L; Johnston, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Physicians' dual roles-as healer and professional-are linked by codes of ethics governing behaviour and are empowered by science.Being part of a profession entails a societal contract. The profession is granted a monopoly over the use of a body of knowledge and the privilege of self-regulation and, in return, guarantees society professional competence, integrity and the provision of altruistic service.Societal attitudes to professionalism have changed from supportive to increasingly critical-with physicians being criticised for pursuing their own financial interests, and failing to self-regulate in a way that guarantees competence.Professional values are also threatened by many other factors. The most important are the changes in healthcare delivery in the developed world, with control shifting from the profession to the State and/or the corporate sector.For the ideal of professionalism to survive, physicians must understand it and its role in the social contract. They must meet the obligations necessary to sustain professionalism and ensure that healthcare systems support, rather than subvert, behaviour that is compatible with professionalism's values. PMID:15296199

  5. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, J.; Huray, P.G.

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  6. Deregulation Impact in Negotiating a New Electrical Contract Between NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field and FirstEnergy Corp., Cleveland, Ohio, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quach, Quyen T.; Zala, Laszlo F.

    2002-01-01

    The governor of the State of Ohio signed amended substitute Senate bill 3 on July 6, 1999, requiring Ohio's electric industry to change from a monopoly environment to a competitive electric environment for generation services. The start date for competitive retail generation services was set for January 1, 2001. This new deregulation law allowed all Ohioans to choose the supplier of generation service, but the transmission and distribution would remain regulated. It also required electric utilities to unbundle the three main components (generation, transmission, and distribution) and make other changes designed to produce a competitive electric generation market. While deregulation was taking shape, the NASA Glenn Research Center electrical contract with FirstEnergy Corp. of Cleveland, Ohio, was to expire on September 7, 1999. Glenn strategically evaluated and incorporated the impacts of electric deregulation in the negotiations. Glenn and FirstEnergy spent over a year in negotiations until the Glenn utility team and the FirstEnergy negotiating team came to an agreement in the fall of 2000, and a new contract became effective on January 1, 2001.

  7. Health Sector Inflation Rate and its Determinants in Iran: A Longitudinal Study (1995–2008)

    PubMed Central

    TEIMOURIZAD, Abedin; HADIAN, Mohamad; REZAEI, Satar; HOMAIE RAD, Enayatollah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Health price inflation rate is different from increasing in health expenditures. Health expenditures contain both quantity and prices but inflation rate contains prices. This study aimed to determine the factors that affect the Inflation Rate for Health Care Services (IRCPIHC) in Iran. Methods We used Central Bank of Iran data. We estimated the relationship between the inflation rate and its determinants using dynamic factor variable approach. For this purpose, we used STATA software. Results The study results revealed a positive relationship between the overall inflation as well as the number of dentists and health inflation. However, number of beds and physicians per 1000 people had a negative relationship with health inflation. Conclusion When the number of hospital beds and doctors increased, the competition between them increased, as well, thereby decreasing the inflation rate. Moreover, dentists and drug stores had the conditions of monopoly markets; therefore, they could change the prices easier compared to other health sectors. Health inflation is the subset of growth in health expenditures and the determinants of health expenditures are not similar to health inflation. PMID:26060721

  8. Regulation of distribution network business

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, J.; Gomez, T.; Munoz, A.; Peco, J.

    1999-04-01

    The traditional distribution function actually comprises two separate activities: distribution network and retailing. Retailing, which is also termed supply, consists of trading electricity at the wholesale level and selling it to the end users. The distribution network business, or merely distribution, is a natural monopoly and it must be regulated. Increasing attention is presently being paid to the regulation of distribution pricing. Distribution pricing, comprises two major tasks: global remuneration of the distribution utility and tariff setting by allocation of the total costs among all the users of the network services. In this paper, the basic concepts for establishing the global remuneration of a distribution utility are presented. A remuneration scheme which recognizes adequate investment and operation costs, promotes losses reduction and incentivates the control of the quality of service level is proposed. Efficient investment and operation costs are calculated by using different types of strategic planning and regression analysis models. Application examples that have been used during the distribution regulation process in Spain are also presented.

  9. Beyond Biomedicine: Relationships and Care in Tuberculosis Prevention.

    PubMed

    Mason, Paul H; Degeling, Chris

    2016-03-01

    With attention to the experiences, agency, and rights of tuberculosis (TB) patients, this symposium on TB and ethics brings together a range of different voices from the social sciences and humanities. To develop fresh insights and new approaches to TB care and prevention, it is important to incorporate diverse perspectives from outside the strictly biomedical model. In the articles presented in this issue of the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, clinical experience is married with historical and cultural context, ethical concerns are brought to bear on global health, and structural analyses shed light upon the lived experience of people living with TB. The relational and reciprocal dimensions of care feature strongly in these discussions, which serve as a poignant reminder that behind each of the yearly deaths from TB is a deeply personal story. No single discipline holds a monopoly on how to care for each of these people, but strong cases are made for support from mental health and social workers in addressing the kaleidoscope of needs in TB prevention. As the World Health Organization moves towards the goal of eliminating TB globally by 2050, attending to the needs of TB patients serves global interests to lower disease burden and to develop better integrated communities worldwide.

  10. Buying for Armageddon: Factors influencing post-World War II weapons purchases since the Cuban Missile Crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Boies, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    The central problem of this study is the role that the economy and economic interests play in decisions about US weapons-systems acquisition. Despite a voluminous literature discussing the formation of military policy, journalistic accounts of business influence on military policy dominate the literature. A notable exception to this pattern is Griffin, Devine, and Wallace's use of time-series data on military expenditures to assess Baran and Sweezy's thesis that military expenditures are necessary to the good health of the monopoly sector of the US economy. Using similar techniques and an expanded data set, the effect of business political action and major economic forces on the quantity and types of weapons purchased since the Cuban Missile Crisis are investigated. Findings indicate that defense contractor rates of profit have a positive relationship to procurement expenditures of most types. This is opposite of the effect posited by most of the literature. Elite political mobilization, measured by the activity of the Committee on the Present Danger, a group at the core of the New Right Social Movement, has a positive effect on expenditures.

  11. Why Aristotle took so long to die

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, Dennis

    2006-04-01

    Like young people looking askance at their parents, we often have trouble taking seriously the interests or even the intellects of ``scientists'' from centuries gone by (an attitude already betrayed by the urge to use quotation marks). After all, their theories were wrong. But the greatest wrong physicist of them all was Aristotle. The earliest thinkers we today classify as scientists (Bacon, Galileo, Newton) cut their teeth trying to show how he was wrong--but it wasn't easy. In order to see why it was so hard, we need to transport ourselves mentally back to the period between ancient Greece and seventeenth-century Europe and try to think like Aristotelians. That way we can catch a taste of the intellectual pleasures of Aristotelian physics and cosmology--including Aristotle's concepts of elements, cause, natural motion, and the ``two-storey'' universe. By becoming (temporary) Aristotelians, we'll be able to see better, for example, why Copernicanism took a hundred years to catch on. For the heliocentric ``celestial machine'' demanded a new physics that nobody had yet provided. Finally, to examine Aristotle's long monopoly on physics--based on what had grown to look like simple common sense--is also to stir up questions about how we might gain enough perspective on our present habits of thought to avoid getting stuck in our own orthodoxies. We may even find that those habits, as exemplified by modern astrophysics, still conceal unpurged remnants of Aristotle.

  12. Information and communications technology in U.S. health care: why is adoption so slow and is slower better?

    PubMed

    Christensen, Michael C; Remler, Dahlia

    2009-12-01

    Politicians across the political spectrum support greater investment in health care information and communications technology (ICT) and expect it to significantly decrease costs and improve health outcomes. We address three policy questions about adoption of ICT in health care: First, why is there so little adoption? Second, what policies will facilitate and accelerate adoption? Third, what is the best pace for adoption? We first describe the unusual economics of ICT, particularly network externalities, and then determine how those economics interact with and are exacerbated by the unusual economics of health care. High replacement costs and the need for technical compatibility are general barriers to ICT adoption and often result in lock-in to adopted technologies. These effects are compounded in health care because the markets for health care services, health insurance, and labor are interlinked. In addition, the government interacts with all markets in its role as an insurer. Patient heterogeneity further exacerbates these effects. Finally, ICT markets are often characterized by natural monopolies, resulting in little product diversity, an effect ill-suited to patient heterogeneity. The ongoing process for setting technical standards for health care ICT is critical but needs to include all relevant stakeholders, including patient groups. The process must be careful (i.e., slow), flexible, and allow for as much diversity as possible. We find that waiting to adopt ICT is a surprisingly wise policy.

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of Tubulipora flabellaris (Bryozoa: Stenolaemata): the first representative from the class Stenolaemata with unique gene order.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming'an; Shen, Xin; Liu, Huilian; Liu, Xixing; Wu, Zhigang; Liu, Bin

    2011-09-01

    Mitochondrial genomes play a significant role in the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships within metazoans. There are still many controversies concerning the phylogenetic position of the phylum Bryozoa. In this research, we have finished the complete mitochondrial genome of one bryozoan (Tubulipora flabellaris), which is the first representative from the class Stenolaemata. The complete mitochondrial genome of T. flabellaris is 13,763bp in length and contains 36 genes, which lacks the atp8 gene in contrast to the typical metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Gene arrangement comparisons indicate that the mitochondrial genome of T. flabellaris has unique gene order when compared with other metazoans. The four known bryozoans complete mitochondrial genomes also have very different gene arrangements, indicates that bryozoan mitochondrial genomes have experienced drastic rearrangements. To investigate the phylogenetic relationship of Bryozoa, phylogenetic analyses based on amino acid sequences of 11 protein coding genes (excluding atp6 and atp8) from 26 metazoan complete mitochondrial genomes were made utilizing Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian methods, respectively. The results indicate the monopoly of Lophotrochozoa and a close relationship between Chaetognatha and Bryozoa. However, more evidences are needed to clarify the relationship between two groups. Lophophorate appeared to be polyphyletic according to our analyses. Meanwhile, neither analysis supports close relationship between Branchiopod and Phoronida. Four bryozoans form a clade and the relationship among them is T. flabellaris+(F. hispida+(B. neritina+W. subtorquata)), which is in coincidence with traditional classification system.

  14. One hundred years of energy - Public Service Company of Colorado and its predessors, 1869-1969

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is Colorado's largest utility, Public Service Company of Colorado and its predecessors from 1869 to 1969. It is an entrepreneurial history dealing with the men, who in making decisions, played important roles in shaping the company and the industry. In addition, the technologies of electricity and natural gas are important aspects of this dissertation. As new uses for energy was created society responded with an almost insatiable hunger. People and energy eventually formed a symbiotic relationship. Politics also played an integral part in the development of utilities. Because utilities were generally monopolies, many laws and regulations were created for control that did not apply to other businesses. The development of legislation and the manner in which it affected utilities is discussed throughout the dissertation. When public opinion turned against the utilities during the Great Depression the industry had to make significant financial and managerial changes in order to stay in business. In the 1960s some people began to point out the negative aspects of high energy consumption. Nuclear power in the 1960s promised a clean and abundant means to produce fuel. PSC's attempt to use nuclear power, however, has been, to date, unsatisfactory.

  15. Pharmaceutical Pricing: The Use of External Reference Pricing.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Kai; Nolte, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    External reference pricing, or international price comparison, is a common strategy to control prices of pharmaceuticals that are protected by intellectual property rights and benefit from a legal monopoly (in-patent drugs). In the UK negotiations are under way that seek to define new arrangements for the pricing of branded (new) medicines from 2014. The pharmaceutical market in the UK only accounts for a small proportion of global sales; however, UK prices are important as many countries reference their prices against those in the UK. This article seeks to contribute to our understanding of approaches to pharmaceutical pricing in high-income countries and the role of reference pricing as a means to determining pharmaceutical prices. Reviewing experiences in Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain, we find high variability of external reference pricing across different settings and of the relative importance of this approach in comparison with other pricing strategies. There was also considerable variation in the terminology and practices used, and understanding the complexities of countries included in reference baskets for external pricing requires considerable semantic clarification. There was considerable overlap between countries that cross-reference, and it remains challenging to estimate the direct, immediate impact on external reference baskets. This review suggests that the international impact of pricing changes in the UK is likely to be minimal or indirect, largely because of the diverse ways in which reference pricing is implemented in the countries examined.

  16. Impact of Gene Patents and Licensing Practices on Access to Genetic Testing for Long QT Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Angrist, Misha; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Heaney, Christopher; Cook-Deegan, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Genetic testing for Long QT syndrome (LQTS) exemplifies patenting and exclusive licensing with different outcomes at different times. Exclusive licensing from the University of Utah changed the business model from sole provider to two US providers of LQTS testing. LQTS is associated with mutations in many genes, ten of which are now tested by two competing firms in the United States, PGxHealth and GeneDx. Until 2009, PGxHealth was sole provider, based largely on exclusive rights to patents from the University of Utah and other academic institutions. University of Utah patents were initially licensed to DNA Sciences, whose patent rights were acquired by Gennaissance, and then by Clinical Data, Inc., which owns PGxHealth. In 2002, DNA Sciences “cleared the market” by sending cease and desist patent enforcement letters to university and reference laboratories offering LQTS genetic testing. There was no test on the market for a one- to two-year period. From 2005-2008, most LQTS-related patents were controlled by Clinical Data, Inc., and its subsidiary PGxHealth. BioReference Laboratories, Inc., secured countervailing exclusive patent rights starting in 2006, also from the University of Utah, and broke the PGxHealth monopoly in early 2009, creating a duopoly for genetic testing in the United States, and expanding the number of genes for which commercial testing is available from five to ten. PMID:20393304

  17. Replication and robustness in developmental research.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Greg J; Engel, Mimi; Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle J

    2014-11-01

    Replications and robustness checks are key elements of the scientific method and a staple in many disciplines. However, leading journals in developmental psychology rarely include explicit replications of prior research conducted by different investigators, and few require authors to establish in their articles or online appendices that their key results are robust across estimation methods, data sets, and demographic subgroups. This article makes the case for prioritizing both explicit replications and, especially, within-study robustness checks in developmental psychology. It provides evidence on variation in effect sizes in developmental studies and documents strikingly different replication and robustness-checking practices in a sample of journals in developmental psychology and a sister behavioral science-applied economics. Our goal is not to show that any one behavioral science has a monopoly on best practices, but rather to show how journals from a related discipline address vital concerns of replication and generalizability shared by all social and behavioral sciences. We provide recommendations for promoting graduate training in replication and robustness-checking methods and for editorial policies that encourage these practices. Although some of our recommendations may shift the form and substance of developmental research articles, we argue that they would generate considerable scientific benefits for the field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Gender and power contestations over water use in irrigation schemes: Lessons from the lake Chilwa basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkhoma, Bryson; Kayira, Gift

    2016-04-01

    Over the past two decades, Malawi has been adversely hit by climatic variability and changes, and irrigation schemes which rely mostly on water from rivers have been negatively affected. In the face of dwindling quantities of water, distribution and sharing of water for irrigation has been a source of contestations and conflicts. Women who constitute a significant section of irrigation farmers in schemes have been major culprits. The study seeks to analyze gender contestations and conflicts over the use of water in the schemes developed in the Lake Chilwa basin, in southern Malawi. Using oral and written sources as well as drawing evidence from participatory and field observations conducted at Likangala and Domasi irrigation schemes, the largest schemes in the basin, the study observes that women are not passive victims of male domination over the use of dwindling waters for irrigation farming. They have often used existing political and traditional structures developed in the management of water in the schemes to competitively gain monopoly over water. They have sometimes expressed their agency by engaging in irrigation activities that fall beyond the control of formal rules and regulations of irrigation agriculture. Other than being losers, women are winning the battle for water and land resources in the basin.

  19. From a fuel supplier to an active participant: Shell's view of the opportunities offered by a changing power market

    SciTech Connect

    Nyhan, J.

    1998-07-01

    In the last 10 years, the power generation market has seen radical changes. The coming years will see yet more change. Although the pace of change may be uneven across Europe, it is clear that the old reference points for the power generation market are no longer valid. Along with other market players, Shell has re-evaluated the role it wishes to play in the power generation market. Although it has long operated large generation capacity on its own sites, Shell's role has been that of a fuel supplier to monopoly power generation and distribution organizations, which were largely state controlled . Privatization and liberalization have been followed by changing market structures tending to push risk towards the producer. This evolution presents challenges for the normal IPP structure, where market risk is transferred and offers an opportunity for the active participation of the fuel supplier in meeting these challenges. In 1996, Shell decided to embrace the changes in power generation market. Already, significant steps have been taken in markets in Asia, Latin America and in Europe. The differing requirements of each of these markets means there are no standard solutions and requires Shell to devise flexible frameworks which meet the customer's needs. Shell is bringing its significant strengths to the power generation market and looks forward to participating on a world wide scale in the industry at this exciting phase in its development.

  20. Software Technology Readiness for the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Tugurlan, Maria C.; Kirkham, Harold; Chassin, David P.

    2011-06-13

    Abstract Budget and schedule overruns in product development due to the use of immature technologies constitute an important matter for program managers. Moreover, unexpected lack of technology maturity is also a problem for buyers. Both sides of the situation would benefit from an unbiased measure of technology maturity. This paper presents the use of a software maturity metric called Technology Readiness Level (TRL), in the milieu of the smart grid. For most of the time they have been in existence, power utilities have been protected monopolies, guaranteed a return on investment on anything they could justify adding to the rate base. Such a situation did not encourage innovation, and instead led to widespread risk-avoidance behavior in many utilities. The situation changed at the end of the last century, with a series of regulatory measures, beginning with the Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act of 1978. However, some bad experiences have actually served to strengthen the resistance to innovation by some utilities. Some aspects of the smart grid, such as the addition of computer-based control to the power system, face an uphill battle. It is our position that the addition of TRLs to the decision-making process for smart grid power-system projects, will lead to an environment of more confident adoption.

  1. Pros and cons of marketing technology.

    PubMed

    MacStravic, R S

    1988-10-01

    For years, high technologies have provided hospitals with marketing advantages. Hospitals used them to recruit and keep physicians and to lure patients and purchasers. Having the latest technology in a given field provided hospitals with status and prestige and enabled smaller facilities to compete with major medical centers. From a marketing point of view, technologies can produce four distinct effects that benefit the hospital: halo, monopoly, opportunity, and momentum effects. The best technology, from a competitive marketing viewpoint, meets the following criteria: The hospital can operate it at acceptable and, hopefully, competitive quality levels. The hospital can offer it at acceptable and, hopefully, competitive cost. It is sufficiently accessible to patients who need it. It gives the hospital a distinct competence in its market that can be preserved for a long time. But technology can become a risky business if: The hospital cannot attract the volume of patients needed to maintain quality. The low-volume hospital prices itself out of the competitive market. The new technology has undisclosed or undiscovered side effects. The technology is recruited by a competitor. Hospitals place more value on it than do their customers.

  2. Transfusion under triple threat: Lessons from Japan's 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear crisis.

    PubMed

    Nollet, Kenneth E; Komazawa, Tomoko; Ohto, Hitoshi

    2016-10-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 provoked tsunami waves with inland penetration up to 5 km and run-up heights to 40 m. More than 400 km(2) were flooded, mainly along the northeast coast of Japan's largest island, Honshu. Nearly 20,000 human lives were abruptly taken by this natural disaster. Four coastal nuclear facilities went into automatic shutdown; at one, Fukushima Daiichi, cooling system failures resulted in the meltdown of three reactor cores, accompanied by explosive release of radioisotopes. Essentials of modern blood banking and transfusion medicine were lost: roads, vehicles, blood collection venues, and facilities for blood testing and processing. Normal channels of communication were interrupted, not only by physical damage but also due to circuit overload as mobile phone users sought information and tried to exchange messages about their own and others' health, welfare, and whereabouts. The Japanese Red Cross, as a monopoly supplier of allogeneic blood, responded with a nationally coordinated effort that met the transfusion demands of a disaster characterized by immediate mass fatality rather than mass injury. Japan's routine transfusion demands are also met by hospital-based autologous blood programs, which could be pressed into service for emergency allogeneic collections. Herein we report institutional and personal experience in anticipation of future disasters, in which transfusion needs might differ from routine demand.

  3. The history of the Greek Anti-Malaria League and the influence of the Italian School of Malariology.

    PubMed

    Tsiamis, Costas; Piperaki, Evangelia Theophano; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2013-03-01

    In 1905, a group of eminent Greek physicians led by Professor of Hygiene and Microbiology Constantinos Savvas and the pediatrician Dr. Ioannis Kardamatis founded the Greek Anti-Malaria League. The League assumed a role that the State would not, and for the next 25 years organized the country's anti-malaria campaign. During its first steps, the Greek Anti-Malaria League adopted the principles of Professor Angelo Celli's Italian Anti-Malaria League. The League's accomplishments include a decrease in malarial prevalence, due to mass treatment with quinine, new legislation ensuring the provision of quinine, State monopoly and the collection of epidemiologic data. However, defeat in the Greek-Turkish War (1922) and the massive influx of one million Greek refugees that ensued, led to a change in malarial epidemiology. In 1928, following a visit to Italy, the Greek League adopted the organization and knowledge of the Italian Malaria Schools in Rome and in Nettuno, and this experience served as the basis of their proposal to the State for the development of the anti-malaria services infrastructure. The State adopted many of Professor Savvas' proposals and modified his plan according to Greek needs. The League's experience, accumulated during its 25 years of struggle against malaria, was its legacy to the campaigns that eventually accomplished the eradication of malaria from Greece after World War II.

  4. Energy and environmental efficiency in competitive power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, W.M.

    1995-02-01

    For years the electric utility industry operated as a regulated monopoly, largely immune to market forces except those of competing fuels. That era came to an end with the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) of 1974, which created a market for non-utility generated power. Within twenty years, non-regulated, non-utility generators had become the primary supplier of new energy resources. Their market power is matched by their political power, as evidenced in the Energy Policy Act of 1994 (EPAct), which requires open access to utility transmission lines to facilitate inter-utility bulk power sales. The conventional wisdom is that active wholesale power markets with competition among alternative generators will lead to lower power-development costs and cheaper retail power prices. The trend towards alternative bulk power sources at low prices intersects with large retail power customers` interest in accessing alternative power supplies. In most cases, these alternatives to local utilities are at a lower cost than retail rates. For the most part, proponents of generation competition have remained silent about potential environmental consequences. However, skeptics of increased competition, including major environmental groups, cite environmental impacts among their concerns. This report examines these concerns.

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis in markets with high fixed costs.

    PubMed

    Cutler, David M; Ericson, Keith M Marzilli

    2010-01-01

    We consider how to conduct cost-effectiveness analysis when the social cost of a resource differs from the posted price. From the social perspective, the true cost of a medical intervention is the marginal cost of delivering another unit of a treatment, plus the social cost (deadweight loss) of raising the revenue to fund the treatment. We focus on pharmaceutical prices, which have high markups over marginal cost due to the monopoly power granted to pharmaceutical companies when drugs are under patent. We find that the social cost of a branded drug is approximately one-half the market price when the treatment is paid for by a public insurance plan and one-third the market price for mandated coverage by private insurance. We illustrate the importance of correctly accounting for social costs using two examples: coverage for statin drugs and approval for a drug to treat kidney cancer (sorafenib). In each case, we show that the correct social perspective for cost-effectiveness analysis would be more lenient than researcher recommendations.

  6. Pride, prejudice, and paediatrics (women paediatricians in England before 1950)

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, D

    2006-01-01

    Within the literature of the Enlightenment there are voices that called for the emancipation of women,1 and so began a—still unfinished—struggle for equality at home and in society. The campaign for women to enter the professions started in the 19th century.2 Women who wished to qualify and work as doctors faced what must have seemed to those of lesser courage and ability, to be insurmountable resistance. The early women doctors of the 19th century who were forced to obtain their training on the continent—in Zurich, Bern, and Paris—were part of a political movement and transatlantic network concerned with issues of women's rights, universal suffrage, women's health and public health measures.23456 These women who “stormed the citadel” wanted to, and did, change society as well as medicine. Opposition to women's entry into medicine was led by doctors who defended the male monopoly against the threat to their prestige and purse. They argued that a woman's place was in the home as a wife and mother. Women's bodies, intellect, and temperament were not up to the demands of studying medicine, let alone practising as doctors.345 These arguments did not stop, but echoed down the 20th century long after women had gained the right to qualify in medicine. PMID:16887858

  7. Pride, prejudice, and paediatrics (women paediatricians in England before 1950).

    PubMed

    Stevens, D

    2006-10-01

    Within the literature of the Enlightenment there are voices that called for the emancipation of women, and so began a--still unfinished--struggle for equality at home and in society. The campaign for women to enter the professions started in the 19th century. Women who wished to qualify and work as doctors faced what must have seemed to those of lesser courage and ability, to be insurmountable resistance. The early women doctors of the 19th century who were forced to obtain their training on the continent--in Zurich, Bern, and Paris--were part of a political movement and transatlantic network concerned with issues of women's rights, universal suffrage, women's health and public health measures. These women who "stormed the citadel" wanted to, and did, change society as well as medicine. Opposition to women's entry into medicine was led by doctors who defended the male monopoly against the threat to their prestige and purse. They argued that a woman's place was in the home as a wife and mother. Women's bodies, intellect, and temperament were not up to the demands of studying medicine, let alone practising as doctors. These arguments did not stop, but echoed down the 20th century long after women had gained the right to qualify in medicine.

  8. Use of transgenic seeds in Brazilian agriculture and concentration of agricultural production to large agribusinesses.

    PubMed

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; Amaral, S C S; de Mello, M P

    2012-07-19

    We identified the commercial releases of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Brazil, their characteristics, the types of genetic transformation used, and the companies responsible for the development of these GMOs, classifying them into two categories: private companies, subdivided into multinational and national, and public institutions. The data came from the data bank of the national registration of cultivars and the service of national protection of cultivars of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fishing and Supply (MAPA). This survey was carried out from 1998 to February 12, 2011. Until this date, 27 GMOs had been approved, including five for soybean, 15 for maize and seven for cotton cultivars. These GMOs have been used for the development of 766 cultivars, of which, 305 are soybean, 445 are maize, and 13 are cotton cultivars. The Monsato Company controls 73.2% of the transgenic cultivars certified by the MAPA; a partnership between Dow AgroSciences and DuPont accounts for 21.4%, and Syngenta controls 4.96%. Seed supply by these companies is almost a monopoly supported by law, giving no choice for producers and leading to the fast replacement of conventional cultivars by transgenic cultivars, which are expensive and exclude small producers from the market, since seeds cannot be kept for later use. This situation concentrates production in the hands of a few large national agribusiness entrepreneurs.

  9. Cournot games with network effects for electric power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezia, Carl John

    The electric utility industry is moving from regulated monopolies with protected service areas to an open market with many wholesale suppliers competing for consumer load. This market is typically modeled by a Cournot game oligopoly where suppliers compete by selecting profit maximizing quantities. The classical Cournot model can produce multiple solutions when the problem includes typical power system constraints. This work presents a mathematical programming formulation of oligopoly that produces unique solutions when constraints limit the supplier outputs. The formulation casts the game as a supply maximization problem with power system physical limits and supplier incremental profit functions as constraints. The formulation gives Cournot solutions identical to other commonly used algorithms when suppliers operate within the constraints. Numerical examples demonstrate the feasibility of the theory. The results show that the maximization formulation will give system operators more transmission capacity when compared to the actions of suppliers in a classical constrained Cournot game. The results also show that the profitability of suppliers in constrained networks depends on their location relative to the consumers' load concentration.

  10. The TRITON versus PLATO trials: differences beyond platelet inhibition.

    PubMed

    Serebruany, V L

    2010-02-01

    Clopidogrel monopoly as an exclusive oral antiplatelet agent used in combination with aspirin or as a monotherapy for treatment or/and prevention of occlusive thrombotic vascular events has been recently challenged. Based on the indirect comparison of TRITON and PLATO trial data, ticagrelor is clearly superior to prasugrel in a population of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) because of absolute mortality reduction, realistic second myocardial infarction (MI) prevention, growing over time vascular outcome benefit, fewer haemorrhagic fatalities, potentially less coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)- related bleeding events, and lack of cancer risks. Despite an unfavourable immediate safety profile, ticagrelor has a lot of room to compensate for agitation, dyspnea, and ventricular pauses, if used in appropriate patients. It will be naïve and wrong to assume that ticagrelor will completely substitute clopidogrel, especially considering higher discontinuation rates after ticagrelor, generic competition, and other health economics issues. However, unless the regulatory authorities discover some unexpected serious flaws with PLATO, the ticagrelor will substantially change the present landscape of oral antiplatelet therapy, especially in high-risk patients, diabetics, and those with repeated vascular events including stent thrombosis. In contrast, a too exclusive trial design, a lack of persistent vascular benefit despite issues with event adjudication, growing-over-time bleeding complications, an issue with cancer, and finally an increase in mortality risk among unstable angina and non ST-elevated myocardial infarction will likely prevent a broad prasugrel implementation, unless more reassuring evidence becomes available.

  11. New business with the new military.

    PubMed

    Apgar, Mahlon; Keane, John M

    2004-09-01

    A $200 billion market has appeared on your business horizon, but you may not have noticed it. It's the U.S. military--the new U.S. military. Virtually all aspects of the military are changing to ensure it can fight unpredictable threats while sustaining the infrastructure needed to support and train forces. The military is turning to non-traditional business partners to meet a wide range of needs, from health care to housing to information technology. The Defense Department is yielding its monopoly on every aspect of national security and adopting a more businesslike model in which the military's warfighting capabilities are supported through outsourcing and business alliances. Civilians are replacing military personnel in many noncombat roles. Military functions with corporate equivalents are candidates for outsourcing and privatization. Market standards are replacing the heavy customization that has locked many companies out of this marketplace. The authors have participated in the transformation process from different perspectives--one civilian, the other military. Together, they highlight the prospects that transformation is creating for companies outside the traditional defense industry and reveal paths to success in this complex market. They also present six principles for doing business with the military that require persistence, integrity, and a willingness to master the intricacies of a distinctive culture. By understanding the logic of military transformation, executives can identify and create vast new business opportunities. And by mastering the six principles, they can build profitable long-term relationships.

  12. Competition, antitrust, and the marketplace for electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Szymanski, P.A.

    1995-03-01

    As the electric industry continues its unprecedented restructuring, state public utility regulators must determine which rules and analytical tools will best enable the industry`s participants to compete to provide electricity and its functional components. Even in the early stages of transformation, elements of a competitive marketplace are pervasive: generation markets are battlegrounds for increasingly diverse, numerous, and zealous participants; boundaries delineating traditional service territories are becoming blurred; associations of similarly-situated participants are forming to promote their interests; increased concentration through mergers and joint ventures looms as a possibility; vertically integrated utilities are considering or are being challenged to consider reconfiguration into a more horizontal structure; and generally, the industry`s end-users, its retail customers, are demanding choice. Large industrial customers, groups of residential customers, or entire municipalities are seeking to obtain electric service outside their native electric utilities service territories. These demands for increased consumer choice threaten the legislatively defined franchise rules, which grant monopolies to utilities in exchange for a system of regulation which includes an obligation to serve customers in the service territories both reliably and at reasonable cost. These events foreshadow an industry-wide transition to a customer-driven, competitive system for the provision of electric service in which the price for the service is determined by market-based signals. It would be unrealistic if state utility regulators did not expect commensurate change in the issues they confront and the existing methods of analysis.

  13. Estimating potential stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.; Hirst, E.

    1995-01-01

    New technologies, low natural gas prices, and federal and state utility regions are restructuring the electricity industry. Yesterday`s vertically integrated utility with a retail monopoly franchise may be a very different organization in a few years. Conferences, regulatory-commission hearings, and other industry fora are dominated by debates over the extent and form of utility deintegration, wholesale competition, and retail wheeling. A key obstacle to restructuring the electricity industry is stranded commitments. Past investments, power-purchase contracts, and public-policy-driven programs that made sense in an era of cost-of-service regulation may not be cost-effective in a competitive power market. Regulators, utilities, and other parties face tough decisions concerning the mitigation and allocation of these stranded commitments. The authors developed and applied a simple method to calculate the amount of stranded commitments facing US investor-owned electric utilities. The results obtained with this method depend strongly on a few key assumptions: (1) the fraction of utility sales that is at risk with respect to competition, (2) the market price of electric generation, and (3) the number of years during which the utility would lose money because of differences between its embedded cost of production and the market price.

  14. The utility and its customer: A complex relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Covelli, L.; Williams, M.V.

    1994-11-01

    Developing methods of tracking customer satisfaction for utilities presents major problems since the customer reacts to the utility on many different levels. The more obvious are in relation to the product (energy) and the services the company provides. More recently there has been talk of the {open_quotes}brand{close_quotes} elements of the company-customer relationship. Ontario Hydro (OH) has developed a method utilizing four separate domains for measuring and tracking customer satisfaction: product, service, competitiveness, and institutional relationships. Ontario Hydro conducted a survey of over 1200 residential customers. The respondents received a detailed in-person survey of their estimation of the importance of specific aspects of customer service and their view of Ontario Hydro`s performance on those same issues. The data yielded 28 factors covered a large variety of separate concerns: customer service, and treatment of customers to export policy. OH concluded that the utility`s relationship with its customer is more complex than the susual customer-vendor interaction. A utility not only provides a product and a service, it has a institutional personality and provides an absolutely necessary product under an exclusive franchise and executes government policy as a regulated monopoly. It was found that customers are sensitive to all of these attributes.

  15. Public policies of a private utility: the political economics of Consolidated Edison

    SciTech Connect

    Hershkowitz, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    A fundamental assumption underlying America's private enterprise system is that as economic pressures and social values evolve, business can and will respond in an economically rational and efficient manner. Without such assistance and adaptability, a business will be unable to maintain its market. The regulatory assumptions enforcing this for electric utilities are explored in Chapter 1. In the early 1970s fuel and capital costs skyrocketed and conservation of energy and capital became an overwhelming national priority. Con Edison, which has historically depended on selling (without regard to conserving) energy to generate revenues, was forced to respond. As Chapter 2 points out, it did so by using the state and its regulatory agencies to its advantage, however incompatible with rational market economics. Chapter 3 points out that Con Edison managed to exploit its market position as a local monopolist to preclude an alternative energy system from developing. Chapter 4 raises the issue as to whether Con Edison still qualifies, primarily in economic terms, to be a given monopoly franchise over NYC's electrical grid; it goes on to analyze some utility reform measures historically considered.

  16. The past, present, and future of U.S. utility demand-side management programs

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.

    1996-12-01

    Demand-side management or DSM refers to active efforts by electric and gas utilities to modify customers` energy use patterns. The experience in the US shows that utilities, when provided with appropriate incentives, can provide a powerful stimulus to energy efficiency in the private sector. This paper describes the range and history of DSM programs offered by US electric utilities, with a focus on the political, economic, and regulatory events that have shaped their evolution. It also describes the changes these programs are undergoing as a result of US electricity industry restructuring. DSM programs began modestly in the 1970s in response to growing concerns about dependence on foreign sources of oil and environmental consequences of electricity generation, especially nuclear power. The foundation for the unique US partnership between government and utility interests can be traced first to the private-ownership structure of the vertically integrated electricity industry and second to the monopoly franchise granted by state regulators. Electricity industry restructuring calls into question both of these basic conditions, and thus the future of utility DSM programs for the public interest. Future policies guiding ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency DSM programs will need to pay close attention to the specific market objectives of the programs and to the balance between public and private interests.

  17. Water works, electric utilities, and cable television: Contrasting historical patterns of ownership and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation explicates some of the factors that have, in practice, shaped the choice and functioning of forms of government involvement in the provision of different goods and services. The inquiry focuses on the evolution of government involvement in three different urban public utility industries - water works, electric utilities, and cable television. Because they each employ fixed, specialized, and networked distribution systems, the three industries manifest similar natural monopoly forms of market failure. From similar beginnings, however, forms of government involvement in the three industries have evolved differently. In water works, the predominant trend has been to direct provision under municipal ownership; in electric utilities the trend has been toward continued private provision under state regulation; in cable television, franchise contracting has thus far survived, but in vitiated form. Detailed examinations of case studies as well as broad trend analyses are employed to help explain this outcome. It is found that neither direct competition between operating firms nor short-term contracting and recurrent bidding arrangements can be relied upon to consistently protect public interests in these services.

  18. Management of busbar costs and spending tradeoffs for the transition to competitive markets in electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Corio, M.R.; Boyd, G.

    1995-09-01

    Competition is changing the fundamental basis for doing business in the electricity generation market. As the market moves toward competitive market conditions, electricity will be viewed increasingly as a commodity--not only supplied to customers within a utility`s service area, but brokered and marketed outside its area as well. With movement toward retail wheeling being considered in California, Michigan, and New York, it may soon become a reality as well. This means that a utility can no longer feel secure as the monopoly supplier of electricity within its own franchise area. To remain the main supplier in its current service area and compete for customers in other service areas, utilities will need to understand and examine all the components of ``busbar costs`` at its generating units. As competition drives the market to marginal costs, generating units with costs exceeding the market clearing price for electricity may soon have a limited role in the generation market. As the industry evolves, competition in the marketplace will force uneconomic plants to reduce costs or go out of business. This paper discusses results of studies addressing the evaluation of cost effectiveness, benchmarking of cost-efficiency, and development of marginal cost curves for busbar costs based on the development and aggregation of the three key measures which determine the cost and level of output (generation): (1) reliability; (2) heat rate; and (3) planned outage factor.

  19. A "Social Bitcoin" could sustain a democratic digital world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleineberg, Kaj-Kolja; Helbing, Dirk

    2016-12-01

    A multidimensional financial system could provide benefits for individuals, companies, and states. Instead of top-down control, which is destined to eventually fail in a hyperconnected world, a bottom-up creation of value can unleash creative potential and drive innovations. Multiple currency dimensions can represent different externalities and thus enable the design of incentives and feedback mechanisms that foster the ability of complex dynamical systems to self-organize and lead to a more resilient society and sustainable economy. Modern information and communication technologies play a crucial role in this process, as Web 2.0 and online social networks promote cooperation and collaboration on unprecedented scales. Within this contribution, we discuss how one dimension of a multidimensional currency system could represent socio-digital capital (Social Bitcoins) that can be generated in a bottom-up way by individuals who perform search and navigation tasks in a future version of the digital world. The incentive to mine Social Bitcoins could sustain digital diversity, which mitigates the risk of totalitarian control by powerful monopolies of information and can create new business opportunities needed in times where a large fraction of current jobs is estimated to disappear due to computerisation.

  20. Slavery, smallpox, and revolution: 1792 in Ile de France (Mauritius).

    PubMed

    Vaughan, M

    2000-12-01

    In 1792 a slave-ship arrived on the french Indian Ocean island of Ile de France (Mauritius) from South India, bringing with it smallpox. As the epidemic spread, a heated debate ensued over the practice of inoculation. The island was in the throes of revolutionary politics and the community of French colonists were acutely aware of their new rights as 'citizens'. In the course of the smallpox epidemic, many of the political tenisons of the period came to focus on the question of inoculation, and were played out on the bodies of slaves. Whilst some citizens asserted their right, as property owners, to inoculate their slaves, others, equally vehemently, objected to the practice and asserted their right to protect their slaves from infection. Eighteenth-century colonial medicine was largely geared to keeping the bodies of slaves and workers productive and useful, but formal medicine never had a monopoly. Slaves on Ile de France brought with them a rich array of medical beliefs and practices from Africa, India, and Madagascar. We have little direct historical evidence for these, but we do know that many slaves came from areas in which forces of smallpox inoculation were known and practised.

  1. American radium engenders telecurie therapy during World War I.

    PubMed

    Robison, R

    2000-06-01

    From 1899 to 1912 there was a European monopoly controlling the sale of radium for cancer therapy. This trust was finally broken, albeit only temporarily, in 1912/13 by American entrepreneurs J. Flannery, H. Kelly, and J. Douglas. Joe Flannery was a former mortician turned mining magnate. Dr. Howard Kelly was the renowned gynecological surgeon at Johns Hopkins Hospital and Medical School who defied tradition by maintaining his own private hospital. Professor James Douglas was the Arizona copper king who helped support Memorial Hospital in New York City as America's first cancer hospital. During 1913-1916 surgeons Howard Kelly (Baltimore) and H. H. Janeway (Memorial Hospital) began using radium and radon for the treatment of deep seated cancers. Their technique required placement of the sources several centimeters away from the skin surface. As this new concept, telecurie therapy, resulted in a significant decrease in dose rate, it was necessary for both surgeons to have several grams of radium, costing $180000/gram, in their possession. Fortunately, Kelly and Janeway were the sole beneficiaries of a radium mining company, the National Radium Institute, from 1913 to 1916. With this unique American source of radium and with Europe otherwise preoccupied, these two American surgeons pioneered megavoltage telecurie therapy, using the 1.2 MeV gamma rays of "mass radium."

  2. Nursery areas of red mullet ( Mullus barbatus), hake ( Merluccius merluccius) and deep-water rose shrimp ( Parapenaeus longirostris) in the Eastern-Central Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlucci, Roberto; Giuseppe, Lembo; Porzia, Maiorano; Francesca, Capezzuto; Alessandra, Marano Chiara; Letizia, Sion; Teresa, Spedicato Maria; Nicola, Ungaro; Angelo, Tursi; D'Onghia, Gianfranco

    2009-08-01

    The spatial pattern of the nursery areas of red mullet ( Mullus barbatus), hake ( Merluccius merluccius) (Linnaeus, 1758) and deep-water rose shrimp ( Parapenaeus longirostris) (Lucas, 1846) was studied in the South Adriatic and North Ionian Seas (Eastern-Central Mediterranean) applying geostatistical techniques and data from time series trawl surveys conducted in the area. The analysed variables were: R (number of recruits/km 2) and R/Tot (fraction of recruits on the total sampled population). The structural analysis showed a spatial pattern of both variables characterized by continuity on a small scale. Predictions of nursery area localization with probability of finding recruits at different threshold values were obtained through median indicator kriging. For the red mullet the nurseries were mainly identified in the South Adriatic Sea off the Gargano peninsula and between Molfetta and Monopoli within 50 m in depth. The main concentration of hake juveniles was found to be between 100 and 200 m in depth along the Gargano peninsula and between Otranto and Santa Maria di Leuca, where a nursery of deep-water rose shrimp was also detected. An overlapping depth, between 100 and 200 m, was identified for hake and deep-water rose shrimp nurseries. Protection of these areas through limitations of fishing pressure is discussed.

  3. [Specificities of patent protection in the pharmaceutical industry: modalities and traits of intellectual property].

    PubMed

    Jannuzzi, Anna Haydée Lanzillotti; Vasconcellos, Alexandre Guimarães; de Souza, Cristina Gomes

    2008-06-01

    Different forms of protection for inventions in the pharmaceutical industry point to strategies for the perpetuation of patent protection. Based on a literature review showing the specificities of patenting in the industry, the article provides a brief history of drug patents in Brazil, a discussion of patentable and non-patentable inventions, and the modalities and traits of patent protection that aim to extend the temporary monopoly granted under the patent. Such strategies include patents targeting polimorphs and optical isomers of drugs and drug combinations and specific clinical preparations, increasingly present in the drug patent claims filed by pharmaceutical companies. The study's objective is to discuss the specificities of drug patent claims in order to help develop expertise in the area and discuss the impact of expanding the scope of patent protection. In conclusion, while the tendency to expand towards more a permissive protective scope could produce opportunities for Brazilian national inventors, it could also be harmful to a policy for access to medicines.

  4. A Model of Competition Among More than Two Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujie, Ryo; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2013-04-01

    We extend the Abrams-Strogatz model for competition between two languages (Abrams and Strogatz in Nature 424:900, 2003) to the case of n (≥2) competing states (i.e., languages). Although the Abrams-Strogatz model for n=2 can be interpreted as modeling either majority preference or minority aversion, the two mechanisms are distinct when n≥3. We find that the condition for the coexistence of different states is independent of n under the pure majority preference, whereas it depends on n under the pure minority aversion. We also show that the stable coexistence equilibrium and stable monopoly equilibria can be multistable under the minority aversion and not under the majority preference. Furthermore, we obtain the phase diagram of the model when the effects of the majority preference and minority aversion are mixed, under the condition that different states have the same attractiveness. We show that the multistability is a generic property of the model facilitated by large n.

  5. Literature as a meaningful life laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kurakin, Dmitry

    2010-09-01

    Meaningful life is emotionally marked off. That's the general point that Johansen (IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science 44, 2010) makes which is of great importance. Fictional abstractions use to make the point even more salient. As an example I've examined Borges' famous fiction story. Along with the examples of Johansen it provides an informative case of exploring symbolic mechanisms which bind meaning with emotions. This particular mode of analysis draws forth poetry and literature in general to be treated as a "meaningful life laboratory". Ways of explanation of emotional effect the art exercises on people, which had been disclosed within this laboratory, however, constitute a significant distinction in terms that I have designated as "referential" and "substantive". The former appeals to something that has already been charged with emotional power, whereas the latter comes to effect by means of special symbolic mechanisms creating the emotional experience within the situation. Johansen, who tends to explain emotions exerted by the art without leaving the semiotic perspective, is drawn towards the "referential" type of explanation. Based upon discussions in theory of metaphor and Robert Witkin's sociological theory of arts it is demonstrated an insufficient of "referential" explanation. To overcome a monopoly of "referential" explanation of emotional engagement, in particular, in literature, means to break away from the way of reasoning, stating endless references to "something else", presupposing the existence of something already significant and therefore sharing its effects.

  6. Integrating renewable energy technologies in the electric supply industry: A risk management approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, T.E.

    1997-07-01

    Regulatory and technical forces are causing electric utilities to move from a natural monopoly to a more competitive environment. Associated with this movement is an increasing concern about how to manage the risks associated with the electric supply business. One approach to managing risks is to purchase financial instruments such as options and futures contracts. Another approach is to own physical assets that have low risk attributes or characteristics. This research evaluates how investments in renewable energy technologies can mitigate risks in the electric supply industry. It identifies risks that are known to be of concern to utilities and other power producers. These risks include uncertainty in fuel prices, demand, environmental regulations, capital cost, supply, and market structure. The research then determines how investments in renewables can mitigate these risks. Methods are developed to calculate the value of renewables in terms of their attributes of fuel costs, environmental costs, lead-time, modularity, availability, initial capital costs, and investment reversibility. Examples illustrate how to apply the methods.

  7. Evolving trade policy and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: does it threaten Vietnam's access to medicine and its progress towards scaling up HIV prevention, treatment and care?

    PubMed

    Linh, Nguyen Nhat; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Thuy, Hua Thanh

    2015-01-01

    The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) has undergone 18 rounds of secretive negotiation between the USA and 11 Asia-Pacific countries. Aiming at a free trade area, this multilateral trade proposal covers all aspects of commercial relations among the countries involved. Despite some anticipated positive impacts in trade, specific articles in this proposal's intellectual property and transparency chapters might negatively impact access to medicine, in general, and to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, in particular, in Vietnam. Drawing on a desk review and qualitative in-depth interviews with 20 key informants from government, academia, hospitals and civil society, we analyse various provisions of the proposal being negotiated leaked after the 14th round of negotiations in September 2012. Findings suggest that the TPP could lead to increased monopoly protection and could limit technological advancements within the local pharmaceutical manufacturing industry, resulting in higher medicine prices in Vietnam. This outcome would have a significant impact on Vietnam's ability to achieve goals for HIV prevention, treatment and care, and create barriers to universal health-care coverage. This research provides unique evidence for Vietnam to advocate for more equitable pharmaceutical provisions in and to raise awareness of the implications of the TPP among the pharmaceutical stakeholder community in Vietnam.

  8. The future of partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Malthouse, Theo; Kasivisvanathan, Veeru; Raison, Nicholas; Lam, Wayne; Challacombe, Ben

    2016-12-01

    Innovation in recent times has accelerated due to factors such as the globalization of communication; but there are also more barriers/safeguards in place than ever before as we strive to streamline this process. From the first planned partial nephrectomy completed in 1887, it took over a century to become recommended practice for small renal tumours. At present, identified areas for improvement/innovation are 1) to preserve renal parenchyma, 2) to optimise pre-operative eGFR and 3) to reduce global warm ischaemia time. All 3 of these, are statistically significant predictors of post-operative renal function. Urologists, have a proud history of embracing innovation & have experimented with different clamping techniques of the renal vasculature, image guidance in robotics, renal hypothermia, lasers and new robots under development. The DaVinci model may soon no longer have a monopoly on this market, as it loses its stranglehold with novel technology emerging including added features, such as haptic feedback with reduced costs. As ever, our predictions of the future may well fall wide of the mark, but in order to progress, one must open the mind to the possibilities that already exist, as evolution of existing technology often appears to be a revolution in hindsight.

  9. Marketing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes is a key strategy of the industry to counter tobacco control in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-03-01

    While the 'low-tar' scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of 'less harmful, low tar' was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration/China National Tobacco Corporation and began to gain traction during the last decade. Despite the fact that no sufficient research evidence supports the claims made by the industry that these cigarettes are safer, the Chinese tobacco industry has continued to promote them using various health claims. As a result, the production and sales of 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes have increased dramatically since 2000. Recently, a tobacco industry senior researcher, whose main research area is 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes, was elected as an Academician to the prestigious Chinese Academy of Engineering for his contribution to developing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes. The tobacco researcher's election caused an outcry from the tobacco control community and the general public in China. This paper discusses the Chinese tobacco industry's 'less harmful, low-tar' initiatives and calls for the Chinese government to stop the execution of this deceptive strategy for tobacco marketing.

  10. The origins, development, effects, and future of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Yach, Derek

    2014-05-17

    Worldwide, more than 1 billion people use tobacco, resulting in about 6 million deaths per year. The tobacco industry's documented history of subverting control efforts required innovative approaches by WHO--led by Gro Harlem Brundtland--including invocation of its constitutional authority to develop treaties. In 2003, WHO member states adopted the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). In the decade since, 177 countries have ratified and started to implement its full provisions. Success has been tempered by new challenges. Tobacco use has fallen in countries that are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development but increased in low-income and middle-income countries, a result in no small part of illicit trade and cheap products from China and other unregulated state monopolies. This review of 50 years of policy development aimed at reducing the burden of disease attributable to tobacco reviews the origins and strategies used in forging the WHO FCTC, from the perspective of one who was there.

  11. "To me, it's my life": medical communication, trust, and activism in cyberspace.

    PubMed

    Radin, Patricia

    2006-02-01

    This paper studies the conversations and activities of an online support group for breast cancer sufferers and survivors and their supporters. Using communications medium theory and social capital theory, it examines the mundane and profound exchanges, the poignant self-disclosures, the creative expressions of solidarity, and the minor but not-insignificant political actions of people--initially strangers--who come together as a 'virtuous circle,' not only to assist with medical issues but also to meet emotional and even material needs. Sponsored by the Canadian nonprofit organization Breast Cancer Action Nova Scotia (BCANS), this virtual community has logged over a half million messages since 1996. Not every BCANS participant is an activist--many are just trying to grapple with their disease--but some find ways to shatter the professional "information monopoly," and to press for healthcare improvements. The study illustrates the scope, passion, and complexity of peer-to-peer medical communication in a virtual environment that promotes "thick trust". BCANS participants discuss with candor, warmth and even humor such painful topics as death and dying and the crises in intimate relationships brought about by a terminal illness. The sharing of confidences and fears enables participants to pool their 'collective intelligence' about many things, from how to cope with swelling, to how to think about end-of-life issues, to how to improve social policy.

  12. Poverty, energy, and resource use in developing countries: focus on Africa.

    PubMed

    Kammen, Daniel M; Kirubi, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Energy poverty affects poor communities and poor nations far more severely, and more directly, than in developed nations. Poor rural communities are particularly vulnerable, and the poor globally spend by far the largest percentage of income on energy. To make matters worse, record-high oil prices combined with sharp decline in foreign exchange earnings are key processes influencing the energy sector in Africa. These increases cause tremendous local hardships, but can be used to steer development decisions toward renewable energy technologies. At the same time, breaking up of public monopolies and liberalizing generation and distribution provides an opportunity for a new approach to rural electrification. Given the right incentives and institutional framework, a new set of players (e.g., private entrepreneurs, cooperatives, nongovernmental organizations, and communities) are likely to emerge and dominate reformed rural electricity markets in the future. Through technological and institutional "leap-frogging," Africa stands to gain significantly by augmenting current initiatives with experience and lessons recently gained in South Asia and Latin America. In these regions, a number of remarkable recent strides to seed and grow rural electricity markets while stimulating and encouraging private investments. Examples of innovative regulatory tools to address poverty include licensing, standards and guidelines, metering, tariffs, transmission charges, and performance-based contracting for energy services.

  13. 10th Anniversary Focus: From mainstream 'environmental economics' to 'sustainability economics'. On the need for new thinking.

    PubMed

    Söderbaum, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Traditional ideas of science as being separate and separable from ideology and politics have to be reconsidered. Each interpretation of sustainable development is not only scientific but at the same time ideological. For this reason our ideas about good science should also be related to normal imperatives of democracy. Mainstream neoclassical economics is specific in scientific and ideological terms. This paradigm is useful for some purposes and has played a role as a mental map in guiding us towards economic growth and other ideas about progress in society and the economy. Sustainable development, however, represents an ideological turn in our ideas about progress and it is no longer clear that neoclassical theory will be enough. Alternative perspectives in economics are being developed as part of a pluralistic strategy and the monopoly position of neoclassical economists at university departments of economics is thereby challenged. A 'political economic person' is suggested as alternative (complement) to Economic Man assumptions and a 'political economic organization' to be compared with the neoclassical profit maximizing firm. Alternative ways of understanding markets and international trade, efficiency, decision-making, monitoring and assessment are also needed. It is argued that such an alternative mental map is useful for actors who take the challenge of sustainable development seriously.

  14. Workspaces that move people.

    PubMed

    Waber, Ben; Magnolfi, Jennifer; Lindsay, Greg

    2014-10-01

    Few companies measure whether the design of their workspaces helps or hurts performance, but they should. The authors have collected data that capture individuals' interactions, communications, and location information. They've learned that face-to-face interactions are by far the most important activity in an office; creating chance encounters between knowledge workers, both inside and outside the organization, improves performance. The Norwegian telecom company Telenor was ahead of its time in 2003, when it incorporated "hot desking" (no assigned seats) and spaces that could easily be reconfigured for different tasks and evolving teams. The CEO credits the design of the offices with helping Telenor shift from a state-run monopoly to a competitive multinational carrier with 150 million subscribers. In another example, data collected at one pharmaceuticals company showed that when a salesperson increased interactions with coworkers on other teams by 10%, his or her sales increased by 10%. To get the sales staff running into colleagues from other departments, management shifted from one coffee machine for every six employees to one for every 120 and created a new large cafeteria for everyone. Sales rose by 20%, or $200 million, afterjust one quarter, quickly justifying the capital investment in the redesign.

  15. Oil market power and United States national security

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Roger

    2006-01-01

    It is widely believed that an oil weapon could impose scarcity upon the United States. Impending resource exhaustion is thought to exacerbate this threat. However, threat seems implausible when we consider strategic deficits of prospective weapon users and the improbability of impending resource exhaustion. Here, we explore a hypothesis relating oil to national security under a different assumption, abundance. We suggest that an oil cartel exerts market power to keep abundance at bay, commanding monopoly rents [or wealth transfers (wt)] that underwrite security threats. We then compare security threats attributed to the oil weapon to those that may arise from market power. We first reexamine whether oil is abundant or scarce by reviewing current development data, then we estimate a competitive price for oil. From this, we derive wt2004 collections by Persian Gulf states ≈ $132-178 × 109. We find that wt and the behavior of states collecting it interact to actuate security threats. Threats underwritten by wt are (i) the potential for emergence of a Persian Gulf superpower and (ii) terrorism. It is therefore oil market power, not oil per se, that actuates threats. We also describe a paradox in the relation of market power to the United States' defense doctrine of force projection to preempt a Gulf superpower. Because the superpower threat derives from wt, force alone cannot preempt it. A further paradox is that because foreign policy is premised on oil weapon fear, market power is appeased. Threats thereby grow unimpeded. PMID:16428291

  16. From cure to custodianship of the insane poor in nineteenth-century Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Goodheart, Lawrence B

    2010-01-01

    Connecticut was the exception among the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic states in not founding a public institution for the insane until after the Civil War when it opened the Hospital for the Insane at Middletown in 1868, a facility previously neglected by scholars. The state had relied on the expedient of subsidizing the impoverished at the private Hartford Retreat for the Insane that overtaxed that institution and left hundreds untreated. Despite abundant evidence to the contrary, well meaning officials oversold the idea that the Middletown site would promote cures and be cost effective. A number of unanticipated consequences occurred that mirrored fundamental changes in nineteenth-century psychiatry. The new hospital swelled by 1900 to over 2,000 patients, the largest in New England. Custodianship at the monolithic hospital became the norm. The hegemony of monopoly capitalism legitimated the ruling idea that bigger institutions were better and was midwife to the birth of eugenic responses. Class based psychiatry--the few rich at the Retreat and the many poor at Middletown--was standard as it was in other aspects of the Gilded Age. Public policy toward the insane poor in Connecticut represents an outstanding example of the transition from antebellum romanticism to fin de siècle fatalism.

  17. The post-millennium development goals agenda: include 'end to all wars' as a public health goal!

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Saroj

    2014-09-01

    The process of identifying global post-millennium development goals (post-MDGs) has begun in earnest. Consensus is emerging in certain areas (e.g. eliminating poverty) and conflicts and violence are recognized as key factors that retard human development. However, current discussions focus on tackling intra-state conflicts and individual-based violence and hardly mention eliminating wars as a goal. Wars create public health catastrophes. They kill, maim, displace and affect millions. Inter-state wars fuel intra-state conflicts and violence. The peace agenda should not be the monopoly of the UN Security Council, and the current consensus-building process setting the post-MDG agenda is a rallying point for the global community. The human rights approach will not suffice to eliminate wars, because few are fought to protect human rights. The development agenda should therefore commit to eliminating all wars by 2030. Targets to reduce tensions and discourage wars should be included. We should act now.

  18. Trade policy, health, and corporate influence: British American tobacco and China's accession to the World Trade Organization.

    PubMed

    Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley; Gilmore, Anna; Fooks, Gary; Wander, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco market liberalization can have a profound impact on health. This article analyzes internal documents of British American Tobacco (BAT), released as a result of litigation in the United States, in order to examine the company's attempts to influence negotiations over China's accession to the World Trade Organization. The documents demonstrate that BAT attempted to influence these negotiations through a range of mechanisms, including personal access of BAT employees and lobbyists to policymakers; employment of former civil servants from key U.K. government departments; use of organized business groups such as the Multinational Chairmen's Group and the European Round Table; and participation and leadership in forums organized by Chatham House. These processes contributed to significant concessions on the liberalization of the tobacco market in China, although the failure to break the Chinese state monopoly over the manufacture and distribution of cigarettes has ensured that foreign tobacco companies' share of the Chinese market has remained small. World Trade Organization accession has nevertheless led to a profound restructuring of the Chinese tobacco industry in anticipation of foreign competition, which may result in more market-based and internationally oriented Chinese tobacco firms.

  19. Innovation and The Welfare Effects of Public Drug Insurance*

    PubMed Central

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Sood, Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Rewarding inventors with inefficient monopoly power has long been regarded as the price of encouraging innovation. Prescription drug insurance escapes that trade-off and achieves an elusive goal: lowering static deadweight loss, without reducing incentives for innovation. As a result of this feature, the public provision of drug insurance can be welfare-improving, even for risk-neutral and purely self-interested consumers. The design of insurers’ cost-sharing schedules can either reinforce or mitigate this result. Schedules that impose higher consumer cost-sharing requirements on more expensive drugs help ensure that insurance subsidies translate into higher utilization, rather than pure increases in manufacturer profits. Moreover, some degree of price-negotiation with manufacturers is likely to be welfare-improving, but the optimal degree depends on the size of such transactions costs, as well as the social cost of weakening innovation incentives by lowering innovator profits. These results have practical implications for the evaluation of public drug insurance programs like the US Medicaid and Medicare Part D programs, along with European insurance schemes. PMID:20454467

  20. Oil market power and United States national security.

    PubMed

    Stern, Roger

    2006-01-31

    It is widely believed that an oil weapon could impose scarcity upon the United States. Impending resource exhaustion is thought to exacerbate this threat. However, threat seems implausible when we consider strategic deficits of prospective weapon users and the improbability of impending resource exhaustion. Here, we explore a hypothesis relating oil to national security under a different assumption, abundance. We suggest that an oil cartel exerts market power to keep abundance at bay, commanding monopoly rents [or wealth transfers (wt)] that underwrite security threats. We then compare security threats attributed to the oil weapon to those that may arise from market power. We first reexamine whether oil is abundant or scarce by reviewing current development data, then we estimate a competitive price for oil. From this, we derive wt(2004) collections by Persian Gulf states approximately USD $132-178 x 10(9). We find that wt and the behavior of states collecting it interact to actuate security threats. Threats underwritten by wt are (i) the potential for emergence of a Persian Gulf superpower and (ii) terrorism. It is therefore oil market power, not oil per se, that actuates threats. We also describe a paradox in the relation of market power to the United States' defense doctrine of force projection to preempt a Gulf superpower. Because the superpower threat derives from wt, force alone cannot preempt it. A further paradox is that because foreign policy is premised on oil weapon fear, market power is appeased. Threats thereby grow unimpeded.

  1. Electric utility mergers: Competition, deregulation and the evolving federal policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, David Baird

    As the electric utility industry moves from a regulated monopoly structure to a deregulated competitive market, horizontal and vertical merger activity has increased substantially. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ("FERC") generally takes the lead at the federal level for reviewing the competitive effects of electric utility mergers. Shortly after it issued its order open access order requiring utilities to allow others to use their transmission systems in 1996, FERC issued a merger policy statement outlining a new analytic approach that more accurately reflects the physical and economic realities of competition in a deregulated electric industry. This study will critically examine the federal merger review process and policies seeking to determine whether (1) the Commission's methodology provides an accurate and reliable measure of the effects of a merger on competition, (2) the market power remedies that the Commission has required from merger applicants mitigate potential market power and improve economic efficiency, and (3) transactions costs provide an alternative explanation for horizontal electric utility mergers. In addition to the economic analysis of these issues, the study includes an empirical analysis of the effects of three recent mergers.

  2. On Having No Head: Cognition throughout Biological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Baluška, František; Levin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) underlies memory, perception, decision-making, and behavior in numerous organisms. However, neural networks have no monopoly on the signaling functions that implement these remarkable algorithms. It is often forgotten that neurons optimized cellular signaling modes that existed long before the CNS appeared during evolution, and were used by somatic cellular networks to orchestrate physiology, embryonic development, and behavior. Many of the key dynamics that enable information processing can, in fact, be implemented by different biological hardware. This is widely exploited by organisms throughout the tree of life. Here, we review data on memory, learning, and other aspects of cognition in a range of models, including single celled organisms, plants, and tissues in animal bodies. We discuss current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms at work in these systems, and suggest several hypotheses for future investigation. The study of cognitive processes implemented in aneural contexts is a fascinating, highly interdisciplinary topic that has many implications for evolution, cell biology, regenerative medicine, computer science, and synthetic bioengineering. PMID:27445884

  3. A Marxist view of medical care.

    PubMed

    Waitzkin, H

    1978-08-01

    Marxist studies of medical care emphasize political power and economic dominance in capitalist society. Although historically the Marxist paradigm went into eclipse during the early twentieth century, the field has developed rapidly during recent years. The health system mirrors the society's class structure through control over health institutions, stratification of health workers, and limited occupational mobility into health professions. Monopoly capital is manifest in the growth of medical centers, financial penetration by large corporations, and the "medical-industrial complex." Health policy recommendations reflect different interest groups' political and economic goals. The state's intervention in health care generally protects the capitalist economic system and the private sector. Medical ideology helps maintain class structure and patterns of domination. Comparative international research analyzes the effects of imperialism, changes under socialism, and contradictions of health reform in capitalist societies. Historical materialist epidemiology focuses on economic cycles, social stress, illness-generating conditions of work, and sexism. Health praxis, the disciplined uniting of study and action, involves advocacy of "nonreformist reforms" and concrete types of political struggle.

  4. Competition in the UK National Health Service: mission impossible?

    PubMed

    Maynard, A

    1993-03-01

    Despite the dominant ideology of the 1980s being libertarian, pragmatism triumphed and, despite several attempts to privatise the UK National Health Service, the Thatcherite reforms maintained public finance and sought to create competition in the supply of health care. Even this partial reform was radical and has led to major changes in structure and process. However, the Government has refused to evaluate both the cost and the outcome of the reforms. Furthermore, with minimal definition of how the 'internal market' was to work, the Government has regulated the competitive processes in an ad hoc manner, often responding to obvious but unforeseen problems (e.g. local monopoly power). Competition is costly to create, requiring large investments in managerial personnel and information technology, and difficult to sustain because of the propensity of capitalists, through self interest, to destroy capitalism. Problems such as quality, equity and the closure of excess capacity were well defined prior to the NHS reforms and have not yet been resolved following the reforms. Whether adversarial rather than collaborative relationships are more efficient in the health care sector is unknown. Indeed there remains little evidence to sustain the claims of political rhetoric that competition 'works' i.e. increases efficiency, enhances equity and contains costs. Despite this reformers seek to create competition and complete mission impossible.

  5. Nestle and breast vs. bottle feeding: mainstream and Marxist perspectives.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C E

    1984-01-01

    The breast vs. bottle feeding issue has sparked a controversial debate. Mainstream analysis of the problem shows that arguments made by the business community, as represented by the Nestle Corporation, do not withstand examination of the evidence. For example, it cannot be substantiated that women begin formula feeding because they have entered the labor force. Mainstream studies of cost effectiveness further indicate that bottle feeding is a drain on the incomes of impoverished Third World families and nations. Marxist analysis gives a very different perspective. Nestle represents 19th century capitalist development and the Industrial Revolution, and 20th century imperialism, neocolonialism and monopoly capitalism. Its motive has been capital accumulation and expansion. To increase surplus value appropriation, capitalism must devalue the household (subsistence) economy in which women enjoyed considerable status. Women also produce the most fundamental commodity for capitalism-laborers; therefore, the biological connection must be masked and controlled for the benefit of capital. Thus, as the capitalist mode of production has developed, women have been removed from important roles in production and reproduction. Coupled with the ascendancy of science, expertism and public health imperialism, breast feeding in any market economy becomes nearly impossible. As women internalize the values of capitalist ideology, they elevate "man-made" marketed commodities over subsistence goods such as breast milk.

  6. Steps toward a Middle East free of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.

    1991-04-01

    In the aftermath of the Gulf War, all eyes are focused on the dangers of proliferation in the Middle East. President Bush, in his postwar address to Congress, called for immediate action to control the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the missiles used to deliver them, warning that it would be tragic if the nations of the Middle East and Persian Gulf were now, in the wake of war, to embark on a new arms race. Secretary of State James Baker has recently returned from a tour of the region, and consultations on proliferation were reportedly high on his agenda. At the same time, the fierce political antagonisms and unbridled military competitions that have long characterized the Middle East leave many skeptical as to what can realistically be done. While all states in the region - including Israel - have publicly supported the idea of establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ) in the Middle East, doubt over the feasibility of the proposal runs high. Why on earth, it is asked, would Israelis give up the protection of their nuclear monopoly What assurances from their Arab adversaries or from the US could possibly replace this ultimate deterrent

  7. Auctionable fixed transmission rights for congestion management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomoush, Muwaffaq Irsheid

    Electric power deregulation has proposed a major change to the regulated utility monopoly. The change manifests the main part of engineers' efforts to reshape three components of today's regulated monopoly: generation, distribution and transmission. In this open access deregulated power market, transmission network plays a major role, and transmission congestion is a major problem that requires further consideration especially when inter-zonal/intra-zonal scheme is implemented. Declaring that engineering studies and experience are the criteria to define zonal boundaries or defining a zone based on the fact that a zone is a densely interconnected area (lake) and paths connecting these densely interconnected areas are inter-zonal lines will render insufficient and fuzzy definitions. Moreover, a congestion problem formulation should take into consideration interactions between intra-zonal and inter-zonal flows and their effects on power systems. In this thesis, we introduce a procedure for minimizing the number of adjustments of preferred schedules to alleviate congestion and apply control schemes to minimize interactions between zones. In addition, we give the zone definition a certain criterion based on the Locational Marginal Price (LMP). This concept will be used to define congestion zonal boundaries and to decide whether any zone should be merged with another zone or split into new zones. The thesis presents a unified scheme that combines zonal and FTR schemes to manage congestion. This combined scheme is utilized with LMPs to define zonal boundaries more appropriately. The presented scheme gains the best features of the FTR scheme, which are providing financial certainty, maximizing the efficient use of the system and making users pay for the actual use of congested paths. LMPs may give an indication of the impact of wheeling transactions, and calculations of and comparisons of LMPs with and without wheeling transactions should be adequate criteria to approve

  8. Applying Support Vector Machine in classifying satellite images for the assessment of urban sprawl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    murgante, Beniamino; Nolè, Gabriele; Lasaponara, Rosa; Lanorte, Antonio; Calamita, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    , in south eastern Italy (Puglia region). Bari, one of the major cities of southern Italy, is characterized by a considerable urban sprawl. The analysis is focused on a rectangular shaped region covering the urban area of three different cities, namely Polignano a Mare and Monopoli (and Conversano minority part) which, in 2011, had a population density comprised in the range of 140-319 people per Km2(istat ). The area of interest has a surface of approximately 253 Km2 , is characterized by three urban areas (Polignano a Mare, Conversano and Monopoli) and has a coastline of almost 17 Km. References Lanorte, A., Danese M., Lasaponara R., Murgante B. (2011) "Multiscale mapping of burn area and severity using multisensor satellite data and spatial autocorrelation analysis" International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, Elsevier, doi:10.1016/j.jag.2011.09.005 Murgante B. Danese M. (2011) "Urban versus Rural: the decrease of agricultural areas and the development of urban zones analyzed with spatial statistics" Special Issue on "Environmental and agricultural data processing for water and territory management" International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Information Systems (IJAEIS) volume 2(2) pp. 16-28 IGI Global, ISSN 1947-3192, DOI: 10.4018/jaeis.2011070102. Murgante, B., Las Casas, G., Danese, M., (2012), "Analyzing Neighbourhoods Suitable for Urban Renewal Programs with Autocorrelation Techniques" In Burian J. (Eds.) "Advances in Spatial Planning" InTech - Open Access DOI: 10.5772/33747 ISBN:978-953-51-0377-6 Nolè G., Danese M., Murgante B., Lasaponara R., Lanorte, A., (2012) "Using Spatial Autocorrelation Techniques and Multi-temporal Satellite Data for Analyzing Urban Sprawl" Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 7335, pp. 512-527. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. ISSN: 0302-9743, doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-31137-6_39

  9. The role of veterinarians in the farm-to-fork food chain and the underlying legal framework.

    PubMed

    Petitclerc, M

    2013-08-01

    While the metaphor 'farm to fork' is a simple way of describing the chain that starts with the animal and follows through to the food delivered to consumers, there is a danger it could convey the idea that it only covers the food chain. The author believes that the expression should be understood to refer to a broader field--which he calls the 'veterinary domain' - which includes all aspects of animal use and management and the goals of veterinary public health, which is itself defined. Within the veterinary domain, it is veterinarians who are the guarantors of animal health and protectors of animal resources, providing a vital component of food security and public safety. Historical and geographical references show that this role is vulnerable and must be protected to ensure its existence and quality, not only for the benefit of those involved, but above all for society as a whole. As the organisation of such protection involves granting monopolies, special attention must be paid to the conditions governing veterinary training and practice. Protection brings duties and requires control mechanisms, which are generally entrusted to veterinary statutory bodies. The entire mechanism must therefore be covered by specific legislation, which is now embodied in Article 3.4.6. of the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health. However, there is a danger of destroying a system, which has evolved over many years and has proven its worth, by an insistence on free-trade dogma that rejects the relationship between the health and veterinary professions.

  10. Global repowering opportunities for biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Demeter, C.P.; Gray, E.E.; Lindsey, C.A.

    1996-12-31

    Global demand for electricity is growing during a time of significant structural change in electric markets. Many countries are creating more competitive markets for power production and sales through regulation and ownership structure. Governments are reducing monopolies, enhancing competition and unbundling electricity services. Equipment suppliers, developers, and service providers are expanding into the global market. Meeting future electric energy needs has forced the power community to examine alternatives to Greenfield Development. Repowering existing facilities to gain a competitive advantage is a promising option. Repowering has the potential to offer increased capacity, heat rate reductions, and improved environmental profiles in a manner consistent with an asset and capital deployment rationalization strategy that appears to characterize the future of the power industry. It is also a defensive strategy for extending the life of existing assets. The breadth of repowering options continues to expand as technologies are introduced to increase plant capacities, efficiencies or both. Some options such as feedwater heater repowering appear to offer advantages to repowering with biomass fuels as an alternative to natural gas projects. By repowering solid fueled facilities, developed and developing countries can receive multiple benefits. Most developing countries are largely agrarian with traditional policies that have relied on trickle-down rural development. By turning agricultural and forestry by-products into commodities, farmers and foresters can benefit from a sustainable source of income. As power demand and biomass requirements are expanded to a regional scale, the government can reduce some agricultural subsidies and shift that money to other economically and socially beneficial programs. Furthermore, rural development can minimize rural-to-urban flight and thus lessen the strain on already overburdened urban infrastructure.

  11. Tobacco and transition: an overview of industry investments, impact and influence in the former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, A; McKee, M

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To quantify the contribution the tobacco industry has made to foreign direct investment (FDI) in the former Soviet Union (FSU) as an indicator of its political and economic leverage; to explore the impact this has had on production capacity and tobacco control in the region. Design: Data on industry investment and its impact on cigarette production capacity were collated from industry journals, reports, and websites. Data on total FDI were obtained from the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development. Results: By the end of 2000, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) had invested over US$2.7 billion in 10 countries of the FSU. Tobacco money as a proportion of FDI varies from 1% to over 30% in Uzbekistan. Cigarette production capacity in the factories receiving investments tripled from 146 to 416 billion cigarettes per annum and the TTCs' market share has increased from nothing to between 50–100% in the markets in which they invested. Findings suggest that the effectiveness of national tobacco control measures corresponds broadly to the nature of the political and economic transition in each country and the size of industry investment, which is determined in part by the political context. Thus more effective measures tend to be seen in democratic states with smaller or no industry investments while the least effective measures are seen in highly centralised, one party states with high levels of industry investment or those with limited governmental capacity. Conclusions: The entry of the TTCs at a time of major political and economic change left the FSU particularly vulnerable to industry influence. This influence was enhanced by the industry's significant contribution to FDI, their ability to take over existing state monopolies in all but the largest countries, and the lack of democratic opposition. PMID:15175530

  12. Three essays on "making" electric power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kench, Brian Thomas

    2000-10-01

    Technological change over the past three decades has altered most of the basic conditions in the electric power industry. Because of technical progress, the dominant paradigm has shifted from the provision of electric power by regulated and vertically integrated local natural monopolies to competition and vertical separation. In the first essay I provide a historical context of the electric industry's power current deregulation debate. Then a dynamic model of induced institutional change is used to investigate how endogenous technological advancements have induced radical institutional change in the generation and transmission segments of the electric power industry. Because the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) ordered regulated utilities to provide open access to their transmission networks and to separate their generation and transmission functions, transmission networks have been used more intensively and in much different ways then in the past. The second essay tests experimentally the predictions of neoclassical theory for a radial electric power market under two alternative deregulated transmission institutions: financial transmission rights and physical transmission rights. Experimental evidence presented there demonstrates that an electric power market with physical transmission rights governing its transmission network generates more "right" market signals relative to a transmission network governed by financial transmission rights. The move to a greater reliance on markets for electric power is an idea that has animated sweeping and dramatic changes in the traditional business of electric power. The third essay examines two of the most innovative and complex initiatives of making electric power markets in the United States: California and PJM. As those markets mature and others are made, they must revise their governance mechanisms to eliminate rules that create inefficiency and adopt rules that work efficiently elsewhere. I argue that

  13. Flood damage claims reveal insights about surface runoff in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernet, D. B.; Prasuhn, V.; Weingartner, R.

    2015-12-01

    A few case studies in Switzerland exemplify that not only overtopping water bodies frequently cause damages to buildings. Reportedly, a large share of the total loss due to flooding in Switzerland goes back to surface runoff that is formed and is propagating outside of regular watercourses. Nevertheless, little is known about when, where and why such surface runoff occurs. The described process encompasses surface runoff formation, followed by unchannelised overland flow until a water body is reached. It is understood as a type of flash flood, has short response times and occurs diffusely in the landscape. Thus, the process is difficult to observe and study directly. A promising source indicating surface runoff indirectly are houseowners' damage claims recorded by Swiss Public Insurance Companies for Buildings (PICB). In most of Switzerland, PICB hold a monopoly position and insure (almost) every building. Consequently, PICB generally register all damages to buildings caused by an insured natural hazard (including surface runoff) within the respective zones. We have gathered gapless flood related claim records of most of all Swiss PICB covering more than the last two decades on average. Based on a subset, we have developed a methodology to differentiate claims related to surface runoff from other causes. This allows us to assess the number of claims as well as total loss related to surface runoff and compare these to the numbers of overtopping watercourses. Furthermore, with the good data coverage, we are able to analyze surface runoff related claims in space and time, from which we can infer spatial and temporal characteristics of surface runoff. Although the delivered data of PICB are heterogeneous and, consequently, time-consuming to harmonize, our first results show that exploiting these damage claim records is feasible and worthwhile to learn more about surface runoff in Switzerland.

  14. An exploration of an alternative rate structure as a means of integrating equity and efficiency in a municipally owned natural gas distribution utility

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    After two decades of a somewhat golden age for gas utilities and regulators, the 1970's saw a changing energy market characterized by curtailments and allocations in the natural gas industry. The Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 provided incentives for new supplies but at increased prices. During a period of rapidly calculating natural gas prices (1979-1984), municipal owned public utility operators were criticized for not meeting the needs of the poor and other deprived members of society. The thesis of this paper is that this criticism of operators of municipal owned natural gas utilities stemmed from the observer conceiving of the utility as a social agency of government. This paper investigates the background of the problem and public utilities' obligations because of their status as regulated monopolies. The municipal owned natural gas utility's responsibility in meeting the social functions of government are considered. This paper argues that such a utility should be viewed as a business not a societal agency. Use of a utility's rate structure for satisfying the dictates of a system of distributive justice is investigated. The attempts made by state and local governments (moratoriums on delinquent shutoffs, lifeline rates, etc.) have been ineffective and counter productive. The utility's duty to offer service to all who request it; without discrimination among people similarly situated; to the limit of its capacity is considered with consumers duty to pay just bills. Arguments show that the rate structure, not quantity delivered, is the crucial factor in assuring distributive justice. Pricing is viewed from a philosophical perspective also an economic perspective. The only need identified for equity and economic efficiency is in rate structures.

  15. The 2014 primary health care reform in Poland: Short-term fixes instead of a long-term strategy.

    PubMed

    Mokrzycka, Anna; Kowalska-Bobko, Iwona; Sagan, Anna; Włodarczyk, W Cezary

    2016-11-01

    At the end of 2013, the Minister of Health started legislative changes directly and indirectly affecting primary health care (PHC). The reforms were widely criticised among certain groups of medical professionals, including family medicine physicians. The latter mainly criticised the formal inclusion of specialists in internal diseases and paediatrics into PHC within the statutory health care system, which in practice meant that these two groups of specialists were no longer required to specialize in family medicine from 2017 in order to enter into contracts with the public payer and would be able to set up solo PHC practices-something over which family medicine physicians used to have a monopoly. They argued that paediatricians and internists did not have the necessary professional competencies to work as PHC physicians and thus assure provision of a comprehensive and coordinated PHC. The government's stance was that the proposed measure was necessary to assure the future provision of PHC, given the shortage of specialists in family medicine. Certain groups of medical professionals were also supportive of the proposed change. The key argument in favour was that it could improve access to PHC, especially for children. However, while this was not the subject of the critique or even a policy debate, the proposal ignored the increasing health care needs of older patients-the key recipients of PHC services. The policy was passed in the Parliament in March-April 2014 without a dialogue with the key stakeholders, which is typical of health care (and other) reforms in Poland. The strong opposition against the reform from the family medicine specialists, represented by two strong organisations, may jeopardise the policy implementation in the future.

  16. MYRIAD AFTER MYRIAD: THE PROPRIETARY DATA DILEMMA

    PubMed Central

    Conley, John M.; Cook-Deegan, Robert; Lázaro-Muñoz, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Myriad Genetics’ long-time monopoly on BRCA gene testing was significantly narrowed by the Supreme Court’s decision in AMP v. Myriad Genetics, Inc., and will be further narrowed in the next few years as many of its still-valid patents expire. But these developments have not caused the company to acquiesce in competition. Instead, it has launched a litigation offensive against a number of actual and potential competitors, suing them for infringement of numerous unexpired patents that survived the Supreme Court case. A parallel strategy may have even greater long-term significance, however. In announcing expanded operations in Europe, Myriad has emphasized that it will rely less on patents and more on its huge proprietary database of genetic mutations and associated health outcomes—a strategy that could be used in the United States as well. Myriad has built that database over its many years as a patent-based monopolist in the BRCA testing field, and has not shared it with the medical community for more than a decade. Consequently, Myriad has a unique ability to interpret the health significance of patients’ genetic mutations, particularly in the case of rare “variants of unknown significance.” This article reviews the current state of Myriad’s patent portfolio, describes its ongoing litigation offensive, and then analyzes its proprietary database strategy. The article argues that Myriad’s strategy, while legally feasible, undercuts important values and objectives in medical research and health policy. The article identifies several ways in which the research and health care communities might fight back, but acknowledges that it will be a difficult uphill fight. PMID:25544836

  17. Off-patent drugs at brand-name prices: a puzzle for policymakers

    PubMed Central

    Tallapragada, Naren P.

    2016-01-01

    In August 2015, Turing Pharmaceuticals acquired the marketing rights to Daraprim (pyrimethamine), a drug used to treat parasitic infections like malaria and toxoplasmosis. Soon after, Turing caused an uproar when it announced that it would raise the price per tablet of Daraprim from \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\rm{\\$ 13.50\\ to\\ \\$ 750}$\\end{document}, a 5500% price hike for a drug that has been on the market for over 60 years and off patent since the 1970s. Old, off-patent drugs are becoming increasingly expensive; Daraprim is the archetypal example. Turing had the power to set a high price for Daraprim because the drug's limited patient population, the absence of competing manufacturers, and a lack of therapeutic alternatives all created an effective monopoly. Similar forces have driven up the prices of other off-patent drugs that treat diseases as diverse as heart failure and multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. Thus, policymakers will have to consider how the high cost of off-patent drugs impacts public health as well as public spending. In this Note I outline the extent of the high-cost off-patent drug problem, drawing special attention to the problem's negative effects on both health outcomes and government budgets. After discussing some of the problem's underlying causes, I present several solutions to the problem that policymakers could consider, with a focus on proposals like reference pricing and expanded compounding that have received relatively little media attention. PMID:27774247

  18. A critique of cannabis legalization proposals in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kalant, Harold

    2016-08-01

    An editorial in this issue describes a cannabis policy framework document issued by a major Canadian research centre, calling for legalization of non-medical use under strict controls to prevent increase in use, especially by adolescents and young adults who are most vulnerable to adverse effects of cannabis. It claims that such a system would eliminate the severe personal, social and monetary costs of prohibition, diminish the illicit market, and provide more humane management of cannabis use disorders. It claims that experience with regulation of alcohol and tobacco will enable a system based on public health principles to control access of youth to cannabis without the harm caused by prohibition. The present critique argues that the claims made against decriminalization and for legalization are unsupported, or even contradicted, by solid evidence. Early experience in other jurisdictions suggests that legalization increases use by adolescents and its attendant harms. Regulation of alcohol use does not provide a good model for cannabis controls because there is widespread alcohol use and harm among adolescents and young adults. Government monopolies of alcohol sale have been used primarily as sources of revenue rather than for guarding public health, and no reason has been offered to believe they would act differently with respect to cannabis. Good policy decisions require extensive unbiased information about the individual and social benefits and costs of both drug use and proposed control measures, and value judgments about the benefit/harm balance of each option. Important parts of the necessary knowledge about cannabis are not yet available, so that the value judgments are not yet possible. Therefore, a better case can be made for eliminating some of the harms of prohibition by decriminalization of cannabis possession and deferring decision about legalization until the necessary knowledge has been acquired.

  19. Moving East: how the transnational tobacco industry gained entry to the emerging markets of the former Soviet Union—part II: an overview of priorities and tactics used to establish a manufacturing presence

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, A; McKee, M

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To explore how British American Tobacco (BAT), having established cigarette imports, responded to the opportunities for investment in cigarette manufacturing in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design: Analysis of documents held at the BAT archive in Guildford, UK. Results: Considerable priority was attached to investing in the FSU. This led BAT to undertake a major organisational change and to intense competition to acquire assets. BAT used flawed economic arguments to persuade cash starved governments that its investment would reap economic rewards. It offered excise advice that disadvantaged governments while benefiting BAT, confused issues over pricing, and avoided competitive tendering. BAT targeted agriculture ministries, using its expertise in leaf production to differentiate itself from other potential investors. It subverted the principles of corporate social responsibility to promote itself as a business partner. BAT's task was made easier by the naivety of post-Soviet governments and by the international financial organisations' support for rapid economic reform. The latter permitted tobacco transnationals to penetrate markets before effective competitive tendering processes had been established, giving them the opportunity to minimise prices and establish monopolies. Conclusions: Many of the arguments employed when penetrating post-Soviet markets were highly misleading but governments lacked expertise to realise this. There is a need to build tobacco control capacity in transition economies, within and outside government, to ensure that governments are better informed of the true economic and health impacts of tobacco. Rapid transition from socialist to market economies without establishing regulatory institutional structures may be dangerous when investing companies use business practices that fall short of international standards. PMID:15175532

  20. “The law was actually drafted by us but the Government is to be congratulated on its wise actions”: British American Tobacco and public policy in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Preeti; Collin, Jeff; Gilmore, Anna B

    2007-01-01

    Background and objective British American Tobacco (BAT) has historically enjoyed a monopoly position in Kenya. Analysis of recent tobacco control debates and a case study of BAT's response to the emergence of competition in Kenya are used to explore the company's ability to shape public policy and its treatment of tobacco farmers. Design Analysis of internal industry documents from BAT's Guildford depository, other relevant data and interviews with key informants. Results BAT enjoys extensive high‐level political connections in Kenya, including close relationships with successive Kenyan presidents. Such links seems to have been used to influence public policy. Health legislation has been diluted and delayed, and when a competitor emerged in the market, BAT used its contacts to have the government pass legislation drafted by BAT that compelled farmers to sell tobacco to BAT rather than to its competitor. BAT was already paying farmers less than any other African leaf‐growing company, and the legislation entrenched poor pay and a quasi‐feudal relationship. BAT's public relation's response to the threat of competition and the ministers' public statements extolling the economic importance of tobacco growing suggest that BAT has manipulated tobacco farming as a political issue. Conclusions The extent of BAT's influence over public policy is consistent with the observations that, despite ratifying the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, progress in implementing tobacco control measures in Kenya has been limited. The benefits of tobacco farming seem to be deliberately exaggerated, and an analysis of its true cost benefits is urgently needed. Tobacco farmers must be protected against BAT's predatory practices and fully informed about its activities to help them have an informed role in policy debates. As image, particularly around the importance of tobacco farming, seems key to BAT's ability to influence policy, the truth about its treatment of farmers must be

  1. A cohort study on mental disorders, stage of cancer at diagnosis and subsequent survival

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chin-Kuo; Hayes, Richard D; Broadbent, Matthew T M; Hotopf, Matthew; Davies, Elizabeth; Møller, Henrik; Stewart, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the stage at cancer diagnosis and survival after cancer diagnosis among people served by secondary mental health services, compared with other local people. Setting Using the anonymised linkage between a regional monopoly secondary mental health service provider in southeast London of four London boroughs, Croydon, Lambeth, Lewisham and Southwark, and a population-based cancer register, a historical cohort study was constructed. Participants A total of 28 477 cancer cases aged 15+ years with stage of cancer recorded at diagnosis were identified. Among these, 2206 participants had been previously assessed or treated in secondary mental healthcare before their cancer diagnosis and 125 for severe mental illness (schizophrenia, schizoaffective or bipolar disorders). Primary and secondary outcome measures Stage when cancer was diagnosed and all-cause mortality after cancer diagnosis among cancer cases registered in the geographical area of southeast London. Results Comparisons between people with and without specific psychiatric diagnosis in the same residence area for risks of advanced stage of cancer at diagnosis and general survival after cancer diagnosed were analysed using logistic and Cox models. No associations were found between specific mental disorder diagnoses and beyond local spread of cancer at presentation. However, people with severe mental disorders, depression, dementia and substance use disorders had significantly worse survival after cancer diagnosis, independent of cancer stage at diagnosis and other potential confounders. Conclusions Previous findings of associations between mental disorders and cancer mortality are more likely to be accounted for by differences in survival after cancer diagnosis rather than by delayed diagnosis. PMID:24477317

  2. Underdeveloping Appalachia: Toward an environmental sociology of extractive economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wishart, William Ryan

    This dissertation uses mixed methods to examine the role of the coal industry in the reproduction of Central Appalachia as an internal periphery within the United States and the economic, ecological, and human inequalities this entails. It also analyzes the related political economy and power structure of coal in a national context. Particularly important for analysis of the region's underdevelopment are the class relations involved in unequal ecological exchange and the establishment of successive "modes of extraction." I employ a historical comparative analysis of Appalachia to evaluate Bunker's thesis that resource dependent peripheries often become locked into a "mode of extraction" (with aspects parallel to Marxist concepts of mode of production) triggering economic and ecological path dependencies leading to underdevelopment. This historical comparative analysis establishes the background for a closer examination of the political economy of the modern US coal industry. After sketching the changes in the structure of monopoly and competition in the coal industry I employ network analysis of the directorate interlocks of the top twenty coal firms in the US within the larger energy policy-planning network to examine their connections with key institutions of the policy formation network of think tanks and business groups. My findings show the importance of the capacities of fossil fuel fractions of the capitalist class in formulating energy policy around issues such as the 2009 climate legislation. As a contribution to the growing literature applying the concept of metabolism as link between contemporary and classical theory, I examine the conflict at Coal River Mountain from the vantage points of ecology, political economy, and human development in dialectical rotation. Utilizing Marx's method of successive abstractions, the mountain is presented as a nexus of metabolic rifts in the human relationship to the earth's natural systems and an impediment to genuine

  3. Copyright

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ‘Talent is always conscious of its own abundance, and does not object to sharing.’ Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, The First Circle When authors submit an article for publication, most publishers will ask for a signature from the author on a copyright form. The relationship between an author and the publisher is then a partnership but one that many authors are reluctant to enter into. After all, why should a publisher take copyright from an author of an article when the author had the idea and has done all the hard work for the content of the article? In response to this question, publishers will generally claim that copyright transfer agreements protect authors from copyright infringements such as plagiarism, libel and unauthorised uses as well as protecting the integrity of the article. Copyright in the UK was originally concerned with preventing the unlawful copying of printed material in the 17th century in response to the then new technology of book printing. The first copyright act in the UK, the Statute of Anne in 1710, was subtitled ‘An Act for the Encouragement of Learning’, and granted privileges and monopolies to book printers. Since then, copyright law has evolved to incorporate many forms of communication, including photography, film, music, computers, engraving, designs on t-shirts and digital technology among other forms of media. The most recent act in the UK is the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. While copyright covers an author’s right to copy, distribute and revise the work, it does not protect ideas – just their fixation or expression. The moment that an idea is fixed or expressed physically, copyright starts and does not have to be registered. In this article, Pippa Smart provides an overview of the legal framework that protects authors and publishers. Jyoti Shah, Commissioning Editor

  4. Learning from Philip Morris: Japan Tobacco's strategies regarding evidence of tobacco health harms as revealed in internal documents from the American tobacco industry.

    PubMed

    Iida, Kaori; Proctor, Robert N

    2004-05-29

    Japan is in the midst of a rapid increase in tobacco-related disease mortality, following the rapid growth of smoking after WWII. Stomach cancer was the country's leading cause of cancer death for most of the 20th century, until lung cancer took over this position in 1993. Cigarettes are the major cause of lung cancer in Japan, but the country's leading manufacturer, Japan Tobacco, two thirds of which is owned by the Japanese government, continues to question whether tobacco is a major cause of disease and death. Japanese courts do not have the power to subpoena a company's internal records, which has made it difficult to document Japan Tobacco's strategies concerning tobacco and health. Our interpretation of online archives of internal documents from American tobacco companies, however, is that Japan Tobacco has long known about the potential health risks involved in smoking and has sought to obstruct effective tobacco control. Beginning in the mid-1980s, these efforts were often co-ordinated with American tobacco manufacturers. The documentary evidence shows that cigarette manufacturer Philip Morris in particular assisted with and sometimes also supervised Japan Tobacco's actions and statements on smoking and health. In one instance, data gathered for an article published by the Japan Public Monopoly Corporation (Japan Tobacco's predecessor) were deliberately altered to lower the reported value of a hazard indicator (nicotine concentration in the air). International collaboration has made it easier for companies such as Japan Tobacco to develop effective anti-antismoking strategies. Evidence of such global industry collaborations might grow as lawsuits begin to be filed in other nations.

  5. The Iranian petroleum crisis and United States national security

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. case against Iran is based on Iran's deceptions regarding nuclear weapons development. This case is buttressed by assertions that a state so petroleum-rich cannot need nuclear power to preserve exports, as Iran claims. The U.S. infers, therefore, that Iran's entire nuclear technology program must pertain to weapons development. However, some industry analysts project an Irani oil export decline [e.g., Clark JR (2005) Oil Gas J 103(18):34–39]. If such a decline is occurring, Iran's claim to need nuclear power could be genuine. Because Iran's government relies on monopoly proceeds from oil exports for most revenue, it could become politically vulnerable if exports decline. Here, we survey the political economy of Irani petroleum for evidence of this decline. We define Iran's export decline rate (edr) as its summed rates of depletion and domestic demand growth, which we find equals 10–12%. We estimate marginal cost per barrel for additions to Irani production capacity, from which we derive the “standstill” investment required to offset edr. We then compare the standstill investment to actual investment, which has been inadequate to offset edr. Even if a relatively optimistic schedule of future capacity addition is met, the ratio of 2011 to 2006 exports will be only 0.40–0.52. A more probable scenario is that, absent some change in Irani policy, this ratio will be 0.33–0.46 with exports declining to zero by 2014–2015. Energy subsidies, hostility to foreign investment, and inefficiencies of its state-planned economy underlie Iran's problem, which has no relation to “peak oil.” PMID:17190820

  6. Calling Where It Counts: Subordinate Pied Babblers Target the Audience of Their Vocal Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, David J.; Finch, Fiona M.; Bell, Matthew B. V.; Ridley, Amanda R.

    2015-01-01

    For territorial group-living species, opportunities to reproduce on the natal territory can be limited by a number of factors including the availability of resources within a territory, access to unrelated individuals, and monopolies on reproduction by dominant group members. Individuals looking to reproduce are therefore faced with the options of either waiting for a breeding opportunity to arise in the natal territory, or searching for reproductive opportunities in non-natal groups. In the cooperatively breeding Southern pied babbler, Turdoides bicolor, most individuals who achieve reproductive success do so through taking up dominant breeding positions within non-natal groups. For subordinate pied babblers therefore, searching for breeding opportunities in non-natal groups is of primary importance as this represents the major route to reproductive success. However, prospecting (where individuals leave the group to search for reproductive opportunities within other groups) is costly and individuals rapidly lose weight when not part of a group. Here we demonstrate that subordinate pied babblers adopt an alternative strategy for mate attraction by vocal advertisement from within their natal territories. We show that subordinates focus their calling efforts on the edges of their territory, and specifically near boundaries with neighbouring groups that have potential breeding partners (unrelated individuals of the opposite sex). In contrast to prospecting, calling individuals showed no body mass loss associated with this behaviour, suggesting that calling from within the group may provide a ‘cheap’ advertisement strategy. Additionally, we show that subordinates use information regarding the composition of neighbouring groups to target the greatest number of potential mating partners. PMID:26177094

  7. The Iranian petroleum crisis and United States national security.

    PubMed

    Stern, Roger

    2007-01-02

    The U.S. case against Iran is based on Iran's deceptions regarding nuclear weapons development. This case is buttressed by assertions that a state so petroleum-rich cannot need nuclear power to preserve exports, as Iran claims. The U.S. infers, therefore, that Iran's entire nuclear technology program must pertain to weapons development. However, some industry analysts project an Irani oil export decline [e.g., Clark JR (2005) Oil Gas J 103(18):34-39]. If such a decline is occurring, Iran's claim to need nuclear power could be genuine. Because Iran's government relies on monopoly proceeds from oil exports for most revenue, it could become politically vulnerable if exports decline. Here, we survey the political economy of Irani petroleum for evidence of this decline. We define Iran's export decline rate (edr) as its summed rates of depletion and domestic demand growth, which we find equals 10-12%. We estimate marginal cost per barrel for additions to Irani production capacity, from which we derive the "standstill" investment required to offset edr. We then compare the standstill investment to actual investment, which has been inadequate to offset edr. Even if a relatively optimistic schedule of future capacity addition is met, the ratio of 2011 to 2006 exports will be only 0.40-0.52. A more probable scenario is that, absent some change in Irani policy, this ratio will be 0.33-0.46 with exports declining to zero by 2014-2015. Energy subsidies, hostility to foreign investment, and inefficiencies of its state-planned economy underlie Iran's problem, which has no relation to "peak oil."

  8. Women in 19th Century Irish immigration.

    PubMed

    Jackson, P

    1984-01-01

    By the 1950s--100 years after the great famine of 1845-49-- 57% of emigrants from the 26 countries of Ireland were women. In the latter 1/2 of the 19th Century, increasing proportions of women emigrated, until they outnumbered men. For women it was more than a flight from poverty. It was also an escape from an increasingly patriarchal society, whose asymetrical development as a colony curtailed women's social space, even in their traditional role as wife and mother. The famine, which is the single greatest influence forcing emigration, undermined the social fabric of an agrarian society, hastening the process of agricultural transformation. The growth of a new class of Irish a British grazier landlords resulted in a situation of acute land scarcity, encouraging tendencies to cling to one's land holding without dividing it. This, combined with new inheritance practices, gave rise to widespread arranged marriages as a means of land consolidation, and the dowry system. The spontaneous marriage practices of famine days also were replaced by a postponement of marriage. These trends severely reduced the choices exerted by women. The absence of big industrialized cities, which might have absorbed displaced rural populations, removed available options, particularly for women. The system of land monopoly and inheritance revolving around male heads of households reinforced partriarchal relations, within a framework of rigid sexual norms, whose enforcement was easy because the church, which played an important role in the emergence of these values, was a major landowner in itself. The subordinated, invisible status of women in post-famine Ireland, and growing barriers to easy access to marriage partners, to waged employment and self-expression, all helped ensure the higher and higher emigration rates of women. The economic transformation of Irish agriculture accelerated the establishment of oppressive values and helped depreciate the position of women to a very low level. The

  9. Monitoring Flower Visitation Networks and Interactions between Pairs of Bumble Bees in a Large Outdoor Flight Cage.

    PubMed

    Lihoreau, Mathieu; Chittka, Lars; Raine, Nigel E

    2016-01-01

    Pollinators, such as bees, often develop multi-location routes (traplines) to exploit subsets of flower patches within larger plant populations. How individuals establish such foraging areas in the presence of other foragers is poorly explored. Here we investigated the foraging patterns of pairs of bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) released sequentially into an 880m2 outdoor flight cage containing 10 feeding stations (artificial flowers). Using motion-sensitive video cameras mounted on flowers, we mapped the flower visitation networks of both foragers, quantified their interactions and compared their foraging success over an entire day. Overall, bees that were released first (residents) travelled 37% faster and collected 77% more nectar, thereby reaching a net energy intake rate 64% higher than bees released second (newcomers). However, this prior-experience advantage decreased as newcomers became familiar with the spatial configuration of the flower array. When both bees visited the same flower simultaneously, the most frequent outcome was for the resident to evict the newcomer. On the rare occasions when newcomers evicted residents, the two bees increased their frequency of return visits to that flower. These competitive interactions led to a significant (if only partial) spatial overlap between the foraging patterns of pairs of bees. While newcomers may initially use social cues (such as olfactory footprints) to exploit flowers used by residents, either because such cues indicate higher rewards and/or safety from predation, residents may attempt to preserve their monopoly over familiar resources through exploitation and interference. We discuss how these interactions may favour spatial partitioning, thereby maximising the foraging efficiency of individuals and colonies.

  10. The changing structure of the electric power industry: Selected issues, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    More than 3,000 electric utilities in the United States provide electricity to sustain the Nation`s economic growth and promote the well-being of its inhabitants. At the end of 1996, the net generating capability of the electric power industry stood at more than 776,000 megawatts. Sales to ultimate consumers in 1996 exceeded 3.1 trillion kilowatthours at a total cost of more than $210 billion. In addition, the industry added over 9 million new customers during the period from 1990 through 1996. The above statistics provide an indication of the size of the electric power industry. Propelled by events of the recent past, the industry is currently in the midst of changing from a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to a functionally unbundled industry with a competitive market for power generation. Advances in power generation technology, perceived inefficiencies in the industry, large variations in regional electricity prices, and the trend to competitive markets in other regulated industries have all contributed to the transition. Industry changes brought on by this movement are ongoing, and the industry will remain in a transitional state for the next few years or more. During the transition, many issues are being examined, evaluated, and debated. This report focuses on three of them: how wholesale and retail prices have changed since 1990; the power and ability of independent system operators (ISOs) to provide transmission services on a nondiscriminatory basis; and how issues that affect consumer choice, including stranded costs and the determination of retail prices, may be handled either by the US Congress or by State legislatures.

  11. Restructuring local distribution services: Possibilities and limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Duann, D.J.

    1994-08-01

    The restructuring of local distribution services is now the focus of the natural gas industry. It is the last major step in the ``reconstitution`` of the natural gas industry and a critical clement in realizing the full benefits of regulatory and market reforms that already have taken place in the wellhead and interstate markets. It could also be the most important regulatory initiative for most end-use customers because they are affected directly by the costs and reliability of distribution services. Several factors contribute to the current emphasis on distribution service restructuring. They include the unbundling and restructuring of upstream markets, a realization of the limitations of supply-side options (such as gas procurement oversight), and the increased diversity and volatility of gas demand facing local distribution companies. Local distribution service is not one but a series of activities that start with commodity gas procurement and extend to transportation, load balancing, storage, and metering and billing of services provided. There are also considerable differences in the economies of scale and scope associated with these various activities. Thus, a mixture of supply arrangements (such as a competitive market or a monopoly) is required for the most efficient delivery of local distribution services. A distinction must be made between the supply of commodity gas and the provision of a bundled distribution service. This distinction and identification of the best supply arrangements for various distribution service components are the most critical factors in developing appropriate restructuring policies. For most state public utility commissions the criteria for service restructuring should include pursuing the economies of scale and scope in gas distribution, differentiating and matching gas service reliability and quality with customer requirements, and controlling costs associated with the search, negotiation, and contracting of gas services.

  12. A Relational Approach to Measuring Competition Among Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Min-Woong

    2002-01-01

    Objective To present a new, relational approach to measuring competition in hospital markets and to compare this relational approach with alternative methods of measuring competition. Data Sources The California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development patient discharge abstracts and financial disclosure files for 1991. Study Design Patient discharge abstracts for an entire year were used to derive patient flows, which were combined to calculate the extent of overlap in patient pools for each pair of hospitals. This produces a cross-sectional measure of market competition among hospitals. Principal Findings The relational approach produces measures of competition between each and every pair of hospitals in the study sample, allowing us to examine a much more “local” as well as dyadic effect of competition. Preliminary analyses show the following: (1) Hospital markets are smaller than thought. (2) For-profit hospitals received considerably more competition from their neighbors than either nonprofit or government hospitals. (3) The size of a hospital does not matter in the amount of competition received, but the larger hospitals generated significantly more competition than smaller ones. Comparisons of this method to the other methods show considerable differences in identifying competitors, indicating that these methods are not as comparable as previously thought. Conclusion The relational approach measures competition in a more detailed way and allows researchers to conduct more fine-grained analyses of market competition. This approach allows one to model market structure in a manner that goes far beyond the traditional categories of monopoly, oligopoly, and perfect competition. It also opens up an entirely new range of analytic possibilities in examining the effect of competition on hospital performance, price of medical care, changes in the market, technology acquisition, and many other phenomena in the health care field. PMID:12036003

  13. Reclamation policy and the West: Changing currents/current changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Timothy Charles

    Since 1902, reclamation policy has transformed the western United States through development of hundreds of dams and other water-supply, irrigation, and hydroelectric power facilities. Recent observers have noted that large-scale water development is over and that reclamation policy itself has fundamentally changed. This dissertation asks: Is a shift in reclamation policy real? If so, what caused it to change? What does this suggest for the future? Reclamation history divides into four phases: policy enactment and early implementation; reclamation coalition dominance; transition to policy competition; and competitive coalitions. The dissertation applies complementary policy change models, especially works by Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith, and Baumgartner and Jones, to explain the evolution and current structure of reclamation policy. From weak beginnings, reclamation developed a substantial monopoly over policy from the 1930s to 1950s. Proposed reclamation projects then triggered conflicts with conservationists, which launched a competitive policy domain. The "Environmental Protection Coalition" was joined by an "Economic Efficiency Coalition" critical of subsidies and economic irrationality in the reclamation program. The combined assault undermined the favorable policy image reclamation formerly enjoyed. The current policy environment is characterized by vigorous, sustained competition, especially between environmental and reclamation coalitions. Evidence of transitions to a competitive policy environment emerges from studies of California's Central Valley Project and the Central Utah Project. Major economic and environmental reforms of both projects in 1992 illustrate that policy outputs strikingly different from the past may result in a highly competitive policy-making climate. Environmental mitigation and restoration, more efficient water use, and water price increases are among the policy changes exemplified by the two case studies. Stability of the modern

  14. Reproductive queue without overt conflict in the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Alok; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2012-01-01

    Colonies of the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata consist of a single egg layer (queen) and a number of non–egg-laying workers. Although the queen is a docile individual, not at the top of the behavioral dominance hierarchy of the colony, she maintains complete reproductive monopoly. If the queen is lost or removed, one and only one of the workers [potential queen (PQ)] becomes hyperaggressive and will become the next queen of the colony. The PQ is almost never challenged because she first becomes hyperaggressive and then gradually loses her aggression, develops her ovaries, and starts laying eggs. Although we are unable to identify the PQ when the queen is present, she appears to be a “cryptic heir designate.” Here, we show that there is not just one heir designate but a long reproductive queue and that PQs take over the role of egg-laying, successively, without overt conflict, as the queen or previous PQs are removed. The dominance rank of an individual is not a significant predictor of its position in the succession hierarchy. The age of an individual is a significant predictor, but it is not a perfect predictor because PQs often bypass older individuals to become successors. We suggest that such a predesignated reproductive queue that is implemented without overt conflict is adaptive in the tropics, where conspecific usurpers from outside the colony, which can take advantage of the anarchy prevailing in a queenless colony and invade it, are likely to be present throughout the year. PMID:22908278

  15. The case against investor-owned utilities and the need for municipal power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontos, Paul

    2002-09-01

    The problem addressed in this dissertation is whether private enterprise is more effective than government when it comes to the provision of public goods and services. Although contemporary free market ideologists claim that privately owned organizations are inherently more effective and efficient than government or public organizations, the research findings reported in this dissertation indicate that at least in the case of the provision of electric power, public power utilities provide greater benefits to the communities they serve than private, investor-owned utilities. As the recent power crisis in California has revealed, private power utilities seek to maximize profit for their shareholders often at the expense of the consumers and the communities they are supposed to serve; whereas public power utilities tend to provide electrical power at lower rates and with greater regard for the protection of the economic stability and environment of the communities they serve. This study provides a historical case study of how a private power company, Pacific Gas and Electric, gained control over the electric power generated by the City and County of San Francisco's own hydroelectric facility in Hetch Hetchy Valley. The federal legislation that gave the city the land for this facility was supposed to provide cheap public power to the city. However, the case study reveals how this company has prevented the city from establishing its own municipal power distribution system, and how it has maintained a highly profitable monopoly over the distribution of electric power within the city for more than seventy-five years. This study also examines the history of private versus public power in the United States and analyzes the political as well as legal tactics that have been used by the private power industry to prevent competition from public power utilities. It also reveals that municipal power utilities, on the whole, have provided cheaper and cleaner power to the public

  16. Hippocratic obligation to shareholder profit? Medical treatment patents and the Australian High Court in Apotex Pty Ltd v Sanofi-Aventis Australia Pty Ltd [2013] HCA 50.

    PubMed

    Vines, Tim

    2014-06-01

    The method of treatment of suffering in patients, including through surgery and the administration of therapeutic drugs, are essential features of medical professionalism. Few, if any practitioners committed to developing the core professional virtue of loyalty to relief of patient suffering through consistently implementing the basic principles of medical ethics, would consider that such beneficial methods of practice are, or should be, the subject of a patent--requiring the practitioner utilising them to pay a royalty or risk infringement proceedings. Indeed a formal opinion of the American Medical Association declares "the use of patents, trade secrets, confidentiality agreements, or other means to limit the availability of medical procedures places significant limitation on the dissemination of medical knowledge, and is therefore unethical". Yet this could be the direction in which Australian patent law is heading. The decision of the High Court of Australia in Apotex Pty Ltd v Sanofi-Aventis Australia Pty Ltd [2013] HCA 50, upholding a patent over a method of using a known drug to prevent or treat psoriasis, may ultimately force practitioners to re-consider whether their basic ethical obligations to patients are secondary to a requirement to maximise profit for shareholders in companies holding medical patents. This column reviews this decision and its possible implications for health practitioners. It places it in context of other recent court decisions that have expanded the intrusion of corporate-owned intellectual property monopolies into Australian medical practices, and how legislative restrictions upon them in the Patents Act 1990 (Cth) places practitioners and patients at risk of more costly, ineffective or restricted health care. This column concludes by cautioning that Australia's scope to address policy problems caused by this case may be limited should it sign up to the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement, particularly if that preferential trade

  17. Monitoring Flower Visitation Networks and Interactions between Pairs of Bumble Bees in a Large Outdoor Flight Cage

    PubMed Central

    Lihoreau, Mathieu; Chittka, Lars; Raine, Nigel E.

    2016-01-01

    Pollinators, such as bees, often develop multi-location routes (traplines) to exploit subsets of flower patches within larger plant populations. How individuals establish such foraging areas in the presence of other foragers is poorly explored. Here we investigated the foraging patterns of pairs of bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) released sequentially into an 880m2 outdoor flight cage containing 10 feeding stations (artificial flowers). Using motion-sensitive video cameras mounted on flowers, we mapped the flower visitation networks of both foragers, quantified their interactions and compared their foraging success over an entire day. Overall, bees that were released first (residents) travelled 37% faster and collected 77% more nectar, thereby reaching a net energy intake rate 64% higher than bees released second (newcomers). However, this prior-experience advantage decreased as newcomers became familiar with the spatial configuration of the flower array. When both bees visited the same flower simultaneously, the most frequent outcome was for the resident to evict the newcomer. On the rare occasions when newcomers evicted residents, the two bees increased their frequency of return visits to that flower. These competitive interactions led to a significant (if only partial) spatial overlap between the foraging patterns of pairs of bees. While newcomers may initially use social cues (such as olfactory footprints) to exploit flowers used by residents, either because such cues indicate higher rewards and/or safety from predation, residents may attempt to preserve their monopoly over familiar resources through exploitation and interference. We discuss how these interactions may favour spatial partitioning, thereby maximising the foraging efficiency of individuals and colonies. PMID:26982030

  18. Implications of deregulation in natural gas industry on utility risks and returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addepalli, Rajendra P.

    This thesis examines the changes in risk and required return on capital for local distribution utility companies in the increasingly competitive natural gas industry. The deregulation in the industry impacts the LDCs in several ways. First, with the introduction of competition consumers have been given choices among suppliers besides the traditional monopoly, the local utility, for purchasing their natural gas supply needs. Second, with the introduction of competition, some of the interstate pipelines were stuck with 'Take Or Pay' contracts and other costs that resulted in 'stranded costs', which have been passed on to customers of the pipeline including the LDCs. Third, the new obligation for the LDCs to purchase gas from the market, as opposed to buying it from pipelines and passing on the costs to its customers, brought opportunities and risks as well. Finally, with the introduction of competition, in some states LDCs have been allowed to enter into unregulated ventures to increase their profits. In the thesis we first develop a multifactor model (MFM) to explain historical common stock returns of individual utilities and of utility portfolios. We use 'rolling regression' analysis to analyze how different variables explain the variation in stock returns over time. Second, we conduct event studies to analyze the events in the deregulation process that had significant impacts on the LDC returns. Finally we assess the changes in risk and required return on capital for the LDCs over a 15 year time frame, covering the deregulation period. We employ four aspects in the examination of risk and return profile of the utilities: measuring (a) changes in required return on common equity and Weighted Average Cost of Capital, (b) changes in risk premium (WACC less an interest rate proxy), (c) changes in utility bond ratings, and (d) changes in dividend payments, new debt and equity issuances. We perform regression analysis to explain the changes in the required WACC using

  19. Long-term consequences of selected competitive strategies during deregulation of the United States electric utility industry: System dynamics modeling and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Yehia Fahim

    Currently, U.S. investor-owned utilities (IOUs) are facing major reforms in their business environment similar to the airlines, telecommunications, banking, and insurance industries. As a result, IOUs are gearing up for fierce price competition in the power generation sector, and are vying for electricity customers outside their franchised service territories. Energy experts predict that some IOUs may suffer fatal financial setbacks (especially those with nuclear plants), while others may thrive under competition. Both federal and state energy regulators anticipate that it may take from five to ten years to complete the transition of America's electric utility industry from a regulated monopoly to a market-driven business. During this transition, utility executives are pursuing aggressive business strategies to confront the upcoming price wars. The most compelling strategies focus on cutting operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of power production, downsizing the work force, and signing bilateral energy agreements with large price-sensitive customers to retain their business. This research assesses the impact of the three pivotal strategies on financial performance of utilities during transition to open market competition. A system-dynamics-based management flight simulator has been developed to predict the dynamic performance of a hypothetical IOU organization preparing for market competition. The simulation results show that while the three business strategies lead to short-lived gains, they also produce unanticipated long-term consequences that adversely impact the organization's operating revenues. Generally, the designed flight simulator serves as a learning laboratory which allows management to test new strategies before implementation.

  20. Across the health-social care divide: elderly people as active users of health care and social care.

    PubMed

    Roberts, K

    2001-03-01

    Several ways in which elderly people may assume an active role when using welfare services are discussed here. Selected findings are presented from a study that explored the experience and behaviour of elderly people on discharge from inpatient care with regard to criteria indicating user influence or control (namely participation, representation, access, choice, information and redress). Data were collected via semistructured interviews with service users (n = 30) soon after their return home from hospital. A number of differences were revealed between health care and social care in relation to users being provided with opportunities to assume an active role and in being willing and able to assume an active role. These differences were manifest in elderly service users accessing services, seeking information, exercising choice and acting independently of service providers. It appeared paradoxical that contact points were more easily defined with regard to health care yet users were more likely to exercise choice and act independently in securing social care. It is suggested that social care needs and appropriate service delivery are more easily recognised than making the link between perceived health care needs and appropriate services. In addition, it appeared that informal and private providers are more widely available and accessible for social care. If comprehensive continuing care is to be provided, incorporating both health and social care elements, greater uniformity appears to be required across the welfare sector. Lessons for social care provision from the delivery of health care suggest the clear definition of contact points to facilitate service use. Making health care more accessible, however, does not appear to be easily attainable due to the monopoly provision of health care and the lack of direct purchasing power by potential users.