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Sample records for monostigma teleostei lutjanidae

  1. The life history and immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus monostigma Champion (Coleoptera: Curculiondidae) on Miconia calvescens DC (Melastomataceae)

    Treesearch

    Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal; M.Tracy Johnson; Paul. Hanson

    2012-01-01

    We describe and illustrate the life history and immature stages of Anthonomus monostigma Champion (Curculionidae: Curculioninae: Anthonomini). This weevil is a fruit borer in Miconia calvescens DC (Melastomataceae), a Neotropical tree that is invasive in Pacific islands. The larva has three instars, and development from egg to...

  2. Mitogenomes of genus Pristipomoides, Lutjanus and Pterocaesio confirm Caesionidae nests in Lutjanidae.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yusong; Bai, Qin; Yan, Tao; Wang, Zhongduo; Liu, Chuwu

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Goldbanded jobfish (Perciformes: Lutjanidae: Etelinae: Pristipomoides multidens) was sequenced using long-PCR amplification (Accession No.: KF430626). The mitochondrial genome is highly homologous to those of other teleosts. Consensus tree based on phylogeny analysis of nucleotide sequences using the protein-coding regions combined sequences (apart from ND6) in 11 species supports the fact that Pristipomoides multidens of Etelinae and the cluster of Subfamily Lutjaninae remain the sister relationship, consistent with the traditional taxonomy, while the fusiliers (Pterocaesio tile) of family Caesionidae nested within the genus Lutjanus of family Lutjanidae and showed more closely relationship with the non-reddish snappers cluster including L. russellii and L. argentimaculatus. Conclusively, this mitogenomic phylogeny indicates that the Caesionidae is a synonym of family Lutjanidae. Given the morphologic and feeding diversity, we hypothesize that the variation of feeding systems of genus Lutjanus may drive the speciation of snappers and fusiliers.

  3. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae): target species and suggestions for management

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.). We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages. Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population. PMID:21410969

  4. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae): target species and suggestions for management.

    PubMed

    Begossi, Alpina; Salivonchyk, Svetlana V; Araujo, Luciana G; Andreoli, Tainá B; Clauzet, Mariana; Martinelli, Claudia M; Ferreira, Allan G I; Oliveira, Luiz E C; Silvano, Renato A M

    2011-03-16

    In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.).We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages.Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population.

  5. Five additions to the list of Sepsidae Diptera for Vietnam: Perochaeta cuirassa sp. n., Perochaeta lobo sp. n., Sepsis spura sp. n., Sepsis sepsi Ozerov, 2003 and Sepsis monostigma Thompson, 1869

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Yuchen; Meier, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A recent collecting trip to Vietnam yielded three new species and two new records of Sepsidae (Diptera) for the country. Here we describe two new species in the species-poor genus Perochaeta (Perochaeta cuirassa sp. n. andPerochaeta lobo sp. n.) and one to the largest sepsid genus Sepsis (Sepsis spura sp. n.) which is also found in Sumatra and Sulawesi. Two additional Sepsis species are new records for Vietnam (Sepsis sepsi Ozerov, 2003; Sepsis monostigma Thompson, 1869). We conclude with a discussion of the distribution of Perochaeta and the three Sepsis species. PMID:21594042

  6. Two new gonad-infecting Philometra species (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the marine fish Lutjanus vitta (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) off New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2011-11-01

    Two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Philometridae), P. brevicollis sp. n. and P. mira sp. n., are described from the ovary of the brownstripe red snapper, Lutjanus vitta (Quoy et Gaimard) (Lutjanidae, Perciformes), from the South Pacific Ocean off the coast of New Caledonia. Based on light and scanning electron microscopy examination, these new nematodes are compared with all other gonad-infecting species of Philometra. The former species (males and mature and gravid females available) mainly differs from its congeners in the length of males (5.39-5.92 mm), equally long spicules (279-312 microm), and the gubernaculum (151-168 microm), in that the distal end of the gubernaculum bears dorsolateral transverse lamella-like structures, and in the structure of the male caudal end. The latter species (only males available) is characterized by the length of males (3.47-3.66 mm), equally long spicules (96-105 microm), and the gubernaculum (78-84 microm), the absence of a dorsal reflected barb or lamella-like structures on the distal end of gubernaculum, and by the structure of the male caudal end. Judging from the occurrence in the host, P. brevicollis is the main philometrid parasitizing the gonads of L. vitta, in which it can reproduce, whereas this fish probably serves as only the paradefinitive host for P. mira. Both P. brevicollis and P. mira are the first nominal species of Philometra described from fishes of the family Lutjanidae.

  7. Carbon isotopes in otolith amino acids identify residency of juvenile snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) in coastal nurseries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, K. W.; Berumen, M. L.; Mateo, I.; Elsdon, T. S.; Thorrold, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    This study explored the potential for otolith geochemistry in snapper (Family: Lutjanidae) to identify residency in juvenile nursery habitats with distinctive carbon isotope values. Conventional bulk otolith and muscle stable isotope analyses (SIA) and essential amino acid (AA) SIA were conducted on snapper collected from seagrass beds, mangroves, and coral reefs in the Red Sea, Caribbean Sea, and Pacific coast of Panama. While bulk stable isotope values in otoliths showed regional differences, they failed to distinguish nursery residence on local scales. Essential AA δ13C values in otoliths, on the other hand, varied as a function of habitat type and provided a better tracer of residence in different juvenile nursery habitats than conventional bulk otolith SIA alone. A strong linear relationship was found between paired otolith and muscle essential AA δ13C values regardless of species, geographic region, or habitat type, indicating that otolith AAs recorded the same dietary information as muscle AAs. Juvenile snapper in the Red Sea sheltered in mangroves but fed in seagrass beds, while snapper from the Caribbean Sea and Pacific coast of Panama showed greater reliance on mangrove-derived carbon. Furthermore, compound-specific SIA revealed that microbially recycled detrital carbon, not water-column-based new phytoplankton carbon, was the primary carbon source supporting snapper production on coastal reefs of the Red Sea. This study presented robust tracers of juvenile nursery residence that will be crucial for reconstructing ontogenetic migration patterns of fishes among coastal wetlands and coral reefs. This information is key to determining the importance of nursery habitats to coral reef fish populations and will provide valuable scientific support for the design of networked marine-protected areas.

  8. Growth stanzas in an Epinephelidae-Lutjanidae complex: considerations to length-weight relationships.

    PubMed

    Renán, Ximena; Trejo-Martínez, Jorge; Caballero-Arango, Doralice; Brulé, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    Growth stanzas or abrupt changes in growth rates are present throughout the life span of fish. Identifying growth stanzas will help to adequately described growth taking into account that fishes are indeterminate growers. In this study, we used length-weight (L-W) relationships to analyze the growth stanzas in the Grouper-Snapper complex of Southern Gulf of Mexico. For this, the type of sexuality, sex and different sexual maturity phase were considered in the analyses of three species of gonochoric Snappers (Lutjanidae) and six species of protogynous hermaphrodite Groupers (Epinephelidae). Welch ANOVA tests were carried out to deter- mine the existence of differences in length and weight between juveniles and adults per sex. According to the observed differences, L-W relationship parameters (a and b), standard error (SE b) and coefficients of determination (R2) were calculated for all species separately by sex and sexual maturity phase. Snappers' juvenile-females b-value ranged from 2.44-2.77, juvenile-males from 2.16-2.94, adult-females from 2.63-2.80 and adult-males from 2.63-2.98. Groupers' b-value ranged for juvenile-females 2.66-3.20, adult-females from 2.73-3.31 and for adult-males 2.93-3.29. For each relationship b-value was 1-tested (-Student) to explore differences from the allometric coefficient (b=3), which indicated changes in body form. Hypothesis test, for regression slopes (b) between Snappers' juvenile-females vs. adult-females and juvenile-males vs. adult-males and Groupers' juvenile-females vs. adult-females and adult-females vs. adult-males, indicated different growth stanzas related to gonadal development for Snappers, and to gonadal development and sex change in Groupers. The identification of growth stanzas is crucial to avoid an overestimation or misleading growth rate which is used in fisheries management to establish some target reference points, such as maximum sustainable yield or yield-per-recruit.

  9. Three new gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) parasitic in Lutjanus spp. (Lutjanidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico off Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Bakenhaster, Micah; Fajer-Avila, Emma J

    2014-08-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, three new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from marine fishes of the genus Lutjanus Bloch (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in the northern Gulf of Mexico: P. longispicula sp. n. from the ovary of the northern red snapper L. campechanus (Poey) (type host) and silk snapper L. vivanus (Cuvier); P. latispicula sp. n. from the ovary and rarely testes of the grey snapper L. griseus (Linnaeus); and P. synagridis sp. n. (only males available) from the ovary of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus). These species are mainly characterised by the lengths of spicules (378-690 microm, 135-144 microm and 186-219 microm, respectively) and spicule shapes, structure of the distal portion of the gubernaculum and the structure of the male caudal end. These are the first valid, nominal species of gonad-infecting philometrids reported from fishes of the family Lutjanidae in the western Atlantic region.

  10. [Reproduction and growth of the fish Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Rojas, Rosa L Soto; Mejía-Arana, Fernando; Palacios, J A; Hiramatsu, Kazuhito

    2009-01-01

    Reproduction and growth of the fish Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. The fish Lutjanus guttatus is important in the fisheries of Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica where they are captured with varied gear mainly by the artisanal fleet. We measured specimens from the commercial catch of 2002-2006. Gonadal state was determined macroscopically and age with otoliths The total length-total weight relationship was y = 0.0236x(2.8153) and total length-eviscerated weight y = 0.0216x(2.8129). Simplified relationships were y = 0.0173x3 and y = 0.0162x3. There is year-round reproduction with peaks in March (dry season) and September (rainy season). Male-female sexual ratio was 1:1. The age-length key for the gulf shows availability until the 6 years of age. The von Bertalanffy growth curve is L(t) = 65,9 (1-e(-0.13(t+2,66))).

  11. Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of Percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mo; Yang, Jun-Xing; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Fierce predatory freshwater fishes, the species of Percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) inhabit large rivers or lakes, and have a specific distribution pattern. Only a single species or subspecies occurs in each large-scale drainage basin of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. In this study, the molecular phylogenetic relationships for all but one of the described subspecies/species of Percocypris were investigated based on three mitochondrial genes (16S; COI; Cyt b) and one nuclear marker (Rag2). The results of Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses show that Percocypris is a strongly supported monophyletic group and that it is the sister group of Schizothorax. Combined with analyses of morphological characters, our results suggest that Percocypris needs to be reclassified, and we propose that six species be recognized, with corresponding distributions in five main drainages (including one lake). In addition, based on the results of the estimation of divergence times and ancestral drainages, we hypothesize that Percocypris likely originated in the early Miocene from a paleo-connected drainage system containing the contemporary main drainages of the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. This study suggests that vicariance (due to the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau modifying the large-scale morphologies of drainage basins in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau) has played an important role in the speciation of the genus. Furthermore, external morphological characters (such as the length of the fins) and an internal trait (the position of pterygiophore) appear to be correlated with different habitats in rivers and the lake. PMID:23750199

  12. [New metacercariae of the genus Tylodelphys (Trematoda, Diplostomatidae) in lacustrine populations of Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei, Galaxiidae)].

    PubMed

    Quaggiotto, E A; Valverde, F

    1992-01-01

    Metacercariae of three new species of Tylodelphys (Trematoda, Diplostomatidae) were found in the brain of Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei, Galaxiidae), at the Meliquina Lake, Neuquen Province, Argentina. These metacercariae are morphologically described as Tylodelphys argentinus n. sp., Tylodelphys barilochensis n. sp. and Tylodelphys crubensis n. sp. This is the first time that a stage of genus Tylodelphys is mentioned parasitizing Galaxias maculatus. Metacercariae of T. barilochen sis n. sp. were also found in G. maculatus brain at the Perito Moreno Lake, Rio Negro Province, Argentina.

  13. Relationship between ecomorphology and trophic segregation in four closely related sympatric fish species (Teleostei, Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Blasina, Gabriela; Molina, Juan; Lopez Cazorla, Andrea; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan

    This study explores the relationship between ecomorphology and trophic segregation in four closely related sympatric fish species (Teleostei, Sciaenidae) that are known to differ in their trophic habits. Only adult specimens were analyzed: 103 Cynoscion guatucupa, 77 Pogonias cromis, 61 Micropogonias furnieri, and 48 Menticirrhus americanus. The four species presented divergent ecomorphological traits related to swimming agility, prey spotting and capture, and the potential size of prey they were able to swallow. Results suggest that these sciaenid species can partition the food resources, even though they completely overlap in space. Differences in their ecomorphological traits appear to correlate closely with the diet and consequently could explain the trophic differentiation observed. Arguably, these ecomorphological differences play a significant role in the coexistence of the adults of these sympatric fish species.

  14. A cladistic re-analysis of the Gadiformes (Teleostei, Paracanthopterygii) using three-item analysis.

    PubMed

    Grand, Anaïs; Zaragüeta Bagils, Rene; Vélez, Lina María Duque; Vélez, Lina María; Ung, Visotheary

    2014-12-02

    In the present paper, we describe LisBeth, a newly published phylogenetic program. LisBeth implements the cladistic three-item analysis for systematics and biogeography. We show how LisBeth handles character representation, character analysis, exact search functions, reconstruction of the intersection tree and other features, such as retention index, completeness index, character history and link with other programs such as PAUP*, version 4.0b10, TNT and Xper2. Using LisBeth, we reanalyze the phylogeny based on morphological characters of the order Gadiformes (Teleostei, Paracanthopterygii) published by Endo (2002) and compare our results. We also describe the generation of hypotheses of homology following Endo's guidelines versus 3ia representation schemes. We compare the topologies of all results and show the implications of the interpretation of character history.

  15. An annotated list of fish parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda) collected from Snappers and Bream (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Caesionidae) in New Caledonia confirms high parasite biodiversity on coral reef fish

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Coral reefs are areas of maximum biodiversity, but the parasites of coral reef fishes, and especially their species richness, are not well known. Over an 8-year period, parasites were collected from 24 species of Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae and Caesionidae off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Results Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, with a total of 207 host-parasite combinations and 58 parasite species identified at the species level, with 27 new host records. Results are presented for isopods, copepods, monogeneans, digeneans, cestodes and nematodes. When results are restricted to well-sampled reef fish species (sample size > 30), the number of host-parasite combinations is 20–25 per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 9–13 per fish species. Lutjanids include reef-associated fish and deeper sea fish from the outer slopes of the coral reef: fish from both milieus were compared. Surprisingly, parasite biodiversity was higher in deeper sea fish than in reef fish (host-parasite combinations: 12.50 vs 10.13, number of species per fish 3.75 vs 3.00); however, we identified four biases which diminish the validity of this comparison. Finally, these results and previously published results allow us to propose a generalization of parasite biodiversity for four major families of reef-associated fishes (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Serranidae and Lethrinidae): well-sampled fish have a mean of 20 host-parasite combinations per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 10 per fish species. Conclusions Since all precautions have been taken to minimize taxon numbers, it is safe to affirm than the number of fish parasites is at least ten times the number of fish species in coral reefs, for species of similar size or larger than the species in the four families studied; this is a major improvement to our estimate of biodiversity in coral reefs. Our results suggest that

  16. An annotated list of fish parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda) collected from Snappers and Bream (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Caesionidae) in New Caledonia confirms high parasite biodiversity on coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Justine, Jean-Lou; Beveridge, Ian; Boxshall, Geoffrey A; Bray, Rodney A; Miller, Terrence L; Moravec, František; Trilles, Jean-Paul; Whittington, Ian D

    2012-09-04

    Coral reefs are areas of maximum biodiversity, but the parasites of coral reef fishes, and especially their species richness, are not well known. Over an 8-year period, parasites were collected from 24 species of Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae and Caesionidae off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, with a total of 207 host-parasite combinations and 58 parasite species identified at the species level, with 27 new host records. Results are presented for isopods, copepods, monogeneans, digeneans, cestodes and nematodes. When results are restricted to well-sampled reef fish species (sample size > 30), the number of host-parasite combinations is 20-25 per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 9-13 per fish species. Lutjanids include reef-associated fish and deeper sea fish from the outer slopes of the coral reef: fish from both milieus were compared. Surprisingly, parasite biodiversity was higher in deeper sea fish than in reef fish (host-parasite combinations: 12.50 vs 10.13, number of species per fish 3.75 vs 3.00); however, we identified four biases which diminish the validity of this comparison. Finally, these results and previously published results allow us to propose a generalization of parasite biodiversity for four major families of reef-associated fishes (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Serranidae and Lethrinidae): well-sampled fish have a mean of 20 host-parasite combinations per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 10 per fish species. Since all precautions have been taken to minimize taxon numbers, it is safe to affirm than the number of fish parasites is at least ten times the number of fish species in coral reefs, for species of similar size or larger than the species in the four families studied; this is a major improvement to our estimate of biodiversity in coral reefs. Our results suggest that extinction of a coral reef fish species

  17. Cardicola beveridgei n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the mangrove jack, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), and C. bullardi n. sp. from the Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi (Perciformes: Scombridae), from the northern Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Matthew J; Miller, Terrence L; Cutmore, Scott C; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Cribb, Thomas H

    2014-10-01

    Cardicola Short, 1953 is a genus of the Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912 (Digenea), with 25 currently recognised species described from 32 species of Perciformes and Mugiliformes fishes around the world, including eight species from the Great Barrier Reef. Here, we describe two new species from this region, namely Cardicola beveridgei n. sp. from the ventricle and atrium of the mangrove jack, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål) (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), and Cardicola bullardi n. sp. from the ventricle of the Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi Collette & Russo (Perciformes: Scombridae), from off Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia. These two new species are most easily distinguished from the 25 current members of Cardicola in having the combination of i) a spinous oral sucker, ii) an anteriorly intercaecal ovary, iii) a uterus that extends anteriorly from the oötype, iv) the number of spines per ventrolateral transverse row, and in v) body size and the length/width ratio, vi) the oesophagus and caecal length(s) relative to body total length, vii) the length of the posterior caeca relative to the anterior pair, viii) the testis length/width ratio and its total size relative to that of the body, ix) the postovarian field as a percentage of body length, and x) egg size. In addition, C. beveridgei n. sp. is further differentiated by possessing a female genital pore that opens anterodextral to the male pore while C. bullardi n. sp. differs further in possessing a testis that is almost entirely intercaecal and does not extend anteriorly to the level of the intestinal bifurcation. Employing genetic analysis of ITS2 rDNA sequence data, representing these species and a further 13 recognised and three putative species of Cardicola, we were able to unequivocally confirm these specimens as distinct (9-22% different over 420 nucleotide positions). Distance analysis of ITS2 showed that i) species of Cardicola from the Siganidae formed a monophyletic clade, to the

  18. First report of gastrocotylinean post-oncomiracidia (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea: Heteronchoinea) on gills of flyingfish (Exocoetidae), snapper (Lutjanidae), dolphinfish (Coryphaenidae), and amberjack (Carangidae) from the Gulf of Mexico: decoy hosts and the dilution effect.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Bullard, Stephen A; Bakenhaster, Micah D

    2011-09-01

    Larvae, identified as post-oncomiracidia of the suborder Gastrocotylinea (Monogenoidea), were collected from formalin-fixed gills excised from six species of marine fishes captured from the Gulf of Mexico off Mississippi and Florida: common dolphinfish, Coryphaena hippurus and pompano dolphinfish, Coryphaena equiselis (both Perciformes, Coryphaenidae); gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Perciformes, Lutjanidae); greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili (Perciformes, Carangidae); and Atlantic flyingfish, Cheilopogon melanurus and sailfin flyingfish, Parexocoetus hillianus (both Beloniformes and Exocoetidae). Based on a combination of diagnostic morphological features, the specimens were divided into two basic forms, each of which was further subdivided into two morphotypes. No gastrocotylinean post-oncomiracidium had been reported previously from these hosts. Of the six host species, only C. hippurus serves as a host (unconfirmed) for the adult of a gastrocotylinean species, suggesting that the recorded fishes from the Gulf of Mexico comprise dead-end hosts acting as decoys for the oncomiracidia. These comparatively non-susceptible "decoy hosts" apparently dilute the susceptible fish-host population and by intercepting infective larvae (oncomiracidia) decrease the abundance of parasites on their typical hosts.

  19. Chromosome polymorphism in Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae). 2--Chromosomal location of a satellite DNA.

    PubMed

    Pazza, R; Frehner Kavalco, K; Bertollo, L A C

    2008-01-01

    Studies about composition of repetitive sequences and their chromosomal location have been helpful to evolutionary studies in many distinct organisms. In order to keep on assessing the possible relationships among different cytotypes of Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characiformes) in the Mogi-Guaçu River (São Paulo State, Brazil), C-banding, chromomycin A(3) staining, and fluorescent in situ hybridization with a repetitive DNA sequence (As51) isolated from Astyanax scabripinnis were performed in the present work. The constitutive heterochromatin was distributed in terminal regions on long arms of submetacentric, subtelocentric, and acrocentric chromosomes and in the terminal region on short arms of a pair of submetacentric chromosomes in both standard cytotypes. This latter heterochromatic site was also GC-rich, as revealed by chromomycin A(3) staining, corresponding to the nucleolar organizer region (NOR), as shown by previous studies. The sites of the satellite As51 DNA were located in terminal regions on long arms of several chromosomes. Some variant karyotypic forms, which diverge from the two standard cytotypes, also presented distinctive chromosomes carrying As51 satellite DNA. It is possible that the standard 2n = 46 cytotype represents an invader population in the Mogi-Guaçu River able to interbreed with the resident standard 2n = 48 cytotype. Therefore, the variant karyotypes would be related to a possible viable offspring, where complementary chromosomal rearrangements could favor new locations of the satellite DNA analyzed. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Description of two new Bathyaethiops species (Teleostei: Alestidae) from the Congo basin.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Timo; Schliewen, Ulrich K

    2016-06-02

    Two new species of Bathyaethiops (Teleostei: Characiformes: Alestidae) are described. Bathyaethiops baka n. sp. is a dwarf species with the largest known specimen being only 24.4 mm SL. The species is characterized by an incomplete squamation and a large humeral spot. Bathyaethiops baka n. sp. is known so far only from the Ngoko River of Southeastern Cameroon, a tributary of the Sangha River in the northern Congo basin. The second species, Bathyaethiops flammeus n. sp., shows a diagnostic spot in front of the dorsal-fin base, which is devoid of melanophores and bright red in life. The species is described from the Bakéré River at Yambula-Bakéré, a locality north-west of Kisangani in the Central Congo basin. Other records of Bathyaethiops flammeus n. sp. from the Tshuapa respectively Ruki River at Boende and Eala, Central Congo basin, suggests a wider geographic distribution. A key to all species of Bathyaethiops is provided.

  1. A new allocreadiid (Trematoda) species from freshwater fish Heterandria bimaculata (Teleostei: Poeciliidae) in Southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Vázquez, Gabriela

    2012-04-01

    Paracreptotrema heterandriae n. sp. (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) is described from the intestine of the freshwater fish Heterandria bimaculata (Teleostei: Poeciliidae) from the upper basin of Río La Antigua, in Veracruz, Mexico. The new species is distinguished from the 3 others in the Paracreptotrema Choudhury, Pérez-Ponce de León, Brooks, and Daverdin, 2006 , mainly by having a feeble membranous cirrus sac containing an uncoiled seminal vesicle, instead of a well-developed muscular cirrus sac that encloses coiled seminal vesicle, pars prostatica, and ejaculatory duct as in the previously 3 nominal species. Moreover, eggs of the new species are larger than all others ([measurements in micrometers] eggs of P. heterandriae n. sp. 72.5 [70-75] × 40 [35-41]; P. blancoi 55.4 [52.5-62.5] × 38.5 [32.5-42.5]; P. mendezi 46 × 37; P. profundulusi 57 [52-60] × 27.8 [25-30]).

  2. Metazoan parasite communities of catfishes (Teleostei: Siluridae) in Benin (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Tossavi, Nounagnon Darius; Gbankoto, Adam; Adité, Alphonse; Ibikounlé, Moudachirou; Grunau, Christoph; Sakiti, Gilbert Nestor

    2014-11-01

    The need for more precise information on the effect of dry season on fish parasite communities in Benin lead us to undergo a focus during this season in one of the major sites of collection fry by fish farmers.Metazoan parasites were then inventoried in 166 specimens of catfishes which constituted of C larias gariepinus, Clarias ebriensis, Synodontis schall, Synodontis nigrita, and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Teleostei: Siluridae). Those fishes were collected from fishermen of Agonlin-Lowé at the side of Oueme River in south Benin from November 2011 to March 2012. In total, 12 parasite species were listed comprising three Monogena (Gyrodactylus sp., Synodontella sp., and Protoancylodiscoides chrysichthes), three Cestoda (Stoeksia pujehuni, Lytocestus sp., and Cestode indeterminate), five Nematoda (Paracamallanus cyathopharynx, Procamallanus laevionchus, Cithariniella petterae, Synodontisia thelastomoides, and nematode indeterminate), and one indeterminated Copepod species. Total infestation rate varied between 83.87 and 100% for the different fish species. This was high but independent of fish sex (χ(2) = 1.669, df = 4, nonsignificant). The highest mean intensity and mean abundance were, respectively, 44 and 13.33. Monogenea and Nematoda have elevated frequency of dominance, and their presence in the host is significantly correlated (r = -0.999; p < 0.05). Clariids were highly infected by Nematoda. Except for P. laevionchus and Proteoancylodiscoides, respectively, in C. gariepinus and in C. nigrodigitatus, the parasites showed clumped distribution. The component community diversity, as measured by the Shannon index (H'), revealed that S. schall had the most parasite diversity.

  3. Cytotype-specific ISSR profiles and karyotypes in the Neotropical genus Eigenmannia (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes).

    PubMed

    Moysés, Cinthia Bachir; Daniel-Silva, Maria de Fatima Zambelli; Lopes, Carlos Eduardo; de Almeida-Toledo, Lurdes Foresti

    2010-02-01

    The genus Eigenmannia (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes), a widely distributed fish genus from the Neotropical region, presents very complex morphological patterns and many taxonomic problems. It is suggested that this genus harbors a species complex that is hard to differentiate using only morphological characteristics. As a result, many species of Eigenmannia may be currently gathered under a common name. With the objective of providing new tools for species characterization in this group, an analysis of the polymorphism of DNA inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR), obtained by single primer amplification reaction (SPAR), combined with karyotype identification, was carried out in specimens sampled from populations of the Upper Paraná, São Francisco and Amazon river basins (Brazil). Specific ISSR patterns generated by primers (AAGC)(4) and (GGAC)(4) were found to characterize the ten cytotypes analyzed, even though the cytotypes 2n = 38 and 2n = 38 XX:XY, from the Upper Paraná basin, share some ISSR amplification patterns. The geographical distribution of all Eigenmannia specimens sampled was inferred, showing the cytotype 2n = 31/2n = 32 as the most frequent and largely distributed in the Upper Paraná basin. The cytotype 2n = 34 was reported for the first time in the genus Eigenmania, restricted to the São Francisco basin. Polymorphic ISSR patterns were also detected for each cytotype. Considering our results and the data reported previously in the literature, it is suggested that many of the forms of Eigenmannia herein analyzed might be regarded as different species. This work reinforces the importance of employing diverse approaches, such as molecular and cytogenetic characterization, to address taxonomic and evolutionary issues.

  4. Un nouveau genre d'Aipichthyoidea (Teleostei, Acanthomorpha) du Cénomanien inférieur marin de Hgula (Liban): description et relations phylogénétiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Olga

    1997-09-01

    Freigichthys elleipsis nov. gen., nov. sp., from the Lower Cenomanian of Hgula (Lebanon) is described. Its phylogenetic relationships within the Aipichthyoidea (Teleostei, Ctenosquamata) are established. It is the plesiomorphic member of this superfamily that includes the genera Aipichthys Steindachner, 1860, ParaipichthysGaudant, 1978and Aipichthyoides Gayet 1980.

  5. The importance of gobies (Gobiidae, Teleostei) as hosts and transmitters of parasites in the SW Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, C. D.; Strohbach, U.; Groenewold, S.

    1993-02-01

    The parasite fauna of five goby species (Gobiidae, Teleostei) was investigated in the Baltic Sea during the period 1987 to 1990. 13 parasite species were found in samples from the Lübeck Bight: Bothriocephalus scorpii, Schistocephalus sp. (Cestoda); Cryptocotyle concavum, Cryptocotyle lingua, Podocotyle atomon, Derogenes varicus (Digenea); Hysterothylacium sp. (cf. auctum), Contracaecum sp., Anisakis simplex (Nematoda); Corynosoma sp., Echinorhynchus gadi, Neoechinorhynchus rutili, Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala). The number of parasite species were: 10 in the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, 8 in the black goby Gobius niger, 7 in the two-spotted goby Gobiusculus flavescens, 6 in the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, and 5 in the painted goby Pomatoschistus pictus. Neoechinorhynchus rutili occurred only in P. minutus, and Corynosoma sp. only in G. niger. The extent to which the gobies were parasitized clearly depended on the respective ways of life and, moreover, on the kind of prey ingested by the hosts. Additionally, the age of the hosts might be important. The highest rate of parasitism, more than 60%, was reached by Hysterothylacium sp. in G. niger and by Cryptocotyle concavum in P. microps. Infestation incidence lay mostly below 40% which means a satellite species status (Holmes, 1991). The number of parasite species was highest in summer; the highest intensities of single parasites occurred in spring ( Podocotyle atomon) or autumn ( Crytocotyle concavum). Bothriocephalus scorpii, Hysterothylacium sp. and Podocotyle infested their juvenile hosts very early, but only Hysterothylacium was accumulated by G. niger during its whole life span, whereas Bothriocephalus persisted also in older gobies in low intensities. The cercariae of Cryptocotyle spp. penetrate actively into their hosts; all the other parasites named were transmitted in larval form by prey organisms which consisted mainly of planktonic and benthic crustaceans. The gobies were final hosts

  6. The mitochondrial genome of spotted green pufferfish Tetraodon nigroviridis (Teleostei: Tetraodontiformes) and divergence time estimation among model organisms in fishes.

    PubMed

    Yamanoue, Yusuke; Miya, Masaki; Inoue, Jun G; Matsuura, Keiichi; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2006-02-01

    We determined the whole mitochondrial genome sequence for spotted green pufferfish, Tetraodon nigroviridis (Teleostei: Tetraodontiformes). The genome (16,488 bp) contained 37 genes (two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 13 protein-coding genes) plus control region as found in other vertebrates, with the gene order identical to that of typical vertebrates. The sequence was used to estimate phylogenetic relationships and divergence times among major lineages of fishes, including representative model organisms in fishes. We employed partitioned Bayesian approaches for these two analyses using two datasets that comprised concatenated amino acid sequences from 12 protein-coding genes (excluding the ND6 gene) and concatenated nucleotide sequences from the 12 protein-coding genes (without 3rd codon positions), 22 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes. The resultant trees from the two datasets were well resolved and largely congruent with those from previous studies, with spotted green pufferfish being placed in a reasonable phylogenetic position. The approximate divergence times between spotted green pufferfish and model organisms in fishes were 85 million years ago (MYA) vs. torafugu, 183 MYA vs. three-spined stickleback, 191 MYA vs. medaka, and 324 MYA vs. zebrafish, all of which were about twice as old as the divergence times estimated by their earliest occurrences in fossil records.

  7. From sneaker to parental male: change of reproductive traits in the black goby, Gobius niger (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Immler, Simone; Mazzoldi, Carlotta; Rasotto, Maria Berica

    2004-02-01

    This study focuses on the consequences of the switch of tactic from parasitic to parental male in the black goby, Gobius niger (Teleostei: Gobiidae), a species showing two alternative male mating tactics. Older and larger males defend nests, court, and perform parental care on eggs, while younger and smaller ones behave as parasites, sneaking into nests while spawning occurs. Males adopting different tactics are known to present differences in primary and secondary sex traits. The social context of sneaker males was manipulated to induce a tactic switch. Sneakers were kept under two different experimental treatments with or without a female, and under exclusion of male-male competition. Males changed tactics, courting females, spawning, and performing parental care. All males showed substantial changes in primary sexual traits, such as a reduction in gonadal development and an increase in the investment in accessory structures. The experimental groups differed in the functionality of gonads and accessory organs and in the development of the secondary sex traits. These results demonstrate that the moment of switching is not genetically fixed in the black goby. Sneaker males are able to quickly reallocate energy in primary and secondary sex traits, in accordance with the adopted tactic. Several aspects of this flexible reproductive pattern resemble the socially controlled sex change found in sequential hermaphrodites.

  8. Molecular taxonomy and identification within the Antarctic genus Trematomus (Notothenioidei, Teleostei): How valuable is barcoding with COI?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautredou, A.-C.; Bonillo, C.; Denys, G.; Cruaud, C.; Ozouf-Costaz, C.; Lecointre, G.; Dettai, A.

    2010-08-01

    The Trematominae are a particularly interesting subfamily within the antarctic suborder Notothenioidei (Teleostei). The 14 closely related species occupy a large range of ecological of niches, extremely useful for evolutionary and biogeography studies in the Antarctic Ocean. But some Trematomus species can be difficult to identify by using morphological criteria, specially young stages and damaged specimens. Molecular identification would therefore be highly useful, however the suitability of the cytochrome oxidase I gene in a barcoding approach needs to be assessed. We evaluated species delineation within the genus Trematomus comparing morphological identification, nuclear markers (the rhodopsin retrogene and a new nuclear marker pkd1: polycystic kidney disease 1) and COI. We show that Trematomus vicarius is not distinguishable from Trematomus bernacchii with the molecular markers used, and neither is Trematomus loennbergii from Trematomus lepidorhinus. We suggest that until this is investigated further, studies including these species list them as T. loennbergii/ T. lepidorhinus group, and keep voucher samples and specimens. Generally, COI gives a congruent result with the rhodopsin retrogene, and except for the previously cited species pairs, COI barcoding is efficient for identification in this group. Moreover pkd1 might not be suitable for a phylogenetic study at this scale for this group.

  9. Evolution of microhabitat association and morphology in a diverse group of cryptobenthic coral reef fishes (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Eviota).

    PubMed

    Tornabene, Luke; Ahmadia, Gabby N; Berumen, Michael L; Smith, Dave J; Jompa, Jamaluddin; Pezold, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Gobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae) are an extremely diverse and widely distributed group and are the second most species rich family of vertebrates. Ecological drivers are key to the evolutionary success of the Gobiidae. However, ecological and phylogenetic data are lacking for many diverse genera of gobies. Our study investigated the evolution of microhabitat association across the phylogeny of 18 species of dwarfgobies (genus Eviota), an abundant and diverse group of coral reef fishes. In addition, we also explore the evolution of pectoral fin-ray branching and sensory head pores to determine the relationship between morphological evolution and microhabitat shifts. Our results demonstrate that Eviota species switched multiple times from a facultative hard-coral association to inhabiting rubble or mixed sand/rubble habitat. We found no obvious relationship between microhabitat shifts and changes in pectoral fin-ray branching or reduction in sensory pores, with the latter character being highly homoplasious throughout the genus. The relative flexibility in coral-association in Eviota combined with the ability to move into non-coral habitats suggests a genetic capacity for ecological release in contrast to the strict obligate coral-dwelling relationship commonly observed in closely related coral gobies, thus promoting co-existence through fine scale niche partitioning. The variation in microhabitat association may facilitate opportunistic ecological speciation, and species persistence in the face of environmental change. This increased speciation opportunity, in concert with a high resilience to extinction, may explain the exceptionally high diversity seen in Eviota compared to related genera in the family.

  10. Phylogeny and biogeography of highly diverged freshwater fish species (Leuciscinae, Cyprinidae, Teleostei) inferred from mitochondrial genome analysis.

    PubMed

    Imoto, Junichi M; Saitoh, Kenji; Sasaki, Takeshi; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Adachi, Jun; Kartavtsev, Yuri P; Miya, Masaki; Nishida, Mutsumi; Hanzawa, Naoto

    2013-02-10

    The distribution of freshwater taxa is a good biogeographic model to study pattern and process of vicariance and dispersal. The subfamily Leuciscinae (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) consists of many species distributed widely in Eurasia and North America. Leuciscinae have been divided into two phyletic groups, leuciscin and phoxinin. The phylogenetic relationships between major clades within the subfamily are poorly understood, largely because of the overwhelming diversity of the group. The origin of the Far Eastern phoxinin is an interesting question regarding the evolutionary history of Leuciscinae. Here we present phylogenetic analysis of 31 species of Leuciscinae and outgroups based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences to clarify the phylogenetic relationships and to infer the evolutionary history of the subfamily. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the Far Eastern phoxinin species comprised the monophyletic clades Tribolodon, Pseudaspius, Oreoleuciscus and Far Eastern Phoxinus. The Far Eastern phoxinin clade was independent of other Leuciscinae lineages and was closer to North American phoxinins than European leuciscins. All of our analysis also suggested that leuciscins and phoxinins each constituted monophyletic groups. Divergence time estimation suggested that Leuciscinae species diverged from outgroups such as Tincinae to be 83.3 million years ago (Mya) in the Late Cretaceous and leuciscin and phoxinin shared a common ancestor 70.7 Mya. Radiation of Leuciscinae lineages occurred during the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene. This period also witnessed the radiation of tetrapods. Reconstruction of ancestral areas indicates Leuciscinae species originated within Europe. Leuciscin species evolved in Europe and the ancestor of phoxinin was distributed in North America. The Far Eastern phoxinins would have dispersed from North America to Far East across the Beringia land bridge. The present study suggests important roles for the continental rearrangements during the

  11. Population genetic patterns revealed by microsatellite data challenge the mitochondrial DNA based taxonomy of Astyanax in Mexico (Characidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Hausdorf, Bernhard; Wilkens, Horst; Strecker, Ulrike

    2011-07-01

    Astyanax has become an important model system for evolutionary studies of cave animals. We investigated correlations of population genetic patterns revealed by microsatellite data and phylogeographic patterns shown by mitochondrial DNA sequences in Mexican cave and surface fish of the genus Astyanax (Characidae, Teleostei) to improve the understanding of the colonization history of this neotropical fish in Central and North America and to assess a recent taxonomic classification. The distribution of nuclear genotypes is not congruent with that of the mitochondrial clades. Admixture analyses suggest there has been nuclear gene flow between populations defined by different mitochondrial clades. The microsatellite data indicate that there was mitochondrial capture of a cave population from adjacent populations. Furthermore, gene flow also occurred between populations belonging to different nuclear genotypic clusters. This indicates that neither the nuclear genotypic clusters nor the mitochondrial clades represent independent evolutionary units, although the mitochondrial divergences are high and in a range usually characteristic for different fish species. This conclusion is supported by the presence of morphologically intermediate forms. Our analyses show that the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt limited gene flow, but has been crossed by Astyanax several times. In Yucatán, where obvious geographic barriers are missing, the incongruence between the distribution of nuclear and mitochondrial markers reflects random colonization events caused by inundations or marine transgressions resulting in random phylogeographic breaks. Thus, conclusions about the phylogeographic history and even more about the delimitation of species should not be based on single genetic markers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the digenean Tergestia acanthocephala (Stossich, 1887) (Gymnophalloidea: Fellodistomidae): An intestinal parasite of Belone belone gracilis (Pisces: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Kacem, H; Ndiaye, P I; Neifar, L; Torres, J; Miquel, J

    2015-06-01

    The ultrastructural organization of the spermatozoon of the digenean Tergestia acanthocephala (Gymnophalloidea: Fellodistomidae) is described. Live digeneans were collected from Belone belone gracilis (Teleostei: Belonidae), caught off the Gulf of Gabès in Chebba (Tunisia). The mature spermatozoon of T. acanthocephala exhibits the general pattern described in numerous digeneans, characterized by the presence of two axonemes of the different length of the 9+'1' pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, two mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. Moreover, the morphology of the posterior spermatozoon extremity in T. acanthocephala corresponds to the fasciolidean type of Quilichini et al. (2010a). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. New records of lampriform fishes (Teleostei: Lampriformes) from the Pacific coast of lower Central America, with comments on the diversity, taxonomy and distribution of the Lampriformes in the eastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Arturo; López-Sánchez, Myrna I

    2017-02-23

    New records of occurrence for four species of lampriform fishes (Teleostei: Lampriformes; Desmodema polystictum, Regalecus russelii, Trachipterus fukuzakii and Zu cristatus) poorly known or previously unknown for the Pacific coast of lower Central America (Costa Rica-Panama) are herein reported. Museum specimens supporting such records are characterized and described. Comparative morphometric and meristic data on other collections and species of lampriforms, as well as distributional information, are provided and discussed. Diversity, taxonomy and distribution of the eastern Pacific species of the order also are briefly discussed. Finally, a key to the eastern Pacific species of the Lampriformes, based on our research and data available in the literature, is presented.

  14. A new species of Buenia (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the western Mediterranean Sea, with the description of this genus.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Marcelo; Ordines, Frances; Schliewen, Ulrich K

    2017-04-07

    A new miniature gobiid species, Buenia massutii sp. nov. (Teleostei: Gobiidae) is described from the circalittoral bottom off the Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean. Phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial COI-barcoding fragment supports its species-level distinctiveness and the monophyly of the genus Buenia. A description and diagnosis of the genus Buenia is for the first time provided. Material of the new species was collected in 57-67 m depth from beam trawl samples carried out on red algae beds. The traits that differentiate the new species from two congeneric species are: anterior oculoscapular canal only semiclosed with pores σ, λ, κ, ω, α, ρ and additional pores and open furrows from interorbital part to pore ρ; posterior oculoscapular canal absent; suborbital row c with 5 papillae; scales in lateral series 26-28; pectoral fin rays 16; the second spine of the first dorsal fin the longest, reaching to or behind posterior end of the second dorsal fin in males when folded down; pelvic fin anterior membrane one sixth or less of length of spinous ray in midline depth; head length 31.2-32.5% of standard length; eye 32.8-35.7% of head length; caudal fin length 21.5-24.0% of standard length.

  15. Diversification of substrate specificities in teleostei Fads2: characterization of Δ4 and Δ6Δ5 desaturases of Chirostoma estor[S

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca-Madrigal, Jorge; Navarro, Juan C.; Hontoria, Francisco; Tocher, Douglas R.; Martínez-Palacios, Carlos A.; Monroig, Óscar

    2014-01-01

    Currently existing data show that the capability for long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis in teleost fish is more diverse than in other vertebrates. Such diversity has been primarily linked to the subfunctionalization that teleostei fatty acyl desaturase (Fads)2 desaturases have undergone during evolution. We previously showed that Chirostoma estor, one of the few representatives of freshwater atherinopsids, had the ability for LC-PUFA biosynthesis from C18 PUFA precursors, in agreement with this species having unusually high contents of DHA. The particular ancestry and pattern of LC-PUFA biosynthesis activity of C. estor make this species an excellent model for study to gain further insight into LC-PUFA biosynthetic abilities among teleosts. The present study aimed to characterize cDNA sequences encoding fatty acyl elongases and desaturases, key genes involved in the LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Results show that C. estor expresses an elongase of very long-chain FA (Elovl)5 elongase and two Fads2 desaturases displaying Δ4 and Δ6/Δ5 specificities, thus allowing us to conclude that these three genes cover all the enzymatic abilities required for LC-PUFA biosynthesis from C18 PUFA. In addition, the specificities of the C. estor Fads2 enabled us to propose potential evolutionary patterns and mechanisms for subfunctionalization of Fads2 among fish lineages. PMID:24792929

  16. A new species of Taeniacanthus (Copepoda: Taeniacanthidae) parasitic on two pufferfish species, Marilyna meraukensis and M. darwinii (Teleostei: Tetraodontidae), from Australia.

    PubMed

    Tang, Danny

    2011-09-01

    A new species of Taeniacanthidae (Copepoda, Cyclopoida), Taeniacanthus kiemae sp. n., is described based on adult female and male specimens collected from the branchial cavity wall of Marilyna meraukensis (de Beaufort) and M. darwinii (Castelnau) (Teleostei, Tetraodontidae) caught in Australian waters. The new species differs from its congeners by having the following combination of characters in the adult female: (1) maxilla armed with a stout terminal process and two small elements; (2) multiple rows of spinules on the large pectinate process of the antenna; (3) an extremely long and thin maxilliped claw; (4) second exopodal segment of leg 1 with eight setae; (5) third exopodal segment of leg 3 with three spines and four setae; (6) third exopodal segment of leg 4 with three spines and two setae; and (7) each spine on the free exopodal segment of leg 5 with a subterminal flagellum. Taeniacanthus kiemae is the second copepod species reported from M. meraukensis and M. darwinii and the first taeniacanthid species reported from pufferfishes in Australia.

  17. Scale surface microstructure and scale size in the tooth-carp genus Aphanius (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae) from endorheic basins in Southwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Zeinab; Teimori, Azad; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Reichenbacher, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    A substantial number of species within the tooth-carp Aphanius Nardo, 1827 (Cyprinodontidae, Teleostei) has been recorded from the endorheic drainage systems of Iran, and several isolated populations in these systems may deserve species status. Descriptions of these species and populations have been based mainly on morphological and molecular data; however, the characters related to the fish scales have not up to now been intensively studied and employed for the identification of the species belonging to this genus. The objective of this study is to test as to whether (i) scale surface morphology, (ii) scale surface microstructure, and (iii) scale size can be used to discriminate species and/or populations and, (iv) to discuss the possible causes of the observed differences. To achieve these objectives, scales of three species of the genus Aphanius from endorheic basins in SW Iran, viz. A. sophiae (nine populations from the Kor River Basin), A. farsicus (four populations from the Maharlu Lake Basin) and A. pluristriatus (a single population from the Mond River Basin) have been studied using SEM images, scale measurements, and uni- and multivariate statistics. It is opined that scale surface morphology and microstructure cannot help in distinguishing the species, but can be employed to discriminate certain populations of A. sophiae (those from Safashahr, Kharameh, Tashk, Gol). In addition, scale size and J-indices, respectively, represent a valuable tool for species separation, which corroborates earlier studies for the use of these indices in taxonomy. Major driving forces of the differentiation within A. sophiae probably include habitat fragmentation resulting from the geological history and local adaptations. Thus the differentiation results from a balance between both genetic and environmental effects.

  18. The basement membrane and the sex establishment in the juvenile hermaphroditism during gonadal differentiation of the Gymnocorymbus ternetzi (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, Talita Sarah; Grier, Harry J; Quagio-Grassiotto, Irani

    2015-12-01

    Although there are several studies on morphogenesis in Teleostei, until now there is no research describing the role of the basement membrane in the establishment of the germinal epithelium during gonadal differentiation in Characiformes. In attempt to study these events that result in the formation of ovarian and testicular structures, gonads of Gymnocorymbus ternetzi were prepared for light microscopy. During gonadal development in G. ternetzi, all individuals first developed ovarian tissue. The undifferentiated gonad was formed by somatic cells (SC) and primordial germ cells (PGCs). After successive mitosis, the PGCs became oogonia, which entered into meiosis originating oocytes. An interstitial tissue developed. In half of the individuals, presumptive female, prefollicle cells synthesized a basement membrane around oocyte forming a follicle. Along the ventral region of the ovary, the tissue invaginated to form the ovigerous lamellae, bordered by the germinal epithelium. Stroma developed and the follicle complexes were formed. The gonadal aromatase was detected in interstitial cells in the early steps of the gonadal differentiation in both sexes. In another half of the individuals, presumptive male, there was no synthesis of basement membrane. The interstitium was invaded by numerous granulocytes. Pre-Leydig cells proliferated. Apoptotic oocytes were observed and afterward degenerated. Spermatogonia appeared near the degenerating oocytes and associated to SCs, forming testicular tubules. Germinal epithelium developed and the basement membrane was synthesized. Concomitantly, there was decrease of the gonadal aromatase and increase in the 3β-HSD enzyme expression. Thus, the testis was organized on an ovary previously developed, constituting an indirect gonochoristic differentiation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Simultaneous analysis of five molecular markers provides a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis for the living bony-tongue fishes (Osteoglossomorpha: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Lavoué, Sébastien; Sullivan, John P

    2004-10-01

    Fishes of the Superorder Osteoglossomorpha (the "bonytongues") constitute a morphologically heterogeneous group of basal teleosts, including highly derived subgroups such as African electric fishes, the African butterfly fish, and Old World knifefishes. Lack of consensus among hypotheses of osteoglossomorph relationships advanced during the past 30 years may be due in part to the difficulty of identifying shared derived characters among the morphologically differentiated extant families of this group. In this study, we present a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for this group, based on the analysis of more than 4000 characters from five molecular markers (the mitochondrial cytochrome b, 12S and 16S rRNA genes, and the nuclear genes RAG2 and MLL). Our taxonomic sampling includes one representative of each extant non-mormyrid osteoglossomorph genus, one representative for the monophyletic family Mormyridae, and four outgroup taxa within the basal Teleostei. Maximum parsimony analysis of combined and equally weighted characters from the five molecular markers and Bayesian analysis provide a single, well-supported, hypothesis of osteoglossomorph interrelationships and show the group to be monophyletic. The tree topology is the following: (Hiodon alosoides, (Pantodon buchholzi, (((Osteoglossum bicirrhosum, Scleropages sp.), (Arapaima gigas, Heterotis niloticus)), ((Gymnarchus niloticus, Ivindomyrus opdenboschi), ((Notopterus notopterus, Chitala ornata), (Xenomystus nigri, Papyrocranus afer)))))). We compare our results with previously published phylogenetic hypotheses based on morpho-anatomical data. Additionally, we explore the consequences of the long terminal branch length for the taxon Pantodon buchholzi in our phylogenetic reconstruction and we use the obtained phylogenetic tree to reconstruct the evolutionary history of electroreception in the Notopteroidei.

  20. Ortholinea auratae n. sp. (Myxozoa, Ortholineidae) infecting the urinary bladder of the gilthead seabream Sparus aurata (Teleostei, Sparidae), in a Portuguese fish farm.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Luis F; Rocha, Sónia; Borkhanuddin, Muhammad H; Cech, Gábor; Castro, Ricardo; Casal, Graça; Azevedo, Carlos; Severino, Ricardo; Székely, Csaba; Santos, Maria J

    2014-09-01

    A new myxosporean species, Ortholinea auratae n. sp., is described from the gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Sparidae) from a fish farm in Algarve, Portugal. Plasmodia and spores were found in the urinary bladder and, less frequently, in the posterior kidney. Plasmodia were polymorphic, presenting an irregular cellular membrane due to the presence of several peripheral projections, which in turn were covered by a glycocalyx-like sheet. Mature spores were subspherical in valvular view and ellipsoidal in sutural view, measuring 9.0 ± 0.3 (8.2-10.1) μm in length, 8.3 ± 0.4 (7.5-9.1) μm in width, and 7.2 ± 0.5 (6.3-8.4) μm in thickness. The two valves comprising the spores displayed an intricate pattern of surface ridges and were also enveloped by a glycocalyx-like sheet. Two subspherical polar capsules, 3.2 ± 0.1 (2.9-3.6) μm long and 2.7 ± 0.1 (2.4-2.9) μm wide, were located at the anterior pole and displayed divergent orientation. The polar filament coiled in three to four turns. The comprehensive analysis of the parasite's ultrastructural observations and molecular data for the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene identify O. auratae n. sp. as a new species, clustering together with other myxosporeans infecting the excretory system to form a subclade of the main freshwater clade.

  1. Unique features of pedicellate attachment of the upper jaw teeth in the adult gobiid fish Sicyopterus japonicus (Teleostei, Gobiidiae): morphological and structural characteristics and development.

    PubMed

    Sahara, Noriyuki; Moriyama, Keita; Iida, Midori; Watanabe, Shun

    2013-05-01

    Sicyopterus japonicus (Teleostei, Gobiidae), a hill-stream herbivorous gobiid fish, possesses an unusual oral dentition among teleost fishes on account of its feeding habitat. By using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, including vital staining with tetracycline, we examined the development of the attachment tissues of the upper jaw teeth in this fish. The functional teeth of S. japonicus had an asymmetrical dentine shaft. The dentine shaft attached to the underlying uniquely shaped pedicel by means of two different attachment mechanisms. At the lingual base, collagen fiber bundles connected the dentine shaft with the pedicel (hinged attachment), whereas the labial base articulated with an oval-shaped projection of the pedicel (articulate attachment). The pedicel bases were firmly ankylosed to the crest of the thin flange of porous spongy bone on the premaxillary bone, which afforded a flange-groove system on the labial surface of the premaxillary bone. Developmentally, the pedicel and thin flange of spongy bone were completely different mineralized attachment tissues. The pedicel had a dual origin, i.e., the dental papilla cells, which differentiated into odontoblasts that constructed the internal surface of the pedicel, and the mesenchymal cells, which differentiated into osteoblasts that formed the outer face of the pedicel. A thin flange of spongy bone was deposited on the superficial resorbed labial side of the premaxillary bone proper, and later rapid bone remodeling proceeded toward the pedicel base. These unique features of pedicellate tooth attachment for the upper jaw teeth in the adult S. japonicus are highly modified teeth for enhancing the ability of individual functional teeth to move closely over irregularities in the rock surfaces during the scraping of algae. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Ultrastructure and development of Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia), a hyperparasite of Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda), a parasite of Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Toguebaye, Bhen Sikina; Quilichini, Yann; Diagne, Papa Mbagnick; Marchand, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia, Nosematidae) is described from Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda: Opecoelidae), a parasite of the fish Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei) in the Atlantic Ocean. Electron microscopy reveals that all the stages of the cycle (merogony and sporogony) are diplokaryotic and in direct contact with the cytoplasm of host cells. There is no sporophorous vesicle (pansporoblast). The earliest stages observed are meronts, which have a simple plasmic membrane. Their cytoplasm is granular, rich in ribosomes and contains some sacculi of endoplasmic reticulum. They divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporonts. The sporonts have a thick electron-dense wall. Their diplokaryon is slightly less electron-dense than the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm of more advanced sporonts has numerous electron-lucent vesicles. Sporonts with two diplokarya divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporoblasts. The older sporoblasts are irregular or elongate and the polar filament is in formation. Their cytoplasm is denser, with ribosomes and lamellae of granular endoplasmic reticulum. The sporoblasts evolve into spores. The mature spores are broadly oval and measure 3.6 (3.1-4.0) × 2.58 (1.8-3.3) μm. Their wall is 100-300 nm thick. The polar tube is isofilar with 11-16 coils, 130-155 nm in diameter and arranged in many layers in the centre of the spore. The polaroplast is divided into two regions: an outer electron-dense cup with granular content and lacking lamellae and an internal region, less electron-dense, composed of irregularly arranged sacs. The posterior vacuole, with an amorphous electron-dense content, is present. The new species is compared with other species of Nosema from trematodes. B.S. Toguebaye et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014

  3. Ultrastructure of the taste buds in the blind cave fish Astyanax jordani ("Anoptichthys") and the sighted river fish Astyanax mexicanus (Teleostei, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Boudriot, F; Reutter, K

    2001-06-11

    This study describes the ultrastructure of the taste buds of the sighted river fish Astyanax mexicanus and of the blind cave fish Astyanax jordani (= Anoptichthys) (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae). In Astyanax and Anoptichthys, taste buds occur in the epithelia of the lips, oral cavity, and, in Anoptichthys, lower jaw. Both possess three types of taste buds: type I (elevated), type II (slightly elevated), and type III taste buds (not elevated or sunken). The taste buds are up to 60 microm high and up to 35 microm wide. The taste bud's sensory epithelium consists of 100--130 elongated cells: light cells, dense-cored-vesicles (dcv) -cells, dark cells, and degenerating cells. The dcv-cells are rich in dense-cored vesicles and are described for the first time in a teleostean taste bud. At the taste bud's base, there lie two to three basal cells. The basal cells of type I and type II taste buds have microvillus (spine)-like processes, in contrast to those of type III taste buds. The taste bud's nerve fiber plexus is situated between the bases of the elongated taste bud cells and the basal cells. Afferent synapses occur between dcv-cells and basal cells (presynaptic sides) and axons (postsynaptic side). Indistinct synapses occur between light cells and dark cells (presynaptic sides) and axons (postsynaptic side). The nerve fiber plexes of Anoptichthys type II and type III taste buds contain significantly more axon profiles than those of Astyanax. This may be associated with a compensatory improvement of the sense of taste in the blind, cave-dwelling fish. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Integrative taxonomy identifies a new species of Phyllodistomum (Digenea: Gorgoderidae) from the twospot livebearer, Heterandria bimaculata (Teleostei: Poeciliidae), in Central Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    Phyllodistomum inecoli n. sp. is described from the twospot livebearer, Heterandria bimaculata (Teleostei: Poeciliidae), collected in the Río La Antigua basin, Veracruz, Mexico. The new species is described and characterised by using a combination of morphology, scanning electron microscopy, and sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Diagnostic characters of the new species of Phyllodistomum include a genital pore opening at the level of the caecal bifurcation; oval vitellarium, situated just posterior to the ventral sucker and not extended laterally and anterior extracaecal uterine loops variable in extension (reaching the anterior, median or posterior margin of the ventral sucker). P. inecoli n. sp. most closely resembles P. brevicecum, a species described as a parasite of the central mudminnow, Umbra limi, in other parts of North America; however, the genital pore in P. brevicecum is situated between the caecal bifurcation and the ventral sucker, the ovary is larger, the vitellarium is lobed and extended laterally and the anterior portion of the uterus extends to the posterior margin of the ventral sucker. Comparison of about 1,500–2,200 nucleotides of cox1 and 28S rDNA and ITS1 strongly supports the status of P. inecoli as a new species. Bayesian inference analysis of combined datasets of 28S rDNA and cox1 sequences showed that P. inecoli n. sp. and the other species found in freshwater fishes of Mexico, including the species complex of P. lacustri, are not sister species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 28S rDNA sequences of several gorgoderid taxa revealed the close relationship of P. inecoli n. sp. with several species of Phyllodistomum, Gorgodera and Gorgoderina with cystocercous cercariae developing in sphaeriid bivalves. Dot-plot analysis of ITS1 sequences of P. inecoli n. sp. revealed the presence of eight repetitive elements with different length, which together represent almost half the length of ITS1.

  5. Ultrastructure and development of Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia), a hyperparasite of Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda), a parasite of Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia, Nosematidae) is described from Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda: Opecoelidae), a parasite of the fish Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei) in the Atlantic Ocean. Electron microscopy reveals that all the stages of the cycle (merogony and sporogony) are diplokaryotic and in direct contact with the cytoplasm of host cells. There is no sporophorous vesicle (pansporoblast). The earliest stages observed are meronts, which have a simple plasmic membrane. Their cytoplasm is granular, rich in ribosomes and contains some sacculi of endoplasmic reticulum. They divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporonts. The sporonts have a thick electron-dense wall. Their diplokaryon is slightly less electron-dense than the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm of more advanced sporonts has numerous electron-lucent vesicles. Sporonts with two diplokarya divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporoblasts. The older sporoblasts are irregular or elongate and the polar filament is in formation. Their cytoplasm is denser, with ribosomes and lamellae of granular endoplasmic reticulum. The sporoblasts evolve into spores. The mature spores are broadly oval and measure 3.6 (3.1–4.0) × 2.58 (1.8–3.3) μm. Their wall is 100–300 nm thick. The polar tube is isofilar with 11–16 coils, 130–155 nm in diameter and arranged in many layers in the centre of the spore. The polaroplast is divided into two regions: an outer electron-dense cup with granular content and lacking lamellae and an internal region, less electron-dense, composed of irregularly arranged sacs. The posterior vacuole, with an amorphous electron-dense content, is present. The new species is compared with other species of Nosema from trematodes. PMID:25174849

  6. Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) infecting the south European toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes) (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae) from a hypersaline environment in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Historically, non-native species of Gambusia (Poeciliidae) have been used to control larval stages of the Asian tiger mosquito, Stegomyia albopicta Reinert, Harbach et Kitching, 2004 throughout Italy. The potential utility of indigenous populations of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes) (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) as an appropriate alternative biological control is currently being explored. A sub-sample of ten fish collected from Cervia Saline, Italy (salinity 65 ppt; 30°C) to assess their reproductive capability in captivity, harboured a moderate infection of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea). A subsequent morphological and molecular study identified this as being a new species. Results Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. is described from the skin, fins and gills of A. fasciatus. Light and scanning electron microscopical (SEM) examination of the opisthaptoral armature and their comparison with all other recorded species suggested morphological similarities to Gyrodactylus rugiensoides Huyse et Volckaert, 2002 from Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas). Features of the ventral bar, however, permit its discrimination from G. rugiensoides. Sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene and a comparison with all species listed in GenBank confirmed they are unique and represent a new species (most similar to Gyrodactylus anguillae Ergens, 1960, 8.3% pair-wise distance based on 5.8S+ITS2). This represents the first species of Gyrodactylus to be described from Aphanius and, to date, has the longest ITS1 (774 bp) sequenced from any Gyrodactylus. Additional sampling of Cervia Saline throughout the year, found G. salinae n. sp. to persist in conditions ranging from 35 ppt and 5°C in December to 65 ppt and 30°C in July, while in captivity a low level of infection was present, even in freshwater conditions (0 ppt). Conclusions The ability of G. salinae n. sp. to tolerate a wide range of salinities

  7. Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) infecting the south European toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes) (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae) from a hypersaline environment in Italy.

    PubMed

    Paladini, Giuseppe; Huyse, Tine; Shinn, Andrew P

    2011-06-09

    Historically, non-native species of Gambusia (Poeciliidae) have been used to control larval stages of the Asian tiger mosquito, Stegomyia albopicta Reinert, Harbach et Kitching, 2004 throughout Italy. The potential utility of indigenous populations of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes) (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) as an appropriate alternative biological control is currently being explored. A sub-sample of ten fish collected from Cervia Saline, Italy (salinity 65 ppt; 30°C) to assess their reproductive capability in captivity, harboured a moderate infection of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea). A subsequent morphological and molecular study identified this as being a new species. Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. is described from the skin, fins and gills of A. fasciatus. Light and scanning electron microscopical (SEM) examination of the opisthaptoral armature and their comparison with all other recorded species suggested morphological similarities to Gyrodactylus rugiensoides Huyse et Volckaert, 2002 from Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas). Features of the ventral bar, however, permit its discrimination from G. rugiensoides. Sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene and a comparison with all species listed in GenBank confirmed they are unique and represent a new species (most similar to Gyrodactylus anguillae Ergens, 1960, 8.3% pair-wise distance based on 5.8S+ITS2). This represents the first species of Gyrodactylus to be described from Aphanius and, to date, has the longest ITS1 (774 bp) sequenced from any Gyrodactylus. Additional sampling of Cervia Saline throughout the year, found G. salinae n. sp. to persist in conditions ranging from 35 ppt and 5°C in December to 65 ppt and 30°C in July, while in captivity a low level of infection was present, even in freshwater conditions (0 ppt). The ability of G. salinae n. sp. to tolerate a wide range of salinities and temperatures shows its

  8. A specimen of Paralycoptera Chang & Chou 1977 (Teleostei: Osteoglossoidei) from Hong Kong (China) with a potential Late Jurassic age that extends the temporal and geographical range of the genus

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Tze-Kei; Chang, Mee-mann

    2015-01-01

    We describe a Mesozoic fish Paralycoptera sp. (Teleostei: Osteoglossoidei), on the basis of a postcranial skeleton collected from the volcaniclastic mudstones of the Lai Chi Chong Formation of Hong Kong, China. The new finding—representing the city’s first Mesozoic fish—extends the geographical distribution of Paralycoptera from eastern mainland China into Hong Kong, demonstrating a wider distribution than previously appreciated for this genus. A radiometric age for the Lai Chi Chong Formation of 146.6 ± 0.2 Ma implies a temporal range expansion for Paralycoptera of approximately 40 million years back from the Early Cretaceous (∼110 Ma). However, spores found in the Formation suggest an Early Cretaceous age that is consistent with the existing age assignment to Paralycoptera. We argue that the proposed temporal range extension is genuine because it is based on recent high precision radiometric age data, but given the discrepancies with the biostratigraphic ages further investigation is needed to confirm this. This study provides an important step towards revealing Hong Kong’s Mesozoic vertebrate fauna and understanding its relationship to well-studied mainland Chinese ones. PMID:25834774

  9. Paracreptotrema profundulusi n. sp. and P. blancoi Choudhury, Pérez-Ponce De León, Brooks, and Daverdin, 2006 (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) from freshwater fishes of the genus Profundulus (Teleostei: Profundulidae) in southern México.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Martínez-Ramírez, Emilio

    2011-08-01

    Paracreptotrema profundulusi n. sp. (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) is described from the intestine of the freshwater fishes Profundulus punctatus and P. balsanus (Teleostei: Profundulidae) from the Tehuantepec and the Atoyac-Verde River basins, in Oaxaca, México, in the western extreme of Central America. The new species is distinguished from Paracreptotrema blancoi Choudhury, Pérez-Ponce de León, Brooks, and Daverdin, 2006 , to which it is most similar, and from P. mendezi (Sogandares-Bernal, 1955) Choudhury, Pérez-Ponce de León, Brooks, and Daverdin, 2006 , by the caeca extending beyond the testes, vitelline follicles that invade the postesticular area, and uterus with transverse loops located mainly between the testes and the genital pore. Paracreptotrema blancoi was collected from the same host species and also from Profundulus oaxacae. Here, we provide data that show its broad distribution in several river basins of Neotropical southern México, including the Papagayo River basin, Guerrero, México, and the Atoyac-Verde and Tehuantepec river basins, and other rivers in Oaxaca, México. Freshwater fishes of the Profundulidae are endemic to Central America and host a helminth fauna that includes at least 4 species found only in these hosts.

  10. A specimen of Paralycoptera Chang & Chou 1977 (Teleostei: Osteoglossoidei) from Hong Kong (China) with a potential Late Jurassic age that extends the temporal and geographical range of the genus.

    PubMed

    Tse, Tze-Kei; Pittman, Michael; Chang, Mee-Mann

    2015-01-01

    We describe a Mesozoic fish Paralycoptera sp. (Teleostei: Osteoglossoidei), on the basis of a postcranial skeleton collected from the volcaniclastic mudstones of the Lai Chi Chong Formation of Hong Kong, China. The new finding-representing the city's first Mesozoic fish-extends the geographical distribution of Paralycoptera from eastern mainland China into Hong Kong, demonstrating a wider distribution than previously appreciated for this genus. A radiometric age for the Lai Chi Chong Formation of 146.6 ± 0.2 Ma implies a temporal range expansion for Paralycoptera of approximately 40 million years back from the Early Cretaceous (∼110 Ma). However, spores found in the Formation suggest an Early Cretaceous age that is consistent with the existing age assignment to Paralycoptera. We argue that the proposed temporal range extension is genuine because it is based on recent high precision radiometric age data, but given the discrepancies with the biostratigraphic ages further investigation is needed to confirm this. This study provides an important step towards revealing Hong Kong's Mesozoic vertebrate fauna and understanding its relationship to well-studied mainland Chinese ones.

  11. Ligophorus spp. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) occurring in the fresh and brackish waters of the Shatt Al-Arab River and Estuary in southern Iraq, with the description of Ligophorus sagmarius sp. n. from the greenback mullet Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes).

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Khamees, Najim R; Ali, Atheer H

    2013-12-01

    The gills of three of five species of mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) collected from the brackish and fresh waters of southern Iraq were infected with species of Ligophorus (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) as follows: greenback mullet Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes) infected with Ligophorus lebedevi Dmitrieva, Gerasev, Gibson, Pronkina and Galli, 2012, Ligophorus bantingensis Soo and Lim, 2012, Ligophorus sagmarius n. sp., and Ligophorus fluviatilis (Bychowsky, 1949) Dmitrieva, Gerasev, Gibson, Pronkina, and Galli, 2012; Klunzinger’s mullet Liza klunzingeri (Day) with L. bantingensis, L. fluviatilis, and an apparently undescribed species of Ligophorus; and abu mullet Liza abu (Heckel) with L. bantingensis and L. fluviatilis. The keeled mullet Liza carinata (Valenciennes) and Speigler’s mullet Valamugil speigleri (Bleeker) were uninfected. L. sagmarius n. sp. is described, and L. lebedevi and L. bantingensis are redescribed. Available specimens of L. fluviatilis and the undescribed species of Ligophorus from Klunzinger’s mullet were insufficient for description.

  12. [Population genetic structure of the char species of the Northern Kuril Islands and the rank of the Dolly Varden Char in the system of the genus Salvelinus (Salmonidae: Teleostei)].

    PubMed

    Shubina, E A; Ponomareva, E V; Gritsenko, O F

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of the taxonomic position of most species and forms of the char (genus Salvelinus, Salmonidae: Teleostei) was made based on RAPD-PCR. The material was represented by samples from 29 populations from the Kuril Islands, coast of the Sea of Okhotsk, Kamchatka, Chukotka, Taymyr, Transbaikalia, the Kola Peninsula, Svalbard, Finland, and North America. It was shown that the genus Salvelinus splits into three well-justified clusters: (1) all the forms assigned to the Salvelinus alpinus--S. malma complex; (2) two samples of the White-Spotted Char from the Southern Kuril Islands and from Kamchatka; (3) two North American species, S. fontinalis and S. namaycush (samples of the North American species S. confluentis were absent from the collection). Analysis of the absolute values of genetic disctances of the S. alpinus--S. malma forms relative to S. leucomaenis, S. fontinalis, and S. namaycush revealed distances approaching the species rank between the following isolates: Frolikh Char, Mountain Char, Black Lake Char, Goggle-Eyed Char, and Neyva Char. Samples of Dolly Varden currently considered as "S. malma", do not constitute a separate cluster, falling within the group of the Arctic char S. alpinus. This conclusion is supported by the analysis of the results of three series of experiments by R. Phillips on ITS1 ribosome genes (Pleute et al., 1992; Phillips et al., 1995; Phillips et al., 1999). This indicates the infraspecific rank of malma within S. alpinus. Isolated populations of "Salvethymus svetovidovi" from the lake Elgygytgyn (Chukotka Peninsula) and of the char from the lake Chyornoye (Onekotan Island), recently described as S. gritzenkoi (Vasil'eva, Stygar, 2000), fell withing the S. alpinus--S. malma complex, the Onekotan char grouped together with another isolate from the same island. Comparison of genetic distances between the samples showed that the differences between the two isolated of Onekotan and migratory forms of the Kuril Islands are

  13. Oocyte development and fecundity type of the Brazilian Snapper Lutjanus alexandrei Moura & Lindeman, 2007 (Perciformes: Lutjanidae).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, C A F; Oliveira, P G V; Oliveira, C H B; Hazin, F H V; Travassos, P

    2016-02-01

    Lutjanid species exhibit multiple spawning behaviour during an extended spawning season in warm months, asynchronous oocyte development and indeterminate fecundity. Although early studies have contributed to knowledge of the reproductive cycle of many species within the group, they have not considered aspects about the number of cortical alveoli oocyte stage throughout maturity phases along spawning season. The latter aspect is also considered very important to confirm indeterminate fecundity hypothesis. In the present study, were analyzed 154 Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei female gonads obtained from artisanal fisheries in Pernambuco State (Brazil) between October 2010 and March 2011. Were measured oocyte size frequency distribution for maturity phases (developing, spawning capable and actively spawning), and oocyte development stage (unyolked oocytes, cortical alveoli, primary, secondary and tertiary vitellogenic oocytes and hydrated oocytes), and also the oocyte stage frequency during spawning season. The frequency of cortical alveoli oocyte stage was constantly found in the spawning period (>37%), showing slight variation throughout maturity phases. The absence of gap in the oocyte size frequency distribution between primary and secondary oocyte growth stages during spawning season is a strong indicator of continuous oocyte recruitment from reserve stocks. In addition, co-occurrence of tertiary vitellogenic oocytes, hydrated oocytes, post-ovulatory follicles and yellow-brown bodies in the histological sections of ovaries reinforce indeterminate fecundity hypothesis.

  14. [Reproductive biology of Lutjanus guttatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in Utria National Park, Colombian Pacific].

    PubMed

    Correa-Herrera, Tatiana; Jiménez-Segura, Luz Fernanda

    2013-06-01

    Protected areas are important for natural population conservation since they work as refuge, feeding and breeding areas, where specimens should be exempt from human pressure. The generation of better criteria for management decisions and conservation of fishery resources, is based on the reproductive aspects of species that support fishing activities, since this information is related to the abundance, size and frequency of capture. With this aim, the reproductive biology of the spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus was studied from April 2008 and February 2009 at the Utría National Park, Colombian Pacific. For this, we analyzed the volume of catch, size structure, sex ratio, fecundity, maturity size, breeding areas and seasons (n = 278), of daily landings of 21 units of artisanal fisheries in ten fishing grounds in the Park. Form all landings, we evaluated a total of 4319 individuals belonging to 84 species. Based on the number of individuals, Lutjanus guttatus ranked third in catches representing 6.4% (278 individuals), and 16th with 1.8% (95.79kg), based on catch biomass. The average weight was 0.34 kg +/- 0.25 kg, while 29 cm +/- 6.4 cm for total length. The total length-weight relationship had the best fit (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05, n = 272) with the equation P(T) = 0.00000885* LT3.09. The occurrence of mature fish and high condition factors suggested a spawning season in June, September and October in sandy and rocky shores. This species showed an asynchronical gonadal development, with a mean sexual maturity size estimated in 23.5cm total length, and an absolute fecundity of 156 253.11 oocytes (mode of 4 microm diameter). We concluded that L. guttatus medium sizes observed indicated a fishing pressure on small size specimens (the minimum size being 18cm); thus, we recommend the implementation of minimum catch sizes based on the criterion of size at maturity LT100 (25.5 cm) and to apply seasonal fishing closures during the highest reproductive activity (June-October). However, it is necessary to obtain additional biological information with multi-year monitoring to improve fisheries management criteria in the area.

  15. Molecular protocol for authentication of snappers (Lutjanidae-Perciformes) based on multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Veneza, Ivana; da Silva, Raimundo; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Gomes, Grazielle

    2017-10-01

    Fraud involving fish products is regularly reported and investigated using genetic methods. However, no such approach has been applied to snappers, despite the commercial relevance of these fish. This study proposes an authentication protocol with multiplex PCR for three species of snappers (Lutjanus purpureus, L. synagris, and Ocyurus chrysurus). The protocol yielded a distinct triple-banding pattern for L. purpureus, whereas L. synagris and O. chrysurus showed a double banding pattern of different sizes, thereby allowing differentiation of the three species. The protocol was validated using fillets labeled as snapper or "Pargo" in Brazil, previously identified using DNA sequencing, amongst which substitution with Rhomboplites aurorubens was detected. When subjected to the new protocol, banding characteristic of L. purpureus were detected whilst R. aurorubens generated only the control band. Our study provides a practical tool for investigating substitutions and might assist in quality control and increase food safety for consumers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. [Reproductive biology of the golden snapper Lutjanus inermis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in the central Mexican Pacific].

    PubMed

    Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Ceballos-Vázquez, Bertha Patricia

    2012-03-01

    Reproductive aspects and information on the effect of fishery activities over this species stock are scarce, despite the imperative need of effective protection and resource management programs. To support the possible establishment of closed seasons and catch levels for the area, our study aimed to evaluate the spawning season of the Golden snapper (Lutjanus inermis). For this, fish caught by artisanal fisheries in the Navidad, Tenacatita and Chamela bays (Jalisco, Mexico) were sampled monthly from 1999-2008, and analyzed sex ratios, spawning season and size at first maturity. A total of 311 (53.1%) females and 275 (46.9%) males were caught, and the observed sex ratio was 1:0.88. The total length range was 14.4-37.0cm and total weight range from 48-575g. The length at first maturity was 23.9cm TL for females and 23.6cm TL for males. The gonadosomatic index showed two principal reproductive periods in the year (February-April and September-November), when the largest number of mature gonads were observed. Ovaries were of asynchronic development type and seven oocyte development stages were identified. Testicles showed lobular development and spermatozoa were observed in the center of the cysts and in the collecting ducts. It is important to mention that our results support the current suitable exploitation of this species in the area.

  17. Helminth parasites of the red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) from the reef Santiaguillo, Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Mendoza, Jesús; Jiménez-Badillo, Lourdes; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F

    2014-12-01

    A total of 21 helminth species were recovered from 52 specimens of red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus , captured in the reef Santiaguillo, Parque Nacional Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano, State of Veracruz, in the Southern Gulf of Mexico. These helminths included 9 trematodes (7 adults and 2 metacercariae), 4 nematodes (3 adults and 1 larva), 4 acanthocephalans (1 adult and 3 juvenile), 2 cestodes (both larvae), and 2 monogeneans. Sixteen of the 21 species are new host records; 7 are common species with a prevalence >40% and mean intensity >4.1. The monogenean Euryhaliotrema tubocirrus was the most-prevalent parasite with a prevalence of 78.8%, followed by the intestinal plerocercoids of Tetraphyllidea with a prevalence of 59.6%. The richness (S = 21), and diversity (Shannon index H = 2.17) in the component community, as well as in the infracommunity level (S = 5.1 ± 2.2, H = 0.92 ± 0.4), was similar to those found in other marine fish of temperate and tropical latitudes. The present study suggests that the composition of the parasite community is associated with the host feeding habits because 18/21 of the recorded species are trophically transmitted.

  18. Genomics and Mapping of Teleostei (Bony Fish)

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Until recently, the Human Genome Project held centre stage in the press releases concerning sequencing programmes. However, in October 2001, it was announced that the Japanese puffer fish (Takifugu rubripes, Fugu) was the second vertebrate organism to be sequenced to draft quality. Briefly, the spotlight was on fish genomes. There are currently two other fish species undergoing intensive sequencing, the green spotted puffer fish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) and the zebrafish (Danio rerio). But this trio are, in many ways, atypical representations of the current state of fish genomic research. The aim of this brief review is to demonstrate the complexity of fish as a group of vertebrates and to publicize the ‘lesser-known’ species, all of which have something to offer. PMID:18629122

  19. Neolebouria blatta n. sp. (Digenea: Opecoelidae) from Pristipomoides argyrogrammicus (Valenciennes) and Etelis carbunculus Cuvier (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) off New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Bray, Rodney A; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2009-11-01

    Neolebouria blatta n. sp. is described from Pristipomoides argyrogrammicus (Valenciennes) and Etelis carbunculus Cuvier in waters off New Caledonia. It differs from all other species of Neolebouria Gibson, 1976 but one, N. georgenascimentoi Bray, 2002, in the extension of the cirrus-sac to the ovary or nearly so. It differs from N. georgenascimentoi in its continuous, rather than interrupted, vitelline distribution. N. blatta belongs to a small group of similar Neolebouria species reported in deep-water lutjanids, which includes N. longisacculus (Yamaguti, 1970) n. comb., N. rooseveltiae (Yamaguti, 1970) n. comb. and N. ulaula (Yamaguti, 1970).

  20. [Osteological development of the vertebral column and caudal complex of Lujanus guttatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) larvae under rearing conditions].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ibarra, Luz Estela; Abdo-de la Parra, María Isabel; Aguilar-Zárate, Gabriela; Valasco-Blanco, Gabriela; Ibarra-Castro, Leonardo

    2015-03-01

    The spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) is an important commercial species in Mexico with good culture potential. The osteological study at early stages in this species is an important tool to confirm normal bone structure and for the detection of malformations that may occur during early development. This study was carried out in order to evaluate and describe the normal osteological development of the vertebral column and caudal complex of this species grown under controlled conditions. For this, a total of 540 larvae of L. guttatus, between 2.1 and 17.5 mm of total length (TL), were cultured during 36 days; culture conditions were 28 degrees C, 5.74 mg/L oxygen and 32.2 ups salinity with standard feeding rates. To detect growth changes, a sample of 15 organisms was daily taken from day one until day 36 of post-hatch (DPH). Samples were processed following standard techniques of clearing, and cartilage (alcian blue) and bone staining (alizarin red). Results showed that the vertebral column is composed of ten vertebrae in the abdominal region, and 14 vertebrae including the urostyle in the caudal region. The development of the axial skeleton starts with the neural arches and haemal arches at 3.8 mm TL. Caudal elements such as the hypurals and parahypural began to develop at 4.1 mm TL. Pre-flexion and flexion of the notochord and the formation of all hypurals were observed between 5.3 and 5.8 mm TL. Ossification of the vertebrae in the abdominal region and in some neural arches initiated at 9.5mm TL. In the caudal region, all the neural and haemal arches ossified at 10.2 mm TL. All the abdominal vertebrae and their respective neural arches and parapophyses ossified at 11.2 mm TL, while the elements of the caudal complex that ossified were the hypurals, parahypurals and modified haemal spines. All caudal fm rays, 12 neural spines and 3 haemal arches were ossified by 15.5 mm. The complete ossification process of this specie under laboratory culture conditions was observed when larvae reached 17.3 mm TL on 36 DPH. Detailed analysis of the osteological structures will allow a reference description to evaluate and detect malformations that may occur during the larval culture of the spotted rose snapper.

  1. High Connectivity in the Deepwater Snapper Pristipomoides filamentosus (Lutjanidae) across the Indo-Pacific with Isolation of the Hawaiian Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Gaither, Michelle R.; Jones, Shelley A.; Kelley, Christopher; Newman, Stephen J.; Sorenson, Laurie; Bowen, Brian W.

    2011-01-01

    In the tropical Indo-Pacific, most phylogeographic studies have focused on the shallow-water taxa that inhabit reefs to approximately 30 m depth. Little is known about the large predatory fishes, primarily snappers (subfamily Etelinae) and groupers (subfamily Epinephelinae) that occur at 100–400 m. These long-lived, slow-growing species support fisheries across the Indo-Pacific, yet no comprehensive genetic surveys within this group have been conducted. Here we contribute the first range-wide survey of a deepwater Indo-Pacific snapper, Pristipomoides filamentosus, with special focus on Hawai'i. We applied mtDNA cytochrome b and 11 microsatellite loci to 26 samples (N = 1,222) collected across 17,000 km from Hawai'i to the western Indian Ocean. Results indicate that P. filamentosus is a highly dispersive species with low but significant population structure (mtDNA ΦST = 0.029, microsatellite FST = 0.029) due entirely to the isolation of Hawai'i. No population structure was detected across 14,000 km of the Indo-Pacific from Tonga in the Central Pacific to the Seychelles in the western Indian Ocean, a pattern rarely observed in reef species. Despite a long pelagic phase (60–180 days), interisland dispersal as adults, and extensive gene flow across the Indo-Pacific, P. filamentosus is unable to maintain population connectivity with Hawai'i. Coalescent analyses indicate that P. filamentosus may have colonized Hawai'i 26 K–52 K y ago against prevailing currents, with dispersal away from Hawai'i dominating migration estimates. P. filamentosus harbors low genetic diversity in Hawai'i, a common pattern in marine fishes, and our data indicate a single archipelago-wide stock. However, like the Hawaiian Grouper, Hyporthodus quernus, this snapper had several significant pairwise comparisons (FST) clustered around the middle of the archipelago (St. Rogatien, Brooks Banks, Gardner) indicating that this region may be isolated or (more likely) receives input from Johnston Atoll to the south. PMID:22216141

  2. [Feeding habits of Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) at Los Cóbanos and Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Rodrigo Rojas, José; Maravilla, Erick; Chicas, Francisco

    2004-03-01

    Abstract: A total of 175 spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus were collected monthly in the Los Cobanos and Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador, from January to December 2000 to determine its feeding habits. The fishes studied ranged 9.8 - 58.0 cm in total length. Were collected using push-net and hook and line. This snapper is a bentonic opportunistic carnivorous predator. The total biomass of the stomach contents was 260.5 g. Crustaceans (Squillidae, Portunidae, Dynomenidae. Penaeidae, Sicyoniidae, Callianassidae), were the most abundant group: they accounted for 50.4% of the total biomass. Numerically, Portunus asper was the most abundant prey. Ontogenic differences were observed in the diet. In juveniles (16 cm TL). at any time of the year, the most frequent and abundant components were crustaceans and in adults were crustaceans, fishes and mollusks. The relative importance of different components of the diet was assessed with two indexes that combine. in different ways. percentage frequency of occurrence, percentage number and percentage weight of prey categories. The commercial use this resource and the absence of management strategies are discussed.

  3. Phylogeographic analyses of submesophotic snappers Etelis coruscans and Etelis "marshi" (family Lutjanidae) reveal concordant genetic structure across the Hawaiian Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Kimberly R; Moriwake, Virginia N; Wilcox, Christie; Grau, E Gordon; Kelley, Christopher; Pyle, Richard L; Bowen, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    The Hawaiian Archipelago has become a natural laboratory for understanding genetic connectivity in marine organisms as a result of the large number of population genetics studies that have been conducted across this island chain for a wide taxonomic range of organisms. However, population genetic studies have been conducted for only two species occurring in the mesophotic or submesophotic zones (30+m) in this archipelago. To gain a greater understanding of genetic connectivity in these deepwater habitats, we investigated the genetic structure of two submesophotic fish species (occurring ∼200-360 m) in this archipelago. We surveyed 16 locations across the archipelago for submesophotic snappers Etelis coruscans (N = 787) and E. "marshi" (formerly E. carbunculus; N = 770) with 436-490 bp of mtDNA cytochrome b and 10-11 microsatellite loci. Phylogeographic analyses reveal no geographic structuring of mtDNA lineages and recent coalescence times that are typical of shallow reef fauna. Population genetic analyses reveal no overall structure across most of the archipelago, a pattern also typical of dispersive shallow fishes. However some sites in the mid-archipelago (Raita Bank to French Frigate Shoals) had significant population differentiation. This pattern of no structure between ends of the Hawaiian range, and significant structure in the middle, was previously observed in a submesophotic snapper (Pristipomoides filamentosus) and a submesophotic grouper (Hyporthodus quernus). Three of these four species also have elevated genetic diversity in the mid-archipelago. Biophysical larval dispersal models from previous studies indicate that this elevated diversity may result from larval supplement from Johnston Atoll, ∼800 km southwest of Hawaii. In this case the boundaries of stocks for fishery management cannot be defined simply in terms of geography, and fishery management in Hawaii may need to incorporate external larval supply into management plans.

  4. Diet shifts of Caribbean grunts (Haemulidae) and snappers (Lutjanidae) and the relation with nursery-to-coral reef migrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocheret de la Morinière, E.; Pollux, B. J. A.; Nagelkerken, I.; van der Velde, G.

    2003-08-01

    The spatial size distribution of grunts and snappers have previously indicated the separation of juveniles in nursery habitats from the adults on the coral reef. This implies life cycle migrations from nursery habitats (such as seagrass beds and mangroves) to the coral reef. If diet shifts are related to such migrations, then the diets of these fish must change before or around the fish size at which such migrations take place. A wide size range of juveniles of two grunt species ( Haemulon sciurus and Haemulon flavolineatum) and of two snapper species ( Lutjanus apodus and Ocyurus chrysurus) were caught in seagrass beds and mangroves, and their gut contents identified and quantified. Regression analysis between fish size and dietary importance of small crustaceans showed a negative relationship in all four species. Positive relations were found for H. sciurus, L. apodus and O. chrysurus between fish length and the dietary importance of decapods, and for L. apodusand O. chrysurus between fish length and prey fish importance. Critical changes in the fish diets with fish size were examined by application of a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). The CCA yielded three clusters of size-classes of fishes with similar diets, and application of a Mantel test showed that each of these clusters had significantly different diets, and that each cluster diet was significantly specialised. The size at which a fish species 'switched' from one cluster to another was compared with size-at-maturity data and with the typical size at which these species migrate from the nursery habitats to the coral reef. H. sciurus and H. flavolineatum may be prompted to migrate from the nursery habitats to coral reef habitats because of dietary changes, or because of the development of the gonads. For L. apodus and O. chrysurus, a dietary changeover forms a more likely explanation for nursery-to-reef migrations than does sexual maturation because these species reach maturity at sizes much larger than the maximum size of individuals found in nursery habitats. Although other factors may theoretically initiate or promote the migration patterns, the results of this study indicate that ontogenetic dietary changes may crucially influence the nursery-to-coral reef migrations of these reef fish species.

  5. Mahseers genera Tor and Neolissochilus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hoàng, Huy Đức; Phạm, Hùng Mạnh; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Trần, Ngân Trọng; Phan, Phúc Đình

    2015-08-25

    Two new species and two new basin records of mahseers in the genera Tor and Neolissochilus are described from the upper Krong No and middle Đồng Nai drainages of the Langbiang Plateau in southern Vietnam. These new species and new records are known from streams and rivers in montane mixed pine and evergreen forests between 140 and 1112 m. Their populations are isolated in the Sre Pok River of the Mekong basin, the middle of the Đồng Nai basin, and the An Lão River. Both new species are differentiated from their congeners by a combination of the following characters: 23-24 lateral scales, 9-10 predorsal scales, 2/7 or 1/8 pelvic-fin rays, mouth position, median lobe of lower lip, rostral hood, colour in life and by divergent mitochondrial DNA. Tor mekongensis sp. nov. is differentiated from Tor dongnaiensis sp. nov. by the number of transverse scale rows (3/1/2 vs. 4/1/2), number of pelvic-fin rays (2/7 vs. 1/8), a blunt rostral hood vs. pointed, caudal-fin lobes that are equal vs. unequal, and by mitochondrial DNA (0.7% sequence divergence). Molecular evidence identifies both species as members of the genus Tor and distinct from all congeners sampled (uncorrected sequence divergences >1.9% for all Tor species for which homologous COI sequences are available). Tor sinensis is recorded in the Krong No and the Sre Pok rivers, further south of its known distribution. Polymorphism is described in Neolissochilus stracheyi with a Tor-like morph and a Neolissochilus-like morph.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus (Teleostei, Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dianchang; Wang, Long; Guo, Huayang; Ma, Zhenhua; Zhang, Nan; Lin, Junda; Jiang, Shigui

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus was determined by the overlapped polymerase chain reaction. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence is 16,544 bp in length. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two rRNA genes and two non-coding regions. Overall base composition of its mitochondrial genome is estimated to be 28.68% for A, 16.27% for G, 26.00% for T, 29.06% for C, respectively, with a high A+T content (54.68%). The control region contains three conserved sequence blocks, a termination-associated sequence and a TATA box. The sequence data of T. carolinus can provide useful information for the studies on population structure, molecular systematic, stock evaluation and conservation genetics. It is also helpful to develop the rational management strategies for T. carolinus resource.

  7. The identity of Hamilton's Ticto Barb, Pethia ticto (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Katwate, Unmesh; Raghavan, Rajeev; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2015-06-04

    While describing the fishes of Ganges, Hamilton described Cyprinus ticto (now allocated to Pethia) from south-eastern parts of Bengal. The unavailability of type material and insufficient diagnostic characters in the original description resulted in ambiguities in the identity of this species. In this paper, we clarify the identity of P. ticto through an integrative-taxonomic approach. Pethia ticto can be distinguished from all other known species of the genus by a combination of characters that includes an abbreviated lateral line with 6-12 pored scales; 23-26 scales in lateral-scale row; 9 predorsal scales; ½4/1/3½-4 scales in transverse series; and a pigmentation pattern that includes a small black humeral spot covering the third and fourth lateral-line scales, a prominent spot on the caudal peduncle on the 16th-19th scales of the lateral-line scale row, and two rows of black spots scattered on the dorsal fin.

  8. A new species of Ptychochromis from southeastern Madagascar (Teleostei: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Martinez, Christopher M; Arroyave, Jairo; Sparks, John S

    2015-11-17

    We describe a new species in the endemic Malagasy cichlid genus Ptychochromis. Ptychochromis mainty, new species, is known from four individuals, all collected in the Fort Dauphin region of southeastern Madagascar, and shares a palatine morphology (eastern-type palatine) with other eastern congeners. Ptychochromis mainty is distinguished from all congeners by a nearly uniform dark brown to black pigmentation pattern in preservation and by the presence of a relatively continuous and expansive black longitudinal midlateral blotch in life, extending from the posterior margin of the opercle to the caudal peduncle. The new species is further distinguished from other eastern Ptychochromis species by having minimal or no overlap of the first supraneural with the dorsoposterior region of the supraoccipital crest (vs. marked overlap). We present a molecular-based phylogeny for all available Ptychochromis species, which supports the hypothesis that P. mainty is a distinct taxon. The new species is recovered as the sister taxon to P. grandidieri within a clade comprising species with an eastern-type palatine morphology. We present a geometric morphometric analysis that provides additional evidence to distinguish P. mainty from congeners.

  9. Parallel speciation in Astyanax cave fish (Teleostei) in Northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Strecker, Ulrike; Hausdorf, Bernhard; Wilkens, Horst

    2012-01-01

    We investigated differentiation processes in the Neotropical fish Astyanax that represents a model system for examining adaptation to caves, including regressive evolution. In particular, we analyzed microsatellite and mitochondrial data of seven cave and seven surface populations from Mexico to test whether the evolution of the cave fish represents a case of parallel evolution. Our data revealed that Astyanax invaded northern Mexico across the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt at least three times and that populations of all three invasions adapted to subterranean habitats. Significant differentiation was found between the cave and surface populations. We did not observe gene flow between the strongly eye and pigment reduced old cave populations (Sabinos, Tinaja, Pachon) and the surface fish, even when syntopically occurring like in Yerbaniz cave. Little gene flow, if any, was found between cave populations, which are variable in eye and pigmentation (Micos, Chica, Caballo Moro caves), and surface fish. This suggests that the variability is due to their more recent origin rather than to hybridization. Finally, admixture of the young Chica cave fish population with nuclear markers from older cave fish demonstrates that gene flow between populations that independently colonized caves occurs. Thus, all criteria of parallel speciation are fulfilled. Moreover, the microsatellite data provide evidence that two co-occurring groups with small sunken eyes and externally visible eyes, respectively, differentiated within the partly lightened Caballo Moro karst window cave and might represent an example for incipient sympatric speciation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular cytogenetic of the Amoy croaker, Argyrosomus amoyensis (Teleostei, Sciaenidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Mengxiang; Zheng, Jiao; Wang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yilei; Zhang, Jing; Cai, Mingyi

    2017-08-01

    The family Sciaenidae is remarkable for its species richness and economic importance. However, the cytogenetic data available in this fish group are still limited, especially those obtained using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In the present study, the chromosome characteristics of a sciaenid species, Argyrosomus amoyensis, were examined with several cytogenetic methods, including dual-FISH with 18S and 5S rDNA probes, and a self-genomic in situ hybridization procedure (Self-GISH). The karyotype of A. amoyensis comprised 2n=48 acrocentric chromosomes. A single pair of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) was located at the proximal position of chromosome 1, which was positive for silver nitrate impregnation (AgNO3) staining and denaturation-propidium iodide (DPI) staining but negative for Giemsa staining and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, and was confirmed by FISH with 18S rDNA probes. The 5S rDNA sites were located at the centromeric region of chromosome 3. Telomeric FISH signals were detected at all chromosome ends with different intensities, but internal telomeric sequences (ITSs) were not found. Self-GISH resulted in strong signals distributed at the centromeric regions of all chromosomes. C-banding revealed not only centromeric heterochromatin, but also heterochromatin that located on NORs, in interstitial and distal telomeric regions of specific chromosomes. These results suggest that the karyotype of Amoy croaker was relatively conserved and primitive. By comparison with the reported cytogenetic data of other sciaenids, it can be deduced that although the karyotypic macrostructure and chromosomal localization of 18S rDNA are conserved, the distribution of 5S rDNA varies dynamically among sciaenid species. Thus, the 5S rDNA sites may have different evolutionary dynamics in relation to other chromosomal regions, and have the potential to be effective cytotaxonomic markers in Sciaenidae.

  11. The Dorsal Pallium in Zebrafish, Danio rerio (Cyprinidae, Teleostei)

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Thomas; Dong, Zhiqiang; Berberoglu, Michael A.; Guo, Su

    2011-01-01

    Zebrafish as a neurogenetic model system depends on the correct neuroanatomical understanding of its brain organization. Here, we address the unresolved question regarding a possible zebrafish homologue of the dorsal pallial division, the region that in mammals gives rise to the isocortex. Analyzing the distributions of nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate diphorase (NADPHd) activity and parvalbumin in the anterior zebrafish telencephalon, we show that against previous assumptions the central (Dc) zone possesses its own germinative region in the dorsal proliferative zone. We define the central (Dc) zone as topologically corresponding to the dorsal pallial division of other vertebrates (mammalian isocortex). In addition, we confirm through BrdU-labeling experiments that the posterior (Dp) zone is formed by radial migration and homologous to the mammalian piriform cortex. Based on our results, we propose a new developmental and organizational model of the zebrafish pallium—one which is the result of a complex outward-inward folding. PMID:21219890

  12. Evolutionary history of anglerfishes (Teleostei: Lophiiformes): a mitogenomic perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The teleost order Lophiiformes, commonly known as the anglerfishes, contains a diverse array of marine fishes, ranging from benthic shallow-water dwellers to highly modified deep-sea midwater species. They comprise 321 living species placed in 68 genera, 18 families and 5 suborders, but approximately half of the species diversity is occupied by deep-sea ceratioids distributed among 11 families. The evolutionary origins of such remarkable habitat and species diversity, however, remain elusive because of the lack of fresh material for a majority of the deep-sea ceratioids and incompleteness of the fossil record across all of the Lophiiformes. To obtain a comprehensive picture of the phylogeny and evolutionary history of the anglerfishes, we assembled whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from 39 lophiiforms (33 newly determined during this study) representing all five suborders and 17 of the 18 families. Sequences of 77 higher teleosts including the 39 lophiiform sequences were unambiguously aligned and subjected to phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimation. Results Partitioned maximum likelihood analysis confidently recovered monophyly for all of the higher taxa (including the order itself) with the exception of the Thaumatichthyidae (Lasiognathus was deeply nested within the Oneirodidae). The mitogenomic trees strongly support the most basal and an apical position of the Lophioidei and a clade comprising Chaunacoidei + Ceratioidei, respectively, although alternative phylogenetic positions of the remaining two suborders (Antennarioidei and Ogcocephaloidei) with respect to the above two lineages are statistically indistinguishable. While morphology-based intra-subordinal relationships for relatively shallow, benthic dwellers (Lophioidei, Antennarioidei, Ogcocephaloidei, Chaunacoidei) are either congruent with or statistically indistinguishable from the present mitogenomic tree, those of the principally deep-sea midwater dwellers (Ceratioidei) cannot be reconciled with the molecular phylogeny. A relaxed molecular-clock Bayesian analysis of the divergence times suggests that all of the subordinal diversifications have occurred during a relatively short time period between 100 and 130 Myr ago (early to mid Cretaceous). Conclusions The mitogenomic analyses revealed previously unappreciated phylogenetic relationships among the lophiiform suborders and ceratioid familes. Although the latter relationships cannot be reconciled with the earlier hypotheses based on morphology, we found that simple exclusion of the reductive or simplified characters can alleviate some of the conflict. The acquisition of novel features, such as male dwarfism, bioluminescent lures, and unique reproductive modes allowed the deep-sea ceratioids to diversify rapidly in a largely unexploited, food-poor bathypelagic zone (200-2000 m depth) relative to the other lophiiforms occurring in shallow coastal areas. PMID:20178642

  13. Distribution and Segregation of Two Sympatric Brevoortia Species (Teleostei: Clupeidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Rivera, M.; Kobelkowsky, A.

    2000-05-01

    The authors described and analysed the temporal and spatial distribution and segregation patterns ofBrevoortia patronus and B. gunteri, in a coastal lagoon of Veracruz, Mexico. A total of 394 individuals of B. gunteri (mean SL of 61·7 mm) and 378 of B. patronus (mean SL of 128·0) were collected, in 189 monthly and 48 diel (24-h cycles) samples. Both species showed two catchability peaks-one during March-May (dry season) and the second in July-October (rainy season)-and these peaks were related with the two primary production pulses in the system. These patterns were slightly different for each species, the first peak being more important for B. gunteri (68·6%), and the second for B. patronus (78·2%). Brevoortia patronus number was correlated with rainfall (P<0·01), and the relative abundance of both species was correlated with salinity (P<0·05). In 24-h cycle analysis, the two species were more abundant around midday (10:00 to 14:00 h), with few individuals captured during the night, and this behaviour was probably related to light intensity and their trophic activities. Moreover, no diel separation between species was observed. Spatially, B. gunteri was principally captured (67·4%) in sites with higher salinities and with no submerged vegetation, and B. patronus was mainly captured (70·9%) in sites with low salinity and with dense beds of Ruppia maritima. Thus, the authors consider salinity as an important factor in the seasonal and spatial segregation of Brevoortia species, with B. gunteri common in periods and zones with higher salinity and B. patronus in periods and areas of low salinity. The results presented here suggest that these segregation patterns permit resource partitioning between these species and facilitate their local co-existence.

  14. Growth and mortality of larval Myctophum affine (Myctophidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Namiki, C; Katsuragawa, M; Zani-Teixeira, M L

    2015-04-01

    The growth and mortality rates of Myctophum affine larvae were analysed based on samples collected during the austral summer and winter of 2002 from south-eastern Brazilian waters. The larvae ranged in size from 2·75 to 14·00 mm standard length (L(S)). Daily increment counts from 82 sagittal otoliths showed that the age of M. affine ranged from 2 to 28 days. Three models were applied to estimate the growth rate: linear regression, exponential model and Laird-Gompertz model. The exponential model best fitted the data, and L(0) values from exponential and Laird-Gompertz models were close to the smallest larva reported in the literature (c. 2·5 mm L(S)). The average growth rate (0·33 mm day(-1)) was intermediate among lanternfishes. The mortality rate (12%) during the larval period was below average compared with other marine fish species but similar to some epipelagic fishes that occur in the area.

  15. Molecular phylogenetics of the Neotropical fish family Prochilodontidae (Teleostei: Characiformes).

    PubMed

    Melo, Bruno F; Sidlauskas, Brian L; Hoekzema, Kendra; Frable, Benjamin W; Vari, Richard P; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    Migratory detritivores of the characiform family Prochilodontidae occur throughout the freshwaters of much of South America. Prochilodontids often form massive populations and many species achieve substantial body sizes; a combination that makes them one of the most commercially important fish groups on the continent. Their economic significance notwithstanding, prochilodontids have never been the subject of a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis. Using three mitochondrial and three nuclear loci spanning all prochilodontid species, we generated a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for the family. Our results strongly support monophyly of the family and the three included genera. A novel, highly supported placement of Ichthyoelephas sister to the clade containing Prochilodus and Semaprochilodus diverges from a previous morphological hypothesis. Most previously hypothesized interspecific relationships are corroborated and some longstanding polytomies within Prochilodus and Semaprochilodus are resolved. The morphologically similar P. brevis, P. lacustris, P. nigricans and P. rubrotaeniatus are embedded within what is herein designated as the P. nigricans group. Species limits and distributions of these species are problematic and the group clearly merits taxonomic revision.

  16. Phylogenetic placement of enigmatic percomorph families (Teleostei: Percomorphaceae).

    PubMed

    Sanciangco, Millicent D; Carpenter, Kent E; Betancur-R, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Percomorphs are a large and diverse group of spiny-finned fishes that have come to be known as the "bush at the top" due to their persistent lack of phylogenetic resolution. Recently, the broader Euteleost Tree of Life project (EToL) inferred a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis that groups the diversity of percomorphs into nine well-supported series (supraordinal groups): Ophidiaria, Batrachoidaria, Gobiaria, Syngnatharia, Pelagiaria, Anabantaria, Carangaria, Ovalentaria, and Eupercaria. The EToL also provided, for the first time, a monophyletic definition of Perciformes - the largest order of vertebrates. Despite significant progress made in accommodating the diversity of percomorph taxa into major clades, some 62 families (most previously placed in "Perciformes", as traditionally defined) were not examined by the EToL. Here, we provide evidence for the phylogenetic affinities of 10 of those 62 families, seven of which have largely remained enigmatic. This expanded taxonomic sampling also provides further support for the nine EToL supraordinal series. We examined sequences from 21 genes previously used by the EToL and added two fast-evolving mitochondrial markers in an attempt to increase resolution within the rapid percomorph radiations. We restricted the taxonomic sampling to 1229 percomorph species, including expanded sampling from recent studies. Results of maximum likelihood analysis revealed that bathyclupeids (Bathyclupeidae), galjoen fishes (Dichistiidae), kelpfishes (Chironemidae), marblefishes (Aplodactylidae), trumpeters (Latridae), barbeled grunters (Hapalogenyidae), slopefishes (Symphysanodontidae), and picarel porgies (formerly Centracanthidae) are members of the series Eupercaria ("new bush at the top"). The picarel porgies and porgies (Sparidae) are now placed in the same family (Sparidae). Our analyses suggest a close affinity between the orders Spariformes (including Lethrinidae, Nemipteridae and Sparidae) and Lobotiformes (including the tripletails or Lobotidae, the barbeled grunters, and tigerperches or Datnioididae), albeit support for this group is low. None of the newly examined families belong in the order Perciformes, as recently defined. Finally, we confirm results from other recent studies that place the Australasian salmons (Arripidae) within Pelagiaria, and the false trevallies (Lactariidae) close to flatfishes, jacks, and trevallies, within Carangaria.

  17. A Time-Calibrated Mitogenome Phylogeny of Catfish (Teleostei: Siluriformes)

    PubMed Central

    Kappas, Ilias; Vittas, Spiros; Pantzartzi, Chrysoula N.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Scouras, Zacharias G.

    2016-01-01

    A very significant part of the world’s freshwater ichthyofauna is represented by ancient, exceptionally diverse and cosmopolitan ray-finned teleosts of the order Siluriformes. Over the years, catfish have been established as an exemplary model for probing historical biogeography at various scales. Yet, several tantalizing gaps still exist in their phylogenetic history, timeline and mode of diversification. Here, we re-examine the phylogeny of catfish by assembling and analyzing almost all publicly available mitogenome data. We constructed an ingroup matrix of 62 full-length mitogenome sequences from 20 catfish families together with four cypriniform outgroups, spanning 15,557 positions in total. Partitioned maximum likelihood analyses and Bayesian relaxed clock dating using fossil age constraints provide some useful and novel insights into the evolutionary history of this group. Loricarioidei are recovered as the first siluriform group to diversify, rendering Neotropics the cradle of the order. The next deepest clade is the South American Diplomystoidei placed as a sister group to all the remaining Siluroidei. The two multifamilial clades of “Big Asia” and “Big Africa” are also recovered, albeit nodal support for the latter is poor. Within “Big Asia”, Bagridae are clearly polyphyletic. Other interfamilial relationships, including Clariidae + Heteropneustidae, Doradidae + Auchenipteridae and Ictaluridae + Cranoglanididae are robustly resolved. Our chronogram shows that siluriforms have a Pangaean origin, at least as far back as the Early Cretaceous. The inferred timeline of the basal splits corroborates the “Out-of-South America” hypothesis and accords well with the fossil record. The divergence of Siluroidei most likely postdated the final separation of Africa and South America. An appealing case of phylogenetic affinity elaborated by biogeographic dispersal is exemplified by the Early Paleogene split between the Southeast Asian Cranoglanididae and Ictaluridae, with the latter radiating into North America’s freshwater realm by Eocene. The end of Cretaceous probably concludes the major bout of diversification at the family level while with the dawn of the Cenozoic a prolific radiation is evident at the generic level. PMID:27907107

  18. The mitogenome of Liobagrus nigricauda (Teleostei, Siluriformes: Amblycipitidae).

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiang-Yang; Li, Ying-Wen; Wang, Deng-Qiang; Li, Shu-Hua; Tian, Hui-Wu; Xiong, Xing; Cheng, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Da-Qing

    2013-08-01

    Liobagrus nigricauda is endemic to the Yangtze River system (Ding 1994, The fishes of Sichuan province. pp. 470-78) and listed as an endangered species (IUCN 2012, Red list of threatened species. http://www.iucnredlist.org ). In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of L. nigricauda has been obtained with polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a noncoding control region with the total length of 16,512 bp. The gene arrangement and composition are similar to that of other vertebrates. Most of the genes are encoded on heavy strand, except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes. Just like most other vertebrates, the bias against G has a universality in different statistics results. The mitogenome sequence of L. nigricauda would contribute to better understand population genetics and to protect its genetic diversity.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of Liobagrus kingi (Teleostei, Siluriformes: Amblycipitidae).

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiang-Yang; Li, Ying-Wen; Wang, Deng-Qiang; Tian, Hui-Wu; Xiong, Xing; Li, Shu-Hua; Chen, Da-Qing

    2013-08-01

    Liobagrus kingi is endemic to southwest China and listed as endangered species (IUCN 2012). Genetic diversity is necessary for conservation issue. In studying this, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of L. kingi has been obtained with PCR, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region with the total length of 16,483 bp. The gene arrangement and composition are similar to that of other vertebrates. Most of the genes are encoded on heavy strand, except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes. Just like most other vertebrates, the against bias of G has a universality in different statistical results. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of L. kingi would contribute to better understand population genetics and protect its genetic diversity.

  20. The mitogenome of Liobagrus marginatoides (Teleostei, Siluriformes:Amblycipitidae).

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiang-Yang; Li, Ying-Wen; Wang, Deng-Qiang; Tian, Hui-Wu; Tu, Bin; Xiong, Xing; Li, Shu-Hua; Chen, Da-Qing

    2013-12-01

    Liobagrus marginatoides is endemic to southwest China (Ding, 1994), according to morphological taxonomy, and it is very similar to Liobagrus nigricauda, but its population is much smaller. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of L. Marginatoides has been obtained with polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region with the total length of 16,498 bp. The gene arrangement and composition are similar to that of other vertebrates. Most of the genes are encoded on heavy strand, except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes. Just like most other vertebrates, the against bias of G has a universality in different statistics results. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of L. Marginatoides would contribute to better understand population genetics and protect its genetic diversity.

  1. Evolution of the locomotory system in eels (Teleostei: Elopomorpha).

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Cathrin; Zorzin, Roberto; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2016-08-11

    Living anguilliform eels represent a distinct clade of elongated teleostean fishes inhabiting a wide range of habitats. Locomotion of these fishes is highly influenced by the elongated body shape, the anatomy of the vertebral column, and the corresponding soft tissues represented by the musculotendinous system. Up to now, the evolution of axial elongation in eels has been inferred from living taxa only, whereas the reconstruction of evolutionary patterns and functional ecology in extinct eels still is scarce. Rare but excellently preserved fossil eels from the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic were investigated here to gain a better understanding of locomotory system evolution in anguilliforms and, consequently, their habitat occupations in deep time. The number of vertebrae in correlation with the body length separates extinct and extant anguilliforms. Even if the phylogenetic signal cannot entirely be excluded, the analyses performed here reveal a continuous shortening of the vertebral column with a simultaneous increase in vertebral numbers in conjunction with short lateral tendons throughout the order. These anatomical changes contradict previous hypotheses based on extant eels solely. The body curvatures of extant anguilliforms are highly flexible and can be clearly distinguished from extinct species. Anatomical changes of the vertebral column and musculotendinous system through time and between extinct and extant anguilliforms correlate with changes of the body plan and swimming performance and reveal significant shifts in habitat adaptation and thus behaviour. Evolutionary changes in the skeletal system of eels established here also imply that environmental shifts were triggered by abiotic rather than biotic factors (e.g., K/P boundary mass extinction event).

  2. Glycoproteins histochemistry of the gills of Odontesthes bonariensis (Teleostei, Atherinopsidae).

    PubMed

    Díaz, A O; García, A M; Escalante, A H; Goldemberg, A L

    2010-11-01

    The histochemistry of glycoproteins (GP) in the mucous cells of the gills of the silverside Odontesthes bonariensis was identified with: (1) oxidizable vicinal diols; (2) sialic acid and some of their chain variants, carbon 7 ((7) C), carbon 8 ((8) C) or carbon 9 ((9) C); (3) sialic acid residues without O-acyl substitution and with O-acyl substitution at (7) C, (8) C or (9) C; (4) carboxyl groups and (5) sulphate groups. A battery of seven biotinylated lectins allowed GPs sugar residues to be distinguished. Mucous cells showed the presence of neutral, sulphated and sialylated GPs. Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) and Glycine max agglutinin (SBA) showed strong positive staining; Arachis hypogaea agglutinin (PNA), Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I) and Triticum vulgaris agglutinin (WGA) showed moderate staining, while Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) was completely negative.

  3. Reproductive biology of the Panama graysby Cephalopholis panamensis (Teleostei: Epinephelidae).

    PubMed

    Erisman, B E; Craig, M T; Hastings, P A

    2010-04-01

    The reproductive biology of the Panama graysby Cephalopholis panamensis was studied from collections and behavioural observations made in the Gulf of California from 2001 to 2006. Histological examinations, particularly the identification of gonads undergoing sexual transition, confirmed a protogynous hermaphroditic sexual pattern. The population structure and mating behaviour provided further support for protogyny. Size and age distributions by sex were bimodal, with males larger and older than females and sex ratios biased towards females. Mating groups consisted of a large male and several smaller females, and courtship occurred in pairs during the evening. Results on spawning periodicity and seasonality were incomplete, but histological data, monthly gonado-somatic indices (I(G)) and behavioural observations suggest that adults spawned around the full moon from May to September. Certain aspects of their reproductive biology (e.g. protogyny and low egg production) indicate that C. panamensis is particularly vulnerable to fishing and would benefit from a management policy in Mexico.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gobiobotia filifer (Teleostei, Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Liu, Ya; Zhou, Jian; Gong, Quan; Li, Hua; Lai, Jiansheng; Li, Lianman

    2016-09-01

    The Gobiobotia filifer is a small economic fish which distributes in the upstream of Yangtze River and its distributaries. For the environmental pollution and overfishing, its population declined drastically in recent decades, so it is essential to protect its resource. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of G. filifer was determined with PCR technology, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region with the total length of 16,613 bp. The order and composition of genes were similar to most of the other teleost fish. Most of the genes were encoded on heavy strand, except for ND6 genes and eight tRNAs. Just like most other vertebrates, the bias of G and C has been found in different genes/regions. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of G. filifer would contribute to better understand evolution of this lineage, population genetics, and will help administrative department to make rules and laws to protect this lineage.

  5. High levels of genetic connectivity among populations of yellowtail snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus (Lutjanidae-Perciformes), in the western South Atlantic revealed through multilocus analysis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Raimundo; Veneza, Ivana; Sampaio, Iracilda; Araripe, Juliana; Schneider, Horacio; Gomes, Grazielle

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, five loci (mitochondrial and nuclear) were sequenced to determine the genetic diversity, population structure, and demographic history of populations of the yellowtail snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus, found along the coast of the western South Atlantic. O. chrysurus is a lutjanid species that is commonly associated with coral reefs and exhibits an ample geographic distribution, and it can therefore be considered a good model for the investigation of phylogeographic patterns and genetic connectivity in marine environments. The results reflected a marked congruence between the mitochondrial and nuclear markers as well as intense gene flow among the analyzed populations, which represent a single genetic stock along the entire coast of Brazil between the states of Pará and Espírito Santo. Our data also showed high levels of genetic diversity in the species (mainly mtDNA), as well a major historic population expansion, which most likely coincided with the sea level oscillations at the end of the Pleistocene. In addition, this species is intensively exploited by commercial fisheries, and data on the genetic structure of its populations will be essential for the development of effective conservation and management plans.

  6. [Feeding habits and trophic ecology of the fish Lutjanus griseus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) associated with submerged vegetation in Laguna de Términos, Campeche, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Guevara, Emma; Alvarez, Hernán; Mascaró, Maite; Rosas, Carlos; Sánchez, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    In Campeche, Mexico, the Laguna de Términos has Thalassia testudinum beds inhabited by the grey snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus 1758). Along one year, we collected 994 individuals and 672 had food in their stomachs; we recorded number, weight, and frequency oftrophic groups, and the index of relative importance. Dominant food components were Farfantepenaeus duorarum and Palemonetes octaviae, Eucinostomus gula (Cuvier 1830) and Libinia dubia. Salinity and temperature were related to the number of individuals collected and with greater fish consumption by large L. griseus. The trophic niche breadth index was calculated for six size-classes of fish. The smallest and the largest fish had the lowest index values, whereas medium-size snappers had higher values. This snapper has a preference for habitats with submerged vegetation. The percentage of fish with food in their stomachs was higher during dark hours, providing evidence of the nocturnal habits of this fish.

  7. Life-stages, exploitation status and habitat use of Lutjanus goreensis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in coastal marine environments of Lagos, SW Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kafayat, A Fakoya; Martins, A Anetekhai; Shehu, L Akintola; Abdulwakil, O Sabal; Abass, Mikhail A

    2015-03-01

    The Gorean snapper, Lutanus goreensis is an important component of artisanal fisheries and trawl landings in the Gulf of Guinea. Despite its economic importance, there is a dearth of information on size structure and life history strategies of the species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide baseline data on the life stages, exploitation status and habitat use for the species in Nigeria. Monthly samples were obtained from artisanal and trawl catches in Five Cowrie Creek and Lagos coastal waters between December 2008 and December 2010, respectively. Length-frequency distributions of the fishes caught were analysed to provide preliminary information on mean and modal lengths at capture and life-history strategies based on habitat use and estuarine-dependency for L. goreensis. A total of 822 specimens of L. goreensis were collected from Five Cowrie Creek while 377 specimens were collected from Lagos coastal waters. Total length varied between 7.90-34.90 cm for creek samples and from 21.90-56.10 cm for marine samples. Length-frequency histograms showed polymodal size distributions in creek and marine samples. Length-frequency distributions of L. goreensis showed a high abundance ofjuveniles (<20 cm) and sub-adults (20-35 cm) which accounted for 84.1% and 68.4% of creek and marine samples examined, respectively. For the creek samples, fish in modal length class of 13.00-13.99 cm were the most exploited while in the marine samples, length classes of 29.00-30.99 cm and 31.00-32.99cm constituted the most frequently exploited fishes. Increase in total lengths from the creek (mean +/- SD; 16.19 +/- 3.73 cm) to the marine habitat samples (32.89 +/- 6.14 cm) indicated ontogenetic shift in habitat use. Occurrence of a predominant juvenile population in Five Cowrie Creek by L. goreensis suggests estuarine-dependency and is indicative of a temporary juvenile habitat or a migratory corridor. In conclusion, data from the presently reported study and previous studies demonstrated that juvenile L. goreensis displays estuarine dependency and habitat flexibility. Hence, this underscores the importance of preserving estuarine environments as essential fish habitats to prevent overfishing. The study also concludes that the species is vulnerable to recruitment overfishing in the marine environment especially as a consequence of shrimping. Consequently, it advocates for ban on all fishing activities during peak spawning periods in breeding grounds and shrimp ground assemblage.

  8. Lack of Spatial Subdivision for the Snapper Lutjanus purpureus (Lutjanidae – Perciformes) from Southwest Atlantic Based on Multi-Locus Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio

    2016-01-01

    The Caribbean snapper Lutjanus purpureus is a marine species fish commonly found associated with rocky seabeds and is widely distributed along of Western Atlantic. Data on stock delineation and stock recognition are essential for establishing conservation measures for commercially fished species. However, few studies have investigated the population genetic structure of this economically valuable species, and previous studies (based on only a portion of the mitochondrial DNA) provide an incomplete picture. The present study used a multi-locus approach (12 segments of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA) to elucidate the levels of genetic diversity and genetic connectivity of L. purpureus populations and their demographic history. L. purpureus has high levels of genetic diversity, which probably implies in high effective population sizes values for the species. The data show that this species is genetically homogeneous throughout the geographic region analyzed, most likely as a result of dispersal during larval phase. Regarding demographic history, a historical population growth event occurred, likely due to sea level changes during the Pleistocene. PMID:27556738

  9. High Levels of Genetic Connectivity among Populations of Yellowtail Snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus (Lutjanidae – Perciformes), in the Western South Atlantic Revealed through Multilocus Analysis

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Raimundo; Veneza, Ivana; Sampaio, Iracilda; Araripe, Juliana; Schneider, Horacio; Gomes, Grazielle

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, five loci (mitochondrial and nuclear) were sequenced to determine the genetic diversity, population structure, and demographic history of populations of the yellowtail snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus, found along the coast of the western South Atlantic. O. chrysurus is a lutjanid species that is commonly associated with coral reefs and exhibits an ample geographic distribution, and it can therefore be considered a good model for the investigation of phylogeographic patterns and genetic connectivity in marine environments. The results reflected a marked congruence between the mitochondrial and nuclear markers as well as intense gene flow among the analyzed populations, which represent a single genetic stock along the entire coast of Brazil between the states of Pará and Espírito Santo. Our data also showed high levels of genetic diversity in the species (mainly mtDNA), as well a major historic population expansion, which most likely coincided with the sea level oscillations at the end of the Pleistocene. In addition, this species is intensively exploited by commercial fisheries, and data on the genetic structure of its populations will be essential for the development of effective conservation and management plans. PMID:25769032

  10. Phylogeographic Analyses of Submesophotic Snappers Etelis coruscans and Etelis “marshi” (Family Lutjanidae) Reveal Concordant Genetic Structure across the Hawaiian Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Kimberly R.; Moriwake, Virginia N.; Wilcox, Christie; Grau, E. Gordon; Kelley, Christopher; Pyle, Richard L.; Bowen, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    The Hawaiian Archipelago has become a natural laboratory for understanding genetic connectivity in marine organisms as a result of the large number of population genetics studies that have been conducted across this island chain for a wide taxonomic range of organisms. However, population genetic studies have been conducted for only two species occurring in the mesophotic or submesophotic zones (30+m) in this archipelago. To gain a greater understanding of genetic connectivity in these deepwater habitats, we investigated the genetic structure of two submesophotic fish species (occurring ∼200–360 m) in this archipelago. We surveyed 16 locations across the archipelago for submesophotic snappers Etelis coruscans (N = 787) and E. “marshi” (formerly E. carbunculus; N = 770) with 436–490 bp of mtDNA cytochrome b and 10–11 microsatellite loci. Phylogeographic analyses reveal no geographic structuring of mtDNA lineages and recent coalescence times that are typical of shallow reef fauna. Population genetic analyses reveal no overall structure across most of the archipelago, a pattern also typical of dispersive shallow fishes. However some sites in the mid-archipelago (Raita Bank to French Frigate Shoals) had significant population differentiation. This pattern of no structure between ends of the Hawaiian range, and significant structure in the middle, was previously observed in a submesophotic snapper (Pristipomoides filamentosus) and a submesophotic grouper (Hyporthodus quernus). Three of these four species also have elevated genetic diversity in the mid-archipelago. Biophysical larval dispersal models from previous studies indicate that this elevated diversity may result from larval supplement from Johnston Atoll, ∼800 km southwest of Hawaii. In this case the boundaries of stocks for fishery management cannot be defined simply in terms of geography, and fishery management in Hawaii may need to incorporate external larval supply into management plans. PMID:24722193

  11. Species of Haliotrema Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from Zanclus cornutus (L.) (Teleostei: Zanclidae) and Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål) (Teleostei: Acanthuridae) in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan; Gibson, David I; Yang, Tingbao

    2011-07-01

    Four species of Haliotrema Johnston & Tiegs, 1922, including three new taxa, are described from the gills of two species of coral reef fishes, Zanclus cornutus (Linnaeus) and Acanthurus nigrofuscus (Forsskål), off the Dongsha Islands in the South China Sea. Haliotrema dongshaense n. sp., from Z. cornutus, is differentiated from other existing congeneric species by its peculiar male copulatory organ, comprising a harp-shaped copulatory tube and a cup-shaped base, and two groups of short longitudinal muscles lying on either side of the vaginal vestibule. Haliotrema zigmoidocirrus n. sp. from Z. cornutus and H. nigrofusci n. sp. from A. nigrofuscus are differentiated from other congeneric species by their male copulatory organ, which has a cup-shaped base, bell-shaped middle and Z-shaped distal part, and the latter can be readily differentiated from the former by its distinctively wider haptor and longer connecting bars. Haliotrema sicklocirrus Wang, 2007, from Z. cornutus, is redescribed with additional details, including the sinistral position of the accessory piece of the male copulatory organ, the absence of eyespots and the morphology of the connecting bars.

  12. Myxosporea (Cnidaria : Myxozoa) infecting the saddled seabream Oblada melanura (L. 1758) (Teleostei : Sparidae) and the painted comber Serranus scriba (L. 1758) (Teleostei : Serranidae) in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Laamiri, Sayef

    2017-05-19

    First parasitological surveys of Myxozoa are performed on the sparid saddled seabream Oblada melanura (Linnaeus, 1758) and the serranid painted comber Serranus scriba (Linnaeus, 1758) caught from the Bay of Bizerte and the Gulf of Tunis respectively in Northeast Tunisia, Western Mediterranean. In this study, 6 bivalvulid myxosporean species belonging to the 3 genera Ceratomyxa Thélohan, 1892, Myxodavisia Zhao, Zhou, Kent & Whipps, 2008 and Zschokkella Auerbach, 1910, are isolated infecting their hosts. Two species Ceratomyxa sp. 1 ex O. melanura (Prevalence (P) = 36%) and Ceratomyxa sp. 2 ex O. melanura (P = 13%) infected the saddled seabream and four species Ceratomyxa sp. 1 ex S. scriba (P = 11.7%), Ceratomyxa sp. 2 ex S. scriba (P = 6.7%), Myxodavisia sp. (P = 8.3%) and Zschokkella sp. (P = 5.6%) infected the painted comber. These myxosporeans differ, in vegetative stages and/or in mature spores, from all the previously known congeneric species, and are described here on the basis of their morphological and morphometric features, their host and tissue specificities and their biogeographical distribution. This is the first report of myxosporean infections in O. melanura and S. scriba. The occurrence of two ceratomyxid species in each host species supports that the genus Ceratomyxa is host-specific not only in sparids but also in serranids, which agrees with data previously obtained from Sparidae in Mediterranean Sea and from Serranidae in GBR, Australia. A member of the myxosporean genus Myxodavisia is recorded from the Mediterranean Sea for the first time, and Zschokkella spp. infections have not previously been recorded from a host in Serranidae. During the examination, a several cases of Co-infection among myxosporeans, both with two and three species, are provided and statistically studied. Indeed, 5% of the breams and 9.4% of the combers are infected with more than one myxosporean parasite. The relationship between myxosporean infections and some biological parameters are pointed out. A higher prevalence of myxosporean infection is coincided with the peak period of spawning activity in May-June for S. scriba. For both hosts, analysis using Fulton's condition factor (K) has revealed no significant difference between infected and non-infected fishes. Clinically, no external signs of disease have been occurred in infected hosts, but some changes in the bile fluid, colour, and viscosity and in the gall bladder 's tissue are examined in S. scriba.

  13. First report of monogenean flatworms from Lake Tana, Ethiopia: gill parasites of the commercially important Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei: Clariidae) and Oreochromis niloticus tana (Teleostei: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Beletew, Moges; Getahun, Abebe; Vanhove, Maarten P M

    2016-07-25

    Lake Tana is the largest lake in Ethiopia and the source of the Blue Nile. The lake harbours unique endemic cyprinid fish species, as well as the commercially important endemic Nile tilapia subspecies Oreochromis niloticus tana and the North African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Its endemicity, especially within the Labeobarbus radiation, its conservation importance and its economic indispensability attract scientific interest to the lake's ichthyofauna. Fish parasites of Lake Tana, however, are hitherto poorly known, and no formal report exists on its monogenean flatworms. For sustainable aquaculture and fisheries development, it is essential to study monogenean fish parasites in these economically most important fish species. Moreover, it remains to be verified whether this unique ecosystem and its endemicity gave rise to a distinct parasite fauna as well. Nile tilapia and North African catfish hosts were collected from Lake Tana in 2013. Nine species of monogenean parasites of two orders, Gyrodactylidea Bychowsky, 1937 and Dactylogyridea Bychowsky, 1937, were recovered. Gyrodactylus gelnari Přikrylová, Blažek & Vanhove, 2012, Macrogyrodactylus clarii Gussev, 1961, Quadriacanthus aegypticus El-Naggar & Serag, 1986 and two undescribed Quadriacanthus species were recovered from C. gariepinus. Oreochromis niloticus tana hosted Cichlidogyrus cirratus Paperna, 1964, C. halli (Price & Kirk, 1967), C. thurstonae Ergens, 1981 and Scutogyrus longicornis (Paperna & Thurston, 1969). Except for M. clarii, all species represent new records for Ethiopia. This first study on the monogenean fauna of Lake Tana revealed that the lake's North African catfish, as well as its endemic Nile tilapia subspecies, harbour parasites that are known from these host species elsewhere in Africa.

  14. Eviota brahmi n. sp. from Papua New Guinea, with a redescription of Eviota nigriventris (Teleostei: Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Greenfield, David W; Tornabene, Luke

    2014-04-28

    Greenfield & Randall (2011) described the gobiid fishes Eviota dorsogilva from Fiji and E. dorsopurpurea from Papua New Guinea as new species in what they termed the Eviota nigriventris complex. They also extended the range of E. nigriventris, type locality Banda Sea, to Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea. In the present paper, we describe their misidentified E. nigriventris from Papua New Guinea as a new species, E. brahmi, and redescribe E. nigriventris based on new material from near the type locality. The four species of this complex differ mainly in coloration, but are also shown to be distinct using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.

  15. Multilocus resolution of Mugilidae phylogeny (Teleostei: Mugiliformes): Implications for the family's taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Xia, Rong; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Fu, Cuizhang

    2016-03-01

    The interrelationships among mugilids (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) remain highly debated. Using a mitochondrial gene-based phylogeny as criterion, a revised classification with 25 genera in the Mugilidae has recently been proposed. However, phylogenetic relationships of major mitochondrial lineages remain unresolved and to gain a general acceptance the classification requires confirmation based on multilocus evidence and diagnostic morphological characters. Here, we construct a species-tree using twelve nuclear and three mitochondrial loci and infer the evolution of 71 morphological characters. Our multilocus phylogeny does not agree with previous morphology-based hypotheses for the relationships within Mugilidae, confirms the revised classification with 25 genera and further resolves their phylogenetic relationships. Using the well-resolved multilocus phylogeny as the criterion, we reclassify Mugilidae genera into three new subfamilies (Myxinae, Rhinomugilinae, and Cheloninae) and one new, recombined, subfamily (Mugilinae). The Rhinomugilinae subfamily is further divided into four tribes. The revised classification of Mugilidae is supported by morpho-anatomical synapomorphies or a combination of characters. These characters are used to erect a key to the subfamilies and genera. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multi-locus fossil-calibrated phylogeny of Atheriniformes (Teleostei, Ovalentaria).

    PubMed

    Campanella, Daniela; Hughes, Lily C; Unmack, Peter J; Bloom, Devin D; Piller, Kyle R; Ortí, Guillermo

    2015-05-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among families within the order Atheriniformes have been difficult to resolve on the basis of morphological evidence. Molecular studies so far have been fragmentary and based on a small number taxa and loci. In this study, we provide a new phylogenetic hypothesis based on sequence data collected for eight molecular markers for a representative sample of 103 atheriniform species, covering 2/3 of the genera in this order. The phylogeny is calibrated with six carefully chosen fossil taxa to provide an explicit timeframe for the diversification of this group. Our results support the subdivision of Atheriniformes into two suborders (Atherinopsoidei and Atherinoidei), the nesting of Notocheirinae within Atherinopsidae, and the monophyly of tribe Menidiini, among others. We propose taxonomic changes for Atherinopsoidei, but a few weakly supported nodes in our phylogeny suggests that further study is necessary to support a revised taxonomy of Atherinoidei. The time-calibrated phylogeny was used to infer ancestral habitat reconstructions to explain the current distribution of marine and freshwater taxa. Based on these results, the current distribution of Atheriniformes is likely due to widespread marine dispersal along the margins of continents, infrequent trans-oceanic dispersal, and repeated invasion of freshwater habitats. This conclusion is supported by post-Gondwanan divergence times among families within the order, and a high probability of a marine ancestral habitat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Phylogeny and biogeography of Triportheidae (Teleostei: Characiformes) based on molecular data.

    PubMed

    Mariguela, T C; Roxo, F F; Foresti, F; Oliveira, C

    2016-03-01

    Triportheidae represents a relatively small family of characiform fishes with highly modified morphology. The relationship among characiform families is still unclear, and a phylogenetic analysis for the family including a representative number of Triportheus species has never been performed. Here, we inferred a phylogeny for 19 of the 22 species recognized for this family and two possible new Triportheus species using two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes. Our results show that (1) Triportheidae is monophyletic and a sister group of the clade consisting of the families Bryconidae and Gasteropelecidae; (2) Triportheus is monophyletic, but some species need to be reviewed and described; (3) all genera in Triportheidae, except for Agoniates originated in the period between Early Oligocene and Early Miocene; and (4) speciation in Triportheidae coincides with important geological events in South America, reinforcing the importance of time-calibrated trees to study fish evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Iranocichla persa, a new cichlid species from southern Iran (Teleostei, Cichlidae)

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Sayyadzadeh, Golnaz; Seehausen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Iranocichla persa sp. n. is described from the Shur, Hasanlangi and Minab River drainages flowing into the Persian Gulf at the Strait of Hormuz in southern Iran. It is distinguished from Iranocichla hormuzensis, from the Mehran River drainage, by nuptial males having a bright orange breast and lower part of the head (vs. black), a poorly developed or invisible (vs. distinctive) “Tilapia-mark” in the dorsal fin and very clear white spots making almost wavy bars or stripes on the caudal fin (vs. without or with very few white spots). Mitochondrial DNA sequence characters suggest that both Iranocichla species are closely related but form two distinct clades, diagnosable by several fixed mutations in ND2, D-loop and partially by COI sequences. Populations from Kol River drainage, which is situated in-between the Mehran and the Shur River drainages, are more similar to Iranocichla hormuzensis in terms of their male nuptial coloration but to Iranocichla persa sp. n. in their mitochondrial sequence characters. Their status requires further investigation. PMID:27917068

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of snubnose pompano Trachinotus blochii (Teleostei, Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dianchang; Wang, Long; Guo, Huayang; Ma, Zhenhua; Jiang, Shigui

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Trachinotus blochii was determined using the polymerase chain reaction. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence is 16,558 bp in length. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two rRNA genes and two non-coding regions. Overall base composition of its mitochondrial genome is estimated to be 29.21% for A, 15.74% for G, 26.49% for T, 28.56% for C, respectively, with a high A + T content (55.70%). The control region contains three conserved sequence blocks, a termination-associated sequence and a TATA box. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of T. blochii can provide a basic data for the studies on population structure, molecular systematic, stock evaluation and conservation genetics. It is also helpful to develop the rational management strategies for T. blochii resource.

  20. A new cave-dwelling loach, Triplophysa xichouensis sp. nov. (Teleostei Nemacheilidae) from Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, S W; Pan, X F; Yang, J X; Chen, X Y

    2017-03-01

    A new cave-dwelling loach of the genus Triplophysa, T. xichouensis, is described from an outlet of a subterranean river in Xisa Town, Xichou County, Yunnan Province, China. It can be distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: dorsal-fin rays iii, 8; anal-fin rays ii, 6; pectoral-fin rays i, 9 or 10; pelvic-fin rays i, 5 or 6; branched caudal-fin rays 16(8+8); eyes highly degenerated to a very tiny black dot; dorsal-fin origin closer to snout tip than to caudal-fin base and anterior to vertical line of pelvic-fin origin; pectoral fin length about two-thirds the distance between pectoral-fin origin to pelvic-fin origin; caudal peduncle slender, its length about three times its depth; caudal fin emarginate; body smooth and scaleless; lateral line complete and straight; anterior chamber of air bladder wrapped in dumbbell-shaped bony capsule and the posterior one well developed, long, oval; intestine short, bending in zigzag shape behind stomach. A key for the cave-dwelling species of Triplophysa is provided. urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:9162FFB1-7911-47C3-AE50-6A00E9590327.

  1. Multiple Invasions into Freshwater by Pufferfishes (Teleostei: Tetraodontidae): A Mitogenomic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Yamanoue, Yusuke; Miya, Masaki; Doi, Hiroyuki; Mabuchi, Kohji; Sakai, Harumi; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2011-01-01

    Pufferfishes of the Family Tetraodontidae are the most speciose group in the Order Tetraodontiformes and mainly inhabit coastal waters along continents. Although no members of other tetraodontiform families have fully discarded their marine lives, approximately 30 tetraodontid species spend their entire lives in freshwaters in disjunct tropical regions of South America, Central Africa, and Southeast Asia. To investigate the interrelationships of tetraodontid pufferfishes and thereby elucidate the evolutionary origins of their freshwater habitats, we performed phylogenetic analysis based on whole mitochondrial genome sequences from 50 tetraodontid species and closely related species (including 31 newly determined sequences). The resulting phylogenies reveal that the family is composed of four major lineages and that freshwater species from the different continents are independently nested in two of the four lineages. A monophyletic origin of the use of freshwater habitats was statistically rejected, and ancestral habitat reconstruction on the resulting tree demonstrates that tetraodontids independently entered freshwater habitats in different continents at least three times. Relaxed molecular-clock Bayesian divergence time estimation suggests that the timing of these invasions differs between continents, occurring at 0–10 million years ago (MA) in South America, 17–38 MA in Central Africa, and 48–78 MA in Southeast Asia. These timings are congruent with geological events that could facilitate adaptation to freshwater habitats in each continent. PMID:21364898

  2. A new cryptic species of Aponurus Looss, 1907 (Digenea: Lecithasteridae) from Mediterranean goatfish (Teleostei: Mullidae).

    PubMed

    Carreras-Aubets, Marta; Repullés-Albelda, Aigües; Kostadinova, Aneta; Carrassón, Maite

    2011-06-01

    The status of the trematode Aponurus laguncula Looss, 1907 in the western Mediterranean is re-assessed by means of a comparative morphological study and rDNA sequences based on newly collected material. A. laguncula (sensu stricto) is redescribed from Trachinus draco L. and a new cryptic species of the 'A. laguncula complex', Aponurus mulli n. sp., is described on the basis of abundant material from Mullus barbatus L. (type-host) and M. surmuletus L. off the Spanish Mediterranean coasts. The new species is differentiated from A. laguncula (sensu stricto) by its: significantly larger, elongate body, with maximum width at the level of the ventral sucker; shorter forebody; distinctly larger sinus-sac, seminal receptacle and seminal vesicle, with the latter also being more elongate; vesicular pars prostatica; more anteriorly located vitellarium, which consists of eight globular follicles; and distinctly smaller eggs, which are also smaller in relation to body size and have both their opercular and anopercular poles rounded. The variability and the allometric growth of the morphological characters in the new species were studied in detail, resulting in additional distinguishing features. Sequences of the large subunit rRNA (28S) gene (domains D1-D3) and ITS2 rRNA gene region for the new species have been submitted to GenBank in order to enhance future studies on species differentiation within the 'A. laguncula complex'.

  3. Pempheris bexillon, a new species of sweeper (Teleostei: Pempheridae) from the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Mooi, Randall D; Randall, John E

    2014-03-21

    Pempheris bexillon new species is described from the 129 mm SL holotype and 11 paratypes (119-141 mm SL) from the Comoro Islands. Twelve other specimens have been examined from the Agaléga Islands, Mascarene Islands, and Bassas da India (Madagascar). It is differentiated from other Pempheris by the following combination of characters: a yellow dorsal fin with a black, distal margin along its full length, broadest on anterior rays (pupil-diameter width) and gradually narrowing posteriorly, the last ray with only a black tip; large, deciduous cycloid scales on the flank; dark, oblong spot on the pectoral-fin base; anal fin with a dark margin; segmented anal-fin rays 38-45 (usually >40); lateral-line scales 56-65; and total gill rakers on the first arch 31-35; iris reddish-brown. Tables of standard meristic and color data for type material of all nominal species of cycloid-scaled Pempheris in the Indo-Pacific are provided.

  4. Molecular cytogenetic study of the European bitterling Rhodeus amarus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Acheilognathinae).

    PubMed

    Kirtiklis, Lech; Ocalewicz, Konrad; Wiechowska, Marzena; Boroń, Alicja; Hliwa, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    The European bitterlings (Rhodeus amarus) from the Eastern locations were cytogenetically examined by conventional and molecular techniques. All analyzed individuals presented invariably the same chromosomal constitution of 2n = 48, with 8 metacentrics + 20 submetacentrics + 20 subtelo-acrocentrics and C-banding positive heterochromatin at the pericentromeric regions in most of the chromosomes. Moreover, some of the chromosomes had short arms entirely built with heterochromatin. GC-rich Ag-NORs (nucleolus organizer regions) were located at the short arms of two submetacentric chromosomes, and the length polymorphism of these regions was found. Multiple location of 28S rDNA sequences with fluorescence in situ hybridization signals was observed on the long and/or short arms of three submetacentric chromosomes including NOR regions and short arms of three to five acrocentric chromosomes in the studied fish. 5S rDNA sites were found on the short arms of two subtelocentric chromosomes, and telomeric repeats were localized at the ends of all chromosomes. Provided results have expanded our knowledge concerning genetic characteristics of the European bitterlings that may be profitable in the conservation programs of this endangered species.

  5. Identification and chromosome mapping of repetitive elements in the Astyanax scabripinnis (Teleostei: Characidae) species complex.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Patrícia; de Oliveira, Luiz Antonio; Pucci, Marcela Baer; Santos, Mateus Henrique; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Nogaroto, Viviane; de Almeida, Mara Cristina; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Most part of the eukaryotic genome is composed of repeated sequences or multiple copies of DNA, which were considered as "junk DNA", and may be associated to the heterochromatin. In this study, three populations of Astyanax aff. scabripinnis from Brazilian rivers of Guaratinguetá and Pindamonhangaba (São Paulo) and a population from Maringá (Paraná) were analyzed concerning the localization of the nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs), the As51 satellite DNA, the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), and the 5S rDNA. Repeated sequences were also isolated and identified by the Cot - 1 method, which indicated similarity (90%) with the LINE UnaL2 retrotransposon. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the retrotransposon dispersed and more concentrated markers in centromeric and telomeric chromosomal regions. These sequences were co-localized and interspaced with 18S and 5S rDNA and As51, confirmed by fiber-FISH essay. The B chromosome found in these populations pointed to a conspicuous hybridization with LINE probe, which is also co-located in As51 sequences. The NORs were active at unique sites of a homologous pair in the three populations. There were no evidences that transposable elements and repetitive DNA had influence in the transcriptional regulation of ribosomal genes in our analyses.

  6. Taxonomic revision and stratigraphic provenance of 'Histiophorus rotundu' Woodward 1901 (Teleostei, Perciformes)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monsch, K.A.; Fierstine, H.L.; Weems, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, Histiophorus rotundus Woodward 1901, was known from a single, poorly preserved rostrum from the Tertiary phosphate beds near Charleston, South Carolina, an area from which many fossils have been described. The specimen is relatively featureless externally; its internal anatomy is unknown and the documentation of its geological provenance was poor. In an earlier revision the species was transferred to the fossil billfish genus Xiphiorhynchus Van Beneden, 1871. Here we confirm this designation, supported by new morphological studies of the holotype, recently found specimens of Xiphiorhynchus rotundus (Woodward, 1901), and the stratigraphic record of Xiphiorhynchus. The systematic paleontology we present is a contribution to the taxonomic revision of billfishes world-wide. Because the holotype is heavily phosphatized and the type locality was vaguely described, we discuss the geology of the phosphate mining districts of the Charleston region. Based on our studies, we can narrow the possible age of the holotype to late Oligocene or early Miocene. We suggest X. rotundus was extinct by the Burdigalian. 

  7. Environmental pollution affects molecular and biochemical responses during gonadal maturation of Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    PubMed

    Tolussi, Carlos E; Gomes, Aline D Olio; Kumar, Anupama; Ribeiro, Cristiele S; Nostro, Fabiana L Lo; Bain, Peter A; de Souza, Gabriela B; Cuña, Rodrigo Da; Honji, Renato M; Moreira, Renata G

    2017-10-02

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have the potential to alter fish reproduction at various levels of organization. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a natural environment with heavily anthropogenic influence on the physiological processes involved in reproduction in the freshwater fish lambari (Astyanax fasciatus) using different biomarkers. Adult males and females were collected in different seasons from two distinct sites in the same watershed: Ponte Nova Reservoir (PN) considered a pristine or small anthropogenic influence reference point; and Billings Reservoir (Bil), subjected to a large anthropogenic impact. Biological indices, such as hepatosomatic index and gonadosomatic index (GSI), gonadal histomorphology, fecundity, and biomarkers such as plasma levels of estradiol (E2) as well as hepatic gene expression of its alfa nuclear receptor (ERα), were analyzed. Hepatic vitellogenin (VTG) gene expression was evaluated in both sexes, as an indicator of xenoestrogen exposure. Females collected at PN presented a typical annual variation reflected in GSI, whereas for those sampled at Bil the index did not change through the seasons. The higher concentration of E2 in males collected at Bil during spring/2013, together with the detection of VTG gene expression, suggest the presence of EDCs in the water. These EDCs may have also influenced fecundity of females from Bil, which was higher during winter and spring/2013. Gene expression of ERα and ovarian morphology did not differ between fish from both sites. Water conditions from Bil reservoir impacted by anthropic activity clearly interfered mainly with biomarkers of biological effect such as plasma E2 levels and absolute and relative fecundity, but also altered biomarkers of exposure as VTG gene expression. These facts support the notion that waterborne EDCs are capable of causing estrogenic activity in A. fasciatus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Phylogeny and polyploidy: resolving the classification of cyprinine fishes (Teleostei: Cypriniformes).

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Sado, Tetsuya; Vincent Hirt, M; Pasco-Viel, Emmanuel; Arunachalam, M; Li, Junbing; Wang, Xuzhen; Freyhof, Jörg; Saitoh, Kenji; Simons, Andrew M; Miya, Masaki; He, Shunping; Mayden, Richard L

    2015-04-01

    Cyprininae is the largest subfamily (>1300 species) of the family Cyprinidae and contains more polyploid species (∼400) than any other group of fishes. We examined the phylogenetic relationships of the Cyprininae based on extensive taxon, geographical, and genomic sampling of the taxa, using both mitochondrial and nuclear genes to address the phylogenetic challenges posed by polyploidy. Four datasets were analyzed in this study: two mitochondrial gene datasets (465 and 791 taxa, 5604bp), a mitogenome dataset (85 taxa, 14,771bp), and a cloned nuclear RAG1 dataset (97 taxa, 1497bp). Based on resulting trees, the subfamily Cyprininae was subdivided into 11 tribes: Probarbini (new; Probarbus+Catlocarpio), Labeonini Bleeker, 1859 (Labeo & allies), Torini Karaman, 1971 (Tor, Labeobarbus & allies), Smiliogastrini Bleeker, 1863 (Puntius, Enteromius & allies), Poropuntiini (Poropuntius & allies), Cyprinini Rafinesque, 1815 (Cyprinus & allies), Acrossocheilini (new; Acrossocheilus & allies), Spinibarbini (new; Spinibarbus), Schizothoracini McClelland, 1842 (Schizothorax & allies), Schizopygopsini Mirza, 1991 (Schizopygopsis & allies), and Barbini Bleeker, 1859 (Barbus & allies). Phylogenetic relationships within each tribe were discussed. Two or three distinct RAG1 lineages were identified for each of the following tribes Torini, Cyprinini, Spinibarbini, and Barbini, indicating their hybrid origin. The hexaploid African Labeobarbus & allies and Western Asian Capoeta are likely derived from two independent hybridization events between their respective maternal tetraploid ancestors and Cyprinion.

  9. Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Amphidromous Fish Genus Dormitator Gill 1861 (Teleostei: Eleotridae).

    PubMed

    Galván-Quesada, Sesángari; Doadrio, Ignacio; Alda, Fernando; Perdices, Anabel; Reina, Ruth Gisela; García Varela, Martín; Hernández, Natividad; Campos Mendoza, Antonio; Bermingham, Eldredge; Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Species of the genus Dormitator, also known as sleepers, are representatives of the amphidromous freshwater fish fauna that inhabit the tropical and subtropical coastal environments of the Americas and Western Africa. Because of the distribution of this genus, it could be hypothesized that the evolutionary patterns in this genus, including a pair of geminate species across the Central American Isthmus, could be explained by vicariance following the break-up of Gondwana. However, the evolutionary history of this group has not been evaluated. We constructed a time-scaled molecular phylogeny of Dormitator using mitochondrial (Cytochrome b) and nuclear (Rhodopsin and β-actin) DNA sequence data to infer and date the cladogenetic events that drove the diversification of the genus and to relate them to the biogeographical history of Central America. Two divergent lineages of Dormitator were recovered: one that included all of the Pacific samples and another that included all of the eastern and western Atlantic samples. In contrast to the Pacific lineage, which showed no phylogeographic structure, the Atlantic lineage was geographically structured into four clades: Cameroon, Gulf of Mexico, West Cuba and Caribbean, showing evidence of potential cryptic species. The separation of the Pacific and Atlantic lineages was estimated to have occurred ~1 million years ago (Mya), whereas the four Atlantic clades showed mean times of divergence between 0.2 and 0.4 Mya. The splitting times of Dormitator between ocean basins are similar to those estimated for other geminate species pairs with shoreline estuarine preferences, which may indicate that the common evolutionary histories of the different clades are the result of isolation events associated with the closure of the Central American Isthmus and the subsequent climatic and oceanographic changes.

  10. The infrabranchial musculature and its bearing on the phylogeny of percomorph fishes (Osteichthyes: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Datovo, Aléssio; de Pinna, Mário C C; Johnson, G David

    2014-01-01

    The muscles serving the ventral portion of the gill arches ( = infrabranchial musculature) are poorly known in bony fishes. A comparative analysis of the infrabranchial muscles in the major percomorph lineages reveals a large amount of phylogenetically-relevant information. Characters derived from this anatomical system are identified and discussed in light of current hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships among percomorphs. New evidence supports a sister-group relationship between the Batrachoidiformes and Lophiiformes and between the Callionymoidei and Gobiesocoidei. Investigated data also corroborate the existence of two monophyletic groups, one including the Pristolepididae, Badidae, and Nandidae, and a second clade consisting of all non-amarsipid stromateiforms. New synapomorphies are proposed for the Atherinomorphae, Blenniiformes, Lophiiformes, Scombroidei (including Sphyraenidae), and Gobiiformes. Within the latter order, the Rhyacichthyidae and Odontobutidae are supported as the successive sister families of all remaining gobiiforms. The present analysis further confirms the validity of infrabranchial musculature characters previously proposed to support the grouping of the Mugiliformes with the Atherinomorphae and the monophyly of the Labriformes with the possible inclusion of the Pholidichthyiformes. Interestingly, most hypotheses of relationships supported by the infrabranchial musculature have been advanced by preceding anatomists on the basis of distinct data sources, but were never recovered in recent molecular phylogenies. These conflicts clearly indicate the current unsatisfactory resolution of the higher-level phylogeny of percomorphs.

  11. Multilocus analysis of the catfish family Trichomycteridae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Siluriformes) supporting a monophyletic Trichomycterinae.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Luz E; Roxo, Fabio F; DoNascimiento, Carlos; Sabaj, Mark H; Datovo, Aléssio; Alfaro, Michael; Oliveira, Claudio

    2017-10-01

    Trichomycteridae is the second most diverse family of the order Siluriformes, its members are widely distributed through the freshwaters of Central and South America, exhibiting an exceptional ecological and phenotypic disparity. The most diverse subfamily, Trichomycterinae, represented mainly by the genus Trichomycterus, historically has been recognized as non-monophyletic and various characters used to unite or divide its constituents are repeatedly called into question. No comprehensive molecular phylogenetic hypothesis regarding relationships of trichomycterids has been produced, and the present study is the first extensive phylogeny for the family Trichomycteridae, based on a multilocus dataset of three mitochondrial loci and two nuclear markers (3284bp total). Our analysis has the most comprehensive taxon-sampling of the Trichomycteridae published so far, including members of all subfamilies and a vast representation of Trichomycterus diversity. Analysis of these data showed a phylogenetic hypothesis with broad agreement between the Bayesian (BI) and maximum-likelihood (ML) trees. The results provided overwhelming support for the monophyletic status of Copionodontinae, Stegophilinae, Trichomycterinae, and Vandelliinae, but not Sarcoglanidinae and Glanapteryginae. A major feature of our results is the support to the current conceptualization of Trichomycterinae, which includes Ituglanis and Scleronema and excludes the "Trichomycterus" hasemani group. Divergence time analysis based on DNA substitution rates suggested a Lower Cretaceous origin of the family and the divergence events at subfamilial level shaped by Paleogene events in the geohistory of South America. This hypothesis lays a foundation for an array of future studies of evolution and biogeography of the family. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular cytogenetic study of heterochromatin in Hisonotus leucofrenatus (Teleostei, Loricariidae, Hypoptopomatinae).

    PubMed

    Andreata, Artur Antonio; Ferreira, Daniela Cristina; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2010-02-01

    The fish species Hisonotus leucofrenatus exhibits a large amount of C-band positive segments with different responses after application of the C-banding technique. Type I class named herein appeared to be heavily stained after C-banding in the terminal position of five chromosome pairs and type II class, weakly stained after C-banding in the interstitial or pericentromeric position in nine chromosome pairs and in the supernumerary chromosomes. No variation was observed in type II C-band positive segments, however, type I segments displayed conspicuous polymorphisms, and six cytotypes were detected among the fish analyzed. Chromosomes were also analyzed by CMA(3) and DAPI staining, which showed that type I C-band positive segments comprised both AT-rich and GC-rich DNA, while type II segments were mainly composed of GC-rich sequences. HindIII-digested genomic DNA exhibits fragments of the ladder-like pattern, characteristic of tandemly arrayed repetitive sequences. Two of those fragments corresponding to monomeric and dimeric units of a 78 bp repetitive DNA sequence were cloned and sequenced. The cloned repetitive DNA was used as probe in fluorescent in situ hybridization experiments. The results revealed that these sequences were located in the same position as the type I C-band positive segments. This satellite DNA did not hybridize with DNA from other species of Hisonotus or from other fish of the family Loricariidae, suggesting that this sequence is specific to H. leucofrenatus. The role of these repetitive sequences in the karyotypic evolution of this species is discussed.

  13. Mitogenomic evidence for an Indo-West Pacific origin of the Clupeoidei (Teleostei: Clupeiformes).

    PubMed

    Lavoué, Sébastien; Miya, Masaki; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Chen, Wei-Jen; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2013-01-01

    The clupeoid fishes are distributed worldwide, with marine, freshwater and euryhaline species living in either tropical or temperate environments. Regional endemism is important at the species and genus levels, and the highest species diversity is found in the tropical marine Indo-West Pacific region. The clupeoid distribution follows two general pattern of species richness, the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients. To test historical hypotheses explaining the formation of these two gradients, we have examined the early biogeography of the Clupeoidei in reconstructing the evolution of their habitat preferences along with their ancestral range distributions on a time-calibrated mitogenomic phylogeny. The phylogenetic results support the distinction of nine main lineages within the Clupeoidei, five of them new. We infer several independent transitions from a marine to freshwater environment and from a tropical to temperate environment that occurred after the initial diversification period of the Clupeoidei. These results combined with our ancestral range reconstruction hypothesis suggest that the probable region of origin and diversification of the Clupeoidei during the Cretaceous period was the tropical marine precursor to the present Indo-West Pacific region. Thus, our study favors the hypotheses of "Region of origin" and "Tropical conservatism" to explain the origins of the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients of clupeoid species richness, respectively. Additional geological and paleontological evidence further define the tropical marine paleo-region of origin as the eastern Tethys Sea region. The Cretaceous fossil record of the Clupeoidei is partially incongruent with the results here as it contains taxa found outside this region. We discuss three possible causes of conflict between our biogeographical hypothesis and the distributions of the Cretaceous clupeoid fossils: regional extinction, incomplete taxonomic sampling and incorrect timescale estimation.

  14. Detection of interstitial telomeric sequences in the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) (Teleostei: Salmonidae).

    PubMed

    Pomianowski, K; Jankun, M; Ocalewicz, K

    2012-01-01

    Highly polymorphic Arctic charr ( Salvelinus alpinus Linnaeus, 1758) chromosomes were studied using conventional and molecular methods. The diploid chromosome number in the studied individuals was 2n = 81 or 2n = 82, with a fundamental arm number (NF) = 100. These differences are due to Robertsonian fusions. Interindividual variation in the number and size of DAPI and CMA(3) positively stained chromatin sites was observed in studied specimens. In the case of two individuals, the subtelomeric region of the long arm (q) of the largest acrocentric chromosome (chromosome number 10) was positively stained by CMA(3) fluorochrome. Both primed in situ labelling (PRINS) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that this CMA(3)-positive region was flanked by telomeric sequences. Previously, the subterminal position of interstitial telomeric sequences located in the vicinity of the CMA(3)-positive guanine-rich chromatin have been described in two other Salvelinus species, brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis ) and lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush ). Moreover, multichromosomal location and variation in size of CMA(3) bands have been observed in various Salvelinus taxa, including fishes with internally located telomeric sequences. These results suggest that relocation of CMA(3)-positive chromatin segments in these species may be facilitated by flanking interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs).

  15. Effects of aluminum on the energetic substrates in neotropical freshwater Astyanax bimaculatus (Teleostei: Characidae) females.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Vanessa A R O; Correia, Tiago G; Moreira, Renata G

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of acidic pH and acute aluminum (Al) exposure on the metabolic substrates of Astyanax bimaculatus, and on the ability of these animals to recover in clean water. After an acclimation period, sexually mature A. bimaculatus females were sorted into six glass aquaria with three experimental groups: control in neutral pH (7.0), acidic pH (5.5), and Al (0.5 mg·L(-1)) in acidic pH (5.5). After a 96 h treatment, 10 animals from each experimental group were sampled and the rest were returned to clean water in neutral pH without Al for a recovery period of 96 h. The acidic pH, either alone or combined with Al, decreased T4 levels, whereas Al exposure increased T3 levels. Recovery of T3 levels occurred after 96 h. Al exposure decreased ovary and plasma proteins, muscle glycogen contents, and hepatic lipids due to lipoperoxidation. In the recovery phase, lipids decreased in most tissues, probably to re-establish ovary protein and hepatic glycogen. A. bimaculatus prioritized the use of energetic resources during acclimatization to Al instead of prioritizing reproduction, thereby avoiding the ovulation of impaired eggs.

  16. Moments of induced spawning and embryonic development of Brycon amazonicus (Teleostei, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Neumann, Erika; Faustino, Francine; Mendes, José Mário Ribeiro; de Braga, Francisco Manoel

    2014-11-01

    Based on the economic and ecological relevance of Brycon amazonicus, the goal of this work was to describe the diameter of oocytes and eggs of this species, as well as the chronological embryonic development. The material was provided by Buriti fish farm, Nova Mutum - MT, Brazil. Samples of both oocytes and eggs were obtained from extrusion to hatching. The material was fixed and measured under stereomicroscope, and the samples were divided for light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. At extrusion, the oocytes were bluish green. The frequency distribution of oocytes revealed that 87.7% of them ranged from 1.11-1.30 mm in diameter. During incubation, the total diameter of the eggs increased from 1.22 ± 0.04 mm to 3.06 ± 0.46 mm in the first 60 min post fertilization (PF), and growth ceased at 180 min PF. Between 10-30 s PF, most eggs were fertilized and fertilization cones were observed from 10 s onwards after gamete activation. The main fertilization events took place asynchronically and spermatozoa were visualized in the micropyle vestibule up to 90 s PF. The first cell was formed in the centre of the blastodisc 20 min PF. The morula stage was identified 2 h PF and, 3 h later, 70% of the yolk was covered by the blastoderm; the blastopore was almost entirely closed at 6 h PF. The cephalic and caudal regions of the embryo could be defined 8 h PF and hatching occurred after 13 h of embryonic development. The larvae hatched with undifferentiated organic systems and with a large yolk sac, free from swimming abilities or visual acuity.

  17. Taxonomic revision and molecular phylogeny of Gymnocorymbus Eigenmann, 1908 (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Benine, Ricardo C; Melo, Bruno F; Castro, Ricardo M C; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-05-07

    Characidae, one of the most diverse families of Characiformes and one of the largest clades of fishes in the world, has a complex taxonomic background, with one issue being the placement of various genera, including Gymnocorymbus. Herein, we generate the first molecular phylogeny for the genus using three nuclear and two mitochondrial loci and review the systematics of Gymnocorymbus. This genus includes the black tetra, a well-known and popular species among aquarists. Molecular phylogeny strongly supports the monophyly of Gymnocorymbus, with this hypothesis corroborated by the presence of three morphological synapomorphies. Of the six previously known nominal species of Gymnocorymbus, three are considered valid herein: Gymnocorymbus bondi from the Río Orinoco basin, Gymnocorymbus ternetzi from the Rio Paraguay basin, and Gymnocorymbus thayeri from the Corantijn and Amazon basin and rivers of northeastern Brazil. A fourth species, Gymnocorymbus flaviolimai sp. n., is described from the Rio Madeira, Amazon basin. Lectotypes are designated for G. ternetzi and G. thayeri. Our results support previous hypotheses of the alignment of Gymnocorymbus close to the subfamily Stethaprioninae and also support the sister relationship between G. ternetzi and G. thayeri, and of that clade as sister to G. bondi.

  18. A Glimpse into the Satellite DNA Library in Characidae Fish (Teleostei, Characiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Utsunomia, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J.; Silva, Duílio M. Z. A.; Serrano, Érica A.; Rosa, Ivana F.; Scudeler, Patrícia E. S.; Hashimoto, Diogo T.; Oliveira, Claudio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M.; Foresti, Fausto

    2017-01-01

    Satellite DNA (satDNA) is an abundant fraction of repetitive DNA in eukaryotic genomes and plays an important role in genome organization and evolution. In general, satDNA sequences follow a concerted evolutionary pattern through the intragenomic homogenization of different repeat units. In addition, the satDNA library hypothesis predicts that related species share a series of satDNA variants descended from a common ancestor species, with differential amplification of different satDNA variants. The finding of a same satDNA family in species belonging to different genera within Characidae fish provided the opportunity to test both concerted evolution and library hypotheses. For this purpose, we analyzed here sequence variation and abundance of this satDNA family in ten species, by a combination of next generation sequencing (NGS), PCR and Sanger sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We found extensive between-species variation for the number and size of pericentromeric FISH signals. At genomic level, the analysis of 1000s of DNA sequences obtained by Illumina sequencing and PCR amplification allowed defining 150 haplotypes which were linked in a common minimum spanning tree, where different patterns of concerted evolution were apparent. This also provided a glimpse into the satDNA library of this group of species. In consistency with the library hypothesis, different variants for this satDNA showed high differences in abundance between species, from highly abundant to simply relictual variants. PMID:28855916

  19. Uncovering the Ancestry of B Chromosomes in Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Utsunomia, Ricardo; Silva, Duílio Mazzoni Zerbinato de Andrade; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Claudio; Trifonov, Vladmir A; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; Foresti, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    B chromosomes constitute a heterogeneous mixture of genomic parasites that are sometimes derived intraspecifically from the standard genome of the host species, but result from interspecific hybridization in other cases. The mode of origin determines the DNA content, with the B chromosomes showing high similarity with the A genome in the first case, but presenting higher similarity with a different species in the second. The characid fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae harbours highly invasive B chromosomes, which are present in all populations analyzed to date in the Parana and Tietê rivers. To investigate the origin of these B chromosomes, we analyzed two natural populations: one carrying B chromosomes and the other lacking them, using a combination of molecular cytogenetic techniques, nucleotide sequence analysis and high-throughput sequencing (Illumina HiSeq2000). Our results showed that i) B chromosomes have not yet reached the Paranapanema River basin; ii) B chromosomes are mitotically unstable; iii) there are two types of B chromosomes, the most frequent of which is lightly C-banded (similar to euchromatin in A chromosomes) (B1), while the other is darkly C-banded (heterochromatin-like) (B2); iv) the two B types contain the same tandem repeat DNA sequences (18S ribosomal DNA, H3 histone genes, MS3 and MS7 satellite DNA), with a higher content of 18S rDNA in the heterochromatic variant; v) all of these repetitive DNAs are present together only in the paracentromeric region of autosome pair no. 6, suggesting that the B chromosomes are derived from this A chromosome; vi) the two B chromosome variants show MS3 sequences that are highly divergent from each other and from the 0B genome, although the B2-derived sequences exhibit higher similarity with the 0B genome (this suggests an independent origin of the two B variants, with the less frequent, B2 type presumably being younger); and vii) the dN/dS ratio for the H3.2 histone gene is almost 4-6 times higher for B chromosomes than for A chromosome sequences, suggesting that purifying selection is relaxed for the DNA sequences located on the B chromosomes, presumably because they are mostly inactive.

  20. Goblet cell types in intestine of tiger barb and black tetra (Cyprinidae, Characidae: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Leknes, I L

    2014-10-01

    Histochemical properties of goblet cells in intestine of a stomach-less teleost, tiger barb (Puntius tetrazona), and a stomach-containing teleost, black tetra (Gymnocorymbus ternetzi), are described and compared. The intestine goblet cells were mostly wide in both species, but in tiger barb, some of them were markedly thinner. In black tetra, all the intestine goblet cells displayed magenta colour after PAS, whereas in the tiger barb, only the thinner goblet cells displayed such affinity. The latter cell type was coloured strongly magenta when the tissue was treated with alcian blue (pH 2.5) followed by PAS, whereas the wide goblet cells in tiger barb and all goblet cells in black tetra displayed mainly a blue colour after such treatment. Further, the goblet cells in both species were coloured cleanly blue after high iron diamine followed by alcian blue (pH 2.5). The intestine goblet cells in both species displayed a moderate affinity to WGA and concanavalin A lectins and no affinity to DBA. Most of the goblet cells displayed no affinity to PNA, but some of them in the tiger barb displayed a moderate or strong affinity to this lectin. The affinity to WGA was somewhat strengthened after pre-treatment with neuraminidase. These results suggest that tiger barb contains two types or variants of intestinal goblet cells: high numbers of wide cells filled by acidic, non-sulphated mucin and some thinner cells filled by neutral mucin. The intestine goblet cells in black tetra were filled by variable amounts of neutral and acidic mucin, but the total number of such cells is much less than in tiger barb. The present lectin and neuraminidase results suggest that the intestinal mucins in both species contain significant amounts of N-acetylglucosamine, sialic acid and glucose/mannose, but seem to lack N-acetylgalactosamine. However, some of these cells in tiger barb contain moderate to large amounts of galactose. Together, these results suggest significant species-specific features of the intestine goblet cells and mucin types in tiger barb and black tetra. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the diet and feeding habits in stomach-less teleosts compared with stomach-containing teleosts, greatly influence the number of intestine goblet cells and type of mucin in these cells. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Molecular phylogeny of the Neotropical fish genus Tetragonopterus (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    PubMed

    Melo, Bruno F; Benine, Ricardo C; Silva, Gabriel S C; Avelino, Gleisy S; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Tetragonopterinae encompasses characid species of the genus Tetragonopterus, which are widely distributed throughout east of the Andes in South America. While taxonomy has recently clarified the species diversity and molecular evidence strongly supports the monophyly of Tetragonopterus, no interspecific relationship studies are currently available. Here we used a large molecular dataset composed of two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci containing an extensive taxon sampling within the family Characidae and included eleven species of Tetragonopterus to generate the first time-calibrated phylogeny for Tetragonopterinae. Our results support monophyly of the subfamily represented solely by Tetragonopterus and corroborate previous molecular hypothesis of close relationship with Exodon plus Roeboexodon and the subfamily Characinae. Internally, we found Moenkhausia georgiae as sister species to all remaining species followed by T. rarus, being both species endemic to the Guiana Shield drainages. Species-level relationships are first hypothesized and putative morphological apomorphies are discussed as support to monophyletic clades. Our time-calibrated phylogeny suggested an origin of the genus during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene. We hypothesized that the Andean geological activity followed by transformations in the Amazonian hydrographic scenario during the Miocene may have promoted most of the lineage diversification within the Tetragonopterus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Uncovering the Ancestry of B Chromosomes in Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae)

    PubMed Central

    Utsunomia, Ricardo; Silva, Duílio Mazzoni Zerbinato de Andrade; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J.; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Claudio; Trifonov, Vladmir A.; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M.; Foresti, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    B chromosomes constitute a heterogeneous mixture of genomic parasites that are sometimes derived intraspecifically from the standard genome of the host species, but result from interspecific hybridization in other cases. The mode of origin determines the DNA content, with the B chromosomes showing high similarity with the A genome in the first case, but presenting higher similarity with a different species in the second. The characid fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae harbours highly invasive B chromosomes, which are present in all populations analyzed to date in the Parana and Tietê rivers. To investigate the origin of these B chromosomes, we analyzed two natural populations: one carrying B chromosomes and the other lacking them, using a combination of molecular cytogenetic techniques, nucleotide sequence analysis and high-throughput sequencing (Illumina HiSeq2000). Our results showed that i) B chromosomes have not yet reached the Paranapanema River basin; ii) B chromosomes are mitotically unstable; iii) there are two types of B chromosomes, the most frequent of which is lightly C-banded (similar to euchromatin in A chromosomes) (B1), while the other is darkly C-banded (heterochromatin-like) (B2); iv) the two B types contain the same tandem repeat DNA sequences (18S ribosomal DNA, H3 histone genes, MS3 and MS7 satellite DNA), with a higher content of 18S rDNA in the heterochromatic variant; v) all of these repetitive DNAs are present together only in the paracentromeric region of autosome pair no. 6, suggesting that the B chromosomes are derived from this A chromosome; vi) the two B chromosome variants show MS3 sequences that are highly divergent from each other and from the 0B genome, although the B2-derived sequences exhibit higher similarity with the 0B genome (this suggests an independent origin of the two B variants, with the less frequent, B2 type presumably being younger); and vii) the dN/dS ratio for the H3.2 histone gene is almost 4–6 times higher for B chromosomes than for A chromosome sequences, suggesting that purifying selection is relaxed for the DNA sequences located on the B chromosomes, presumably because they are mostly inactive. PMID:26934481

  3. Discovering Hidden Diversity of Characins (Teleostei: Characiformes) in Ecuador’s Yasuní National Park

    PubMed Central

    Escobar-Camacho, Daniel; Barriga, Ramiro; Ron, Santiago R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Management and conservation of biodiversity requires adequate species inventories. The Yasuní National Park is one of the most diverse regions on Earth and recent studies of terrestrial vertebrates, based on genetic evidence, have shown high levels of cryptic and undescribed diversity. Few genetic studies have been carried out in freshwater fishes from western Amazonia. Thus, in contrast with terrestrial vertebrates, their content of cryptic diversity remains unknown. In this study, we carried out genetic and morphological analyses on characin fishes at Yasuní National Park, in eastern Ecuador. Our goal was to identify cryptic diversity among one of the most speciose fish families in the Amazon region. This is the first time that genetic evidence has been used to assess the species content of the Napo Basin, one of the richest regions in vertebrate diversity. Results Phylogenetic analyses of partial mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (∼600 pb) DNA sequences from 232 specimens of the family Characidae and its closest groups revealed eight candidate new species among 33 species sampled, representing a 24% increase in species number. Analyses of external morphology allowed us to confirm the species status of six of the candidate species. Conclusions Our results show high levels of cryptic diversity in Amazonian characins. If this group is representative of other Amazonian fish, our results would imply that the species richness of the Amazonian ichthyofauna is highly underestimated. Molecular methods are a necessary tool to obtain more realistic inventories of Neotropical freshwater fishes. PMID:26275041

  4. Whole chromosome painting of B chromosomes of the red-eye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae)

    PubMed Central

    Scudeler, Patricia Elda Sobrinho; Diniz, Débora; Wasko, Adriane Pinto; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract B chromosomes are dispensable genomic elements found in different groups of animals and plants. In the present study, a whole chromosome probe was generated from a specific heterochromatic B chromosome occurring in cells of the characidae fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907). The chromosome painting probes were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments for the assessment of metaphase chromosomes obtained from individuals from three populations of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae. The results revealed that DNA sequences were shared between a specific B chromosome and many chromosomes of the A complement in all populations analyzed, suggesting a possible intra-specific origin of these B chromosomes. However, no hybridization signals were observed in other B chromosomes found in the same individuals, implying a possible independent origin of B chromosome variants in this species. FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes revealed the presence of non-active ribosomal genes in some B chromosomes and in some chromosomes of the A complement, suggesting that at least two types of B chromosomes had an independent origin. The role of heterochromatic segments and ribosomal sequences in the origin of B chromosomes were discussed. PMID:26753081

  5. Osteology of Priocharax and remarkable developmental truncation in a miniature Amazonian fish (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    PubMed

    Mattox, George M T; Britz, Ralf; Toledo-Piza, Mônica

    2016-01-01

    Establishing phylogenetic relationships of miniature fishes is challenging in taxa with developmental truncation. Within the Characiformes, developmental truncation appears to be relatively rare, with the Neotropical genus Priocharax being an example. Priocharax includes three miniature species among the smallest of the order and has been hypothesized to belong to the Heterocharacinae. The pronounced reduction in its skeleton, however, prevented a clearer evaluation of its relationships. The present detailed osteological study was designed to address this question and revealed that 21 bones are absent and nine other skeletal structures are simplified in Priocharax when compared to other characids. Comparison of the skeleton of adult Priocharax with early developmental stages of other characids demonstrated that most of the absences and simplifications can be interpreted as developmental truncations. The most striking developmental truncations are in the pectoral girdle, in which the endoskeleton remains entirely cartilaginous. Other interesting truncations are in the ethmoid region of the skull, infraorbital series, and Weberian apparatus, in which the claustrum is absent. Our study also revealed some unusual sexual dimorphisms in the pelvic girdle. Two cladistic analyses were performed to assess the relationships of Priocharax within the Heterocharacinae. The first consisted of a traditional analysis in which all absences and reductions of Priocharax were coded in the same way as in the remaining taxa. This resulted in three equally most parsimonious topologies, all of which have Priocharax as the most basal taxon of the Heterocharacinae. The second analysis incorporated ontogenetic information, and most absences and reductions of Priocharax were reinterpreted as apomorphic conditions and thus, coded differently from similar conditions in outgroups. This resulted in a single phylogenetic hypothesis with Priocharax and Gnathocharax as sister groups based on seven synapomorphies. Our approach demonstrates the importance of developmental studies to better understand morphological evolution of miniaturized, truncated taxa, and to generate hypotheses of their relationships. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Astyanax hastatus Myers, 1928 (Teleostei, Characidae): A new species complex within the genus Astyanax?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Four populations of Astyanax hastatus Myers 1928 from the Guapimirim River basin (Rio de Janeiro State) were analyzed and three distinct cytotypes identified. These cytotypes presented 2n = 50 chromosomes, with 4M+8SM+10ST+28A (Cytotype A), 8M+10SM+14ST+18A (Cytotype B), 6M+8SM+4ST+32A (Cytotype C) and scanty heterochromatin, mainly located throughout pericentromeric regions of several chromosomal pairs. No homologies with the As-51 satellite DNA were observed in the three cytotypes, although all of them presented multiple 18S rDNA sites, as detected by both silver nitrate staining and FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization). The application of the term “species complex” in Astyanax is discussed from a cytotaxonomic viewpoint. PMID:21637509

  7. Variability and evolutionary implications of repetitive DNA dynamics in genome of Astyanax scabripinnis (Teleostei, Characidae)

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Patrícia; Leal, Eliza Viola; da Silva, Maelin; de Almeida, Mara Cristina; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Abstract DNA sequences of multiple copies help in understanding evolutionary mechanisms, genomic structures and karyotype differentiation. The current study investigates the organization and distribution of different repetitive DNA in the standard complement and B chromosomes in Astyanax scabripinnis (Jenyns, 1842) chromosomes from three allopatric populations in Campos do Jordão region, São Paulo State, Brazil. The location of microsatellite sequences showed different chromosome distribution between Lavrinha Farm Stream (LFS) and Lake of Pedalinho (LP) populations. However, the karyotype of these populations basically followed the pattern of dispersed distribution in the A complement, conspicuous in telomeric/interstitial regions and preferential accumulation in the B chromosome. The B chromosome showed heterogeneous location of microsatellite probes CA, CAC and GA. The H3 and H4 histone genes were isolated from the total genome of the species and then the chromosomal mapping was performed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The FISH signals showed high similarity for the probes H3 and H4 mapping in genomes of the populations analyzed. The sequences (GATA)n revealed a sex-specific trend between the chromosomal location in males and females at (LFS) and (LP) populations. Although species that comprise the Astyanax scabripinnis complex do not have morphologically differentiated sex chromosomes, the preferential GATA location – sex-associated – may represent a sex chromosome in differentiation. PMID:28919955

  8. Genetic and biogeographical relationships among species of Astyanax (Teleostei, Characidae) in Brazilian river basins.

    PubMed

    Mello, R; Maniglia, T C; Prioli, S M A P; Prioli, A J

    2015-11-30

    The genetic relationships among 17 species of Astyanax from the Iguaçu River and adjacent river basins in Brazil were examined using nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cytb). Congruent trees were constructed using neighbor-joining, maximum-likelihood, and Bayesian methods. The resulting clades suggest that at least three major groups share similar origins with the endemic species of the Iguaçu River. The results indicate that Astyanax is polyphyletic in this location, which suggests that Astyanax did not diversify from a single ancestral group that was isolated when the Iguaçu River basin formed. Astyanax bifasciatus shares an origin with some species of the altiparanae-bimaculatus complex, while A. minor originated from the same group as A. aff. paranae, A. fasciatus, and A. bockmanni. The third group includes A. dissimilis, Astyanax sp F, and A. serratus that are endemic species to the Iguaçu River basin. Geological and hydrological events that influenced the biogeographical patterns of these species are discussed.

  9. The ultrastructural aspects of vitellogenesis or oocyte secondary growth in Serrasalmus spilopleura (Teleostei, Characiformes, Serrasalminae).

    PubMed

    Guimarães, A C D; Quagio-Grassiotto, I

    2002-04-01

    Oocyte secondary growth in S. spiloleura corresponds to the period in which different vesicular structures are formed, including the cortical alveoli and the yolk granules. The oocytes with cortical alveolus formation show vesicular structures with filamentous content in the cortical cytoplasmic region, which are the cortical alveolus precursors. In these oocytes, electron-dense vesicles of heterogenous content are dispersed in the inner cytoplasmic region and their nuclei are irregular, showing many nucleoli of different sizes. The oocytes in vitellogenesis are filled with many vesicles. The cortical alveolus precursors are in the peripheral region, and electron-dense granules are seen near to the nucleus. These fuse and form yolk granules. The oocytes in vitellogenesis show a very irregular nucleus that has nucleoli of different sizes. In the oocytes in final vitellogenesis, the yolk granules are scattered throughout the cytoplasm, displacing the cortical alveoli toward cell periphery. The nucleus is similar to the other stages.

  10. Ultrastructural aspects of oogenesis and oocyte primary growth in Serrasalmus spilopleura (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Guimarães, A C; Quagio-Grassiotto, I

    2001-06-01

    The ultrastructural characteristics of the organelles present in Serrasalmus spilopleura oogonia and oocytes undergoing primary growth were described in detail, considering its role in the nuclear and cytoplasmic metabolic processes that occur in these cell types. Even though these cells do not significantly differ from those similar to them that are found in other teleost groups, the analysis of their ultrastructure makes available new data on the reproductive biology of Characiformes.

  11. Three new species of blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infecting pufferfishes (Teleostei: Tetraodontidae) from off Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yong, R Q-Y; Cutmore, S C; Bray, R A; Miller, T L; Semarariana, I W Y; Palm, H W; Cribb, T H

    2016-10-01

    We describe three new species of blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) and propose their classification within the genus Psettarium Goto & Ozaki, 1929. All three species were collected from the circulatory systems of pufferfishes caught off Bali, central Indonesia. Psettarium pulchellum n. sp. was found in the gills of both the narrow-lined puffer (Arothron manilensis de Procé) and the spiny blaasop (Tylerius spinosissimus Regan), while P. ogawai n. sp. and P. jimbaranense n. sp. were found in the gills of the reticulated puffer (Arothron reticularis Bloch & Schneider). The morphological characteristics of these taxa necessitated emendation of the diagnosis for the genus Psettarium, to accommodate the presence of an oral sucker, multiple or entirely post-caecal testes and a degenerate posterior testis. Features such as proportion of body length occupied by the oesophagus, and posterior caeca being ≥7× the length of anterior caeca, are no longer regarded as useful genus-level characters. Additionally, Sasala nolani is reassigned to this genus as Psettarium nolani n. comb. In phylogenetic analyses of the 28S and ITS2 rDNA regions, all three new taxa form a well-supported clade, together with Psettarium sinense and Psettarium nolani n. comb., the two other species of tetraodontid-infecting aporocotylids for which comparative rDNA data were available. The short branch lengths within this clade, despite dramatic morphological differences between the five species, suggest that rapid morphological diversification has occurred among the tetraodontid-infecting aporocotylids. The genus Psettarium has long been considered problematic. Further commentary is given on the history of this genus and how the issues presented might be resolved.

  12. Pempheris gasparinii, a new species of sweeper fish from Trindade Island, southwestern Atlantic (Teleostei, Pempheridae)

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pempheris gasparinii sp. n. is described from five specimens, 59.1–68.0 mm in standard length. It is only known to occur in the shallow reefs of Trindade Island, 1200 km east of the Brazilian coast, in the southwestern Atlantic. Pempheris gasparinii is the third recognized species of Pempheris in the Atlantic Ocean. This new species is morphologically similar to its close relative, Pempheris poeyi, differing by the number of lateral-line scales (51–54 in Pempheris gasparinii vs. 47–49 in Pempheris poeyi), scales below lateral line (10–11 vs. 9), circumpeduncular scales (11–12 vs. 13), head and caudal peduncle lengths (2.7–3.3 vs 3.5–4.0 in head length). Moreover, Pempheris gasparinii shows a 4% genetic divergence from Pempheris poeyi at the cytochrome oxidase I locus (COI), consistent with a lineage split at the beginning of the Pleistocene. This new species represents the 12th endemic fish species from Trindade Island. PMID:27006618

  13. The eyes of lanternfishes (Myctophidae, Teleostei): novel ocular specializations for vision in dim light.

    PubMed

    de Busserolles, Fanny; Marshall, N Justin; Collin, Shaun P

    2014-05-01

    Lanternfishes are one of the most abundant groups of mesopelagic fishes in the world's oceans and play a critical role in biomass vertical turnover. Despite their importance, very little is known about their physiology or how they use their sensory systems to survive in the extreme conditions of the deep sea. In this study, we provide a comprehensive description of the general morphology of the myctophid eye, based on analysis of 53 different species, to understand better their visual capabilities. Results confirm that myctophids possess several visual adaptations for dim-light conditions, including enlarged eyes, an aphakic gap, a tapetum lucidum, and a pure rod retina with high densities of long photoreceptors. Two novel retinal specializations were also discovered. The first specialization is a fundal pigmentation in adult eyes, found within an isolated retinal region (typically central retina) composed of modified pigment epithelial cells, which we hypothesize to be the remnant of a more pronounced visual specialization important in larval stages. The second specialization is an aggregation of extracellular microtubular-like structures found within the sclerad region of the inner nuclear layer of the retina. We hypothesize that the marked interspecific differences in the hypertrophy of these microtubular-like structures may be related to inherent differences in visual function. A general interspecific variability in other parts of the eye is also revealed and examined in this study. The contribution of both ecology and phylogeny to the evolution of ocular specializations and vision in dim light are discussed.

  14. Nematode larvae infecting Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier, 1829 (Pisces: Teleostei) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuraiem, Bianca P; Knoff, Marcelo; Felizardo, Nilza N; Gomes, Delir C; Clemente, Sérgio C São

    2016-05-31

    From July to December, 2013, thirty Priacanthus arenatus specimens commercialized in the cities of Niterói and Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, were acquired. The fish were necropsied and filleted to investigate the presence of nematode larvae. Twenty fish (66.7%) out of the total were parasitized by nematode larvae. A total of 2024 larvae were collected; among them, 30 third-instar larvae of Anisakis sp. showed prevalence (P) = 20%, mean abundance (MA) = 1, and the mean intensity (MI) = 5, and infection sites (IS) = caecum, stomach, liver, and mesentery; and 1,994 third-instar larvae (1,757 encysted and 237 free) of Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum with P = 66.7%, MA = 66.5, and MI = 99.7, and IS = spleen, caecum, stomach, liver, mesentery, and abdominal muscle. This is the first study to report H. deardorffoverstreetorum and Anisakis sp. larvae parasitizing P. arenatus.

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of the algae scraping cyprinid genus Capoeta (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Levin, Boris A; Freyhof, Jörg; Lajbner, Zdeněk; Perea, Silvia; Abdoli, Asghar; Gaffaroğlu, Muhammet; Ozuluğ, Müfit; Rubenyan, Haikaz R; Salnikov, Vladimir B; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    We reconstructed the matrilineal phylogeny of Asian algae-eating fishes of the genus Capoeta based on complete mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b sequences obtained from 20 species sampled from the majority of the range and 44 species of closely related barbs of the genera Barbus s. str. and Luciobarbus. The results of this study show that Capoeta forms a strongly supported monophyletic subclade nested within the Luciobarbus clade, suggesting that specialized scraping morphology appeared once in the evolutionary history of the genus. We detected three main groups of Capoeta: the Mesopotamian group, which includes three species from the Tigris-Euphrates system and adjacent water bodies, the Anatolian-Iranian group, which has the most diversified structure and encompasses many species distributed throughout Anatolian and Iranian inland waters, and the Aralo-Caspian group, which consists of species distributed in basins of the Caspian and Aral Seas, including many dead-end rivers in Central Asia and Northern Iran. The most probable origination pathway of the genus Capoeta is hypothesized to occur as a result of allopolyploidization. The origin of Capoeta was found around the Langhian-Serravallian boundary according to our molecular clock. The diversification within the genus occurred along Middle Miocene-Late Pliocene periods.

  16. Breeding behavior and reproductive life history of the Neosho Madtom, Noturus placidus (Teleostei: Ictaluridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bulger, Angela G.; Wilkinson, Christopher D.; Edds, David R.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2002-01-01

    The Neosho madtom, Noturus placidus, is a small catfish listed by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service as threatened. Little is known of its breeding biology and behavior because high turbidity and flow during its spawning season prevent direct observation in the field, and captive propagation has met with limited success. We held Neosho madtoms in laboratory aquaria in 1996 and 1998 to study sexual dimorphism during breeding season, courtship and nesting behavior, egg and clutch size, and embryological and larval development. We also attempted to induce spawning. Courtship behaviors were recorded on videotape, including “carousel” and “tail curl” displays in which the fish spun in circles, head to tail, then quivered, with the male's tail wrapped around the female's head. Three clutches were observed, all in nest cavities that had been excavated by the fish under a structure; one clutch (1996) consisted of approximately 60 eggs, with a mean chorion diameter of 3.1 mm, and two (1998) consisted of approximately 30 eggs, with mean diameter of 3.7 mm. In all situations, eggs hatched after eight or nine days, and yolk-sacs were fully depleted seven days later. One spawn (1998) occurred after two days of injection with synthetic hormone. Male parental care of eggs and larvae was observed in 1996. Larvae remained in the nest until yolk-sacs were absorbed, after which they dispersed throughout the tank. Dissection of two females that laid clutches in this study revealed previtellogenic eggs in the lumen of ovaries, with a mean chorion diameter of 0.9 mm. Swollen lips of males, distended abdomen of females, and differences in head shape, premaxillary tooth patch coloring, and genital papillae of breeding males and females were documented during spawning periods.

  17. Aspidoras mephisto, new species: The first troglobitic Callichthyidae (Teleostei: Siluriformes) from South America

    PubMed Central

    Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2017-01-01

    Aspidoras mephisto n. sp. is described from the Anésio-Russão cave system, upper Tocantins River basin, Goiás, Brazil. The species can be readily distinguished from its congeners by troglomorphic features and also by presenting the following combination of features: infraorbital 1 generally with well-developed ventral laminar; or moderately developed; poorly-developed serrations on posterior margin of pectoral spine; nuchal plate not externally visible; dorsal fin, even in conspicuously colored specimens, with only dark brown or black chromatophores concentrated on rays, forming spots in some specimens; membranes hyaline; or sparse dark brown or black chromatophores on membranes, not forming any conspicuous pattern; and inner laminar expansion of infraorbital 1 moderately developed. Information about its habitat, ecology, behaviour and conservation status are provided and also a brief description of the juvenile stage. PMID:28248959

  18. Comparative analysis of sex chromosomes in Leporinus species (Teleostei, Characiformes) using chromosome painting.

    PubMed

    Parise-Maltempi, Patrícia Pasquali; da Silva, Edson Lourenço; Rens, Willem; Dearden, Frances; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Trifonov, Vladimir; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A

    2013-07-03

    The Leporinus genus, belonging to the Anostomidae family, is an interesting model for studies of sex chromosome evolution in fish, particularly because of the presence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes only in some species of the genus. In this study we used W chromosome-derived probes in a series of cross species chromosome painting experiments to try to understand events of sex chromosome evolution in this family. W chromosome painting probes from Leporinus elongatus, L. macrocephalus and L. obtusidens were hybridized to each others chromosomes. The results showed signals along their W chromosomes and the use of L. elongatus W probe against L. macrocephalus and L. obtusidens also showed signals over the Z chromosome. No signals were observed when the later aforementioned probe was used in hybridization procedures against other four Anostomidae species without sex chromosomes. Our results demonstrate a common origin of sex chromosomes in L. elongatus, L. macrocephalus and L. obtusidens but suggest that the L. elongatus chromosome system is at a different evolutionary stage. The absence of signals in the species without differentiated sex chromosomes does not exclude the possibility of cryptic sex chromosomes, but they must contain other Leporinus W sequences than those described here.

  19. Whole chromosome painting of B chromosomes of the red-eye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Scudeler, Patricia Elda Sobrinho; Diniz, Débora; Wasko, Adriane Pinto; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    B chromosomes are dispensable genomic elements found in different groups of animals and plants. In the present study, a whole chromosome probe was generated from a specific heterochromatic B chromosome occurring in cells of the characidae fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907). The chromosome painting probes were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments for the assessment of metaphase chromosomes obtained from individuals from three populations of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae. The results revealed that DNA sequences were shared between a specific B chromosome and many chromosomes of the A complement in all populations analyzed, suggesting a possible intra-specific origin of these B chromosomes. However, no hybridization signals were observed in other B chromosomes found in the same individuals, implying a possible independent origin of B chromosome variants in this species. FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes revealed the presence of non-active ribosomal genes in some B chromosomes and in some chromosomes of the A complement, suggesting that at least two types of B chromosomes had an independent origin. The role of heterochromatic segments and ribosomal sequences in the origin of B chromosomes were discussed.

  20. Multiple invasions into freshwater by pufferfishes (teleostei: tetraodontidae): a mitogenomic perspective.

    PubMed

    Yamanoue, Yusuke; Miya, Masaki; Doi, Hiroyuki; Mabuchi, Kohji; Sakai, Harumi; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2011-02-25

    Pufferfishes of the Family Tetraodontidae are the most speciose group in the Order Tetraodontiformes and mainly inhabit coastal waters along continents. Although no members of other tetraodontiform families have fully discarded their marine lives, approximately 30 tetraodontid species spend their entire lives in freshwaters in disjunct tropical regions of South America, Central Africa, and Southeast Asia. To investigate the interrelationships of tetraodontid pufferfishes and thereby elucidate the evolutionary origins of their freshwater habitats, we performed phylogenetic analysis based on whole mitochondrial genome sequences from 50 tetraodontid species and closely related species (including 31 newly determined sequences). The resulting phylogenies reveal that the family is composed of four major lineages and that freshwater species from the different continents are independently nested in two of the four lineages. A monophyletic origin of the use of freshwater habitats was statistically rejected, and ancestral habitat reconstruction on the resulting tree demonstrates that tetraodontids independently entered freshwater habitats in different continents at least three times. Relaxed molecular-clock Bayesian divergence time estimation suggests that the timing of these invasions differs between continents, occurring at 0-10 million years ago (MA) in South America, 17-38 MA in Central Africa, and 48-78 MA in Southeast Asia. These timings are congruent with geological events that could facilitate adaptation to freshwater habitats in each continent.

  1. Occipito-vertebral fusion in ocean sunfishes (Teleostei: Tetraodontiformes: Molidae) and its phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Britz, Ralf; Johnson, G David

    2005-10-01

    We describe the ontogeny of the occipital skull and anterior vertebrae of the molids Ranzania laevis and Masturus lanceolatus and compare it with that of the ostraciid Lactophrys sp. The first vertebra fuses to the basioccipital in early ontogeny in the two molids and previous authors thus confused that vertebra with the back of the basioccipital, so that all previous counts of their vertebral numbers are incorrect by one vertebra. As evidenced by Lactophrys sp., ostraciids are the only other tetraodontiforms with similar occipito-vertebral fusion. In contrast to the molids, additional anterior vertebrae fuse with this complex in ostraciids. We conclude that the shared occipito-vertebral fusion in molids and ostraciids and its otherwise extremely rare occurrence among teleosts provide support for a sister-group relationship of the two families.

  2. Fluctuating asymmetry as a pollution monitor: The Australian estuarine smooth toadfish Tetractenos glaber (Teleostei: Tetraodontidae).

    PubMed

    Lajus, Dmitry; Yurtseva, Anastasia; Birch, Gavin; Booth, David J

    2015-12-30

    The relationship between pollution level in estuarine sediment and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of resident smooth toadfish Tetractenos glaber was evaluated. A total of 188 fish from Sydney and Hawkesbury River estuaries (5 locations from each) were analysed for 28 bilateral skull bone characters. Sediment pollution was quantified based on analysis of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and organochlorine pesticides (DDT, DDD, DDE, chlordane, dieldrin, lindane). Sediment toxicity was characterized using the mean quotient approach (MERMQ) and ranged from low to moderate level for heavy metals and from low to severe for organochlorides. The mean shape and directional asymmetry of fish bones differed among locations, suggesting a response to local environments. FA was positively correlated with organochlorine pesticides across locations, but not with heavy metals. These results suggest that fish FA could be a useful estimator of stress caused by organic toxicity based on the MERMQ approach.

  3. Stone loaches of Choman River system, Kurdistan, Iran (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae).

    PubMed

    Kamangar, Barzan Bahrami; Prokofiev, Artem M; Ghaderi, Edris; Nalbant, Theodore T

    2014-01-20

    For the first time, we present data on species composition and distributions of nemacheilid loaches in the Choman River basin of Kurdistan province, Iran. Two genera and four species are recorded from the area, of which three species are new for science: Oxynoemacheilus kurdistanicus, O. zagrosensis, O. chomanicus spp. nov., and Turcinoemacheilus kosswigi Băn. et Nalb. Detailed and illustrated morphological descriptions and univariate and multivariate analysis of morphometric and meristic features are for each of these species. Forty morphometric and eleven meristic characters were used in multivariate analysis to select characters that could discriminate between the four loach species. Discriminant Function Analysis revealed that sixteen morphometric measures and five meristic characters have the most variability between the loach species. The dendrograms based on cluster analysis of Mahalanobis distances of morphometrics and a combination of both characters confirmed two distinct groups: Oxynoemacheilus spp. and T. kosswigi. Within Oxynoemacheilus, O. zagrosensis and O. chomanicus are more similar to one other rather to either is to O. kurdistanicus.

  4. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, a new subterranean loach from Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei; Nemacheilidae).

    PubMed

    Freyhof, Jörg; Abdullah, Younis Sabir; Ararat, Korsh; Ibrahim, Hamad; Geiger, Matthias F

    2016-10-04

    Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, new species, is described from subterranean waters in the Little Zab River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. After the discovery of E. smithi in 1976, E. proudlovei is the second troglomorphic nemacheilid loach found in the Middle East and the second species placed in Eidinemacheilus. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei is distinguished from E. smithi by having 8+8 or 8+7 branched caudal-fin rays, no adipose keel on the caudal peduncle, enlarged jaws and a fully developed head canal system. It furthers differs substantially in its DNA barcode (>8% K2P distance) from all other nemacheilid loaches in the Middle East, Europe and Western India.

  5. The identity of Pethia punctata, a senior synonym of P. muvattupuzhaensis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Katwate, Unmesh; Baby, Fibin; Raghavan, Rajeev; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2014-11-14

    Francis Day described Pethia punctata from Cochin, on the Malabar (south western) coast of India. Although, the species is now recovered from its synonymy with P. ticto, an accurate diagnosis and description have been lacking. A redescription of P. punctata based on external morphology, osteology and genetics is provided, which revealed that P. muvattupuzhaensis, described from Muvattupuzha River, Ernakulam District, Kerala, India, is its junior synonym. Pethia punctata can be diagnosed from other known species in the genus by a combination of characters including lateral line complete, with 23-25 pored scales; 8 predorsal scales; ½4/1/3½ scales in transverse line; dorsal fin originating almost opposite to, or slightly before pelvic-fin origin; gill rakers 7 on first ceratobranchial; 4+26 total vertebrae; a small black humeral spot covering anterior half of the fourth scale of the row below the lateral-line row; two minute dark spots below the humeral spot; a prominent spot on the caudal peduncle, surrounded by a golden hoop covering scales 19-21 of the lateral-line row; and dorsal fin with 2-3 longitudinal rows of black spots, third row occupying only anterior portion of the fin. 

  6. Anal-fin ray morphology indicates sexual maturity in Brevimyrus niger (Teleostei, Mormyridae).

    PubMed

    Stell, S K; Moller, P

    2017-01-01

    This osteological survey of 249 specimens of Brevimyrus niger ranging in size from 44 to 137 mm standard length (LS ) demonstrated that developmental changes in anal-fin morphology can serve as a predictor of sexual maturity in this species. Anal-fin ray bases begin to expand when fish reach c. 90 mm LS at which size and above there were roughly equal numbers of individuals observed with expanded and unmodified anal-fin bases, reflecting a 1:1 sex ratio. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Corrigendum: Redescription of Nemachilichthys rueppelli, a senior synonym of N. shimogensis (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae).

    PubMed

    Keskar, Ashwini; Kumkar, Pradeep; Katwate, Unmesh; Ali, Anvar; Raghavan, Rajeev; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2016-05-12

    In Keskar et al. (2015) we emended the original name Cobitis rupelli Sykes, 1839, because Sykes (1839) specifically mentions that the species was named after Rüppell. The specific epithet 'rupelli', with a single 'p', is an incorrect original spelling and should be emended into 'ruppelli' as required by Article 32.5 (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1999). However, citing Art 32.5.2.1, we also suggested that because Sykes (1839) named the species after Rüppell, the umlaut 'ü' should be corrected to 'ue' and that the specific epithet should thus be 'rueppelli'. This is an error. Sykes (1839) did not use 'ü' in the original spelling of the species epithet rupelli: hence changing it to 'ue' is incorrect. Therefore, the correct spelling for the species should be 'Nemachilichthys ruppelli', a change that should be reflected in the title and in the rest of the text of Keskar et al. (2015).

  8. Karyotype diversity and patterns of chromosomal evolution in Eigenmannia (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Sternopygidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sene, Viviani França; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Conventional (Giemsa, C-banding, Ag – NORs) and molecular [5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, (TTAGGG)n] cytogenetic techniques were employed to study six species of the genus Eigenmannia Jordan & Evermann, 1896. They exhibited diploid chromosome numbers ranging from 2n=28 (Eigenmannia sp.1) to 2n=38 (Eigenmannia virescens (Valenciennes, 1836)). The C-banding results revealed that species with the lowest 2n have less heterochromatin content and that morphologically differentiated sex chromosomes observed in two species showed distinct patterns of heterochromatin. While the X1, X2 and Y-chromosomes of Eigenmannia sp.2 showed only centromeric heterochromatin, the XY sex chromosomes of Eigenmannia virescens possessed large heterochromatic blocks in the terminal position, particularly on the X chromosome. The nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were located in different positions when compared to the 5S rDNA sites. Additionally, the presence of minor ribosomal gene sites on the sex chromosome pair of Eigenmannia virescens represented a new type of the sex chromosomes in this group. The telomeric probe (TTAGGG)n hybridized to the terminal portion of all chromosomes in all species examined however, interstitial telomeric sites were found in the metacentric pair No. 2 in Eigenmannia sp.1. The analyzes confirmed some hypotheses about karyotype evolution in the genus Eigenmannia, and brought new information about the distribution of the genetic material in the chromosomes of the samples analyzed providing new insights for understanding the process differentiation in the genomes of species under study. PMID:25610544

  9. Genetic differentiation among natural populations of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei, cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Agnèse, J F; Adépo-Gourène, B; Abban, E K; Fermon, Y

    1997-07-01

    We analysed the genetic differentiation among 17 natural populations of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) using allozymes and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The populations studied, from the River Senegal to Lake Tana and from Lake Manzalla to Lake Baringo, represent all subspecies which have been previously described. Sixteen variable nuclear loci showed that these populations can be clustered in three groups: (1) West African populations (Senegal, Niger, Volta and Chad drainages), (2) Ethiopian Rift Valley populations (Lakes Awasa, Ziway, Koka and the Awash River) and (3) Nile drainage (Manzalla, Cairo, Lake Edward) and Kenyan Rift Valley populations (Lakes Turkana, Baringo and River Suguta). Nine different mtDNA haplotypes were found in the RFLP analysis of a 1 kb portion of the D-loop region. The network obtained showed that there are three geographically distinct groups; all West African populations and O. aureus are clustered, the two Ethiopian Rift Valley populations are distinct and between these two groups are the Kenyan and Ugandan Rift Valley populations. Nile populations show affinities both with West African populations and with specimens from Lakes Tana and Turkana. Taxonomic and biogeographical implications of these results are discussed.

  10. Assessment of the acute toxicity of the organochlorine pesticide endosulfan in Cichlasoma dimerus (Teleostei, Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Da Cuña, Rodrigo Hernán; Rey Vázquez, Graciela; Piol, María Natalia; Guerrero, Noemí Verrengia; Maggese, María Cristina; Lo Nostro, Fabiana Laura

    2011-05-01

    The organochlorine insecticide endosulfan (ES) is widely used despite its high toxicity to fish (96-h LC(50) median value of 2.6 μg L(-1)). This study aimed to assess the acute toxicity, histological and physiological parameters after exposure to 0; 0.25; 1; 2; 3; 4 and 16 μg L(-1) ES for 96 h under semi-static conditions in a freshwater perciform fish, Cichlasoma dimerus. Prior to death, fish exhibited behavior indicative of neurotoxicity. No difference was found in brain AChE activity. A decrease in erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in exposed fish suggests a state of anemia. Histological alterations observed in exposed fish included hyperplasia of the interlamellar epithelium, blood congestion in secondary lamellae, and mucous cells hyperplasia and hypertrophy in gills; pycnotic nuclei and hydropic degeneration in liver; testicular damage. These moderate pathological responses in major organs could become crucial during reproduction and under prolonged exposure periods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Why is Pseudosphromenus cupanus (Teleostei: Osphronemidae) reported from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Pakistan?

    PubMed

    Kullander, Sven O; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Norén, Michael; Mollah, Abdur Rob

    2015-07-28

    The native distribution of the small labyrinth fish species Pseudosphromenus cupanus includes southern India and Sri Lanka. According to literature it has a range including also Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Malaysia, and Indonesia (Sumatra) but there are no voucher specimens or reliable observations from those areas. The distribution record of P. cupanus was inflated partly by including P. dayi as a synonym. Pseudosphronemus dayi is native to the Western Ghats in India, but the origin of the aquarium importation in 1907 was reported as both Cochin (=Kochi) and Malacca (=Malaysia), the latter locality obviously in error. The basis for the Sumatra record is an obviously mislabeled sample of P. dayi from Pulau Weh close to Sumatra. The basis for reporting the species from Pakistan, Myanmar or Bangladesh could not be located. Misidentified museum specimens from Myanmar and Pakistan identified as P. cupanus were never published on. Pseudosphromenus cupanus has been considered recently to be extinct in Bangladesh, but in fact it never occurred there.

  12. Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species (Teleostei: Rivulidae) from western Cuba.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rodet Rodriguez

    2015-04-24

    Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species, is described from a small stream in Sierra de Cajalbana, northwestern Cuba. It is readily distinguished from Rivulus cylindraceus Poey by the combination of an exclusive color pattern and meristic characters such as a d-type frontal scalation pattern (versus e-type pattern in Rivulus cylindraceus). The current diagnosis of Rivulus berovidesi based on chromatic, morphological and meristic characters is consistent with a recent molecular analysis of this genus in Cuba.

  13. The biology of Solea bleekeri (Teleostei) in Lake St Lucia on the southeast coast of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyrus, D. P.

    Several aspects of the biology of Solea bleekeri in Lake St Lucia were investigated, these included occurrence, distribution, reproduction and recruitment, food and feeding, size frequency distribution and the role of estuaries in the species' life cycle. Solea bleekeri was found to occur throughout the system in muddy turbid areas and was largely absent from the eastern shores of the lake where clear water sandy substrata occur. The preferred diet of the species was bivalve siphon tips of the species Solon cylindraceus, when these were in abundant supply. However, when numbers of large (length > 20 mm) specimens were not available then S. bleekeri fed on whatever prey was available in or near the substratum. Analysis of stomach contents under the latter conditions showed that food consumption reflected the composition of the benthos. Large numbers of S. bleekeri spend their entire post-larval and juvenile phases as well as the greater part of their adult life within estuaries. Evidence is presented to support the idea that S. bleekeri breeds in certain areas of the lake and that spawning takes place between September and November. The current data suggest that there may be two populations in St Lucia: one migrates from the system to spawn at sea during winter along with the other marine fish species which utilize estuaries as nursery areas, while the other population breeds within the system. Alternatively there may simply be a single population which normally breeds at sea, but which may breed within the system when conditions are suitable. Recruitment of S. bleekeri into the St Lucia estuarine system takes place from the muddy offshore marine banks and possibly from within the system as well. Solea bleekeri appears not to be totally dependent on estuaries for the completion of its life cycle. The advantages of utilizing these systems for their development relate to the shallow, calm, turbid food-rich areas which estuaries offer. The fact that breeding takes place within St Lucia means that adults and juveniles are present in varying numbers throughout the year.

  14. A further note on the identity of Barbus mussullah Sykes (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)  .

    PubMed

    Knight, J D Marcus; Rai, Ashwin; D'souza, Ronald K P

    2014-06-20

    Knight et al. (2013a) clarified the identity of Barbus mussullah Sykes, the type species of Hypselobarbus Bleeker, showing it to represent a lineage clearly distinct from Tor Gray (type species Tor hamiltonii Gray (= Cyprinus tor Hamilton)). They showed the two species to be distinguished by a suite of characters, with Hypselobarbus lacking the distinctive median fleshy lobe of the lower lip (present in T. tor), having the last simple ray of the dorsal fin weak (vs. strong, 'osseous'), gill rakers long and branched (vs. short and simple, unbranched) on first gill arch, and the proximal end of the fifth ceratobranchial hooked (vs. only slightly curved). Nevertheless, some subsequent authors (e.g., Ambili et al. 2014; Khare et al. 2014) have persisted in referring Barbus mussullah to Tor, in effect synonymyzing Hypselobarbus (in which 12 species are currently recognized) with Tor and thereby causing confusion with regard to the identities of these groups of fishes which, being large and relatively common cyprinids, are of significant economic importance. 

  15. Tempo and rates of diversification in the South American cichlid genus Apistogramma (Teleostei: Perciformes: Cichlidae)

    PubMed Central

    García Dávila, Carmen R.; Römer, Uwe; Duponchelle, Fabrice; Cerqueira, Frédérique; Paradis, Emmanuel; Guinand, Bruno; Angulo Chávez, Carlos; Salas, Vanessa; Quérouil, Sophie; Sirvas, Susana; Renno, Jean-François

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating biodiversity and understanding the processes involved in diversification are noticeable conservation issues in fishes subject to large, sometimes illegal, ornamental trade purposes. Here, the diversity and evolutionary history of the Neotropical dwarf cichlid genus Apistogramma from several South American countries are investigated. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers are used to infer phylogenetic relationships between 31 genetically identified species. The monophyly of Apistogramma is suggested, and Apistogramma species are distributed into four clades, corresponding to three morphological lineages. Divergence times estimated with the Yule process and an uncorrelated lognormal clock dated the Apistogramma origin to the beginning of the Eocene (≈ 50 Myr) suggesting that diversification might be related to marine incursions. Our molecular dating also suggests that the Quaternary glacial cycles coincide with the phases leading to Apistogramma speciation. These past events did not influence diversification rates in the speciose genus Apistogramma, since diversification appeared low and constant through time. Further characterization of processes involved in recent Apistogramma diversity will be necessary. PMID:28873089

  16. Inferring parrotfish (Teleostei: Scaridae) pharyngeal mill function from dental morphology, wear, and microstructure.

    PubMed

    Carr, Andrew; Tibbetts, Ian R; Kemp, Anne; Truss, Rowan; Drennan, John

    2006-10-01

    Morphology, occlusal surface topography, macrowear, and microwear features of parrotfish pharyngeal teeth were investigated to relate microstructural characteristics to the function of the pharyngeal mill using scanning electron microscopy of whole and sectioned pharyngeal jaws and teeth. Pharyngeal tooth migration is anterior in the lower jaw (fifth ceratobranchial) and posterior in the upper jaw (paired third pharyngobranchials), making the interaction of occlusal surfaces and wear-generating forces complex. The extent of wear can be used to define three regions through which teeth migrate: a region containing newly erupted teeth showing little or no wear; a midregion in which the apical enameloid is swiftly worn; and a region containing teeth with only basal enameloid remaining, which shows low to moderate wear. The shape of the occlusal surface alters as the teeth progress along the pharyngeal jaw, generating conditions that appear suited to the reduction of coral particles. It is likely that the interaction between these particles and algal cells during the process of the rendering of the former is responsible for the rupture of the latter, with the consequent liberation of cell contents from which parrotfish obtain their nutrients.

  17. The Infrabranchial Musculature and Its Bearing on the Phylogeny of Percomorph Fishes (Osteichthyes: Teleostei)

    PubMed Central

    Datovo, Aléssio; de Pinna, Mário C. C.; Johnson, G. David

    2014-01-01

    The muscles serving the ventral portion of the gill arches ( = infrabranchial musculature) are poorly known in bony fishes. A comparative analysis of the infrabranchial muscles in the major percomorph lineages reveals a large amount of phylogenetically-relevant information. Characters derived from this anatomical system are identified and discussed in light of current hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships among percomorphs. New evidence supports a sister-group relationship between the Batrachoidiformes and Lophiiformes and between the Callionymoidei and Gobiesocoidei. Investigated data also corroborate the existence of two monophyletic groups, one including the Pristolepididae, Badidae, and Nandidae, and a second clade consisting of all non-amarsipid stromateiforms. New synapomorphies are proposed for the Atherinomorphae, Blenniiformes, Lophiiformes, Scombroidei (including Sphyraenidae), and Gobiiformes. Within the latter order, the Rhyacichthyidae and Odontobutidae are supported as the successive sister families of all remaining gobiiforms. The present analysis further confirms the validity of infrabranchial musculature characters previously proposed to support the grouping of the Mugiliformes with the Atherinomorphae and the monophyly of the Labriformes with the possible inclusion of the Pholidichthyiformes. Interestingly, most hypotheses of relationships supported by the infrabranchial musculature have been advanced by preceding anatomists on the basis of distinct data sources, but were never recovered in recent molecular phylogenies. These conflicts clearly indicate the current unsatisfactory resolution of the higher-level phylogeny of percomorphs. PMID:25310286

  18. A new species of seahorse (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Hong; Qin, Geng; Wang, Xin; Lin, Qiang

    2016-09-23

    A new species of seahorse, Hippocampus casscsio sp. nov. was collected over shallow seagrass beds in Beibu Bay, China. This species is diagnosed from all other seahorse species by morphological characters, including the lower number of tail rings (35); 15 pectoral-fin rays; 16 dorsal-fin rays; a rounded nuchal plate without a raised coronet; a snout length 30% head length; two cheek spines and a dark brown coloration. In addition, molecular analysis showed all individuals of the new species clustering together suggesting a monophyletic lineage. This combined analysis supports the distinctness of H. casscsio sp. nov. as a new species, which is described herein.

  19. A new species of Barbatula from the Russian Altai (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae).

    PubMed

    Prokofiev, Artem M

    2015-12-04

    Barbatula restricta, new species, is described from the Saldan-Kol Lake in the upper Ob River drainage in the Altai Mountains. It is distinguished from all other species of Barbatula in Asia by its body depth increasing continuously between the nape and the dorsal-fin origin and a combination of characters: nares widely spaced, upper lip with a short medial incision, lower lip without lateral expansions, mental lobes of lower lip without conical protrusions, tips of paired fins formed by 1st and 2nd branched rays, 42-45 (mean 44) vertebrae, color pattern consisting of small irregular mottles without saddles on back. An overview of the status of all nominal Asiatic Barbatula species described is given.

  20. Shaken not stirred: A molecular contribution to the systematics of genus Mugil (Teleostei, Mugilidae).

    PubMed

    Heras, Sandra; Maltagliati, Ferruccio; Fernández, Maria Victoria; Roldán, María Inés

    2016-07-01

    With this work we addressed some molecular systematic issues within the Mugil cephalus species complex. Particular attention was paid to the debated situations of: (i) Mugil liza, occurring in partial sympatry with Mugil cephalus in the northwestern Atlantic, and (ii) Mugil platanus, considered by some authors a synonymy of the former species and distributed in the southwestern Atlantic. We sequenced 79 individuals of a 465-bp portion of the mitochondrial control region (CR) from 8 western Atlantic and 2 Mediterranean localities. In addition, all CR sequences available from GenBank for the studied taxa were added to our dataset, for a total of 323 individuals. Overall, 229 haplotypes corresponding to 8 divergent monophyletic lineages were detected. Results of phylogenetic analyses were consistent with the occurrence of past speciation events producing the observed lineages. Of these lineages, 7 correspond to cryptic species and one is constituted by M. liza and M. platanus. As a matter of fact, these 2 taxa constitute a single lineage within the M. cephalus species complex. However, individuals of M. liza/M. platanus lineage analyzed by means of the 18 mitochondrial markers available in GenBank exhibited a degree of genetic diversity consistent with highly divergent populations. Of the 8 lineages detected, the Mediterraean one (type locality) corresponds to M. cephalus; the lineage M. liza/M. platanus should be named M. liza, under the priority principle, and the left 6 lineages need formal description.

  1. Gonad morphology, gametogenesis, and reproductive modes in fishes of the tribe Starksiini (Teleostei, Blenniiformes).

    PubMed

    Fishelson, Lev; Baldwin, Carole C; Hastings, Philip A

    2013-05-01

    A comparative study of the reproductive organs in 17 of the 30 species of the tribe Starksiini (Labrisomidae, Blenniiformes) and related labrisomids reveals the major traits of gamete form and production and likely reproductive modes. The testes are of the lobular type and have a testicular gland and sperm ducts. Isodiametric sperm (aquasperm) with a globular head or anisodiametric sperm (introsperm) with an elongate head, or both, were observed in the studied species. Both types have either one or two flagella in the sperm tail. Ovaries of the Starksiini are bilobed and exhibit synchronous or asynchronous egg production. Although viviparity or "ovoviviparity" reportedly characterizes the group, our study revealed evidence of both internal and external fertilization and three modes of reproduction. External fertilization or ovuliparity is suggested for the Starksia atlantica and S. lepicoelia species complexes by the presence in males of a short genital papilla that is not reinforced through adhesion with the first anal-fin spine and by the absence of sperm within the ovaries. Internal fertilization and zygoparity is indicated for most species by the presence of an intromittent papilla in males that is adhered to the first anal-fin spine, "nests" of sperm within the ovaries, absence of embryos within the ovarian lamellae and usually thick egg envelopes bearing dense covers of adhesive filaments. Internal fertilization and embryoparity is indicated for starksia fulva and Xenomedea rhodopyga by an intromittent papilla that is adhered to the first anal-fin spine of males, anisodiametric sperm in males, delicate egg envelopes without adhesive filaments and developing embryos within follicular envelopes or within the follicle in females. Although many of these features are seen in the internally fertilizing clinid blennies, starksiins differ in retaining the testicular gland typical of labrisomids and in lacking sperm packaging typical of other internally fertilizing teleosts.

  2. Transcriptome analysis of vertebral bone in the flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei, Pleuronectiformes), using Illumina sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ibaraki, Harumi; Wu, Xiaoming; Uji, Susumu; Yokoi, Hayato; Sakai, Yoshifumi; Suzuki, Tohru

    2015-12-01

    The processes underlying vertebral development in teleosts and tetrapods differ markedly in a variety of ways. At present, the molecular basis of teleost vertebral development and growth is poorly understood. Understanding vertebral development at the molecular level is important for aquaculture to prevent vertebral anomalies that can arise from a variety of factors, including excess vitamin A (all-trans retinol, VA) in the diet. To facilitate studies on teloest vertebral development, we performed transcriptome analysis of four month old flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, vertebrae using next-generation sequencing. Expression profile obtained demonstrates that some members of the hh, bmp, fgf, wnt gene families, and their receptors, hox, pax, sox, dlx and tbx gene families and ntl, which are known to function in notochord and somite development in embryos, are expressed in the vertebrae. It was also showed that in addition to the retinoic acid receptor (Rar), the vertebrae express alcohol dehydrogenase 1 and retinal dehydrogenase 2 which convert VA to all-trans-retinoic acid (RA). The assembled contigs also included cytochrome p450 family members, which inactivate RA, as well as phosphatidylcholine-retinol O-acetyltransferase, which converts VA to all-trans-retinyl ester, a stock form of VA. These data suggest that in teleost vertebrae, expression of various signals and transcription factors which function in the notochord and somite development is maintained until adult stage, and RA metabolism and signaling are active to regulate transcription of RA-responsible genes, such as hedgehog and hox genes. This is the first transcriptome analysis of teleost fish vertebrae.

  3. Osteology of Paedocypris, a miniature and highly developmentally truncated fish (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Britz, R; Conway, K W

    2009-04-01

    Species of the cyprinid genus Paedocypris are among the smallest and most developmentally truncated fishes and vertebrates. Our analysis of their skeletal structure reveals a puzzling combination of extreme developmental truncation and an increased morphological complexity in sexually dimorphic characters. The skeleton of Paedocypris is characterized by reduction and loss and resembles in many aspects that of a larval/early juvenile stage of its close relatives. We found 61 characters that have been affected by developmental truncation. A comparison with the skeletal development of a close relative, the zebrafish Danio rerio, demonstrates that the majority of the absent bones or skeletal structures in Paedocypris are those that appear late in the ossification trajectory of the zebrafish. Thus, their absence in Paedocypris seems to be due to the simple developmental truncation of terminal stages in the ossification sequence. Our study of the sexually dimorphic structures in Paedocypris demonstrates that predominantly the male exhibits the more complex state. In relation to the female, male Paedocypris uniquely possess a cleithrum with a pointed posterior process that covers the scapula laterally, and a more medially situated posterior flange that contacts the dorsal area of the coracoid; a massive and heavily ossified uppermost pectoral radial tightly bound to the scapula; thickened and enlarged three uppermost pectoral-fin rays; a large triangular, dorsolaterally directed process on the outer arm of the massive os suspensorium; and a enlarged and shovel-like anterodorsally directed basipterygium; and a hypertrophied first pelvic-fin ray with additional anterior flanges that support keratinized pads of skin. Female Paedocypris show only one structure that is better developed than in males: the first proximal-middle radial and the anteriormost fin ray of the dorsal fin are more massive and more heavily ossified. Although the function and biological role of these dimorphisms is still unknown, we hypothesize that they are related to a special reproductive behavior. Paedocypris is a prime example for the recent claim that miniaturization among cyprinids is associated with evolutionary novelty only in developmentally truncated miniatures and not in proportioned dwarfs. Paedocypris offers a strong challenge to Schindleria as the most extreme example of developmental truncation known among fishes. We highlight the difficulties that developmentally truncated taxa frequently pose to the resolution of their phylogenetic position and propose an approach to overcome this problem. Our phylogenetic comparison to determine the systematic position of Paedocypris among cyprinids reveals that it shares not only a number of unique absences, but also highly unusual progressive characters with Sundadanio and Danionella, two other Asian miniature cyprinids. We hypothesize that the three genera form a monophyletic group. We further found that Paedocypris and Danionella share a number of uniquely derived characters pointing to a sister group relationship of the two.

  4. Descriptions of five new species of Metriaclima (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Malaŵi, Africa.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Jay R; Black, Kristin; Konings, Adrianus F

    2013-01-01

    Lake Malaŵi is known for its endemic haplochromine species flock, most notably the rock-dwelling cichlids known as mbuna. One of the larger genera of mbuna is Metriaclima, a group consisting of 31 described species (including the five described herein) and approximately 45 recognized unique populations. Metriaclima is diagnosed by its feeding behavior and several morphological characteristics including the angle of the vomer and the presence of bicuspid teeth in the outer row of both the upper and lower jaws. Metriaclima zebra, the type species for the genus, was described based on a single specimen. While the collection location of this holotype is not known, based on the travel records of its collector, it is likely that the specimen originated from Likoma Island. The holotype was therefore compared to specimens from several localities around this island and was found to be morphologically indistinguishable from some of these. This study includes the morphological analysis of 496 specimens of Metriaclima belonging to 31 collections from Lake Malaŵi. Morphometric differences were analyzed and the relationships among several distinguishable populations of Metriaclima zebra were investigated. Our study further resulted in the description of the following five new species belonging to the M. zebra species complex: M. pambazuko, M. lundoense, M. midomo, M. tarakiki, and M. nigrodorsalis. These species were distinguished and described based on color patterns, morphometric, meristic, and ecological differences. These new species were compared with and distinguished from nearby populations of Metriaclima having similar pigmentation patterns and/or similar ecological niches. An artificial dichotomous key to the described species of Metriaclima is presented.

  5. Infection of the heart of Pimelodus ornatus (Teleostei, Pimelodidae), by Myxobolus sp. (Myxozoa, Myxobolidae).

    PubMed

    Matos, Edilson; Videira, Marcela; Velasco, Michele; Sanches, Osimar; Clemente, Sergio Carmona de São; Matos, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The phylum Myxozoa Grassé, 1970, consists of a heterogenous group of around 50 genera that are worldwide disseminated in a wide variety of aquatic media. In the present study, 43 specimens of Pimelodus ornatus were collected from an adjacent area to the Cachoeira do Arari municipality on Marajó Island, in the Brazilian state of Pará, in 2013. Macroscopic analysis showed the presence of whitened plasmodia located in the cardiac muscle and also in the region between the bulbus arteriosus and atrium cordis. Microscopic analysis on the parasitized tissues revealed spores that were typically piriform, with the anterior portion slightly narrower than the posterior end. The spore valves were symmetrical. The present species is placed in the genus Myxobolus Butschli, 1882, because of the presence of a pair of equal polar capsules in each spore. The prevalence of parasitism observed was 13.9% (6/43). This research note reports the first occurrence of Myxobolus as a parasite of the heart in the teleostean fish P. ornatus in the Amazon region and confirms the occurrence of secondary myocarditis in this fish, caused by parasitism by Myxobolus sp. The rarity of this parasitic species of Myxobolus at this tissue site, associated with other spore morphology characteristics in the fish, suggests that it is an undescribed species.

  6. Cytogenetic study of heptapterids (Teleostei, Siluriformes) with particular respect to the Nemuroglanis subclade

    PubMed Central

    Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; Moreira Peres, Wellington Adriano; Moreira-Filho, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The catfish family Heptapteridae (order Siluriformes) is endemic to the Neotropics and is one of the most common of the fish families in small bodies of water. Although over 200 species have been identified in this family, very few have been characterized cytogenetically. Here, we analyze the chromosome genomes of four species of Heptapteridae: Cetopsorhamdia iheringi (Schubart & Gomes, 1959), 2n = 58, comprising 28 metacentric (m) + 26 submetacentric (sm) + 4 subtelomeric (st) chromosomes; Pimelodella vittata (Lütken, 1874), 2n = 46, comprising 16m + 22sm + 8st; Rhamdia prope quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824), 2n = 58 comprising 26m + 16sm + 14st + 2 acrocentric; and Rhamdiopsis prope microcephala (Lütken, 1874), 2n = 56, comprising 12m + 30sm + 14st. The nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were located in a single chromosome pair in all species. The two species that belonged to the subclade Nemuroglanis, Cetopsorhamdia iheringi and Rhamdia prope quelen, had a diploid chromosome number of 58 and an interstitial NOR adjacent to a C+ block located on one of the larger chromosome pairs in the complement. Our results from conventional cytogenetic techniques in combination with FISH using 18S and 5S rDNA probes corroborated the taxonomical hypothesis for the formation of the Nemuroglanis subclade. PMID:25893072

  7. Chriolepis prolata, a new species of Atlantic goby (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the North American continental shelf.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Philip A; Findley, Lloyd T

    2015-01-08

    A new species of seven-spined goby of the genus Chriolepis is described from five specimens collected from the continental shelf of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean off South Carolina in depths of ca 54 to 110 m. The "Platform Goby", Chriolepis prolata, is distinguishable from all other western Atlantic species currently assigned to the genus Chriolepis and the morphologically similar genus Varicus in having pelvic-fin rays one through four branched, the fifth (innermost) pelvic-fin ray unbranched and relatively long (longer than the second ray to longer than all other pelvic-fin rays); most lateral body scales ctenoid, extending anteriorly in a wedge to a level anterior to the first dorsal-fin insertion or nearly to the pectoral-fin axil, with two or more rows of small cycloid scales extending anteriorly to near the pectoral-fin axil, cycloid scales along the bases of the dorsal and anal fins, and no scales on the belly; and the first two anal-fin pterygiophores inserted anterior to the first haemal spine. It closely resembles C. bilix but differs from that species which has a scaled belly, a shorter fifth pelvic-fin ray, prolonged dorsal-fin spines and smaller teeth in the lower jaw. An earlier report of C. bilix from Florida waters apparently refers to C. prolata. 

  8. A new species of Saturnius Manter, 1969 (Digenea: Hemiuridae) from Mediterranean mullet (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    PubMed

    Marzoug, Douniazed; Rima, Mohamed; Boutiba, Zitouni; Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta; Pérez-del-Olmo, Ana

    2014-02-01

    A new hemiurid digenean, Saturnius gibsoni n. sp., is described from the stomach lining of Mugil cephalus L. off Oran, Mediterranean coast of Algeria. Characteristic morphological features of the new species include small size of the body which is comprised of six pseudosegments, small ventral sucker, weakly developed mound-shaped flange at the level of the ventral sucker, and eggs being large in relation to the size of the body. Saturnius gibsoni n. sp. resembles S. minutus Blasco-Costa, Pankov, Gibson, Balbuena, Raga, Sarabeev & Kostadinova, 2006 and two unidentified Saturnius spp. in the small size of the body and most metrical features. However, in spite of the presence of five transverse septa resulting in six pseudosegments and the range overlap of some metrical features, the ventral sucker in S. minutus is much larger, the ventral sucker muscular flange is more prominent, the last pseudosegment is narrower in relation to body width and more rounded, and the eggs are smaller (mean 21 × 10 vs 25 × 12 μm). Furthermore, the partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene region (domains D1-D3; 1,195 nt) obtained from two isolates of S. gibsoni n. sp. differed by 11 nt (0.9%) from that of S. minutus. Both unidentified forms of Saturnius are clearly distinguishable from S. gibsoni n. sp. by the presence of six stout, transverse muscular septa, forming seven pseudosegments (vs five septa forming six pseudosegments). Bayesian inference analysis of partial 28S rDNA sequences based on a total of 15 species from the families Hemiuridae and Lecithasteridae depicted the Bunocotylinae Dollfus, 1950 as a strongly supported basal clade, with Bunocotyle progenetica (Markowski, 1936) as the closest sister taxon to Saturnius spp.

  9. Profundulus kreiseri, a new species of Profundulidae (Teleostei, Cyprinodontiformes) from northwestern Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Matamoros, Wilfredo A.; Schaefer, Jacob F.; Hernández, Carmen L.; Prosanta Chakrabarty

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Profundulus, Profundulus kreiseri (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), is described from the Chamelecón and Ulúa Rivers in the northwestern Honduran highlands. Based on a phylogenetic analysis using cytochrome b and the presence of synapomorphic characters (dark humeral spot, a scaled preorbital region and between 32-34 vertebrae), this new species is placed in the subgenus Profundulus, which also includes Profundulus (Profundulus) oaxacae, Profundulus (Profundulus) punctatus and Profundulus (Profundulus) guatemalensis. Profundulus kreiseri can be distinguished from other members of the subgenus Profundulus by having less than half of its caudal fin densely scaled. Profundulus kreiseri can further be differentiated from Profundulus (Profundulus) oaxacae and Profundulus (Profundulus) punctatus by the absence of rows of dark spots on its flanks. The new species can further be differentiated from Profundulus (Profundulus) guatemalensis by the presence of fewer caudal- and pectoral-fin rays. The new species is distinguished from congeners of the profundulid subgenus Tlaloc (viz., Profundulus (Tlaloc) hildebrandi, Profundulus (Tlaloc) labialis, Profundulus (Tlaloc) candalarius and Profundulus (Tlaloc) portillorum) by having a scaled preorbital region and a dark humeral spot. Profundulus kreiseri and Profundulus portillorum are the only two species of Profundulus that are endemic to the region south of the Motagua River drainage in southern Guatemala and northwestern Honduras. PMID:23166464

  10. The oldest fossil cichlids (Teleostei: Perciformes): indication of a 45 million-year-old species flock.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    Five closely related species of fossil cichlids collected from an Eocene site in Tanzania, East Africa, represent the oldest known cichlids. The specimens are whole-body, articulated fishes that are extremely well preserved and, therefore, have the potential to add to our knowledge of the history of this family. Modern cichlids are particularly well known for the numerous species flocks of the East African Great Lakes. A great deal of research is ongoing regarding all aspects of the fishes in these flocks, including their evolutionary history The new collection of fossils reported here is interpreted as representing a species flock that arose in a small crater lake. These fossils indicate that cichlids' ability to form species flocks evolved early in the history of this family. PMID:11321055

  11. The dorsal filament of the weakly electric Apteronotidae (Gymnotiformes; Teleostei) is specialized for electroreception.

    PubMed

    Franchina, C R; Hopkins, C D

    1996-01-01

    The Apteronotidae, a family of weakly electric fish from South America (Gymnotiformes), possess a structure called the dorsal filament with an unknown function and evolutionary origin. This study compared the gross anatomy of the dorsal filament of 13 species of apteronotids and used light microscopy to examine the filaments of Adontosternarchus balaenops, Apteronotus albifrons, and Apteronotus leptorhynchus. The dorsal filament is an unscaled, thin, tapering structure attached to a mid-dorsal groove on the posterior half of the fish's back. The interior of the filament is a gelatinous mucopolysaccharide matrix (connective tissue) containing blood vessels and a bilateral nerve in which nearly all the afferents are large (8-10 mu m) and heavily myelinated. The location of the anterior origin of the filament varies from 0.48 to 0.66 of the body length, posterior to the snout, in 13 species. The filament is covered with hundreds of large-type tuberous electroreceptors and some ampullary receptors, at approximately the same density and ratio as those on the nearby back. The morphology of the large-type tuberous receptors and their afferents suggests that they are phase-coding T-units. A double layer of epithelial cells separates the ventral side of the filament from the groove in the trunk of the fish, except at the anterior origin where the interior of the filament is continuous with the body. This specialized double epithelium could provide a high resistance barrier to electrical current. This study was unable to distinguish between two hypotheses: that the dorsal filament is a modified adipose fin (as suggested previously), retained only in this family of Gymnotiformes; or that it is a uniquely derived character of the Apteronotidae.

  12. Mitogenomic Evidence for an Indo-West Pacific Origin of the Clupeoidei (Teleostei: Clupeiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Lavoué, Sébastien; Miya, Masaki; Musikasinthorn, Prachya; Chen, Wei-Jen; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2013-01-01

    The clupeoid fishes are distributed worldwide, with marine, freshwater and euryhaline species living in either tropical or temperate environments. Regional endemism is important at the species and genus levels, and the highest species diversity is found in the tropical marine Indo-West Pacific region. The clupeoid distribution follows two general pattern of species richness, the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients. To test historical hypotheses explaining the formation of these two gradients, we have examined the early biogeography of the Clupeoidei in reconstructing the evolution of their habitat preferences along with their ancestral range distributions on a time-calibrated mitogenomic phylogeny. The phylogenetic results support the distinction of nine main lineages within the Clupeoidei, five of them new. We infer several independent transitions from a marine to freshwater environment and from a tropical to temperate environment that occurred after the initial diversification period of the Clupeoidei. These results combined with our ancestral range reconstruction hypothesis suggest that the probable region of origin and diversification of the Clupeoidei during the Cretaceous period was the tropical marine precursor to the present Indo-West Pacific region. Thus, our study favors the hypotheses of “Region of origin” and “Tropical conservatism” to explain the origins of the longitudinal and latitudinal gradients of clupeoid species richness, respectively. Additional geological and paleontological evidence further define the tropical marine paleo-region of origin as the eastern Tethys Sea region. The Cretaceous fossil record of the Clupeoidei is partially incongruent with the results here as it contains taxa found outside this region. We discuss three possible causes of conflict between our biogeographical hypothesis and the distributions of the Cretaceous clupeoid fossils: regional extinction, incomplete taxonomic sampling and incorrect timescale estimation. PMID:23431379

  13. Autonomic control of post-air-breathing tachycardia in Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei: Clariidae).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Mariana Teodoro; Armelin, Vinicius Araújo; Abe, Augusto Shinya; Rantin, Francisco Tadeu; Florindo, Luiz Henrique

    2015-08-01

    The African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is a teleost with bimodal respiration that utilizes a paired suprabranchial chamber located in the gill cavity as an air-breathing organ. Like all air-breathing fishes studied to date, the African catfish exhibits pronounced changes in heart rate (f H) that are associated with air-breathing events. We acquired f H, gill-breathing frequency (f G) and air-breathing frequency (f AB) in situations that require or do not require air breathing (during normoxia and hypoxia), and we assessed the autonomic control of post-air-breathing tachycardia using an infusion of the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist atropine. During normoxia, C. gariepinus presented low f AB (1.85 ± 0.73 AB h(-1)) and a constant f G (43.16 ± 1.74 breaths min(-1)). During non-critical hypoxia (PO2 = 60 mmHg), f AB in the African catfish increased to 5.42 ± 1.19 AB h(-1) and f G decreased to 39.12 ± 1.58 breaths min(-1). During critical hypoxia (PO2 = 20 mmHg), f AB increased to 7.4 ± 1.39 AB h(-1) and f G decreased to 34.97 ± 1.78 breaths min(-1). These results were expected for a facultative air breather. Each air breath (AB) was followed by a brief but significant tachycardia, which in the critical hypoxia trials, reached a maximum of 143 % of the pre-AB f H values of untreated animals. Pharmacological blockade allowed the calculation of cardiac autonomic tones, which showed that post-AB tachycardia is predominantly regulated by the parasympathetic subdivision of the autonomic nervous system.

  14. [Growth and mortality of the fish Haemulon aurolineatum (Teleostei: Haemulidae) from southwest of Margarita Island, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Bravo, Edwis; Eslava, Nora; González, Leo

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed the growth and natural mortality of the fish known locally as cuji (H. aurolineatum) in the southwest of Margarita Island, July 2005 to June 2006. A sample of 1,378 males and 1,143 females from artisanal fishing vessels of Boca del Río was analyzed. The common relation for both sexes was expressed by the equation P=0.038*L(2.87). The asymptotic length (L(infinity)) was estimated with Powell's (1979) routine and Wetherall (1986), and the growth coefficient (k) with ELEFAN I - FISAT II (FAO-ICLARM). The modal progression analysis was used after decomposition of lengths frequency according to Bhattacharya, and the estimations of L(infinity), and k optimized according to Gulland and Holt (1959). The growth curve was fitted to von Bertalanffy (1960); it is exponential, with accelerated growth in the first two years and less growth as the fish approaches maximal length. The rate of natural mortality was high (M=1.15 year(-1)), and probably was caused by high depredation.

  15. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  16. Sexual Ornaments, Body Morphology, and Swimming Performance in Naturally Hybridizing Swordtails (Teleostei: Xiphophorus)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, James B.; Macedo, Danielle C.; Passow, Courtney N.; Rosenthal, Gil G.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the costs of sexual ornaments is complicated by the fact that ornaments are often integrated with other, non-sexual traits, making it difficult to dissect the effect of ornaments independent of other aspects of the phenotype. Hybridization can produce reduced phenotypic integration, allowing one to evaluate performance across a broad range of multivariate trait values. Here we assess the relationship between morphology and performance in the swordtails Xiphophorus malinche and X. birchmanni, two naturally-hybridizing fish species that differ extensively in non-sexual as well as sexual traits. We took advantage of novel trait variation in hybrids to determine if sexual ornaments incur a cost in terms of locomotor ability. For both fast-start and endurance swimming, hybrids performed at least as well as the two parental species. The sexually-dimorphic sword did not impair swimming performance per se. Rather, the sword negatively affected performance only when paired with a sub-optimal body shape. Studies seeking to quantify the costs of ornaments should consider that covariance with non-sexual traits may create the spurious appearance of costs. PMID:25329558

  17. Secretory activity of Poecilia latipinna (Teleostei) pituitary in vitro: rostral pars distalis and proximal pars distalis.

    PubMed

    Batten, T F; Young, G; Ball, J N

    1983-07-01

    The ultrastructure of each adenohypophysial secretory cell type was examined in pituitaries of adult female mollies (Poecilia latipinna) after various periods in vitro, and with varied medium osmotic pressure (OP), Na+, and Ca2+ concentrations. Prolactin (PRL) cells were markedly activated by 18 hr, and after 7 or 14 days were almost totally degranulated, with massive arrays of Golgi and RER. Reduction in OP, but not Na+ or Ca2+, caused an additional activation of PRL cells after periods of 18 hr or longer. Corticotroph (ACTH) cells became noticeably activated by 4 hr, and were possibly affected by OP, but not Na+ or Ca2+. Growth hormone (GH) cells were activated by 6 hr, and after 18 hr were quite degranulated with extensive arrays of RER. OP had no effect on GH cells before 3 days, when reduced OP appeared to cause an additional activation, with the appearance of large irregular secretory granule (SG)-like inclusions. Na+ and Ca2+ again had no effect. Gonadotrophic (GtH) cells appeared to be little affected by in vitro incubation; however, the very active cells from vitellogenic fish underwent a reduction in dilated RER after prolonged culture. Thyrotrophic (TSH) cells gradually became activated in vitro, but the response again varied with the sexual condition of the fish. Neither GtH nor TSH cells were affected by OP, Na+, or Ca2+. The findings are discussed in relation to hypothalamic control, via releasing/inhibiting factors, of adenohypophysial cell activity.

  18. Sensitivity of Danio rerio (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) during two stages of development based on acute toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Freiry, R; Stelzer, J A A; Maltchik, L; Arenzon, A

    2014-10-01

    The sensitivity of Danio rerio to three chemicals was compared at two growth stages [larval (10 ± 2 after hatching) and post-larval (60 ± 4 days after hatching)] based on acute toxicity tests. Thirty-nine 48 h acute toxicity tests were performed with the substances CuSO4, NaCl and KCl. The 48 h LC50 values at the two growth stages were compared by independent samples t-tests. The results showed a clear decrease in sensitivity when post-larval organisms were used. Since acute toxicity test methods for D. rerio that recommend using post-larval stage fish do not represent the most sensitive stage of the test organism, our study suggests a revision of the methods to use larval fish.

  19. Aspidoras mephisto, new species: The first troglobitic Callichthyidae (Teleostei: Siluriformes) from South America.

    PubMed

    Tencatt, Luiz Fernando Caserta; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2017-01-01

    Aspidoras mephisto n. sp. is described from the Anésio-Russão cave system, upper Tocantins River basin, Goiás, Brazil. The species can be readily distinguished from its congeners by troglomorphic features and also by presenting the following combination of features: infraorbital 1 generally with well-developed ventral laminar; or moderately developed; poorly-developed serrations on posterior margin of pectoral spine; nuchal plate not externally visible; dorsal fin, even in conspicuously colored specimens, with only dark brown or black chromatophores concentrated on rays, forming spots in some specimens; membranes hyaline; or sparse dark brown or black chromatophores on membranes, not forming any conspicuous pattern; and inner laminar expansion of infraorbital 1 moderately developed. Information about its habitat, ecology, behaviour and conservation status are provided and also a brief description of the juvenile stage.

  20. Huangshan population of Chinese Zacco platypus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) harbors diverse matrilines and high genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, Xin; ZHOU, Tian-Qi; WAN, Tao; PERDICES, Anabel; YANG, Jin-Quan; TANG, Xin-Sheng; WANG, Zheng-Ping; HUANG, Li-Qun; HUANG, Song; HE, Shun-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Six main mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages have been described in minnow (Zacco platypus) samples obtained from northern, western and southern China. Perdices et al. (2004) predicted that further sampling of other tributaries might discover more lineages of this species. In this study, we collected 26 Zacco platypus individuals in the Huangshan area of eastern China and determined the cytochrome b (cytb) sequence variations. Combined with reported data in GenBank, we identified ten matrilines (Zacco A-J) in a total of 169 samples, with relatively high molecular divergence found among them. The Huangshan population had the greatest genetic variation among all sampled regions and hosted six of the ten matrilines. Our results highlight the significance of the Huangshan area for the conservation of Zacco platypus. PMID:27029868

  1. Phylogenetic relationships among families of Gadiformes (Teleostei, Paracanthopterygii) based on nuclear and mitochondrial data.

    PubMed

    Roa-Varón, Adela; Ortí, Guillermo

    2009-09-01

    Phylogenetic hypotheses among Gadiformes fishes at the suborder, family, and subfamily levels are controversial. To address this problem, we analyze nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences for the most extensive taxonomic sampling compiled to date, representing all of the recognized families and subfamilies in the order (except the monotypic family Lyconidae). Our study sampled 117 species from 46 genera, comprising around 20% of the species described for the order (more than 60% of all genera in the order) and produced 2740 bp of DNA sequence data for each species. Our analysis was successful in confirming the monophyly of Gadiformes and most of the proposed families for the order, but alternative hypotheses of sister-group relationships among families were poorly resolved. Our results are consistent with dividing Gadiformes into 12 families in three suborders, Muraenolepidoidei, Macrouroidei, and Gadoidei. Muraenolepidoidei contains the single family Muraenolepididae. The suborder Macrouroidei includes at least three families: Macrouridae, Macruronidae and Steindachneriidae. Macrouridae is deeply divided into two well-supported subfamilies: Macrourinae and Bathygadinae, suggesting that Bathygadinae may be ranked at the family level. The suborder Gadoidei includes the families: Merlucciidae, Melanonidae, Euclichthyidae, Gadidae, Ranicipitidae, and Bregmacerotidae. Additionally, Trachyrincinae could be ranked at family level including two subfamilies: Trachyrincinae and Macrouroidinae within Gadoidei. Further taxonomic sampling and sequencing efforts are needed in order to corroborate these relationships.

  2. Gaidropsarus (Gadidae, Teleostei) of the North Atlantic Ocean: a brief phylogenetic review.

    PubMed

    Francisco, S M; Robalo, J I; Stefanni, S; Levy, A; Almada, V C

    2014-08-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among the North Atlantic Gaidropsarus and between the three Gaidropsarinae genera Gaidropsarus, Ciliata and Enchelyopus are reviewed with the hitherto most comprehensive taxonomic sampling of this group. Phylogenetic results (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference) based on nuclear (rhodopsin) and concatenated mitochondrial (12s, 16s and cytb) markers clearly support this subfamily. For the north-eastern Atlantic species of Gaidropsarus, two previously unreported clades were strongly supported, clarifying the relationships within the genus, and revealing fewer distinct taxa in the north Atlantic Gaidropsarus than previously stipulated. The data challenge the specific status of Gaidropsarus mediterraneus and Gaidropsarus guttatus and raise doubts concerning the distinctiveness of other species. A taxonomic revision of the genus is suggested.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Gray's grenadier anchovy Coilia grayii (Teleostei, Engraulidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Wu, Xiaorui; Shu, Hu; Yang, Huaqiang; Yang, Lidong; Yue, Lei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Coilia grayii was determined. The mitochondrial genome was 16,851 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and a non-coding control region as those found in other vertebrates, with the gene identical to that of typical vertebrates. The overall base composition of the heavy strand were 26.09% of A, 31.14% of T, 15.58% of C and 27.19% of G, with a slight AT bias of 57.23%. With the exception of ND6 and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes were encoded on the heavy strand.

  4. Parasitisation by Bathycreadium elongatum (Digenea, Opecoelidae) in pyloric caeca of Trachyrincus scabrus (Teleostei, Macrouridae).

    PubMed

    Constenla, M; Carrassón, M; Moyà, C M; Fernàndez-Chacón, A; Padrós, F; Repullés-Albelda, A; Montero, F E

    2011-10-06

    A novel process of transmural passive displacement of a digenean parasite was studied in the digestive tract of the roughsnout grenadier Trachyrincus scabrus, which is found in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. This mechanism seems to facilitate the elimination of a significant portion of intestinal parasites. The digenean parasite Bathycreadium elongatum was found in the intestine, mainly within pyloric caeca, in 74.4% of T. scabrus, with a mean abundance of 44 individuals per fish. Nodule-like lesions were also found in the mesentery of pyloric caeca of infected T. scabrus. Histological sections of the nodules revealed granulomatous inflammatory responses surrounding degraded digeneans. Partial nucleotide sequences of the 28S rRNA gene obtained from intracaecal B. elongatum and from the core of the nodules of the mesentery of pyloric caeca showed 100% mutual identity with an overlap of 971 bp. The greatest abundance of both intracaecal B. elongatum and nodules occurred in spring. During summer, and especially autumn, the abundance of intracaecal B. elongatum decreased. Prevalence and abundance of nodules increased in autumn. In winter intracaecal parasite abundance and prevalence began to increase, but decreased again in nodules. During spring and summer, parasites pass into the visceral cavity, hypothetically owing to the fragility of the wall of pyloric caeca in their apical zone, and become degraded through a granulomatous inflammatory response. This process seems to have a detrimental effect on the B. elongatum cycle since some of parasites are trapped and degrade in the connective tissue in which they are unable to complete their life cycle.

  5. Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the Capoeta damascina Species Complex (Pisces: Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Alwan, Nisreen; Esmaeili, Hamid-Reza; Krupp, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    Capoeta damascina was earlier considered by many authors as one of the most common freshwater fish species found throughout the Levant, Mesopotamia, Turkey, and Iran. However, owing to a high variation in morphological characters among and within its various populations, 17 nominal species were described, several of which were regarded as valid by subsequent revising authors. Capoeta damascina proved to be a complex of closely related species, which had been poorly studied. The current study aims at defining C. damascina and the C. damascina species complex. It investigates phylogenetic relationships among the various members of the C. damascina complex, based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships were projected against paleogeographical events to interpret the geographic distribution of the taxa under consideration in relation to the area's geological history. Samples were obtained from throughout the geographic range and were subjected to genetic analyses, using two molecular markers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (n = 103) and the two adjacent divergence regions (D1-D2) of the nuclear 28S rRNA genes (n = 65). Six closely related species were recognized within the C. damascina complex, constituting two main lineages: A western lineage represented by C. caelestis, C. damascina, and C. umbla and an eastern lineage represented by C. buhsei, C. coadi, and C. saadii. The results indicate that speciation of these taxa is rather a recent event. Dispersal occurred during the Pleistocene, resulting in present-day distribution patterns. A coherent picture of the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the C. damascina species complex is drawn, explaining the current patterns of distribution as a result of paleogeographic events and ecological adaptations.

  6. Squamous epithelium formation in the respiratory intestine of the bronze Corydoras Corydoras aeneus (Callichthyidae Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Satora, Leszek; Kozioł, Katarzyna; Zebrowski, Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Accessory respiratory organs in fish exhibit great diversity but share the presence of numerous capillaries covered by a simple squamous epithelium. The adoption of the intestine for respiratory function needs certain special modifications. In this study, we explored immunohistochemical and metabolic fingerprint features that could underlay this adaptation in bronze corydoras Corydoras aeneus. Immunohistochemical localization of the cytoplasmic domain of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the respiratory part of intestine demonstrated a strong positive immunoreaction in epithelial cells and connective tissue. Fourier Transfer Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics discriminated between anterior and posterior region of intestine in terms of secondary structure of proteins and the abundance of p-cresol and other phenolics. The latter were reduced in the posterior part of intestine, indicating the cessation of digestive function in this region. It has been suggested that aquatic hypoxia via endocrine cells (hypoxia-sensitive) activate EGFR, which induce proliferation of squamous epithelial cells, thereby enabling gas diffusion in the posterior part of intestine. It seems that hypoxia and normoxia are opposed conditions adjusting the production of squamous epithelial cells in this intestine. The physiological role of EGFR in the respiratory intestine of bronze corydoras is of interest not only from an evolutionary aspect but also in terms of a potential model for observations process proliferation squamous epithelial cells. Future investigations on the molecular responses to different water oxygen levels in air-breathing bronze corydoras fish are required to clarify the mechanism responsible for squamous cell proliferation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Lake Tanganyika--a 'melting pot' of ancient and young cichlid lineages (Teleostei: Cichlidae)?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Juliane D; Cotterill, Fenton P D; Schliewen, Ulrich K

    2015-01-01

    A long history of research focused on the East Africa cichlid radiations (EAR) revealed discrepancies between mtDNA and nuclear phylogenies, suggesting that interspecific hybridisation may have been significant during the radiation of these fishes. The approximately 250 cichlid species of Lake Tanganyika have their roots in a monophyletic African cichlid assemblage, but controversies remain about the precise phylogenetic origin and placement of different lineages and consequently about L. Tanganyika colonization scenarios. 3312 AFLP loci and the mitochondrial ND2 gene were genotyped for 91 species representing almost all major lacustrine and riverine haplotilapiine east African cichlid lineages with a focus on L. Tanganyika endemics. Explicitly testing for the possibility of ancient hybridisation events, a comprehensive phylogenetic network hypothesis is proposed for the origin and diversification of L. Tanganyika cichlids. Inference of discordant phylogenetic signal strongly suggests that the genomes of two endemic L. Tanganyika tribes, Eretmodini and Tropheini, are composed of an ancient mixture of riverine and lacustrine lineages. For the first time a strong monophyly signal of all non-haplochromine mouthbrooding species endemic to L. Tanganyika ("ancient mouthbrooders") was detected. Further, in the genomes of early diverging L. Tanganyika endemics Trematocarini, Bathybatini, Hemibatini and Boulengerochromis genetic components of other lineages belonging to the East African Radiation appear to be present. In combination with recent palaeo-geological results showing that tectonic activity in the L. Tanganyika region resulted in highly dynamic and heterogeneous landscape evolution over the Neogene and Pleistocene, the novel phylogenetic data render a single lacustrine basin as the geographical cradle of the endemic L. Tanganyika cichlid lineages unlikely. Instead a scenario of a pre-rift origin of several independent L. Tanganyika precursor lineages which diversified in ancient rivers and precursor lakes and then amalgamated in the extant L. Tanganyika basin is put forward as an alternative: the 'melting pot Tanganyika' hypothesis.

  8. Chalinochromis cyanophleps, a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from Lake Tanganyika.

    PubMed

    Kullander, Sven O; Karlsson, Mikael; Karlsson, Magnus; Norén, Michael

    2014-04-22

    Chalinochromis cyanophleps is described from nine specimens, the largest 129 mm SL, from Namansi. It differs from other species of Chalinochromis in plain trunk colouration, absence of black stripes on the head, relatively narrow lips, presence of tricuspid jaw teeth, and presence of five rather than four dentary lateralis foramina. The blue iridescent stripe below the eye is shared with other lamprologin cichlids, but is broader and more conspicuous in C. cyanophleps. Chalinochromis cyanophleps occurs at depths between 6 and 45 m in rocky habitats along the Tanzanian coast of Lake Tanganyika, from Mvuna Island south to Kalala Island, a stretch of about 90 km. Field observations were made of specimens up to 18 cm total length. The COI DNA barcode sequence differs by 1.8% from that of C. popelini.

  9. Lake Tanganyika—A 'Melting Pot' of Ancient and Young Cichlid Lineages (Teleostei: Cichlidae)?

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Juliane D.; Cotterill, Fenton P. D.; Schliewen, Ulrich K.

    2015-01-01

    A long history of research focused on the East Africa cichlid radiations (EAR) revealed discrepancies between mtDNA and nuclear phylogenies, suggesting that interspecific hybridisation may have been significant during the radiation of these fishes. The approximately 250 cichlid species of Lake Tanganyika have their roots in a monophyletic African cichlid assemblage, but controversies remain about the precise phylogenetic origin and placement of different lineages and consequently about L. Tanganyika colonization scenarios. 3312 AFLP loci and the mitochondrial ND2 gene were genotyped for 91 species representing almost all major lacustrine and riverine haplotilapiine east African cichlid lineages with a focus on L. Tanganyika endemics. Explicitly testing for the possibility of ancient hybridisation events, a comprehensive phylogenetic network hypothesis is proposed for the origin and diversification of L. Tanganyika cichlids. Inference of discordant phylogenetic signal strongly suggests that the genomes of two endemic L. Tanganyika tribes, Eretmodini and Tropheini, are composed of an ancient mixture of riverine and lacustrine lineages. For the first time a strong monophyly signal of all non-haplochromine mouthbrooding species endemic to L. Tanganyika (“ancient mouthbrooders”) was detected. Further, in the genomes of early diverging L. Tanganyika endemics Trematocarini, Bathybatini, Hemibatini and Boulengerochromis genetic components of other lineages belonging to the East African Radiation appear to be present. In combination with recent palaeo-geological results showing that tectonic activity in the L. Tanganyika region resulted in highly dynamic and heterogeneous landscape evolution over the Neogene and Pleistocene, the novel phylogenetic data render a single lacustrine basin as the geographical cradle of the endemic L. Tanganyika cichlid lineages unlikely. Instead a scenario of a pre-rift origin of several independent L. Tanganyika precursor lineages which diversified in ancient rivers and precursor lakes and then amalgamated in the extant L. Tanganyika basin is put forward as an alternative: the 'melting pot Tanganyika' hypothesis. PMID:25928886

  10. Complete mitogenomes of Guinean angelfish (Holacanthus africanus) and Rock beauty (Holacanthus tricolor) (Teleostei: Pomacanthidae).

    PubMed

    Shen, Kang-Ning; Chen, Ching-Hung; Hsiao, Chung-Der

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we used the next-generation sequencing method to deduce two complete mitogenomes of Guinean angelfish (Holacanthus africanus) and Rock beauty (Holacanthus tricolor) for the first time. The assembled mitogenome, consisting of 16,819 bp and 16,625 bp in length, shows 87% similarity with each other. Both mitogenomes follow the typical vertebrate arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs genes, and a non-coding control region of D-loop. The D-loop contains 1107 bp in H. africanus and 905 bp in H. tricolor and is located between tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe. The overall GC content is 46.2% for H. africanus and 45.6% for H. tricolor. The complete mitogenome of Guinean angelfish and Rock beauty deduced in this study provides essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis for marine angelfish.

  11. Molecular systematics of the Labeonini inhabiting the karst regions in southwest China (Teleostei, Cypriniformes).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lan-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Yang, Jun-Xing

    2016-01-01

    The major phylogenetic pattern of the cyprinid tribe Labeonini has been revealed by previous molecular studies; however, the relationships within a clade that mainly inhabits the karst regions, which we refer to as the "karst group", in southwest China remain unresolved due to the low taxon sampling. This group includes more than 50% of the genera and species of Labeonini in China. Moreover, more than 90% of the genera of this group are endemic to China. In addition, some new genera and species of Labeonini have been discovered from these karst regions, but their taxonomic validity and phylogenetic position have not been examined. In this contribution, partial sequences of four nuclear (exon 3 of recombination activating protein 1, rhodopsin, early growth response protein 2B gene and interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein gene) and three mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b, cytochrome oxidase subunit I and 16S ribosomal RNA) from 36 ingroup taxa and 25 outgroup taxa were analyzed to provide a hypothesis of the phylogenetic relationships within the labeonins of the karst regions in China. We propose that the monophyly of Parasinilabeo, Ptychidio, Rectoris and Semilabeo are supported. A new genus, Prolixicheilus, is erected for Pseudogyrinocheilus longisulcus. Cophecheilus bamen is the sister to Prolixicheilus longisulcus. Ptychidio, Pseudocrossocheilus, Semilabeo, Rectoris and Stenorynchoacrum are closely related with high support values. Sinocrossocheilus, Pseudogyrinocheilus, Paraqianlabeo, Hongshuia, Discogobio and Discocheilus form a clade together with high support. Considering molecular results and morphological differences, Parasinilabeo longicorpus and Ptychidio macrops might be the synonyms of Parasinilabeo assimilis and Ptychidio jordani respectively. Comprehensive taxonomic revisions of the two genera Parasinilabeo and Ptychidio may be necessary.

  12. Description of Triplophysa luochengensis sp. nov. (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae) from a karst cave in Guangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Lan, J H; Chen, X Y; Du, L N

    2017-10-01

    A new cave-dwelling fish Triplophysa luochengensis is described based on specimens collected from a karst cave in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, that is interconnected to the Hongshui River drainage. The species can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of characters: eyes degenerated, anal fin with six branched rays, caudal fin with 16-17 branched rays, pectoral-fin length 72·4-95·8% of the distance between pectoral-fin origin and pelvic-fin origin, lateral head length 26·2-28·2% of standard length (LS ), eye diameter 7·5-8·6 of LS , body covered by sparse scales, lateral line complete and 7-8 pre-operculo-mandibular pores. Dark pigments irregularly present on dorsum of head, dorsum and flank. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Devario deruptotalea, a new species of cyprinid fish from Manipur, India (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Ramananda, Yumnam; Vishwanath, Waikhom

    2014-07-02

    Devario deruptotalea, a new cyprinid fish, is described from Dutah Stream, a tributary of the Yu River (Chindwin drainage) in Manipur, India. It is distinguished from all its congeners by a unique colour pattern consisting of the following combination of pigmented elements: 4‒6 dark brown irregularly shaped and arranged bars that are partly confluent with adjacent bars at different levels on the anterior one-third of the side of the body, followed by three distinct dark brown stripes posteriorly, a P stripe that is darker and about twice as broad as other stripes and extending to the tip of the median caudal-fin rays.

  14. A new species of Psilorhynchus (Teleostei: Psilorhynchidae) from the Chindwin basin of Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Shangningam, Bungdon; Vishwanath, Waikhom

    2013-01-01

    Psilorhynchus chakpiensis, new species, is described from the Chakpi River, Chindwin basin in Manipur, India. It is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of characters: a dome-shaped rostral cap with horizontally arranged pointed tubercles, 1-2 rows of prominent globular papillae behind the upper lip, three unbranched and nine branched dorsal-fin rays, 30-31 lateral-line scales, head width 74-83% HL, and characteristic colour bands on the dorsal and caudal fins. It is distinguished from all congeners in having a caudal-fin pattern consisting of two black bars, one incomplete bar near the base of the upper lobe, and a complete bar across the centre of the fin, traversing from the upper to the lower margin of the fin.

  15. Haematological parameters in Umbrina cirrosa (Teleostei, Sciaenidae): a comparison between diploid and triploid specimens.

    PubMed

    Ballarin, Loriano; Dall'Oro, Manuela; Bertotto, Daniela; Libertini, Angelo; Francescon, Antonia; Barbaro, Alvise

    2004-05-01

    Haematological features were compared between diploid and triploid specimens of the ray-finned fish Umbrina cirrosa. No significant differences between diploids and triploids were reported in haematocrit and total haemoglobin concentration, but erythrocytes and thrombocytes were significantly greater in size in triploids. Glycaemia was significantly lower in diploids, whereas triploid erythrocytes were more resistant to osmotic stress. In triploids, a greater fraction of leukocytes was positive for alkaline phosphatase activity, when stimulated with Bacillus clausii spores, otherwise no significant increase of oxygen consumption was observed in triploid leukocytes after stimulation, based on assays for superoxide anions. Triploids were characterized by a lower concentration of circulating blood cells with a lower surface/volume ratio when compared with diploids. These features may lead to a general disadvantage of triploids in withstanding stress conditions: a situation that needs to be taken into account in aquaculture practice.

  16. Uptake of foreign ferritin in heart of firemouth cichlid (cichlidae: teleostei).

    PubMed

    Leknes, Ingvar Leiv

    2011-09-01

    The ultrastructure of the endothelium in the heart of the firemouth cichlid (Thorichthys meeki) and its capability and capacity to take up foreign ferritin are described. The entire wall in atrium and ventricle was spongy and composed of muscle trabeculae, covered by endothelial cells which were about 4-6-μm thick in atrium and flat in ventricle. These cells contained a number of moderately electron-dense bodies (MDBs, diameter 2 μm and less), clathrin-coated vesicles, and tubules of agranular endoplasmatic reticulum. Numerous yellow-brown granules, width 2 μm and less, occurred in the endocardial endothelium covering the cardiac muscle trabeculae in ferritin-injected firemouth cichlid 8 hr postinjection; much Prussian blue precipitated within these granules when treated with acid ferrocyanide. When the time between the injection and sacrifice was extended to 24 hr, the granules and Prussian blue precipitations in the corresponding endocardial endothelium displayed a width of 3 μm and more. The endocardial endothelium facing the cardiac main lumen or covering the valves and walls of the atrio-ventriclar or ventriculo-bulbar apertures nearly lacks such granules and precipitations as well as MDB, clathrin-coated vesicles and tubules of agranular endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting that the endothelium at these sites is not endocytic. Lipofuscinlike pigments were demonstrated by the Schmorl's technique in the endocardial endothelium covering the heart muscle trabeculae in firemouth cichlid. Together these findings suggest that the endocardial endothelium cover on the muscle trabeculae in heart wall in firemouth cichlid is highly specialized to play important roles in the uptake of scavenger molecules and foreign particles. Such an uptake may be very efficient as this cell layer comes in contact with nearly the entire blood volume throughout the spongy heart wall in this type of teleosts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Changes induced by cadmium in the kidney of Black Sea bream, Mylio macrocephalus (teleostei)

    SciTech Connect

    Ooi, V.E.C.; Law, F.K. )

    1989-11-01

    Cadmium is known to cause injury to most of the internal organs of higher vertebrates. Chronic exposure of cadmium produces histopathological changes in the kidney in man and experimental animals and leads to its preferential accumulation in the liver and kidney. The toxic effects of cadmium on man and experimental animals such as rats, mice and rabbits have been extensively investigated. However, less is known about injurious effects of cadmium on fish, in particular marine fish species. In the present study, the time course of cadmium-induced renal toxicity and histopathological changes of the kidneys of the Black Sea bream, one of the mot common maricultural fish species in Hong Kong, after administration of cadmium chloride are described.

  18. Synchiropus sycorax, a new species of dragonet from the Philippines (Teleostei: Callionymidae).

    PubMed

    Tea, Yi-Kai; Gill, Anthony C

    2016-10-02

    Synchiropus sycorax n. sp. is described from six specimens (22.6-40.1 mm SL) collected from Jolo Island, Sulu Archipelago, Philippines. It appears to be most closely related to S. tudorjonesi, which ranges from the Maldive Islands through Indonesia and the Philippine Islands to southern Japan. The new species differs from S. tudorjonesi and other congeners in live coloration: head and body bright red, bright yellow ventrally, with prominent white spots on head (one spot or blotch over preopercular spine, two elongate spots behind middle of eye, and one spot behind upper part of eye at about 1 o'clock position) and body (in three rows, an uppermost row beginning below soft dorsal, tracking lateral line to caudal peduncle, a lowermost row extending from above anterior anal fin to caudal peduncle, and a middle row extending obliquely from above pectoral fin to anterior part of lowermost series of spots); males with pelvic fin and pelvic-pectoral membrane bright yellow with broad bluish or greenish grey to black submarginal band across distal third of fin.

  19. Pseudochromis yamasakii, new species of dottyback fish from Japan (Teleostei: Pseudochromidae: Pseudochrominae).

    PubMed

    Gill, Anthony C; Senou, Hiroshi

    2016-10-04

    Gill (2004) recognised fifty-seven species in the Indo-Pacific genus Pseudochromis Rüppell (1835) but noted that the genus is undiagnosed cladistically and effectively serves as a catch-all for species that can't be placed in other pseudochromine genera (sensu Gill 2013). Since publication of Gill's revision, 13 additional species of Pseudochromis have been described, mostly based on recent collections from the highly diverse Coral Triangle area of the West Pacific (Gill & Allen 2004, 2011; Allen et al. 2008; Gill et al. 2009, 2012a,b; Gill & Williams 2011; Gill & Zajonz 2011; Allen & Erdmann 2012). We herein describe an additional new species, which is known on the basis of a single specimen from Kii Peninsula, Honshu, Japan, and from several photographs from the Kii Peninsula and Izu Islands, Japan.

  20. Iranocichla persa, a new cichlid species from southern Iran (Teleostei, Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Sayyadzadeh, Golnaz; Seehausen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Iranocichla persasp. n. is described from the Shur, Hasanlangi and Minab River drainages flowing into the Persian Gulf at the Strait of Hormuz in southern Iran. It is distinguished from Iranocichla hormuzensis, from the Mehran River drainage, by nuptial males having a bright orange breast and lower part of the head (vs. black), a poorly developed or invisible (vs. distinctive) "Tilapia-mark" in the dorsal fin and very clear white spots making almost wavy bars or stripes on the caudal fin (vs. without or with very few white spots). Mitochondrial DNA sequence characters suggest that both Iranocichla species are closely related but form two distinct clades, diagnosable by several fixed mutations in ND2, D-loop and partially by COI sequences. Populations from Kol River drainage, which is situated in-between the Mehran and the Shur River drainages, are more similar to Iranocichla hormuzensis in terms of their male nuptial coloration but to Iranocichla persasp. n. in their mitochondrial sequence characters. Their status requires further investigation.

  1. Squalius namak, a new chub from Lake Namak basin in Iran (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Khaefi, Roozbehan; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Sayyadzadeh, Golnaz; Geiger, Matthias F; Freyhof, Jörg

    2016-09-19

    Squalius namak, new species, from the endorheic Lake Namak and Kavir basins in Iran, is distinguished from the species of the genus Squalius in the Persian Gulf and the southern Caspian Sea basins by having a wide and thick symphysial knob on the lower jaw, a convex posterior anal-fin margin, a bold, dark-grey or brown, roundish or crescent-shaped blotch at the posterior tip of each flank scale and orange caudal-, anal- and pelvic-fin rays in life. Squalius namak is also characterized by four fixed, diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA COI barcode region.

  2. Evolution and phylogenetic application of the MC1R gene in the Cobitoidea (Teleostei: Cypriniformes).

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiong-Ying; Shi, Li-Xia; Liu, Fei; Yu, Dan; Liu, Huan-Zhang

    2016-09-18

    Fish of the superfamily Cobitoidea sensu stricto (namely loaches) exhibit extremely high diversity of color patterns, but so far little is known about their evolutionary mechanism. Melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) plays an important role during the synthesis of melanin and formation of animal body color patterns. In this study, we amplified and sequenced the partial MC1R gene for 44 loach individuals representing 31 species of four families. Phylogenetic analyses yielded a topology congruent with previous studies using multiple nuclear loci, showing that each of the four families was monophyletic with sister relationships of Botiidae+ (Cobitidae+(Balitoridae+Nemacheilidae)). Gene evolutionary analyses indicated that MC1R in loaches was under purifying selection pressure, with various sites having different dN/dS values. Both Botiidae and Cobitidae had lower dN/dS values than those of background lineages, suggesting their evolution might be strongly affected by purifying selection pressure. For Balitoridae and Nemacheilidae, both had larger dN/dS values than those of background lineages, suggesting they had a faster evolutionary rate under more relaxed selection pressure. Consequently, we inferred that the relatively stable color patterns in Botiidae and Cobitidae might result from the strong purifying selection pressure on the MC1R gene, whereas the complicated and diverse color patterns in Balitoridae and Nemacheilidae might be associated with the relaxed selection pressure. Given the easy experimental procedure for the partial MC1R gene and its excellent performance in reconstructing phylogeny, we suggest this gene could be used as a good molecular marker for the phylogenetic study of fish species.

  3. Is sexual selection driving diversification of the bioluminescent ponyfishes (Teleostei: Leiognathidae)?

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Davis, Matthew P; Smith, W Leo; Baldwin, Zachary H; Sparks, John S

    2011-07-01

    Sexual selection may facilitate genetic isolation among populations and result in increased rates of diversification. As a mechanism driving diversification, sexual selection has been invoked and upheld in numerous empirical studies across disparate taxa, including birds, plants and spiders. In this study, we investigate the potential impact of sexual selection on the tempo and mode of ponyfish evolution. Ponyfishes (Leiognathidae) are bioluminescent marine fishes that exhibit sexually dimorphic features of their unique light-organ system (LOS). Although sexual selection is widely considered to be the driving force behind ponyfish speciation, this hypothesis has never been formally tested. Given that some leiognathid species have a sexually dimorphic LOS, whereas others do not, this family provides an excellent system within which to study the potential role of sexual selection in diversification and morphological differentiation. In this study, we estimate the phylogenetic relationships and divergence times for Leiognathidae, investigate the tempo and mode of ponyfish diversification, and explore morphological shape disparity among leiognathid clades. We recover strong support for a monophyletic Leiognathidae and estimate that all major ponyfish lineages evolved during the Paleogene. Our studies of ponyfish diversification demonstrate that there is no conclusive evidence that sexually dimorphic clades are significantly more species rich than nonsexually dimorphic lineages and that evidence is lacking to support any significant diversification rate increases within ponyfishes. Further, we detected a lineage-through-time signal indicating that ponyfishes have continuously diversified through time, which is in contrast to many recent diversification studies that identify lineage-through-time patterns that support mechanisms of density-dependent speciation. Additionally, there is no evidence of sexual selection hindering morphological diversity, as sexually dimorphic taxa are shown to be more disparate in overall shape morphology than nonsexually dimorphic taxa. Our results suggest that if sexual selection is occurring in ponyfish evolution, it is likely acting only as a genetic isolating mechanism that has allowed ponyfishes to continuously diversify over time, with no overall impact on increases in diversification rate or morphological disparity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Two new dwarfgobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan: Eviota flavipinnata and Eviota rubrimaculata.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Greenfield, David W; Motomura, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-28

    Two new species of Eviota from Yoron Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, are described. Both species belong to the cephalic sensory-canal pore system pattern 2 (lacking only the H [IT] pore); have some pectoral-fin rays branched; have a dorsal/anal-fin formula of 9/8; no dark spot over the ural centrum; no prominent distinct dark spots on the pectoral-fin base; no postocular spots; and no strong dark spots on the caudal fin. The species share the most characters with E. afelei, E. bimaculata and E. punctulata, but differ from Eviota afelei and E. punctulata by having two versus three dark marks over the anal-fin base, and from Eviota bimaculata by lacking the two dark, prominent occipital spots present in that species. Both species differ from all other described species of Eviota in fresh coloration. Eviota flavipinnata has bright golden-yellow dorsal fins and an orange anal fin, and a fifth pelvic-fin ray that is 12% the length of the fourth ray. Eviota rubrimaculata has clear dorsal fins with red spots, large red spots on the body, and lacks the fifth pelvic-fin ray.

  5. Two new dwarfgobies of the genus Eviota from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan (Teleostei: Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Greenfield, David W; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Shibukawa, Koichi

    2014-03-10

    Two species of dwarfgoby are described from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Eviota flebilis n. sp. belongs to cephalic sensory-pore system pattern 2 (lacking only IT pore), has a dorsal/anal fin-ray formula of 8/7, unbranched pectoral-fin rays, the 5th pelvic-fin ray 12.9% of the 4th, a distinctive narrow, red-orange line under the eye, and a dark vertical line at the caudal-fin base. Eviota specca n. sp. has a cephalic sensory-pore system pattern 1 (complete), has a dorsal/anal-fin formula of 8/8, the body heavily sprinkled with chromatophores, and a single dark spot on the upper pectoral-fin base.

  6. Herbivory Promotes Dental Disparification and Macroevolutionary Dynamics in Grunters (Teleostei: Terapontidae), a Freshwater Adaptive Radiation.

    PubMed

    Davis, Aaron M; Unmack, Peter J; Vari, Richard P; Betancur-R, Ricardo

    2016-03-01

    Trophic shifts into new adaptive zones have played major (although often conflicting) roles in reshaping the evolutionary trajectories of many lineages. We analyze data on diet, tooth, and oral morphology and relate these traits to phenotypic disparification and lineage diversification rates across the ecologically diverse Terapontidae, a family of Australasian fishes. In contrast to carnivores and most omnivores, which have retained relatively simple, ancestral caniniform tooth shapes, herbivorous terapontids appear to have evolved a variety of novel tooth shapes at significantly faster rates to meet the demands of plant-based diets. The evolution of herbivory prompted major disparification, significantly expanding the terapontid adaptive phenotypic continuum into an entirely novel functional morphospace. There was minimal support for our hypothesis of faster overall rates of integrated tooth shape, spacing, and jaw biomechanical evolution in herbivorous terapontids in their entirety, compared with other trophic strategies. There was, however, considerable support for accelerated disparification within a diverse freshwater clade containing a range of specialized freshwater herbivores. While the evolutionary transition to herbivorous diets has played a central role in terapontid phenotypic diversification by pushing herbivores toward novel fitness peaks, there was little support for herbivory driving significantly higher lineage diversification compared with background rates across the family.

  7. Site selection of Acanthochondria cornuta (Copepoda: Chondracanthidae) in Platichthys flesus (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae).

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, F I; Santos, M J

    2011-07-01

    Acanthochondria cornuta (Copepoda: Chondracanthidae) (N=4841; prevalence: 80·0%; mean±s.d. [range] intensity: 28·8±24·0 [1-110] parasites) infected the branchial chambers of the European flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.), (N=210) according to an established spatial pattern. This was independent of host size. Higher intensities resulted, most frequently, in higher numbers of infection sites, probably due to increased intraspecific competition. Preferential infection of the ocular side was supported by the recorded abundance data and reflected, probably, the fish's bottom-dwelling behaviour. As the parasite develops from one stage into another, it seems to migrate towards different sites: the copepodites and pre-adult females occurred, mainly, in the holobranchs; the adults preferred the internal wall (non-gravid/post-gravid females; adult males) or the pseudobranchs (gravid females). The ventilating water current along with the blood supply are suggested as 2 major factors in determining parasite spatial distribution within the chamber. Parasite crowding in a restricted and narrow space of the posterior region of the internal wall was recorded frequently and resembled that previously reported for the plaice. Differences to other host-parasite systems previously studied should relate with the anatomy of the respiratory apparatus. Bigamous females are reported for the first time.

  8. Seasonality of metazoan ectoparasites in marine European flounder Platichthys flesus (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae).

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, F I; Santos, M J

    2009-07-01

    Seasonal occurrence of metazoan ectoparasites is described for the first time in marine European flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.). The parasitofauna, in this study monitored during 1 year, was found to be similar to that previously recorded for flounder. Moreover, specimens of Caligus sp. Müller, 1785 and Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Copepoda: Caligidae), Acanthochondria cornuta (Copepoda: Chondracanthidae), Holobomolochus confusus (Copepoda: Bomolochidae) and Nerocila orbignyi (Isopoda: Cymothoidae), and also, a praniza larva (Isopoda: Gnathiidae), were isolated. From these, L. pectoralis and A. cornuta were the dominant parasites in all samples of flounder, while Caligus sp., H. confusus, N. orbignyi and the gnathiid praniza seemed to infect the flounder only occasionally. As far as the seasonality of infections is concerned, it differed considerably from that described for estuarine environments. Indeed, both prevalence and abundance of L. pectoralis and A. cornuta reached significant peaks in the summer, whereas the literature identifies the autumn as the season of maximum infection on estuarine flounder. Thus, the former period seems more favourable for the occurrence of epizooties of L. pectoralis and A. cornuta in flounder culturing systems running on seawater and operated in the studied or similar environments.

  9. Chromosomal location of retrotransposable REX 1 in the genomes in five Prochilodus (Teleostei

    PubMed Central

    Voltolin, Tatiana Aparecida; Mendonça, Bruna Bueno; Ferreira, Daniela Cristina; Senhorini, José Augusto; Foresti, Fausto; Porto-Foresti, Fábio

    2013-01-01

    Transposable elements are repetitive DNA sequences comprising a group of segments able to move and carry sequences within the genome. Studies involving comparative genomics have revealed that most vertebrates have different populations of transposable elements with significant differences among species of the same lineage. Few studies have been conducted in fish, the most diverse group of vertebrates, with the objective to locate different types of transposable elements. Therefore, this study proposed to map the retrotransposable element Rex1 applying Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) in five species of the genus Prochilodus (Prochilodus argenteus, Prochilodus brevis, Prochilodus costatus, Prochilodus lineatus and Prochilodus nigricans). After the application of the Rex1 probe, scattered markings were found throughout the genome of analyzed species, and also the presence of small clusters located in the centromeric and telomeric regions coincident with the heterochromatin distribution pattern. This was the first description of the retrotransposable element Rex1 in Prochilodus genome seeking for a better understanding of the distribution pattern of these retrotransposons in the genome of teleost fish. PMID:24195015

  10. Physoschistura walongensis, a new species of loach (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae) from Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India.

    PubMed

    Tamang, Lakpa; Sinha, Bikramjit

    2016-10-04

    Physoschistura walongensis, new species, is described from the bank of the Lohit River (upper Brahmaputra River basin) in the eastern most part of the state Arunachal Pradesh at an altitude of 1096 m above sea level. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of characters: an incomplete lateral line extending at least to the anal-fin origin and maximally to the tip of the adpressed anal fin, with 71-89 canal pores; a rounded suborbital flap, the posterior margin of which slightly exceeds the anterior orbital margin, occupying less orbital area; body with 11-18 irregular vertical bars on the flank, bars more irregular on the anterior portion of the body than on posterior; 1-4 bars bifurcate ventrally; 1-4 saddles along the ventrolateral side of the body; a moderately thick W-shaped basicaudal bar; a prominent axillary pelvic fin lobe; dark brown mottled markings on the head; and forked caudal fin with 9 upper + 8 lower branched rays.

  11. Ejaculate of sneaker males is pheromonally inconspicuous in the black goby, Gobius niger (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Locatello, L; Mazzoldi, C; Rasotto, M B

    2002-11-01

    The black goby, Gobius niger, shows alternative male mating tactics, i.e., parental and sneaker males. Males release a sexual pheromone that attracts females and stimulates aggressive displays in males. This pheromone is produced by the mesorchial gland, a structure well developed in parental males but markedly undeveloped in sneakers. We measured the behavioral response of parental males to the ejaculates of males performing different reproductive tactics. Parental males reacted to the ejaculate of other parental males, with stereotypic aggressive behaviors, but not to the ejaculate of sneakers; consequently sneaker male ejaculate appears to be pheromonally inconspicuous.

  12. Fiber connections and synaptic organization of the preoptic retinopetal nucleus in the filefish (Balistidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, H; Ito, H

    1984-04-23

    Neuron cell bodies of the preoptic retinopetal nucleus (PRN), located in the diencephalon of the filefish , Navodon modestus, project axons to the retina. In the present study, the fiber connections and synaptic organization of the preoptic retinopetal nucleus (PRN) were investigated light- and electron-microscopically. The majority of neural cell bodies are located in the rostral half of this rostro-caudally elongated nucleus. Four types of synaptic terminals are distinguishable. The first (L) consists of large, irregularly shaped terminals that contain electron-dense mitochondria and numerous synaptic vesicles. These profiles make asymmetrical multi-synaptic contacts and gap junctions with somata and dendrites. The L terminals are also presynaptic to a second class of terminals (P), which have pleomorphic synaptic vesicles and form synapses onto dendrites. F terminals which have flat synaptic vesicles were also seen PRN. Very few S terminals were also seen in PRN. This type of terminal contains spherical synaptic vesicles of various sizes and a few pale mitochondria. S terminals form asymmetrical synapses with somata, dendrites and P terminals. Following unilateral tectal ablation, degenerating fibers from the lesion were traced into PRN bilaterally, although ipsilateral projections were far more numerous. L terminals exhibit degenerative changes after large tectal resection, whereas S terminals degenerate after contralateral eye enucleation. Therefore, a tecto-PRN-retinal circuit and a reciprocal connection between the retina and PRN have been documented. The similarity between PRN in the filefish and retinopetal nuclei in other classes of vertebrates, especially the isthmo-optic nucleus in birds, is discussed.

  13. Two new dwarfgobies from the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Eviota).

    PubMed

    Greenfield, David W; Jewett, Susan L

    2016-06-13

    Two new species of dwarfgobies are described, Eviota asymbasia from the Sulu Sea, Philippine Islands, south to Java and west to Damar, and E. bipunctata occurring from the Indian Ocean eastward into the western Pacific Ocean. Eviota asymbasia lacks the IT pore of the cephalic sensory-pore system and usually also the POP, has a dorsal/anal-fin formula of 8/8, has some pectoral-fin rays branched and usually 15 rays, two spots on the pectoral-fin base, no dark spot over the preural centrum, first dorsal fin may be filamentous, six ventral postanal spots, and the male genital papilla is not fimbriate. Eviota bipunctata belongs to the group with cephalic sensory-pore system pattern 2 (lacking only the IT pore), some pectoral-fin rays branched, pectoral-fin base with 1 or 2 prominent dark spots, dorsal/anal-fin formula usually 8/8, and no occipital spots.

  14. Huangshan population of Chinese Zacco platypus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) harbors diverse matrilines and high genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin; Zhou, Tian-Qi; Wan, Tao; Perdices, Anabel; Yang, Jin-Quan; Tang, Xin-Sheng; Wang, Zheng-Ping; Huang, Li-Qun; Huang, Song; He, Shun-Ping

    2016-03-18

    Six main mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages have been described in minnow (Zacco platypus) samples obtained from northern, western and southern China. Perdices et al. (2004) predicted that further sampling of other tributaries might discover more lineages of this species. In this study, we collected 26 Zacco platypus individuals in the Huangshan area of eastern China and determined the cytochrome b (cytb) sequence variations. Combined with reported data in GenBank, we identified ten matrilines (Zacco A-J) in a total of 169 samples, with relatively high molecular divergence found among them. The Huangshan population had the greatest genetic variation among all sampled regions and hosted six of the ten matrilines. Our results highlight the significance of the Huangshan area for the conservation of Zacco platypus.

  15. Development and evolution of melanophore patterns in fishes of the genus Danio (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    McClure

    1999-07-01

    Pigmentation patterns in vertebrates have become an important model for those interested in mechanisms of pattern determination. I present detailed information on the development of melanophore patterns in the zebrafish, Danio rerio, five close relatives of that species, and an outgroup. The comparison of the ontogeny of melanophore patterns in this group is an important first step towards understanding the developmental basis of the interspecific variation. Pigment patterns in this group range from no distinct patterning at all to stripes of differing numbers and widths to reticulated stripes. Species examined form identical larval patterns and follow a common sequence of events from which different elements are eliminated or altered to produce the variety of patterns seen in the group. As flexion is completed, melanophores move from larval positions onto the flanks of the fish. In D. rerio, D. rerio 'leo,' D. kerri, and D. malabaricus, xanthophores become established on the body of the fish as the melanophores move; erythrophores become established on the flanks of D. albolineatus and D. sp. cf. aequipinnatus. An increase in melanophore number, begun at this time, continues at a higher rate in D. rerio, D. kerri, D. sp. cf. aequipinnatus and Tanichthys albonubes than in the other three species. This results in a greater number of melanophores on adults in those species with a higher rate of melanophore increase. No distinct pattern forms, except on the caudal peduncle, in D. albolineatus. In all other Danio species, melanophore stripes form first below then above the horizontal myoseptum. Additional stripes are added first below then above these initial two stripes. D. kerri develops fewer, wider melanophore stripes than D. rerio. After initial stripe formation, D. malabaricus and D. sp. cf. aequipinnatus both developed vertical pattern elements and reticulations in the melanophore pattern. Differences in patterns between species are similar in several cases to described mutants of the zebrafish, suggesting that some aspects of interspecific pigmentation pattern variation may be under relatively simple genetic control. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. A new redfin species, Pseudobarbus skeltoni (Cyprinidae, Teleostei), from the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chakona, Albert; Swartz, Ernst R

    2013-01-01

    A new cyprinid species, Pseudobarbus skeltoni sp. nov, is described from material recently collected in the upper Riviersonderend River (a major tributary of the Breede River system) and the Krom River (a tributary of the Molenaars River in the upper Breede River) in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. The new species is readily distinguished from congeners, except P. burgi and P burchelli, by having two pairs of prominent oral barbels. Pseudobarbus skeltoni can be distinguished from P. burgi and P burchelli by the following combination of characters: distinctive terminal (vs. subterminal) mouth in adults; mouth inferior in sub-adults and young adults of P skeltoni but lower lips are unretracted (vs. retracted) and lack a distinct cartilaginous plate; snout prominent; more slender head (head depth 64.2% of HL, vs. 70.1% of HL in P. burchelli and 74.1% of HL in P. burgi); and a longer head relative to standard length (30.5 % vs. 26.8% in P. burchelli and 25.8% in P. burgi). The new species attains the largest size of any Pseudobarbus. The restricted distribution and the small remaining population sizes of P skeltoni indicate that this species is highly threatened and requires immediate conservation attention.

  17. Differences in thermal tolerance in coexisting sexual and asexual mollies (Poecilia, Poeciliidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Fischer, C; Schlupp, I

    2009-05-01

    This study reports significant differences between the gynogenetic Amazon molly Poecilia formosa and one of its sperm hosts, and the sexual sailfin molly Poecilia latipinna in the critical temperatures at which individual fishes lost motion control. Based on these measurements, it is suggested that cold snaps occurring in winter, but not summer temperatures, can significantly change population composition of these closely related fishes by inflicting higher mortality on P. formosa.

  18. Parasites in sexual and asexual mollies (Poecilia, Poeciliidae, Teleostei): a case for the Red Queen?

    PubMed Central

    Tobler, Michael; Schlupp, Ingo

    2005-01-01

    The maintenance of sexual reproduction in the face of its supposed costs is a major paradox in evolutionary biology. The Red Queen hypothesis, which states that sex is an adaptation to fast-evolving parasites, is currently one of the most recognized explanations for the ubiquity of sex and predicts that asexual lineages should suffer from a higher parasite load if they coexist with closely related sexuals. We tested this prediction using four populations of the sexual fish species Poecilia latipinna and its asexual relative Poecilia formosa. Contrary to expectation, no differences in parasite load could be detected between the two species. PMID:17148156

  19. Parasites in sexual and asexual mollies (Poecilia, Poeciliidae, Teleostei): a case for the Red Queen?

    PubMed

    Tobler, Michael; Schlupp, Ingo

    2005-06-22

    The maintenance of sexual reproduction in the face of its supposed costs is a major paradox in evolutionary biology. The Red Queen hypothesis, which states that sex is an adaptation to fast-evolving parasites, is currently one of the most recognized explanations for the ubiquity of sex and predicts that asexual lineages should suffer from a higher parasite load if they coexist with closely related sexuals. We tested this prediction using four populations of the sexual fish species Poecilia latipinna and its asexual relative Poecilia formosa. Contrary to expectation, no differences in parasite load could be detected between the two species.

  20. Aspects of germinal cyst and sperm development in Poecilia latipinna (Teleostei: Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Grier, J H

    1975-06-01

    The structure of the testis of Poecilia latipinna is described with particular reference to Sertoli cell-germ cell relationships during development and maturation of the germinal cyst. The cyst develops when primary spermatocytes become surrounded by a single layer of Sertoli cells at the testis periphery. As spermatogenesis and then spermiogenesis proceed, the cyst moves centrally in the testis toward the ducts comprising the vasa efferentia. In addition to being a structural part of the germinal cyst, the Sertoli cells phagocytize residual bodies cast off by developing spermatids and form an association with mature bodies cast off by developing spermatids and form an association with mature sperm, which resembles that observed in mammals, before the sperm are released into the vasa efferentia as a spermatozeugmata. The results of this investigation are discussed in view of what is known concerning testis structure in other teleosts and similarities between cell functions in teleosts and mammals. It is concluded that teleost Sertoli cells, teleost lobule boundary cells and mammalian Sertoli cells are homologous.

  1. Migration and reproductive biology of Mugil liza (Teleostei: Mugilidae) in south Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lemos, V M; Varela, A S; Schwingel, P R; Muelbert, J H; Vieira, J P

    2014-09-01

    The mullet Mugil liza occurs along the Atlantic coast of South America from Venezuela to Argentina, but 95% of the commercial catch is collected from south Brazil between São Paulo and Argentina. Mugil liza is a single spawner with oocyte development occurring synchronously in two groups. Spawning happens in marine areas and occurs after migration. The reproductive migration occurs from Argentina (38° S) to the southern Brazilian states (24-26° S) from April to July, with peak spawning in June between northern Santa Catarina and Paraná. The presence of hyaline oocytes was associated with high salinity and sea surface temperatures of 19-21° C, and followed the seasonal northward displacement of these oceanographic conditions. The average size at first maturity (Lm ) for both sexes was 408·3 mm total length, LT . Males (Lm  = 400·1) matured earlier than females (Lm  = 421·9 mm). Fecundity ranged from 818,992 to 2,869,767 oocytes (mean = 1,624,551) in fish that were between 426 and 660 mm LT .

  2. Molecular systematics of the Labeonini inhabiting the karst regions in southwest China (Teleostei, Cypriniformes)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lan-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Yang, Jun-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The major phylogenetic pattern of the cyprinid tribe Labeonini has been revealed by previous molecular studies; however, the relationships within a clade that mainly inhabits the karst regions, which we refer to as the “karst group”, in southwest China remain unresolved due to the low taxon sampling. This group includes more than 50% of the genera and species of Labeonini in China. Moreover, more than 90% of the genera of this group are endemic to China. In addition, some new genera and species of Labeonini have been discovered from these karst regions, but their taxonomic validity and phylogenetic position have not been examined. In this contribution, partial sequences of four nuclear (exon 3 of recombination activating protein 1, rhodopsin, early growth response protein 2B gene and interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein gene) and three mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b, cytochrome oxidase subunit I and 16S ribosomal RNA) from 36 ingroup taxa and 25 outgroup taxa were analyzed to provide a hypothesis of the phylogenetic relationships within the labeonins of the karst regions in China. We propose that the monophyly of Parasinilabeo, Ptychidio, Rectoris and Semilabeo are supported. A new genus, Prolixicheilus, is erected for Pseudogyrinocheilus longisulcus. Cophecheilus bamen is the sister to Prolixicheilus longisulcus. Ptychidio, Pseudocrossocheilus, Semilabeo, Rectoris and Stenorynchoacrum are closely related with high support values. Sinocrossocheilus, Pseudogyrinocheilus, Paraqianlabeo, Hongshuia, Discogobio and Discocheilus form a clade together with high support. Considering molecular results and morphological differences, Parasinilabeo longicorpus and Ptychidio macrops might be the synonyms of Parasinilabeo assimilis and Ptychidio jordani respectively. Comprehensive taxonomic revisions of the two genera Parasinilabeo and Ptychidio may be necessary. PMID:27667927

  3. Altrichthys alelia, a new brooding damselfish (Teleostei, Perciformes, Pomacentridae) from Busuanga Island, Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Giacomo; Longo, Gary C.; Quiros, T.E. Angela L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new species of damselfish, Altrichthys alelia sp. n. is described from specimens collected in shallow water (1–8m depth) off Busuanga Island, Palawan Province, Philippines. It differs from the other two species in the genus, A. curatus and A. azurelineatus, in various features including having golden upper body lacking dark edges of dorsal and caudal fins, higher modal number of tubed lateral line scales, as well as differences in two mitochondrial markers, one nuclear marker, and RAD markers. PMID:28769678

  4. Altrichthys alelia, a new brooding damselfish (Teleostei, Perciformes, Pomacentridae) from Busuanga Island, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Giacomo; Longo, Gary C; Quiros, T E Angela L

    2017-01-01

    A new species of damselfish, Altrichthys aleliasp. n. is described from specimens collected in shallow water (1-8m depth) off Busuanga Island, Palawan Province, Philippines. It differs from the other two species in the genus, A. curatus and A. azurelineatus, in various features including having golden upper body lacking dark edges of dorsal and caudal fins, higher modal number of tubed lateral line scales, as well as differences in two mitochondrial markers, one nuclear marker, and RAD markers.

  5. A checklist of macroparasites of Liza haematocheila (Temminck & Schlegel) (Teleostei: Mugilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kostadinova, Aneta

    2008-01-01

    Background The mugilid fish Liza haematocheila (syn. Mugil soiuy), native to the Western North Pacific, provides opportunities to examine the changes of its parasite fauna after its translocation to the Sea of Azov and subsequent establishment in the Black Sea. However, the information on macroparasites of this host in both ranges of its current distribution comes from isolated studies published in difficult-to-access literature sources. Materials and methods Data from 53 publications, predominantly in Chinese, Russian and Ukrainian, were compiled from an extensive search of the literature and the Host-Parasite Database maintained up to 2005 at the Natural History Museum, London. Results The complete checklist of the metazoan parasites of L. haematocheila throughout its distributional range comprises summarised information for 69 nominal species of helminth and ectoparasitic crustacean parasites, from 45 genera and 27 families (370 host-parasite records in total) and includes the name of the parasite species, the area/locality of the host capture, and the author and date of the published record. The taxonomy is updated and the validity of the records and synonymies are critically evaluated. A comparison of the parasite faunas based on the records in the native and introduced/invasive range of L. haematocheila suggests that a large number of parasite species was 'lost' in the new distributional range whereas an even greater number was 'gained'. Conclusion Although the present checklist provides information that will facilitate future studies, the interesting question of macroparasite faunal diversity in L. haematocheila in its natural and introduced/invasive ranges cannot be dealt with the current data because of unreliability associated with the large number of non-documented and questionable records. This stresses the importance of data quality analysis in using host-parasite database and checklist data. PMID:19117506

  6. Morphological and molecular evidence for the occurrence of three Hippocampus species (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Rosana Beatriz; Siccha-Ramirez, Raquel; Silva, José Rodrigo Santos; Oliveira, Claudio

    2014-09-16

    For many decades only two species of seahorses were recognized from Brazil: Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933, the long snout seahorse, and H. erectus Perry, 1810, the lined seahorse. The presence of a possible third species, recognized in 2002, brought about the need for a broad revision of the genus in Brazilian waters. A total of 335 specimens of seahorses, obtained from Brazilian and other collections, representing the three putative species from Brazil were analyzed: H. reidi, the species of greatest abundance and occurs in estuaries and the sea; H. erectus, which occurs only in the sea, and Hippocampus patagonicus was also determined to be present based on multiple specimens. Our morphometric / numerical and molecular analysis showed that the species currently identified as H. erectus in Brazil is actually H. patagonicus Piacentino & Luzatto, 2004. The existence of a possible third species, was instead based on the true H. erectus, as confirmed in the present study by the study of classical systematic and mitochondrial analysis. Thus, we recognize three species of seahorses in Brazil: H. erectus, H. reidi and H. patagonicus.

  7. Petroscirtes pylei, a new saber-toothed blenny from the Fiji Islands (Teleostei: Blenniidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith-Vaniz, W.F.

    2005-01-01

    Petroscirtes pylei is described from three specimens, 20.3-40.9 mm SL, obtained from a deep-water reef off Suva, Viti Levu, Fiji Islands. It is distinguished from all other congeners by its color pattern, including the presence of two dark body stripes, the lower one broadly extending onto the anal fin, and the dorsal fin with a broad, dark basal stripe, superimposed by a conspicuous white spot centered on the 4th spine. Among Petroscirtes, only the new species and P. springeri typically have 12 dorsal-fin spines but they are not closely related. The holotype was collected in 104-110 m, the second deepest depth record for a species of Petroscirtes. Discovery of this new species, and an apparently second new deep-water Petroscrites (uncollected), at a different Fijian reef indicates that our knowledge of the biodiversity of this habitat and of the saber-toothed blennies is very incomplete. Copyright ?? 2005 Magnolia Press.

  8. Genetic Linkage Map of Fishes of the Genus Xiphophorus (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    PubMed Central

    Morizot, D. C.; Slaugenhaupt, S. A.; Kallman, K. D.; Chakravarti, A.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of genotypes of 76 polymorphic loci in more than 2600 backcross hybrid individuals derived from intra- and interspecific genetic crosses of fishes of the genus Xiphophorus (Poeciliidae) resulted in the identification of 17 multipoint linkage groups containing 55 protein-coding loci and one sex chromosome-linked pigment pattern gene. Multipoint linkage analyses identified highly probable gene orders for 10 linkage groups. The total genome length was estimated to be ~18 Morgans. Comparisons of the Xiphophorus linkage map with those of other fishes, amphibians and mammals suggested that fish gene maps are remarkably similar and probably retain many syntenic groups present in the ancestor of all vertebrates. PMID:2004711

  9. Demonstration of the extrinsic coagulation pathway in teleostei: Identification of zebrafish coagulation factor VII

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, John; Templer, Michael; Gregory, Michael; Hanumanthaiah, Ravikumar; Troyer, Dean; Phan, Thao; Thankavel, Bharath; Jagadeeswaran, Pudur

    2001-01-01

    It is not known whether the mammalian mechanism of coagulation initiation is conserved in fish. Identification of factor VII is critical in providing evidence for such a mechanism. A cDNA was cloned from a zebrafish (teleost) library that predicted a protein with sequence similarity to human factor VII. Factor VII was shown to be present in zebrafish blood and liver by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Immunodepletion of factor VII from zebrafish plasma selectively inhibited thromboplastin-triggered thrombin generation. Heterologous expression of zebrafish factor VII demonstrated a secreted protein (50 kDa) that reconstituted thromboplastin-triggered thrombin generation in immunodepleted zebrafish plasma. These results suggest conservation of the extrinsic coagulation pathway between zebrafish and humans and add credence to the zebrafish as a model for mammalian hemostasis. The structure of zebrafish factor VIIa predicted by homology modeling was consistent with the overall three-dimensional structure of human factor VIIa. However, amino acid disparities were found in the epidermal growth factor-2/serine protease regions that are present in the human tissue factor–factor VIIa contact surface, suggesting a structural basis for the species specificity of this interaction. In addition, zebrafish factor VII demonstrates that the Gla-EGF-EGF-SP domain structure, which is common to coagulation factors VII, IX, X, and protein C, was present before the radiation of the teleosts from the tetrapods. Identification of zebrafish factor VII significantly narrows the evolutionary window for development of the vertebrate coagulation cascade and provides insight into the structural basis for species specificity in the tissue factor–factor VIIa interaction. PMID:11459993

  10. Modulation of buccal pressure during prey capture in Hexagrammos decagrammus (Teleostei: Hexagrammidae)

    PubMed

    Nemeth

    1997-01-01

    Changes in intraoral pressure during prey capture were recorded for a trophic generalist, Hexagrammos decagrammus, feeding on different prey species. Prey were grouped into elusive (shrimps), grasping (isopods and crabs) and non-elusive (pieces of shrimp) categories. Elusive and grasping prey elicited strikes with a larger and faster reduction in buccal pressure than did non-elusive prey. The suction force generated by the predator differed for strikes among the shrimp genera in the elusive prey category. The most sedentary shrimps (Crangon alaskensis and C. nigricauda) elicited the fastest and greatest reduction in pressure relative to the most evasive shrimps (Pandalus danae and Heptacarpus stylus). A preparatory phase, during which the buccal cavity is compressed prior to the strike, occurred significantly more frequently in strikes at grasping prey than in strikes at elusive and non-elusive prey, and more frequently for elusive than for non-elusive prey. Prey size did not influence the suction force generated by the predator. No differences in buccal pressure patterns were detected between strikes that resulted in a capture or a miss, suggesting that misses were due to the escape behavior of the prey and were not the result of an inappropriate suction force. These data support the current view that fish can modify their feeding mode in response to prey behavior, and they emphasize that the behavioral responses of the individual prey must be considered when defining the appropriate strategy for prey capture. The use of a flexible, modifiable feeding behavior is associated with a broad diet in H. decagrammus and may increase capture success on diverse prey relative to that of other species showing stereotypical feeding responses.

  11. Evidence for repeated loss of selective constraint in rhodopsin of amblyopsid cavefishes (Teleostei: Amblyopsidae).

    PubMed

    Niemiller, Matthew L; Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M; Shah, Premal; Schmitz, Lars; Near, Thomas J

    2013-03-01

    The genetic mechanisms underlying regressive evolution-the degeneration or loss of a derived trait--are largely unknown, particularly for complex structures such as eyes in cave organisms. In several eyeless animals, the visual photoreceptor rhodopsin appears to have retained functional amino acid sequences. Hypotheses to explain apparent maintenance of function include weak selection for retention of light-sensing abilities and its pleiotropic roles in circadian rhythms and thermotaxis. In contrast, we show that there has been repeated loss of functional constraint of rhodopsin in amblyopsid cavefishes, as at least three cave lineages have independently accumulated unique loss-of-function mutations over the last 10.3 Mya. Although several cave lineages still possess functional rhodopsin, they exhibit increased rates of nonsynonymous mutations that have greater effect on the structure and function of rhodopsin compared to those in surface lineages. These results indicate that functionality of rhodopsin has been repeatedly lost in amblyopsid cavefishes. The presence of a functional copy of rhodopsin in some cave lineages is likely explained by stochastic accumulation of mutations following recent subterranean colonization. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Eidinemacheilus, a new generic name for Noemacheilus smithi Greenwood (Teleostei; Nemacheilidae).

    PubMed

    Segherloo, Iraj Hashemzadeh; Ghaedrahmati, Nabiallah; Freyhof, Jörg

    2016-08-05

    Eidinemacheilus, new genus, is described for the troglomorphic Noemacheilus smithi Greenwood. The sole species of the genus is endemic to an aquifer in the Karun River drainage in the Iranian Zagros Mountains. Eidinemacheilus smithi was identified as a species in Paracobitis as both genera share an elevated dorsal adipose crest, a character state being widespread in nemacheilid loaches. Eidinemacheilus is distinguished from all other genera of Nemacheilidae in the Middle East by having 7+7 branched caudal-fin rays, a strongly reduced head canal system, no pigmentation and no eyes. Eidinemacheilus smithi is also distinguished from other genera in the Middle East by a combination of the following character states: pelvic-fin origin behind of a vertical of the dorsal-fin origin, anus slightly in front of the anal-fin origin and no sexual dimorphism in the length of the paired fins. Eidinemacheilus, as a valid genus, is supported by the analysis of mitochondrial DNA data that shows no close affinity to Paracobitis or other nemacheilid genera from Europe, the Middle East and Western India.

  13. Cobitis avicennae, a new species of spined loach from the Tigris River drainage (Teleostei: Cobitidae).

    PubMed

    Mousavi-Sabet, Hamed; Vatandoust, Saber; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Geiger, Matthias F; Freyhof, Jörg

    2015-01-30

    Cobitis avicennae, new species, from the Karkheh and Karun sub-drainages in the Tigris catchment is distinguished from other Cobitis species in the Persian Gulf, Kor and the southern Caspian Sea basins by having a single lamina circularis in males, a small comma-shaped black spot on the upper caudal-fin base, 5½ branched anal-fin rays, 5-6 rows of dark spots on the dorsal and caudal fins, scales below the dorsal-fin base with a small focal zone and pigmentation zone Z4 with 12-17 large, partly fused blotches. It is also distinguished from other Cobitis species in the comparison group by six fixed, diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA COI barcode region.

  14. Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the Capoeta damascina Species Complex (Pisces: Teleostei: Cyprinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Alwan, Nisreen; Esmaeili, Hamid-Reza; Krupp, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    Capoeta damascina was earlier considered by many authors as one of the most common freshwater fish species found throughout the Levant, Mesopotamia, Turkey, and Iran. However, owing to a high variation in morphological characters among and within its various populations, 17 nominal species were described, several of which were regarded as valid by subsequent revising authors. Capoeta damascina proved to be a complex of closely related species, which had been poorly studied. The current study aims at defining C. damascina and the C. damascina species complex. It investigates phylogenetic relationships among the various members of the C. damascina complex, based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships were projected against paleogeographical events to interpret the geographic distribution of the taxa under consideration in relation to the area’s geological history. Samples were obtained from throughout the geographic range and were subjected to genetic analyses, using two molecular markers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (n = 103) and the two adjacent divergence regions (D1-D2) of the nuclear 28S rRNA genes (n = 65). Six closely related species were recognized within the C. damascina complex, constituting two main lineages: A western lineage represented by C. caelestis, C. damascina, and C. umbla and an eastern lineage represented by C. buhsei, C. coadi, and C. saadii. The results indicate that speciation of these taxa is rather a recent event. Dispersal occurred during the Pleistocene, resulting in present-day distribution patterns. A coherent picture of the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the C. damascina species complex is drawn, explaining the current patterns of distribution as a result of paleogeographic events and ecological adaptations. PMID:27309854

  15. Embryonic Developmental Stages of African Giant Catfish Heterobranchus longifilis (Valenciennes, 1840) (Teleostei, Clariidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilfred-Ekprikpo, P. C.

    2016-02-01

    One of the major challenges confronting the globe is the issue of food insecurity. This problem results from inadequate protein intake by humans especially those people from the third world countries. In order to arrest this ugly situation, there is the need to increase protein production by intensifying aquaculture. In sub-saharan Africa, particularly Nigeria, the major aquaculture species is African mud catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and its production has increase protein output but the protein deficit is still wide. Thus, necessitating the need to develop other aquaculture species endemic to the region. One of these species is Heterobranchus and there successful breeding depending on a good understanding of their biology. The embryonic developmental stages of Heterobranchus longifilis in freshwater tanks were determined. The first cleavage cell division occurred 30 minutes after fertilization of eggs while, the morula stage was observed within 2 hours. The blastula stage occurred between 2 and 8 hours, while the gastrula stage occurred between 12 and 18 hours. Thereafter, neurulation period, and embryonic body formation appeared. The optical vesicle and auditory vesicle formed. Finally muscular contraction, tail formation, heartbeat and hatching occurred. The embryonic developmental stage of H. longifilis started immediately the oocyte (egg) was fertilized and terminated when the embryo hatched from the chorion membranous wall. The young larva emerged from the embryonic membrane at 24.46 hrs with vigorous lashing of the caudal region against the chorion membrane. The average weight and length of the yolk larvae were 0.005g and 0.43 cm respectively. The percentage fertilization and hatchability rates were 82.50 and 65.10% respectively. The experiment revealed that Heterobranchus longifilis could be a good aquaculture species.

  16. Amblyceps accari, a new species of torrent catfish (Teleostei: Amblycipitidae) from the Western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Dahanukar, Neelesh; Raghavan, Rajeev; Ali, Anvar; Britz, Ralf

    2016-05-06

    A new species of torrent catfish, Amblyceps accari, is described from the central region of the Western Ghats of India. The new species differs from all its congeners by having 12 branched anal-fin rays (vs. 7-10 in other Amblyceps, rarely 11 in A. tuberculatum). It differs further from all other species of the genus except A. murraystuarti and A. torrentis in having the adipose fin confluent with the dorsal procurrent part of the caudal fin and by the following combination of characters from all its congeners: jaws unequal with lower jaw weakly-projecting, pectoral spine smooth, adipose-fin origin opposite anal-fin origin, dorsal fin to adipose-fin distance more than one fourth of standard length, adipose fin long with its base more than one-fourth of standard length, and deeply forked caudal fin with minute, poorly developed, centrally projecting hooks on the proximal lepidotrichia of central caudal-fin rays. The discovery of the new species represents the first record of this genus from peninsular India.

  17. Non-optical releasers for aggressive behavior in blind and blinded Astyanax (Teleostei, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Espinasa, Luis; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Jeffery, William R

    2005-09-30

    Prior to this study, it was believed that epigean and hypogean Astyanax differ markedly in their display of agonistic behavior. Research suggested that surface-dwelling individuals were extremely aggressive whereas their blind, cave-dwelling counterparts tended to show little or no aggressive behavior. Aggression in Astyanax was thought to be triggered by visual stimuli because surface fish in a dark environment or surface fish blinded late in life did not show aggression. Here, we demonstrate that surface fish blinded early on in their embryonic development are highly aggressive as adults. We also report the first case of a population of blind cave-dwelling Astyanax that is highly aggressive. We conclude that reduced aggression is not the only evolutionary pathway for troglobitic Astyanax and that there is some degree of developmental plasticity in the releaser of aggression and in the selection of its triggering stimuli.

  18. Repetitive DNA Sequences and Evolution of ZZ/ZW Sex Chromosomes in Characidium (Teleostei: Characiformes).

    PubMed

    Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; da Costa Silva, Guilherme José; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Characidium constitutes an interesting model for cytogenetic studies, since a large degree of karyotype variation has been detected in this group, like the presence/absence of sex and supernumerary chromosomes and variable distribution of repetitive sequences in different species/populations. In this study, we performed a comparative cytogenetic analysis in 13 Characidium species collected at different South American river basins in order to investigate the karyotype diversification in this group. Chromosome analyses involved the karyotype characterization, cytogenetic mapping of repetitive DNA sequences and cross-species chromosome painting using a W-specific probe obtained in a previous study from Characidium gomesi. Our results evidenced a conserved diploid chromosome number of 2n = 50, and almost all the species exhibited homeologous ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in different stages of differentiation, except C. cf. zebra, C. tenue, C. xavante and C. stigmosum. Notably, some ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes showed 5S and/or 18S rDNA clusters, while no U2 snDNA sites could be detected in the sex chromosomes, being restricted to a single chromosome pair in almost all the analyzed species. In addition, the species Characidium sp. aff. C. vidali showed B chromosomes with an inter-individual variation of 1 to 4 supernumerary chromosomes per cell. Notably, these B chromosomes share sequences with the W-specific probe, providing insights about their origin. Results presented here further confirm the extensive karyotype diversity within Characidium in contrast with a conserved diploid chromosome number. Such chromosome differences seem to constitute a significant reproductive barrier, since several sympatric Characidium species had been described during the last few years and no interespecific hybrids were found.

  19. Genus-level taxonomic changes implied by the mitochondrial phylogeny of grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    PubMed

    Durand, Jean-Dominique; Chen, Wei-Jen; Shen, Kang-Ning; Fu, Cuizhang; Borsa, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive mitochondrial phylogeny of the family Mugilidae (Durand et al., Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 64 (2012) 73-92) demonstrated the polyphyly or paraphyly of a proportion of the 20 genera in the family. Based on these results, here we propose a revised classification with 25 genera, including 15 genera currently recognized as valid (Agonostomus, Aldrichetta, Cestraeus, Chaenomugil, Chelon, Crenimugil, Ellochelon, Joturus, Mugil, Myxus, Neomyxus, Oedalechilus, Rhinomugil, Sicamugil and Trachystoma), 7 resurrected genera [Dajaus (for Agonostomus monticola), Gracilimugil (for Liza argentea), Minimugil (for Sicamugil cascasia), Osteomugil (for several species currently under Moolgarda and Valamugil, including M. cunnesius, M. engeli, M. perusii, and V. robustus), Planiliza (for Indo-Pacific Chelon spp., Indo-Pacific Liza spp., and Paramugil parmatus), Plicomugil (for Oedalechilus labiosus), and Squalomugil (for Rhinomugil nasutus)] and 3 new genera: Neochelon gen. nov. (for Liza falcipinnis), Parachelon gen. nov. (for L. grandisquamis) and Pseudomyxus gen. nov. (for Myxus capensis). Genus Chelon was shown to include exclusively Chelon spp. and Liza spp. from the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, and Liza spp. species endemic to eastern southern Africa. Genus Crenimugil should now include C. crenilabis, Moolgarda seheli and V. buchanani. Genus names Liza, Moolgarda, Paramugil, Valamugil and Xenomugil should be abandoned because they are no longer valid. Further genetic evidence is required to confirm or infirm the validity of the genus Paracrenimugil Senou 1988. The mitochondrial phylogeny of the 25 genera from the present revision is the following: [(Sicamugil, (Minimugil, Rhinomugil)); Trachystoma; ((Myxus, Neomyxus), (Cestraeus, Chaenomugil, (Agonostomus, Dajaus, Joturus), Mugil)); (Aldrichetta, Gracilimugil); Neochelon gen. nov.; (Pseudomyxus gen. nov., (Chelon, Oedalechilus, Planiliza, Parachelon gen. nov.)); ((Squalomugil, (Ellochelon, Plicomugil)), (Crenimugil, Osteomugil))]. Agonostomus monticola and several species with large distribution ranges (including Moolgarda seheli, Mugil cephalus and M. curema) consist of separate lineages whose geographic distribution suggests they are cryptic species, thus warranting further taxonomic work in the Mugilidae at the infra-generic level.

  20. Tempo and rates of diversification in the South American cichlid genus Apistogramma (Teleostei: Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Tougard, Christelle; García Dávila, Carmen R; Römer, Uwe; Duponchelle, Fabrice; Cerqueira, Frédérique; Paradis, Emmanuel; Guinand, Bruno; Angulo Chávez, Carlos; Salas, Vanessa; Quérouil, Sophie; Sirvas, Susana; Renno, Jean-François

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating biodiversity and understanding the processes involved in diversification are noticeable conservation issues in fishes subject to large, sometimes illegal, ornamental trade purposes. Here, the diversity and evolutionary history of the Neotropical dwarf cichlid genus Apistogramma from several South American countries are investigated. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers are used to infer phylogenetic relationships between 31 genetically identified species. The monophyly of Apistogramma is suggested, and Apistogramma species are distributed into four clades, corresponding to three morphological lineages. Divergence times estimated with the Yule process and an uncorrelated lognormal clock dated the Apistogramma origin to the beginning of the Eocene (≈ 50 Myr) suggesting that diversification might be related to marine incursions. Our molecular dating also suggests that the Quaternary glacial cycles coincide with the phases leading to Apistogramma speciation. These past events did not influence diversification rates in the speciose genus Apistogramma, since diversification appeared low and constant through time. Further characterization of processes involved in recent Apistogramma diversity will be necessary.

  1. A new species of redfin (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Pseudobarbus) from the Verlorenvlei River system, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chakona, Albert; Swartz, Ernst R.; Skelton, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pseudobarbus verloreni, a new species, is described from material collected in the Verlorenvlei River system on the west coast of South Africa. It differs from its congeners (except Pseudobarbus skeltoni, Pseudobarbus burchelli, and Pseudobarbus burgi) by the presence of two pairs of oral barbels. Pseudobarbus verloreni sp. n. can be distinguished from the three currently described double barbeled Pseudobarbus species by the following combination of characters: pigment pattern, generally deeper body relative to standard length, a longer intestine associated with the deeper body form, shorter snout relative to head length, and much shorter anterior barbels relative to head length. The new species is distinguished from Pseudobarbus burgi in the neighbouring Berg River system by its longer head and longer pre-dorsal length. It seems as if Pseudobarbus verloreni sp. n. has been extirpated from the Langvlei River system and face several threats to its survival in the Verlorenvlei River system. PMID:25493062

  2. Repetitive DNA Sequences and Evolution of ZZ/ZW Sex Chromosomes in Characidium (Teleostei: Characiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; da Costa Silva, Guilherme José; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Characidium constitutes an interesting model for cytogenetic studies, since a large degree of karyotype variation has been detected in this group, like the presence/absence of sex and supernumerary chromosomes and variable distribution of repetitive sequences in different species/populations. In this study, we performed a comparative cytogenetic analysis in 13 Characidium species collected at different South American river basins in order to investigate the karyotype diversification in this group. Chromosome analyses involved the karyotype characterization, cytogenetic mapping of repetitive DNA sequences and cross-species chromosome painting using a W-specific probe obtained in a previous study from Characidium gomesi. Our results evidenced a conserved diploid chromosome number of 2n = 50, and almost all the species exhibited homeologous ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in different stages of differentiation, except C. cf. zebra, C. tenue, C. xavante and C. stigmosum. Notably, some ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes showed 5S and/or 18S rDNA clusters, while no U2 snDNA sites could be detected in the sex chromosomes, being restricted to a single chromosome pair in almost all the analyzed species. In addition, the species Characidium sp. aff. C. vidali showed B chromosomes with an inter-individual variation of 1 to 4 supernumerary chromosomes per cell. Notably, these B chromosomes share sequences with the W-specific probe, providing insights about their origin. Results presented here further confirm the extensive karyotype diversity within Characidium in contrast with a conserved diploid chromosome number. Such chromosome differences seem to constitute a significant reproductive barrier, since several sympatric Characidium species had been described during the last few years and no interespecific hybrids were found. PMID:26372604

  3. Liver transcriptome characterization of the endangered freshwater silverside Basilichthys microlepidotus (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae) using next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Vega-Retter, Caren; Véliz, David

    2014-10-25

    Twenty eight out of 44 Chilean freshwater fishes have been considered to fall within the vulnerable or threatened category. Thus, information about the biology, ecology and the effects of the anthropic activity on these species is fundamental to take appropriate conservation measures. In Chile the endemic silverside Basilichthys microlepidotus inhabits mainly rivers surrounded by cities; during the last 10years it was categorized as an endangered species, thus more basic information is needed in order to elaborate a plan of protection for this species. To this end, the transcriptome of B. microlepidotus was sequenced, assembled and characterized. A total of 7.8 million reads (1.05Gb) were obtained from the sequencing and 5.93 million reads (0.83Gb) were used for the de novo assembly, obtaining a total of 31,523 contigs. Of these, 13,724 contigs with expression in all the individuals used were retained for the functional annotation. 7938 sequences were successfully annotated; the biological processes class was the most highly represented, followed by molecular function and cellular component. These sequence data provide a useful new molecular resource for future studies on gene expression and the effects of the human activity on B. microlepidotus, which will facilitate obtaining more information about that, as well as the developing of appropriate conservation strategies for this species.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the rocky reef fish Cheilodactylus variegatus Valenciennes, 1833 (Teleostei: Cheilodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Quezada-Romegialli, Claudio; Véliz, David; Docmac, Felipe; Harrod, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Cheilodactylus variegatus is a common benthivorous marine fish inhabiting in rocky subtidal habitats in the eastern south Pacific coast of Chile and Peru. However, its biology and ecology are relatively understudied and its taxonomic assignment has been debated recently. The complete mitochondrial genome was assembled de novo and mapped to a reference using 5.97 million of reads obtained through Ion Torrent next generation sequencing, resulting in a circular sequence of 16,652 bp in length. Gene composition and arrangement comprised to that reported for most fishes and contained the typical structure of 2 rRNAs, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 1 non-coding region. This mitogenome provides a valuable resource for studies of fish molecular systematics, phylogeography and population genetics.

  5. Schindleria elongata, a new species of paedomorphic gobioid from the Red Sea (Teleostei: Schindleriidae).

    PubMed

    Fricke, R; Abu El-Regal, M

    2017-02-14

    A new species of paedomorphic gobioid, Schindleria elongata, from the Red Sea, is described on the basis of five specimens. The new species is characterized by its lack of body pigmentation; the body depth at pectoral-fin origin 4-5% of standard length (LS ) and at anal-fin origin 5-7% LS ; the predorsal length 66-70% LS ; pre-anal length 66-71% LS ; dorsal-fin rays 13 or 14; anal-fin rays 10 or 11; first dorsal-fin ray at myomere 20 or 21; first anal-fin ray below second to fourth dorsal-fin rays; myomeres 19 or 20 + 13 or 14 = 33 or 34 total; premaxillae and dentaries with small teeth; gas bladder located posteriorly at 56-60% LS ; males with a rod-like, flexible urogenital papilla lacking lobes, projections or accessory papillae, with distal half tapering to a broad, angular point and usually posteriorly directed. A key to the species of Schindleriidae is presented.

  6. Patterns of brain morphology in mid-European Cyprinidae (Pisces, Teleostei): a quantitative histological study.

    PubMed

    Kotrschal, K; Junger, H

    1988-01-01

    The present study considers patterns of brain morphology in 14 common species of mid-European Cyprinidae. Sixteen areas per brain were measured on serial cryostat sections by computer-aided planimetry. The volumes of these areas were expressed as % of the total brain volume. These brain centres (ranked according to falling values of the coefficient of variation VR, of the interspecific mean) are: Lobus facialis, L. vagus, central acustic area, Crista cerebellaris, Bulbus olfactorius, Eminentia granularis, Stratum opticum (of the optic tectum), Torus longitudinalis, Nucleus habenularis, Valvula cerebelli, Corpus cerebelli, Telencephalon, Tectum opticum, Diencephalon, Torus semicircularis, mesencephalic tegmentum. Seven primary sensory areas are leading in VR; highest in interspecific variability were the two special viscerosensory brainstem lobes for external (L. facialis) and internal (L. vagus) taste. Low in interspecific variability were integration centres (see above). By plotting the relative volumina of those brain centres which represent three major sensory modalities: brain stem chemosense, acoustico-lateralis and sense of vision, species are separated into three groups: 1) Most species scatter along an axis from moderately (Aspius aspius, Rutilus rutilus, Leuciscus cephalus, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Alburnus alburnus, Chondrostoma nasus) to highly developed chemo- and acustico-lateralis centres (Vimba vimba, Abramis brama, Abramis ballerus). Blicca bjoercna is situated in the middle of this axis. Within the latter group the optic centres are evenly well developed. 2) Carassius carassius, Gobio gobio and Tinca tinca are characterized by relatively small acoustico-lateralis and optic areas, but highly developed chemocentres. 3) Pelecus cultratus is monotypic among the species investigated by having large acoustico-lateralis and optic, but modestly developed chemocentres. The brain patterns relative to life style are discussed.

  7. Etheostoma erythrozonum, a new species of darter (teleostei: Percidae) from the Meramec River drainage, missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Switzer, J.F.; Wood, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    A new species of darter, Etheostoma erythrozonum, is described from the Meramec River drainage of Missouri, USA. Etheostoma erythrozonum is the first known fish species endemic to the Meramec River drainage. It differs morphologically and genetically from populations of its sister species, Etheostoma tetrazonum, from the Gasconade River, Osage River, and Moreau River drainages. Copyright ?? 2009 ?? Magnolia Press.

  8. Microanatomy of the paired-fin pads of ostariophysan fishes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi).

    PubMed

    Conway, Kevin W; Lujan, Nathan K; Lundberg, John G; Mayden, Richard L; Siegel, Dustin S

    2012-10-01

    Members of the teleost superorder Ostariophysi dominate freshwater habitats on all continents except Antarctica and Australia. Obligate benthic and rheophilic taxa from four different orders of the Ostariophysi (Gonorynchiformes, Cypriniformes, Characiformes, and Siluriformes) frequently exhibit thickened pads of skin along the ventral surface of the anteriormost ray or rays of horizontally orientated paired (pectoral and pelvic) fins. Such paired-fin pads, though convergent, are externally homogenous across ostariophysan groups (particularly nonsiluriform taxa) and have been considered previously to be the result of epidermal modification. Histological examination of the pectoral and/or pelvic fins of 44 species of ostariophysans (including members of the Gonorynchiforms, Cypriniformes, Characiformes, and Siluriformes) revealed a tremendous and previously unrecognized diversity in the cellular arrangement of the skin layers (epidermis and subdermis) contributing to the paired-fin pads. Three types of paired-fin pads (Types 1-3) are identified in nonsiluriform ostariophysan fishes, based on differences in the cellular arrangement of the epidermis and subdermis. The paired-fin pads of siluriforms may or may not exhibit a deep series of ridges and grooves across the surface. Two distinct patterns of unculus producing cells are identified in the epidermis of the paired-fin pads of siluriforms, one of which is characterized by distinct bands of keratinization throughout the epidermis and is described in Amphilius platychir (Amphiliidae) for the first time. General histological comparisons between the paired fins of benthic and rheophilic ostariophysan and nonostariophysan percomorph fishes are provided, and the possible function(s) of the paired-fin pads of ostariophysan fish are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The "pseudo-craniovertebral articulation" in the deep-sea fish Stomias boa (Teleostei: Stomiidae).

    PubMed

    Schnell, Nalani K; Bernstein, Peter; Maier, Wolfgang

    2008-05-01

    Many predatory deep-sea fishes show highly specialized modifications of their feeding apparatus, e.g., elongate jaws studded with long daggerlike teeth, often combined with a very distensible stomach, to be capable of swallowing relatively large prey. These striking features can be observed in members of the marine teleost family Stomiidae. The present study gives a detailed morphological description of the mesopelagic predatory fish, Stomias boa, based on a combined approach of clearing and double staining, serial sections and dissection. In this genus, large pads made of dense connective tissue extend from the first enlarged neural arch to the ventral side of the chordal sheath, embracing the prominent exoccipitals and thus constituting a kind of double ball- and socket joint for the head. The notochordal occipito-vertebral gap is enlarged, probably not by loss of vertebral centra as is proposed for other genera of the stomiid family, e.g., in Astronesthes or Photostomias. We conclude that this "pseudo-craniovertebral articulation" serves as a functional substitute for the absent vertebrae and strengthens the flexible, anterior part of the vertebral column during extreme dorsal expansion of the gape during prey capture and swallowing.

  10. Evolution of ontogenetic dietary shifts and associated gut features in prickleback fishes (Teleostei: Stichaeidae).

    PubMed

    German, D P; Gawlicka, A K; Horn, M H

    2014-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an ontogenetic dietary shift from carnivory to herbivory or omnivory, and concomitant changes in the gut facilitating digestion of algae, are synapomorphies of the tribes Xiphisterini and Esselenichthyini in the family Stichaeidae (pricklebacks). Previous investigations have revealed that two xiphisterine pricklebacks-Xiphister mucosus and Xiphister atropurpureus-become herbivorous or omnivorous, respectively, as their bodies grow larger, and that their guts show related changes in length and function. In this study we found that, with increase in size, the basal member of the Xiphisterini, Phytichthys chirus, showed an increased proportion of algae in its diet, increased activity of α-amylase and decreased activity of aminopeptidase, all of which support the synapomorphy hypothesis. Cebidichthys violaceus, a herbivore in the Esselenichthyini, shows similar ontogenetic changes in diet and digestive tract length and physiology, but these features were not observed in two derived carnivores, Dictyosoma burgeri and Dictyosoma rubrimaculatum, within the clade. These results suggest that herbivory is isolated to C. violaceus within the Esselenichthyini. Allometric relationships of gut length as a function of body size generally follow diet within the Xiphisterini and Esselenichthyini, with herbivores having the longest guts, which become disproportionately longer than body size as the fishes grow, omnivores intermediate gut lengths, and carnivores the shortest. A carnivore from an adjacent clade, Anoplarchus purpurescens, had the shortest gut, which did not change in length relative to body length as the fish grew. Overall, our results clarify the patterns of dietary evolution within the Stichaeidae and lay the foundation for more detailed studies of dietary and digestive specialization in fishes in the family.

  11. Discovering Hidden Diversity of Characins (Teleostei: Characiformes) in Ecuador's Yasuní National Park.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Camacho, Daniel; Barriga, Ramiro; Ron, Santiago R

    2015-01-01

    Management and conservation of biodiversity requires adequate species inventories. The Yasuní National Park is one of the most diverse regions on Earth and recent studies of terrestrial vertebrates, based on genetic evidence, have shown high levels of cryptic and undescribed diversity. Few genetic studies have been carried out in freshwater fishes from western Amazonia. Thus, in contrast with terrestrial vertebrates, their content of cryptic diversity remains unknown. In this study, we carried out genetic and morphological analyses on characin fishes at Yasuní National Park, in eastern Ecuador. Our goal was to identify cryptic diversity among one of the most speciose fish families in the Amazon region. This is the first time that genetic evidence has been used to assess the species content of the Napo Basin, one of the richest regions in vertebrate diversity. Phylogenetic analyses of partial mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (∼600 pb) DNA sequences from 232 specimens of the family Characidae and its closest groups revealed eight candidate new species among 33 species sampled, representing a 24% increase in species number. Analyses of external morphology allowed us to confirm the species status of six of the candidate species. Our results show high levels of cryptic diversity in Amazonian characins. If this group is representative of other Amazonian fish, our results would imply that the species richness of the Amazonian ichthyofauna is highly underestimated. Molecular methods are a necessary tool to obtain more realistic inventories of Neotropical freshwater fishes.

  12. Two new species of the genus Cobitis Linnaeus (Teleostei: Cobitidae) from southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongxia; Sui, Xiaoyun; Liang, Na; Chen, Yifeng

    2016-05-01

    Two new species of the genus Cobitis from southern China, C. hereromacula from the Luohe River in Guangdong Province and C. baishagensis from the Nandujiang River in Hainan Province, are described and illustrated here. C. hereromacula can be distinguished from its congeners by possessing the following combination of characteristics: absence of the second and third pigmentary zones of Gambetta; 13-16 oval blotches on the dorsum and 10-13 vertical, elongated triangular blotches below the midlateral line with more than 20 vertical dark brown bars between them; 6-7 narrow rows of dark spots on the caudal fin; a vertical oval spot smaller than the eye diameter on the upper part of the caudal peduncle; pointed mental lobes of the lower lip pointed with a slightly filiform tip; one slender and long needle-shaped lamina circularis at the base of the first branched ray of the male pectoral fins. C. baishagensis can be distinguished from its congeners by the fourth Gambetta zone being covered by 10-12 transverse elongated blotches; 4-5 narrow rows of dark spots on the caudal fin; a vertical blotch smaller than the eye diameter on the upper part of the caudal peduncle; males with a slender and long needle-shaped lamina circularis at the second branched pectoral fin ray in males; large scales with a slightly large focal zone; undeveloped mental lobes with a lower lip that does not end posteriorly in a filiform tip.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the tiger tail seahorse, Hippocampus comes (Teleostei, Syngnathidae).

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Hao; Lin, Han-Yang; Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Lin, Yeong-Shin; Ho, Hsuan-Ching

    2013-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the tiger tail seahorse was sequenced using a polymerase chain reaction-based method. The total length of mitochondrial DNA is 16,525 bp and includes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a control region. The mitochondrial gene arrangement of the tiger tail seahorse is also matching the one observed in the most vertebrate creatures. Base composition of the genome is A (32.8%), T (29.8%), C (23.0%), and G (14.4%) with an A+T-rich hallmark as that of other vertebrate mitochondrial genomes.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of the three-spot seahorse, Hippocampus trimaculatus (Teleostei, Syngnathidae).

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Hao; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Lin, Yeong-Shin; Liao, Yun-Chih

    2013-12-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the three-spot seahorse was sequenced using a polymerase chain reaction-based method. The total length of mitochondrial DNA is 16,535 bp and includes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a control region. The mitochondrial gene order of the three-spot seahorse also conforms to the distinctive vertebrate mitochondrial gene order. The base composition of the genome is A (32.7%), T (29.3%), C (23.4%), and G (14.6%) with an A + T-rich hallmark as that of other vertebrate mitochondrial genomes.

  15. Limits and phylogenetic relationships of East Asian fishes in the subfamily Oxygastrinae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Tang, Kevin L; Agnew, Mary K; Hirt, M Vincent; Lumbantobing, Daniel N; Sado, Tetsuya; Teoh, View-Hune; Yang, Lei; Bart, Henry L; Harris, Phillip M; He, Shunping; Miya, Masaki; Saitoh, Kenji; Simons, Andrew M; Wood, Robert M; Mayden, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    The cyprinid subfamily Oxygastrinae is composed of a diverse group of fishes that has been taxonomically and phylogenetically problematic. Their great variation in appearance, life histories, and trophic diversity resulted in uncertainty regarding their relationships, which led to their historical classification across many disparate subfamilies. The phylogenetic relationships of Oxygastrinae are resolved based on sequence data from four loci: cytochrome b, cytochrome c oxidase I, opsin, and recombination activating gene 1. A combined data matrix consisting of 4114 bp for 144 taxa was compiled and analyzed using maximum likelihood and parsimony optimality criteria. The subfamily Oxygastrinae is recovered as a monophyletic group that includes Ancherythroculter, Aphyocypris, Candidia, Chanodichthys, Ctenopharyngodon, Culter, Distoechodon, Elopichthys, Hainania, Hemiculter, Hemiculterella, Hemigrammocypris, Hypophthalmichthys, Ischikauia, Macrochirichthys, Megalobrama, Metzia, Mylopharyngodon, Nicholsicypris, Nipponocypris, Ochetobius, Opsariichthys, Oxygaster, Parabramis, Parachela, Paralaubuca, Pararasbora, Parazacco, Plagiognathops, Pseudobrama, Pseudohemiculter, Pseudolaubuca, Sinibrama, Squaliobarbus, Toxabramis, Xenocyprioides, Xenocypris, Yaoshanicus, and Zacco. Of these genera, the following were found to be monophyletic: Aphyocypris, Distoechodon, Hypophthalmichthys, Nipponocypris, Opsariichthys, Parachela, Paralaubuca, Plagiognathops, Xenocyprioides, and Xenocypris. The following genera were not monophyletic: Metzia, Hemiculter, Toxabramis, Ancherythroculter, Chanodichthys, Culter, Megalobrama. The remainder are either monotypic or were represented by only a single species. Four genera not examined in this study are provisionally classified in Oxygastrinae: Anabarilius, Longiculter, Pogobrama, and Rasborichthys.

  16. Physiological adaptation along environmental gradients and replicated hybrid zone structure in swordtails (Teleostei: Xiphophorus).

    PubMed

    Culumber, Z W; Shepard, D B; Coleman, S W; Rosenthal, G G; Tobler, M

    2012-09-01

    Local adaptation is often invoked to explain hybrid zone structure, but empirical evidence of this is generally rare. Hybrid zones between two poeciliid fishes, Xiphophorus birchmanni and X. malinche, occur in multiple tributaries with independent replication of upstream-to-downstream gradients in morphology and allele frequencies. Ecological niche modelling revealed that temperature is a central predictive factor in the spatial distribution of pure parental species and their hybrids and explains spatial and temporal variation in the frequency of neutral genetic markers in hybrid populations. Among populations of parentals and hybrids, both thermal tolerance and heat-shock protein expression vary strongly, indicating that spatial and temporal structure is likely driven by adaptation to local thermal environments. Therefore, hybrid zone structure is strongly influenced by interspecific differences in physiological mechanisms for coping with the thermal environment.

  17. On the electromotor neurons of both electric organs of Pollimyrus isidori (Mormyridae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, F; Denizot, J P; Tsuji, S

    1979-01-01

    The electromotor neurons (EMNs) of the adult electric organ of Pollimyrus isidori and the "giant neurons" (GNs) found in the more rostral part of the spinal cord were investigated both with light and electron microscopical methods. The two kinds of neuron are more or less similar in size, about 30 microns, and are found in the more dorsal part of the spinal cord. The EMNs show somatosomatic gap junctions, as do the GNs. In addition, chemical synapses could be found between nerve fibres and both types of neurons. Histochemical investigations show that the EMNs and the GNs are both AChE positive. On the basis of the arguments presented in the discussion, we believe that the "giant neurons" are the electromotor neurons of the larval electric organ of Pollimyrus isidori.

  18. A new species of the cardinalfish genus Jaydia (Teleostei: Apogonidae) from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Gon, Ofer; Liao, Yun-Chih; Kwang-Tsao, Shao

    2015-06-29

    Jaydia erythrophthalma n. sp. is described from specimens collected during two recent biodiversity surveys along the east and west coasts of Luzon, Philippines. It is characterized by a first dorsal fin with eight spines, serrated posterior and crenulated ventral preopercular edges, reddish orange iris and two series of brown spots tinged in orange on the upper part of the body.

  19. Sequence analyses and chromosomal distribution of the Tc1/Mariner element in Parodontidae fish (Teleostei: Characiformes).

    PubMed

    Schemberger, Michelle Orane; Nogaroto, Viviane; Almeida, Mara Cristina; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Valente, Guilherme Targino; Martins, Cesar; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Cestari, Marta Margarete; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo

    2016-11-30

    Transposable elements are able to move along eukaryotic genomes. They are divided into two classes according to their transposition intermediate: RNA (class I or retrotransposons) or DNA (class II or DNA transposons). Most of these sequences are inactive or non-autonomous in eukaryotic genomes. Inactivate transposons can accumulate mutations at neutral rates until losing their molecular identity. They may either be eliminated from the genome or take on different molecular functions. Transposable elements may also participate in the differentiation of sex chromosomes. Therefore, the structural variations and nucleotide similarity of Tc1/Mariner sequences were analyzed along with their potential participation in the differentiation processes of sex chromosomes in the genomes of Parodontidae fish. All Parodontidae species presented non-autonomous copies of Tc1/Mariner with structural variation, different levels of deterioration (genetic distance), and variations in insertion and deletion patterns. The physical mapping of Tc1/Mariner on chromosomes revealed dispersed signals in euchromatins, with small accumulations in terminal regions and in the sex chromosomes. The gene dosage ratios indicated copy number variations of Tc1/Mariner among the genomes and high transposase open reading frame deterioration in Parodon hilarii and Parodon pongoensis genomes. This transposon presented transcriptional activity in gonads, but there was no significant difference between sexes. This may indicate non-functional protein expression or may correspond to DNA binding proteins derived from Tc1/Mariner. Thus, our results show Tc1/Mariner inactivation along with a diversity in Parodontidae genomes and its participation in the differentiation of the W sex chromosome.

  20. Cytogenetic analysis of two locariid species (Teleostei, Siluriformes) from Iguatemi River (Parana River drainage) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Alves, Diandra Soares; Guterres, Zaira da Rosa; Martins-Santos, Isabel Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fishes of the Loricariidae family, known as “cascudos”, constitute an endemic group in Neotropical freshwaters. In this study, were cytogenetically examined two species of Loricariidae (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 and Farlowella amazonum (Günther, 1864) belonging to Hypostominae and Loricariinae subfamilies respectively) from Iguatemi River. Our study provide the first description regarding C-band and fluorochromic analysis in Farlowella amazonum. In Farlowella amazonum, diploid number was 58 chromosomes, with single Ag-NOR and heterochromatic blocks in centromeric regions of some chromosomes and large subtelomeric blocks were evidenced on the long arm of the pair 27, being this region CMA3+/DAPI-. The Pterygoplichthys anisitsi showed diploid number equal 52 chromosomes, with single Ag-NOR and heterochromatic blocks in centromeric and telomeric regions of some chromosomes and conspicuous large telomeric blocks on the long arm of the pair 10, being this region CMA3+/DAPI-. The results show that karyotype formula is nonconservative in Pterygoplichthys anisitsi and Farlowella amazonum. PMID:25893075

  1. Effects of dietary levels of protein on nitrogenous metabolism of Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei: Pimelodidae).

    PubMed

    Bibiano Melo, José Fernando; Lundstedt, Lícia Maria; Metón, Isidoro; Baanante, Isabel Vázquez; Moraes, Gilberto

    2006-10-01

    This manuscript reports changes in key enzymes and metabolites related to protein metabolism and nitrogen excretion in the liver of juveniles jundiá (Rhamdia quelen) fed on isocaloric diets containing 20%, 27%, 34% and 41% of crude protein. The hepatic activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and arginase (ARG) increased with the content of protein in the diet, and the ratios among the aminotransferases and GDH allowed evaluating metabolic preference. The concentration of free amino acids, ammonia and urea also rose with the dietary protein content. Increase of plasma urea and ammonia was the resultant effect of over amino acids catabolism as consequence of dietary protein surplus. Since the increase of protein in the diets resulted in weight gain, the rise in the hepatic activity of protein-metabolising enzymes in the fish fed high protein diets denoted effective use of dietary amino acids for growth and as a substrate for gluconeogenesis. Analysis of changes on metabolite levels and key enzyme activities in amino acid metabolism is proposed as a tool for assessing the proper balance of diet macronutrients.

  2. Mitogenomic circumscription of a novel percomorph fish clade mainly comprising "Syngnathoidei" (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Song, Ha Yeun; Mabuchi, Kohji; Satoh, Takashi P; Moore, Jon A; Yamanoue, Yusuke; Miya, Masaki; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2014-06-01

    Percomorpha, comprising about 60% of modern teleost fishes, has been described as the "(unresolved) bush at the top" of the tree, with its intrarelationships still being ambiguous owing to huge diversity (>15,000 species). Recent molecular phylogenetic studies based on extensive taxon and character sampling, however, have revealed a number of unexpected clades of Percomorpha, and one of which is composed of Syngnathoidei (seahorses, pipefishes, and their relatives) plus several groups distributed across three different orders. To circumscribe the clade more definitely, we sampled several candidate taxa with reference to the previous studies and newly determined whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences for 16 percomorph species across syngnathoids, dactylopterids, and their putatively closely-related fishes (Mullidae, Callionymoidei, Malacanthidae). Unambiguously aligned sequences (13,872 bp) from those 16 species plus 78 percomorphs and two outgroups (total 96 species) were subjected to partitioned Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The resulting trees revealed a highly supported clade comprising seven families in Syngnathoidei (Gasterosteiformes), Dactylopteridae (Scorpaeniformes), Mullidae in Percoidei and two families in Callionymoidei (Perciformes). We herein proposed to call this clade "Syngnathiformes" following the latest nuclear DNA studies with some revisions on the included families.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Rhodeus shitaiensis (Teleostei, Cypriniformes, Acheilognathidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Fan; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Lin, Yeong-Shin; Chang, Chia-Hao

    2015-04-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Rhodeus shitaiensis was determined by using a PCR-based method. The total length of mitochondrial DNA of this bitterling is 16,774 bp and includes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA, 22 transfer RNA genes, 1 replication origin region and 1 control region. The mitochondrial gene arrangement of the R. shitaiensis is also matching the one observed in the most vertebrate creatures. Base composition of the genome is A (28.7%), T (26.5%), C (27.4%) and G (17.4%) with an A + T rich hallmark as that of other vertebrate mitochondrial genomes.

  4. Reproductive cycles of Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada and Liza aurata (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    PubMed

    Bartulović, V; Dulčić, J; Matić-Skoko, S; Glamuzina, B

    2011-06-01

    The reproductive cycles of three mullet species from the Eastern Adriatic coast were described using several biological parameters (gonado-somatic index, oocyte diameter and sex ratio) to improve knowledge about their reproduction.

  5. A revision of the species of Saturnius Manter, 1969 (Digenea: Hemiuridae), parasites of mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    PubMed

    Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Montero, Francisco E; Gibson, David I; Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Raga, Juan Antonio; Shvetsova, Ludmila S; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2008-09-01

    The genus Saturnius Manter, 1969 is defined, its species re-examined and a key to the species presented. S. overstreeti n. sp. is described from Mugil soiuy Basilewsky and M. cephalus L. from the Russian coast of the Sea of Japan and distinguished from the morphologically related S. papernai Overstreet, 1977 and S. maurepasi Overstreet, 1977. S. segmentatus Manter, 1969 is redescribed on the basis of the type- and newly collected material from M. cephalus on the Russian coast of the Sea of Japan. The morphometric variation of S. papernai is studied based on newly collected material from Liza aurata (Risso) in the Ebro Delta and off Santa Pola, Spain. The comparisons reveal lower ranges of most metrical features than previously known. A principal component analysis, carried out after adding the new data to those of Blasco-Costa et al. (2006), confirms the species identification. Other valid species recognised are S. mugilis (Yamaguti, 1970), S. maurepasi, S. belizensis Fischthal, 1977, S. dimitrovi Blasco-Costa et al., 2006 and S. minutus Blasco-Costa et al., 2006. Forms considered species inquirendae are S. valamugilis Rekharani & Madhavi, 1984, Bunocotyle constrictus Domnich & Sarabeev, 1999 [=S. papernai of Domnich & Sarabeev (2000a, b, c, d)], B. mugilis Yamaguti, 1970 of Solonchenko (1976) and S. mugilis of Dmitrieva & Gaevskaya (2001). Host and locality information is given in detail for all species. Lisa ramado (Risso) and Chelon labrosus (Cuvier) are new host records for S. papernai (sensu stricto) and S. dimitrovi. L. aurata is a new host record for S. dimitrovi and S. minutus, and L. saliens (Risso) is a new host record for S. minutus.

  6. Helminth species richness of introduced and native grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    PubMed

    Sarabeev, Volodimir

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative complex analyses of parasite communities of invaders across different native and introduced populations are largely lacking. The present study provides a comparative analysis of species richness of helminth parasites in native and invasive populations of grey mullets. The local species richness differed between regions and host species, but did not differ when compared with invasive and native hosts. The size of parasite assemblages of endohelminths was higher in the Mediterranean and Azov-Black Seas, while monogeneans were the most diverse in the Sea of Japan. The helminth diversity was apparently higher in the introduced population of Liza haematocheilus than that in their native habitat, but this trend could not be confirmed when the size of geographic range and sampling efforts were controlled for. The parasite species richness at the infracommunity level of the invasive host population is significantly lower compared with that of the native host populations that lends support to the enemy release hypothesis. A distribution pattern of the infracommunity richness of acquired parasites by the invasive host can be characterized as aggregated and it is random in native host populations. Heterogeneity in the host susceptibility and vulnerability to acquired helminth species was assumed to be a reason of the aggregation of species numbers in the population of the invasive host.

  7. Evolution of the optical releasers for aggressive behavior in cave-dwelling Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Langecker, T G; Neumann, B; Hausberg, C; Parzefall, J

    1995-07-01

    Epigean and blind cave-dwelling populations of the characid Astyanax fasciatus differ in their agonistic behavior. Epigean specimens are characterized by intense aggressive behavior and territoriality in the laboratory, whereas the blind cave fishes are rarely aggressive and have totally lost the territorial behavior. These behavioral changes are genetically based. In the present study, a comparative analysis of the optical releasers for aggressive behavior has been performed in both epigean and cave-dwelling populations. It was expected that the regression of aggressive behavior should be accompanied by the regression of the genetically fixed optical releasers for aggression in the cave specimens. For the analysis of cave fishes, well-eyed F1-hybrids of cave and epigean specimens (Pachon × Teapao) as well as phylogenetically young cave specimens (Micos) selected for large eyes, have been used. In epigean specimens, aggression is most intensely released by a combination of the signals 'natural shape' and 'locomotion'. The cave populations exhibit a partial regression of the releaser 'natural shape'. 'Locomotion', however, has become a more effective releaser for aggression in cave fishes than it has in their epigean relatives. The results are discussed with respect to their evolutionary significance.

  8. Neoniphon pencei, a new species of holocentrid (Teleostei: Beryciformes) from Rarotonga, Cook Islands

    PubMed Central

    Pyle, Richard L.; Earle, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Neoniphon pencei, n. sp., is described from thirteen specimens, 132-197 mm standard length (SL) collected from mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) at Rarotonga, Cook Islands by divers using mixed-gas closed-circuit rebreathers. It differs from all other species of the genus in number of lateral line scales, scales above and below lateral line, elements of life color, and in COI and cytochrome b DNA sequences. Of the five other known species of Neoniphon, it is most similar to the Indo-Pacific N. aurolineatus and the western Atlantic N. marianus both morphologically and genetically. PMID:25698898

  9. Fossil calibrations and molecular divergence time estimates in centrarchid fishes (Teleostei: Centrarchidae).

    PubMed

    Near, Thomas J; Bolnick, Daniel I; Wainwright, Peter C

    2005-08-01

    Molecular clock methods allow biologists to estimate divergence times, which in turn play an important role in comparative studies of many evolutionary processes. It is well known that molecular age estimates can be biased by heterogeneity in rates of molecular evolution, but less attention has been paid to the issue of potentially erroneous fossil calibrations. In this study we estimate the timing of diversification in Centrarchidae, an endemic major lineage of the diverse North American freshwater fish fauna, through a new approach to fossil calibration and molecular evolutionary model selection. Given a completely resolved multi-gene molecular phylogeny and a set of multiple fossil-inferred age estimates, we tested for potentially erroneous fossil calibrations using a recently developed fossil cross-validation. We also used fossil information to guide the selection of the optimal molecular evolutionary model with a new fossil jackknife method in a fossil-based model cross-validation. The centrarchid phylogeny resulted from a mixed-model Bayesian strategy that included 14 separate data partitions sampled from three mtDNA and four nuclear genes. Ten of the 31 interspecific nodes in the centrarchid phylogeny were assigned a minimal age estimate from the centrarchid fossil record. Our analyses identified four fossil dates that were inconsistent with the other fossils, and we removed them from the molecular dating analysis. Using fossil-based model cross-validation to determine the optimal smoothing value in penalized likelihood analysis, and six mutually consistent fossil calibrations, the age of the most recent common ancestor of Centrarchidae was 33.59 million years ago (mya). Penalized likelihood analyses of individual data partitions all converged on a very similar age estimate for this node, indicating that rate heterogeneity among data partitions is not confounding our analyses. These results place the origin of the centrarchid radiation at a time of major faunal turnover as the fossil record indicates that the most diverse lineages of the North American freshwater fish fauna originated at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, approximately 34 mya. This time coincided with major global climate change from warm to cool temperatures and a signature of elevated lineage extinction and origination in the fossil record across the tree of life. Our analyses demonstrate the utility of fossil cross-validation to critically assess individual fossil calibration points, providing the ability to discriminate between consistent and inconsistent fossil age estimates that are used for calibrating molecular phylogenies.

  10. Cryptic Diversity and Venom Glands in Western Atlantic Clingfishes of the Genus Acyrtus (Teleostei: Gobiesocidae)

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Kevin W.; Baldwin, Carole; White, Macaulay D.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of genetic data (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I) for western Atlantic clingfishes revealed two distinct lineages within a group of individuals originally identified as Acyrtus artius. Subsequent investigation of preserved voucher specimens was conducted to reconcile the genetic data and the existing classification, which is based on morphology. In addition to discovering that one of the genetic lineages is an undescribed species, which we describe as Acyrtus lanthanum, new species, we found that the nominal species Acyrtus artius has a putative venom gland associated with the subopercle that has been overlooked since the species was described nearly 60 years ago. The new species lacks the subopercular gland as does Acyrtus rubiginosus, but one is present in the related Arcos nudus. Venom glands have not been reported previously for the Gobiesocidae, and the venom gland described herein for Acyrtus and Arcos represents the first example in teleost fishes of a venom gland associated with the subopercle. PMID:24825326

  11. Mixed mesodermal and mesenchymal origin of myotomal muscles in pike (Esox lucius: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Kacperczyk, A; Daczewska, M

    2006-02-01

    During the myotomal myogenesis in pike (Esox lucius) two phases of muscle differentiation can be distinguished. In the first phase, the somite cells-derived stock, the primary myoblasts (of mesodermal origin), fuse to form multinucleate myotubes. Participation of myotomal cells of mesodermal origin is insufficient for further muscle development. In the second stage mesenchymal cells migrate, via myosepts, into the myotome between myotubes. Immunocytochemical detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (marker of S phase of cell cycle) showed their mitotic activity. Transmission electron microscope analysis revealed that the differentiation of these cells depends on their position. Cells remaining in the myosepts develop into fibroblasts and produce collagen fibres, while those that have migrated into the myotomes transform into secondary myoblasts. Mesenchymal cells in the studied species are believed to participate in hypertrophy and hyperplasy of muscle fibres. Thus the muscle fibres in pike (E. lucius) are of mesodermal-mesenchymal origin.

  12. Ontogeny, variation, and homology in Salvelinus alpinus caudal skeleton (Teleostei: Salmonidae).

    PubMed

    Grünbaum, Thomas; Cloutier, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The ontogeny of the caudal skeleton in the Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus was examined using an extensive series of cleared and stained specimens. We demonstrate the presence of skeletal components never reported previously within the Salmonidae. In contrast to the generalized condition for salmonids, seven hypurals (instead of six), and four uroneurals (instead of three) have been found in some specimens. Variation in the number and condition of epurals is documented. New hypotheses are proposed concerning (1) relationships among centra and their associated elements, (2) phylogenetic distribution of caudal characters within the Salmonidae, and (3) homology of caudal components. Using the published phylogenetic hypotheses, we provide evidence, that a seventh hypural and a fourth uroneural are taxic atavism in salmonids. The development of the salmonid homocercal fin is discussed in the light of a polyural scheme based on evidences of a one-to-one relationship among ural centra and their associated elements.

  13. Sexual ornaments, body morphology, and swimming performance in naturally hybridizing swordtails (teleostei: xiphophorus).

    PubMed

    Johnson, James B; Macedo, Danielle C; Passow, Courtney N; Rosenthal, Gil G

    2014-01-01

    Determining the costs of sexual ornaments is complicated by the fact that ornaments are often integrated with other, non-sexual traits, making it difficult to dissect the effect of ornaments independent of other aspects of the phenotype. Hybridization can produce reduced phenotypic integration, allowing one to evaluate performance across a broad range of multivariate trait values. Here we assess the relationship between morphology and performance in the swordtails Xiphophorus malinche and X. birchmanni, two naturally-hybridizing fish species that differ extensively in non-sexual as well as sexual traits. We took advantage of novel trait variation in hybrids to determine if sexual ornaments incur a cost in terms of locomotor ability. For both fast-start and endurance swimming, hybrids performed at least as well as the two parental species. The sexually-dimorphic sword did not impair swimming performance per se. Rather, the sword negatively affected performance only when paired with a sub-optimal body shape. Studies seeking to quantify the costs of ornaments should consider that covariance with non-sexual traits may create the spurious appearance of costs.

  14. Immunohistochemical and histochemical characteristics of the olfactory system of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Teleostei, Poecilidae).

    PubMed

    Bettini, Simone; Lazzari, Maurizio; Ciani, Franco; Franceschini, Valeria

    2009-10-01

    Olfaction in fish has been studied using preferentially macrosmatic species as models. In the present research, the labelling patterns of different neuronal markers and lectins were analyzed in the olfactory neurons and in their bulbar axonal endings in the guppy Poecilia reticulata, belonging to the group of microsmatic fish. We observed that calretinin immunostaining was confined to a population of olfactory receptor cells localized in the upper layers of the sensory mucosa, probably microvillous neurons innervating the lateral glomerular layer. Immunoreactivity for S100 proteins was mainly evident in crypt cells, but also in other olfactory cells belonging to subtypes projecting in distinct regions of the bulbs. Protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) was not detected in the olfactory system of the guppy. Lectin binding revealed the presence of N-acetylglucosamine and alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine residues in the glycoconjugates of numerous olfactory neurons ubiquitously distributed in the mucosa. The low number of sugar types detected suggested a reduced glycosidic variability that could be an index of restricted odorant discrimination, in concordance with guppy visual-based behaviors. Finally, we counted few crypt cells which were immunoreactive for S100 and calretinin. Crypt cells were more abundant in guppy females. This difference is in accordance with guppy gender-specific responses to pheromones. Cells immunoreactive to calretinin showed no evidence of ventral projections in the bulbs. We assumed the hypothesis that their odorant sensitivity is not strictly limited to pheromones or sexual signals in general.

  15. Differentiated ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in Apareiodon ibitiensis (Teleostei, Parodontidae): cytotaxonomy and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Bellafronte, E; Vicari, M R; Artoni, R F; Margarido, V P; Moreira-Filho, O

    2009-12-01

    Conventional and molecular chromosomal analyses were carried out on three populations of Apareiodon ibitiensis sampled from the hydrographic basins of the São Francisco River and Upper Paraná River (Brazil). The results reveal a conserved diploid number (2n = 54 chromosomes), a karyotype formula consisting of 50 m-sm + 4st and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system that has not been previously identified for the species. C-banding analysis with propidium iodide staining revealed centromeric and terminal bands located in the chromosomes of the specimens from the three populations and allowed the identification of heteromorphism of heterochromatin regions in the Z and W chromosomes. The number of 18S sites located through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) varied between the populations of the São Francisco and Upper Paraná Rivers. The location of 5S rDNA sites proved comparable in one pair of metacentric chromosomes. Thus, the present study proposes a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system for A. ibitiensis among the Parodontidae, and a hypothesis is presented regarding possible W chromosome differentiation stages in this species through DNA accumulation, showing geographical variations for this characteristic, possibly as a consequence of geographical reproductive isolation.

  16. Evolution and phylogenetic application of the MC1R gene in the Cobitoidea (Teleostei: Cypriniformes)

    PubMed Central

    TANG, Qiong-Ying; LIANG, Li-Xia; LIU, Fei; YU, Dan; LIU, Huan-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Fish of the superfamily Cobitoidea sensu stricto (namely loaches) exhibit extremely high diversity of color patterns, but so far little is known about their evolutionary mechanism. Melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) plays an important role during the synthesis of melanin and formation of animal body color patterns. In this study, we amplified and sequenced the partial MC1R gene for 44 loach individuals representing 31 species of four families. Phylogenetic analyses yielded a topology congruent with previous studies using multiple nuclear loci, showing that each of the four families was monophyletic with sister relationships of Botiidae+ (Cobitidae+(Balitoridae+Nemacheilidae)). Gene evolutionary analyses indicated that MC1R in loaches was under purifying selection pressure, with various sites having different dN/dS values. Both Botiidae and Cobitidae had lower dN/dS values than those of background lineages, suggesting their evolution might be strongly affected by purifying selection pressure. For Balitoridae and Nemacheilidae, both had larger dN/dS values than those of background lineages, suggesting they had a faster evolutionary rate under more relaxed selection pressure. Consequently, we inferred that the relatively stable color patterns in Botiidae and Cobitidae might result from the strong purifying selection pressure on the MC1R gene, whereas the complicated and diverse color patterns in Balitoridae and Nemacheilidae might be associated with the relaxed selection pressure. Given the easy experimental procedure for the partial MC1R gene and its excellent performance in reconstructing phylogeny, we suggest this gene could be used as a good molecular marker for the phylogenetic study of fish species. PMID:27686787

  17. A new clupavidae (teleostei, ostariophysi) from the Cenomanian of Daoura (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavin, Lionel

    1999-11-01

    Lusitanichthys africanus n. sp. from Daoura, an Upper Cenomanian locality situated about 100 km south of Erfoud (southeastern Morocco), is described. L. africanus is very similar to L. characiformis. Lusitanichthys shows modifications of the first vertebral elements indicating the presence of a primitive Weberian apparatus. Clupavus maroccanus and Lusitanichthys belong to the clupavids. Anatomical characters of L. africanus from the Weberian apparatus and the caudal skeleton allow us to include it in Otophysi without sure indications of ordinal affinities.

  18. The complete mitogenome of the river blackfish, Gadopsis marmoratus (Richardson, 1848) (Teleostei: Percichthyidae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    The mitogenome of the Australian freshwater blackfish, Gadopsis marmoratus was recovered coverage by genome skimming using the MiSeq sequencer (GenBank Accession Number: NC_024436). The blackfish mitogenome has 16,407 base pairs made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a 819 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This is the 5th mitogenome sequence to be reported for the family Percichthyidae.

  19. Paraqianlabeo lineatus, a new genus and species of labeonine fishes (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from South China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Tao; Sullivan, John P; Zhang, Yao-Guang; Peng, Zuo-Gang

    2014-07-25

    Paraqianlabeo, new genus, is described from the Chishui-He and Wu-Jiang rivers of the Yangtze River basin in Guizhou Province, South China. This new genus is distinguished from all other labeonine genera by a combination of morphological and molecular evidence. It is distinguished from all other Asian garrains by a unique oromandibular morphology; i.e., an arched, wide, rudimentary sucker formed by raised front and lateral margins of lower lip, postlabial groove and mental groove between middle and lateral lobes of lower lip chevron-shaped; anteroventral margin of rostral cap arched, thin and papillose; rostral cap not overlying upper lip, upper lip connected with lower lip around corners of mouth; well developed upper lip free from upper jaw; lower lip divided into two lateral fleshy lobes and one central plate, these two lateral fleshy lobes small and short, median lobe of lower lip large; anterior and anterolateral edges of upper and lower lip finely papillose; shallow, straight groove between lower lip and lower jaw; lower jaw bears thin, cornified cutting edge. Additionally, scales on mid-ventral region from pectoral fins to pelvic fins subcutaneous and half-hidden; dorsal fin with 3 simple and 7½-8 branched rays. Paraqianlabeo lineatus, new species, type species of this genus, has longitudinal dark stripe along side of body. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA data indicate that this new genus forms a highly diverged lineage within the Garraina group of Labeoninae. 

  20. Recovery of fat snook, Centropomus parallelus (Teleostei: Perciformes) after subchronic exposure to copper.

    PubMed

    Oss, Rodrigo Nunes; Baroni, Vinícius Dadalto; Duarte, Rafael Mendonça; Val, Adalberto Luis; Val, Vera Maria Fonseca Almeida; Gomes, Levy Carvalho

    2013-04-01

    We studied the recovery of juvenile fat snook (Centropomus parallelus) after subchronic exposure to different concentrations of copper. Healthy juveniles (1.98 g) were exposed to 25 or 50 μg Cu/L for 30 days (12 replicates with 5 fish in each one), and recovery was observed at 0, 4, 10, and 30 days after exposure (3 replicates with 5 fish in each one). Copper genotoxicity in exposed individuals was observed using a micronucleus assay, and recovery was not observed even 30 days post-exposure. Copper accumulation was observed in fish exposed to 25 or 50 μg/L of copper in the gills (14.4 and 34.4 μg/g, respectively) and muscle (5.7 and 5.5 μg/g, respectively), and a return to normal copper levels (6.0 μg/g for gills and 2.5 μg/g for muscle) was observed 4 and 30 days post-exposure in the gills and muscle tissues, respectively. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) was 80% inhibited in individuals exposed to copper and returned to normal levels for fish exposed to basal concentrations within 10 days. Although copper accumulation in tissues dispersed 30 days post-exposure, no recovery from genotoxicity was observed during this time. Thirty days was not enough to recover juvenile fat snook following subchronic exposure to copper. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Muscular system in the pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Teleostei: Scombridae).

    PubMed

    Nakae, Masanori; Sasaki, Kunio; Shinohara, Gento; Okada, Tokihiko; Matsuura, Keiichi

    2014-02-01

    The muscular system in the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis is studied in detail. For the first time, a complete description of the muscular anatomy of a thunnid is provided here. Eighty-two elements including subdivisions of components of the muscular system are identified. This is less than found in a basal perciform and two other investigated scombrid species, owing mainly to the absence or fusion of pectoral, pelvic and caudal fin muscles. The absence of elements of the basal perciform pattern was most prominent in the caudal fin, which includes only the flexor dorsalis, flexor ventralis, hypochordal longitudinalis, and interradialis. In the caudal fin, the medial fan-shaped ray was identified as the first dorsal ray, judging from myological and neuroanatomical characters. The highly developed gill filament muscles in Thunnus orientalis and sheet-like rectus communis control gill ventilation. Long body muscle tendons reduce the metabolic energy needed during rapid and continuous swimming. These characters are interpreted as adaptations in the context of the oceanic life style of the species.

  2. Multiple colonisations of the Lake Malawi catchment by the genus Opsaridium (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Sungani, Harold; Ngatunga, Benjamin P; Koblmüller, Stephan; Mäkinen, Tuuli; Skelton, Paul H; Genner, Martin J

    2017-02-01

    It has been proposed that the fish faunas of African rivers assemble through multiple colonisation events, while lake faunas form additionally through intralacustine speciation. While this pattern has been established for many lineages, most notably cichlids, there are opportunities to further investigate the concept using phylogenies of congeneric endemic species within ancient lake catchments. The Lake Malawi catchment contains three river-spawning cyprinids of the genus Opsaridium, two of which are endemic. These species differ in body size, migratory behaviour and habitat use, but it has never previously been tested if these represent a monophyletic radiation, or have instead colonised the lake independently. We placed these species in a broader phylogeny of Opsaridium and the related genus Raiamas, including all known species from the river systems surrounding Lake Malawi. Our results suggest that each of the species has independently colonised the lake catchment, with all three taxa having well-defined sister taxa outside of the lake, and all sharing a common ancestor ∼14.9million years ago, before the Lake Malawi basin started to form ∼8.6million years ago. Additionally, the results strongly support previous observations that Opsaridium is not a monophyletic group, but instead contains Raiamas from the Congo drainage. Together these results are supportive of the concept that river fish faunas within African catchments are primarily assembled through a process of accumulation from independent origins, rather than within-catchment speciation and adaptive radiation. In light of these results we also suggest there is scope for a re-evaluation of systematics of both Opsaridium and Raiamas.

  3. Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Amphidromous Fish Genus Dormitator Gill 1861 (Teleostei: Eleotridae)

    PubMed Central

    Galván-Quesada, Sesángari; Doadrio, Ignacio; Alda, Fernando; Perdices, Anabel; Reina, Ruth Gisela; García Varela, Martín; Hernández, Natividad; Campos Mendoza, Antonio; Bermingham, Eldredge; Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Species of the genus Dormitator, also known as sleepers, are representatives of the amphidromous freshwater fish fauna that inhabit the tropical and subtropical coastal environments of the Americas and Western Africa. Because of the distribution of this genus, it could be hypothesized that the evolutionary patterns in this genus, including a pair of geminate species across the Central American Isthmus, could be explained by vicariance following the break-up of Gondwana. However, the evolutionary history of this group has not been evaluated. We constructed a time-scaled molecular phylogeny of Dormitator using mitochondrial (Cytochrome b) and nuclear (Rhodopsin and β-actin) DNA sequence data to infer and date the cladogenetic events that drove the diversification of the genus and to relate them to the biogeographical history of Central America. Two divergent lineages of Dormitator were recovered: one that included all of the Pacific samples and another that included all of the eastern and western Atlantic samples. In contrast to the Pacific lineage, which showed no phylogeographic structure, the Atlantic lineage was geographically structured into four clades: Cameroon, Gulf of Mexico, West Cuba and Caribbean, showing evidence of potential cryptic species. The separation of the Pacific and Atlantic lineages was estimated to have occurred ~1 million years ago (Mya), whereas the four Atlantic clades showed mean times of divergence between 0.2 and 0.4 Mya. The splitting times of Dormitator between ocean basins are similar to those estimated for other geminate species pairs with shoreline estuarine preferences, which may indicate that the common evolutionary histories of the different clades are the result of isolation events associated with the closure of the Central American Isthmus and the subsequent climatic and oceanographic changes. PMID:27074006

  4. A new species of Microcotyle (Monogenea: Microcotylidae) from Scorpaena notata (Teleostei: Scorpaenidae) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Ayadi, Zouhour El Mouna; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou; Tazerouti, Fadila

    2017-04-01

    We collected specimens of Microcotyle spp. from two species of scorpaeniform fishes off Algeria, namely Scorpaena notata and Helicolenus dactylopterus. The identification of both fishes was confirmed by molecular barcoding of the COI gene. Sequences of COI gene were also obtained for both parasite species. The species from S. notata is described as Microcotyle algeriensis n. sp., on the basis of morphological differences from other species (number of clamps, number of spines in genital atrium, number of testes). Its COI sequence differs from M. sebastis Goto, 1894 (from Sebastes schlegeli from a fish farm in South Korea) by 14.6%. The species from H. dactylopterus is distinct from M. algeriensis on the basis of morphology (number of clamps, number of spines in genital atrium) and COI sequence (4.5% divergence) and is also distinct from M. sebastis in its COI sequence (12.3%). We refrained from describing it as new because M. sebastis, a species originally described from scorpaeniform fishes off Japan, has been recorded in various hosts in the North and South Pacific, Atlantic and Mediterranean (for the latter, in the same host, H. dactylopterus). We believe that correct specific assignment of species of Microcotyle from scorpaeniform fishes needs a detailed morphological and molecular study of representatives from various locations and hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Variations of body geometry in Brycon henni (Teleostei: Characiformes, Bryconidae) in different rivers and streams.

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Escobar, N; Hurtado-Alarcón, J C; Mancera-Rodríguez, N J; Márquez, E J

    2016-07-01

    Landmark-based geometric morphometrics were used to evaluate the effect of flow and depth in the water column on the body size and shape of Brycon henni from river and stream populations. The dendrogram showed that stream populations clustered apart and showed significantly smaller centroid size and narrower bodies than river populations, indicating a role for flow and depth on whole body morphometric variation. The results are concordant with morphometric variation described in other fish species and provide the first insights into phenotypic variation in natural populations of B. henni. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Origins of two hemiclonal hybrids among three Hexagrammos species (Teleostei: Hexagrammidae): genetic diversification through host switching.

    PubMed

    Munehara, Hiroyuki; Horita, Miho; Kimura-Kawaguchi, Motoko R; Yamazaki, Aya

    2016-10-01

    Two natural, hemiclonal hybrid strains were discovered in three Hexagrammos species. The natural hybrids, all of which were females that produced haploid eggs containing only the Hexagrammos octogrammus genome (maternal ancestor; hereafter Hoc), generated F1 hybrid-type offspring by fertilization with haploid sperm of Hexagrammos agrammus or Hexagrammos otakii (paternal species; Hag and Hot, respectively). This study was performed to clarify the extent of diversification between the two hybrids and the maternal ancestor. Genealogical analysis using mtDNA revealed that all 38 Hoc/Hot hybrids formed a branch (Branch I) with 18 of the 33 Hoc/Hag hybrids. No haplotype sharing was observed with the maternal ancestor. Further, microsatellite DNA analysis suggested that the members of Branch I shared the same hemiclonal genome set. The results suggested that Hoc/Hot hybrids originated by anomalous hybridization, or "host switching," between Hoc/Hag and Hot, and not from interspecific hybridization between Hoc and Hot. The remaining 9 of 11 Hoc/Hag haplotypes and all of the 27 Hoc haplotypes were mixed within the genealogical tree, as if they had originated from multiple mutations. However, Hoc/Hag could also mate with Hoc. Although offspring from this host switch (Backcross-Hoc) have the same genome as normal Hoc, a part of their genome retains genetic factors capable of producing hemiclones. Consequently, when a descendant of a BC-Hoc hybrid mates with Hag males, a new hemiclone lineage will arise. Multiple haplotype revival through host switching from a single mutation in hybrids is another possible hypothesis for the observed mixing of Hoc/Hag haplotypes within the mtDNA genealogical tree.

  7. The gulf surgeon, Acanthurus randalli, a junior synonym of the ocean surgeon, Acanthurus bahianus (teleostei: Acanthuridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith-Vaniz, W.F.; Jelks, H.L.; Randall, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    We compared 62 specimens, 48-126.5 mm standard length, of Acanthurus bahianus from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico with 95 specimens from other localities to determine if the distinguishing characters in the original description of the Gulf of Mexico endemic surgeonfish Acanthurus randalli were valid. No color pattern or meristic differences were found, and the only measurement that allowed distinction (91% percent concordance) was the shallower caudal concavity of northeastern Gulf of Mexico specimens. Acanthurus chirurgus from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico also have shallower caudal concavities (93.7% percent concordance) than do conspecifics from other areas, suggesting that this trend may be correlated with some unknown environmental influence. Considering the extended planktonic larval dispersal capabilities of Atlantic surgeonfishes, and that the single divergent morphological character state is also exhibited in a sympatric northeastern Gulf of Mexico population of A. chirurgus, recognition of A. randalli is untenable, and the name is considered a junior synonym of A. bahianus. An identification key to western Atlantic species of Acanthurus that incorporates the results of this study is given.

  8. Evolutionary history of asexual hybrid loaches (Cobitis: Teleostei) inferred from phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA variation.

    PubMed

    Janko, K; Kotlík, P; Ráb, P

    2003-11-01

    Reconstruction of the evolutionary history of asexual lineages undermines their suitability as models for the studies of evolutionary consequences of sexual reproduction. Using molecular tools we addressed the origin, age and maternal ancestry of diploid and triploid asexual lineages arisen through the hybridization between spiny loaches Cobitis elongatoides, C. taenia and C. tanaitica. Reconstructions of the phylogenetic relationships among mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes, revealed by sequence analyses, suggest that both hybrid complexes (C. elongatoides-taenia and C. elongatoides-tanaitica) contained several asexual lineages of independent origin. Cobitis elongatoides was the exclusive maternal ancestor of all the C. elongatoides-tanaitica hybrids, whereas within the C. elongatoides-taenia complex, hybridization was reciprocal. In both complexes the low haplotype divergences were consistent with a recent origin of asexual lineages. Combined mtDNA and allozyme data suggest that the triploids arose through the incorporation of a haploid sperm genome into unreduced ova produced by diploid hybrids.

  9. Metazoan ectoparasites of Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus (Teleostei: Scombridae): macro- and microhabitat distribution.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ricardo; Santos, Maria João

    2013-10-01

    Parasites are affected by the environment where their hosts live, having a specific distribution among their hosts and occupying a well-defined microhabitat. The present work aims to describe the metazoan ectoparasite fauna of Scomber scombrus, namely its distribution at the macro- and microhabitat levels. For that, fish from two different Portuguese regions, Matosinhos (n = 40) and Figueira da Foz (n = 39), were examined for macroectoparasites. S. scombrus of Matosinhos presented four different parasite species, whilst fish from Figueira da Foz presented five species. All parasites belonged to Monogenea, Copepoda, or Isopoda. The main differences between infection levels of fish from the two localities were found in Grubea cochlear (higher infection levels in Matosinhos) and Caligus pelamydis (where the highest values were found in Figueira da Foz). Regarding the microhabitat of the reported ectoparasites, it could be seen that every species has a very specific distribution within the host: G. cochlear and Kuhnia scombri have a preference for the inner medial areas of gills, Kuhnia sprostonae for the pseudobranchs, and C. pelamydis for the internal wall of opercula. The numerical and functional responses to interspecific competition were absent. These results support the idea that the parasite driving forces of community structure are the reinforcement of reproductive barriers and the enhancement of chances to mate.

  10. Redescription of Gobio nigrescens from the Hari River drainage (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Mousavi-Sabet, Hamed; Ganjbakhsh, Babak; Geiger, Matthias F; Geiger, Matthias F; Freyhof, Jörg

    2016-05-20

    Gobio nigrescens, from the Hari River drainage, is redescribed. It represents a valid species distinguished from congeners in the adjacent Caspian and Aral Sea basins by a combination of characters: a naked breast, 16 circumpeduncular scales and 6-7 irregularly shaped, black or brown blotches on back behind dorsal-fin base.

  11. A new species of Didogobius (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Van Tassell, James L; Kramer, Annemarie

    2014-05-01

    Didogobius helenae is described from the Canary Islands. It has a sensory papillae pattern that is consistent with the current diagnosis for Didogobius, but lacks all head canals and pores that are present in other members of the genus. Pores, in general, are replaced by large papillae.  The species is defined by first dorsal fin VI; second dorsal fin I,10; anal fin I,9; pectoral fin 16-17; pelvic fin I,5 and disk shaped; lateral scales 28-30, cycloid at anterior, becoming ctenoid posteriorly; cycloid scales present on belly and posterior breast; predorsal region, cheek, operculum and base of pectoral fin without scales; lower most scale on the caudal fin-base with elongate, thickened ctenii along the upper and lower posterior edges. Color in life consists of four mottled, wide brown-orange bars separated by narrower white bars on the trunk, the cheek whitish with 5 more or less circular blotches of orange, outlined in dark brown and a black spot on ventral operculum. A key to the species is provided. 

  12. Microsatellite variation and genetic structuring in Mugil liza (Teleostei: Mugilidae) populations from Argentina and Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Ana C. G.; Miño, Carolina I.; Marins, Luis F. F.; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Miranda, Laura; Schwingel, Paulo R.; Lemos, Valéria M.; Gonzalez-Castro, Mariano; Castello, Jorge P.; Vieira, João P.

    2014-08-01

    The mullet Mugil liza is distributed along the Atlantic coast of South America, from Argentina to Venezuela, and it is heavily exploited in Brazil. We assessed patterns of distribution of neutral nuclear genetic variation in 250 samples from the Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (latitudinal range of 23-31°S) and from Buenos Aires Province in Argentina (36°S). Nine microsatellite loci revealed 131 total alleles, 3-23 alleles per locus, He: 0.69 and Ho: 0.67. Significant genetic differentiation was observed between Rio de Janeiro samples (23°S) and those from all other locations, as indicated by FST, hierarchical analyses of genetic structure, Bayesian cluster analyses and assignment tests. The presence of two different demographic clusters better explains the allelic diversity observed in mullets from the southernmost portion of the Atlantic coast of Brazil and from Argentina. This may be taken into account when designing fisheries management plans involving Brazilian, Uruguayan and Argentinean M. liza populations.

  13. Molecular Evidence for Multiple Origins of the European Spined Loaches (Teleostei, Cobitidae)

    PubMed Central

    Perdices, Anabel; Bohlen, Joerg; Šlechtová, Vendula; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    We present a phylogenetic investigation of the Northern Clade, the major monophyletic clade within the freshwater fish family Cobitidae, one of the most prominent families of freshwater fishes found in Asian and European waters. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on the cytochrome b and RAG-1 genes show the genera Microcobitis, Sabanejewia, Koreocobitis and Kichulchoia as monophyletic groups. These reconstructions also show a Cobitis sensu lato and a Misgurnus sensu lato group. The Cobitis sensu lato group includes all species of Cobitis, Iksookimia, Niwaella and Kichulchoia, while the Misgurnus sensu lato group includes Misgurnus, Paramisgurnus and Koreocobitis. Although the monophyly of both the Cobitis sensu lato and Misgurnus sensu lato groups is supported, relationships within the groups are incongruent with current generic definitions. The absence of monophyly of most genera included in the Cobitis sensu lato group (Cobitis, Iksookimia and Niwaella) or their low genetic differentiation (Kichuchoia) supports their consideration as synonyms of Cobitis. Molecular phylogenies indicate that the Asian species of Misgurnus experienced a mitochondrial introgression from a lineage of Cobitis. We also find two nuclear haplotypes in the same Cobitis species from the Adriatic area that, in the absence of morphological differentiation, may indicate molecular introgression. Most lineages within the Northern Clade consist of species found in East Asia. However, some lineages also contain species from Europe and Asia Minor. The phylogenetic relationships presented here are consistent with previous studies suggesting an East Asian origin of the Northern Clade. According to the current distributions and phylogenetic relationships of the Misgurnus sensu lato and Cobitis clade lineages, particularly of M. fossilis and C. melanoleuca, the range expansion of East Asian species into Europe was most likely via Siberia into Northern and Central Europe. Phylogenetic analyses also show that the Cobitis sensu lato group consists of two clear subgroups (I and II), each presenting geographical differences. Subgroup I is distributed exclusively in East Asian drainages with an Eastern European offshoot (C. melanoleuca), whereas Subgroup II includes species widespread throughout Europe (including the Mediterranean), Asia Minor, the Black Sea and the Caucasus, with some lineages related to species restricted to East Asia. PMID:26727121

  14. Shape based assignment tests suggest transgressive phenotypes in natural sculpin hybrids (Teleostei, Scorpaeniformes, Cottidae)

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Arne W; Sheets, H David

    2005-01-01

    Background Hybridization receives attention because of the potential role that it may play in generating evolutionary novelty. An explanation for the emergence of novel phenotypes is given by transgressive segregation, which, if frequent, would imply an important evolutionary role for hybridization. This process is still rarely studied in natural populations as samples of recent hybrids and their parental populations are needed. Further, the detection of transgressive segregation requires phenotypes that can be easily quantified and analysed. We analyse variability in body shape of divergent populations of European sculpins (Cottus gobio complex) as well as natural hybrids among them. Results A distance-based method is developed to assign unknown specimens to known groups based on morphometric data. Apparently, body shape represents a highly informative set of characters that parallels the discriminatory power of microsatellite markers in our study system. Populations of sculpins are distinct and "unknown" specimens can be correctly assigned to their source population based on body shape. Recent hybrids are intermediate along the axes separating their parental groups but display additional differentiation that is unique and coupled with the hybrid genetic background. Conclusion There is a specific hybrid shape component in natural sculpin hybrids that can be best explained by transgressive segregation. This inference of how hybrids differ from their ancestors provides basic information for future evolutionary studies. Furthermore, our approach may serve to assign candidate specimens to their source populations based on morphometric data and help in the interpretation of population differentiation. PMID:15987531

  15. Shape based assignment tests suggest transgressive phenotypes in natural sculpin hybrids (Teleostei, Scorpaeniformes, Cottidae).

    PubMed

    Nolte, Arne W; Sheets, H David

    2005-06-29

    Hybridization receives attention because of the potential role that it may play in generating evolutionary novelty. An explanation for the emergence of novel phenotypes is given by transgressive segregation, which, if frequent, would imply an important evolutionary role for hybridization. This process is still rarely studied in natural populations as samples of recent hybrids and their parental populations are needed. Further, the detection of transgressive segregation requires phenotypes that can be easily quantified and analysed. We analyse variability in body shape of divergent populations of European sculpins (Cottus gobio complex) as well as natural hybrids among them. A distance-based method is developed to assign unknown specimens to known groups based on morphometric data. Apparently, body shape represents a highly informative set of characters that parallels the discriminatory power of microsatellite markers in our study system. Populations of sculpins are distinct and "unknown" specimens can be correctly assigned to their source population based on body shape. Recent hybrids are intermediate along the axes separating their parental groups but display additional differentiation that is unique and coupled with the hybrid genetic background. There is a specific hybrid shape component in natural sculpin hybrids that can be best explained by transgressive segregation. This inference of how hybrids differ from their ancestors provides basic information for future evolutionary studies. Furthermore, our approach may serve to assign candidate specimens to their source populations based on morphometric data and help in the interpretation of population differentiation.

  16. Validity of a blue stripe snapper, Lutjanus octolineatus (Cuvier 1828) and a related species, L. bengalensis (Bloch 1790) with a new species (Pisces; Lutjanidae) from the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Yukio; Al-Mamry, Juma M; Heemstra, Phillip C

    2016-04-07

    Lutjanus octolineatus (Cuvier 1828), previously considered a junior synonym of Lutjanus bengalensis (Bloch 1790), is shown to be a valid species and lectotypes are designated. Both species are redescribed. The two species have overlapping distributions in the Indian Ocean, but are clearly separable by different dorsal-fin spine counts, blue-striped pattern on the body and the presence or absence of a subocular extension of cheek scales. Lutjanus octovittata (Valenciennes 1830), formerly assigned to synonymy of L. bengalensis, is considered a junior synonym of L. octolineatus based on examination of the holotype. Lutjanus sapphirolineatus n. sp., a species formerly misidentified as L. bengalensis, is described based on 10 specimens from Oman and Somalia. The new species differs from the three species above by a combination of different characters. Analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1, 603 bp) genetic marker, also strongly supports the validity of each species of the blue-striped snapper complex as distinct.

  17. Mesene Doubleday (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) from Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil, with taxonomic notes and the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Dolibaina, Diego Rodrigo; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Siewert, Ricardo Russo; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2016-10-17

    The species of Mesene Doubleday, 1847 collected at the Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil (PNSD) are listed and supplemented by taxonomic and behavioral notes. In total, 30 specimens were collected, representing seven species including one new: M. monostigma monostigma (Erichson, [1849]), M. nepticula stigmosa Stichel, 1910, M. eupteryx Bates, 1868 stat. rest., M. paraena Bates, 1868, M. epaphus pyrrha Bates, 1868, M. leucophrys Bates, 1868, and M. gracielae sp. nov. The following notes on the taxonomy of Mesene are proposed: M. eupteryx Bates, 1868 stat. rest. is recognized as a valid species, M. epaphus sertata Stichel, 1910 syn. nov. is a new synonym of M. epaphus pyrrha Bates, 1868, and M. lecointrei P. Jauffret & J. Jauffret, 2008 syn. nov. is a new synonym of M. philonis Hewitson, 1874. Mesene margaretta (White, 1843), M. philonis and M. nola are recognized as closely related. Species encountered at the PNSD are illustrated, including the genitalia of males and females, when available.

  18. Concerted Evolution of Duplicate Control Regions in the Mitochondria of Species of the Flatfish Family Bothidae (Teleostei: Pleuronectiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Munroe, Thomas A.; Gong, Li; Kong, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Mitogenomes of flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) exhibit the greatest diversity of gene rear-rangements in teleostean fishes. Duplicate control regions (CRs) have been found in the mito-genomes of two flatfishes, Samariscus latus (Samaridae) and Laeops lanceolata (Bothidae), which is rare in teleosts. It has been reported that duplicate CRs have evolved in a concerted fashion in fishes and other animals, however, whether concerted evo-lution exists in flatfishes remains unknown. In this study, based on five newly sequenced and six previously reported mitogenomes of lefteye flounders in the Bothidae, we explored whether duplicate CRs and concerted evolution exist in these species. Results based on the present study and previous reports show that four out of eleven bothid species examined have duplicate CRs of their mitogenomes. The core regions of the duplicate CRs of mitogenomes in the same species have identical, or nearly identical, sequences when compared to each other. This pattern fits the typical characteristics of concerted evolution. Additionally, phylogenetic and ancestral state reconstruction analysis also provided evidence to support the hypothesis that duplicate CRs evolved concertedly. The core region of concerted evolution is situated at the conserved domains of the CR of the mitogenome from the termination associated sequences (TASs) to the conserved sequence blocks (CSBs). Commonly, this region is con-sidered to regulate mitochondrial replication and transcription. Thus, we hypothesize that the cause of concerted evolution of the duplicate CRs in the mtDNAs of these four bothids may be related to some function of the conserved sequences of the CRs during mitochondrial rep-lication and transcription. We hope our results will provide fresh insight into the molecular mechanisms related to replication and evolution of mitogenomes. PMID:26237419

  19. Trilosporoides platessae gen. et sp. n. (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) in the plaice Pleuronectes platessa (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae) from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Køie, Marianne

    2005-11-01

    A new myxosporean species, Trilosporoides platessae gen. et sp. n. (Multivalvulida), is described from the gallbladder of the plaice Pleuronectes platessa L. (Pleuronectidae) from Denmark. The myxospore of T. platessae is conical in side view, with a 24 microm long, pointed posterior projection. In apical view, the myxospore (diameter 9.4 microm) is round, trilobed and with three spherical polar capsules arranged peripherally, equidistant and opening peripherally through protruding tips. The polar capsules are of different sizes, one often larger than the others (diameter 3.3 microm vs. 2.5 microm). Apart from the long posterior projection, the myxospore of T. platessae differs from those of the three known species of Trilospora Noble, 1959 and from all genera within the order Multivalvulida Shulman, 1959 in the arrangement of the polar capsules. Trilosporoides platessae may temporarily be placed in the vicinity of the Trilosporidae.

  20. Varicus lacerta, a new species of goby (Teleostei, Gobiidae, Gobiosomatini, Nes subgroup) from a mesophotic reef in the southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Tornabene, Luke; Robertson, D Ross; Baldwin, Carole C

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of goby, Varicus lacerta sp. n., which was collected from a mesophotic reef at Curacao, southern Caribbean. The new species is the tenth species of Varicus, all of which occur below traditional SCUBA depths in the wider Caribbean area. Its placement in the genus Varicus is supported by a molecular phylogenetic analysis of three nuclear genes and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b. In addition, the new species has one anal-fin pterygiophore inserted anterior to the first haemal spine, which distinguishes Varicus species from most species in the closely related and morphologically similar genus Psilotris. Varicus lacerta sp. n. is distinguished from all other named species of Varicus by the absence of scales, having highly branched, feather-like pelvic-fin rays, and in its live coloration. We provide the cytochrome c oxidase I DNA barcode of the holotype and compare color patterns of all species of Varicus and Psilotris for which color photographs or illustrations are available. This study is one of several recent studies demonstrating the utility of manned submersibles in exploring the diversity of poorly studied but species-rich deep-reef habitats.

  1. Fishes of the family Ipnopidae (Teleostei: Aulopiformes) collected on the Brazilian continental slope between 11 degrees and 23 degrees S.

    PubMed

    Franco, M A L; Braga, A C; Nunan, G W A; Costa, P A S

    2009-09-01

    A collection of fishes from the Brazilian continental slope between 11 degrees and 23 degrees S obtained through trawling revealed nine species of Ipnopidae. Bathypterois bigelowi and Bathytyphlops marionae represent first records from the south-western Atlantic Ocean and Bathypterois grallator is reported off Brazil for the first time. Four species have their distribution extended in Brazilian waters: Bathypterois phenax, Bathypterois quadrifilis, Bathypterois viridensis and Ipnops murrayi. An identification key of Ipnopidae species from the south-western Atlantic Ocean is included.

  2. Henneguya tunisiensis n. sp. (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida), a new gill parasite of Symphodus tinca (L.) (Teleostei: Labridae) off Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Bahri, Sihem; Marton, Szilvia; Marques, Adam; Eszterbauer, Edit

    2010-06-01

    Henneguya tunisiensis n. sp., a new myxosporean, is described from the gill-arches of the East Atlantic peacock wrasse Symphodus tinca (L.) collected from off the Kerkennah Islands, Tunisia. It is characterised by the presence of elongate white plasmodia of 1-1.5 x 1.5-2 mm in size. The mature spores are rounded in frontal view and have two identical polar capsules and two caudal appendages which taper considerably at the end. Both light and electron microscopical data show that this species differs in several morphological features from all previously described Henneguya spp. A molecular analysis, based on 18S rDNA sequence data, indicates that H. tunisiensis n. sp. is readily distinguishable from other myxozoan DNA sequences in GenBank. Phylogenetically, the new species is placed in the marine Henneguya clade, which is a sister group of marine Myxobolus spp. from perciform fishes in Tunisian waters.

  3. DNA barcoding at riverscape scales: assessing biodiversity among fishes of the genus Cottus (Teleostei) in northern Rocky Mountain streams.

    PubMed

    Young, Michael K; McKelvey, Kevin S; Pilgrim, Kristine L; Schwartz, Michael K

    2013-07-01

    There is growing interest in broad-scale biodiversity assessments that can serve as benchmarks for identifying ecological change. Genetic tools have been used for such assessments for decades, but spatial sampling considerations have largely been ignored. Here, we demonstrate how intensive sampling efforts across a large geographical scale can influence identification of taxonomic units. We used sequences of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and cytochrome b, analysed with maximum parsimony networks, maximum-likelihood trees and genetic distance thresholds, as indicators of biodiversity and species identity among the taxonomically challenging fishes of the genus Cottus in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Analyses of concatenated sequences from fish collected in all major watersheds of this area revealed eight groups with species-level differences that were also geographically circumscribed. Only two of these groups, however, were assigned to recognized species, and these two assignments resulted in intraspecific genetic variation (>2.0%) regarded as atypical for individual species. An incomplete inventory of individuals from throughout the geographical ranges of many species represented in public databases, as well as sample misidentification and a poorly developed taxonomy, may have hampered species assignment and discovery. We suspect that genetic assessments based on spatially robust sampling designs will reveal previously unrecognized biodiversity in many other taxa.

  4. Evolutionary history of Otophysi (Teleostei), a major clade of the modern freshwater fishes: Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Freshwater harbors approximately 12,000 fish species accounting for 43% of the diversity of all modern fish. A single ancestral lineage evolved into about two-thirds of this enormous biodiversity (≈ 7900 spp.) and is currently distributed throughout the world's continents except Antarctica. Despite such remarkable species diversity and ubiquity, the evolutionary history of this major freshwater fish clade, Otophysi, remains largely unexplored. To gain insight into the history of otophysan diversification, we constructed a timetree based on whole mitogenome sequences across 110 species representing 55 of the 64 families. Results Partitioned maximum likelihood analysis based on unambiguously aligned sequences (9923 bp) confidently recovered the monophyly of Otophysi and the two constituent subgroups (Cypriniformes and Characiphysi). The latter clade comprised three orders (Gymnotiformes, Characiformes, Siluriformes), and Gymnotiformes was sister to the latter two groups. One of the two suborders in Characiformes (Characoidei) was more closely related to Siluriformes than to its own suborder (Citharinoidei), rendering the characiforms paraphyletic. Although this novel relationship did not receive strong statistical support, it was supported by analyzing independent nuclear markers. A relaxed molecular clock Bayesian analysis of the divergence times and reconstruction of ancestral habitats on the timetree suggest a Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation of otophysans. Conclusions The present timetree demonstrates that survival of the ancestral lineages through the two consecutive mass extinctions on Pangaea, and subsequent radiations during the Jurassic through early Cretaceous shaped the modern familial diversity of otophysans. This evolutionary scenario is consistent with recent arguments based on biogeographic inferences and molecular divergence time estimates. No fossil otophysan, however, has been recorded before the Albian, the early Cretaceous 100-112 Ma, creating an over 100 million year time span without fossil evidence. This formidable ghost range partially reflects a genuine difference between the estimated ages of stem group origin (molecular divergence time) and crown group morphological diversification (fossil divergence time); the ghost range, however, would be filled with discoveries of older fossils that can be used as more reasonable time constraints as well as with developments of more realistic models that capture the rates of molecular sequences accurately. PMID:21693066

  5. The SSRI fluoxetine exhibits mild effects on the reproductive axis in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus (Teleostei, Cichliformes).

    PubMed

    Dorelle, Luciana S; Da Cuña, Rodrigo H; Rey Vázquez, Graciela; Höcht, Christian; Shimizu, Akio; Genovese, Griselda; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L

    2017-03-01

    Among the wide variety of pharmaceuticals released into the environment, Fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is one of the most prescribed for the treatment of major depression. It inhibits serotonin (5-HT) reuptake at the presinaptic membrane, increasing serotonergic activity. In vertebrates, including fish, the serotonergic system is closely related to the Hypothalamic Pituitary Gonadal (HPG) axis which regulates reproduction. As FLX can act as an endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) by affecting several reproductive parameters in fish, the aim of this study was to provide an integral assessment of the potential effect of FLX on the reproductive axis of the Neotropical freshwater fish Cichlasoma dimerus. Adult fish were intraperitoneally injected with 2 μg g(-1) FLX or saline every third day for 15 days. No significant differences were found on serotonergic turnover (5-HIAA/5-HT ratio). Pituitary βLH content in FLX injected females was significantly higher than control females; no significant differences were seen for βFSH content. Sex steroids remained unaltered, both in males and females fish, after FLX treatment. No plasma vitellogenin was induced in treated males. Some alterations were seen in testes of FLX injected males, such as the presence of foam cells and an acidophilic PAS positive, Alcian-Blue negative secretion in the lobular lumen. Although there is no clear consensus about the effect of this drug on reproductive physiology, these results indicate that FLX is acting as a mild EDC in adults of C. dimerus.

  6. A complex of species related to Paradiscogaster glebulae (Digenea: Faustulidae) in chaetodontid fishes (Teleostei: Perciformes) of the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Pablo E; Bray, Rodney A; Cutmore, Scott C; Ward, Selina; Cribb, Thomas H

    2015-10-01

    A total of 1523 individuals of 34 species of chaetodontids from the Great Barrier Reef were examined for faustulid trematodes. Specimens resembling Paradiscogaster glebulae Bray, Cribb & Barker, 1994 were found in nine chaetodontid species at three localities. These specimens are shown, on the basis of combined morphological and molecular analyses, to comprise a complex of morphologically similar and partly cryptic species. The complex may comprise as many as six distinct species of which three are resolved here. The true P. glebulae is identified in Chaetodon ornatissimus Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon aureofasciatus Macleay, 1878, Chaetodon plebeius Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon rainfordi McCulloch, 1923 and Chaetodon speculum Cuvier, 1831. Two new species are described, Paradiscogaster munozae n. sp. from Heniochus varius (Cuvier, 1829), Heniochus chrysostomus Cuvier, 1831 and Chaetodon citrinellus Cuvier, 1831 and Paradiscogaster melendezi n. sp. from Chaetodon kleinii Bloch, 1790. In terms of morphology the three species differ most clearly in the development of the appendages on the ventral sucker. The three species differ at 3-6consistent bp of ITS2 rDNA. The host-specificity of the three species differs strikingly. P. melendezi n. sp. infects just one fish species, P. glebulae infects species of only one clade of Chaetodon, and P. munozae n. sp. infects quite unrelated species. The basis of this unusual pattern of host-specificity requires further exploration. Two of the species recognised here, P. glebulae and P. munozae n. sp., showed apparent intra-individual variation in the ITS2 rDNA sequences as demonstrated by clear, replicated double peaks in the electropherograms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Two new deep-reef basslets (Teleostei, Grammatidae, Lipogramma), with comments on the eco-evolutionary relationships of the genus.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C; Robertson, D Ross; Nonaka, Ai; Tornabene, Luke

    2016-01-01

    The banded basslet, Lipogramma evides Robins & Colin, 1979, is shown to comprise two species: Lipogramma evides, which inhabits depths of 133-302 m, and a new species described here as Lipogramma levinsoni, which inhabits depths of 108-154 m and previously was considered to represent the juvenile of Lipogramma evides. A second new species of banded basslet, described here as Lipogramma haberi, inhabits depths of 152-233 m and was previously not reported in the literature. Morphologically, the three species differ in color patterns and modal numbers of gill rakers, whereas various other morphological features distinguish Lipogramma levinsoni from Lipogramma evides and Lipogramma haberi. DNA barcode data and multilocus, coalescent-based, species-delimitation analysis support the recognition of the three species. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear genetic data supports a sister-group relationship between the two deepest-living of the three species, Lipogramma evides and Lipogramma haberi, and suggests that the shallower Lipogramma levinsoni is more closely related to Lipogramma anabantoides Böhlke, 1960, which inhabits depths < 120 m. Evolutionary relationships within Lipogramma thus appear to be correlated with species depth ranges, an eco-evolutionary pattern that has been observed in other Caribbean marine teleosts and that warrants further investigation. The new species represent the eleventh and twelfth new fish species described in recent years from exploratory submersible diving in the Caribbean in the globally poorly studied depth zone of 50-300 m. This study suggests that there are at least two additional cryptic species of Lipogramma, which are being analyzed in ongoing investigations of Caribbean deep-reef ecosystems.

  8. The population history of Garra orientalis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite data with approximate Bayesian computation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Quan; Hsu, Kui-Ching; Liu, Zhi-Zhi; Su, Li-Wei; Kuo, Po-Hsun; Tang, Wen-Qiao; Zhou, Zhuo-Cheng; Liu, Dong; Bao, Bao-Long; Lin, Hung-Du

    2016-04-11

    The South China landmass has been characterized by a complex geological history, including mountain lifting, climate changes, and river capture/reversal events. To determine how this complexity has influenced the landmass's phylogeography, our study examined the phylogeography of Garra orientalis, a cyprinid widely distributed in South China, using sequences from the mitochondrial DNA control region and cytochrome b gene (1887 bp) and polymorphisms of thirteen microsatellite loci. In total, 157 specimens were collected from eight populations. All 88 mtDNA haplotypes were identified as belonging to three major lineages, and these lineages were almost allopatric in their distributions. The results of a statistical dispersal-vicariance analysis suggested that the ancestral populations of G. orientalis were distributed south of the Yunkai Mountains, including on Hainan Island. The mtDNA data revealed a strong relationship between phylogeny and geography. In the microsatellite analysis, a total of 339 alleles with an average of 26 alleles per locus were observed across thirteen microsatellite loci. A clustering algorithm for microsatellite data revealed an admixture-like genetic structure. Although the mtDNA and microsatellite data sets displayed a discordant population structure, the results of an approximate Bayesian computation approach showed that these two markers revealed congruent historical signals. The population history of G. orientalis reflects vicariance events and dispersal related to the complex geological history of South China. Our results (i) found that the discordances between mtDNA and microsatellite markers were accounted for by admixtures; (ii) showed that the Wuzhishan and Yinggeling mountain ranges and Qiongzhou Strait were important barriers limiting gene exchange between populations on both sides; (iii) indicated that during glaciation and inter-glacial periods, the strait and continental shelves were exposed and sank, which contributed with the dispersion and differentiation of populations; and (iv) displayed that the admixtures between lineages took place in coastal populations and then colonized the tributaries of the Pearl River.

  9. Postglacial recolonization of eastern Blacknose Dace,Rhinichthys atratulus(Teleostei: Cyprinidae), through the gateway of New England

    PubMed Central

    Tipton, Michelle L; Gignoux-Wolfsohn, Sarah; Stonebraker, Phoebe; Chernoff, Barry

    2011-01-01

    During the last ice age, much of North America far south as 40°N was covered by glaciers (Hewitt 2000). About 20,000 years ago, as the glaciers retreated, the hydrologic landscape changed dramatically creating waterways for fish dispersal. The number of populations responsible for recolonization and the regions from which they recolonized are unknown for many freshwater fishes living in New England and southeastern Canada. The Blacknose Dace,Rhinichthys atratulus, is one of the freshwater fish species that recolonized this region. We hypothesize that the earliest deglaciated region, modern-day Connecticut, was recolonized byR. atratulusvia a single founding event by a single population. In this paper, we test this hypothesis phylogenetically with regard to the major drainage basins within Connecticut. The mitochondrial DNA exhibits low nucleotide diversity, high haplotype diversity, and a dominant haplotype found across the state. A small percentage of individuals in the Housatonic drainage basin, however, share a haplotype with populations in New York drainage basins, a haplotype not found elsewhere in Connecticut's drainage basins. We calculated a range for the rate of divergence for NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nd2) and control region (ctr) of 4.43–6.76% and 3.84–8.48% per million years (my), respectively. While this range is higher than the commonly accepted rate of 2% for mitochondrial DNA, these results join a growing list of publications finding high rates of divergence for various taxa (Peterson and Masel 2009). The data support the conclusion that Connecticut as a whole was recolonized initially by a single founding event that came from a single refugium. Subsequently, the Housatonic basin alone experienced a secondary recolonization event. PMID:22393505

  10. Apistogramma ortegai (Teleostei: Cichlidae), a new species of cichlid fish from the Ampyiacu River in the Peruvian Amazon basin.

    PubMed

    Britzke, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio; Kullander, Sven O

    2014-10-02

    Apistogramma ortegai, new species, is described from small streams tributaries of the Ampiyacu River near Pebas, in eastern Peru. It belongs to the Apistogramma regani species group and is distinguished from all other species of Apistogramma by the combination of contiguous caudal spot to bar 7, presence of abdominal stripes, short dorsal-fin lappets in both sexes, absence of vertical stripes on the caudal fin, and reduced number of predorsal and prepelvic scales.

  11. Comparative phylogeography of sympatric sister species, Clevelandia ios and Eucyclogobius newberryi (Teleostei, Gobiidae), across the California Transition Zone.

    PubMed

    Dawson, M N; Louie, K D; Barlow, M; Jacobs, D K; Swift, C C

    2002-06-01

    It is paradigmatic in marine species that greater dispersal ability often, but not always, results in greater gene flow and less population structure. Some of the exceptions may be attributable to studies confounded by comparison of species with dissimilar evolutionary histories, i.e. co-occurring species that are not closely related or species that are closely related but allopatric. Investigation of sympatric sister species, in contrast, should allow differences in phylogeographic structure to be attributed reliably to recently derived differences in dispersal ability. Here, using mitochondrial DNA control region sequence, we first confirm that Clevelandia ios and Eucyclogobius newberryi are sympatric sister taxa, then demonstrate considerably shallower phylogeographic structure in C. ios than in E. newberryi. This shallower phylogeographic structure is consistent with the higher dispersal ability of C. ios, which most likely results from the interaction of habitat and life-history differences between the species. We suggest that the paradigm will be investigated most rigorously by similar studies of other sympatric sister species, appended by thorough ecological studies, and by extending this sister-taxon approach to comparative phylogeographic studies of monophyletic clades of sympatric species.

  12. Loss of genetic diversity at an MHC locus in the endangered Tokyo bitterling Tanakia tanago (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Kubota, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Katsutoshi

    2013-12-01

    Genetic diversity at a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B gene was examined for two wild and three captive populations of the endangered Tokyo bitterling Tanakia tanago. A specific primer set was first developed to amplify the MHC II B exon 2 locus. Using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequencing analysis, 16 DAB3 alleles were detected with 56 nucleotide substitutions in the 276-bp region. In the putative antigen-binding sites of exon 2, the rate of nonsynonymous substitutions was significantly higher than that of synonymous substitutions (dN/dS = 2.79), indicating positive selection on the retention of polymorphism. The population from the Handa Natural Habitat Conservation Area and that from the Tone River system exhibited low variation (one and three alleles, respectively), whereas the captive population that originated from a mix of three distinct populations had the highest amounts of variation (14 alleles). The levels of heterozygosity at the MHC varied considerably among populations and showed significant correlations with those at putative neutral microsatellite markers, suggesting that genetic drift following a bottleneck has affected MHC variability in some populations. Comparisons between endangered and non-endangered fish species in previous reports and the present results indicate that the number of MHC alleles per population is on average 70% lower in endangered species than non-endangered species. Considering the functional consequence of this locus, attention should be paid to captive and wild endangered fish populations in terms of further loss of MHC alleles.

  13. Ultrastructural study of vitellogenesis and oogenesis of Crepidostomum metoecus (Digenea, Allocreadiidae), intestinal parasite of Salmo trutta (Pisces, Teleostei)

    PubMed Central

    Greani, Samuel; Quilichini, Yann; Marchand, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    We describe the vitellogenesis and oogenesis of Crepidostomum metoecus from Salmo trutta collected in Corsica. This is the first study conducted in the Allocreadiidae family. The maturation of C. metoecus vitellocytes comprises four different stages depending on organelle content. The follicular vitellarium is surrounded by a basal lamina. Vitellocytes are randomly distributed into the vitellarium, although fully mature vitellocytes are found in the center of the follicle. During maturation, the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio decreases, whereas synthetic activity increases. Fully mature vitellocytes are filled with β-glycogen particles and shell globule clusters. Compared to other trematodes studied, C. metoecus possesses a large amount of nutritive reserves for the developing embryo and high quantities of material for the developing shell. Oocyte maturation takes place in four stages: oogonia, primary oocytes, developing oocytes, and mature oocytes. Developing oocytes enter the zygotene-pachytene stage of the first meiotic division recognizable by the presence of synaptonemal complexes in the nucleoplasm. The low protein composition of mature oocytes associated with the large nutrient content of vitellocytes of C. metoecus enables us to consider that oocytes do not take part of the nutrition of the future embryo of the miracidium. A cytochemical test (Thiéry method) allowed us to detect the presence of polysaccharides and glycogen during maturation of these two cell types. PMID:27845028

  14. Sperm ultrastructure of the digenean Aphallus tubarium (Rudolphi, 1819) Poche, 1926 (Platyhelminthes, Cryptogonimidae) intestinal parasite of Dentex dentex (Pisces, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Foata, J; Quilichini, Y; Greani, S; Marchand, B

    2012-02-01

    The ultrastructural organization of the spermatozoon of a cryptogonimid digenean, Aphallus tubarium, a parasite of Dentex dentex, is described. The spermatozoon possesses the elements found in other digeneans: two axonemes with 9+"1" pattern, a mitochondrion, a nucleus, cortical microtubules, external ornamentation and spine-like bodies. However, the mitochondrion appears as a cord with a bulge; this characteristic has never been described in other studied cryptogonimid and in other digeneans except in one lepocreadiid, Holorchis micracanthum. Likewise, the presence of a thin cytoplasm termination in the anterior part of the spermatozoon has never been pointed out in the cryptogonimids.

  15. ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in the endangered fish Lignobrycon myersi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1956 (Teleostei, Characiformes, Triportheidae)

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Alexandre dos Santos; Medrado, Aline Souza; Diniz, Débora; Oliveira, Claudio; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lignobrycon myersi is an endemic fish species from a few coastal rivers in northeastern Brazil. Based on molecular evidence, Lignobrycon myersi and genera Triportheus Cope, 1872, Agoniates Müller & Troschel, 1845, Clupeacharax Pearson, 1924 and Engraulisoma Castro, 1981 were placed in the family Triportheidae. In the present work, we report the first cytogenetic data for Lignobrycon myersi to test the hypothesis that Lignobrycon and Triportheus are closely related. Studied specimens presented 2n=52 with 28 metacentric (m), 18 submetacentric (sm) and six subtelocentric (st) chromosomes for males and 27 m, 19 sm and 6 st for females, characterizing a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. The Z chromosome corresponds to the largest chromosome in karyotype while the W is about 50% smaller than the Z and largely heterochromatic. Terminal nucleolus organizer regions, GC-rich sites and 18S rDNA signals were detected on pair 14. However, additional 18S rDNA sites were observed in the W chromosome. The 5S rDNA was mainly detected on long arms of pair 7. The apparent synapomorphic chromosomal traits of Triportheus and Lignobrycon myersi reinforce their close phylogenetic relationship, suggesting that the ZZ/ZW chromosome system in both genera has arisen before cladogenic events. PMID:27551346

  16. Phylogenetic position of the Dalmatian genus Phoxinellus and description of the newly proposed genus Delminichthys (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Freyhof, Jörg; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Bogutskaya, Nina G; Pitra, Christian; Ludwig, Arne

    2006-02-01

    The Dalmatian cyprinid genus Phoxinellus is characterized by reductive characters most likely associated with the environmental conditions of small karstic streams, where all species of this genus occur. Based on 33 morphological traits, nuclear and mtDNA sequences Phoxinellus was found to be paraphyletic and included three not closely related monophyletic units. The scientific name Phoxinellus should therefore be restricted to species having plain coloration, small or absent postcleithrum, no genital papilla and an almost entirely naked body such as P. alepidotus, P. dalmaticus, and P. pseudalepidotus. Species that also have a small or absent postcleithrum and no genital papilla but display a dark stripe from the head to the caudal peduncle, and are entirely covered by distinct, not overlapping scales should be positioned closely to Telestes. Thus, we suggest inclusion of Phoxinellus croaticus, P. fontinalis and Paraphoxinus metohiensis in the genus Telestes. The Phoxinellus species that have a irregularly spotted color pattern, a large postcleithrum, an increased number of precaudal anal-fin pterygiophores, and a large genital papilla in females represent its own evolutionary line closely related to the Balkan species of Pseudophoxinus. For this monophyletic group, we propose to introduce a new genus: Delminichthys. This genus includes the species D. adspersus, D. ghetaldii, D. krbavensis and D. jadovensis.

  17. Pollution biomonitoring in the Bizerte lagoon (Tunisia), using combined chemical and biomarker analyses in grass goby, Zosterisessor ophiocephalus (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Barhoumi, Badreddine; Clérandeau, Christelle; Gourves, Pierre-Yves; Le Menach, Karyn; El Megdiche, Yassine; Peluhet, Laurent; Budzinski, Hélène; Baudrimont, Magalie; Driss, Mohamed Ridha; Cachot, Jérôme

    2014-10-01

    In this study, biological responses and contaminant levels in biological tissues were investigated in grass goby fish specimens (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) collected from five stations in a moderately polluted ecosystem, namely the Bizerte lagoon on the north coast of Tunisia. The following biomarkers were measured: muscular acetylcholinesterase (AChE), hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), lipoperoxidation (TBARS), condition factor (CF), and hepatosomatic index (HSI). These measurements were taken in parallel with the content of Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace metals (As, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, V, Zn, Ag, Cd, Co and Ni) in muscle tissue. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 20.09 ± 0.68 to 105.77 ± 42.58 ng g(-1) dw, PCB from 33.19 ± 6.25 to 126.28 ± 7.37 ng g(-1) dw, OCP from 11.26 ± 1.62 to 19.17 ± 2.06 ng g(-1) dw, and metals from 107.83 ± 1.83 to 187.21 ± 2.00 mg/kg dw. The highest levels of pollutants and biomarkers were observed at station S1, located in the Bizerte channel. Elevated EROD, GST and CAT activities, as well as TBARS levels in liver were positively correlated with tissue contaminant levels at station S1. Significant negative correlations were also found between hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) body burden with AChE activity in muscle at station S2. The integration of biological responses and contaminant tissue content indicated that certain areas of the Bizerte lagoon, notably station S1, are significantly impacted by various human activities, which likely represent a threat for aquatic wildlife. On the basis of these results, and due to its ecological characteristics, the grass goby appears a suitable indicator species for pollution biomonitoring in coastal marine areas along the Mediterranean Sea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution of Hatschekia pagellibogneravei (Copepoda: Hatschekiidae) on the gills of Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Madeira, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Margarida; Cruz, Cristina; Saraiva, Aurélia

    2012-06-01

    A population of the gill parasite Hatschekia pagellibogneravei (Hesse, 1878) was studied on one of its sparid fish hosts, the blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich), off the coast of Madeira Island, Portugal, northeast Atlantic. Very high infection levels of this copepod were detected, with no significant seasonal differences. Abundance was negatively correlated with fish size. There were significant differences in the distribution of this copepod among the gill arches of the host, which seem to be best explained by differences in water flow within the gill habitat.

  19. Vascularization of male gonads in Blennius pavo (Teleostei, Blenniidae) as revealed by scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts.

    PubMed

    Lahnsteiner, F; Lametschwandtner, A; Patzner, R A; Adam, H

    1988-12-01

    The vascular architecture of male gonads of Blennius pavo is studied by scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts. Arterial supply to the gonads is by a branch of the first ventral segmental artery of the tail. From the surface of the gonads, this vessel gives rise to branches which supply testes, spermatic ducts, testicular glands, blind pouches, urogenital sinus and urogenital papilla. The testis has a rope-ladder-like capillary network around the seminiferous tubules, while in the testicular gland the capillary network is irregular in form. The spermatic ducts are found to have an exterior capillary network located in the compact connective tissue layer and an interior one, lying subepithelially. Urogenital sinus and urogenital papilla show a multilayered capillary network. Angioarchitecture in mature and immature gonads does not differ.

  20. Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra (Teleostei) in the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. is described from the gills of the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra caught off Senegal, Tunisia and Libya (type-locality: off Dakar, Senegal). The species is distinguished from its congeners by the structure of its sclerotised vagina (length 26–35 μm), which exhibits a trumpet in continuity with the primary canal, a straight primary canal, and primary and secondary chambers included in a common sclerotised mass along the primary canal. The species is also characterised by small squamodiscs (length 20–40 μm) with 10–11 rows of rodlets. Its closest relatives (based on the structure of the sclerotised vagina) are species mostly found in the Mediterranean Sea and parasites on species of Mycteroperca. A second species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is reported from the same host and localities but not described. A list of diplectanids from groupers in the Mediterranean Sea is provided. We point out that a recent article was not compliant with the new Article 8.5.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; for this reason, three species, P. nhatrangensis Dang, Bristow, Schander & Berland, 2013, P. vietnamensis Dang et al., 2013 and P. brunei Dang et al., 2013, are invalid. PMID:25674913

  1. Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra (Teleostei) in the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. is described from the gills of the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra caught off Senegal, Tunisia and Libya (type-locality: off Dakar, Senegal). The species is distinguished from its congeners by the structure of its sclerotised vagina (length 26-35 μm), which exhibits a trumpet in continuity with the primary canal, a straight primary canal, and primary and secondary chambers included in a common sclerotised mass along the primary canal. The species is also characterised by small squamodiscs (length 20-40 μm) with 10-11 rows of rodlets. Its closest relatives (based on the structure of the sclerotised vagina) are species mostly found in the Mediterranean Sea and parasites on species of Mycteroperca. A second species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is reported from the same host and localities but not described. A list of diplectanids from groupers in the Mediterranean Sea is provided. We point out that a recent article was not compliant with the new Article 8.5.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; for this reason, three species, P. nhatrangensis Dang, Bristow, Schander & Berland, 2013, P. vietnamensis Dang et al., 2013 and P. brunei Dang et al., 2013, are invalid. © A. Chaabane et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  2. Before the freeze: otoliths from the Eocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica, reveal dominance of gadiform fishes (Teleostei)

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzhans, Werner; Mörs, Thomas; Engelbrecht, Andrea; Reguero, Marcelo; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The first record of fossil teleostean otoliths from Antarctica is reported. The fossils were obtained from late Early Eocene shell beds of the La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island that represent the last temperate marine climate phase in Antarctica prior to the onset of cooling and subsequent glaciation during the late Eocene. A total of 17 otolith-based teleost taxa are recognized, with 10 being identifiable to species level containing nine new species and one new genus: Argentina antarctica sp. nov., Diaphus? marambionis sp. nov., Macruronus eastmani sp. nov., Coelorinchus balushkini sp. nov., Coelorinchus nordenskjoeldi sp. nov., Palimphemus seymourensis sp. nov., Hoplobrotula? antipoda sp. nov., Notoberyx cionei gen. et sp. nov. and Cepola anderssoni sp. nov. Macruronus eastmani sp. nov. is also known from the late Eocene of Southern Australia, and Tripterophycis immutatus Schwarzhans, widespread in the southern oceans during the Eocene, has been recorded from New Zealand, southern Australia, and now Antarctica. The otolith assemblage shows a typical composition of temperate fishes dominated by gadiforms, very similar at genus and family levels to associations known from middle Eocene strata of New Zealand and the late Eocene of southern Australia, but also to the temperate Northern Hemisphere associations from the Paleocene of Denmark. The Seymour Island fauna bridges a gap in the record of global temperate marine teleost faunas during the early Eocene climate maximum. The dominant gadiforms are interpreted as the main temperate faunal component, as in the Paleocene of Denmark. Here they are represented by the families Moridae, Merlucciidae (Macruroninae), Macrouridae and Gadidae. Nowadays Gadidae are a chiefly Northern Hemisphere temperate family. Moridae, Macruroninae and Macrouridae live today on the lower shelf to deep-water or mesopelagically with Macruroninae being restricted to the Southern Ocean. The extant endemic Antarctic gadiform family Muraenolepididae is missing, as are the dominant modern Antarctic fishes of the perciform suborder Notothenioidei. Recently, there has been much debate on isolated jaw bones of teleost fishes found in the La Meseta Formation and whether they would represent gadiforms (Merlucciidae in this case) or some early, primitive notothenioid. Otoliths are known to often complement rather than duplicate skeletal finds. With this in mind, we conclude that our otolith data support the presence of gadiforms in the early Eocene of Antarctica while it does not rule out the presence of notothenioids at the same time. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A30E5364-0003-4467-B902-43A41AD456CC PMID:28077930

  3. Phylogenetic relationships within the speciose family Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes) based on multilocus analysis and extensive ingroup sampling.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Claudio; Avelino, Gleisy S; Abe, Kelly T; Mariguela, Tatiane C; Benine, Ricardo C; Ortí, Guillermo; Vari, Richard P; Corrêa e Castro, Ricardo M

    2011-09-26

    With nearly 1,100 species, the fish family Characidae represents more than half of the species of Characiformes, and is a key component of Neotropical freshwater ecosystems. The composition, phylogeny, and classification of Characidae is currently uncertain, despite significant efforts based on analysis of morphological and molecular data. No consensus about the monophyly of this group or its position within the order Characiformes has been reached, challenged by the fact that many key studies to date have non-overlapping taxonomic representation and focus only on subsets of this diversity. In the present study we propose a new definition of the family Characidae and a hypothesis of relationships for the Characiformes based on phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (4,680 base pairs). The sequences were obtained from 211 samples representing 166 genera distributed among all 18 recognized families in the order Characiformes, all 14 recognized subfamilies in the Characidae, plus 56 of the genera so far considered incertae sedis in the Characidae. The phylogeny obtained is robust, with most lineages significantly supported by posterior probabilities in Bayesian analysis, and high bootstrap values from maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses. A monophyletic assemblage strongly supported in all our phylogenetic analysis is herein defined as the Characidae and includes the characiform species lacking a supraorbital bone and with a derived position of the emergence of the hyoid artery from the anterior ceratohyal. To recognize this and several other monophyletic groups within characiforms we propose changes in the limits of several families to facilitate future studies in the Characiformes and particularly the Characidae. This work presents a new phylogenetic framework for a speciose and morphologically diverse group of freshwater fishes of significant ecological and evolutionary importance across the Neotropics and portions of Africa.

  4. Blood cleansing cells in head kidney and spleen in Buenos Aires tetra, Hyphessobrycon anisitsi (Eigenmann), (Characidae: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Leknes, I L

    2012-06-01

    The general structure and cell types in kidney and spleen in Buenos Aires tetra, Hyphessobrycon anisitsi, family Characidae, are described. The capability and capacity of these organs to clean foreign ferritin from the blood stream are analysed and compared. Head kidney was mainly composed of neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes and other white blood cells, whereas unmatured and matured red blood cells were few in number. Spleen often contained much red pulp, that is mainly matured red blood cells between splenic cords, often with some macrophages and neutrophils in the latter. Occasionally, this pulp contained large volumes of unmatured red blood cells, particularly in the periphery of the spleen. The splenic white pulp consisted of ellipsoids composed of an inner endothelial layer covered by a thick sheet of white blood cells, which in the periphery consisted mainly of macrophages. Erythrocytes occupied nearly the entire splenic volume in some specimens, whereas up to half of this volume was filled by ellipsoid macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes and other white blood cells in other specimens. The macrophages and sinusoidal endothelial cells in kidney and spleen from ferritin-injected specimens were tightly packed by yellow-brown granules or Prussian blue precipitations, in tissue treated with Mallory stain or acid ferrocyanide, respectively, suggesting a large uptake of foreign ferritin. In the present tetra large amounts of white blood cells are developed in head kidney, where macrophages and sinusoidal endothelial cells play important roles in the cleansing of scavenger and foreign molecules and particles from the blood stream. The spleen seems primarily to be a site for iron recycling and production and storage of red blood cells. Sometimes, however, it was rich in macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes and other white blood cells, suggesting functions like blood cleansing and non-specific and specific defence in such specimens. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. The involvement of gonadotropins and gonadal steroids in the ovulatory dysfunction of the potamodromous Salminus hilarii (Teleostei: Characidae) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Renata Guimarães; Honji, Renato Massaaki; Melo, Renato Garcia; Narcizo, Amanda de Moraes; Amaral, Juliane Suzuki; Araújo, Ronaldo de Carvalho; Hilsdorf, Alexandre Wagner Silva

    2015-12-01

    Potamodromous teleosts that require migration to reproduce show dysfunctions that block ovulation and spawning while in captivity. To understand the physiological basis of these reproductive dysfunctions, follicle-stimulating hormone b subunit (fshb) and luteinizing hormone b subunit (lhb) gene expression analyses by real-time quantitative PCR, together with measurements of estradiol (E 2), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP) and 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17α,20β-DHP) levels, were carried out throughout the reproductive cycle of the potamodromous Salminus hilarii. The following reproductive stages were evaluated in captive and wild females: previtellogenic (PV), advanced maturation/mature (AM) and regression/spent (REG/SPENT). In the wild females, fshb expression decreased from the PV to the AM stage, and the opposite pattern was detected for E 2, which increased from the PV to the AM stage. fshb was expressed at lower levels in captive than in wild females, and this difference did not change during the reproductive cycle. lhb expression also increased from the PV to the AM stage in both groups, but the wild females at the AM and REG/SPENT stages showed higher lhb expression levels than the captive females. The concentrations of 17α-OHP did not change during the reproductive cycle, and the levels were higher in the captive than in the wild females at all reproductive stages. 17α,20β-DHP levels did not change between wild and captive females. However, in captive females, the transition from PV to AM stage was followed by an increase in 17α,20β-DHP levels. These data indicate that dysfunctions in the gonadotropins and steroids synthesis pathways cause the ovulation failure in captive S. hilarii.

  6. Use of Muscular Cholinesterase of Astyanax bifasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae) as a Biomarker in Biomonitoring of Rural Streams.

    PubMed

    Nimet, Jardel; Guimarães, Ana Tereza Bittencourt; Delariva, Rosilene Luciana

    2017-08-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was measured in Astyanax bifasciatus maintained in controlled conditions. Muscle ChE activity of individuals collected in field conditions in two seasons was compared among specimens collected in seven streams (forest and rural) of the lower Iguaçu river basin in association with physical, chemical, pesticides and biological factors. Significant differences in muscle ChE activity between control fish and fish collected in streams in both seasons were found, with higher activity in natural conditions. This the first time that differences in muscle ChE activity have been found among fish collected from different streams, suggesting synergism among multiple factors (e.g. temperature, pH, animal weight) and ecological attributes (richness and abundance) as influencing the variation in biomarkers. It is necessary to evaluate the quality of aquatic environments for a more accurate biomonitoring approach.

  7. Description of three new species of Moenkhausia (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae) with the definition of the Moenkhausia jamesi species complex.

    PubMed

    Petrolli, Marina G; Benine, Ricardo C

    2015-07-20

    From the examination of extensive comparative material currently identified as M. jamesi we verified that there are, at least, three new species under this name. These, along with M. jamesi and M. justae, form what we herein called the M. jamesi species complex, by sharing the following group of characters: a short maxilla, with its distal margin not exceeding anterior third of the second infraorbital; first through third teeth of the inner row of premaxilla and first and second dentary teeth with cusps arranged in a pronounced arch, humeral spot positioned between the fourth and seventh scales of the lateral line and extending up to four scale rows above the lateral line and one scale row below the lateral line, and a vertically oval to round spot at the base of the caudal fin rays. Moenkhausia ischyognatha sp. n., from Rio Xingu basin, differs from the other species of the complex by its lower head depth. Moenkhausia alesis sp. n., from the river system Tocantins-Araguaia, differs from M. jamesi, M. ischyognatha, and M. sthenosthoma by the number of scale rows above the lateral line. Moenkhausia sthenosthoma sp. n., from the Rio Madeira basin, differs from M. jamesi by the number of scale rows between the lateral line and the midventral scale series. Moenkhausia justae can be diagnosed from the other species of the complex by having a tri to pentacuspidate tooth on the maxilla.

  8. Three sympatric karyomorphs in the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae) do not seem to hybridize in natural populations

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Neto, Maressa; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Camacho, Juan Pedro Martínez; Bakkali, Mohammed; de Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ninety individuals of the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) were collected at Água da Madalena stream (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil) and analyzed for diploid chromosome number 2n and karyotype composition as well as for the chromosomal location of the 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Whereas no chromosome differences were associated with sex, three different karyomorphs with diploid chromosome numbers 2n=46, 2n=48 and 2n=50 were found. No intermediate 2n numbers were discovered. The 2n=50 karyomorph showed some differences in 18S rDNA location compared to the two other karyomorphs. Finally, all specimens with the 2n=46 karyomorph showed the presence of a partly heterochromatic macro supernumerary chromosome, which was absent in all individuals with the two other karyomorphs. All these results suggest that indviduals of the three different karyomorphs are not likely to hybridize in the examined populations. Our findings strongly suggest the presence of three separate species (sensu biological species concept) easily diagnosed on the basis of differences in the diploid chromosome numbers and other chromosomal markers. PMID:24260650

  9. Immunohistochemical, morphological and histometrical analyses of follicular development in Astyanax bimaculatus (Teleostei: Characidae) exposed to an organochlorine insecticide.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Lucas; Thomé, Ralph Gruppi; Mounteer, Ann Honor; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete; Benjamin, Laércio Dos Anjos

    2017-09-01

    Thiodan(®) is an organochlorine insecticide used in agriculture that can reach aquatic ecosystems where it can affect fish reproduction. This research aimed to evaluate follicular development and the expression of integrin β1, collagen type IV and caspase 3 by morphological, histometrical and immunohistochemical analyses of Astyanax bimaculatus exposed to Thiodan(®). Treatments included three sublethal concentrations of Thiodan(®) (1.15, 2.30, and 5.60μgL(-1)) for 96h and a control without the insecticide. Mature females with ovaries in advanced follicular development were chosen for study (average weight: 11.52 ± 2.0g; average total length: 9.12 ± 0.64cm). The follicles of A. bimaculatus exhibited normal morphology, while the diameters of secondary follicles showed an increase (P< 0.05) in all concentrations when compared to the control group; a characteristic of follicles undergoing the initial stages of intoxication. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed secondary follicles with greater expression of integrin β1 and collagen type IV in cytoplasm of follicular cells than in the primary follicles in all treatments and in the control. Immunolocalization of caspase 3 was detected in follicular cells during secondary development in all tested concentrations of Thiodan(®) and the control. These analyses demonstrate positive immunolocalization throughout the course of follicular development, even in fish exposed to varying concentrations of Thiodan(®) for 96h, demonstrating that follicular cells retain their physiological integrity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cytogenetic and morphometric analysis in the species Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae) from the Iguatemi River Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Da Rocha, Rafael Henrique; Bailly, Dayani; Guterres, Zaira Da Rosa; Alves, Diandra Soares; Martins-Santos, Isabel Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The genus Astyanax is relatively common and encompasses various similar taxa forming a highly complex group that is difficult to precisely delimit. The present study aims to analyze cytogenetically and morphologically specimens of A. altiparanae belonging to distinct populations of the Iguatemi River Basin, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, for a better understanding of the evolutionary processes in this fish group. This study analysed 32 specimens of Astyanax altiparanae from Iguatemi River basin, MS, Brazil: 24 from the Agua Boa stream and 8 from the Santa Maria stream. All specimens showed a diploid number equal to 50 chromosomes with differences in the karyotypic formula and types of chromosomes bearing the NOR between the two localities. The constitutive heterochromatin showed interstitial markings evident in the region of some chromosomes in both populations. In the morphometric analysis, the first three axes were retained for interpretation which together explained 81% of variance, showing morphometric distinction between populations. Chromosomal and morphometric data obtained may be useful for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies in this group of fish.

  11. Cytogenetic and Molecular Data Suggest Deuterodon pedri Eigenmann, 1907 (Teleostei: Characidae) Is a Member of an Ancient Coastal Group.

    PubMed

    Coutinho-Sanches, Natália; Dergam, Jorge Abdala

    2015-10-01

    The genus Deuterodon has been taxonomically recently redefined. Seven of its species have been included in this genus, whereas three others are regarded as Incertae Sedis in Characidae. One of latter is Deuterodon pedri, an endemic species from Santo Antônio River in Minas Gerais. Cytogenetic and molecular data on 21 specimens of D. pedri allowed to reevaluate the phylogenetic position of this taxon. The specimens showed karyotypic formula 12m+12sm+20st+6a, low heterochromatin content, nucleolar organizer regions present in two chromosome pairs, and 10 and 2 labeled regions by fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S and 5S probes respectively, a karyotype similar to Deuterodon stigmaturus. The phylogenetic tree generated by a cytochrome oxidase subunit I fragment revealed that D. pedri and Deuterodon singularis are closely related and are the sister-group of Deuterodon parahybae, Deuterodon iguape, Astyanax giton, Astyanax intermedius, Astyanax ribeirae, Astyanax scabripinnis, and Probolodus heterostomus. The same arrangement was partially recovered with the nuclear gene RAG2. Our data indicate the genus Deuterodon is not monophyletic and that it is closely related to other species that occur in Brazil coastal basins.

  12. Revision of the South American genus Tetragonopterus Cuvier, 1816 (Teleostei: Characidae) with description of four new species.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gabriel S C; Melo, Bruno F; Oliveira, Claudio; Benine, Ricardo C

    2016-11-27

    The systematics of the characid genus Tetragonopterus is reviewed based on morphological and molecular data of specimens from its entire geographical range encompassing all major South American river drainages from Orinoco basin southward to the La Plata basin. Eight previously described species (T. anostomus, T. araguaiensis, T. argenteus, T. carvalhoi, T. chalceus, T. denticulatus, T. georgiae n. comb., and T. rarus) are recognized as valid, four of which are redescribed (T. argenteus, T. chalceus, T. georgiae, and T. rarus), and four new species from the Brazilian Shield in the Amazon and São Francisco river basins are herein described. We also provide evidence for the reallocation of Moenkhausia georgiae into Tetragonopterus and recognize T. akamai as junior synonym of T. anostomus. DNA barcodes of Tetragonopterus revealed genetic support for each recognized species and provided valuable population-level information within T. argenteus, T. chalceus, T. georgiae, and T. rarus.

  13. Phylogenetic relationships within the speciose family Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes) based on multilocus analysis and extensive ingroup sampling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With nearly 1,100 species, the fish family Characidae represents more than half of the species of Characiformes, and is a key component of Neotropical freshwater ecosystems. The composition, phylogeny, and classification of Characidae is currently uncertain, despite significant efforts based on analysis of morphological and molecular data. No consensus about the monophyly of this group or its position within the order Characiformes has been reached, challenged by the fact that many key studies to date have non-overlapping taxonomic representation and focus only on subsets of this diversity. Results In the present study we propose a new definition of the family Characidae and a hypothesis of relationships for the Characiformes based on phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (4,680 base pairs). The sequences were obtained from 211 samples representing 166 genera distributed among all 18 recognized families in the order Characiformes, all 14 recognized subfamilies in the Characidae, plus 56 of the genera so far considered incertae sedis in the Characidae. The phylogeny obtained is robust, with most lineages significantly supported by posterior probabilities in Bayesian analysis, and high bootstrap values from maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses. Conclusion A monophyletic assemblage strongly supported in all our phylogenetic analysis is herein defined as the Characidae and includes the characiform species lacking a supraorbital bone and with a derived position of the emergence of the hyoid artery from the anterior ceratohyal. To recognize this and several other monophyletic groups within characiforms we propose changes in the limits of several families to facilitate future studies in the Characiformes and particularly the Characidae. This work presents a new phylogenetic framework for a speciose and morphologically diverse group of freshwater fishes of significant ecological and evolutionary importance across the Neotropics and portions of Africa. PMID:21943181

  14. Cytochemical characterization of the endomembranous system during the oocyte primary growth in Serrasalmus spilopleura (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Guimarães, A C D; Quagio-Grassiotto, I

    2005-10-01

    The morphophysiological changes that occur during oocyte primary growth in Serrasalmus spilopleura were studied using ultrastructural cytochemical techniques. In the previtellogenic oocytes endoplasmic reticulum components, Golgi complex cisternae and vesicles, lysosomes, multivesicular bodies and some electron-dense vesicles react to acid phosphatase (AcPase) detection. The endoplasmic reticulum components, Golgi complex cisternae and vesicles also react to osmium tetroxide and potassium iodide impregnation (KI). These structures, except for the Golgi complex cisternae, are strongly contrasted by osmium tetroxide and zinc iodide impregnation (ZIO). Some electron-dense vesicles are ZIO-stained, while microvesicles in the multivesicular bodies and other large isolated cytoplasmic vesicles are contrasted by KI. At primary oocyte growth, the activity of the endomembranous system and the proliferation of membranous organelles are intense. The biosynthetic pathway of the lysosomal proteins such as acid phosphatase, involves the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, vesicles with inactive hydrolytic enzymes and, finally, the lysosomes. The oocyte endomembranous system have reduction capacity and are involved in the metabolism of rich in SH groups.

  15. Review of the crevalle jacks, Caranx hippos complex (Teleostei: Carangidae), with a description of a new species from West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith-Vaniz, W.F.; Carpenter, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    The Caranx hippos species complex comprises three extant species: crevalle jack (Caranx hippos) (Linnaeus, 1766) from both the western and eastern Atlantic oceans; Pacific crevalle jack (Caranx caninus) Gu??nther, 1868 from the eastern Pacific Ocean; and longfin crevalle jack (Caranx fischeri) new species, from the eastern Atlantic, including the Mediterranean Sea and Ascension Island. Adults of all three species are superficially similar with a black blotch on the lower half of the pectoral fin, a black spot on the upper margin of opercle, one or two pairs of enlarged symphyseal canines on the lower jaw, and a similar pattern of breast squamation. Each species has a different pattern of hyperostotic bone development and anal-fin color. The two sympatric eastern Atlantic species also differ from each other in number of dorsal- and anal-fin rays, and in large adults of C. fischeri the lobes of these fins are longer and the body is deeper. Caranx hippos from opposite sides of the Atlantic are virtually indistinguishable externally but differ consistently in the expression of hyperostosis of the first dorsal-fin pterygiophore. The fossil species Caranx carangopsis Steindachner 1859 appears to have been based on composite material of Trachurus sp. and a fourth species of the Caranx hippos complex. Patterns of hyperostotic bone development are compared in the nine (of 15 total) species of Caranx sensu stricto that exhibit hyperostosis.

  16. Integrative taxonomy of Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae (Nematoda) in Paralichthys patagonicus and Xystreurys rasile (Pisces: Teleostei) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Michelle Cristie Gonçalves da; Knoff, Marcelo; Felizardo, Nilza Nunes; Di Azevedo, Maria Isabel N; Torres, Eduardo José Lopes; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; São Clemente, Sérgio Carmona de

    2016-10-17

    Thirty-six Paralichthys patagonicus and 30 Xystreurys rasile were collected in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to investigate the presence of anisakid and raphidascaridid nematodes. Anisakis typica, Terranova sp., Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. were identified using integrative taxonomy of morphological and genetic data. Morphological and morphometric analysis was conducted using bright field microscopy with scanning electron microscopy for topographic characterization of the cuticular surface. Phylogenetic analysis, using ITS and cox2 molecular targets, clearly demonstrated the species identification of A. typica and H. deardorffoverstreetorum and the high diversity of H. deardorffoverstreetorum. This is the first report of A. typica, H. deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. parasitizing P. patagonicus and X. rasile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Peripatric differentiation among adjacent marine lake and lagoon populations of a coastal fish, Sphaeramia orbicularis (Apogonidae, Perciformes, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Ryo O; Sekimoto, Hidekatsu; Chiba, Satoru N; Hanzawa, Naoto

    2009-08-01

    The effect of geographical isolation on speciation, particularly within short geographical ranges, is poorly understood among marine organisms. Focusing on marine lakes of the Palau Islands, we investigated the effect of geographical isolation on Sphaeramia orbicularis, a coastal fish inhabiting marine lakes and lagoons. We collected a total of 157 individuals from three meromictic marine lakes and three lagoon sites, and analyzed the genetic diversity and differentiation of the populations based on complete sequences of the mitochondrial control region (824 bp). The analyses show that the genetic diversity of marine lake populations is much lower than that of lagoon populations. Moreover, a mismatch distribution analysis suggests that marine lake populations have experienced a decrease followed by a rapid expansion of their population size. These results reveal that marine lake populations have experienced severe founder and/or bottleneck events during the last thousand to tens of thousand years. Pairwise Phi(ST )values ranged from 0.531 to 0.848 between marine lake and lagoon populations and from 0.429 to 0.870 among marine lake populations, indicating a high degree of genetic differentiation. We speculate that such peripatric differentiation between marine lake and lagoon populations was caused by a small number of individuals colonizing the lakes from the lagoon (founder event) followed by repetitive bottleneck events, such as those generated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). So far, such high genetic divergences in extremely short geographical ranges (approximately 150-250 m) have scarcely been reported for marine organisms. We suggest that the marine lake is one of the good model of geographical isolation in marine organisms and each marine lake population is in the early stages of speciation.

  18. Pleistocene to holocene expansion of the black-belt cichlid in Central America, Vieja maculicauda (Teleostei: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    McMahan, Caleb D; Ginger, Luke; Cage, Marcy; David, Kyle T; Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Johnston, Mark; Matamoros, Wilfredo A

    2017-01-01

    The distributions of many Northern Hemisphere organisms have been influenced by fluctuations in sea level and climatic conditions during Pleistocene interglacial periods. These cycles are associated with range contraction and refugia for northern-distributed organisms as a response to glaciers. However, lower sea levels in the tropics and sub-tropics created available habitat for expansion of the ranges of freshwater organisms. The goal of this study was to use ecological niche modeling to test the hypothesis of north to south range expansion of Vieja maculicauda associated with Pleistocene glacial cycles. Understanding the biogeography of this widespread species may help us better understand the geology and interconnectivity of Central American freshwaters. Occurrence data for V. maculicauda was based on georeferencing of all museum records of specimens recovered from FishNet2. General patterns of phylogeographic structure were assessed with mtDNA. Present day niche models were generated and subsequently projected onto paleoclimatic maps of the region during the Last Interglacial, Last Glacial Maximum, and mid-Holocene. Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA sequence data showed no phylogeographic structure throughout the range of this widespread species. Present day niche models were congruent with the observed distribution of V. maculicauda in Central America. Results showed a lack of suitable freshwater habitat in northern Central America and Mexico during the Last Interglacial, with greatest range expansion during the Last Glacial Maximum and mid-Holocene. Results support the hypothesis of a north to south range expansion of V. maculicauda associated with glacial cycles. The wide distribution of this species compared to other closely related cichlids indicates the latter did not respond to the degree of V. maculicauda in expansion of their distributions. Future work aimed at comparisons with other species and modeling of future climatic scenarios will be a fruitful area of investigation.

  19. Morphological, histochemical and morphometric study of the myotomal muscle tissue of the pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg 1887: Serrasalminae, Characidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Dal Pai, V; Pai-Silva, M D; Carvalho, E D; Fujihara, C Y; Gregório, E A; Curi, P R

    2000-10-01

    Histochemical, ultrastructural and morphometric methods were used to study growth patterns of red, pink and white muscle fibres and their relation to body weight and total length in the fast-growing freshwater fish Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg. The correlations amongst body weight, body length and diameter of red, pink and white fibres were low. From 10-15 to 40-50 cm, body weight increased 102.7 times, while the diameter of each type of fibre increased by factors of 0.94, 0.74 and 0.70, respectively. Muscle fibres revealed different morphological and histochemical stages of maturation. The frequencies of < 20 microns fibres of red, pink and white muscle tissue in the youngest and oldest classes were 64.5 and 11.0, 38.2 and 7.7 and 24.0 and 1.4%, respectively. In 30-40 cm fish, the frequency of < 20 microns fibres in the red and pink tissue was 24.5 and 25.5%, while in the white tissue it was 11.5%. During sexual maturity (40-50 cm), the recruitment of < 20 microns fibres in white muscle was 1.4%. Muscle fibres of this species showed continuous growth by both hyperplastic and hypertrophic mechanisms, and hyperplasia was particularly active in the juvenile phase.

  20. On Gonorynchus, Gonorhynchus, Gonorinchus, Gonorhinchus and Gonorrhynchus, and some other names of labeonine fishes (Teleostei: Gonorynchidae and Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Kottelat, Maurice

    2016-10-25

    The supposed cyprinid genus 'Gonorhynchus McClelland, 1838' does not exist; the name refers to Gonorhynchus Cuvier, 1816, which is a junior objective synonym of Gonorynchus Scopoli, 1777. The correct family-group name, authorship and date are: Gonorynchidae Fowler, 1941 (1848). Tariqilabeo Mirza & Saboohi, 1990 is the valid genus name for the South Asian species earlier placed in Crossocheilus or 'Gonorhynchus'. The family-group names Garrae Bleeker, 1863 and Labeonini Bleeker, 1859 are declared nomina protecta and Platycarinae Macleay, 1841 is declared nomen oblitum.

  1. Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus from the Tigris drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae).

    PubMed

    Freyhof, Jörg; Abdullah, Younis Sabir

    2017-03-02

    Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus are described from the Sirvan River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. Oxynoemacheilus gyndes, new species, is distinguished by having a very short lateral line, reaching behind the pectoral-fin base, no scales except on the posteriormost part of the caudal peduncle, a slightly emarginate caudal fin and no suborbital groove in males. Oxynoemacheilus hanae, new species, is distinguished by having a midlateral row of elongated blotches, isolated patches of dark-brown spots or blotches on lower flank, a deeply emarginate caudal fin and a suborbital groove in males.

  2. Comparative cytogenetics of ten species of cichlid fishes (Teleostei, Cichlidae) from the Araguaia River system, Brazil, by conventional cytogenetic methods.

    PubMed

    Valente, G Targino; Vitorino, C de Andrade; Cabral-de-Mello, D C; Oliveira, C; Souza, I Lima; Martins, C; Venere, P C

    2012-01-01

    Cichlids represent one of the most species-rich families of fishes and have attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists due to the rapid radiation occurring in some groups and the importance of some species in the world aquaculture. Cytogenetic analysis was conducted in 10 cichlid species from the Araguaia River, Amazon Basin, Brazil. The chromosome number was 2n=48 for all analyzed species except for Laetacara araguaiae Ottoni et Costa, 2009 (2n=44). Chromosomal polymorphism was detected only in Geophagus proximus (Castelnau, 1855), which exhibits an extra large submetacentric and and a dot-like chromosomes. Moreover, the C-banding revealed a general pericentromeric heterochromatic pattern and some additional blocks for some species. The heterochromatic blocks corresponding to AgNOR bearing regions were observed in all species and also corresponded to CMA3 positive blocks, which were observed in terminal regions. Besides the general conserved chromosomal and heterochromatin patterns for South American cichlids, the presence of GC-rich heterochromatin was quite different in the species Biotodoma cupido (Heckel, 1840), Geophagus proximus, Retroculus lapidifer (Castelnau, 1855), Crenicichla strigata Günther, 1862 and Heros efasciatus Heckel, 1840. The results suggest that independent events of heterochromatin modification occurred during chromosome evolution in the group, regardless of the conservation of macro-chromosomal structure.

  3. A southern species of the tropical catfish genus Phractocephalus (Teleostei: Siluriformes) in the Miocene of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azpelicueta, María de las Mercedes; Cione, Alberto Luis

    2016-04-01

    Catfish bones from Tortonian (Miocene) freshwater beds of central Argentina are here identified as pertaining to a new species of the tropical pimelodid genus Phractocephalus. The new species differs from the other recent and fossil species of the genus in skull, pectoral girdle and spine characters. The material was found in different localities near the city of Paraná, Entre Ríos Province. The bearing horizon is the so-called "Conglomerado osífero" which constitutes the lowermost beds of the fluvial Ituzaingó Formation. The aquatic vertebrate fauna occurring in the bearing bed shows a similar generic composition to several northern South American Miocene units where Phractocephalus remains were found. This report extends the range of Phractocephalus more than 2000 km to the South. The record is in agreement with higher global temperatures and putative ample hydrographic connections of the river basins in the Paraná area with the Amazon basin until at least the early late Miocene.

  4. An evaluation of fossil tip-dating versus node-age calibrations in tetraodontiform fishes (Teleostei: Percomorphaceae).

    PubMed

    Arcila, Dahiana; Alexander Pyron, R; Tyler, James C; Ortí, Guillermo; Betancur-R, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Time-calibrated phylogenies based on molecular data provide a framework for comparative studies. Calibration methods to combine fossil information with molecular phylogenies are, however, under active development, often generating disagreement about the best way to incorporate paleontological data into these analyses. This study provides an empirical comparison of the most widely used approach based on node-dating priors for relaxed clocks implemented in the programs BEAST and MrBayes, with two recently proposed improvements: one using a new fossilized birth-death process model for node dating (implemented in the program DPPDiv), and the other using a total-evidence or tip-dating method (implemented in MrBayes and BEAST). These methods are applied herein to tetraodontiform fishes, a diverse group of living and extinct taxa that features one of the most extensive fossil records among teleosts. Previous estimates of time-calibrated phylogenies of tetraodontiforms using node-dating methods reported disparate estimates for their age of origin, ranging from the late Jurassic to the early Paleocene (ca. 150-59Ma). We analyzed a comprehensive dataset with 16 loci and 210 morphological characters, including 131 taxa (95 extant and 36 fossil species) representing all families of fossil and extant tetraodontiforms, under different molecular clock calibration approaches. Results from node-dating methods produced consistently younger ages than the tip-dating approaches. The older ages inferred by tip dating imply an unlikely early-late Jurassic (ca. 185-119Ma) origin for this order and the existence of extended ghost lineages in their fossil record. Node-based methods, by contrast, produce time estimates that are more consistent with the stratigraphic record, suggesting a late Cretaceous (ca. 86-96Ma) origin. We show that the precision of clade age estimates using tip dating increases with the number of fossils analyzed and with the proximity of fossil taxa to the node under assessment. This study suggests that current implementations of tip dating may overestimate ages of divergence in calibrated phylogenies. It also provides a comprehensive phylogenetic framework for tetraodontiform systematics and future comparative studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Phylogenetic relationships of the Cobitoidea (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear genes with analyses of gene evolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Si-Qing; Mayden, Richard L; Zhang, Jia-Bo; Yu, Dan; Tang, Qiong-Ying; Deng, Xin; Liu, Huan-Zhang

    2012-10-15

    The superfamily Cobitoidea of the order Cypriniformes is a diverse group of fishes, inhabiting freshwater ecosystems across Eurasia and North Africa. The phylogenetic relationships of this well-corroborated natural group and diverse clade are critical to not only informing scientific communities of the phylogeny of the order Cypriniformes, the world's largest freshwater fish order, but are key to every area of comparative biology examining the evolution of traits, functional structures, and breeding behaviors to their biogeographic histories, speciation, anagenetic divergence, and divergence time estimates. In the present study, two mitochondrial gene sequences (COI, ND4+5) and four single-copy nuclear gene segments (RH1, RAG1, EGR2B, IRBP) were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships of the Cobitoidea as reconstructed from maximum likelihood (ML) and partitioned Bayesian Analysis (BA). Analyses of the combined mitochondrial/nuclear gene datasets revealed five strongly supported monophyletic Cobitoidea families and their sister-group relationships: Botiidae+(Vaillantellidae+(Cobitidae+(Nemacheilidae+Balitoridae))). These recovered relationships are in agreement with previous systematic studies on the order Cypriniformes and/or those focusing on the superfamily Cobitoidea. Using these relationships, our analyses revealed pattern lineage- or ecological-group-specific evolution of these genes for the Cobitoidea. These observations and results corroborate the hypothesis that these group-specific-ancestral ecological characters have contributed in the diversification and/or adaptations within these groups. Positive selections were detected in RH1 of nemacheilids and in RAG1 of nemacheilids and genus Vaillantella, which indicated that evolution of RH1 (related to eye's optic sense) and RAG1 (related to immunity) genes appeared to be important for the diversification of these groups. The balitorid lineage (those species inhabiting fast-flowing riverine habitats) had, as compared with other cobitoid lineages, significantly different dN/dS, dN and dS values for ND4 and IRBP genes. These significant differences are usually indicative of weaker selection pressure, and lineage-specific evolution on genes along the balitorid lineage. Furthermore, within Cobitoidea, excluding balitorids, species living in subtropics had significantly higher dN/dS values in RAG1 and IRBP genes than those living in temperate and tropical zones. Among tropical cobitoids, genes COI, ND5, EGR2B, IRBP and RH1, had a significantly higher mean dS value than those species in subtropical and temperate groups. These findings suggest that the evolution of these genes could also be ecological-group-specific and may have played an important role in the adaptive evolution and diversification of these groups. Thus, we hypothesize that the genes included in the present study were actively involved in lineage- and/or ecological-group-specific evolutionary processes of the highly diverse Cobitoidea. These two evolutionary patterns, both subject to further testing, are hypothesized as integral in the diversification with this major clade of the world's most diverse group of freshwater fishes.

  6. Composition and structure of the parasite faunas of cod, Gadus morhua L. (Teleostei: Gadidae), in the North East Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Perdiguero-Alonso, Diana; Montero, Francisco E; Raga, Juan Antonio; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2008-01-01

    Background Although numerous studies on parasites of the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. have been conducted in the North Atlantic, comparative analyses on local cod parasite faunas are virtually lacking. The present study is based on examination of large samples of cod from six geographical areas of the North East Atlantic which yielded abundant baseline data on parasite distribution and abundance. Materials and Methods A total of 826 fish was sampled in the Baltic, Celtic, Irish and North seas, Icelandic waters and Trondheimsfjord (Norway) in 2002 (spring and autumn) and 2003 (spring). The gills and internal organs (oesophagus, stomach, intestine, pyloric caeca, liver, heart, spleen, gall bladder and gonads) were examined for macroparasites following a standardised protocol. The taxonomic consistency of the identification was ensured thorough the entire study. Results We discuss some problems in parasite identification, outline the composition of the parasite faunas in cod in the six North East Atlantic regions, provide novel data on parasite prevalence and abundance and a comparative assessment of the structure of the regional parasite faunas with respect to the higher-level taxonomic groupings, host specificity and zoogeographical distribution of the parasites. Altogether 57 different parasite forms were found including seven new host records (Diclidophora merlangi, Rhipidocotyle sp., Fellodistomum sp., Steringotrema sp., Cucullanus sp., Spinitectus sp., and Chondracanthus ornatus). The predominant groups of cod parasites were trematodes (19 species) and nematodes (13 species) including larval anisakids which comprised 58.2% of the total number of individuals. Conclusion Our study reveals relatively rich regional parasite faunas in cod from the North East Atlantic which are dominated by generalist parasites with Arcto-Boreal distribution. Further, it provides more detailed data on the distribution in the North East Atlantic of the majority of cod parasites which may serve as baselines for future studies on the effect of climate change. Based on the faunal comparisons, predictions can be made in relation to the structure and diversity of the parasite communities in the North East Atlantic regions studied. PMID:18638387

  7. Goblet Cells and Mucus Types in the Digestive Intestine and Respiratory Intestine in Bronze Corydoras (Callichthyidae: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Leknes, I L

    2015-10-01

    The structure and histochemical properties of the intestine in bronze corydoras (Corydoras aeneus), a stomach-containing teleost, are described, with emphasis on goblet cells and mucin types. The proximal intestine displayed a normal structure for teleosts, whereas the distal intestine was wide, translucent, thin-walled, richly vascularized and constantly filled with air, suggesting an important respiratory role. Goblet cells were common throughout the entire intestine and displayed a variable, but mainly faint metachromatic colour after toluidine blue. They were moderately coloured by alcian blue at both pH 2.5 and 0.2 and displayed no colour after periodic acid followed by Schiff's solution (PAS), but a distinct purple-brown colour after high iron diamine followed by alcian blue (pH 2.5). Together, these results suggest that the mucin in the intestine goblet cells consists mainly of sulphated proteoglycans. Further, the results from the present lectin and neuraminidase tests suggest that these mucins contain much N-acetylglucoseamines and some N-acetylgalactosamines and sialic acid, but seem to lack glucose and mannose. They also contain some galactose-N-acetylgalactosamines sequences, normally hidden by sialic acid. The distinct brush border and mucus layer on the epithelial cells in the respiratory intestine may indicate some digestive roles, such as absorption of water, ions and simple carbohydrates. As sulphated proteoglycans are tough and attract much water, this mucus may play important roles in the protection against mechanical and chemical damages and in the defence against micro-organisms throughout the entire intestine, but in the respiratory intestine it may impede significantly the oxygen uptake. However, as this part of the intestine usually contains no digesta, but is completely filled with air, frequently renewed by dry air from the atmosphere, and the main function of the mucus may be to protect the respiratory epithelium against a destroying and dangerous desiccation. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. The eels of the genus Nettenchelys, with description of a new species from Taiwan (Teleostei: Anguilliformes: Nettastomatidae).

    PubMed

    Smith, David G; Lin, James; Chen, Hong-Ming; Pogonoski, John J

    2015-12-24

    The species of the genus Nettenchelys are summarized. Nine species are recognized on the basis of adult specimens: Nettenchelys dionisi Brito, N. erroriensis Karmovskaya, N. exoria Böhlke & Smith, N. gephyra Castle & Smith, N. inion Smith & Böhlke, N. paxtoni Karmovskaya, N. proxima new species, N. pygmaea Smith & Böhlke, and N. taylori Alcock. Another species, N. bellottii (D'Ancona) is based on a larva. Nettenchelys gephyra is redescribed on the basis of additional specimens from northeastern Taiwan, Indonesia and Australia. Nettenchelys proxima new species is described from a specimen from southwestern Taiwan. Nettenchelys sp. reported by Uyeno & Sasaki (1983) is found to be a specimen of Facciolella. Information on larvae is updated based on new knowledge of the genus.

  9. Spatial distribution of a fusiform cell in the optic tectum of Pantodon buchholzi, the African butterfly fish (Teleostei, Osteoglossomorpha).

    PubMed

    Saidel, William M; Mandau, Marek K; Haynes, Paul T

    2008-12-03

    Pantodon buchholzi, the African butterfly fish, inhabits an ecological niche just below the water surface. At that position, each eye necessarily views into the air through the surface of the water and into the water. Since Pantodon is an obligatory surface feeder, the ventral retina viewing the aerial environment provides all visual information for prey acquisition. The visual pathway of this fish reflects the divided visual field with structural differences in the retina and brain corresponding to the different views. In this study, we describe a specific type of neuron in the tectum that, due to its intrinsic structure, likely integrates visual and mechanoreceptor inputs. Because of its spatial distribution, this type of neuron is a candidate as a basic element in a network involved with prey acquisition.

  10. Gene rearrangements and evolution of tRNA pseudogenes in the mitochondrial genome of the parrotfish (Teleostei: Perciformes: Scaridae).

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, Kohji; Miya, Masaki; Satoh, Takashi P; Westneat, Mark W; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2004-09-01

    Genomic size of animal mitochondrial DNA is usually minimized over time. Thus, when regional duplications occur, they are followed by a rapid elimination of redundant material. In contrast to this general view, we report here long-sustained tRNA pseudogenes in the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of teleost fishes of the family Scaridae (parrotfishes). During the course of a molecular phylogenetic study of the suborder Labroidei, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitogenome for a parrotfish, Chlorurus sordidus, and found a gene rearrangement accompanied by a tRNA pseudogene. In the typical gene order of vertebrates, a tRNA-gene cluster between ND1 and ND2 genes includes tRNA(Ile) (I), tRNA(Gln) (Q), and tRNA(Met) (M) genes in this order (IQM). However, in the mitogenome of the parrotfish, the tRNA(Met) gene was inserted between the tRNA(Ile) and the tRNA(Gln) genes, and the tRNA(Gln) gene was followed by a putative tRNA(Met) pseudogene (psiM). Such a tRNA gene rearrangement including a pseudogene (IMQpsiM) was found in all of the 10 examined species, representing 7 of the 10 currently recognized scarid genera. All sister groups examined (20 species of Labridae and a single species of Odacidae) had the typical gene order of vertebrate mitogenomes. Phylogenetic analysis of the tRNA(Met) genes and the resulting pseudogenes demonstrated that the ancestral tRNA(Met) gene was duplicated in a common ancestor of the parrotfish. Based on the fossil record, these results indicate that the pseudogenes have survived at least 14 million years. Most of the vertebrate mitochondrial gene rearrangements involving the IQM region have held the tRNA(Met) gene just upstream of the ND2 gene, and even in a few exceptional cases, including the present ones, the tRNA pseudogenes have been found in that position. In addition, most of these tRNA(Met) pseudogenes maintained clover-leaf secondary structures, with the remainder sustaining the clover-leaf structure in the "top half (TpsiC and acceptor arms). Considering their potential secondary structures (holding "top halves" of the clover-leaf structures), locations within mitogenomes (flanking the 5' ends of the ND2 genes) and stabilities over time (survived at least 14 Myr), it is likely that the tRNA pseudogenes retain function as punctuation marks for mitochondrial ND2 mRNA processing.

  11. New insights into the complex structure and ontogeny of the occipito-vertebral gap in barbeled dragonfishes (Stomiidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Schnell, Nalani K; Britz, Ralf; Johnson, G David

    2010-08-01

    In all stomiid genera there is an occipito-vertebral gap between the skull and the first vertebra bridged only by the flexible notochord. Morphological studies from the early 20th century suggested that some stomiid genera have 1-10 of the anteriormost centra reduced or entire vertebrae missing in this region. Our study reviews this previous hypothesis. Using a new approach, we show that only in Chauliodus, Eustomias and Leptostomias gladiator vertebral centra are actually lost, with their respective neural arches and parapophyses persisting. We present results from a comparative analysis of the number and insertion sites of the anteriormost myosepta in 26 of the 28 stomiid genera. Generally in teleosts the first three myosepta are associated with the occiput, and the fourth is the first vertebral myoseptum. The insertion site of the fourth myoseptum plays an important role in this analysis, because it provides a landmark for the first vertebra. Lack of association of the fourth myoseptum with a vertebra is thus evidence that the first vertebra is reduced or absent. By counting the occipital and vertebral myosepta the number of reduced vertebrae in Chauliodus, Eustomias and Leptostomias gladiator can be inferred. Proper identification of the spino-occipital nerves provides an additional source of information about vertebral reduction. In all other stomiid genera the extensive occipito- vertebral gap is not a consequence of the reduction of vertebrae, but of an elongation of the notochord. The complex structure and ontogeny of the anterior part of the vertebral column of stomiids are discussed comparatively.

  12. Further evidence for the invasion and establishment of Pterois volitans (Teleostei: Scorpaenidae) along the Atlantic Coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meister, H.S.; Wyanski, D.M.; Loefer, J.K.; Ross, S.W.; Quattrini, A.M.; Sulak, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    We document the continued population expansion of red lionfish, Pterois volitans, the first documented successful introduction of an invasive marine fish species from the western Pacific to Atlantic coastal waters of the United States. Red lionfish are indigenous to the Indo-Pacific and have apparently established one or more breeding populations on reefs off the southeastern United States. Fifty-nine specimens, most presumably adult red lionfish, were documented or collected on live-bottom reefs off North Carolina, South Carolina, and Florida, and on a manmade structure off Georgia. Observation/collection depths and bottom water temperatures for these fish ranged from 40-99 m and 13.8-24.4??C, respectively. Eleven juvenile lionfish, believed to be expatriated from southeastern waters, were collected in estuaries along the coast of Long Island, NY, at depths of 0-5 m and water temperatures ranging from 13.8-16.5??C. Twelve of the total 70 specimens collected or observed were positively identified as red lionfish. Based on histological assessment of gonad tissue, two reproductively-active males and one immature female were collected. The life history of red lionfish, especially their reproductive biology and food habits, should be investigated along the east coast of the US to determine the potential impacts of this species on ecosystems they have invaded.

  13. Understanding morphological variability in a taxonomic context in Chilean diplomystids (Teleostei: Siluriformes), including the description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Following study of the external morphology and its unmatched variability throughout ontogeny and a re-examination of selected morphological characters based on many specimens of diplomystids from Central and South Chile, we revised and emended previous specific diagnoses and consider Diplomystes chilensis, D. nahuelbutaensis, D. camposensis, and Olivaichthys viedmensis (Baker River) to be valid species. Another group, previously identified as Diplomystes sp., D. spec., D. aff. chilensis, and D. cf. chilensis inhabiting rivers between Rapel and Itata Basins is given a new specific name (Diplomystes incognitus) and is diagnosed. An identification key to the Chilean species, including the new species, is presented. All specific diagnoses are based on external morphological characters, such as aspects of the skin, neuromast lines, and main lateral line, and position of the anus and urogenital pore, as well as certain osteological characters to facilitate the identification of these species that previously was based on many internal characters. Diplomystids below 150 mm standard length (SL) share a similar external morphology and body proportions that make identification difficult; however, specimens over 150 mm SL can be diagnosed by the position of the urogenital pore and anus, and a combination of external and internal morphological characters. According to current knowledge, diplomystid species have an allopatric distribution with each species apparently endemic to particular basins in continental Chile and one species (O. viedmensis) known only from one river in the Chilean Patagonia, but distributed extensively in southern Argentina. PMID:28224053

  14. Glyptothorax mibangi, a new species of catfish (Teleostei: Sisoridae) from the Tisa River, Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India.

    PubMed

    Darshan, Achom; Dutta, Rashmi; Kachari, Akash; Gogoi, Budhin; Das, Debangshu Narayan

    2015-05-22

    Glyptothorax mibangi, a new sisorid catfish, is described from the Tisa River of Arunachal Pradesh, India. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners in the Ganga-Brahmaputra and Barak-Surma-Meghna basins by the following combination of characters: an obtuse leaf-shaped thoracic adhesive apparatus with a spindle-shaped median depression, skin ridges present over the entire apparatus including the depressed region; ventral surface of pectoral spine and first pelvic-fin ray non-plaited; slender body with depth of 10.4-13.5% SL; caudal peduncle shallow with depth 6.8-8.3% SL; snout long with length 52.9-58.6% HL; and 2+7 gill rakers on the first branchial arch.

  15. Host and environmental risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium scophthalmi (Apicomplexa) infection in cultured turbot, Psetta maxima (L.) (Pisces, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Pellitero, Pilar; Perez, Andrés; Quiroga, M Isabel; Redondo, M José; Vázquez, Sonia; Riaza, Ana; Palenzuela, Oswaldo; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Nieto, José M

    2009-11-12

    An epidemiological cohort study of Cryptosporidium scophthalmi in cultured turbot Psetta maxima L. of Northwestern Spain was conducted along a four-year period. Four different ongrowing cohorts were monitored monthly from introduction into the ongrowing tanks (10-50 g) until reaching market size (400-1400 g). The association of host and environmental factors with five categories of parasite abundance was assessed using a multivariable regression framework. Epidemiological factors assessed here were water temperature, weight, length, month of collection, season, age, origin, condition factor, water filtration, and status to the myxozoan Enteromyxum scophthalmi infection. E. scophthalmi was included into the analysis because it targets the same organ than C. scophthalmi and it was prevalent in the studied population. The multivariable analysis demonstrated the statistically significant association between several factors and parasite abundance. C. scophthalmi abundance was associated (P<0.05) with age, condition factor, season, and status to E. scophthalmi infection. Young animals, with poor condition factor, during spring or summer, and not infected with the myxozoan were most likely to be highly infected by C. scophthalmi. Inclusion of these four variables significantly (P<0.05) improved the model, compared to the model that did not include any of these epidemiological factors. Increasing levels of C. scophthalmi abundance were associated (P<0.01) with higher severity of C. scophthalmi-compatible lesions. The frequency of distribution of C. scophthalmi abundance was clearly right-skewed and fitted a negative binomial distribution, whereas the intensity of infection fitted a Poisson distribution. The quantification of the variance-to-mean ratio stratified by age demonstrated overdispersion for 8-16 months old fish, although this bivariate association is likely affected by several other factors, as suggested by the results of the multivariable analysis. The negative relation between C. scophthalmi abundance and status to E. scophthalmi infection suggests differences in the transmission, onset, and course of both infections. The coarse filtration used in some cohorts did not significantly affect the levels of infection. C. scophthalmi was probably introduced into the ongrowing tanks mainly with carrier fish, though the involvement of infective oocysts from the water supply cannot be disregarded. Infection prevalence and mean intensity decreased with fish age and a seasonal distribution was found. Results presented here will help to understand the epidemiology of C. scophthalmi in turbot, to estimate the expected levels of infection associated with presence or absence of epidemiological factors, and to quantify the impact that the disease may have on susceptible turbot populations. The multivariable model used here is more powerful than the visual inspection of graphics for exploring associations in cooperative processes and can be easily extended to the assessment of epidemiological associations in other population and parasitic diseases.

  16. Molecular Identification and Traceability of Illegal Trading in Lignobrycon myersi (Teleostei: Characiformes), a Threatened Brazilian Fish Species, Using DNA Barcode

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Alexandre dos Santos; Brandão, José Henrique Souza Galdino; Bitencourt, Jamille de Araújo; Jucá-Chagas, Ricardo; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horácio

    2016-01-01

    Lignobrycon myersi is a threatened freshwater fish species and endemic of a few coastal rivers in northeastern Brazil. Even though the Brazilian laws prohibit the fisheries of threatened species, L. myersi is occasionally found in street markets, being highly appreciated by local population. In order to provide a reliable DNA barcode dataset for L. myersi, we compared mitochondrial sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) from fresh, frozen, and salt-preserved specimens. Phylogenetically related species (Triportheus spp.) and other fish species (Astyanax fasciatus) commonly mixed with L. myersi in street markets were also included to test the efficiency of molecular identification. In spite of the differences in conservation processes and advanced deterioration of some commercial samples, high-quality COI sequences were obtained and effective in discriminating L. myersi specimens. In addition, while populations from Contas and Almada River basins seem to comprise a single evolutionary lineage, the specimens from Cachoeira River were genetically differentiated, indicating population structuring. Therefore, DNA barcoding has proved to be useful to trace the illegal trading of L. myersi and to manage threatened populations, which should focus on conservation of distinct genetic stocks and mitigation on human impacts along their range. PMID:27668281

  17. Molecular and cytogenetic analysis of the telomeric (TTAGGG)n repetitive sequences in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Chew, Joyce S K; Oliveira, Claudio; Wright, Jonathan M; Dobson, Melanie J

    2002-03-01

    The majority of chromosomes in Oreochromis niloticus, as with most fish karyotyped to date, cannot be individually identified owing to their small size. As a first step in establishing a physical map for this important aquaculture species of tilapia we have analyzed the location of the vertebrate telomeric repeat sequence, (TTAGGG)n, in O. niloticus. Southern blot hybridization analysis and a Bal31 sensitivity assay confirm that the vertebrate telomeric repeat is indeed present at O. niloticus chromosomal ends with repeat tracts extending for 4-10 kb on chromosomal ends in erythrocytes. Fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed that (TTAGGG)n is found not only at telomeres, but also at two interstitial loci on chromosome 1. These data support the hypothesis that chromosome 1, which is significantly larger than all the other chromosomes in the karyotype, was produced by the fusion of three chromosomes and explain the overall reduction of chromosomal number from the ancestral teleost karyotype of 2n=48 to 2n=44 observed in tilapia.

  18. Before the freeze: otoliths from the Eocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica, reveal dominance of gadiform fishes (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Schwarzhans, Werner; Mörs, Thomas; Engelbrecht, Andrea; Reguero, Marcelo; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The first record of fossil teleostean otoliths from Antarctica is reported. The fossils were obtained from late Early Eocene shell beds of the La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island that represent the last temperate marine climate phase in Antarctica prior to the onset of cooling and subsequent glaciation during the late Eocene. A total of 17 otolith-based teleost taxa are recognized, with 10 being identifiable to species level containing nine new species and one new genus: Argentina antarctica sp. nov., Diaphus? marambionis sp. nov., Macruronus eastmani sp. nov., Coelorinchus balushkini sp. nov., Coelorinchus nordenskjoeldi sp. nov., Palimphemus seymourensis sp. nov., Hoplobrotula? antipoda sp. nov., Notoberyx cionei gen. et sp. nov. and Cepola anderssoni sp. nov. Macruronus eastmani sp. nov. is also known from the late Eocene of Southern Australia, and Tripterophycis immutatus Schwarzhans, widespread in the southern oceans during the Eocene, has been recorded from New Zealand, southern Australia, and now Antarctica. The otolith assemblage shows a typical composition of temperate fishes dominated by gadiforms, very similar at genus and family levels to associations known from middle Eocene strata of New Zealand and the late Eocene of southern Australia, but also to the temperate Northern Hemisphere associations from the Paleocene of Denmark. The Seymour Island fauna bridges a gap in the record of global temperate marine teleost faunas during the early Eocene climate maximum. The dominant gadiforms are interpreted as the main temperate faunal component, as in the Paleocene of Denmark. Here they are represented by the families Moridae, Merlucciidae (Macruroninae), Macrouridae and Gadidae. Nowadays Gadidae are a chiefly Northern Hemisphere temperate family. Moridae, Macruroninae and Macrouridae live today on the lower shelf to deep-water or mesopelagically with Macruroninae being restricted to the Southern Ocean. The extant endemic Antarctic gadiform family Muraenolepididae is missing, as are the dominant modern Antarctic fishes of the perciform suborder Notothenioidei. Recently, there has been much debate on isolated jaw bones of teleost fishes found in the La Meseta Formation and whether they would represent gadiforms (Merlucciidae in this case) or some early, primitive notothenioid. Otoliths are known to often complement rather than duplicate skeletal finds. With this in mind, we conclude that our otolith data support the presence of gadiforms in the early Eocene of Antarctica while it does not rule out the presence of notothenioids at the same time. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A30E5364-0003-4467-B902-43A41AD456CC.

  19. Wrapped in flames: Corydoras hephaestus, a new remarkably colored species from the Rio Madeira basin (Teleostei: Callichthyidae).

    PubMed

    Ohara, Willian Massaharu; Tencatt, Luiz F C; Britto, Marcelo R

    2016-09-26

    A new species of Corydoras is described from the upper Rio Machado, Rio Madeira basin, Rondônia State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the absence of contact between the posterior process of the parieto-supraoccipital and the nuchal plate; a ventral laminar expansion of the infraorbital 1 conspicuously developed; and the posterior margin of the pectoral-fin spine with serrations along almost of its entire length, only lacking in the distal portion. Additionally, Corydoras hephaestus possesses dorsal and pectoral spines short, and exhibits an unusual color pattern in life. The conservation status of the new species and other endemic species are briefly commented.

  20. Haemopoiesis in the head kidney of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: Cichlidae): a morphological (optical and ultrastructural) study

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Aziz, El-Saydah H.; Abdu, Suzan B. S.; Fouad, Huda F.

    2009-01-01

    The present work focused on the histological and ultrastructural studies on haemopoiesis in the kidney of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Haemopoietic tissue was found mainly in the head kidney and a small amount occurred in the mesonephros. The haemopoiesis of tilapia had the following series: erythropoiesis, granulopoiesis, thrombopoiesis, monopoiesis and lymphoplasmopoiesis. Erythropoiesis includes proerythroblasts, basophilic erythroblasts, polychromatic erythroblasts, acidophilic erythroblasts and young and mature erythrocytes. The proerythroblasts were the largest cells in the erythropoietic series. During the maturation process both the nuclear and cellular size decreased gradually due to the chromatin condensation and the progressive substitution of cytoplasmic matrix with a large amount of haemoglobin. Granulopoietic series consisted of cells with variable shape and size at different stages of maturity from myeloblasts to mature granulocytes. The promyelocytes were the largest cells in the series and were characterised by the appearance of primary (azoruphilic) granules. The maturation process involved the appearance of specific granules in the heterophilic, eosinophilic and basophilic series. It is important to mention that eosinophilic granulocytes were the dominant granulopoietic series in the haemopoietic tissue (Ht) of tilapia. Lymphopoietic series consisted of lymphoblasts, large lymphocytes, small lymphocytes and active and inactive plasma cells. Thrombopoietic series consisted of thromboblasts, prothromboblasts and thrombocytes. Thrombocytes of tilapia were nucleated and possessed a spindle shape. Melanomacrophage centres were dominant among the Ht of the head kidney. Also, monocytes were detected and shown to be large cells with an indented nucleus and cytoplasm containing numerous vesicles of different sizes and a few lysosomes. PMID:19152117

  1. Neoplecostomus doceensis: a new loricariid species (Teleostei, Siluriformes) from the rio Doce basin and comments about its putative origin

    PubMed Central

    Roxo, Fábio F.; Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Zawadzki, Cláudio H.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Neoplecostomus is described from the rio Doce basin representing the first species of this genus in the basin. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by having enlarged, fleshy folds between dentaries, two or three series of developed papillae anterior to premaxillary teeth and a adipose-fin membrane present, and by lacking enlarged odontodes along snout lateral margins in mature males, a well-developed dorsal-fin spinelet wider than dorsal-fin spine base, lower number of lateral-line figs and developed membrane on the dorsal portion of the first, second and third pelvic-fin branched rays. Additionally, we present a brief discussion of biogeographic scenarios that may explain the distribution of the new species in the rio Doce basin. We suggested that the ancestral lineage of the new species reached the rio Doce from the upper portions of rio Paraná drainages about 3.5 Mya (95% HPD: 1.6–5.5) indicating a colonization route of the N. doceensis ancestral lineage from the south end of Serra do Espinhaço, probably as a result of headwater capture processes between the upper rio Paraná and rio Doce basins. PMID:25317064

  2. Neoplecostomus doceensis: a new loricariid species (Teleostei, Siluriformes) from the rio Doce basin and comments about its putative origin.

    PubMed

    Roxo, Fábio F; Silva, Gabriel S C; Zawadzki, Cláudio H; Oliveira, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Neoplecostomus is described from the rio Doce basin representing the first species of this genus in the basin. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by having enlarged, fleshy folds between dentaries, two or three series of developed papillae anterior to premaxillary teeth and a adipose-fin membrane present, and by lacking enlarged odontodes along snout lateral margins in mature males, a well-developed dorsal-fin spinelet wider than dorsal-fin spine base, lower number of lateral-line figs and developed membrane on the dorsal portion of the first, second and third pelvic-fin branched rays. Additionally, we present a brief discussion of biogeographic scenarios that may explain the distribution of the new species in the rio Doce basin. We suggested that the ancestral lineage of the new species reached the rio Doce from the upper portions of rio Paraná drainages about 3.5 Mya (95% HPD: 1.6-5.5) indicating a colonization route of the N. doceensis ancestral lineage from the south end of Serra do Espinhaço, probably as a result of headwater capture processes between the upper rio Paraná and rio Doce basins.

  3. Auerbachia bajadi sp. n. (Myxozoa: Auerbachiidae) infecting the gallbladder of orangespotted trevally Carangoides bajad (Teleostei: Carangidae) in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem Sh

    2010-08-01

    Light microscopic description was presented for a new myxosporean species, Auerbachia bajadi. The parasite was collected from the gallbladder of orangespotted trevally Carangoides bajad (Forsskål, 1775) in Al-Quseir city, Red Sea coast, Egypt. The prevalence was 30/80 (37%) and the infection was reported as an enormous amount of free mature spores floating in the bile. Spores were club-shaped with a broad anterior part and a narrow caudal part. Shell valves were asymmetrical and the larger valve was drawn into a wide caudal projection. The mean spore measurements were 22.7 mum in total length and 9.5 mum in width. Polar capsule was single and elliptical-shaped with five polar filament turns. The polar capsule measured 9.5 mum in length and 4.5 mum in width. The spores were distinctly different from the four recorded species of genus Auerbachia. One of the cited species of this genus was excluded as it was related to genus Coccomyxa than genus Auerbachia. Also, the accurate citation date of this genus was discussed.

  4. Concerted Evolution of Duplicate Control Regions in the Mitochondria of Species of the Flatfish Family Bothidae (Teleostei: Pleuronectiformes).

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-He; Shi, Wei; Munroe, Thomas A; Gong, Li; Kong, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Mitogenomes of flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) exhibit the greatest diversity of gene rear-rangements in teleostean fishes. Duplicate control regions (CRs) have been found in the mito-genomes of two flatfishes, Samariscus latus (Samaridae) and Laeops lanceolata (Bothidae), which is rare in teleosts. It has been reported that duplicate CRs have evolved in a concerted fashion in fishes and other animals, however, whether concerted evo-lution exists in flatfishes remains unknown. In this study, based on five newly sequenced and six previously reported mitogenomes of lefteye flounders in the Bothidae, we explored whether duplicate CRs and concerted evolution exist in these species. Results based on the present study and previous reports show that four out of eleven bothid species examined have duplicate CRs of their mitogenomes. The core regions of the duplicate CRs of mitogenomes in the same species have identical, or nearly identical, sequences when compared to each other. This pattern fits the typical characteristics of concerted evolution. Additionally, phylogenetic and ancestral state reconstruction analysis also provided evidence to support the hypothesis that duplicate CRs evolved concertedly. The core region of concerted evolution is situated at the conserved domains of the CR of the mitogenome from the termination associated sequences (TASs) to the conserved sequence blocks (CSBs). Commonly, this region is con-sidered to regulate mitochondrial replication and transcription. Thus, we hypothesize that the cause of concerted evolution of the duplicate CRs in the mtDNAs of these four bothids may be related to some function of the conserved sequences of the CRs during mitochondrial rep-lication and transcription. We hope our results will provide fresh insight into the molecular mechanisms related to replication and evolution of mitogenomes.

  5. Cryptomyrus: a new genus of Mormyridae (Teleostei, Osteoglossomorpha) with two new species from Gabon, West-Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, John P.; Lavoué, Sébastien; Hopkins, Carl D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We use mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data to show that three weakly electric mormyrid fish specimens collected at three widely separated localities in Gabon, Africa over a 13-year period represent an unrecognized lineage within the subfamily Mormyrinae and determine its phylogenetic position with respect to other taxa. We describe these three specimens as a new genus containing two new species. Cryptomyrus, new genus, is readily distinguished from all other mormyrid genera by a combination of features of squamation, morphometrics, and dental attributes. Cryptomyrus ogoouensis, new species, is differentiated from its single congener, Cryptomyrus ona, new species, by the possession of an anal-fin origin located well in advance of the dorsal fin, a narrow caudal peduncle and caudal-fin lobes nearly as long as the peduncle. In Cryptomyrus ona, the anal-fin origin is located only slightly in advance of the dorsal fin, the caudal peduncle is deep and the caudal-fin lobes considerably shorter than the peduncle. Continued discovery of new taxa within the “Lower Guinea Clade” of Mormyridae highlights the incompleteness of our knowledge of fish diversity in West-Central Africa. We present a revised key to the mormyrid genera of Lower Guinea. PMID:27006619

  6. The role of continental shelf width in determining freshwater phylogeographic patterns in south-eastern Australian pygmy perches (Teleostei: Percichthyidae).

    PubMed

    Unmack, Peter J; Hammer, Michael P; Adams, Mark; Johnson, Jerald B; Dowling, Thomas E

    2013-03-01

    Biogeographic patterns displayed by obligate freshwater organisms are intimately related to the nature and extent of connectivity between suitable habitats. Two of the more significant barriers to freshwater connections are seawater and major drainage divides. South-eastern Australia provides a contrast between these barriers as it has discrete areas that are likely influenced to a greater or lesser extent by each barrier type. We use continental shelf width as a proxy for the potential degree of river coalescence during low sea levels. Our specific hypothesis is that the degree of phylogeographic divergence between coastal river basins should correspond to the continental shelf width of each region. This predicts that genetic divergences between river basins should be lowest in regions with a wider continental shelf and that regions with similar continental shelf width should have similar genetic divergences. Pygmy perches (Nannoperca australis and Nannoperca 'flindersi') in south-eastern Australia provide an ideal opportunity to test these biogeographic hypotheses. Phylogeographic patterns were examined based on range-wide sampling of 82 populations for cytochrome b and 23 polymorphic allozyme loci. Our results recovered only limited support for our continental shelf width hypothesis, although patterns within Bass clade were largely congruent with reconstructed low sea-level drainage patterns. In addition, we identified several instances of drainage divide crossings, typically associated with low elevational differences. Our results demonstrate high levels of genetic heterogeneity with important conservation implications, especially for declining populations in the Murray-Darling Basin and a highly restricted disjunct population in Ansons River, Tasmania.

  7. Fine structure of the myxosporean, Henneguya curimata n. sp., parasite of the Amazonian fish, Curimata inormata (Teleostei, Curimatidae).

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Carlos; Matos, Edilson

    2002-01-01

    Henneguya curimata n. sp. (Myxozoa, Myxobolidae) is described from the kidney of the teleost Curimata inormata collected in an estuarine region of the Amazon River, near Belém. Brazil. This myxosporean produces large cysts (0.6-1.2 mm in diam.) that represent plasmodia containing all life cycle stages, including spores. The spore body is ellipsoidal (approximately 16.6 microm in length and approximately 6.2 microm in width), and each valve presents a tapering tail (approximately 19.1 microm in length). These valves surround the binucleate sporoplasm cell and two ellipsoidal polar capsules located side-by-side at the same level, measuring 6.5 x 1.2 microm each and containing 10-11 coils of the polar filament. On the basis of its host specificity and on data collected by light and electron microscopy, the organism, H. curimata n. sp. is distinguished as a new species. The taxonomic affinities and morphological comparisons with other similar species of the same genus are discussed.

  8. Ultrastructural data on the spore of Myxobolus maculatus n. sp. (phylum Myxozoa), parasite from the Amazonian fish Metynnis maculatus (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Casal, G; Matos, E; Azevedo, C

    2002-08-29

    Light and electron microscopy studies of a myxosporean, parasitic in the intertubular interstitial tissue of the kidney of the freshwater teleost fish Metynnis maculatus Kner, 1860 (Characidae) from the lower Amazon River (Brazil), are described. We observed polysporic histozoic plasmodia delimited by a double membrane and with several pinocytic channels and containing several life cycle stages, including mature spores. The spore body was of pyriform shape and was 21.0 microm long, 8.9 microm wide and 7.5 microm thick. Elongated-pyriform polar capsules were of equal size (12.7 x 3.2 microm) and contained a polar filament with 14 or 15 coils. The spore features fit those of the genus Myxobolus. Densification of the capsular primordium matrix, which increased in density from the inner core outwards, differentiating at the periphery into small microfilaments measuring 45 nm each, and tubuli arranged in aggregates and dispersed within the capsular matrix of the mature spores, are described. Based on the morphological differences and specificity of the host, we propose the creation of a new species named Myxobolus maculatus n. sp.

  9. A review of the glyptosternine catfish genus Exostoma Blyth 1860 from Thailand, with descriptions of two new species (Teleostei: Siluriformes).

    PubMed

    Ng, Heok Hee; Vidthayanon, Chavalit

    2014-10-02

    We review members of the sisorid catfish genus Exostoma known from Thailand. Three species are recognized, of which two from the headwaters of the Chao Phraya River drainage in northwestern Thailand, are described here as new: E. effrenum and E. peregrinator. In addition to the two new species, E. berdmorei (which is here redescribed) is also known from the Salween River drainage in western Thailand. The three species can be distinguished from each other and other congeners by the morphologies of the adipose and caudal fins, as well as morphometric data for the eye diameter, head width, dorsal-to-adipose distance, body depth at anus, caudal-peduncle length, caudal-peduncle depth, and numbers of branched pectoral-fin rays and preanal vertebrae. 

  10. Melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) is involved in the regulation of growth hormone in Cichlasoma dimerus (Cichlidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Pérez Sirkin, D I; Cánepa, M M; Fossati, M; Fernandino, J I; Delgadin, T; Canosa, L F; Somoza, G M; Vissio, P G

    2012-03-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the main pituitary hormone involved in somatic growth. In fish, the neuroendocrine control of GH is multifactorial due to the interaction of multiple inhibitors and stimulators. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic peptide involved in skin color regulation of fish. In addition, MCH has been related to the regulation of food intake in both mammals and fish. There is only one report presenting evidences on the GH release stimulation by MCH in mammals in experiments in vitro, but there are no data on non-mammals. In the present work, we report for the first time the sequence of MCH and GH cDNA in Cichlasoma dimerus, a freshwater South American cichlid fish. We detected contacts between MCH fibers and GH cells in the proximal pars distalis region of the pituitary gland by double label confocal immunofluorescence indicating a possible functional relationship. Besides, we found that MCH increased GH transcript levels and stimulated GH release in pituitary cultures. Additionally, C. dimerus exposed to a white background had a greater number of MCH neurons with a larger nuclear area and higher levels of MCH transcript than those fish exposed to a black background. Furthermore, fish reared for 3 months in a white background showed a greater body weight and total length compared to those from black background suggesting that MCH might be related to somatic growth in C. dimerus. Our results report for the first time, that MCH is involved in the regulation of the synthesis and release of GH in vitro in C. dimerus, and probably in the fish growth rate.

  11. A new species of Pachycara Zugmayer, 1911 (Teleostei: Zoarcidae) from deep-sea chemosynthetic environments in the Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M Eric; Somerville, Russell; Copley, Jonathan T

    2016-01-12

    The 28th species of the eelpout genus Pachycara Zugmayer, 1911, is described from specimens collected from an active hydrothermal vent field at a depth of about 2300 m at the Mid-Cayman Spreading Centre of the Caribbean Sea. A tentatively identified early juvenile is recorded at a methane seep at a depth of 1049 m near Tobago. The new species is distinguished from its congeners mainly by its few pectoral fin rays, low vertebral counts, single, mediolateral branch of the lateral line system and presence of scales on the nape and cheeks.

  12. A new mesophotic goby, Palatogobius incendius (Teleostei: Gobiidae), and the first record of invasive lionfish preying on undescribed biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Tornabene, Luke; Baldwin, Carole C

    2017-01-01

    A new species of deep-reef fish in the goby genus Palatogobius is described from recent submersible collections off Curaçao and Dominica. Video footage of schools of this species reveal predation by the invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois spp.), the first record of undescribed fauna potentially being eaten by lionfish outside of its native range. We present molecular phylogenetic data for all valid species of Palatogobius and related genera, as well as a taxonomic key to the species of Palatogobius and a generic key to Palatogobius and related genera in the western Atlantic. Lastly, we discuss ecological and behavioral aspects of some deep-reef fishes in light of potential threats from invasive lionfish.

  13. A new mesophotic goby, Palatogobius incendius (Teleostei: Gobiidae), and the first record of invasive lionfish preying on undescribed biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Carole C.

    2017-01-01

    A new species of deep-reef fish in the goby genus Palatogobius is described from recent submersible collections off Curaçao and Dominica. Video footage of schools of this species reveal predation by the invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois spp.), the first record of undescribed fauna potentially being eaten by lionfish outside of its native range. We present molecular phylogenetic data for all valid species of Palatogobius and related genera, as well as a taxonomic key to the species of Palatogobius and a generic key to Palatogobius and related genera in the western Atlantic. Lastly, we discuss ecological and behavioral aspects of some deep-reef fishes in light of potential threats from invasive lionfish. PMID:28542432

  14. Myxobolus albi n. sp. (Myxozoa) from the Gills of the Common Goby Pomatoschistus microps Krøyer (Teleostei: Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Picon-Camacho, Sara M; Holzer, Astrid S; Freeman, Mark A; Morris, David J; Shinn, Andrew P

    2009-01-01

    A recent investigation into the myxozoan fauna of common gobies, Pomatoschistus microps, from the Forth Estuary in Scotland, revealed numerous myxosporean cysts within the gill cartilage. They were composed of polysporous plasmodia containing myxobolid spores that were morphologically different from the other known species of Myxobolus and from the myxosporeans previously recorded from this host (i.e. the ceratomyxid Ellipsomyxa gobii, infecting the gall bladder, and the kudoid Kudoa camarguensis, infecting the muscle tissues). Spores were ovoid, 9.4 x 9.1 microm with a thickness of 6.6 microm, with two pyriform polar capsules, the polar filaments of which had four to five turns. Molecular analysis of the parasite's small subunit rDNA region, based upon a contiguous sequence of 1,558 base pairs, discriminated it from other myxosporean species that have been characterized so far. A comparison of the spore morphology and the molecular sequences determined for this new isolate with other myxozoans described to date, confirmed its identity as a previously unknown myxobolid supporting the proposal that this isolate be elevated to the species level as a new species within the genus Myxobolus. A phylogenetic analysis places this new myxobolid, Myxobolus albi n. sp., in a basal position of a clade containing the majority of Henneguya spp. sequenced to date and various Myxobolus spp.

  15. Phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical patterns in Circum-Mediterranean subfamily Leuciscinae (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) inferred from both mitochondrial and nuclear data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Leuciscinae is a subfamily belonging to the Cyprinidae fish family that is widely distributed in Circum-Mediterranean region. Many efforts have been carried out to deciphering the evolutionary history of this group. Thus, different biogeographical scenarios have tried to explain the colonization of Europe and Mediterranean area by cyprinids, such as the "north dispersal" or the "Lago Mare dispersal" models. Most recently, Pleistocene glaciations influenced the distribution of leuciscins, especially in North and Central Europe. Weighing up these biogeographical scenarios, this paper constitutes not only the first attempt at deciphering the mitochondrial and nuclear relationships of Mediterranean leuciscins but also a test of biogeographical hypotheses that could have determined the current distribution of Circum-Mediterranean leuciscins. Results A total of 4439 characters (mitochondrial + nuclear) from 321 individuals of 176 leuciscine species rendered a well-supported phylogeny, showing fourteen main lineages. Analyses of independent mitochondrial and nuclear markers supported the same main lineages, but basal relationships were not concordant. Moreover, some incongruence was found among independent mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies. The monophyly of some poorly known genera such as Pseudophoxinus and Petroleuciscus was rejected. Representatives of both genera belong to different evolutionary lineages. Timing of cladogenetic events among the main leuciscine lineages was gained using mitochondrial and all genes data set. Conclusions Adaptations to a predatory lifestyle or miniaturization have superimposed the morphology of some species. These species have been separated into different genera, which are not supported by a phylogenetic framework. Such is the case of the genera Pseudophoxinus and Petroleuciscus, which real taxonomy is not well known. The diversification of leuciscine lineages has been determined by intense vicariant events following the paleoclimatological and hydrogeological history of Mediterranean region. We propose different colonization models of Mediterranean region during the early Oligocene. Later vicariance events promoted Leuciscinae diversification during Oligocene and Miocene periods. Our data corroborate the presence of leuciscins in North Africa before the Messinian salinity crisis. Indeed, Messinian period appears as a stage of gradually Leuciscinae diversification. The rise of humidity at the beginning of the Pliocene promoted the colonization and posterior isolation of newly established freshwater populations. Finally, Pleistocene glaciations determined the current European distribution of some leuciscine species. PMID:20807419

  16. Ultrastructural study of the spermatozoon of Pronoprymna ventricosa (Digenea, Baccigerinae), parasite of the twaite shad Alosa fallax Lacepede (Pisces, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Josephine; Marchand, Bernard

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we describe the ultrastructural organisation of the spermatozoon of a Digenea Baccigerinae Pronoprymna ventricosa. This spermatozoon possesses the elements found in the others digeneans: two axonemes with 9 + "1" pattern, a mitochondrion, a nucleus, cortical microtubules and external ornamentations. However, this spermatozoon presents two particularities. The first is the presence of a single field of cortical microtubules disposed in the ventral side (mitochondrion side) of the spermatozoon. In the other digeneans, two fields of cortical microtubules are observed between the two axonemes. The second is the presence of external ornamentations not associated with cortical microtubules. These two points have, to our knowledge, never been described in another digenean. Moreover, a separation in two groups of the digenean spermatozoa is proposed in relation to the localisation of the external ornamentations. We propose to distinguish a first group exhibiting these elements in the proximal part of the spermatozoon and a second one with external ornamentations in a second part of the gamete.

  17. A new species of the genus Pareiorhina (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the upper rio Paraná basin, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo-Santos, Valter M; Roxo, Fábio F

    2015-03-25

    Pareiorhina pelicicei sp. n., a new Loricariidae, is described from the rio Grande, upper rio Paraná basin, southeastern Brazil. The new species differs from its congeners by combination of the following characters: teeth with a minute lateral cusp; absence of small plates scattered on the thorax and abdomen; tip of the snout naked; lower predorsal length; higher number of premaxillary and dentary teeth.

  18. [Growth and natural mortality of the fish Haemulon aurolineatum (Teleostei: Haemulidae) in the Southwest of Margarita Island, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Bravo, Edwis; Eslava, Nora; González, Leo

    2009-09-01

    We analyzed the growth and natural mortality of the cují (Haemulon aurolineatum) in the southwest of Margarita Island, from July 2005 through June 2006. A sample of 1,378 males and 1,143 females collected from Boca del Río artisanal fishing vessels was analyzed. The common relation for both sexes was expressed by the equation P=0.038*L(2.87). From the frequency data, a preliminary asymptotic length (L(infinity)) was estimated applying the routine of Powell and Wetherall, and the coefficient of growth (k) through ELEFAN I using program FISAT II (FAO-ICLARM). The modal progression analysis was used, previous decomposition of the frequency of lengths according to Bhattacharya, and it optimized the estimations of L(infinity) and k according to the procedure of Gulland and Holt. The curve of growth in length was fit to the model of von Bertalanffy, and described an exponential curve, where growth accelerated until the two years of age. The rate of natural mortality was high (M = 1.15 year(-1)), probably from high predation.

  19. Taste preferences and taste thresholds to classical taste substances in the carnivorous fish, kutum Rutilus frisii kutum (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Goli, Sheyda; Jafari, Valiollah; Ghorbani, Rassol; Kasumyan, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the taste preferences in the closely related sympatric fish species with different feeding patterns. For this purpose, palatability for four classical taste substances was evaluated for carnivorous kutum Rutilus frisii kutum and the results were compared with the taste preferences of the omnivorous roach Rutilus rutilus which had been studied earlier. In addition, the threshold concentration and the dose-response relationship of the most palatable tastants were evaluated and the ability of kutum to differentiate food with tastants in different concentrations was estimated. It was found that citric acid significantly increases the agar gel pellet consumption within the range of concentrations from 0.01M to 0.52M; the pellets with a concentration of 0.026M were the most palatable. The pellet consumption is significantly different if the concentration of citric acid in the pellets differs more than two times. The absolute threshold concentration is 0.01M, or 2.74μg of citric acid per pellet. Sucrose and NaCl have deterrent taste at the highest concentrations tested (0.29 and 1.73M, respectively). Both substances are palatable at 10 times lower concentrations and become indifferent after further gradual decrease in their concentration. CaCl2 decreases the pellets consumption at 0.9M but is an indifferent tastant at lower concentrations (0.45, 0.09 and 0.045M). The number of rejections and repeated grasps of a food pellet is fewness and is not related to the pellet's palatability, while the retention time of pellet in the oral cavity positively and highly correlates with the pellet's palatability. Kutum have opposite taste preferences for most substances tested in comparison with the roach. It indicates that the taste preferences mediated by the oral taste receptors are different in closely related sympatric fish displayed diet divergences.

  20. Otolith morphology and hearing abilities in cave- and surface-dwelling ecotypes of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    PubMed Central

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Ladich, Friedrich; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Cave fish have rarely been investigated with regard to their inner ear morphology, hearing abilities, and acoustic communication. Based on a previous study that revealed morphological differences in the saccular otolith between a cave and two surface populations of Poecilia mexicana, we checked for additional differences in utricular and lagenar otoliths and tested whether different populations have similar hearing sensitivities. We found pronounced differences in the shape of all three otoliths. Otoliths of the saccule and lagena from cave fish differed from those of surface fish in the features of the face oriented towards the sensory epithelium. In addition, otoliths of the utricle and lagena were significantly heavier in cave fish. Auditory sensitivities were measured between 100 and 1500 Hz, utilizing the auditory evoked potential recording technique. We found similar hearing abilities in cave and surface fish, with greatest sensitivity between 200 and 300 Hz. An acoustic survey revealed that neither ecotype produced species-specific sounds. Our data indicate that cave dwelling altered the otolith morphology in Atlantic mollies, probably due to metabolic differences. Different otolith morphology, however, did not affect general auditory sensitivity or acoustic behavior. PMID:20430090

  1. Comparative cytogenetics of two endangered leuciscine fish, Squalius aradensis and S. torgalensis (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), from the Iberian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Nabais, Catarina; Rampin, Massimiliano; Collares-Pereira, Maria João

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the description of the karyotypes of the endangered chubs Squalius aradensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues and Collares-Pereira, 1998) and Squalius torgalensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues and Collares-Pereira, 1998) is presented by means of conventional (Giemsa-staining, Chromomycin A3 (CMA3)-fluorescence, Silver-impregnation (Ag-NORs)) and molecular (fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA probe) protocols. These endemic sister-species have an allopatric but adjacent distribution in the most southwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Diploid chromosome number was invariably 2n = 50 and karyotypes of both species were grossly similar, composed of metacentric and submetacentric elements with a reduced number of acrocentric pairs. Sequential staining using FISH with an 18S rDNA probe, CMA3 and Ag-NORs treatments revealed consistent positive signals located at the end of the short arms of a submetacentric chromosome pair, likely homologous in both species. While providing useful cytogenetic comparative data against other members of the genus Squalius Bonaparte, 1837, the work aimed to draw attention towards the conservation of two narrow-range and highly confined fish species. PMID:24260688

  2. Taxonomic review of the genus Trisopterus(Teleostei: Gadidae) with recognition of the capelan Trisopterus capelanus as a valid species.

    PubMed

    Delling, B; Noren, M; Kullander, S O; González, J A

    2011-11-01

    Trisopterus is demonstrated to be monophyletic, including four distinct species: T. capelanus, T. esmarkii, T. luscus and T. minutus. The capelan T. capelanus is resurrected from the synonymy of poor cod T. minutus, and is shown to be morphologically more similar to T. luscus, to which species it is also more closely related, indicated by a phylogenetic analysis presented here. A lectotype is designated for T. luscus. Trisopterus fasciatus, the type species of Trisopterus, is a junior synonym of T. luscus, and the lectotype of T. luscus is designated as the neotype of T. fasciatus. The lectotype of T. luscus is also designated as the neotype of Gadus barbatus. Gadus barbatus has priority over T. luscus but the name is suppressed by prevailing usage of T. luscus. A neotype is designated also for T. minutus. A phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial cytochrome b, and a fragment of the nuclear rhodopsin gene, shows that T. capelanus and T. luscus are sister species, and in turn sister to a clade formed by T. minutus and T. esmarkii.

  3. Ovarian structure and oogenesis of the oviparous goodeids Crenichthys baileyi (Gilbert, 1893) and Empetrichthys latos Miller, 1948 (teleostei, Cyprinodontiformes).

    PubMed

    Uribe, Mari Carmen; Grier, Harry J; Parenti, Lynne R

    2012-04-01

    The cyprinodontiform family Goodeidae comprises two biogeographically disjunct subfamilies: the viviparous Goodeinae endemic to the Mexican Plateau, and the oviparous Empetrichthyinae, known only from relict taxa in Nevada and California. Ovarian characteristics of two oviparous species of goodeid, Crenichthys baileyi and Empetrichthys latos, studied using museum collections, are compared with those of viviparous species of goodeids. Both subfamilies have a single, cystovarian ovary. The ovary in the viviparous Goodeinae has an internal septum that divides the ovarian lumen into two compartments, and it may possess oogonia. There is no ovarian septum in the oviparous C. baileyi and E. latos. Oogenesis is similar in both subfamilies with regard to the proliferation of oogonia, initiation of meiosis, primary growth and development of an oocyte during secondary growth in which fluid yolk progressively fuses into a single globule. Notably, eggs of C. baileyi and E. latos are approximately double the size of those of the viviparous Goodeinae in which embryos develop inside the ovarian lumen and are nourished, in part, by nutrients transferred from the maternal tissues, a mode of embryo development called matrotrophy. Egg envelopes of the two subfamilies differ in that those of C. baileyi and E. latos have a relatively thick zona pellucida, attachment fibrils or filaments that develop between the follicle cells during oogenesis, and a micropyle observed only in E. latos. In contrast, viviparous goodeid eggs have a relatively thin zona pellucida, but lack adhesive fibrils, and a micropyle was not observed. These reproductive characters are compared with those of species of the eastern North American Fundulus, a representative oviparous cyprinodontiform. One newlyrecognized shared, derived character, a single, median ovoid ovary with no obvious external evidence of fusion, supports monophyly of the Goodeidae. Differences among the goodeid subfamilies and Fundulus are interpreted relative to the oviparous versus viviparous modes of reproduction. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The effects of chronic irradiation on the breeding performance of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Osteichthyes:Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Woodhead, D S

    1977-07-01

    The effects of chronic irradiation on the life-time breeding performance of the small tropical fish, Poecilia reticulata, have been investigated at mean dose-rates of 0.17, 0.40 and 1.27 rad hour-1. The total fecundity was markedly (P less than 0.001) reduced at all dose-rates owing to a decrease in mean actual brood-size and an increase in temporary and permanent infertility. Minor progressive changes in the interbrood time with age and dose-rate were noted. The neonatal death-rate, incidence of abnormalities, and survival and sex ratio of the offspring were unaffected by irradiation. The brood-size data have been used to derive estimates of the dominant lethal mutation rate which are of the same order as those determined for mammals. Histological studies indicate that functional sterility is not necessarily dependent on the destruction of the gonads, and it is possible that radiation effects on pituitary function are responsible for much of the observed infertility.

  5. Capoeta anamisensis, a new species from the Minab and Hasan Langhi River drainages in Iran (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Zareian, Halimeh; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Freyhof, Jörg

    2016-02-18

    Capoeta anamisensis, from the Minab and Hasal Langhi River drainages in southern Iran, belongs to the C. trutta species group. Capoeta anamisensis is distinguished from other species of the C. trutta species group by the combination of the following characters: flank silvery without black spots; 56-67 scales in total along the lateral series; 11-12 scales above the lateral line and 21-25 gill rakers. Capoeta anamisensis is also distinguished from all other congeners in the Persian Gulf basin by having four fixed, diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA COI barcode region and five fixed, diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA cyt b region. The type of Capoeta barroisi persica is identified as an aberrant individual of C. trutta and is considered as a synonym of that species.

  6. Ancyrocephalidae (Monogenea) of Lake Tanganyika: II: description of the first Cichlidogyrus spp. parasites from Tropheini fish hosts (Teleostei, Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Gillardin, Céline; Vanhove, Maarten P M; Pariselle, Antoine; Huyse, Tine; Volckaert, Filip A M

    2012-01-01

    Although Lake Tanganyika hosts the most diverse endemic cichlid fish assemblage, its monogenean parasite fauna has hardly been documented. The cichlid tribe Tropheini has generated great interest because of its systematic position within the Haplochromini s.l. and its diversity in trophic morphology, reproductive behaviour and population structure. It has the potential to host a diverse Monogenea fauna. Here, we describe the first Cichlidogyrus spp.: Cichlidogyrus steenbergei sp. n., Cichlidogyrus irenae sp. n. and Cichlidogyrus gistelincki sp. n. The three host species, Limnotilapia dardennii, Ctenochromis horei and Gnathochromis pfefferi, are all infected by a single unique Cichlidogyrus sp. The genital and haptoral structure of the new species suggests a close relationship, which might mirror the close affinities between the hosts within the Tropheini. Based on haptoral configuration, the new species belong to a morphological group within the genus containing parasites both of West African cichlids and of Haplochromini, and hence, do not represent a new organisation of the attachment organ (as has recently been described of congeners infecting the ectodine cichlid Ophthalmotilapia).

  7. Evolutionary history of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Lamprologini (Teleostei: Perciformes) derived from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data.

    PubMed

    Sturmbauer, Christian; Salzburger, Walter; Duftner, Nina; Schelly, Robert; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2010-10-01

    Lake Tanganyika comprises a cichlid species flock with substrate-breeding and mouthbrooding lineages. While sexual selection via mate choice on male mating color is thought to boost speciation rates in mouthbrooding cichlids, this is not the case in substrate-breeding lamprologines, which mostly form stable pairs and lack sexual dichromatism. We present a comprehensive reconstruction of the evolution of the cichlid tribe Lamprologini, based upon mtDNA sequences and multilocus nuclear DNA (AFLP) markers. Twelve mtDNA clades were identified, seven of which were corroborated by the AFLP tree. The radiation is likely to have started about 5.3 MYA, contemporarily with that of the mouthbrooding C-lineage, and probably triggered by the onset of deep-water conditions in Lake Tanganyika. Neither the Congo- nor the Malagarazi River species form the most ancestral branch. Several conflicts in the mtDNA phylogeny with taxonomic assignments based upon color, eco-morphology and behavior could be resolved and complemented by the AFLP analysis. Introgressive hybridization upon secondary contact seems to be the most likely cause for paraphyly of taxa due to mtDNA capture in species involving brood-care helpers, while accidental hybridization best explains the para- or polyphyly of several gastropod shell breeders. Taxonomic error or paraphyly due to the survival of ancestral lineages appear responsible for inconsistencies in the genera Lamprologus and Neolamprologus. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolutionary history of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Lamprologini (Teleostei: Perciformes) derived from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data

    PubMed Central

    Sturmbauer, Christian; Salzburger, Walter; Duftner, Nina; Schelly, Robert; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika comprises a cichlid species flock with substrate-breeding and mouthbrooding lineages. While sexual selection via mate choice on male mating color is thought to boost speciation rates in mouthbrooding cichlids, this is not the case in substrate-breeding lamprologines, which mostly form stable pairs and lack sexual dichromatism. We present a comprehensive reconstruction of the evolution of the cichlid tribe Lamprologini, based upon mtDNA sequences and multilocus nuclear DNA (AFLP) markers. Twelve mtDNA clades were identified, seven of which were corroborated by the AFLP tree. The radiation is likely to have started about 5.3 MYA, contemporarily with that of the mouthbrooding C-lineage, and probably triggered by the onset of deep-water conditions in Lake Tanganyika. Neither the Congo- nor the Malagarazi River species form the most ancestral branch. Several conflicts in the mtDNA phylogeny with taxonomic assignments based upon color, eco-morphology and behavior could be resolved and complemented by the AFLP analysis. Introgressive hybridization upon secondary contact seems to be the most likely cause for paraphyly of taxa due to mtDNA capture in species involving brood-care helpers, while accidental hybridization best explains the para- or polyphyly of several gastropod shell breeders. Taxonomic error or paraphyly due to the survival of ancestral lineages appear responsible for inconsistencies in the genera Lamprologus and Neolamprologus. PMID:20601006

  9. The role of steroid hormones in protogynous sex change in the Blackeye goby, Coryphopterus nicholsii (Teleostei: Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Kroon, F J; Liley, N R

    2000-05-01

    To detect and describe correlations between steroid concentrations and sexual function in the protogynous Coryphopterus nicholsii, we examined whole-body concentrations of the gonadal steroids testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), and 17beta-estradiol (17beta-E2). Our results show that T, 11-KT, and 17beta-E2 are naturally occurring steroids in both female and male C. nicholsii. Further, mean whole-body concentrations of T and 11-KT in males were approximately twice those in females, whereas mean whole-body concentration of 17beta-E2 in females was almost twice that in males. Second, we tested hypotheses on the causation of sex change arising from these correlations between steroid concentrations and sexual function. We examined the effects of administration of 11-KT, 11-KA, 17alpha-methyltestosterone, and an aromatase inhibitor (Fadrozole) on gonadal structures of mature females. Complete sex change was induced by 11-KT, 11-KA, and Fadrozole. Our results strongly suggest that an increase in 11-KT concentration and perhaps also a decrease in 17beta-E2 concentration are involved in mediating natural sex change in C. nicholsii.

  10. Pluvial Drainage Patterns and Holocene Desiccation Influenced the Genetic Architecture of Relict Dace, Relictus solitarius (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Derek D.; Evans, R. Paul; Shiozawa, Dennis K.

    2015-01-01

    Changing drainage patterns have played a significant role in the evolution of western North American aquatic taxa. Relict dace, Relictus solitarius, is a Great Basin endemic cyprinid with a native range that is restricted to four valleys in eastern Nevada. Relictus solitarius now occupies spring systems that are the remnants of Pleistocene-era pluvial lakes, although it may have occurred in the area for much longer. Here we use mitochondrial DNA sequence data to assess range-wide genetic diversity of R. solitarius, and to estimate divergence times to determine whether pluvial drainages played an important role in shaping intraspecific genetic diversity. Genetic diversification within R. solitarius began during the early to mid-Pleistocene, separating populations within two sets of valleys (Butte/Ruby and Goshute/Steptoe). Additional diversification in each of the two sets of valleys occurred more recently, in the mid- to late-Pleistocene. Holocene desiccation has further isolated populations, and each population sampled contains unique mtDNA haplotypes. Pluvial drainage patterns did contribute to the genetic structure observed within R. solitarius, but most of the intraspecific diversification does not appear to be associated with the Last Glacial Maximum. Holocene desiccation has also contributed to the observed genetic structure. The relict dace populations we sampled are all unique, and we recommend that future management efforts should strive to preserve as much of the genetic diversity as possible. PMID:26394395

  11. Molecular phylogeny of grunts (Teleostei, Haemulidae), with an emphasis on the ecology, evolution, and speciation history of New World species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The fish family Haemulidae is divided in two subfamilies, Haemulinae and Plectorhynchinae (sweetlips), including approximately 17 genera and 145 species. The family has a broad geographic distribution that encompasses contrasting ecological habitats resulting in a unique potential for evolutionary hypotheses testing. In the present work we have examined the phylogenetic relationships of the family using selected representatives of additional Percomorpha based on Bayesian and Maximum likelihood methods by means of three mitochondrial genes. We also developed a phylogenetic hypothesis of the New World species based on five molecular markers (three mitochondrial and two nuclear) as a framework to evaluate the evolutionary history, the ecological diversification and speciation patterns of this group. Results Mitochondrial genes and different reconstruction methods consistently recovered a monophyletic Haemulidae with the Sillaginidae as its sister clade (although with low support values). Previous studies proposed different relationships that were not recovered in this analysis. We also present a robust molecular phylogeny of Haemulinae based on the combined data of two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes. All topologies support the monophyly of both sub-families (Haemulinae, Plectorhinchinae). The genus Pomadasys was shown to be polyphyletic and Haemulon, Anisotremus, and Plectorhinchus were found to be paraphyletic. Four of seven presumed geminate pairs were indeed found to be sister species, however our data did not support a contemporaneous divergence. Analyses also revealed that differential use of habitat might have played an important role in the speciation dynamics of this group of fishes, in particular among New World species where extensive sample coverage was available. Conclusions This study provides a new hypothesis for the sister clade of Hamulidae and a robust phylogeny of the latter. The presence of para- and polyphyletic genera underscores the need for a taxonomic reassessment within the family. A scarce sampling of the Old World Pomadasys species prevents us to definitively point to a New World origin of the sub-familiy Hamulinae, however our data suggest that this is likely to be the case. This study also illustrates how life history habitat influences speciation and evolutionary trajectories. PMID:22537107

  12. Atherinella blackburni (Schultz, 1949) at Itamambuca Beach, Ubatuba, SP: ecological characterization and distribution on the Brazilian coast (Teleostei: Atheriniformes: Atherinopsidae).

    PubMed

    Mattox, G M T; Gondolo, G F; Cunningham, P T M

    2008-05-01

    Atherinella blackburni is a silverside species whose occurrence on the Brazilian coast was not properly registered until recently. So far, records of its distribution along the Brazilian shore were limited to Itaparica Island, Bahia State, and Porto Inhaúma, Rio de Janeiro State. In a recent survey of the ichthyofauna of Itamambuca Beach, Ubatuba, São Paulo State, 100 specimens of this species were collected, yielding a considerable source of information regarding its ecology and a new southern limit of its distribution. A detailed survey of an ichthyological collection revealed lots of this species from regions of the Brazilian Northeast, resulting in a northward expansion of the occurrence of A. blackburni in Brazilian waters. Besides the populations found on the Brazilian coast, the species also occurs discontinuously in the Atlantic coasts of Costa Rica, Panama and Venezuela. Meristic and morphometric analysis showed overlapped values between Brazilian populations and the ones closer to the Caribbean. An ecological study of A. blackburni at Itamambuca Beach revealed that it is a predominantly diurnal species with preference for warm and salty waters, often occurring in sandy-bottom environments. It was more abundant in Summer and Winter, when individuals with smaller values of length and weight also occurred.

  13. Phylogeographic, morphometric and taxonomic re-evaluation of the river sardine, Mesobola brevianalis (Boulenger, 1908) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Chedrini)

    PubMed Central

    Riddin, Megan A.; Bills, I. Roger; Villet, Martin H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The river sardine, Mesobola brevianalis (Boulenger, 1908), is the type species of Mesobola Howes, 1984. Standard phylogenetic analyses of partial sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I gene of individuals from populations across southern Africa that are currently identified as Mesobola brevianalis showed that these populations represent four genetically distinct allopatric lineages. Furthermore, Engraulicypris sardella (Günther, 1868), the type species of Engraulicypris Günther, 1894, was convincingly nested amongst these clades. These findings support synonymisation of Engraulicypris and Mesobola syn. n.; restoration of Engraulicypris gariepinus (Barnard, 1943), stat. rev. for the lower Orange River population; description of two new species, Engraulicypris ngalala sp. n. and Engraulicypris howesi sp. n. from the Rovuma and Kunene river systems, respectively; affirmation of the synonymy of Engraulicypris brevianalis (Boulenger, 1908), comb. n. sensu stricto and Engraulicypris whitei van der Horst, 1934; and restoration of Engraulicypris bredoi Poll, 1945, stat. rev. and Engraulicypris spinifer Bailey & Matthes, 1971, stat. rev. from Mesobola. Discriminant function analysis of a truss network of five traditional morphometric measurements and 21 morphometric measurements that characterised the shape of the fishes was used to seek morphological markers for the genetically distinct populations. Only Engraulicypris gariepinus was morphometrically distinctive, but live colouration differed between the lineages. Detailed taxonomic descriptions and an identification key for the species are provided. PMID:28138294

  14. A new record of a flathead fish (Teleostei: Platycephalidae) from China based on morphological characters and DNA barcoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yan; Song, Na; Zou, Jianwei; Zhang, Zhaohui; Cheng, Guangping; Gao, Tianxiang; Zhang, Xiumei

    2013-05-01

    A new record of Platycephalus sp.1 (sensu Nakabo, 2002) was documented based on morphological characters and DNA barcoding. We collected 174 specimens of the genus Platycephalus from Chinese coastal waters of Dongying, Qingdao, Zhoushan, and Beihai. Samples were identified as Platycephalus sp.1 morphologically. The coloration, meristic traits, and morphometric measurements are consistent with previously published records. In brief, it is an orange-brown flathead fish with dark brown spots scattered on head and body, lateral line scales 83 to 99 with one or two spine-bearing anteriormost pored scale, no yellow blotch on the caudal fin. Cytochrome oxidase I subunit (COI) gene fragments were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The mean evolutionary distance within the species Platycephalus sp.1 was 0.1%. Net evolutionary distances between Platycephalus sp.1 and other species of Platycephalus ranged from 10.8% to 19.7%, which is much greater than the threshold for species delimitation. The COI sequence analysis strongly supports the validity of Platyceohalus sp.1 at genetic level.

  15. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the emerald rock cod, Trematomus bernacchii (Teleostei: Perciformes) in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Cipriani, Paolo; Pankov, Plamen; Lawton, Scott P

    2015-10-01

    Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. is described from the gill blood vessels of the emerald rock cod Trematomus bernacchii in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. It is distinguished from all other species of Aporocotyle by its body tegument showing single conical spines, spinous buccal capsule, and genital atrium positioned medially; all congeners described to date are characterized by clusters of tegumental spines, unspined buccal capsule and genital atrium located in the lateral part of the body. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. clearly differs from A. notothenia (the only other species of Aporocotyle found in a perciform fish) in its shape and arrangement of tegumental spines, buccal capsule features, location of genital atrium, body size, ratio of esophagus/body length, anterior caeca/posterior caeca ratio, number of testes, cirrus sac and ovary size and shape, and host. The new species is easily distinguished from A. argentinensis (the species that most closely resembles A. michaudi) by the shape and arrangement of tegumental spines, buccal capsule features, genital atrium location, left anterior caecum longer than right, esophagus/body length ratio, number of testes, cirrus sac size and shape, host and molecular analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of partial 28S rDNA genetic data showed that sequences representing the new species form a distinct clade with all other sequences for species of Aporocotyle and appear basal within the genus. Aporocotyle michaudi n. sp. represents the only species of genus described in Antarctica. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Plectranthias takasei, new species of anthiadine fish from southern Japan (Teleostei: Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Gill, Anthony C; Tea, Yi-Kai; Senou, Hiroshi

    2016-12-07

    Plectranthias takasei is described from two specimens collected in Izu Oceanic Park, Sagami Bay, Honshu, Japan. It is distinguished from congeners in having the following combination of characters: dorsal rays X,15; no fleshy flaps on dorsal-fin spines; pectoral rays 13, all unbranched; branched caudal-fin rays 8 + 7; lateral line scales 28 (including intermittent and terminal pitted scales); circumpeduncular scales 12; fourth dorsal-fin spine longest; and preopercle without antrorse spines or serrations ventrally, with 2-3 weak serrations or crenulations posteriorly.

  17. Mitogenomic evidence for the monophyly of elopomorph fishes (Teleostei) and the evolutionary origin of the leptocephalus larva.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Jun G; Miya, Masaki; Tsukamoto, Katsumi; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2004-07-01

    The monophyly of Elopomorpha (eels and their relatives) has long been one of the most problematic issues in systematic ichthyology. Since established the Elopomorpha based on the existence of the leaf-like larval form, termed a leptocephalus, no one has corroborated their monophyly using character matrices derived from both morphological and molecular data during the last 30 years. We investigated their monophyly and interrelationships at the ordinal level using complete mitochondrial genomic (mitogenomic) data from 33 purposefully chosen species (data for nine species being newly determined during the study) that fully represent the major teleostean and elopomorph lineages. Partitioned Bayesian analyses were conducted with the two data sets that comprised concatenated nucleotide sequences from 12 protein-coding genes (with and without third codon positions), 22 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes. The resultant trees were well resolved and largely congruent, with most internal branches being supported by high statistical values. Mitogenomic data strongly supported the monophyly of Elopomorpha, indicating the validity of the leptocephalus as an elopomorph synapomorphy. The order Elopiformes occupied the most basal position in the elopomorph phylogeny, with the Albuliformes and a clade comprising the Anguilliformes and the Saccopharyngiformes forming a sister group. The most parsimonious reconstruction of the three previously recognized, distinct larval types of elopomorphs onto the molecular phylogeny revealed that one of the types (fork-tailed type) had originated as the common ancestor of the Elopomorpha, the other two (filament-tailed and round-tailed types) having diversified separately in two more derived major clades.

  18. General characteristics of the diet of Trachinotus paitensis (Teleostei: Carangidae) from San Ignacio Lagoon, Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cruz Escalona, V H; Abitia Cárdenas, L A

    2004-03-01

    The food habits of Trachinotus paitensis, in San Ignacio Lagoon B.C.S., Mexico, were investigated. We observed that T. paitensis is carnivorous, feeding mainly on benthic invertebrates (the gastropods Anachis spp., Bittium spp., and the crustacean larvae). We concluded that T. paitensis is an opportunist predator that impacts mainly on epibenthic invertebrates.

  19. Mapping the potential distribution of the invasive Red Shiner, Cyprinella lutrensis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) across waterways of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poulos, Helen M.; Chernoff, Barry; Fuller, Pam L.; Butman, David

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the future spread of non-native aquatic species continues to be a high priority for natural resource managers striving to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem function. Modeling the potential distributions of alien aquatic species through spatially explicit mapping is an increasingly important tool for risk assessment and prediction. Habitat modeling also facilitates the identification of key environmental variables influencing species distributions. We modeled the potential distribution of an aggressive invasive minnow, the red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis), in waterways of the conterminous United States using maximum entropy (Maxent). We used inventory records from the USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, native records for C. lutrensis from museum collections, and a geographic information system of 20 raster climatic and environmental variables to produce a map of potential red shiner habitat. Summer climatic variables were the most important environmental predictors of C. lutrensis distribution, which was consistent with the high temperature tolerance of this species. Results from this study provide insights into the locations and environmental conditions in the US that are susceptible to red shiner invasion.

  20. Morphology-based phylogeny of the suckermouth armored catfishes, with emphasis on the Neoplecostominae (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Edson H L; Reis, Roberto E

    2017-05-11

    A phylogenetic study of the Loricariidae with emphasis on the Neoplecostominae is presented based on a maximum parsimony analysis of 268 phenotypic characters encompassing osteology, arthrology, and external morphology. Results support previous hypotheses of the monophyly of the Neoplecostominae and each of the included genera: Hirtella, Isbrueckerichthys, Kronichthys, Neoplecostomus, Pareiorhaphis, and Pareiorhina. In addition, previously undiscovered diversity was revealed within the subfamily as an additional genus-level taxon, herein described as Euryochus. Relationships among neoplecostomine genera are: (Kronichthys (Euryochus ((Hirtella + Pareiorhaphis) (Pareiorhina (Isbrueckerichthys + Neoplecostomus))))). Additional undescribed diversity was also detected among most neoplecostomine genera and the Hypoptopomatinae. In addition, recently discovered genera Nannoplecostomus and Microplecostomus were included in the analysis, and were identified as sequential sister-taxa to Neoplecostominae + Hypoptopomatinae, which are currently not included in any subfamily and regarded as incertae sedis in Loricariidae. The three species of Lithogenes were included in an encompassing phylogenetic analysis for the first time, and were identified as a monophyletic unit and sister group to all remaining loricariids. The other loricariid subfamilies were also corroborated as monophyletic, and presented the following interrelationships (Lithogeninae (Delturinae (Loricariinae (Hypostominae (Nannoplecostomus (Microplecostomus (Hypoptopomatinae + Neoplecostominae). The Neoplecostominae and its genera are phylogenetically diagnosed, and hypothesized relationships are compared to those of previous morphological and molecular phylogenetic studies.

  1. A phylogenetic analysis of the major groups of catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes) using rag1 and rag2 nuclear gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, John P; Lundberg, John G; Hardman, Michael

    2006-12-01

    Higher-level relationships among catfishes were investigated by parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of two nuclear genes across 110 catfish species representing 36 of 37 families and Conorhynchos (family incertae sedis). Analysis of 3660 aligned base pairs from the rag1 and rag2 genes confirms monophyly of Siluriformes, of most siluriform families and of a number of multifamily groups, some recognized, some novel. South American Loricarioidei are recovered as the sistergroup to other catfishes which are divided into Diplomystidae and Siluroidei. This result contrasts with the prevailing hypothesis that Diplomystidae is the sister to all other catfishes. Monophyly of Siluroidei is supported by rag data including a unique three-codon deletion from rag1. Deep within Siluroidei are 12 large, strongly supported groups with poorly resolved interrelationships. Five are single families: Cetopsidae, Plotosidae, Chacidae, Siluridae and Pangasiidae. Four others are monophyletic taxa ranked here as superfamilies: Clarioidea (Clariidae, Heteropneustidae), Arioidea (Ariidae, Anchariidae), Pimelodoidea (Pimelodidae, Pseudopimelodidae, Heptapteridae, Conorhynchos), Ictaluroidea (Ictaluridae, Cranoglanididae). South American Doradoidea (Doradidae, Auchenipteridae) and Aspredinidae are a sistergroup pair. Sisoroidea (without Aspredinidae), Ailia+Laides, Horabagridae, and Bagridae (without Rita) form a large, predominantly Asian clade, "Big Asia." Mochokidae, Malapteruridae, Amphiliidae, Claroteidae, and African schilbids are united as a species-rich African clade, "Big Africa." The three large continental clades, "Big Asia," "Big Africa" and Neotropical Loricarioidei suggest a prevalence of intracontinental diversification of catfishes. South America is the home of the Gymnotiformes, putative sistergroup of catfishes, plus two of the deepest siluriform clades, Loricarioidei and Diplomystidae, thus suggesting an ancient siluriform presence if not origin there. The rag phylogeny does not identify any African-South American catfish clade. The well-known African-Asian relationships within families Clariidae and Bagridae are confirmed, as is the recently found North American-Asian relationship between Ictaluridae and Cranoglanididae.

  2. Comparative morphology of the gonadal structure related to reproductive strategies in six species of neotropical catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes).

    PubMed

    Melo, Rafael Magno Costa; Arantes, Fábio Pereira; Sato, Yoshimi; dos Santos, José Enemir; Rizzo, Elizete; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2011-05-01

    We studied the relationship between the morphology of the reproductive system and the reproductive strategies of six neotropical catfishes using macroscopic and microscopic analyses. The reproductive system of the examined Siluriformes showed diversified characteristics, but permitted their being grouped according to three reproductive strategies: pelagic spawning, demersal spawning, and internally fertilizing. The pelagic spawners Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Conorhynchos conirostris have testes that are characterized by filiform lobes, absence of testicular secretion, full-grown oocytes of small diameter, thin zona radiata, and cuboidal follicular cells. Pimelodus maculatus is morphologically distinct from the other two pelagic spawners catfishes due to the presence of testicular secretion. The demersal spawners Lophiosilurus alexandri and Rhinelepis aspera possess homogeneous testicular secretion, large mature oocytes, and columnar follicular cells. The most specialized reproductive system was observed in the internally fertilizing Trachelyopterus galeatus, which possesses a seminal vesicle accessory to the testes, spermatozoa with elongated nuclei that form spermatozeugmata, and a secretory ovarian lamellar epithelium that is associated with sperm storage. The reproductive system observed in Neotropical catfishes showed a relationship associated with the type of fertilization and the reproductive strategies of the six species studied. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Pluvial Drainage Patterns and Holocene Desiccation Influenced the Genetic Architecture of Relict Dace, Relictus solitarius (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Houston, Derek D; Evans, R Paul; Shiozawa, Dennis K

    2015-01-01

    Changing drainage patterns have played a significant role in the evolution of western North American aquatic taxa. Relict dace, Relictus solitarius, is a Great Basin endemic cyprinid with a native range that is restricted to four valleys in eastern Nevada. Relictus solitarius now occupies spring systems that are the remnants of Pleistocene-era pluvial lakes, although it may have occurred in the area for much longer. Here we use mitochondrial DNA sequence data to assess range-wide genetic diversity of R. solitarius, and to estimate divergence times to determine whether pluvial drainages played an important role in shaping intraspecific genetic diversity. Genetic diversification within R. solitarius began during the early to mid-Pleistocene, separating populations within two sets of valleys (Butte/Ruby and Goshute/Steptoe). Additional diversification in each of the two sets of valleys occurred more recently, in the mid- to late-Pleistocene. Holocene desiccation has further isolated populations, and each population sampled contains unique mtDNA haplotypes. Pluvial drainage patterns did contribute to the genetic structure observed within R. solitarius, but most of the intraspecific diversification does not appear to be associated with the Last Glacial Maximum. Holocene desiccation has also contributed to the observed genetic structure. The relict dace populations we sampled are all unique, and we recommend that future management efforts should strive to preserve as much of the genetic diversity as possible.

  4. Evolutionary patterns of shape and functional diversification in the skull and jaw musculature of triggerfishes (Teleostei: Balistidae).

    PubMed

    McCord, Charlene L; Westneat, Mark W

    2016-06-01

    The robust skull and highly subdivided adductor mandibulae muscles of triggerfishes provide an excellent system within which to analyze the evolutionary processes underlying phenotypic diversification. We surveyed the anatomical diversity of balistid jaws using Procrustes-based geometric morphometric analyses and a phylomorphospace approach to quantifying morphological transformation through evolution. We hypothesized that metrics of interspecific cranial shape would reveal patterns of phylogenetic diversification that are congruent with functional and ecological transformation. Morphological landmarks outlining skull and adductor mandibulae muscle shape were collected from 27 triggerfish species. Procrustes-transformed skull shape configurations revealed significant phylogenetic and size-influenced structure. Phylomorphospace plots of cranial shape diversity reveal groupings of shape between different species of triggerfish that are mostly consistent with phylogenetic relatedness. Repeated instances of convergence upon similar cranial shape by genetically disparate taxa are likely due to the functional demands of shared specialized dietary habits. This study shows that the diversification of triggerfish skulls occurs via modifications of cranial silhouette and the positioning of subdivided jaw adductor muscles. Using the morphometric data collected here as input to a biomechanical model of triggerfish jaw function, we find that subdivided jaw adductors, in conjunction with a unique cranial skeleton, have direct biomechanical consequences that are not always congruent with phylomorphospace patterns in the triggerfish lineage. The integration of geometric morphometrics with biomechanical modeling in a phylogenetic context provides novel insight into the evolutionary patterns and ecological role of muscle subdivisions in triggerfishes. J. Morphol. 277:737-752, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Marine-freshwater transitions are associated with the evolution of dietary diversification in terapontid grunters (Teleostei: Terapontidae).

    PubMed

    Davis, A M; Unmack, P J; Pusey, B J; Johnson, J B; Pearson, R G

    2012-06-01

    The ecological opportunities associated with transitions across the marine-freshwater interface are regarded as an important catalyst of diversification in a range of aquatic taxa. Here, we examined the role of these major habitat transitions and trophic diversification in a radiation of Australasian fishes using a new molecular phylogeny incorporating 37 Terapontidae species. A combined mitochondrial and nuclear gene analysis yielded a well-supported tree with most nodes resolved. Ancestral terapontids appear to have been euryhaline in habitat affiliation, with a single transition to freshwater environments producing all Australasian freshwater species. Mapping of terapontid feeding modes onto the molecular phylogeny-predicted carnivorous dietary habits was displayed by ancestral terapontids, which subsequently diversified into a range of additional carnivorous, omnivorous, herbivorous and detritivorous dietary modes upon transition to freshwater habitats. Comparative analyses suggested that following the freshwater invasion, the single freshwater clade has exhibited an increased rate of diversification at almost three times the background rate evident across the rest of the family. The marine-freshwater transition within Terapontidae appears to have resulted in substantial dietary radiation in freshwater environments, as well as increased lineage diversification rates relative to euryhaline-marine habitats.

  6. Male mate choice and sperm allocation in a sexual/asexual mating complex of Poecilia (Poeciliidae, Teleostei)

    PubMed Central

    Schlupp, I; Plath, M

    2005-01-01

    Male mate choice is critical for understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual/asexual mating complexes involving sperm-dependent, gynogenetic species. Amazon mollies (Poecilia formosa) require sperm to trigger embryogenesis, but the males (e.g. Poecilia mexicana) do not contribute genes. Males benefit from mating with Amazon mollies, because such matings make males more attractive to conspecific females, but they might control the cost of such matings by providing less sperm to Amazon mollies. We examined this at the behavioural and sperm levels. P. mexicana males preferred to mate with, and transferred more sperm to conspecific females. However, if males mated with P. formosa, sperm was readily transferred. This underscores the importance of male choice in this system. PMID:17148157

  7. Reproductive biology of Ilisha elongata (Teleostei: Pristigasteridae) in Ariake Sound, Japan: Implications for estuarine fish conservation in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Takita, Toru; Zhang, Chunguang

    2009-01-01

    Elongate ilisha ( Ilisha enlongata) is a commercially important species that contributes to clupeoid fisheries in Asian countries. In the present study, the reproductive biology of I. elongata in Ariake Sound, Japan is determined for the first time. Six maturity stages were described using ovarian and testicular histology throughout the annual cycle. The spawning season in Ariake Sound lasts from May to July, with peak spawning activity in May and June. Age at first maturity was estimated to be 2 years, with a few exceptions of 1 year in well-developed males. Ovaries that contained both tertiary yolk oocytes and postovulatory follicles occurred from late May to late July, indicating that I. elongata is a multiple spawner. The size-frequency distribution of oocytes provided evidence for its multiple spawning and accuracy of the fecundity estimates. The batch fecundity of this species was estimated at between 22,200 and 270,900 eggs per individual, increasing with age between two and six years. The present findings on the reproductive strategy of I. elongata in Ariake Sound are generally consistent with those in temperate or subtropical populations, but quite different from those of tropical population where first maturation occurs around 200 days and life spans are shorter, with a maximum age less than 3 years. The conservation implications of this reproductive strategy in a harsh, variable environment in Asian countries are also discussed.

  8. Characterization of hepatic growth hormone binding sites in two fish species, Gillichthys mirabilis (Teleostei) and Acipenser transmontanus (Chondrostei).

    PubMed

    Tarpey, J F; Nicoll, C S

    1985-10-01

    To obtain information on the presence of growth hormone (GH) receptors in liver of nonmammalian vertebrates the specific binding of 125I-bovine growth hormone (bGH) to liver membranes of seven species representing the major groups was studied by radioreceptor assay. A substantial degree of specific binding was detected with sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) liver membranes and a much lower amount was detected on hepatic membranes of Gillichthys mirabilis. No significant specific binding was detected on liver membranes of pigeon, turtle, bullfrog, tilapia, or leopard shark. Gillichthys and sturgeon liver membranes were further characterized and compared with hepatic membranes from male rabbits. The sturgeon and Gillichthys membranes showed binding that was dependent upon time, temperature, pH, and membrane concentration. Scatchard analysis of the binding of 125I-bGH to sturgeon and rabbit membranes revealed both high and low affinity binding sites. The high affinity sites had KA values of 3.1 X 10(11) and 1.0 X 10(11) M-1, and capacities of 12 and 50 fmol/mg protein, respectively. Membranes from Gillichthys liver contained only a single class of binding sites with a KA of 6.7 X 10(9) M-1 and a binding capacity of 49 fmol/mg. Hormonal specificity of the sturgeon and Gillichthys hepatic binding sites was studied using methionyl-human GH (met-hGH), ovine prolactin (oPRL), and a crude preparation of sturgeon (st)GH. The met-hGH and stGH inhibited the binding of 125I-bGH to sturgeon liver membranes while only met-hGH displaced labeled bGH from Gillichthys liver membranes. One microgram of oPRL did not significantly inhibit 125I-bGH binding in either membrane assay. Based on these studies, sturgeon hepatic GH receptors seem to be more like those of nonprimate mammals than those of teleosts. Our results, in conjunction with the data of J. N. Fryer (Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 39, 123-130 (1979)), indicate that considerable evolutionary divergence has occurred among teleost hepatic GH receptors. Thus, vertebrate GH receptors seem to have undergone at least as much evolution as has the hormone itself.

  9. The Inner Ear and its Coupling to the Swim Bladder in the Deep-Sea Fish Antimora rostrata (Teleostei: Moridae)

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiaohong; Wagner, Hans-Joachim; Popper, Arthur N.

    2011-01-01

    The inner ear structure of Antimora rostrata and its coupling to the swim bladder were analyzed and compared with the inner ears of several shallow-water species that also have similar coupling. The inner ear of Antimora has a long saccular otolith and sensory epithelium as compared to many other fishes. Some parts of the membranous labyrinth are thick and rigid, while other parts are thinner but attached tightly to the bony capsule. The partially rigid membranous labyrinth, along with its intimate connection to the swim bladder, may help the inner ear follow the sound oscillations from the swim bladder with better precision than would occur in a less rigid inner ear. In addition, the saccular sensory epithelium has an elaborate structure and an anterior enlargement that may be correlated with increased hearing sensitivity. Some of the features in the inner ear of Antimora may reflect the functional specialization of deep-water living and support the hypothesis that there is enhanced inner ear sensitivity in some deep-sea fishes. PMID:21532967

  10. Adaptive radiation in the Congo River: an ecological speciation scenario for African weakly electric fish (Teleostei; Mormyridae; Campylomormyrus).

    PubMed

    Feulner, Philine G D; Kirschbaum, Frank; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this study is to better understand the diversification of African weakly electric fish in the Congo River. Based on a robust phylogenetic hypothesis we examined the radiation within the mormyrid genus Campylomormyrus. Morphological traits relevant for the divergence between the identified species were detected. Among them, the variation in the shape of the trunk-like elongated snout suggested the presence of different trophic specializations. Furthermore, the chosen model taxon, the genus Campylomormyrus, exhibits a wide diversity of electric organ discharge (EOD) waveforms. A comparison of EOD waveform types and phylogenetic relationships showed major differences in EOD between closely related species. This indicates that the EOD might function as a reproductive isolation mechanism. In conclusion, we provide a plausible scenario of an adaptive radiation triggered by sexual selection and assortative mating based on EOD characteristics, but caused by a divergent selection on the feeding apparatus. These findings point towards an adaptive radiation of at least some Campylomormyrus species occurring in the Lower Congo River.

  11. Sequence and localization of an ultraviolet (sws1) opsin in the retina of the Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus (Teleostei: Clupeiformes).

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, T; Kondrashev, S L; Kasagi, S; Mizusawa, K; Takahashi, A

    2017-03-01

    A full-length complementary (c)DNA encoding ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive opsin (sws1) was isolated from the retina of the Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus. The sws1 phylogenetic tree showed a sister group relationship with the Cypriniformes, following the ray-finned fish phylogeny. By expressing reconstituted opsin in vitro, it was determined that the maximum absorbance spectrum (λmax ) of sws1 is around 382 nm, being intermediate in position between two subtypes of sws1 pigment that are UV sensitive (λmax  = 355-380 nm) and violet sensitive (λmax  = 388-455 nm), which have been reported to date. The ocular media transmitted >20% transmittance of light in the range of 360-600 nm. In situ hybridization analyses revealed that sws1 messenger (m)RNA is localized in a central single cone surrounded by four double cones in a square mosaic. The square mosaic occupies the ventro-temporal quadrant of the retina and the in situ hybridization signals were dominant in this area suggesting that the fish may use UV vision when looking upward. Based on these results, considerable significances of potential UV sensitivity, in relation to characteristic habits of S. melanostictus, are discussed. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Clinal variation at microsatellite loci reveals historical secondary intergradation between glacial races of Coregonus artedi (Teleostei: Coregoninae).

    PubMed

    Turgeon, J; Bernatchez, L

    2001-11-11

    Classical models of the spatial structure of population genetics rely on the assumption of migration-drift equilibrium, which is seldom met in natural populations having only recently colonized their current range (e.g., postglacial). Population structure then depicts historical events, and counfounding effects due to recent secondary contact between recently differentiated lineages can further counfound analyses of association between geographic and genetic distances. Mitochondrial polymorphisms have revealed the existence of two closely related lineages of the lake cisco, Coregonus artedi, whose significantly different but overlaping geographical distributions provided a weak signal of past range fragmentation blurred by putative subsequent extensive secondary contacts. In this study, we analyzed geographical patterns of genetic variation at seven microsatellite loci among 22 populations of lake cisco located along the axis of an area covered by proglacial lakes 12,000-8,000 years ago in North America. The results clearly confirmed the existence of two genetically distinct races characterized by different sets of microsatellite alleles whose frequencies varied clinally across some 3000 km. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium analyses of isolation by distance revealed historical signal of gene flow resulting from the nearly complete admixture of these races following neutral secondary contacts in their historical habitat and indicated that the colonization process occurred by a stepwise expansion of an eastern (Atlantic) race into a previously established Mississippian race. This historical signal of equilibrium contrasted with the current migration-drift disequilibrium within major extant watersheds and was apparently maintained by high effective population sizes and low migration regimes.

  13. Chromosomal Mapping of Repetitive DNAs in Characidium (Teleostei, Characiformes): Genomic Organization and Diversification of ZW Sex Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Scacchetti, Priscilla C; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Pansonato-Alves, José C; Vicari, Marcelo R; Artoni, Roberto F; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    The speciose neotropical genus Characidium has proven to be a good model for cytogenetic exploration. Representatives of this genus often have a conserved diploid chromosome number; some species exhibit a highly differentiated ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system, while others do not show any sex-related chromosome heteromorphism. In this study, chromosome painting using a W-specific probe and comparative chromosome mapping of repetitive sequences, including ribosomal clusters and 4 microsatellite motifs - (CA)15, (GA)15, (CG)15, and (TTA)10 -, were performed in 6 Characidium species, 5 of which possessed a heteromorphic ZW sex chromosome system. The W-specific probe showed hybridization signals on the W chromosome of all analyzed species, indicating homology among the W chromosomes. Remarkably, a single major rDNA-bearing chromosome pair was found in all species. The 18S rDNA localized to the sex chromosomes in C. lanei, C. timbuiense and C. pterostictum, while the major rDNA localized to one autosome pair in C. vidali and C. gomesi. In contrast, the number of 5S rDNA-bearing chromosomes varied. Notably, minor ribosomal clusters were identified in the W chromosome of C. vidali. Microsatellites were widely distributed across almost all chromosomes of the karyotypes, with a greater accumulation in the subtelomeric regions. However, clear differences in the abundance of each motif were detected in each species. In addition, the Z and W chromosomes showed the differential accumulation of distinct motifs. Our results revealed variability in the distribution of repetitive DNA sequences and their possible association with sex chromosome diversification in Characidium species.

  14. Cytogenetic analysis of B chromosomes in one population of the fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907) (Teleostei, Characiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Voltolin, Diogo Teruo Hashimoto Tatiana Aparecida; Paes, Ana Danyelle Noitel Valim de Arruda; Foresti, Fausto; Bortolozzi, Jehud; Porto-Foresti, Fábio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize cytogenetically one population of the fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907), with emphasis on the analysis of B chromosomes. The nucleolar activity in the B microchromosomes was characterized, and an analysis of mitotic instability of these microchromosomes was accomplished. The results showed a diploid chromosome number of 50 chromosomes. In all individuals, we observed the presence of B microchromosomes with intra- and inter-individual variability. The analysis of the nucleolus organizing regions (NORs) by silver nitrate staining demonstrated multiple NORs. We observed active sites of ribosomal DNA in the B microchromosomes, with a frequency of 20% in the analyzed cells, which shows gene activity in these chromosomal elements. The analysis of constitutive heterochromatin patterns showed that the B microchromosomes are heterochromatic or euchromatic, which demonstrates differentiation of DNA composition between these genomic elements. The calculation of the mitotic instability index implied that B chromosomes in this species might be in a final stage of instability. PMID:24260658

  15. Short-term effects of triiodothyronine on the bowfin, Amia calva (Holostei), and the lake char, Salvelinus namaycush (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, J S; John, T M; Singer, T D; Oommen, O V

    1992-01-01

    To assess the role of triiodothyronine (T3) in mediating short-term changes in metabolism, such as those occurring in circadian patterns, we examined the effects of intraperitoneal injection of T3 on the oxidation of substrates by isolated mitochondria from liver of the bowfin, Amia calva, and red muscle and liver of the lake char, Salvelinus namaycush. Selected enzymes were measured in red muscle and liver of the lake char. Three hours after intraperitoneal injection of T3, oxidation of some substrates by mitochondria isolated from the liver of the bowfin was reduced. Similar treatment had no effect on substrate oxidation in liver mitochondria isolated from lake char. Oxidation of substrates by lake char red muscle mitochondria was stimulated by T3 injection. Citrate synthase levels were increased in red muscle suggesting that changes in enzyme activity may be in part responsible for the short-term mitochondrial responses to T3 injection.

  16. Species-level phylogeny of 'Satan's perches' based on discordant gene trees (Teleostei: Cichlidae: Satanoperca Günther 1862).

    PubMed

    Willis, Stuart C; López-Fernández, Hernán; Montaña, Carmen G; Farias, Izeni P; Ortí, Guillermo

    2012-06-01

    Neotropical rivers are home to the largest assemblage of freshwater fishes, but little is known about the phylogeny of these fishes at the species level using multi-locus molecular markers. Here, we present a phylogeny for all known species of the genus Satanoperca, a widespread group of Neotropical cichlid fishes, based on analysis of six unlinked genetic loci. To test nominal and proposed species limits for this group, we surveyed mtDNA sequence variation among 320 individuals representing all know species. Most nominal species were supported by this approach but we determined that populations in the Xingu, Tapajós, and Araguaia+Paraná Rivers are likely undescribed species, while S. jurupari and S. mapiritensis did not show clear genetic distinction. To infer a phylogeny of these putative species, we conducted maximum likelihood and Bayesian non-clock and relaxed clock analyses of concatenated data from three genes (one mitochondrial, two nuclear). We also used a multi-species coalescent model to estimate a species tree from six unlinked loci (one mitochondrial, five nuclear). The topologies obtained were congruent with other results, but showed only minimal to moderate support for some nodes, suggesting that more loci will be needed to satisfactorily estimate the distribution of coalescent histories within Satanoperca. We determined that this variation results from topological discordance among separate gene trees, likely due to differential sorting of ancestral polymorphisms.

  17. Chirocentrodon bleekerianus (Teleostei: Clupeiformes: Pristigasteridae), a small predaceous herring with folded and distinctively oriented prey in stomach.

    PubMed

    Sazima, C; Moura, R L; Sazima, I

    2004-02-01

    Predaceous fish-eating species of the order Clupeiformes have a large mouth with well-developed teeth, and reach the greatest sizes within their families (up to 90 cm). We found that the pristigasterid Chirocentrodon bleekerianus, a small clupeiform (about 10 cm) from the tropical SW Atlantic, is able to prey on proportionally large clupeoid fishes and caridean shrimps. Fish preys are folded in the stomach of this herring, their heads and tails pointing toward the predator's head. This distinctive orientation of fish prey is also recorded for some small to medium-sized, fish-eating species of the tropical freshwater order Characiformes with canine-like teeth similar to those found in C. bleekerianus.

  18. Immunohistochemical localization of gonadotropin releasing hormones in the brain and pituitary gland of the Nile perch, Lates niloticus (Teleostei, Centropomidae).

    PubMed

    Mousa, Mostafa A; Mousa, Shaaban A

    2003-02-15

    In the present study we investigated the distribution of gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) in the brain of Lates niloticus and their association with different pituitary cell types using immunohistochemical techniques. We found immunoreactive (ir) chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II) and mammalian GnRH (mGnRH) as the main components of the GnRH-ir system within the brain of the Nile perch. The results indicate that mGnRH and cGnRH are localized in different neurons: mGnRH-ir perikaria were observed in the preoptic region particularly in the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) and in the nucleus lateralis tuberis pars posterior (NLTP) of the mediobasal hypothalamus. These cell bodies are located along a continuum of ir-fibers that could be traced from the olfactory nerve to the pituitary. mGnRH-ir fibers were detected in many parts of the brain (olfactory bulbs, ventral telencephalon, hypothalamus, and mesencephalon) and in the pituitary. cGnRH-ir cell bodies are restricted to the optic tract, but few scattered fibers could be detected in different parts of the brain. The pituitary exhibited very few cGnRH-II ir fibers, contrasting with an extensive mGnRH innervation. Moreover, mGnRH-ir fibers were targeting the three areas of the pituitary gland: rostral pars distalis (RPD), proximal pars distalis (PPD), and pars intermedia (PI). Double immunolabeling studies showed GnRH-ir fibers in close proximity with prolactin (PRL)- and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing cells in the RPD, growth hormone (GH)-producing cells in the PPD, gonadotropins (GTHs)-producing cells in the PPD in the external border of the PI, and with somatolactin (SL)- and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)-producing cells in the PI. Our results showed direct morphological evidence for a close association of GnRH-ir fibers with the different adenohypophysial cell types. These results suggest a multiple role of GnRH in the regulation of various pituitary hormones' release. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science (USA)

  19. Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Microcotyle pancerii (Monogenea: Polyopisthocotylea: Microcotylidae), parasite of meagre Argyrosomus regius (Pisces: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Joséphine; Marchand, Bernard

    2009-04-01

    The present work deals with the ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Microcotyle pancerii, a gill parasite of meagre Argyrosomus regius collected in Corsican fish farms. Spermiogenesis was rather similar to that observed in other polyopisthocotylean Monogenea. The intercentriolar body was different from that described in digeneans. The nuclear condensation occurred in 2 successive stages. First, during the nuclear migration in the median cytoplasmic process, the nucleus developed a honeycomb-like appearance. Then, after the flagellar fusion, a discontinuous twisting of the chromatin appeared along the nucleus, with this process ending in total nuclear condensation. The structure of the spermatozoon is characterized by 2 axonemes (9 + "1" pattern), a single and continuous field of cortical microtubules, a mitochondrion, and a nucleus. Our findings were compared with various ultrastructural features in order to highlight variability within the group.

  20. Reproductive histology of Tomeurus gracilis Eigenmann, 1909 (Teleostei: Atherinomorpha: Poeciliidae) with comments on evolution of viviparity in atherinomorph fishes.

    PubMed

    Parenti, Lynne R; LoNostro, Fabiana L; Grier, Harry J

    2010-11-01

    Tomeurus gracilis is a species long considered pivotal in understanding the evolution of livebearing in atherinomorph fishes. Tomeurus gracilis is a zygoparous or embryoparous poeciliid: internal fertilization is followed by females laying fertilized eggs singly or retaining fertilized eggs until or near hatching. Tomeurus was hypothesized as the sister group of the viviparous poeciliids until it was proposed as a close relative of a derived viviparous poeciliid, Cnesterodon, hence nested among viviparous taxa rather than near the root of the tree. Here, we describe and compare reproductive morphological characters of the little-known Tomeurus with those of representative atherinomorphs. In Tomeurus and Cnesterodon, sperm are packaged in naked sperm bundles, or spermatozeugmata, in a configuration considered here diagnostic of viviparous poeciliids. Testes are single and free sperm are stored in the ovary in both taxa in contrast to oviparous atherinomorphs in which testes are paired and sperm are not packaged and not stored in the ovary. Efferent ducts in Cnesterodon testes and other viviparous poeciliids have a PAS-positive secretion demonstrating presence of a glycoprotein that inactivates sperm or prevents final sperm maturation. No PAS-positive staining secretion was observed in Tomeurus or oviparous atherinomorphs. Tomeurus shares apomorphic reproductive characters, such as sperm bundle and testis morphology and a gonopodium, with viviparous poeciliids and plesiomorphic characters, such as a thick zona pellucida with filaments, with oviparous taxa. We do not postulate loss or reversal of viviparity in Tomeurus, and we corroborate its phylogenetic position as sister to the viviparous poeciliids.

  1. Biochemical responses over time in common carp Cyprinus carpio (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) during fed supplementation with α-lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Enamorado, Alain D; Martins, Atila C; Flores, Juliana A; Tesser, Marcelo Borges; Caldas, Sergiane S; Primel, Ednei G; Monserrat, José Maria

    2015-10-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the influence of lipoic acid (LA) supplementation (439.84±6.71 mg LA/kg feed) on antioxidants responses throughout the time in intestine, liver and muscle of juvenile common carp Cyprinus carpio. Two experimental groups were fed during four weeks with a diet with or without LA. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, glutathione (GSH) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were evaluated in these organs. Also, a technique to measure protein disulfide bonds and sulfhydryl groups was optimized for intestine samples. GST activity was significantly higher (p<0.05) in intestine after two weeks of supplementation. GSH content was also significantly higher (p<0.05) in intestine, liver and muscle of fish fed with LA after two and three weeks, respectively. Total capacity antioxidant against peroxyl radicals was significantly increased (p<0.05) in the muscle of animals fed with LA after the fourth week. Concentration of disulfide bonds was higher in the intestine of fish fed with LA but this group also showed higher concentration of sulfhydryl groups (p<0.05). It is concluded that supplementation with LA is a safe strategy to induce antioxidant responses and improves the antioxidant status in different organs of common carp. Two week of supplementation are required to induce antioxidant responses in intestine and liver and three week for muscle.

  2. Cryptomyrus: a new genus of Mormyridae (Teleostei, Osteoglossomorpha) with two new species from Gabon, West-Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, John P; Lavoué, Sébastien; Hopkins, Carl D

    2016-01-01

    We use mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data to show that three weakly electric mormyrid fish specimens collected at three widely separated localities in Gabon, Africa over a 13-year period represent an unrecognized lineage within the subfamily Mormyrinae and determine its phylogenetic position with respect to other taxa. We describe these three specimens as a new genus containing two new species. Cryptomyrus, new genus, is readily distinguished from all other mormyrid genera by a combination of features of squamation, morphometrics, and dental attributes. Cryptomyrus ogoouensis, new species, is differentiated from its single congener, Cryptomyrus ona, new species, by the possession of an anal-fin origin located well in advance of the dorsal fin, a narrow caudal peduncle and caudal-fin lobes nearly as long as the peduncle. In Cryptomyrus ona, the anal-fin origin is located only slightly in advance of the dorsal fin, the caudal peduncle is deep and the caudal-fin lobes considerably shorter than the peduncle. Continued discovery of new taxa within the "Lower Guinea Clade" of Mormyridae highlights the incompleteness of our knowledge of fish diversity in West-Central Africa. We present a revised key to the mormyrid genera of Lower Guinea.

  3. A Ploidy Difference Represents an Impassable Barrier for Hybridisation in Animals. Is There an Exception among Botiid Loaches (Teleostei: Botiidae)?

    PubMed Central

    Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula; Šlechta, Vlastimil; Šlechtová, Vera; Sember, Alexandr; Ráb, Petr

    2016-01-01

    One of the most efficient mechanisms to keep animal lineages separate is a difference in ploidy level (number of whole genome copies), since hybrid offspring from parents with different ploidy level are functionally sterile. In the freshwater fish family Botiidae, ploidy difference has been held responsible for the separation of its two subfamilies, the evolutionary tetraploid Botiinae and the diploid Leptobotiinae. Diploid and tetraploid species coexist in the upper Yangtze, the Pearl River and the Red River basins in China. Interestingly, the species ‘Botia’ zebra from the Pearl River basin combines a number of morphological characters that otherwise are found in the diploid genus Leptobotia with morphological characters of the tetraploid genus Sinibotia, therefore the aim of the present study is to test weather ‘B.’ zebra is the result of a hybridisation event between species from different subfamilies with different ploidy level. A closer morphological examination indeed demonstrates a high similarity of ‘B.’ zebra to two co-occurring species, the diploid Leptobotia guilinensis and the tetraploid Sinibotia pulchra. These two species thus could have been the potential parental species in case of a hybrid origin of ‘B.’ zebra. The morphologic analysis further reveals that ‘B.’ zebra bears even the diagnostic characters of the genera Leptobotia (Leptobotiinae) and Sinibotia (Botiinae). In contrast, a comparison of six allozyme loci between ‘B.’ zebra, L. guilinensis and S. pulchra showed only similarities between ‘B.’ zebra and S. pulchra, not between ‘B.’ zebra and L. guilinensis. Six specimens of ‘B.’ zebra that were cytogenetically analysed were tetraploid with 4n = 100. The composition of the karyotype (18% metacentric, 18% submetacentric, 36% subtelocentric and 28% acrocentric chromosomes) differs from those of L. guilinensis (12%, 24%, 20% and 44%) and S. pulchra (20%, 26%, 28% and 26%), and cannot be obtained by any combination of genomes from L. guilinensis and S. pulchra. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on sequence data of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the nuclear RAG-1 gene invariably places ‘Botia’ zebra as sister species to S. pulchra, while L. guilinensis is only distantly related. The presented combination of genetic data demonstrates that ‘B.’ zebra is not the result of a hybridisation, but a species of tetraploid genus Sinibotia with a striking morphological evolution towards an enormous similarity with a co-occurring, but not directly related species. The complete lack of knowledge of the ecology of these species, their main predators or their ecological interactions hampers any conclusion regarding the evolutionary advantage of such adaptation. PMID:27442252

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of Ptychobarbus kaznakovi (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), and repetitive sequences in the D-loop.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingzhan; Wu, Bo; Li, Jiuxuan; Song, Zhaobin

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Ptychobarbus kaznakovi was sequenced and characterized. The genome is 16,842 bp in length. Similar with most teleosts, it has two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and one displacement loop (D-loop) region. Conserved sequence blocks, including ETAS, CSB-B, D, E, F, and CSB1-3, were identified in the D-loop, which is similar to other species in Cypriniformes. Nevertheless, a 55 bp tandem repeat array was also identified at 3' end of the D-loop, which is the first finding in Schizothoracinae. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the species of Ptychobarbus (P. dipogon and P. kaznakovi) formed a monophyletic group and represented close relationship to the species without scales in Schizothoracinae.

  5. DNA barcoding at riverscape scales: Assessing biodiversity among fishes of the genus Cottus (Teleostei) in northern Rocky Mountain streams

    Treesearch

    Michael K. Young; Kevin S. McKelvey; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Michael K. Schwartz

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in broad-scale biodiversity assessments that can serve as benchmarks for identifying ecological change. Genetic tools have been used for such assessments for decades, but spatial sampling considerations have largely been ignored. Here, we demonstrate how intensive sampling efforts across a large geographical scale can influence identification...

  6. AFLPs resolve phylogeny and reveal mitochondrial introgression within a species flock of African electric fish (Mormyroidea: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Sullivan, John P; Lavoué, Sébastien; Arnegard, Matthew E; Hopkins, Carl D

    2004-04-01

    Estimating species phylogeny from a single gene tree can be especially problematic for studies of species flocks in which diversification has been rapid. Here we compare a phylogenetic hypothesis derived from cytochrome b (cyt b) sequences with another based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) for 60 specimens of a monophyletic riverine species flock of mormyrid electric fishes collected in Gabon, west-central Africa. We analyze the aligned cyt b sequences by Wagner parsimony and AFLP data generated from 10 primer combinations using neighbor-joining from a Nei-Li distance matrix, Wagner parsimony, and Dollo parsimony. The different analysis methods yield AFLP tree topologies with few conflicting nodes. Recovered basal relationships in the group are similar between cyt b and AFLP analyses, but differ substantially at many of the more derived nodes. More of the clades recovered with the AFLP characters are consistent with the morphological characters used to designate operational taxonomic units in this group. These results support our hypothesis that the mitochondrial gene tree differs from the overall species phylogeny due at least in part to mitochondrial introgession among lineages. Mapping the two forms of electric organ found in this group onto the AFLP tree suggests that posteriorly innervated electrocytes with nonpenetrating stalks have independently evolved from anteriorly innervated, penetrating-stalk electrocytes at least three times.

  7. Molecular resolution of the systematics of a problematic group of fishes (Teleostei: Osmeridae) and evidence for morphological homoplasy.

    PubMed

    Ilves, Katriina L; Taylor, Eric B

    2009-01-01

    Relationships among the species of Northern Hemisphere smelts (family Osmeridae) have long been debated in the fish systematics literature. Eight independent studies based on morphological characters failed to reach any consensus on osmerid interrelationships. We reconstruct the osmerid phylogeny based on DNA sequence data from three mitochondrial (cytb, 16S, 12S) and three nuclear (ITS2, S71, RAG1) gene regions from multiple individuals of the 14 species in 6 genera, using the Japanese ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) as the outgroup. Analyses with different combinations of nuclear and mitochondrial datasets yielded a generally well-resolved phylogeny of the genera that conflicts with previous hypotheses of osmerid interrelationships, and Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests suggest our topology with the current molecular dataset is significantly better than earlier reconstructions. In addition, mapping 114 morphological characters used in previous studies onto our phylogeny shows widespread homoplasy, which is likely the source of the systematic disagreement produced in earlier works.

  8. Evolutionary history of Otophysi (Teleostei), a major clade of the modern freshwater fishes: Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Masanori; Miya, Masaki; Mabuchi, Kohji; Saitoh, Kenji; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2011-06-22

    Freshwater harbors approximately 12,000 fish species accounting for 43% of the diversity of all modern fish. A single ancestral lineage evolved into about two-thirds of this enormous biodiversity (≈ 7900 spp.) and is currently distributed throughout the world's continents except Antarctica. Despite such remarkable species diversity and ubiquity, the evolutionary history of this major freshwater fish clade, Otophysi, remains largely unexplored. To gain insight into the history of otophysan diversification, we constructed a timetree based on whole mitogenome sequences across 110 species representing 55 of the 64 families. Partitioned maximum likelihood analysis based on unambiguously aligned sequences (9923 bp) confidently recovered the monophyly of Otophysi and the two constituent subgroups (Cypriniformes and Characiphysi). The latter clade comprised three orders (Gymnotiformes, Characiformes, Siluriformes), and Gymnotiformes was sister to the latter two groups. One of the two suborders in Characiformes (Characoidei) was more closely related to Siluriformes than to its own suborder (Citharinoidei), rendering the characiforms paraphyletic. Although this novel relationship did not receive strong statistical support, it was supported by analyzing independent nuclear markers. A relaxed molecular clock Bayesian analysis of the divergence times and reconstruction of ancestral habitats on the timetree suggest a Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation of otophysans. The present timetree demonstrates that survival of the ancestral lineages through the two consecutive mass extinctions on Pangaea, and subsequent radiations during the Jurassic through early Cretaceous shaped the modern familial diversity of otophysans. This evolutionary scenario is consistent with recent arguments based on biogeographic inferences and molecular divergence time estimates. No fossil otophysan, however, has been recorded before the Albian, the early Cretaceous 100-112 Ma, creating an over 100 million year time span without fossil evidence. This formidable ghost range partially reflects a genuine difference between the estimated ages of stem group origin (molecular divergence time) and crown group morphological diversification (fossil divergence time); the ghost range, however, would be filled with discoveries of older fossils that can be used as more reasonable time constraints as well as with developments of more realistic models that capture the rates of molecular sequences accurately.

  9. Schistura sexnubes, a new diminutive river loach from the upper Mekong basin, Yunnan Province, China (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-01-01

    An ichthyofaunistic survey of Mekong tributaries in Lincang Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China yielded a new species of nemacheilid loach, herein described as Schistura sexnubes species nova. The new species is readily distinguishable from its congeners by the following combination of characters: 8+8 branched caudal fin rays, an incomplete lateral line, a dissociated caudal bar, a shallow caudal peduncle depth (7.6%−9.6% SL; respectively caudal peduncle 1.76−1.95 times longer than deep), a diminutive size of less than 50 mm SL, and no sexual dimorphism. A dorsocephalic pattern consisting of a black, forward directed V-shaped formation located between the nares, and a white, ovoid blotch on the upper operculum serves as an autapomorphy. PMID:24470455

  10. Some aspects of the structural organization of the spinal cord of Gymnotus carapo (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes). I. The electromotor neurons.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Cenoz, O; Echague, J A; Bertolotto, C; Lorenzo, D

    1986-01-01

    The spinal electromotor neurons (EMNs) of Gymnotus carapo from a distinct column dorsal to the central canal. When massively retrograde-labeled with horseradish peroxidase, these neurons show a well-developed dendritic arborization. Dendrites run along the longitudinal axis of the cord and also project toward the dorsal gray and dorsolateral funiculi. Input to the EMNs is mediated by scarce synaptic contacts which show the fine structural characteristics of the so-called "morphologically mixed" junctions. Serial section reconstructions of the junctional areas revealed the occurrence of "gap junctions," dense membranes facing cumuli of microvesicles, and relatively large zones of undifferentiated membranes. Comparative electrophysiological and morphological data suggest that EMN activity may be mediated by electrical transmission. Since neither dendro-dendritic nor dendro-somatic junctions have been observed, other circuitry alternatives are proposed to account for the expected synchronized firing of the EMNs.

  11. Karyotype and genome size of Iberochondrostoma almacai (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) and comparison with the sister-species I.lusitanicum

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to define the karyotype of the recently described Iberian endemic Iberochondrostoma almacai, to revisit the previously documented chromosome polymorphisms of its sister species I.lusitanicum using C-, Ag-/CMA3 and RE-banding, and to compare the two species genome sizes. A 2n = 50 karyotype (with the exception of a triploid I.lusitanicum specimen) and a corresponding haploid chromosome formula of 7M:15SM:3A (FN = 94) were found. Multiple NORs were observed in both species (in two submetacentric chromosome pairs, one of them clearly homologous) and a higher intra and interpopulational variability was evidenced in I.lusitanicum. Flow cytometry measurements of nuclear DNA content showed some significant differences in genome size both between and within species: the genome of I. almacai was smaller than that of I.lusitanicum (mean values 2.61 and 2.93 pg, respectively), which presented a clear interpopulational variability (mean values ranging from 2.72 to 3.00 pg). These data allowed the distinction of both taxa and confirmed the existence of two well differentiated groups within I. lusitanicum: one that includes the populations from the right bank of the Tejo and Samarra drainages, and another that reunites the southern populations. The peculiar differences between the two species, presently listed as “Critically Endangered”, reinforced the importance of this study for future conservation plans. PMID:21637679

  12. Phylogeny and biogeography of 91 species of heroine cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) based on sequences of the cytochrome b gene.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Gustavo A Concheiro; Rícan, Oldrich; Ortí, Guillermo; Bermingham, Eldredge; Doadrio, Ignacio; Zardoya, Rafael

    2007-04-01

    Heroini constitute the second largest tribe of Neotropical cichlids and show their greatest diversity in Mesoamerica. Although heroine species are morphologically and ecologically very diverse, they were all historically assigned to one single genus, Cichlasoma that was never formally revised from a phylogenetic point of view. Here, we present the most comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the tribe Heroini to date, based on the complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b, and the analysis of 204 individuals representing 91 species. Phylogenetic analyses did not support the monophyly of heroines because the genus Pterophyllum was placed as the sister group of all remaining heroines plus cichlasomatines. However, the recovered relative position of Pterophyllum was without strong statistical support. Within the remaining heroines, Hyspelecara and Hoplarchus are recovered with low support in a basal position with respect to a clade that includes Heros, Uaru, Mesonauta, and Symphysodon, and the circumamazonian (CAM) heroines. The first clade is restricted to South America. The largest clade of heroines, the CAM heroines, include more than 85% of the species within the tribe. This clade is mostly Mesoamerican, but also contains four species found in the Greater Antilles (Nandopsis), and three genera found in South America (the 'Heros' festae group, Australoheros, and Caquetaia). Up to eight major lineages can be recovered within the CAM heroines, but the phylogenetic relationships among them remain unresolved. Two large suprageneric groups can be distinguished, the amphilophines and the herichthyines. The amphilophines include Amphilophus, Archocentrus, Hypsophrys, Neetroplus, Parachromis, Petenia, and five additional unnamed genera (the 'Heros' istlanus group, the 'Amphilophus' calobrensis group, the 'Heros' urophthalmus group, the 'Heros' wesseli group, and the 'Heros' sieboldii group). The herichthyines include the crown-group herichthyines (Herichthys, Theraps, Vieja, and Paratheraps) and the genera Tomocichla, Herotilapia, and Thorichthys, together with three unnamed genera (the 'Heros' umbriferus group, the 'Heros' grammodes group, and the 'Heros' salvini group). Amphilophines are prevalent in southern Mesomerica south of the Motagua fault. Herichthyines have basal linages in Central America, whereas crown-group herichthyines and three related genera are found north from the Motagua fault. At least two independent origins are required to explain current Mesoamerican heroine distribution. Dispersal of heroines from South America into Mesoamerica was dated between 24 and 16 million years ago (MYA) based on geological calibrations and on standard fish mitochondrial cytochrome b rates, respectively. These datings cannot be reconciled with currently known geological evidence, and the existence of a connection between Central America and South America in the Miocene needs to be postulated in order to explain the origins of Mesoamerican heroine lineages. However, our datings agree with those estimated for the dispersal of other secondary freshwater fishes (Rivulidae, Synbranchus) into Mesoamerica, and predate the invasion of primary freshwater fishes by at least 10 myr.

  13. Varicus lacerta, a new species of goby (Teleostei, Gobiidae, Gobiosomatini, Nes subgroup) from a mesophotic reef in the southern Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Tornabene, Luke; Robertson, D. Ross; Baldwin, Carole C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of goby, Varicus lacerta sp. n., which was collected from a mesophotic reef at Curacao, southern Caribbean. The new species is the tenth species of Varicus, all of which occur below traditional SCUBA depths in the wider Caribbean area. Its placement in the genus Varicus is supported by a molecular phylogenetic analysis of three nuclear genes and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b. In addition, the new species has one anal-fin pterygiophore inserted anterior to the first haemal spine, which distinguishes Varicus species from most species in the closely related and morphologically similar genus Psilotris. Varicus lacerta sp. n. is distinguished from all other named species of Varicus by the absence of scales, having highly branched, feather-like pelvic-fin rays, and in its live coloration. We provide the cytochrome c oxidase I DNA barcode of the holotype and compare color patterns of all species of Varicus and Psilotris for which color photographs or illustrations are available. This study is one of several recent studies demonstrating the utility of manned submersibles in exploring the diversity of poorly studied but species-rich deep-reef habitats. PMID:27408581

  14. Kudoa unicapsula n. sp. (Myxosporea: Kudoidae) a parasite of the Mediterranean mullets Liza ramada and L. aurata (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    PubMed

    Yurakhno, V M; Ovcharenko, M O; Holzer, A S; Sarabeev, V L; Balbuena, J A

    2007-11-01

    A new multivalvulid myxozoan parasite, Kudoa unicapsula n. sp., is described from the intestinal mesentery, intestine and pyloric caeca of the thin-lipped grey mullet Liza ramada (Risso 1826) and the golden grey mullet L. aurata (Risso, 1810) from the Mediterranean coastal waters of Spain. It is characterized by the presence of elongated, rice corn-like white cysts of 0.47-0.56 x 0.18-0.38 mm, filled with tetracapsulate, slightly asymmetric spores, rectangular in apical view and tear-shaped in lateral view with four polar capsules of considerably different size and slightly unequal spore valves with rounded edges, overlapping each other on the apex of the spore. One large polar capsule includes a polar filament coiled in two to three turns, and the other three polar capsules, which are very small, posses only a rudimental filament. Both light and electron microscopy data showed that this species differs from all previously described Kudoa spp. with unequal polar capsules. The molecular analysis based on 18S and 28S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid DNA sequence data of K. unicapsula n. sp. indicates a close relationship and thus phylogenetic clustering together with K. trifolia, a myxozoan from the same host and the same geographical location.

  15. Redescription of Liza bandialensis (Teleostei: Mugilidae) with an identification key to mullet species of Eastern Central Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Trape, Sébastien; Harrison, Ian J; Diouf, Papa Samba; Durand, Jean-Dominique

    2012-02-01

    Liza bandialensis Diouf 1991 is redescribed because previous descriptions have not been in well-distributed publications and have lacked sufficient detail or reference to voucher specimens. The description provided here is based on specimens from the Sine Saloum estuary, Senegal (West Africa), from where the species was originally described. The distinctness of the species is confirmed both by meristic and molecular criteria. L. bandialensis presents a unique combination of characters with a low number of scales in the longitudinal series (32-33), 10.5-12 transverse scale rows, and distinctly yellowish dorsal, anal, and caudal fins. The currently known distribution of L. bandialensis includes coastal waters of Senegal, Gambia and Guinea Bissau. Finally, we provide a morphological identification key for the sixteen species of Mugilidae species occurring along the eastern central Atlantic coast of Africa.

  16. Molecular phylogeny of grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae) in Greece: evidence from sequence analysis of mtDNA segments.

    PubMed

    Papasotiropoulos, Vasilis; Klossa-Kilia, Elena; Alahiotis, Stamatis N; Kilias, George

    2007-08-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis has been used to explore genetic differentiation and phylogenetic relationships among five species of the Mugilidae family, Mugil cephalus, Chelon labrosus, Liza aurata, Liza ramada, and Liza saliens. DNA was isolated from samples originating from the Messolongi Lagoon in Greece. Three mtDNA segments (12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and CO I) were PCR amplified and sequenced. Sequencing analysis revealed that the greatest genetic differentiation was observed between M. cephalus and all the other species studied, while C. labrosus and L. aurata were the closest taxa. Dendrograms obtained by the neighbor-joining method and Bayesian inference analysis exhibited the same topology. According to this topology, M. cephalus is the most distinct species and the remaining taxa are clustered together, with C. labrosus and L. aurata forming a single group. The latter result brings into question the monophyletic origin of the genus Liza.

  17. †Kenyaichthyidae fam. nov. and †Kenyaichthys gen. nov. - First Record of a Fossil Aplocheiloid Killifish (Teleostei, Cyprinodontiformes).

    PubMed

    Altner, Melanie; Reichenbacher, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    The extant Cyprinodontiformes (killifishes) with their two suborders Cyprinodontoidei and Aplocheiloidei represent a diverse and well-studied group of fishes. However, their fossil record is comparatively sparse and has so far yielded members of the Cyprinodontoidei only. Here we report on cyprinodontiform fossils from the upper Miocene Lukeino Formation in the Tugen Hills of the Central Rift Valley of Kenya, which represent the first fossil record of an aplocheiloid killifish. A total of 169 specimens - mostly extraordinarily well preserved - and a sample of ten extant cyprinodontiform species were studied on the basis of morphometrics, meristics and osteology. A phylogenetic analysis using PAUP was also conducted for the fossils. Both the osteological data and the phylogenetic analysis provide strong evidence for the assignment of the fossils to the Aplocheiloidei, and justify the definition of the new family †Kenyaichthyidae, the new genus †Kenyaichthys and the new species †K. kipkechi sp. nov. The phylogenetic analysis unexpectedly places †Kenyaichthys gen. nov. in a sister relationship to the Rivulidae (a purely Neotropical group), a probable explanation might be lack of available synapomorphies for the Rivulidae, Nothobranchiidae and Aplocheilidae. The specimens of †K. kipkechi sp. nov. show several polymorphic characters and large overlap in meristic traits, which justifies their interpretation as a species flock in statu nascendi. Patterns of variation in neural and haemal spine dimensions in the caudal vertebrae of †Kenyaichthys gen. nov. and the extant species studied indicate that some previously suggested synapomorphies of the Cyprinodontoidei and Aplocheiloidei need to be revised.

  18. A young clade repeating an old pattern: diversity in Nothonotus darters (Teleostei: Percidae) endemic to the Cumberland River.

    PubMed

    Keck, Benjamin P; Near, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    Hypotheses of diversification in eastern North American freshwater fishes have focused primarily on allopatric distributions of species between disjunct highland areas and major river systems. However, these hypotheses do not fully explain the rich diversity of species within highland regions and river systems. Relatively old diversification events at small geographic scales have been observed in the Barcheek Darter subclade that occurs in the Cumberland River drainage (CRD) in Kentucky and Tennessee, United States of America, but it is unknown if this pattern is consistent in other darter subclades. We explored phylogeographic diversity in two species of Nothonotus darters, N. microlepidus and N. sanguifluus, endemic to the CRD to compare phylogenetic patterns between Barcheek Darters and species of Nothonotus. We collected sequence data for a mitochondrial gene (cytb) and three nuclear genes (MLL, S7 and RAG1) from 19 N. microlepidus and 35 N. sanguifluus specimens. Gene trees were estimated using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, and a 'species tree' was inferred using a Bayesian method. These trees indicate that species diversity in Nothonotus is underestimated. Five distinct lineages were evident, despite retained ancestral polymorphism and unsampled extirpated populations. Comparison of chronograms for Barcheek Darters and Nothonotus revealed that microendemism resulting from species diversification at small geographic scales in the CRD is a consistent pattern in both old and young darter subclades. Our analyses reveal that geographic isolating mechanisms that result in similar phylogeographic patterns in the CRD are persistent through long expanses of evolutionary time.

  19. Free from mitochondrial DNA: Nuclear genes and the inference of species trees among closely related darter lineages (Teleostei: Percidae: Etheostomatinae).

    PubMed

    Near, Thomas J; Keck, Benjamin P

    2013-03-01

    Investigations into the phylogenetics of closely related animal species are dominated by the use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data. However, the near-ubiquitous use of mtDNA to infer phylogeny among closely related animal lineages is tempered by an increasing number of studies that document high rates of transfer of mtDNA genomes among closely related species through hybridization, leading to substantial discordance between phylogenies inferred from mtDNA and nuclear gene sequences. In addition, the recent development of methods that simultaneously infer a species phylogeny and estimate divergence times, while accounting for incongruence among individual gene trees, has ushered in a new era in the investigation of phylogeny among closely related species. In this study we assess if DNA sequence data sampled from a modest number of nuclear genes can resolve relationships of a species-rich clade of North American freshwater teleost fishes, the darters. We articulate and expand on a recently introduced method to infer a time-calibrated multi-species coalescent phylogeny using the computer program (*)BEAST. Our analyses result in well-resolved and strongly supported time-calibrated darter species tree. Contrary to the expectation that mtDNA will provide greater phylogenetic resolution than nuclear gene data; the darter species tree inferred exclusively from nuclear genes exhibits a higher frequency of strongly supported nodes than the mtDNA time-calibrated gene tree.

  20. Diversification of egg-deposition behaviours and the evolution of male parental care in darters (Teleostei: Percidae: Etheostomatinae).

    PubMed

    Kelly, N B; Near, T J; Alonzo, S H

    2012-05-01

    Male-only care is the most frequent parental care behaviour in teleost fishes, but little is known about its evolutionary origins and patterns of diversity in species-rich lineages. Darters are a clade of North American freshwater fishes that contain both nonparental care species and species with male-only care. In darters, paternal care takes the form of egg-guarding and other egg-tending behaviours that are dependent on the female mode of egg deposition. Male care has been hypothesized to evolve independently in darters at least three times, and it has been thought to be irreversible. We investigated the diversification of egg-deposition behaviours and the evolution of complex male care using published descriptions of darter reproductive behaviours and a multilocus molecular phylogeny that included all 146 species for which reproductive behaviours are known. We find support for two origins of male-only care behaviour. One origin of paternal care occurred relatively early in the radiation of Etheostoma and is characteristic of a recently discovered clade, Goneaperca. The other origin of male-only care occurred much more recently in a derived clade of Nothonotus. Our analyses of character diversification demonstrate reversals from care to noncare and multiple transitions between egg-deposition behaviours that are not associated with parental care.

  1. Pseudempleurosoma haywardi sp. nov. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae (sensu lato) Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1968): An endoparasite of croakers (Teleostei: Sciaenidae) from Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Harry W.; Al-Jufaili, Sarah H.; Kleinertz, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    An endoparasitic monogenean was identified for the first time from Indonesia. The oesophagus and anterior stomach of the croakers Nibea soldado (Lacépède) and Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider) (n = 35 each) sampled from the South Java coast in May 2011 and Johnius amblycephalus (Bleeker) (n = 2) (all Sciaenidae) from Kedonganan fish market, South Bali coast, in November 2016, were infected with Pseudempleurosoma haywardi sp. nov. Prevalences in the first two croakers were 63% and 46%, respectively, and the two J. amblycephalus harboured three and five individuals. All three croakers represent new hosts for this monogenean genus. We provide infection rates, light microscopical observations, 3D confocal microscopical illustrations, and a morphometric comparison with all congeners. The new species differs in body size, the position and shape of the ovary and testes, and especially in the composition of the dorsal anchor complex, with the dorsal bar being anteriorly concave rather than planar or convex as in its congeners. The dorsal and ventral anchors of this new species are the longest in the genus, whereas the male copulatory organ is the smallest. The first DNA sequences for a member of this genus demonstrate the greatest similarity with endoparasitic freshwater monogeneans from African cichlid fishes. This suggests a freshwater origin for these marine endoparasitic monogeneans. PMID:28880928

  2. Brycon gouldingi (Teleostei, Characidae): aspects of the embryonic development in a new fish species with aquaculture potential.

    PubMed

    Faustino, Francine; Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Neumann, Erika

    2011-11-01

    Brycon gouldingi is an endemic species from Tocantins-Araguaia basin, used as a food source by riverine communities and relevant to aquaculture. Information about the initial morphology of B. gouldingi, a recently described species, is absent. In the present study, we analysed the fertilization and the embryonic development of this species based on light and scanning electron microscopy. After collection of adult specimens in Mortes River - Mato Grosso, Brazil, adaptation to captivity and induced spawning at Buriti Fishculture, Nova Mutum - Mato Grosso, Brazil, in December 2007 and January 2008, samples were collected at pre-defined periods from egg extrusion up to larval hatching, which occurred at 13.9 ± 0.06 h post-fertilization (hpf) in average. At the moment of extrusion, the eggs were slightly ovoid bearing a single micropyle per oocyte with a funnel-shaped micropyle canal and vestibule covered with longitudinal folds, typical of the genus Brycon. The embryonic development of B. gouldingi was characterized by six stages with distinct features: zygote (from fertilization up to formation of egg-cell); cleavage (cell divisions resulting in blastomeres, including the morula phase); blastula (several embryonic cells in a cup shape, without distinction of cell boundaries); gastrula (cell movement); histogenesis/organogenesis (formation of tissues and organs); and hatching (larval chorion rupture). Right after hatching, the larvae presented neither swimming abilities nor visual accuracy, and the digestive trait was undifferentiated. The present study is the first report on biological features of embryogenesis in B. gouldingi, providing relevant information to several approaches, mainly related to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and captive rearing of this new Brycon species.

  3. Evidence of birth-and-death evolution of 5S rRNA gene in Channa species (Teleostei, Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Barman, Anindya Sundar; Singh, Mamta; Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Lal, Kuldeep Kumar

    2016-12-01

    In higher eukaryotes, minor rDNA family codes for 5S rRNA that is arranged in tandem arrays and comprises of a highly conserved 120 bp long coding sequence with a variable non-transcribed spacer (NTS). Initially the 5S rDNA repeats are considered to be evolved by the process of concerted evolution. But some recent reports, including teleost fishes suggested that evolution of 5S rDNA repeat does not fit into the concerted evolution model and evolution of 5S rDNA family may be explained by a birth-and-death evolution model. In order to study the mode of evolution of 5S rDNA repeats in Perciformes fish species, nucleotide sequence and molecular organization of five species of genus Channa were analyzed in the present study. Molecular analyses revealed several variants of 5S rDNA repeats (four types of NTS) and networks created by a neighbor net algorithm for each type of sequences (I, II, III and IV) did not show a clear clustering in species specific manner. The stable secondary structure is predicted and upstream and downstream conserved regulatory elements were characterized. Sequence analyses also shown the presence of two putative pseudogenes in Channa marulius. Present study supported that 5S rDNA repeats in genus Channa were evolved under the process of birth-and-death.

  4. Comparative spermatogenesis, spermatocytogenesis, and spermatozeugmata formation in males of viviparous species of clinid fishes (Teleostei: Clinidae, Blennioidei).

    PubMed

    Fishelson, Lev; Gon, Ofer; Holdengreber, Vered; Delarea, Yakob

    2007-03-01

    Spermatogenesis and spermatocytogenesis in 16 species of viviparous clinid fishes (Clinidae, Blennioidei) from various localities were followed for the first time by means of light and electron microscopy. The testes of the studied species are of the lobular type, with germinal stem cells situated at the apical ends of the lobules and a vas efferens along the internal margin. Maturation of the spermatides takes place in spermatocysts formed by Sertoli cells around the B-spermatogonia. The gradual condensation and relocation of the chromosomes along the nuclei membranes are highly prominent in this process, which can be divided into several stages. Anisodiametric and slightly flattened sperm heads are eventually formed, 0.4-0.5 microm in diameter and 7.5 +/- 1 microm long, bearing 80 +/- 15 microm long flagella. The sperms are packed into spermatozeugmata within the spermatocysts, enveloped and penetrated by the mucotic material of the Sertoli cells. With division of the germ cells and maturation of the spermatids, the spermatocyst dimensions increase, attaining 40 +/- 8 microm in diameter in the smaller species of Heteroclinus, and up to 90 +/- 10 microm in the larger males of Clinus superciliosus and C. cottoides. Accordingly, the volume of the maturing spermatocysts attains ca. 1,300 +/- 100 microm(3) in the smaller species, and ca. 6,500 +/- 300 microm(3) in the larger ones. As sperm head volume is ca. 2.24 microm(3), the number of sperm in the smallest mature spermatocysts reaches ca. 440 and in the largest over 2,900. Upon release from the cysts, the spermatozeugmata are transported along the sperm ducts to the posterior ampullae where they are stored in the epididymis. During copulation, the sperms are transported from there to the female via the intromittent organ. The sperm formation parameters and their structure and numbers are discussed.

  5. Experimentally induced pigment changes in small African 'Barbus' (Teleostei: Cyprinidae): Synonymy of 'Barbus' amphigramma and 'Barbus' taitensis with 'Barbus' paludinosus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farm, Brian P.

    2001-01-01

    Pigmentation in fishes is known to be variable both among individuals of a species and within individuals over time. Use of pigment characters for taxonomic diagnoses must, therefore, be carefully considered. I present experimental evidence showing that pigment characters previously considered diagnostic for three small African 'Barbus' species may differ between living and preserved specimens and that lasting changes in these characters can be induced experimentally by placing fishes in a different, less turbid environment. Lateral line pigmentation and presence of a spot on the caudal peduncle showed significant changes that resulted in different species identifications before and after the experiment. These pigment patterns are thereby shown to be labile, nontrenchant characters having little or no diagnostic utility. 'Barbus' amphigramma Boulenger, 1903, and 'Barbus' taitensis Gu??nther, 1894, are thus shown to be junior synonyms of 'Barbus' paludinosus Peters, 1852.

  6. A review of the Callogobius (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the Red Sea with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Delventhal, Naomi R; Mooi, Randall D; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O

    2016-10-31

    Five species of Callogobius Bleeker have been previously reported from the Red Sea: C. amikami Goren, Miroz & Baranes, C. clarki (Goren), C. dori Goren, C. flavobrunneus (Smith), and C. maculipinnis (Fowler). Records of C. bifasciatus (Smith) in the Red Sea are referable to C. clarki. Callogobius amikami has been previously known only from a single specimen, the holotype from the Red Sea, and two photographs, a live juvenile from Oman and a live specimen at an aquarium at Coral World, Eilat. We obtained a possible additional juvenile from the Red Sea, although we are unable to definitively determine its identity. Red Sea specimens previously identified as C. maculipinnis [or C. irrasus (Smith)] represent a new species, distinguished from the latter by normally having four sets of transverse mandibular rows on each side (rather than three); this species is described here as Callogobius pilosimentum sp. nov. Four specimens of an additional, undescribed species of Callogobius, C. sp. A, have been collected from the Red Sea, but we withhold a formal description because this species is currently under study by colleagues. Callogobius sclateri (Steindachner), previously known from the Indo-West Pacific, is reported from the Red Sea for the first time. A key to all seven species is provided. Each species is photographed, habitat is described and a brief description with detailed comparisons is provided. The new species and C. clarki are endemic to the Red Sea.

  7. B chromosome dynamics in Prochilodus costatus (Teleostei, Characiformes) and comparisons with supernumerary chromosome system in other Prochilodus species

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Silvana; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Penitente, Manolo; Sobrinho-Scudeler, Patrícia Elda; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto; Dergam, Jorge Abdala

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Within the genus Prochilodus Agassiz, 1829, five species are known to carry B chromosomes, i.e. chromosomes beyond the usual diploid number that have been traditionally considered as accessory for the genome. Chromosome microdissection and mapping of repetitive DNA sequences are effective tools to assess the DNA content and allow a better understanding about the origin and composition of these elements in an array of species. In this study, a novel characterization of B chromosomes in Prochilodus costatus Valenciennes, 1850 (2n=54) was reported for the first time and their sequence complementarity with the supernumerary chromosomes observed in Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836) and Prochilodus argenteus Agassiz, 1829 was investigated. The hybridization patterns obtained with chromosome painting using the micro B probe of P. costatus and the satDNA SATH1 mapping made it possible to assume homology of sequences between the B chromosomes of these congeneric species. Our results suggest that the origin of B chromosomes in the genus Prochilodus is a phylogenetically old event. PMID:28919971

  8. Ellipsomyxa gobii (Myxozoa: Ceratomyxidae) in the common goby Pomatoschistus microps (Teleostei: Gobiidae) uses Nereis spp. (Annelida: Polychaeta) as invertebrate hosts.

    PubMed

    Køie, Marianne; Whipps, Christopher M; Kent, Michael L

    2004-03-01

    Nereis diversicolor O.F. Müller and N. succinea Frey et Leuckart (Polychaeta, Nereidae) living in brackish shallow areas in Denmark are naturally infected with tetractinomyxon actinospores. Infected Nereis spp. were experimentally fed to various potential fish hosts, and the actinosporean stages developed into myxosporean stages of Ellipsomyxa gobii Køie, 2003 (Ceratomyxidae) in the gallbladder of the common goby Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer) (Gobiidae). The European eel Anguilla anguilla (L.), three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L., small sand eel Ammodytes tobianus L., flounder Platichthys flesus (L.), European plaice Pleuronectes platessa L. and common sole Solea solea (L.) did not become experimentally infected. In Danish shallow brackish areas P. microps is naturally infected with E. gobii, in some areas with a prevalence >90%. We compared small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences of the actinosporean with E. gobii from P. microps. Sequences were identical, which further verifies that both forms belong to the same organism. This is the first myxozoan two-host life cycle in the marine environment.

  9. Allozyme relationships in hypostomines (Teleostei: Loricariidae) from the Itaipu Reservoir, Upper Rio Paraná basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zawadzki, Cláudio Henrique; Renesto, Erasmo; dos Reis, Roberto Esser; Moura, Maurício Osvaldo; Mateus, Rogério Pincela

    2005-03-01

    In an allozyme electrophoresis survey of 15 hypostomine species from the Itaipu Hydroelectric Reservoir, 25 loci from 14 enzyme systems were scored. Allozyme data allowed recording diagnostic genetic markers for all species analyzed and for some species groups within Hypostomus, a taxon which is taxonomically still unresolved in the Upper Rio Paraná basin. The mean expected heterozygosity of the species was considerably variable and hypotheses to tentatively explain this variation are discussed. A cladogram based upon the allelic frequencies of the species analyzed was produced by the continuous maximum likelihood method: Rhinelepis aspera and M. parananus were separated from the species of Hypostominae by a long branch length. Pterygoplichthys anisitsi was the sister of all the representatives of the genus Hypostomus. Within Hypostomus, two main clades were produced: in the first, H. cochliodon was the sister of the species comprising the H. plecostomus group, and in the second, the tree showed the following relationships: (H. albopunctatus (H. regani + Hypostomus sp. 3) + (H. margaritifer (H. microstomus (Hypostomus sp. 1 (H. ternetzi + Hypostomus sp. 2)). Hypostomus ternetzi and Hypostomus sp. 2 are referred to here as representatives of the H. ternetzi group.

  10. A review of Galaxiella pusilla (Mack) (Teleostei: Galaxiidae) in south-eastern Australia with a description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Rhys A; Hoffmann, Ary A; Raadik, Tarmo A

    2015-09-25

    The dwarf galaxias, Galaxiella pusilla (Mack), is a small, threatened freshwater fish from coastal south-eastern Australia. Recent genetic studies, using multiple nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, found substantial differences between populations in western Victoria and south Australia ('west region') compared to eastern Victoria, Flinders Island, and Tasmania ('east region') that suggest the presence of a cryptic species. Morphological measurements and meristic counts from multiple populations within each region were undertaken to investigate potential differences between regions. Several characters, found to discriminate between individuals in the regions and to be diagnostic for two taxa, were used to describe a new species, Galaxiella toourtkoourt, for the west region. This is only the second species in the Galaxiidae to exhibit sexual dimorphism. The original description of Galaxiella pusilla, based on five specimens, is revised following examination of a large number of individuals. Both species are considered nationally threatened and are categorised as 'endangered'; the revised distribution of G. pusilla s.s. is reduced by approximately 60%. A number of inconsistencies in the most recent revision of the genus Galaxiella are also corrected.

  11. [Contribution to the morphological description of Tylodelphys barilochensis and Tylodelphys crubensis (Trematoda, Diplostomidae) encephalon parasites of Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei, Galaxiidae)].

    PubMed

    Flores, V

    1997-01-01

    Taxonomic characteristics, for species identification, of metacercarie of T. barilochensis and T. crubensis found in the encephalon of the fish Galaxias maculatus, not included in the original descriptions, particularly those concerning to the excretory system, are described.

  12. Two new deep-reef basslets (Teleostei, Grammatidae, Lipogramma), with comments on the eco-evolutionary relationships of the genus

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Carole C.; Robertson, D. Ross; Nonaka, Ai; Tornabene, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The banded basslet, Lipogramma evides Robins & Colin, 1979, is shown to comprise two species: Lipogramma evides, which inhabits depths of 133–302 m, and a new species described here as Lipogramma levinsoni, which inhabits depths of 108–154 m and previously was considered to represent the juvenile of Lipogramma evides. A second new species of banded basslet, described here as Lipogramma haberi, inhabits depths of 152–233 m and was previously not reported in the literature. Morphologically, the three species differ in color patterns and modal numbers of gill rakers, whereas various other morphological features distinguish Lipogramma levinsoni from Lipogramma evides and Lipogramma haberi. DNA barcode data and multilocus, coalescent-based, species-delimitation analysis support the recognition of the three species. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear genetic data supports a sister-group relationship between the two deepest-living of the three species, Lipogramma evides and Lipogramma haberi, and suggests that the shallower Lipogramma levinsoni is more closely related to Lipogramma anabantoides Böhlke, 1960, which inhabits depths < 120 m. Evolutionary relationships within Lipogramma thus appear to be correlated with species depth ranges, an eco-evolutionary pattern that has been observed in other Caribbean marine teleosts and that warrants further investigation. The new species represent the eleventh and twelfth new fish species described in recent years from exploratory submersible diving in the Caribbean in the globally poorly studied depth zone of 50–300 m. This study suggests that there are at least two additional cryptic species of Lipogramma, which are being analyzed in ongoing investigations of Caribbean deep-reef ecosystems. PMID:28174497

  13. Pax-3 and Pax-7 label muscle progenitor cells during myotomal myogenesis in Coregonus lavaretus (Teleostei: Coregonidae).

    PubMed

    Kacperczyk, A; Jagla, T; Daczewska, M

    2009-11-01

    In Coregonus lavaretus, prior the mesoderm segmentation, in cells adjacent to the notochord called adaxial cells MyoD and slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC-slow) proteins were observed. After somite formation, adaxial cells migrate towards the lateral part of the myotome and form a layer of red muscles. Deeper cells differentiate into white muscle fibres. In situ hybridization using Pax-3 molecular probe revealed, that after somitogenesis, Pax-3 is expressed in a layer of cells superficial to the myotome resembling the "external cells" (found in many teleosts species) or dermomyotome described in Amniota. During later developmental stages Pax-3 gene is expressed in cells in intermyotomal space and then in myoblasts between myotubes. In these cells Pax-7 protein was also observed. Pax-3/7 positive cells which have migrated into the myotomes differentiate into satellite cells/secondary myoblasts and participate in hypertrophic and hyperplastic growth of muscles.

  14. Complete Mitochondrial Reveals a New Phylogenetic Perspective on the Brackish Water Goby Mugilogobius Group (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Gobionellinae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Pin; Chen, I-Shiung; Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Yung, Mana M N

    2016-10-01

    The Mugilogobius group consists of brackish water gobionellines widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific region. Complete mitochondrial genome and morphological evidence was collected to estimate their phylogenetic relationship and taxonomic status. A total of 11 genera were sampled, including Brachygobius, Calamiana, Hemigobius, Mugilogobius, Pandaka, Pseudogobiopsis, Pseudogobius, Redigobius, Rhinogobius, Stigmatogobius, and Wuhanlinigobius, five of which were sequenced for the first time. A morphological phylogenetic tree was also reconstructed based on 35 characters. The molecular phylogenetic trees reveal that the Mugilogobius group contains four major clades. The present study also reveals that the adult male mouth size and forked sensory papillae row d can be considered as synapomorphies, and that the head pores on inter-orbital, anterior oculoscapular, and preopercular regions can be regarded as derived features among the Mugilogobius group. Furthermore, the absence of posterior oculoscapular pores may provide a clue for understanding the evolutionary history of the Mugilogobius group.

  15. Functional morphology of digestion in the stomachless, piscivorous needlefishes Tylosurus gavialoides and Strongylura leiura ferox (Teleostei: Beloniformes).

    PubMed

    Manjakasy, Jennifer M; Day, Ryan D; Kemp, Anne; Tibbetts, Ian R

    2009-10-01

    Belonidae are unusual in that they are carnivorous but lack a stomach and have a straight, short gut. To develop a functional morphological model for this unusual system the gut contents and alimentary tract morphology of Tylosurus gavialoides and Strongylura leiura ferox were investigated. The posterior orientation of the majority of the pharyngeal teeth supports the swallowing of whole large prey, but not their mastication. Mucogenic cells are abundant in the mucosa lining, particularly the esophagus, and their secretions are likely to protect the gut lining from damage while lubricating passage of the prey. Esophagus, anterior intestine, posterior intestine, and rectum all have highly reticulate mucosae. The anterior three gut sections are distensible to accommodate the passage of prey. However, following ingestion large prey are passed to the highly distensible posterior intestine where they rest head first against the ileorectal valve. Alimentary pH ranges from neutral to weakly acidic. Fish prey is digested head first with the head being largely digested while the remainder of the body is still intact. The nondistensibility of the rectum and the small aperture provided by the ileorectal valve suggest the products of intestinal digestion are either small particulates or fluids that pass into rectum where they are absorbed. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. The occurrence of serological H-Y antigen (Sxs antigen) in the diandric protogynous wrasse, Coris julis (L.) (Labridae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Reinboth, R; Mayerová, A; Ebensperger, C; Wolf, U

    1987-01-01

    The serological sex-specific (Sxs) antigen (previously called 'H-Y antigen') has been shown, in various vertebrate species ranging from fish to mammals, to be characteristic of the heterogametic sex. We studied a protogynous hermaphrodite, Coris julis, in order to examine whether the change of a female to a secondary male also involves a change in the Sxs-antigen phenotype. The (homogametic) females of this species were found to be Sxs negative, while both primary and secondary males were Sxs positive. This was true not only for gonads but also for nongonadal tissues. The administration of androgen to females is known to cause sex inversion in this species; we were able to demonstrate this again at the histological level, and found that androgen results in a Sxs positive phenotype in all tissues studied (gonads, spleen, muscle). We propose that androgen is responsible, directly or indirectly, for the occurrence of the Sxs antigen.

  17. Ciguatera incidence and fish toxicity in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Naomasa; Yogi, Kentaro; Asato, Shuko; Sasaki, Toshiki; Tamanaha, Koji; Hirama, Masahiro; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Inafuku, Yasuo

    2010-10-01

    Okinawa being located in the subtropical region has the highest incidence of ciguatera in Japan. Officially, 33 outbreaks involving 103 patients have been reported between 1997 and 2006. The implicated species were Variola louti, Lutjanus bohar, Lutjanus monostigma, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, unidentified Lutjanus sp., Plectropomus areolatus, Oplegnathus punctatus, Epinephelus polyphekadion, Caranx ignobilis and moray eel. Toxicities of the leftover meals, as determined by mouse bioassays, ranged from 0.025 to 0.8 MU/g or above (equivalent to 0.175-5.6 ngCTX1B/g). We collected 612 specimens of fish belonging to L. monostigma, L. bohar, Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Lutjanus russellii, V. louti, Variola albimarginata, and E. fuscoguttatus from the coasts around Okinawa and examined the toxicity of the flesh by the mouse bioassay. The rate of toxic fish was as follows: L. monostigma: 32.3%, L. bohar: 11.9%, V. louti: 14.3%, E. fuscoguttatus: 20.8%. Only one out of 36 samples of V. albimarginata and two of 74 samples of L. russellii were found toxic. None of the 35 samples of L. argentimaculatus was toxic. Nor the L. bohar samples weighing less than 4 kg were toxic. In all toxic samples, CTX1B was detected by LC/MS analysis but CTX3C and 51-hydroxyCTX3C were not. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stereological estimation of the surface area and oxygen diffusing capacity of the respiratory stomach of the air-breathing armored catfish Pterygoplichthys anisitsi (Teleostei: Loricariidae).

    PubMed

    da Cruz, André Luis; Pedretti, Ana Carolina Elias; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso

    2009-05-01

    The stomach of Pterygoplichthys anisitsi has a thin, translucent wall and a simple squamous epithelium with an underlying dense capillary network. In the cardiac and pyloric regions, most cells have short microvilli distributed throughout the cell surface and their edges are characterized by short, densely packed microvilli. The mucosal layer of the stomach has two types of pavement epithelial cells that are similar to those in the aerial respiratory organs. Type 1 pavement epithelial cells, resembling the Type I pneumocyte in mammal lungs, are flat, with a large nucleus, and extend a thin sheet of cytoplasm on the underlying capillary. Type 2 cells, resembling the Type II pneumocyte, possess numerous mitochondria, a well-developed Golgi complex, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and numerous lamellar bodies in different stages of maturation. The gastric glands, distributed throughout the mucosal layer, also have several cells with many lamellar bodies. The total volume (air + tissue), tissue, and air capacity of the stomach when inflated, increase along with body mass. The surface-to-tissue-volume ratio of stomach varies from 108 cm(-1) in the smallest fish (0.084 kg) to 59 cm(-1) in the largest fish (0.60 kg). The total stomach surface area shows a low correlation to body mass. Nevertheless, the body-mass-specific surface area varied from 281.40 cm(2) kg(-1) in the smallest fish to 68.08 cm(2) kg(-1) in the largest fish, indicating a negative correlation to body mass (b = -0.76). The arithmetic mean barrier thickness between air and blood was 1.52 +/- 0.07 microm, whereas the harmonic mean thickness (tau(h)) of the diffusion barrier ranged from 0.40 to 0.74 microm. The anatomical diffusion factor (ADF = cm(2) microm(-1) kg(-1)) and the morphological O(2) diffusion capacity (D(morphol)O(2) = cm(3) min(-1) mmHg(-1) kg(-1)) are higher in the smallest specimen and lower in the largest one. In conclusion, the structure and morphometric data of P. anisitsi stomach indicate that this organ is adapted for oxygen uptake from air. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Embryonic and larval development of jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, Quoy and Gaimard, 1824, Pisces, TeleosteI), a South American catfish.

    PubMed

    Pereira, C R; Barcellos, L J G; Kreutz, L C; Quevedo, R M; Ritter, F; Silva, L B

    2006-11-01

    The jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, Quoy and Gaimard) is an endemic South American fish species. Because this species supports cold winters and grows faster during warm months, it has begun to be viewed as an ideal species for fish production in southern South America. In the present study, jundiá oocytes used were obtained by extrusion from females after hormone injection. Soon after hydration, the eggs were transferred to 50 L conic glass incubators, with constant and controlled water influx. Samples of fertilized eggs were transferred to Petri dishes and, examined under a stereoscopic microscope, were spherical, demersal, and non-adhesive with defined perivitelline space and resistant chorion. Cleavage stages occurred during the first 3.5 h. After hatching, larvae were transferred to 200 L glass fiber incubators. First signs of embryo movement were observed 21 h after fertilization; larval eclosion occurred 30.5 h after fertilization. Present findings may provide a basis for studies aimed at determining the complete ontogeny of jundiá and may be useful in eco-toxicological studies.

  20. A new Haptoclinus blenny (Teleostei, Labrisomidae) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on relationships of the genus.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C; Robertson, D Ross

    2013-01-01

    A second species of the blenniiform genus Haptoclinus is described from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Haptoclinus dropi sp. n. differs from the northwestern Caribbean Haptoclinus apectolophus Böhlke and Robins, 1974, in having 29 total dorsal-fin elements-III-I-XIII, 12 (vs. 31-III-I-XIV, 13 or III-I-XIII, 14); 19 anal-fin soft rays (vs. 20-21); 12 pectoral-fin rays (vs. 13); 12 precaudal vertebrae (vs. 13); and the first dorsal-fin spine longer than the second (vs. the second longer than the first). It further differs from Haptoclinus apectolophus in lacking scales (vs. three-quarters of body densely scaled), in having a distinctive pattern of spotting on the trunk and fins in preservative (vs. no spotting), and in lacking a fleshy flap on the anterior rim of the posterior nostril (vs. flap present). Color in life is unknown for Haptoclinus apectolophus, and the color description presented for the new species constitutes the first color information for the genus. Familial placement of Haptoclinus remains questionable, but the limited relevant information obtained from morphological examination of the new species provides additional support for a close relationship with the Chaenopsidae. Haptoclinus dropi represents one of numerous new teleost species emerging from sampling to 300 m off Curaçao as part of the Smithsonian Institution's Deep Reef Observation Project (DROP).

  1. A new, mesophotic Coryphopterus goby (Teleostei, Gobiidae) from the southern Caribbean, with comments on relationships and depth distributions within the genus.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C; Robertson, D Ross

    2015-01-01

    A new species of western Atlantic Coryphopterus is described from mesophotic depths off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Coryphopteruscurasub sp. n., is similar to Coryphopterusdicrus in, among other features, having two prominent pigment spots of roughly equal intensity on the pectoral-fin base, the pelvic fins fused to form a disk, and no pelvic frenum. The two species can be differentiated by body depth (shallower in Coryphopteruscurasub at origin of dorsal fin and caudal peduncle); differences in the pigmentation on the head, trunk, and basicaudal region; and usually by total number of rays (spinous plus soft) in the second dorsal fin (10-11, usually 11, in Coryphopteruscurasub, 10 in Coryphopterusdicrus). Coryphopteruscurasub differs from other Coryphopterus species that have a prominent pigment spot on the lower portion of the pectoral-fin base (Coryphopteruspunctipectophorus and Coryphopterusvenezuelae) in, among other features, lacking a pelvic frenum. Coryphopteruscurasub was collected between 70 and 80 m, the deepest depth range known for the genus. Collections of Coryphopterusvenezuelae at depths of 65-69 m extend the depth range of that species by approximately 50 m. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) data corroborate the recognition of Coryphopteruscurasub as a distinct species but do not rigorously resolve its relationships within the genus. A revised key to the western Atlantic species of Coryphopterus is presented.

  2. Taxonomic review of the species of Mugil (Teleostei: Perciformes: Mugilidae) from the Atlantic South Caribbean and South America, with integration of morphological, cytogenetic and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Naércio A; Nirchio, Mauro; De Oliveira, Cláudio; Siccharamirez, Raquel

    2015-01-10

    Analysis of morphological, molecular and cytological data helped to define and more precisely characterize the species of Mugil from the Atlantic coasts of South Caribbean and South America, allowing a correction of prior misidentifications and distributional ranges. A new species from Venezuela is described and all the species from the area are redescribed. It is demonstrated that the apparent similarity in morphological traits, which contradicted the results from recent molecular studies, is the result of the misuse of traditional morphological characters, and thus both the molecular and cytological data instead are congruent with the morphological differences that are found among mullet species. The presence of Mugil hospes Jordan & Culver in the western south Atlantic is refuted based on the comparison of type material of this species with specimens from this area that also indicated a very significant morphological difference, what on the other hand justifies the recognition of these specimens as Mugil brevirostris (Ribeiro). The distribution of Mugil incilis Hancock is restricted and the similarities among the species formerly depicted in a prior dendrogram is modified following the inclusion of recently obtained molecular data for Mugil curvidens Valenciennes.

  3. Life history and initial assessment of fishing impacts on the by-catch species Dules auriga (Teleostei: Serranidae) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rovani, A T; Cardoso, L G

    2017-09-01

    The life history of Dules auriga, a small hermaphrodite serranid species inhabiting deep waters and a frequent component of the discarded catch of bottom trawling in southern Brazil, was studied to assess the fishery effects on the stock through the estimation of the remaining spawning-potential ratio. Sampling was conducted throughout a year and included specimens to determine sex, maturity and age. Age was validated by the edge type and marginal-increment analysis. The oldest and the largest individuals were 9 years and 195 mm total length. Growth parameters fitted to the von Bertalanffy equation were L∞ = 178·34 mm, k = 0·641 year(-1) and t0 = -0·341 years. Length and age at first maturity were 140·72 mm and 2 years, respectively. The reproductive season was throughout the austral spring and summer. The assessment of the effects of fishing showed that it may have resulted in a loss of 50% of the spawning potential. This loss may be higher when taking into account the uncertainty in the life-history parameters and could be considered of concern for the population. Fast growth, moderate longevity, long spawning season, small size and age at maturity make D. auriga relatively resilient to the removal of biomass by fishing. When considering the uncertainty, however, the losses of the spawning potential have been severely reducing the population resilience in the face of ecosystem changes. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Salinity tolerance of non-native Asian swamp eels (Teleostei: Synbranchidae) in Florida, USA: Comparison of three populations and implications for dispersal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, P.J.; Nico, L.G.

    2009-01-01

    Three populations of non-native Asian swamp eels are established in peninsular Florida (USA), and comprise two different genetic lineages. To assess potential for these fish to penetrate estuarine habitats or use coastal waters as dispersal routes, we determined their salinity tolerances. Swamp eels from the three Florida populations were tested by gradual (chronic) salinity increases; additionally, individuals from the Miami population were tested by abrupt (acute) salinity increases. Results showed significant tolerance by all populations to mesohaline waters: Mean survival time at 14 ppt was 63 days. The Homestead population, a genetically distinct lineage, exhibited greater tolerance to higher salinity than Tampa and Miami populations. Acute experiments indicated that swamp eels were capable of tolerating abrupt shifts from 0 to 16 ppt, with little mortality over 10 days. The broad salinity tolerance demonstrated by these experiments provides evidence that swamp eels are physiologically capable of infiltrating estuarine environments and using coastal waters to invade new freshwater systems. ?? 2009 US Government.

  5. Gobiesox lanceolatus, a new species of clingfish (Teleostei:  Gobiesocidae) from Los Frailes submarine canyon, Gulf of California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Philip A; Conway, Kevin W

    2017-01-17

    Gobiesox lanceolatus is described from a single specimen collected from 300 meters depth in the Los Frailes submarine canyon in the southwestern Gulf of California. The "Canyon Clingfish" is unique within Gobiesox in having a lanceolate caudal fin, with the central rays longer than those above and below them. It is also distinguished by 14 dorsal-fin rays (first tiny and unsegmented), 11 anal-fin rays, 28 pectoral-fin rays, anus slightly closer to anal-fin origin than to posterior margin of pelvic disc, and dorsal-fin origin in front of vertical from anus. It is most similar to Gobiesox eugrammus, known from Isla Guadelupe, the coast of outer Baja California and southern California. This is the deepest record for a species of Gobiesox and only four other species of clingfishes are known from greater depths.

  6. A new species of Anthiadinae (Teleostei: Serranidae) from São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, Brazil, Equatorial Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Filho, Alfredo; Macena, Bruno César Luz; Nunes, Diogo Martins

    2016-07-22

    A new species of Anthiadinae, Odontanthias cauoh, is described from São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago (SPSPA), Brazil, Equatorial Atlantic. The new species differs from its only Atlantic congener by a combination of several characters: pectoral-fin rays 20; total gill rakers on first arch 39; vomerine tooth patch with a posterior prolongation; pelvic fin not reaching base of last anal-fin ray; dorsal, anal and pelvic fins scaleless; and coloration (dorsal, anal, and pelvic fins mostly dark red). The record of the new species contributes to increase the fish endemism in SPSPA.

  7. Ultrastructural characteristics of the mature spermatozoon of the digenean Sclerodistomum italicum (Stossich, 1893) (Hemiuroidea, Sclerodistomidae) intestinal parasite of Hypocanthus amia (Teleostei, Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, Papa Ibnou; Quilichini, Yann; Marigo, Adji Mama; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Tkach, Vasyl V; Marchand, Bernard

    2017-02-01

    The mature spermatozoon of Sclerodistomum italicum is filiform, tapered at both ends and shows the following features: 2 axonemes of the 9+"1" pattern of the Trepaxonemata, mitochondrion, nucleus and parallel cortical microtubules. The specific features of the spermatozoon of S. italicum include the simultaneous presence of two types of extramembranous ornamentations, the presence of short cortical microtubules in the anterior part of the spermatozoon and the presence of only one bundle of cortical microtubules in the median part of the spermatozoon. Thus far these structures are known only in the Hemiuroidea. The presence of filamentous ornamentation in the anterior extremity of the spermatozoon has not previously been described in the Sclerodistomidae. Similar to spermatozoa of other hemiuroideans, S. italicum lack spine-like bodies described in spermatozoa of many digenean taxa. The posterior extremity of the spermatozoon exhibits the same ultrastructural characteristics typical of the Hemiuroidea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Southeast Asian mouth-brooding Betta fighting fish (Teleostei: Perciformes) species and their phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 DNA sequences and analyses

    PubMed Central

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Kowasupat, Chanon; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Senapin, Saengchan; Wanna, Warapond; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Kühne, Jens; Fasquel, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Fighting fish species in the genus Betta are found in several Southeast Asian countries. Depending on the mode of paternal care for fertilized eggs and hatchlings, various species of the betta fish are classified as mouth brooders or nest builders whose members in turn have been grouped according to their similarities mainly in morphology. The mouth brooders as well as some nest builders involved in the present study include fishes discovered and identified subsequent to previous reports on species groupings and their positions on phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences that differ from those used by us in this study. From the mitochondrial COI gene and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences and more accurate analyses we conclude that the following members of the mouth-brooding pairs, named differently previously, are virtually identical, viz the Betta prima–Betta pallida pair and Betta ferox–Betta apollon pair. The Betta simplex, hitherto believed to be one species, could possibly be genetically split into 2 distinct species. In addition, several other established type-locality fishes could harbor cryptic species as judged by genetic differences. Assignments of fish species to groups reported earlier may have to be altered somewhat by the present genetic findings. We propose here a new Betta fish phylogenetic tree which, albeit being similar to the previous ones, is clearly different from them. Our gene-based evidence also leads to assignments of some fishes to new species groups and alters the positions of some species on the new phylogenetic tree, thus implying different ancestral relationships. PMID:25606468

  9. Biodiversity of the Betta smaragdina (Teleostei: Perciformes) in the northeast region of Thailand as determined by mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences☆

    PubMed Central

    Kowasupat, Chanon; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Wanna, Warapond; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2014-01-01

    In Thailand, there are currently five recognized species members of the bubble-nesting Betta genus, namely Betta splendens, B. smaragdina, B. imbellis, B. mahachaiensis and B. siamorientalis. In 2010, we indicated the possibility, based on COI barcoding evidence, that there might be two additional species, albeit cryptic, related to the type-locality B. smaragdina in some provinces in the northeast of Thailand. In the present study, after a more extensive survey of the northeast, and phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS1 sequences, the B. smaragdina group may be composed of at least 3 cryptic species members. The phylogenetic positions of these B. smaragdina group members in the bubble-nesting bettas' tree together with those of their congeners have been consolidated by better DNA sequence quality and phylogenetic analyses. With a better supported tree, the species statuses of B. siamorientalis and the Cambodian B. smaragdina-like fish, B. stiktos, are also confirmed. PMID:25606392

  10. Biodiversity of the Betta smaragdina (Teleostei: Perciformes) in the northeast region of Thailand as determined by mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Kowasupat, Chanon; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Wanna, Warapond; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2014-12-01

    In Thailand, there are currently five recognized species members of the bubble-nesting Betta genus, namely Betta splendens, B. smaragdina, B. imbellis, B. mahachaiensis and B. siamorientalis. In 2010, we indicated the possibility, based on COI barcoding evidence, that there might be two additional species, albeit cryptic, related to the type-locality B. smaragdina in some provinces in the northeast of Thailand. In the present study, after a more extensive survey of the northeast, and phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS1 sequences, the B. smaragdina group may be composed of at least 3 cryptic species members. The phylogenetic positions of these B. smaragdina group members in the bubble-nesting bettas' tree together with those of their congeners have been consolidated by better DNA sequence quality and phylogenetic analyses. With a better supported tree, the species statuses of B. siamorientalis and the Cambodian B. smaragdina-like fish, B. stiktos, are also confirmed.

  11. A new deep-reef scorpionfish (Teleostei, Scorpaenidae, Scorpaenodes) from the southern Caribbean with comments on depth distributions and relationships of western Atlantic members of the genus.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Carole C; Pitassy, Diane E; Robertson, D Ross

    2016-01-01

    A new species of scorpionfish, Scorpaenodes barrybrowni Pitassy & Baldwin, sp. n. which is described, was collected during submersible diving in the southern Caribbean as part of the Smithsonian's Deep Reef Observation Project (DROP). It differs from the other two western Atlantic species of the genus, Scorpaenodes caribbaeus and Scorpaenodes tredecimspinosus, in various features, including its color pattern, having an incomplete lateral line comprising 8-10 pored scales, tending to be more elongate, usually having the 11(th)-12(th) pectoral-fin rays elongate, and by 20-23% divergence in the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) DNA barcode sequences. It further differs from one or the other of those species in head spination and in numbers of soft dorsal-fin rays, pectoral-fin rays, and precaudal + caudal vertebrae. Inhabiting depths of 95-160 m, the new species is the deepest western Atlantic member of the genus (Scorpaenodes caribbaeus occurs at depths < 35 m and Scorpaenodes tredecimspinosus from 7 to 82 m). DNA barcode data do not rigorously resolve relationships among the ten species of the genus for which those data are available.

  12. Morphology and phylogeny of Thelohanellus marginatus n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), a parasite infecting the gills of the fish Hypophthalmus marginatus (Teleostei: Pimelodidae) in the Amazon River.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Sónia; Casal, Graça; Velasco, Michele; Alves, Angela; Matos, Edilson; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Azevedo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Thelohanellus marginatus n. sp., a new myxosporean parasite infecting the primary gill filaments of the teleost fish Hypophthalmus marginatus (Pimelodidae) in the Amazon River, is described on the basis of microscopic and molecular procedures. The parasite forms whitish and ellipsoidal cysts up to 250 μm in diam. Myxospores ellipsoidal with a slightly more pointed anterior end, measuring 17.1 ± 0.6 μm in length, 6.9 ± 0.4 μm in width, and 5.1 ± 0.5 μm in thickness. A single pyriform polar capsule, 9.0 ± 0.3 μm long and 6.1 ± 0.4 μm wide, positioned slightly right to the medial plane in valvular view, contains a polar filament arranged in 4-5 coils. Molecular analysis of the SSU rRNA gene by Maximum Parsimony, Neighbor-Joining, and Maximum Likelihood revealed the parasite clustering among other myxobolids, namely Henneguya and Myxobolus. Host affinity is supported as an important evolutionary signal for the phylogeny of myxobolids. The parasite here described represents the first record of the genus Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 from the South American fauna. © 2014 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2014 International Society of Protistologists.

  13. Chromosomal organization of repetitive DNA sequences in Astyanax bockmanni (Teleostei, Characiformes): dispersive location, association and co-localization in the genome.

    PubMed

    Silva, Duílio M Z A; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Daniel, Sandro Natal; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Claudio; Porto-Foresti, Fabio; Foresti, Fausto

    2013-09-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences constitute a great portion of the genome of eukaryotes and are considered key components to comprehend evolutionary mechanisms and karyotypic differentiation. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge of chromosome structure and organization of some repetitive DNA classes in the fish genome, chromosomes of two allopatric populations of Astyanax bockmanni were analyzed using classic cytogenetics techniques and fluorescent in situ hybridization, with probes for ribosomal DNA sequences, histone DNA and transposable elements. These Astyanax populations showed the same diploid number (2n = 50), however with differences in chromosome morphology, distribution of constitutive heterochromatin, and location of 18S rDNA and retroelement Rex3 sites. In contrast, sites for 5S rDNA and H1, H3 and H4 histones showed to be co-located and highly conserved. Our results indicate that dispersion and variability of 18S rDNA and heterochromatin sites are not associated with macro rearrangements in the chromosome structure of these populations. Similarly, distinct evolutionary mechanisms would act upon histone genes and 5S rDNA, contributing to chromosomal association and co-location of these sequences. Data obtained indicate that distinct mechanisms drive the spreading of repetitive DNAs in the genome of A. bockmanni. Also, mobile elements may account for the polymorphism of the major rDNA sites and heterochromatin in this genus.

  14. Delimiting species by reproductive isolation: the genetic structure of epigean and hypogean Trichomycterus spp. (Teleostei, Siluriformes) in the restricted area of Torotoro (Upper Amazon, Bolivia).

    PubMed

    Renno, Jean-François; Gazel, Claude; Miranda, Guido; Pouilly, Marc; Berrebi, Patrick

    2007-11-01

    Genetic variability of Trichomycterus from the region of Torotoro (Bolivia, Upper Amazon), distributed in the same watershed where the habitat is structured by waterfalls, canyons and a cave, was studied by allozyme (twelve putative loci) and RFLP-mtDNA (DLoop and cytochrome b) analyses. Alloenzymatic variation studied by Correspondence Analysis and Maximum Likelihood Analysis revealed a four-group structure, which was largely congruent with the distribution of the 14 mtDNA haplotypes. Two of these four clusters (I and II) were differentiated by two diagnostic loci (IDH and G3PDH), two semi-diagnostic loci (PGM and 6PGDH) and consequently a very high F(st )value (estimator theta = 0.77). Therefore, clusters I and II are reproductively isolated. The distribution limit of these two (sibling) species does not correspond to those of the morphological species of Trichomycterus identified in this region: the epigean T. cf. barbouri and the hypogean T. chaberti. However, hypogean fish exhibited two mtDNA haplotypes, a private one and another shared with the epigean Trichomycterus from upstream reaches.

  15. Distinguishing between Incomplete Lineage Sorting and Genomic Introgressions: Complete Fixation of Allospecific Mitochondrial DNA in a Sexually Reproducing Fish (Cobitis; Teleostei), despite Clonal Reproduction of Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Choleva, Lukas; Musilova, Zuzana; Kohoutova-Sediva, Alena; Paces, Jan; Rab, Petr; Janko, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Distinguishing between hybrid introgression and incomplete lineage sorting causing incongruence among gene trees in that they exhibit topological differences requires application of statistical approaches that are based on biologically relevant models. Such study is especially challenging in hybrid systems, where usual vectors mediating interspecific gene transfers - hybrids with Mendelian heredity - are absent or unknown. Here we study a complex of hybridizing species, which are known to produce clonal hybrids, to discover how one of the species, Cobitis tanaitica, has achieved a pattern of mito-nuclear mosaic genome over the whole geographic range. We appplied three distinct methods, including the method using solely the information on gene tree topologies, and found that the contrasting mito-nuclear signal might not have resulted from the retention of ancestral polymorphism. Instead, we found two signs of hybridization events related to C. tanaitica; one concerning nuclear gene flow and the other suggested mitochondrial capture. Interestingly, clonal inheritance (gynogenesis) of contemporary hybrids prevents genomic introgressions and non-clonal hybrids are either absent or too rare to be detected among European Cobitis. Our analyses therefore suggest that introgressive hybridizations are rather old episodes, mediated by previously existing hybrids whose inheritance was not entirely clonal. Cobitis complex thus supports the view that the type of resulting hybrids depends on a level of genomic divergence between sexual species. PMID:24971792

  16. Genetic Heterogeneity Reveals On-Going Speciation and Cryptic Taxonomic Diversity of Stream-Dwelling Gudgeons (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in the Middle Danubian Hydrosystem (Hungary)

    PubMed Central

    Takács, Péter; Bihari, Péter; Erős, Tibor; Specziár, András; Szivák, Ildikó; Bíró, Péter; Csoma, Eszter

    2014-01-01

    Although stream-dwelling gudgeons (Cyprinidae, genus: Gobio) are widespread in Central Europe, the taxonomy of this group and the distribution of its species are still unexplored in detail. The aims of our study are to ascertain taxonomic composition and distribution of the former Gobio gobio superspecies in the inner area of the Carpathian Basin. Since the presence of cryptic species is suspected in this area, we examined the taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of Central European Gobio taxa by sequencing the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtCR). Additionally, we characterized the genetic structure of 27 stream-dwelling gudgeon populations of this area by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP). Results of mtCR analysis proved the presence of three species already known as G. obtusirostris (dominant in NW-Hungary), G. gobio (sporadic) and G. carpathicus (sporadic). Additionally, the analysis revealed the existence of one doubtful taxon, G. sp1 (dominant in NE-Hungary), and a new isolated haplogroup (dominant in SW-Hungary). Although Network analysis showed significant detachment among haplogroups, their genetic distances were quite small. Therefore Bayesian phylogenetic analysis showed weak nodal support for the branching pattern both for newly described haplotypes, and for the already accepted species. AFLP data showed distinct population structure and a clear pattern of isolation was revealed by distance of stocks. At the same time, level of separation was not affected by the altitudinal position of sites. Moreover we found three major clusters of populations which were separated according to hydrographic regions, and corresponded to the findings of mtCR analysis. Our results suggest the on-going speciation of gudgeons in the Carpathian Basin, however the separation of haplogroups seems to only be an intermediate phase. The discovered natural pattern seems to be only slightly influenced by anthropogenic impacts. Additionally our results put into question the suitability of the recently accepted within Gobio genus taxonomy. PMID:24824751

  17. Ultrastructural and molecular characterization of Glugea serranus n. sp., a microsporidian infecting the blacktail comber, Serranus atricauda (Teleostei: Serranidae), in the Madeira Archipelago (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Casal, Graça; Rocha, Sónia; Costa, Graça; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Azevedo, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    A new microsporidian infecting the connective tissue of the coelomic cavity of the blacktail comber Serranus atricauda, in the Madeira Archipelago (Portugal), is described on the basis of morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular features. The microsporidian formed large whitish xenomas adhering to the peritoneal visceral organs of the host. Each xenoma consisted of a single hypertrophic cell, in the cytoplasm of which mature spores proliferated within parasitophorous vacuoles surrounded by numerous collagen fibers. Mature spores were ellipsoidal and uninucleated, measuring an average of 6.5 ± 0.5 μm in length and 3.4 ± 0.6 μm in width. The anchoring disk of the polar filament was subterminal, laterally shifted from the anterior pole of the spore. The isofilar polar filament coiled in 18-19 turns, forming two rows that surrounded the posterior vacuole. The latter occupied about one third of the spore length. The polaroplast surrounding the apical and uncoiled portion of the polar filament displayed two distinct regions: a lamellar region and an electron-dense globule. Molecular analysis of the rRNA genes, including the internal transcribed spacer region, and phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood and neighbor joining demonstrated that this microsporidian parasite clustered with some Glugea species. Based on the differences found both at the morphological and molecular levels, to other members of the genus Glugea, the microsporidian infecting the blacktail comber is considered a new species, thus named Glugea serranus n. sp.

  18. Cytogenetic analysis of three sea catfish species (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Ariidae) with the first report of Ag-NOR in this fish family

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Despite their ecological and economical importance, fishes of the family Ariidae are still genetically and cytogenetically poorly studied. Among the 133 known species of ariids, only eight have been karyotyped. Cytogenetic analyses performed on Genidens barbus and Sciades herzbergii revealed that both species have 2n = 56 chromosomes and Cathorops aff. mapale has 2n = 52 chromosomes: Genidens barbus has 10 Metacentrics (M), 14 Submetacentrics (SM), 26 Subtelocentrics (ST), and 6 Acrocentrics (A), Sciades herzbergii has 14M, 20SM, 18ST and 4A, whereas Cathorops aff. mapale has 14M, 20SM, and 18ST. The nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were found in a single chromosome pair on the short arm of a large-sized ST pair in Genidens barbus and on the short arm of a middle-size SM pair in Cathorops aff. mapale. Multiple NORs on the short arms of two large-sized ST pairs were found in Sciades herzbergii. The occurrence of diploid numbers ranging from 2n = 52 through 56 chromosomes and the presence of different karyotypic compositions, besides the number and position of NORs suggest that several numeric and structural chromosome rearrangements were fixed during the evolutionary history of this fish family. PMID:21637480

  19. Comparison of the bioaccumulation from seawater and depuration of heavy metals and radionuclides in the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (Chondrichthys) and the turbot Psetta maxima (Actinopterygii: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Jeffree, Ross A; Warnau, Michel; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Markich, Scott J

    2006-09-15

    The bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals and radionuclides ((241)Am, (109)Cd, (57)Co, (51)Cr, (134)Cs, (54)Mn and (65)Zn) from seawater was experimentally compared in the Chondrichthyan Scyliorhinus canicula (spotted dogfish) and the Actinopterygian Teleost Psetta maxima (turbot), of comparable size, age and benthic feeding habits. The speciation of these elements in seawater (salinity 38 per thousand, pH 8.1, temperature 16.5 degrees C) was also calculated to determine their potential bioavailability. The uptake rates, measured over 14 days, varied greatly among isotopes and between species. Concentration factors (CFs) in P. maxima varied 5-fold between ca. 0.2 for (51)Cr and 2.5 for (65)Zn and (134)Cs, whereas in S. canicula they varied by a much greater factor of 350, with CFs for (51)Cr and (241)Am ranging from ca. 0.4 to 140, respectively. With the exception of (134)Cs, all radiotracers were accumulated at a faster rate in S. canicula than in P. maxima, particularly for (241)Am and (65)Zn where the CFs attained during the uptake phase were, two and one order of magnitude greater in S. canicula, respectively. In contrast, (134)Cs reached a CF of about 2.5 in P. maxima, which was 5-fold greater than in S. canicula. Patterns of loss from the experimental depuration phase over 29 days showed greater similarities between species, compared to the uptake phase that highlighted the greater differences between elements. The distributions of these seven radioisotopes among six body components indicated that between the two species the skin of the dogfish displayed a greater bioaccumulation potential, particularly for (241)Am, (57)Co and (65)Zn. However (65)Zn was also distinctive from (241)Am and (57)Co in its pattern of bioaccumulation in dogfish, with its other body components attaining concentrations of (65)Zn that were comparable to the levels found in its skin. The heightened uptake of (134)Cs in turbot was characterised by a more even percentage distribution among its tissues compared to (241)Am and (57)Co, but every tissue of turbot had a higher concentration of (134)Cs, compared to dogfish, particularly the muscle and liver. The elevated uptake rates and higher CFs for most radioisotopes indicate that S. canicula is more susceptible than P. maxima to exposure and contamination by these metals and radionuclides in seawater. These experimentally-determined differences between dogfish and turbot in their bioaccumulation characteristics were assessed against a set of criteria erected to evaluate the working hypothesis that they were taxonomically based. The outcomes of this initial assessment were supportive of this hypothesis that warrants further investigation.

  20. [Hyphessobrycon taphorni and H. eschwartzae (Teleostei: Characidae) two new species of fish in the basin of Madre de Dios river, Peru].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alzate, Carlos A; Romin-Valencia, César; Ortega, Hernán

    2013-06-01

    Hyphessobrycon with 129 valid species, is a genus of fish that has a great diversity of species in the Neotropical ichthyofauna, reaches its greatest diversity in the Amazon basin with about 70% of these species, is highly desired by hobbyists because of their beauty and color, and are still meeting new species. We analyzed specimens from the Departamento de Ictiología, Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú (MUSM); and measurements of the specimens were taken point to point with digital calipe