Science.gov

Sample records for monopolies

  1. Consistent Comparisons between Monopoly and Perfect Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeath, Susan E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Identifies inconsistencies in treatments of the perfect competition, monopoly welfare comparison in textbooks for economics instruction. Argues for explanation of how experiments are being conducted and explicit identification of all underlying assumptions. Suggests straightforward analysis of the social cost of monopoly based on a comparison…

  2. Vertical Integration, Monopoly, and the First Amendment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    This paper addresses the relationship between the First Amendment, monopoly of transmission media, and vertical integration of transmission and content provision. A survey of some of the incentives a profit-maximizing transmission monopolist may have with respect to content is followed by a discussion of how vertical integration affects those…

  3. DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY: A Simulation Game on Poverty and Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansoms, An; Geenen, Sara

    2012-01-01

    DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY is a simulation game that allows players to experience how power relations influence the agency of different socioeconomic groups, and how this can induce poverty and inequality. Players alter the original rules of the MONOPOLY board game so that they more accurately reflect social stratification and inequalities in the…

  4. Route Monopolie and Optimal Nonlinear Pricing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tournut, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    To cope with air traffic growth and congested airports, two solutions are apparent on the supply side: 1) use larger aircraft in the hub and spoke system; or 2) develop new routes through secondary airports. An enlarged route system through secondary airports may increase the proportion of route monopolies in the air transport market.The monopoly optimal non linear pricing policy is well known in the case of one dimension (one instrument, one characteristic) but not in the case of several dimensions. This paper explores the robustness of the one dimensional screening model with respect to increasing the number of instruments and the number of characteristics. The objective of this paper is then to link and fill the gap in both literatures. One of the merits of the screening model has been to show that a great varieD" of economic questions (non linear pricing, product line choice, auction design, income taxation, regulation...) could be handled within the same framework.VCe study a case of non linear pricing (2 instruments (2 routes on which the airline pro_ddes customers with services), 2 characteristics (demand of services on these routes) and two values per characteristic (low and high demand of services on these routes)) and we show that none of the conclusions of the one dimensional analysis remain valid. In particular, upward incentive compatibility constraint may be binding at the optimum. As a consequence, they may be distortion at the top of the distribution. In addition to this, we show that the optimal solution often requires a kind of form of bundling, we explain explicitly distortions and show that it is sometimes optimal for the monopolist to only produce one good (instead of two) or to exclude some buyers from the market. Actually, this means that the monopolist cannot fully apply his monopoly power and is better off selling both goods independently.We then define all the possible solutions in the case of a quadratic cost function for a uniform

  5. Collapse of Monopoly Privilege: From College to University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Soen, Dan; Iram, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the erosion of the monopoly by universities of the higher education system in Israel. The hegemony of the universities, the major player in the academic field, has been shattered by the development of the regional colleges that unsettled the preconceptions concerning the higher education system in Israel, including the…

  6. Natural Monopoly in Principles Textbooks: A Pedagogical Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulbrich, Holley H.

    1991-01-01

    Argues that the textbook presentation of the concept of natural monopolies has changed little since the early 1960s. Suggests that most economics textbooks have ignored the issue of economies of scale versus fixed costs. Notes that educators often discuss economies of scale without explaining why certain industries enjoy greater scale economies…

  7. Using "Monopoly" to Introduce Concepts of Race and Ethnic Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waren, Warren

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I suggest a technique which uses the familiar Parker Brother's game "Monopoly" to introduce core concepts of race and ethnic relations. I offer anecdotes from my classes where an abbreviated version of the game is used as an analog to highlight the sociological concepts of direct institutional discrimination, the legacy of…

  8. The Rules of the Game: Experiencing Global Capitalism on a Monopoly Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Benjamin J.; Cohen, Alexander H.

    2016-01-01

    Sociologists have long recognized the utility of modified forms of Monopoly as tools for teaching about social stratification within the United States. We present an adaptation of Monopoly to help instructors teach students how capitalism plays out in a liberalizing world economy. By taking on roles as CEOs of global companies based in different…

  9. An Accident of History: Breaking the District Monopoly on Public School Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Traditional public school districts hold a monopoly over the financing and ownership of public education facilities. With rare exceptions, public charter schools have no legal claim to these buildings. This monopoly is an accident of history. It would never have developed had there been substantial numbers of other public schools, not supervised…

  10. Technology Adoption and Welfare under a Monopoly: An Illustration of Microeconomic Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessy, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Uses a graphical analysis to determine the importance of quantity for consumer welfare and to examine the manner in which private and social welfare diverge in a monopoly. Criticizes the opinion that technology adoption by a monopoly always assumes a uniformly downward shift in the marginal cost curve. (MJP)

  11. Marshfield Clinic, physician networks, and the exercise of monopoly power.

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, W

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Antitrust enforcement can improve the performance of large, vertically integrated physician-hospital organizations (PHOs). Objective: To examine the recent court decisions in the Blue Cross and Blue Shield United of Wisconsin v. Marshfield Clinic antitrust case to understand better the benefits and costs of vertical integration in healthcare. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: Vertical integration in the Marshfield Clinic may have had the benefits of reducing transactions and uncertainty costs while improving the coordination between ambulatory and inpatient visits, but at the cost of Marshfield Clinic's monopolizing of physician services and foreclosing of HMO entry in northwest Wisconsin. The denial of hospital staff privileges to non-Marshfield Clinic physicians combined with certificate-of-need regulations impeded physician entry and solidified Marshfield Clinic's monopoly position. Enforcement efforts of recent antitrust guidelines by the U.S. Department of Justice and the Federal Trade Commission will need to address carefully the benefits and costs of vertically integrated systems. PMID:9865229

  12. Traditional medicine, professional monopoly and structural interests: a Korean case.

    PubMed

    Cho, H J

    2000-01-01

    Oriental medicine (OM) is a widely practised traditional healing modality across the East Asian countries. The typical operating mode of traditional medicine in the region is characterized by a relatively stable, though asymmetrical, relationship with the biomedically-oriented health care system with a varying degree of collaboration. The present paper looks at the major conflict between OM and pharmacy in South Korea in the 1990s. Most of the discussions over the so-called 'Hanyak Punjaeng'(OM vs pharmacy dispute) have so far been carried out in the perspective of interest/pressure group politics. But this paper presents an alternative analysis about the genesis, process and resolution of the dispute. It is argued that Robert Alford's 'structural interests' model, rather than the conventional pluralist perspective, offers the most plausible explanation of the conflict. Three key findings are ascertained. First, a sectional, inter-professional conflict can erupt into a major social cataclysm beyond the confines of health care services, an unlikely incident of a 'low politics' case becoming a 'high politics' affair. Second, a bipartite professional monopoly based on the principle of professional credentialism came to be established. Third, the dispute brought about a notable change in the structural power distribution between the corporate rationalizer and professional monopolist. PMID:10622699

  13. Everything I know about business I learned from monopoly.

    PubMed

    Orbanes, Phil

    2002-03-01

    How do game designers approach their work? Perhaps in the same way that managers should. Here, the author, an expert in board-game design and the world's foremost authority on Monopoly, translates six tenets of game design into management principles. Three tenets focus on giving players the right level of structure. First, design simple and unambiguous rules: That also holds true in business; people engage most when responsibilities, objectives, and evaluation criteria are clear. Second, avoid frustrating the casual player. Just as not every game player aspires to be a grand master, not every employee wants to think like an executive. Third, establish a rhythm so that players know intuitively whether they are at the beginning, middle, or end of the game. Managers can also engineer such shifts of momentum and motivation for workers. Three more principles focus on providing entertainment. The most important is to tune into what's happening off the board. For many people, the real joy of a great game--or a great job--comes from the larger social experience surrounding it. Another key is to offer chances to come from behind. Even struggling employees want to believe, "The odds may be stacked against me, but just one great stroke and I'm right back in it." Finally, managers, like game designers, should provide outlets for latent talents. Games themselves can be useful in the workplace. For instance, an afternoon of game playing builds relationships and increases an organization's social capital. And simulation games can sharpen employees' business judgment. Managers may come to appreciate that games succeed depending on how well designed they are--and that many design challenges have their equivalents in the art of management.

  14. Creating Knowledge: A Monopoly? Participatory Research in Development. Participatory Research Network Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Budd, Ed.; And Others

    This book, consisting of 13 papers, deals with the theory, practice, and reactions to participatory research in the area of social research for development. Included in the volume are the following papers: "Breaking the Monopoly of Knowledge: Research Methods, Participation, and Development," by Budd Hall; "Creating Alternative Research Methods:…

  15. The Welfare Effects of Monopoly versus Competition: A Clarification of Textbook Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamdin, Douglas J.

    1992-01-01

    Addresses effects of monopoly and competition on societal welfare. Discusses inadequacy of economics textbooks. Concludes that most texts fail to explain the shape of monopolists' underlying cost curves. Argues that the monopolist's long run marginal cost curve cannot be obtained by horizontal summation of the long run marginal cost curves of…

  16. Revision Cycles for Economics Textbooks: An Application of the Theory of Durable Goods Monopoly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xin

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, I study economics textbook markets as an example of durable goods monopoly. Textbooks are protected by copyrights, and from a student's point of view, different textbooks are not good substitutes because students wish to use the textbook adopted by their instructors. Therefore sellers have market power. Textbooks can be…

  17. Potential consequences from possible changes to Nordic retail alcohol monopolies resulting from European Union membership.

    PubMed

    Holder, H D; Giesbrecht, N; Horverak, O; Nordlund, S; Norström, T; Olsson, O; Osterberg, E; Skog, O J

    1995-12-01

    This paper projects the consequences of modifying or eliminating the current national alcohol retail monopolies in Sweden, Norway and Finland as a possible result of those countries' membership in the European Union (EU). First, the authors project absolute alcohol consumption in each country based on different possible changes in alcohol price and availability. Then they predict the future levels of alcohol-related problems likely to result from increased per capita alcohol consumption (Sweden and Norway only). All of the scenarios examined in this paper are expected to lead to increases in per capita alcohol consumption. The smallest increase in consumption would result from a partial elimination of the current monopoly and a modest reduction in alcohol prices. In that case, projected per capita consumption in Sweden for inhabitants 15 years and older would rise from 6.3 to 9.3 litres; in Norway, from 4.7 to 6.7 litres; and in Finland, from 8.4 to 11.1 litres. The greatest projected increase in consumption would result from a complete elimination of the state monopolies such that all beer, wine and spirits were sold in food shops, grocery stores and gasoline stations, along with a substantial drop in alcohol prices as a result of private competition within each country and increased cross-border alcohol purchases. That scenario would result in projected per capita consumption of 12.7 litres in Sweden, 11.1 litres in Norway and 13.7 litres in Finland. The authors project that a 1-litre increase in consumption would result in a 9.5% increase in total alcohol-related mortality in Sweden and a 9.7% increase in Norway. Further, alcohol-related assaults would increase by 9% in Sweden and 9.6% in Norway. A 5-litre increase in consumption would result in a 62% increase in alcohol-related mortality in Sweden and a 60% increase in Norway, and a 57% increase in alcohol-involved assaults in both countries.

  18. Potential consequences from possible changes to Nordic retail alcohol monopolies resulting from European Union membership.

    PubMed

    Holder, H D; Giesbrecht, N; Horverak, O; Nordlund, S; Norström, T; Olsson, O; Osterberg, E; Skog, O J

    1995-12-01

    This paper projects the consequences of modifying or eliminating the current national alcohol retail monopolies in Sweden, Norway and Finland as a possible result of those countries' membership in the European Union (EU). First, the authors project absolute alcohol consumption in each country based on different possible changes in alcohol price and availability. Then they predict the future levels of alcohol-related problems likely to result from increased per capita alcohol consumption (Sweden and Norway only). All of the scenarios examined in this paper are expected to lead to increases in per capita alcohol consumption. The smallest increase in consumption would result from a partial elimination of the current monopoly and a modest reduction in alcohol prices. In that case, projected per capita consumption in Sweden for inhabitants 15 years and older would rise from 6.3 to 9.3 litres; in Norway, from 4.7 to 6.7 litres; and in Finland, from 8.4 to 11.1 litres. The greatest projected increase in consumption would result from a complete elimination of the state monopolies such that all beer, wine and spirits were sold in food shops, grocery stores and gasoline stations, along with a substantial drop in alcohol prices as a result of private competition within each country and increased cross-border alcohol purchases. That scenario would result in projected per capita consumption of 12.7 litres in Sweden, 11.1 litres in Norway and 13.7 litres in Finland. The authors project that a 1-litre increase in consumption would result in a 9.5% increase in total alcohol-related mortality in Sweden and a 9.7% increase in Norway. Further, alcohol-related assaults would increase by 9% in Sweden and 9.6% in Norway. A 5-litre increase in consumption would result in a 62% increase in alcohol-related mortality in Sweden and a 60% increase in Norway, and a 57% increase in alcohol-involved assaults in both countries. PMID:8555952

  19. Using the Monopoly[R] Board Game as an In-Class Economic Simulation in the Introductory Financial Accounting Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, Stephen B.; Ehlen, Craig R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses using the Monopoly[R] board game as an economic simulation exercise to reinforce an understanding of how the accounting cycle impacts financial statements used to evaluate management performance. This approach uses the rules and strategies of a familiar board game to create a simulation of business and economic realities,…

  20. From professional monopoly to corporate oligopoly:the clinical laboratory industry in transition.

    PubMed

    Bailey, R M

    1977-02-01

    Until the mid-1960s the nonhospital clinical laboratory industry was dominated by pathologists. The ethics of medical professionalism protected the pathologists' market from price competition and from any serious threat from new entrants into the market. Immune from the competitive pressures of the marketplace, pathologists exerted monopoly control in local markets. That power was eroded by laboratories operated by technologists and bioanalysts and was finally overcome by the entry of large corporations into the industry. The market power of the largest corporate laboratories is now growing to a point where competition may again be thwarted. The professional ethics of pathologists allowed high prices, but there was little push toward higher volume. The commercial ethics of the corporate entrants brought lower prices but resulted in strong pressure for greater test quantities. In either case, the power wielded by the dominant producer would seem to go against the consumer's interests.

  1. Understanding the role and value of marketing communications by a regulated, monopoly firm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzek, Frederick J.

    2003-10-01

    Expenditures on advertising and other marketing efforts have been found to generate profits for the firm and savings for the consumer in competitive industries. However, prior research has not addressed the use of these practices by price-regulated monopolies such as electric utility companies. Surprisingly, many utilities spend substanstially on advertising and sales despite having a captive customer base. Moreover, a unique feature within electric utilities is that much utility advertising involves demarketing, with a view to lessen strain on the system and to help avoid situations demanding high-cost energy. In this context, I ask the following questions: Is spending on marketing by monopoly firms justified? Does the consumer pay a higher price for electricity because of marketing or do shareholders pay for it? Do such activities provide a net welfare benefit? Finally, do measurable differences in marketing expenditures exist along the continuum from heavily regulated to nearly competitive markets? I analyze data from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and from the National Regulatory Research Institute. I find a significant positive relationship between advertising and net income, supporting the notion that advertising expenditures benefit the utility firm. I do not, however, find a significant relationship between marketing effort and consumer price, suggesting that consumers may not be bearing the expense of such practices. I also investigate the manner in which advertising improves net earnings. Speciifically, I find that advertising is negatively related to indirect expenses in this industry. Surprisingly, advertising is also negatively related to electricity consumption. Overall, the results suggest that advertising creates value by reducing indirect expenses without raising prices. These finds thus support the premise of a net welfare gain. Finally, I also find that progress toward deregulation and the level of advertising expenditures are

  2. Balancing public health, trade and intellectual monopoly privileges: recent Australian IP legislation and the TPPA.

    PubMed

    Vines, Tim; Crow, Kim; Faunce, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Over the past year, several significant reforms to Australia's intellectual property regime have been proposed and passed by Parliament. The Intellectual Property Laws Amendment (Raising the Bar) Act 2012 (Cth) made various improvements to Australian patent law, including an improved threshold for patentability, greater clarity around "usefulness" requirements, and the introduction of an experimental use exemption from infringement. Another Bill, the Intellectual Property Laws Amendment Bill 2012 (Cth), currently out for public consultation, would implement a 2003 decision of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) General Council and the 2005 Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health (Doha Declaration). If enacted, this Bill would facilitate equitable access to essential medicines by amending the compulsory licensing regime set out in the Patents Act 1990 (Cth). The underlying intention of this Bill--meeting public health goals outlined in the 2005 Doha Declaration--stands in juxtaposition to proposed reforms to intellectual property standards pursuant to the Trans-Pacific Partnership Trade and Investment Agreement (TPPA) that Australia is involved in. Although at a preliminary stage, leaked drafts of relevant intellectual property provisions in the TPPA suggest a privileging of patent monopoly privileges over public health goals. This column weighs the sentiments of the proposed Bill against those of the proposed provisions in the TPPA. PMID:23431847

  3. Costs to Australian taxpayers of pharmaceutical monopolies and proposals to extend them in the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Deborah H; Moir, Hazel; Lopert, Ruth

    2015-04-01

    Intellectual property (IP) protections proposed by the United States for the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) have sparked widespread alarm about the potential negative impact on access to affordable medicines. The most recently leaked draft of the IP chapter shows some shifts in the US position, presumably in response to ongoing resistance from other countries. While some problematic provisions identified in earlier drafts have been removed or mitigated, major concerns remain unresolved. Three of the greatest concerns for Australia in the recent draft include provisions that would further entrench secondary patenting and evergreening, lock in extensions to patent terms and extend monopoly rights over clinical trial data for certain medicines. Data from the 2013 Pharmaceutical Patents Review, and from various submissions made to it, show that pharmaceutical monopoly protections already cost Australian taxpayers hundreds of millions of dollars each year. Provisions still being considered for the TPPA would further entrench and extend costly monopolies, with serious implications for the budget bottom line and the sustainability of the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. PMID:25832153

  4. Costs to Australian taxpayers of pharmaceutical monopolies and proposals to extend them in the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Deborah H; Moir, Hazel; Lopert, Ruth

    2015-04-01

    Intellectual property (IP) protections proposed by the United States for the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) have sparked widespread alarm about the potential negative impact on access to affordable medicines. The most recently leaked draft of the IP chapter shows some shifts in the US position, presumably in response to ongoing resistance from other countries. While some problematic provisions identified in earlier drafts have been removed or mitigated, major concerns remain unresolved. Three of the greatest concerns for Australia in the recent draft include provisions that would further entrench secondary patenting and evergreening, lock in extensions to patent terms and extend monopoly rights over clinical trial data for certain medicines. Data from the 2013 Pharmaceutical Patents Review, and from various submissions made to it, show that pharmaceutical monopoly protections already cost Australian taxpayers hundreds of millions of dollars each year. Provisions still being considered for the TPPA would further entrench and extend costly monopolies, with serious implications for the budget bottom line and the sustainability of the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme.

  5. Strategies for price reduction of HIV medicines under a monopoly situation in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Hasenclever, Lia; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze Government strategies for reducing prices of antiretroviral medicines for HIV in Brazil. METHODS Analysis of Ministry of Health purchases of antiretroviral medicines, from 2005 to 2013. Expenditures and costs of the treatment per year were analyzed and compared to international prices of atazanavir. Price reductions were estimated based on the terms of a voluntary license of patent rights and technology transfer in the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement for atazanavir. RESULTS Atazanavir, a patented medicine, represented a significant share of the expenditures on antiretrovirals purchased from the private sector. Prices in Brazil were higher than international references, and no evidence was found of a relationship between purchase volume and price paid by the Ministry of Health. Concerning the latest strategy to reduce prices, involving local production of the 200 mg capsule, the price reduction was greater than the estimated reduction. As for the 300 mg capsule, the amounts paid in the first two years after the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement were close to the estimated values. Prices in nominal values for both dosage forms remained virtually constant between 2011 (the signature of the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement), 2012 and 2013 (after the establishment of the Partnership). CONCLUSIONS Price reduction of medicines is complex in limited-competition environments. The use of a Partnership for Productive Development Agreement as a strategy to increase the capacity of local production and to reduce prices raises issues regarding its effectiveness in reducing prices and to overcome patent barriers. Investments in research and development that can stimulate technological accumulation should be considered by the Government to strengthen its bargaining power to negotiate medicines prices under a monopoly situation. PMID:26759969

  6. Service quality and asymmetric information in the regulation of monopolies: The Chilean electricity distribution industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Oscar Alfredo

    This study is an enquiry about the role that service quality, asymmetric information, scope of regulation and regulator's preferences play in the regulation of monopolies, with an application to the case of the Chilean electricity distribution industry. In Chapter 1, I present the problem of regulating a monopolist and introduce the special conditions that the electricity sector has. Later I discuss the main characteristics of the electricity system that operates in Chile. The literature on regulation is reviewed in Chapter 2. A special emphasis is given to the problems of quality and information, and the lack of its proper joint treatment. In Chapter 3, I develop four theoretical models of regulation that explicitly consider the regulation of price and quality versus price-only regulation, and a symmetric versus asymmetric information structure where only the regulator knows its true costs. In these models, I also consider the effect of a regulator that may have a preference between consumers and the regulated monopolistic firms. I conclude that with symmetric information and independent of the scope of regulation, having a regulator that prefers consumers or producers does not affect the efficiency of the outcome. I also show that the regulator's inability to set quality, thus regulating only price, leads to an inefficient outcome, away from the first best solution that can be achieved by regulating both price and quality, even with asymmetric information, as long as the regulator does not have a "biased" preference for consumers or the monopolistic producers. If the regulator has a "bias," then the equilibrium will be inefficient with asymmetric information. But the effect on equilibrium price and quality depends on the direction of the effect of quality on the marginal effect of price in demand. More importantly, no closed-form solution can be derived unless drastic simplifications are made. To further investigate the outcome of the models, I use numerical

  7. "They'd Better Hope for a Lot of Free Parking:" Using "Monopoly" to Teach about Classical Liberalism, Marginalization, and Restorative Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerringer, Christopher Michael

    2013-01-01

    The activity outlined here, using the "Monopoly" board game, is designed to illustrate the way that classical liberalism fails to provide justice for societies marked by historical and ongoing oppression. Taking up roles in a game that simulates some of the conditions of late capitalism can help students begin to understand how economic…

  8. Technology, Media Monopolies and Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beadle, Mary E.

    Neil Postman describes the United States in the late 20th century as the only "technopoly" (a society that has totally surrendered to technology, information, and science) in the world, and he asks educators to resist technopoly by changing curriculum. In his book "Technopoly," Postman proposes that cultures may be classified into 3 types:…

  9. Obesity genetics: a monopoly game of genes.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Joselyn; Aguirre, Miguel; Velasco, Manuel; Bermúdez, Valmore

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a complex disease that affects all ethnic populations worldwide. The etiology of this disease is based on the interaction of genetic factors, environment and lifestyles indicators. Genetic contribution to the epidemic has gained attention from 2 sources: monogenic syndromes that display severe obesity, and the polygenic model of common obesity. Single mutations can render a syndrome with severe obesity resulting from alteration in central o peripheral appetite control mechanisms. The interaction of several polymorphisms and epigenetic modifications constitute the basic plot for common obesity, molecular ingredients that should not confuse the investigator-they make this riddle even harder to decipher.

  10. Diversity, dilemmas, and monopolies of niche construction.

    PubMed

    Krakauer, David C; Page, Karen M; Erwin, Douglas H

    2009-01-01

    The behavior of organisms can contribute to the transformation of their environments. When organismal impacts on the environment feed back to influence organismal density, viability, fertility, or persistence, the environment can be construed as an extension of the organism. This process of fitness-enhancing environmental transformation has been called niche construction. We focus on the relationship of niche construction with species or strain diversity and on the variability of investment in niche construction versus reproduction. We demonstrate a fundamental dilemma of niche construction, whereby the construction of a shared resource leads to a tragedy of the commons, with competition tending to eliminate niche construction strategies. The ability to monopolize a niche, either through spatial proximity or through preferential exploitation, can stabilize niche construction and promote ecological coexistence among polymorphic constructors. We consider both sympatric and allopatric origins of niche construction. Under a variety of different construction mechanisms, variability in the investment in niche construction versus reproduction suggests reproductive altruism but is fully consistent with selfish behavior. We discuss the implications of niche-construction theory on the evolution of life cycles and development, behavioral plasticity, the division of labor, and long-term macroevolutionary trends.

  11. USA Stratified Monopoly: A Simulation Game about Social Class Stratification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Edith M.

    2008-01-01

    Effectively teaching college students about social class stratification is a difficult challenge. Explanations for this difficulty tend to focus on the students who often react with resistance, paralysis, or rage. Sociologists have been using games and simulations as alternative methods for several decades to teach about these sensitive subjects.…

  12. Let's Stop Playing Monopoly with the Child Welfare Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Robin Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Although the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is a specific focus of Stoesz's article, a more expansive and thought-provoking critique is made of the NCWWI within the context of a purported overreliance and dependency on the Children's Bureau, concerns regarding the quality of social work education, and the development of a…

  13. Teaching Psychology/Religion in the Seventies: Monopoly or Cooperation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vande Kemp, Hendrika

    1976-01-01

    This survey of colleges was designed to gather descriptive data concerning the nature of psychology of religion courses and to determine if contemporary liberal arts curricula and courses in academic psychology reflect the spiritual trends of the 1970s. The findings suggest that few psychology departments offer religious courses. (Author/JR)

  14. Breaking Radical Monopolies: Towards Political Economy of Digital Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaden, Tere; Suoranta, Juha

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue for a leap from a "weak" digital literacy (skills of interpretation and strategies of reception) to strong digital literacy (authorship and autonomous skills and capacities). Strong digital literacy implies politico-structural analysis of the information societies to come. Given the current forms of economic…

  15. From Monopoly to Competition: The Changing Library Network Scene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Gennaro, Richard

    1979-01-01

    Our task in the next decade is to keep the bibliographic utilities and regional networks or service centers lean and flexible and responsive to the needs and desires of the libraries that created and support them. It will not be easy, but healthy competition may help. (Author)

  16. Everything I know about business I learned from monopoly.

    PubMed

    Orbanes, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Is there an analogy for business to the beginning, middle, and end rhythm in games? Phil Orbanes thinks so. A good manager might engineer these types of shifts over the course of a critical project--and be prepared for different moods and levels of motivation from people. In this article, one of the world's foremost board game designers reflects on what makes people want to compete--and win.

  17. Privilege Monopoly: An Opportunity to Engage in Diversity Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Rachel Alicia; Jackson, Noell Ross

    2011-01-01

    Today, more than ever before, college educators are being asked to address diversity issues and to teach in ways that foster self-reflexivity and social consciousness. As the world becomes increasingly diverse at the intersections of age, gender, sexual orientation, class, region, religion, race, ethnicity, ability, and nationality, students need…

  18. Balancing intellectual monopoly privileges and the need for essential medicines

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Greg; Sorenson, Corinna; Faunce, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This issue of Globalization and Health presents a paper by Kerry and Lee that considers the TRIPS agreement and the recent policy debate regarding the protection of public health interest, particularly as they pertain to the Doha Declaration. In this editorial, we consider the debate, the conclusions thereof, and identify five questions that should be considered by key stakeholders in ongoing discussions. PMID:17565684

  19. Disrupting the Education Monopoly: A Conversation with Reed Hastings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    This article features an interview with Netflix CEO, Reed Hastings. In this interview, Hastings relates that he told the "Wall Street Journal" in 2008 that he started looking at education--trying to figure out why our education is lagging when our technology is increasing at great rates and there's great innovation in so many other…

  20. Learning monopolies with delayed feedback on price expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Akio; Szidarovszky, Ferenc

    2015-11-01

    We call the intercept of the price function with the vertical axis the maximum price and the slope of the price function the marginal price. In this paper it is assumed that a monopolistic firm has full information about the marginal price and its own cost function but is uncertain on the maximum price. However, by repeated interaction with the market, the obtained price observations give a basis for an adaptive learning process of the maximum price. It is also assumed that the price observations have fixed delays, so the learning process can be described by a delayed differential equation. In the cases of one or two delays, the asymptotic behavior of the resulting dynamic process is examined, stability conditions are derived. Three main results are demonstrated in the two delay learning processes. First, it is possible to stabilize the equilibrium which is unstable in the one delay model. Second, complex dynamics involving chaos, which is impossible in the one delay model, can emerge. Third, alternations of stability and instability (i.e., stability switches) occur repeatedly.

  1. Beyond the Mouse Monopoly: Studying the Male Germ Line in Domestic Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    González, Raquel; Dobrinski, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the foundation of spermatogenesis and essential to maintain the continuous production of spermatozoa after the onset of puberty in the male. The study of the male germ line is important for understanding the process of spermatogenesis, unravelling mechanisms of stemness maintenance, cell differentiation, and cell-to-cell interactions. The transplantation of SSCs can contribute to the preservation of the genome of valuable individuals in assisted reproduction programs. In addition to the importance of SSCs for male fertility, their study has recently stimulated interest in the generation of genetically modified animals because manipulations of the male germ line at the SSC stage will be maintained in the long term and transmitted to the offspring. Studies performed mainly in the mouse model have laid the groundwork for facilitating advancements in the field of male germ line biology, but more progress is needed in nonrodent species in order to translate the technology to the agricultural and biomedical fields. The lack of reliable markers for isolating germ cells from testicular somatic cells and the lack of knowledge of the requirements for germ cell maintenance have precluded their long-term maintenance in domestic animals. Nevertheless, some progress has been made. In this review, we will focus on the state of the art in the isolation, characterization, culture, and manipulation of SSCs and the use of germ cell transplantation in domestic animals. PMID:25991701

  2. Monopoly Money: The Effect of Payment Coupling and Form on Spending Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghubir, Priya; Srivastava, Joydeep

    2008-01-01

    This article examines consumer spending as a function of payment mode both when the modes differ in terms of payment coupling (association between purchase decision and actual parting of money) and physical form as well as when the modes differ only in terms of form. Study 1 demonstrates that consumers are willing to spend more when a credit card…

  3. Markets vs. Monopolies in Education: A Global Review of the Evidence. Policy Analysis. No. 620

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    Would large-scale, free-market reforms improve educational outcomes for American children? That question cannot be answered by looking at domestic evidence alone. Though innumerable "school choice" programs have been implemented around the United States, none has created a truly free and competitive education marketplace. Existing programs are too…

  4. Biosurveillance as a Terrain of Innovation in an Era of Monopoly Finance Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Situated in a context of higher education policy, this article examines the institutionalization of "innovation" as a national neoliberal economic strategy. As neoliberal capital has become increasingly financialized, this innovation strategy has come to be woven through biotechnological innovation as an economic strategy, and oriented…

  5. Creating Knowledge: Breaking the Monopoly; Research Methods, Participation, and Development. Working Paper No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Budd L.

    Combining community participation in decision making with methods of social investigation, participatory research focuses on involvement of the subjects of the research in the research process. Adult educators are exploring this research method which, unlike quantitative research, serves the needs of individuals and not those of policy makers who…

  6. From monopoly to markets: Milestones along the road. Occasional paper {number_sign}25

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, W.P.

    1998-08-01

    This report analyzes developments in the electric utility industry using the tools of transaction cost economics. During the last thirty years, the tools of economic analysis have been substantially expanded--notably, Oliver Williamson, building on the insights of Coase and others, has made significant contributions through his work in developing the new institutional economics, of which transaction cost economics reasoning plays a major role. Because of the relevance of the new institutional economics to public utilities and public utility regulation, the theoretical insights of the new institutional economics have been applied to many aspects of public utility industry structure, governance, and regulation. The contributions of Joskow and Schmalensee are most notable, but many other economists have made theoretical and empirical contributions. These insights are very applicable to the issues that policymakers and regulators are likely to address as electric restructuring progresses. The goal of this report is to synthesize the theoretical work on the new institutional economics with the recent developments in the electric utility industry--most notably, the rapid trend toward competition in electric generation, both in the US and abroad. Transaction-cost-economics reasoning provides an analytical structure for understanding the implications of asset specificity, asymmetric and imperfect information, reputation effects, ex ante contracting costs, ex post contract maladaption issues, and issues that arise because contracts are incomplete. The insights that transaction cost economics can provide are very timely to the debates currently going on with respect to electric restructuring issues.

  7. The Public School Monopoly: A Critical Analysis of Education and the State in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhart, Robert B., Ed.

    The following 14 essays consider relationships among schooling, education, and the state; alternatives to existing systems; and educating minorities and the disadvantaged: (1) "Growing Up Blighted: Reflections on the 'Secret Power' in the American Experience" (C. Burgess); (2) "The Evolving Political Structure of American Schooling" (J. Spring);…

  8. Monopoly vs. Markets: The Empirical Evidence on Private Schools & School Choice. School Choice Issues in Depth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Greg

    2007-01-01

    This study presents new findings comparing public and private high schools using top-quality data from the Education Longitudinal Study (ELS), a long-term research project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education. The ELS project tracks individual data on thousands of students, allowing researchers to conduct much better analyses than are…

  9. Restricted Monopolies or Regulated Competitors? The Case of the Bell Operating Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Robert; Brotman, Stuart N.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the theory and rationale for prohibiting the possible monopolistic practices of the divested Bell Operating Companies. Suggests some reasons that the latest Justice Department recommendations are moving from restriction to regulation. (JD)

  10. Beyond the Ingelfinger Rule: the intellectual property ethics after the end of biomedical journals' monopoly.

    PubMed

    Germenis, A E

    1999-01-01

    According to the so-called Ingelfinger Rule (IR), biomedical journals do not accept for publication papers which have already been publicized elsewhere. This rule was subjected to fierce criticism which was mainly based on the fact that authors transfer the intellectual rights of their work to the journals. With the emergence of the Internet, the scientific community has a golden opportunity to re-evaluate the IR concept. Scientists no longer have to depend on the debatable benefits (i.e. publicity and review) stemming from journal publications; rather they can be free to explore novel communication opportunities and, subsequently, to tackle the emerging intellectual property issues. This approach should take into account the tight bond between applied research and the world economy, the need for teamwork instead of individual effort for effective scientific research, and the added value of journal publications. Based on such an analysis, it would appear that the inherent characteristics of the Internet promote a re-assessment of the intellectual property theory on three levels: the cognitive (the way in which knowledge is made up from its building blocks), the morphological (the use of hypertext) and finally the sociological (the formation of virtual scientific communities). It is concluded that publishing on the Internet necessitates a different approach to the question of intellectual property based on the primal values of science. This can be achieved only if the scientific community embraces and nourishes the academic nature of the Internet as well as laying down the rules to control the dissemination of ideas without the intervention of non-scientific third parties.

  11. Modernising the regulation of medical migration: moving from national monopolies to international markets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional top-down national regulation of internationally mobile doctors and nurses is fast being rendered obsolete by the speed of globalisation and digitisation. Here we propose a bottom-up system in which responsibility for hiring and accrediting overseas staff begins to be shared by medical employers, managers, and insurers. Discussion In this model, professional Boards would retain authority for disciplinary proceedings in response to local complaints, but would lose their present power of veto over foreign practitioners recruited by employers who have independently evaluated and approved such candidates' ability. Evaluations of this kind could be facilitated by globally accessible National Registers of professional work and conduct. A decentralised system of this kind could also dispense with time-consuming national oversight of continuing professional education and license revalidation, which tasks could be replaced over time by tighter institutional audit supported by stronger powers to terminate underperforming employees. Summary Market forces based on the reputation (and, hence, financial and political viability) of employers and institutions could continue to ensure patient safety in the future, while at the same time improving both national system efficiency and international professional mobility. PMID:23039098

  12. Relationships Between Minimum Alcohol Pricing and Crime During the Partial Privatization of a Canadian Government Alcohol Monopoly

    PubMed Central

    Stockwell, Tim; Zhao, Jinhui; Marzell, Miesha; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Macdonald, Scott; Ponicki, William R.; Martin, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate the independent effects of increases in minimum alcohol prices and densities of private liquor stores on crime outcomes in British Columbia, Canada, during a partial privatization of off-premise liquor sales. Method: A time-series cross-sectional panel study was conducted using mixed model regression analysis to explore associations between minimum alcohol prices, densities of liquor outlets, and crime outcomes across 89 local health areas of British Columbia between 2002 and 2010. Archival data on minimum alcohol prices, per capita alcohol outlet densities, and ecological demographic characteristics were related to measures of crimes against persons, alcohol-related traffic violations, and non–alcohol-related traffic violations. Analyses were adjusted for temporal and regional autocorrelation. Results: A 10% increase in provincial minimum alcohol prices was associated with an 18.81% (95% CI: ±17.99%, p < .05) reduction in alcohol-related traffic violations, a 9.17% (95% CI: ±5.95%, p < .01) reduction in crimes against persons, and a 9.39% (95% CI: ±3.80%, p < .001) reduction in total rates of crime outcomes examined. There was no significant association between minimum alcohol prices and non–alcohol-related traffic violations (p > .05). Densities of private liquor stores were not significantly associated with alcohol-involved traffic violations or crimes against persons, though they were with non–alcohol-related traffic violations. Conclusions: Reductions in crime events associated with minimum-alcohol-price changes were more substantial and specific to alcohol-related events than the countervailing increases in densities of private liquor stores. The findings lend further support to the application of minimum alcohol prices for public health and safety objectives. PMID:26098040

  13. Transnational Tobacco Company Influence on Tax Policy During Privatization of a State Monopoly: British American Tobacco and Uzbekistan

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Anna; Collin, Jeff; Townsend, Joy

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. The International Monetary Fund encourages privatization of state-owned tobacco industries. Privatization tends to lower cigarette prices, which encourages consumption. This could be countered with effective tax policies. We explored how investment by British American Tobacco (BAT) influenced tax policy in Uzbekistan during privatization there. Methods. We obtained internal documents from BAT and analyzed them using a hermeneutic process to create a chronology of events. Results. BAT thoroughly redesigned the tobacco taxation system in Uzbekistan. It secured (1) a reduction of approximately 50% in the excise tax on cigarettes, (2) an excise system to benefit its brands and disadvantage those of its competitors (particularly Philip Morris), and (3) a tax stamp system from which it hoped to be exempted, because this would likely facilitate its established practice of cigarette smuggling and further its competitive advantage.. Conclusions. Privatization can endanger effective tobacco excise policies. The International Monetary Fund should review its approach to privatization and differentiate the privatization of an industry whose product kills from privatization of other industries. PMID:17138915

  14. Medicines, monopolies and mortars: the chemical laboratory and pharmaceutical trade at the Society of Apothecaries in the eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Anna

    2006-11-01

    In 1672, a laboratory was founded by the Society of Apothecaries at its premises in Blackfriars, London, to manufacture chemical medicines. By exploring the society's motivations for constructing a laboratory and its development during the eighteenth century, this paper examines the roles that chemistry played within the activities of the institution. While the chemistry's primary utility was in drug manufacturing for the society's pharmaceutical trade, through its laboratory, the society used chemistry to develop its corporate and educational aims, thus helping to secure its institutional authority in London's medical marketplace.

  15. Statement of Roger B. Andewelt, Deputy Assistant Attorney General, Antitrust Division, before the Subcommittee on Monopolies and Commercial Law Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, concerning H.R. 557, Intellectual Property Licensing Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andewelt, Roger B.

    The recent increased awareness of the importance to our economy of innovation and the development of new technologies has been coupled with the crafting of new legislation to increase the level of intellectual property protection available to innovators. Because one of the key methods of encouraging the efficient use of intellectual property is…

  16. Information Technology and the Marginalisation of Regional Cultures: Rambling Thoughts from the University of Calgary Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pannekoek, Frits

    In the past decade, significant advances in information technologies in the Euro-American world have fostered the creation of information monopolies. The prices imposed by the monopolies, whose products are largely in the English language, have caused academic libraries to focus almost exclusively on international scientific and cultural materials…

  17. Copyright and Distance Education: The Impact of the Technology, Education, and Copyright Harmonization Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Copyright in the United States can be traced back to the U.S. Constitution in 1787. To encourage authorship of creative works, Congress created a limited monopoly in Section 106 of the Copyright Act of 1790. To balance this monopoly, Congress drafted Section 107 which provides public access to creative works through fair use. Revisions were…

  18. 47 CFR 63.10 - Regulatory classification of U.S. international carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cable landing station access and backhaul facilities; inter-city facilities or services; and local... monopoly provider of communications services in a relevant market in a destination country shall... not a monopoly provider of communications services in a relevant market in a destination country...

  19. 47 CFR 63.10 - Regulatory classification of U.S. international carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cable landing station access and backhaul facilities; inter-city facilities or services; and local... monopoly provider of communications services in a relevant market in a destination country shall... not a monopoly provider of communications services in a relevant market in a destination country...

  20. 47 CFR 63.10 - Regulatory classification of U.S. international carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cable landing station access and backhaul facilities; inter-city facilities or services; and local... monopoly provider of communications services in a relevant market in a destination country shall... not a monopoly provider of communications services in a relevant market in a destination country...

  1. 47 CFR 63.10 - Regulatory classification of U.S. international carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cable landing station access and backhaul facilities; inter-city facilities or services; and local... monopoly provider of communications services in a relevant market in a destination country shall... not a monopoly provider of communications services in a relevant market in a destination country...

  2. 47 CFR 63.10 - Regulatory classification of U.S. international carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cable landing station access and backhaul facilities; inter-city facilities or services; and local... monopoly provider of communications services in a relevant market in a destination country shall... not a monopoly provider of communications services in a relevant market in a destination country...

  3. Economic Theory and Management Games II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zernik, Wolfgang

    1988-01-01

    Description of management games continues a previous article's discussion of how mathematical modeling and microeconomic concepts can be used by players. Highlights include an initial condition simulating a profit-maximizing monopoly; simulating the transition from monopoly to oligopoly; and how mathematical properties of the model affect final…

  4. Cournot and Bertrand Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Steven R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a series of matrix choice games that illustrate for students the concepts of monopoly, shared monopoly, Cournot, Bertrand, and Stackelberg behavior given either perfect complements or perfect substitutes. Suggests that the use of the games also allows for student dialogue about international trade and price wars. (JEH)

  5. Demand Economics: What Happens Before the Swap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, H. Doyle

    Although this book is about how things work, it is also about flaws in the U.S. economic system. It is difficult to realize that every economic activity gravitates toward monopoly or rebellion against monopoly. This is the subject of the book, which is the result of 50 years of actual experience, informed observations, and trained readings. The…

  6. Health Insurance as a Two-Part Pricing Contract *

    PubMed Central

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Sood, Neeraj

    2013-01-01

    Monopolies appear throughout health care. We show that health insurance operates like a conventional two-part pricing contract that allows monopolists to extract profits without inefficiently constraining quantity. When insurers are free to offer a range of insurance contracts to different consumer types, health insurance markets perfectly eliminate deadweight losses from upstream health care monopolies. Frictions limiting the sorting of different consumer types into different insurance contracts restore some of these upstream monopoly losses, which manifest as higher rates of uninsurance, rather than as restrictions in quantity utilized by insured consumers. Empirical analysis of pharmaceutical patent expiration supports the prediction that heavily insured markets experience little or no efficiency loss under monopoly, while less insured markets exhibit behavior more consistent with the standard theory of monopoly. PMID:23997354

  7. 77 FR 62238 - Alan B. Miller and Universal Health Services; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Orders To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... obtained from the FTC Home Page (for October 5, 2012), on the World Wide Web, at http://www.ftc.gov/os... virtual monopoly in the provision of acute inpatient psychiatric services provided to commercially...

  8. On Seeing Yourself through Another's Eyes: Response to Wagner and Struzynski.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vande Kemp, Hendrika

    1979-01-01

    Rebuts Wagner and Struzynski's critique of her 1976 article "Teaching Psychology/Religion in the Seventies: Monopoly or Cooperation?" concerning the complete integration of psychology and theology through full cooperation. (Author/CK)

  9. Mylan to Offer Generic EpiPen

    MedlinePlus

    ... the costs can mount up. With just one competitor, Mylan has a near monopoly on the device. ... Administration to increase competition by hastening approvals of competitors' products, the AP reported. EpiPens have been marketed ...

  10. Piaget, Marx and the Political Ideology of Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Barry A.

    1978-01-01

    Examines Jean Piaget's developmental theories and evaluates how his psychology of constructivism relates to contemporary behavioral sciences, modern education, and modern monopoly capitalism. Concludes that Piaget's constructivism is inconsistent with capitalist ideology and is widely misunderstood by educators. (DB)

  11. Do health insurers possess monopsony power in the hospital services industry?

    PubMed

    Bates, Laurie J; Santerre, Rexford E

    2008-03-01

    This paper uses metropolitan data to test empirically if health insurers possess monopsony or monopoly-busting power on the buyer-side of the hospital services market. According to theory, monopsony power is indicated by a fall in output, whereas, monopoly-busting power is shown by an increase in output when buyer concentration rises. The empirical results provide evidence that greater health insurer buyer concentration is not associated with monopsony power. Instead, some evidence is found to suggest that higher health insurer concentration translates into increased monopoly-busting power. That is, metropolitan hospitals offer increased services when the buyer-side of the hospitals services market is more highly concentrated. PMID:17638072

  12. Does Intellectual Property Restrict Output? An Analysis of Pharmaceutical Markets.

    PubMed

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2012-02-01

    Standard normative analysis of intellectual property focuses on the balance between incentives for research and the static welfare costs of reduced price-competition from monopoly. However, static welfare loss from patents is not universal. While patents restrict price competition, they may also provide static welfare benefits by improving incentives for marketing, which is a form of non-price competition. We show theoretically how stronger marketing incentives mitigate, and can even offset, the static costs of monopoly pricing. Empirical analysis in the pharmaceutical industry context suggests that, in the short-run, patent expirations reduce consumer welfare as a result of decreased marketing effort. In the long-run, patent expirations do benefit consumers, but by 30% less than would be implied by the reduction in price alone. The social value of monopoly marketing to consumers alone is roughly on par with its costs to firms. PMID:25221349

  13. Does Intellectual Property Restrict Output? An Analysis of Pharmaceutical Markets*

    PubMed Central

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Standard normative analysis of intellectual property focuses on the balance between incentives for research and the static welfare costs of reduced price-competition from monopoly. However, static welfare loss from patents is not universal. While patents restrict price competition, they may also provide static welfare benefits by improving incentives for marketing, which is a form of non-price competition. We show theoretically how stronger marketing incentives mitigate, and can even offset, the static costs of monopoly pricing. Empirical analysis in the pharmaceutical industry context suggests that, in the short-run, patent expirations reduce consumer welfare as a result of decreased marketing effort. In the long-run, patent expirations do benefit consumers, but by 30% less than would be implied by the reduction in price alone. The social value of monopoly marketing to consumers alone is roughly on par with its costs to firms. PMID:25221349

  14. The Mobile Satellite Services Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Samuel

    Mobile satellite (MSAT) technology is the basis for a new component of the telecommunications industry capable of providing services to small inexpensive subscriber terminals located almost any place in the world. The market for MSAT space segment capacity (bandwidth and power) is a natural monopoly that can be logically and technically…

  15. Quelques Facteurs Sociaux Agissant sur la Formation Permanente et l'Education Informelle en Algerie (Social Factors Acting upon Lifelong Learning and Informal Education in Algeria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddab, Mustapha

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes conditions that have led to an increase in private and collective educational initiatives in Algeria, highlighting political and socioeconomic changes since 1988. Indicates that after a long period of a public education monopoly, social factors have led to the development of alternative educational opportunities that are more responsive…

  16. A Pedagogical Note on the Superiority of Price-Cap Regulation to Rate-of-Return Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currier, Kevin M.; Jackson, Brian K.

    2008-01-01

    The two forms of natural monopoly regulation that are typically discussed in intermediate microeconomics textbooks are marginal cost pricing and average cost pricing (rate-of-return regulation). However, within the last 20 years, price-cap regulation has largely replaced rate-of-return regulation because of the former's potential to generate more…

  17. L'education des adultes comme strategie d'implantation de l'education permanente en milieu universitaire: la lecon de la France (Adult Education as Strategy for Implementing Continuing Education in the University Setting: The Lesson of France).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferland, Mario

    1981-01-01

    Lessons learned from the French experience in integrating continuing education into the universities include these: politically and ideologically, adult and continuing education are different and must be treated thus; autonomy is necessary; the university has no monopoly; and marginalization of adult education is a hazard of this approach. (MSE)

  18. Women's Struggle against Tradition in Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Mainus

    1994-01-01

    In rural Bangladesh, women's participation in a literacy program was opposed by Mullahs for several reasons: content encouraged decision making, monopoly of the Qur'anic schools was threatened, Mullahs' leadership and spiritual roles were potentially subverted, and it conflicted with the practice of polygamy. (SK)

  19. Welfare Triangles and Economic Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    Shows how the concepts of consumer's surplus and producer's surplus can be related to basic welfare economics. Provides illustrations of the ways in which these concepts can be applied in introductory economics courses. Examines the social cost of monopoly, the tax burden, free trade, tariffs, and the English Channel Tunnel. (KO)

  20. Opening of Dead Sea Scrolls Archive Underlines Problems That Can Complicate Access to Research Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Ellen K.

    1991-01-01

    The Huntington Library (California) decision to make generally accessible, for the first time, copies of photographs of the Dead Sea Scrolls, previously tightly controlled by a small group of editors, is hailed as breaking a scholarly monopoly over an important intellectual resource, reaffirming the mission of the research library and the…

  1. Communications Satellites: A New Channel for International Communications, A New Source of International Tension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Sig

    Communications satellites could be the subject of bitter and potentially dangerous international controversy. They threaten to upset the comfortable monopoly of internal national communications systems which have enrolled national governments to screen intrusions of unwanted information or ideas. The United Nations Working Committee on Direct…

  2. Simulating Poverty and Inequality Dynamics in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansoms, An; Geenen, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This article considers how the simulation game of DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY provides insight into poverty and inequality dynamics in a development context. It first discusses how the game is rooted in theoretical and conceptual frameworks on poverty and inequality. Subsequently, it reflects on selected playing experiences, with special focus on the…

  3. The Changing Dynamics of PhDs and the Future of Higher Educational Development in Asia and the Rest of the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambor, Zoltan Paul

    2009-01-01

    Industries in developing countries could counterbalance the western monopoly on higher education by investing more in research at local universities and consequently improving the local human resources talent pools and the overall world rankings of the local universities. What is more, with the perceived lack of necessity for university faculty…

  4. Rent Seeking: A Textbook Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecorino, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The author argues that the college textbook market provides a clear example of monopoly seeking as described by Tullock (1967, 1980). This behavior is also known as rent seeking. Because this market is important to students, this example of rent seeking will be of particular interest to them. (Contains 24 notes.)

  5. Why Does Private School Enrollment Grow? Evidence from Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narodowski, Mariano; Moschetti, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    During the second half of the twentieth century, a process of privatization took place in the Argentine education system. This paper seeks to explain the growth of private enrollments in Argentina over the last years. Drawing on the concept of quasi-monopoly, we run a random-effects estimation on panel data to analyze the determinants of the…

  6. Nutritionopoly: Let Healthy Choices "Monopolize" Your Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Person, Ashley L.; Colby, Sarah E.; Eubanks, Janie W.

    2011-01-01

    Nutritionopoly, an interactive educational program based on the popular board game, Monopoly, was held at a college university dining hall. Students actively participated in the game while learning important nutrition and health-related information. Feedback showed that it was effective in increasing awareness and knowledge while being fun and…

  7. Economic Issues in the Networking of Library Technical Support Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassler, Scott

    To acquaint library administrators with the economic issues of library networking, this guide of the Western Interstate Library Coordinating Organization (WILCO) outlines possible problems of a national technical services network. Market structures such as monopolies and oligopolies can exist among automated services, brokered services, and in the…

  8. Privacy and the Private Eye in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William E.

    Land remote-sensing satellites are developing as a commercial communications technology after years under a government monopoly. The shift to the private sector and improving quality of the pictures produced have given rise to increased concerns about the potential for violations of privacy rights. Although satellites can currently photograph only…

  9. 75 FR 54150 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... monopoly on organ procurement within its donation service area, CMS must hold OPOs to high standards... by the Secretary or replaced by an OPO that can more effectively procure organs within the donation... collection; Title of Information Collection: Conditions of Coverage for Organ Procurement Organizations...

  10. Supporting Friendly Atmosphere in a Classroom by Technology Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaš, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    Extremely rapid development of information technology and the lack of monopoly in the technological market have resulted in a sudden price reduction of the informatic equipment and gadgets enabling them to be used in all segments of a human life, hence the education as well. In the modern, digital era it is almost impossible to make any…

  11. 43 CFR 3105.4-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation Provisions... will not result in any concentration of control over the production or sale of oil and gas which would be inconsistent with the anti-monopoly provisions of law....

  12. Coase and Hotelling: A Meeting of the Minds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Johannes; Kamien, Morton I.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we tie together the two literatures of durable goods monopoly and exhaustible resource pricing. We show that the intertemporal no-arbitrage condition that arises if the durable good monopolist seller can commit to a price path mirrors the intertemporal no-arbitrage condition if the monopsonist buyer of an exhaustible resource can…

  13. Institutional Authority and Traces of Intergenerational Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufan, Ismail; Kilic, Sultan; Tokgoz, Nimet; Howe, Jurgen; Yaman, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    While society's level of education increases in a modernization process, the knowledge monopoly is taken over by the young. Increasing demand on knowledge attained through organized education leads to increasing power by the young. In the modernizing society of Turkey, this kind of struggle will occur between intellectual groups. Results of this…

  14. Does Agency Competition Improve the Quality of Policy Analysis? Evidence from OMB and CBO Fiscal Projections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, George A.; Douglas, James W.

    2006-01-01

    Public management scholars often claim that agency competition provides an effective institutional check on monopoly authority, and hence, leads to improvement of administrative performance in public sector agencies. This logic was central for creating the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) in 1975 to challenge the policy information provided by…

  15. The Browser War: An Ethical Analysis of the Struggle between Microsoft and the U.S. Department of Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Dennis

    1999-01-01

    Examines two ethical questions regarding the ongoing antitrust battle between the U.S. Department of Justice and Microsoft Corporation using traditional rights-based ethical theory, utilitarianism, and John Rawls's principles of justice. Concludes that it is neither good nor fair for a company having a near-monopoly over a market to sell products…

  16. Degrees of Durability and the New World of Credentialing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The erosion of the college credit monopoly, the devaluation of the degree and the rise of new forms of credentialing suggest a generation of students and higher education institutions somewhat different than the previous generation. Consider a higher learning environment where students create their own academic portfolios and shape their…

  17. Literacy, Ethnolinguistic Diversity and Transitional Bilingual Education in Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matiki, Alfred J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines recent attempts by the Malawi government to introduce local languages into the primary school system and other secondary domains of national life, breaking more than 30 years of Chichewa/English monopoly. In a country where the language policy has essentially established the hegemony of English over indigenous languages, the…

  18. Persuasive and Informative Advertising: A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeborn, Beth A.; Hulbert, Jason P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors outline a pair of classroom activities designed to provide an intuitive foundation to the theoretical introduction of advertising in monopoly markets. The roles of both informative and persuasive advertising are covered. Each student acts as a monopolist and chooses the number of (costly) advertisements and the price. The experiments…

  19. Education, Commerce, and Communications: The Era of Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turoff, Murray

    Consequences of the coming worldwide competition in courses, degree programs, and training, and what it may mean for higher education in the future are discussed. Traditionally, institutions of higher education had some security in what amounted to geographical monopolies corresponding to the physical campus location. The educational consumer is…

  20. The Top of the World Is Flat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, H. Justin

    1977-01-01

    Argues that the disappearance of the traditional family and the emergence of a new feudalism of monopolies and interest groups are the prime reasons for a declining American society. Suggests that political and business leaders will have to lead the search for a restoration of lost values. (Author/JG)

  1. Technological Systems and Momentum Change: American Electric Utilities, Restructuring, and Distributed Generation Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Richard F.; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2006-01-01

    The American electric utility system has been massively transformed during the last three decades. Viewed previously as a staid, secure, and heavily regulated natural monopoly, the system has shed elements of government oversight and now appears to be increasingly susceptible to terrorist attacks and other disruptions. Overturning the conventional…

  2. Inquiring "Tree of Life" at Home: Persian Classic Literature in English Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsaiyan, Seyyeded Fahimeh; Ghajar, Sue-San Ghahremani; Salahimoghaddam, Soheila; Janahmadi, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    The recent decades of English Language Teaching (ELT) appear to be particularly concerned with the marginalisation caused by English linguistic, cultural, and academic colonisation and imperialism. Bold footprints of this academic monopoly can be seen in the wide incorporation of abridged or unabridged British and American literary works in…

  3. The Peace Movement: An Exercise in Micro-Macro Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galtung, Johan

    1998-01-01

    Provides information on the socio-historical background of the peace movement explaining that it stands not only for a challenge to governmental monopoly but also for a general reduction of the instruments of violence. Offers various remarks on the peace movement strategy. (CMK)

  4. Using Students' Favorite Collectibles To Teach Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Cynthia; Meyer, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Provides two economics lessons that each deal with a type of collectible (beanbag toys and Pokemon cards) that interests students. Reinforces such concepts as markets, scarcity, equilibrium, supply and demand, monopolies, and government regulation. Provides a sample quiz and a glossary of terms with examples. (CMK)

  5. Rethinking the European Countryside--Can We Learn from the South?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korf, Benedikt; Oughton, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    A new paradigm of multi-dimensional rural development has emerged which advocates a broader conception of the rurality where the rural is no longer the monopoly of the farmer. This new, broader paradigm needs to be reflected in the "methodology" of social scientific research, both generic and applied. In this paper we are primarily concerned with…

  6. Understanding Market Concentration: Internet-Based Applications from the Banking Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Fred H.; Ward, Sidne Gail

    2011-01-01

    Market structure is an essential topic in economics and finance courses, including bank management as well as many other business school courses, for example marketing, human resources and strategic management. Instructors explain the virtues of perfect competition and the evils of monopoly along with alternative market models. Often conversations…

  7. Statement of the Authors Guild, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Irwin

    This paper is related to a similar statement presented at a Federal Trade Commission Symposium on Media Concentration. It was submitted by the Authors Guild to Senator Edward Kennedy's Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly on May 10, 1978. It is one of several memoranda by the Guild opposing the acquisitions and mergers they feel have given…

  8. Maintaining an Effective Research Environment in Australia. Submission to IP Australia Patents Law Reform Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    It is widely stated that a purpose of patent law is to encourage inventors to innovate and to disclose their inventions for the benefit of society. In return for this disclosure they receive a limited exploitation monopoly defined essentially by commercial pursuits. A necessary implication of the requirement of disclosure is that knowledge…

  9. Ideas, Their Time Has Come: An Argument and a Proposal for Copyrighting Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, David B.

    1982-01-01

    Exclusion of ideas from copyright protection is an antiquated and indefensible notion. Traditional infringement tests do not provide adequate incentive or protection to idea creators. Innovations such as limited duration monopoly or own/sell option are reasonable. (AVAIL: Albany Law School of Union University, 80 New Scotland Ave., Albany, NY…

  10. Game-Based Remedial Instruction in Mastery Learning for Upper-Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chun-Hung; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Chen, Yu-Liang; Liou, Pey-Yan; Chang, Maiga; Wu, Cheng-Hong; Yuan, Shyan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the effectiveness of using computer games for after-school remedial mastery learning. We incorporated instructional materials related to "area of a circle" into the popular Monopoly game to enhance the performance of sixth-grade students learning mathematics. The program requires that students enter the answers to…

  11. A Classroom Demonstration for Teaching Network Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawler, James

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of the concept of network effects is useful at the principles level to facilitate discussions of the determinants of monopoly, the need for standards in high-tech industries, and the general complexity of real-world competition. The author describes a demonstration and an extension that help students understand how consumers make…

  12. State Consolidation through Liberalization of Telecommunications Services in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mody, Bella

    1995-01-01

    Traces changing state-capital relations in telecommunications in India since its beginning as a law-and-order maintenance tool of the British Empire. Focuses on how the state included the interests of particular external and internal forces (foreign capital, domestic capital, the World Bank, workers and managers in the state monopoly, and users)…

  13. From the Adam Smith Institute to the Zapatistas: An Internet Gateway to all Development Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Alex

    2002-01-01

    Examines the World Bank Internet initiative, the Development Gateway. Describes the importance of the Bank as a knowledge bank and the threats posed by the Internet to its near monopoly of development thinking. Argues that the initiative reveals biases and misunderstandings in the World Bank's approach to knowledge for development. (CAJ)

  14. Economics of Scholarly Publishing: Exploring the Causes of Subscription Price Variations of Scholarly Journals in Business Subject-Specific Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lewis G.

    2011-01-01

    This empirical research investigates subscription price variations of scholarly journals in five business subject-specific areas using the semilogarithmic regression model. It has two main purposes. The first is to address the unsettled debate over whether or not and to what extent commercial publishers reap monopoly profits by overcharging…

  15. The Mirror in the Corner; People's Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Peter

    The BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) during its period of monopoly television, the coming of ITV (independent television), the reaction and adaptation of the BBC to a competitive situation, and the effect on British television programing are the subjects of this history of British television. (RH)

  16. A Media Mosaic: Canadian Communications Through a Critical Eye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDayter, Walt, Ed.

    The 19 articles that comprise this book are concerned with the subject of communications and media in Canada. In Part One, "The Media: A Diagnosis," the articles are "The Power and Impotence of the Media" by Russell Elman, "The Myth of Objectivity" by Walt McDayter, "In the Shadow of Giants: Concentration and Monopolies in the Media" by Walt…

  17. Wealth and Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue examines three historical and current problems surrounding wealth and power. The first article looks at King Leopold of Belgium and his exploitation of the Congo. The second article explores John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil monopoly. The final article examines the antitrust case against the Microsoft Corporation. Each…

  18. Wind Power in Australia: Overcoming Technological and Institutional Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Gerard; Bunting, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, Australia had little installed wind capacity, although there had been many investigations into its potential during the preceding decades. Formerly, state-owned monopoly utilities showed only token interest in wind power and could dictate the terms of energy debates. This situation changed in the late 1990s: Installed wind capacity…

  19. Deployment of Recommender Systems: Operational and Strategic Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghoshal, Abhijeet

    2011-01-01

    E-commerce firms are increasingly adopting recommendation systems to effectively target customers with products and services. The first essay examines the impact that improving a recommender system has on firms that deploy such systems. A market with customers heterogeneous in their search costs is considered. We find that in a monopoly, a firm…

  20. The Domestic Telecommunications Carrier Industry. Part I. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Staff Paper Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostow, Eugene V.

    A staff paper submitted to the President's Task Force on Communications Policy recommends that public policy ensure an integrated structure in the telecommunications industry, while fostering limited competition to keep the system responsive to new technology and to consumer demands. The present system of regulated monopoly for companies supplying…

  1. Literacy in Contemporary English Society. Occasional Paper, 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Jane

    For thousands of years the craft of reading and writing was the closely guarded monopoly of small elites. Only relatively recently has literacy become available to most people in developed nations. Historical surveys of literacy have used a wide range of definitions of the skills involved, one of the more important of which views reading as a…

  2. Restructuring the electric industry: Will competition help or hurt consumers?

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-17

    Competition is coming to one of the last remaining government-regulated monopolies: The electric power industry. Seven states have adopted policies within the past year that give electric customers the right to choose between competing suppliers. Many other states are considering similar moves, and Congress is being urged to make competition national policy.

  3. Mnemopoly: Board Games and Mnemonics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Lawrence M.

    1996-01-01

    Recommends using mnemonics as an introduction to the study of human memory and cognitive processes. Students generally have some familiarity with mnemonics and the device lends itself to a number of interesting games and experiments. Includes suggested activities using mnemonics and the Monopoly board game. (MJP)

  4. The Law and Its Illicit Desires: Transversing Free Market Claustrophobia and the Zombie Imaginary in "Dredd 3-D"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orpana, Simon

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of biopolitical modernity, states justify both the existence of zombies and their monopoly on coercive violence via an imperative to care for the populations within their purview. But biopolitics' intrinsic link to the rise of a neoliberal model of governance, demonstrated by Foucault (2008), places a contradiction at the heart…

  5. The Crisis of Educational Technology, and the Prospect of Reinventing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albirini, Abdulkafi

    2007-01-01

    With the fading monopoly of the industrial mode of production and the emergence of the "information revolution," modern technology has pervaded almost every aspect of human life. In education, however, information technology has yet to find a place, despite the unceasing attempts to "fit" it into the existing educational system. The paper argues…

  6. Change in the Systems of Public Education in East Central Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szebenyi, Peter

    1992-01-01

    Describes recent educational changes in Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Hungary, from total uniformity under former totalitarian regimes to ideological pluralism, free selection of curriculum and textbooks, elimination of the state monopoly in elementary and secondary education, loosening of the uniform school structure, and reduction of…

  7. Governments and Higher Education--the Legitimacy of Intervention. Papers Presented at the Conference on Higher Education (2nd, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, October 23-24, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Inst. for Studies in Education, Toronto. Higher Education Group.

    The following invited addresses and research papers are provided: "The Question of Legitimacy" (Harry W. Arthurs); "The Historical Perspective" (H. Blair Neatby); "Politics and Its Limits on Government, Intermediaries and Universities" (Lee Southern); "State Control of Degree Granting: The Establishment of a Public Monopoly in Canada" (Michael L.…

  8. "That's Not Fair!": A Simulation Exercise in Social Stratification and Structural Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coghlan, Catherine L.; Huggins, Denise W.

    2004-01-01

    Social stratification may be one of the most difficult topics covered in sociology classes. This article describes an interactive learning exercise, using a modified version of the game Monopoly, intended to stress the structural nature of social inequality and to stimulate student reflection and class discussion on social stratification in the…

  9. Case studies in electric utility competition litigation

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J.A.; Hawks, B.K.

    1994-12-31

    Although electric utilities in the US in many ways operate as highly regulated monopolies, federal and state regulation has not eliminated competition in the electric utility industry. This article describes trends in utility competition litigation as they have evolved in Georgia and other parts of the country.

  10. The Legitimisation of Knowledge: A Work-Based Learning Perspective of APEL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armsby, Pauline; Costley, Carol; Garnett, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Accreditation of Prior Experiential Learning (APEL) is now an established but relatively under used process in higher education (HE). In our review article, we argue that this is because APEL not only challenges the traditional university monopoly of knowledge but also challenges other established processes and social constructions. Work-Based…

  11. How Massive Multiplayer Online Games Incorporate Principles of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Joshua H.; Archambault, Leanna

    2010-01-01

    Games have always been a part of the human experience. Even the earliest of civilizations created games for enjoyment and entertainment. However, the educational value of those games is a relatively recent consideration. Over the previous fifty years, scholars have questioned the potential positive lessons learned from games such as Monopoly[R],…

  12. Regulatory Reform: Low Risk, High Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanenbaum, Morris

    The press of telecommunication technologies and their progeny have undermined the natural monopoly basis for long distance telecommunications and customer premise products, forced open regulatory doors, toppled barriers to market entry, and led to the reshaping of regulatory philosophy as regulators have seen new, wider horizons for the industry.…

  13. Deregulation of the Electric Industry and Its Potential Benefits for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkiss, Jeffrey D.

    1997-01-01

    The electric utility industry is the last bastion of regulated monopolies in the United States. An overview of recent competition in the electric-power industry at both the federal and state levels and how this may affect school districts is offered in this article. The text identifies and evaluates how school districts can obtain cheaper power…

  14. Is That All There Is? Taking Education to New Levels in the Social-Media Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandviwalla, Munir; Schuff, David; Chacko, Manoj; Miller, Laurel

    2013-01-01

    Higher education in the United States faces major challenges: increased competition from non-traditional players, online programs that are eroding regional monopolies, shifting demographics, the perceived irrelevance of some degrees, and the development of low-cost certification alternatives to those degrees. In other industries, information…

  15. Declining Support for Higher-Education Leadership Preparation Programs: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibulka, James G.

    2009-01-01

    University-based leadership preparation programs no longer enjoy a near monopoly on the right to prepare school principals and other administrative leaders, and now compete with a growing number of alternative providers. This article utilizes the new institutionalism literature to analyze this shift. Practitioners and policymakers demanded reforms…

  16. Should We Have Faith in Not-for-Profit Providers of Schooling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Geoff; Davies, Peter; Adnett, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Western governments appear increasingly dissatisfied with the rising costs and apparent static performance of their education systems. This dissatisfaction has been manifested in a critical re-examination of the near-monopoly of publicly provided schooling. Elsewhere in the public sector, privatization and competitive tendering have been…

  17. Oil privatization growing: Peru poised for comeback

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-18

    Economic reform in Peru is transforming the oil and gas sector. Free market rationale is replacing the state monopoly mind-set. Foreign investment in oil, once discouraged by former administrations, is the response to new terms established by current government in its search for capital inflows to boost economic growth.

  18. First-Day Strategies for Millennial Students in Introductory Accounting Courses: It's All Fun and Games until Something Gets Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastilak, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Millennial students often possess characteristics at odds with typical lecture-based approaches to introductory accounting courses. The author introduces an approach for reaching millennial students early in introductory accounting courses in ways that fit millennials' characteristics. This article describes the use of the board game Monopoly[R]…

  19. Game Board Artists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2000-01-01

    Explores children's fascination with creating their own unique games as an art form. Focuses on different games, such as chess, checkers, pogs, and monopoly. States that observing children playing games offers a firsthand lesson in how children create. Discusses what it means to be an art teacher who promotes creative play with games. (CMK)

  20. 12 CFR 711.6 - General exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General exemption. 711.6 Section 711.6 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS MANAGEMENT... interlock would not result in a monopoly or substantial lessening of competition, and would not...

  1. How Reliable Are Michigan High School Economics Textbooks? Sixteen Commonly Used Michigan High School Textbooks Are Graded for Balance, Accuracy, Clarity, and Instruction in the "Economic Way of Thinking." A Mackinac Center Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folsom, Burton; Leef, George; Mateer, Dirk

    This study examined 16 high school economics textbooks commonly used in Michigan. The textbooks were graded for 12 criteria that form the basis for the sound study of economics: (1) the price system and production; (2) competition and monopoly; (3) comparative economic systems; (4) the distribution of income and poverty; (5) the role of…

  2. Access to Student Loans. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    Hearings are presented on the proliferation of interstate guarantee arrangements in the area of student loans, and the effect of such arrangements on student access to loan capital. Topics include: the desirability of establishing territorial monopolies for student loan guarantee agencies, the views of the Higher Education Assistance Foundation…

  3. Professionnalisation ou Deprofessionnalisation: Une Base Conceptuelle pour L'evaluation de La Competence en Psychologie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perron, Jacques; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Elements of professionalization--systematic body of theory, social recognition, monopoly, and degree of organization--are presented and applied to the development of professional psychology in Quebec. The concept of deprofessionalization is introduced as an alternative basis for evaluating competence in professional psychology. (Author)

  4. Some Ways of Helping Underachievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willings, David; Greenwood, Bill

    1990-01-01

    A program of intervention called therapeutic tutoring to help underachievers is described. Intervention centers around students' loci of control, through a process of identifying areas in which students feel empowered and relating academic experiences to these areas. Academic exercises based on Monopoly, cricket, rugby, soap operas, field hockey,…

  5. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journalism Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents summaries of research dealing with (1) news coverage of Africa, (2) diffusion of information about cyanide-laced Tylenol, (3) gender representation in elite newspapers, (4) agreement between reporters and editors in Mississippi, (5) monopoly metropolitan dailies and intercity competition, and (6) the effect of endorsements on the…

  6. Proceedings of the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (73rd, Minneapolis, Minnesota, August 1-4, 1990). Part VIII: Journalism Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The journalism studies section of the proceedings includes the following 12 papers: "Characteristics of Newspaper Journalists' Best Work" (Lori Bergen); "The Disappearing Newspaper Reader" (Robert L. Stevenson); "JOAs and Advertising Rates: A Comparison with Monopoly Markets" (Martha N. Matthews); "Newspaper Identification of Crime Victims:…

  7. Industry Characteristics and Consumer Dissatisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Jagdip

    1991-01-01

    A sample of 1,000 households provided 155 responses regarding dissatisfaction with automobile repair service, 166 for medical care, and 176 for grocery shopping. Analysis supported Hirschman's theory of the impact of "loose monopoly" conditions on consumers' choice of responses to marketplace dissatisfactions. (SK)

  8. The Twentieth Century Fund Annual Report 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twentieth Century Fund, New York, NY.

    Research continued and new studies were launched in four major areas: communications, urban problems, politics, and economic issues. The foci of these studies are described briefly. Projects in communications are examining flows of news, media monopoly, press freedoms under pressure, public affairs broadcasting, press councils, political access to…

  9. Small Business Among Koreans in Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonacich, Edna; And Others

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the character of small business among Koreans in Los Angeles, to examine the means by which Koreans are able to enter small business in an economy which clearly is moving in the opposite direction, and to consider why it is that immigrant small business should flourish within monopoly capitalism. Korean…

  10. Universal(ly Bad) Service: Providing Infrastructure Services to Rural and Poor Urban Consumers. Policy Research Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, George R. G.; Wallsten, Scott J.

    Utility services (telecommunications, power, water, and gas) throughout the world were traditionally provided by large, usually state-owned, monopolies. However, encouraged by technological change, regulatory innovation, and pressure from international organizations, many developing countries are privatizing state-owned companies and introducing…

  11. Patent term extensions: issues, challenges and implications for pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Clark, Lisa; Beadle, Debbie

    2012-09-01

    The standard term of a patent is 20 years from the date of filing. However, the time required for a pharmaceutical product to pass through research and development, and clinical trials to obtain regulatory approval can often be more than 10 years. This effectively shortens the life of the patent leaving the patentee with little or no monopoly over the pharmaceutical product by the time it reaches market. The solution to this loss of patent monopoly in many countries is to provide an extension to compensate for loss of patent term due to obtaining regulatory approval of a product. This article provides a summary of some of the issues, challenges and implications of patent term extensions in various countries.

  12. Ships at a distance: Energy choice and economic challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, P.A.

    1997-12-31

    Several restructurings of Vermont`s electric utilities were attempted earlier. At best, the successes were compromises, whose benefits were a fraction of what might have been achieved. At worst, monopoly power triumphed outright, leaving Vermonters and Vermont economy in thrall to distant energy and financial forces. To understand the interplay between today`s restructuring and the Vermont economy, the author examines those earlier restructuring. They establish that electricity really is different from other industries, not just because it cannot be stored or because the strandable investment is so much larger or the monopoly linkages are so much more extensive. More important is the extent of the electric industry`s place in the national political consciousness and its environmental impact.

  13. Russian national security and foreign policy in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Rumer, E.B.

    1995-11-01

    February 7, 1990, was a day of unprecedented change in the history of the Soviet Union. On that day the Communist Party (CPSU) leadership surrendered its constitutional monopoly on the country`s political life and process by agreeing to amend Article VI of the Soviet Constitution, which had previously guaranteed it that right. As often happened during the perestroyka years, that decision lagged behind the real course of political events in the Soviet Union and represented, as many measures taken by the Soviet leaders, a half step that left both opponents and proponents of reforms dissatisfied. But the importance of that highly symbolic step should not be underestimated. The CPSU, which for nearly three-quarters of the 20th century had enjoyed an absolute constitutional monopoly on ideas, had in effect sanctioned political competition and ideological challenge to its dogma. For the first time in Soviet history, citizens were allowed to form and join political parties other than the CPSU.

  14. British American Tobacco’s failure in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, S

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) considered Turkey an important, potential investment market because of its high consumption rates and domestic commitment to tobacco. This paper outlines how British American Tobacco (BAT) attempted to establish a joint venture with the government monopoly TEKEL, while waiting for privatisation and a private tender. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents from the Guildford Depository and online tobacco document sources. Results BAT failed to establish a market share in Turkey until 2000 despite repeated attempts to form a joint venture with Turkey’s tobacco monopoly, TEKEL, once the market liberalised in the mid 1980s. Conclusions BAT’s failure in the Turkish market was due to a misguided investment strategy focused solely on acquiring TEKEL and is contrasted with Philip Morris success in Turkey despite both TTCs working within Turkey’s unstable and corrupt investing climate. PMID:18845622

  15. Producing, controlling, and stabilizing Pasteur's anthrax vaccine: creating a new industry and a health market.

    PubMed

    Cassier, Maurice

    2008-06-01

    When Pasteur and Chamberland hastily set up their small biological industry to meet the agricultural demand for the anthrax vaccine, their methods for preparation and production had not yet been stabilized. The process of learning how to standardize biological products was accelerated in 1882 when vaccination accidents required the revision of production norms as the first hypotheses on fixity, inalterability, and transportability of vaccines were invalidated and replaced by procedures for continuous monitoring of the calibration of vaccines and the renewal of vaccine strains. Initially, the incompleteness and ongoing development of production standards justified Pasteur's monopoly on the production of the anthrax vaccine under his immediate supervision. Later on, the Pasteur Institute maintained control of these standards in the framework of a commercial monopoly that it established on the veterinary vaccines first sent and then cultivated abroad by the Société de Vulgarisation du Vaccin Charbonneux Pasteur, founded in 1886.

  16. The economics of short-term leasing.

    PubMed

    Flath, D

    1980-04-01

    Short-term leasing is an everyday occurrence. Tax savings cannot account for the ubiquity of leasing by temporary users. Monopoly explanations are inconsistent with concurrent leasing and selling markets for perfect substitutes. Leasing economizes upon the costs of detecting, assuring, and maintaining quality, costs of search, and costs of risk-bearing. This view is based on standard economic reasoning and has numerous specific implications.

  17. ARTIST (Asian regional tobacco industry scientist team): Philip Morris' attempt to exert a scientific and regulatory agenda on Asia

    PubMed Central

    Tong, E; Glantz, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe how the transnational tobacco industry has collaborated with local Asian tobacco monopolies and companies to promote a scientific and regulatory agenda. Methods: Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Results: Transnational tobacco companies began aggressively entering the Asia market in the 1980s, and the current tobacco industry in Asia is a mix of transnational and local monopolies or private companies. Tobacco industry documents demonstrate that, in 1996, Philip Morris led an organisation of scientific representatives from different tobacco companies called the Asian Regional Tobacco Industry Science Team (ARTIST), whose membership grew to include monopolies from Korea, China, Thailand, and Taiwan and a company from Indonesia. ARTIST was initially a vehicle for PM's strategies against anticipated calls for global smoke-free areas from a World Health Organization secondhand smoke study. ARTIST evolved through 2001 into a forum to present scientific and regulatory issues faced primarily by Philip Morris and other transnational tobacco companies. Philip Morris' goal for the organisation became to reach the external scientific and public health community and regulators in Asia. Conclusion: The Asian tobacco industry has changed from an environment of invasion by transnational tobacco companies to an environment of participation with Philip Morris' initiated activities. With this participation, tobacco control efforts in Asia face new challenges as Philip Morris promotes and integrates its scientific and regulatory agenda into the local Asian tobacco industry. As the local Asian tobacco monopolies and companies can have direct links with their governments, future implementation of effective tobacco control may be at odds with national priorities. PMID:15564214

  18. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Volume 3 of the 2003 Air Transport Reserch Society (ATRS) World Conference includes papers on topics relevant to airline operations worldwide. Specific topics include: European Union and civil aviation regimens;simulating decision making in airline operations, passenger points of view on convenient airports; route monopolies and nonlinear pricing; cooperation among airports in Europe; fleet modernizaiton in Brazil;the effects of deregulation on the growth of air transportation in Europe and the United States.

  19. Michurinist Biology in the People's Republic of China, 1948-1956.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Michurinist biology was introduced to China in 1948; granted a state supported monopoly in 1952; and reduced to parity with western genetics from 1956. The Soviets exported it through the propaganda agencies Sino Soviet Friendship Association (SSFA) and VOKS (Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries). China's Ministry of Agriculture achieved broad public awareness and acceptance of Michurinist biology through a translation, publication, and Soviet guest speakers campaign - all managed by a team of agriculturalists led by Luo Tianyu, a veteran CCP (Communist Party) cadre. The campaign grew exponentially, but did not affect university or Chinese Academy of Sciences biology. Luo Tianyu's failed attempt to force Michurinist biology on a Beijing university triggered its second stage: monopoly status and a ban on "Mendelist-Morganist" biology in teaching, research, and publication. The CCP Central Committee supported this policy believing that Michurinst biology would increase agricultural production for the forthcoming first Five Year Plan; whereas, western genetics had no practical value. Michurinist biology flourished at all levels of education, research, and science literature; Western genetics was completely shut down. This only began to change when the CCP Central Committee became wary of China's dependency on Soviet technical expertise and failure to fully utilize that of China. Change was further promoted by significant attacks on Michurinist biology by Soviet and East German biologists. Soon, these developments informed China's "genetics question," which became a test case for larger questions about the definition of science and the relationship between scientists and the state. Under the guidance of Lu Dingyi's Central Committee Propaganda Department, the CCP eventually decided that, henceforth, science controversies would only be resolved by the science community; and that monopolies or ideological orthodoxies would not be imposed on science. At the same time

  20. Hungary petroleum privatization limited by economic concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-04

    Once the leading economic hope of eastern Europe, a newly doubt-filled, postelection Hungary is deciding on limited oil privatization amid strategic worries and falling production. Those worries contrast with the bright promise seen in Hungary after the collapse of communism. The paper discusses energy supplies; profile of the former petroleum monopoly, Magyar Olaj es Gaz (MOL); the state owned Mineralimpex; strategic supplies; MOL privatization; post-election politics; and MOL's subsidiaries.

  1. Regulation in Sweden and institutional changes

    SciTech Connect

    Goethe, S. )

    1993-10-01

    This article addresses changes to the structure and competitive nature that have recently occurred in Sweden. The changes were introduced to lower the costs to the customer and increase the efficiency of the production and distribution systems, while opening the market to nonutility generators. In principle, the competition will be on the production side, while network costs will be supplied for and through new monopolies.

  2. Sharing the atom bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Chace, J.

    1996-01-01

    Shaken by the devastation of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and fearful that the American atomic monopoly would spark an arms race, Dean Acheson led a push in 1946 to place the bomb-indeed, all atomic energy-under international control. But as the memories of wartime collaboration faded, relations between the superpowers grew increasingly tense, and the confrontational atmosphere undid his proposal. Had Acheson succeeded, the Cold War might not have been. 2 figs.

  3. Photoemission, Correlation and Superconductivity:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrecht, M.; Ariosa, D.; Cloëtta, D.; Pavuna, D.; Perfetti, L.; Grioni, M.; Margaritondo, G.

    We review some of the problems still affecting photoemission as a probe of high-temperature superconductivity, as well as important recent results concerning their solution. We show, in particular, some of the first important results on thin epitaxial films grown by laser ablation, which break the monopoly of cleaved BCSCO in this type of experiments. Such results, obtained on thin LSCO, may have general implications on the theory of high-temperature superconductivity.

  4. Current status of orphan disease drug development.

    PubMed

    Thoene, J G

    1994-04-01

    The Orphan Drug Act has successfully stimulated the production of many orphan products for a number of orphan diseases. The success of its exclusive marketing provision in bringing otherwise unprofitable products to market has attracted the attention of manufacturers who use this provision to gain a monopoly for products with much larger annual sales than were contemplated by the original legislation. Corrective legislation to close this loophole is being prepared for introduction to Congress.

  5. Enduring values of municipal utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Telly, C.S.; Grove, J.F.

    1981-05-01

    The value of municipal utilities is assessed in terms of their social responsibility, the political responsiveness of the owners, and pricing policy - issues which conflict with the traditional concept of corporate responsibility to the shareholder and which reveal a growing demand for accountability. Although municipal utilities are only a small part of the economic, legal, and political setting, they contribute as a small, locally-controlled natural monopoly to the American goals of democracy and self-determination. (DCK)

  6. Mobile satellite services: International co-ordination, co-operation and competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundberg, Olof

    1988-01-01

    In the context of a discussion of international cooperation, coordination and competition regarding mobile satellite services, it is asserted that: there will be more than one civil mobile satellite service in the 1990's; competition between these separate mobile satellite systems is inevitable; no system should enjoy monopoly protection or subsidies; and coordination and cooperation are desirable and necessary, since the available L-band spectrum is in short supply.

  7. IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANTS OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR I. KESAR (SAFFRON)

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, T. N.; Rajasekharan, S.; Badola, D. P.; Shah, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Kesar has been an important ingredient of the recipes of our ancient physicians in the field of Indian systems of medicine and its cultivation is a monopoly of Jammu and Kashmir. This paper presents in detail the historical review, botanical description, vernacular names, distribution in India and world, cultivation, collection, preservation and storage, adulterants, purity tests, chemical composition, action and uses, folk – lore claims and markets with special reference to its medicinal utility. PMID:22557503

  8. Differences in liquor prices between control state-operated and license-state retail outlets in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Albers, Alison B.; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study aims to compare the average price of liquor in the United States between retail alcohol outlets in states that have a monopoly ('control' states) with those that do not ('licence' states). Design A cross-sectional study of brand-specific alcohol prices in the United States. Setting We determined the average prices in February 2012 of 74 brands of liquor among the 13 control states that maintain a monopoly on liquor sales at the retail level and among a sample of 50 license-state liquor stores, using their online-available prices. Measurements We calculated average prices for 74 brands of liquor by control vs. license state. We used a random effects regression model to estimate differences between control and license state prices – overall and by alcoholic beverage type. We also compared prices between the 13 control states. Findings The overall mean price for the 74 brands was $27.79 in the license states (95% confidence interval [CI], $25.26–$30.32) and $29.82 in the control states (95% CI, $26.98–$32.66). Based on the random effects linear regression model, the average liquor price was approximately two dollars lower (6.9% lower) in license states. Conclusions In the United States monopoly of alcohol retail outlets appears to be associated with slightly higher liquor prices. PMID:22934914

  9. Processing of Spontaneous Emotional Responses in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effect of Stimulus Type.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Sarah; Mitchell, Peter; Chapman, Peter; Ropar, Danielle

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has shown that adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulty interpreting others' emotional responses, in order to work out what actually happened to them. It is unclear what underlies this difficulty; important cues may be missed from fast paced dynamic stimuli, or spontaneous emotional responses may be too complex for those with ASD to successfully recognise. To explore these possibilities, 17 adolescents and adults with ASD and 17 neurotypical controls viewed 21 videos and pictures of peoples' emotional responses to gifts (chocolate, a handmade novelty or Monopoly money), then inferred what gift the person received and the emotion expressed by the person while eye movements were measured. Participants with ASD were significantly more accurate at distinguishing who received a chocolate or homemade gift from static (compared to dynamic) stimuli, but significantly less accurate when inferring who received Monopoly money from static (compared to dynamic) stimuli. Both groups made similar emotion attributions to each gift in both conditions (positive for chocolate, feigned positive for homemade and confused for Monopoly money). Participants with ASD only made marginally significantly fewer fixations to the eyes of the face, and face of the person than typical controls in both conditions. Results suggest adolescents and adults with ASD can distinguish subtle emotion cues for certain emotions (genuine from feigned positive) when given sufficient processing time, however, dynamic cues are informative for recognising emotion blends (e.g., smiling in confusion). This indicates difficulties processing complex emotion responses in ASD. PMID:25735657

  10. Responsibly managing the medical school--teaching hospital power relationship.

    PubMed

    Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2005-07-01

    The relationship between medical schools and their teaching hospitals involves a complex and variable mixture of monopoly and monopsony power, which has not been previously been ethically analyzed. As a consequence, there is currently no ethical framework to guide leaders of both institutions in the responsible management of this complex power relationship. The authors define these two forms of power and, using economic concepts, analyze the nature of such power in the medical school-teaching hospital relationship, emphasizing the potential for exploitation. Using concepts from both business ethics and medical ethics, the authors analyze the nature of transparency and co-fiduciary responsibility in this relationship. On the basis of both rational self-interest, drawn from business ethics, and co-fiduciary responsibility, drawn from medical ethics, they argue for the centrality of transparency in the medical school-teaching hospital relationship. Understanding the ethics of monopoly and monopsony power is essential for the responsible management of the complex relationship between medical schools and their teaching hospitals and can assist the leadership of academic health centers in carrying out one of their major responsibilities: to prevent the exploitation of monopoly power and monopsony power in this relationship.

  11. Processing of Spontaneous Emotional Responses in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effect of Stimulus Type

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Peter; Chapman, Peter; Ropar, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulty interpreting others' emotional responses, in order to work out what actually happened to them. It is unclear what underlies this difficulty; important cues may be missed from fast paced dynamic stimuli, or spontaneous emotional responses may be too complex for those with ASD to successfully recognise. To explore these possibilities, 17 adolescents and adults with ASD and 17 neurotypical controls viewed 21 videos and pictures of peoples' emotional responses to gifts (chocolate, a handmade novelty or Monopoly money), then inferred what gift the person received and the emotion expressed by the person while eye movements were measured. Participants with ASD were significantly more accurate at distinguishing who received a chocolate or homemade gift from static (compared to dynamic) stimuli, but significantly less accurate when inferring who received Monopoly money from static (compared to dynamic) stimuli. Both groups made similar emotion attributions to each gift in both conditions (positive for chocolate, feigned positive for homemade and confused for Monopoly money). Participants with ASD only made marginally significantly fewer fixations to the eyes of the face, and face of the person than typical controls in both conditions. Results suggest adolescents and adults with ASD can distinguish subtle emotion cues for certain emotions (genuine from feigned positive) when given sufficient processing time, however, dynamic cues are informative for recognising emotion blends (e.g. smiling in confusion). This indicates difficulties processing complex emotion responses in ASD. Autism Res 2015, 8: 534–544. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25735657

  12. The social costs to the US of monopolization of the world oil market, 1972--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Leiby, P.N.

    1993-03-01

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the US over the period 1972--1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the US and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel's ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972--1991 period to a hypothetical more competitive'' world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader's judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing US oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing theeconomic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy's potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy's inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972--1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US's primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison.

  13. Pushing up smoking incidence: plans for a privatised tobacco industry in Moldova.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Anna B; Radu-Loghin, Cornel; Zatushevski, Irina; McKee, Martin

    Moldova, one of the former Soviet republics and Europe's poorest country, has so far resisted pressure to privatise its tobacco industry. This paper examines the policies pursued by the transnational tobacco companies in Moldova in order to inform the ongoing debate about tobacco industry privatisation. We analysed relevant internal industry documents made public through litigation. The documents suggest that although a competitive tender for the state owned monopoly was later announced, British American Tobacco (BAT) and the German manufacturer Reemtsma each initially sought to secure a closed deal, with BAT accusing Reemtsma of underhand tactics. Imperial Tobacco, which now owns Reemstma, was unable to comment on these allegations as it only acquired Reemstma after the events in question. BAT sought to acquire a monopoly position, bolstered by excise rules developed by the company that would uniquely favour its products. Despite hoping to establish a monopoly, it planned intensive marketing, as if in a competitive market, aiming to target young urban dwellers, particularly opinion leaders. In so doing it predicted that smoking uptake would increase, especially among women. The documents also suggest that BAT was aware of the sensitive nature of its plans to cull the processing workforce and aimed to present "sanitised" information on future employment levels to the Moldovans. The potential for tobacco industry privatisation to undermine tobacco control and promote cigarette consumption is highlighted and is consistent with economic theory. Countries planning tobacco industry privatisation should ensure a transparent and competitive privatisation process, seek to prevent the predicted increase in consumption by implementing effective tobacco control policies and consider the impacts on employment. Multilateral financial organisations promoting tobacco industry privatisation could ensure their loan conditions protect public health by making the implementation of

  14. Pushing up smoking incidence: plans for a privatised tobacco industry in Moldova.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Anna B; Radu-Loghin, Cornel; Zatushevski, Irina; McKee, Martin

    Moldova, one of the former Soviet republics and Europe's poorest country, has so far resisted pressure to privatise its tobacco industry. This paper examines the policies pursued by the transnational tobacco companies in Moldova in order to inform the ongoing debate about tobacco industry privatisation. We analysed relevant internal industry documents made public through litigation. The documents suggest that although a competitive tender for the state owned monopoly was later announced, British American Tobacco (BAT) and the German manufacturer Reemtsma each initially sought to secure a closed deal, with BAT accusing Reemtsma of underhand tactics. Imperial Tobacco, which now owns Reemstma, was unable to comment on these allegations as it only acquired Reemstma after the events in question. BAT sought to acquire a monopoly position, bolstered by excise rules developed by the company that would uniquely favour its products. Despite hoping to establish a monopoly, it planned intensive marketing, as if in a competitive market, aiming to target young urban dwellers, particularly opinion leaders. In so doing it predicted that smoking uptake would increase, especially among women. The documents also suggest that BAT was aware of the sensitive nature of its plans to cull the processing workforce and aimed to present "sanitised" information on future employment levels to the Moldovans. The potential for tobacco industry privatisation to undermine tobacco control and promote cigarette consumption is highlighted and is consistent with economic theory. Countries planning tobacco industry privatisation should ensure a transparent and competitive privatisation process, seek to prevent the predicted increase in consumption by implementing effective tobacco control policies and consider the impacts on employment. Multilateral financial organisations promoting tobacco industry privatisation could ensure their loan conditions protect public health by making the implementation of

  15. [Medicinal plants in France, between pharmacy and herb trade: historical and legislative aspects].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, H

    2015-09-01

    Medicinal plants are registered on the French Pharmacopoeia in its successive editions, the first dated 1818. The edition which is currently in force, the XIth (2012), comprises two plant lists drawn up by a working group of experts belonging to the ANSM: List A (medicinal plants traditionally used [365 plants]) and list B (medicinal plants with the ratio benefit/risk's evaluation negative [123 plants]). Moreover, a list of medicinal plants with non exclusive therapeutic use has been established. This last list is composed of 147 plants which are thus liberated from the pharmaceutical monopoly, in application of decrees n(o) 2008-839 and 2008-841 dated August 22nd 2008. Medicinal plants are a matter, in France, from pharmaceutical monopoly, which means that they can only be dispensed to public in pharmacy, according to article L. 4211-1/5° of the Public Health Code, except however for a certain number of plants "liberated" from this monopoly. Nevertheless, besides officinal pharmacists, herbalists who obtained their diploma as far as 1941, were habilitated to deliver medicinal plants, even non "liberated", on condition that they are not registered on a list of venomous substances nor classified among the stupefacients, according to the article L. 4211-7 of Public Health Code. Concerning plants for herbal teas, which should be differentiated from herbal teas classified among the herbal medicines, they can be delivered in mixtures form, which are considered as officinal preparations, according to the new French Pharmacopoeia monography of August 1st 2013.

  16. The Social Costs to the U.S. of Monopolization of the World Oil Market, 1972-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the U.S. over the period 1972-1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the U.S. and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel's ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972-1991 period to a hypothetical ''more competitive'' world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader's judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing U.S. oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US. oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing the economic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy's potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC Cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy's inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972-1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$ ($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US's primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison.

  17. The social costs to the US of monopolization of the world oil market, 1972--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Leiby, P.N.

    1993-03-01

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the US over the period 1972--1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the US and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel`s ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972--1991 period to a hypothetical ``more competitive`` world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader`s judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing US oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing theeconomic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy`s potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy`s inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972--1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US`s primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison.

  18. Generation expansion planning in a competitive electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Angela Shu-Woan

    This work investigates the application of non-cooperative game theory to generation expansion planning (GEP) in a competitive electricity industry. We identify fundamental ways competition changes the nature of GEP, review different models of oligopoly behavior, and argue that assumptions of the Cournot model are compatible with GEP. Applying Cournot theory of oligopoly behavior, we formulate a GEP model that may characterize expansion in the new competitive regime, particularly in pool-dominated generation supply industries. Our formulation incorporates multiple markets and is patterned after the basic design of the California ISO/PX system. Applying the model, we conduct numerical experiments on a test system, and analyze generation investment and market participation decisions of different candidate expansion units that vary in costs and forced outage rates. Simulations are performed under different scenarios of competition. In particular, we observe higher probabilistic measures of reliability from Cournot expansion compared to the expansion plan of a monopoly with an equivalent minimum reserve margin requirement. We prove several results for a subclass of problems encompassed by our formulation. In particular, we prove that under certain conditions Cournot competition leads to greater total capacity expansion than a situation in which generators collude in a cartel. We also show that industry output after introduction of new technology is no less than monopoly output. So a monopoly may lack sufficient incentive to introduce new technologies. Finally, we discuss the association between capacity payments and the issue of pricing reliability. And we derive a formula for computing ideal capacity payment rates by extending the Value of Service Reliability technique.

  19. Power to the people: working-class demand for household power in 1930s Britain.

    PubMed

    Scott, Peter; Walker, James

    2011-01-01

    The 1930s witnessed an intense struggle between gas and electricity suppliers for the working class market, where the incumbent utility—gas—was also a reasonably efficient (and cheaper) General Purpose Technology for most domestic uses. Local monopolies for each supplier boosted substitution effects between fuel types—as alternative fuels constituted the only local competition. Using newly-rediscovered returns from a major national household expenditure survey, we employ geographically-determined instrumental variables, more commonly used in the industrial organization literature, to show that gas provided a significant competitor, tempering electricity prices, while electricity demand was also responsive to marketing initiatives.

  20. Competition among differentiated health plans under adverse selection.

    PubMed

    Olivella, Pau; Vera-Hernández, Marcos

    2007-03-01

    Market power and adverse selection are prevalent features of the market for pre-paid health plans. However, most of the literature on adverse selection considers extreme cases: either perfect competition or monopoly. If instead health plans are horizontally differentiated, then (i) profits derived from each low risk are higher than from each high risk and (ii) when the profits derived from each high risk are negative (cross-subsidization), a health authority as informed as the health plans can implement a Pareto-improvement. Both local and global deviations from cross-subsidization are addressed within a Nash equilibrium framework. PMID:16971005

  1. Bring real capitalism to electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, B.F.

    1991-01-15

    This article examines the reasons that the electric utilities are price regulated and makes an argument for market-based economics to regulate prices and stimulate revolutionary improvements in the industry. The author examines and refutes the arguments that: The industry is a natural monopoly; Competition leads to unnecessary duplication of facilities; and The industry is so vital to the economy and security of the US that it cannot be trusted to the risks inherent in capitalism, including the success and failure of companies.

  2. The delicate balance: Gazprom and Russia's competing and complementary roles in 21st century international relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, David

    Since the fall of the Soviet Union, many have accused Russia of using its energy monopoly Gazprom as a foreign policy tool in Europe. Those who believe this point to three gas disputes between Russia and Ukraine, which they see as punishment for Ukraine's democratic reforms. However, this argument fails to consider Gazprom's actions in terms of its goals of a corporation. This paper shows, through qualitative research and interviews, that Gazprom has goals independent of Russian foreign policy objectives, and that the company has embraced corporate values at a time when Russia is moving away from western liberal ideals.

  3. Improving vaccine supply and development: who needs what?

    PubMed

    Pauly, Mark V

    2005-01-01

    Payment for vaccines appears, from recent shortages, to have been inadequate. This paper addresses the roles of various stakeholders in influencing current payment and affecting possible increases. It is argued that the recent problems may have stemmed from undervaluation by government payer-negotiators, by private insurers, and ultimately by consumers themselves. On the supply side, the high profits available to other kinds of drug-firm investments may have inhibited allocation of resources to development of new vaccines, and the low profitability and near-monopoly status of current products may have produced insufficient incentives for producers to protect supply against accidents.

  4. Patent law--balancing profit maximization and public access to technology.

    PubMed

    Beckerman-Rodau, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    This article addresses the contemporary issue of balancing the need for patent protection for intellectual property with the resulting restriction of public access to new technology. The author argues that patent law protects private property rights rather than creating monopolies. Additionally, the author discusses how restricting access to patented technology, such as pharmaceuticals, can affect public health problems, such as the HIV/AIDS epidemic in developing nations. The author then concludes with some proposals for making patented technology available to people in developing nations who need access to such technology but who are unable to afford its high costs due to patent protection.

  5. [Generic and biosimilar drug substitution: a panacea?].

    PubMed

    Daly, M J; Guignard, B; Nendaz, M

    2015-10-14

    Drugs are the third largest source of expenditure under Switzerland's compulsory basic health insurance. Generics, the price of which should be at least 30 per cent less than the cost of the original drugs, can potentially allow substantial savings. Their approval requires bioequivalence studies and their use is safe, although some factors may influence patients' and physicians' acceptance. The increased substitution of biosimilar drugs for more expensive biotech drugs should allow further cost savings. In an attempt to extend the monopoly granted by the original drug patent, some pharmaceutical companies implement "evergreening" strategies including small modifications of the original substance for which the clinical benefit is not always demonstrated. PMID:26665661

  6. The markets for technology transfer through licensing

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Wei-Shong.

    1988-01-01

    The demand for certain technology is the derived demand for the final product produced through this technology. This essay studies the international technology transfer through licensing. The profit-maximizing behaviors of both technology recipients and suppliers in the imperfectly competitive markets, monopoly and oligopoly, are incorporated in this essay. The pricing behaviors and market-entrance decisions of multinational enterprises in international markets are examined. This essay shows that the conclusion of some paper in the field of technology transfer may no longer hold when technology must be acquired from incompetitive markets. This essay also provides theoretical models to explain the technology diffusion in international markets.

  7. Construction ahead: What regulators should ask about the information superhighway

    SciTech Connect

    Yaquinto, G.

    1994-06-15

    The emergence of competitive access providers, alternative local transport companies, and cable television companies may present a viable alternative to the traditional monopoly of telephone companies. The participation of electric utilities could expedite implementation of the National Information Infrastructure (NII), for they already have in place communication systems that rival and sometimes exceed systems operated by commercial communications providers. State and local regulations limit the ability of some utilities to provide telecommunications, but pending federal legislation may create regulatory parity among competing companies, primarily by applying common carrier obligations to virtually all telecommunications providers.

  8. USGS Telecommunications Responding to Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hott, James L.

    1985-01-01

    The telecommunications industry is undergoing tremendous change due to the court ordered breakup of the monopoly once enjoyed by American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T). This action has resulted in a plethora of new services and products in all of the communications fields, including traditional voice and data. The new products are making extensive use of computer technology. At the same time, costs of telecommunications services have risen dramatically over the past three years. This article reviews some of the major actions that the Geological Survey has taken in response to these changes.

  9. Patent Pools: Intellectual Property Rights and Competition

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article is to present the relationship between patents and competition in a broad context. PMID:20200607

  10. Public-Private Partnerships in China’s Urban Water Sector

    PubMed Central

    Mol, Arthur P. J.; Fu, Tao

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China’s water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China. PMID:18256780

  11. The energy services revolution: New opportunities for commercial and industrial end-users

    SciTech Connect

    Hoggard, J.

    1997-07-01

    The changing energy services industry presents significant cost-control opportunities for end-users. However, the transition period from a monopoly to a deregulated market will be chaotic and confusing. For end-users, knowing who to turn to is the first step in taking advantage of the energy services revolution. For energy and energy services providers, bridging the gap between what suppliers perceive as key customer needs and what large energy users actually want will be the key in producing mutually successful ventures.

  12. Public or private water management: Experience from different European Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wackerbauer, Johann

    2008-11-01

    Faced with liberalisation proposals and an increasing internationalisation of water resource management, the question arises as to how a change of the regulatory framework would affect the market structure and the supply conditions in this area. While the term "privatisation" relates to the ownership structure of the providers, the term "liberalisation" implies extensive free market ideas. Privatisation involves the outsourcing of public services from the public authorities to a privately organised organisation. Through this, however, nothing needs to change in terms of the market or the intensity of competition for the commodity in question. Within the framework of privatisation it can also occur that the public monopoly is only transferred to a private monopoly. The term "liberalisation" in addition refers to the basic regulatory constraints: liberalisation signifies the cessation of limitations to competition and supply monopolies, and open competition between several suppliers for the consumers. In the EU-15, the only country where the provision of operational services in the water supply has been totally passed to the private sector is the UK, but this is only true for UK and Wales. Another singular case is France, where there is a mix of mainly private operating companies and municipalities which have divided the regional supply areas among themselves. In six other EU-15 countries where some privatisation took place, either the municipalities or (majority) publicly owned companies are controlling water supply. In the remaining seven countries, the water supply is organised by municipality companies only. In an international comparison, there are three basic models for the regulation of natural monopolies in the public water supply: the Anglo-Saxon, the French and the German model. The delimitation between supervisory bodies and operations in the water supply is strongest in the first model and weakest in the last. This has led to three basic types of

  13. The Quest for Market Exclusivity in Biotechnology: Navigating the Patent Minefield

    PubMed Central

    Gersten, Judge David M.

    2005-01-01

    Summary: A patent is a legal device that grants an inventor market exclusivity over a new invention or medication. Market exclusivity can mean tremendous economic rewards for the patent holder because it provides the inventor with a monopoly over the invention for the 20-year patent term. Obtaining a patent and retaining market exclusivity can be a treacherous process, especially in the arena of biotechnology patents. Scientific, legal, and practical considerations must be carefully weighed to best protect an inventor's rights. This article explores some common patenting pitfalls as well as emerging issues that are specific to the area of biotechnology patenting. PMID:16489366

  14. Competition in prescription drug markets: the roles of trademarks, advertising, and generic names.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Roger; Lobo, Félix

    2013-08-01

    We take on two subjects of controversy among economists-advertising and trademarks-in the context of the market for generic drugs. We outline a model in which trademarks for drug names reduce search costs but increase product differentiation. In this particular framework, trademarks may not benefit consumers. In contrast, the generic names of drugs or "International Nonproprietary Names" (INN) have unquestionable benefits in both economic theory and empirical studies. We offer a second model where advertising of a brand-name drug creates recognition for the generic name. The monopoly patent-holder advertises less than in the absence of a competitive spillover. PMID:22815099

  15. [Selection from the Hungarian dental literature. Part III. 1945-2000].

    PubMed

    Kóbor, András; Molnár, László

    2005-08-01

    After 1948 a state monopoly was imposed on textbook publishing. Textbooks were written on ministerial requests in a given chronological order and submitted to a Textbook Committee for censoring. After the launch of the independent dental training in Hungary and special dental curricula was introduced, a number of new textbooks were published in the field of dentistry. Several lecturers provided authoritative textbooks in respective areas of their expertise. In the last decade textbook writing accurately reflects the economic changes and their themes follow the global trends in scientific specialization. PMID:16190510

  16. Jewish Medical Students and Graduates at the Universities of Padua and Leiden: 1617–1740*

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The first Jewish medical graduates at the University of Padua qualified in the fifteenth century. Indeed, Padua was the only medical school in Europe for most of the medieval period where Jewish students could study freely. Though Jewish students came to Padua from many parts of Europe the main geographical sources of its Jewish students were the Venetian lands. However, the virtual Padua monopoly on Jewish medical education came to an end during the seventeenth century as the reputation of the Dutch medical school in Leiden grew. For aspiring medieval Jewish physicians Padua was, for around three hundred years, the first, simplest, and usually the only choice. PMID:23908853

  17. Estimating population ecology models for the WWW market: evidence of competitive oligopolies.

    PubMed

    de Cabo, Ruth Mateos; Gimeno, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes adapting a particle filtering algorithm to model online Spanish real estate and job search market segments based on the Lotka-Volterra competition equations. For this purpose the authors use data on Internet information searches from Google Trends to proxy for market share. Market share evolution estimations are coherent with those observed in Google Trends. The results show evidence of low website incompatibility in the markets analyzed. Competitive oligopolies are most common in such low-competition markets, instead of the monopolies predicted by theoretical ecology models under strong competition conditions.

  18. "IN ALL ITS HIDEOUS AND APPALLING NAKEDNESS AND TRUTH": THE RECEPTION OF SOME ANATOMICAL COLLECTIONS IN GEORGIAN AND VICTORIAN ENGLAND.

    PubMed

    Talairach-Vielmas, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the reception of some anatomical collections in Georgian and Victorian England. Both private medical museums and public anatomical museums reflected the central role played by anatomy in medical knowledge and education in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. However, because they were associated with death and sexuality, anatomical museums were both products of enlightenment science and potentially immoral loci likely to corrupt young and innocent women. But, as this article shows, the reasons behind the hostile receptions of some collections varied throughout the centuries, revealing in so doing the gradual professionalization of the medical field and growing monopoly of medical professionals over medical knowledge.

  19. Whistling in the dark - inside South Africa's power crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, S.

    2008-11-15

    State-owned Eskom has a near-monopoly on power generation in South Africa. Though one might think government control would make the business of managing power supplies easier, the story of Eskom's recent troubles shows that state ownership, in and of itself, is neither the problem nor the solution. More important than ownership structure are policy and planning decisions that take the long view. Eskom's cautionary tale should remind those involved in the power industry anywhere in the world that, to vary a disclosure from the financial sector that too few have paid attention to, past performance is not a guarantee of future success. 8 figs.

  20. Étude géochimique de larvikites de Brouage (France) : mise en évidence de liens commerciaux maritimes en Europe au début des Temps modernes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazareth, Claire E.; Mercier, Jean-Claude C.; Garnaud, Sébastien

    2001-06-01

    This article presents a new example of application of geological tools to historical problem. Indeed, the study of ballast boulders of igneous rocks carried within the holds of commercial ships and recovered in archaeological sites in Brouage (France) now provide powerful constraints on the early trade of salt and wine at European scale. Petrological and geochemical data show direct long distance travel rather than cabotage, commercial links not later than 1570 with northern ports such as Tønsberg, Norway, and an early fall of the Hanseatic League trade monopoly, if it ever existed.

  1. [Generic and biosimilar drug substitution: a panacea?].

    PubMed

    Daly, M J; Guignard, B; Nendaz, M

    2015-10-14

    Drugs are the third largest source of expenditure under Switzerland's compulsory basic health insurance. Generics, the price of which should be at least 30 per cent less than the cost of the original drugs, can potentially allow substantial savings. Their approval requires bioequivalence studies and their use is safe, although some factors may influence patients' and physicians' acceptance. The increased substitution of biosimilar drugs for more expensive biotech drugs should allow further cost savings. In an attempt to extend the monopoly granted by the original drug patent, some pharmaceutical companies implement "evergreening" strategies including small modifications of the original substance for which the clinical benefit is not always demonstrated.

  2. Radio frequency identification applications in hospital environments.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Angela M; Visich, John K; Li, Suhong

    2006-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has recently begun to receive increased interest from practitioners and academicians. This interest is driven by mandates from major retailers such as Wal-Mart, Target and Metro Group, and the United States Department of Defense, in order to increase the efficiency and visibility of material and information flows in the supply chain. However, supply chain managers do not have a monopoly on the deployment of RFID. In this article, the authors discuss the potential benefits, the areas of applications, the implementation challenges, and the corresponding strategies of RFID in hospital environments.

  3. Principles of economics crucial to pharmacy students' understanding of the prescription drug market.

    PubMed

    Rattinger, Gail B; Jain, Rahul; Ju, Jing; Mullins, C Daniel

    2008-06-15

    Many pharmacy schools have increased the amount of economics coursework to which pharmacy students are exposed in their prepharmacy and pharmacy curriculums. Students obtain competencies aimed at understanding the basic concepts of microeconomic theory, such as supply and demand. However, pharmacy students often have trouble applying these principles to real world pharmaceuticals or healthcare markets. Our objective is to make economics more relevant for pharmacy students. Specifically, we detail and provide pharmacy-relevant examples of the effects of monopoly power, barriers to marketplace entry, regulatory environment, third party insurance, information asymmetry and unanticipated changes in the marketplace on the supply and demand for pharmaceuticals and healthcare services.

  4. Involuntary hospitalization of the mentally ill as a moral issue.

    PubMed

    Chodoff, P

    1984-03-01

    Conflict exists between medical model and civil liberties approaches to involuntary hospitalization for mental illness. The amassing and analysis of data will not resolve this conflict because the two sides view the problem from differing moral vantage points. Medical model adherents are influenced chiefly by utilitarian or consequentialist considerations, while the civil libertarians take more of a deontological or absolutist position. Opinions about such issues as hospitalization criteria of dangerousness versus medical necessity and the relative role of rights versus obligations and of autonomy versus paternalism can be seen largely to depend on such underlying value judgments. Neither side has a monopoly on truth or right in the question of involuntary hospitalization.

  5. Principles of Economics Crucial to Pharmacy Students' Understanding of the Prescription Drug Market

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rahul; Ju, Jing; Mullins, C. Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Many pharmacy schools have increased the amount of economics coursework to which pharmacy students are exposed in their prepharmacy and pharmacy curriculums. Students obtain competencies aimed at understanding the basic concepts of microeconomic theory, such as supply and demand. However, pharmacy students often have trouble applying these principles to real world pharmaceuticals or healthcare markets. Our objective is to make economics more relevant for pharmacy students. Specifically, we detail and provide pharmacy-relevant examples of the effects of monopoly power, barriers to marketplace entry, regulatory environment, third party insurance, information asymmetry and unanticipated changes in the marketplace on the supply and demand for pharmaceuticals and healthcare services. PMID:18698403

  6. Application of Core Theory to the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghavan, Sunder

    2003-01-01

    Competition in the airline industry has been fierce since the industry was deregulated in 1978. The proponents of deregulation believed that more competition would improve efficiency and reduce prices and bring overall benefits to the consumer. In this paper, a case is made based on core theory that under certain demand and cost conditions more competition can actually lead to harmful consequences for industries like the airline industry or cause an empty core problem. Practices like monopolies, cartels, price discrimination, which is considered inefficient allocation of resources in many other industries, can actually be beneficial in the case of the airline industry in bringing about an efficient equilibrium.

  7. Condensation in AN Economic Model with Brand Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casillas, L.; Espinosa, F. J.; Huerta-Quintanilla, R.; Rodriguez-Achach, M.

    We present a linear agent based model on brand competition. Each agent belongs to one of the two brands and interacts with its nearest neighbors. In the process the agent can decide to change to the other brand if the move is beneficial. The numerical simulations show that the systems always condenses into a state when all agents belong to a single brand. We study the condensation times for different parameters of the model and the influence of different mechanisms to avoid condensation, like anti monopoly rules and brand fidelity.

  8. Radio frequency identification applications in hospital environments.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Angela M; Visich, John K; Li, Suhong

    2006-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has recently begun to receive increased interest from practitioners and academicians. This interest is driven by mandates from major retailers such as Wal-Mart, Target and Metro Group, and the United States Department of Defense, in order to increase the efficiency and visibility of material and information flows in the supply chain. However, supply chain managers do not have a monopoly on the deployment of RFID. In this article, the authors discuss the potential benefits, the areas of applications, the implementation challenges, and the corresponding strategies of RFID in hospital environments. PMID:16913301

  9. "Such a smoking nation as this I never saw...": smoking, nationalism, and manliness in nineteenth-century Hungary.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco smoking became an important marker of Hungarian national identity during the nineteenth century. this national symbol ultimately had an economic origin: Hungarian tobacco producers resisted the tobacco monopoly of the Habsburg central government, and led an ultimately successful consumer boycott of Austrian products. Tobacco nationalism, however, became a common theme in Hungarian popular culture in its own right, as tobacco use came to symbolize community and fraternity. The use of tobacco was also highly gendered; smoking as a metaphor for membership shows that the Hungarian nation was a gender-exclusive "national brotherhood."

  10. Applying commodity chain analysis to changing modes of alcohol supply in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, D H

    2000-12-01

    Development sociology has used global commodity chains as one way of analyzing the dynamics of power and profit-taking in globalized production networks made up of multiple firms and occurring in multiple national settings. A substantial portion of the alcohol supply in developing countries is now produced through such production networks. Particularly in the beer and spirits trade, a small number of transnational firms control networks of local producers, importers, advertisers and distributors. These networks serve to embed transnational or transnationally backed brands in the local culture, using the tools of market research, product design and marketing to influence local drinking practices. Case materials from Malaysia's beer industry help to illustrate how the transnational firms dominate in those links of the commodity chain in which monopoly or oligopoly control is most likely to be found: the design/recipe and marketing/advertising nodes. Their control of the commodity chains and extraction of monopoly or oligopoly profits from them places substantial resources and influence over drinking settings and practices in foreign hands. The impact of this influence on state efficacy and autonomy in setting alcohol policy is an important subject for future research on the creation and implementation of effective alcohol policies in developing societies.

  11. Consumer preferences for over-the-counter drug retailers in the reregulated Swedish pharmacy market.

    PubMed

    Håkonsen, Helle; Sundell, Karolina Andersson; Martinsson, Johan; Hedenrud, Tove

    2016-03-01

    Following a large regulatory reform in 2009, which ended the state's pharmacy monopoly, non-pharmacy retailers in Sweden today sell certain over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate consumer preferences regarding OTC drug retailers and the reasons for choosing a pharmacy versus non-pharmacy retailer. We conducted a web survey aimed at Swedish adults. Out of a stratified sample of 4058 persons, 2594 agreed to take part (48% women; mean age: 50.3 years). Questions related to OTC drug use, retailer choice and factors affecting the participants' preferences for OTC drug retailers. Logistic regression was conducted to analyse OTC drug use and reasons for retailer choice in relation to sex, age and education. Nine in ten participants reported OTC drug use in the 6 months prior to the study. For their last OTC purchase, 76% had gone to a pharmacy, 20% to a grocery shop and 4% to a convenience store, gas station or online. Geographic proximity, opening hours and product range were reported as the most important factors in retailer choice. Counselling by trained staff was important to 57% of participants. The end of the state's pharmacy monopoly and the increase in number of pharmacies seem to have impacted more on Swedish consumers' purchase behaviours compared with the deregulation of OTC drug sales. PMID:26861972

  12. An efficient electricity market: Using a pool to support real competition

    SciTech Connect

    Garber, D.; Hogan, B.; Ruff, L.

    1994-09-01

    A pool-based market can reduce the costs of electricity by increasing competition in those parts of the electricity system where market forces can be effective and efficient - including direct access - while regulatory attention focuses on the remaining monopoly parts of the industry and on environmental and social goals that competitive markets cannot be expected to handle. This is a position put forward for consideration by San Diego Gas and Electric Co. (SDG&E). Although SDG&E is confident that an efficient, competitive electricity market can be developed, doing so is inherently difficult in practice and even in theory. Indeed, a major justification for treating electricity supply as a monopoly has been the impossibility of coordinating the actions of competitors by using prices to match supply to demand instantaneously at each of hundreds of locations, as required on an interconnected electricity grid. Recent advances in information technology make it practical not to use competitive markets much more extensively in managing an electricity system, but only by carefully integrating market processes into the still-essential central control and coordination functions. A pool-based wholesale electricity market is complex, not because a pool makes it so, but because a pool recognizes and deals with the real complexities of an electricity system.

  13. Electric industry restructuring in Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, J.W.

    1998-07-01

    A law restructuring the electric utility industry in Massachusetts became effective on November 25, 1997. The law will break up the existing utility monopolies into separate generation, distribution and transmission entities, and it will allow non-utility generators access to the retail end user market. The law contains many compromises aimed at protecting consumers, ensuring savings, protecting employees and protecting the environment. While it appears that the legislation recognizes the sanctity of independent power producer contracts with utilities, it attempts to provide both carrots and sticks to the utilities and the IPP generators to encourage renegotiations and buy-down of the contracts. Waste-to-energy contracts are technically exempted from some of the obligations to remediate. Waste-to-energy facilities are classified as renewable energy sources which may have positive effects on the value to waste-to-energy derived power. On November 25, 1997, the law restructuring the electric utility industry in Massachusetts became effective. The law will have two primary effects: (1) break up the existing utility monopolies into separate generation, distribution and transmission entities, and (2) allow non-utility generators access to the retail end-user market.

  14. The Entry of Colombian-Sourced Heroin into the US Market: The Relationship between Competition, Price, and Purity

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Unick, Jay; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    There have been large structural changes in the US heroin market over the past 20 years. Colombian-sourced heroin entered the market in the mid-1990s, followed by a large fall in the price per pure gram and the exit of Asian heroin. By the 2000s, Colombian-sourced heroin had become a monopoly on the east coast and Mexican-sourced heroin a monopoly on the west coast with competition between the two in the middle. We estimate the relationship between these changes in competitive market structure on retail-level heroin price and purity. We find that the entry of Colombian-sourced heroin is associated with less competition and a lower price per pure gram of heroin at the national level. However, there is wide variation in changes in market concentration across the US. Controlling for the national fall in the heroin price, more competition in a region or city is associated with a lower price per pure gram. PMID:24211155

  15. Essays in applied microeconomics: measuring the multilateral allocation of rent and dual tests of market power

    SciTech Connect

    Kerkvliet, J.

    1986-01-01

    The first essay develops a general econometric procedure for the join estimation of rents in a bilateral monopoly/oligopoly market for an intermediate good. This procedure is utilized to measure the rent-gathering success of firms involved in the extraction, transportation, and consumption of Wyoming coal. Statistical results indicate that railroads and coal producers capture 23% of potential rent, while taxing authorities and utilities capture 7 and 47%, respectively. Further statistical tests indicate that rents have shifted towards railroads since their deregulation in 1980 and that railroads and coal producers engage in price discrimination. The second essay estimates the extent to which regulated electric utilities are inefficient in the use of base-load fossil fuels. Utilities are assumed to be shadow profit maximizers acting as if they face shadow prices which may diverge from observed prices because of monopoly power in output markets, monopsony power in input markets, or distortions induced by fuel-adjustment-clause rate making. Supply, demand, and actual profit equations are derived from a behavioral profit function, and the model is estimated for a sample of utilities using Wyoming and Montana coal. Results indicate that this group of utilities uses fuel inefficiently.

  16. The new structure of the gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, J.A.J.

    1998-07-01

    The rapidly increasing availability of natural gas is leading to a significant increase in the importance of the gas industry in Brazil. This new era is already causing major changes in the existing gas distribution companies. Gas distribution concessions are a natural monopoly and the growth in demand for this energy source will require that these growing concessions are regulated. The south/south-east of Brazil is the center of the country's industrial base and the State of Sao Paulo is where most of the manufacturing activity is located. In addition, natural gas from Bolivia is scheduled to arrive in the State of Sao Paulo at the end of 1998. These two facts combined will mean major changes in the operations of manufacturing industry and in the gas supply business. Comparing the experience faced by other countries where a competitive environment in the gas industry has been introduced with privatization programs and the dismantlement of monopolies, this paper attempts to look into the future of the natural gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo in respect to the possible regulation that might be applicable, focusing on the new regulatory framework proposed to the gas industry sector and the perspectives for the introduction of the competition in gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo.

  17. Do recent US Supreme Court rulings on patenting of genes and genetic diagnostics affect the practice of genetic screening and diagnosis in prenatal and reproductive care?

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; McGuire, Amy L.; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B.

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of patents have been awarded that claim human gene sequences and their uses, and some have been challenged in court. In a recent high-profile case, Association for Molecular Pathology, et al. vs. Myriad Genetics, Inc., et al., the United States Supreme Court ruled that genes are natural occurring substances and therefore not patentable through “composition of matter” claims. The consequences of this ruling will extend well beyond ending Myriad's monopoly over BRCA testing, and may affect similar monopolies of other commercial laboratories for tests involving other genes. It could also simplify intellectual property issues surrounding genome-wide clinical sequencing, which can generate results for genes covered by intellectual property. Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for common aneuploidies using cell-free fetal (cff) DNA in maternal blood is currently offered through commercial laboratories and is also the subject of ongoing patent litigation. The recent Supreme Court decision in the Myriad case has already been invoked by a lower district court in NIPT litigation and resulted in invalidation of primary claims in a patent on currently marketed cffDNA-based testing for chromosomal aneuploidies. PMID:24989832

  18. Electronic publishing in radiology: economics and the future.

    PubMed

    Chew, Felix S; Llewellyn, Kevin T; Olsen, Kathryn M

    2004-11-01

    Scholarly publishing is a large market involving thousands of peer-reviewed journals but a decreasing number of publishers. An economic model can be described in which authors give their work to publishers who then sell access to this work. Because each published article is a unique work with few if any substitutes, publishers have some degree of monopoly power and can price their products accordingly. The advent of desktop publishing using personal computers made it possible for individuals to publish material without publishers, an activity that gained momentum when the publishing medium shifted from paper to electronic, and from electronic publishing to the Internet. This activity destabilized the industry, and in the rush to gain market share by providing free content, unsustainable business models were created. Scholarly publishing is now dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that acquired many smaller publishing operations. As these companies have exercised their monopoly power, an open access movement has gained traction in which authors (or their institutions) initially pay for publication, but readers have free and open access to the published articles. This movement is in diametric opposition to the commercial publishing model, and it remains to be seen whether and how well the two can coexist in the future.

  19. Smuggling as the “key to a combined market”: British American Tobacco in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Nakkash, R; Lee, K

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To understand the strategy of British American Tobacco (BAT) and other transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) to gain access to the Lebanese market, which has remained relatively closed under monopoly ownership and political instability. Methods: Analysis of internal industry documents, local language secondary sources and industry publications. Results: TTCs have relied on legal and illegal channels to supply the Lebanese market since at least the 1970s. Available documents suggest smuggling has been an important component of BAT’s market entry strategy, transported in substantial quantities via middlemen for sale in Lebanon and neighbouring countries. TTCs took advantage of weak and unstable governance, resulting in uncertainty over the Regie’s legal status, and continued to supply the contraband trade despite appeals by the government to cease undermining its revenues. Since the end of the civil war in the early 1990s, continued uncertainty about the tobacco monopoly amid political instability has encouraged TTCs to seek a legal presence in the country, while continuing to achieve substantial sales through contraband. Conclusion: Evidence of the complicity of TTCs in cigarette smuggling extends to Lebanon and the Middle East where this trade has especially benefited from weak governance and chronic political instability. The regional nature of TTC strategy supports strong international cooperation under the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to tackle the problem. PMID:18818226

  20. Utility-subsidized energy-efficiency programs

    SciTech Connect

    Joskow, P.L.

    1995-11-01

    In the end, the rise of large utility-subsidized energy-efficiency programs in the US in the late 1980s and early 1990s can best be understood from the perspective of political economy rather than from the perspective of neoclassical market economics. These programs represent a partially successful effort to capture the regulatory process and to use the institution of regulated monopoly to raise funds to pursue certain social ends. In the process, many of the interesting issues raised about the imperfections associated with the markets through which energy-efficiency decisions are made, the nature and causes of these imperfections, and the effectiveness of alternative public policies to ameliorate them have largely been ignored. The ability to use utilities in this way depends critically on the continuation of the institution of regulated monopoly electricity suppliers insulated from competition at the retail level. As competition spreads in the electric power sector, it is creating major conflicts between increasing competitive opportunities for customers vs continued reliance on utilities to pursue energy-efficiency programs that raise prices within the context of highly politicized IRP programs that embody a centralized planning philosophy. As competition intensifies, new ways will have to be found to achieve the energy-efficiency and environmental goals that motivate utility-subsidized energy-efficiency programs.

  1. Do recent US Supreme Court rulings on patenting of genes and genetic diagnostics affect the practice of genetic screening and diagnosis in prenatal and reproductive care?

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; McGuire, Amy L; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B

    2014-10-01

    Thousands of patents have been awarded that claim human gene sequences and their uses, and some have been challenged in court. In a recent high-profile case, Association for Molecular Pathology, et al. v. Myriad Genetics, Inc., et al., the US Supreme Court ruled that genes are natural occurring substances and therefore not patentable through 'composition of matter' claims. The consequences of this ruling will extend well beyond ending Myriad's monopoly over BRCA testing and may affect similar monopolies of other commercial laboratories for tests involving other genes. It could also simplify intellectual property issues surrounding genome-wide clinical sequencing, which can generate results for genes covered by intellectual property. Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for common aneuploidies using cell-free fetal (cff) DNA in maternal blood is currently offered through commercial laboratories and is also the subject of ongoing patent litigation. The recent Supreme Court decision in the Myriad case has already been invoked by a lower district court in NIPT litigation and resulted in invalidation of primary claims in a patent on currently marketed cffDNA-based testing for chromosomal aneuploidies.

  2. The entry of Colombian-sourced heroin into the US market: the relationship between competition, price, and purity.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Unick, George Jay; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    There have been large structural changes in the US heroin market over the past 20 years. Colombian-sourced heroin entered the market in the mid-1990s, followed by a large fall in the price per pure gram and the exit of Asian heroin. By the 2000s, Colombian-sourced heroin had become a monopoly on the east coast and Mexican-sourced heroin a monopoly on the west coast with competition between the two in the middle. We estimate the relationship between these changes in competitive market structure on retail-level heroin price and purity. We find that the entry of Colombian-sourced heroin is associated with less competition and a lower price per pure gram of heroin at the national level. However, there is wide variation in changes in market concentration across the US. Controlling for the national fall in the heroin price, more competition in a region or city is associated with a lower price per pure gram.

  3. Using MatContM in the study of a nonlinear map in economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neirynck, Niels; Al-Hdaibat, Bashir; Govaerts, Willy; Kuznetsov, Yuri A.; Meijer, Hil G. E.

    2016-02-01

    MatContM is a MATLAB interactive toolbox for the numerical study of iterated smooth maps, their Lyapunov exponents, fixed points, and periodic, homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits as well as their stable and unstable invariant manifolds. The bifurcation analysis is based on continuation methods, tracing out solution manifolds of various types of objects while some of the parameters of the map vary. In particular, MatContM computes codimension 1 bifurcation curves of cycles and supports the computation of the normal form coefficients of their codimension two bifurcations, and allows branch switching from codimension 2 points to secondary curves. MatContM builds on an earlier command-line MATLAB package CL MatContM but provides new computational routines and functionalities, as well as a graphical user interface, enabling interactive control of all computations, data handling and archiving. We apply MatContM in our study of the monopoly model of T. Puu with cubic price and quadratic marginal cost functions. Using MatContM, we analyze the fixed points and their stability and we compute branches of solutions of period 5, 10, 13 17. The chaotic and periodic behavior of the monopoly model is further analyzed by computing the largest Lyapunov exponents.

  4. The rise of essentialism and the medicalization of sexuality.

    PubMed

    Stulhofer, A

    2000-01-01

    During the last decade of the 20th century, biological explanations of social behavior have been steadily growing in popularity, slowly replacing previously dominant sociocultural explanations. This trend is clearly visible in the field of sex research. The first part of the paper provides an overview of the theoretical foundations of the two confronted paradigms, evolutionary essentialism and social constructionism. Although the current dominance of essentialism is the outcome of various factors, social and scientific, a major role in its rise to prominence was played by mass media demand for simplistic, pop-scientific statements. In the second part of the paper, three currently propulsive areas in sexology are presented as case studies: (a) etiology of homosexuality, (b) gender identity of intersex children, and (c) re-conceptualization of sexual disorders. Two conclusions are offered: 1) the demise of the 'nurture monopoly' was necessary for the further development of sexology; and 2) the present trend toward a 'nature monopoly' represents a new and serious danger--as shown by the emerging medicalization of sexuality.

  5. Appropriation and commercialization of the Pasteur anthrax vaccine.

    PubMed

    Cassier, Maurice

    2005-12-01

    Whereas Pasteur patented the biotechnological processes that he invented between 1857 and 1873 in the agro-food domain, he did not file any patents on the artificial vaccine preparation processes that he subsequently developed. This absence of patents can probably be explained by the 1844 patent law in France that established the non-patentable status of pharmaceutical preparations and remedies, including those for use in veterinary medicine. Despite the absence of patents, the commercial exploitation of the anthrax vaccine in the 1880s and 1890s led to a technical and commercial monopoly by Pasteur's laboratory as well as the founding of a commercial company to diffuse the vaccine abroad. Pasteur repeatedly refused to transfer his know-how and anthrax vaccine production methods to foreign laboratories, on the grounds that he wished to control the quality of the vaccines produced. Indeed, it was relatively difficult to transfer a method that was not yet perfectly stabilized in the early 1880s. Pasteur also wanted to maintain the monopoly of his commercial company and to increase the profits from vaccine sales so that the Institut Pasteur could be financially independent. The 'Pasteur anthrax vaccine' operating licences are described and analysed in detail in this article.

  6. The political economy of institutional change in the electricity supply industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufin, Carlos Ramon

    2000-09-01

    In the first part, a positive political economy model of the behavior of public enterprise, consumer electoral preferences, electoral platform choices of political parties, and side payments by production factors ("suppliers") to political parties, is used to analyze the political economy of choices among three alternative institutional arrangements: competition among private firms, private monopoly, or public enterprise monopoly. The analysis shows that political choices will be biased in favor of public enterprise, because consumers and suppliers benefit from its behavior. Voter and politician ideologies can temper or exacerbate this logic. Competition for economic rents increases the likelihood of public enterprise. Lastly, a weak judiciary can also make public enterprise likelier, but it creates uncertainty about parties' future actions and therefore it lowers the effectiveness of supplier side payments. In Part 2, the model's conclusions are tested for the electricity supply industry (ESI) across a cross-section of more than 80 countries. Coding is used to compute scores for observed outcomes with regard to reliance on competition versus monopoly and on private versus public ownership. Multiple indicators for the hypothesized explanatory variables are aggregated using factor analysis. OLS regressions show that ideology plays an important role in both competition and property outcomes, and to a lesser extent, distributional conflict, while judicial independence does not in general have a clear effect. In the last part, the validity of the same hypotheses is tested by means of a comparison of the process of restructuring of the ESI in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Chile. The case studies show that ideology plays a major role in shaping the outcomes of the institutional change process; distributional conflict, or the conflict over the economic rents that can be extracted from the electricity industry, also has a significant influence on institutional change

  7. Influence in the Policy Making Process: the Rise of Economics at the Expense of Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2007-12-01

    Scientific influence in resource policy making reached a zenith in the early 1970s during the legislative monopoly in the United States Congress that produced command and control regulatory protection policies. This congressional consensus began in 1879 with legislation producing the U.S. Geological Survey. Other scientific agencies followed. The Congresses of the first half of the 20th century merely strengthened the influence of science in policy outcomes that was present in the earliest congressional debates. What then happened at the turn of the 21st century when representatives in the administration frequently dismissed sound science in their policy deliberations? Policy monopolies arise from agreement in principle, and alternately decline as rival ideas gain hold in policy space. The science policy monopoly began to face competition from economics when cost benefit analysis was introduced into political parlance in 1936, again in the 1950s as a successful blocking tactic by the minority in opposition to western dams, and in 1961 when systems analysis was introduced to the Department of Defense under Robert McNamara. As businessmen replaced farmers as the modal profession of legislators, the language of politics increasingly contained economic terms and concepts. A ternary diagram and a budget simplex have the same shape, but have different theoretical meanings and imply different processes. Policy consensus is not dissimilar to a mineral phase diagram, with boundary conditions marked by election magnitudes and majority parties. The 1980 elections brought economic principles into all aspects of government decision-making, with a particular long-term interest in reducing the size and scope of government. Since then the shift in policy jargon from science to economics has been incremental. With the 1994 Republican legislative majority, scientists, their programs, and the funds required to maintain data collection projects became targets. The Conservative

  8. Milestones in telecommunications in some selected countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivinen, K.

    1994-10-01

    The publication presents an overall picture of the development of telecommunications in the United States, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Finland. Modern telecommunications, as we see it today, is a result of work done and decisions made in several fields such as basic research, component technology, the needs of business and households, general attitudes towards telecommunications during periods of peace and during wars, questions of 'natural monopoly' and market economy. The book acknowledges this fact and thus deals with more than the development of the technology. It follows as strict as possible a chronological order, so that chains of events can be followed up. The book is a compilation of facts found in different sources.

  9. [Study of changes in Chinese herbal medicine distribution channel].

    PubMed

    Lv, Hua; Yang, Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-07-01

    Distribution channel of Chinese herbal medicines has been changing. From Han to Ming Dynasty, Chinese herbal medicine were mainly trafficked to urban by dealers or farmers; From the Ming Dynasty to the foundation of new China, distribution channels are primarily intermediated with township "bazaar" and national distribution center with fixed place and regularly trading hours. In the planned economy period, the state-owned herbal medicine company was the sole medium with monopoly nature. From the mid1980s to the end of last century, planned economy and market economy have been co-existing. Stepping into 21st century, producing area highlighted in the distribution channels. Presence or absence and rise or fall of different types of distribution market went throughout the changing process of distribution channels, which became an important clue. Changes were motivated by economical consideration of channel subject, which originated from commodity characteristic and social environment changes. PMID:25272514

  10. The future of high-level nuclear waste disposal, state sovereignty and the tenth amendment: Nevada v. Watkins

    SciTech Connect

    Swazo, S.

    1996-12-01

    The federal government`s monopoly over America`s nuclear energy production began during World War II with the birth of the Atomic Age. During the next thirty years, nuclear waste inventories increased with minor congressional concern. In the early 1970s, the need for federal legislation to address problems surrounding nuclear waste regulation, along with federal efforts to address these problems, became critical. Previous federal efforts had completely failed to address nuclear waste disposal. In 1982, Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) to deal with issues of nuclear waste management and disposal, and to set an agenda for the development of two national high-level nuclear waste repositories. This article discusses the legal challenge to the NWPA in the Nevada v. Watkins case. This case illustrates the federalism problems faced by the federal government in trying to site the nation`s only high-level nuclear waste repository within a single state.

  11. Europe's Water Framework Directive: discovering hidden benefits.

    PubMed

    Riley, C; Tyson, J M

    2006-01-01

    The water utility companies in the UK are regulated by the economic regulator to ensure that they do not abuse their monopoly powers and operate under high efficiency targets to minimise costs to their customers. The requirements for improved environmental performance are set by the Environment Agency and, once agreed, incorporated in a five-year plan. Prior to the Water Framework Directive the companies had little choice but to meet a rigorous programme to achieve higher discharge standards as end-of-pipe solutions. The catchment-based approach of the WFD, coupled with the requirement to achieve 'good status' for receiving waters and the requirement for stakeholder involvement, has introduced much needed flexibility into the process which is expected to lead to better and more cost effective solutions to water quality problems. PMID:16838712

  12. The pursuit of thinness: a study of Dublin schoolgirls aged 15 y.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Y M; Gibney, M J; Flynn, M A

    1998-05-01

    Despite increasing trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, fatness phobia is common during female adolescence. This study has demonstrated a high level of dissatisfaction with body weight in a sample of Dublin schoolgirls aged 15 y. Of 420 subjects, 59% reported that they wanted to be slimmer and 68% had previously tried to lose weight. Contrary to expectations, overweight girls were not found to hold the monopoly on such dissatisfactions. Normal weight and even underweight girls also expressed a desire to be thinner and reported using unhealthy weight control practices including random avoidance of staple foods, fasting, smoking and purging, in their pursuit of the 'perfect' female figure. Obesity prevention programmes which target adolescent girls 'at risk' of overweight and obesity, must take cognizance of their profound fear of fatness, otherwise the use of harmful slimming strategies may be further increased as teenage girls frantically try to lose weight and to avoid the stigma associated with female fatness.

  13. AJOG against homebirth.

    PubMed

    Cohain, Judy Slome

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, while 99.3% of US women delivered in hospital, 0.7% delivered at home. In response to this slight rise in homebirths, The American Journal of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (AJOG) issued a warning to all doctors and midwives to refuse to attend homebirth under all circumstances. In the absence of respected medical research showing planned homebirth to be unsafe, their recommendation is based on a single maternal death reported in the Daily Mail. American obstetrics is so profit-orientated that it is willing to use misquoted newspaper articles as ammunition and pretend that 277 women don't die in the US annually from cesarean surgery at planned hospital births. AJOG articles are nothing more than publicity stunts created in an effort to maintain a monopoly on birth and not to forfeit even a small amount of business to competitors.

  14. Genetic use restriction technologies: a review.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Luca

    2014-10-01

    Genetic use restriction technologies (GURTs), developed to secure return on investments through protection of plant varieties, are among the most controversial and opposed genetic engineering biotechnologies as they are perceived as a tool to force farmers to depend on multinational corporations' seed monopolies. In this work, the currently proposed strategies are described and compared with some of the principal techniques implemented for preventing transgene flow and/or seed saving, with a simultaneous analysis of the future perspectives of GURTs taking into account potential benefits, possible impacts on farmers and local plant genetic resources (PGR), hypothetical negative environmental issues and ethical concerns related to intellectual property that have led to the ban of this technology.

  15. [The impact of researchers loyal to Big Pharma on the ethics and quality of clinical trials in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Ugalde, Antonio; Homedes, Núria

    2015-03-01

    This article explains the difficulties innovative pharmaceutical firms have in repaying shareholders with attractive dividends. The problem is the result of the expiration of the patents of blockbuster drugs and the difficulties that the firms have in bringing new blockbuster drugs to the market. One of the solutions companies have found has been to accelerate the implementation of clinical trials in order to expedite the commercialization of new drugs. Doing so increases the period in which they can sell drugs at monopoly prices. We therefore discuss how innovative pharmaceutical firms shorten the implementation time of clinical trials in Latin America and the consequences such actions have on the quality of the collected data, the protection of human rights of the subjects of experimentation, and compliance with the ethical principles approved in international declarations. PMID:25853831

  16. Expertise, wisdom and moral philosophers: a response to Gesang.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Christopher

    2012-07-01

    In a recent issue of Bioethics, Bernard Gesang asks whether a moral philosopher possesses greater moral expertise than a non-philosopher, and his answer is a qualified yes, based not so much on his infallible access to the truth, but on the quality of his theoretically-informed moral justifications. I reject Gesang's claim that there is such a thing as moral expertise, although the moral philosopher may well make a valid contribution to the ethics committee as a concerned and educated citizen. I suggest that wisdom is a lot more interesting to examine than moral expertise. Again, however, moral philosophers have no monopoly on wisdom, and the study of philosophy may even impede its cultivation.

  17. South: in the mild southern tradition

    SciTech Connect

    Price, T.L.

    1980-01-01

    Trends in the development of current and future energy resources in the southern states of the U.S. are reviewed. The south has the advantages of a mild climate and abundant sources of natural gas, coal, and hydro power, however, the supply and distribution of energy are primarily controlled by private and federal monopolies. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has a program for funding 100,000 solar domestic hot water systems plus low interest loans for wood heaters, zero interest conservation loans, and financing of passive solar homes. TVA will also construct a large passive solar complex. Other applications of solar technology discussed include installation in a brewery, apartment buildings, abandoned city housing, a duplex, an environmental center, a planned community, and a kiln company.

  18. Historical Review: Problematic Malaria Prophylaxis with Quinine.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2016-08-01

    Quinine, a bitter-tasting, short-acting alkaloid drug extracted from cinchona bark, was the first drug used widely for malaria chemoprophylaxis from the 19th century. Compliance was difficult to enforce even in organized groups such as the military, and its prophylaxis potential was often questioned. Severe adverse events such as blackwater fever occurred rarely, but its relationship to quinine remains uncertain. Quinine prophylaxis was often counterproductive from a public health viewpoint as it left large numbers of persons with suppressed infections producing gametocytes infective for mosquitoes. Quinine was supplied by the first global pharmaceutical cartel which discouraged competition resulting in a near monopoly of cinchona plantations on the island of Java which were closed to Allied use when the Japanese Imperial Army captured Indonesia in 1942. The problems with quinine as a chemoprophylactic drug illustrate the difficulties with medications used for prevention and the acute need for improved compounds.

  19. The dynamics of mergers and acquisitions: ancestry as the seminal determinant.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Eduardo; Cockburn, Stuart P; Jensen, Henrik J; West, Geoffrey B

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the fundamental mechanisms behind the complex landscape of corporate mergers and acquisitions is of crucial importance to economies across the world. Adapting ideas from the fields of complexity and evolutionary dynamics to analyse business ecosystems, we show here that ancestry, i.e. the cumulative sum of historical mergers across all ancestors, is the key characteristic to company mergers and acquisitions. We verify this by comparing an agent-based model to an extensive range of business data, covering the period from the 1830s to the present day and a range of industries and geographies. This seemingly universal mechanism leads to imbalanced business ecosystems, with the emergence of a few very large, but sluggish 'too big to fail' entities, and very small, niche entities, thereby creating a paradigm where a configuration akin to effective oligopoly or monopoly is a likely outcome for free market systems.

  20. [Reopening the 'black box': discontinuity and continuity in the discourse on AIDS in the USA (1987-98)].

    PubMed

    Góis, João Bôsco Hora

    2002-01-01

    The article has the specific goal of examining AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power's ideas and actions. In a broader scope, it tries to discuss issues related to scientific theory and practice concerning AIDS in the United States. The sources used for the present study consist of printed and electronic documents produced by AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP/NY). After a period of great radicalization, ACT UP developed a less of confronting position. Among other factors, this was brought about by the changes that took place in the North American political scenario in the beginning of the 1990's, as well as by internal dissent. The analyzed data allow us to say that the group has been quite successful in relation to the production and the distribution of medicines for the treatment of AIDS. They also indicate partial changes in the competitive game for the monopoly of 'truths' about the disease.

  1. The dynamics of mergers and acquisitions: ancestry as the seminal determinant

    PubMed Central

    Viegas, Eduardo; Cockburn, Stuart P.; Jensen, Henrik J.; West, Geoffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the fundamental mechanisms behind the complex landscape of corporate mergers and acquisitions is of crucial importance to economies across the world. Adapting ideas from the fields of complexity and evolutionary dynamics to analyse business ecosystems, we show here that ancestry, i.e. the cumulative sum of historical mergers across all ancestors, is the key characteristic to company mergers and acquisitions. We verify this by comparing an agent-based model to an extensive range of business data, covering the period from the 1830s to the present day and a range of industries and geographies. This seemingly universal mechanism leads to imbalanced business ecosystems, with the emergence of a few very large, but sluggish ‘too big to fail’ entities, and very small, niche entities, thereby creating a paradigm where a configuration akin to effective oligopoly or monopoly is a likely outcome for free market systems. PMID:25383025

  2. Viewpoints of the equatorial countries toward geostationary orbit. Results of 12 years of controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocca, Aldo Armando

    The historical background of positions taken by States on issues involved in the equitable use of the GSO is expressed in declarations, United Nations discussions and resolutions, ITU conferences and regulations. Different viewpoints on legal issues have been clarified by international lawyers in analytical reports published by the International Institute of Space Law and other international organizations. The dispute has had some positive results: it proved that the international community does not accept monopolies, priorities, privileges or preferential rights for given countries or groups of countries, whether industrialized or developing; it contributed to adjusting the ITU Convention, art. 33, in favour of geographically disadvantaged countries instead of recognizing priorities for equatorial countries; and it established the urgency of delimiting airspace while giving the GSO its own legal regimé. The ITU is administering the GSO and radio spectrum as a Common Heritage of Mankind, a situation that should be expressly recognized.

  3. Reducing Medicare and Medicaid entitlements: a contentious environment ensues.

    PubMed Central

    Weil, T. P.

    1995-01-01

    Since our public officials now lack the courage and political will to raise taxes or to constrain Medicare and Medicaid benefits, we can expect that: 1) the private sector and future generations will pay an increasing share of these entitlements, 2) major cutbacks in Medicare, Medicaid, and health maintenance organization (HMO) reimbursement will result in the aged and poor experiencing decreased access to care and will hasten the current thrust of physicians, hospitals, and insurers forming powerful health networks, 3) these new regional alliances functioning as virtual monopolies will result in the public demanding that state-sponsored health services commissions be established, and 4) the weakest health networks, often in underserved areas, will be fiscally squeezed by inadequate reimbursement, so that by the turn of the century, many of these facilities and HMOs will seek bankruptcy protection as a means of restructuring their long-term debt. PMID:9583964

  4. Simulation of Breach Outflow for Earthfill Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razad, Azwin Zailti Abdul; Sabri Muda, Rahsidi; Mohd Sidek, Lariyah; Azia, Intan Shafilah Abdul; Hanum Mansor, Faezah; Yalit, Ruzaimei

    2013-06-01

    Dams have been built for many reasons such as irrigation, hydropower, flood mitigation, and water supply to support development for the benefit of human. However, the huge amount of water stored behind the dam can seriously pose adverse impacts to the downstream community should it be released due to unwanted dam break event. To minimise the potential loss of lives and property damages, a workable Emergency Response Plan is required to be developed. As part of a responsible dam owner and operator, TNB initiated a study on dam breach modelling for Cameron Highlands Hydroelectric Scheme to simulate the potential dam breach for Jor Dam. Prediction of dam breach parameters using the empirical equations of Froehlich and Macdonal-Langridge-Monopolis formed the basis of the modelling, coupled with MIKE 11 software to obtain the breach outflow due to Probable Maximum Flood (PMF). This paper will therefore discuss the model setup, simulation procedure and comparison of the prediction with existing equations.

  5. Introduction to Intellectual Property: A U.S. Perspective.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Amanda; Stramiello, Michael; Lewis, Stacy; Irving, Tom

    2015-03-27

    This review introduces patents and trade secrets, the two mechanisms that U.S. law provides inventors to protect their inventions. These mechanisms are mutually exclusive: One demands disclosure and the other calls for concealment. Many biotechnology innovators opt for patents, which grant legal, time-limited monopolies to eligible inventions.To obtain a patent in the United States, an invention must be useful to the public and made or altered by the hand of man. It must then clear the hurdles of novelty and nonobviousness. If an invention can do that, obtaining a patent becomes a matter of form: Who qualifies as an inventor? Does the application demonstrate possession, stake a clear claim to the protection sought, and enable "ordinary" colleagues to replicate it? Has the inventor purposely withheld anything? This review addresses each of these hurdles as they apply to biotech inventions.

  6. Policies for regulation of direct broadcast satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setzer, F. O.; Franca, B. A.; Cornell, N. W.

    1980-09-01

    The potential market for satellite to home television broadcasting was examined and recommendations were made to the FCC concerning appropriate regulatory policies for direct broadcast satellites (DBS) for the period following the 1983 Regional Administrative Radio Conference (RARC). It is concluded that many substitutes for DBS will be available in the market for subscription video programming. Either conventional broadcast regulation, which assumes scarcity of channels, nor common carrier regulation, which assumes monopoly power will be appropriate. The report recommends several functions the Commission should perform because of its spectrum allocation responsibilities, but recommends that the Commission make no rules concerning compatibility, signal quality, ownership of receiving equipment, program content, prices, service offerings, or control of channels.

  7. [The impact of researchers loyal to Big Pharma on the ethics and quality of clinical trials in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Ugalde, Antonio; Homedes, Núria

    2015-03-01

    This article explains the difficulties innovative pharmaceutical firms have in repaying shareholders with attractive dividends. The problem is the result of the expiration of the patents of blockbuster drugs and the difficulties that the firms have in bringing new blockbuster drugs to the market. One of the solutions companies have found has been to accelerate the implementation of clinical trials in order to expedite the commercialization of new drugs. Doing so increases the period in which they can sell drugs at monopoly prices. We therefore discuss how innovative pharmaceutical firms shorten the implementation time of clinical trials in Latin America and the consequences such actions have on the quality of the collected data, the protection of human rights of the subjects of experimentation, and compliance with the ethical principles approved in international declarations.

  8. Child toy safety: An interdisciplinary approach to unravel the microbiological hazard posed by soap bubbles.

    PubMed

    Amoruso, Irene; Bertoncello, Chiara; Caravello, Gianumberto; Giaccone, Valerio; Baldovin, Tatjana

    2015-11-01

    In 2012 some children developed sepsis after playing together with a soap bubble toy. Microbiological testing revealed heavy contamination of the soap solution, which reasonably represented the vehicle of infection. We investigated the issue with a multidisciplinary approach: review of toy safety legislation; microbiological testing of additional samples; query of the RAPEX database for non-compliant soap bubbles; identification of major manufacturing districts. Microbiological contamination of industrial soap bubbles was widespread. Sixty-three notifications of batches contaminated by environmental microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens had been reported. The Chinese had a virtual monopoly of the soap bubble market. We identified two main manufacturing districts in Guangdong Province, both notable for degradation of their water resources. The use of untreated water for the industrial production of soap bubbles may explain the bacterial contamination. Existing legislation provides an unsatisfactory approach for managing microbiological hazards in sensitive toy categories and for identifying responsible parties in import and export of the products. PMID:26424202

  9. Introduction to Intellectual Property: A U.S. Perspective.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Amanda; Stramiello, Michael; Lewis, Stacy; Irving, Tom

    2015-08-01

    This review introduces patents and trade secrets, the two mechanisms that U.S. law provides inventors to protect their inventions. These mechanisms are mutually exclusive: One demands disclosure and the other calls for concealment. Many biotechnology innovators opt for patents, which grant legal, time-limited monopolies to eligible inventions.To obtain a patent in the United States, an invention must be useful to the public and made or altered by the hand of man. It must then clear the hurdles of novelty and nonobviousness. If an invention can do that, obtaining a patent becomes a matter of form: Who qualifies as an inventor? Does the application demonstrate possession, stake a clear claim to the protection sought, and enable "ordinary" colleagues to replicate it? Has the inventor purposely withheld anything? This review addresses each of these hurdles as they apply to biotech inventions. PMID:25818665

  10. Public and private sector interactions: an economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Maynard, A

    1986-01-01

    The debate about the public-private mix for health care has been dominated by rhetoric and the failure to evaluate the characteristics of the outcomes of public and private health care systems and to relate these to policy targets. After a brief analysis of the competing, liberal (conservative) and collectivist (socialist), objectives, the nature of the private health care sector in Britain is described and it is shown that growth has faltered due to cost containment problems. This outcome is the product of characteristics of the private health care system, paralleled precisely in the NHS: asymmetry information, monopoly power, moral hazard and third party pays. The final section discusses briefly some remedies for the inefficient and inequitable outcomes which are seen in all health care markets and it is argued that competition within public and private health care systems may enable each system type to achieve its own particular objectives more efficiently.

  11. Public health insurance under a nonbenevolent state.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Pierre

    2008-10-01

    This paper explores the consequences of the oft ignored fact that public health insurance must actually be supplied by the state. Depending how the state is modeled, different health insurance outcomes are expected. The benevolent model of the state does not account for many actual features of public health insurance systems. One alternative is to use a standard public choice model, where state action is determined by interaction between self-interested actors. Another alternative--related to a strand in public choice theory--is to model the state as Leviathan. Interestingly, some proponents of public health insurance use an implicit Leviathan model, but not consistently. The Leviathan model of the state explains many features of public health insurance: its uncontrolled growth, its tendency toward monopoly, its capacity to buy trust and loyalty from the common people, its surveillance ability, its controlling nature, and even the persistence of its inefficiencies and waiting lines.

  12. Strategies for displacing oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Vikram; Gupta, Raghubir

    2015-03-01

    Oil currently holds a monopoly on transportation fuels. Until recently biofuels were seen as the means to break this stranglehold. They will still have a part to play, but the lead role has been handed to natural gas, almost solely due to the increased availability of shale gas. The spread between oil and gas prices, unprecedented in its scale and duration, will cause a secular shift away from oil as a raw material. In the transport fuel sector, natural gas will gain traction first in the displacement of diesel fuel. Substantial innovation is occurring in the methods of producing liquid fuel from shale gas at the well site, in particular in the development of small scale distributed processes. In some cases, the financing of such small-scale plants may require new business models.

  13. Child toy safety: An interdisciplinary approach to unravel the microbiological hazard posed by soap bubbles.

    PubMed

    Amoruso, Irene; Bertoncello, Chiara; Caravello, Gianumberto; Giaccone, Valerio; Baldovin, Tatjana

    2015-11-01

    In 2012 some children developed sepsis after playing together with a soap bubble toy. Microbiological testing revealed heavy contamination of the soap solution, which reasonably represented the vehicle of infection. We investigated the issue with a multidisciplinary approach: review of toy safety legislation; microbiological testing of additional samples; query of the RAPEX database for non-compliant soap bubbles; identification of major manufacturing districts. Microbiological contamination of industrial soap bubbles was widespread. Sixty-three notifications of batches contaminated by environmental microorganisms and opportunistic pathogens had been reported. The Chinese had a virtual monopoly of the soap bubble market. We identified two main manufacturing districts in Guangdong Province, both notable for degradation of their water resources. The use of untreated water for the industrial production of soap bubbles may explain the bacterial contamination. Existing legislation provides an unsatisfactory approach for managing microbiological hazards in sensitive toy categories and for identifying responsible parties in import and export of the products.

  14. Petroleum policy and Mexican domestic politics: left opposition, regional dissidence, and official apostasy

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, E.J.

    1980-07-01

    The economic significance of petroleum is affecting Mexico's political system and will challenge socio-economic changes as they develop. A case study of Mexico illustrates how a developing petroleum industry can lubricate the process of political change to a more-participatory democracy as increased mobilization and rising expectations trigger political reforms. The analysis traces opposition forces reacting to the state oil monopoly PEMEX's decision to build a gas pipeline to the US, the disruption of massive labor migrations to the oil fields, and the initiatives to amend the constitution to allow land appropriations. It suggests that these forces can push the political structure to either the right or the left. The analysis is compared with the situations in Iran and Venezuela, where the socio-economic picture is less encouraging than in Mexico. 69 references. (DCK)

  15. Study on spatial structure of retailing based on GIS in the city of Wuhan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-liang; Tian, Ying

    2008-10-01

    With the agility of market economy, the characteristic of market spatial structure becomes more complex since the reformation and open policy. The spatial structure has broken through the traditional framework which is non-equilibriums and scattered, and represented such modern development character as diversification, grade, network, and non-equilibrium. This paper chooses 200 stochastic retailing stores whose acreages all exceed 40m2 in the four circles of Wuhan city, after the analysis of spatial difference on acreages, number, population density, and manage forms with GIS spatial methods, and makes a conclusion that the retailing spatial structure of Wuhan city has took on figure of rating circle wholly and frame of centralization-diffusion and enchasing partially; as location is concerned, centralization and diffusion takes place simultaneously, has behaved that retailing concentrated in heartland of city with more favorable traffic and market location by the means of market infiltration, and distributed in suburb more dispersive by market monopoly.

  16. Views on world markets - Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Passmore, J.

    1996-12-31

    If {open_quotes}market{close_quotes} is defined by hardware in the ground (as it should be), then the Canadian wind power market has been virtually non-existent (only 23 MW to date). The potential on the other hand is enormous (6400 MW likely to be developed). This potential has not been pursued because of unregulated electric utility monopolies, lack of political knowledge and interest, and punitive tax treatment for renewables. Recent initiatives including utility restructuring, federal plans for green power procurement, and proposed tax measures suggest that situation has potential for change. Interested parties should start familiarizing themselves with the Canadian players / market now, in order to be ready to move when the time comes (likely in the next three years). 3 tabs.

  17. Turning aluminium into a noble-metal-like catalyst for low-temperature activation of molecular hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Irinder S; Chaudhuri, Santanu; Veyan, Jean François; Chabal, Yves J

    2011-11-01

    Activation of molecular hydrogen is the first step in producing many important industrial chemicals that have so far required expensive noble-metal catalysts and thermal activation. We demonstrate here that aluminium doped with very small amounts of titanium can activate molecular hydrogen at temperatures as low as 90 K. Using an approach that uses CO as a probe molecule, we identify the atomistic arrangement of the catalytically active sites containing Ti on Al(111) surfaces, combining infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy and first-principles modelling. CO molecules, selectively adsorbed on catalytically active sites, form a complex with activated hydrogen that is removed at remarkably low temperatures (115 K; possibly as a molecule). These results provide the first direct evidence that Ti-doped Al can carry out the essential first step of molecular hydrogen activation under nearly barrierless conditions, thereby challenging the monopoly of noble metals in hydrogen activation. PMID:21946610

  18. Political economy of tobacco control in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chantornvong, S.; McCargo, D.

    2001-01-01

    Thailand has some of the world's strongest anti-tobacco legislation. This paper examines the political economy of tobacco control in Thailand, emphasising the identification of forces which have supported and opposed the passage of strong anti-tobacco measures. It argues that while a powerful tobacco control coalition was created in the late 1980s, the gains won by this coalition are now under threat from systematic attempts by transnational tobacco companies to strengthen their share of the Thai cigarette market. The possible privatisation of the Thailand Tobacco Monopoly could threaten the tobacco control cause, but the pro-control alliance is fighting back with a proposed Health Promotion Act which would challenge the tobacco industry with a hypothecated excise tax dedicated to health awareness campaigns.


Keywords: anti-tobacco legislation; political economy; Thailand; transnational tobacco companies PMID:11226361

  19. The economics of the oil crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Bina, C.

    1985-01-01

    The author, a former financial analyst with the treasury department of Iran, provides an analysis of the origin of the oil crisis of 1973 and reviews various alternate theories put forward to explain it. Seeing the origin of the crisis in terms of competition rather than monopoly, Bina demonstrates that with the internationalization of capital in the oil industry, a new regulating value emerged from the cost of production of relatively unproductive and declining fields in the US, and that the growing gap between this and the individual values produced in other oil regions, such as the Middle East, set the stage for the restructuring of the entire industry - leading to an unprecedented price increase. Thus, the establishment of a new, higher level of value, oil rent, market and 'posted' prices was the outcome of objective developments rather than the result of arbitrary decisions on the part of cartels like OPEC.

  20. Can Dentistry Have Two Contracts with the Public?

    PubMed

    Nash, David A

    2015-01-01

    The social contract is an implicit agreement between parts of society and society as a whole. Since the Middle Ages, the learned professions, recently including dentistry, have had a covenantal relationship with the public based on trust, exchanging monopoly privileges for benefiting the public good. Unlike commercial trade in commodities, professional relationships are grounded in ensuring an adequate level of oral health to all. A second contract is emerging where dentists relate to society as business operators, exchanging commodity services for a price. Recent actions by the Federal Trade Commission and the U.S. Supreme Court make it unlikely that dentistry will be able to enjoy only selected aspects of each contract while avoiding obligations that it finds unfavorable. PMID:26697648

  1. Ocular Defect Rehabilitation Using Photography and Digital Imaging: A Clinical Report.

    PubMed

    Buzayan, Muaiyed M; Ariffin, Yusnidar T; Yunus, Norsiah; Mahmood, Wan Adida Azina Binti

    2015-08-01

    Ocular disorders occasionally necessitate surgical intervention that may lead to eye defects. The primary objective in restoring and rehabilitating such defects with an ocular prosthesis is to enable patients to cope better with associated psychological stress and to return to their accustomed lifestyle. A series of detailed steps for custom-made ocular prosthesis fabrication using the advantages of digital photography to replace the conventional oil paint and monopoly iris painting technique are presented in this article. In the present case, a digital photograph of the patient's iris was captured using a digital camera and manipulated on a computer using graphic software to produce a replica of the natural iris. The described technique reduces treatment time, increases simplicity, and permits the patient's natural iris to be replicated without the need for iris painting and special artistic skills. PMID:25315047

  2. Privatization in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Cartselos, T.

    1994-02-01

    Three factors have slowed the pace of power sector privatization, particularly in Europe: Capital shortages, political interests, scarce human capital resources. Balancing these factors are powerful drivers for privatization. These include the financial distress many European governments are facing, which limit their ability to continue subsidies and protection of unproductive state enterprises. Increasingly sophisticated customers are also demanding better products and services at lower prices. Privatization progress in Europe will probably move slowly and unevenly. Power generation will likely be the first beneficiary of any reform because it is not a natural monopoly. Transmission and distribution will remain regulated, despite discussion within the European Union regarding open or third-party access. What is likely to speed up the pace of privatization in some countries is a power crisis along the lines of what occurred in the Philippines. Greece, Italy and Portugal and perhaps the most likely prospects for such a scenario.

  3. My education in mineral (especially oil) economics

    SciTech Connect

    Adelman, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    The crude oil and natural gas markets have a long colorful history. To understand them, one needs some economic theory. The dominant view, of a fixed mineral stock, implies that a unit produced today means one less in the future. As mankind approaches the limit, it must exert ever more effort per unit recovered. This concept is false, whether stated as common sense or as elegant theory. Under competition, the price results from endless struggle between depletion and increasing knowledge. But sellers may try to control the market in order to offer less and charge more. The political results may feed back upon market behavior. These factors--depletion, knowledge, monopoly, and politics--must be analyzed separately before being put together to capture a slice of a changing history. 68 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Electric Industry Restructuring in Five States: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J. M.

    1996-10-31

    The electric industry in the United States is undergoing fundamental changes; it is transitioning from regulated monopolies to competitive markets offering customer choice. In this process, the states have been in the forefront of considering the changes in the industry structure and regulation. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) spearheaded a project on electric restructuring in the United States. This is the final report prepared under the project. The purpose of the report is to describe and compare the overall restructuring processes that took place in five states through June 30, 1996. The five states are California, Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, and Wisconsin. These are the first major states to consider restructuring or retail wheeling.

  5. Ultimate recovery of an exhaustible resource under different market structures

    SciTech Connect

    Eswaran, M.; Lewis, T.R.

    1984-03-01

    The recent emergence of several large and powerful resource cartels has prompted economists to worry about the impact of different market structures on the supply of nonrenewable natural resources. An attempt has been made to investigate the effect of market organization on the performance of exhaustible-resource industries. The authors consider imperfectly competitive markets for exhaustible resources where the reserve base is not fixed. Instead, it is determined endogeneously as part of the supply equilibrium. A model is presented which considers the polar cases of monopoly and perfect competition as well as a continuum of intermediate structures. Testable predictions about the extent of resource utilization that occurs under different market structures are derived. These predictions have important implications regarding how resource availability is measured, as well as how policies are set for resource conservation and for developing resource substitutes.

  6. Status of the profession

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Peter B.; Beichman, Charles A.; Abt, Helmut A.; Bauer, Wendy Hagen; Burbidge, Geoffrey; Cochran, Anita L.; Dorfman, Robert; Harris, Hugh; Havlen, Robert; Jones, Christine

    1991-01-01

    The number of astronomers has grown by about 40 percent over the past decade. The number of astronomers with jobs in industry, or with long-term, non-tenured, jobs has increased dramatically compared with traditional faculty positions. The increase in the number of astronomers and the declining share of the NSF budget going to astronomy has led to extreme difficulties in the NSF grant program and in support of the National Observatories. In 1989, direct NASA support of astronomers through the grants program exceeds that of NSF, although the total of the NSF grants program over decade far exceeds that of NASA. Access to major new telescopes will be important issue for the 1990s. US astronomers, who once had a monopoly on telescopes larger than 3 meters, will, by the year 2000, have access to just half of the world's optical telescope area.

  7. Can Dentistry Have Two Contracts with the Public?

    PubMed

    Nash, David A

    2015-01-01

    The social contract is an implicit agreement between parts of society and society as a whole. Since the Middle Ages, the learned professions, recently including dentistry, have had a covenantal relationship with the public based on trust, exchanging monopoly privileges for benefiting the public good. Unlike commercial trade in commodities, professional relationships are grounded in ensuring an adequate level of oral health to all. A second contract is emerging where dentists relate to society as business operators, exchanging commodity services for a price. Recent actions by the Federal Trade Commission and the U.S. Supreme Court make it unlikely that dentistry will be able to enjoy only selected aspects of each contract while avoiding obligations that it finds unfavorable.

  8. The changing face of international space cooperation - One view of NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    It is pointed out that from its earliest years NASA has incorporated international participation into many of its programs. Guidelines were developed with the objective to maximize the benefits of international cooperation. The cooperative guidelines were accepted because they reflected conditions which applied during much or all of the 1960-1980 period. There existed a clear technology and experience gap between the U.S. and even its largest cooperative partners. Thus, the U.S. enjoyed a virtual Free World monopoly on launching large satellites, especially those destined for geostationary or interplanetary orbits. However, on the basis of new developments, NASA faces now a modified international operating environment, in which the U.S. technological lead has been significantly reduced. The results of this situation are examined, taking into account the equalization of capabilities, the rise of commercial competition, Soviet competition, multinational patterns, and reduced cooperative opportunities.

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of Cervus elaphus songaricus (Cetartiodactyla: Cervinae) and a phylogenetic analysis with related species.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiqing; Ba, Hengxing; Yang, Fuhe

    2016-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome of Tianshan wapiti, Cervus elaphus songaricus, is 16,419 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. The phylogenetic trees were reconstructed with the concatenated nucleotide sequences of the 13 protein-coding genes using maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. MP and BI phylogenetic trees here showed an identical tree topology. The monopoly of red deer, wapiti and sika deer was well supported, and wapiti was found to share a closer relationship with sika deer. Tianshan wapiti shared a closer relationship with xanthopygus than yarkandensis. Rusa unicolor and Rucervus eldi were given a basal phylogenetic position. Our phylogenetic analysis provided a robust phylogenetic resolution spanning the entire evolutionary relationship of the subfamily Cervinae. PMID:24725059

  10. Competition and the utility industry -- Who will survive?

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, S.L.

    1995-05-01

    Much has appeared in the business press recently about competition in the energy industry. Traditional utilities, for the most part, have accepted the emergence of competition, if not on the retail side, at least on the supply side. What does the future hold for traditional utilities and the independent power producers? Competition in the supply (wholesale) side of electrical power, a decade old, is here to stay. Many utilities now agree that cost savings have been realized through the competitive purchase of power. Competition will arrive in the near future to the retail side of the utility industry, ending geographic monopolies enjoyed by local utilities. Which utilities will be affected most by competition is now under debate. The answer to that question depends, in part, on whether retail side competition is controlled by state-initiation action or federal initiated action (such as took place in the natural gas, airline and telephone industries). Some generalizations are made and discussed.

  11. On Improving the Reliability of Distribution Networks Based on Investment Scenarios Using Reference Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, Koji

    Distribution systems are inherent monopolies and therefore these have generally been regulated in order to protect customers and to ensure cost-effective operation. In the UK this is one of the functions of OFGEM (Office of Gas and Electricity Markets). Initially the regulation was based on the value of assets but there is a trend nowadays towards performance-based regulation. In order to achieve this, a methodology is needed that enables the reliability performance associated with alternative investment strategies to be compared with the investment cost of these strategies. At present there is no accepted approach for such assessments. Building on the concept of reference networks proposed in Refs. (1), (2), this paper describes how these networks can be used to assess the impact that performance driven investment strategies will have on the improvement in reliability indices. The method has been tested using the underground and overhead part of a real system.

  12. Mixed WTO ruling on generic drug development.

    PubMed

    Elliott, R

    2000-01-01

    On 17 March 2000, the World Trade Organization upheld the provision in Canada's patent laws that allows generic drug manufacturers to develop (but not sell) their cheaper versions of patented medicines before the 20-year patients expire. The decision prevents pharmaceutical companies from enjoying market monopolies beyond their patent terms, avoiding what would otherwise be even lengthier delays in the sale of cheaper, generic drugs in Canada. This decision is of significance not only to Canada, but also to other WTO member countries and to all individuals who use pharmaceutical products. However, the decision is not all positive: the WTO also ruled that Canada is violating international agreements by letting generic manufacturers stockpile their versions of patented drugs before patents expire. This article explains the issues, the arguments, and the decision.

  13. Popularizing right food and feeding practices in Spain (1847-1950). The handbooks of domestic economy.

    PubMed

    Perdiguero-Gil, Enrique; Castejón-Bolea, Ramón

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze a sample of domestic economy handbooks in order to assess the popularization of correct food and feeding practices in Spain between 1847 and 1950. With this contribution, we wish to evaluate another factor that would influence the Spanish food transition. We are aware that this is a very indirect source, given the high levels of illiteracy among women in Spain during the last third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. A further factor to be considered is the low proportion of girls attending school. We have analyzed the handbooks published in three periods. The first ranges from the last third of the 19th century to the first decade of the 20th. These handbooks are considered in order to provide background for a comparison with the works published from 1900 onwards. The second period focuses on the 1920s and the 1930s. The last period covers the handbooks published after the Civil War under the monopoly of the Sección Femenina (women's section of the Falange). Over the years under consideration, recommendations underwent a progressive modification from the very simple leaflets used in the 19th century to the introduction of scientific factors into the teaching of domestic economy.The work of Rosa Sensat represented the beginnings of this trend. A further modernizing factor was the appearance of vitamins in some of the handbooks. After the war, the number of handbooks decreased and they were, in general, very poor. If we consider the content on vitamins, there was a lack or shortage of information in comparison with some of the books published in the same period outside the monopoly of the Sección Femenina. In conclusion, we can state that the repetition of recommendations on good feeding habits and the increase in girls attending school would exert a positive influence on the food transition of the Spanish population.

  14. The DHL EuroCup: shots on goal.

    PubMed

    Hemp, Paul

    2003-11-01

    Deutsche Post World Net, the German postal monopoly, faced significant challenges as it began the process of integrating three businesses: Deutsche Post Euro Express, its own ground-based parcel delivery service, and two companies it had acquired-DHL, the worldwide express delivery service, and Danzas, a worldwide air and ocean freight company. The cultural differences alone were imposing. For example, DHL was a privately held, entrepreneurial company in which most managers had international experience; Deutsche Post was until recently a state-owned monopoly in which few managers had worked outside their home country. Enter EuroCup. For 20 years, DHL employees had held a soccer tournament to strengthen company culture across national boundaries. Canceled the previous year due to budget constraints, the EuroCup tournament was revived in 2003-in part to help with the postmerger integration. But did the event really help? HBR senior editor Paul Hemp attended EuroCup 2003, joining nearly 2,500 DHL employees--about 600 of them players, the rest cheerleaders and other supporters--in the small Belgian town of Lommel. He set out to answer a number of questions relevant to any company staging an ambitious off-site intended to encourage teamwork and boost morale. How does a company determine whether such a large-scale event, even one that generates goodwill, is worth the investment? Does the team building extend to those back home who don't get to attend? Can intense competition between teams begin to overshadow the spirit of cooperation that such an event is meant to engender? In short, can a soccer tournament help a company achieve its corporate goal of creating a strong common culture?

  15. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today`s electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry`s transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment.

  16. Worldwide expansion of transnational tobacco industry.

    PubMed

    Connolly, G N

    1992-01-01

    As smoking rates fall in North America and western Europe, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) from the United States and Great Britain turn to cigarette markets of the developing world to replace those smokers who have quit or died from smoking. The majority of these markets are dominated by state tobacco monopolies that advertise and promote smoking minimally. Few women or adolescents smoke in those nations. The majority of men do, but they smoke far fewer cigarettes per year than their counterparts in developed nations. Trade barriers in the developing world prevent foreign cigarette companies from entering. TTCs employ various techniques to force open those markets, including trade pressure from the US government. Once the market is open, Western cigarette advertising and promotions target nonsmoking women and children. Retail tobacco outlets increase, smoking rates rise, and more death and disease result. Latin America was the TTC target in the 1960s, the newly developed nations of Asia during the 1980s, and, today, the tobacco giants are pushing into eastern Europe, China, and Africa. If nothing is done, emerging national smoking-control programs will be overwhelmed, and state-owned cigarette monopolies will be taken over by the TTCs. Policies and programs to curb smoking exist, but for various reasons many lesser developed countries have not adopted them. The threat of TTC entry into a closed market offers an opportunity to form national coalitions against smoking, educate the public about the dangers of tobacco use, and implement public health policies and programs to restrict marketing and use of cigarettes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1616807

  17. Grain Handling and Transportation Policy in Canada: Implications for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, James; Peterson, Steven K

    2015-08-01

    The grain handling and transportation system in Canada (GHTS) is currently going through a major transition, both with respect to handling and transportation. Historically, the system has pitted farmers against the railways with respect to securing individual fair shares of grain revenues. But with the removal of the single desk marketing and logistics function of the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) in late 2012, a very interesting and potentially game-changing outcome is emerging with respect to the new functionality of the grain companies in the Canadian system. While historical awareness of rail s natural monopoly position in the grain handling system has kept that sector regulated (in several ways) for close to a century, we are now starting to see the effects of a less than competitive Canadian grain handling sector on revenue sharing, along with renewed movement in the industry with respect to buyouts and potential mergers. This overview will highlight some of the changes now occurring and how they are potentially going to interact or evolve as the system moves forward. For example, the on-going regulatory instrument used to regulate grain transportation rates in Canada (called the maximum revenue entitlement (MRE) or revenue cap) is under current debate because of the introduction a few months ago of a modification to an old regulatory instrument known as extended (or reciprocal) interswitching. As opposed to the revenue cap which is a direct intervention on monopoly behavior, extended interswitching is designed to encourage the major Canadian grain carriers to compete with one another and potentially seek out new traffic (Nolan and Skotheim, 2008). But the most intriguing aspect of extended interswitching is how it might allow a major rail carrier from the U.S. to solicit grain traffic in some areas of the Canadian grain transportation system.

  18. Grain Handling and Transportation Policy in Canada: Implications for the United States

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nolan, James; Peterson, Steven K

    2015-08-01

    The grain handling and transportation system in Canada (GHTS) is currently going through a major transition, both with respect to handling and transportation. Historically, the system has pitted farmers against the railways with respect to securing individual fair shares of grain revenues. But with the removal of the single desk marketing and logistics function of the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) in late 2012, a very interesting and potentially game-changing outcome is emerging with respect to the new functionality of the grain companies in the Canadian system. While historical awareness of rail s natural monopoly position in the grain handling systemmore » has kept that sector regulated (in several ways) for close to a century, we are now starting to see the effects of a less than competitive Canadian grain handling sector on revenue sharing, along with renewed movement in the industry with respect to buyouts and potential mergers. This overview will highlight some of the changes now occurring and how they are potentially going to interact or evolve as the system moves forward. For example, the on-going regulatory instrument used to regulate grain transportation rates in Canada (called the maximum revenue entitlement (MRE) or revenue cap) is under current debate because of the introduction a few months ago of a modification to an old regulatory instrument known as extended (or reciprocal) interswitching. As opposed to the revenue cap which is a direct intervention on monopoly behavior, extended interswitching is designed to encourage the major Canadian grain carriers to compete with one another and potentially seek out new traffic (Nolan and Skotheim, 2008). But the most intriguing aspect of extended interswitching is how it might allow a major rail carrier from the U.S. to solicit grain traffic in some areas of the Canadian grain transportation system.« less

  19. The invisible hand: how British American Tobacco precluded competition in Uzbekistan

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Anna B; McKee, Martin; Collin, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Background Tobacco industry documents provide a unique opportunity to explore the role transnational corporations (TNCs) played in shaping the poor outcomes of privatisation in the former Soviet Union (FSU). This paper examines British American Tobacco's (BAT's) business conduct in Uzbekistan where large‐scale smuggling of BAT's cigarettes, BAT's reversal of tobacco control legislation and its human rights abuses of tobacco farmers have been documented previously. This paper focuses, instead, on BAT's attitude to competition, compares BAT's conduct with international standards and assesses its influence on the privatisation process. Methods Analysis of BAT documents released through litigation. Results BAT secured sole negotiator status precluding the Uzbekistan government from initiating discussions with other parties. Recognising that a competitive tender would greatly increase the cost of investment, BAT went to great lengths to avoid one, ultimately securing President Karimov's support and negotiating a monopoly position in a closed deal. It simultaneously secured exclusion from the monopolies committee, ensuring freedom to set prices, on the basis of a spurious argument that competition would exist from imports. Other anticompetitive moves comprised including all three plants in the deal despite intending to close down two, exclusive dealing and implementing measures designed to prevent market entry by competitors. BAT also secured a large number of exemptions and privileges that further reduced the government's revenue both on a one‐off and ongoing basis. Conclusions BAT's corporate misbehaviour included a wide number of anticompetitive practices, contravened Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development's and BAT's own business standards on competition and restricted revenue arising from privatisation. This suggests that TNCs have contributed to the failure of privatisation in the FSU. Conducting open tenders and using enforceable codes to

  20. [Opposition to Myriad Genetics patents and their total or partial revocation in Europe: early conclusions].

    PubMed

    Cassier, Maurice; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    The proceedings instituted against three European patents held by the US company Myriad Genetics, on the BRCA1 gene and the breast cancer diagnosis gene, resulted in the total or partial revocation of these patents. These decisions put an end to the legal monopoly claimed by Myriad Genetics on the BRCA1 gene and on breast cancer gene tests, and left the field open to European geneticists to develop and implement their test methods within the framework of a clinical not-for-profit organization. The opposition procedure, through which any actor is allowed to challenge European patents, was used by geneticists doctors in Europe to refuse the emergence of an industrial monopoly on a medical service offered in a clinical context. The decision to revoke or strongly limit these patents was based on the European Patent Office's refusal to establish an invention priority on a sequence that had errors at the time the application was filed by the patent holder, in September 1994. The patent holder was granted an invention priority only on 24 March 1995, when it filed an application for a corrected sequence of the gene. But by then the BRCA1 gene sequence had already been divulged in a public data base, Genbank, from October 1994, notably by Myriad. Myriad Genetics' patents were thus victims of the patent race that prompted the firm to file multiple patent applications on insufficiently validated sequences, and of the conflict between diffusion in the public domain and the novelty requirement. Opposition to the patents, undertaken by a coalition of medical institutions, human genetic societies, two States, Holland and Austria, an environmental protection organization (Greenpeace), and the Swiss Labour Party, made it possible to preserve and develop the clinical economy of genetic tests in Europe. It resulted in amendments to intellectual property laws in France and thus extended the possibility of using compulsory licences for public health purposes to in vitro diagnosis. PMID

  1. Essays on incomplete contracts in regulatory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Eduardo Humberto

    This dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay, The Hold-Up Problem in Public Infrastructure Franchising, characterizes the equilibria of the investment decisions in public infrastructure franchising under incomplete contracting and ex-post renegotiation. The parties (government and a firm) are unable to credibly commit to the contracted investment plan, so that a second step investment is renegotiated by the parties at the revision stage. As expected, the possibility of renegotiation affects initial non-verifiable investments. The main conclusion of this essay is that not only underinvestment but also overinvestment in infrastructure may arise in equilibrium, compared to the complete contracting case. The second essay, Alternative Institutional Arrangements in Network Utilities: An Incomplete Contracting Approach, presents a theoretical assessment of the efficiency implications of privatizing natural monopolies which are vertically related to potential competitive firms. Based on the incomplete contracts and asymmetric information paradigm. I develop a model that analyzes the relative advantages of different institutional arrangements---alternative ownership and market structures in the industry--- in terms of their allocative and productive efficiencies. The main policy conclusion of this essay is that both ownership and the existence of conglomerates in network industries matter. Among other conclusions, this essay provides an economic rationale for a mixed economy in which the network is public and vertical separation of the industry when the natural monopoly is under private ownership. The last essay, Opportunistic Behavior and Legal Disputes in the Chilean Electricity Sector, analyzes post-contractual disputes in this newly privatized industry. It discusses the presumption that opportunistic behavior and disputes arise due to inadequate market design, ambiguous regulation, and institutional weaknesses. This chapter also assesses the presumption

  2. Carbohydrate-based immune adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Petrovsky, Nikolai; Cooper, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    The role for adjuvants in human vaccines has been a matter of vigorous scientific debate, with the field hindered by the fact that for over 80 years, aluminum salts were the only adjuvants approved for human use. To this day, alum-based adjuvants, alone or combined with additional immune activators, remain the only adjuvants approved for use in the USA. This situation has not been helped by the fact that the mechanism of action of most adjuvants has been poorly understood. A relative lack of resources and funding for adjuvant development has only helped to maintain alum’s relative monopoly. To seriously challenge alum’s supremacy a new adjuvant has many major hurdles to overcome, not least being alum’s simplicity, tolerability, safety record and minimal cost. Carbohydrate structures play critical roles in immune system function and carbohydrates also have the virtue of a strong safety and tolerability record. A number of carbohydrate compounds from plant, bacterial, yeast and synthetic sources have emerged as promising vaccine adjuvant candidates. Carbohydrates are readily biodegradable and therefore unlikely to cause problems of long-term tissue deposits seen with alum adjuvants. Above all, the Holy Grail of human adjuvant development is to identify a compound that combines potent vaccine enhancement with maximum tolerability and safety. This has proved to be a tough challenge for many adjuvant contenders. Nevertheless, carbohydrate-based compounds have many favorable properties that could place them in a unique position to challenge alum’s monopoly over human vaccine usage. PMID:21506649

  3. Contract-based electricity markets in developing countries: Overcoming inefficiency constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, M. N. Susantha

    The electric utility sector throughout the world has been undergoing significant changes. It is changing from its traditional, central-station generation model managed under a vertically integrated monopoly to a more market-dependent business. In the rich industrialized countries, this change has progressed rapidly with the emergence of competitive markets---not only in the area of electricity generation, but also in the extension of such markets down to the level of retail domestic consumer. Developing countries, on the other hand, are trying to attract much-needed investment capital for their power sector expansion activities, particularly for the expansion of generating capacity, through the involvement of the private sector. Unlike their industrialized counterparts, they are facing many limitations in transforming the mostly government-owned monopolies into market-driven businesses, thereby creating an environment that is conducive to private sector participation. Amongst these limitations are the lack of a well-developed, local private sector or domestic financial market that can handle the sophisticated power sector financing; inadequate legal and regulatory frameworks that can address the many complexities of private power development; and numerous risk factors including political risks. This dissertation research addresses an important inefficiency faced by developing countries in the new contract-based market structure that has emerged within these countries. It examines the inefficiencies brought on by restrictions in the contracts, specifically those arising from the guaranteed purchase conditions that are typically included in contracts between the purchasing utility and independent power producers in this new market. The research attempts to provide a solution for this problem and proposes a methodology that enables the parties to conduct their businesses in a cost-efficient manner within a cooperative environment. The situation described above is

  4. Economics of mining law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures

  5. Capacity withholding in wholesale electricity markets: The experience in England and Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, James Arnold

    This thesis examines the incentives wholesale electricity generators face to withhold generating capacity from centralized electricity spot markets. The first chapter includes a brief history of electricity industry regulation in England and Wales and in the United States, including a description of key institutional features of England and Wales' restructured electricity market. The first chapter also includes a review of the literature on both bid price manipulation and capacity bid manipulation in centralized electricity markets. The second chapter details a theoretical model of wholesale generator behavior in a single price electricity market. A duopoly model is specified under the assumption that demand is non-stochastic. This model assumes that duopoly generators offer to sell electricity at their marginal cost, but can withhold a continuous segment of their capacity from the market. The Nash equilibrium withholding strategy of this model involves each duopoly generator withholding so that it produces the Cournot equilibrium output. A monopoly model along the lines of the duopoly model is specified and simulated under the assumption that demand is stochastic. The optimal strategy depends on the degree of demand uncertainty. When there is a moderate degree of demand uncertainty, the optimal withholding strategy involves production inefficiencies. When there is a high degree of demand uncertainty, the optimal monopoly quantity is greater than the optimal output level when demand is non-stochastic. The third chapter contains an empirical examination of the behavior of generators in the wholesale electricity market in England and Wales in the early 1990's. The wholesale market in England and Wales is analyzed because the industry structure in the early 1990's created a natural experiment, which is described in this chapter, whereby one of the two dominant generators had no incentive to behave non-competitively. This chapter develops a classification methodology

  6. Whaling: will the Phoenix rise again?

    PubMed

    Holt, Sidney J

    2007-08-01

    It is argued that Japan's authorities and entrepreneurs involved in whaling and the whale-meat trade have a long-term goal of rebuilding a large and profitable industry of pelagic whaling, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere, in the next 20 years or so. They have made large investments in this enterprise since the so-called moratorium on commercial whaling was adopted by the International Whaling Commission in 1982. These include, but are not confined to, state subsidizing of an expanding and diversifying 20-year programme of commercial whaling under provisions in all relevant international agreements since 1937 that permit unlimited and unilaterally decreed whaling, supposedly for scientific purposes, provided that the commodities from the whales killed are fully utilized. The context of this is the monopoly of technical knowledge, special skills and the market for valuable whale-meat that Japanese enterprises acquired in the post-world war II period, having broken - in 1937 - the strongly defended de facto Anglo-Norwegian monopoly of technology, skills, access to Antarctic whaling grounds and the market for whale-oil that had existed until then. The attraction of 'scientific whaling' is not only that it by-passes any internationally agreed catch-limits but that it also circumvents all other rules - many dating fr/om the League of Nations whaling convention of 1931 - regarding protected species, closed areas, killing of juveniles, less inhumane killing methods, etc. The groundwork is being laid to justify that resumed whaling on partially recovered whale stocks will be at the unsustainable levels that will be profitable again. This justification is based on spurious assertions that numerous and hungry whales threaten the world's fisheries, and that the abundance and possible increase in some whale species is impeding the recovery of other, severely depleted, and potentially more valuable species such as the blue whale. If the scenario presented here is correct

  7. Low Cost Micro-Mini-Satellite Remote Sensing Capabilities: in-Orbit Results &Imminent Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Paul; Sun, Wei; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    Micro- and mini-satellites are in the process or revolutionising the economics of Earth observation. This will jointly affect the space super-powers who have, since the dawn of the space age, enjoyed an effective monopoly of Earth observation from the high vantage-point of space and also the commercial provision of EO data to value added information producers. The monopoly has been due to the enormous cost hitherto required to build, launch and operate EO satellites. SSTL (UK) has pioneered the development of successful micro and mini-satellites which have demonstrated highly capable Earth Observation functions at a mission cost at least an order of magnitude less than conventional such missions. This dramatic development has brought independent ownership of Earth observation satellites within the affordable reach of every developing nation and even medium-sized commercial concerns. Indeed, the performance of these tiny satellites now exceeds the capability of many of the civil EO satellites in operation only 5 years ago. In 2002, SSTL will launch the first satellite in a constellation that will deliver the first routine 24-hour revisit EO data released into the commercial marketplace. This paper describes the in-orbit EO image data produced by typical micro and minisatellites including the latest imagery from the UoSAT-12 mini satellite launched in April 1999 which carries a 32-metre ground sampling distance multispectral imager and a 10-metre GSD panchromatic camera. In addition, data is presented from the TiungSat-1 and Tsinghua-1 microsatellites launched in 2000, and AlSat-1 (launch scheduled in September 2002). AlSat-1 carries a unique imaging system designed as part of the innovative Disaster Monitoring Constellation providing 32-metre GSD multispectral images with a 600km swath width - together with its five companion microsatellites, the Disaster Monitoring Constellation can provide daily revisit imaging world-wide from orbit. The paper also describes the

  8. Another development with women: a view from Asia.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, V

    1982-01-01

    course of history in most Asian countries during the last few decades displays certain marked similarities on the women's question despite differences in political systems and differing priorities in patterns of development. The 3 major instruments for maintaining the current structure of inequality within and between nations are the monopolies of economic, political, and knowledge power. The majority of women in Asia do not share in any of these monopolies. The invisibility, undervaluation, and nonvaluation of women's contribution to the economy is closely linked with their lower social status.

  9. Regulatory reform for natural gas pipelines: The effect on pipeline and distribution company share prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurman, Elisabeth Antonie

    1997-08-01

    The natural gas shortages in the 1970s focused considerable attention on the federal government's role in altering energy consumption. For the natural gas industry these shortages eventually led to the passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) in 1978 as part of the National Energy Plan. A series of events in the decade of the 1980s has brought about the restructuring of interstate natural gas pipelines which have been transformed by regulators and the courts from monopolies into competitive entities. This transformation also changed their relationship with their downstream customers, the LDCs, who no longer had to deal with pipelines as the only merchants of gas. Regulatory reform made it possible for LDCs to buy directly from producers using the pipelines only for delivery of their purchases. This study tests for the existence of monopoly rents by analyzing the daily returns of natural gas pipeline and utility industry stock price data from 1982 to 1990, a period of regulatory reform for the natural gas industry. The study's main objective is to investigate the degree of empirical support for claims that regulatory reforms increase profits in the affected industry, as the normative theory of regulation expects, or decrease profits, as advocates of the positive theory of regulation believe. I also test Norton's theory of risk which predicts that systematic risk will increase for firms undergoing deregulation. Based on a sample of twelve natural gas pipelines, and 25 utilities an event study concept was employed to measure the impact of regulatory event announcements on daily natural gas pipeline or utility industry stock price data using a market model regression equation. The results of this study provide some evidence that regulatory reforms did not increase the profits of pipeline firms, confirming the expectations of those who claim that excess profits result from regulation and will disappear, once that protection is removed and the firms are operating in

  10. Another development with women: a view from Asia.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, V

    1982-01-01

    course of history in most Asian countries during the last few decades displays certain marked similarities on the women's question despite differences in political systems and differing priorities in patterns of development. The 3 major instruments for maintaining the current structure of inequality within and between nations are the monopolies of economic, political, and knowledge power. The majority of women in Asia do not share in any of these monopolies. The invisibility, undervaluation, and nonvaluation of women's contribution to the economy is closely linked with their lower social status. PMID:12279572

  11. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, J.; Huray, P.G.

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  12. The health professions and the performance of future health systems in low-income countries: support or obstacle?

    PubMed

    Dussault, Gilles

    2008-05-01

    This paper discusses the present and future role of the health professions in health services delivery systems in low-income countries. Unlike richer countries, most low-income countries do not have a tradition of labour market regulation and the capacity of the professions themselves to regulate the provision of health services by their members tends to be weak. The paper looks at the impact of professional monopolies on the performance of health services delivery systems, e.g. equity of access, effectiveness of services, efficiency in the use of scarce resources, responsiveness to users' needs, including protection against the financial impact of utilising health services. It identifies issues which policy-makers face in relation to opening the health labour market while guaranteeing the safety and security of services provided by professionals. The suggestion is made that a "social contract", granting privileges of practice in exchange of a commitment to actively maintain and enhance the quality of their services, may be a viable course of action. This would require that the actors in the policy process collaborate in strengthening the capacity of regulatory agencies to perform their role. PMID:18336977

  13. Rural and indigenous women speak out on the impact of globalization.

    PubMed

    Kelkar, G

    1998-01-01

    This article describes approach papers, proposed strategies, and closing agreements among those attending the May 1998 Asian Pacific Forum on Women, Law, and Development (APWLD) among rural, indigenous women (IW). IW spoke of their experiences with globalization. The aim was to examine the effects of deregulation and privatization, liberalization, and global market and foreign monopoly capital on rural, IW in Asia. The expected outcome was an advocacy directive for APWLD in the forthcoming APEC and People's Summit in November 1998. Approach papers included F. N. Burnad's paper on the "Impact of Globalization on Rural Women" and V. Tauli-Corpuz's paper on "Globalization and its Impacts on Indigenous Women: The Philippine Experience." These papers emphasized the multiple roles of women, their increasing resourcefulness which leads to their enslavement, links between globalization and continuing colonization by transnationals and international institutions, access to ancestral resources, and promotion of export led production that threatens food security. Suggested strategies were to mobilize opposition to globalization and greater control over traditional resources and knowledge by IW. Several important questions were raised about nation states, dominant cultures, human rights violations, technology, and the close link between militarization and globalization. Participants agreed to mobilize for effectively resisting and eliminating unjust and unequal systems that exploit and oppress rural, poor, and indigenous people, especially women.

  14. Beyond Biomedicine: Relationships and Care in Tuberculosis Prevention.

    PubMed

    Mason, Paul H; Degeling, Chris

    2016-03-01

    With attention to the experiences, agency, and rights of tuberculosis (TB) patients, this symposium on TB and ethics brings together a range of different voices from the social sciences and humanities. To develop fresh insights and new approaches to TB care and prevention, it is important to incorporate diverse perspectives from outside the strictly biomedical model. In the articles presented in this issue of the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, clinical experience is married with historical and cultural context, ethical concerns are brought to bear on global health, and structural analyses shed light upon the lived experience of people living with TB. The relational and reciprocal dimensions of care feature strongly in these discussions, which serve as a poignant reminder that behind each of the yearly deaths from TB is a deeply personal story. No single discipline holds a monopoly on how to care for each of these people, but strong cases are made for support from mental health and social workers in addressing the kaleidoscope of needs in TB prevention. As the World Health Organization moves towards the goal of eliminating TB globally by 2050, attending to the needs of TB patients serves global interests to lower disease burden and to develop better integrated communities worldwide.

  15. High-precision radiocarbon dating and historical biblical archaeology in southern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Levy, Thomas E; Higham, Thomas; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Smith, Neil G; Ben-Yosef, Erez; Robinson, Mark; Münger, Stefan; Knabb, Kyle; Schulze, Jürgen P; Najjar, Mohammad; Tauxe, Lisa

    2008-10-28

    Recent excavations and high-precision radiocarbon dating from the largest Iron Age (IA, ca. 1200-500 BCE) copper production center in the southern Levant demonstrate major smelting activities in the region of biblical Edom (southern Jordan) during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE. Stratified radiocarbon samples and artifacts were recorded with precise digital surveying tools linked to a geographic information system developed to control on-site spatial analyses of archaeological finds and model data with innovative visualization tools. The new radiocarbon dates push back by 2 centuries the accepted IA chronology of Edom. Data from Khirbat en-Nahas, and the nearby site of Rujm Hamra Ifdan, demonstrate the centrality of industrial-scale metal production during those centuries traditionally linked closely to political events in Edom's 10th century BCE neighbor ancient Israel. Consequently, the rise of IA Edom is linked to the power vacuum created by the collapse of Late Bronze Age (LB, ca. 1300 BCE) civilizations and the disintegration of the LB Cypriot copper monopoly that dominated the eastern Mediterranean. The methodologies applied to the historical IA archaeology of the Levant have implications for other parts of the world where sacred and historical texts interface with the material record.

  16. Health information, an area for competition in Swedish pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Elin C.; Viberg, Nina; Vernby, Åsa; Nordmark, Johanna; Stålsby-Lundborg, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the views and expectations of a selected group of customers regarding health information in Swedish pharmacies. Methods A repeated cross sectional, questionnaire study carried out in 2004 and 2005. Customers buying calcium products answered questions on osteoporosis and general questions on health promotion and information. Results Respondents had a positive attitude towards receiving health information from the pharmacies and towards the pharmacies’ future role in health promotion. However, only 30% of the respondents expected to get information on general health issues from the pharmacy. In spite of this, 76% (2004) and 72% (2005) of the respondents believed that the pharmacies could influence people’s willingness to improve their health. Conclusion There is a gap between the respondents’ positive attitudes towards the Swedish pharmacies and their low expectations as regards the pharmacies’ ability to provide health information. In the light of the upcoming change to the state monopoly on medicine sales, this gap could be an important area for competition between the actors in the new situation for medicine sales in Sweden. PMID:25157284

  17. Lessons from the 'Humanitarian Golden Rice' project: regulation prevents development of public good genetically engineered crop products.

    PubMed

    Potrykus, Ingo

    2010-11-30

    Compared to a non-Genetically Engineered (GE) variety, the deployment of Golden Rice has suffered from a delay of at least ten years. The cause of this delay is exclusively GE-regulation. Considering the potential impact of Golden Rice on the reduction in vitamin A-malnutrition, this delay is responsible for an unjustifiable loss of millions of lives, mostly children and women. GE-regulation is also responsible for the fact that no public institution can deliver a public good GE-product and that thus we have a de facto monopoly in favour of a few potent industries. Considering the forgone benefits from prevented public good GE-products, GE-regulation is responsible for hundreds of millions of lives, all of them, of course, in developing countries. As there is no scientific justification for present GE-regulation, and as it has, so far, not prevented any harm, our society has the urgent responsibility to reconsider present regulation, which is based on an extreme interpretation of the precautionary principle, and change it to science-based regulation on the basis of traits instead of technology. GE-technology has an unprecedented safety record and is far more precise and predictable than any other 'traditional' and unregulated breeding technology. Not to change GE-regulation to a scientific basis is considered by the author 'a crime against humanity'.

  18. Merging managed care with the German model.

    PubMed

    Weil, T P

    1997-01-01

    Since public officials in the United States may lack the courage and political will to significantly raise payroll taxes or the contain Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid benefits, Americans can anticipate that; (a) future generations increasingly will pay for these entitlements; (b) additional cutbacks to providers in Medicare, Medicaid and health maintenance organization reimbursement will hasten the current thrust of hospitals, physicians and insurers in forming huge health networks with their powerful managed care plans; and, (c) many of these new alliances will function as virtual monopolies--eventually resulting in the public proposing that state health services commissions be established. This article then suggests that future modifications in how the United States health delivery system be organized and financed preferably should be along the lines of the German multi-player, multi-tier, self-governing, decentralized, quasi-private, quasi-public model; and, also patterned after experiences of the State of Arizona's Medicaid program. It concludes that what America needs most is a hybrid of the European global budgetary targets to constrain total health expenditures, and the competitive managed care concept to curtail use patterns and to enhance quality.

  19. Attitudes of nursing staff toward interprofessional in-patient-centered rounding.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Umesh; Klocke, David

    2014-09-01

    Historically, medicine and nursing has had a hierarchical and patriarchal relationship, with physicians holding monopoly over knowledge-based practice of medical care, thus impeding interprofessional collaboration. Power gradient prevents nurses from demanding cooperative patient rounding. We surveyed attitudes of nursing staff at our tertiary care community hospital, before and after implementation of a patient-centered interprofessional (hospitalist-nurse) rounding process for patients. There was a substantial improvement in nursing staff satisfaction related to the improved communication (7%-54%, p < 0.001) and rounding (3%-49%, p < 0.001) by hospitalist providers. Patient-centered rounding also positively impacted nursing workflow (5%-56%, p < 0.001), nurses' perceptions of value as a team member (26%-56%, p = 0.018) and their job satisfaction (43%-59%, p = 0.010). Patient-centered rounding positively contributed to transforming the hospitalist-nurse hierarchical model to a team-based collaborative model, thus enhancing interprofessional relationships. PMID:24716621

  20. The Role of Regulatory Agencies and Intellectual Property: Part II.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Kevin E

    2015-07-01

    Patent law and antitrust law have traditionally been areas of the law involving at least some inherent tension. Champions of antitrust argue that the patent "monopoly" must be strictly limited as an exception to the general legal principle that competition should be unfettered. Patent lawyers argue that patents are the result of an exercise of congressional authority, enshrined in the Constitution, reflecting the policy decision by the Founders that granting a limited exclusionary right was justified by the public benefits derived from full disclosure of the patented invention. In the modern era these competing values have played out in the context of so-called ANDA litigation, involving disputes between branded pharmaceutical companies and generic competitors. Settlement of such litigation has been identified by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and private parties encouraged by the FTC's position, as an antitrust violation, in large part because such settlements are viewed as frustrating the congressional purpose in promoting early generic competition. After almost a decade of fighting these battles in the federal courts, the Supreme Court addressed the issue directly. The result is that such settlements are not per se illegal but are also not protected by the presumption of patent validity for activities within the "scope of the patent." Rather, the court decided that these agreements should be assessed for antitrust liability under the "rule of reason" used in other antitrust contexts. PMID:25775920

  1. The Effects of Intellectual Property Rights on Access to Medicines and Catastrophic Expenditure.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youn; Kwon, Soonman

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in 1995, there has been considerable concern that poor access to essential medicines in developing countries would be exacerbated because strengthening intellectual property rights (IPR) leads to monopoly of pharmaceutical markets and delayed entry of lower-cost generic drugs. However, despite extensive research and disputes regarding this issue, there are few empirical studies on the topic. In this study, we investigated the effect of IPR on access to medicines and catastrophic expenditure for medicines, using data from World Health Surveys 2002-2003. The index of patent rights developed by Ginarte and Park (1997) was used to measure the IPR protection level of each country. Estimates were adjusted for individual and country characteristics. In the results of multilevel logistic regression analyses, higher level of IPR significantly increased the likelihood of nonaccess to prescribed medicines even after controlling for individual socioeconomic status and national characteristics associated with access to medicines. This study's finding on the negative impact of IPR on access to medicines calls for the implementation of more active policy at the supra-national level to improve access in low- and middle-income countries.

  2. Impact of Gene Patents and Licensing Practices on Access to Genetic Testing for Long QT Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Angrist, Misha; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Heaney, Christopher; Cook-Deegan, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Genetic testing for Long QT syndrome (LQTS) exemplifies patenting and exclusive licensing with different outcomes at different times. Exclusive licensing from the University of Utah changed the business model from sole provider to two US providers of LQTS testing. LQTS is associated with mutations in many genes, ten of which are now tested by two competing firms in the United States, PGxHealth and GeneDx. Until 2009, PGxHealth was sole provider, based largely on exclusive rights to patents from the University of Utah and other academic institutions. University of Utah patents were initially licensed to DNA Sciences, whose patent rights were acquired by Gennaissance, and then by Clinical Data, Inc., which owns PGxHealth. In 2002, DNA Sciences “cleared the market” by sending cease and desist patent enforcement letters to university and reference laboratories offering LQTS genetic testing. There was no test on the market for a one- to two-year period. From 2005-2008, most LQTS-related patents were controlled by Clinical Data, Inc., and its subsidiary PGxHealth. BioReference Laboratories, Inc., secured countervailing exclusive patent rights starting in 2006, also from the University of Utah, and broke the PGxHealth monopoly in early 2009, creating a duopoly for genetic testing in the United States, and expanding the number of genes for which commercial testing is available from five to ten. PMID:20393304

  3. The patient-as-partner approach in health care: a conceptual framework for a necessary transition.

    PubMed

    Karazivan, Philippe; Dumez, Vincent; Flora, Luigi; Pomey, Marie-Pascale; Del Grande, Claudio; Ghadiri, Djahanchah Philip; Fernandez, Nicolas; Jouet, Emmanuelle; Las Vergnas, Olivier; Lebel, Paule

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of chronic diseases today calls for new ways of working with patients to manage their care. Although patient-centered approaches have contributed to significant advances in care and to treatments that more fully respect patients' preferences, values, and personal experiences, the reality is that health care professionals still hold a monopoly on the role of healer. Patients live with their conditions every day and are experts when it comes to their own experiences of illness; this expertise should be welcomed, valued, and fostered by other members of the care team. The patient-as-partner approach embodies the ideal of making the patient a bona fide member of the health care team, a true partner in his or her care. Since 2010, the University of Montreal, through the Direction of Collaboration and Patient Partnership, has embraced this approach. Patients are not only active members of their own health care team but also are involved in research and provide valuable training to health sciences students. Including patients as full partners in the health care team entails a significant shift in both the medical practice and medical education cultures. In this perspective, the authors describe this innovative approach to patient care, including the conceptual framework used in its development and the main achievements of patient partners in education, health care, and research. PMID:25607943

  4. Has gambling changed after major amendments of gambling regulations in Germany? A propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Monika; Kraus, Ludwig; Müller, Stefanie; Braun, Barbara; Bühringer, Gerhard

    2012-12-01

    Aims This study examined changes in general population gambling in the light of two major amendments of the German gambling regulation, the Fifth Amendment of the German Gambling Ordinance (AGO) for commercial amusement machines with prizes (AWP) and the State Treaty on Gambling (STG) for gambling activities subject to the state monopoly. Methods Applying cross-sectional data from the 2006 and 2009 Epidemiological Survey of Substance Abuse (ESA), propensity-score-matched samples of 7,970 subjects and 3,624 12-month gamblers aged 18-64 years were used for analyses. Logistic regression was employed to examine changes in gambling controlling for possible confounding variables. Results Overall participation in state gambling activities, participation in lotto as well as TV lottery decreased and gambling on Internet card games increased. No changes were found for any other gambling activity, 12-month prevalence of any gambling and pathological gambling. While weekly gambling declined, overall multiple gambling increased. Effects were similar in the total sample and among current gamblers. Conclusions Prohibiting specific gambling activities, e.g., Internet gambling, seem to be insufficient approaches to change gambling behavior. Supply reduction might need to be enhanced by changes in game characteristics and implementation of early intervention measures. However, long-term consequences are uncertain and further monitoring is needed.

  5. Changing roles for primary-care physicians: addressing challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, C P; Kaluzny, A D; Kibbe, D C; Tredway, R

    2005-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising is but one example of a process called disintermediation that is directly affecting primary-care physicians and their patients. This paper examines the trends and the actors involved in disintermediation, which threatens the traditional patient-physician relationship. The paper outlines the social forces behind these threats and illustrates the resulting challenges and opportunities. A rationale and strategies are presented to rebuild, maintain and strengthen the patient-physician relationship in an era of growing disintermediation and anticipated advancements in cost-effective office-based information systems. Primary care--as we know it--is under siege from a number of trends in healthcare delivery, resulting in loss of physician autonomy, disrupted continuity of care and potential erosion of professional values (Rastegar 2004; Future of Family Medicine Project Leadership Committee 2004). The halcyon days of medicine as a craft guild with a monopoly on (1) technical knowledge and (2) the means of implementation, reached its zenith in the mid-twentieth century and has been under pressure ever since (Starr 1982; Schlesinger 2002). While this is a trend within the US health system, it is likely to affect other delivery systems in the years ahead. PMID:15828571

  6. Professionalism for Medicine: Opportunities and Obligations*

    PubMed Central

    Cruess, Sylvia R; Cruess, Richard L; Johnston, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Physicians' dual roles-as healer and professional-are linked by codes of ethics governing behaviour and are empowered by science.Being part of a profession entails a societal contract. The profession is granted a monopoly over the use of a body of knowledge and the privilege of self-regulation and, in return, guarantees society professional competence, integrity and the provision of altruistic service.Societal attitudes to professionalism have changed from supportive to increasingly critical-with physicians being criticised for pursuing their own financial interests, and failing to self-regulate in a way that guarantees competence.Professional values are also threatened by many other factors. The most important are the changes in healthcare delivery in the developed world, with control shifting from the profession to the State and/or the corporate sector.For the ideal of professionalism to survive, physicians must understand it and its role in the social contract. They must meet the obligations necessary to sustain professionalism and ensure that healthcare systems support, rather than subvert, behaviour that is compatible with professionalism's values. PMID:15296199

  7. Use of transgenic seeds in Brazilian agriculture and concentration of agricultural production to large agribusinesses.

    PubMed

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; Amaral, S C S; de Mello, M P

    2012-01-01

    We identified the commercial releases of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Brazil, their characteristics, the types of genetic transformation used, and the companies responsible for the development of these GMOs, classifying them into two categories: private companies, subdivided into multinational and national, and public institutions. The data came from the data bank of the national registration of cultivars and the service of national protection of cultivars of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fishing and Supply (MAPA). This survey was carried out from 1998 to February 12, 2011. Until this date, 27 GMOs had been approved, including five for soybean, 15 for maize and seven for cotton cultivars. These GMOs have been used for the development of 766 cultivars, of which, 305 are soybean, 445 are maize, and 13 are cotton cultivars. The Monsato Company controls 73.2% of the transgenic cultivars certified by the MAPA; a partnership between Dow AgroSciences and DuPont accounts for 21.4%, and Syngenta controls 4.96%. Seed supply by these companies is almost a monopoly supported by law, giving no choice for producers and leading to the fast replacement of conventional cultivars by transgenic cultivars, which are expensive and exclude small producers from the market, since seeds cannot be kept for later use. This situation concentrates production in the hands of a few large national agribusiness entrepreneurs. PMID:22869542

  8. Pride, prejudice, and paediatrics (women paediatricians in England before 1950)

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, D

    2006-01-01

    Within the literature of the Enlightenment there are voices that called for the emancipation of women,1 and so began a—still unfinished—struggle for equality at home and in society. The campaign for women to enter the professions started in the 19th century.2 Women who wished to qualify and work as doctors faced what must have seemed to those of lesser courage and ability, to be insurmountable resistance. The early women doctors of the 19th century who were forced to obtain their training on the continent—in Zurich, Bern, and Paris—were part of a political movement and transatlantic network concerned with issues of women's rights, universal suffrage, women's health and public health measures.23456 These women who “stormed the citadel” wanted to, and did, change society as well as medicine. Opposition to women's entry into medicine was led by doctors who defended the male monopoly against the threat to their prestige and purse. They argued that a woman's place was in the home as a wife and mother. Women's bodies, intellect, and temperament were not up to the demands of studying medicine, let alone practising as doctors.345 These arguments did not stop, but echoed down the 20th century long after women had gained the right to qualify in medicine. PMID:16887858

  9. New business with the new military.

    PubMed

    Apgar, Mahlon; Keane, John M

    2004-09-01

    A $200 billion market has appeared on your business horizon, but you may not have noticed it. It's the U.S. military--the new U.S. military. Virtually all aspects of the military are changing to ensure it can fight unpredictable threats while sustaining the infrastructure needed to support and train forces. The military is turning to non-traditional business partners to meet a wide range of needs, from health care to housing to information technology. The Defense Department is yielding its monopoly on every aspect of national security and adopting a more businesslike model in which the military's warfighting capabilities are supported through outsourcing and business alliances. Civilians are replacing military personnel in many noncombat roles. Military functions with corporate equivalents are candidates for outsourcing and privatization. Market standards are replacing the heavy customization that has locked many companies out of this marketplace. The authors have participated in the transformation process from different perspectives--one civilian, the other military. Together, they highlight the prospects that transformation is creating for companies outside the traditional defense industry and reveal paths to success in this complex market. They also present six principles for doing business with the military that require persistence, integrity, and a willingness to master the intricacies of a distinctive culture. By understanding the logic of military transformation, executives can identify and create vast new business opportunities. And by mastering the six principles, they can build profitable long-term relationships. PMID:15449854

  10. Evolving trade policy and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: does it threaten Vietnam's access to medicine and its progress towards scaling up HIV prevention, treatment and care?

    PubMed

    Linh, Nguyen Nhat; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Thuy, Hua Thanh

    2015-01-01

    The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) has undergone 18 rounds of secretive negotiation between the USA and 11 Asia-Pacific countries. Aiming at a free trade area, this multilateral trade proposal covers all aspects of commercial relations among the countries involved. Despite some anticipated positive impacts in trade, specific articles in this proposal's intellectual property and transparency chapters might negatively impact access to medicine, in general, and to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, in particular, in Vietnam. Drawing on a desk review and qualitative in-depth interviews with 20 key informants from government, academia, hospitals and civil society, we analyse various provisions of the proposal being negotiated leaked after the 14th round of negotiations in September 2012. Findings suggest that the TPP could lead to increased monopoly protection and could limit technological advancements within the local pharmaceutical manufacturing industry, resulting in higher medicine prices in Vietnam. This outcome would have a significant impact on Vietnam's ability to achieve goals for HIV prevention, treatment and care, and create barriers to universal health-care coverage. This research provides unique evidence for Vietnam to advocate for more equitable pharmaceutical provisions in and to raise awareness of the implications of the TPP among the pharmaceutical stakeholder community in Vietnam. PMID:25469870

  11. The evolution of disarmament and arms control thought, 1945-1963

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.E. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The onset of the Cold War and the total failure of nuclear disarmament efforts at the United Nations were only the most obvious of several factors prompting a reexamination of the disarmament approach in the early 1950s. The end of the American nuclear monopoly, the development of the hydrogen bomb, the experience with limited war in Korea, and the rise of concerns about the possibility of nuclear surprise attack (exacerbated by Sputnik) all prompted the Eisenhower administration and the community of strategic thinkers to question the feasibility and even the desirability of nuclear disarmament. To replace disarmament, the strategic community developed the arms-control approach; this approach, the intellectual foundations of which were largely completed in 1961, has been the basis of American policy for the regulation of nuclear weapons since the Kennedy administration. Since its development, the new thinking has been challenged both by disarmers, who regard it as a conservative approach designed merely to perpetuate mutual nuclear deterrence, and traditionalists, who perceive many similarities to the disarmament approach and are skeptical of its faith in the ability of adversaries to act together to reduce the threat that weapons pose.

  12. The utility and its customer: A complex relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Covelli, L.; Williams, M.V.

    1994-11-01

    Developing methods of tracking customer satisfaction for utilities presents major problems since the customer reacts to the utility on many different levels. The more obvious are in relation to the product (energy) and the services the company provides. More recently there has been talk of the {open_quotes}brand{close_quotes} elements of the company-customer relationship. Ontario Hydro (OH) has developed a method utilizing four separate domains for measuring and tracking customer satisfaction: product, service, competitiveness, and institutional relationships. Ontario Hydro conducted a survey of over 1200 residential customers. The respondents received a detailed in-person survey of their estimation of the importance of specific aspects of customer service and their view of Ontario Hydro`s performance on those same issues. The data yielded 28 factors covered a large variety of separate concerns: customer service, and treatment of customers to export policy. OH concluded that the utility`s relationship with its customer is more complex than the susual customer-vendor interaction. A utility not only provides a product and a service, it has a institutional personality and provides an absolutely necessary product under an exclusive franchise and executes government policy as a regulated monopoly. It was found that customers are sensitive to all of these attributes.

  13. The boundaries of care work: a comparative study of professionals and volunteers in Denmark and Australia.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Charlotte

    2015-07-01

    This paper explores the manner in which two hospices--one located in Denmark and one in Australia--negotiate and determine the boundaries of volunteer workers vis-à-vis paid staff. A comparative case study approach was used to juxtapose organisations with similar activity fields located in different welfare state systems, i.e. a social democratic welfare state and a liberal welfare state. This study involved non-participant observation of volunteers at work and unstructured interviews with volunteers, staff and management in the hospices (n = 41). Data were collected between August 2012 and February 2013. Data were managed using NVivo and analysed thematically. A key finding is that volunteers in the Danish hospice were excluded from all direct care work due to the effective monopoly of the professional care providers, whereas the Australian volunteers participated in the provision of care to the extent that risk could be eliminated or mitigated to an acceptable level. The findings suggest two different models of the roles of volunteers in tension with professional care providers. Both models recognise that volunteers add to the level of care delivered by the organisations and allow for a discussion that moves away from the normative discussions of 'not taking somebody's job', while also recognising that volunteers must be more than just the 'nice extra' if they are to be of any real value to the organisation and to care receivers.

  14. Nuclear power meets the 101st Congress, a {open_quotes}one-act{close_quotes} comedy: Regulation of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees under the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, R.

    1992-12-31

    In the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, Congress directed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate all radioactive pollutants, including those emitted from facilities licensed and regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Thus began the era of so-called {open_quotes}dual regulation.{close_quotes} Thirteen years later, that era ended with the passage of section 112(d)(9) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which authorized the EPA to refrain from regulating any category of NRC-licensed facility if it found that NRC regulation was adequate to protect public health. This story of how Congress reversed regulatory policy is actually a story more about nuclear power than air pollution. Dual regulation was authorized in 1977 because of two concerns: fears about the public health risks associated with the nation`s growing commitment to nuclear power and doubts about the integrity of nuclear regulation by the NRC. Although neither of these concerns had abated by 1990, the legislative process was so adroitly manipulated by the proponents of nuclear power that Congress, unwittingly, restored the NRC`s regulatory monopoly.

  15. Purchasing power: business and health policy change in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Bergthold, L A

    1988-01-01

    As in many states around the country, health care costs in Massachusetts had risen to an unprecedented proportion of the state budget by the early 1980s. State health policymakers realized that dramatic changes were needed in the political process to break provider control over health policy decisions. This paper presents a case study of policy change in Massachusetts between 1982 and 1988. State officials formulated a strategy to mobilize corporate interests, which were already awakening to the problems of high health care costs, as a countervailing power to the political monopoly of provider interests. Once mobilized, business interests became organized politically and even became dominant at times, controlling both the policy agenda and its process. Ultimately, business came to be viewed as a permanent part of the coalitions and commissions that helped formulate state health policy. Although initially allied with provider interests, business eventually forged a stronger alliance with the state, an alliance that has the potential to force structural change in health care politics in Massachusetts for years to come. The paper raises questions about the consequences of such alliances between public and private power for both the content and the process of health policymaking at the state level.

  16. US tobacco export to Third World: Third World War.

    PubMed

    Mackay, J

    1992-01-01

    Global tobacco-related mortality will rise from the current 2.5 million to over 10 million annually by 2050. Most of this increase will occur in developing countries, where legislative controls and other measures that succeed in limiting the use of tobacco in industrialized countries do not exist or are at best inadequate. Of particular concern is the penetration of developing countries by the transnational tobacco companies, with aggressive promotional campaigns that include specific targeting of women, few of whom currently smoke in developing countries. The transnational tobacco companies advertise and market in ways long banned in the United States, for example, selling cigarettes without health warnings, advertising on television, and selling cigarettes with higher tar content than the same cigarettes sold in the United States. Also, tobacco advertising revenue prevents the media from reporting on the hazards of tobacco, a particularly serious problem in developing countries, where awareness of the harmfulness of tobacco is low. The transnational tobacco companies interfere with the national public health laws of developing countries via political and commercial pressures to open markets and to promote foreign cigarettes. This has led to an increase in market share by foreign cigarettes, but evidence also points to market expansion, especially among young people. The entry of the transnationals leads to a collapse of national tobacco monopolies or to their changing from unsophisticated government departments that may still cooperate with health initiatives on tobacco to copying the aggressive marketing and promotional behavior of the transnationals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Electronic management: Exploring its impact on small business

    SciTech Connect

    Bewayo, E.D.

    1994-12-31

    Macworld magazine recently reported that more than one in five companies eavesdrops electronically on its employees. Electronic eavesdropping is one name given to electronic management Besides being known as electronic eaves-dropping, electronic management also goes by electronic monitoring, electronic supervision, electronic snooping, electronic sweat-shopping, electronic surveillance, electronic Big Brothering, and computerized performance monitoring. Some of these labels connote negative things about electronic management, and relate to applications of electronic management to extreme and unreasonable levels. In the rest of this paper the terms electronic management and electronic monitoring will be used interchangeably. In this paper we discuss the impacts of electronic management, positive and negative, on workplaces, with emphasis on small businesses. This small business emphasis is partly because of the author`s research interests, and partly because most of what has been written on electronic management has been based on large business contexts. This large business bias has been partly due to the fact that the early inroads of electronic management were almost exclusively limited to large companies--beginning with telephone service observation in the late 1800s. However, now with the growing affordability and, consequently, the proliferation of electronic technology (especially the computer), electronic management is no longer the monopoly of large corporations. Electronic management has now reached restaurants, drug stores, liquor stores, convenience stores, and trucking companies. And in some industries, e.g., banking, every business, regardless of size, uses electronic monitoring.

  18. The antiperinuclear factor. 1. The diagnostic significance of the antiperinuclear factor for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Sondag-Tschroots, I R; Aaij, C; Smit, J W; Feltkamp, T E

    1979-01-01

    In 1964 Nienhuis and Mandema reported the presence of antibodies against cytoplasmic granules in buccal mucosal cells in the serum of 50% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although they reported a good specificity for RA of these so-called antiperinuclear antibodies (APF), their results never threatened the monopoly of the rheumatoid factor as a serological tool for the diagnosis of RA. A re-evaluation with improved immunofluorescence methods showed a frequency of the APF of 78% in 103 patients with RA. The latex test and the Waaler-Rose test were positive in only 70% and 58% respectively of these patients. Only 15% of the RA patients were negative for all 3 tests. Thus, 40% of patients who were seronegative by the traditional methods gave a positive result on performance of the APF test. The high sensitivity of the APF test was combined with a good specificity, for the frequency in patients with other autoimmune diseases or degenerative joint disease and in healthy subjects was low. For the serodiagnosis of RA it seems best to combine the use of the APF test with one for rheumatoid factor. PMID:384931

  19. A political economic theory of the dental care market.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, J; Douglass, C W

    1982-07-01

    A theory of the dental care market is introduced which proposes that the vertically integrated (local/state/national) structure of the profession services as an organizational vehicle both for intra-professional debate and for developing provider-oriented dental care policy. We suggest that a special relationship exists between professionalism and professional regulation. Such regulation has functioned simultaneously to limit competition and to foster a prized consumption commodity for providers: professionalism and professional esteem. The organized pursuit of this commodity inherently dampens competition. Professionalism itself plays a crucial role in: 1) securing for organized dentistry a form of state regulation in which the providers themselves are the principal decision-makers; and 2) influencing provider and consumer market behavior in several significant respects, the net result being the formation of maintenance of a type of "leadership cartel" in the local market. Thus, a political-economic theory of the dental care market formally acknowledges professionalism as valued by established dentists and recent graduates as a central determining influence. Traditional models of pure competition and monopoly emerge as special, extreme cases of the general theory. Hypotheses are offered regarding consumer and provider behavior, market dynamics, and health policy and regulation.

  20. "To me, it's my life": medical communication, trust, and activism in cyberspace.

    PubMed

    Radin, Patricia

    2006-02-01

    This paper studies the conversations and activities of an online support group for breast cancer sufferers and survivors and their supporters. Using communications medium theory and social capital theory, it examines the mundane and profound exchanges, the poignant self-disclosures, the creative expressions of solidarity, and the minor but not-insignificant political actions of people--initially strangers--who come together as a 'virtuous circle,' not only to assist with medical issues but also to meet emotional and even material needs. Sponsored by the Canadian nonprofit organization Breast Cancer Action Nova Scotia (BCANS), this virtual community has logged over a half million messages since 1996. Not every BCANS participant is an activist--many are just trying to grapple with their disease--but some find ways to shatter the professional "information monopoly," and to press for healthcare improvements. The study illustrates the scope, passion, and complexity of peer-to-peer medical communication in a virtual environment that promotes "thick trust". BCANS participants discuss with candor, warmth and even humor such painful topics as death and dying and the crises in intimate relationships brought about by a terminal illness. The sharing of confidences and fears enables participants to pool their 'collective intelligence' about many things, from how to cope with swelling, to how to think about end-of-life issues, to how to improve social policy. PMID:16039031

  1. 'Government Patent Use': A Legal Approach To Reducing Drug Spending.

    PubMed

    Kapczynski, Amy; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-05-01

    The high cost of patent-protected brand-name drugs can strain budgets and curb the widespread use of new medicines. An example is the case of direct-acting antiviral drugs for the treatment of hepatitis C. While prices for these drugs have come down in recent months, they still create barriers to treatment. Additionally, prescribing restrictions imposed by insurers put patients at increased risk of medical complications and contribute to transmission of the hepatitis C virus. We propose that the federal government invoke its power under an existing "government patent use" law to reduce excessive prices for important patent-protected medicines. Using this law would permit the government to procure generic versions of patented drugs and in exchange pay the patent-holding companies reasonable royalties to compensate them for research and development. This would allow patients in federal programs, and perhaps beyond, to be treated with inexpensive generic medicines according to clinical need-meaning that many more patients could be reached for no more, and perhaps far less, money than is currently spent. Another benefit would be a reduction in the opportunity for companies to extract monopoly profits that far exceed their risk-adjusted costs of research and development. PMID:27140984

  2. Effect of market structure on international coal trade

    SciTech Connect

    Kolstad, C.D.; Abbey, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the determinants of international steam-coal trade. Most work in projecting coal trade has been either qualitative (a consensus of experts) or, if quantitative, has been based on competitive spatial-equilibrium models. Unfortunately, the competitive model of trade does not appear to account for observed and anticipated trade flows. This is consistent with findings in the commodity trade literature that, although markets may behave in a rational economic fashion, market concentration among producers, traders, and consumers leads to trade patterns significantly different than those associated with competitive markets. The purpose of this paper is to explore the significance and effect on patterns of steam-coal trade of several deviations from the simple competitive model. In addition to perfect competition, we examine monopoly (South Africa) and duopoly (South Africa, Australia) with a competitive fringe (US, Canada, Poland, China and Columbia). Using a simple equilibrium model of coal trade, we examine these market structures and evaluate the extent to which they can explain existing and anticipated trade patterns.

  3. Patent issues in drug development: perspectives of a pharmaceutical scientist-attorney.

    PubMed

    Melethil, Srikumaran

    2005-10-27

    The major purpose of this article is to emphasize the need for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Economic incentives for drug discovery and development clash with societal needs for low-cost pharmaceuticals in the United States and all over the world. The Hatch-Waxman Act of 1984 was enacted to promote public health by balancing the interests of brand name and generic companies. Patent protection, which provides a monopoly for a limited time, is aimed to provide such incentives. Creation of patents requires the interaction between scientists and lawyers, an endeavor made difficult by the differing intellectual spheres of their respective disciplines. Therefore, in the first place, a thorough understanding of patent fundamentals among pharmaceutical scientists will help them work more efficiently with patent attorneys. Second, it will enable them to appreciate the strengths and weaknesses of individual patents, which is critical in developing strategies amidst the ongoing patent tug-of-war between brand-name and generic companies.

  4. Adaptive regulation or governmentality: patient safety and the changing regulation of medicine.

    PubMed

    Waring, Justin

    2007-03-01

    This paper explores how current 'patient safety' reforms offer to change the regulation of medicine. Drawing on existing literature, it is argued that this policy agenda represents a new frontier in medical/managerial relations, introducing a disciplinary expertise within the health service that provides managers with the knowledge and legitimacy to survey and scrutinise medical performance, made real through procedures for incident reporting and root-cause analysis. The extent of regulatory change is investigated, drawing on an ethnographic case study of one hospital. It is shown that, as with other organisational and managerial reforms, doctors are resisting managerial prerogatives through seeking to subvert and 'capture' components of reform. I describe this as 'adaptive regulation' to account for how doctors seek to maintain their regulatory monopoly and limit managerial encroachment. It is speculated, however, that this process could signal the future 'modernisation' of medical professionalism where emerging managerial discourses, within the wider context of public sector reform, are increasingly internalised with medical practice and culture. This leads to new and rearticulated forms of self-surveillance, self-management or 'governmentality', ultimately negating the need for external groups to explicitly manage or regulate professional practice. PMID:17381811

  5. The post-millennium development goals agenda: include 'end to all wars' as a public health goal!

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Saroj

    2014-09-01

    The process of identifying global post-millennium development goals (post-MDGs) has begun in earnest. Consensus is emerging in certain areas (e.g. eliminating poverty) and conflicts and violence are recognized as key factors that retard human development. However, current discussions focus on tackling intra-state conflicts and individual-based violence and hardly mention eliminating wars as a goal. Wars create public health catastrophes. They kill, maim, displace and affect millions. Inter-state wars fuel intra-state conflicts and violence. The peace agenda should not be the monopoly of the UN Security Council, and the current consensus-building process setting the post-MDG agenda is a rallying point for the global community. The human rights approach will not suffice to eliminate wars, because few are fought to protect human rights. The development agenda should therefore commit to eliminating all wars by 2030. Targets to reduce tensions and discourage wars should be included. We should act now.

  6. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946-1953.

    PubMed

    Creager, Angela N H

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear "piles," soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchase to civilian institutions. This program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from scientists outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate about whether the Commission should or even could export radioisotopes. This controversy manifested the tension in U.S. politics between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country's atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism. This essay examines the various ways in which radioisotopes were used as political instruments-both by the U.S. federal government in world affairs, and by critics of the civilian control of atomic energy-in the early Cold War.

  7. The patient-as-partner approach in health care: a conceptual framework for a necessary transition.

    PubMed

    Karazivan, Philippe; Dumez, Vincent; Flora, Luigi; Pomey, Marie-Pascale; Del Grande, Claudio; Ghadiri, Djahanchah Philip; Fernandez, Nicolas; Jouet, Emmanuelle; Las Vergnas, Olivier; Lebel, Paule

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of chronic diseases today calls for new ways of working with patients to manage their care. Although patient-centered approaches have contributed to significant advances in care and to treatments that more fully respect patients' preferences, values, and personal experiences, the reality is that health care professionals still hold a monopoly on the role of healer. Patients live with their conditions every day and are experts when it comes to their own experiences of illness; this expertise should be welcomed, valued, and fostered by other members of the care team. The patient-as-partner approach embodies the ideal of making the patient a bona fide member of the health care team, a true partner in his or her care. Since 2010, the University of Montreal, through the Direction of Collaboration and Patient Partnership, has embraced this approach. Patients are not only active members of their own health care team but also are involved in research and provide valuable training to health sciences students. Including patients as full partners in the health care team entails a significant shift in both the medical practice and medical education cultures. In this perspective, the authors describe this innovative approach to patient care, including the conceptual framework used in its development and the main achievements of patient partners in education, health care, and research.

  8. From cure to custodianship of the insane poor in nineteenth-century Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Goodheart, Lawrence B

    2010-01-01

    Connecticut was the exception among the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic states in not founding a public institution for the insane until after the Civil War when it opened the Hospital for the Insane at Middletown in 1868, a facility previously neglected by scholars. The state had relied on the expedient of subsidizing the impoverished at the private Hartford Retreat for the Insane that overtaxed that institution and left hundreds untreated. Despite abundant evidence to the contrary, well meaning officials oversold the idea that the Middletown site would promote cures and be cost effective. A number of unanticipated consequences occurred that mirrored fundamental changes in nineteenth-century psychiatry. The new hospital swelled by 1900 to over 2,000 patients, the largest in New England. Custodianship at the monolithic hospital became the norm. The hegemony of monopoly capitalism legitimated the ruling idea that bigger institutions were better and was midwife to the birth of eugenic responses. Class based psychiatry--the few rich at the Retreat and the many poor at Middletown--was standard as it was in other aspects of the Gilded Age. Public policy toward the insane poor in Connecticut represents an outstanding example of the transition from antebellum romanticism to fin de siècle fatalism. PMID:19820252

  9. [The effects of narcissism and self-esteem on immersion in social network games and massively multiplayer online role-playing games].

    PubMed

    Jin, Kato; Igarashi, Tasuku

    2016-04-01

    Recent research has shown growing interest in the process by which narcissism triggers immersion in social network games (SNG). Highly narcissistic individuals are motivated not only by the achievement of goals and monopoly of materials (i:e., self-enhancement), but also by comparison and competition with others (i.e., social comparison) We predicted that the common rules and environments of SNG and massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG), such as systems of exchanging items and ranking players, facilitate immersion of highly narcissistic individuals during the game. Structural equation modeling of data from 378 SNG players and 150 MMORPG players recruited online showed that self-esteem inhibited game immersion, whereas narcissism increased game immersion via motivation for goal attainment. SNG players were more likely to be immersed in the game via motivation for goal attainment than MMORPG players. These findings suggest that, compared with MMORPG, the environments of SNG provide strong incentives not for those high in self-esteem who seek acceptance of others, but for those high in narcissism who are motivated by self-enhancement via competition with others. PMID:27180508

  10. The boundaries of care work: a comparative study of professionals and volunteers in Denmark and Australia.

    PubMed

    Overgaard, Charlotte

    2015-07-01

    This paper explores the manner in which two hospices--one located in Denmark and one in Australia--negotiate and determine the boundaries of volunteer workers vis-à-vis paid staff. A comparative case study approach was used to juxtapose organisations with similar activity fields located in different welfare state systems, i.e. a social democratic welfare state and a liberal welfare state. This study involved non-participant observation of volunteers at work and unstructured interviews with volunteers, staff and management in the hospices (n = 41). Data were collected between August 2012 and February 2013. Data were managed using NVivo and analysed thematically. A key finding is that volunteers in the Danish hospice were excluded from all direct care work due to the effective monopoly of the professional care providers, whereas the Australian volunteers participated in the provision of care to the extent that risk could be eliminated or mitigated to an acceptable level. The findings suggest two different models of the roles of volunteers in tension with professional care providers. Both models recognise that volunteers add to the level of care delivered by the organisations and allow for a discussion that moves away from the normative discussions of 'not taking somebody's job', while also recognising that volunteers must be more than just the 'nice extra' if they are to be of any real value to the organisation and to care receivers. PMID:25442013

  11. The Rules of Ferrous Metallurgy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The ways in which the sciences have been delineated and categorized throughout history provide insights into the formation, stabilization, and establishment of scientific systems of knowledge. The Dresdener school’s approach for explaining and categorizing the genesis of the engineering disciplines is still valid, but needs to be complemented by further-reaching methodological and theoretical reflections. Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of social practice is applied to the question of how individual agents succeed in influencing decisively a discipline’s changing object orientation, institutionalisation and self-reproduction. Through the accumulation of social, cultural and economic capital, they succeed in realising their own organisational ideas and scientific programs. Key concepts for the analysis include the struggle for power and resources, monopolies of interpretation, and the degree of autonomy. A case study from the Aachener Technische Hochschule shows that the consolidation of ferrous metallurgy can be conceived as a symbolical struggle between Fritz Wüst, professor for ferrous metallurgy, and the German Iron and Steel Institute, leading to a construction of a system of differences in which scientists accepted being scientists rather than entrepreneurs, and entrepreneurs accepted becoming entrepreneurs and renounced science.

  12. Epistemic brokerage in the bio-property narrative: contributions to explaining opposition to transgenic technologies in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Herring, Ronald J

    2010-11-30

    Unlike some global contentions - abolition of slavery, or universal franchise, for example - the rift over rDNA crops is not about ultimate values. Improvement of farmer welfare and enhanced sustainability of agriculture are universally valued goals. However, means to those ends are politically disputed; that dispute depends on alternative empirical stories about biotechnology, sometimes even alternative epistemologies. Opposition revolves around two fundamental dimensions: bio-safety and bio-property. There is convergence of these dimensions around exceptional risk and vulnerability to corporate control of farmers, but these are analytically separable questions of fact. This paper concentrates on bio-property. Epistemic brokers have successfully established knowledge claims that simultaneously undermine the case for rDNA technologies as potential contributors to development and motivate opposition. Epistemic brokers command authority from their positions at junctures of networks, enabling the screening, weighting, theorizing and diffusion of contentious empirical accounts. In contentions of low information, high information costs and diffuse anxiety, these claims provide cognitive support for opposition to 'GMOs'. Specifically, claims of patents, monopoly corporate control and terminator technology have diffused to and from India in global networks. Though effective in transnational advocacy networks, these claims have proved either false or inconsistent with dynamics on the ground.

  13. New forms of evergreening in Australia: misleading advertising, enantiomers and data exclusivity: Apotex v Servier and Alphapharm v Lundbeck.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas; Vines, Tim; Gibbons, Helen

    2008-10-01

    Two recent decisions of the Federal Court of Australia have provided interesting insights into the ongoing struggle between originator drug manufacturers and the public interest in Australia. In Apotex Pty Ltd (formerly GenRx Pty Ltd) v Les Laboratoires Servier (No 2) [2008] FCA 607 the court held that an advertising campaign by an originator pharmaceutical company, which sought to persuade doctors to issue prescriptions prohibiting substitution of "a-flagged" generics, constituted misleading and deceptive conduct under s 52 of the Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth). The decision of the court in Alphapharm Pty Ltd v H Lundbeck A/S (2008) 76 IPR 618; [2008] FCA 559 limits the ability of the manufacturer of a drug based on a purified racemate enantiomer to claim a later registration date on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods and subsequently obtain an extension of its intellectual monopoly privileges as well as an exclusivity period for the data it had submitted to safety regulators. Importantly, this case is one of the first to consider recent allegedly pro- and anti-"evergreening" changes to the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 (Cth) and Patents Act 1990 (Cth) as impacted by the intellectual property chapter (Ch 17) of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement. PMID:19010001

  14. Specialized Science

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C.

    2014-01-01

    As the body of scientific knowledge in a discipline increases, there is pressure for specialization. Fields spawn subfields that then become entities in themselves that promote further specialization. The process by which scientists join specialized groups has remarkable similarities to the guild system of the middle ages. The advantages of specialization of science include efficiency, the establishment of normative standards, and the potential for greater rigor in experimental research. However, specialization also carries risks of monopoly, monotony, and isolation. The current tendency to judge scientific work by the impact factor of the journal in which it is published may have roots in overspecialization, as scientists are less able to critically evaluate work outside their field than before. Scientists in particular define themselves through group identity and adopt practices that conform to the expectations and dynamics of such groups. As part of our continuing analysis of issues confronting contemporary science, we analyze the emergence and consequences of specialization in science, with a particular emphasis on microbiology, a field highly vulnerable to balkanization along microbial phylogenetic boundaries, and suggest that specialization carries significant costs. We propose measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of scientific specialism. PMID:24421049

  15. Dynamic pricing of network goods with boundedly rational consumers

    PubMed Central

    Radner, Roy; Radunskaya, Ami; Sundararajan, Arun

    2014-01-01

    We present a model of dynamic monopoly pricing for a good that displays network effects. In contrast with the standard notion of a rational-expectations equilibrium, we model consumers as boundedly rational and unable either to pay immediate attention to each price change or to make accurate forecasts of the adoption of the network good. Our analysis shows that the seller’s optimal price trajectory has the following structure: The price is low when the user base is below a target level, is high when the user base is above the target, and is set to keep the user base stationary once the target level has been attained. We show that this pricing policy is robust to a number of extensions, which include the product’s user base evolving over time and consumers basing their choices on a mixture of a myopic and a “stubborn” expectation of adoption. Our results differ significantly from those that would be predicted by a model based on rational-expectations equilibrium and are more consistent with the pricing of network goods observed in practice. PMID:24367101

  16. [Structure problem analysis and trend prediction of energy supply and demand in Guangzhou City].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiao-qing; Ji, Xiu-jiang; Zhu, Hai-yan; Yi, Xia-jun; Ren, Fang

    2006-04-01

    This paper aims at the tense situation of energy demand and supply and analysis the current situation and problems of energy supply and demand in Guangzhou. We predict total demand of energy which will be 4534.7 x 10(4) of standard coal in 2010 by using the department analysis method and sequence method, and the balance between supply and demand of energy will be 45,000 thousand tons of standard coal. From the primary conclusions of our empirical analysis and together with the overall environment of energy in Guangdong and China, we think the development strategies of energy in Guangzhou in the future should involve several main points as following: (1) Energy of Guangzhou should base on the overall energy development programming of China and that is, it should depend on the "transmission of electricity from the western to the eastern region", power incorporation of Sanxia, power generated of water energy, nuclear power and new resource. (2) Stop setting up or expending the natural monopoly and resource oriented Huangpu thermal power plant located in the windward direction of summer of Guangzhou which has serious pollution and consumes large quantities of energy. (3) It should not absolutely depend on the coal of the poor mountainous region of Guangdong and small power station and can make full use of the resource potential. PMID:16767975

  17. Developing a sustainable energy strategy for a water utility. Part I: A review of the UK legislative framework.

    PubMed

    Zakkour, P D; Gaterell, M R; Griffin, P; Gochin, R J; Lester, J N

    2002-10-01

    Increasing political effort to improve water quality across the UK and Europe has led to water and sewerage companies investing heavily in high-tech wastewater treatment plants capable of producing high quality effluents. Consequently, amounts of bought-in electricity used for wastewater treatment has and will continue to increase significantly over coming years, while greater provision of enhanced sewage treatment also produces greater volumes of sewage sludge requiring treatment and disposal. Over the same period, tougher controls on the quality of biosolids applied to agricultural land have also been introduced, while there has been an international attempt to reduce the use of fossil-fuel derived power sources because of concerns over global warming. The latter has brought about the introduction of financial instruments, such as the Climate Change Levy, to curb energy use, promote energy efficiency and encourage the development of renewable energy technologies. These factors are set to drive-up the costs of providing adequate sewage treatment services, while at the same time, a tough regulatory line taken to control profits on regional monopolies held by the UK water companies will significantly reduce their revenues over the period 2000-05. The result is that, financially, UK water and sewerage companies face their most challenging period since privatisation in 1989. This paper briefly outlines the current regulations relating to water quality and energy use that will affect water company operations over coming years.

  18. The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: challenges for Australian health and medicine policies.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas A; Townsend, Ruth

    2011-01-17

    Four formal rounds of Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) negotiations took place in 2010. They involved over 200 officials from Australia, the United States, New Zealand, Chile, Singapore, Brunei, Peru, Vietnam and Malaysia. Future negotiations officially are set to include three issues with public health and medicines policy implications for Australia and our region: ways to approach regulatory coherence and transparency; how to benefit multinational and small-medium enterprises; and multilateral investor-state dispute settlement. US-based multinational pharmaceutical companies are lobbying for TPPA provisions like those in the Australia-US Free Trade Agreement, which reduce government cost-effectiveness regulatory control of pharmaceuticals, threatening equitable access to medicines. They also advocate increased TPPA intellectual monopoly privilege protection, which will further limit the development of Australian generic medicine enterprises and restrict patient access to cheap, bioequivalent prescription drugs. Of particular concern is that proposed TPPA multilateral investor-state dispute settlement procedures would allow US corporations (as well as those of other TPPA nations) to obtain damages against Australian governments through international arbitral proceedings if their investments are impeded by Australian public health and environment protection legislation. PMID:21241222

  19. The Use of Small-Angle Scattering for the Characterization of Multi Subunit Complexes.

    PubMed

    Round, Adam

    2016-01-01

    As the continuing trend in structural biology is to probe ever more complex systems, new methodologies are being developed plus existing techniques are being expanded and adapted, to keep up with the demands of the research community. To investigate multi subunit complexes (protein-DNA, protein-RNA or protein-protein complexes) no one technique holds a monopoly, as each technique yields independent information inaccessible to the other methods, but can be used together in a complementary way. Additionally as large conformational changes are not unlikely, investigation of the dynamics of these systems under physiological conditions is needed to fully understand their function. Investigations under physiological conditions in solution are becoming more standardized and with more dedicated, automated beamlines available these experiments are easy to access by the general research community. As such the need for explanations of how to plan and undertake these experiments is needed. In this chapter we will cover the requirements of these experiments as well and how to plan undertake and analyze the results of such experiments. PMID:27165335

  20. Does natural selection organize ecosystems for the maintenance of high productivity and diversity?

    PubMed

    Leigh, Egbert Giles; Vermeij, Geerat Jacobus

    2002-05-29

    Three types of evidence suggest that natural ecosystems are organized for high productivity and diversity: (i) changes not previously experienced by a natural ecosystem, such as novel human disturbances, tend to diminish its productivity and/or diversity, just as 'random' changes in a machine designed for a function usually impair its execution of that function; (ii) humans strive to recreate properties of natural ecosystems to enhance productivity of artificial ones, as farmers try to recreate properties of natural soils in their fields; and (iii) productivity and diversity have increased during the Earth's history as a whole, and after every major biotic crisis. Natural selection results in ecosystems organized to maintain high productivity of organic matter and diversity of species, just as competition among individuals in Adam Smith's ideal economy favours high production of wealth and diversity of occupations. In nature, poorly exploited energy attracts more efficient users. This circumstance favours the opening of new ways of life and more efficient recycling of resources, and eliminates most productivity-reducing 'ecological monopolies'. Ecological dominants tend to be replaced by successors with higher metabolism, which respond to more stimuli and engage in more varied interactions. Finally, increasingly efficient predators and herbivores favour faster turnover of resources. PMID:12079531

  1. Public policy responsibilities in a restructured electric industry: An analysis of values, objectives, and approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.; Schweitzer, M.

    1996-03-01

    Discussions and decisions in states as diverse as California, Wisconsin, and Rhode Island are focusing on moving the United States electric industry from one dominated by vertically-integrated and highly regulated utility-based electricity monopolies to one characterized by largely divested and independent generation, transmission, and distribution sectors and by vigorous wholesale and retail competition. Numerous issues must be solved for this transition to be successful. Three of the most important are how to deal with stranded investments, how to provide open access to transmission systems, and how to deal with potentially stranded benefits, which is the current term being used to describe environmental and social programs such as demand-side management, low income programs, and renewable energy. This report explores how to meet public policy responsibilities, which are growing more acute, in a proactive fashion in a restructured United States electric industry. The specific goals of this report are to (1) assess trade-offs in the short-term in meeting public policy responsibilities associated with stranded benefits and (2) introduce a series of new ideas that, if enacted, could substantially satisfy important public policy considerations.

  2. Beyond Biomedicine: Relationships and Care in Tuberculosis Prevention.

    PubMed

    Mason, Paul H; Degeling, Chris

    2016-03-01

    With attention to the experiences, agency, and rights of tuberculosis (TB) patients, this symposium on TB and ethics brings together a range of different voices from the social sciences and humanities. To develop fresh insights and new approaches to TB care and prevention, it is important to incorporate diverse perspectives from outside the strictly biomedical model. In the articles presented in this issue of the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, clinical experience is married with historical and cultural context, ethical concerns are brought to bear on global health, and structural analyses shed light upon the lived experience of people living with TB. The relational and reciprocal dimensions of care feature strongly in these discussions, which serve as a poignant reminder that behind each of the yearly deaths from TB is a deeply personal story. No single discipline holds a monopoly on how to care for each of these people, but strong cases are made for support from mental health and social workers in addressing the kaleidoscope of needs in TB prevention. As the World Health Organization moves towards the goal of eliminating TB globally by 2050, attending to the needs of TB patients serves global interests to lower disease burden and to develop better integrated communities worldwide. PMID:26842903

  3. [Medicine as ars in the Roman world. Its advance from sacral to secular approach, its trading and public diffusion: socio-political considerations and their legal consequences].

    PubMed

    Coppola, G

    1995-01-01

    The close linkage between empiric knowledge and its magic religious background in the archaic period appears clearly as a main feature characterizing the medical ars at its beginning, at least till it advances to a full secular approach during the fifth and fourth century B.C. The medical knowledge, which had been a privileged inheritance of the ruling class underwent a rapid transformation with the rise of the Roman Empire and its hegemonic politics that reached its climax during the Punic wars. As it was spread to all social classes it achieved an ever increasing importance leading to its specialisation and trading. This socio-political change had repercussions on the legal field: indeed conventiones concerning medical service came into effect. As far as action was concerned, doctors were permitted to avail themselves of the cognitio extra ordinem in order to get the rewards they were entitled to. The application of the legal tool cognition was however a device embedded in a set of other remedies aiming at granting rewards and incentives i.e. privilegia and salarium. Their development over the period of the Roman Empire was linked with a growing monopoly run by the supreme authority.

  4. Computation Through Neuronal Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepp, K.

    Some of us believe that natural sciences are governed by simple and predictive general principles. This hope has not yet been fulfilled in physics for unifying gravitation and quantum mechanics. Epigenetics has shaken the monopoly of the genetic code to determine inheritance (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell. Garland, New York, 2008). It is therefore not surprising that quantum mechanics does not explain consciousness or more generally the coherence of the brain in perception, action and cognition. In an other context, others (Tegmark, Phys Rev E 61:4194-4206, 2000) and we (Koch and Hepp, Nature 440:611-612, 2006; Koch and Hepp, Visions of Discovery: New Light on Physics, Cosmology, and Consciousness. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2011) have strongly argued against the absurdity of such a claim, because consciousness is a higher brain function and not a molecular binding mechanism. Decoherence in the warm and wet brain is by many orders of magnitude too strong. Moreover, there are no efficient algorithms for neural quantum computations. However, the controversy over classical and quantum consciousness will probably never be resolved (see e.g. Hepp, J Math Phys 53:095222, 2012; Hameroff and Penrose, Phys Life Rev 11:39-78, 2013).

  5. [General Agreement on Trade in Services and its implications for public health].

    PubMed

    Umaña-Peña, Román; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Due to the economic importance of the service sector and its trade potential, in 1995 the World Trade Organization (WTO) launched the General Agreement on Trade in Services with the objective of liberalizing trade in services worldwide and of establishing rules and disciplines to regulate it. Until now, the Agreement has produced few case laws on its rules and some of them are in the process of being developed, which makes the Agreement ambiguous and hampers accurate forecasting of its implications. Nevertheless, some analysts consider that certain characteristics and rules represent a threat to the funding mechanisms of public services and to the sovereignty of governments to generate their own rules. Moreover, the Agreement would lead to irreversible formalization of commitments, without the possibility of returning to previous conditions in the case of failure of the market and/or private participation. In addition, the Agreement acts against exclusive monopolies and providers and to a certain extent this will affect subsidies to local providers. The ability of the European Communities Court of Justice to enforce the implementation of competitive measures in public services has produced uncertainty because of the implications for health services. The Spanish Agreement with the WTO contains many questions that remain open, representing an opportunity for the participation of the health sector in the next negotiation rounds.

  6. The ethical foundations of professionalism: a sociologic history.

    PubMed

    Sox, Harold C

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to trace the development of medical professionalism in medicine from its origins to the present. Codes of professional conduct are the tangible expressions of professionalism. I use them as a window into contemporary circumstances of medical practice. The medieval guilds are my framework for examining the relationship of the medical profession in relation to society. The craft guilds of postmedieval Europe wielded considerable power. They controlled entry into a craft, training, and standards of quality. By controlling the volume of production, they controlled price. The craft guilds flourished until their monopoly powers began to hinder the forces of capitalism, which influenced the state to limit the powers of the guild. The professions are the offspring of the medieval craft guilds. Since the early 19th century, the medical profession in the United States has sought guild powers. The triangular relationship between state, capitalism, and the medical profession explains the rise of the profession during the 19th century and its decline since the mid-20th century. I argue that the codes of conduct of the profession reflect what it needs to maintain its guild powers against the forces of capitalism and the state. The Charter on Medical Professionalism calls on physicians to take into account both the individual patient's needs and those of society. I believe this important clause reflects the conflict of the profession with the state and capitalism over the aggregate costs of medical care. PMID:17494802

  7. Tabletop Games: Platforms, Experimental Games and Design Recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haller, Michael; Forlines, Clifton; Koeffel, Christina; Leitner, Jakob; Shen, Chia

    While the last decade has seen massive improvements in not only the rendering quality, but also the overall performance of console and desktop video games, these improvements have not necessarily led to a greater population of video game players. In addition to continuing these improvements, the video game industry is also constantly searching for new ways to convert non-players into dedicated gamers. Despite the growing popularity of computer-based video games, people still love to play traditional board games, such as Risk, Monopoly, and Trivial Pursuit. Both video and board games have their strengths and weaknesses, and an intriguing conclusion is to merge both worlds. We believe that a tabletop form-factor provides an ideal interface for digital board games. The design and implementation of tabletop games will be influenced by the hardware platforms, form factors, sensing technologies, as well as input techniques and devices that are available and chosen. This chapter is divided into three major sections. In the first section, we describe the most recent tabletop hardware technologies that have been used by tabletop researchers and practitioners. In the second section, we discuss a set of experimental tabletop games. The third section presents ten evaluation heuristics for tabletop game design.

  8. Solar PV Project Financing: Regulatory and Legislative Challenges for Third-Party PPA System Owners

    SciTech Connect

    Kollins, K.; Speer, B.; Cory, K.

    2009-11-01

    Residential and commercial end users of electricity who want to generate electricity using on-site solar photovoltaic (PV) systems face challenging initial and O&M costs. The third-party ownership power purchase agreement (PPA) finance model addresses these and other challenges. It allows developers to build and own PV systems on customers? properties and sell power back to customers. However, third-party electricity sales commonly face five regulatory challenges. The first three challenges involve legislative or regulatory definitions of electric utilities, power generation equipment, and providers of electric services. These definitions may compel third-party owners of solar PV systems to comply with regulations that may be cost prohibitive. Third-party owners face an additional challenge if they may not net meter, a practice that provides significant financial incentive to owning solar PV systems. Finally, municipalities and cooperatives worry about the regulatory implications of allowing an entity to sell electricity within their service territories. This paper summarizes these challenges, when they occur, and how they have been addressed in five states. This paper also presents alternative to the third-party ownership PPA finance model, including solar leases, contractual intermediaries, standardized contract language, federal investment tax credits, clean renewable energy bonds, and waived monopoly powers.

  9. Electric power competition & the economic doctrine of contestable markets

    SciTech Connect

    Owan, R.E.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses electric power competition and ascribes a prototypical market structure for the utility industry. The advent of {open_quotes}limited{close_quotes} competition in the electric utility industry has created interesting market challenges for incumbent companies and those eager to enter the fray. Competition is viewed as limited in the sense that not all aspects of the utility industry have been deregulated. While transmission and distribution remain protected market segments, the metamorphosis is most evident in the generation component of the utility industry. The changes have been orchestrated by favorable actions by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). Because of the industry changes, the classical view of the electric utility company as a vertical monopoly is arguable. Welfare considerations not withstanding, part of the rationale for the deregulation of power generation is that the technology and techniques are sufficiently common (i.e. not proprietary) as to allow others to provide the same product or service at competitive prices.

  10. Full employment and competition in the Aspen economic model: implications for modeling acts of terrorism.

    SciTech Connect

    Sprigg, James A.; Ehlen, Mark Andrew

    2004-11-01

    Acts of terrorism could have a range of broad impacts on an economy, including changes in consumer (or demand) confidence and the ability of productive sectors to respond to changes. As a first step toward a model of terrorism-based impacts, we develop here a model of production and employment that characterizes dynamics in ways useful toward understanding how terrorism-based shocks could propagate through the economy; subsequent models will introduce the role of savings and investment into the economy. We use Aspen, a powerful economic modeling tool developed at Sandia, to demonstrate for validation purposes that a single-firm economy converges to the known monopoly equilibrium price, output, and employment levels, while multiple-firm economies converge toward the competitive equilibria typified by lower prices and higher output and employment. However, we find that competition also leads to churn by consumers seeking lower prices, making it difficult for firms to optimize with respect to wages, prices, and employment levels. Thus, competitive firms generate market ''noise'' in the steady state as they search for prices and employment levels that will maximize profits. In the context of this model, not only could terrorism depress overall consumer confidence and economic activity but terrorist acts could also cause normal short-run dynamics to be misinterpreted by consumers as a faltering economy.

  11. Integrating renewable energy technologies in the electric supply industry: A risk management approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, T.E.

    1997-07-01

    Regulatory and technical forces are causing electric utilities to move from a natural monopoly to a more competitive environment. Associated with this movement is an increasing concern about how to manage the risks associated with the electric supply business. One approach to managing risks is to purchase financial instruments such as options and futures contracts. Another approach is to own physical assets that have low risk attributes or characteristics. This research evaluates how investments in renewable energy technologies can mitigate risks in the electric supply industry. It identifies risks that are known to be of concern to utilities and other power producers. These risks include uncertainty in fuel prices, demand, environmental regulations, capital cost, supply, and market structure. The research then determines how investments in renewables can mitigate these risks. Methods are developed to calculate the value of renewables in terms of their attributes of fuel costs, environmental costs, lead-time, modularity, availability, initial capital costs, and investment reversibility. Examples illustrate how to apply the methods.

  12. Boosting investor yields through bond insurance

    SciTech Connect

    Mosbacher, M.L.; Burkhardt, D.A.

    1993-02-01

    The market for utility securities generally tends to be fairly static. Innovative financing techniques are rarely used because of the marketability of utility securities stemming from the companies' generally strong financial credit and the monopoly markets most utilities serve. To many people, utility securities are considered the pillars of the financial world, and innovation is not needed. Further, plain vanilla utility issues are easily understood by investors, as well as by regulators and customers. Over the past several years, however, a new utility bond product has crept into the world of utility securities - insured secondary utility bonds. These insured bonds may possibly be used as an alternative financing technique for newly issued debt. Individual investors often tend to rely on insurance as a tool for reducing credit risk and are willing to take the lower yields as a tradeoff. Insured utility bonds are created by brokerage firms through the acqusition of a portion of an outstanding utility bond issue and subsequent solicitation of the insurance companies for bids. The insurance company then agrees to insure that portion of the issue until maturity for a fee, and the brokerage firm sells those bonds to their customers as a AAA-insured bond. Issuers are encouraged to explore the retail market as a financing alternative. They may find a most cost-effective means of raising capital.

  13. Discourses of Linguistic dominance: A Historical Consideration of French Language Ideology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuya, Keisuke

    2001-07-01

    The paper offers a historical perspective on the linguistic and cultural imperialism embedded in the struggle to maintain French as a leading international language. France was the nation-state where the ideology of national language was first clearly formulated and directly extended to overseas colonies. This shows the close relationship between linguistic nationalism and imperialism. It was believed that French was the language of universal human reason and had the power to civilize people who spoke it. This myth of the "clarté française" and the "mission civilisatrice" had a strong influence on various kinds of metalinguistic discourses that created the taken-for-granted representation of French as dominant language. It is the essential strategy of language dominance to establish the hierarchy of languages as if it were natural order of things. When French was obliged to yield the status of international language to English, there emerged the ideology of "Francophonie" which tried to defend its privilege against the monopoly of English, but the same ideology is also directed against minorities' claims for their own linguistic human right. It could be said that these discourses form a recursive prototype of language dominance whose variations are to be found in other shapes almost all over the world.

  14. Reform and the politics of hybridization in mature health care states.

    PubMed

    Tuohy, Carolyn Hughes

    2012-08-01

    This article examines the cases of three health care states -- two of which (Britain and the Netherlands) have undergone major policy reform and one of which (Canada) has experienced only marginal adjustments. The British and Dutch reforms have variously altered the balance of power, the mix of instruments of control, and the organizing principles. As a result, mature systems representing the ideal-typical health care state categories of national health systems and social insurance (Britain and the Netherlands, respectively) were transformed into distinctive national hybrids. These processes have involved a politics of redesign that differs from the politics of earlier phases of establishment and retrenchment. In particular, the redesign phase is marked by the activity of institutional entrepreneurs who exploit specific opportunities afforded by public programs to combine public and private resources in innovative organizational arrangements. Canada stands as a counterpoint: no window of opportunity for major change occurred, and the bilateral monopoly created by its prototypical single-payer model provided few footholds for entrepreneurial activity. The increased significance of institutional entrepreneurs gives greater urgency to one of the central projects of health policy: the design of accountability frameworks to allow for an assessment of performance against objectives.

  15. The past, present, and future of U.S. utility demand-side management programs

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.

    1996-12-01

    Demand-side management or DSM refers to active efforts by electric and gas utilities to modify customers` energy use patterns. The experience in the US shows that utilities, when provided with appropriate incentives, can provide a powerful stimulus to energy efficiency in the private sector. This paper describes the range and history of DSM programs offered by US electric utilities, with a focus on the political, economic, and regulatory events that have shaped their evolution. It also describes the changes these programs are undergoing as a result of US electricity industry restructuring. DSM programs began modestly in the 1970s in response to growing concerns about dependence on foreign sources of oil and environmental consequences of electricity generation, especially nuclear power. The foundation for the unique US partnership between government and utility interests can be traced first to the private-ownership structure of the vertically integrated electricity industry and second to the monopoly franchise granted by state regulators. Electricity industry restructuring calls into question both of these basic conditions, and thus the future of utility DSM programs for the public interest. Future policies guiding ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency DSM programs will need to pay close attention to the specific market objectives of the programs and to the balance between public and private interests.

  16. Environmentally conscious patent histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, Dennis D.; Crouch, Henry L.

    2004-02-01

    There is a need for investigators, legislators, and business leaders to understand the magnitude of innovation and discovery in the field of environmentally conscious technologies (ECTs). Knowledge of the "big picture" is important to providing a national and global account of actual environmental stewardship over the last twenty-five years. A recitation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supported Acts which have been enacted into law reveals one facet of the multifaceted dynamic of environmental consciousness. The popular discussion and debate, as well as partisan lobbying, which created the political forces leading to environmentally conscious legislation is another facet. A third facet is the corporate response to the threats and opportunities predicted by CEO"s and others through environmental scanning. This paper examines changes in environmentally conscious inventive effort by comparing data from United States Patents issued from 1976 through 2003. Patents are useful tool for measuring technological innovation because they are publicly available records of innovative activity. Although not all inventions result in patent applications, the monopoly rights granted on the invention give the inventor a strong incentive to obtain patents on any viable product or process. Among the results, we found a significant increase in patents relating to environmentally conscious products and processes during the period in question. Specifically, a dramatic increase in patent activity was seen for the decade of the 1990"s. Surprisingly, the patenting rate from 2000 to 2003 seems to have stabilized. Additionally public discussion of ECTs appears to have a positive impact on patent filings.

  17. The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: challenges for Australian health and medicine policies.

    PubMed

    Faunce, Thomas A; Townsend, Ruth

    2011-01-17

    Four formal rounds of Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) negotiations took place in 2010. They involved over 200 officials from Australia, the United States, New Zealand, Chile, Singapore, Brunei, Peru, Vietnam and Malaysia. Future negotiations officially are set to include three issues with public health and medicines policy implications for Australia and our region: ways to approach regulatory coherence and transparency; how to benefit multinational and small-medium enterprises; and multilateral investor-state dispute settlement. US-based multinational pharmaceutical companies are lobbying for TPPA provisions like those in the Australia-US Free Trade Agreement, which reduce government cost-effectiveness regulatory control of pharmaceuticals, threatening equitable access to medicines. They also advocate increased TPPA intellectual monopoly privilege protection, which will further limit the development of Australian generic medicine enterprises and restrict patient access to cheap, bioequivalent prescription drugs. Of particular concern is that proposed TPPA multilateral investor-state dispute settlement procedures would allow US corporations (as well as those of other TPPA nations) to obtain damages against Australian governments through international arbitral proceedings if their investments are impeded by Australian public health and environment protection legislation.

  18. The Roman state and genetic pacification.

    PubMed

    Frost, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Over the last 10,000 years, the human genome has changed at an accelerating rate. The change seems to reflect adaptations to new social environments, including the rise of the State and its monopoly on violence. State societies punish young men who act violently on their own initiative. In contrast, non-State societies usually reward such behavior with success, including reproductive success. Thus, given the moderate to high heritability of male aggressiveness, the State tends to remove violent predispositions from the gene pool while favoring tendencies toward peacefulness and submission. This perspective is applied here to the Roman state, specifically its long-term effort to pacify the general population. By imperial times, this effort had succeeded so well that the Romans saw themselves as being inherently less violent than the "barbarians" beyond their borders. By creating a pacified and submissive population, the empire also became conducive to the spread of Christianity--a religion of peace and submission. In sum, the Roman state imposed a behavioral change that would over time alter the mix of genotypes, thus facilitating a subsequent ideological change. PMID:22947807

  19. Funny money: the attentional role of monetary feedback detached from expected value.

    PubMed

    Roper, Zachary J J; Vecera, Shaun P

    2016-10-01

    Stimuli associated with monetary reward can become powerful cues that effectively capture visual attention. We examined whether such value-driven attentional capture can be induced with monetary feedback in the absence of an expected cash payout. To this end, we implemented images of U.S. dollar bills as reward feedback. Participants knew in advance that they would not receive any money based on their performance. Our reward stimuli-$5 and $20 bill images-were thus dissociated from any practical utility. Strikingly, we observed a reliable attentional capture effect for the mere images of bills. Moreover, this finding generalized to Monopoly money. In two control experiments, we found no evidence in favor of nominal or symbolic monetary value. Hence, we claim that bill images are special monetary representations, such that there are strong associations between the defining visual features of bills and reward, probably due to a lifelong learning history. Together, we show that the motivation to earn cash plays a minor role when it comes to monetary rewards, while bill-defining visual features seem to be sufficient. These findings have the potential to influence human factor applications, such as gamification, and can be extended to novel value systems, such as the electronic cash Bitcoin being developed for use in mobile banking. Finally, our procedure represents a proof of concept on how images of money can be used to conserve expenditures in the experimental context. PMID:27245703

  20. The Role of Regulatory Agencies and Intellectual Property: Part II.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Kevin E

    2015-03-16

    Patent law and antitrust law have traditionally been areas of the law involving at least some inherent tension. Champions of antitrust argue that the patent "monopoly" must be strictly limited as an exception to the general legal principle that competition should be unfettered. Patent lawyers argue that patents are the result of an exercise of congressional authority, enshrined in the Constitution, reflecting the policy decision by the Founders that granting a limited exclusionary right was justified by the public benefits derived from full disclosure of the patented invention. In the modern era these competing values have played out in the context of so-called ANDA litigation, involving disputes between branded pharmaceutical companies and generic competitors. Settlement of such litigation has been identified by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and private parties encouraged by the FTC's position, as an antitrust violation, in large part because such settlements are viewed as frustrating the congressional purpose in promoting early generic competition. After almost a decade of fighting these battles in the federal courts, the Supreme Court addressed the issue directly. The result is that such settlements are not per se illegal but are also not protected by the presumption of patent validity for activities within the "scope of the patent." Rather, the court decided that these agreements should be assessed for antitrust liability under the "rule of reason" used in other antitrust contexts.

  1. Gender and power contestations over water use in irrigation schemes: Lessons from the lake Chilwa basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkhoma, Bryson; Kayira, Gift

    2016-04-01

    Over the past two decades, Malawi has been adversely hit by climatic variability and changes, and irrigation schemes which rely mostly on water from rivers have been negatively affected. In the face of dwindling quantities of water, distribution and sharing of water for irrigation has been a source of contestations and conflicts. Women who constitute a significant section of irrigation farmers in schemes have been major culprits. The study seeks to analyze gender contestations and conflicts over the use of water in the schemes developed in the Lake Chilwa basin, in southern Malawi. Using oral and written sources as well as drawing evidence from participatory and field observations conducted at Likangala and Domasi irrigation schemes, the largest schemes in the basin, the study observes that women are not passive victims of male domination over the use of dwindling waters for irrigation farming. They have often used existing political and traditional structures developed in the management of water in the schemes to competitively gain monopoly over water. They have sometimes expressed their agency by engaging in irrigation activities that fall beyond the control of formal rules and regulations of irrigation agriculture. Other than being losers, women are winning the battle for water and land resources in the basin.

  2. Information and communications technology in U.S. health care: why is adoption so slow and is slower better?

    PubMed

    Christensen, Michael C; Remler, Dahlia

    2009-12-01

    Politicians across the political spectrum support greater investment in health care information and communications technology (ICT) and expect it to significantly decrease costs and improve health outcomes. We address three policy questions about adoption of ICT in health care: First, why is there so little adoption? Second, what policies will facilitate and accelerate adoption? Third, what is the best pace for adoption? We first describe the unusual economics of ICT, particularly network externalities, and then determine how those economics interact with and are exacerbated by the unusual economics of health care. High replacement costs and the need for technical compatibility are general barriers to ICT adoption and often result in lock-in to adopted technologies. These effects are compounded in health care because the markets for health care services, health insurance, and labor are interlinked. In addition, the government interacts with all markets in its role as an insurer. Patient heterogeneity further exacerbates these effects. Finally, ICT markets are often characterized by natural monopolies, resulting in little product diversity, an effect ill-suited to patient heterogeneity. The ongoing process for setting technical standards for health care ICT is critical but needs to include all relevant stakeholders, including patient groups. The process must be careful (i.e., slow), flexible, and allow for as much diversity as possible. We find that waiting to adopt ICT is a surprisingly wise policy.

  3. Integration: the firm and the health care sector.

    PubMed

    Laugesen, Miriam J; France, George

    2014-07-01

    Integration in health care is a key goal of health reform in United States and England. Yet past efforts in the 1990s to better integrate the delivery system were of limited success. Building on work by Bevan and Janus on delivery integration, this article explores integration through the lens of economic theories of integration. Firms generally integrate to increase efficiency through economies of scale, to improve their market power, and resolve the transaction costs involved with multiple external suppliers. Using the United States and England as laboratories, we apply concepts of economic integration to understand why integration does or does not occur in health care, and whether expectations of integrating different kinds of providers (hospital, primary care) and health and social services are realistic. Current enthusiasm for a more integrated health care system expands the scope of integration to include social services in England, but retains the focus on health care in the United States. We find mixed applicability of economic theories of integration. Economies of scale have not played a significant role in stimulating integration in both countries. Managerial incentives for monopoly or oligopoly may be more compelling in the United States, since hospitals seek higher prices and more leverage over payers. In both countries the concept of transaction costs could explain the success of new payment and budgeting methods, since health care integration ultimately requires resolving transaction costs across different delivery organizations. PMID:24759287

  4. Addressing Pricing Power in Integrated Delivery: The Limits of Antitrust.

    PubMed

    Berenson, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Prices are the major driver of why the United States spends so much more on health care than other countries do. The pricing power that hospitals have garnered recently has resulted from consolidated delivery systems and concentrated markets, leading to enhanced negotiating leverage. But consolidation may be the wrong frame for viewing the problem of high and highly variable prices; many "must-have" hospitals achieve their pricing power from sources other than consolidation, for example, reputation. Further, the frame of consolidation leads to unrealistic expectations for what antitrust's role in addressing pricing power should be, especially because in the wake of two periods of merger "manias" and "frenzies" many markets already lack effective competition. It is particularly challenging for antitrust to address extant monopolies lawfully attained. New payment and delivery models being pioneered in Medicare, especially those built around accountable care organizations (ACOs), offer an opportunity to reduce pricing power, but only if they are implemented with a clear eye on the impact on prices in commercial insurance markets. This article proposes approaches that public and private payers should consider to complement the role of antitrust to assure that ACOs will actually help control costs in commercial markets as well as in Medicare and Medicaid. PMID:26124302

  5. Energy and environmental efficiency in competitive power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, W.M.

    1995-02-01

    For years the electric utility industry operated as a regulated monopoly, largely immune to market forces except those of competing fuels. That era came to an end with the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) of 1974, which created a market for non-utility generated power. Within twenty years, non-regulated, non-utility generators had become the primary supplier of new energy resources. Their market power is matched by their political power, as evidenced in the Energy Policy Act of 1994 (EPAct), which requires open access to utility transmission lines to facilitate inter-utility bulk power sales. The conventional wisdom is that active wholesale power markets with competition among alternative generators will lead to lower power-development costs and cheaper retail power prices. The trend towards alternative bulk power sources at low prices intersects with large retail power customers` interest in accessing alternative power supplies. In most cases, these alternatives to local utilities are at a lower cost than retail rates. For the most part, proponents of generation competition have remained silent about potential environmental consequences. However, skeptics of increased competition, including major environmental groups, cite environmental impacts among their concerns. This report examines these concerns.

  6. On Having No Head: Cognition throughout Biological Systems.

    PubMed

    Baluška, František; Levin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) underlies memory, perception, decision-making, and behavior in numerous organisms. However, neural networks have no monopoly on the signaling functions that implement these remarkable algorithms. It is often forgotten that neurons optimized cellular signaling modes that existed long before the CNS appeared during evolution, and were used by somatic cellular networks to orchestrate physiology, embryonic development, and behavior. Many of the key dynamics that enable information processing can, in fact, be implemented by different biological hardware. This is widely exploited by organisms throughout the tree of life. Here, we review data on memory, learning, and other aspects of cognition in a range of models, including single celled organisms, plants, and tissues in animal bodies. We discuss current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms at work in these systems, and suggest several hypotheses for future investigation. The study of cognitive processes implemented in aneural contexts is a fascinating, highly interdisciplinary topic that has many implications for evolution, cell biology, regenerative medicine, computer science, and synthetic bioengineering.

  7. The Effects of Intellectual Property Rights on Access to Medicines and Catastrophic Expenditure.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youn; Kwon, Soonman

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in 1995, there has been considerable concern that poor access to essential medicines in developing countries would be exacerbated because strengthening intellectual property rights (IPR) leads to monopoly of pharmaceutical markets and delayed entry of lower-cost generic drugs. However, despite extensive research and disputes regarding this issue, there are few empirical studies on the topic. In this study, we investigated the effect of IPR on access to medicines and catastrophic expenditure for medicines, using data from World Health Surveys 2002-2003. The index of patent rights developed by Ginarte and Park (1997) was used to measure the IPR protection level of each country. Estimates were adjusted for individual and country characteristics. In the results of multilevel logistic regression analyses, higher level of IPR significantly increased the likelihood of nonaccess to prescribed medicines even after controlling for individual socioeconomic status and national characteristics associated with access to medicines. This study's finding on the negative impact of IPR on access to medicines calls for the implementation of more active policy at the supra-national level to improve access in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:26077858

  8. Addressing Pricing Power in Integrated Delivery: The Limits of Antitrust.

    PubMed

    Berenson, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Prices are the major driver of why the United States spends so much more on health care than other countries do. The pricing power that hospitals have garnered recently has resulted from consolidated delivery systems and concentrated markets, leading to enhanced negotiating leverage. But consolidation may be the wrong frame for viewing the problem of high and highly variable prices; many "must-have" hospitals achieve their pricing power from sources other than consolidation, for example, reputation. Further, the frame of consolidation leads to unrealistic expectations for what antitrust's role in addressing pricing power should be, especially because in the wake of two periods of merger "manias" and "frenzies" many markets already lack effective competition. It is particularly challenging for antitrust to address extant monopolies lawfully attained. New payment and delivery models being pioneered in Medicare, especially those built around accountable care organizations (ACOs), offer an opportunity to reduce pricing power, but only if they are implemented with a clear eye on the impact on prices in commercial insurance markets. This article proposes approaches that public and private payers should consider to complement the role of antitrust to assure that ACOs will actually help control costs in commercial markets as well as in Medicare and Medicaid.

  9. Innovation and The Welfare Effects of Public Drug Insurance*

    PubMed Central

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Sood, Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Rewarding inventors with inefficient monopoly power has long been regarded as the price of encouraging innovation. Prescription drug insurance escapes that trade-off and achieves an elusive goal: lowering static deadweight loss, without reducing incentives for innovation. As a result of this feature, the public provision of drug insurance can be welfare-improving, even for risk-neutral and purely self-interested consumers. The design of insurers’ cost-sharing schedules can either reinforce or mitigate this result. Schedules that impose higher consumer cost-sharing requirements on more expensive drugs help ensure that insurance subsidies translate into higher utilization, rather than pure increases in manufacturer profits. Moreover, some degree of price-negotiation with manufacturers is likely to be welfare-improving, but the optimal degree depends on the size of such transactions costs, as well as the social cost of weakening innovation incentives by lowering innovator profits. These results have practical implications for the evaluation of public drug insurance programs like the US Medicaid and Medicare Part D programs, along with European insurance schemes. PMID:20454467

  10. Opportunities for the power industry in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, R.W.; Pinkney, C.; Feld, L.; Kreil, E.; Lockwood, A.W.

    1996-11-01

    South Africa is a country in the midst of transformation. Political changes within the country, and the ensuing empowerment of the black majority, have created a situation where dramatic improvements are needed in the country`s infrastructure in order to enable it to meet the needs of all its people over the coming decades. Largely as a result of the international embargo placed on South Africa during the apartheid era, the South African government became heavily involved in the country`s energy sector. This involvement included development of a synfuels program, price controls in the oil sector, monopolies in both upstream and downstream oil sectors, and a strong centralized electric power company. In 1994, South Africa became the eleventh member of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), an organization which was established in 1980 to synchronize development plans for its member countries. SADC is presently working to formulate a regional energy development plan, and coordinate technical information exchanges and joint research needs. Each of the SADC nations have also begun to develop their regional electricity grids and other parts of their energy infrastructure to plan for the growing needs of the 500 million people who live in sub-Saharan Africa. South Africa, in particular, must make significant changes in each of its energy sectors in the near future, to keep up with its growing energy requirements. These changes translate to opportunity for the US Power Industry.

  11. Nestle and breast vs. bottle feeding: mainstream and Marxist perspectives.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C E

    1984-01-01

    The breast vs. bottle feeding issue has sparked a controversial debate. Mainstream analysis of the problem shows that arguments made by the business community, as represented by the Nestle Corporation, do not withstand examination of the evidence. For example, it cannot be substantiated that women begin formula feeding because they have entered the labor force. Mainstream studies of cost effectiveness further indicate that bottle feeding is a drain on the incomes of impoverished Third World families and nations. Marxist analysis gives a very different perspective. Nestle represents 19th century capitalist development and the Industrial Revolution, and 20th century imperialism, neocolonialism and monopoly capitalism. Its motive has been capital accumulation and expansion. To increase surplus value appropriation, capitalism must devalue the household (subsistence) economy in which women enjoyed considerable status. Women also produce the most fundamental commodity for capitalism-laborers; therefore, the biological connection must be masked and controlled for the benefit of capital. Thus, as the capitalist mode of production has developed, women have been removed from important roles in production and reproduction. Coupled with the ascendancy of science, expertism and public health imperialism, breast feeding in any market economy becomes nearly impossible. As women internalize the values of capitalist ideology, they elevate "man-made" marketed commodities over subsistence goods such as breast milk. PMID:6500784

  12. 'Government Patent Use': A Legal Approach To Reducing Drug Spending.

    PubMed

    Kapczynski, Amy; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-05-01

    The high cost of patent-protected brand-name drugs can strain budgets and curb the widespread use of new medicines. An example is the case of direct-acting antiviral drugs for the treatment of hepatitis C. While prices for these drugs have come down in recent months, they still create barriers to treatment. Additionally, prescribing restrictions imposed by insurers put patients at increased risk of medical complications and contribute to transmission of the hepatitis C virus. We propose that the federal government invoke its power under an existing "government patent use" law to reduce excessive prices for important patent-protected medicines. Using this law would permit the government to procure generic versions of patented drugs and in exchange pay the patent-holding companies reasonable royalties to compensate them for research and development. This would allow patients in federal programs, and perhaps beyond, to be treated with inexpensive generic medicines according to clinical need-meaning that many more patients could be reached for no more, and perhaps far less, money than is currently spent. Another benefit would be a reduction in the opportunity for companies to extract monopoly profits that far exceed their risk-adjusted costs of research and development.

  13. Does natural selection organize ecosystems for the maintenance of high productivity and diversity?

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Egbert Giles; Vermeij, Geerat Jacobus

    2002-01-01

    Three types of evidence suggest that natural ecosystems are organized for high productivity and diversity: (i) changes not previously experienced by a natural ecosystem, such as novel human disturbances, tend to diminish its productivity and/or diversity, just as 'random' changes in a machine designed for a function usually impair its execution of that function; (ii) humans strive to recreate properties of natural ecosystems to enhance productivity of artificial ones, as farmers try to recreate properties of natural soils in their fields; and (iii) productivity and diversity have increased during the Earth's history as a whole, and after every major biotic crisis. Natural selection results in ecosystems organized to maintain high productivity of organic matter and diversity of species, just as competition among individuals in Adam Smith's ideal economy favours high production of wealth and diversity of occupations. In nature, poorly exploited energy attracts more efficient users. This circumstance favours the opening of new ways of life and more efficient recycling of resources, and eliminates most productivity-reducing 'ecological monopolies'. Ecological dominants tend to be replaced by successors with higher metabolism, which respond to more stimuli and engage in more varied interactions. Finally, increasingly efficient predators and herbivores favour faster turnover of resources. PMID:12079531

  14. Reunification, democratization and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jee-Hun

    1990-06-01

    The division of the nation into two separate political entities and the later development of dependent capitalism in South Korea have created two important eductional tasks, to do with reunification and democratization. Reunification requires liberation from the influence of foreign powers involved in the national partition and the development of dependent capitalism. Reunification-oriented education emphasizes understanding foreign influences in every sphere of the people's life, understanding the true realities of the two Koreas which have developed in different ways, and overcoming anti-communist ideological obfuscation. Democratization implies the enhancement of people's participation in the exercise and control of political and economic power at every level. For this purpose people need to be educated to participate in order to prevent the abuse of highly centralized power. United and collective action by teachers is required to protect schools from the state monopoly in education and to maintain the integrity and independence of a teaching profession so that pupils can learn and practise democratic values at school.

  15. Trade policy, health, and corporate influence: British American tobacco and China's accession to the World Trade Organization.

    PubMed

    Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley; Gilmore, Anna; Fooks, Gary; Wander, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco market liberalization can have a profound impact on health. This article analyzes internal documents of British American Tobacco (BAT), released as a result of litigation in the United States, in order to examine the company's attempts to influence negotiations over China's accession to the World Trade Organization. The documents demonstrate that BAT attempted to influence these negotiations through a range of mechanisms, including personal access of BAT employees and lobbyists to policymakers; employment of former civil servants from key U.K. government departments; use of organized business groups such as the Multinational Chairmen's Group and the European Round Table; and participation and leadership in forums organized by Chatham House. These processes contributed to significant concessions on the liberalization of the tobacco market in China, although the failure to break the Chinese state monopoly over the manufacture and distribution of cigarettes has ensured that foreign tobacco companies' share of the Chinese market has remained small. World Trade Organization accession has nevertheless led to a profound restructuring of the Chinese tobacco industry in anticipation of foreign competition, which may result in more market-based and internationally oriented Chinese tobacco firms. PMID:20799669

  16. Access to essential medicines: a Hobbesian social contract approach.

    PubMed

    Ashcroft, Richard E

    2005-05-01

    Medicines that are vital for the saving and preserving of life in conditions of public health emergency or endemic serious disease are known as essential medicines. In many developing world settings such medicines may be unavailable, or unaffordably expensive for the majority of those in need of them. Furthermore, for many serious diseases (such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) these essential medicines are protected by patents that permit the patent-holder to operate a monopoly on their manufacture and supply, and to price these medicines well above marginal cost. Recent international legal doctrine has placed great stress on the need to globalise intellectual property rights protections, and on the rights of intellectual property rights holders to have their property rights enforced. Although international intellectual property rights law does permit compulsory licensing of protected inventions in the interests of public health, the use of this right by sovereign states has proved highly controversial. In this paper I give an argument in support of states' sovereign right to expropriate private intellectual property in conditions of public health emergency. This argument turns on a social contract argument for the legitimacy of states. The argument shows, further, that under some circumstances states are not merely permitted compulsory to license inventions, but are actually obliged to do so, on pain of failure of their legitimacy as sovereign states. The argument draws freely on a loose interpretation of Thomas Hobbes's arguments in his Leviathan, and on an analogy between his state of War and the situation of public health disasters.

  17. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: the Centre for Addictions Research of British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Tim; Reist, Dan; Macdonald, Scott; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael

    2010-02-01

    The Centre for Addictions Research of British Columbia (CARBC) was established as a multi-campus and multi-disciplinary research centre administered by the University of Victoria (UVic) in late 2003. Its core funding is provided from interest payments on an endowment of CAD 10.55 million dollars. It is supported by a commitment to seven faculty appointments in various departments at UVic. The Centre has two offices, an administration and research office in Victoria and a knowledge exchange unit in Vancouver. The two offices are collaborating on the implementation of CARBC's first 5-year plan which seeks to build capacity in British Columbia for integrated multi-disciplinary research and knowledge exchange in the areas substance use, addictions and harm reduction. Present challenges include losses to the endowment caused by the 2008/2009 economic crisis and difficulties negotiating faculty positions with the university administration. Despite these hurdles, to date each year has seen increased capacity for the Centre in terms of affiliated scientists, funding and staffing as well as output in terms of published reports, electronic resources and impacts on policy and practice. Areas of special research interest include: drug testing in the work-place, epidemiological monitoring, substance use and injury, pricing and taxation policies, privatization of liquor monopolies, polysubstance use, health determinants of indigenous peoples, street-involved youth and other vulnerable populations at risk of substance use problems. Further information about the Centre and its activities can be found on http://www.carbc.ca. PMID:20078479

  18. The influence of economic interests on alcohol control policy: a case study from Finland.

    PubMed

    Alavaikko, M; Osterberg, E

    2000-12-01

    Finland's participation in the European Union has meant that Finnish markets have been opened to international competition and that the traditional alcohol policy decision-making that revolved around Alko, the state alcohol monopoly company, has become impossible. The influence of private commercial interests increased in the 1990s but not in a straightforward manner. They had their biggest influence in the mid-1990s when the 1994 Alcohol Act was drafted and accepted. After that the influence of commercial interests has declined, and nowadays the alcohol question is again discussed in terms of public health and safety and drinking among young people. Integration did not lead to the expected deregulation of alcohol control but to new forms of regulation, where EU authorities such as the Commission and the EU Court also play an important role. Alcohol policy-making is now more transparent, and free trade and competition without interference are much more stressed than previously. These are the new frames of public intervention in the alcohol question, both in the trade of alcoholic beverages and in the taking care of individuals harmed by the use of alcohol.

  19. Stress and the suppression of subordinate reproduction in cooperatively breeding meerkats.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew J; Carlson, Anne A; Monfort, Steven L; Russell, Andrew F; Bennett, Nigel C; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2006-08-01

    In many animal societies, dominant individuals monopolize reproduction, but the tactics they employ to achieve this are poorly understood. One possibility is that aggressive dominants render their subordinates infertile by inducing chronic physiological "stress." However, this hypothesis has been discarded largely for cooperatively breeding species, where reproductive monopolies are often extreme. Here we provide strong support for the stress-related suppression hypothesis in a cooperative mammal, the meerkat (Suricata suricatta). When pregnant, dominant females subject some subordinate females to escalating aggression, culminating in temporary evictions from the group. While evicted, subordinate females suffer chronic elevation of their glucocorticoid adrenal hormone levels, reproductive down-regulation (reduced pituitary sensitivity to gonadotropin-releasing hormone), reduced conception rates, and increased abortion rates. Rather than constantly harassing all subordinate females, dominants only become aggressive when pregnant themselves (when subordinate reproduction would otherwise conflict with their own) and target those females with whom reproductive conflict is most likely (older, pregnant, and more distantly related females). Our findings suggest that dominant female meerkats employ stressful evictions to suppress reproduction among their probable competitors, when attempting to breed themselves. Given the lack of evidence for stress-related suppression in other cooperative breeders to date, it is clear that social stress alone cannot account for the reproductive failure of subordinates across such societies. However, our findings raise the possibility that, in some cooperative breeders at least, dominants may employ stress-related suppression as a backup mechanism to guard against lapses in reproductive restraint by their subordinates.

  20. Sir Kenelm Digby (1603-1665): diplomat, entrepreneur, privateer, duellist, scientist and philosopher.

    PubMed

    Mellick, Sam A

    2011-12-01

    Kenelm Digby was a man with widely differing interests. He studied at Oxford but left without a degree. At the age of 20, he was involved in a dramatic street brawl in Madrid; the following year saw him as a successful privateer in the Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic waters, and he was then appointed a naval administrator with lucrative trade monopolies. He practised medicine without formal qualifications and gained notoriety by promoting the use of 'sympathetic' powder for healing wounds. Befriended by King James I and his son who succeeded him, he became chancellor to Queen Henrietta and was knighted by King James I on 21 October 1623 and appointed to the Privy Council. At one time, he even spent a brief time in prison, but he later became a founding member of the Royal Society and published two major philosophical treatises as well as a popular cookbook. He designed and manufactured wine bottles with tapered necks for simpler pouring and square sides for easy stacking. He dabbled in mathematics and corresponded with Fermat of 'Last Theorem' fame. In 1641, he challenged a French nobleman who publicly cast a slur on the British King to a 'digladiation' (a sword duel) and quickly dispatched him. He was a friend and admirer of Sir Thomas Browne whose 'Religio Medici' he helped to publish. The Cowlishaw Library holds a 1659 5th edition copy of this remarkable book, with Digby's name on the spine. Truly, Digby must qualify as a Renaissance man. PMID:22507419

  1. Genetically Modified Plants: Public and Scientific Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The potential of genetically modified plants to meet the requirements of growing population is not being recognized at present. This is a consequence of concerns raised by the public and the critics about their applications and release into the environment. These include effect on human health and environment, biosafety, world trade monopolies, trustworthiness of public institutions, integrity of regulatory agencies, loss of individual choice, and ethics as well as skepticism about the real potential of the genetically modified plants, and so on. Such concerns are enormous and prevalent even today. However, it should be acknowledged that most of them are not specific for genetically modified plants, and the public should not forget that the conventionally bred plants consumed by them are also associated with similar risks where no information about the gene(s) transfer is available. Moreover, most of the concerns are hypothetical and lack scientific background. Though a few concerns are still to be disproved, it is viewed that, with proper management, these genetically modified plants have immense potential for the betterment of mankind. In the present paper, an overview of the raised concerns and wherever possible reasons assigned to explain their intensity or unsuitability are reviewed. PMID:25937981

  2. A review of the impacts of tobacco industry privatisation: Implications for policy

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Anna B.; Fooks, Gary; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    State owned tobacco monopolies, which still account for 40% of global cigarette production, face continued pressure from, among others, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), to be privatised. This review of available literature on tobacco industry privatisation suggests that any economic benefits of privatisation may be lower than supposed because private owners avoid competitive tenders (thus underpaying for assets), negotiate lengthy tax holidays and are complicit in the smuggling of cigarettes to avoid import and excise duties. It outlines how privatisation leads to increased marketing, more effective distribution and lower prices, creating additional demand for cigarettes among new and existing smokers, leading to increased cigarette consumption, higher smoking prevalence and lower age of smoking initiation. Privatisation also weakens tobacco control because private owners, in their drive for profits, lobby aggressively against effective policies and ignore or overturn existing policies. This evidence suggests that further tobacco industry privatisation is likely to increase smoking and that instead of transferring assets from state to private ownership, alternative models of supply should be explored. PMID:21790502

  3. Slavery, smallpox, and revolution: 1792 in Ile de France (Mauritius).

    PubMed

    Vaughan, M

    2000-12-01

    In 1792 a slave-ship arrived on the french Indian Ocean island of Ile de France (Mauritius) from South India, bringing with it smallpox. As the epidemic spread, a heated debate ensued over the practice of inoculation. The island was in the throes of revolutionary politics and the community of French colonists were acutely aware of their new rights as 'citizens'. In the course of the smallpox epidemic, many of the political tenisons of the period came to focus on the question of inoculation, and were played out on the bodies of slaves. Whilst some citizens asserted their right, as property owners, to inoculate their slaves, others, equally vehemently, objected to the practice and asserted their right to protect their slaves from infection. Eighteenth-century colonial medicine was largely geared to keeping the bodies of slaves and workers productive and useful, but formal medicine never had a monopoly. Slaves on Ile de France brought with them a rich array of medical beliefs and practices from Africa, India, and Madagascar. We have little direct historical evidence for these, but we do know that many slaves came from areas in which forces of smallpox inoculation were known and practised.

  4. "To me, it's my life": medical communication, trust, and activism in cyberspace.

    PubMed

    Radin, Patricia

    2006-02-01

    This paper studies the conversations and activities of an online support group for breast cancer sufferers and survivors and their supporters. Using communications medium theory and social capital theory, it examines the mundane and profound exchanges, the poignant self-disclosures, the creative expressions of solidarity, and the minor but not-insignificant political actions of people--initially strangers--who come together as a 'virtuous circle,' not only to assist with medical issues but also to meet emotional and even material needs. Sponsored by the Canadian nonprofit organization Breast Cancer Action Nova Scotia (BCANS), this virtual community has logged over a half million messages since 1996. Not every BCANS participant is an activist--many are just trying to grapple with their disease--but some find ways to shatter the professional "information monopoly," and to press for healthcare improvements. The study illustrates the scope, passion, and complexity of peer-to-peer medical communication in a virtual environment that promotes "thick trust". BCANS participants discuss with candor, warmth and even humor such painful topics as death and dying and the crises in intimate relationships brought about by a terminal illness. The sharing of confidences and fears enables participants to pool their 'collective intelligence' about many things, from how to cope with swelling, to how to think about end-of-life issues, to how to improve social policy.

  5. Liberty and the Limits to the Extraterrestrial State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockell, C. S.

    The physical conditions that inhere in extraterrestrial environments have a tendency to drive society toward collectivist mechanisms of political and economic order to successfully cope with, and prevent possible disaster caused by, the lethal external conditions. Liberty will therefore be eroded by deliberate human action, through extraterrestrial authorities, and through a natural restriction in concepts of liberty that will attend the development and behaviour of people in confined environments. The emergence of extraterrestrial governance that nurtures liberty in outer space will require the formation of many institutions that encourage competition and reduce political and economic monopolies - with the legal system to sustain them. This problem is most clearly manifest in oxygen production. These considerations allow the purpose and limits of the extraterrestrial state and precursor forms of governance to be circumscribed. Far from being a purely speculative enquiry, this discussion allows requirements in physical architecture and social organisation to be identified that can be considered from the earliest stages of space exploration and settlement.

  6. A rare opportunity beckons

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, K

    2011-02-01

    There is a great deal of uncertainty for the future of rare-earth production. Rare-earths are a collection of 17 chemical elements in the periodic table, which include scandium and yttrium as well as the 15 lanthanides, such as dysprosium and ytterbium. China has a stranglehold on today's rare-earth market, which was worth about $3bn in 2010, with the country accounting for about 95% of worldwide production. Yet China's future actions can only be guessed at best. In September it halted shipments of rare-earth elements to Japan over a diplomatic spat concerning the detention of a Chinese trawler captain. Although the ban was later lifted, the episode raised concerns around the world about China's rare-earth monopoly and its use in diplomacy. China has already warned that it will not export any rare-earth material in the coming years as it expects its own consumption of rare-earth metals to increase. The country has introduced export taxes as well as production and export quotas, and also refused to grant any new rare-earth mining licences. Furthermore, because its reserves are limited and China's internal markets are growing so rapidly, the country has suggested it will no longer export products that require rare-earth elements, especially those that need heavy rare-earth elements, such as terbium and dysprosium. China's actions have led to huge rises in the cost of rare-earth materials and products. Dysprosium oxide, for example, has shot up from $36 per kilogram in 2005 to a massive $305 per kilogram by late last year. This could have a huge impact on much of today's electronics industry, given that rare-earth elements are ubiquitous in electric motors, computers, batteries, liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) and mobile phones. Neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets, for example, are used as computer spindle drives. The question is: what can be done to ensure that China's dominance of the rare-earth industry does not affect the military and energy security of the US

  7. Uncovering the end uses of the rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoyue; Graedel, T E

    2013-09-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging and conventional established technologies. However, quantitative knowledge of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in future availability of the resources. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supply vulnerable to short term disruption. We have drawn upon the published literature and unpublished materials in different languages to derive the first quantitative annual domestic production by end use of individual rare earth elements from 1995 to 2007. The information is illustrated in Sankey diagrams for the years 1995 and 2007. Other years are available in the supporting information. Comparing 1995 and 2007, the production of the rare earth elements in China, Japan, and the US changed dramatically in quantities and structure. The information can provide a solid foundation for industries, academic institutions and governments to make decisions and develop strategies.

  8. Patent protection strategies

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Himanshu; Kumar, Suresh; Roy, Saroj Kumar; Gaud, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the pharmaceutical industry faces serious financial challenges. Large numbers of blockbuster drugs are losing patent protection and going generic. The pipeline of new drugs is too sparse to fill the gap and generate a platform for future growth. Moreover, many of the new products are biologics with much narrower target patient populations and comparatively higher prices relative to traditional pharmaceuticals. So now the time has come for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Facing this scenario, the pharmaceutical industry has moved to accelerate drug development process and to adopt at the same time different strategies to extend the life time of the patent monopoly to provide the economic incentives and utilizing it for drug discovery and development. This review covers the need of patent protection and various strategies to extend the patent. PMID:21814422

  9. Specialized science.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2014-04-01

    As the body of scientific knowledge in a discipline increases, there is pressure for specialization. Fields spawn subfields that then become entities in themselves that promote further specialization. The process by which scientists join specialized groups has remarkable similarities to the guild system of the middle ages. The advantages of specialization of science include efficiency, the establishment of normative standards, and the potential for greater rigor in experimental research. However, specialization also carries risks of monopoly, monotony, and isolation. The current tendency to judge scientific work by the impact factor of the journal in which it is published may have roots in overspecialization, as scientists are less able to critically evaluate work outside their field than before. Scientists in particular define themselves through group identity and adopt practices that conform to the expectations and dynamics of such groups. As part of our continuing analysis of issues confronting contemporary science, we analyze the emergence and consequences of specialization in science, with a particular emphasis on microbiology, a field highly vulnerable to balkanization along microbial phylogenetic boundaries, and suggest that specialization carries significant costs. We propose measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of scientific specialism. PMID:24421049

  10. New business with the new military.

    PubMed

    Apgar, Mahlon; Keane, John M

    2004-09-01

    A $200 billion market has appeared on your business horizon, but you may not have noticed it. It's the U.S. military--the new U.S. military. Virtually all aspects of the military are changing to ensure it can fight unpredictable threats while sustaining the infrastructure needed to support and train forces. The military is turning to non-traditional business partners to meet a wide range of needs, from health care to housing to information technology. The Defense Department is yielding its monopoly on every aspect of national security and adopting a more businesslike model in which the military's warfighting capabilities are supported through outsourcing and business alliances. Civilians are replacing military personnel in many noncombat roles. Military functions with corporate equivalents are candidates for outsourcing and privatization. Market standards are replacing the heavy customization that has locked many companies out of this marketplace. The authors have participated in the transformation process from different perspectives--one civilian, the other military. Together, they highlight the prospects that transformation is creating for companies outside the traditional defense industry and reveal paths to success in this complex market. They also present six principles for doing business with the military that require persistence, integrity, and a willingness to master the intricacies of a distinctive culture. By understanding the logic of military transformation, executives can identify and create vast new business opportunities. And by mastering the six principles, they can build profitable long-term relationships.

  11. High-precision radiocarbon dating and historical biblical archaeology in southern Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Thomas E.; Higham, Thomas; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Smith, Neil G.; Ben-Yosef, Erez; Robinson, Mark; Münger, Stefan; Knabb, Kyle; Schulze, Jürgen P.; Najjar, Mohammad; Tauxe, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Recent excavations and high-precision radiocarbon dating from the largest Iron Age (IA, ca. 1200–500 BCE) copper production center in the southern Levant demonstrate major smelting activities in the region of biblical Edom (southern Jordan) during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE. Stratified radiocarbon samples and artifacts were recorded with precise digital surveying tools linked to a geographic information system developed to control on-site spatial analyses of archaeological finds and model data with innovative visualization tools. The new radiocarbon dates push back by 2 centuries the accepted IA chronology of Edom. Data from Khirbat en-Nahas, and the nearby site of Rujm Hamra Ifdan, demonstrate the centrality of industrial-scale metal production during those centuries traditionally linked closely to political events in Edom's 10th century BCE neighbor ancient Israel. Consequently, the rise of IA Edom is linked to the power vacuum created by the collapse of Late Bronze Age (LB, ca. 1300 BCE) civilizations and the disintegration of the LB Cypriot copper monopoly that dominated the eastern Mediterranean. The methodologies applied to the historical IA archaeology of the Levant have implications for other parts of the world where sacred and historical texts interface with the material record. PMID:18955702

  12. The metaphorical and mythical use of the kidney in antiquity.

    PubMed

    Maio, G

    1999-01-01

    While the Syrians and the Arabs viewed the liver as the center of life, the kidneys, in contrast, held a primary place of importance in Israel. In Hebrew tradition, they were considered to be the most important internal organs along with the heart. In the Old Testament most frequently the kidneys are associated with the most inner stirrings of emotional life. But they are also viewed as the seat of the secret thoughts of the human; they are used as an omen metaphor, as a metaphor for moral discernment, for reflection and inspiration. This field of tension in metaphoric usage is resolved under the conception of the kidneys as life center. In the Old Testament the kidneys thus are primarily used as metaphor for the core of the person, for the area of greatest vulnerability. For us today, this metaphorical use of the kidneys has lost its meaning. One reason for its disappearance is certainly the monopoly of causal-analytic rationality in science of today. The kidney has developed from myth to organ, and with this transition a variety of perspectives and ways of looking at knowledge inherent in imaginative thought have been lost. But the metaphor uncovers a deeper level of truth, it represents another form of reconstruction of reality which needs not necessarily be subordinate to the scientific rationality. Today as well, these imaginative ideas can provide an approach to an essential level of reality which may otherwise remain hidden.

  13. The Roman state and genetic pacification.

    PubMed

    Frost, Peter

    2010-07-23

    Over the last 10,000 years, the human genome has changed at an accelerating rate. The change seems to reflect adaptations to new social environments, including the rise of the State and its monopoly on violence. State societies punish young men who act violently on their own initiative. In contrast, non-State societies usually reward such behavior with success, including reproductive success. Thus, given the moderate to high heritability of male aggressiveness, the State tends to remove violent predispositions from the gene pool while favoring tendencies toward peacefulness and submission. This perspective is applied here to the Roman state, specifically its long-term effort to pacify the general population. By imperial times, this effort had succeeded so well that the Romans saw themselves as being inherently less violent than the "barbarians" beyond their borders. By creating a pacified and submissive population, the empire also became conducive to the spread of Christianity--a religion of peace and submission. In sum, the Roman state imposed a behavioral change that would over time alter the mix of genotypes, thus facilitating a subsequent ideological change.

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of Tubulipora flabellaris (Bryozoa: Stenolaemata): the first representative from the class Stenolaemata with unique gene order.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming'an; Shen, Xin; Liu, Huilian; Liu, Xixing; Wu, Zhigang; Liu, Bin

    2011-09-01

    Mitochondrial genomes play a significant role in the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships within metazoans. There are still many controversies concerning the phylogenetic position of the phylum Bryozoa. In this research, we have finished the complete mitochondrial genome of one bryozoan (Tubulipora flabellaris), which is the first representative from the class Stenolaemata. The complete mitochondrial genome of T. flabellaris is 13,763bp in length and contains 36 genes, which lacks the atp8 gene in contrast to the typical metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Gene arrangement comparisons indicate that the mitochondrial genome of T. flabellaris has unique gene order when compared with other metazoans. The four known bryozoans complete mitochondrial genomes also have very different gene arrangements, indicates that bryozoan mitochondrial genomes have experienced drastic rearrangements. To investigate the phylogenetic relationship of Bryozoa, phylogenetic analyses based on amino acid sequences of 11 protein coding genes (excluding atp6 and atp8) from 26 metazoan complete mitochondrial genomes were made utilizing Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian methods, respectively. The results indicate the monopoly of Lophotrochozoa and a close relationship between Chaetognatha and Bryozoa. However, more evidences are needed to clarify the relationship between two groups. Lophophorate appeared to be polyphyletic according to our analyses. Meanwhile, neither analysis supports close relationship between Branchiopod and Phoronida. Four bryozoans form a clade and the relationship among them is T. flabellaris+(F. hispida+(B. neritina+W. subtorquata)), which is in coincidence with traditional classification system.

  15. Deregulation Impact in Negotiating a New Electrical Contract Between NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field and FirstEnergy Corp., Cleveland, Ohio, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quach, Quyen T.; Zala, Laszlo F.

    2002-01-01

    The governor of the State of Ohio signed amended substitute Senate bill 3 on July 6, 1999, requiring Ohio's electric industry to change from a monopoly environment to a competitive electric environment for generation services. The start date for competitive retail generation services was set for January 1, 2001. This new deregulation law allowed all Ohioans to choose the supplier of generation service, but the transmission and distribution would remain regulated. It also required electric utilities to unbundle the three main components (generation, transmission, and distribution) and make other changes designed to produce a competitive electric generation market. While deregulation was taking shape, the NASA Glenn Research Center electrical contract with FirstEnergy Corp. of Cleveland, Ohio, was to expire on September 7, 1999. Glenn strategically evaluated and incorporated the impacts of electric deregulation in the negotiations. Glenn and FirstEnergy spent over a year in negotiations until the Glenn utility team and the FirstEnergy negotiating team came to an agreement in the fall of 2000, and a new contract became effective on January 1, 2001.

  16. [Starting with camphor--the progress of Nippon Fine Chemical].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    In 1918, Nippon Fine Chemical Co., Ltd. (NFC) was founded under the name, Nippon Camphor Co., Ltd. for the purpose of unifying the camphor business throughout Japan. The company manufactured purified camphor as a government-monopolized good. Camphor was used as a plasticizer for nitrocellulose, as a moth repellent, as an antimicrobial substance, as a rust inhibitor, and as an active ingredient in medicine. It was also a very important good exported in order to obtain foreign currency. Later on, after World War II and the abolition of the camphor monopoly, the company started manufacturing products related to oils and fats, including higher fatty acids, and expanded its business by developing a new field of chemical industry. In 1971 the company changed its name to Nippon Fine Chemical Co., Ltd., and made a new start as a diversified fine chemicals company. Recently, the fine chemicals division of NFC has concentrated on rather complex molecules, such as active pharmaceutical ingredients, and other chemicals. Since 2000, NFC have started to supply "Presome", precursors of liposome DDS drugs. NFC is strengthening marketing strategies in foreign countries with unique technologies and products.

  17. Purchasing power: business and health policy change in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Bergthold, L A

    1988-01-01

    As in many states around the country, health care costs in Massachusetts had risen to an unprecedented proportion of the state budget by the early 1980s. State health policymakers realized that dramatic changes were needed in the political process to break provider control over health policy decisions. This paper presents a case study of policy change in Massachusetts between 1982 and 1988. State officials formulated a strategy to mobilize corporate interests, which were already awakening to the problems of high health care costs, as a countervailing power to the political monopoly of provider interests. Once mobilized, business interests became organized politically and even became dominant at times, controlling both the policy agenda and its process. Ultimately, business came to be viewed as a permanent part of the coalitions and commissions that helped formulate state health policy. Although initially allied with provider interests, business eventually forged a stronger alliance with the state, an alliance that has the potential to force structural change in health care politics in Massachusetts for years to come. The paper raises questions about the consequences of such alliances between public and private power for both the content and the process of health policymaking at the state level. PMID:3171112

  18. Space Phase III - The commercial era dawns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allnutt, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    After the 'Phase I' of space activities, the period bounded by Sputnik and Apollo, 'Phase II', has been entered, a phase in which concerns over the use and the protection of space assets which support national security predominate. However, it is only when the commercial motive becomes prominent that human activity in new regions truly prospers and enters periods of exponential growth. It is believed that there are increasing signs that such a period, called 'Space Phase III', may be coming soon. A description is presented of developments and results upon which this conclusion is based. Since 1980, there have been three developments of great importance for the future of space activities. Six highly successful flights have demonstrated that the Space Shuttle concept works. A series of Soviet missions are related to the emergence of a capability to construct and service modular space stations. Successful tests of the European Ariane 1 indicate an end to U.S. monopoly with respect to the provision of launch services to the Western World.

  19. Competing in a market environment: What utilities must consider

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R. )

    1993-05-15

    Whether public utility decisionmakers choose to admit it or not, competition is here and confronting utilities with critical choices in what may be called the [open quotes]nineties environment.[close quotes] Competition in a market environment is and will be the primary force determining revenues and future economic survival. Utilities still retain a mandate to provide reliable service to customers in exchange for a virtual monopoly to operate in designated service territories. The desirability of continuing that mandate is dying a quick death, as utilities face entering the fast-paced arena of competition while dragging the weight of unrecovered investments behind them. What regulators and the utilities must decide cooperatively is how utilities can enter the new age with both feet down and running. To do this, utility managers must look at their companies, reevaluate the net worth of plant, and recognize and adopt strategies to deal with potential [open quotes]liabilities[close quotes] (for example, hazardous waste sites, fossil plant decommissioning, and plant obsolescence) in a process of streamlining for the contest ahead.

  20. Managed care, market power, and monopsony.

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, M V

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the theoretical possibility of monopsony behavior under managed care insurance. STUDY DESIGN: Use of microeconomic theory to examine how managed care plans with market power would be expected to behave, and effects of that behavior on consumer and supplier welfare. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The article shows that, under managed care monopsony, the welfare of consumers may be increased but overall economic welfare will necessarily be reduced. It offers a test for whether the lower prices paid by managed care buyers with larger market share represent welfare-reducing monopsony or a welfare-increasing movement away from provider monopoly. The test says that, if the quantity of inputs (supplied under conditions of increasing long-run marginal cost) declines, monopsony is present. The article also argues that the translation of lower provider prices into lower premiums is consistent with welfare-reducing monopsony by nonprofit health plans. In contrast, for-profit health plans that obtain monopsony may reduce the welfare of consumers as well as that of input suppliers. These theoretical conclusions are shown to be consistent with recent empirical research indicating a negative relationship between buyer market power and cost per enrollee. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional antitrust policy has not been able to deal well with monopsony. The article concludes that health plans that use their market power to reduce medical spending may harm the well-being both of specialized medical workers and of consumers of medical care. Antitrust policy may need to be modified to deal with this situation. PMID:9865228

  1. Marketing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes is a key strategy of the industry to counter tobacco control in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-03-01

    While the 'low-tar' scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of 'less harmful, low tar' was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration/China National Tobacco Corporation and began to gain traction during the last decade. Despite the fact that no sufficient research evidence supports the claims made by the industry that these cigarettes are safer, the Chinese tobacco industry has continued to promote them using various health claims. As a result, the production and sales of 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes have increased dramatically since 2000. Recently, a tobacco industry senior researcher, whose main research area is 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes, was elected as an Academician to the prestigious Chinese Academy of Engineering for his contribution to developing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes. The tobacco researcher's election caused an outcry from the tobacco control community and the general public in China. This paper discusses the Chinese tobacco industry's 'less harmful, low-tar' initiatives and calls for the Chinese government to stop the execution of this deceptive strategy for tobacco marketing.

  2. A political economic theory of the dental care market.

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, J; Douglass, C W

    1982-01-01

    A theory of the dental care market is introduced which proposes that the vertically integrated (local/state/national) structure of the profession services as an organizational vehicle both for intra-professional debate and for developing provider-oriented dental care policy. We suggest that a special relationship exists between professionalism and professional regulation. Such regulation has functioned simultaneously to limit competition and to foster a prized consumption commodity for providers: professionalism and professional esteem. The organized pursuit of this commodity inherently dampens competition. Professionalism itself plays a crucial role in: 1) securing for organized dentistry a form of state regulation in which the providers themselves are the principal decision-makers; and 2) influencing provider and consumer market behavior in several significant respects, the net result being the formation of maintenance of a type of "leadership cartel" in the local market. Thus, a political-economic theory of the dental care market formally acknowledges professionalism as valued by established dentists and recent graduates as a central determining influence. Traditional models of pure competition and monopoly emerge as special, extreme cases of the general theory. Hypotheses are offered regarding consumer and provider behavior, market dynamics, and health policy and regulation. PMID:7091455

  3. Equilibrium pricing and ordering policies in a two-echelon supply chain in the presence of strategic customers.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Seyed J; Naeij, Jafar; Shavandi, Hasan; Makui, Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    This paper studying the impact of strategic customer behavior on decentralized supply chain gains and decisions, which includes a supplier, and a monopoly firm as a retailer who sells a single product over a finite two periods of selling season. We consider three types of customers: myopic, strategic and low-value customers. The problem is formulated as a bi-level game where at the second level (e.g. horizontal game), the retailer determines his/her equilibrium pricing strategy in a non-cooperative simultaneous general game with strategic customers who choose equilibrium purchasing strategy to maximize their expected surplus. At the first level (e.g. vertical game), the supplier competes with the retailer as leader and follower in the Stackelberg game. They set the wholesale price and initial stocking capacity to maximize their profits. Finally, a numerical study is presented to demonstrate the impacts of strategic behavior on supply chain gain and decisions; subsequently the effects of market parameters on decision variables and total profitability of supply chain's members is studied through a sensitivity analysis.

  4. The inverse of managed health.

    PubMed

    Borremans, V

    1978-01-01

    In providing a non-professional view on health, on health in a desirable modern world, the modern form of "medicalized health" is contrasted with the conception of health among the Aztecs before the arrival of the Spaniards. Health was "medicalized" in the 1960s; the medical model of health care was determined mostly by what physicians do. Since that time, 4 distinct professional approaches each have challenged the monopoly of doctors over the definition of health. 1 of the key mistakes of modern civilization is to assume that there is only 1 health - a universal health, which is given in the form of health services and imposed on the people. In actuality, there are many different kinds of health - as many as there are cultures. In modern society health will be high when 2 conditions are met: 1) when society distributes equitably what it produces; and 2) when society produces just barely as many goods and services as are needed to equip people equitably with the tools they need for the most effective level of autonomous action. The answer is not simply to redistribute health. People need to be involved in determining their own health needs. A lesson can be learned from what the Spaniards did to the Aztecs in Mexico. In 1519 there was a population of 25 million in Mexico, but by 1608 there were just 1 million after the Spaniards had begun their campaign to bring health to the Aztecs. PMID:12260676

  5. Replication and robustness in developmental research.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Greg J; Engel, Mimi; Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle J

    2014-11-01

    Replications and robustness checks are key elements of the scientific method and a staple in many disciplines. However, leading journals in developmental psychology rarely include explicit replications of prior research conducted by different investigators, and few require authors to establish in their articles or online appendices that their key results are robust across estimation methods, data sets, and demographic subgroups. This article makes the case for prioritizing both explicit replications and, especially, within-study robustness checks in developmental psychology. It provides evidence on variation in effect sizes in developmental studies and documents strikingly different replication and robustness-checking practices in a sample of journals in developmental psychology and a sister behavioral science-applied economics. Our goal is not to show that any one behavioral science has a monopoly on best practices, but rather to show how journals from a related discipline address vital concerns of replication and generalizability shared by all social and behavioral sciences. We provide recommendations for promoting graduate training in replication and robustness-checking methods and for editorial policies that encourage these practices. Although some of our recommendations may shift the form and substance of developmental research articles, we argue that they would generate considerable scientific benefits for the field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. One hundred years of energy - Public Service Company of Colorado and its predessors, 1869-1969

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is Colorado's largest utility, Public Service Company of Colorado and its predecessors from 1869 to 1969. It is an entrepreneurial history dealing with the men, who in making decisions, played important roles in shaping the company and the industry. In addition, the technologies of electricity and natural gas are important aspects of this dissertation. As new uses for energy was created society responded with an almost insatiable hunger. People and energy eventually formed a symbiotic relationship. Politics also played an integral part in the development of utilities. Because utilities were generally monopolies, many laws and regulations were created for control that did not apply to other businesses. The development of legislation and the manner in which it affected utilities is discussed throughout the dissertation. When public opinion turned against the utilities during the Great Depression the industry had to make significant financial and managerial changes in order to stay in business. In the 1960s some people began to point out the negative aspects of high energy consumption. Nuclear power in the 1960s promised a clean and abundant means to produce fuel. PSC's attempt to use nuclear power, however, has been, to date, unsatisfactory.

  7. The physicists and the politicians: The pursuit of the international control of atomic weapons, 1943-1946

    SciTech Connect

    Graig, I.C.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the activities of those individuals in the US who advocated a particular approach to the international control of atomic weapons in the first years of the atomic age. These individuals - primarily, though not exclusively, Manhattan Project scientists and administrators - believed that peace in the atomic age could best be ensured through a system of international control based on the free interchange of scientific information. This belief in the need for free international scientific interchange made their approach unique. Many of the leading advocates of this approach held positions high in the Manhattan Project hierarchy, and therefore played a role in the formulation of US atomic weapons policy. The active public lobbying by the postwar political organizations of Manhattan Project scientists put this approach before Congress and the American people soon after Hiroshima. Despite these activities, the idea of international control based on free scientific interchange was not accepted by certain key US policy-makers. US policy during this era was moving towards an effort to maintain the American atomic monopoly as a hedge against possible Soviet expansion in Europe and the Mediterranean.

  8. Is bigger better? An empirical analysis of waste management in New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha; Dollery, Brian

    2015-05-01

    Across the world, rising demand for municipal solid waste services has seen an ongoing increase in the costs of providing these services. Moreover, municipal waste services have typically been provided through natural or legal monopolies, where few incentives exist to reduce costs. It is thus vital to examine empirically the cost structure of these services in order to develop effective public policies which can make these services more cost efficient. Accordingly, this paper considers economies of size and economies of output density in the municipal waste collection sector in the New South Wales (NSW) local government system in an effort to identify the optimal size of utilities from the perspective of cost efficiency. Our results show that - as presently constituted - NSW municipal waste services are not efficient in terms of costs, thereby demonstrating that 'bigger is not better.' The optimal size of waste utilities is estimated to fall in the range 12,000-20,000 inhabitants. However, significant economies of output density for unsorted (residual) municipal waste collection and recycling waste collection were found, which means it is advantageous to increase the amount of waste collected, but maintaining constant the number of customers and the intervention area.

  9. Energy and the economy in oil-exporting countries: general-equilibrium analysis and application to Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Perera, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    A key energy-policy dilemma faced by many oil-exporting countries concerns how to allocate energy resources between exports and domestic use. Standard economic analysis recommends border energy pricing as the optimal solution, given no distortions elsewhere. However, distortions in oil-exporting countries, such as monopoly power in export markets, oil quotas, import tariffs, capacity constraints in domestic energy supply, and import restrictions, have direct consequences on the efficient pricing and use of energy resources. We develop an economy-wide optimization model of an oil-exporting country focusing on optimal resource allocation, which is used to calculate the optimal energy prices in the presence of several distortions. The model is used to estimate the optimal prices for oil products, natural gas, and electricity in Venezuela, and to evaluate the impacts of energy price adjustments on energy consumption and the overall economy. It was found that subsidies in the domestic energy market have been extremely large and that a substantial reduction, but not elimination, of the subsidies would bring large benefits to the economy. The approach offers a general methodology for energy pricing policy analysis in oil-exporting countries that can be used in practical applications.

  10. Sub-Saharan Africa's media and neocolonialism.

    PubMed

    Domatob, J K

    1988-01-01

    Given the heavy Western metropolitan bias of the media in sub-Saharan Africa, the ideology of neocolonialism continues to exert a dominant influence on economic, social, political, and cultural life. This neocolonial influence is further reinforced by advertising that champions a consumerist culture centered around Western goods. The capital of multinational firms plays a crucial role in the strategy of media imperialism. The dramatic growth of monopolies and the creation of military-industrial-information conglomerates in the 1970s and 1980s have been reflected in the international exchange of information and the interlinkage of mass communication systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Another media strategy that reinforces neocolonialism is the use of satellite communication. If cultural autonomy is defined as sub-Saharan Africa's capacity to decide on the allocation of its environmental resources, then cultural synchronization is a massive threat to that autonomy. Few African nations have the resources or expertise necessary to design, establish, or maintain communication systems that could accurately reflect their own culture. Nonetheless, there are some policy options. Personnel can be trained to respect African values and to recognize the dangers of neocolonial domination. The production of indigenous programs could reduce the media's foreign content. The incorporation of traditional drama and dance in the media could enhance this process. Above all, a high degree of planning is necessary if sub-Saharan African states intend to tackle the media and its domination by neocolonialist ideology. PMID:12281808

  11. [Universal coverage of health services in Mexico].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    The reforms made in recent years to the Mexican Health System have reduced inequities in the health care of the population, but have been insufficient to solve all the problems of the MHS. In order to make the right to health protection established in the Constitution a reality for every citizen, Mexico must warrant effective universal access to health services. This paper outlines a long-term reform for the consolidation of a health system that is akin to international standards and which may establish the structural conditions to reduce coverage inequity. This reform is based on a "structured pluralism" intended to avoid both a monopoly exercised within the public sector and fragmentation in the private sector, and to prevent falling into the extremes of authoritarian procedures or an absence of regulation. This involves the replacement of the present vertical integration and segregation of social groups by a horizontal organization with separation of duties. This also entails legal and fiscal reforms, the reinforcement of the MHS, the reorganization of health institutions, and the formulation of regulatory, technical and financial instruments to operationalize the proposed scheme with the objective of rendering the human right to health fully effective for the Mexican people.

  12. 10th Anniversary Focus: From mainstream 'environmental economics' to 'sustainability economics'. On the need for new thinking.

    PubMed

    Söderbaum, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Traditional ideas of science as being separate and separable from ideology and politics have to be reconsidered. Each interpretation of sustainable development is not only scientific but at the same time ideological. For this reason our ideas about good science should also be related to normal imperatives of democracy. Mainstream neoclassical economics is specific in scientific and ideological terms. This paradigm is useful for some purposes and has played a role as a mental map in guiding us towards economic growth and other ideas about progress in society and the economy. Sustainable development, however, represents an ideological turn in our ideas about progress and it is no longer clear that neoclassical theory will be enough. Alternative perspectives in economics are being developed as part of a pluralistic strategy and the monopoly position of neoclassical economists at university departments of economics is thereby challenged. A 'political economic person' is suggested as alternative (complement) to Economic Man assumptions and a 'political economic organization' to be compared with the neoclassical profit maximizing firm. Alternative ways of understanding markets and international trade, efficiency, decision-making, monitoring and assessment are also needed. It is argued that such an alternative mental map is useful for actors who take the challenge of sustainable development seriously.

  13. Regulating Availability: How Access to Alcohol Affects Drinking and Problems in Youth and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Regulations on the availability of alcohol have been used to moderate alcohol problems in communities throughout the world for thousands of years. In the latter half of the 20th century, quantitative studies of the effects of these regulations on drinking and related problems began in earnest as public health practitioners began to recognize the full extent of the harmful consequences related to drinking. This article briefly outlines the history of this work over four areas, focusing on the minimum legal drinking age, the privatization of alcohol control systems, outlet densities, and hours and days of sale. Some historical background is provided to emphasize the theoretical and empirical roots of this work and to highlight the substantial progress that has been made in each area. In general, this assessment suggests that higher minimum legal drinking ages, greater monopoly controls over alcohol sales, lower outlet numbers and reduced outlet densities, and limited hours and days of sale can effectively reduce alcohol sales, use, and problems. There are, however, substantial gaps in the research literature and a near absence of the quantitative theoretical work needed to direct alcohol-control efforts. Local community responses to alcohol policies are complex and heterogeneous, sometimes reinforcing and sometimes mitigating the effects of availability regulations. Quantitative models of policy effects are essential to accelerate progress toward the formulation and testing of optimal control strategies for the reduction of alcohol problems. PMID:22330225

  14. The Raising of Minimum Alcohol Prices in Saskatchewan, Canada: Impacts on Consumption and Implications for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinhui; Giesbrecht, Norman; Macdonald, Scott; Thomas, Gerald; Wettlaufer, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We report impacts on alcohol consumption following new and increased minimum alcohol prices in Saskatchewan, Canada. Methods. We conducted autoregressive integrated moving average time series analyses of alcohol sales and price data from the Saskatchewan government alcohol monopoly for 26 periods before and 26 periods after the intervention. Results. A 10% increase in minimum prices significantly reduced consumption of beer by 10.06%, spirits by 5.87%, wine by 4.58%, and all beverages combined by 8.43%. Consumption of coolers decreased significantly by 13.2%, cocktails by 21.3%, and liqueurs by 5.3%. There were larger effects for purely off-premise sales (e.g., liquor stores) than for primarily on-premise sales (e.g., bars, restaurants). Consumption of higher strength beer and wine declined the most. A 10% increase in minimum price was associated with a 22.0% decrease in consumption of higher strength beer (> 6.5% alcohol/volume) versus 8.17% for lower strength beers. The neighboring province of Alberta showed no change in per capita alcohol consumption before and after the intervention. Conclusions. Minimum pricing is a promising strategy for reducing the public health burden associated with hazardous alcohol consumption. Pricing to reflect percentage alcohol content of drinks can shift consumption toward lower alcohol content beverage types. PMID:23078488

  15. Gambling market and individual patterns of gambling in Germany.

    PubMed

    Albers, N; Hübl, L

    1997-01-01

    In this paper individual patterns of gambling in Germany are estimated for the first time. The probit technique is used to test the influence of a set of individual characteristics on the probability of participating in each of the various legal games. A sample size of 1,586 adults collected for the pool of German lotteries provides a reliable set of data. All disaggregated estimations of participation are statistically significant at least at the 5 percent level. The basic findings suggest that gambling is a widespread normal (superior) consumption good because gambling participation tends to rise with income. Moreover, no demand anomaly can be found to justify assessing gambling as a social demerit. Only the participation in gaming machines is higher for younger, unemployed and less educated adults. While a moral evaluation of gambling is beyond the scope of this paper, the legislator's preference for a highly taxed state monopoly in gambling markets is to be rejected, at least for Germany. Additional statistical findings suggest distinct consumer perceptions of the characteristics of the various games and may be used for market segmentation. The paper starts with a descriptive introduction to the German gambling market.

  16. Risk equalisation and voluntary health insurance markets: The case of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, John

    2010-11-01

    Ireland has a system of private health insurance (PHI) which acts as a voluntary alternative to the benefits provided under the Irish public health system. As part of this, community rating has long been a cornerstone of the Irish private health insurance market with the objective to make PHI affordable to everyone regardless of their risk profile. Until the mid-1990s one insurer had a legal monopoly. However, in 1996, following the Third Non-Life Insurance Directive, the market was opened up to competition and a number of regulations were introduced to support community rating. This includes the introduction of a risk equalisation system. Its aim was to prevent selection and thus protect the community rating system while still enabling a competitive health insurance market. There have been significant obstacles to the introduction of risk equalisation due to political, legal and implementation issues. The objective of this paper is to review the history, structure and likely effectiveness of risk equalisation in Ireland. The paper provides lessons for other countries with risk equalisation systems or seeking to introduce such a system. Amongst other conclusions, it outlines the difficulties in introducing risk equalisation.

  17. Ethical and value issues in insurance coverage for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Brock, Dan W

    2010-01-01

    Many new cancer drugs provide only limited benefits, but at very great cost, for example, $200,000-$300,000 per quality-adjusted life year produced. By most standards of value or cost-effectiveness, this does not represent good value. I first review several of the causes of this value failure, including monopoly patents, prohibitions on Medicare's negotiating on drug prices, health insurance protecting patients from costs, and financial incentives of physicians to use these drugs. Besides value or cost-effectiveness, the other principal aim in health care resource allocation should be equity among the population served. I examine several equity considerations-priority to the worse off, aggregation and special priority to life extension, and the rule of rescue-and argue that none justifies greater priority for cancer treatment on the grounds of equity. Finally, I conclude by noting two recent policy changes that are in the wrong direction for achieving value in cancer care, and suggesting some small steps that could take us in the right direction.

  18. Equilibrium pricing and ordering policies in a two-echelon supply chain in the presence of strategic customers.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Seyed J; Naeij, Jafar; Shavandi, Hasan; Makui, Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    This paper studying the impact of strategic customer behavior on decentralized supply chain gains and decisions, which includes a supplier, and a monopoly firm as a retailer who sells a single product over a finite two periods of selling season. We consider three types of customers: myopic, strategic and low-value customers. The problem is formulated as a bi-level game where at the second level (e.g. horizontal game), the retailer determines his/her equilibrium pricing strategy in a non-cooperative simultaneous general game with strategic customers who choose equilibrium purchasing strategy to maximize their expected surplus. At the first level (e.g. vertical game), the supplier competes with the retailer as leader and follower in the Stackelberg game. They set the wholesale price and initial stocking capacity to maximize their profits. Finally, a numerical study is presented to demonstrate the impacts of strategic behavior on supply chain gain and decisions; subsequently the effects of market parameters on decision variables and total profitability of supply chain's members is studied through a sensitivity analysis. PMID:27276375

  19. [The effects of narcissism and self-esteem on immersion in social network games and massively multiplayer online role-playing games].

    PubMed

    Jin, Kato; Igarashi, Tasuku

    2016-04-01

    Recent research has shown growing interest in the process by which narcissism triggers immersion in social network games (SNG). Highly narcissistic individuals are motivated not only by the achievement of goals and monopoly of materials (i:e., self-enhancement), but also by comparison and competition with others (i.e., social comparison) We predicted that the common rules and environments of SNG and massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG), such as systems of exchanging items and ranking players, facilitate immersion of highly narcissistic individuals during the game. Structural equation modeling of data from 378 SNG players and 150 MMORPG players recruited online showed that self-esteem inhibited game immersion, whereas narcissism increased game immersion via motivation for goal attainment. SNG players were more likely to be immersed in the game via motivation for goal attainment than MMORPG players. These findings suggest that, compared with MMORPG, the environments of SNG provide strong incentives not for those high in self-esteem who seek acceptance of others, but for those high in narcissism who are motivated by self-enhancement via competition with others.

  20. Use of transgenic seeds in Brazilian agriculture and concentration of agricultural production to large agribusinesses.

    PubMed

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; Amaral, S C S; de Mello, M P

    2012-07-19

    We identified the commercial releases of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Brazil, their characteristics, the types of genetic transformation used, and the companies responsible for the development of these GMOs, classifying them into two categories: private companies, subdivided into multinational and national, and public institutions. The data came from the data bank of the national registration of cultivars and the service of national protection of cultivars of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fishing and Supply (MAPA). This survey was carried out from 1998 to February 12, 2011. Until this date, 27 GMOs had been approved, including five for soybean, 15 for maize and seven for cotton cultivars. These GMOs have been used for the development of 766 cultivars, of which, 305 are soybean, 445 are maize, and 13 are cotton cultivars. The Monsato Company controls 73.2% of the transgenic cultivars certified by the MAPA; a partnership between Dow AgroSciences and DuPont accounts for 21.4%, and Syngenta controls 4.96%. Seed supply by these companies is almost a monopoly supported by law, giving no choice for producers and leading to the fast replacement of conventional cultivars by transgenic cultivars, which are expensive and exclude small producers from the market, since seeds cannot be kept for later use. This situation concentrates production in the hands of a few large national agribusiness entrepreneurs.

  1. Oil market power and United States national security

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Roger

    2006-01-01

    It is widely believed that an oil weapon could impose scarcity upon the United States. Impending resource exhaustion is thought to exacerbate this threat. However, threat seems implausible when we consider strategic deficits of prospective weapon users and the improbability of impending resource exhaustion. Here, we explore a hypothesis relating oil to national security under a different assumption, abundance. We suggest that an oil cartel exerts market power to keep abundance at bay, commanding monopoly rents [or wealth transfers (wt)] that underwrite security threats. We then compare security threats attributed to the oil weapon to those that may arise from market power. We first reexamine whether oil is abundant or scarce by reviewing current development data, then we estimate a competitive price for oil. From this, we derive wt2004 collections by Persian Gulf states ≈ $132-178 × 109. We find that wt and the behavior of states collecting it interact to actuate security threats. Threats underwritten by wt are (i) the potential for emergence of a Persian Gulf superpower and (ii) terrorism. It is therefore oil market power, not oil per se, that actuates threats. We also describe a paradox in the relation of market power to the United States' defense doctrine of force projection to preempt a Gulf superpower. Because the superpower threat derives from wt, force alone cannot preempt it. A further paradox is that because foreign policy is premised on oil weapon fear, market power is appeased. Threats thereby grow unimpeded. PMID:16428291

  2. A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on the Air Transport Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charfeddine, Souhir; DeColigny, Marc; Camino, Felix Mora; Cosenza, Carlos Alberto Nunes

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this communication is to study with a new scope the conditions of the equilibrium in an air transport market where two competitive airlines are operating. Each airline is supposed to adopt a strategy maximizing its profit while its estimation of the demand has a fuzzy nature. This leads each company to optimize a program of its proposed services (frequency of the flights and ticket prices) characterized by some fuzzy parameters. The case of monopoly is being taken as a benchmark. Classical convex optimization can be used to solve this decision problem. This approach provides the airline with a new decision tool where uncertainty can be taken into account explicitly. The confrontation of the strategies of the companies, in the ease of duopoly, leads to the definition of a fuzzy equilibrium. This concept of fuzzy equilibrium is more general and can be applied to several other domains. The formulation of the optimization problem and the methodological consideration adopted for its resolution are presented in their general theoretical aspect. In the case of air transportation, where the conditions of management of operations are critical, this approach should offer to the manager elements needed to the consolidation of its decisions depending on the circumstances (ordinary, exceptional events,..) and to be prepared to face all possibilities. Keywords: air transportation, competition equilibrium, convex optimization , fuzzy modeling,

  3. Rent-extracting behavior by multiple agents in the provision of municipal water supply: A study of Jakarta, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovei, Laszlo; Whittington, Dale

    1993-07-01

    A framework is presented for the analysis of rent-extracting behavior by multiple agents involved in the provision of municipal water supplies in Jakarta, Indonesia. It is shown that such behavior can dramatically affect the terms and conditions under which water service is offered to the public. A water supply system based on limited numbers of public taps, relatively few house connections, and water vendors can generate substantial monopoly rents that can be appropriated by both public and private agents. Most professionals involved with water supply projects in developing countries typically assume that the objective of municipal water authorities is to serve the public interest. In fact, agents involved in the water delivery system may pursue strategies designed for private gain, which can have important and pervasive implications for how a water system is actually designed and operated. Proposals to change the technical, engineering aspects of a water distribution system can thus threaten the interests of powerful groups. Effective public policy and donor involvement in the water sector must be based on an understanding of the structure of water markets and the political power supporting existing institutional arrangements.

  4. William Harvey, 2. Harvey and the Royal College versus the "empirics".

    PubMed

    McKenna, M

    1987-05-01

    Harvey, in solitary fashion, conducted the research that led to the publication in 1628 of his famous treatise De Motu Cordis. Later he joined other anatomists in scientific research and, after becoming a fellow and office holder, assumed a position of prominence in the Royal College of Physicians. There he was an active member, attending meetings, carrying out his duties as an Elect, as Lumleian Lecturer, as censor and frequently as a member of special committees. Harvey the scientist cannot be separated from Harvey the physician. His work in London both as Physician-in-Ordinary to King Charles I and as Physician to St. Bartholomew's Hospital is outlined. His fate however, was, irrevocably tied to the Royalist cause and the Parliamentary Party was instrumental in having him dismissed from the hospital in 1643. After 1650 his reputation was again on the rise. Apothecaries were practising medicine with increasing boldness, and Harvey devoted considerable effort to defending the monopoly of physicians through the offices of the Royal College of Physicians. He fought the "empirics" with every available weapon and in the process introduced a number of needed reforms. In his work as scientist and physician, Harvey epitomized the close links that bound together classically educated physicians, experimental inquiry and anatomical innovation. He made it understood that learned men, not "empirics" were responsible for the great improvements under way in what was to become modern medicine.

  5. Is the medical loss ratio a good target measure for regulation in the individual market for health insurance?

    PubMed

    Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Abraham, Jean M; Simon, Kosali

    2015-01-01

    Effective January 1, 2011, individual market health insurers must meet a minimum medical loss ratio (MLR) of 80%. This law aims to encourage 'productive' forms of competition by increasing the proportion of premium dollars spent on clinical benefits. To date, very little is known about the performance of firms in the individual health insurance market, including how MLRs are related to insurer and market characteristics. The MLR comprises one component of the price-cost margin, a traditional gauge of market power; the other component is percent of premiums spent on administrative expenses. We use data from the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (2001-2009) to evaluate whether the MLR is a good target measure for regulation by comparing the two components of the price-cost margin between markets that are more competitive versus those that are not, accounting for firm and market characteristics. We find that insurers with monopoly power have lower MLRs. Moreover, we find no evidence suggesting that insurers' administrative expenses are lower in more concentrated insurance markets. Thus, our results are largely consistent with the interpretation that the MLR could serve as a target measure of market power in regulating the individual market for health insurance but with notable limited ability to capture product and firm heterogeneity.

  6. Western Europe, state formation, and genetic pacification.

    PubMed

    Frost, Peter; Harpending, Henry C

    2015-01-01

    Through its monopoly on violence, the State tends to pacify social relations. Such pacification proceeded slowly in Western Europe between the 5th and 11th centuries, being hindered by the rudimentary nature of law enforcement, the belief in a man's right to settle personal disputes as he saw fit, and the Church's opposition to the death penalty. These hindrances began to dissolve in the 11th century with a consensus by Church and State that the wicked should be punished so that the good may live in peace. Courts imposed the death penalty more and more often and, by the late Middle Ages, were condemning to death between 0.5 and 1.0% of all men of each generation, with perhaps just as many offenders dying at the scene of the crime or in prison while awaiting trial. Meanwhile, the homicide rate plummeted from the 14th century to the 20th. The pool of violent men dried up until most murders occurred under conditions of jealousy, intoxication, or extreme stress. The decline in personal violence is usually attributed to harsher punishment and the longer-term effects of cultural conditioning. It may also be, however, that this new cultural environment selected against propensities for violence.

  7. Mapping the Tobacco Retailers in Edirne, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Karlıkaya, Celal; İnce, Hüseyin; Özkan, Nurcan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The youth smoking rate is on the rise in Turkey. Although many marketing bans have been effectively implemented, regulations related to retail tobacco outlets have gone unnoticed and have not been effectively supervised. In this study, we aimed to show the lack of legal regulation related to the high retail tobacco outlet density with displays. Material and Methods: In the center of Edirne, the marketing environment, numbers and geographical distribution of retail tobacco outlets were documented and mapped with geographical positions. Results: There were 569 retail tobacco points of sale in 520 stores. We calculated one tobacco retail outlet per 270 people. This retail outlet density rate is above the national average and about four times higher than the density in Istanbul. Products especially attracting children, such as chocolate, sweet candy and chewing gum, were set up near the tobacco stands and were easy for children to recognize and reach. It can be seen on the city map that 47% of retail tobacco outlets are within 100 m of education, health or sport facilities. Conclusion: We concluded that one of the reasons for the increasing prevalence of cigarette use, especially among adolescents in Turkey, is deregulation of the retail tobacco marketing industry as a result of the privatization process of the national tobacco monopoly. Using mapping techniques can be useful in terms of controlling the retail marketing environment. PMID:25207039

  8. Patenting the bomb: nuclear weapons, intellectual property, and technological control.

    PubMed

    Wellerstein, Alex

    2008-03-01

    During the course of the Manhattan Project, the U.S. government secretly attempted to acquire a monopoly on the patent rights for inventions used in the production of nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. The use of patents as a system of control, while common for more mundane technologies, would seem at first glance to conflict with the regimes of secrecy that have traditionally been associated with nuclear weapons. In explaining the origins and operations of the Manhattan Project patent system, though, this essay argues that the utilization of patents was an ad hoc attempt at legal control of the atomic bomb by Manhattan Project administrators, focused on the monopolistic aspects of the patent system and preexisting patent secrecy legislation. From the present perspective, using patents as a method of control for such weapons seems inadequate, if not unnecessary; but at the time, when the bomb was a new and essentially unregulated technology, patents played an important role in the thinking of project administrators concerned with meaningful postwar control of the bomb.

  9. Nestle and breast vs. bottle feeding: mainstream and Marxist perspectives.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C E

    1984-01-01

    The breast vs. bottle feeding issue has sparked a controversial debate. Mainstream analysis of the problem shows that arguments made by the business community, as represented by the Nestle Corporation, do not withstand examination of the evidence. For example, it cannot be substantiated that women begin formula feeding because they have entered the labor force. Mainstream studies of cost effectiveness further indicate that bottle feeding is a drain on the incomes of impoverished Third World families and nations. Marxist analysis gives a very different perspective. Nestle represents 19th century capitalist development and the Industrial Revolution, and 20th century imperialism, neocolonialism and monopoly capitalism. Its motive has been capital accumulation and expansion. To increase surplus value appropriation, capitalism must devalue the household (subsistence) economy in which women enjoyed considerable status. Women also produce the most fundamental commodity for capitalism-laborers; therefore, the biological connection must be masked and controlled for the benefit of capital. Thus, as the capitalist mode of production has developed, women have been removed from important roles in production and reproduction. Coupled with the ascendancy of science, expertism and public health imperialism, breast feeding in any market economy becomes nearly impossible. As women internalize the values of capitalist ideology, they elevate "man-made" marketed commodities over subsistence goods such as breast milk.

  10. On Having No Head: Cognition throughout Biological Systems.

    PubMed

    Baluška, František; Levin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) underlies memory, perception, decision-making, and behavior in numerous organisms. However, neural networks have no monopoly on the signaling functions that implement these remarkable algorithms. It is often forgotten that neurons optimized cellular signaling modes that existed long before the CNS appeared during evolution, and were used by somatic cellular networks to orchestrate physiology, embryonic development, and behavior. Many of the key dynamics that enable information processing can, in fact, be implemented by different biological hardware. This is widely exploited by organisms throughout the tree of life. Here, we review data on memory, learning, and other aspects of cognition in a range of models, including single celled organisms, plants, and tissues in animal bodies. We discuss current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms at work in these systems, and suggest several hypotheses for future investigation. The study of cognitive processes implemented in aneural contexts is a fascinating, highly interdisciplinary topic that has many implications for evolution, cell biology, regenerative medicine, computer science, and synthetic bioengineering. PMID:27445884

  11. Pride, prejudice, and paediatrics (women paediatricians in England before 1950).

    PubMed

    Stevens, D

    2006-10-01

    Within the literature of the Enlightenment there are voices that called for the emancipation of women, and so began a--still unfinished--struggle for equality at home and in society. The campaign for women to enter the professions started in the 19th century. Women who wished to qualify and work as doctors faced what must have seemed to those of lesser courage and ability, to be insurmountable resistance. The early women doctors of the 19th century who were forced to obtain their training on the continent--in Zurich, Bern, and Paris--were part of a political movement and transatlantic network concerned with issues of women's rights, universal suffrage, women's health and public health measures. These women who "stormed the citadel" wanted to, and did, change society as well as medicine. Opposition to women's entry into medicine was led by doctors who defended the male monopoly against the threat to their prestige and purse. They argued that a woman's place was in the home as a wife and mother. Women's bodies, intellect, and temperament were not up to the demands of studying medicine, let alone practising as doctors. These arguments did not stop, but echoed down the 20th century long after women had gained the right to qualify in medicine. PMID:16887858

  12. Funny money: the attentional role of monetary feedback detached from expected value.

    PubMed

    Roper, Zachary J J; Vecera, Shaun P

    2016-10-01

    Stimuli associated with monetary reward can become powerful cues that effectively capture visual attention. We examined whether such value-driven attentional capture can be induced with monetary feedback in the absence of an expected cash payout. To this end, we implemented images of U.S. dollar bills as reward feedback. Participants knew in advance that they would not receive any money based on their performance. Our reward stimuli-$5 and $20 bill images-were thus dissociated from any practical utility. Strikingly, we observed a reliable attentional capture effect for the mere images of bills. Moreover, this finding generalized to Monopoly money. In two control experiments, we found no evidence in favor of nominal or symbolic monetary value. Hence, we claim that bill images are special monetary representations, such that there are strong associations between the defining visual features of bills and reward, probably due to a lifelong learning history. Together, we show that the motivation to earn cash plays a minor role when it comes to monetary rewards, while bill-defining visual features seem to be sufficient. These findings have the potential to influence human factor applications, such as gamification, and can be extended to novel value systems, such as the electronic cash Bitcoin being developed for use in mobile banking. Finally, our procedure represents a proof of concept on how images of money can be used to conserve expenditures in the experimental context.

  13. Managed care under siege.

    PubMed

    Epstein, R A

    1999-10-01

    Managed Care Organizations (MCOs) are frequently criticized for their marketing mistakes. Often that criticism is leveled against an implicit benchmark of an ideal competitive market or an ideal system of government provision. But any accurate assessment in the choice of health care organizations always requires a comparative measure of error rates. These are high in the provision of health care, given the inherent uncertainties in both the cost and effectiveness of treatment. But the continuous and rapid evolution of private health care mechanisms is, in the absence of regulation, more likely to secure access and contain costs than any system of government regulation. State regulation is subject to the risk of capture and to the sluggish and acquisitive behavior of state run monopolies. The proposed fixes for the MCOs (rights to specialists, access to physicians outside the network, guaranteed emergency room access) are likely, when imposed from without, to cost more than they are worth. The long-term risk is that markets will fail under regulation, paving the way for greater losses from massive government control of the health care delivery system.

  14. How should utilities adjust to the coming deregulated environment?

    SciTech Connect

    Nicewarner, N.A.

    1996-04-01

    A utility`s success in prospering in the changing industry environment will depend on its understanding of the nature and timing of external change. To the extent that a utility can organize its management structure to reflect both regulated and competitive environments, and the role of each in the transition, it should have a good chance at success. The utility environment today is in a remarkable state of structural upheaval. New parties at the table - non-utility developers and large customers - are calling for abandonment of the ancient regulatory compact: sheltered monopoly markets in return for universal utility service and regulated profits. Many customers and the better-prepared competitors are demanding deregulation now. Just as it transformed the airline, long distance telephone and natural gas industries, today`s call for a market-based, largely unregulated power supply industry seems likely to turn the power generation sector, where the bulk of the industry`s investment is found, into a wholly new structure, in which there will be winners and losers-and none of the security of the past.

  15. Casino taxation in macao: an economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xinhua; Tam, Pui Sun

    2011-12-01

    Macao's gaming industry has experienced dramatic growth for 8 years, yet with certain social costs due to compulsive gambling. The government has come under pressure for tax cuts even though its gaming receipts are falling relatively to the casino retained revenue. The request for tax relief is triggered by a recent decline in net profit despite fast growing gross gaming revenue under favorable market conditions. This is very likely caused by a substantial hike in casino operating costs due to increased competition and might also signal the presence of the principal-agent problem. Given the regressivity of gaming tax with respect to net profit, it is no surprise that casinos with lower profitability are more prone to seek tax cuts. The source of Macao gaming profit hinges on three distinct factors: rising demand from China, monopoly location for casinos, and market structure of oligopoly. These factors provide economic justifications for the current tax regime of Macao with a strong ability to pass tax burdens on to massive visitors. The government relies on casino tax revenue to deal with gambling related problems and promote local diversified development. Pushing for tax variability may create policy instability, business uncertainty, and unpredictable prosperity in the long term.

  16. Patents, Innovation, and the Welfare Effects of Medicare Part D*

    PubMed Central

    Gailey, Adam; Lakdawalla, Darius; Sood, Neeraj

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficiency consequences of the Medicare Part D program. Methods We develop and empirically calibrate a simple theoretical model to examine the static and dynamic welfare effects of Medicare Part D. Findings We show that Medicare Part D can simultaneously reduce static deadweight loss from monopoly pricing of drugs and improve incentives for innovation. We estimate that even after excluding the insurance value of the program, the welfare gain of Medicare Part D roughly equals its social costs. The program generates $5.11 billion of annual static deadweight loss reduction, and at least $3.0 billion of annual value from extra innovation. Implications Medicare Part D and other public prescription drug programs can be welfare-improving, even for risk-neutral and purely self-interested consumers. Furthermore, negotiation for lower branded drug prices may further increase the social return to the program. Originality This study demonstrates that pure efficiency motives, which do not even surface in the policy debate over Medicare Part D, can nearly justify the program on their own merits. PMID:20575239

  17. Casino taxation in macao: an economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xinhua; Tam, Pui Sun

    2011-12-01

    Macao's gaming industry has experienced dramatic growth for 8 years, yet with certain social costs due to compulsive gambling. The government has come under pressure for tax cuts even though its gaming receipts are falling relatively to the casino retained revenue. The request for tax relief is triggered by a recent decline in net profit despite fast growing gross gaming revenue under favorable market conditions. This is very likely caused by a substantial hike in casino operating costs due to increased competition and might also signal the presence of the principal-agent problem. Given the regressivity of gaming tax with respect to net profit, it is no surprise that casinos with lower profitability are more prone to seek tax cuts. The source of Macao gaming profit hinges on three distinct factors: rising demand from China, monopoly location for casinos, and market structure of oligopoly. These factors provide economic justifications for the current tax regime of Macao with a strong ability to pass tax burdens on to massive visitors. The government relies on casino tax revenue to deal with gambling related problems and promote local diversified development. Pushing for tax variability may create policy instability, business uncertainty, and unpredictable prosperity in the long term. PMID:21210190

  18. Moscow's defense intellectuals

    SciTech Connect

    Lambeth, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    This essay was originally written two decades ago as a seminar paper. A substantial portion of it addresses what were then only the first steps toward the establishment of a community of professional civilian defense analysts in the Soviet Union. Throughout most of the intervening period, that community found itself mired in immobilism as jurisdiction over such key Soviet national security inputs as military doctrine, force requirements, resource needs, and to a considerable degree, arms negotiating positions remained an exclusive prerogative of the Defense Ministry and the General Staff. Today, this former military monopoly has come to be challenged with increasing success by a host of newcomers to the Soviet defense scene, including the Foreign Ministry, the Supreme Soviet, and an ambitious cadre of civilian analysts attached to the social science research institutes of the Academy of Sciences. These individuals are making a determined bid for greater influence over Soviet defense policy, with the express encouragement of President Gorbachev and his supporters. The result has been an unprecedented infusion of pluralism into Soviet defense politics and a significant change in the content and goals of Soviet military policy.

  19. How to Control Airline Routes from the Supply Side: The Case of TAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Kenneth; Costa, Alvaro; Reis, Vasco

    2005-01-01

    Competition in the European airline industry is currently fierce in the face of depressed demand conditions, and in the wake of privatizations and liberalization. The Portuguese flag carrier, TAP Air Portugal, operates within this environment. It is a medium sized carrier that was part of the defunct Qualiflyer Group alliance and has recently joined the Star Alliance. It controls more than 50% of the air market between Europe and Brazil and Europe and Angola. Nevertheless, it has been experiencing financial losses. One reason for this is that, following the reasoning of Ronald Coase (1946), it is difficult for any company with decreasing average costs to recover full costs in a highly competitive market. One way of approaching the problem is to establish quasi-monopoly power and airlines have done this through such things as frequent flyer programs and hub-and-spoke operations. Other airlines, notably charter carriers, have sought to adjust capacity and services to meet an anticipated cash flow. In practice, many have used a combination of measures with mixed success. This paper focuses on how TAP has responded to changing conditions by adjusting its supply-side activities in terms of restructuring its network to maximize potential revenues.

  20. 'Linkage' pharmaceutical evergreening in Canada and Australia

    PubMed Central

    Faunce, Thomas A; Lexchin, Joel

    2007-01-01

    'Evergreening' is not a formal concept of patent law. It is best understood as a social idea used to refer to the myriad ways in which pharmaceutical patent owners utilise the law and related regulatory processes to extend their high rent-earning intellectual monopoly privileges, particularly over highly profitable (either in total sales volume or price per unit) 'blockbuster' drugs. Thus, while the courts are an instrument frequently used by pharmaceutical brand name manufacturers to prolong their patent royalties, 'evergreening' is rarely mentioned explicitly by judges in patent protection cases. The term usually refers to threats made to competitors about a brand-name manufacturer's tactical use of pharmaceutical patents (including over uses, delivery systems and even packaging), not to extension of any particular patent over an active product ingredient. This article focuses in particular on the 'evergreening' potential of so-called 'linkage' provisions, imposed on the regulatory (safety, quality and efficacy) approval systems for generic pharmaceuticals of Canada and Australia, by specific articles in trade agreements with the US. These 'linkage' provisions have also recently appeared in the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement (KORUSFTA). They require such drug regulators to facilitate notification of, or even prevent, any potential patent infringement by a generic pharmaceutical manufacturer. This article explores the regulatory lessons to be learnt from Canada's and Australia's shared experience in terms of minimizing potential adverse impacts of such 'linkage evergreening' provisions on drug costs and thereby potentially on citizen's access to affordable, essential medicines. PMID:17543113

  1. Differing mechanisms underlie sexual size-dimorphism in two populations of a sex-changing fish.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Mark I; Ryen, Christopher A; Munday, Philip L; Walker, Stefan P W

    2010-05-12

    Variability in the density of groups within a patchy environment lead to differences in interaction rates, growth dynamics and social organization. In protogynous hermaphrodites there are hypothesised trade-offs among sex-specific growth, reproductive output and mortality. When differences in density lead to changes to social organization the link between growth and the timing of sex-change is predicted to change. The present study explores this prediction by comparing the social organisation and sex-specific growth of two populations of a protogynous tropical wrasse, Halichoeres miniatus, which differ in density. At a low density population a strict harem structure was found, where males maintained a tight monopoly of access and spawning rights to females. In contrast, at a high density population a loosely organised system prevailed, where females could move throughout multiple male territories. Otolith microstructure revealed the species to be annual and deposit an otolith check associated with sex-change. Growth trajectories suggested that individuals that later became males in both populations underwent a growth acceleration at sex-change. Moreover, in the high density population, individuals that later became males were those individuals that had the largest otolith size at hatching and consistently deposited larger increments throughout early larval, juvenile and female life. This study demonstrates that previous growth history and growth rate changes associated with sex change can be responsible for the sexual dimorphism typically found in sex-changing species, and that the relative importance of these may be socially constrained.

  2. Electric utility restructuring and the California biomass energy industry

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, G.

    1997-05-01

    A shock jolted the electric power industry in April 1994, when the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) announced its intention to restructure the industry. The proposal, commonly referred to as retail wheeling, is based on the principle that market deregulation and competition will bring down the cost of electricity for all classes of customers. It would effectively break up the monopoly status of the regulated utilities and allow customers to purchase electricity directly from competing suppliers. According to the original CPUC proposal, cost alone would be the basis for determining which generating resources would be used. The proposal was modified in response to public inputs, and issued as a decision at the end of 1995. The final proposal recognized the importance of renewables, and included provisions for a minimum renewables purchase requirement (MRPR). A Renewables Working Group convened to develop detailed proposals for implementing the CPUC`s renewables program. Numerous proposals, which represented the range of possible programs that can be used to support renewables within the context of a restructured electric utility industry, were received.

  3. Western Europe, state formation, and genetic pacification.

    PubMed

    Frost, Peter; Harpending, Henry C

    2015-01-01

    Through its monopoly on violence, the State tends to pacify social relations. Such pacification proceeded slowly in Western Europe between the 5th and 11th centuries, being hindered by the rudimentary nature of law enforcement, the belief in a man's right to settle personal disputes as he saw fit, and the Church's opposition to the death penalty. These hindrances began to dissolve in the 11th century with a consensus by Church and State that the wicked should be punished so that the good may live in peace. Courts imposed the death penalty more and more often and, by the late Middle Ages, were condemning to death between 0.5 and 1.0% of all men of each generation, with perhaps just as many offenders dying at the scene of the crime or in prison while awaiting trial. Meanwhile, the homicide rate plummeted from the 14th century to the 20th. The pool of violent men dried up until most murders occurred under conditions of jealousy, intoxication, or extreme stress. The decline in personal violence is usually attributed to harsher punishment and the longer-term effects of cultural conditioning. It may also be, however, that this new cultural environment selected against propensities for violence. PMID:25748943

  4. [Structure problem analysis and trend prediction of energy supply and demand in Guangzhou City].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiao-qing; Ji, Xiu-jiang; Zhu, Hai-yan; Yi, Xia-jun; Ren, Fang

    2006-04-01

    This paper aims at the tense situation of energy demand and supply and analysis the current situation and problems of energy supply and demand in Guangzhou. We predict total demand of energy which will be 4534.7 x 10(4) of standard coal in 2010 by using the department analysis method and sequence method, and the balance between supply and demand of energy will be 45,000 thousand tons of standard coal. From the primary conclusions of our empirical analysis and together with the overall environment of energy in Guangdong and China, we think the development strategies of energy in Guangzhou in the future should involve several main points as following: (1) Energy of Guangzhou should base on the overall energy development programming of China and that is, it should depend on the "transmission of electricity from the western to the eastern region", power incorporation of Sanxia, power generated of water energy, nuclear power and new resource. (2) Stop setting up or expending the natural monopoly and resource oriented Huangpu thermal power plant located in the windward direction of summer of Guangzhou which has serious pollution and consumes large quantities of energy. (3) It should not absolutely depend on the coal of the poor mountainous region of Guangdong and small power station and can make full use of the resource potential.

  5. Edward B. Aveling: the people's Darwin.

    PubMed

    Paylor, Suzanne

    2005-06-01

    By the late-19th century, evolutionary theory, known by most people as Darwinism, had earned a reputation as an atheistic theory that challenged religious orthodoxy. From recent historical work we now know a great deal about how those with religious convictions received Darwinian ideas, and the role that professional scientists played in styling and communicating 'Darwinism' to the wider public and between themselves. However, relatively little is known about how Darwinian ideas were received and used by avowedly irreligious groups, and how these groups set about communicating their own version of Darwinism to a public hungry for cheap and accessible science. The activities of the Secularist Edward Bibbins Aveling, a prolific popularizer of Darwinian ideas in the late-19th century, offer a unique insight into this relatively uncharted territory. His work helped to develop the polemic of popular irreligious groups and imbue Darwinism with overtly atheistic connotations; it also engendered unprecedented support for atheism from the general public, and challenged the monopoly that some professional scientists enjoyed over imparting serious scientific knowledge to them.

  6. Europe at the crossroads: The future of its satellite communications industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholome, Pierre; Battrick, B.

    1993-11-01

    Ways of adapting the European Space Agency's role to the new industrial environment of satellite communications, which is characterized by the disappearance of traditional monopolies and the introduction of competition, are presented. As far as ESA is concerned, it is found that a general consensus exists to recommend that the agency should take a much wider view of its role as a research and development (R&D) organization. It should no longer restrict its field of activity to space technology only, but should take a more global approach. More emphasis should be placed on the development of complete communications systems and of commercial applications. European industry indeed feels very strongly that it is not getting from ESA the support it needs to match the performance of its foreign competitors on the world markets. It can only succeed commercially in the fierce competition with the U.S. and Japan if a substantial R&D program is defined and funded at European level, as required by the magnitude of the financial effort necessary. It is concluded that anything the agency untertakes in the future to redress the situation would produce much greater dividends if it were part of a coherent plan where all the European partners play their role in a cooperative spirit. It is recommended that the European Commission should, as a matter of urgency, take steps to institute a concertation mechanism involving all major players with a view to defining and developing a coherent strategy for Europe.

  7. Academic Institutionalization of Community Health Services: Way Ahead in Medical Education Reforms

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raman

    2012-01-01

    Policy on medical education has a major bearing on the outcome of health care delivery system. Countries plan and execute development of human resource in health, based on the realistic assessments of health system needs. A closer observation of medical education and its impact on the delivery system in India reveals disturbing trends. Primary care forms backbone of any system for health care delivery. One of the major challenges in India has been chronic deficiency of trained human resource eager to work in primary care setting. Attracting talent and employing skilled workforce seems a distant dream. Talking specifically of the medical education, there are large regional variations, urban - rural divide and issues with financing of the infrastructure. The existing design of medical education is not compatible with the health care delivery system of India. Impact is visible at both qualitative as well as quantitative levels. Medical education and the delivery system are working independent of each other, leading outcomes which are inequitable and unjust. Decades of negligence of medical education regulatory mechanism has allowed cropping of multiple monopolies governed by complex set of conflict of interest. Primary care physicians, supposed to be the community based team leaders stand disfranchised academically and professionally. To undo the distorted trajectory, a paradigm shift is required. In this paper, we propose expansion of ownership in medical education with academic institutionalization of community health services. PMID:24478994

  8. Implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jun; Su, Meng; Hong, Zhiheng; Zhang, Ting; Huang, Xuemei; Wang, Bo; Li, Liming

    2011-07-01

    As per China's ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), it should have implemented effective packaging and labelling measures prior to 9 January 2009 and enacted a comprehensive ban on all tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship prior to 9 January 2011. In addition, universal protection against secondhand tobacco smoke should have been implemented before 9 January 2011 by ensuring that all indoor workplaces, all indoor public places, all public transportation and possibly other (outdoor or quasi-outdoor) public places are free of secondhand smoke. The authors conducted a review of various sources of information to determine the current status of FCTC implementation in mainland China. Even though China has made considerable efforts to implement the FCTC, there is still a significant gap between the current state of affairs in China and the requirements of the FCTC. The Chinese tobacco monopoly under which commercial and other vested interests of the tobacco industry are jeopardizing tobacco control efforts is thought to be the most crucial obstacle to the effective implementation of the FCTC across the country.

  9. Fed`s new regulatory role in emerging power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Moler, E.A.

    1997-10-01

    Efforts to deregulate the electric utility industry are not exactly operating at the frontier of reform. The natural gas industry has scouted out the territory, and the same regulatory agency that oversaw that transition will be establishing a few boundaries for the electric utility industry as well. The agency in charge is the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), says Elizabeth A. Moler, chair of the FERC in Washington, D.C. The electric power industry, she adds, already is responding positively to the new competitive environment. For example, {open_quotes}state regulators are taking advantage of the opportunities afforded by FERC`s new regulations to provide choice to customers at the retail level,{close_quotes} Moler says. However, potential abuses on the new open market include price fixing and other unfair practices. {open_quotes}A utility that controls all of the generation within a large geographic area may yet control prices. Regulators at the federal and state levels must guard against these problems,{close_quotes} Moler says. In the new world of deregulation, old anti-trust laws may be invoked to ensure that monopolies do not unfarily limit competition.

  10. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946-1953.

    PubMed

    Creager, Angela N H

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear "piles," soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchase to civilian institutions. This program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from scientists outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate about whether the Commission should or even could export radioisotopes. This controversy manifested the tension in U.S. politics between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country's atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism. This essay examines the various ways in which radioisotopes were used as political instruments-both by the U.S. federal government in world affairs, and by critics of the civilian control of atomic energy-in the early Cold War. PMID:20725612

  11. Antitrust concerns in the modern public utility environment

    SciTech Connect

    Meeks, J.E.

    1996-04-01

    Direct regulation of public utility activity and behavior has been the predominant approach to protect the public interest in this country. Changes in technology, as well as new thinking about the optimum role of regulation, have created a changing atmosphere in all of the traditional public utility industries. Competitive markets for many of the products and services in these industries have been developing. While monopoly power will continue to exist in certain parts of these industries and require direct regulation, in many areas a growing reliance upon competition as the best method of serving the public interest is developing. With this shift in emphasis from regulation to free markets, the antitrust laws take on new importance for these industries. In the absence of direct regulator control, those laws are society`s primary method of insuring the markets necessary to make competition an effective device for protecting the public interest. This study provides an overview of the antitrust laws, briefly describes the applicable theoretical underpinnings, and then turns to areas where public utility activity may pose special problems or conflicts with prevailing antitrust policy.

  12. On Having No Head: Cognition throughout Biological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Baluška, František; Levin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) underlies memory, perception, decision-making, and behavior in numerous organisms. However, neural networks have no monopoly on the signaling functions that implement these remarkable algorithms. It is often forgotten that neurons optimized cellular signaling modes that existed long before the CNS appeared during evolution, and were used by somatic cellular networks to orchestrate physiology, embryonic development, and behavior. Many of the key dynamics that enable information processing can, in fact, be implemented by different biological hardware. This is widely exploited by organisms throughout the tree of life. Here, we review data on memory, learning, and other aspects of cognition in a range of models, including single celled organisms, plants, and tissues in animal bodies. We discuss current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms at work in these systems, and suggest several hypotheses for future investigation. The study of cognitive processes implemented in aneural contexts is a fascinating, highly interdisciplinary topic that has many implications for evolution, cell biology, regenerative medicine, computer science, and synthetic bioengineering. PMID:27445884

  13. The coming electric Wal-Mart

    SciTech Connect

    Drzemiecki, J.H.; Augustini, P.

    1993-07-15

    Market power in the competitive electric marketplace will depend on being a low-price leader. Electric utility executives are beginning to peer over the wall into the emerging world of competitive electric markets. Many will be terrified by the uncertainties and disorder associated with new service offerings such as retail wheeling and the transformation of other vestiges of the vertically integrated electric monopolies known for the past 100 years. The potential for increased competition for retail customers promises to have as fundamental an effect on the electric utility industry as Wal-Mart has had on retailing. Firms that are prepared for the new competitive environment will be in the strongest position to respond to the marketplace; those that are not prepared might want to consider the fate of the corner five-and-dime. To remain competitive, utility executives must take proactive steps to redefine their vision of their company's future. Such a redefinition must include a candid assessment of the strategies to be taken to reposition their firm to succeed, not just within the existing service area but in multiple markets.

  14. The post-millennium development goals agenda: include 'end to all wars' as a public health goal!

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Saroj

    2014-09-01

    The process of identifying global post-millennium development goals (post-MDGs) has begun in earnest. Consensus is emerging in certain areas (e.g. eliminating poverty) and conflicts and violence are recognized as key factors that retard human development. However, current discussions focus on tackling intra-state conflicts and individual-based violence and hardly mention eliminating wars as a goal. Wars create public health catastrophes. They kill, maim, displace and affect millions. Inter-state wars fuel intra-state conflicts and violence. The peace agenda should not be the monopoly of the UN Security Council, and the current consensus-building process setting the post-MDG agenda is a rallying point for the global community. The human rights approach will not suffice to eliminate wars, because few are fought to protect human rights. The development agenda should therefore commit to eliminating all wars by 2030. Targets to reduce tensions and discourage wars should be included. We should act now. PMID:24642595

  15. The impact of the tobacco market opening on smoking status in Taiwan: findings from a secular smoking rates analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Lord, Asta Y Z; Tseng, Tung-Sung; Chen, Ted

    The forced opening of Taiwan's tobacco market in 1987 has changed the smoking environment. This study analyzes the effects this market opening had on Taiwan's secular smoking rates over 15 years. The data sources used were consumer surveys conducted by the Taiwan Tobacco & Wine Monopoly Bureau 1964-1996, the 2001 National Health Interview Survey, and a series of annual per capita gross national product (GNP) data reported by the Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting & Statistics. After Taiwan's tobacco market was forced open in 1987 by the U.S. government in trade negotiations, smoking rates rose (7%-10% for males and 39%-75% for females) for the first three years. After the initial 3-year surge, smoking rates gradually declined to 1986 baseline rates or even lower for all groups except females aged 30 and younger, who have shown a small but steady increase in cigarette consumption. Results of multiple regression analysis showed per capita GNP and age to be the two major factors affecting smoking rate change after the Taiwan market opening. National tobacco control policies and campaigns seem to have an impact on tempering the effect of foreign tobacco imports in all groups, except young females, whose rise in smoking rate is significant and alarming. PMID:17686747

  16. Stress and the suppression of subordinate reproduction in cooperatively breeding meerkats.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew J; Carlson, Anne A; Monfort, Steven L; Russell, Andrew F; Bennett, Nigel C; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2006-08-01

    In many animal societies, dominant individuals monopolize reproduction, but the tactics they employ to achieve this are poorly understood. One possibility is that aggressive dominants render their subordinates infertile by inducing chronic physiological "stress." However, this hypothesis has been discarded largely for cooperatively breeding species, where reproductive monopolies are often extreme. Here we provide strong support for the stress-related suppression hypothesis in a cooperative mammal, the meerkat (Suricata suricatta). When pregnant, dominant females subject some subordinate females to escalating aggression, culminating in temporary evictions from the group. While evicted, subordinate females suffer chronic elevation of their glucocorticoid adrenal hormone levels, reproductive down-regulation (reduced pituitary sensitivity to gonadotropin-releasing hormone), reduced conception rates, and increased abortion rates. Rather than constantly harassing all subordinate females, dominants only become aggressive when pregnant themselves (when subordinate reproduction would otherwise conflict with their own) and target those females with whom reproductive conflict is most likely (older, pregnant, and more distantly related females). Our findings suggest that dominant female meerkats employ stressful evictions to suppress reproduction among their probable competitors, when attempting to breed themselves. Given the lack of evidence for stress-related suppression in other cooperative breeders to date, it is clear that social stress alone cannot account for the reproductive failure of subordinates across such societies. However, our findings raise the possibility that, in some cooperative breeders at least, dominants may employ stress-related suppression as a backup mechanism to guard against lapses in reproductive restraint by their subordinates. PMID:16894179

  17. The use of generic medications for hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Freeman, James A D; Hill, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis C, hepatitis B, HIV, TB and malaria are the five major causes of infectious disease death worldwide. In a breakthrough that rivals the invention of penicillin, drugs that cure hepatitis C, with minimal side effects and high success rates, have reached the market, but, in what must be one of the greatest tragedies of modern times, these life-saving medications are not being deployed on a mass scale. Pharmaceutical patents are gifted to private corporations by governments for the dual purposes of protecting R&D expenditure and encouraging innovation. Unfortunately the monopoly pricing power these patents provision currently lacks adequate checks and balances, is open to abuse, and is quite clearly being abused. The sort of legislative changes required to deliver on the original goals of pharmaceutical patents will take years or even decades to eventuate. Parallel importation of generic medication offers hope to the millions of patients with HCV unable to afford access to vastly overpriced originator medications. Doctors prescribing and monitoring patients taking generics can take comfort from the fact that the REDEMPTION trial results show, like the HIV generics that came before them, that HCV generics deliver robust clinical results. PMID:27306303

  18. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946–1953

    PubMed Central

    Creager, Angela N. H.

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear “piles,” soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchase to civilian institutions. This program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from scientists outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate about whether the Commission should or even could export radioisotopes. This controversy manifested the tension in U.S. politics between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country’s atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism. This essay examines the various ways in which radioisotopes were used as political instruments—both by the U.S. federal government in world affairs, and by critics of the civilian control of atomic energy—in the early Cold War. PMID:20725612

  19. Are we living in the end of the blockbuster drug era?

    PubMed

    Debnath, Bikash; Al-Mawsawi, Laith Q; Neamati, Nouri

    2010-12-01

    For the last two decades, we have seen remarkable growth in the pharmaceutical industry. This growth has mainly been due to the approximately 100 new blockbuster drugs, such as Lipitor® (atorvastatin) and Plavix® (clopidogrel). More than half of the revenue of major pharmaceutical companies and above one-third of the total pharmaceutical revenues came from the sales of these blockbuster drugs. Questions concerning the fate of these blockbuster drugs are beginning to surface as they are approaching their patent expiration dates, and as they are expected to face significant competition from generic versions. Branded drugs with more than USD 120 billion in sales (as of 2008) are expected to lose their patent protection in the next 3 to 4 years, while the less expensive generic versions are ready to enter the market. It is plausible that a major paradigm shift in our thinking is needed to stay innovative, competitive and economically feasible in this new era of drug development. A new wave of innovations is expected to boost the blockbuster regime. Herein, we discuss the different threats facing the branded monopoly, as well as some of the hopeful expectations for the blockbuster drug. PMID:21180653

  20. A stab in the dark: chick killing by brood parasitic honeyguides.

    PubMed

    Spottiswoode, Claire N; Koorevaar, Jeroen

    2012-04-23

    The most virulent avian brood parasites obligately kill host young soon after hatching, thus ensuring their monopoly of host parental care. While the host eviction behaviour of cuckoos (Cuculidae) is well documented, the host killing behaviour of honeyguide (Indicatoridae) chicks has been witnessed only once, 60 years ago, and never in situ in host nests. Here, we report from the Afrotropical greater honeyguide the first detailed observations of honeyguides killing host chicks with their specially adapted bill hooks, based on repeated video recordings (available in the electronic supplementary material). Adult greater honeyguides puncture host eggs when they lay their own, but in about half of host nests at least one host egg survived, precipitating chick killing by the honeyguide hatchling. Hosts always hatched after honeyguide chicks, and were killed within hours. Despite being blind and in total darkness, honeyguides attacked host young with sustained biting, grasping and shaking motions. Attack time of 1-5 min was sufficient to cause host death, which took from 9 min to over 7 h from first attack. Honeyguides also bit unhatched eggs and human hands, but only rarely bit the host parents feeding them.

  1. An analysis of the medical supply industries.

    PubMed

    Turshen, M

    1976-01-01

    Medical supply industries are dominated by widely diversified multinational companies that produce chemicals, pharmaceuticals, computers, cosmetics, and electronic equipment. Of these products, the most profitable group is prescription drugs. This article contains a description of the general structure of the pharmaceutical industry worldwide and the specific details of drug operations in the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom is of special interest because of its long-standing and partially successful attempt to regulate drug prices. The government's inability to achieve total control is related to the competitive structure of capitalist economy, to the patent system that grants monopoly privileges to drug firms, and to the duplication of research efforts and waste of resources that push up drug costs. The pharmaceutical industry serves the needs of people poorly in developed countries; its impact on underdeveloped countries is much worse. In the Third World, nascent national companies and small local producers of drugs cannot compete with the huge multinationals; the patent system proves to be an imperfect mechanism for the transfer of medical science and technology; and the high cost of imported drugs determines the amount of health care governments can provide for the population. The multinational corporations are now global enterprises that integrate the production of chemicals for many different uses-drugs for human and animal consumption, fertilizers, pesticides, and food additives. Thus the multinationals affect agricultural production and animal husbandry in underdeveloped countries and thereby nutrition as well as the treatment of disease.

  2. Trade policy, health, and corporate influence: British American tobacco and China's accession to the World Trade Organization.

    PubMed

    Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley; Gilmore, Anna; Fooks, Gary; Wander, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco market liberalization can have a profound impact on health. This article analyzes internal documents of British American Tobacco (BAT), released as a result of litigation in the United States, in order to examine the company's attempts to influence negotiations over China's accession to the World Trade Organization. The documents demonstrate that BAT attempted to influence these negotiations through a range of mechanisms, including personal access of BAT employees and lobbyists to policymakers; employment of former civil servants from key U.K. government departments; use of organized business groups such as the Multinational Chairmen's Group and the European Round Table; and participation and leadership in forums organized by Chatham House. These processes contributed to significant concessions on the liberalization of the tobacco market in China, although the failure to break the Chinese state monopoly over the manufacture and distribution of cigarettes has ensured that foreign tobacco companies' share of the Chinese market has remained small. World Trade Organization accession has nevertheless led to a profound restructuring of the Chinese tobacco industry in anticipation of foreign competition, which may result in more market-based and internationally oriented Chinese tobacco firms.

  3. Sub-Saharan Africa's media and neocolonialism.

    PubMed

    Domatob, J K

    1988-01-01

    Given the heavy Western metropolitan bias of the media in sub-Saharan Africa, the ideology of neocolonialism continues to exert a dominant influence on economic, social, political, and cultural life. This neocolonial influence is further reinforced by advertising that champions a consumerist culture centered around Western goods. The capital of multinational firms plays a crucial role in the strategy of media imperialism. The dramatic growth of monopolies and the creation of military-industrial-information conglomerates in the 1970s and 1980s have been reflected in the international exchange of information and the interlinkage of mass communication systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Another media strategy that reinforces neocolonialism is the use of satellite communication. If cultural autonomy is defined as sub-Saharan Africa's capacity to decide on the allocation of its environmental resources, then cultural synchronization is a massive threat to that autonomy. Few African nations have the resources or expertise necessary to design, establish, or maintain communication systems that could accurately reflect their own culture. Nonetheless, there are some policy options. Personnel can be trained to respect African values and to recognize the dangers of neocolonial domination. The production of indigenous programs could reduce the media's foreign content. The incorporation of traditional drama and dance in the media could enhance this process. Above all, a high degree of planning is necessary if sub-Saharan African states intend to tackle the media and its domination by neocolonialist ideology.

  4. 10th Anniversary Focus: From mainstream 'environmental economics' to 'sustainability economics'. On the need for new thinking.

    PubMed

    Söderbaum, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Traditional ideas of science as being separate and separable from ideology and politics have to be reconsidered. Each interpretation of sustainable development is not only scientific but at the same time ideological. For this reason our ideas about good science should also be related to normal imperatives of democracy. Mainstream neoclassical economics is specific in scientific and ideological terms. This paradigm is useful for some purposes and has played a role as a mental map in guiding us towards economic growth and other ideas about progress in society and the economy. Sustainable development, however, represents an ideological turn in our ideas about progress and it is no longer clear that neoclassical theory will be enough. Alternative perspectives in economics are being developed as part of a pluralistic strategy and the monopoly position of neoclassical economists at university departments of economics is thereby challenged. A 'political economic person' is suggested as alternative (complement) to Economic Man assumptions and a 'political economic organization' to be compared with the neoclassical profit maximizing firm. Alternative ways of understanding markets and international trade, efficiency, decision-making, monitoring and assessment are also needed. It is argued that such an alternative mental map is useful for actors who take the challenge of sustainable development seriously. PMID:19037489

  5. Poverty, energy, and resource use in developing countries: focus on Africa.

    PubMed

    Kammen, Daniel M; Kirubi, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Energy poverty affects poor communities and poor nations far more severely, and more directly, than in developed nations. Poor rural communities are particularly vulnerable, and the poor globally spend by far the largest percentage of income on energy. To make matters worse, record-high oil prices combined with sharp decline in foreign exchange earnings are key processes influencing the energy sector in Africa. These increases cause tremendous local hardships, but can be used to steer development decisions toward renewable energy technologies. At the same time, breaking up of public monopolies and liberalizing generation and distribution provides an opportunity for a new approach to rural electrification. Given the right incentives and institutional framework, a new set of players (e.g., private entrepreneurs, cooperatives, nongovernmental organizations, and communities) are likely to emerge and dominate reformed rural electricity markets in the future. Through technological and institutional "leap-frogging," Africa stands to gain significantly by augmenting current initiatives with experience and lessons recently gained in South Asia and Latin America. In these regions, a number of remarkable recent strides to seed and grow rural electricity markets while stimulating and encouraging private investments. Examples of innovative regulatory tools to address poverty include licensing, standards and guidelines, metering, tariffs, transmission charges, and performance-based contracting for energy services.

  6. [Everyday knowledge--body knowledge--knowledge of experience--specialized knowledge: acquisition, assessment and the orientation of logic concerning cultures of knowledge].

    PubMed

    Labouvie, Eva

    2007-06-01

    The essay explores changes in the understanding, legitimisation, and practice of midwifery. It was one of the earliest professional activities for women. During the eighteenth century a new culture of expertise emphasized theoretical knowledge and adherence to medical disciplines over the empirical practice gained by women. This early phase of professionalisation, with its hierarchies and preferred use of medically accredited knowledge, was not, however, solely divided along gender lines. Female professionalism was not just supplanted by male academic medicalisation. New ways of attaining and assessing knowledge, a different perception of how it is organised, and above all, social change created new patterns of understanding. This process achieved a new professional ethos. In pursuing the issue of gender, various examples are chosen to illustrate how changes in scientific knowledge and its relevant application are mediated. The construct of scientific knowledge and how it is used reflects gender relations and power structures. There is not only competition between female and male perceptions of knowledge, but also male stereotyping of female knowledge, in particular male notions of what kind of knowledge is necessary and how this is perceived by women. Karen Offen used the term ,knowledge wars' to describe how a monopoly of scientific expertise and relevant knowledge works within the professions.

  7. [Universal coverage of health services in Mexico].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    The reforms made in recent years to the Mexican Health System have reduced inequities in the health care of the population, but have been insufficient to solve all the problems of the MHS. In order to make the right to health protection established in the Constitution a reality for every citizen, Mexico must warrant effective universal access to health services. This paper outlines a long-term reform for the consolidation of a health system that is akin to international standards and which may establish the structural conditions to reduce coverage inequity. This reform is based on a "structured pluralism" intended to avoid both a monopoly exercised within the public sector and fragmentation in the private sector, and to prevent falling into the extremes of authoritarian procedures or an absence of regulation. This involves the replacement of the present vertical integration and segregation of social groups by a horizontal organization with separation of duties. This also entails legal and fiscal reforms, the reinforcement of the MHS, the reorganization of health institutions, and the formulation of regulatory, technical and financial instruments to operationalize the proposed scheme with the objective of rendering the human right to health fully effective for the Mexican people. PMID:24570037

  8. On the optimal production capacity for influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Forslid, Rikard; Herzing, Mathias

    2015-06-01

    This paper analyzes the profit maximizing capacity choice of a monopolistic vaccine producer facing the uncertain event of a pandemic in a homogenous population of forward-looking individuals. For any capacity level, the monopolist solves the intertemporal price discrimination problem within the dynamic setting generated by the standard mathematical epidemiological model of infectious diseases. Even though consumers are assumed to be identical, the monopolist will be able to exploit the ex post heterogeneity between infected and susceptible individuals by raising the price of vaccine in response to the increasing hazard rate. The monopolist thus bases its investment decision on the expected profits from the optimal price path given the infection dynamics. It is shown that the monopolist will always choose to invest in a lower production capacity than the social planner. Through numerical simulation, it is demonstrated how the loss to society of having a monopoly producer decreases with the speed of infection transmission. Moreover, it is illustrated how the monopolist's optimal vaccination rate increases as its discount rate rises for cost parameters based on Swedish data. However, the effect of the firm discount rate on its investment decision is sensitive to assumptions regarding the cost of production capacity.

  9. Women healers of the middle ages: selected aspects of their history.

    PubMed Central

    Minkowski, W L

    1992-01-01

    The stellar role of women as healers during the Middle Ages has received some attention from medical historians but remains little known or appreciated. In the three centuries preceding the Renaissance, this role was heightened by two roughly parallel developments. The first was the evolution of European universities and their professional schools that, for the most part, systematically excluded women as students, thereby creating a legal male monopoly of the practice of medicine. Ineligible as healers, women waged a lengthy battle to maintain their right to care for the sick and injured. The 1322 case of Jacqueline Felicie, one of many healers charged with illegally practicing medicine, raises serious questions about the motives of male physicians in discrediting these women as incompetent and dangerous. The second development was the campaign--promoted by the church and supported by both clerical and civil authorities--to brand women healers as witches. Perhaps the church perceived these women, with their special, often esoteric, healing skills, as a threat to its supremacy in the lives of its parishioners. The result was the brutal persecution of unknown numbers of mostly peasant women. Images p290-a p291-a PMID:1739168

  10. Sir Kenelm Digby (1603-1665): diplomat, entrepreneur, privateer, duellist, scientist and philosopher.

    PubMed

    Mellick, Sam A

    2011-12-01

    Kenelm Digby was a man with widely differing interests. He studied at Oxford but left without a degree. At the age of 20, he was involved in a dramatic street brawl in Madrid; the following year saw him as a successful privateer in the Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic waters, and he was then appointed a naval administrator with lucrative trade monopolies. He practised medicine without formal qualifications and gained notoriety by promoting the use of 'sympathetic' powder for healing wounds. Befriended by King James I and his son who succeeded him, he became chancellor to Queen Henrietta and was knighted by King James I on 21 October 1623 and appointed to the Privy Council. At one time, he even spent a brief time in prison, but he later became a founding member of the Royal Society and published two major philosophical treatises as well as a popular cookbook. He designed and manufactured wine bottles with tapered necks for simpler pouring and square sides for easy stacking. He dabbled in mathematics and corresponded with Fermat of 'Last Theorem' fame. In 1641, he challenged a French nobleman who publicly cast a slur on the British King to a 'digladiation' (a sword duel) and quickly dispatched him. He was a friend and admirer of Sir Thomas Browne whose 'Religio Medici' he helped to publish. The Cowlishaw Library holds a 1659 5th edition copy of this remarkable book, with Digby's name on the spine. Truly, Digby must qualify as a Renaissance man.

  11. Nova is an old hand at big deals in Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.

    1980-09-10

    Nova, an Alberta Corporation, formerly Alberta Gas Trunk Line Co. Ltd., and Shell Canada Resources Ltd. will build a 600 million lb/yr styrene plant near Edmonton, Alberta. For feedstock, 5000 bbl/day of benzene will come from a $350 million, 100,000 bbl/day refinery that will be built by Shell at Edmonton. Husky Oil Ltd., which is controlled by Nova, will take a 40% equity in the refinery. According to Nova, which has a monopoly on gas transmission in Alberta, continued collaboration with Shell could lead to the spending of an additional $2 billion in the next few years. Dow Chemical of Canada Ltd. and Nova will put together an ethane extraction system in Alberta which will feed their jointly owned 1.2 billion lb/yr ethylene plant near Red Deer, Alberta. Dow uses the entire output of the ethylene plant at its recently completed Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, complex. Alberta Gas Ethylene Co. Ltd., a Nova subsidiary, has begun work on a second 1.2 billion lb/yr ethylene unit scheduled for completion in early 1984, and will soon start work on a third ethylene unit at Red Deer. According to J. Sutherland (Nova, Alberta Corp.), Nova is rapidly expanding its ethylene capacity because, for at least a certain period of time, world-scale plants using Alberta natural gas will be very competitive.

  12. Applying Support Vector Machine in classifying satellite images for the assessment of urban sprawl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    murgante, Beniamino; Nolè, Gabriele; Lasaponara, Rosa; Lanorte, Antonio; Calamita, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    , in south eastern Italy (Puglia region). Bari, one of the major cities of southern Italy, is characterized by a considerable urban sprawl. The analysis is focused on a rectangular shaped region covering the urban area of three different cities, namely Polignano a Mare and Monopoli (and Conversano minority part) which, in 2011, had a population density comprised in the range of 140-319 people per Km2(istat ). The area of interest has a surface of approximately 253 Km2 , is characterized by three urban areas (Polignano a Mare, Conversano and Monopoli) and has a coastline of almost 17 Km. References Lanorte, A., Danese M., Lasaponara R., Murgante B. (2011) "Multiscale mapping of burn area and severity using multisensor satellite data and spatial autocorrelation analysis" International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, Elsevier, doi:10.1016/j.jag.2011.09.005 Murgante B. Danese M. (2011) "Urban versus Rural: the decrease of agricultural areas and the development of urban zones analyzed with spatial statistics" Special Issue on "Environmental and agricultural data processing for water and territory management" International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Information Systems (IJAEIS) volume 2(2) pp. 16-28 IGI Global, ISSN 1947-3192, DOI: 10.4018/jaeis.2011070102. Murgante, B., Las Casas, G., Danese, M., (2012), "Analyzing Neighbourhoods Suitable for Urban Renewal Programs with Autocorrelation Techniques" In Burian J. (Eds.) "Advances in Spatial Planning" InTech - Open Access DOI: 10.5772/33747 ISBN:978-953-51-0377-6 Nolè G., Danese M., Murgante B., Lasaponara R., Lanorte, A., (2012) "Using Spatial Autocorrelation Techniques and Multi-temporal Satellite Data for Analyzing Urban Sprawl" Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 7335, pp. 512-527. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. ISSN: 0302-9743, doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-31137-6_39

  13. Auctionable fixed transmission rights for congestion management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomoush, Muwaffaq Irsheid

    Electric power deregulation has proposed a major change to the regulated utility monopoly. The change manifests the main part of engineers' efforts to reshape three components of today's regulated monopoly: generation, distribution and transmission. In this open access deregulated power market, transmission network plays a major role, and transmission congestion is a major problem that requires further consideration especially when inter-zonal/intra-zonal scheme is implemented. Declaring that engineering studies and experience are the criteria to define zonal boundaries or defining a zone based on the fact that a zone is a densely interconnected area (lake) and paths connecting these densely interconnected areas are inter-zonal lines will render insufficient and fuzzy definitions. Moreover, a congestion problem formulation should take into consideration interactions between intra-zonal and inter-zonal flows and their effects on power systems. In this thesis, we introduce a procedure for minimizing the number of adjustments of preferred schedules to alleviate congestion and apply control schemes to minimize interactions between zones. In addition, we give the zone definition a certain criterion based on the Locational Marginal Price (LMP). This concept will be used to define congestion zonal boundaries and to decide whether any zone should be merged with another zone or split into new zones. The thesis presents a unified scheme that combines zonal and FTR schemes to manage congestion. This combined scheme is utilized with LMPs to define zonal boundaries more appropriately. The presented scheme gains the best features of the FTR scheme, which are providing financial certainty, maximizing the efficient use of the system and making users pay for the actual use of congested paths. LMPs may give an indication of the impact of wheeling transactions, and calculations of and comparisons of LMPs with and without wheeling transactions should be adequate criteria to approve

  14. Monitoring Flower Visitation Networks and Interactions between Pairs of Bumble Bees in a Large Outdoor Flight Cage.

    PubMed

    Lihoreau, Mathieu; Chittka, Lars; Raine, Nigel E

    2016-01-01

    Pollinators, such as bees, often develop multi-location routes (traplines) to exploit subsets of flower patches within larger plant populations. How individuals establish such foraging areas in the presence of other foragers is poorly explored. Here we investigated the foraging patterns of pairs of bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) released sequentially into an 880m2 outdoor flight cage containing 10 feeding stations (artificial flowers). Using motion-sensitive video cameras mounted on flowers, we mapped the flower visitation networks of both foragers, quantified their interactions and compared their foraging success over an entire day. Overall, bees that were released first (residents) travelled 37% faster and collected 77% more nectar, thereby reaching a net energy intake rate 64% higher than bees released second (newcomers). However, this prior-experience advantage decreased as newcomers became familiar with the spatial configuration of the flower array. When both bees visited the same flower simultaneously, the most frequent outcome was for the resident to evict the newcomer. On the rare occasions when newcomers evicted residents, the two bees increased their frequency of return visits to that flower. These competitive interactions led to a significant (if only partial) spatial overlap between the foraging patterns of pairs of bees. While newcomers may initially use social cues (such as olfactory footprints) to exploit flowers used by residents, either because such cues indicate higher rewards and/or safety from predation, residents may attempt to preserve their monopoly over familiar resources through exploitation and interference. We discuss how these interactions may favour spatial partitioning, thereby maximising the foraging efficiency of individuals and colonies. PMID:26982030

  15. Copyright.

    PubMed

    Smart, P

    2016-03-01

    'Talent is always conscious of its own abundance, and does not object to sharing.' Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, The First Circle When authors submit an article for publication, most publishers will ask for a signature from the author on a copyright form. The relationship between an author and the publisher is then a partnership but one that many authors are reluctant to enter into. After all, why should a publisher take copyright from an author of an article when the author had the idea and has done all the hard work for the content of the article? In response to this question, publishers will generally claim that copyright transfer agreements protect authors from copyright infringements such as plagiarism, libel and unauthorised uses as well as protecting the integrity of the article. Copyright in the UK was originally concerned with preventing the unlawful copying of printed material in the 17th century in response to the then new technology of book printing. The first copyright act in the UK, the Statute of Anne in 1710, was subtitled 'An Act for the Encouragement of Learning', and granted privileges and monopolies to book printers. Since then, copyright law has evolved to incorporate many forms of communication, including photography, film, music, computers, engraving, designs on t-shirts and digital technology among other forms of media. The most recent act in the UK is the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. While copyright covers an author's right to copy, distribute and revise the work, it does not protect ideas--just their fixation or expression. The moment that an idea is fixed or expressed physically, copyright starts and does not have to be registered. In this article, Pippa Smart provides an overview of the legal framework that protects authors and publishers. Jyoti Shah, Commissioning Editor. PMID:26890833

  16. Hospital 'profits': the effects of reimbursement policies.

    PubMed

    Danzon, P M

    1982-05-01

    This paper provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of the effect of cost-based reimbursement (CBR) on hospital costs and charges. It takes issue with previous analyses which have treated CBR as paying economic costs plus a mark-up, and have concluded that the mark-up is too small to significantly distort hospital decision-making. The basic thesis here is that if reimbursement is based on costs, accounting costs become a price to cost-paying patients, and will be optimized to maximize revenue. A hospital serving both cost and charge-paying (private) patients can set two price schedules. Accounting profits (ratio of charges to costs) are not a measure of economic profit but of relative prices to these two groups of patients. In the absence of constraints from regulation or patient co-payment, the optimum level of accounting costs would be infinite. In practice, the Medicare reimbursement formula links allowable costs to charges received from charge-paying patients. This formula creates incentives for the hospital to raise charges above the single-price, profit-maximizing monopoly level. This inflationary effect of the Medicare formula does not presuppose that Medicare pays less than full cost. The empirical analysis of hospital laboratory costs and charges generally supports the predictions; for other departments, the conclusions are consistent but more tentative because of data limitations. Overall, evidence suggests minimal cross-subsidy between cost and charge-paying patients. Comparisons of cost and charge levels in for-profit, voluntary non-profit and government hospitals are presented, but it is emphasized that inferences about relative efficiency and profitability cannot be drawn from accounting data, given the incentives created by CBR.

  17. Underdeveloping Appalachia: Toward an environmental sociology of extractive economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wishart, William Ryan

    This dissertation uses mixed methods to examine the role of the coal industry in the reproduction of Central Appalachia as an internal periphery within the United States and the economic, ecological, and human inequalities this entails. It also analyzes the related political economy and power structure of coal in a national context. Particularly important for analysis of the region's underdevelopment are the class relations involved in unequal ecological exchange and the establishment of successive "modes of extraction." I employ a historical comparative analysis of Appalachia to evaluate Bunker's thesis that resource dependent peripheries often become locked into a "mode of extraction" (with aspects parallel to Marxist concepts of mode of production) triggering economic and ecological path dependencies leading to underdevelopment. This historical comparative analysis establishes the background for a closer examination of the political economy of the modern US coal industry. After sketching the changes in the structure of monopoly and competition in the coal industry I employ network analysis of the directorate interlocks of the top twenty coal firms in the US within the larger energy policy-planning network to examine their connections with key institutions of the policy formation network of think tanks and business groups. My findings show the importance of the capacities of fossil fuel fractions of the capitalist class in formulating energy policy around issues such as the 2009 climate legislation. As a contribution to the growing literature applying the concept of metabolism as link between contemporary and classical theory, I examine the conflict at Coal River Mountain from the vantage points of ecology, political economy, and human development in dialectical rotation. Utilizing Marx's method of successive abstractions, the mountain is presented as a nexus of metabolic rifts in the human relationship to the earth's natural systems and an impediment to genuine

  18. Women in 19th Century Irish immigration.

    PubMed

    Jackson, P

    1984-01-01

    By the 1950s--100 years after the great famine of 1845-49-- 57% of emigrants from the 26 countries of Ireland were women. In the latter 1/2 of the 19th Century, increasing proportions of women emigrated, until they outnumbered men. For women it was more than a flight from poverty. It was also an escape from an increasingly patriarchal society, whose asymetrical development as a colony curtailed women's social space, even in their traditional role as wife and mother. The famine, which is the single greatest influence forcing emigration, undermined the social fabric of an agrarian society, hastening the process of agricultural transformation. The growth of a new class of Irish a British grazier landlords resulted in a situation of acute land scarcity, encouraging tendencies to cling to one's land holding without dividing it. This, combined with new inheritance practices, gave rise to widespread arranged marriages as a means of land consolidation, and the dowry system. The spontaneous marriage practices of famine days also were replaced by a postponement of marriage. These trends severely reduced the choices exerted by women. The absence of big industrialized cities, which might have absorbed displaced rural populations, removed available options, particularly for women. The system of land monopoly and inheritance revolving around male heads of households reinforced partriarchal relations, within a framework of rigid sexual norms, whose enforcement was easy because the church, which played an important role in the emergence of these values, was a major landowner in itself. The subordinated, invisible status of women in post-famine Ireland, and growing barriers to easy access to marriage partners, to waged employment and self-expression, all helped ensure the higher and higher emigration rates of women. The economic transformation of Irish agriculture accelerated the establishment of oppressive values and helped depreciate the position of women to a very low level. The

  19. Motivations for the introduction of new environmental technology

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    While I am not a social scientist or psychologist, it is my personal observation that there are three principal motives which cause companies (and also individuals) to contribute to the common good of society. These three motives are love, fear, and greed. Of course companies and people are motivated toward positive action by many other factors such as survival, hunger, and motivated by other negative factors such as hate and revenge, but with respect to taking actions which benefit persons other than themselves, I contend that the principal factors which motivate such behavior are the three cited. Before proceeding further, let me point out that while the term {open_quotes}greed{close_quotes} has a lot of negative connotations associated with it, it can be a strong driving force for the common good. Our treasured capitalistic economic system is based upon it. Of course greed can also be a strong driving force for social destruction. Monopolies and dictatorships are also based upon greed. The trick therefore is to extract the potential social benefits from greed without causing it to turn upon the society and devour it. While I could use a more euphemistic term than greed, such as {open_quotes}profit motive{close_quotes}, to describe this motivating factor, I have chosen to stick with the term {open_quotes}greed{close_quotes} because it cuts to the level of basic human instincts, and it adds some spice to an otherwise dull subject. Let me also assure you that I am not using the term in a cynical manner. I believe that it can be a very positive force (in fact, I contend, the most effective force) in promoting the introduction of new environmental technology. But, before getting into that, let us first examine the role of the other two motives for maximizing the common environmental good: love and fear.

  20. Flood damage claims reveal insights about surface runoff in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernet, D. B.; Prasuhn, V.; Weingartner, R.

    2015-12-01

    A few case studies in Switzerland exemplify that not only overtopping water bodies frequently cause damages to buildings. Reportedly, a large share of the total loss due to flooding in Switzerland goes back to surface runoff that is formed and is propagating outside of regular watercourses. Nevertheless, little is known about when, where and why such surface runoff occurs. The described process encompasses surface runoff formation, followed by unchannelised overland flow until a water body is reached. It is understood as a type of flash flood, has short response times and occurs diffusely in the landscape. Thus, the process is difficult to observe and study directly. A promising source indicating surface runoff indirectly are houseowners' damage claims recorded by Swiss Public Insurance Companies for Buildings (PICB). In most of Switzerland, PICB hold a monopoly position and insure (almost) every building. Consequently, PICB generally register all damages to buildings caused by an insured natural hazard (including surface runoff) within the respective zones. We have gathered gapless flood related claim records of most of all Swiss PICB covering more than the last two decades on average. Based on a subset, we have developed a methodology to differentiate claims related to surface runoff from other causes. This allows us to assess the number of claims as well as total loss related to surface runoff and compare these to the numbers of overtopping watercourses. Furthermore, with the good data coverage, we are able to analyze surface runoff related claims in space and time, from which we can infer spatial and temporal characteristics of surface runoff. Although the delivered data of PICB are heterogeneous and, consequently, time-consuming to harmonize, our first results show that exploiting these damage claim records is feasible and worthwhile to learn more about surface runoff in Switzerland.

  1. “The law was actually drafted by us but the Government is to be congratulated on its wise actions”: British American Tobacco and public policy in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Preeti; Collin, Jeff; Gilmore, Anna B

    2007-01-01

    Background and objective British American Tobacco (BAT) has historically enjoyed a monopoly position in Kenya. Analysis of recent tobacco control debates and a case study of BAT's response to the emergence of competition in Kenya are used to explore the company's ability to shape public policy and its treatment of tobacco farmers. Design Analysis of internal industry documents from BAT's Guildford depository, other relevant data and interviews with key informants. Results BAT enjoys extensive high‐level political connections in Kenya, including close relationships with successive Kenyan presidents. Such links seems to have been used to influence public policy. Health legislation has been diluted and delayed, and when a competitor emerged in the market, BAT used its contacts to have the government pass legislation drafted by BAT that compelled farmers to sell tobacco to BAT rather than to its competitor. BAT was already paying farmers less than any other African leaf‐growing company, and the legislation entrenched poor pay and a quasi‐feudal relationship. BAT's public relation's response to the threat of competition and the ministers' public statements extolling the economic importance of tobacco growing suggest that BAT has manipulated tobacco farming as a political issue. Conclusions The extent of BAT's influence over public policy is consistent with the observations that, despite ratifying the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, progress in implementing tobacco control measures in Kenya has been limited. The benefits of tobacco farming seem to be deliberately exaggerated, and an analysis of its true cost benefits is urgently needed. Tobacco farmers must be protected against BAT's predatory practices and fully informed about its activities to help them have an informed role in policy debates. As image, particularly around the importance of tobacco farming, seems key to BAT's ability to influence policy, the truth about its treatment of farmers must be

  2. Ethics-committee authorization in Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Graf, H P; Cole, D

    1995-01-01

    On 9 August 1994 the German legislature revised the German Drug Law (AMG). Included in the revision is a passage requiring, for the first time, that the sponsors and investigators of clinical studies involving human subjects first obtain the approval of an ethics committee before carrying out such studies. According to the legislation, which takes effect on 17 August 1995, approval is to come from 'an independent ethics committee, set up and administered according to state law [emphasis added]' (1). Although it is clear according to the text that the 16 federal states have been empowered to establish ethics committees within their jurisdictions, this does not mean that the state governments are free to transfer exclusive authority in the matter to their respective medical associations, a step that would effectively abolish Germany's private ethics committees. First, the legislation does not rule out the authorization of private ethics committees. Second, as legal scholars attest, the exclusive control of ethics committees by the medical associations would constitute an illegal monopoly. Third, it is arguable that medical-association ethics committees fail to meet the one prior federal requirement, that of independence. There is a great deal of confusion in Germany today about which kinds of ethics committees (public and/or private) the states will sanction before 17 August 1995. In an attempt to sort things out we present a brief explanation of how ther came to be two kinds of ethics committees in Germany, review the legal battle between the two over the issue of authorization, point out how the German legislature, in passing the recent bill, has missed an opportunity to clarify the issue and, finally suggest why the administration of ethics committees by the medical associations may be incompatible with the requirement that ethics committees be independent. PMID:7473643

  3. The Potential Impact of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) on public health.

    PubMed

    De Vogli, Roberto; Renzetti, Noemi

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to examine the potential health effects of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment partnership (TTIP). Our review indicates that, although proponents of the TTIP claim that the treaty will produce benefits to health-enhancing determinants such as economic growth and employment, evidence shows that previous trade liberalization policies are associated with increasing economic inequities. By reducing Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and by promoting increased cooperation between US and EU governmental agencies in the pharmaceutical sector, the TTIP could result in improved research cooperation and reduced duplication of processes. However, the TTIP chapter on Intellectual Property (IP) and Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) that expand and extend patent monopolies, and delay the availability of generic drugs, are likely to cause underutilization of needed medications among vulnerable populations. The TTIP's Investor to State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) arbitration system, a mechanism that allows transnational companies (TNCs) to sue governments when a policy or law reduces the value of their investment, is likely to generate a negative impact on regulations aimed at increasing access to healthcare, and reducing tobacco, alcohol consumption, and diet-related diseases. The Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards (SPS) of the TTIP is expected to weaken regulations in the food and agricultural sectors especially in the EU, with potentially negative effects on food safety and foodborne diseases. Finally, the ISDS is likely to infringe the ability of governments to tackle environmental problems such as climate change deemed to be the most important global health threat of the century. Our review concludes by discussing policy implications and the effect of the TTIP on democracy, national sovereignty and the balance of power between large TNCs and governments. It also discusses the adoption of an evidence-based precautionary principle

  4. Measuring efficiency of international crude oil markets: A multifractality approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niere, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The three major international crude oil markets are treated as complex systems and their multifractal properties are explored. The study covers daily prices of Brent crude, OPEC reference basket and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude from January 2, 2003 to January 2, 2014. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) is employed to extract the generalized Hurst exponents in each of the time series. The generalized Hurst exponent is used to measure the degree of multifractality which in turn is used to quantify the efficiency of the three international crude oil markets. To identify whether the source of multifractality is long-range correlations or broad fat-tail distributions, shuffled data and surrogated data corresponding to each of the time series are generated. Shuffled data are obtained by randomizing the order of the price returns data. This will destroy any long-range correlation of the time series. Surrogated data is produced using the Fourier-Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (F-DFA). This is done by randomizing the phases of the price returns data in Fourier space. This will normalize the distribution of the time series. The study found that for the three crude oil markets, there is a strong dependence of the generalized Hurst exponents with respect to the order of fluctuations. This shows that the daily price time series of the markets under study have signs of multifractality. Using the degree of multifractality as a measure of efficiency, the results show that WTI is the most efficient while OPEC is the least efficient market. This implies that OPEC has the highest likelihood to be manipulated among the three markets. This reflects the fact that Brent and WTI is a very competitive market hence, it has a higher level of complexity compared against OPEC, which has a large monopoly power. Comparing with shuffled data and surrogated data, the findings suggest that for all the three crude oil markets, the multifractality is mainly due to long

  5. Fertility Signaling and Partitioning of Reproduction in the Ant Neoponera apicalis.

    PubMed

    Yagound, Boris; Gouttefarde, Rémi; Leroy, Chloé; Belibel, Rima; Barbaud, Christel; Fresneau, Dominique; Chameron, Stéphane; Poteaux, Chantal; Châline, Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    All individuals in social insect colonies benefit from being informed about the presence and fertility state of reproducers. This allows the established reproductive individuals to maintain their reproductive monopoly without the need for physical control, and the non-reproductive individuals to make appropriate reproductive choices. Here, we studied whether fertility signaling is responsible for the partitioning of reproduction in the ant Neoponera apicalis. This species forms small colonies from one single-mated queen, with workers establishing reproductive hierarchies when hopelessly queenless. Previous studies identified putative fertility signals, particularly the hydrocarbon 13-methylpentacosane (13-MeC25), and have shown that precise status discrimination based on these signals could be involved in the regulation of reproductive activities. Here, we extend these findings and reveal that all individuals, be they queens or workers, differ in their cuticular hydrocarbon profile according to fertility state. Proportions of 13-MeC25 were a strong predictor of an individual's ovarian activity, and could, thus, advertise the established reproducer(s) in both queenright and queenless conditions. Furthermore, this compound might play a key role in the establishment of the reproductive hierarchy, since workers with low fertility at the onset of hierarchy formation already have relatively high amounts of 13-MeC25. Dyadic encounters showed that individuals with experimentally increased amounts of 13-MeC25 triggered less agonistic interactions from top rankers, in accord with them "advertising" higher status. Thus, these bioassays supported the use of 13-MeC25 by competing ants. This simple recognition system potentially allows permanent regulation of partitioning of reproduction in this species.

  6. Moving East: how the transnational tobacco industry gained entry to the emerging markets of the former Soviet Union—part II: an overview of priorities and tactics used to establish a manufacturing presence

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, A; McKee, M

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To explore how British American Tobacco (BAT), having established cigarette imports, responded to the opportunities for investment in cigarette manufacturing in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design: Analysis of documents held at the BAT archive in Guildford, UK. Results: Considerable priority was attached to investing in the FSU. This led BAT to undertake a major organisational change and to intense competition to acquire assets. BAT used flawed economic arguments to persuade cash starved governments that its investment would reap economic rewards. It offered excise advice that disadvantaged governments while benefiting BAT, confused issues over pricing, and avoided competitive tendering. BAT targeted agriculture ministries, using its expertise in leaf production to differentiate itself from other potential investors. It subverted the principles of corporate social responsibility to promote itself as a business partner. BAT's task was made easier by the naivety of post-Soviet governments and by the international financial organisations' support for rapid economic reform. The latter permitted tobacco transnationals to penetrate markets before effective competitive tendering processes had been established, giving them the opportunity to minimise prices and establish monopolies. Conclusions: Many of the arguments employed when penetrating post-Soviet markets were highly misleading but governments lacked expertise to realise this. There is a need to build tobacco control capacity in transition economies, within and outside government, to ensure that governments are better informed of the true economic and health impacts of tobacco. Rapid transition from socialist to market economies without establishing regulatory institutional structures may be dangerous when investing companies use business practices that fall short of international standards. PMID:15175532

  7. Tobacco and transition: an overview of industry investments, impact and influence in the former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, A; McKee, M

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To quantify the contribution the tobacco industry has made to foreign direct investment (FDI) in the former Soviet Union (FSU) as an indicator of its political and economic leverage; to explore the impact this has had on production capacity and tobacco control in the region. Design: Data on industry investment and its impact on cigarette production capacity were collated from industry journals, reports, and websites. Data on total FDI were obtained from the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development. Results: By the end of 2000, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) had invested over US$2.7 billion in 10 countries of the FSU. Tobacco money as a proportion of FDI varies from 1% to over 30% in Uzbekistan. Cigarette production capacity in the factories receiving investments tripled from 146 to 416 billion cigarettes per annum and the TTCs' market share has increased from nothing to between 50–100% in the markets in which they invested. Findings suggest that the effectiveness of national tobacco control measures corresponds broadly to the nature of the political and economic transition in each country and the size of industry investment, which is determined in part by the political context. Thus more effective measures tend to be seen in democratic states with smaller or no industry investments while the least effective measures are seen in highly centralised, one party states with high levels of industry investment or those with limited governmental capacity. Conclusions: The entry of the TTCs at a time of major political and economic change left the FSU particularly vulnerable to industry influence. This influence was enhanced by the industry's significant contribution to FDI, their ability to take over existing state monopolies in all but the largest countries, and the lack of democratic opposition. PMID:15175530

  8. Same same but different: why we should care about the distinction between professionalism and ethics.

    PubMed

    Salloch, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Medical professionalism forms a belief system which is used to defend physicians' ethos against counterforces which might threaten the integrity of medical practice. The current debates on professionalism, however, are characterized by the lack of a clear distinction between professional and ethical aspects of physicians' conduct. This article argues that a differentiation between professionalism and ethics is not of mere academic interest. Instead, it is of great practical importance with regard to morally contentious issues in medicine.A short analysis of the discussions in history and social sciences reveals that professionalism is more than a catchphrase of modern medical debates but has a complex theoretical background which is still not conclusively understood. Whereas professionalism is clearly linked to the honorable aims of providing services to the individual and the society, it potentially entails problematic aspects, such as elitism, monopoly or the maintaining of power and privileges. With regard to morally contentious topics, the professional ethos of physicians must be differentiated from the perspective of ethics which can take a universal standpoint and has the potential to critically assess context-specific moral norms. The example of the current regulation on suicide assistance in German professional law is taken as an example to demonstrate how professional bodies tend to overstep the limits of their expertise and regulatory power with regard to issues which need an ethical evaluation.The article concludes that the narrowing of ethics and professionalism in public discussions and in medical education should be seen as problematic and that morally contentious topics in modern societies should be open to a participatory and inclusive discussion and democratic decision procedures. PMID:27448658

  9. Impact of population size on market demand under a market economy.

    PubMed

    Li, Y

    1996-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the relationship between population size and market demand in China. It is argued that a smaller elasticity of a product is related to a greater impact of the size of population on the consumption of such a product. Greater elasticity reduces the impact of population. The impact of population is also mediated by average salary and salary structure. Salary structure affects prices, and prices affect supply and demand, which affect consumption. In a market-oriented economic system, the impact of population size on market demand affects supply and demand and prices. Current market demand reflects the effect of supply and demand in previous periods. Current population size will affect future market demand through prices and supply elasticity. Population changes are slow, and consumption changes are slow. The slowness of the process of change means there is time to adjust production and distribution in order to achieve stability in market supply. Control of price increases and inflation will promote economic growth, social stability, and improvement in China's socialist market economic system. It is argued that the supply of bicycles is elastic. Despite increased investment, labor, and fixed assets, profits will not grow. However the entertainment industry, as well as education, public welfare, urban utilities, noncommercialized housing, and telephones are less elastic. A large consumer population and a smaller supply elasticity result in high costs of installation, which are made higher by the state monopoly. It is argued that in China it is necessary to regulate certain necessities with less market elasticity in order to be consistent with optimum allocation of resources.

  10. A Relational Approach to Measuring Competition Among Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Min-Woong

    2002-01-01

    Objective To present a new, relational approach to measuring competition in hospital markets and to compare this relational approach with alternative methods of measuring competition. Data Sources The California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development patient discharge abstracts and financial disclosure files for 1991. Study Design Patient discharge abstracts for an entire year were used to derive patient flows, which were combined to calculate the extent of overlap in patient pools for each pair of hospitals. This produces a cross-sectional measure of market competition among hospitals. Principal Findings The relational approach produces measures of competition between each and every pair of hospitals in the study sample, allowing us to examine a much more “local” as well as dyadic effect of competition. Preliminary analyses show the following: (1) Hospital markets are smaller than thought. (2) For-profit hospitals received considerably more competition from their neighbors than either nonprofit or government hospitals. (3) The size of a hospital does not matter in the amount of competition received, but the larger hospitals generated significantly more competition than smaller ones. Comparisons of this method to the other methods show considerable differences in identifying competitors, indicating that these methods are not as comparable as previously thought. Conclusion The relational approach measures competition in a more detailed way and allows researchers to conduct more fine-grained analyses of market competition. This approach allows one to model market structure in a manner that goes far beyond the traditional categories of monopoly, oligopoly, and perfect competition. It also opens up an entirely new range of analytic possibilities in examining the effect of competition on hospital performance, price of medical care, changes in the market, technology acquisition, and many other phenomena in the health care field. PMID:12036003

  11. Achieving universal health coverage goals in Thailand: the vital role of strategic purchasing.

    PubMed

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Limwattananon, Supon; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Thammatacharee, Jadej; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut; Sirilak, Supakit

    2015-11-01

    Strategic purchasing is one of the key policy instruments to achieve the universal health coverage (UHC) goals of improved and equitable access and financial risk protection. Given favourable outcomes of Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS), this study synthesized strategic purchasing experiences in the National Health Security Office (NHSO) responsible for the UCS in contributing to achieving UHC goals. The UCS applied the purchaser-provider split concept where NHSO, as a purchaser, is in a good position to enforce accountability by public and private providers to the UCS beneficiaries, through active purchasing. A comprehensive benefit package resulted in high level of financial risk protection as reflected by low incidence of catastrophic health spending and impoverished households. The NHSO contracted the District Health System (DHS) network, to provide outpatient, health promotion and disease prevention services to the whole district population, based on an annual age-adjusted capitation payment. In most cases, the DHS was the only provider in a district without competitors. Geographical monopoly hampered the NHSO to introduce a competitive contractual agreement, but a durable, mutually dependent relationship based on trust was gradually evolved, while accreditation is an important channel for quality improvement. Strategic purchasing services from DHS achieved a pro-poor utilization due to geographical proximity, where travel time and costs were minimal. Inpatient services paid by Diagnostic Related Group within a global budget ceiling, which is estimated based on unit costs, admission rates and admission profiles, contained cost effectively. To prevent potential under-provisions of the services, some high cost interventions were unbundled from closed end payment and paid on an agreed fee schedule. Executing monopsonistic purchasing power by NHSO brought down price of services given assured quality. Cost saving resulted in more patients served within a finite

  12. Implications of deregulation in natural gas industry on utility risks and returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addepalli, Rajendra P.

    This thesis examines the changes in risk and required return on capital for local distribution utility companies in the increasingly competitive natural gas industry. The deregulation in the industry impacts the LDCs in several ways. First, with the introduction of competition consumers have been given choices among suppliers besides the traditional monopoly, the local utility, for purchasing their natural gas supply needs. Second, with the introduction of competition, some of the interstate pipelines were stuck with 'Take Or Pay' contracts and other costs that resulted in 'stranded costs', which have been passed on to customers of the pipeline including the LDCs. Third, the new obligation for the LDCs to purchase gas from the market, as opposed to buying it from pipelines and passing on the costs to its customers, brought opportunities and risks as well. Finally, with the introduction of competition, in some states LDCs have been allowed to enter into unregulated ventures to increase their profits. In the thesis we first develop a multifactor model (MFM) to explain historical common stock returns of individual utilities and of utility portfolios. We use 'rolling regression' analysis to analyze how different variables explain the variation in stock returns over time. Second, we conduct event studies to analyze the events in the deregulation process that had significant impacts on the LDC returns. Finally we assess the changes in risk and required return on capital for the LDCs over a 15 year time frame, covering the deregulation period. We employ four aspects in the examination of risk and return profile of the utilities: measuring (a) changes in required return on common equity and Weighted Average Cost of Capital, (b) changes in risk premium (WACC less an interest rate proxy), (c) changes in utility bond ratings, and (d) changes in dividend payments, new debt and equity issuances. We perform regression analysis to explain the changes in the required WACC using

  13. Methodology to improve process understanding of surface runoff causing damages to buildings by analyzing insurance data records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernet, Daniel; Prasuhn, Volker; Weingartner, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Several case studies in Switzerland highlight that many buildings which are damaged by floods are not located within the inundation zones of rivers, but outside the river network. In urban areas, such flooding can be caused by drainage system surcharge, low infiltration capacity of the urbanized landscape etc. However, in rural and peri-urban areas inundations are more likely caused by surface runoff formed on natural and arable land. Such flash floods have very short response time, occur rather diffusely and, thus, are very difficult to observe directly. In our approach, we use data records from private, but mostly from public insurance companies. The latter, present in 19 out of the total 26 Cantons of Switzerland, insure (almost) every building within the respective administrative zones and, in addition, hold a monopoly position. Damage claims, including flood damages, are usually recorded and, thus, data records from such public insurance companies are a very profitable data source to better understand surface runoff leading to damages. Although practitioners agree that this process is relevant, there seems to be a knowledge gap concerning spatial and temporal distributions as well as triggers and influencing factors of such damage events. Within the framework of a research project, we want to address this research gap and improve the understanding of the process chain from surface runoff formation up to possible damages to buildings. This poster introduces the methodology, which will be applied to a dataset including data from the majority of all 19 public insurance companies for buildings in Switzerland, counting over 50'000 damage claims, in order to better understand surface runoff. The goal is to infer spatial and temporal patterns as well as drivers and influencing factors of surface runoff possibly causing damages. In particular, the workflow of data acquisition, harmonization and treatment is outlined. Furthermore associated problems and challenges are

  14. Use of market data to assess bushmeat hunting sustainability in Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Allebone-Webb, S M; Kümpel, N F; Rist, J; Cowlishaw, G; Rowcliffe, J M; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2011-06-01

    Finding an adequate measure of hunting sustainability for tropical forests has proved difficult. Many researchers have used urban bushmeat market surveys as indicators of hunting volumes and composition, but no analysis has been done of the reliability of market data in reflecting village offtake. We used data from urban markets and the villages that supply these markets to examine changes in the volume and composition of traded bushmeat between the village and the market (trade filters) in Equatorial Guinea. We collected data with market surveys and hunter offtake diaries. The trade filters varied depending on village remoteness and the monopoly power of traders. In a village with limited market access, species that maximized trader profits were most likely to be traded. In a village with greater market access, species for which hunters gained the greatest income per carcass were more likely to be traded. The probability of particular species being sold to market also depended on the capture method and season. Larger, more vulnerable species were more likely to be supplied from less-accessible catchments, whereas there was no effect of forest cover or human population density on probability of being sold. This suggests that the composition of bushmeat offtake in an area may be driven more by urban demand than the geographic characteristics of that area. In one market, traders may have reached the limit of their geographical exploitation range, and hunting pressure within that range may be increasing. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to model the trade filters that bias market data, which opens the way to developing more robust market-based sustainability indices for the bushmeat trade.

  15. Traveling light

    SciTech Connect

    Tirello, E.J. Jr. )

    1993-07-01

    Today's electric utility industry has come a long way from its staid roots. Conceived as a completely regulated monopoly, the industry matured in a sheltered environment where competition was unknown. Utilities were basically construction/engineering companies that built new generation to meet their customers' ever-growing demands. In 1978 the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act came along and everything began to change. Only now, some 15 years later, is the industry finally beginning to realize that competition is not only here to stay, but is growing rapidly, accelerated by the National Energy Policy Act, which opened the doors to transmission access. Now any legitimate power generator can request that a utility open its transmission lines to move that power. To a great extent, the utility must comply. In a nutshell, companies must meet this competitive threat by cutting costs and squeezing margins to lower their rates. But in many cases lower system rates will not be enough, since a neighboring utility might be able to steal a customer by offering power from a specific plant at below-average cost. Competition comes not only from neighboring utilities, but from equally threatening independent power producers (IPPS) that can [open quotes]cherry-pick[close quotes] to serve more attractive loads. As a result, many utilities in the later 1980s looked to grow earnings by diversifying. The IPP industry held particular attraction. After all, it was a business utilities knew well and the potential returns (with the favorable capital structure) were well in excess of those allowed by regulators. This led to a wave of non-utility subsidiary creation that has yet to ebb. More utilities are joining the ranks every day; within the next few years two-thirds of electric utilities will likely have an IPP subsidiary. While transmission access tightens the competitive screws at home, it also opens the door to opportunity abroad.

  16. The Unilateral, Self-Deregulation of AT&T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloff, Joel H.

    1990-01-01

    The provision of telecommunications products and services in the United States has been dominated by AT&T and the Bell System for more than one hundred years. From the early days of telephones, it was clear that some framework of logic was required to provide "universal" telephone services to the vast majority of American citizens. The concept was known as "natural monopoly", and for the most part, has served us well. We are all aware of statements concerning absolute power corrupting absolutely, and AT&T has not been immune to this law of human nature. Several times during the past century, action has been required by the Federal Government to regulate and constrain AT&T and the Bell System from anti-competitive and predatory actions. These have been called consent decrees, Computer Inquiry II, Computer Inquiry III, and the Modified Final Judgment. The regulations and constraints imposed upon AT&T, with good reason, are now becoming eroded. The perception of a more highly competitive marketplace capable of accommodating an unrestrained AT&T, the impact of uncoordinated national and regional government policies, and unilateral actions by AT&T themselves are bringing us to the edge of an abyss. There are substantial reasons to believe that AT&T will use its considerable might to eliminate its competitors, once free to do so. Must we be doomed to repeat history with still another antitrust case against AT&T some years from now? Logic demands that we learn from the past, and that telecommunications policies be based upon that knowledge.

  17. Chemical communication in Ropalidia marginata: Dufour's gland contains queen signal that is perceived across colonies and does not contain colony signal.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Aniruddha; Saha, Paromita; Chaoulideer, Maximilian Elihu; Bhadra, Anindita; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2011-02-01

    Queens of the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata appear to maintain reproductive monopoly through pheromone rather than through physical aggression. Upon queen removal, one of the workers (potential queen, PQ) becomes extremely aggressive but drops her aggression immediately upon returning the queen. If the queen is not returned, the PQ gradually drops her aggression and becomes the next queen of the colony. In a previous study, the Dufour's gland was found to be at least one source of the queen pheromone. Queen-worker classification could be done with 100% accuracy in a discriminant analysis, using the compositions of their respective Dufour's glands. In a bioassay, the PQ dropped her aggression in response to the queen's Dufour's gland macerate, suggesting that the queen's Dufour's gland contents mimicked the queen herself. In the present study, we found that the PQ also dropped her aggression in response to the macerate of a foreign queen's Dufour's gland. This suggests that the queen signal is perceived across colonies. This also suggests that the Dufour's gland in R. marginata does not contain information about nestmateship, because queens are attacked when introduced into foreign colonies, and hence PQ is not expected to reduce her aggression in response to a foreign queen's signal. The latter conclusion is especially significant because the Dufour's gland chemicals are adequate to classify individuals correctly not only on the basis of fertility status (queen versus worker) but also according to their colony membership, using discriminant analysis. This leads to the additional conclusion (and precaution) that the ability to statistically discriminate organisms using their chemical profiles does not necessarily imply that the organisms themselves can make such discrimination.

  18. Copyright.

    PubMed

    Smart, P

    2016-03-01

    'Talent is always conscious of its own abundance, and does not object to sharing.' Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, The First Circle When authors submit an article for publication, most publishers will ask for a signature from the author on a copyright form. The relationship between an author and the publisher is then a partnership but one that many authors are reluctant to enter into. After all, why should a publisher take copyright from an author of an article when the author had the idea and has done all the hard work for the content of the article? In response to this question, publishers will generally claim that copyright transfer agreements protect authors from copyright infringements such as plagiarism, libel and unauthorised uses as well as protecting the integrity of the article. Copyright in the UK was originally concerned with preventing the unlawful copying of printed material in the 17th century in response to the then new technology of book printing. The first copyright act in the UK, the Statute of Anne in 1710, was subtitled 'An Act for the Encouragement of Learning', and granted privileges and monopolies to book printers. Since then, copyright law has evolved to incorporate many forms of communication, including photography, film, music, computers, engraving, designs on t-shirts and digital technology among other forms of media. The most recent act in the UK is the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. While copyright covers an author's right to copy, distribute and revise the work, it does not protect ideas--just their fixation or expression. The moment that an idea is fixed or expressed physically, copyright starts and does not have to be registered. In this article, Pippa Smart provides an overview of the legal framework that protects authors and publishers. Jyoti Shah, Commissioning Editor.

  19. Contracting out of clinical services in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McPake, B; Hongoro, C

    1995-07-01

    Contracting is increasingly recommended to developing countries as a way of improving the efficiency of the health sector. However, empirical evidence regarding its effectiveness in this respect is almost completely absent. In Zimbabwe, a long standing contract exists between the Ministry of Health and Wankie Colliery to provide clinical services in the Colliery's 400 bed hospital. This paper details a study of the Zimbabweans' experience with the contract. Its success is assessed using comparisons with a neighbouring government hospital of the price of services (vs the cost in the government hospital); the situation of hospital workers; and the quality of services delivered. The Colliery has established a monopoly position for hospital services in the district. However, it appears to offer services of at least as good quality at prices which are lower than the unit costs of the government hospital when capital costs are included. Nevertheless, the contract cannot be considered a success due to the failure to contain its total cost. Approximately 70% of provincial non-salary recurrent expenditure is consumed by the contract while only a minority of the province's population have access to the Colliery hospital. Screening patients, both with respect to their ability to pay and to their need for secondary level services does not take place with the result that utilization levels are not controlled. The study highlights a number of important issues affecting contracting in developing country setting: First, contracted institutions attain powerful bargaining positions if there are no viable competitors and the government does not itself retain capacity to offer an alternative service. Second, specific skills are needed for the management of contracts at all levels. If the process of contract development responds to a crisis driven agenda resulting from civil service retrenchment and public expenditure cuts, it is unlikely that adequate consideration will be given to

  20. Long-term power generation expansion planning with short-term demand response: Model, algorithms, implementation, and electricity policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Timo

    Electric sector models are powerful tools that guide policy makers and stakeholders. Long-term power generation expansion planning models are a prominent example and determine a capacity expansion for an existing power system over a long planning horizon. With the changes in the power industry away from monopolies and regulation, the focus of these models has shifted to competing electric companies maximizing their profit in a deregulated electricity market. In recent years, consumers have started to participate in demand response programs, actively influencing electricity load and price in the power system. We introduce a model that features investment and retirement decisions over a long planning horizon of more than 20 years, as well as an hourly representation of day-ahead electricity markets in which sellers of electricity face buyers. This combination makes our model both unique and challenging to solve. Decomposition algorithms, and especially Benders decomposition, can exploit the model structure. We present a novel method that can be seen as an alternative to generalized Benders decomposition and relies on dynamic linear overestimation. We prove its finite convergence and present computational results, demonstrating its superiority over traditional approaches. In certain special cases of our model, all necessary solution values in the decomposition algorithms can be directly calculated and solving mathematical programming problems becomes entirely obsolete. This leads to highly efficient algorithms that drastically outperform their programming problem-based counterparts. Furthermore, we discuss the implementation of all tailored algorithms and the challenges from a modeling software developer's standpoint, providing an insider's look into the modeling language GAMS. Finally, we apply our model to the Texas power system and design two electricity policies motivated by the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's recently proposed CO2 emissions targets for the