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Sample records for monoxide diffusing capacity

  1. Predicting diffusive alveolar oxygen transfer from carbon monoxide-diffusing capacity in exercising foxhounds.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Connie C W; Wagner, Peter D; Dane, D Merrill; Wagner, Harrieth E; Johnson, Robert L

    2008-11-01

    Although lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL(CO)) is a widely used test of diffusive O2 transfer, few studies have directly related DL(CO) to O2-diffusing capacity (DL(O2)); none has used the components of Dl(CO), i.e., conductance of alveolar membrane and capillary blood, to predict DL(O2) from rest to exercise. To understand the relationship between DL(CO) and DL(O2) at matched levels of cardiac output, we analyzed cumulative data from rest to heavy exercise in 43 adult dogs, with normal lungs or reduced lung capacity following lung resection, that were studied by two techniques. 1) A rebreathing (RB) technique was used to measure Dl(CO) and pulmonary blood flow at two O2 tensions, independent of O2 exchange. DL(CO) was partitioned into CO-diffusing capacity of alveolar membrane and pulmonary capillary blood volume using the Roughton-Forster equation and converted into an equivalent DL(O2), [DL(O2)(RB)]. 2) A multiple inert-gas elimination technique (MIGET) was used to measure ventilation-perfusion distributions, O2 and CO2 exchange under hypoxia, to derive DL(O2) [DL(O2)(MIGET)] by the Lilienthal-Riley technique and Bohr integration. For direct comparisons, DL(O2)(RB) was interpolated to the cardiac output measured by the Fick principle corresponding to DL(O2)(MIGET). The DL(O2)-to-DL(CO) ratio averaged 1.61. Correlation between DL(O2)(RB) and DL(O2)(MIGET) was similar in normal and post-resection groups. Overall, DL(O2)(MIGET) = 0.975 DL(O2)(RB); mean difference between the two techniques was under 5% for both animal groups. We conclude that, despite various uncertainties inherent in these two disparate methods, the Roughton-Forster equation adequately predicts diffusive O2 transfer from rest to heavy exercise in canines with normal, as well as reduced, lung capacities. PMID:18719238

  2. Predicting diffusive alveolar oxygen transfer from carbon monoxide-diffusing capacity in exercising foxhounds

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Connie C. W.; Wagner, Peter D.; Dane, D. Merrill; Wagner, Harrieth E.; Johnson, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Although lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DlCO) is a widely used test of diffusive O2 transfer, few studies have directly related DlCO to O2-diffusing capacity (DlO2); none has used the components of DlCO, i.e., conductance of alveolar membrane and capillary blood, to predict DlO2 from rest to exercise. To understand the relationship between DlCO and DlO2 at matched levels of cardiac output, we analyzed cumulative data from rest to heavy exercise in 43 adult dogs, with normal lungs or reduced lung capacity following lung resection, that were studied by two techniques. 1) A rebreathing (RB) technique was used to measure DlCO and pulmonary blood flow at two O2 tensions, independent of O2 exchange. DlCO was partitioned into CO-diffusing capacity of alveolar membrane and pulmonary capillary blood volume using the Roughton-Forster equation and converted into an equivalent DlO2, [DlO2(RB)]. 2) A multiple inert-gas elimination technique (MIGET) was used to measure ventilation-perfusion distributions, O2 and CO2 exchange under hypoxia, to derive DlO2 [DlO2(MIGET)] by the Lilienthal-Riley technique and Bohr integration. For direct comparisons, DlO2(RB) was interpolated to the cardiac output measured by the Fick principle corresponding to DlO2(MIGET). The DlO2-to-DlCO ratio averaged 1.61. Correlation between DlO2(RB) and DlO2(MIGET) was similar in normal and post-resection groups. Overall, DlO2(MIGET) = 0.975 DlO2(RB); mean difference between the two techniques was under 5% for both animal groups. We conclude that, despite various uncertainties inherent in these two disparate methods, the Roughton-Forster equation adequately predicts diffusive O2 transfer from rest to heavy exercise in canines with normal, as well as reduced, lung capacities. PMID:18719238

  3. Six minute walking test and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity for non-small cell lung cancer: easy performed tests in every day practice

    PubMed Central

    Kerenidi, Theodora; Huang, Haidong; Kontakiotis, Theodoros; Tremma, Ourania; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Kalianos, Anastasios; Rapti, Ageliki; Foroulis, Christoforos; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Courcoutsakis, Nikolaos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated that reduced lung function is a significant risk factor for lung cancer and increased surgical risk in patients with operable stages of lung cancer. The aim of the study was to perform pulmonary function tests and investigate which is a favorable respiratory function test for overall survival between lung cancer stages. Methods Lung function tests were performed to lung cancer patients with non-small cell lung cancer of stage I, II, III and IV (241 patients in total). They had the last follow-up consecutively between December 2006 and July 2008. The staging was decided according to the sixth edition of TNM classification of NSCLC. The Forced Expiratory Volume in 1sec (FEV1), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Carbon Monoxide Diffusing Capacity (DLCO) were measured according to American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society guidelines. The 6 Minute Walking Test (6MWT) was measured according to the American Thoracic Society. Results There was a significant association of the DLCO upon diagnosis and overall survival for stage II (P<0.007) and IV (P<0.003). Furthermore, there was a significant association between 6MWT and overall survival for stage III (P<0.001) and stage IV (P<0.010). Conclusions The significance for each lung function test is different among the stages of NSCLC. DLCO and 6MWT upon admission are the most valuable prognostic factors for overall survival of NSCLC. PMID:23205280

  4. SINGLE-BREATH DIFFUSING CAPACITY AND LUNG VOLUMES IN SMALL LABORATORY MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors measured the single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco), total lung capacity(TLC), functional residue capacity(FRC), and residual volume(RV) in anesthetized male hamsters, rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits whose weights varied from 40 to 3,500g. TLC (def...

  5. Carbon Monoxide and Soot Formation in Inverse Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, L. G.; Mulholland, G. W.; Davis, R. W.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to study carbon monoxide (CO) and soot formation in laminar, inverse diffusion flames (IDFs). The IDF is used because it is a special case of underventilated combustion. The microgravity environment is crucial for this study because buoyancy-induced instabilities impede systematic variation of IDF operating conditions in normal gravity. The project described in this paper is just beginning, and no results are available. Hence, the goals of this paper are to establish the motivation for the research, to review the IDF literature, and to briefly introduce the experimental and computational plan for the research.

  6. The diffusing capacity in adult cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Espiritu, J D; Ruppel, G; Shrestha, Y; Kleinhenz, M E

    2003-06-01

    The value of adjusting the diffusing capacity for the lung volume has been demonstrated in a large number of patients with other lung diseases but has not been validated in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Pulmonary function test results on a cohort of 52 adult CF patients were analyzed to determine whether the diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide by single breath method (DLCO(SB)) when adjusted for alveolar volume (V(A)%), correlated with the severity of pulmonary dysfunction. The DLCO(SB) remained within the reference range except in those with severe lung impairment (61.88 +/- 15.48%). DLCO(SB) has a significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation (0.70, 0.67, 048, 0.69 and 0.31, respectively) with measures of airflow limitation (FVC%, FEV1%, FEV1/FVC%, MVV%, and sGaw) and negative correlation (-0.36 and -0.21, respectively) with measures of air trapping (RV% and RV/TLC%). DLCO(SB)/V(A) remained above 100% of predicted despite worsening lung disease and did not correlate with other measures of lung function. On the other hand, the DLCO(SB) and DLCO(SB)/V(A), when adjusted for V(A)%, decreased and were significantly correlated with worsening airflow limitation and, to a lesser extent, air trapping. The relatively preserved adjusted DLCO(SB) and DLCO(SB)/V(A) values in CF patients up until late in its course may be explained the predominant airway involvement, minimal loss of alveolar-capillary units, and enhanced V/Q relationship due to claustration in CF. PMID:12814143

  7. LOW-LEVEL CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURE AND WORK CAPACITY AT 1600 METERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    At sea level, low-level carbon monoxide (CO) exposure impairs exercise performance. To determine if altitude residence at 1600 m augments this CO effect, two studies of graded treadmill work capacity were done. The Initial Study investigated nine, non-smoking male subjects breath...

  8. Maximal aerobic capacity at several ambient concentrations of carbon monoxide at several altitudes. Research report, April 1984-January 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, S.M.; Agnew, J.W.; Wagner, J.A.; Bedi, J.F.

    1988-12-01

    To assess the combined effects of altitude and acute carbon monoxide exposure, 11 male and 12 female subjects, all nonsmokers in good health, were given incremental maximal aerobic-capacity tests. Each subject, after attaining the required altitude and ambient carbon monoxide level, performed the maximal aerobic capacity test. Blood samples were drawn at several points in the aerobic capacity test protocol, and analyzed for hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma proteins, lactates, and carboxyhemoglobin. Carbon-monoxide-carboxyhemoglobin uptake rates were derived from the submaximal workloads. Despite increases in carboxyhemoglobin, no additional significant decreases in maximal aerobic capacity were observed. Immediately prior to and at maximal workloads, carbon monoxide shifted into extravascular spaces and returned to the vascular space within five minutes after exercise stopped.

  9. An Urban Diffusion Simulation Model for Carbon Monoxide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, W. B.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A relatively simple Gaussian-type diffusion simulation model for calculating urban carbon (CO) concentrations as a function of local meteorology and the distribution of traffic is described. The model can be used in two ways: in the synoptic mode and in the climatological mode. (Author/BL)

  10. On the effect of carbon monoxide addition on soot formation in a laminar ethylene/air coflow diffusion flame

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Hongsheng; Thomson, Kevin A.; Smallwood, Gregory J.

    2009-06-15

    The effect of carbon monoxide addition on soot formation in an ethylene/air diffusion flame is investigated by experiment and detailed numerical simulation. The paper focuses on the chemical effect of carbon monoxide addition by comparing the results of carbon monoxide and nitrogen diluted flames. Both experiment and simulation show that although overall the addition of carbon monoxide monotonically reduces the formation of soot, the chemical effect promotes the formation of soot in an ethylene/air diffusion flame. The further analysis of the details of the numerical result suggests that the chemical effect of carbon monoxide addition may be caused by the modifications to the flame temperature, soot surface growth and oxidation reactions. Flame temperature increases relative to a nitrogen diluted flame, which results in a higher surface growth rate, when carbon monoxide is added. Furthermore, the addition of carbon monoxide increases the concentration of H radical owing to the intensified forward rate of the reaction CO + OH = CO{sub 2} + H and therefore increases the surface growth reaction rates. The addition of carbon monoxide also slows the oxidation rate of soot because the same reaction CO + OH = CO{sub 2} + H results in a lower concentration of OH. (author)

  11. Phenotyping Mouse Pulmonary Function In Vivo with the Lung Diffusing Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Limjunyawong, Nathachit; Fallica, Jonathan; Ramakrishnan, Amritha; Datta, Kausik; Gabrielson, Matthew; Horton, Maureen; Mitzner, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    The mouse is now the primary animal used to model a variety of lung diseases. To study the mechanisms that underlie such pathologies, phenotypic methods are needed that can quantify the pathologic changes. Furthermore, to provide translational relevance to the mouse models, such measurements should be tests that can easily be done in both humans and mice. Unfortunately, in the present literature few phenotypic measurements of lung function have direct application to humans. One exception is the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, which is a measurement that is routinely done in humans. In the present report, we describe a means to quickly and simply measure this diffusing capacity in mice. The procedure involves brief lung inflation with tracer gases in an anesthetized mouse, followed by a 1 min gas analysis time. We have tested the ability of this method to detect several lung pathologies, including emphysema, fibrosis, acute lung injury, and influenza and fungal lung infections, as well as monitoring lung maturation in young pups. Results show significant decreases in all the lung pathologies, as well as an increase in the diffusing capacity with lung maturation. This measurement of lung diffusing capacity thus provides a pulmonary function test that has broad application with its ability to detect phenotypic structural changes with most of the existing pathologic lung models. PMID:25590416

  12. Pulmonary tissue volume, cardiac output, and diffusing capacity in sustained microgravity.

    PubMed

    Verbanck, S; Larsson, H; Linnarsson, D; Prisk, G K; West, J B; Paiva, M

    1997-09-01

    In microgravity (microG) humans have marked changes in body fluids, with a combination of an overall fluid loss and a redistribution of fluids in the cranial direction. We investigated whether interstitial pulmonary edema develops as a result of a headward fluid shift or whether pulmonary tissue fluid volume is reduced as a result of the overall loss of body fluid. We measured pulmonary tissue volume (Vti), capillary blood flow, and diffusing capacity in four subjects before, during, and after 10 days of exposure to microG during spaceflight. Measurements were made by rebreathing a gas mixture containing small amounts of acetylene, carbon monoxide, and argon. Measurements made early in flight in two subjects showed no change in Vti despite large increases in stroke volume (40%) and diffusing capacity (13%) consistent with increased pulmonary capillary blood volume. Late in-flight measurements in four subjects showed a 25% reduction in Vti compared with preflight controls (P < 0.001). There was a concomittant reduction in stroke volume, to the extent that it was no longer significantly different from preflight control. Diffusing capacity remained elevated (11%; P < 0.05) late in flight. These findings suggest that, despite increased pulmonary perfusion and pulmonary capillary blood volume, interstitial pulmonary edema does not result from exposure to microG. PMID:9292467

  13. Pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy African-American and Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Jee; Christoph, Kathy; Yu, Zhangsheng; Eigen, Howard; Tepper, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy children primarily focused upon Caucasian (C) subjects. Since lung volumes in African-Americans (AA) are smaller than lung volumes in C subjects of the same height, diffusing capacity values in AA children might be interpreted as low or abnormal using currently available equations without adjusting for race. Healthy AA (N = 151) and C (N = 301) children between 5 and 18 years of age performed acceptable measurements of single breath pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO ) and alveolar volume (VA ) according to current ATS/ERS guidelines. The natural log of DLCO and VA were associated with height, gender, age, and race; AA children had lower DLCO and VA compared to C children. Adjustment of DLCO for Hemoglobin (Hgb) resulted in no significant difference in DLCO among these healthy subjects with normal Hgb. In summary, we report prediction equations for DLCO and VA that include adjustment for race (C; AA) demonstrating that AA have lower DLCO and VA compared to C children for the same height, gender, and age. PMID:25906836

  14. Pulmonary tissue volume, cardiac output, and diffusing capacity in sustained microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verbanck, S.; Larsson, H.; Linnarsson, D.; Prisk, G. K.; West, J. B.; Paiva, M.

    1997-01-01

    In microgravity (microG) humans have marked changes in body fluids, with a combination of an overall fluid loss and a redistribution of fluids in the cranial direction. We investigated whether interstitial pulmonary edema develops as a result of a headward fluid shift or whether pulmonary tissue fluid volume is reduced as a result of the overall loss of body fluid. We measured pulmonary tissue volume (Vti), capillary blood flow, and diffusing capacity in four subjects before, during, and after 10 days of exposure to microG during spaceflight. Measurements were made by rebreathing a gas mixture containing small amounts of acetylene, carbon monoxide, and argon. Measurements made early in flight in two subjects showed no change in Vti despite large increases in stroke volume (40%) and diffusing capacity (13%) consistent with increased pulmonary capillary blood volume. Late in-flight measurements in four subjects showed a 25% reduction in Vti compared with preflight controls (P < 0.001). There was a concomittant reduction in stroke volume, to the extent that it was no longer significantly different from preflight control. Diffusing capacity remained elevated (11%; P < 0.05) late in flight. These findings suggest that, despite increased pulmonary perfusion and pulmonary capillary blood volume, interstitial pulmonary edema does not result from exposure to microG.

  15. Does lung diffusion impairment affect exercise capacity in patients with heart failure?

    PubMed Central

    Agostoni, P G; Bussotti, M; Palermo, P; Guazzi, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is a relation between impairment of lung diffusion and reduced exercise capacity in chronic heart failure. Design: 40 patients with heart failure in stable clinical condition and 40 controls participated in the study. All subjects underwent standard pulmonary function tests plus measurements of resting lung diffusion (carbon monoxide transfer, Tlco), pulmonary capillary volume (Vc), and membrane resistance (Dm), and maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing. In 20 patients and controls, the following investigations were also done: (1) resting and constant work rate Tlco; (2) maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing with inspiratory O2 fractions of 0.21 and 0.16; and (3) rest and peak exercise blood gases. The other subjects underwent Tlco, Dm, and Vc measurements during constant work rate exercise. Results: In normoxia, exercise induced reductions of haemoglobin O2 saturation never occurred. With hypoxia, peak exercise uptake (peak V̇o2) decreased from (mean (SD)) 1285 (395) to 1081 (396) ml/min (p < 0.01) in patients, and from 1861 (563) to 1771 (457) ml/min (p < 0.05) in controls. Resting Tlco correlated with peak V̇o2 in heart failure (normoxia < hypoxia). In heart failure patients and normal subjects, Tlco and peak V̇o2 correlated with O2 arterial content at rest and during peak exercise in both normoxia and hypoxia. Tlco, Vc, and Dm increased during exercise. The increase in Tlco was greater in patients who had a smaller reduction of exercise capacity with hypoxia. Alveolar–arterial O2 gradient at peak correlated with exercise capacity in heart failure during normoxia and, to a greater extent, during hypoxia. Conclusions: Lung diffusion impairment is related to exercise capacity in heart failure. PMID:12381630

  16. Tunable diode-laser measurement of carbon monoxide concentration and temperature in a laminar methane-air diffusion flame.

    PubMed

    Houston Miller, J; Elreedy, S; Ahvazi, B; Woldu, F; Hassanzadeh, P

    1993-10-20

    The application of tunable diode lasers for in situ diagnostics in laminar hydrocarbon diffusion flames is demonstrated. By the use of both direct-absorption and wavelength-modulation (second-derivative) techniques, carbon monoxide concentrations and the local flame temperature are determined for a laminar methane-air diffusion flame supported on a Wolfhard-Parker slot burner. In both cases the results are found to be in excellent agreement with prior measurements of these quantities using bothrobe and optical techniques. PMID:20856436

  17. [Measurement of CO diffusion capacity (II): Standardization and quality criteria].

    PubMed

    Salcedo Posadas, A; Villa Asensi, J R; de Mir Messa, I; Sardón Prado, O; Larramona, H

    2015-08-01

    The diffusion capacity is the technique that measures the ability of the respiratory system for gas exchange, thus allowing a diagnosis of the malfunction of the alveolar-capillary unit. The most important parameter to assess is the CO diffusion capacity (DLCO). New methods are currently being used to measure the diffusion using nitric oxide (NO). There are other methods for measuring diffusion, although in this article the single breath technique is mainly referred to, as it is the most widely used and best standardized. Its complexity, its reference equations, differences in equipment, inter-patient variability and conditions in which the DLCO is performed, lead to a wide inter-laboratory variability, although its standardization makes this a more reliable and reproductive method. The practical aspects of the technique are analyzed, by specifying the recommendations to carry out a suitable procedure, the calibration routine, calculations and adjustments. Clinical applications are also discussed. An increase in the transfer of CO occurs in diseases in which there is an increased volume of blood in the pulmonary capillaries, such as in the polycythemia and pulmonary hemorrhage. There is a decrease in DLCO in patients with alveolar volume reduction or diffusion defects, either by altered alveolar-capillary membrane (interstitial diseases) or decreased volume of blood in the pulmonary capillaries (pulmonary embolism or primary pulmonary hypertension). Other causes of decreased or increased DLCO are also highlighted. PMID:25488028

  18. Acinar ventilation heterogeneity in COPD relates to diffusion capacity, resistance and reactance.

    PubMed

    Jarenbäck, Linnea; Ankerst, Jaro; Bjermer, Leif; Tufvesson, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate heterogenic ventilation in the acinar (Sacin) and conductive (Scond) airways of patients with varying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) severity and how these relates to advanced lung function parameters, primarily measured by impulse oscillometry (IOS). A secondary aim was to investigate the effects of a short acting beta2-agonist and a muscarinic antagonist on the heterogenic ventilation. Eleven never smoking controls, 12 smoking controls, and 57 COPD patients (7 GOLD 1, 25 GOLD 2, 14 GOLD 3 and 11 GOLD 4) performed flow-volume spirometry, IOS, body plethysmography, single breath carbon monoxide diffusion, and N2-multiple breath washout. Six smoking controls and 13 of the COPD patients also performed double reversibility test by using salbutamol and its combination with ipratropium. Sacin was significantly higher in GOLD 2-4 compared to never smoking controls and smoking controls, but showed similar levels in GOLD 3 and 4. A factor analysis identified 4 components consisting of; 1) IOS parameters, 2) volume parameters, 3) diffusion parameters, Sacin and some IOS parameters and 4) Scond with central obstruction/air trapping. Salbutamol and its combination with ipratropium had no effect on Sacin and Scond. Increased Sacin in COPD was strongly related to diffusion capacity and lung volumes, but also weakly to resistance and reactance, showing a link between ventilation heterogeneity in the acinar airways and parameters measured by IOS. PMID:26607879

  19. Effect of ventilation inhomogeneity on "intrabreath" measurements of diffusing capacity in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Cotton, D J; Prabhu, M B; Mink, J T; Graham, B L

    1993-08-01

    In normal seated subjects we increased single-breath ventilation inhomogeneity by changing both the preinspiratory lung volume and breath-hold time and examined the ensuing effects on two different techniques of measuring the diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO). We measured the mean single-breath DLCO using the three-equation method (DLCOSB-3EQ) and also measured DLCO over discrete intervals during exhalation by the "intrabreath" method (DLCOexhaled). We assessed the distribution of ventilation using the normalized phase III slope for helium (SN). DLCOSB-3EQ was unaffected by preinspiratory lung volume and breath-hold time. DLCOexhaled increased with increasing preinspiratory lung volume and decreased with increasing breath-hold time. These changes correlated with the simultaneously observed changes in ventilation inhomogeneity as measured by SN (P < 0.01). We conclude that measurements of DLCOexhaled do not accurately reflect the mean DLCO. Intrabreath methods of measuring DLCO are based on the slope of the exhaled CO concentration curve, which is affected by both ventilation and diffusion inhomogeneities. Although DLCOexhaled may theoretically provide information about the distribution of CO uptake, the concomitant effects of ventilation nonuniformity on DLCOexhaled may mimic or mask the effects of diffusion nonuniformity. PMID:8226498

  20. Combined effects of inspired oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide on oxygen transport and aerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Crocker, George H; Toth, Balazs; Jones, James H

    2013-09-01

    We hypothesized that breathing hypoxic, hypercapnic, and CO-containing gases together reduces maximal aerobic capacity (Vo2max) as the sum of each gas' individual effect on Vo2max. To test this hypothesis, goats breathed combinations of inspired O2 fraction (FiO2) of 0.06-0.21 and inspired CO2 fraction of 0.00 or 0.05, with and without inspired CO that elevated carboxyhemoglobin fraction (FHbCO) to 0.02-0.45, while running on a treadmill at speeds eliciting Vo2max. Individually, hypoxia and elevated FHbCO decreased fractional Vo2max (FVo2max, fraction of a goat's Vo2max breathing air) in linear, dose-dependent manners; hypercapnia did not change Vo2max. Concomitant hypoxia and elevated FHbCO decreased Vo2max less than the individual gas effects summed, indicating their combined effects on Vo2max are attenuated, fitting the following regression: FVo2max = 4.24 FiO2 + 0.519 FHbCO - 8.22 (FiO2 × FHbCO) + 0.117, (R(2) = 0.965, P < 0.001). The FVo2max correlated highly with total cardiopulmonary O2 delivery, not peripheral diffusing capacity, and with arterial O2 concentration (CaO2), not cardiac output. Hypoxia and elevated FHbCO decreased CaO2 by different mechanisms: hypoxia decreased arterial O2 saturation (SaO2), whereas elevated FHbCO decreased O2 capacitance {concentration of hemoglobin (Hb) available to bind O2 ([Hbavail])}. When breathing hypoxic gas (FiO2 0.12), CaO2 did not change with increasing FHbCO up to 0.30 because higher SaO2 of Hbavail offset decreased [Hbavail] due to the following: 1) hyperventilation with hypoxia and/or elevated FHbCO; 2) increased Hb affinity for O2 due to both Bohr and direct carboxyhemoglobin effects; and 3) the sigmoid relationship between O2 saturation and partial pressure elevating SaO2 more with hypoxia than normoxia. PMID:23813529

  1. Risk of COPD with obstruction in active smokers with normal spirometry and reduced diffusion capacity.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ben-Gary; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Kaner, Robert J; Sanders, Abraham; Vincent, Thomas L; Mezey, Jason G; Crystal, Ronald G

    2015-12-01

    Smokers are assessed for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using spirometry, with COPD defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) as airflow limitation that is not fully reversible with bronchodilators. There is a subset of smokers with normal spirometry (by GOLD criteria), who have a low diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), a parameter linked to emphysema and small airway disease. The natural history of these "normal spirometry/low DLCO" smokers is unknown.From a cohort of 1570 smokers in the New York City metropolitian area, all of whom had normal spirometry, two groups were randomly selected for lung function follow-up: smokers with normal spirometry/normal DLCO (n=59) and smokers with normal spirometry/low DLCO (n=46). All had normal history, physical examination, complete blood count, urinalysis, HIV status, α1-antitrypsin level, chest radiography, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio and total lung capacity. Throughout the study, all continued to be active smokers.In the normal spirometry/normal DLCO group assessed over 45±20 months, 3% developed GOLD-defined COPD. In contrast, in the normal spirometry/low DLCO group, followed over 41±31 months, 22% developed GOLD-defined COPD.Despite appearing "normal" according to GOLD, smokers with normal spirometry but low DLCO are at significant risk of developing COPD with obstruction to airflow. PMID:26541521

  2. Pulmonary dysfunction in advanced liver disease: frequent occurrence of an abnormal diffusing capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Hourani, J.M.; Bellamy, P.E.; Tashkin, D.P.; Batra, P.; Simmons, M.S. )

    1991-06-01

    Abnormalities in pulmonary function have been reported in association with chronic liver disease of varied etiology. The aim of this study was to better define the frequency and nature of these abnormalities in patients who were being evaluated for liver transplantation. We performed a battery of pulmonary function tests and chest radiographs in 116 consecutive patients (50 men, 66 women; aged 19 to 70 years, mean 44.6 years) with severe advanced liver disease who were hospitalized specifically for evaluation for possible orthotopic liver transplantation and were able to perform technically satisfactory tests. In 17 patients, quantitative whole-body technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin perfusion scanning was also performed for assessment of possible right-to-left shunting through intrapulmonary vascular dilatations. The most commonly affected test of lung function was the single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), which was abnormal in 48%, 45%, and 71% of patients who never smoked, former smokers, and current smokers, respectively. Ventilatory restriction was noted in 25% of all patients, airflow obstruction (reduced ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity) in only 3%, and a widened alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient in 45%. Diffusion impairment was accompanied by a restrictive defect in only 35% of the patients and by an abnormally widened alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient in 60%. When diffusion impairment was accompanied by an oxygenation defect, it was also associated with a significantly increased right-to-left shunt fraction (mean 24.9%) assessed from quantitative whole-body perfusion imaging.

  3. Lung diffusing capacity for nitric oxide as a marker of fibrotic changes in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Barisione, Giovanni; Brusasco, Claudia; Garlaschi, Alessandro; Baroffio, Michele; Brusasco, Vito

    2016-05-01

    Lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is decreased in both usual interstitial pneumonia-idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (UIP-IPF) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), but is moderately related to computed tomography (CT)-determined fibrotic changes. This may be due to the relative insensitivity of DLCO to changes in alveolar membrane diffusive conductance (DMCO). The purpose of this study was to determine whether measurement of lung diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO) better reflects fibrotic changes than DLCO DLNO-DLCO were measured simultaneously in 30 patients with UIP-IPF and 30 with NSIP. Eighty-one matched healthy subjects served as a control group. The amount of pulmonary fibrosis was estimated by CT volumetric analysis of visually bounded areas showing reticular opacities and honeycombing. DMCO and pulmonary capillary volume (VC) were calculated. DLNO was below the lower limit of normal in all patients irrespective of extent and nature of disease, whereas DLCO was within the normal range in a nonnegligible number of patients. Both DLNO and DLCO were significantly correlated with visual assessment of fibrosis but DLNO more closely than DLCO DMCO was also below the lower limit of normal in all UIP-IPF and NSIP patients and significantly correlated with fibrosis extent in both diseases, whereas VC was weakly correlated with fibrosis in UIP-IPF and uncorrelated in NSIP, with normal values in half of patients. In conclusion, measurement of DLNO may provide a more sensitive evaluation of fibrotic changes than DLCO in either UIP-IPF or NSIP, because it better reflects DMCO. PMID:26893034

  4. Associations of autophagy with lung diffusion capacity and oxygen saturation in severe COPD: effects of particulate air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang-Yun; Chiang, Ling-Ling; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Liu, Wen-Te; Chen, Tzu-Tao; Feng, Po-Hao; Su, Chien-Ling; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Although traffic exposure has been associated with the development of COPD, the role of particulate matter <10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) in the pathogenesis of COPD is not yet fully understood. We assessed the 1-year effect of exposure to PM10 on the pathogenesis of COPD in a retrospective cohort study. We recruited 53 subjects with COPD stages III and IV and 15 healthy controls in a hospital in Taiwan. We estimated the 1-year annual mean levels of PM10 at all residential addresses of the cohort participants. Changes in PM10 for the 1-year averages in quintiles were related to diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide levels (r=−0.914, P=0.029), changes in the pulse oxygen saturation (ΔSaO2; r=−0.973, P=0.005), receptor for advanced glycation end-products (r=−0.881, P=0.048), interleukin-6 (r=0.986, P=0.002), ubiquitin (r=0.940, P=0.017), and beclin 1 (r=0.923, P=0.025) in COPD. Next, we observed that ubiquitin was correlated with ΔSaO2 (r=−0.374, P=0.019). Beclin 1 was associated with diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (r=−0.362, P=0.028), ΔSaO2 (r=−0.354, P=0.032), and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (r=−0.471, P=0.004). Autophagy may be an important regulator of the PM10-related pathogenesis of COPD, which could cause deterioration in the lung diffusion capacity and oxygen saturation. PMID:27468231

  5. Pulmonary mechanical function and diffusion capacity after deep saturation dives.

    PubMed Central

    Thorsen, E; Segadal, K; Myrseth, E; Påsche, A; Gulsvik, A

    1990-01-01

    To assess the effects of deep saturation dives on pulmonary function, static and dynamic lung volumes, transfer factor for carbon monoxide (T1CO), delta-N2, and closing volume (CV) were measured before and after eight saturation dives to pressures of 3.1-4.6 MPa. The atmospheres were helium-oxygen mixtures with partial pressures of oxygen of 40-60 kPa. The durations of the dives were 14-30 days. Mean rate of decompression was 10.5-13.5 kPa/hour. A total of 43 divers were examined, six of whom took part in two dives, the others in one only. Dynamic lung volumes did not change significantly but total lung capacity (TLC) increased significantly by 4.3% and residual volume (RV) by 14.8% (p less than 0.05). CV was increased by 16.7% (p less than 0.01). The T1CO was reduced from 13.0 +/- 1.6 to 11.8 +/- 1.7 mmol/min/kPa (p less than 0.01) when corrected to a haemoglobin concentration of 146 g/l. Effective alveolar volume was unchanged. The increase in TLC and decrease in T1CO were correlated (r = -0.574, p less than 0.02). A control examination of 38 of the divers four to six weeks after the dives showed a partial normalisation of the changes. The increase in TLC, RV, and CV, and the decrease in T1CO, could be explained by a loss of pulmonary elastic tissue caused by inflammatory reactions induced by oxygen toxicity or venous gas emboli. PMID:2337532

  6. Universality of Viscosity Dependence of Translational Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Monoxide, Diphenylacetylene, and Diphenylcyclopropenone in Ionic Liquids under Various Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Y; Kida, Y; Matsushita, Y; Yasaka, Y; Ueno, M; Takahashi, K

    2015-06-25

    Translational diffusion coefficients of diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP), diphenylacetylene (DPA), and carbon monoxide (CO) in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([BMIm][NTf2]) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([EMIm][NTf2]) were determined by the transient grating (TG) spectroscopy under pressure from 0.1 to 200 MPa at 298 K and from 298 to 373 K under 0.1 MPa. Diffusion coefficients of these molecules at high temperatures in tributylmethylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([P4441][NTf2]), and tetraoctylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([P8888][NTf2]), and also in the mixtures of [BMIm][NTf2], N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([Pp13][NTf2]), and trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([P66614][NTf2]) with ethanol or chloroform have been determined. Diffusion coefficients except in ILs of phosphonium cations were well scaled by the power law of T/η, i.e., (T/η)(P), where T and η are the absolute temperature and the viscosity, irrespective of the solvent species, pressure and temperature, and the compositions of mixtures. The values of the exponent P were smaller for the smaller size of the molecules. On the other hand, the diffusion coefficients in ILs of phosphonium cations with longer alkyl chains were larger than the values expected from the correlation obtained by other ILs and conventional liquids. The deviation becomes larger with increasing the number of carbon atoms of alkyl-chain of cation, and with decreasing the molecular size of diffusing molecules. The molecular size dependence of the diffusion coefficient was correlated by the ratio of the volume of the solute to that of the solvent as demonstrated by the preceding work (Kaintz et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 2013 , 117 , 11697 ). Diffusion coefficients have been well correlated with the power laws of both T/η and the relative volume of the solute to the solvent

  7. Diffusion capacity and CT measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness – relation to arterial oxygen tension in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Saure, Eirunn Waatevik; Bakke, Per Sigvald; Eagan, Tomas Mikal Lind; Aanerud, Marianne; Jensen, Robert Leroy; Grydeland, Thomas Blix; Johannessen, Ane; Nilsen, Roy Miodini; Thorsen, Einar; Hardie, Jon Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background Decreased diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is associated with emphysema. DLCO is also related to decreased arterial oxygen tension (PaO2), but there are limited data on associations between PaO2 and computed tomography (CT) derived measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness. Objective To examine whether CT measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness are associated with level of arterial oxygen tension beyond that provided by measurements of diffusion capacity and spirometry. Methods The study sample consisted of 271 smoking or ex-smoking COPD patients from the Bergen COPD Cohort Study examined in 2007–2008. Emphysema was assessed as percent of low-attenuation areas<−950 Hounsfield units (%LAA), and airway wall thickness as standardised measure at an internal perimeter of 10 mm (AWT-Pi10). Multiple linear regression models were fitted with PaO2 as the outcome variable, and %LAA, AWT-Pi10, DLCO and carbon monoxide transfer coefficient (KCO) as main explanatory variables. The models were adjusted for sex, age, smoking status, and haemoglobin concentration, as well as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). Results Sixty two per cent of the subjects were men, mean (SD) age was 64 (7) years, mean (SD) FEV1 in percent predicted was 50 (15)%, and mean PaO2 (SD) was 9.3 (1.1) kPa. The adjusted regression coefficient (CI) for PaO2 was –0.32 (−0.04–(−0.019)) per 10% increase in %LAA (p<0.01). When diffusion capacity and FEV1 were added to the model, respectively, the association lost its statistical significance. No relationship between airway wall thickness and PaO2 was found. Conclusion CT assessment of airway wall thickness is not associated with arterial oxygen tension in COPD patients. Emphysema score measured by chest CT, is related to decreased PaO2, but cannot replace measurements of diffusion capacity in the clinical evaluation of hypoxaemia. PMID:27178139

  8. Effect of yoga regimen on lung functions including diffusion capacity in coronary artery disease patients: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Asha; Singh, Savita; Singh, KP; Pai, Preeti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung functions are found to be impaired in coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, and after cardiac surgery. Diffusion capacity progressively worsens as the severity of CAD increases due to reduction in lung tissue participating in gas exchange. Aims and Objectives: Pranayama breathing exercises and yogic postures may play an impressive role in improving cardio-respiratory efficiency and facilitating gas diffusion at the alveolo-capillary membrane. This study was done to see the effect of yoga regimen on lung functions particularly diffusion capacity in CAD patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 stable CAD patients below 65 years of age of both sexes were selected and randomized into two groups of 40 each. Group I CAD patients were given yoga regimen for 3 months which consisted of yogic postures, pranayama breathing exercises, dietary modification, and holistic teaching along with their conventional medicine while Group II CAD patients were put only on conventional medicine. Lung functions including diffusion capacity were recorded thrice in both the groups: 0 day as baseline, 22nd day and on 90th day by using computerized MS medisoft Cardio-respiratory Instrument, HYP’AIR Compact model of cardio-respiratory testing machine was manufactured by P K Morgan, India. The recorded parameters were statistically analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA followed by Tukey's test in both the groups. Cardiovascular parameters were also compared before and after intervention in both the groups. Results: Statistically significant improvements were seen in slow vital capacity, forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow rate, maximum voluntary ventilation, and diffusion factor/ transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide after 3 months of yoga regimen in Group I. Forced expiratory volume in 1st sec (FEV1), and FEV1 % also showed a trend toward improvement although not statistically significant. HR, SBP and DBP also

  9. High-temperature diffusion of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide in liquid n-heptane, n-dodecane, and n-hexadecane

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, M.A.; Rodden, J.B.; Akgerman, A.

    1987-07-01

    Mutual diffusion coefficients at infinite dilution have been measured for hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide in the solvents n-heptane, n-dodecane, and n-hexadecane. The data cover the temperature range from 25 to 293/sup 0/C and pressures of 1415 and 3450 kPa. The Taylor dispersion method was used for diffusion measurements. It was found that the Sovova correlation for diffusion of dissolved gases in liquids failed to predict diffusivities at temperatures above ambient. A free-volume approach to correlation is indicated instead.

  10. Prediction equations for diffusing capacity (transfer factor) of lung for North Indians

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Rajeev; Gupta, Uday A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prediction equations for diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), alveolar volume (VA), and DLCO/VA using the current standardization guidelines are not available for Indian population. The present study was carried out to develop equations for these parameters for North Indian adults and examine the ethnic diversity in predictions. Materials and Methods: DLCO was measured by single-breath technique and VA by single-breath helium dilution using standardized methodology in 357 (258 males, 99 females) normal nonsmoker adult North Indians and DLCO/VA was computed. The subjects were randomized into training and test datasets for development of prediction equations by multiple linear regressions and for validation, respectively. Results: For males, the following equations were developed: DLCO, −7.813 + 0.318 × ht −0.624 × age + 0.00552 × age2; VA, −8.152 + 0.087 × ht −0.019 × wt; DLCO/VA, 7.315 − 0.037 × age. For females, the equations were: DLCO, −44.15 + 0.449 × ht −0.099 × age; VA, −6.893 + 0.068 × ht. A statistically acceptable prediction equation was not obtained for DLCO/VA in females. It was therefore computed from predicted DLCO and predicted VA. All equations were internally valid. Predictions of DLCO by Indian equations were lower than most Caucasian predictions in both males and females and greater than the Chinese predictions for males. Conclusion: This study has developed validated prediction equations for DLCO, VA, and DLCO/VA in North Indians. Substantial ethnic diversity exists in predictions for DLCO and VA with Caucasian equations generally yielding higher values than the Indian or Chinese equations. However, DLCO/VA predicted by the Indian equations is slightly higher than that by other equations. PMID:27625439

  11. Study of the effect of yoga training on diffusion capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: A controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Ritu; Munish, Kanika; Singh, KP; Singh, Savita

    2012-01-01

    Background: Patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at high risk for depression and anxiety. Yoga techniques are suited for promoting relaxation, psycho-emotional stability and exercise tolerance. Studies showing the effect of yoga in diffusion capacity are not available; hence this study was planned. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 diagnosed stable mild-to-moderate COPD patients in the age group of 30-60 years, of either sex, in the department of physiology. Patients were taken from Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi and divided into two groups: Control and the yoga group. Both the groups were on conventional drug therapy. Subjects from the Yoga group was called to cardiopulmonary laboratory daily for 21 days and then weekly for the compliance. Yoga instructor taught them the technique of pranayama and various postures every day. They practiced yoga at home for 2 months for 45 min in the mornings. Diffusion capacity was recorded by using computerized Medisoft instrument (HYPAIR compact), in both the groups before and after 2 months. Results: Statistical analysis showed significant improvement in TLCO of the yoga group. Transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide i.e. TLCO in mild COPD increased from 17.61 ± 4.55 to 19.08 ± 5.09 ml/mmHg/min, and in moderate COPD it increased from 14.99 ± 4.02 to17.35 ± 3.97 ml/mmHg/min. Conclusion: It was concluded that yogic breathing exercises improve diffusion capacity. They are beneficial to COPD patients and they can be used as an adjunct therapy with the conventional medical therapy. PMID:22869996

  12. An infant with pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis: clinical improvement is associated with improvement in the pulmonary diffusion capacity.

    PubMed

    Ehsan, Zarmina; Montgomery, Gregory S; Tiller, Christina; Kisling, Jeffrey; Chang, Daniel V; Tepper, Robert S

    2014-03-01

    Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis (PIG) is an idiopathic interstitial lung disease of infants. The underlying pulmonary pathophysiology of PIG has not been well characterized. Herein we report a term-gestation infant who presented with persistent tachypnea and hypoxia. A chest CT scan demonstrated a diffuse ground glass appearance and lung biopsy demonstrated increased alveolar septae cellularity with glycogen-containing cells, consistent with a diagnosis of PIG. At 3 months of age, pulmonary function testing included: pre- and post-bronchodilator forced expiratory flows using the raised-volume technique and the ratio of pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide to alveolar volume (DLCO /VA ). He was prescribed 5 days of oral prednisolone (2mg/kg/day) and pulmonary function testing (PFT) was repeated at 5, 13, and 20 months of age. Initial PFTs demonstrated reduced forced vital capacity (FVC: Z-score = -2.36) and an increased ratio of forced expiratory volume in 0.5 sec to FVC (FEV0.5/FVC: Z-score = 1.15) with no significant change following an inhaled bronchodilator. There was also a marked reduction in DLCO /VA (Z-score = -4.74) compared to age-matched controls. Follow-up demonstrated progressive clinical improvement as well as an increase in Z-FVC and normalization of DLCO /VA . Our in vivo physiological findings are consistent with previous reports that symptom resolution correlated with histological thinning of the alveolar septae upon repeat lung biopsy. The restrictive lung disease we observed is consistent with expected reduced compliance of an alveolar interstitial lung process like PIG, whereas the absence of a reduction in FEV0.5/FVC confirms the absence of obstructive airway disease. PMID:23401236

  13. Structural changes underlying compensatory increase of diffusing capacity after left pneumonectomy in adult dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, C C; Fryder-Doffey, F; Stalder-Nayarro, V; Johnson, R L; Reynolds, R C; Weibel, E R

    1993-01-01

    To determine if the functional compensation in diffusing capacity of the remaining lung following pneumonectomy is due to structural growth, we performed morphometric analysis of the right lung in three adult foxhounds approximately 2 yr after left pneumonectomy (removal of 42% of lung) and compared the results to those in normal adult dogs previously studied by the same techniques. Diffusing capacity was calculated by an established morphometric model and compared to physiologic estimates at peak exercise in the same dogs after pneumonectomy. The major structural changes after left pneumonectomy are hyperinflation of the right lung, alveolar enlargement, and thinning of the alveolar-capillary tissue barrier. These changes confer significant functional compensation for gas exchange by reducing the overall resistance to O2 diffusion. The magnitude of compensation in diffusing capacity estimated either morphometrically or physiologically is similar. In spite of morphometric and physiologic evidence of functional compensation, there is no evidence of significant growth of structural components. After pneumonectomy, morphometric estimates of diffusing capacity are on average 23% higher than physiologic estimates in the same dogs at peak exercise. We conclude that the previously reported large differences between morphometric and physiologic estimates of diffusing capacity reflects the presence of large physiologic reserves available for recruitment. Images PMID:8349815

  14. Carbon monoxide intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Kales, S.N. )

    1993-11-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning usually results from inhalation of exhaust fumes from motor vehicles, smoke from fires or fumes from faulty heating systems. Carbon monoxide has a high affinity for hemoglobin, with which it forms carboxyhemoglobin. The resulting decrease in both oxygen-carrying capacity and oxygen release can lead to end-organ hypoxia. The clinical presentation is nonspecific. Headache, dizziness, fatigue and nausea are common in mild to moderate carbon monoxide poisoning. In more severe cases, tachycardia, tachypnea and central nervous system depression occur. When carbon monoxide intoxication is suspected, empiric treatment with 100 percent oxygen should be initiated immediately. The diagnosis is confirmed by documenting an elevated carboxyhemoglobin level. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is recommended in patients with neurologic dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction or a history of unconsciousness. 26 refs.

  15. Lower diffusing capacity with chronic bronchitis predicts higher risk of acute exacerbation in chronic obstructive lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa Young; Kim, Jin Woo; Lee, Sang Haak; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Shim, Jae Jeong; Park, Jeong-Woong; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Jung, Ki-Suck

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the effect of chronic bronchitis (CB) symptoms and degree of emphysema in a multicenter Korean cohort. Methods From April 2012 to May 2015, patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) who were aged above 40 years at 46 hospitals throughout Korea were enrolled. All of the patients were classified according to CB symptoms and the diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO); demographic data, symptom scores, and the result of lung function tests and exacerbations were then analyzed. Results A total of 812 patients were enrolled. Among these patients, 285 (35.1%) had CB symptoms. A total of 51% of patients had high DLCO without CB symptoms [CB (−) high DLCO], 24.9% had CB symptoms only [CB (+) high DLCO], 14.2% had low DLCO only [CB (−) low DLCO], and 10.2% had both low DLCO and CB [CB (+) low DLCO]. Patients with CB (+) low DLCO showed a significantly lower post-bronchodilator (BD) forced expiratory volume for 1 second (FEV1) and more severe dyspnea than patients with CB (−) high DLCO. On multivariate analysis, the risk of acute exacerbation was two times higher [odds ratio (OR) 2.06; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18–3.62; P=0.01] in the CB (+) low DLCO group than in the CB (−) high DLCO group. Conclusions In this COPD cohort, patients showed distinct clinical characteristics and outcomes according to the presence of CB and degree of DLCO. CB and low DLCO were associated with the risk of acute exacerbation.

  16. Diffusing capacities and ventilation: perfusion ratios in patients with the clinical syndrome of alveolar capillary block

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Hartmut; King, Thomas K. C.; Briscoe, William A.

    1970-01-01

    Studies were performed on 10 patients with the clinical syndrome of alveolar capillary block while each patient was breathing four different inspired oxygen mixtures. The data were interpreted using the principle of the Bohr integral isopleth with which alveolar oxygen tension in the differently ventilated parts of the lung can initially be treated as unknown. It is then possible to determine the distribution of ventilation, of perfusion, of diffusing capacity, of lung volume, and of alveolar and end capillary blood oxygen tension in the variously functioning parts of the lung. In two patients shunts were the major factor interfering with oxygen transfer. In four others inequalities in ventilation: perfusion ratios and in diffusing capacity in different parts of the lung were the factors interfering with oxygen transfer. In four more patients ventilation: perfusion ratios were the same throughout the lung, the only disturbance of oxygen transfer being in the total diffusing capacity or in its distribution between the different parts of the lung. PMID:5411791

  17. Pulmonary diffusing capacity, capillary blood volume, and cardiac output during sustained microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. K.; Guy, Harold J. B.; Elliott, Ann R.; Deutschman, Robert A., III; West, John B.

    1993-01-01

    We measured pulmonary diffusing capacity (DL), diffusing capacity per unit lung volume, pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc), membrane diffusing capacity (Dm), pulmonary capillary blood flow or cardiac output (Qc), and cardiac stroke volume (SV) in four subjects exposed to nine days of microgravity. DL in microgravity was elevated compared with preflight standing values and was higher than preflight supine because of the elevation of both Vc and Dm. The elevation in Vc was comparable to that measured supine in 1 G, but the increase in Dm was in sharp contrast to the supine value. We postulate that, in 0 G, pulmonary capillary blood is evenly distributed throughout the lung, providing for uniform capillary filling, leading to an increase in the surface area available for diffusion. By contrast, in the supine 1-G state, the capillaries are less evenly filled, and although a similar increase in blood volume is observed, the corresponding increase in surface area does not occur. DL and its subdivisions showed no adaptive changes from the first measurement 24 h after the start of 0 G to eight days later. Similarly, there were no trends in the postflight data, suggesting that the principal mechanism of these changes was gravitational. The increase in Dm suggests that subclinical pulmonary edema did not result from exposure to 0 G. Qc was modestly increased inflight and decreased postflight compared with preflight standing. Compared with preflight standing, SV was increased 46 percent inflight and decreased 14 percent in the 1st week postflight. There were temporal changes in Qc and SV during 0 G, with the highest values recorded at the first measurement, 24 h into the flight. The lowest values of Qc and SV occurred on the day of return.

  18. Morphological respiratory diffusion capacity of the lungs of ball pythons (Python regius).

    PubMed

    Starck, J Matthias; Aupperle, Heike; Kiefer, Ingmar; Weimer, Isabel; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Pees, Michael

    2012-08-01

    This study aims at a functional and morphological characterization of the lung of a boid snake. In particular, we were interested to see if the python's lungs are designed with excess capacity as compared to resting and working oxygen demands. Therefore, the morphological respiratory diffusion capacity of ball pythons (Python regius) was examined following a stereological, hierarchically nested approach. The volume of the respiratory exchange tissue was determined using computed tomography. Tissue compartments were quantified using stereological methods on light microscopic images. The tissue diffusion barrier for oxygen transport was characterized and measured using transmission electron micrographs. We found a significant negative correlation between body mass and the volume of respiratory tissue; the lungs of larger snakes had relatively less respiratory tissue. Therefore, mass-specific respiratory tissue was calculated to exclude effects of body mass. The volume of the lung that contains parenchyma was 11.9±5.0mm(3)g(-1). The volume fraction, i.e., the actual pulmonary exchange tissue per lung parenchyma, was 63.22±7.3%; the total respiratory surface was, on average, 0.214±0.129m(2); it was significantly negatively correlated to body mass, with larger snakes having proportionally smaller respiratory surfaces. For the air-blood barrier, a harmonic mean of 0.78±0.05μm was found, with the epithelial layer representing the thickest part of the barrier. Based on these findings, a median diffusion capacity of the tissue barrier ( [Formula: see text] ) of 0.69±0.38ml O(2)min(-1)mmHg(-1) was calculated. Based on published values for blood oxygen concentration, a total oxygen uptake capacity of 61.16mlO(2)min(-1)kg(-1) can be assumed. This value exceeds the maximum demand for oxygen in ball pythons by a factor of 12. We conclude that healthy individuals of P. regius possess a considerable spare capacity for tissue oxygen exchange. PMID:22770588

  19. Calibration of High Temperature Thermal Conductivity System: New Algorithm to Measure Heat Capacity Using Flash Thermal Diffusivity in Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deb, Rahul; Snyder, Jeff G.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing thermoelectric materials, an algorithm for heat capacity measurements and the process of flash thermal diffusivity. The contents include: 1) What are Thermoelectrics?; 2) Thermoelectric Applications; 3) Improving Thermoelectrics; 4) Research Goal; 5) Flash Thermal Diffusivity; 6) Background Effects; 7) Stainless Steel Comparison; 8) Pulse Max Integral; and 9) Graphite Comparison Algorithm.

  20. Lung diffusing capacity for nitric oxide at lowered and raised ambient pressures.

    PubMed

    Linnarsson, Dag; Hemmingsson, Tryggve E; Frostell, Claes; Van Muylem, Alain; Kerckx, Yannick; Gustafsson, Lars E

    2013-12-01

    Lung diffusing capacity for NO (DLNO) was determined in eight subjects at ambient pressures of 505, 1015, and 4053hPa (379, 761 and 3040mmHg) as they breathed normoxic gases. Mean values were 116.9±11.1 (SEM), 113.4±11.1 and 99.3±10.1mlmin(-1)hPa(-1)at 505, 1015, and 4053hPa, with a 13% difference between the two higher pressures (P=0.017). The data were applied to a model with two serially coupled conductances; the gas phase (DgNO, variable with pressure), and the alveolo-capillary membrane (DmNO, constant). The data fitted the model well and we conclude that diffusive transport of NO in the peripheral lung is inversely related to gas density. At normal pressure DmNO was approximately 5% larger than DLNO, suggesting that the Dg factor then is not negligible. We also conclude that the density of the breathing gas is likely to impact the backdiffusion of naturally formed NO from conducting airways to the alveoli. PMID:24004985

  1. Carbon monoxide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Bleecker, Margit L

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, nonirritant gas that accounts for numerous cases of CO poisoning every year from a variety of sources of incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. These include poorly functioning heating systems, indoor propane-powered forklifts, indoor burning of charcoal burning briquettes, riding in the back of pick-up trucks, ice skating rinks using propane-powered resurfacing machines, and gasoline-powered generators that are not in correct locations. Once CO is inhaled it binds with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) with an affinity 200 times greater than oxygen that leads to decreased oxygen-carrying capacity and decreased release of oxygen to tissues leading to tissue hypoxia. Ischemia occurs with CO poisoning when there is loss of consciousness that is accompanied by hypotension and ischemia in the arterial border zones of the brain. Besides binding to many heme-containing proteins, CO disrupts oxidative metabolism leading to the formation of free radicals. Once hypotension and unconsciousness occur with CO poisoning, lipid peroxidation and apoptosis follow. Because COHb has a short half-life, examination of other biomarkers of CO neurotoxicity that reflect inflammation or neuronal damage has not demonstrated consistent results. The initial symptoms with CO exposure when COHb is 15-30% are nonspecific, namely, headache, dizziness, nausea, fatigue, and impaired manual dexterity. However individuals with ischemic heart disease may experience chest pain and decreased exercise duration at COHb levels between 1% and 9%. COHb levels between 30% and 70% lead to loss of consciousness and eventually death. Following resolution of acute symptoms there may be a lucid interval of 2-40 days before the development of delayed neurologic sequelae (DNS), with diffuse demyelination in the brain accompanied by lethargy, behavior changes, forgetfulness, memory loss, and parkinsonian features. Seventy-five percent of patients with DNS

  2. Thermal diffusivity and heat capacity of SiGe/Si superlattice from 374 K to 674 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Anthony L.; Twigg, Mark; Thompson, Phillip E.; Worchesky, Terrance; Aifer, Edward

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we examine the thermal diffusivity of Si/SiGe thin-film superlattice (SL) structures and use these results with pervious thermal conductivity results to calculate the heat capacity from 374 K to 674 K. The thermal properties of semiconductor layered structures can be altered through the use of SL structures. This alteration occurs through two possible mechanisms: increased phonon scattering due to rough interfaces and phonon zone folding due to boundary conditions of the propagating waves. Examining the heat capacity allows for the observation of phonon zone folding effects while limiting effects due to scattering. Structures studied here consist of SiGe SLs grown at different temperatures and with varying SL spacing allowing the examination of period and crystallinity effects on thermal properties. Previously reported results show that for SL structures both crystalline and polycrystalline have a thermal conductivity of approximately 1 W/mK measured over temperatures ranging from 374 K to 674 K. In this work, thermal diffusivity was measured through laser flash analysis, with crystalline SL structures showing values <1 mm2/s, while the thermal diffusivity of the polycrystalline structure was found to be twice that of the crystalline structure over the temperature range. In all instances, the heat capacities for the SL structures are found to be lower than that for a uniform thin film alloy, indicating a significant contribution of phonon dispersion modification to the heat capacity.

  3. Change in Diffusing Capacity After Radiation as an Objective Measure for Grading Radiation Pneumonitis in Patients Treated for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez Guerra, Jose Luis; Gomez, Daniel; Zhuang Yan; Levy, Lawrence B.; Eapen, George; Liu Hongmei; Mohan, Radhe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; Liao Zhongxing

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Scoring of radiation pneumonitis (RP), a dose-limiting toxicity after thoracic radiochemotherapy, is subjective and thus inconsistent among studies. Here we investigated whether the extent of change in diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) after radiation therapy (RT) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) could be used as an objective means of quantifying RP. Patients and Methods: We analyzed potential correlations between DLCO and RP in 140 patients who received definitive RT ({>=}60 Gy) with or without chemotherapy for primary NSCLC. All underwent DLCO analysis before and after RT. Post-RT DLCO values within 1 week of the RP diagnosis (Grade 0, 1, 2, or 3) were selected and compared with that individual's preradiation values. Percent reductions in DLCO and RP grade were compared by point biserial correlation in the entire patient group and in subgroups stratified according to various clinical factors. Results: Patients experiencing Grade 0, 1, 2, or 3 RP had median percentage changes in DLCO after RT of 10.7%, 13%, 22.1%, or 35.2%. Percent reduction in DLCO correlated with RP Grade {<=}1 vs. {>=}2 (p = 0.0004). This association held for the following subgroups: age {>=}65 years, advanced stage, smokers, use of chemotherapy, volume of normal lung receiving at least 20 Gy {>=}30%, and baseline DLCO or forced expiratory volume in 1 second {>=}60%. Conclusions: By correlating percent change in DLCO from pretreatment values at the time of diagnosis of RP with RP grade, we were able to identify categories of RP based on the change in DLCO. These criteria provide a basis for an objective scoring system for RP based on change in DLCO.

  4. Dynamic modelling of the effects of ion diffusion and side reactions on the capacity loss for vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ao; Bao, Jie; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    The diffusion of vanadium ions across the membrane along with side reactions can have a significant impact on the capacity of the vanadium redox flow battery (VFB) over long-term charge-discharge cycling. Differential rates of diffusion of the vanadium ions from one half-cell into the other will facilitate self-discharge reactions, leading to an imbalance between the state-of-charge of the two half-cell electrolytes and a subsequent drop in capacity. Meanwhile side reactions as a result of evolution of hydrogen or air oxidation of V 2+ can further affect the capacity of the VFB. In this paper, a dynamic model is developed based on mass balances for each of the four vanadium ions in the VFB electrolytes in conjunction with the Nernst Equation. This model can predict the capacity as a function of time and thus can be used to determine when periodic electrolyte remixing or rebalancing should take place to restore cell capacity. Furthermore, the dynamic model can be potentially incorporated in the control system of the VFB to achieve long term optimal operation. The performance of three different types of membranes is studied on the basis of the above model and the simulation results together with potential operational issues are analysed and discussed.

  5. Postural variation of pulmonary diffusing capacity as a marker of lung microangiopathy in Indian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Avinash; Bade, Geetanjali; Trivedi, Anjali; Jyotsna, Viveka P.; Talwar, Anjana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by the presence of chronic hyperglycemia and formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Interaction between AGE and its receptor leads to endothelial damage and microangiopathy. This study was undertaken to investigate the possibility of using a postural variation of diffusing capacity as an early marker of lung microangiopathy and its correlation with the level of adhesion molecules, HbA1c, duration of diabetes, and insulin resistance in type 2 DM (T2DM) patients with and without microangiopathy. Materials and Methods: Forty patients having T2DM without any microangiopathy (n = 20) as well as with microangiopathy (n = 20), and 22 age and sex matched healthy controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Measurement of lung volumes and capacities were done. DLco was measured in sitting and supine position. Levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, fasting glucose, and insulin were estimated in plasma of the patients and compared with controls. Results: Restrictive type of ventilatory change was observed in DM patients. Diffusing capacity (% predicted) in the supine position (P < 0.0001), postural change in DLco (P < 0.0001), and coefficient of diffusion were significantly less in DM patients as compared to controls. Plasma levels of VCAM-1 were significantly higher in DM patients without microangiopathy and negatively correlated (r = −0.4054, P = 0.0094) with Δ DLco in all diabetic subjects. All patients had significantly higher insulin resistance. Conclusion: Lack of postural increase in diffusing capacity in type 2 diabetic patients along with increased VCAM-1 levels could reflect the presence of an early microangiopathy of the small pulmonary vessels. PMID:27042422

  6. Thermal-Diffusivity and Heat-Capacity Measurements of Sandstone at High Temperatures Using Laser Flash and DSC Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulagatov, I. M.; Abdulagatova, Z. Z.; Kallaev, S. N.; Bakmaev, A. G.; Ranjith, P. G.

    2015-04-01

    The well-known contact-free, laser-flash method was used for measurement of the thermal diffusivity of natural sandstone samples. The experimental procedure was conducted using the microflash apparatus (LFA 457). The measurements have been made over the temperature range from (302.9 to 774.3) K. The isobaric heat capacities of the same sample were measured over the temperature range from (308 to 763) K using DSC 204 F1. Uncertainties are 3 % and 1 % for and , respectively. Measured values of and together with density data were used to calculate the thermal conductivity of sandstone. Theoretically based correlations for the thermal diffusivity (damped harmonic oscillator, DHO) and heat capacity (Debye and Einstein theories) were adopted to accurately represent the measured data. Correlation equations for the thermal diffusivity and heat capacity have been developed using the well-known theoretical asymptotic behavior of and for various temperature ranges (low- and high-temperature limits). The microscopic nature of the effect of temperature on and behavior of sandstone is discussed. Detailed interpretation and testing of the measured property data for sandstone using various existing theoretical and empirical models, in order to check their accuracy, predictive capability, and applicability, are provided.

  7. Multigenerational Effects of Rearing Atmospheric Oxygen Level on the Tracheal Dimensions and Diffusing Capacities of Pupal and Adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Klok, C Jaco; Kaiser, Alexander; Socha, John J; Lee, Wah-Keat; Harrison, Jon F

    2016-01-01

    Insects are small relative to vertebrates, and were larger in the Paleozoic when atmospheric oxygen levels were higher. The safety margin for oxygen delivery does not increase in larger insects, due to an increased mass-specific investment in the tracheal system and a greater use of convection in larger insects. Prior studies have shown that the dimensions and number of tracheal system branches varies inversely with rearing oxygen in embryonic and larval insects. Here we tested whether rearing in 10, 21, or 40 kPa atmospheric oxygen atmospheres for 5-7 generations affected the tracheal dimensions and diffusing capacities of pupal and adult Drosophila. Abdominal tracheae and pupal snorkel tracheae showed weak responses to oxygen, while leg tracheae showed strong, but imperfect compensatory changes. The diffusing capacity of leg tracheae appears closely matched to predicted oxygen transport needs by diffusion, perhaps explaining the consistent and significant responses of these tracheae to rearing oxygen. The reduced investment in tracheal structure in insects reared in higher oxygen levels may be important for conserving tissue PO2 and may provide an important mechanism for insects to invest only the space and materials necessary into respiratory structure. PMID:27343104

  8. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Serum Determined Using the Potassium Permanganate Agar Method Based on Serum Diffusion in Agar.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Meijuan; Liu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To develop a new method for determining total antioxidants in serum and to evaluate the total antioxidant capacity of organisms. Design and Methods. Sodium hyposulfite (Na2S2O3) and serum were used to evaluate the linearity and precision of the potassium permanganate agar method. The area of serum diffusion in samples from 30 intensive care unit (ICU) patients compared with 44 healthy subjects was determined by the potassium permanganate agar method. Results. The linearity (R (2) in the linear experiment of Na2S2O3 was 0.994; R (2) in the linear experiment of serum was 0.987) and precision (coefficient of variation of area of high level serum diffusion within-run, between-run, and between-day and coefficient of variation of area of low serum diffusion within-run, between-run, and between-day were all less than 10%) were acceptable using the potassium permanganate agar method. Total antioxidants of serum between the ICU group and the healthy group were different (p = 0.002, two tailed). Conclusions. Total antioxidants in serum can be determined by the potassium permanganate agar method. The total antioxidant capacity of an organism can be evaluated by the amount of total antioxidants in serum. PMID:26347595

  9. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Serum Determined Using the Potassium Permanganate Agar Method Based on Serum Diffusion in Agar

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Meijuan; Liu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To develop a new method for determining total antioxidants in serum and to evaluate the total antioxidant capacity of organisms. Design and Methods. Sodium hyposulfite (Na2S2O3) and serum were used to evaluate the linearity and precision of the potassium permanganate agar method. The area of serum diffusion in samples from 30 intensive care unit (ICU) patients compared with 44 healthy subjects was determined by the potassium permanganate agar method. Results. The linearity (R2 in the linear experiment of Na2S2O3 was 0.994; R2 in the linear experiment of serum was 0.987) and precision (coefficient of variation of area of high level serum diffusion within-run, between-run, and between-day and coefficient of variation of area of low serum diffusion within-run, between-run, and between-day were all less than 10%) were acceptable using the potassium permanganate agar method. Total antioxidants of serum between the ICU group and the healthy group were different (p = 0.002, two tailed). Conclusions. Total antioxidants in serum can be determined by the potassium permanganate agar method. The total antioxidant capacity of an organism can be evaluated by the amount of total antioxidants in serum. PMID:26347595

  10. Carbon Monoxide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Aniol, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    Of all fatal poisonings in the United States, an estimated half are due to carbon monoxide. The number of non-lethal poisonings due to carbon monoxide is difficult to estimate because signs and symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning cover a wide spectrum and mimic other disorders. Misdiagnosis is serious, as the patient often returns to the contaminated environment. Those not receiving proper treatment are at significant risk, as high as 10% to 12%, of developing late neurological sequelae. The diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning depends upon precise history taking, careful physical examination, and a high index of suspicion. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:21221282

  11. Calculation of thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat capacity of sedimentary rocks using petrophysical well logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Balling, Niels; Förster, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    In this study, equations are developed that predict for synthetic sedimentary rocks (clastics, carbonates and evapourates) thermal properties comprising thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and thermal diffusivity. The rock groups are composed of mineral assemblages with variable contents of 15 major rock-forming minerals and porosities of 0-30 per cent. Petrophysical properties and their well-logging-tool-characteristic readings were assigned to these rock-forming minerals and to pore-filling fluids. Relationships are explored between each thermal property and other petrophysical properties (density, sonic interval transit time, hydrogen index, volume fraction of shale and photoelectric absorption index) using multivariate statistics. The application of these relations allows computing continuous borehole profiles for each rock thermal property. The uncertainties in the prediction of each property vary depending on the selected well-log combination. Best prediction is in the range of 2-8 per cent for the specific heat capacity, of 5-10 per cent for the thermal conductivity, and of 8-15 for the thermal diffusivity, respectively. Well-log derived thermal conductivity is validated by laboratory data measured on cores from deep boreholes of the Danish Basin, the North German Basin, and the Molasse Basin. Additional validation of thermal conductivity was performed by comparing predicted and measured temperature logs. The maximum deviation between these logs is <3 °C. The thermal-conductivity calculation allowed an evaluation of the depth range in which the palaeoclimatic effect on the subsurface temperature field can be observed in the North German Basin. This effect reduces the surface heat-flow density by 25 mW m-2.

  12. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Michael C.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant cause of illness and death. Its protean symptoms probably lead to a gross underestimation of its true incidence. Low levels of carbon monoxide aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary problems, and high levels are associated with cardiac arrhythmias and cerebral edema. Patients who survive acute poisoning are at risk of delayed neurologic sequelae. The measurement of carboxyhemoglobin levels does not reveal the tissue levels of carbon monoxide but is useful in determining therapy. Treatment includes the monitoring and management of cardiac arrhythmias and oxygenation. Hyperbaric oxygenation is beneficial, but there are currently no definite criteria for its use. PMID:4027805

  13. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... any major gas-burning appliances (such as a furnace or water heater). Many carbon monoxide poisonings occur in the winter months when furnaces, gas fireplaces, and portable heaters are being used ...

  14. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Center The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is called the "Invisible Killer" because it's ... used or incorrectly-vented fuel-burning appliances such as furnaces, stoves, water heaters and fireplaces. Watch This ...

  15. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... colorless gas created when fuels (such as gasoline, wood, coal, natural gas, propane, oil, and methane) burn incompletely. ** Carbon Monoxide can have different effects on people based on its concentration in the ...

  16. Estimating carbon monoxide exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerley, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    Method predicts effects of carbon monoxide on astronauts confined in spacecraft cabin atmospheres. Information on need for low toxicity level also applies to confined spaces. Benefits are applicable to industry and public health.

  17. The photosynthetic capacity in 35 ferns and fern allies: mesophyll CO2 diffusion as a key trait.

    PubMed

    Tosens, Tiina; Nishida, Keisuke; Gago, Jorge; Coopman, Rafael Eduardo; Cabrera, Hernán Marino; Carriquí, Marc; Laanisto, Lauri; Morales, Loreto; Nadal, Miquel; Rojas, Roke; Talts, Eero; Tomas, Magdalena; Hanba, Yuko; Niinemets, Ülo; Flexas, Jaume

    2016-03-01

    Ferns and fern allies have low photosynthetic rates compared with seed plants. Their photosynthesis is thought to be limited principally by physical CO2 diffusion from the atmosphere to chloroplasts. The aim of this study was to understand the reasons for low photosynthesis in species of ferns and fern allies (Lycopodiopsida and Polypodiopsida). We performed a comprehensive assessment of the foliar gas-exchange and mesophyll structural traits involved in photosynthetic function for 35 species of ferns and fern allies. Additionally, the leaf economics spectrum (the interrelationships between photosynthetic capacity and leaf/frond traits such as leaf dry mass per unit area or nitrogen content) was tested. Low mesophyll conductance to CO2 was the main cause for low photosynthesis in ferns and fern allies, which, in turn, was associated with thick cell walls and reduced chloroplast distribution towards intercellular mesophyll air spaces. Generally, the leaf economics spectrum in ferns follows a trend similar to that in seed plants. Nevertheless, ferns and allies had less nitrogen per unit DW than seed plants (i.e. the same slope but a different intercept) and lower photosynthesis rates per leaf mass area and per unit of nitrogen. PMID:26508678

  18. Management of carbon monoxide poisoning using oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Mak, T W; Kam, C W; Lai, J P; Tang, C M

    2000-03-01

    The management of carbon monoxide poisoning requires an accurate assessment of the extent of blood oxygenation. Measuring the fractional oxyhaemoglobin content by using co-oximetry gives a true picture of the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood in the presence of carboxyhaemoglobin. The use of readings from pulse oximetry or a standard blood gas analyser is insufficient and can be misleading. We report on a case of carbon monoxide poisoning to illustrate this potential pitfall. PMID:10793412

  19. [Pulmonary diffusion test to NO and CO time course during thoracic radiotherapy for lung cancer: the CONORT prospective study protocol].

    PubMed

    Zarza, V; Couraud, S; Hassouni, A; Prévost, C; Souquet, P-J; Letanche, G; Hammou, Y; Girard, N; Viart-Ferber, C; Mornex, F

    2014-10-01

    Thoracic radiotherapy is a usual treatment for lung cancer. Early-stages may be treated in stereotactic mode while locally advanced stages are usually treated with conventional radiotherapy mode. Pulmonary function tests show that thoracic irradiation has no impact on lung volume such as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) or forced vital capacity (FCV). However, some studies found that CO (carbon monoxide) diffusing capacity (TLCO) may be altered under thoracic radiotherapy. DLCO alteration is usually symptomatic of either a lesion in the alveolar membrane or a pulmonary capillary alteration. Pulmonary diffusion may be also appreciated by the NO (azote monoxide) diffusion capacity. Moreover, using a double measurement of NO and CO diffusing capacities permit to assess which lung compartment (capillary or membrane) is affected. CONORT is an observational prospective monocentric study, aiming to assess the CO and NO diffusing capacity (as well as other pulmonary function tests) during thoracic radiotherapy. Inclusion criteria are patients with lung cancer, treated by thoracic radiotherapy (conformational or stereotactic), who signed consent. Pulmonary function tests are performed before, during, at the end and six weeks and six months after thoracic irradiation. To estimate a difference of 15% in diffusing capacity test, we have to include 112 patients with a 90% power and a 5% alpha risk. Four months after beginning, 36 patients were included. Preliminary data will be presented at the SFRO meeting. PMID:25205426

  20. Solid State Carbon Monoxide Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Wood, George M. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Kielin, Erik J. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); DAmbrosia, Christine M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A means for detecting carbon monoxide which utilizes an un-heated catalytic material to oxidize carbon monoxide at ambient temperatures. Because this reaction is exothermic, a thermistor in contact with the catalytic material is used as a sensing element to detect the heat evolved as carbon monoxide is oxidized to carbon dioxide at the catalyst surface, without any heaters or external heating elements for the ambient air or catalytic element material. Upon comparison to a reference thermistor, relative increases in the temperature of the sensing thermistor correspond positively with an increased concentration of carbon monoxide in the ambient medium and are thus used as an indicator of the presence of carbon monoxide.

  1. Significance of diffusion processes during the formation of regional gas-saturation in formation systems and the gas capacity of deep horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Shilov, Y.S.; Makarenko, F.A.

    1982-09-01

    The diffusion dispersal of methane is analyzed according to Fick's Law, and the relative gas-saturation of the formation systems of differing lithologic composition are predicted through the geologic periods. Good agreement between the calculated values of the gas-saturation of the formation systems and the true data enabled us to record the beginning of breakdown of gas pools and the rates of their diminution. From the relationships of the specific losses of gas, expressed in the height of the gas column under the formational conditions, and the amplitudes of the structures, an attempt has been made to assess the commercial gas-capacity in the depths.

  2. Ambient Concentrations of Carbon Monoxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents trends in ambient carbon monoxide concentrations across the U.S. from 1980 to 2009. By tracking ambient carbon monoxide (CO) – a criteria pollutant with the potential to cause cardiovascular and neurological damage – this dataset shows how a...

  3. Carbon Monoxide Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The fuel cell is a system which employs an electrochemical process to convert gases- J such as hydrogen and oxygen directly into electricity. Under NASA sponsorship, GE's Aircraft Equipment Division developed fuel cells to supply electrical power for the Gemini and Biosatellite spacecraft of the sixties and is currently working on advanced fuel cell development. This long-term effort has resulted in a series of spinoff applications using the same general technology for a variety of purposes, among them the recently marketed Dosimeter. The Dosimeter is designed to help users meet safety requirements for industrial atmospheres, as specified by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and other regulatory agencies. The compact, pocket-sized sensor measures personnel exposure to carbon monoxide and provides both a visual and an audible alarm if the concentration of the gas exceeds present levels. The Dosimeter offers substantial improvement in measuring accuracy over earlier warning indicators.

  4. Rate of uptake of carbon monoxide at different inspired concentrations in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, H.A.; Clark, J.C.; Davies, E.E.; Forster, R.E.; Hughes, J.M.B.

    1982-01-01

    The rate of uptake of carbon monoxide (CO) in the lungs of normal subjects was measured at inspired concentrations of <1, 300, and 3,000 ppm (<0.0001-0.3%) using radioactive CO (/sup 11/CO). In nine subjects the rate of uptake was monitored at the mouth during rebreathing. At inspired CO concentrations of approximately 1, 300, and 3,000 ppm and a mean alveolar O/sub 2/ fraction of 0.15, the mean lung diffusing capacity was 25.8, 26.4, and 25.3 ml.min/sup -1/.Torr/sup -1/, respectively. In seven subjects the measurements were repeated after a period of O/sub 2/ breathing, giving a mean alveolar O/sub 2/ fraction of 0.78. The calculated membrane diffusing capacity was 31.9, 33.7, and 32.0 ml.min/sup -1/.Torr/sup -1/ at <1,300, and 3,000 ppm inspired CO. We conclude that there is no difference in the rate of uptake of CO over the range of concentrations studied in these experiments. No evidence for the presence of a facilitated transport system for CO in the normal human lung was found.

  5. Simultaneous Measurements of Eight Oxyanions Using High-Capacity Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (Zr-Oxide DGT) with a High-Efficiency Elution Procedure.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiming; Xu, Di; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Yan; Li, Yangyang; Gong, Mengdan; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2016-07-19

    A zirconium oxide binding gel-based diffusive gradients in thin films (Zr-oxide DGT) was developed for simultaneous measurements of P(V), As(V), Cr(VI), Mo(VI), Sb(V), Se(VI), V(V), and W(VI). All of the oxyanions were rapidly bound to Zr-oxide gel with differences in binding affinity. The eight bound oxyanions were successfully recovered by one-step elution using a mild reagent of 0.2 M NaOH-0.5 M H2O2 by overcoming the problems in analyses of the oxyanions. The optimized elution time was reduced to 3-5 h from 24-48 h required by other DGTs. DGT uptakes of all the oxyanions were independent of pH (4.42-8.45) and ionic strength (0.1-500 mM). The DGT capacities for six oxyanions detected in multioxyanion solution were only 0.19 to 0.35 times of those detected in single-oxyanion solution, reflecting a strong competition among the oxyanions during DGT uptake. Except for Se(VI) in seawater, Zr-oxide DGT accurately measured all of the oxyanions in synthetic freshwater and seawater, with the capacities ∼29 to >2397 times and ∼7.5 to 232 times those of two commonly used DGTs (Metsorb and precipitated ferrihydrite (PF) DGTs) in freshwater and seawater, respectively. Measurements by Zr-oxide DGT in contaminated sediments were in agreement with only two oxyanions with the two commonly used DGTs; the two DGTs accumulated less or no mass of other oxyanions. This study demonstrates significant advantage of Zr-oxide DGT over the other DGTs in simultaneous measurements of the eight oxyanions due to the former's high capacity and a wide tolerance to environmental interferences, together with a high efficiency in elution. PMID:27303914

  6. Effect of carbon monoxide on the cardiorespiratory system: carbon monoxide toxicity, physiology and biochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Turino, G.M.

    1981-01-01

    Exposure to carbon monoxide compromises function of the cardiovascular system primarily by decreasing oxygen-carrying capacity in the blood and decreasing venous and tissue oxygen tension. In normal individuals, with concentrations of approximately 18 to 20% COHb, there is a reduction in the oxygen consumption during high levels of exercise, a higher than predicted cardiac output, and abnormally high concentrations of lactic acid. However, in patients with coronary artery atherosclerosis, concentrations of COHb of 3 to 5% significantly curtailed exercise tolerance before the onset of angina. In addition, there is suggestive evidence in animals that the hypoxia induced by increased levels of COHb induces atherosclerosis.

  7. A review on engineering of cellulosic cigarette paper to reduce carbon monoxide delivery of cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jing; Li, Jinsong; Qian, Xueren; Ren, Wanshan; Fatehi, Pedram

    2014-01-30

    In cigarette production, the cellulosic paper essentially derived from flax fibers or other fiber materials is used as the wrapping material. During smoking of cigarettes, the highly toxic carbon monoxide is produced. To decrease the amount of carbon monoxide emission in the mainstream smoke, the engineering of all cigarette components including cellulosic cigarette paper and tobacco column is critical. This review summarizes the concepts related to engineering of cigarette paper. These mainly include permeability control, increased use of burn additives, optimization of fiber basis weight, engineering of calcium carbonate fillers, and incorporation of catalysts/oxidants. In particular, catalytic and/or oxidative conversion of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide has been very widely reported. The control of permeability/diffusivity of cigarette paper is also of critical importance for enhanced diffusion of carbon monoxide out of the cigarette. The development of new concepts and combination of various concepts may lead to breakthroughs in this area. PMID:24299837

  8. Combining Natural Attenuation Capacity and use of Targeted Technological Mitigation Measures for Reducing Diffuse Nutrient Emissions to Surface Waters: The Danish Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronvang, B.; Højberg, A. L.; Hoffmann, C. C.; Windolf, J.; Blicher-Mathiesen, G.

    2015-12-01

    Excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) emissions to surface waters are a high priority environmental problem worldwide for protection of water resources in times of population growth and climate change. As clean water is a scarce resource the struggle for reducing nutrient emissions are an ongoing issue for many countries and regions. Since the mid1980s a wide range of national regulatory general measures have been implemented to reduce land based nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loadings of the Danish aquatic environment. These measures have addressed both point source emissions and emissions from diffuse sources especially from agricultural production. Following nearly 4 decades of combating nutrient pollution our surface waters such as lakes and estuaries are only slowly responding on the 50% reduction in N and 56% reduction in P. Therefore, the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Danish surface waters still call for further reductions of N and P loadings. Therefore, a new era of targeted implemented measures was the outcome of a Commission on Nature and Agriculture established by the Danish Government in 2013. Their White Book points to the need of increased growth and better environment through more targeted and efficient regulation using advanced technological mitigation methods that are implemented intelligently according to the local natural attenuation capacity for nutrients in the landscape. As a follow up a national consensus model for N was established chaining existing leaching, 3D groundwater and surface water models that enable a calculation of the N dynamics and attenuation capacity within a scale of 15 km2. Moreover, several research projects have been conducted to investigate the effect of a suite of targeted mitigation measures such as restored natural wetlands, constructed wetlands, controlled drainage, buffer strips and constructed buffer strips. The results of these studies will be shared in this presentation.

  9. [Carbon monoxide intoxications in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Sá, Márcia Christel; Rodrigues, Rui Paulo; Moura, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of carbon monoxide intoxication in the World shows that this is a common situation. In Portugal, there are no concrete data available in literature and its incidence remains unknown. Currently, the use of hyperbaric oxygen is a valid therapeutic for carbon monoxide poisoning management. However, its effectiveness and its proper handling are still controversial. The first aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of carbon monoxide intoxication in Portugal and to analyze its demographic characteristics. The second objective of this work was to evaluate the possible change in the type of treatment applied in areas near de hyperbaric chamber of Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, since its opening in June 2006. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a survey on admissions data for carbon monoxide intoxication occured between January first, 2000 and December 31, 2007. These data was collected in seven hospitals and in the Administração Central do Sistema de Saúde, I.P. Nationally, 621 hospitalizations were recorded, which represents an incidence of 5,86/100000 in 8 years. In the seven hospitals, there were 93 hospitalizations due to carbon monoxide intoxication during the same period of time. There was a peak of incidence during winter, between November and March and there was a similar distribution in men (47,3%) and women (52,7%). Since June 2006, date of opening of the hyperbaric chamber, the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. recorded a sharp increase in the number of hospitalization for carbon monoxide intoxication. The number of admissions in the 19 months after the chamber opening was double the number of all cases occurred in that institution in the 65 months prior. We concluded that, in Portugal, carbon monoxide intoxication is an uncommon situation but it´s still an important cause of hospitalization. The referral of cases to the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. since the opening of hyperbaric chamber

  10. Carbon monoxide poisoning from Sterno.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    A high school student became ill and later unconscious while working over a heating table set over three cans of burning Sterno. Measurements of 1000 to 3000 parts per million of carbon monoxide were obtained around and above the apparatus. Although the room was well ventilated there was incomplete combustion of the canned heating fuel because the apparatus was surrounded by aluminum foil, which resulted in poor oxygenation of the flame area. This case demonstrates the hazards of carbon monoxide poisoning from incompletely burned Sterno. PMID:638911

  11. (Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  12. Diffusible gas transmitter signaling in the copepod crustacean Calanus finmarchicus: identification of the biosynthetic enzymes of nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) using a de novo assembled transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Andrew E.; Fontanilla, Tiana M.; Roncalli, Vittoria; Cieslak, Matthew C.; Lenz, Petra H.

    2014-01-01

    Neurochemical signaling is a major component of physiological/behavioral control throughout the animal kingdom. Gas transmitters are perhaps the most ancient class of molecules used by nervous systems for chemical communication. Three gases are generally recognized as being produced by neurons: nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). As part of an ongoing effort to identify and characterize the neurochemical signaling systems of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, the biomass dominant zooplankton in much of the North Atlantic Ocean, we have mined a de novo assembled transcriptome for sequences encoding the neuronal biosynthetic enzymes of these gases, i.e. nitric oxide synthase (NOS), heme oxygenase (HO) and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), respectively. Using Drosophila proteins as queries, two NOS-, one HO-, and one CBS-encoding transcripts were identified. Reverse BLAST and structural analyses of the deduced proteins suggest that each is a true member of its respective enzyme family. RNA-Seq data collected from embryos, early nauplii, late nauplii, early copepodites, late copepodites and adults revealed the expression of each transcript to be stage specific: one NOS restricted primarily to the embryo and the other was absent in the embryo but expressed in all other stages, no CBS expression in the embryo, but present in all other stages, and HO expressed across all developmental stages. Given the importance of gas transmitters in the regulatory control of a number of physiological processes, these data open opportunities for investigating the roles these proteins play under different life-stage and environmental conditions in this ecologically important species. PMID:24747481

  13. Diffusible gas transmitter signaling in the copepod crustacean Calanus finmarchicus: identification of the biosynthetic enzymes of nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) using a de novo assembled transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E; Fontanilla, Tiana M; Roncalli, Vittoria; Cieslak, Matthew C; Lenz, Petra H

    2014-06-01

    Neurochemical signaling is a major component of physiological/behavioral control throughout the animal kingdom. Gas transmitters are perhaps the most ancient class of molecules used by nervous systems for chemical communication. Three gases are generally recognized as being produced by neurons: nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). As part of an ongoing effort to identify and characterize the neurochemical signaling systems of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, the biomass dominant zooplankton in much of the North Atlantic Ocean, we have mined a de novo assembled transcriptome for sequences encoding the neuronal biosynthetic enzymes of these gases, i.e. nitric oxide synthase (NOS), heme oxygenase (HO) and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), respectively. Using Drosophila proteins as queries, two NOS-, one HO-, and one CBS-encoding transcripts were identified. Reverse BLAST and structural analyses of the deduced proteins suggest that each is a true member of its respective enzyme family. RNA-Seq data collected from embryos, early nauplii, late nauplii, early copepodites, late copepodites and adults revealed the expression of each transcript to be stage specific: one NOS restricted primarily to the embryo and the other was absent in the embryo but expressed in all other stages, no CBS expression in the embryo, but present in all other stages, and HO expressed across all developmental stages. Given the importance of gas transmitters in the regulatory control of a number of physiological processes, these data open opportunities for investigating the roles these proteins play under different life-stage and environmental conditions in this ecologically important species. PMID:24747481

  14. MOPITT Carbon Monoxide Over India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    MOPITT observed high levels of carbon monoxide (red and yellow pixels) over the Indian sub-continent during March. These values are associated with industrial activity in the region just south of the Himalayan Mountains. Notice that to the north, the Himalayas are characterized by low values (blue pixels).

  15. Open air carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Jumbelic, M I

    1998-01-01

    An unusual manner of carbon monoxide poisoning claimed the lives of two adults in two separate incidents. In the first case, a young man was four wheeling in a swampy area when his jeep became stuck in the mud as he continued to floor the accelerator. Carbon monoxide fumes entered the vehicle through the rusted floorboards, killing the driver. In the second case, two teens were skinny dipping behind a motor boat when they became affected by the boat exhaust. One of the youths was overcome and submerged into the lake. Both incidents were initially attributed to incorrect causes--a car accident and a drowning--because of the false notion that carbon monoxide is not a hazard in a ventilated area. The carboxyhemoglobin levels in these victims were 78 and 62% respectively. It was only through laboratory testing that carbon monoxide poisoning was identified as the cause of their demise. Physicians as well as the public need to be aware of the potential for this life threatening hazard to occur so that there can be proper emergency treatment and the prevention of fatalities. PMID:9456553

  16. Carbon monoxide and lethal arrhythmias

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, J.P.; Schwartz, P.J.; Vanoli, E.; Stramba-Badiale, M.; De Ferrari, G.M. )

    1990-12-01

    The effect of acute exposure to carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias was studied in a previously described chronically maintained animal model of sudden cardiac death. In 60 percent of dogs with a healed anterior myocardial infarction, the combination of mild exercise and acute myocardial ischemia induces ventricular fibrillation. The events in this model are highly reproducible, thus allowing study by internal control analysis. Dogs that develop ventricular fibrillation during the test of exercise and acute myocardial ischemia are considered at high risk for sudden death and are defined as 'susceptible'; dogs that survive the test without a fatal arrhythmia are considered at low risk for sudden death and are defined as 'resistant.' In the current study, the effects of carboxyhemoglobin levels ranging from 5 to 15 percent were tested in resistant and susceptible dogs. A trend toward higher heart rates was observed at all levels of carboxyhemoglobin, although significant differences were observed only with 15 percent carboxyhemoglobin. This trend was observed at rest and during exercise in both resistant and susceptible dogs. In resistant animals, in which acute myocardial ischemia is typically associated with bradycardia even under the control condition, this reflex response occurred earlier and was augmented after exposure to carbon monoxide. This effect may depend on the increased hypoxic challenge caused by carbon monoxide, and thus on an augmentation of the neural reflex activation or a sensitization of the sinus node to acetylcholine induced by hypoxia. In both resistant and susceptible dogs, carbon monoxide exposure induced a worsening of ventricular arrhythmias in a minority of cases. This worsening was not reproducible in subsequent trials. These data indicate that acute exposure to carbon monoxide is seldom arrhythmogenic in dogs that have survived myocardial infarction. (Abstract Truncated)

  17. Carbon Monoxide from Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of images shows levels of carbon monoxide at the atmospheric pressure level of 700 millibars (roughly 12,000 feet in altitude) over the continent of South America, as observed by the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) sensor flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Data for producing the image on the left were acquired on March 3, 2000, and for the image on the right on September 7, 2000. Blue pixels show low values, yellows show intermediate values, and the red to pink and then white pixels are progressively higher values. In the lefthand image (March 3), notice the fairly low levels of carbon monoxide over the entire continent. The slightly higher equatorial values are the result of burning emissions in sub-Saharan Africa that are convected at the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and spread by the trade winds. Also, notice the effect of the elevated surface topography across the Andes Mountains running north to south along the western coastline. (In this region, white pixels show no data.) In the righthand image (September 7), a large carbon monoxide plume is seen over Brazil, produced primarily by biomass burning across Amazonia and lofted into the atmosphere by strong cloud convection. The generally higher carbon monoxide levels as compared to March are both the result of South American fire emissions and the transport of carbon monoxide across the Atlantic Ocean from widespread biomass burning over Southern Africa. These images were produced using MOPITT data, which are currently being validated. These data were assimilated into an atmospheric chemical transport model using wind vectors provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Although there is good confidence in the relative seasonal values and geographic variation measured by MOPITT, that team anticipates their level of confidence will improve further with ongoing intensive validation campaigns and comparisons with in situ and ground

  18. Death scene evaluation in a case of fatal accidental carbon monoxide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sedda, Antioco Franco; Rossi, Gabriele

    2006-12-20

    Exposure of humans to high concentrations of carbon monoxide can result in death, due to the formation of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb), which impairs the oxygen carrying capacity of the haemoglobin. Carbon monoxide is responsible of a great number of accidental domestic poisonings and deaths throughout the world, particularly in homes that have faulty or poorly vented combustion appliances. A case is reported, in which a 21-year-old woman was found dead, due to carbon monoxide poisoning from a gas water heater, despite the puzzling evidence that the heater has been used for more than 10 years without any problem. An evaluation of the exposure to CO was performed, by measuiring the rate of production of CO from the heater, and using the Coburn-Forster-Kane equation to describe the kinetics of the poisoning process. The death was attributed to an accidental poisoning from carbon monoxide due to a sum of unfortunate circumstances. PMID:16439085

  19. Carbon monoxide kinetics following simulated cigarette smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Karnik, A.S.; Coin, E.J.

    1980-05-01

    Carbon monoxide kinetics were measured in the blood (% carboxyhemoglobin) and alveolar phase (ppM carbon monoxide) after simulated cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking was siumlated using the same amount of carbon monoxide that 2R1F cigarettes manufactured by the Tobacco Research Institute would contain. Ten boluses of air containing carbon monoxide equivalent to smoking one cigarette were inhaled by six healthy nonsmoker volunteers. Carbon monoxide in the air phase was measured by an Ecolyzer and carboxyhemoglobin was measured by a CO-Oximeter. The mean rise in alveolar carbon monoxide immediately and 20 min after inhaling the last bolus was 3.3 and 3.1 ppM, respectively (p<.005). The mean rise in carboxyhemoglobin immediately and 20 min after inhalation of the last bolus was 0.8 and 0.5% respectively (P<.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin were found to be similar to changes that occur when one cigarette is actually smoked.

  20. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide...

  2. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862....3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide test system is a device intended to measure carbon monoxide or carboxyhemoglobin (carbon monoxide bound to the hemoglobin in...

  3. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862....3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide test system is a device intended to measure carbon monoxide or carboxyhemoglobin (carbon monoxide bound to the hemoglobin in...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide...

  5. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862....3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide test system is a device intended to measure carbon monoxide or carboxyhemoglobin (carbon monoxide bound to the hemoglobin in...

  6. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862....3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide test system is a device intended to measure carbon monoxide or carboxyhemoglobin (carbon monoxide bound to the hemoglobin in...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide...

  8. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862....3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide test system is a device intended to measure carbon monoxide or carboxyhemoglobin (carbon monoxide bound to the hemoglobin in...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The September 28, 1995 revision to the carbon monoxide state... Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2007. (b) The base year carbon monoxide...

  10. Photochemical production and microbial consumption of carbon monoxide in the Caribbean Sea as influenced by the Orinoco River

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.D. )

    1990-01-09

    Carbon monoxide is an important trace gas in the surface waters of the marine environment. An understanding of the mechanisms by which this gas is produced and consumed is important to our understanding carbon cycling in the world's oceans. Carbon monoxide is produced by photochemical processes involving dissolved organic material (DOM) and consumed by microorganism. Major rivers greatly influence the DOM content of the oceans. The Orinoco River of Venezuela inputs its waters into the Caribbean Sea and can, thus, influence production and consumption of carbon monoxide. Microbial consumption rates and photoproduction capacity for carbon monoxide were determined along 2 Caribbean cruise tracks during the spring (low river flow) and fall (high river flow) of 1988. Carbon monoxide production capacity was highest during the fall and the Orinoco influenced a greater area of the Caribbean than during the spring. The highest production capacity was observed in the waters of 22 ppt salinity during the fall and 6.5 ppt during the spring. Correlation of microbial consumption with the highest consumption rate occurring in waters with the highest production capacity. Turnover times for carbon monoxide were as low as 2.2 h, indicating the importance of microbial consumption in these waters.

  11. Coupling of Carbon Monoxide with Nitrogen Monoxide at a Frustrated Lewis Pair Template.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ke-Yin; Kehr, Gerald; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Liu, Lei; Grimme, Stefan; Erker, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    Coupling of carbon monoxide with nitrogen monoxide was achieved at a frustrated Lewis pair template. This unique reaction uses hydride as an auxiliary, which reductively activates carbon monoxide at the frustrated Lewis pair. The CO/NO coupling reaction then takes place through a pathway involving a radical reaction in which the hydrogen atom auxiliary is eventually removed again. PMID:27328914

  12. Mars - Microwave detection of carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakar, R. K.; Walters, J. W.; Wilson, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The 115-gigahertz microwave line of carbon monoxide has been detected in the spectrum of Mars. The measurement is sensitive to carbon monoxide between the surface and an altitude of approximately 50 kilometers in the Martian atmosphere. This extends the altitude region to well above that previously sensed.

  13. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  14. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  15. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  16. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  17. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... using gas detector tube units certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 or other measuring instruments... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The...

  18. Method of removing carbon monoxide from gases

    DOEpatents

    Gerstein, Bernard C.; Macaulay, David B.

    1976-06-01

    A process and catalyst are disclosed for purifying an atmosphere containing carbon monoxide by passing the atmosphere through a bed of a catalyst of TbO.sub.x, where x = 1.8 to 1.5, which oxidizes the carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide.

  19. Compartment Syndrome Resulting from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Serbest, Sancar; Belhan, Oktay; Gürger, Murat; Tosun, Haci Bayram

    2015-12-01

    Every year, especially in the cooler Fall and Winter months, hundreds of people die because of carbon monoxide poisoning. This occurs usually as an accident. It is a significant cause of poisoning worldwide. We present a case of compartment syndrome in both lower extremities with accompanying acute renal failure and systemic capillary leakage syndrome because of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:26588033

  20. Laser detoxication of acute poisonings with carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provorov, Alexander S.; Salmin, Vladimir V.; Stavitskaya, Ekaterina Y.; Egorova, Alla B.

    2002-05-01

    A series of model experiments have been carried out. Those experiments have proved the fact of laser-induced photo dissociation of HbCO using Nd:YAG-laser with wavelength 533 nm at different conditions. Spontaneous reassociation of ligand to hemoproteid has been observed during the interpulse period. In order to prevent the reversibility of the reaction some oxidizing substances as well as trap-like functioning agents have been tested. The preliminary results allow us to propose the application of nonreversible laser- induced HbCO photodissotiation in the capacity of new physical method to treat acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  1. Ignition limits of mixtures containing carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    El'natanov, A.I.; Andreeva, N.V.; Strizhevskii, I.I.

    1983-05-01

    Much attention is being given to methods of production of carbon monoxide because of the need for savings of hydrocarbon feedstocks for industrial synthesis. Besides the traditional method of production of carbon monoxide (coal gasification), it can also be extracted from industrial discharges, which contain oxygen and other gases. For safe technological recovery processes it is necessary to know the ignition limits of mixtures which contain carbon monoxide, oxygen and an inert gas. The available data are quite limited: the ignition limits of mixtures of carbon monoxide with air or oxygen and also with air in which part of the nitrogen has been replaced by carbon dioxide. For this reason, a study was undertaken of the ignition limits of mixtures of carbon monoxide and air with carbon dioxide and argon - as substances having quite varied heat value - over a broad range.

  2. The Carbon Monoxide Tape Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Duncan, B. N.; Douglass, A. R.; Waters, J.; Livesey, N.; Read, W.; Filipiak, M.

    2006-01-01

    Using Aura MLS data we have identified the stratospheric tape recorder in carbon monoxide (CO). Unlike the water vapor tape recorder, which is controlled by upper troposphere processes, the CO tape recorder is linked to seasonal biomass burning. Since CO has a lifetime of only a few months, the CO tape recorder barely extends above 20 km. The tape head for CO appears to be close to 360K near the same location as the water vapor tape head [Read et al, 20041. Both tape heads are below the equatorial cold point tropopause but above the base of the tropical tropopause layer. The tape recorder signal becomes more distinct from 360K to 380K suggesting that convective detrainment of plays a decreasingly important role with altitude. The Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model forced by the climatology of biomass burning reproduces the CO tape recorder.

  3. Effects of carbon monoxide on isolated heart muscle cells. Research report, March 1989-February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenberg, B.A.; Wittenberg, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    By sequestering intracellular myoglobin of cardiac muscle cells in the nonfunctioning carboxymyoglobin form, carbon monoxide blocks myoglobin-facilitated diffusion of oxygen, as well as myoglobin-mediated oxidative phosphorylation. The authors explored the hypothesis that the carbon monoxide blockade of myoglobin function may be responsible at the cellular level for a component of the cardiotoxicity of carbon monoxide observed during exercise. At physiological oxygen pressures no greater than 5 torr, after sequestration of approximately 50% of the myoglobin, steady-state oxygen uptake decreased significantly less than the respiration of cell groups for which the fraction of carboxymyoglobin was 0% to 40%. When respiration is diminished, the rate of oxidative phosphorylation also decreases. Thus, they concluded that sequestering intracellular myoglobin as carboxymyoglobin significantly decreased the rate of oxidative phosphorylation of isolated cardiac myocytes. They estimate that intracellular myoglobin-dependent oxidative phosphorylation will be inhibited when approximately 20% to 40% of the arterial hemoglobin in the whole animal is carboxyhemoglobin.

  4. Carbon monoxide and the burning earth

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, R.E.; Reichle, H.G. Jr.; Seiler, W.

    1989-10-01

    Carbon monoxide is one of many gases whose presence in the atmosphere is blamed largely on industrial activity in the Northern Hemisphere. Data collected by the authors show that the gas is also abundant in the Southern Hemisphere, where it comes mainly from the burning of tropical rain forests and savannas. The high levels of carbon monoxide confirm other evidence that the rain forests are being diminished rapidly, which may affect the climates of these regions as well as globally. Increases in carbon monoxide could also encourage the accumulation of pollutant gases such as ozone and methane. The first is highly toxic to plants and the second would add to the greenhouse effect.

  5. Engineering evidence for carbon monoxide toxicity cases.

    PubMed

    Galatsis, Kosmas

    2016-07-01

    Unintentional carbon monoxide poisonings and fatalities lead to many toxicity cases. Given the unusual physical properties of carbon monoxide-in that the gas is odorless and invisible-unorganized and erroneous methods in obtaining engineering evidence as required during the discovery process often occurs. Such evidence gathering spans domains that include building construction, appliance installation, industrial hygiene, mechanical engineering, combustion and physics. In this paper, we attempt to place a systematic framework that is relevant to key aspects in engineering evidence gathering for unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning cases. Such a framework aims to increase awareness of this process and relevant issues to help guide legal counsel and expert witnesses. PMID:26137848

  6. Tests confirm gas heat as monoxide source

    SciTech Connect

    Besch, E.

    1984-03-01

    Six tests were conducted to demonstrate the potential for natural gas or oil-fired forced warm air heating equipment to produce carbon monoxide emission when the combustion process is impeded by typical causes found in households. In the case of the gas-fired units, impeded combustion produced a smell of aldehyde and various levels of carbon monoxide emission; all within the level dangerous to health. It was concluded that oil-fired warm air systems do not pose a carbon monoxide danger but that natural gas warm air systems do pose a real danger and should be so identified.

  7. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  8. 40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Provisions § 91.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer... service and annually thereafter, check the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer for response to water vapor...

  9. 40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Provisions § 91.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer... service and annually thereafter, check the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer for response to water vapor...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  11. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  12. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  13. 40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Provisions § 91.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer... service and annually thereafter, check the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer for response to water vapor...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  16. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  19. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  20. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  1. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  2. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The November 13, 1992 revision to the carbon monoxide state implementation... attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for carbon monoxide through the year 2003....

  4. 40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Provisions § 91.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer... service and annually thereafter, check the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer for response to water vapor...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995....

  6. Room-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation by oxygen over Pt/Al2O3 mediated by reactive platinum carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Mark A.; Ferri, Davide; Smolentsev, Grigory; Marchionni, Valentina; Nachtegaal, Maarten

    2015-10-01

    Room-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation, important for maintaining clean air among other applications, is challenging even after a century of research into carbon monoxide oxidation. Here we report using time-resolved diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and mass spectrometry a platinum carbonate-mediated mechanism for the room-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide. By applying a periodic reduction-oxidation mode of operation we further show that this behaviour is reversible and can be formed into a catalytic cycle that requires molecular communication between metallic platinum nanoparticles and highly dispersed oxidic platinum centres. A new possibility for the attainment of low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide is therefore demonstrated.

  7. Room-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation by oxygen over Pt/Al2O3 mediated by reactive platinum carbonates

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Mark A.; Ferri, Davide; Smolentsev, Grigory; Marchionni, Valentina; Nachtegaal, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Room-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation, important for maintaining clean air among other applications, is challenging even after a century of research into carbon monoxide oxidation. Here we report using time-resolved diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and mass spectrometry a platinum carbonate-mediated mechanism for the room-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide. By applying a periodic reduction–oxidation mode of operation we further show that this behaviour is reversible and can be formed into a catalytic cycle that requires molecular communication between metallic platinum nanoparticles and highly dispersed oxidic platinum centres. A new possibility for the attainment of low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide is therefore demonstrated. PMID:26489669

  8. Room-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation by oxygen over Pt/Al2O3 mediated by reactive platinum carbonates.

    PubMed

    Newton, Mark A; Ferri, Davide; Smolentsev, Grigory; Marchionni, Valentina; Nachtegaal, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Room-temperature carbon monoxide oxidation, important for maintaining clean air among other applications, is challenging even after a century of research into carbon monoxide oxidation. Here we report using time-resolved diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and mass spectrometry a platinum carbonate-mediated mechanism for the room-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide. By applying a periodic reduction-oxidation mode of operation we further show that this behaviour is reversible and can be formed into a catalytic cycle that requires molecular communication between metallic platinum nanoparticles and highly dispersed oxidic platinum centres. A new possibility for the attainment of low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide is therefore demonstrated. PMID:26489669

  9. Protecting Children from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... monoxide poisoning increases after disasters when gasoline- or diesel-powered generators may be more frequently used to ... can mimic symptoms of sea sickness. Schedule regular engine and exhaust system maintenance. Consider installing a carbon ...

  10. Polymer-Based Carbon Monoxide Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, M. L.; Shevade, A. V.; Zhou, H.; Kisor, A. K.; Lara, L. M.; Yen, S.-P. S.; Ryan, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Polymer-based sensors have been used primarily to detect volatile organics and inorganics; they are not usually used for smaller, gas phase molecules. We report the development and use of two types of polymer-based sensors for the detection of carbon monoxide. Further understanding of the experimental results is also obtained by performing molecular modeling studies to investigate the polymer-carbon monoxide interactions. The first type is a carbon-black-polymer composite that is comprised of a non-conducting polymer base that has been impregnated with carbon black to make it conducting. These chemiresistor sensors show good response to carbon monoxide but do not have a long lifetime. The second type of sensor has a non-conducting polymer base but includes both a porphyrin-functionalized polypyrrole and carbon black. These sensors show good, repeatable and reversible response to carbon monoxide at room temperature.

  11. A Fluorescent Source NDIR Carbon Monoxide Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, W. T.; McClatchie, E. A.; Watson, D. A.; Compher, A. B.

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique for measuring trace quantities of carbon monoxide by the nondispersive infrared (NDIR) methods. The technique uses the property of infrared fluorescence in a gas to generate a specific source of radiation which is an exact match of the absorption spectrum of the fundamental band of carbon monoxide. This results in an instrument with high sensitivity and specificity for CO. A novel method of referencing using an isotopic species of CO confers great stability on the instrument.

  12. An unusual case of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Auger, P L; Levesque, B; Martel, R; Prud'homme, H; Bellemare, D; Barbeau, C; Lachance, P; Rhainds, M

    1999-01-01

    Carbon monoxide, a gas originating from incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels, is an important cause of human deaths. In this paper, we describe an unusual carbon monoxide poisoning in a dwelling without obvious sources of combustion gases, for which two adults had to be treated in a hyperbaric chamber. Carbon monoxide readings were taken in the house and in the neighboring homes. Methane gas and nitrogen oxide levels were also monitored in the house air. Soil samples were collected around the house and tested for hydrocarbon residues. The investigation revealed the presence of a pocket of carbon monoxide under the foundation of the house. The first readings revealed carbon monoxide levels of 500 ppm in the basement. The contamination lasted for a week. The investigation indicated that the probable source of contamination was the use of explosives at a nearby rain sewer construction site. The use of explosives in a residential area can constitute a major source of carbon monoxide for the neighboring populations. This must be investigated, and public health authorities, primary-care physicians, governmental authorities, and users and manufacturers of explosives must be made aware of this problem. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10379009

  13. Device for staged carbon monoxide oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Nguyen, Trung V.; Guante, Jr., Joseph

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for selectively oxidizing carbon monoxide in a hydrogen rich feed stream. The method comprises mixing a feed stream consisting essentially of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water and carbon monoxide with a first predetermined quantity of oxygen (air). The temperature of the mixed feed/oxygen stream is adjusted in a first the heat exchanger assembly (20) to a first temperature. The mixed feed/oxygen stream is sent to reaction chambers (30,32) having an oxidation catalyst contained therein. The carbon monoxide of the feed stream preferentially absorbs on the catalyst at the first temperature to react with the oxygen in the chambers (30,32) with minimal simultaneous reaction of the hydrogen to form an intermediate hydrogen rich process stream having a lower carbon monoxide content than the feed stream. The elevated outlet temperature of the process stream is carefully controlled in a second heat exchanger assembly (42) to a second temperature above the first temperature. The process stream is then mixed with a second predetermined quantity of oxygen (air). The carbon monoxide of the process stream preferentially reacts with the second quantity of oxygen in a second stage reaction chamber (56) with minimal simultaneous reaction of the hydrogen in the process stream. The reaction produces a hydrogen rich product stream having a lower carbon monoxide content than the process stream. The product stream is then cooled in a third heat exchanger assembly (72) to a third predetermined temperature. Three or more stages may be desirable, each with metered oxygen injection.

  14. Therapeutic Applications of Carbon Monoxide

    PubMed Central

    Knauert, Melissa; Vangala, Sandeep; Haslip, Maria; Lee, Patty J.

    2013-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a regulated enzyme induced in multiple stress states. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of HO catalysis of heme. In many circumstances, CO appears to functionally replace HO-1, and CO is known to have endogenous anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antiproliferative effects. CO is well studied in anoxia-reoxygenation and ischemia-reperfusion models and has advanced to phase II trials for treatment of several clinical entities. In alternative injury models, laboratories have used sepsis, acute lung injury, and systemic inflammatory challenges to assess the ability of CO to rescue cells, organs, and organisms. Hopefully, the research supporting the protective effects of CO in animal models will translate into therapeutic benefits for patients. Preclinical studies of CO are now moving towards more complex damage models that reflect polymicrobial sepsis or two-step injuries, such as sepsis complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome. Furthermore, co-treatment and post-treatment with CO are being explored in which the insult occurs before there is an opportunity to intervene therapeutically. The aim of this review is to discuss the potential therapeutic implications of CO with a focus on lung injury and sepsis-related models. PMID:24648866

  15. Cognitive Severity-Specific Neuronal Degenerative Network in Charcoal Burning Suicide-Related Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Nai-Ching; Huang, Chi-Wei; Huang, Shu-Hua; Chang, Wen-Neng; Chang, Ya-Ting; Lui, Chun-Chung; Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Lee, Chen-Chang; Chang, Yen-Hsiang; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Abstract While carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication often triggers multiple intraneuronal immune- or inflammatory-related cascades, it is not known whether the pathological processes within the affected regions evolve equally in the long term. To understand the neurodegenerative networks, we examined 49 patients with a clinical diagnosis of CO intoxication related to charcoal burning suicide at the chronic stage and compared them with 15 age- and sex-matched controls. Reconstructions of degenerative networks were performed using T1 magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-tensor imaging, and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET). Tract-specific fractional anisotropy (FA) quantification of 11 association fibers was performed while the clinical significance of the reconstructed structural or functional networks was determined by correlating them with the cognitive parameters. Compared with the controls, the patients had frontotemporal gray matter (GM) atrophy, diffuse white matter (WM) FA decrement, and axial diffusivity (AD) increment. The patients were further stratified into 3 groups based on the cognitive severities. The spatial extents within the frontal-insular-caudate GM as well as the prefrontal WM AD increment regions determined the cognitive severities among 3 groups. Meanwhile, the prefrontal WM FA values and PET signals also correlated significantly with the patient's Mini-Mental State Examination score. Frontal hypometabolic patterns in PET analysis, even after adjusted for GM volume, were highly coherent to the GM atrophic regions, suggesting structural basis of functional alterations. Among the calculated major association bundles, only the anterior thalamic radiation FA values correlated significantly with all chosen cognitive scores. Our findings suggest that fronto-insular-caudate areas represent target degenerative network in CO intoxication. The topography that occurred at a cognitive severity-specific level at the chronic phase

  16. Catalytic combustion of dry carbon monoxide by external power activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treviño, C.; Prince, J. C.

    2000-03-01

    The catalytic combustion of dry carbon monoxide and air in a planar stagnation-point flow over a platinum foil with external power is studied in this paper. The reduced heterogeneous kinetics are modelled with the dissociative adsorption of the molecular oxygen and the non-dissociative adsorption of CO, together with a surface reaction of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood type and the desorption reaction of the adsorbed product, CO 2(s). The resulting governing equations have been numerically integrated and the whole S-shaped response curve has been obtained as a function of the mixture initial concentration. The critical conditions for the catalytic ignition and extinction are deduced using high activation energy asymptotics of the desorption kinetics of the most efficient adsorbed reactant, CO(s). We obtained a very good agreement between the numerical and asymptotic results for the ignition and extinction conditions. In general, the ignition process can be well modelled without reactant consumption, while extinction occurs in the partial diffusion-controlled regime, with a finite non-zero concentration of carbon monoxide close to the plate.

  17. Isolated quadriceps training increases maximal exercise capacity in chronic heart failure: The role of skeletal muscle convective and diffusive oxygen transport

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Fabio; Reese, Van; Shabetai, Ralph; Wagner, Peter D.; Richardson, Russell S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the benefits of small muscle mass exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Background How central cardiorespiratory and/or peripheral skeletal muscle factors are altered with small muscle mass training in CHF is unknown. Methods We studied muscle structure and oxygen (O2) transport and metabolism at maximal cycle (whole body) and knee-extensor exercise (KE) (small muscle mass) in 6 healthy controls and 6 patients with CHF who then performed 8 weeks of KE training (both legs, separately) and repeated these assessments. Results Pre-training cycling and KE peak leg O2 uptake (VO2peak) were ~17% and ~15% lower, respectively, in the patients compared to controls. Structurally, KE training increased quadriceps muscle capillarity and mitochondrial density by ~21 and ~25%, respectively. Functionally, despite not altering maximal cardiac output, KE training increased maximal O2 delivery (~54%), arterial-venous O2 (a–v O2) difference (~10%), and muscle O2 diffusive conductance (DMO2) (~39%) (assessed during KE), thereby increasing single leg VO2peak by ~53%, to a level exceeding that of the untrained controls. Post-training, during maximal cycling, O2 delivery (~40%), a–v O2 difference (~15%), and DMO2 (~52%) all increased, yielding an increase in VO2peak of ~40%, matching the controls. Conclusions In the face of continued central limitations, clear improvements in muscle structure, peripheral convective and diffusive O2 transport, and subsequently O2 utilization support the efficacy of local skeletal muscle training as a powerful approach to combat exercise intolerance in CHF. PMID:21920265

  18. Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Wayland, B.B.

    1992-12-01

    This project is focused on developing strategies to accomplish the reduction and hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to produce organic oxygenates at mild conditions. Our approaches to this issue are based on the recognition that rhodium macrocycles have unusually favorable thermodynamic values for producing a series of intermediate implicated in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO. Observations of metalloformyl complexes produced by reactions of H{sub 2} and CO, and reductive coupling of CO to form metallo {alpha}-diketone species have suggested a multiplicity of routes to organic oxygenates that utilize these species as intermediates. Thermodynamic and kinetic-mechanistic studies are used in constructing energy profiles for a variety of potential pathways, and these schemes are used in guiding the design of new metallospecies to improve the thermodynamic and kinetic factors for individual steps in the overall process. Variation of the electronic and steric effects associated with the ligand arrays along with the influences of the reaction medium provide the chemical tools for tuning these factors. Emerging knowledge of the factors that contribute to M-H, M-C and M-O bond enthalpies is directing the search for ligand arrays that will expand the range of metal species that have favorable thermodynamic parameters to produce the primary intermediates for CO hydrogenation. Studies of rhodium complexes are being extended to non-macrocyclic ligand complexes that emulate the favorable thermodynamic features associated with rhodium macrocycles, but that also manifest improved reaction kinetics. Multifunctional catalyst systems designed to couple the ability of rhodium complexes to produce formyl and diketone intermediates with a second catalyst that hydrogenates these imtermediates are promising approaches to accomplish CO hydrogenation at mild conditions.

  19. [Carbon monoxide contamination: an environmental health problem].

    PubMed

    Téllez, Jairo; Rodríguez, Alba; Fajardo, Alvaro

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is considered to be a major factor contaminating earth's atmosphere. The main sources producing this contamination are cars using gasoline or diesel fuel and industrial processes using carbon compounds; these two are responsible for 80% of carbon monoxide being emitted to the atmosphere. This substance has a well-known toxic effect on human beings and its acute poisonous effects (including death) have been widely studied; however, its long-term chronic effects are still not known. During the last few years, experimental research on animals and studies of human epidemiology have established the relationship between chronic exposure to low and middle levels of carbon monoxide in breathable air and adverse effects on human health, especially on organs consuming large amounts of oxygen such as the heart and brain. Harmful cardiovascular and neuropsychological effects have been documented in carbon monoxide concentration in air of less than 25 ppm and in carboxyhaemoglobin levels in blood of less than 10%. The main cardiac damage described to date has been high blood pressure, cardiac arrhythm and electrocardiograph signs of ischemia. Lack of memory, attention, concentration and Parkinson-type altered movement are the neuropsychological changes most frequently associated with chronic exposure to low levels of carbon monoxide and carboxyhaemoglobin. PMID:16703967

  20. Anisotropic thermal conductivity of semiconducting graphene monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, H. H.; Rhim, S. H.; Hirschmugl, C. J.; Gajdardziska-Josifovska, M.; Weinert, M.; Chen, J. H.

    2013-06-01

    The intrinsic thermal conductivity of monolayer graphene monoxide is determined via first-principles calculations. The phonon transport in graphene monoxide is anisotropic, with the lattice thermal conductivity along the armchair direction (…C-2O-C…) about five times higher than that along the zigzag (…C-C…) direction. The predicted thermal conductivity (>3000 Wm-1K-1 at 300 K) of graphene monoxide is 80% of that of graphene along the armchair direction for large sample lateral sizes (>5 μm). In addition, heat is predominantly carried by longitudinal acoustic phonons along the armchair direction, while the contribution from the transverse acoustic phonon mode is prevalent along the zigzag direction.

  1. Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Dutta, Prabir K.; Swartz, Scott L.; Holt, Christopher T.; Revur, Ramachandra Rao

    2006-01-10

    A sensor and method of use for detection of low levels of carbon monoxide in gas mixtures. The approach is based on the change in an electrical property (for example: resistance) that occurs when carbon monoxide is selectively absorbed by a film of copper chloride (or other metal halides). The electrical property change occurs rapidly with both increasing and decreasing CO contents, varies with the amount of CO from the gas stream, and is insensitive to the presence of hydrogen. To make a sensor using this approach, the metal halide film will deposited onto an alumina substrate with electrodes. The sensor may be maintained at the optimum temperature with a thick film platinum heater deposited onto the opposite face of the substrate. When the sensor is operating at an appropriate (and constant) temperature, the magnitude of the electrical property measured between the interdigital electrodes will provide a measure of the carbon monoxide content of the gas.

  2. [Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  3. CPSC Warns of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning with Camping Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Warns of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Hazard with Camping Equipment The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) warns ... about the carbon monoxide (CO) hazard with camping equipment. CO can kill you! From 2002–2006, CPSC ...

  4. Pits confined in ultrathin cerium(IV) oxide for studying catalytic centers in carbon monoxide oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongfu; Liu, Qinghua; Gao, Shan; Cheng, Hao; Lei, Fengcai; Sun, Zhihu; Jiang, Yong; Su, Haibin; Wei, Shiqiang; Xie, Yi

    2013-11-01

    Finding ideal material models for studying the role of catalytic active sites remains a great challenge. Here we propose pits confined in an atomically thin sheet as a platform to evaluate carbon monoxide catalytic oxidation at various sites. The artificial three-atomic-layer thin cerium(IV) oxide sheet with approximately 20% pits occupancy possesses abundant pit-surrounding cerium sites having average coordination numbers of 4.6 as revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Density-functional calculations disclose that the four- and five-fold coordinated pit-surrounding cerium sites assume their respective role in carbon monoxide adsorption and oxygen activation, which lowers the activation barrier and avoids catalytic poisoning. Moreover, the presence of coordination-unsaturated cerium sites increases the carrier density and facilitates carbon monoxide diffusion along the two-dimensional conducting channels of surface pits. The atomically thin sheet with surface-confined pits exhibits lower apparent activation energy than the bulk material (61.7 versus 122.9 kJ mol-1), leading to reduced conversion temperature and enhanced carbon monoxide catalytic ability.

  5. Reaction engineering for materials processing in space: Reduction of ilmenite by hydrogen and carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Y.; Shadman, F.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen is a consumable material which needs to be produced continuously in most space missions. Its use for propulsion as well as life support makes oxygen one of the largest volume chemicals to be produced in space. Production of oxygen from lunar materials is of particular interest and is very attractive possibility. The kinetics and mechanism of reduction of ilmenite by carbon monoxide and hydrogen at 800 to 1100 C were investigated. The temporal profiles of conversion for carbon monoxide have a sigmoidal shape and indicate the presence of three different stages (induction, acceleration, and deceleration) during the reduction reaction. The apparent activation energy decreases from 18 kcal/mole at 10 percent conversion to 10 kcal/mole at 50 percent conversion. The reaction is first order with respect to carbon monoxide under the experimental conditions studied. Both SEM and EDX analysis show that the diffusion of Fe product away from the reaction front and through the TiO2 phase, followed by the nucleation and growth of a separate Fe phase are important steps affecting the process kinetics. The results from hydrogen reduction show that the mechanism of ilmenite reduction by hydrogen is similar to that by carbon monoxide. However, the titanium dioxide can be further reduced by hydrogen at 800 to 1000 C. The detailed comparison and theoretical modeling of both reduction processes is presented.

  6. 21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of...

  7. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer as described in this section. (b) Initial and periodic interference. Prior...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  12. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibrations: (a) Initial...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  16. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibrations: (a) Initial...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  18. 21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  1. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer as described in this section. (b) Initial and periodic interference. Prior...

  2. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.522-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer... thereafter the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2: (1)...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  5. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.522-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer... thereafter the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2: (1)...

  6. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibrations: (a) Initial...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  8. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibrations: (a) Initial...

  9. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.122-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall receive the following initial and periodic calibrations: (a) Initial...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  11. 21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of...

  12. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.522-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer... thereafter the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2: (1)...

  13. 21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  16. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer as described in this section. (b) Initial and periodic interference. Prior...

  17. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.317 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer as described in this section. (b) Initial and periodic interference. Prior...

  18. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.522-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer... thereafter the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2: (1)...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation...

  20. 21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua...

  2. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.522-78 Carbon monoxide analyzer... thereafter the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2: (1)...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following...

  5. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in an Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comfort, Robert J.; Daveler, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Described is an investigation conducted by municipal inspection and code enforcement personnel following an episode of carbon monoxide poisoning among elementary school children in a small eastern Pennsylvania community in 1975. The need for a reevaluation of existing building code standards is emphasized. (BT)

  6. Carbon Monoxide, A Bibliography With Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Anna Grossman

    Included is a review of the carbon monoxide related literature published from 1880 to 1966. The 983 references with abstracts are grouped into these broad categories: Analysis, Biological Effects, Blood Chemistry, Control, Criteria and Standards, Instruments and Techniques, Sampling and Network Operations, and Sources. The Biological Effects group…

  7. Selective Oxidizer For Removal Of Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trocciola, John C.; Schroll, Craig R.; Lesieur, Roger R.

    1996-01-01

    Catalytic apparatus selectively oxidizes most of carbon monoxide (without oxidizing hydrogen) in stream of reformed fuel gas fed to low-temperature fuel cell. Multiple catalytic stages at progressively lower temperatures operate without becoming poisoned. Catalysts used to oxidize CO selectively include platinum on alumina and commercial catalyst known as "Selectoxo."

  8. Carbon monoxide poisoning associated with narghile use.

    PubMed

    Cavus, Umut Yucel; Rehber, Zehra Hamiyet; Ozeke, Ozcan; Ilkay, Erdogan

    2010-05-01

    The case history is presented of a healthy 25-year-old man who was admitted to hospital after two syncopal episodes caused by carbon monoxide poisoning after smoking narghile. Clinicians should be aware of this association when they evaluate syncope in the emergency department, especially in narghile users. PMID:20442182

  9. Relationship between nutritional risk and exercise capacity in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in male patients

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Xizheng; Liu, Jinming; Luo, Yanrong; Xu, Xiaowen; Han, Zhiqing; Li, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    Objective The nutritional status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is associated with their exercise capacity. In the present study, we have explored the relationship between nutritional risk and exercise capacity in severe male COPD patients. Methods A total of 58 severe COPD male patients were enrolled in this study. The patients were assigned to no nutritional risk group (n=33) and nutritional risk group (n=25) according to the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS, 2002) criteria. Blood gas analysis, conventional pulmonary function testing, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing were performed on all the patients. Results Results showed that the weight and BMI of the patients in the nutritional risk group were significantly lower than in the no nutritional risk group (P<0.05). The pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide of the no nutritional risk group was significantly higher than that of the nutritional risk group (P<0.05). Besides, the peak VO2 (peak oxygen uptake), peak O2 pulse (peak oxygen pulse), and peak load of the nutritional risk group were significantly lower than those of the no nutritional risk group (P<0.05) and there were significantly negative correlations between the NRS score and peak VO2, peak O2 pulse, or peak load (r<0, P<0.05). Conclusion The association between exercise capacity and nutritional risk based on NRS 2002 in severe COPD male patients is supported by these results of this study. PMID:26150712

  10. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Some Surprising Aspects of the Equilibrium between Hemoglobin, Carbon Monoxide, and Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senozan, N. M.; Devore, J. A.

    1996-08-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning and some aspects of the equilibrium between carbon monoxide, oxygen, and hemoglobin are discussed within the framework of Haldane's laws. The effect of CO on respiration is analyzed quantitatively using oxygen dissociation curves of hemoglobin in presence of carboxyhemoglobin. The analysis shows that the adverse cardiovascular consequences of chronic CO exposure are unlikely to be due to reduced O2 transport capability of hemoglobin.

  11. Method and apparatus for selective removal of carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Borup, Rodney L.; Skala, Glenn W.; Brundage, Mark A.; LaBarge, William J.

    2000-01-01

    There is provided a method and apparatus for treatment of a hydrogen-rich gas to reduce the carbon monoxide content thereof by reacting the carbon monoxide in the gas with an amount of oxygen sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalyst in a desired temperature range without substantial reaction of hydrogen. The catalyst is an iridium-based catalyst dispersed on, and supported on, a carrier. In the presence of the catalyst, carbon monoxide in a hydrogen-rich feed gas is selectively oxidized such that a product stream is produced with a very low carbon monoxide content.

  12. Effects of xenobiotics on total antioxidant capacity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article was to review the effects of xenobiotics on total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Measurement of TAC is appropriate for evaluation of the total antioxidant defenses of blood, cells, and different kinds of tissues and organs. TAC is reduced by alcoholism, smoking, and exposure to radiation, herbicides, carbon monoxide, carbon tetrachloride, lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and other toxic elements. The test is also an important tool in evaluating environmental and occupational exposure. PMID:23554550

  13. Pulmonary vascular reserve and exercise capacity at sea level and at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Pavelescu, Adriana; Faoro, Vitalie; Guenard, Hervé; de Bisschop, Claire; Martinot, Jean-Benoit; Mélot, Christian; Naeije, Robert

    2013-03-01

    It has been suggested that increased pulmonary vascular reserve, as defined by reduced pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and increased pulmonary transit of agitated contrast measured by echocardiography, might be associated with increased exercise capacity. Thus, at altitude, where PVR is increased because of hypoxic vasoconstriction, a reduced pulmonary vascular reserve could contribute to reduced exercise capacity. Furthermore, a lower PVR could be associated with higher capillary blood volume and an increased lung diffusing capacity. We reviewed echocardiographic estimates of PVR and measurements of lung diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DL(NO)) and for carbon monoxide (DL(CO)) at rest, and incremental cardiopulmonary exercise tests in 64 healthy subjects at sea level and during 4 different medical expeditions at altitudes around 5000 m. Altitude exposure was associated with a decrease in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), from 42±10 to 32±8 mL/min/kg and increases in PVR, ventilatory equivalents for CO2 (V(E)/VCO2), DL(NO), and DL(CO). By univariate linear regression VO2max at sea level and at altitude was associated with V(E)/VCO2 (p<0.001), mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPpa, p<0.05), stroke volume index (SVI, p<0.05), DL(NO) (p<0.02), and DL(CO) (p=0.05). By multivariable analysis, VO2max at sea level and at altitude was associated with V(E)/VCO2, mPpa, SVI, and DL(NO). The multivariable analysis also showed that the altitude-related decrease in VO2max was associated with increased PVR and V(E)/VCO2. These results suggest that pulmonary vascular reserve, defined by a combination of decreased PVR and increased DL(NO), allows for superior aerobic exercise capacity at a lower ventilatory cost, at sea level and at high altitude. PMID:23537256

  14. Gaps in capacity for respiratory care in developing countries. Nigeria as a case study.

    PubMed

    Obaseki, Daniel; Adeniyi, Bamidele; Kolawole, Tolulope; Onyedum, Cajetan; Erhabor, Gregory

    2015-04-01

    There are unmet needs for respiratory medical care in developing countries. We sought to evaluate the quality and capacity for respiratory care in low- and lower-middle-income countries, using Nigeria as a case study. We obtained details of the respiratory practice of consultants and senior residents (fellows) in respiratory medicine in Nigeria via a semistructured questionnaire administered to physician attendees at the 2013 National Congress of the Nigerian Thoracic Society. Out of 76 society-registered members, 48 attended the congress, 40 completed the questionnaire, and 35 provided complete data (73% adjusted response rate). Respondents provided information on the process and costs of respiratory medicine training and facility, equipment, and supply capacities at the institutions they represented. Approximately 83% reported working at a tertiary level (teaching) hospital; 91% reported capacity for sputum smear analysis for acid alcohol-fast bacilli, 37% for GeneXpert test cartridges, and 20% for BACTEC liquid sputum culture. Only 34% of respondents could perform full spirometry on patients, and none had the capacity for performing a methacholine challenge test or for measuring the diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide. We estimated the proportion of registered respiratory physicians to the national population at 1 per 2.3 million individuals. Thirteen states with an estimated combined population of 57.7 million offer no specialist respiratory services. Barriers to development of this capacity include the high cost of training. We conclude that substantial gaps exist in the capacity and quality of respiratory care in Nigeria, a pattern that probably mirrors most of sub-Saharan Africa and other countries of similar economic status. Health policy makers should address these gaps systematically. PMID:25734613

  15. A new iron-based carbon monoxide oxidation catalyst: structure-activity correlation.

    PubMed

    Schoch, Roland; Huang, Heming; Schünemann, Volker; Bauer, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    A new iron-based catalyst for carbon monoxide oxidation, as a potential substitute for precious-metal systems, has been prepared by using a facile impregnation method with iron tris-acetylacetonate as a precursor on γ-Al2 O3 . Light-off and full conversion temperatures as low as 235 and 278 °C can be reached. However, the catalytic activity strongly depends on the loading; lower loadings perform better than higher ones. The different activities can be explained by variations of the structures formed. The structures are thoroughly characterized by a multimethodic approach by using X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas, and Mössbauer spectroscopy combined with diffuse reflectance UV/Vis and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Consequently, isolated tetrahedrally coordinated Fe(3+) centers and phases of AlFeO3 are identified as structural requirements for high activity in the oxidation of carbon monoxide. PMID:25212843

  16. An explanatory model of functional exercise capacity in patients with systemic sclerosis: considerations for rehabilitation programs

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Agnaldo José; Ferreira, Arthur de Sá; Lima, Tatiana Rafaela Lemos; Menezes, Sara Lucia Silveira; Guimarães, Fernando Silva

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the impact of lung function and peripheral muscle function on the six-minute walking distance (6MWD) in systemic sclerosis (SS) patients and, thereby, to develop an explanatory model of functional exercise capacity for these individuals. [Methods] In a cross-sectional study, 31 SS patients underwent pulmonary function testing (including spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO], and respiratory muscle strength), isometric dynamometry with surface electromyography, and the 6MWD. [Results] There was a significant correlation between the 6MWD (% predicted, 6MWD%) and the following parameters: height (r = 0.427) and DLCO (r = 0.404). In contrast, no other independent variable showed a significant correlation with the 6MWD% (r ≤ 0.257). The final prediction model for 6MWD% (adjusted R2 = 0.456, SE of bias=12%) was 6MWD% Gibbons = −131.3 + 1.16 × heightcm + 0.33 × DLCO% predicted. [Conclusion] In SS patients, body height and pulmonary diffusion are the main determinants of the 6MWD. Our results justify further investigation of the performance of SS patients during exercise, which may increase the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the disease. The impact of these findings in SS patients may be useful for evaluating the effects of rehabilitation programs. PMID:27065545

  17. An explanatory model of functional exercise capacity in patients with systemic sclerosis: considerations for rehabilitation programs.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Agnaldo José; Ferreira, Arthur de Sá; Lima, Tatiana Rafaela Lemos; Menezes, Sara Lucia Silveira; Guimarães, Fernando Silva

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the impact of lung function and peripheral muscle function on the six-minute walking distance (6MWD) in systemic sclerosis (SS) patients and, thereby, to develop an explanatory model of functional exercise capacity for these individuals. [Methods] In a cross-sectional study, 31 SS patients underwent pulmonary function testing (including spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO], and respiratory muscle strength), isometric dynamometry with surface electromyography, and the 6MWD. [Results] There was a significant correlation between the 6MWD (% predicted, 6MWD%) and the following parameters: height (r = 0.427) and DLCO (r = 0.404). In contrast, no other independent variable showed a significant correlation with the 6MWD% (r ≤ 0.257). The final prediction model for 6MWD% (adjusted R(2) = 0.456, SE of bias=12%) was 6MWD% Gibbons = -131.3 + 1.16 × heightcm + 0.33 × DLCO% predicted. [Conclusion] In SS patients, body height and pulmonary diffusion are the main determinants of the 6MWD. Our results justify further investigation of the performance of SS patients during exercise, which may increase the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the disease. The impact of these findings in SS patients may be useful for evaluating the effects of rehabilitation programs. PMID:27065545

  18. Enhanced carbon monoxide utilization in methanation process

    DOEpatents

    Elek, Louis F.; Frost, Albert C.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon monoxide - containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. The active carbon is subsequently reacted with steam or hydrogen to form methane. Surprisingly, hydrogen and water vapor present in the feed gas do not adversely affect CO utilization significantly, and such hydrogen actually results in a significant increase in CO utilization.

  19. Myocardial function and perfusion in the CREST syndrome variant of progressive systemic sclerosis. Exercise radionuclide evaluation and comparison with diffuse scleroderma

    SciTech Connect

    Follansbee, W.P.; Curtiss, E.I.; Medsger, T.A. Jr.; Owens, G.R.; Steen, V.D.; Rodnan, G.P.

    1984-09-01

    Myocardial function and perfusion were evaluated in 22 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis with the CREST syndrome using exercise and radionuclide techniques, pulmonary function testing, and chest roentgenography. The results were compared with a similar study of 26 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma. The prevalence of thallium perfusion abnormalities was similar in the groups with CREST syndrome and diffuse scleroderma, (64 percent versus 77 percent), but the defects were significantly smaller in the CREST syndrome (p less than 0.01). Reperfusion thallium defects in the absence of extramural coronary artery disease were seen in 38 percent of patients with diffuse scleroderma. This finding was not seen in any of the patients with the CREST syndrome. In diffuse scleroderma, abnormalities of both right and left ventricular function were related to larger thallium perfusion defects. In the CREST syndrome, abnormalities of left ventricular function were minor, were seen only during exercise, and were unrelated to thallium perfusion defects. Abnormal resting right ventricular function was seen in 36 percent of the patients with the CREST syndrome and was associated with an isolated decrease in diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide. It is concluded that the cardiac manifestations of the CREST syndrome are distinct from those found in diffuse scleroderma. Unlike diffuse scleroderma, abnormalities of left ventricular function in the CREST syndrome are minor and are unrelated to abnormalities of coronary perfusion. Right ventricular dysfunction in the CREST syndrome appears to be primarily related to pulmonary vascular disease.

  20. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  1. Cortical blindness in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Katafuchi, Y; Nishimi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Matsuishi, T; Kimura, Y; Otaki, E; Yamashita, Y

    1985-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy had persistent cortical blindness following acute carbon monoxide poisoning. He was believed to have suffered anoxic brain damage due to incomplete combustion of the briquette-type solid fuel. Computed tomographic (CT) scan of the brain and visual evoked potentials (VEP) in the early stage were normal. However, on the 20th hospital day CT scan showed leukomalacia and VEP showed an absence of N1-, and P1-waves which was well correlated with the clinical feature at that time. PMID:4083389

  2. Carbon monoxide adsorption on beryllium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allouche, A.

    2013-02-01

    Density functional calculations are here carried out to study the carbon monoxide molecule adsorption on pristine, hydrogenated and hydroxylated beryllium Be (0001) surfaces. The adsorption energies and structures, the activation barriers to molecular adsorption and dissociation are calculated. These reactions are described in terms of potential energy surfaces and electronic density of states. The quantum results are discussed along two directions: the beryllium surface reactivity in the domain of nuclear fusion devices and the possible usage of beryllium as a catalyst of Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis.

  3. Carbon copy deaths: carbon monoxide gas chamber.

    PubMed

    Patel, F

    2008-08-01

    The news media can exert a powerful influence over suicidal behaviour. It has been observed that like-minded individuals are able to preplan a group suicide method using modern communication technology in the form of websites and online chatrooms and mobile phone texting. A case of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is presented to illustrate the recent phenomenon of cyber suicides by suffocation from a burning barbecue (charcoal burner) in 'gas chamber' conversions. Although barbecues (BBQ) are very popular in Britain and widely available, there have been relatively few reported cases of copycat deaths from CO gas suffocation. PMID:18586213

  4. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Biraud, S

    2011-02-23

    The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

  5. COSMIC: Carbon Monoxide and Soot in Microgravity Inverse Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, L. G.; Fernandez, M. G.; Mulholland, G. W.; Davis, R. W.; Moore, E. F.; Steel, E. B.; Scott, J. H. J.

    2001-01-01

    Almost seventy percent of deaths in accidental fires are caused by inhalation of toxins such as carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke (soot) that form during underventilated burning. The COSMIC project examines the formation mechanisms of CO and soot during underventilated combustion, achieved presently using laminar, inverse diffusion flames (IDFs) formed between an air jet and surrounding fuel. A major hypothesis of the project is that the IDF mimics underventilated combustion because carbon-containing species that form on the fuel side of the flame (such as CO and soot) can escape without passing through an oxidizing flame tip. An IDF literature review was presented at the last microgravity workshop, and a few additional IDF papers have appeared since that meeting. The COSMIC project is entering the third year of its four-year funding cycle. The first two years have been devoted to designing and constructing a rig for use in the NASA 2.2-second drop tower. A few computations and laboratory experiments have been performed. The goals of this paper are to discuss the use of numerical simulation during burner design, to present computational and experimental results that support the hypothesis that IDFs are similar to underventilated flames, and to delineate future plans.

  6. [Carbon monoxide poisoning by a heating system].

    PubMed

    Dietz, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Friedrich, Peter; Kappus, Stefan; Petter, Franz; Maurer, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    A case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in several occupants of two neighboring residential buildings in Hamburg-Harburg (Germany) caused by a defective gas central heating system is described. Because of leaks in one of the residential buildings and the directly adjacent wall of the neighboring house, the gas could spread and accumulated in both residential buildings, which resulted in a highly dangerous situation. Exposure to the toxic gas caused mild to severe intoxication in 15 persons. Three victims died still at the site of the accident. Measures to protect the occupants were taken only with a great delay. As symptoms were unspecific, it was not realized that the various alarms given by persons involved in the accident were related to the same cause. In order to take appropriate measures in time it is indispensible to recognize, assess and check potential risks, which can be done by using carbon monoxide warning devices and performing immediate COHb measurements with special pulse oximeters on site. Moreover, the COHb content in the blood should be routinely determined in all patients admitted to an emergency department with unspecific symptoms. PMID:27120897

  7. Volcanic iodine monoxide observed from satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Theys, Nicolas; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Halogen species are injected into the atmosphere by volcanic eruptions. Previous studies have reported observations of chlorine and bromine oxides in volcanic plumes. These emissions have a significant impact on the chemistry within the plume as well as on upper troposphere and lower stratosphere composition, e.g. through ozone depletion. Volcanic halogen oxides have been observed from different platforms, from ground, aircraft and from satellite. The present study reports on satellite observations of iodine monoxide, IO, following the eruption of the Kasatochi volcano, Alaska, in August 2008. Satellite measurements from the SCIAMACHY sensor onboard ENVISAT are used. In addition, the volcanic IO plume is also retrieved from GOME-2 / MetOP-A measurements. Largest IO column amounts reach up to more than 4×1013 molec/cm2, the results from both instruments being consistent. The IO plume has a very similar shape as the BrO plume and is observed for several days following the eruption. The present observations are the first evidence that besides chlorine and bromine oxides also iodine oxides can be emitted by volcanic eruptions. This has important implications for atmospheric composition and background iodine levels. Together with the simultaneous observations of BrO and SO2, iodine monoxide columns can possibly provide insights into the composition of the magma.

  8. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.103 Section 60.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking...

  9. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.103 Section 60.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking...

  10. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.103 Section 60.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking...

  11. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.103 Section 60.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking...

  12. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.103 Section 60.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking...

  13. Carbon monoxide oxidation rates computed for automobile thermal reactor conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brokaw, R. S.; Bittker, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Carbon monoxide oxidation rates in thermal reactors for exhaust manifolds are computed by integrating differential equations for system of twenty-nine reversible chemical reactions. Reactors are noncatalytic replacements for conventional exhaust manifolds and are a system for reducing carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons in automobile exhausts.

  14. Fatal carbon monoxide intoxication after acetylene gas welding of pipes.

    PubMed

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Christensson, Bengt; Berge, Johan; Sjögren, Bengt

    2013-06-01

    Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented. PMID:23307861

  15. 40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR part 86, subpart D may be used in lieu of the procedures specified in this section. ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1322-84 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon...

  16. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  1. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... interference, system check, and calibration test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 may be used in lieu... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.320 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR...

  2. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  3. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263... Production Facilities § 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon...

  4. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  5. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  7. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with...

  8. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... interference, system check, and calibration test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 may be used in lieu... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.320 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR...

  9. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263... Production Facilities § 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.1522 Section 86.1522 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Test Procedures § 86.1522 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Initial check. (1) Follow...

  11. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with...

  12. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR part 86, subpart D may be used in lieu of the procedures specified in this section. ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1322-84 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.1522 Section 86.1522 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Test Procedures § 86.1522 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Initial check. (1) Follow...

  15. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263... Production Facilities § 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon...

  16. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.1522 Section 86.1522 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Procedures § 86.1522 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Initial check. (1) Follow good...

  3. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with...

  4. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  6. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR part 86, subpart D may be used in lieu of the procedures specified in this section. ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1322-84 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.1522 Section 86.1522 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Test Procedures § 86.1522 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Initial check. (1) Follow...

  9. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon..., Illinois be granted a carbon monoxide (CO) state implementation plan (SIP) revision with...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  11. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... interference, system check, and calibration test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 may be used in lieu... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.320 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American Society for... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. The ethylene-carbon...

  14. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263... Production Facilities § 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri,...

  16. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... interference, system check, and calibration test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 may be used in lieu... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.320 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR...

  17. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  18. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... interference, system check, and calibration test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065 may be used in lieu... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.320 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the NDIR...

  19. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263... Production Facilities § 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island...

  1. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.1522 Section 86.1522 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Test Procedures § 86.1522 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. (a) Initial check. (1) Follow...

  3. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR part 86, subpart D may be used in lieu of the procedures specified in this section. ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1322-84 Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. The NDIR carbon...

  5. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Organic Chemicals from Carbon Monoxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris

    1983-01-01

    Carbon Monoxide obtained from coal may serve as the source for a wide variety of organic compounds. Several of these compounds are discussed, including phosgene, benzaldehyde, methanol, formic acid and its derivatives, oxo aldehydes, acrylic acids, and others. Commercial reactions of carbon monoxide are highlighted in a table. (JN)

  6. Carbon monoxide levels during indoor sporting events -- Cincinnati, 1992--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) produced by internal combustion engines is an indoor health hazard. High CO levels can occur during indoor sporting events--such as tractor pulls--that involve vehicles modified to achieve high horsepower. In January and March 1992 and January 1993, the Cincinnati Health Department evaluated CO levels during tractor pulls, monster-truck jumps, and a mud race event held in an indoor arena with a seating capacity of approximately 16,000 persons. This report summarizes findings from the evaluations.

  7. Atomic-scale disproportionation in amorphous silicon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Akihiko; Kohara, Shinji; Asada, Toshihiro; Arao, Masazumi; Yogi, Chihiro; Imai, Hideto; Tan, Yongwen; Fujita, Takeshi; Chen, Mingwei

    2016-01-01

    Solid silicon monoxide is an amorphous material which has been commercialized for many functional applications. However, the amorphous structure of silicon monoxide is a long-standing question because of the uncommon valence state of silicon in the oxide. It has been deduced that amorphous silicon monoxide undergoes an unusual disproportionation by forming silicon- and silicon-dioxide-like regions. Nevertheless, the direct experimental observation is still missing. Here we report the amorphous structure characterized by angstrom-beam electron diffraction, supplemented by synchrotron X-ray scattering and computer simulations. In addition to the theoretically predicted amorphous silicon and silicon-dioxide clusters, suboxide-type tetrahedral coordinates are detected by angstrom-beam electron diffraction at silicon/silicon-dioxide interfaces, which provides compelling experimental evidence on the atomic-scale disproportionation of amorphous silicon monoxide. Eventually we develop a heterostructure model of the disproportionated silicon monoxide which well explains the distinctive structure and properties of the amorphous material. PMID:27172815

  8. Search of medical literature for indoor carbon monoxide exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, T.; Ivanovich, M.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a literature search on carbon monoxide. The search was limited to the medical and toxicological databases at the National Library of Medicine (MEDLARS). The databases searched were Medline, Toxline and TOXNET. Searches were performed using a variety of strategies. Combinations of the following keywords were used: carbon, monoxide, accidental, residential, occult, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, heating, furnace, and indoor. The literature was searched from 1966 to the present. Over 1000 references were identified and summarized using the following abbreviations: The major findings of the search are: (1) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide exposures result in a large number of symptoms affecting the brain, kidneys, respiratory system, retina, and motor functions. (2) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings have been misdiagnosed on many occasions. (3) Very few systematic investigations have been made into the frequency and consequences of carbon monoxide poisonings.

  9. Atomic-scale disproportionation in amorphous silicon monoxide

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Akihiko; Kohara, Shinji; Asada, Toshihiro; Arao, Masazumi; Yogi, Chihiro; Imai, Hideto; Tan, Yongwen; Fujita, Takeshi; Chen, Mingwei

    2016-01-01

    Solid silicon monoxide is an amorphous material which has been commercialized for many functional applications. However, the amorphous structure of silicon monoxide is a long-standing question because of the uncommon valence state of silicon in the oxide. It has been deduced that amorphous silicon monoxide undergoes an unusual disproportionation by forming silicon- and silicon-dioxide-like regions. Nevertheless, the direct experimental observation is still missing. Here we report the amorphous structure characterized by angstrom-beam electron diffraction, supplemented by synchrotron X-ray scattering and computer simulations. In addition to the theoretically predicted amorphous silicon and silicon-dioxide clusters, suboxide-type tetrahedral coordinates are detected by angstrom-beam electron diffraction at silicon/silicon-dioxide interfaces, which provides compelling experimental evidence on the atomic-scale disproportionation of amorphous silicon monoxide. Eventually we develop a heterostructure model of the disproportionated silicon monoxide which well explains the distinctive structure and properties of the amorphous material. PMID:27172815

  10. Unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning in Colorado, 1986 through 1991.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, M; Simon, P A; Hoffman, R E

    1995-01-01

    Unintentional carbon monoxide poisonings were identified through death certificates, by hyperbaric chambers, and by laboratories required to report carboxyhemoglobin levels greater than 12%. From 1986 to 1991, 981 cases were reported, including 174 deaths. Deaths most often resulted from fire-related carbon monoxide intoxication (36.2%), followed by motor vehicle exhaust (34.5%), and furnaces (10.3%). Among nonfatal cases, furnaces were the leading source of carbon monoxide exposure (44.3%), followed by motor vehicle exhaust (22.8%). The importance of furnaces and other home heating devices in carbon monoxide intoxication may be underappreciated if only mortality data are examined. Surveillance of carbon monoxide-related morbidity is a useful adjunct to mortality surveillance in guiding prevention efforts. PMID:7604927

  11. Atomic-scale disproportionation in amorphous silicon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akihiko; Kohara, Shinji; Asada, Toshihiro; Arao, Masazumi; Yogi, Chihiro; Imai, Hideto; Tan, Yongwen; Fujita, Takeshi; Chen, Mingwei

    2016-05-01

    Solid silicon monoxide is an amorphous material which has been commercialized for many functional applications. However, the amorphous structure of silicon monoxide is a long-standing question because of the uncommon valence state of silicon in the oxide. It has been deduced that amorphous silicon monoxide undergoes an unusual disproportionation by forming silicon- and silicon-dioxide-like regions. Nevertheless, the direct experimental observation is still missing. Here we report the amorphous structure characterized by angstrom-beam electron diffraction, supplemented by synchrotron X-ray scattering and computer simulations. In addition to the theoretically predicted amorphous silicon and silicon-dioxide clusters, suboxide-type tetrahedral coordinates are detected by angstrom-beam electron diffraction at silicon/silicon-dioxide interfaces, which provides compelling experimental evidence on the atomic-scale disproportionation of amorphous silicon monoxide. Eventually we develop a heterostructure model of the disproportionated silicon monoxide which well explains the distinctive structure and properties of the amorphous material.

  12. Carbon monoxide exposure of subjects with documented cardiac arrhythmias

    SciTech Connect

    Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E.; Byers, S.; Carroll, L.W.; Younis, L.T.; Wiens, R.D. )

    1992-09-01

    The impact of low-level carbon monoxide exposure on ventricular arrhythmia frequency in patients with ischemic heart disease has not been thoroughly studied. The issue is of concern because of the potential proarrhythmic effect of carbon monoxide in patients with ischemic heart disease. We studied 30 subjects with well-documented coronary artery disease who had an average of at least 30 ventricular ectopic beats per hour over a 20-hour monitoring interval. By using appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria, subjects were selected and enrolled in a randomized double-blind study to determine the effects of carbon monoxide exposure on ventricular arrhythmia frequency at rest, during exercise, and during ambulatory activities. The carbon monoxide exposure was designed to result in 3% or 5% carboxyhemoglobin levels, as measured by gas chromatography. The carbon monoxide exposure protocol produced target levels in 60 minutes, and the levels were maintained for an additional 90 minutes to provide adequate time to assess the impact of carbon monoxide on the frequency of ventricular ectopic beats. The data on total and repetitive ventricular arrhythmias were analyzed for seven specific time intervals: (1) two hours before carbon monoxide exposure; (2) during the two-hour carbon monoxide or air exposure; (3) during a two-hour rest period; (4) during an exercise period; (5) during an exercise recovery period; (6) six hours after carbon monoxide or air exposure; and (7) approximately 10 hours after exposure, or the remaining recording interval on the Holter monitor. There was no increase in ventricular arrhythmia frequency after carbon monoxide exposure, regardless of the level of carboxyhemoglobin or the type of activity.

  13. The atmospheric chemistry of iodine monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Laszlo, B.; Huie, R.E.

    1995-12-01

    The possible role of iodine on tropospheric ozone arid, more recently, stratospheric ozone has been of considerable interest. There have been, however relatively few experimental determination of the chemistry of the important radical, IO. Laser flash photolysis with two-wavelength transient absorption experiments were performed on N{sub 2}O/I{sub 2}+X{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixtures (X{sub 2} = halogen) at room temperature and total pressure between 8 and 80 kPa. An extended IO absorption spectrum, experimental rate coefficients of IO+IO, IO+O({sup 3}P), IO+BrO, BrO+I and IO+ClO reactions will be presented. Preliminary results show the atmospheric importance of reaction between alkylperoxy radicals and iodine atoms or iodine monoxide radicals. These reactions seem to be important tropospheric iodine sinks.

  14. Electron energy deposition in carbon monoxide gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Weihong; Victor, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive set of electron impact cross sections for carbon monoxide molecules is presented on the basis of the most recent experimental measurements and theoretical calculations. The processes by which energetic electrons lose energy in CO gas are analyzed with these input cross sections. The efficiencies are computed of vibrational and electronic excitation, dissociation, ionization, and heating for CO gas with fractional ionization ranging from 0% to 10%. The calculated mean energy per ion pair for neutral CO gas is 32.3 eV, which is in excellent agreement with the experimental value of 32.2 eV. It increases to 35.6 eV at a fractional ionization of 1%, typical of supernovae ejecta.

  15. The carbon monoxide abundance in interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The steady-state abundance of carbon monoxide in interstellar clouds is calculated as a function of optical depth, density, and temperature. The molecular reactions which lead to CO can be initiated by the following ion-molecule reactions: H(+) + O yields O(+) + H, C(+) + H2 yields CH2(+) + a photon, and H3(+) + C and O. As the ultraviolet radiation field is attenuated, C(+) is transformed primarily into CO and C I. There are characteristic column densities for the transition to CO corresponding to the optical depths for attenuating this field at different wavelengths. For thick, low-temperature clouds the attenuation of the fields which ionize carbon, sulfur, and heavy metals is important for CO production initiated by H3(+). Complete conversion to CO does not necessarily occur, and considerable neutral carbon may be expected even in optically thick clouds. Comparison of integrated column densities of CO with extinction are in reasonable agreement with observations.

  16. Analysis of GASP carbon monoxide data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M. F.

    1981-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon monoxide in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere for the period March 1977 through October 1978 was analyzed. The CO data are summarized and the distribution and variations in space and time of this gas are presented. The data show that the CO mixing ratios are higher in the troposphere than those in the stratosphere. In the Northern Hemisphere the highest value of CO mixing ratio occurs in spring, although more data are needed to verify these findings. Correlation coefficients among CO, O3, air temperature (T) and winds were calculated for different regions under different seasons. It was found that the CO correlates negatively with O3 above 20 degrees latitude and positively below that latitude. Case studies using the data of CO, O3, and T measured simultaneously were performed. Discussions and suggestions are made. Ozone data on seasonal basis is also summarized.

  17. Reduction of carbon monoxide. Past research summary

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, R.R.

    1981-10-01

    Research programs for the year on the preparation, characterization, and reactions of binuclear tantalum complexes are described. All evidence to date suggest the following of these dimeric molecules: (1) the dimer does not break into monomers under mild conditions; (2) intermolecular hydride exchange is not negligible, but it is slow; (3) intermolecular non-ionic halide exchange is fast; (4) the ends of the dimers can rotate partially with respect to one another. The binuclear tantalum hydride complexes were found to react with carbon monoxide to give a molecule which is the only example of reduction of CO by a transition metal hydride to give a complex containing a CHO ligand. Isonitrides also reacted in a similar manner with dimeric tantalum hydride. (ATT)

  18. Carbon monoxide exposure from aircraft fueling vehicles.

    PubMed

    McCammon, C S; Halperin, W F; Lemen, R A

    1981-01-01

    Investigators from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health observed deficiencies in maintenance of fueling trucks at an international airport. The exhaust system is vented under the front bumper, a standard design on fueling trucks which is intended to minimize the proximity of the exhaust system to the jet fuel in the vehicles. Carbon monoxide levels were measured in the cabs of 17 fueling trucks with windows closed, heaters on, and in different positions relative to the wind. One truck had an average CO level of 300 ppm, two exceeded 100 ppm, five others exceeded 50 ppm, while levels in the other nine averaged less than or equal to 500 ppm. Levels of CO depended on the mechanical condition of the vehicle and the vehicle's orientation to the wind. Stringent maintenance is required as the exhaust design is not fail-safe. PMID:6166254

  19. Reduction of Carbon Monoxide. Past Research Summary

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Schrock, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Research programs for the year on the preparation, characterization, and reactions of binuclear tantalum complexes are described. All evidence to date suggest the following of these dimeric molecules: (1) the dimer does not break into monomers under mild conditions; (2) intermolecular hydride exchange is not negligible, but it is slow; (3) intermolecular non-ionic halide exchange is fast; (4) the ends of the dimers can rotate partially with respect to one another. The binuclear tantalum hydride complexes were found to react with carbon monoxide to give a molecule which is the only example of reduction of CO by a transition metal hydride to give a complex containing a CHO ligand. Isonitrides also reacted in a similar manner with dimeric tantalum hydride. (ATT)

  20. Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    McDaniel; Anthony H. , Medlin; J. Will , Bastasz; Robert J.

    2007-09-04

    Carbon monoxide sensors suitable for use in hydrogen feed streams and methods of use thereof are disclosed. The sensors are palladium metal/insulator/semiconductor (Pd-MIS) sensors which may possess a gate metal layer having uniform, Type 1, or non-uniform, Type 2, film morphology. Type 1 sensors display an increased sensor response in the presence of carbon monoxide while Type 2 sensors display a decreased response to carbon monoxide. The methods and sensors disclosed herein are particularly suitable for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

  1. Mars in situ propellants: Carbon monoxide and oxygen ignition experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.; Roncace, James; Groth, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and oxygen were tested in a standard spark-torch igniter to identify the ignition characteristics of this potential Mars in situ propellant combination. The ignition profiles were determined as functions of mixture ratio, amount of hydrogen added to the carbon monoxide, and oxygen inlet temperature. The experiments indicated that the carbon monoxide and oxygen combination must have small amounts of hydrogen present to initiate reaction. Once the reaction was started, the combustion continued without the presence of hydrogen. A mixture ratio range was identified where ignition occurred, and this range varied with the oxygen inlet temperature.

  2. Mars in situ propellants - Carbon monoxide and oxygen ignition experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.; Groth, Mary F.; Roncace, James

    1990-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and oxygen were tested in a standard spark-torch igniter to identify the ignition characteristics of this potential Mars in situ propellant combination. The ignition profiles were determined as functions of mixture ratio, amount of hydrogen added to the carbon monoxide, and oxygen inlet temperature. The experiments indicated that the carbon monoxide and oxygen combination must have small amounts of hydrogen present to initiate reaction. Once the reaction was started, the combustion continued without the presence of hydrogen. A mixture ratio range was identified where ignition occurred, and this range varied with the oxygen inlet temperature.

  3. Syncope Associated with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning due to Narghile Smoking.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Seda; Ozturk, Tayfun; Ozmen, Yavuz; Durukan, Polat

    2013-01-01

    Narghile smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, and it has been practiced extensively for 400 years. Traditionally, narghile smoking is a matter of culture mainly in Middle East, Asia, and Africa. In recent years, its use as a social activity has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking is an unusual cause of carbon monoxide poisoning. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide. We present an acute syncope case of a 19-year-old male patient who had carbon monoxide poisoning after narghile smoking. PMID:23585971

  4. Mars in situ propellants: Carbon monoxide and oxygen ignition experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Linne, D.L.; Roncace, J.; Groth, M.F.

    1990-07-01

    Carbon monoxide and oxygen were tested in a standard spark-torch igniter to identify the ignition characteristics of this potential Mars in situ propellant combination. The ignition profiles were determined as functions of mixture ratio, amount of hydrogen added to the carbon monoxide, and oxygen inlet temperature. The experiments indicated that the carbon monoxide and oxygen combination must have small amounts of hydrogen present to initiate reaction. Once the reaction was started, the combustion continued without the presence of hydrogen. A mixture ratio range was identified where ignition occurred, and this range varied with the oxygen inlet temperature.

  5. Modeling of exposure to carbon monoxide in fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to predict carboxyhemoglobin concentrations in regions of the body for short exposures to carbon monoxide levels expected during escape from aircraft fires. The model includes the respiratory and circulatory dynamics of absorption and distribution of carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin. Predictions of carboxyhemoglobin concentrations are compared to experimental values obtained for human exposures to constant high carbon monoxide levels. Predictions are within 20% of experimental values. For short exposure times, transient concentration effects are predicted. The effect of stress is studied and found to increase carboxyhemoglobin levels substantially compared to a rest state.

  6. 49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle... SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices § 392.66 Carbon monoxide... monoxide; (2) Where carbon monoxide has been detected in the interior of the commercial motor vehicle;...

  7. 49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle... SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices § 392.66 Carbon monoxide... monoxide; (2) Where carbon monoxide has been detected in the interior of the commercial motor vehicle;...

  8. 49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle... SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices § 392.66 Carbon monoxide... monoxide; (2) Where carbon monoxide has been detected in the interior of the commercial motor vehicle;...

  9. 49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle... SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices § 392.66 Carbon monoxide... monoxide; (2) Where carbon monoxide has been detected in the interior of the commercial motor vehicle;...

  10. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H.

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  11. Atmospheric analyzer, carbon monoxide monitor and toluene diisocyanate monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, A. V.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the atmospheric analyzer and the carbon monoxide and toluene diisocyanate monitors is to analyze the atmospheric volatiles and to monitor carbon monoxide and toluene diisocyanate levels in the cabin atmosphere of Skylab. The carbon monoxide monitor was used on Skylab 2, 3, and 4 to detect any carbon monoxide levels above 25 ppm. Air samples were taken once each week. The toluene diisocyanate monitor was used only on Skylab 2. The loss of a micrometeoroid shield following the launch of Skylab 1 resulted in overheating of the interior walls of the Orbital Workshop. A potential hazard existed from outgassing of an isocyanate derivative resulting from heat-decomposition of the rigid polyurethane wall insulation. The toluene diisocyanate monitor was used to detect any polymer decomposition. The atmospheric analyzer was used on Skylab 4 because of a suspected leak in the Skylab cabin. An air sample was taken at the beginning, middle, and the end of the mission.

  12. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Carbon Monoxide Poisoning URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/carbonmonoxidepoisoning.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  13. Purification and properties of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Methanococcus vannielii.

    PubMed Central

    DeMoll, E; Grahame, D A; Harnly, J M; Tsai, L; Stadtman, T C

    1987-01-01

    Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase was purified to homogeneity from Methanococcus vannielii grown with formate as the sole carbon source. The enzyme is composed of subunits with molecular weights of 89,000 and 21,000 in an alpha 2 beta 2 oligomeric structure. The native molecular weight of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, determined by gel electrophoresis, is 220,000. The enzyme from M. vannielii contains 2 g-atoms of nickel per mol of enzyme. Except for its relatively high pH optimum of 10.5 and its slightly greater net positive charge, the enzyme from M. vannielii closely resembles carbon monoxide dehydrogenase isolated previously from acetate-grown Methanosarcina barkeri. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from M. vannielii constitutes 0.2% of the soluble protein of the cell. By comparison the enzyme comprises 5% of the soluble protein in acetate-grown cells of M. barkeri and approximately 1% in methanol-grown cells. Images PMID:3624199

  14. Measuring Carbon Monoxide in Auto Exhaust by Gas Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Dan; Herndon, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Presents a simple and reliable technique using commonly available equipment for monitoring carbon monoxide in automobile exhaust. The experiment utilizes a gas chromatograph and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). (DDR)

  15. Iodine Monoxide in the Antarctic Marine Boundary Layer: Recent Discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friess, Udo; Zielcke, Johannes; Pöhler, Denis; Nasse, Jan-Marcus; Platt, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Iodine monoxide (IO) is thought to play an important role in the chemistry of the Antarctic marine boundary layer (MBL). Produced either by organic precursors or by inorganic processes, large areas of enhanced IO were detected by satellite not only around the coast of Antarctica, but also over the continent far from the coastal source regions. In the past, several active and passive remote sensing measurements at coastal stations confirmed the presence of IO, which is expected to have a significant impact on the oxidative capacity and the ozone budget in the MBL. We present a summary of recent findings regarding IO in the Antarctic MBL, with a focus on two measurement campaigns conducted at the German Research Station Neumayer (70°S, 8°W), the New Zealand Station Scott Base (177°E, 78°S) and in the marginal sea ice zone of the Wedell Sea onboard the German research vessel Polarstern in austral summer 2011, spring 2012, and winter/spring 2013, respectively. During all three campaigns, IO was measured using a combination of active and passive DOAS remote sensing instruments, including a newly developed mobile open-path cavity-enhanced DOAS instrument. Satellite measurements indicate that the area around Scott Base in the Ross Sea, but also the marginal sea ice zone, are subject to particularly high levels of IO. However, in contrast to previous ground-based and satellite borne observations, we find surprisingly low IO concentrations at Neumayer, Scott Base and in the marginal sea ice zone, with IO being below the detection limit (< 0.5 ppt) of the active DOAS instruments at all times. This raises the question to what extent IO is of importance for the chemistry of the Antarctic MBL.

  16. Carbon monoxide poisoning and nonoliguric acute renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Bessoudo, R.; Gray, J.

    1978-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning in a 37-year-old man was complicated by neurologic damage, skin changes, muscle necrosis and nonoliguric renal failure. The relation between nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure in carbon monoxide poisoning is reviewed. Recognition of the acute renal failure in such cases is important, for this complication can be fatal; the prognosis is excellent, however, if proper medical management is provided. PMID:679099

  17. A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, M.G.

    1997-09-01

    Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10{degrees}C to 30{degrees}C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

  18. Holographic diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadle, Stephen; Wuest, Daniel; Cantalupo, John; Lakes, Roderic S.

    1994-01-01

    Holographic diffusers are prepared using silver halide (Agfa 8E75 and Kodak 649F) and photopolymer (Polaroid DMP 128 and DuPont 600, 705, and 150 series) media. It is possible to control the diffusion angle in three ways: by selection of the properties of the source diffuser, by control of its subtended angle, and by selection of the holographic medium. Several conventional diffusers based on refraction or scattering of light are examined for comparison.

  19. Carbon Monoxide Formation in SN 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gearhart, Rob A.

    1999-01-01

    The formation of carbon monoxide in the supernova SN 1987A at 200 days is investigated. Rather than the one-zone that have previous been employed, this work utilizes a radially dependent radiative transport model to compute the temperature and ionization structure and the destruction of CO and CO+ by ultraviolet radiation. The CO profile is computed assuming chemical equilibrium. Two models for the density and abundance profiles are examined: model 10H (unmixed) and model 10HMM (mixed) of Pinto & Woosley. Sensitivity to adopted rates and temperature as it might be affected by CO cooling is examined. The models give a total mass of 10-4 M_sun at 200 days for the unmixed model, which is comparable with the estimated observed abundance by Syromilio et al. but nearly 2 orders of magnitude less than the estimated observed and that computed in thermal-chemical models by Liu & Dalgarno. The effect of different model assumptions and results concerning ionization structure and radiative transfer are discussed. We confirm that CO+ is not expected to be produced in significant amounts and that the amount of CO is sensitive to the degree of the mixing of the composition of various elements present in the ejecta.

  20. Carbon monoxide measurements at Mace Head, Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doddridge, Bruce G.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Spain, T. Gerard; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Novelli, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    The North Atlantic Ocean is bordered by continents which may each, under the influence of seasonal weather patterns, act as sources of natural and anthropogenic trace gas and particulate species. Photochemically active species such as carbon monoxide (CO) react to form ozone (O3), a species of critical importance in global climate change. CO is sparingly soluble in water, and the relatively long lifetime of CO in the troposphere makes this species an ideal tracer of air masses with origin over land. We have measured CO using a nondispersive infrared gas filter correlation analyzer at Mace Head on the west coast of Ireland nearly continuously since August 9, 1991. Measurements of CO were acquired at 20-sec resolution and recorded as 60-sec averages. Daily, monthly, and diurnal variation data characteristics of CO mixing ratios observed at this site are reported. Depending on source regions of air parcels passing over this site, 60-min concentrations of CO range from clean air values of approximately 90 ppbv to values in excess of 300 ppbv. Data characterizing the correlation between 60-min CO and O3 mixing ratio data observed at this site are reported also.

  1. Review: hemodynamic response to carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Penney, D.G.

    1988-04-01

    Historically, and at present, carbon monoxide is a major gaseous poison responsible for widespread morbidity and mortality. From threshold to maximal nonlethal levels, a variety of cardiovascular changes occur, both immediately and in the long term, whose homeostatic function it is to renormalize tissue oxygen delivery. However, notwithstanding numerous studies over the past century, the literature remains equivocal regarding the hemodynamic responses in animals and humans, although CO hypoxia is clearly different in several respects from hypoxic hypoxia. Factors complicating interpretation of experimental findings include species, CO dose level and rate, route of CO delivery, duration, level of exertion, state of consciousness, and anesthetic agent used. Augmented cardiac output usually observed with moderate COHb may be compromised in more sever poisoning for the same reasons, such that regional or global ischemia result. The hypotension usually seen in most animal studies is thought to be a primary cause of CNS damage resulting from acute CO poisoning, yet the exact mechanism(s) remains unproven in both animals and humans, as does the way in which CO produces hypotension. This review briefly summarizes the literature relevant to the short- and long-term hemodynamic responses reported in animals and humans. It concludes by presenting an overview using data from a single species in which the most complete work has been done to date.

  2. Effects of carbon monoxide on myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Allred, E.N.; Pagano, M. ); Bleecker, E.R.; Walden, S.M. ); Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E. ); Hackney, J.D.; Selvester, R.H. ); Warren, J. ); Gottlieb, S.O.

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether low doses of carbon monoxide (CO) exacerbate myocardial ischemia during a progressive exercise test. The effect of CO exposure was evaluated using the objective measure of time to development of electrocardiographic changes indicative of ischemia and the subjective measure of time to onset of angina. Sixty-three male subjects (41-75 years) with well-documented coronary artery disease, who had exertional angina pectoris and ischemic ST-segment changes in their electrocardiograms, were studied. Results from three randomized, double-blind test visits (room air, low and high CO) were compared. The effect of CO exposure was determined from the percent difference in the end points obtained on exercise tests performed before and after a 1-hr exposure to room air or CO. A significant dose-response relationship was found for the individual differences in the time to ST end point and angina for the pre-versus postexposure exercise test at the three carboxyhemoglobin levels. These findings demonstrate that low doses of CO produce significant effects on cardiac function during exercise in subjects with coronary artery disease.

  3. Myth busting in carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-02-01

    The evidence supporting many beliefs in medicine is based upon opinion, personal experience, hearsay, or "common knowledge." When one searches for the data supporting oft-quoted facts in medicine, they are sometimes found to be old, incorrect, or nonexistent. Such unsupported facts or beliefs can be termed myths. This minireview will summarize 4 examples of "myth busting" by the author when he has discovered widely held beliefs regarding carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning to be untrue during a 25-year career of research in the field. These include the mistaken beliefs that (1) symptoms correlate with presenting blood carboxyhemoglobin levels, (2) residents are safe from CO poisoning if their home does not contain fuel-burning appliances, (3) carboxyhemoglobin levels must be measured rapidly and on arterial blood, and (4) CO poisoning predisposes to premature long-term death from cardiac disease. In addition to providing the evidence disproving these myths, the importance of going back to the original reference when citing prior work is emphasized. PMID:26632018

  4. Carbon Monoxide: An Essential Signalling Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Brian E.

    Carbon monoxide (CO), like nitric oxide (NO), is an essential signalling molecule in humans. It is active in the cardiovascular system as a vasodilator. In addition, CO possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties and protects tissues from hypoxia and reperfusion injury. Some of its applications in animal models include suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. CO also suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions following angioplasty, reverses established pulmonary hypertension and mitigates the development of post-operative ileus in the murine small intestine and the development of cerebral malaria in mice as well as graft-induced intimal hyperplasia in pigs. There have been several clinical trials using air-CO mixtures for the treatment of lung-, heart-, kidney- and abdominal-related diseases. This review examines the research involving the development of classes of compounds (with particular emphasis on metal carbonyls) that release CO, which could be used in clinically relevant conditions. The review is drawn not only from published papers in the chemical literature but also from the extensive biological literature and patents on CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

  5. Diffusion MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuyama, Hidenao

    Recent advances of magnetic resonance imaging have been described, especially stressed on the diffusion sequences. We have recently applied the diffusion sequence to functional brain imaging, and found the appropriate results. In addition to the neurosciences fields, diffusion weighted images have improved the accuracies of clinical diagnosis depending upon magnetic resonance images in stroke as well as inflammations.

  6. A Southern Hemisphere atmospheric history of carbon monoxide from South Pole firn air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhulst, K. R.; Aydin, M.; Novelli, P. C.; Holmes, C. D.; Prather, M. J.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a reactive trace gas and is important to tropospheric photochemistry as a major sink of hydroxyl radicals (OH). Major sources of CO are fossil fuel combustion, linked mostly to automotive emissions, biomass burning, and oxidation of atmospheric methane. Understanding changes in carbon monoxide over the past century will improve our understanding of man's influence on the reactivity of the atmosphere. Little observational information is available about CO levels and emissions prior to the 1990s, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. The NOAA global flask network provides the most complete instrumental record of CO, extending back to 1988. Annually averaged surface flask measurements suggest atmospheric CO levels at South Pole were relatively stable from 2004-2009 at about 51 nmol mol-1 [Novelli and Masarie, 2013]. In this study, a 20th century atmospheric history of CO is reconstructed from South Pole firn air measurements, using a 1-D firn air diffusion model. Firn air samples were collected in glass flasks from two adjacent holes drilled from the surface to 118 m at South Pole, Antarctica during the 2008/2009 field season and CO analysis was carried out by NOAA/CCG. Carbon monoxide levels increase from about 45 nmol mol-1 in the deepest firn sample at 116 m to 52 nmol mol-1 at 107 m, and remain constant at about 51-52 nmol mol-1 at shallower depths. Atmospheric histories based on the firn air reconstructions suggest that CO levels over Antarctica increased by roughly 40% (from about 36 to 50 nmol mol-1) between 1930-1990, at a rate of about 0.18 nmol mol-1 yr-1. Firn air and surface air results suggest the rate of CO increase at South Pole slowed considerably after 1990. The firn air-based atmospheric history is used to infer changes in Southern Hemisphere CO emissions over the 20th century.

  7. Experimental Evidence for a Three-Body Interaction between Diffusing CO Molecules.

    PubMed

    Zaum, Christopher; Morgenstern, Karina

    2016-05-11

    The diffusion of carbon monoxide molecules on Cu(111) is investigated in time-lapsed scanning tunneling microscopy in a temperature range from 30 to 38 K. An asymptotic theory of adsorbate diffusion predicted a trio interaction that changes the diffusion barrier of three particles diffusing in close proximity beyond the change induced by the long-range interaction between three pairs of molecules. Distance-dependent variations in the diffusion energy confirm this theoretical prediction. In future, the theory can better assist experiments for a broader exploration, not only for diffusion, but also for nucleation and reaction. PMID:27078795

  8. Demonstration of Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide Propellants for Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1997-01-01

    Currently, proposed planetary exploration missions must be small, with low costs and a short development time. Relatively high-risk technologies are being accepted for such missions if they meet these guidelines. For a Mars sample-return mission, one of the higher risk technologies is the use of return propellants produced from indigenous materials such as the Martian atmosphere. This consists of 96 percent carbon dioxide, which can be processed into oxygen and carbon monoxide. This year, the NASA Lewis Research Center completed the experimental evaluation and subscale technology development of an oxygen/carbon monoxide propellant combination. Previous research included ignition characterization, combustion performance, and heat transfer characterization with gaseous propellants at room temperature. In this year s tests, we studied the ignition characteristics and combustion of oxygen and carbon monoxide at near liquid temperatures. The mixture ratio boundaries for oxygen and carbon monoxide were determined as a function of propellant temperature in a spark torch igniter. With both propellants at room temperature, the ignition range was between 0.50 and 1.44; and with both propellants chilled to near-liquid temperatures, it was between 2.4 and 3.1. Statistical analysis of the mean value of the ignition boundaries provided models that describe the combination of oxygen temperature, carbon monoxide temperature, and mixture ratio that resulted in ignition. This range is the larger boxed area shown in the figure. The smaller boxed area indicates the range at which there is a 90-percent confidence that ignition will occur. The relatively small range at only 90-percent confidence indicates that using the oxygen/carbon monoxide combination as its own ignition source may not be the best design for a remote engine operating on Mars. Tests also were performed in a simulated small rocket engine that used oxygen/hydrogen combustion gases as the ignition source for oxygen

  9. Mathematical models of the uptake of carbon monoxide on hemoglobin at low carbon monoxide levels.

    PubMed Central

    Joumard, R; Chiron, M; Vidon, R; Maurin, M; Rouzioux, J M

    1981-01-01

    Coburn's differential equation for the uptake of carbon monoxide by hemoglobin and two particular types of solution of this equation were considered and the solutions verified for a group of healthy adults consisting of 73 nonsmoking pedestrians or car passengers exposed to low levels of carbon monoxide as experienced in the city of Lyon. The CO levels at the breathing level and the walking speed of the subjects was continually measured, and the carboxyhemoglobin levels determined at the beginning and the end of each test journey. The values of all the other relevant parameters were also determined. The half-life of carboxyhemoglobin was studied as a function of the degree of activity, the age, the sex and the height of the subjects. Finally a mathematical model was set up to represent a periodic uptake of CO which made it possible to estimate the variations in the carboxyhemoglobin level for any subject during a period of a day or a week without any need to know the initial level. PMID:7333242

  10. Determination of the atherogenic potential of inhaled carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Penn, A. )

    1993-05-01

    he effects of chronic exposure to moderate levels of carbon monoxide upon the augmentation of arteriosclerotic plaque development were investigated in a series of in vivo studies in the cockerel (young rooster). This animal model has been well characterized, especially regarding the role of environmental agents in exacerbating early stages of plaque development. Cockerels injected with subtumorigenic doses of carcinogens exhibit markedly accelerated development of aortic arteriosclerotic plaques. Inhalation of mainstream smoke from two packs of cigarettes (100 minutes/day for 16 weeks) causes small but statistically significant increases in plaque size. As is the case with many animal models of plaque development, raised fat-proliferative plaques also appear in these animals following cholesterol feeding. Carbon monoxide is a ubiquitous pollutant in urban environments, where it is derived largely from mobile sources and cigarette smoke. Exposure to chronically elevated carbon monoxide levels has been implicated in a number of health-related problems. Whether such exposure plays a role in the development of arteriosclerosis has not been determined conclusively. In the present study, three questions were posed: 1. Will inhaled carbon monoxide at levels of 50 to 200 parts per million (ppm)* (two hours/day for 16 weeks) be sufficient to augment arteriosclerotic plaque development in cockerels, in the absence of other plaque-promoting agents 2. Will the inhalation of 100 ppm carbon monoxide (two hours/day for 16 weeks), concomitant with the feeding of low levels (0.1%) of cholesterol, yield larger plaques than those obtained with either of these agents administered alone 3. Will inhalation of 100 ppm carbon monoxide (two hours/day for 11 or 22 weeks), by cockerels in whom plaques have already appeared, further augment plaque development Cockerels were exposed to carefully regulated levels of carbon monoxide in stainless-steel and Plexiglas dynamic exposure chambers.

  11. Carbon Monoxide Oxidation by Clostridium thermoaceticum and Clostridium formicoaceticum

    PubMed Central

    Diekert, Gabriele B.; Thauer, Rudolf K.

    1978-01-01

    Cultures of Clostridium formicoaceticum and C. thermoaceticum growing on fructose and glucose, respectively, were shown to rapidly oxidize CO to CO2. Rates up to 0.4 μmol min−1 mg of wet cells−1 were observed. Carbon monoxide oxidation by cell suspensions was found (i) to be dependent on pyruvate, (ii) to be inhibited by alkyl halides and arsenate, and (iii) to stimulate CO2 reduction to acetate. Cell extracts catalyzed the oxidation of carbon monoxide with methyl viologen at specific rates up to 10 μmol min−1 mg of protein−1 (35°C, pH 7.2). Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and ferredoxin from C. pasteurianum were ineffective as electron acceptors. The catalytic mechanism of carbon monoxide oxidation was “ping-pong,” indicating that the enzyme catalyzing carbon monoxide oxidation can be present in an oxidized and a reduced form. The oxidized form was shown to react reversibly with cyanide, and the reduced form was shown to react reversibly with alkyl halides: cyanide inactivated the enzyme only in the absence of carbon monoxide, and alkyl halides inactivated it only in the presence of carbon monoxide. Extracts inactivated by alkyl halides were reactivated by photolysis. The findings are interpreted to indicate that carbon monoxide oxidation in the two bacteria is catalyzed by a corrinoid enzyme and that in vivo the reaction is coupled with the reduction of CO2 to acetate. Cultures of C. acidi-urici and C. cylindrosporum growing on hypoxanthine were found not to oxidize CO, indicating that clostridia mediating a corrinoid-independent total synthesis of acetate from CO2 do not possess a CO-oxidizing system. PMID:711675

  12. Acute effects of carbon monoxide on cardiac electrical stability

    SciTech Connect

    Verrier, R.L.; Mills, A.K.; Skornik, W.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the effects of acute carbon monoxide exposure on cardiac electrical stability. To obtain a comprehensive assessment, diverse biological models were employed. These involved cardiac electrical testing in the normal and ischemic heart in anesthetized and conscious dogs. The experimental plan was designed both to examine the direct effects of carbon monoxide exposure on the myocardium and to evaluate possible indirect influences through alterations in platelet aggregability or changes in central nervous system activity in the conscious animal. Our results indicate that exposure to relatively high levels of carbon monoxide, leading to carboxyhemoglobin concentrations of up to 20 percent, is without significant effect on ventricular electrical stability. This appears to be the case in the acutely ischemic heart as well as in the normal heart. It is important to note that the total exposure period was in the range of 90 to 124 minutes. The possibility that longer periods of exposure or exacerbation from nicotine in cigarette smoke could have a deleterious effect cannot be excluded. We also examined whether or not alterations in platelet aggregability due to carbon monoxide exposure could be a predisposing factor for cardiac arrhythmias. A model involving partial coronary artery stenosis was used to simulate the conditions under which platelet plugs could lead to myocardial ischemia and life-threatening arrhythmias. We found no changes either in the cycle frequency of coronary blood flow oscillations or in platelet aggregability during carbon monoxide exposure. Thus, carbon monoxide exposure does not appear to alter platelet aggregability or its effect on coronary blood flow during stenosis. In the final series of experiments, we examined the effects of carbon monoxide exposure in the conscious state.

  13. Carbon Monoxide Production Associated with Ineffective Erythropoiesis*

    PubMed Central

    White, Peter; Coburn, Ronald F.; Williams, William J.; Goldwein, Manfred I.; Rother, Mary L.; Shafer, Brenda C.

    1967-01-01

    The rate of endogenous carbon monoxide production (˙Vco), determined by the closed rebreathing system technique, was elevated above the normal range in four of five patients studied with ineffective erythropoiesis (four patients with primary refractory anemia, one with thalassemia). The mean molar ratio of ˙Vco to ˙Vheme (rate of circulating heme catabolism, determined from 51Cr red cell survival curves) was 3.0 ± 0.6 (SE), indicating that most of the CO originated from sources other than circulating erythrocyte hemoglobin, in contrast to previous findings in patients with hemolytic anemia, where ˙Vco paralleled ˙Vheme closely. After administration of glycine-2-14C to these patients, endogenous CO was isolated by washout of body CO stores at high pO2 or by reacting peripheral venous blood samples with ferricyanide. The CO was then oxidized to CO2 by palladium chloride and trapped for counting in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. “Early labeled” peaks of 14CO were demonstrated which paralleled “early labeled” peaks of stercobilin and preceded maximal labeling of circulating heme. Production of “early labeled” 14CO in patients with ineffective erythropoiesis was greatly increased, up to 14 times that found in a normal subject. The increased ˙Vco and “early 14CO” production shown by these patients are presumably related mainly to heme catabolism in the marrow. The possibility exists that hepatic heme and porphyrin compounds may also contribute significantly to ˙Vco, as suggested by the finding of a high ˙Vco in an additional patient with porphyria cutanea tarda. PMID:6074003

  14. Decadal Record of Satellite Carbon Monoxide Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, Helen; Deeter, Merritt; Frankenberg, Christian; George, Maya; Nichitiu, Florian; Worden, John; Aben, Ilse; Bowman, Kevin; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-Francois; de Laat, Jos; Warner, Juying; Drummond, James; Edwards, David; Gille, John; Hurtmans, Daniel; Ming, Luo; Martinez-Alonso, Sara; Massie, Steven; Pfister, Gabriele

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) distributions are controlled by anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, chemical production, transport and oxidation by reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Quantifying trends in CO is therefore important for understanding changes related to all of these contributions. Here we present a comprehensive record of satellite observations from 2000 through 2011 of total column CO using the available measurements from nadir-viewing thermal infrared instruments: MOPITT, AIRS, TES and IASI. We examine trends for CO in the Northern and Southern hemispheres along with regional trends for E. China, E. USA, Europe and India. Measurement and sampling methods for each of the instruments are discussed, and we show diagnostics for systematic errors in MOPITT trends. We find that all the satellite observations are consistent with a modest decreasing trend around -1%/year in total column CO over the Northern hemisphere for this time period. Decreasing trends in total CO column are observed for the United States, Europe and E. China with more than 2σ significance. For India, the trend is also decreasing, but smaller in magnitude and less significant. Decreasing trends in surface CO have also been observed from measurements in the U.S. and Europe. Although less information is available for surface CO in China, there is a decreasing trend reported for Beijing. Some of the interannual variability in the observations can be explained by global fire emissions, and there may be some evidence of the global financial crisis in late 2008 to early 2009. But the overall decrease needs further study to understand the implications for changes in anthropogenic emissions.

  15. Carbon monoxide and the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Raub, J A; Benignus, V A

    2002-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, tasteless, odorless, and non-irritating gas formed when carbon in fuel is not burned completely. It enters the bloodstream through the lungs and attaches to hemoglobin (Hb), the body's oxygen carrier, forming carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and thereby reducing oxygen (O(2)) delivery to the body's organs and tissues. High COHb concentrations are poisonous. Central nervous system (CNS) effects in individuals suffering acute CO poisoning cover a wide range, depending on severity of exposure: headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, disorientation, confusion, collapse, and coma. At lower concentrations, CNS effects include reduction in visual perception, manual dexterity, learning, driving performance, and attention level. Earlier work is frequently cited to justify the statement that CO exposure sufficient to produce COHb levels of ca. 5% would be sufficient to produce visual sensitivity reduction and various neurobehavioral performance deficits. In a recent literature re-evaluation, however, the best estimate was that [COHb] would have to rise to 15-20% before a 10% reduction in any behavioral or visual measurement could be observed. This conclusion was based on (1) critical review of the literature on behavioral and sensory effects, (2) review and interpretation of the physiological effects of COHb on the CNS, (3) extrapolation from the effects of hypoxic hypoxia to the effects of CO hypoxia, and (4) extrapolation from rat behavioral effects of CO to humans. Also covered in this review article are effects of chronic CO exposure, the discovery of neuroglobin, a summary of the relatively new role for endogenous CO in neurotransmission and vascular homeostasis, groups which might be especially sensitive to CO, and recommendations on further research. The interested reader is directed to other published reviews of the literature on CO and historically seminal references that form our understanding of this ubiquitous gas. PMID

  16. The Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Hadj-Saïd, Jessica; Pandelia, Maria-Eirini; Léger, Christophe; Fourmond, Vincent; Dementin, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    Ni-containing Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases (CODHs) catalyze the reversible conversion between CO and CO₂and are involved in energy conservation and carbon fixation. These homodimeric enzymes house two NiFeS active sites (C-clusters) and three accessory [4Fe-4S] clusters. The Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Dv) genome contains a two-gene CODH operon coding for a CODH (cooS) and a maturation protein (cooC) involved in nickel insertion in the active site. According to the literature, the question of the precise function of CooC as a chaperone folding the C-cluster in a form which accommodates free nickel or as a mere nickel donor is not resolved. Here, we report the biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of two recombinant forms of the CODH, produced in the absence and in the presence of CooC, designated CooS and CooS(C), respectively. CooS contains no nickel and cannot be activated, supporting the idea that the role of CooC is to fold the C-cluster so that it can bind nickel. As expected, CooS(C) is Ni-loaded, reversibly converts CO and CO₂, displays the typical Cred1 and Cred2 EPR signatures of the C-cluster and activates in the presence of methyl viologen and CO in an autocatalytic process. However, Ni-loaded CooS(C) reaches maximum activity only upon reductive treatment in the presence of exogenous nickel, a phenomenon that had not been observed before. Surprisingly, the enzyme displays the Cred1 and Cred2 signatures whether it has been activated or not, showing that this activation process of the Ni-loaded Dv CODH is not associated with structural changes at the active site. PMID:26255854

  17. Encapsulation kinetics and dynamics of carbon monoxide in clathrate hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinlong; Du, Shiyu; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jianzhong; Xu, Hongwu; Vogel, Sven C.; Germann, Timothy C.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Izumi, Fujio; Momma, Koichi; Kawamura, Yukihiko; Jin, Changqing; Zhao, Yusheng

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide clathrate hydrate is a potentially important constituent in the solar system. In contrast to the well-established relation between the size of gaseous molecule and hydrate structure, previous work showed that carbon monoxide molecules preferentially form structure-I rather than structure-II gas hydrate. Resolving this discrepancy is fundamentally important to understanding clathrate formation, structure stabilization and the role the dipole moment/molecular polarizability plays in these processes. Here we report the synthesis of structure-II carbon monoxide hydrate under moderate high-pressure/low-temperature conditions. We demonstrate that the relative stability between structure-I and structure-II hydrates is primarily determined by kinetically controlled cage filling and associated binding energies. Within hexakaidecahedral cage, molecular dynamic simulations of density distributions reveal eight low-energy wells forming a cubic geometry in favour of the occupancy of carbon monoxide molecules, suggesting that the carbon monoxide–water and carbon monoxide–carbon monoxide interactions with adjacent cages provide a significant source of stability for the structure-II clathrate framework. PMID:24936712

  18. Comparative in-mine evaluation of carbon monoxide and smoke detectors. Report of investigations/1996

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.C.; Friel, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    A series of liquid fuel fire experiments evaluated the comparative responses of five types of commercially available smoke detectors and a diffusion-mode carbon monoxide (CO) detector under normal and reduced airflow conditions based upon the alarm times of the detectors. A correlation was developed of the travel time of 5 ppm CO between pairs of CO detectors with the travel time calculated from entry and crosscut volumes and measured airflow. Based upon the relative performance of smoke detectors in this limited study, smoke detectors can be as effective as CO detectors for mine fire detection once identifiable alarm values are defined. Implementation of smoke detectors as part of an atmospheric mine monitoring system will improve mine safety.

  19. Effects of carbon monoxide on myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed Central

    Allred, E N; Bleecker, E R; Chaitman, B R; Dahms, T E; Gottlieb, S O; Hackney, J D; Pagano, M; Selvester, R H; Walden, S M; Warren, J

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether low doses of carbon monoxide (CO) exacerbate myocardial ischemia during a progressive exercise test. The effect of CO exposure was evaluated using the objective measure of time to development of electrocardiographic changes indicative of ischemia and the subjective measure of time to onset of angina. Sixty-three male subjects (41-75 years) with well-documented coronary artery disease, who had exertional angina pectoris and ischemic ST-segment changes in their electrocardiograms, were studied. Results from three randomized, double-blind test visits (room air, low and high CO) were compared. The effect of CO exposure was determined from the percent difference in the end points obtained on exercise tests performed before and after a 1-hr exposure to room air or CO. The exposures resulted in postexercise carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels of 0.6% +/- 0.3%, 2.0% +/- 0.1%, and 3.9% +/- 0.1%. The results obtained on the 2%-COHb day and 3.9%-COHb day were compared to those on the room air day. There were 5.1% (p = 0.01) and 12.1% (p less than or equal to 0.0001) decreases in the time to development of ischemic ST-segment changes after exposures producing 2.0 and 3.9% COHb, respectively, compared to the control day. In addition, there were 4.2% (p = 0.027) and 7.1% (p = 0.002) decreases in time to the onset of angina after exposures producing 2.0 and 3.9% COHb, respectively, compared to the control day. A significant dose-response relationship was found for the individual differences in the time to ST end point and angina for the pre- versus postexposure exercise tests at the three carboxyhemoglobin levels. These findings demonstrate that low doses of CO produce significant effects on cardiac function during exercise in subjects with coronary artery disease. PMID:2040254

  20. Carbon monoxide in the earth's atmosphere - Increasing trend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khalil, M. A. K.; Rasmussen, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of an analysis of more than 60,000 atmospheric measurements of carbon monoxide taken over 3-1/2 years at Cape Meares, Oregon (45 deg N, 125 deg W), indicate that the background concentration of this gas is increasing. The rate of increase, although uncertain, is about 6 percent per year on average. Human activities are the likely cause of a substantial portion of this observed increase; however, because of the short atmospheric lifetime of carbon monoxide and the relatively few years of observations, fluctuations of sources and sinks related to the natural variability of climate may have affected the observed trend. Increased carbon monoxide may deplete tropospheric hydroxyl radicals, slowing down the removal of dozens of man-made and anthropogenic trace gases and thus indirectly affecting the earth's climate and possibly the stratospheric ozone layer.

  1. Carbon monoxide on Jupiter and implications for atmospheric convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R. G.; Barshay, S. S.

    1977-01-01

    A study of the equilibrium and disequilibrium thermochemistry of the recently discovered carbon monoxide on Jupiter suggests that the presence of this gas in the visible atmosphere is a direct result of very rapid upward mixing from levels in the deep atmosphere where the temperature is about 1100 K and where carbon monoxide is thermodynamically much more stable. As a consequence the observed carbon monoxide mixing ratio is a sensitive function of the vertical eddy mixing coefficient. We infer a value for this latter coefficient which is about three to four orders of magnitude greater than that in the earth's troposphere. This result directly supports existing structural and dynamical theories implying very rapid convection in the deep Jovian atmosphere, driven by an internal heat source.

  2. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Richard; Steinberg, Meyer

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  3. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, R.; Steinberg, M.

    This invention relates to high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280/sup 0/C and containing as little as 36 mo1% ethylene and about 41 to 51 mo1% sulfur dioxide, and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10 to 50/sup 0/C, and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  4. Carbon monoxide metabolism by the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum

    SciTech Connect

    Ludden, P.W.; Roberts, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    Research continued on carbon monoxide metabolism by Rhodospirillum rubrum. In the past year, progress was made in: (1) the identification and isolation of the physiological electron carrier from monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) to hydrogenase in R. rubrum; (2) the isolation, sequencing and mutagenesis of the genes encoding the components of the CO oxidation system in R. rubrum, (3) the purification and characterization of the CO-induced hydrogenase activity of R. rubrum; (4) the spectroscopic investigation of the cobalt-substituted form of the enzyme.

  5. The oxidation of carbon monoxide using tin oxide based catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Christopher F.; Jorgensen, Norman

    1990-01-01

    The preparation conditions for precious metal/tin oxide catalysts were optimized for maximum carbon monoxide/oxygen recombination efficiency. This was achieved by controlling the tin digestion, the peptization to form the sol, the calcination process and the method of adding the precious metals. Extensive studies of the tin oxide structure were carried out over the temperature range 20 to 500 C in air or hydrogen environments using Raman scattering and X ray diffraction. Adsorbed species on tin oxide, generated in an environment containing carbon monoxide, gave rise to a Raman band at about 1600 cm(exp -1) which was assigned to carbonaceous groups, possible carbonate.

  6. Severe neurologic impairment and uncommon magnetic resonance imaging findings after carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Clément; Bouix, Julien; Poyat, Chrystelle; Alhanati, Laure; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Falzone, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is the most common cause of fatal poisoning worldwide and can lead to severe brain damages. We report a delayed encephalopathy after a severe carbon monoxide poisoning with uncommon magnetic resonance imaging findings. PMID:26078257

  7. Capacity Building of MAGDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, K.

    2011-12-01

    Under the framework of the MAGDAS Project of SERC (at Kyushu University), this report will cover the three phases of "Capacity Building": (1) Development of instrument capacity, (2) Development of data analysis capacity, and (3) Development of science capacity. Capacity Building is one of the major goals of IHY and ISWI, as specified by the organizers of IHY and ISWI.

  8. 40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide... § 52.243 Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. The Carbon Monoxide plan for... such earlier date the State has submitted as a SIP revision a demonstration that the carbon...

  9. 40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide... § 52.243 Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. The Carbon Monoxide plan for... such earlier date the State has submitted as a SIP revision a demonstration that the carbon...

  10. 40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide... § 52.243 Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. The Carbon Monoxide plan for... such earlier date the State has submitted as a SIP revision a demonstration that the carbon...

  11. 40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide... § 52.243 Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. The Carbon Monoxide plan for... such earlier date the State has submitted as a SIP revision a demonstration that the carbon...

  12. 40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide... § 52.243 Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. The Carbon Monoxide plan for... such earlier date the State has submitted as a SIP revision a demonstration that the carbon...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as adopted on April 13, 1995, meets the requirements...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as adopted on April 13, 1995, meets the requirements...

  15. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide... Intergovernmental Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) For each AQCR or portion of an AQCR in which the national primary standard for carbon monoxide...

  16. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide... Intergovernmental Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) For each AQCR or portion of an AQCR in which the national primary standard for carbon monoxide...

  17. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide... Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made with nondispersive infrared (NDIR) an analyzers....

  18. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide... Intergovernmental Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) For each AQCR or portion of an AQCR in which the national primary standard for carbon monoxide...

  19. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide... Intergovernmental Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) For each AQCR or portion of an AQCR in which the national primary standard for carbon monoxide...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as adopted on April 13, 1995, meets the requirements...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as adopted on April 13, 1995, meets the requirements...

  2. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide... Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made with nondispersive infrared (NDIR) an analyzers....

  3. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as adopted on April 13, 1995, meets the requirements...

  4. TES/Aura L2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Lite Nadir (TL2COLN)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-06-16

    TES/Aura L2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Lite Nadir (TL2COLN) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Instrument:  TES/Aura L2 Carbon Monoxide Spatial Coverage:  5.3 km nadir ... OPeNDAP Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  Carbon Monoxide Order Data:  Reverb:   Order Data ...

  5. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide... Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made with nondispersive infrared (NDIR) an analyzers....

  6. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide... Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made with nondispersive infrared (NDIR) an analyzers....

  7. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide... Intergovernmental Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) For each AQCR or portion of an AQCR in which the national primary standard for carbon monoxide...

  8. Vaneless diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senoo, Y.

    The influence of vaneless diffusers on flow in centrifugal compressors, particularly on surge, is discussed. A vaneless diffuser can demonstrate stable operation in a wide flow range only if it is installed with a backward leaning blade impeller. The circumferential distortion of flow in the impeller disappears quickly in the vaneless diffuser. The axial distortion of flow at the diffuser inlet does not decay easily. In large specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is distorted axially. Pressure recovery of diffusers at distorted inlet flow is considerably improved by half guide vanes. The best height of the vanes is a little 1/2 diffuser width. In small specific speed compressors, flow out of the impeller is not much distorted and pressure recovery can be predicted with one-dimensional flow analysis. Wall friction loss is significant in narrow diffusers. The large pressure drop at a small flow rate can cause the positive gradient of the pressure-flow rate characteristic curve, which may cause surging.

  9. Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide (First External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes have been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evalua...

  10. School Bus Carbon Monoxide Intrusion. NHTSA Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings of a voluntary program conducted over a 10-month period during which school buses were tested for carbon monoxide (CO) levels under different climatological conditions. The objective of the test program was to determine whether or not there are any serious CO intrusion problems or indications of potential problems…

  11. Carbon Monoxide Isotopes: On the Trail of Galactic Chemical Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, W.

    1995-01-01

    From the early days of the discovery of radio emission from carbon monoxide it was realized that it offered unusual potential for under- standing the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and external galaxies through measurements of molecular isotopes. These results bear on stellar nucleosynthesis, star formation, and gases in the interstellar medium. Progress in isotopic radio measurements will be reviewed.

  12. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Deutsch) Haitian Creole (Kreyol) Hmong (Hmoob) Khmer (Khmer) Kurdish (کوردی) Laotian (Lao) Portuguese (português) Somali (af Soomaali) ... Khmer) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Kurdish (کوردی) Prevention Guidelines: You Can Prevent Carbon Monoxide ...

  13. 2010 Final Assessment: Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon <span class=Monoxide" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA has released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for ...

  14. LACK OF EFFECTS OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON HUMAN VIGILANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous publications on the effects of low levels of carbon monoxide (CO) on human vigilance performance have found conflicting results. While several studies have found statistically reliable effects, none have gone unchallenged. This article presents a critical review of the l...

  15. Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide (Second External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes have been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evalu...

  16. Carbon monoxide detector. [electrochemical gas detector for spacecraft use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G. L.; Bradspies, J. L.; Brummer, S. B.; Nelsen, L. L.

    1973-01-01

    A sensitive carbon monoxide detector, developed specifically for spacecraft use, is described. An instrument range of 0 to 60 ppm CO in air was devised. The fuel cell type detector is used as a highly sensitive electrolysis cell for electrochemically detecting gases. The concept of an electrochemical CO detector is discussed and the CO oxidation behavior in phosphoric and sulfuric acid electrolytes is reported.

  17. DIURNAL VARIATIONS IN TRAFFIC FLOW AND CARBON MONOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traffic count and carbon monoxide (CO) data for January and July from three states are compared in order to reveal any diurnal variations in the two measurements. The diurnal patterns for the 18 traffic count stations indicate that there are average patterns of traffic flow that ...

  18. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA CARBON MONOXIDE, EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in criteria documents. The last air quality criteria document for carbon monoxide (CO) was completed by EPA in 1991. This...

  19. CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN FORMATION DUE TO CARBON MONOXIDE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Coburn-Forster-Kane equation (CFKE) ia a well tested model for prediction of COHb formation due to carbon monoxide (CO) exposure in humans. here have been few and relatively poorly tested attempts to implement a CFKE for rats. uch an implementation is of interest because many...

  20. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Carbon Monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    2015-03-15

    Cross section data are collected and reviewed for electron collisions with carbon monoxide. Collision processes included are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational and electronic states, ionization, and dissociation. For each process, recommended values of the cross sections are presented, when possible. The literature has been surveyed through to the end of 2013.

  1. CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING--A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon monoxide (CO) may be the cause of more than one-half of the fatal poisonings reported in many countries: fatal cases also are grossly under-reported or mis-diagnosed by medical professionals. Therefore, the precise number of individuals who have suffered from CO intoxicat...

  2. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide analyzer as described in this section. (b) Initial and periodic interference. Prior to... corrective action which may be taken.) (c) Initial and periodic calibration. Prior to its initial use and... (64 percent) is required (see following table). Example calibration points (%) Acceptable...

  3. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  4. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 51, subpart T—Conformity to State or Federal... local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart B—Determining Conformity of General Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  6. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...,” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 51, subpart T—Conformity to State or Federal... local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart B—Determining Conformity of General Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  8. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...,” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...,” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon...

  10. 40 CFR 86.222-94 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.222-94 Section 86.222-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.222-94 Carbon...

  11. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 51, subpart T—Conformity to State or Federal... local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart B—Determining Conformity of General Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  13. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 51, subpart T—Conformity to State or Federal... local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart B—Determining Conformity of General Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  15. 40 CFR 86.222-94 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.222-94 Section 86.222-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.222-94 Carbon...

  16. 40 CFR 86.222-94 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.222-94 Section 86.222-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.222-94 Carbon...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...,” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon...

  18. 40 CFR 86.222-94 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.222-94 Section 86.222-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.222-94 Carbon...

  19. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SIP. The Clean Air Campaign was approved into the SIP at 40 CFR 52.320(c)(43)(i)(A). (d) Revisions to... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy:...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 51, subpart T—Conformity to State or Federal... local level in accordance with 40 CFR part 93, subpart B—Determining Conformity of General Federal... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide....

  1. Tita: discovery of carbon monoxide in its atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, B. L.; Debergh, C.; Owen, T.

    1982-01-01

    The 3-D rotation-vibration band of carbon monoxide was identified in the near-infrared spectrum of Titan. A preliminary mixing ratio of CO/N2 = 0.00006 was determined. This result supports the probable detection of CO2 by Samuelson et al and strengthens possible analogies between the atmosphere of Titan and conditions on the primitive Earth.

  2. Photoproduction of Carbon Monoxide from Natural Organic Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pioneering studies by Valentine provided early kinetic results that used carbon monoxide (CO) production to evaluate the photodecomposition of aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) . (ES&T 1993 27 409-412). Comparatively few kinetic studies have been conducted of the photodegradat...

  3. Effect of carbon monoxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. These values are compared to values reported in the literature. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was 3570 ppm CO.

  4. Standardisation of gas mixtures for estimating carbon monoxide transfer factor.

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, A. H.; Laszlo, G.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The American Thoracic Society recommends that the inspired concentration used for the estimation of carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO) mixture should be 0.25-0.35% carbon monoxide, 10-14% helium, 17-21% oxygen, balance nitrogen. Inspired oxygen influences alveolar oxygen and hence carbon monoxide uptake, such that transfer factor increases by 0.35% per mm Hg decrease in alveolar oxygen. To aid in the standardisation of TLCO either a known inspired oxygen concentration should be used, or TLCO should be corrected to a standard inspired oxygen concentration. The range of gas mixtures used in practice and the implications for cost and accuracy have been investigated. METHODS--A questionnaire was sent to 185 respiratory units in the UK requesting information on (1) the method used to estimate TLCO, (2) the manufacturer of the equipment, (3) the mixture used, (4) whether "medical quality" gas was ordered, and (5) the level of satisfaction with supplier service. RESULTS--Replies were received from 106 units. Most used the single breath breath holding method for which 17 different test mixtures were ordered. One unit also used the single breath exhalation method. Inspired oxygen ranged from 17.94% to 25%, giving a wide variation in alveolar oxygen and hence TLCO. Forty seven units ordered a specific inspired oxygen, the rest ordering "air" as balance. The cost per litre of gas varied greatly, with the mixture 14% helium, 0.28% carbon monoxide, balance air (17.9% oxygen) and 10% helium, 0.28% carbon monoxide, balance air (18.8% oxygen) being cheapest to produce. Ordering a specific inspired oxygen concentration increased the cost. Large cylinders of gas were cheaper for the same mixture. The mixture for the exhalation method was the most expensive. Sixty seven units ordered "medical quality" gas and six assumed this was supplied. Twenty nine (27%) were dissatisfied with their supplier due to (1) poor service, (2) long delivery times, (3) costs, or (4

  5. Diffusion barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolet, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The choice of the metallic film for the contact to a semiconductor device is discussed. One way to try to stabilize a contact is by interposing a thin film of a material that has low diffusivity for the atoms in question. This thin film application is known as a diffusion barrier. Three types of barriers can be distinguished. The stuffed barrier derives its low atomic diffusivity to impurities that concentrate along the extended defects of a polycrystalline layer. Sacrificial barriers exploit the fact that some (elemental) thin films react in a laterally uniform and reproducible fashion. Sacrificial barriers have the advantage that the point of their failure is predictable. Passive barriers are those most closely approximating an ideal barrier. The most-studied case is that of sputtered TiN films. Stuffed barriers may be viewed as passive barriers whose low diffusivity material extends along the defects of the polycrystalline host.

  6. Diffuse radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A diffuse celestial radiation which is isotropic at least on a course scale were measured from the soft X-ray region to about 150 MeV, at which energy the intensity falls below that of the galactic emission for most galactic latitudes. The spectral shape, the intensity, and the established degree of isotropy of this diffuse radiation already place severe constraints on the possible explanations for this radiation. Among the extragalactic theories, the more promising explanations of the isotropic diffuse emission appear to be radiation from exceptional galaxies from matter antimatter annihilation at the boundaries of superclusters of galaxies of matter and antimatter in baryon symmetric big bang models. Other possible sources for extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation are discussed and include normal galaxies, clusters of galaxies, primordial cosmic rays interacting with intergalactic matter, primordial black holes, and cosmic ray leakage from galaxies.

  7. Diffuse sorption modeling.

    PubMed

    Pivovarov, Sergey

    2009-04-01

    This work presents a simple solution for the diffuse double layer model, applicable to calculation of surface speciation as well as to simulation of ionic adsorption within the diffuse layer of solution in arbitrary salt media. Based on Poisson-Boltzmann equation, the Gaines-Thomas selectivity coefficient for uni-bivalent exchange on clay, K(GT)(Me(2+)/M(+))=(Q(Me)(0.5)/Q(M)){M(+)}/{Me(2+)}(0.5), (Q is the equivalent fraction of cation in the exchange capacity, and {M(+)} and {Me(2+)} are the ionic activities in solution) may be calculated as [surface charge, mueq/m(2)]/0.61. The obtained solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation was applied to calculation of ionic exchange on clays and to simulation of the surface charge of ferrihydrite in 0.01-6 M NaCl solutions. In addition, a new model of acid-base properties was developed. This model is based on assumption that the net proton charge is not located on the mathematical surface plane but diffusely distributed within the subsurface layer of the lattice. It is shown that the obtained solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation makes such calculations possible, and that this approach is more efficient than the original diffuse double layer model. PMID:19159896

  8. Computer simulations of carbon monoxide photodissociation in myoglobin: structural interpretation of the B states.

    PubMed Central

    Meller, J; Elber, R

    1998-01-01

    The early diffusion processes of a photodissociated ligand (carbon monoxide) in sperm whale myoglobin and its Phe29 mutant are studied computationally. An explicit solvent model is employed in which the protein is embedded in a box of at least 2300 water molecules. Electrostatic interactions are accounted for by using the particle mesh Ewald. Two hundred seventy molecular dynamics trajectories are computed for 10 ps. Different models of solvation and the ligand, and their influence on the diffusion are examined. The two B states of the CO are identified as "docking" sites in the heme pocket. The sites have a similar angle with respect to the heme normal, but differ in the orientation in the plane. The computational detection of the B states is stable under a reasonable variation of simulation conditions. However, in some trajectories only one of the states is observed. It is therefore necessary to use extensive simulation data to probe these states. Comparison to diffraction experiments and spectroscopy is performed. The shape of the experimental infrared spectra is computed. The overall linewidth is in an agreement with experiment. The contributions to the linewidth (van der Waals and electrostatic interactions) are discussed. PMID:9533692

  9. In situ anion diffusion experiments using radiotracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansson, Mats; Eriksen, Trygve E.

    2004-02-01

    Diffusion experiments in compacted bentonite have been carried out in situ using the borehole laboratory CHEMLAB. The "ordinary" anion iodide and the redox-sensitive pertechnetate ion have been investigated. In spite of strongly reducing groundwater conditions, technetium was found to diffuse mostly unreduced as TcO 4-, although in some spots in the compacted clay, the activity was significantly higher, which may be explained by reduction of some TcO 4- by iron-containing minerals in the bentonite. The measured concentration profiles in the clay cannot be accommodated by assuming one single diffusion process. The experimental data are modeled assuming two diffusion paths, intralamellar diffusion and diffusion in external water. The apparent diffusivity for the intralamellar diffusion was found to be 8.6×10 -11 m 2 s -1 for iodide with a capacity factor of 0.1, while the apparent diffusivity for the diffusion in external water was found to be 5×10 -14 m 2 s -1 with α=2.26. The corresponding values for Tc were found to be Da=6×10 -11 m 2 s -1, α=0.1 and Da=1×10 -13 m 2 s -1, α=0.46, respectively. The diffusion constants and capacity factors obtained in this study are in accordance with data from laboratory experiments.

  10. Pulmonary mechanics and diffusion after 'shock lung'.

    PubMed Central

    Yernault, J C; Englert, M; Sergysels, R; De Coster, A

    1975-01-01

    Pulmonary function studies performed in seven patients who had recovered from 'shock lung' showed a highly significant decrease of diffusing properties of the lung, a slight loss of lung recoil pressure, and a borderline increase of residual volume with normal vital capacity and total lung capacity. Pulmonary compliance was normal. The interpretation of these findings is discussed. PMID:1145529

  11. Carbon monoxide sensors. January 1970-April 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for January 1970-April 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the measurement and sensing of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide sensors used to prevent asphyxiation, combustion, and explosion are discussed. Carbon monoxide sensors used to measure combustion efficiency and gas levels in the atmosphere are included. Designs for gas sensors that measure several gases or carbon monoxide alone are presented. Extraterrestrial applications of carbon monoxide sensors are excluded. (Contains 140 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  12. Diffusion limitations in Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Post, M.F.M.; Sie, S.T. Badhuisweg 3, 1031 CM Amsterdam )

    1988-01-01

    Indirect conversion of natural hydrocarbon resources such as natural gas into transportation fuels or chemicals usually involves the conversion to carbon monoxide and hydrogen (synthesis gas), followed by a catalytic conversion to the desired products via e.g. the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction. In a fixed-bed mode of operation, the FT catalyst generally consists of particles of a few mm in size, for pressure-drop and heat-transfer considerations. To investigate whether diffusion limitations inside larger catalyst particles play a role during the synthesis reaction, the authors have made an extensive study using a number of iron- and cobalt-based catalysts, in which they have evaluated and quantified the effects of catalyst particle size and pore diameter on reaction rates. The effects due to variation of particle size and pore diameter have been quantified with the Thiele model for diffusion limitations.

  13. Catalysis of carbon monoxide methanation by deep sea manganate minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrera, A. L.; Maple, M. B.; Arrhenius, G.

    1990-01-01

    The catalytic activity of deep sea manganese nodule minerals for the methanation of carbon monoxide was measured with a microcatalytic technique between 200 and 460 degrees C. The manganate minerals were activated at 248 degrees C by immersion into a stream of hydrogen in which pulses of carbon monoxide were injected. Activation energies for the methanation reaction and hydrogen desorption from the manganate minerals were obtained and compared with those of pure nickel. Similar energy values indicate that the activity of the nodule materials for the reaction appears to be related to the amount of reducible transition metals present in the samples (ca. 11 wt.-%). Since the activity of the nodule minerals per gram is comparable to that of pure nickel, most of the transition metal ions located between manganese oxide layers appear to be exposed and available to catalyze the reaction.

  14. Catalyst for the methanation of carbon monoxide in sour gas

    DOEpatents

    Kustes, William A.; Hausberger, Arthur L.

    1985-01-01

    The invention involves the synergistic effect of the specific catalytic constituents on a specific series of carriers for the methanation of carbon monoxide in the presence of sulfur at relatively high temperatures and at low steam to gas ratios in the range of 0.2:1 or less. This effect was obtained with catalysts comprising the mixed sulfides and oxides of nickel and chromium supported on carriers comprising magnesium aluminate and magnesium silicate. Conversion of carbon monoxide to methane was in the range of from 40 to 80%. Tests of this combination of metal oxides and sulfides on other carriers and tests of other metal oxides and sulfides on the same carrier produced a much lower level of conversion.

  15. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria

    1996-01-01

    A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  16. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

    1996-03-19

    A method and composition are disclosed for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  17. Carbon monoxide and methane over Canada: July-August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Harriss, R.C.; Bartlett, K.B.; Talbot, R.W.; Sachse, G.W.; Collins, J.E. Jr.; Browell, E.V.; Hill, G.F.; Wade, L.; Barrie, L.A.; Burney, L.G.

    1994-01-20

    This article describes the results of a 1990 study of the concentrations of tropospheric methane and carbon monoxide in the troposphere above central and eastern Canada. Gas concentrations were measured in the 0.15 to 6 kilometer range of the troposphere using a tunable diode laser instrument. Variable concentrations of both methane and carbon monoxide were documented at altitudes of 0.15 to 6 kilometers over relatively pristine areas. The variability of gas concentration is explained by meteorological factors and local emission sources. The sources are thought to include uncontrolled wildfires, American industrial and urban emissions, retreat of the polar fronts, and emissions from wetland sources. 22 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Stability of a new cubic monoxide of Thorium under pressure

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weiwei; Luo, Wei; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory has been applied to elucidate the stability of thorium monoxide (ThO). It is found out that the pressure can stabilize the rocksalt phase of ThO, and the transition pressure is estimated between 14 and 22 GPa. The stability of ThO can be attributed due to the gradually filling 5f orbitals at the expense of 7s and 6d electrons in Th metal. For ThO, the pressure induces stronger Th-O bond reflected by the newly established 6d-2p hybridization which is the dominant cause of its stability. The phonon dispersion curves of the rocksalt phase show the positive frequencies which indicates its dynamical stability. Our successful prediction of the stabilization of the metallic ThO has proposed a route to synthesize novel actinide monoxides. PMID:26337015

  19. Exergy parametric study of carbon monoxide oxidation in moist air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souidi, Ferhat; Benmalek, Toufik; Yesaad, Billel; Baik, Mouloud

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to analyze the oxidation of carbon monoxide in moist air from the second thermodynamic law aspect. A mathematical model of laminar premixed flame in a stagnation point flow has been achieved by numerical solution of the boundary layer equation using a self-made code. The chemical kinetic mechanism for flameless combustion of fuel, which is a mixture of carbon monoxide, oxygen, and water vapor, is modeled by 34 elementary reactions that incorporate (09) nine chemical species: CO, O, CO2, O2, H2O, H, H2, HO2, and OH. The salient point is that for all the parameters we considered, the exergy of the process is completely destroyed by irreversibilities. From the chemical viewpoint, the OH radical plays an essential role in CO oxidation. This latter point has already been mentioned by previous investigators.

  20. Effect of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide on ICR mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC(50) values were determined for male ICR mice exposed to different concentration of carbon monoxide for 30 min and of nitrogen dioxide for 10 min in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The data indicate that ICR mice are more resistant to these two toxicants than Swiss albino mice. The carbon monoxide LC(50) for a 30-min exposure was about 8,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to 3,570 ppm for Swiss albino mice. The nitrogen dioxide LC(50) for a 10-min exposure was above 2,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to about 1,000 ppm for Swiss albino mice.

  1. Synthesis of thiocarbamate salts from amines, sulfur, and carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Manov-Yuvenskii, V.I.; Kuznetsov, S.L.

    1992-05-20

    Sulfur reacts with carbon monoxide and amines without a catalyst at 100-160{degrees}C and 10-100 atm for 1-4 h. The reaction products of primary amines are symmetric ureas. Under the same conditions, secondary amines form thiocarbamic acid salts, which are not converted to tetrasubstituted ureas. In the presence of primary amines at 100-160{degrees}C, they afford trisubstituted ureas, some of whose representatives are pesticides. The same products are formed directly in the carbonylation of a mixture of primary and secondary amines without isolation of intermediate thiocarbamic acid salts. In the presence of catalytic amounts of selenium, the reaction of sulfur with carbon monoxide and amines occurs at atmospheric pressure and affords N-substituted thiocarbamic acid salts from both secondary and primary amines. In the current work the authors present some of the characteristics of these processes. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Defusing Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Remy; Hogan, DaNel; Kossover, Mark; Spuck, Timothy; Young, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion has often been taught in science courses as one of the primary ways by which molecules travel, particularly within organisms. For years, classroom teachers have used the same common demonstrations to illustrate this concept (e.g., placing drops of food coloring in a beaker of water). Most of the time, the main contributor to the motion…

  3. Relativistic diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, Z.

    2009-02-01

    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.

  4. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  5. Relativistic diffusion.

    PubMed

    Haba, Z

    2009-02-01

    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed. PMID:19391727

  6. Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y S

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The epidemiological and clinical investigation of CO poisoning in the home needs to be studied in further detail. PMID:3989440

  7. An Unusual Cause of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Narghile Smoking.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Alpay; Arikan, Müge; Özgök, Ayşegul

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is commonly seen during the winter season in Turkey due to use of charcoal stoves and water heaters, but narghile smoking is a rare cause of CO poisoning. CASE REPORT In this paper, we report a CO poisoning case caused by narghile smoking. The patient was admitted to the ED with nausea, dizziness, vertigo, and syncope. CONCLUSIONS The diagnosis of CO poisoning depends on suspicious anamnesis. The major treatment of CO poisoning is oxygen supply. PMID:27618983

  8. CRISM Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared spectra returned by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM, [1]) on-board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) contain the clear spectral signature of several atmospheric gases including carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), and carbon monoxide (CO). Here we describe the seasonal and spatial mapping of water vapor and carbon dioxide for one full Martian year using CRISM spectra.

  9. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: Emergency management and hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Severance, H.W.; Kolb, J.C.; Carlton, F.B.; Jorden, R.C.

    1989-10-01

    An ice storm in February 1989 resulted in numerous incidences of carbon monoxide poisoning in central Mississippi secondary to exposure to open fires in unventilated living spaces. Sixteen cases were treated during this period at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and 6 received Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy. These 6 cases and the mechanisms of CO poisoning are discussed and recommendations for emergency management are reviewed.10 references.

  10. Mobile Carbon Monoxide Monitoring System Based on Arduino-Matlab for Environmental Monitoring Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azieda Mohd Bakri, Nur; Junid, Syed Abdul Mutalib Al; Razak, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Idros, Mohd Faizul Md; Karimi Halim, Abdul

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the increasing level of carbon monoxide globally has become a serious environmental issue which has been highlighted in most of the country globally. The monitoring of carbon monoxide content is one of the approaches to identify the level of carbon monoxide pollution towards providing the solution for control the level of carbon monoxide produced. Thus, this paper proposed a mobile carbon monoxide monitoring system for measuring the carbon monoxide content based on Arduino-Matlab General User Interface (GUI). The objective of this project is to design, develop and implement the real-time mobile carbon monoxide sensor system and interfacing for measuring the level of carbon monoxide contamination in real environment. Four phases or stages of work have been carried out for the accomplishment of the project, which classified as sensor development, controlling and integrating sensor, data collection and data analysis. As a result, a complete design and developed system has been verified with the handheld industrial standard carbon monoxide sensor for calibrating the sensor sensitivity and measurement in the laboratory. Moreover, the system has been tested in real environments by measuring the level of carbon monoxide in three different lands used location; industrial area; residential area and main road (commercial area). In this real environment test, the industrial area recorded the highest reading with 71.23 ppm and 82.59 ppm for sensor 1 and sensor 2 respectively. As a conclusion, the mobile realtime carbon monoxide system based on the Arduino-Matlab is the best approach to measure the carbon monoxide concentration in different land-used since it does not require a manual data collection and reduce the complexity of the existing carbon monoxide level concentration measurement practise at the same time with a complete data analysis facilities.

  11. Characteristics of catalyst for carbon monoxide coupling reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, G.H.; Ma, X.; He, F.; Chen, H.F.

    1995-07-01

    The use of carbon monoxide to produce organic compounds is an important research area for the future. In particular the carbon monoxide coupling reaction takes place at moderate reaction conditions,with low consumption of energy, to produce oxalic acid and oxalate. The chemicals are feedstocks for ethylene glycol synthesis by hydrogenation of oxalate, as well as for products such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, polymers, and fine chemicals. The carbon monoxide coupling reaction on supported metal catalysts Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Pd-Fe/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was used to study the characteristics of the catalyst under different conditions. The results indicated that the catalytic activation temperature influenced the catalytic activity and that there was an optimum activation temperature. The characteristics of effective coupling catalysts were found to be smaller surface areas and bigger pores, for example the {alpha}-phase of aluminum oxide. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis results show that the catalytic reaction of CO coupling occurs via a redox mechanism.

  12. Building Leadership Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanary, Dick

    2009-01-01

    The NASSP "Breaking Ranks" framework lays out multiple strategies for building capacity within a school, beginning with the leaders. To change an organization and increase its capacity to produce greater results, the people within the organization must change and increase their capacity. School change begins with changes in the principal, the…

  13. Diffusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C.

    1976-06-22

    1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.

  14. Experimental evaluation of the ignition process of carbon monoxide and oxygen in a rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and oxygen ignition boundaries were determined in a spark torch igniter as a function of propellant inlet temperatures. The oxygen temperature was varied from ambient to -258 F, and the carbon monoxide temperature was varied from ambient to -241 F. With the oxygen and carbon monoxide at -253 F and -219 F, respectively, they successfully ignited between mixture ratios of 2.42 and 3.10. Analysis of the results indicated that the lower ignition boundary was more sensitive to oxygen temperature than to carbon monoxide temperature. Another series of tests was performed in a small simulated rocket engine with oxygen at -197 F and carbon monoxide at -193 F. An oxygen/hydrogen flame was used to initiate combustion of the oxygen and carbon monoxide. Tests performed at the optimum operating mixture ratio of 0.55 obtained steady-state combustion in every test.

  15. Gas geyser--a cause of fatal domestic carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mohankumar, T S; Kanchan, Tanuj; Pinakini, K S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Singh, Manisha; Sirohi, Parmendra; Anwar, Naureen

    2012-11-01

    Carbon monoxide is responsible for a large number of accidental domestic poisoning and deaths throughout the world. Domestic carbon monoxide poisoning is rarely reported in India and remains an under recognized problem. The diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning is usually based on autopsy findings, circumstantial evidence and estimation of carboxy-haemoglobin in blood. We report a case of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in a bathroom where an LPG gas water heater was installed recently. Cherry pink discolouration of the body and organs on autopsy suggested carbon monoxide poisoning. Laboratory analysis of blood by UV visible spectrophotometry revealed presence of dangerous levels of carboxy-haemoglobin. Effective preventive measures can help in bringing down the mortality and morbidity associated with carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:23084315

  16. Carbon monoxide absorption through the oral and nasal mucosae of cynomolgus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenfisch, W.H.; Hoop, K.A.

    1980-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that blood levels of carbon monoxide increase during cigarette smoking. It has genrally been assumed that increases in blood levels of carbon monoxide could be interpreted as evidence that deep lung penetration of cigarette smoke had occurred. This study was designed to examine whether increased blood levels of carbon monoxide could result from absorption in the nasal and oral cavitites. The nasal and oral cavities of cynomolgus monkeys were exposed, independently of the lungs, to cigarette smoke under rigorous smoking conditions. Pre- and post-exposure blood levels of carbon monoxide were measured. As a positive control, similar volumes of cigarette smoke were passed directly into the lungs, thus bypassing the oral and nasal cavities, and blood levels of carbon monoxide were again measured. The results inidcate that absorption of carbon monoxide in the oral and nasal cavities is negligible under the heavy smoking regimen employed here, and hence, would be negligible under normal smoking conditions.

  17. [Urgent cesarean section in a pregnant woman with carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Gara, Edit; Gesztes, Éva; Doroszlai, Richárd; Zacher, Gábor

    2014-06-01

    Recognition of carbon monoxide is difficult due to its plain physical-chemical properties. Carbon and gas operating heating systems may cause severe poisoning. Carbon-monoxide intoxication may generate severe hypoxic damage and it may cause death. The authors present the case of severe carbon monoxide poisoning affecting one young child and five adults, including a pregnant woman. Because the availability of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is limited in Hungary, urgent cesarean section was performed to avoid intrauterine hypoxic damage. The authors note that there are no standardized non-invasive methods for measuring fetal carbon-monoxide level and that the level of carbon monoxide accumulation is higher and the clearance is longer in the fetus than in the mother. The pathophysiology of carbon monoxide intoxication and therapeutic options in pregnancy are discussed. PMID:24860052

  18. [Acute coronary syndrome with impaired left ventricular function in a carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Capilla, E; Pons, F; Poyet, R; Kerebel, S; Jego, C; Louge, P; Cellarier, G-R

    2016-02-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in France. Neuropsychological symptoms are most common. We report on a patient with acute coronary syndrome and transient left ventricular dysfunction in carbon monoxide poisoning. Patient improved under hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Coronary angiography shows no significant lesion leading to myocardial stunning diagnose. Patients exposed to carbon monoxide must have systematic cardiac evaluation with electrocardiogram and dosage of biomarkers. PMID:25261170

  19. Cardiovascular effects of chronic carbon monoxide and high-altitude exposure

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, J.J. )

    1989-07-01

    At higher altitudes, ambient carbon monoxide levels are increasing with the number of residents and tourists and their use of motor vehicles and heating devices (such as fireplaces, furnaces, and stoves). Although chronic exposure to carbon monoxide or high altitude causes pronounced cardiovascular changes in humans as well as in animals, there is little information on the effects elicited by these stressors combined. Data from acute studies and theoretical considerations suggest that carbon monoxide inhaled at altitude may be more detrimental than carbon monoxide inhaled at sea level. It is not known, however, if the cardiovascular system adapts or deteriorates with continuous, concurrent exposure to carbon monoxide and high altitude. Male laboratory rats were exposed for six weeks in steel barometric chambers to altitudes ranging from 3,300 ft (ambient) to 18,000 ft and to concentrations ranging from 0 to 500 parts per million (ppm)2. Carbon monoxide had no effect on body weight at any altitude. There was a tendency for hematocrit to increase even at the lowest concentration of carbon monoxide (9 ppm), but the increase did not become significant until 100 ppm. At 10,000 ft, there was a tendency for total heart weight to increase in rats inhaling 100 ppm carbon monoxide. Although its effects on the heart at altitude are complex, carbon monoxide, in concentrations of 500 ppm or less, had little effect on the right ventricle; it did not exacerbate any effects due to altitude. There was a tendency for the left ventricle weight to increase with exposure to 35 ppm carbon monoxide at altitude, but the increase was not significant until 100 ppm carbon monoxide. Heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, and peripheral resistance were unaffected by exposure to 35 ppm carbon monoxide or 10,000-ft altitude singly or in combination.

  20. Carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes - report of two survivors from North India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning can result from, e.g., the use of unvented coal-burning heaters, indoor barbecues, or inhalation of exhaust of vehicles. The latter is sometimes used to commit suicide. The most common presentation of carbon monoxide poisoning is cerebral hypoxia. Despite frequent use of indoor coal-burning heaters and stoves during winter months in the northern part of India, carbon monoxide poisoning has been infrequently reported. We describe two cases of carbon monoxide poisoning who reported to the Emergency Department in the early morning of a winter season with un-witnessed, unexplained development of altered level of consciousness. PMID:26873733

  1. Carbon monoxide poisoning - Immediate diagnosis and treatment are crucial to avoid complications.

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, L.D.

    2006-03-15

    Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless, tasteless gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels (oil, kerosene, coal, wood) or the inadequate ventilation of natural gas. When carbon monoxide is introduced into the bloodstream, it binds to hemoglobin, reducing the number of binding sites available for oxygen. Carbon monoxide also changes the structure of the hemoglobin molecule, which makes it even more difficult for oxygen that has attached to be released into tissues. The resulting tissue ischemia can lead to organ failure, permanent changes in cognition, or death. Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in industrialized countries.

  2. Ambient carbon monoxide and the risk of hospitalization due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Tian, Linwei; Ho, Kin-fai; Wang, Tong; Qiu, Hong; Pun, Vivian C; Chan, Chi Sing; Louie, Peter K K; Yu, Ignatius T S

    2014-12-15

    Data from recent experimental and clinical studies have indicated that lower concentrations of inhaled carbon monoxide might have beneficial antiinflammatory effects. Inhaled carbon monoxide has the potential to be a therapeutic agent for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). However, population-based epidemiologic studies of environmentally relevant carbon monoxide exposure have generated mixed findings. We conducted a time-series study in Hong Kong to estimate the association of short-term exposure to ambient carbon monoxide with emergency hospitalizations for COPD. We collected daily emergency hospital admission data and air pollution data from January 2001 to December 2007. We used log-linear Poisson models to estimate the associations between daily hospital admissions for COPD and the average daily concentrations of carbon monoxide while controlling for the traffic-related co-pollutants nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm. Results showed that ambient carbon monoxide was negatively associated with the risk of hospitalizations for COPD. After adjustment for levels nitrogen dioxide or particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm, the negative associations of carbon monoxide with COPD hospitalizations became stronger. The risk estimates were similar for female and male subjects. In conclusion, short-term exposure to ambient carbon monoxide was associated with a decreased risk of hospitalization for COPD, which suggests that carbon monoxide exposure provides some acute protection of against exacerbation of COPD. PMID:25480818

  3. Abnormal fingernail beds following carbon monoxide poisoning: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning is a very common cause of death in accidental, suicidal, or homicidal cases throughout the world. Fingernail bed manifestation is reported in survivors of carbon monoxide poisoning. Case presentation A 40-year-old Caucasian woman was exposed to carbon monoxide when she was sleeping alone in her one-bedroom apartment; fortunately, the beeps from her First Alert combination smoke and carbon monoxide detector woke her and she was saved from any extensive health issues. The most indicative symptoms experienced were a severe headache, blurred vision, agitation, and confusion. Following contact with the Emergency Responses Services, she was promptly transferred to the hospital via ambulance and was treated with high-flow oxygen on the way. She was discharged from the emergency department on the same day, but carbon monoxide exposure had already had adverse effects on her fingernail beds. The fingernail tips were altered and appeared as if a bite had been taken out of their distal borders. The changes in the tips of her fingernails were significant, but they completely disappeared eight weeks later without any additional treatment. Conclusions Worldwide, carbon monoxide poisoning is a potentially lethal condition that is preventable with educational programs and installation of carbon monoxide detectors in the home setting. Exposure to carbon monoxide frequently goes unrecognized until it is too late and causes silent death. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of fingernail bed manifestations in a survivor of carbon monoxide poisoning. PMID:25073414

  4. Quantum diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, S.

    1994-10-01

    We consider a simple quantum system subjected to a classical random force. Under certain conditions it is shown that the noise-averaged Wigner function of the system follows an integro-differential stochastic Liouville equation. In the simple case of polynomial noise-couplings this equation reduces to a generalized Fokker-Planck form. With nonlinear noise injection new ``quantum diffusion`` terms rise that have no counterpart in the classical case. Two special examples that are not of a Fokker-Planck form are discussed: the first with a localized noise source and the other with a spatially modulated noise source.

  5. DIFFUSION PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Levenson, L.

    1963-09-01

    A high-vacuum diffusion pump is described, featuring a novel housing geometry for enhancing pumping speed. An upright, cylindrical lower housing portion is surmounted by a concentric, upright, cylindrical upper housing portion of substantially larger diameter; an uppermost nozzle, disposed concentrically within the upper portion, is adapted to eject downwardly a conical sheet of liquid outwardly to impinge upon the uppermost extremity of the interior wall of the lower portion. Preferably this nozzle is mounted upon a pedestal rising coaxially from within the lower portion and projecting up into said upper portion. (AEC)

  6. A 40-year record of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon monoxide concentration and isotope ratios from the firn at Greenland Summit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Place, P., Jr.; Petrenko, V. V.; Vimont, I.; Buizert, C.; Lang, P. M.; Edwards, J.; Harth, C. M.; Hmiel, B.; Mak, J. E.; Novelli, P. C.; Brook, E.; Weiss, R. F.; Vaughn, B. H.; White, J. W. C.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon Monoxide (CO) is an important atmospheric trace gas that affects the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and contributes indirectly to climate forcing by being a major sink of tropospheric OH. A good understanding of the past atmospheric CO budget is therefore important for climate models attempting to characterize recent changes in the atmosphere. Previous work at NEEM, Greenland provided the first reconstructions of Arctic atmospheric history of CO concentration and stable isotope ratios (δC18O and δ13CO) from firn air, dating to the 1950s. In this new study, firn air was sampled from eighteen depth levels through the firn column at Summit, Greenland (in May 2013), yielding a second, independent record of Arctic CO concentration and isotopic ratios. Carbon monoxide stable isotope ratios were analyzed on replicate samples and using a newly developed system with improved precision allowing for a more robust reconstruction. The new CO concentration and stable isotope results overall confirm the earlier findings from NEEM, with a CO concentration peak around the 1970s and higher δC18O and δ13CO values associated with peak CO. Modeling and interpretation of the data are in progress.

  7. Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide in the troposphere

    SciTech Connect

    Novelli, P.C.; Steele, L.P. ); Tans, P.P. )

    1992-12-20

    Carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios were measured in air samples collected weekly at eight locations. The air was collected as part of the CMDL/NOAA cooperative flask sampling program (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, formerly Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change, Air Resources Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) at Point Barrow, Alaska, Niwot Ridge, Colorado, Mauna Loa and Cape Kumakahi, Hawaii, Guam, Marianas Islands, Christmas Island, Ascension Island and American Samoa. Half-liter or 3-L glass flasks fitted with glass piston stopcocks holding teflon O rings were used for sample collection. CO levels were determined within several weeks of collection using gas chromatography followed by mercuric oxide reduction detection, and mixing ratios were referenced against the CMDL/NOAA carbon monoxide standard scale. During the period of study (mid-1988 through December 1990) CO levels were greatest in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere (mean mixing ratio from January 1989 to December 1990 at Point Barrow was approximately 154 ppb) and decreased towards the south (mean mixing ratio at Samoa over a similar period was 65 ppb). Mixing ratios varied seasonally, the amplitude of the seasonal cycle was greatest in the north and decreased to the south. Carbon monoxide levels were affected by both local and regional scale processes. The difference in CO levels between northern and southern latitudes also varied seasonally. The greatest difference in CO mixing ratios between Barrow and Samoa was observed during the northern winter (about 150 ppb). The smallest difference, 40 ppb, occurred during the austral winter. The annually averaged CO difference between 71[degrees]N and 14[degrees]S was approximately 90 ppb in both 1989 and 1990; the annually averaged interhemispheric gradient from 71[degrees]N to 41[degrees]S is estimated as approximately 95 ppb. 66 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Detecting the dipole moment of a single carbon monoxide molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, A. Köhler, A.; Grenz, J.; Wiesendanger, R.

    2014-07-07

    Using non-contact atomic force microscopy with metallic tips enabled us to detect the electrostatic dipole moment of single carbon monoxide (CO) molecules adsorbed on three very different substrates. The observed distance dependent contrast can be explained by an interplay between the attractive van der Waals interaction and the repulsive electrostatic interaction, respectively, with the latter stemming from antiparallel aligned dipoles in tip and molecule. Our results suggest that metallic as well as CO-functionalized tips are able to probe electrostatic properties of polar molecules and that repulsive dipole-dipole interactions have to be considered when interpreting complex contrast patterns.

  9. Carbon monoxide fluxes over a managed mountain meadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörtnagl, Lukas; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2014-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic trace gas with an atmospheric lifetime of 1-3 months and an average atmospheric concentration of 100 ppb. CO mole fractions exhibit a pronounced seasonal cycle with lows in summer and highs in winter. Carbon monoxide has an indirect global warming potential by increasing the lifetime of methane (CH4), as the main sink of CO is the reaction with the hydroxyl (OH) radical, which in turn is also the main sink for CH4. Regarding the warming potential, it is estimated that 100 kg CO are equivalent to an emission of 5 kg CH4. In addition, carbon monoxide interferes with the building and destruction of ozone. Emission into and uptake from the atmosphere of CO are thus relevant for global climate and regional air quality. Sources and sinks of CO on a global scale are still highly uncertain, mainly due to general scarcity of empirical data and the lack of ecosystem-scale CO exchange measurements, i.e. CO flux data that encompass all sources and sinks within an ecosystem. Here we present eddy covariance CO fluxes over a managed temperate mountain grassland near Neustift, Austria, whereby volume mixing ratios of CO were quantified by a dual-laser mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL). First analyses of fluxes captured in April 2013 showed that the QCL is well able to capture CO fluxes at the study site during springtime. During the same time period, both significant net uptake and deposition of CO were observed, with high emission and deposition fluxes on the order of +/- 5 nmol m-2 s-1, respectively. In addition, CO fluxes exhibited a clear diurnal cycle during certain time periods, indicating a continuous release or uptake of the compound with peak flux rates around noon. In this presentation, we will analyze 12 months of carbon monoxide fluxes between January and December 2013 with regard to possible abiotic and biotic drivers of CO exchange. As an additional step towards a full understanding of the greenhouse gas exchange of the meadow

  10. Compact carbon monoxide sensor utilizing a confocal optical cavity.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, B.; Magyar, J.; Weyant, R.; Hall, J.

    1973-01-01

    The carbon monoxide sensor discussed in this paper utilizes a unique confocal cavity which allows the complete system to be packaged in a small volume suitable for hand-held use. The optical system is the heart of the instrument with equal emphasis placed on the electronics support circuitry, consisting essentially of a thermal infrared pyroelectric detector and lock-in amplifier. The pyroelectric detector offers a major advantage over other thermal detectors, providing a signal-to-noise ratio and detectivity that remain nearly constant over the frequency range from dc to 2000 Hz. Since bias voltage is not required, low frequency noise is not generated in the detector.

  11. Carbon monoxide-induced dynamic metal-surface nanostructuring.

    PubMed

    Carenco, Sophie

    2014-08-18

    Carbon monoxide is a ubiquitous molecule in surface science, materials chemistry, catalysis and nanotechnology. Its interaction with a number of metal surfaces is at the heart of major processes, such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or fuel-cell optimization. Recent works, coupling structural and nanoscale in situ analytic tools have highlighted the ability of metal surfaces and nanoparticles to undergo restructuring after exposure to CO under fairly mild conditions, generating nanostructures. This Minireview proposes a brief overview of recent examples of such nanostructuring, which leads to a discussion about the driving force in reversible and non-reversible situations. PMID:25044189

  12. [Severe recurrent carbon monoxide poisoning caused by smoking].

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Daniel Bech; Jacobsen, Villads Bønding

    2015-01-26

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odourless, colourless and toxic gas. Sources of CO include car exhaust, charcoal and tobacco smoke. CO binds to haemoglobin forming carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb). Heavy smokers have COHb levels up to 15%. There are reports of COHb levels of 24,2% caused by tobacco use and 28,7% after narghile smoking. A 54-year-old woman with schizophrenia was admitted at the intensive care unit with COHb levels as high as 35% caused by cigarillo smoking. She also presented with severe thiazide-induced hyponatriaemia and high haemoglobin levels. PMID:25612978

  13. Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, P.C.

    1992-06-04

    Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

  14. Carbon monoxide poisoning: easy to treat but difficult to recognise.

    PubMed Central

    Balzan, M. V.; Agius, G.; Galea Debono, A.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a common medical emergency and a frequent cause of deliberate or accidental death. It can cause acute and chronic central nervous system damage which may be minimised by prompt treatment with 100% oxygen or hyperbaric oxygen therapy. However, recognition of this intoxication can be difficult. Failure to diagnose it may have disastrous effects on the patient, and other members of the household who could subsequently become intoxicated. Guidance on the correct diagnosis of this condition is provided in the light of a number of studies screening emergency room populations. Guidelines for treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy are also reviewed. PMID:8796209

  15. Comparison between carbon monoxide measurements from spaceborne and airborne platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, V. S.; Cahoon, D. R.; Reichle, H. G., Jr.; Scheel, H. E.

    1991-01-01

    The measurements of air pollution from satellites (MAPS) experiment measured the distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) from the Space Shuttle during October 1984. A critical area of the experiment is the assessment of experimental error of the MAPS data. This error is determined by the comparison between the space-based CO data and concurrent, direct CO measurements taken aboard aircraft. Because of the variability in the CO measurements near land sources, a strategy for comparing the tropospheric CO measurements over the remote oceans is presented.

  16. Pathways and Bioenergetics of Anaerobic Carbon Monoxide Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Sousa, Diana Z.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO-rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis, and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved. PMID:26635746

  17. Thermal Degradation of Lead Monoxide Filled Polymer Composite Radiation Shields

    SciTech Connect

    Harish, V.; Nagaiah, N.

    2011-07-15

    Lead monoxide filled Isophthalate resin particulate polymer composites were prepared with different filler concentrations and investigated for physical, thermal, mechanical and gamma radiation shielding characteristics. This paper discusses about the thermo gravimetric analysis of the composites done to understand their thermal properties especially the effect of filler concentration on the thermal stability and degradation rate of composites. Pristine polymer exhibits single stage degradation whereas filled composites exhibit two stage degradation processes. Further, the IDT values as well as degradation rates decrease with the increased filler content in the composite.

  18. Far-ultraviolet fluorescence of carbon monoxide in the red giant Arcturus. II - Analysis of high-dispersion IUE spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, T. R.

    1986-01-01

    Faint, diffuse emissions near 1380 A in deeply exposed IUE spectrograms of the red giant Arcturus very likely are associated with bands of the A-X fourth-positive system of carbon monoxide, fluoresced by multiplet UV2 of neutral oxygen near 1305 A. Numerical simulations indicate that the strength of the CO bands is exceedingly sensitive, in the best available one-dimensional model of the chromosphere of Arcturus, to a delicate balance between the rapid inward attenuation of the oxygen radiation field and the rapid outward decline of the molecular absorptivity. The fortuitous character of the overlap region in the single-component model argues that one should also consider the possibility that the pumping occurs in a highly inhomogeneous chromosphere, of the type proposed in previous studies of Arcturus based on observations of the infrared absorption bands of CO.

  19. Influence of surface vacancy defects on the carburisation of Fe 110 surface by carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Aurab; Bouhali, Othmane; Mousseau, Normand; Becquart, Charlotte S; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa

    2016-07-28

    Adsorption and dissociation of gaseous carbon monoxide (CO) on metal surfaces is one of the most frequently occurring processes of carburisation, known as primary initiator of metal dusting corrosion. Among the various factors that can significantly influence the carburisation process are the intrinsic surface defects such as single surface vacancies occurring at high concentrations due to their low formation energy. Intuitively, adsorption and dissociation barriers of CO are expected to be lowered in the vicinity of a surface vacancy, due to the strong attractive interaction between the vacancy and the C atom. Here the adsorption energies and dissociation pathways of CO on clean and defective Fe 110 surface are explored by means of density functional theory. Interestingly, we find that the O adatom, resulting from the CO dissociation, is unstable in the electron-deficit neighbourhood of the vacancy due to its large electron affinity, and raises the barrier of the carburisation pathway. Still, a full comparative study between the clean surface and the vacancy-defected surface reveals that the complete process of carburisation, starting from adsorption to subsurface diffusion of C, is more favourable in the vicinity of a vacancy defect. PMID:27475389

  20. Influence of surface vacancy defects on the carburisation of Fe 110 surface by carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Aurab; Bouhali, Othmane; Mousseau, Normand; Becquart, Charlotte S.; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption and dissociation of gaseous carbon monoxide (CO) on metal surfaces is one of the most frequently occurring processes of carburisation, known as primary initiator of metal dusting corrosion. Among the various factors that can significantly influence the carburisation process are the intrinsic surface defects such as single surface vacancies occurring at high concentrations due to their low formation energy. Intuitively, adsorption and dissociation barriers of CO are expected to be lowered in the vicinity of a surface vacancy, due to the strong attractive interaction between the vacancy and the C atom. Here the adsorption energies and dissociation pathways of CO on clean and defective Fe 110 surface are explored by means of density functional theory. Interestingly, we find that the O adatom, resulting from the CO dissociation, is unstable in the electron-deficit neighbourhood of the vacancy due to its large electron affinity, and raises the barrier of the carburisation pathway. Still, a full comparative study between the clean surface and the vacancy-defected surface reveals that the complete process of carburisation, starting from adsorption to subsurface diffusion of C, is more favourable in the vicinity of a vacancy defect.

  1. Prediction of the Rate of Uptake of Carbon Monoxide From Blood by Extravascular Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Eugene N.; Bruce, Margaret C.; Erupaka, Kinnera

    2008-01-01

    Uptake of environmental carbon monoxide (CO) via the lungs raises the CO content of blood and of myoglobin (Mb)-containing tissues, but the blood-to-tissue diffusion coefficient for CO (DmCO) and tissue CO content are not easily measurable in humans. We used a multicompartment mathematical model to predict the effects of different values of DmCO on the time courses and magnitudes of CO content of blood and Mb-containing tissues when various published experimental studies were simulated. The model enhances our earlier model by adding mass balance equations for oxygen and by dividing the muscle compartment into 2 subcompartments. We found that several published experimental findings are compatible with either fast or slow rates of blood-tissue transfer of CO, whereas others are only compatible with slow rates of tissue uptake of CO. We conclude that slow uptake is most consistent with all of the experimental data. Slow uptake of CO by tissue is primarily due to the very small blood-to-tissue partial pressure gradients for CO. PMID:18313993

  2. Ischemic colitis associated with acute carbon monoxide poisoning--a case report.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Lindell K; Deru, Kayla

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common, but it has rarely been reported to cause ischemic colitis. In this case, a 34-year-old female with depression presented to an emergency department after a period of unconsciousness, with urinary and bowel incontinence, following exposure to car exhaust. Her carboxyhemoglobin level was 23%. She had metabolic acidosis. She was transferred to our facility for hyperbaric oxygen treatment, where she had intractable nausea/vomiting with abdominal pain and bright-red bleeding per rectum. She exhibited lower abdominal tenderness and hypoactive bowel sounds. Vital signs were: temperature 36.8 degrees C; blood pressure 137/ 86 mmHg; heart rate 114 beats/minute; respiratory rate 28 breaths/minute. The patient's electrocardiogram showed sinus tachycardia with T-wave inversions in leads I, aVL and V3-V6. The troponin I level peaked at 3.7 ng/ml. Echocardiogram showed a reduced ejection fraction of 30%-35%, with akinesis in the posterior lateral and distal anterior distributions. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed diffuse colonic mural thickening, supporting mesenteric ischemia. Sigmoidoscopy showed edematous friable pale mucosa from rectum to distal sigmoid colon. Hyperbaric oxygen was deferred based on the patient's status. Over three days, the initial hematochezia progressed to melena and then resolved. Adenosine cardiac stress MRI was normal. She was transferred to the psychiatry service and discharged four days later. Four years later, she has no gastrointestinal, cardiac or cognitive problems. PMID:27265995

  3. On Gaussian feedback capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dembo, Amir

    1989-01-01

    Pinsker and Ebert (1970) proved that in channels with additive Gaussian noise, feedback at most doubles the capacity. Cover and Pombra (1989) proved that feedback at most adds half a bit per transmission. Following their approach, the author proves that in the limit as signal power approaches either zero (very low SNR) or infinity (very high SNR), feedback does not increase the finite block-length capacity (which for nonstationary Gaussian channels replaces the standard notion of capacity that may not exist). Tighter upper bounds on the capacity are obtained in the process. Specializing these results to stationary channels, the author recovers some of the bounds recently obtained by Ozarow.

  4. Uncovering a dynamically formed substrate access tunnel in carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Po-hung; Bruschi, Maurizio; De Gioia, Luca; Blumberger, Jochen

    2013-06-26

    The transport of small ligands to active sites of proteins is the basis of vital processes in biology such as enzymatic catalysis and cell signaling, but also of more destructive ones including enzyme inhibition and oxidative damage. Here, we show how a diffusion-reaction model solved by means of molecular dynamics and density functional theory calculations provides novel insight into the transport of small ligands in proteins. In particular, we unravel the existence of an elusive, dynamically formed gas channel, which CO2 takes to diffuse from the solvent to the active site (C-cluster) of the bifunctional multisubunit enzyme complex carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase (CODH/ACS). Two cavities forming this channel are temporarily created by protein fluctuations and are not apparent in the X-ray structures. The ligand transport is controlled by two residues at the end of this tunnel, His113 and His116, and occurs on the same time scale on which chemical binding to the active site takes place (0.1-1 ms), resulting in an overall binding rate on the second time scale. We find that upon reduction of CO2 to CO, the newly formed Fe-hydroxy ligand greatly strengthens the hydrogen-bond network, preventing CO from exiting the protein through the same way that CO2 takes to enter the protein. This is the basis for directional transport of CO from the production site (C-cluster of CODH subunit) to the utilization site (A-cluster of ACS subunit). In view of these results, a general picture emerges of how large proteins guide small ligands toward their active sites. PMID:23713976

  5. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. Findikakis

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore

  6. The electric dipole moment of cobalt monoxide, CoO

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Xiujuan; Steimle, Timothy C.

    2014-03-28

    A number of low-rotational lines of the E{sup 4}Δ{sub 7/2} ← X{sup 4}Δ{sub 7/2} (1,0) band system of cobalt monoxide, CoO, were recorded field free and in the presence of a static electric field. The magnetic hyperfine parameter, h{sub 7/2}, and the electron quadrupole parameter, eQq{sub 0}, for the E{sup 4}Δ{sub 7/2}(υ = 1) state were optimized from the analysis of the field-free spectrum. The permanent electric dipole moment, μ{sup -vector}{sub el}, for the X{sup 4}Δ{sub 7/2} (υ = 0) and E{sup 4}Δ{sub 7/2} (υ = 1) states were determined to be 4.18 ± 0.05 D and 3.28 ± 0.05 D, respectively, from the analysis of the observed Stark spectra of F′ = 7 ← F″ = 6 branch feature in the Q(7/2) line and the F′ = 8 ← F″ = 7 branch feature in the R(7/2) line. The measured dipole moments of CoO are compared to those from theoretical predictions and the trend across the 3d-metal monoxide series discussed.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Carbon Monoxide Tolerance among Thermoanaerobacter Species

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Joana I.; Alves, M. Madalena; Plugge, Caroline M.; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Sousa, Diana Z.

    2016-01-01

    An anaerobic thermophilic strain (strain PCO) was isolated from a syngas-converting enrichment culture. Syngas components cannot be used by strain PCO, but the new strain is very tolerant to carbon monoxide (pCO = 1.7 × 105 Pa, 100% CO). 16S rRNA gene analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization revealed that strain PCO is a strain of Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus. The physiology of strain PCO and other Thermoanaerobacter species was compared, focusing on their tolerance to carbon monoxide. T. thermohydrosulfuricus, T. brockii subsp. finnii, T. pseudethanolicus, and T. wiegelii were exposed to increased CO concentrations in the headspace, while growth, glucose consumption and product formation were monitored. Remarkably, glucose conversion rates by Thermoanaerobacter species were not affected by CO. All the tested strains fermented glucose to mainly lactate, ethanol, acetate, and hydrogen, but final product concentrations differed. In the presence of CO, ethanol production was generally less affected, but H2 production decreased with increasing CO partial pressure. This study highlights the CO resistance of Thermoanaerobacter species. PMID:27621723

  8. A carbon monoxide passive sampler: Research and development needs

    SciTech Connect

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Diamond, R.C.; Woods, A.L.

    1991-11-01

    In rare instances, carbon monoxide (CO) levels in houses can reach dangerously high concentrations, causing adverse health effects ranging from mild headaches to, under extreme conditions, death. Hundreds of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisonings occur each year primarily due to the indoor operation of motor vehicles, the indoor use of charcoal for cooking, the operation of malfunctioning vented and unvented combustion appliances, and the misuse combustion appliances. Because there is a lack of simple, inexpensive, and accurate field sampling instrumentation, it is difficult for gas utilities and researchers to conduct field research studies designed to quantify the concentrations of CO in residences. Determining the concentration of CO in residences is the first step towards identifying the high risk appliances and high-CO environments which pose health risks. Thus, there exists an urgent need to develop and field-validate a CO-quantifying technique suitable for affordable field research. A CO passive sampler, if developed, could fulfill these requirements. Existing CO monitoring techniques are discussed as well as three potential CO-detection methods for use in a CO passive sampler. Laboratory and field research needed for the development and validation of an effective and cost-efficient CO passive sampler are also discussed.

  9. Characterization and purification of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Methanosarcina barkeri.

    PubMed Central

    Krzycki, J A; Zeikus, J G

    1984-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-dependent production of H2, CO2, and CH4 was detected in crude cell extracts of acetate-grown Methanosarcina barkeri. This metabolic transformation was associated with an active methyl viologen-linked CO dehydrogenase activity (5 to 10 U/mg of protein). Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase activity was inhibited 85% by 10 microM KCN and was rapidly inactivated by O2. The enzyme was nearly homogeneous after 20-fold purification, indicating that a significant proportion of soluble cell protein was CO dehydrogenase (ca. 5%). The native purified enzyme displayed a molecular weight of 232,000 and a two-subunit composition of 92,000 and 18,000 daltons. The enzyme was shown to contain nickel by isolation of radioactive CO dehydrogenase from cells grown in 63Ni. Analysis of enzyme kinetic properties revealed an apparent Km of 5 mM for CO and a Vmax of 1,300 U/mg of protein. The spectral properties of the enzyme were similar to those published for CO dehydrogenase from acetogenic anaerobes. The physiological functions of the enzyme are discussed. Images PMID:6425262

  10. Comparative Analysis of Carbon Monoxide Tolerance among Thermoanaerobacter Species.

    PubMed

    Alves, Joana I; Alves, M Madalena; Plugge, Caroline M; Stams, Alfons J M; Sousa, Diana Z

    2016-01-01

    An anaerobic thermophilic strain (strain PCO) was isolated from a syngas-converting enrichment culture. Syngas components cannot be used by strain PCO, but the new strain is very tolerant to carbon monoxide (pCO = 1.7 × 10(5) Pa, 100% CO). 16S rRNA gene analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization revealed that strain PCO is a strain of Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus. The physiology of strain PCO and other Thermoanaerobacter species was compared, focusing on their tolerance to carbon monoxide. T. thermohydrosulfuricus, T. brockii subsp. finnii, T. pseudethanolicus, and T. wiegelii were exposed to increased CO concentrations in the headspace, while growth, glucose consumption and product formation were monitored. Remarkably, glucose conversion rates by Thermoanaerobacter species were not affected by CO. All the tested strains fermented glucose to mainly lactate, ethanol, acetate, and hydrogen, but final product concentrations differed. In the presence of CO, ethanol production was generally less affected, but H2 production decreased with increasing CO partial pressure. This study highlights the CO resistance of Thermoanaerobacter species. PMID:27621723

  11. Material processing with hydrogen and carbon monoxide on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Linne, Diane L.

    1991-01-01

    Several novel proposals are examined for propellant production from carbon dioxide and monoxide and hydrogen. Potential uses were also examined of CO as a fuel or as a reducing agent in metal oxide processing as obtained or further reduced to carbon. Hydrogen can be reacted with CO to produce a wide variety of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds. Methanol, produced by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry may be useful as a fuel; it is easy to store and handle because it is a liquid at Mars temperatures. The reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons such as methane or acetylene can be accomplished with hydrogen. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen require cryogenic temperatures for storage as liquids. Noncryogenic storage of hydrogen may be accomplished using hydrocarbons, inorganic hydrides, or metal hydrides. Noncryogenic storage of CO may be accomplished in the form of iron carbonyl (FE(CO)5) or other metal carbonyls. Low hydrogen content fuels such as acetylene (C2H2) may be effective propellants with low requirements for earth derived resources. The impact on manned Mars missions of alternative propellant production and utilization is discussed.

  12. Material processing with hydrogen and carbon monoxide on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Linne, Diane L.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Several novel proposals are examined for propellant production from carbon dioxide and monoxide and hydrogen. Potential uses were also examined of CO as a fuel or as a reducing agent in metal oxide processing as obtained or further reduced to carbon. Hydrogen can be reacted with CO to produce a wide variety of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds. Methanol, produced by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry may be useful as a fuel; it is easy to store and handle because it is a liquid at Mars temperatures. The reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons such as methane or acetylene can be accomplished with hydrocarbons. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen require cryogenic temperatures for storage as liquid. Noncryogenic storage of hydrogen may be accomplished using hydrocarbons, inorganic hydrides, or metal hydrides. Noncryogenic storage of CO may be accomplished in the form of iron carbonyl (FE(CO)5) or other metal carbonyls. Low hydrogen content fuels such as acetylene (C2H2) may be effective propellants with low requirements for earth derived resources. The impact on manned Mars missions of alternative propellant production and utilization is discussed.

  13. Combustion characteristics of hydrogen. Carbon monoxide based gaseous fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notardonato, J. J.; White, D. J.; Kubasco, A. J.; Lecren, R. T.

    1981-10-01

    An experimental rig program was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combuston performance of a family of fuel gases based on a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. These gases, in addition to being members of a family, were also representative of those secondary fuels that could be produced from coal by various gasification schemes. In particular, simulated Winkler, Lurgi, and Blue-water low and medium energy content gases were used as fuels in the experimental combustor rig. The combustor used was originally designed as a low NOx rich-lean system for burning liquid fuels with high bound nitrogen levels. When used with the above gaseous fuels this combustor was operated in a lean-lean mode with ultra long residence times. The Blue-water gas was also operated in a rich-lean mode. The results of these tests indicate the possibility of the existence of an 'optimum' gas turbine hydrogen - carbon monoxide based secondary fuel. Such a fuel would exhibit NOx and high efficiency over the entire engine operating range. It would also have sufficient stability range to allow normal light-off and engine acceleration. Solar Turbines Incorporated would like to emphasize that the results presented here have been obtained with experimental rig combustors. The technologies generated could, however, be utilized in future commercial gas turbines.

  14. Combustion characteristics of hydrogen. Carbon monoxide based gaseous fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, J. J.; White, D. J.; Kubasco, A. J.; Lecren, R. T.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental rig program was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combuston performance of a family of fuel gases based on a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. These gases, in addition to being members of a family, were also representative of those secondary fuels that could be produced from coal by various gasification schemes. In particular, simulated Winkler, Lurgi, and Blue-water low and medium energy content gases were used as fuels in the experimental combustor rig. The combustor used was originally designed as a low NOx rich-lean system for burning liquid fuels with high bound nitrogen levels. When used with the above gaseous fuels this combustor was operated in a lean-lean mode with ultra long residence times. The Blue-water gas was also operated in a rich-lean mode. The results of these tests indicate the possibility of the existence of an 'optimum' gas turbine hydrogen - carbon monoxide based secondary fuel. Such a fuel would exhibit NOx and high efficiency over the entire engine operating range. It would also have sufficient stability range to allow normal light-off and engine acceleration. Solar Turbines Incorporated would like to emphasize that the results presented here have been obtained with experimental rig combustors. The technologies generated could, however, be utilized in future commercial gas turbines.

  15. Portable device for monitoring consistency of carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qingyu; Liang, Fuping; Liu, Gang; Wang, Xiaofei

    2002-06-01

    The necessity to nondestructively monitor concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), which is a colorless, tasteless and poisonous gas and is harmful to people, is disclosed. The portable device for monitoring concentration of CO plays an important role in health care and environment supervising for civil and industrial purposes. A basic circuit-based principle for the implementation of the device is presented with a detailed analysis for the key issues in designing. Specifically, the designing for the preamplifier is of great importance to the performance of the device. There is also introduced a method for getting standard voltage value from the micro-ampere current signal outputted from a carbon monoxide sensor and for restraining other gases to exert influence on the CO monitoring. Meanwhile, the paper teaches an anti-jamming technique for eliminating interference between analog and digital circuits within a very small system. In said device, a multi-function alarm circuit, which periodically performing its self-checking function, produces alarm with sound and light if the power of a battery is insufficient or the concentration of CO is detected to be over a set threshold. In addition, the major characteristics and applications for the device are also presented.

  16. Fractional carbon monoxide uptake in an employed population

    PubMed Central

    Stebbings, James H.

    1974-01-01

    Stebbings, J. H. (1974).Thorax, 29, 505-510. Fractional carbon monoxide uptake in an employed population. The fractional carbon monoxide uptake in 913 New York City transit workers was studied. A prediction equation for white males, based on nonsmokers, was obtained: fractional CO uptake = 0·58032 − 0·00204 × age + 0·0004 × weight (kilograms). Weight was the index of body size most strongly correlated with the fractional CO uptake. Decline in function with age by amount of tobacco smoked is described. A correction factor for respiration, based on results from 581 workers with two or more tests, was calculated: − 0·123654 × (standard tidal volume − observed tidal volume). Tidal volume was the most important contributor to individual variability of the fractional CO uptake, and minute volume or respiration rate do not add significantly to it. For epidemiological or screening uses, prediction equations are given for the fractional CO uptake corrected to 0·5 1. tidal volume. Respiration variables explain only 1·5% of individual variability, and individual variability over a mean period of 16·6 months was much larger (an individual standard error of 0·07) than the unexplained population variability (a population standard error of 0·01−0·02); thus the usefulness of the fractional CO uptake as a test of respiratory function is in doubt. PMID:4428451

  17. Carbon monoxide and ST-elevation myocardial infarction: case reports.

    PubMed

    Sward, Douglas G; Sethuraman, Kinjal N; Wong, Jennifer S; Rosenthal, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    We describe two cases of myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation on electrocardiogram associated with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, a condition rarely reported in the literature. The first was a 62-year-old woman who experienced chest pain in the emergency department (ED) while being assessed for exposure to carbon monoxide in her home. The second was an 80-year-old man who fainted at home and was found to have ST elevation during the ED workup. After hospitalization, he returned home and soon thereafter had difficulty walking and speaking. The responding paramedics detected a very high CO level in the home. Both patients received hyperbaric oxygen therapy within the first several hours of presentation. For this combination of conditions, it is difficult to derive evidence-based management recommendations, given the paucity of cases reported to date. We conclude that rapid consultation with interventional cardiology and consideration of angioplasty or stenting are appropriate, especially when electrocardiographic findings and echocardiography point to a specific coronary distribution. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy might have a role in the treatment, based on its effects on myocardial ischemia and injury in other models. PMID:27000015

  18. Controlled Prelithiation of Silicon Monoxide for High Performance Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Full Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Jin; Choi, Sunghun; Lee, Seung Jong; Seo, Myung Won; Lee, Jae Goo; Deniz, Erhan; Lee, Yong Ju; Kim, Eun Kyung; Choi, Jang Wook

    2016-01-13

    Despite the recent considerable progress, the reversibility and cycle life of silicon anodes in lithium-ion batteries are yet to be improved further to meet the commercial standards. The current major industry, instead, adopts silicon monoxide (SiOx, x ≈ 1), as this phase can accommodate the volume change of embedded Si nanodomains via the silicon oxide matrix. However, the poor Coulombic efficiencies (CEs) in the early period of cycling limit the content of SiOx, usually below 10 wt % in a composite electrode with graphite. Here, we introduce a scalable but delicate prelithiation scheme based on electrical shorting with lithium metal foil. The accurate shorting time and voltage monitoring allow a fine-tuning on the degree of prelithiation without lithium plating, to a level that the CEs in the first three cycles reach 94.9%, 95.7%, and 97.2%. The excellent reversibility enables robust full-cell operations in pairing with an emerging nickel-rich layered cathode, Li[Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05]O2, even at a commercial level of initial areal capacity of 2.4 mAh cm(-2), leading to a full cell energy density 1.5-times as high as that of graphite-LiCoO2 counterpart in terms of the active material weight. PMID:26694703

  19. Toxicological approach to setting spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, K. L.; Limero, T. F.; James, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    The Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) are exposure limits for airborne chemicals used by NASA in spacecraft. The aim of these SMACs is to protect the spacecrew against adverse health effects and performance decrements that would interfere with mission objectives. Because of the 1 and 24 hr SMACs are set for contingencies, minor reversible toxic effects that do not affect mission objectives are acceptable. The 7, 30, or 180 day SMACs are aimed at nominal operations, so they are established at levels that would not cause noncarcinogenic toxic effects and more than one case of tumor per 1000 exposed individuals over the background. The process used to set the SMACs for carbon monoxide (CO) is described to illustrate the approach used by NASA. After the toxicological literature on CO was reviewed, the data were summarized and separated into acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity data. CO's toxicity depends on the formation of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in the blood, reducing the blood's oxygen carrying capacity. The initial task was to estimate the COHb levels that would not produce toxic effects in the brain and heart.

  20. TERRA/MOPITT Measurements of Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide Distributions in Support of INTEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. P.; Gille, J. C.; Emmons, L. K.; Ziskin, D.

    2005-01-01

    Interaction with the ongoing satellite measurements programs was an important goal of INTEX- A. The Terra/MOPITT instrument had been making global measurements of the tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) distribution for 4 years, and was in a unique position to provide valuable support during the field campaign. Remote sensing of CO directly addressed the scientific questions motivating the IXTEX-A strategy and deployment, and measurement of this gas was rated as being mission critical. CO is an important trace gas in tropospheric chemistry due to its role in determining the atmospheric oxidizing capacity, as an ozone precursor, and as an indicator and tracer of both natural and anthropogenic pollution arising from incomplete combustion. The satellite perspective provided the more general temporal and spatial context to the aircraft and ground-based measurements during the subsequent scientific analysis. We proposed to build on the experience of supplying MOPITT data to previous field campaigns, such as TRACE-P. We provided expedited MOPITT data processing in near real-time, along with basic analysis of the measurements to indicate, where possible, the origin of the CO plumes that impacted the regions of flight operations and other in situ measurement activities. To ensure maximum exploitation of the satellite information, we will also had a scientist in the field to present and interpret the MOPITT data for the INTEX team, and to help ensure its utility in flight planning.

  1. Carbon monoxide in indoor ice skating rinks: Evaluation of absorption by adult hockey players

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, B.; Dewailly, E.; Lavoie, R.; Prud'Homme, D.; Allaire, S. )

    1990-05-01

    We evaluated alveolar carbon monoxide (CO) levels of 122 male, adult hockey players active in recreational leagues of the Quebec City region (Canada), before and after 10 weekly 90-minute games in 10 different rinks. We also determined exposure by quantifying the average CO level in the rink during the games. Other variables documented included age, pulmonary function, aerobic capacity, and smoking status. Environmental concentrations varied from 1.6 to 131.5 parts per million (ppm). We examined the absorption/exposure relationship using a simple linear regression model. In low CO exposure levels, physical exercise lowered the alveolar CO concentration. However, we noted that for each 10 ppm of CO in the ambient air, the players had adsorbed enough CO to raise their carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels by 1 percent. This relationship was true both for smokers and non-smokers. We suggest that an average environmental concentration of 20 ppm of CO for the duration of a hockey game (90 minutes) should be reference limit not to be exceeded in indoor skating rinks.

  2. Carbon monoxide in indoor ice skating rinks: evaluation of absorption by adult hockey players.

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, B; Dewailly, E; Lavoie, R; Prud'Homme, D; Allaire, S

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated alveolar carbon monoxide (CO) levels of 122 male, adult hockey players active in recreational leagues of the Quebec City region (Canada), before and after 10 weekly 90-minute games in 10 different rinks. We also determined exposure by quantifying the average CO level in the rink during the games. Other variables documented included age, pulmonary function, aerobic capacity, and smoking status. Environmental concentrations varied from 1.6 to 131.5 parts per million (ppm). We examined the absorption/exposure relationship using a simple linear regression model. In low CO exposure levels, physical exercise lowered the alveolar CO concentration. However, we noted that for each 10 ppm of CO in the ambient air, the players had adsorbed enough CO to raise their carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels by 1 percent. This relationship was true both for smokers and non-smokers. We suggest that an average environmental concentration of 20 ppm of CO for the duration of a hockey game (90 minutes) should be reference limit not to be exceeded in indoor skating rinks. PMID:2327538

  3. 40 CFR 415.440 - Applicability; description of the lead monoxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the lead... CATEGORY Lead Monoxide Production Subcategory § 415.440 Applicability; description of the lead monoxide... of pollutants into treatment works which are publicly owned resulting from the production of...

  4. Removal of carbon monoxide. Physical adsorption on natural and synthetic zeolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfani, F.; Greco, G., Jr.; Iroio, G.

    1982-01-01

    The utilization of natural zeolite materials in the elimination of polluting gases is investigated. Carbon monoxide pollution is emphasized because its concentration may reach dangerous levels in places such as vehicle tunnels, underground parking lots, etc. The elimination of carbon monoxide is also of interest in some industrial processes relating to the production of pure gases.

  5. 40 CFR 52.2428 - Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and... Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) Determination—EPA has determined that, as of November...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2428 - Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. 52.2428 Section 52.2428 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) Determination—EPA has determined that, as of November...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Localized high concentrations-carbon... Localized high concentrations—carbon monoxide. (a) Not later than October 1, 1975, the Commonwealth shall... quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized areas have been identified, the...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Localized high concentrations-carbon... Localized high concentrations—carbon monoxide. (a) Not later than October 1, 1975, the Commonwealth shall... quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized areas have been identified, the...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Localized high concentrations-carbon... Localized high concentrations—carbon monoxide. (a) Not later than October 1, 1975, the Commonwealth shall... quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized areas have been identified, the...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Localized high concentrations-carbon... Localized high concentrations—carbon monoxide. (a) Not later than October 1, 1975, the Commonwealth shall... quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized areas have been identified, the...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2428 - Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. 52.2428 Section 52.2428 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) Determination—EPA has determined that, as of November...

  12. 78 FR 48638 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Alaska; Fairbanks Carbon Monoxide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Alaska; Fairbanks Carbon.... SUMMARY: The EPA is proposing to approve a carbon monoxide Limited Maintenance Plan for the Fairbanks Area... demonstrates that the Fairbanks Area will maintain the carbon monoxide National Ambient Air Quality...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Localized high concentrations-carbon... Localized high concentrations—carbon monoxide. (a) Not later than October 1, 1975, the Commonwealth shall... quality standards for carbon monoxide. Once such localized areas have been identified, the...

  14. 77 FR 8252 - Adequacy Status of the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... AGENCY Adequacy Status of the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Transportation... budget (MVEB) in the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide (CO) Maintenance Plan, submitted by the State of... notice of EPA's adequacy finding regarding the motor vehicle emissions budget (MVEB) in the...

  15. Secondhand cigarette smoke as a cause of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Kachulis, C.J.

    1981-07-01

    Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning in a nonsmoking patient continued for several years until her husband stopped smoking cigarettes near her. Carbon monoxide poisoning should be considered in non-smokers when characteristic toxic symptoms occur (ie, lethargy, irritability, headache, blurred vision, slowed reaction time, and decreased concentration). Toxicity may develop simply from breathing second-hand smoke.

  16. 40 CFR 415.440 - Applicability; description of the lead monoxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the lead... CATEGORY Lead Monoxide Production Subcategory § 415.440 Applicability; description of the lead monoxide... of pollutants into treatment works which are publicly owned resulting from the production of...

  17. A STUDY TO EVALUATE CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS AT AN OIL REFINERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An eleven month field evaluation was done on five hydrogen sulfide and four carbon monoxide monitors located at an oil refinery. The hydrogen sulfide monitors sampled a fuel gas feed line and the carbon monoxide monitors sampled the emissions from a fluid cat cracker (FCC). Two o...

  18. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOEpatents

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Variable capacity gasification burner

    SciTech Connect

    Saxon, D.I.

    1985-03-05

    A variable capacity burner that may be used in gasification processes, the burner being adjustable when operating in its intended operating environment to operate at two different flow capacities, with the adjustable parts being dynamically sealed within a statically sealed structural arrangement to prevent dangerous blow-outs of the reactants to the atmosphere.

  20. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOEpatents

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  1. Problems of Excess Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, G.

    1972-01-01

    The problems of excess capacity in the airline industry are discussed with focus on the following topics: load factors; fair rate of return on investment; service-quality rivalry among airlines; pricing (fare) policies; aircraft production; and the impacts of excess capacity on operating costs. Also included is a discussion of the interrelationships among these topics.

  2. Who needs capacity?

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Alec

    2015-01-01

    The UK Law Commission's Discussion Paper, Criminal Liability: Insanity and Automatism, recommends introducing the concept of capacity to the insanity defence. The concept of capacity has an established role in those parts of the law that concern the validity of the decisions that people make, for instance in composing a will or entering into a contract. Making mental capacity a criterion for criminal responsibility in a mentally disordered defendant, however, is potentially problematic. First, the term capacity already has several different meanings in the literature on the jurisprudence of mental abnormality. Second, using the concept of capacity in the way that the Law Commission proposes poses difficulties that relate to the provision of testimony by expert witnesses. PMID:25939285

  3. Nanofluid heat capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starace, Anne K.; Gomez, Judith C.; Wang, Jun; Pradhan, Sulolit; Glatzmaier, Greg C.

    2011-12-01

    Significant increases in the heat capacity of heat transfer fluids are needed not only to reduce the costs of liquid heating and cooling processes, but also to bring clean energy producing technologies like concentrating solar power (CSP) to price parity with conventional energy generation. It has been postulated that nanofluids could have higher heat capacities than conventional fluids. In this work, nano- and micron-sized particles were added to five base fluids (poly-α olefin, mineral oil, ethylene glycol, a mixture of water and ethylene glycol, and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate), and the resulting heat capacities were measured and compared with those of the neat base fluids and the weighted average of the heat capacities of the components. The particles used were inert metals and metal oxides that did not undergo any phase transitions over the temperature range studied. In the nanofluids studied here, we found no increase in heat capacity upon the addition of the particles larger than the experimental error.

  4. Syngas fermentation to biofuel: evaluation of carbon monoxide mass transfer coefficient (kLa) in different reactor configurations.

    PubMed

    Munasinghe, Pradeep Chaminda; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass such as agri-residues, agri-processing by-products, and energy crops do not compete with food and feed, and is considered to be the ideal renewable feedstocks for biofuel production. Gasification of biomass produces synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture primarily consisting of CO and H(2). The produced syngas can be converted to ethanol by anaerobic microbial catalysts especially acetogenic bacteria such as various clostridia species.One of the major drawbacks associated with syngas fermentation is the mass transfer limitation of these sparingly soluble gases in the aqueous phase. One way of addressing this issue is the improvement in reactor design to achieve a higher volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a). In this study, different reactor configurations such as a column diffuser, a 20-μm bulb diffuser, gas sparger, gas sparger with mechanical mixing, air-lift reactor combined with a 20-μm bulb diffuser, air-lift reactor combined with a single gas entry point, and a submerged composite hollow fiber membrane (CHFM) module were employed to examine the k(L) a values. The k(L) a values reported in this study ranged from 0.4 to 91.08 h(-1). The highest k(L) a of 91.08 h(-1) was obtained in the air-lift reactor combined with a 20-μm bulb diffuser, whereas the reactor with the CHFM showed the lowest k(L) a of 0.4 h(-1). By considering both the k(L) a value and the statistical significance of each configuration, the air-lift reactor combined with a 20-μm bulb diffuser was found to be the ideal reactor configuration for carbon monoxide mass transfer in an aqueous phase. PMID:20677226

  5. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning In Children: Diagnosis And Management In The Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Macnow, Theodore E; Waltzman, Mark L

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 5000 children present to the emergency department annually with unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning. Children may be more vulnerable to carbon monoxide poisoning because of their increased metabolic demand and their inability to vocalize symptoms or recognize a dangerous exposure, and newborn infants are more vulnerable to carbon monoxide poisoning because of the persistence of fetal hemoglobin. Mild carbon monoxide poisoning may present as viral symptoms in the absence of fever. While headache, nausea, and vomiting are the most common presenting symptoms in children, the most common symptom in infants is consciousness disturbance. This review discusses the limitations of routine pulse oximetry and carboxyhemoglobin measurement in determining carbon monoxide exposure, and notes effects of co-ingestions and comorbidities. Although the mainstay of treatment is 100% oxygen, the current evidence and controversies in the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in pediatric patients is reviewed, along with its possible benefit in preventing delayed neurologic sequelae. PMID:27547917

  6. Digital image analysis of fingernail colour in cadavers comparing carbon monoxide poisoning to controls.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Neil E I

    2010-03-01

    Carbon monoxide is a component of motor vehicle exhaust fumes, provided a functional catalytic converter is not present. This gas binds avidly to the hemoglobin molecule in red blood cells preventing its oxygen transport function, effectively poisoning the body by starving it of oxygen. In binding to hemoglobin, carbon monoxide forms carboxyhemoglobin, which has a characteristic bright pink color. It has been remarked that the fingernails of victims of carbon monoxide tend to exhibit pink color, otherwise fingernails of deceased bodies tend towards a dark red to blue color. This study sought to objectively determine by using digital image analysis if a color difference occurred between the fingernails of a group of cadavers with carbon monoxide poisoning compared to a group of controls. The fingernails of the carbon monoxide group did tend to be more red than the controls, but due to overlap between the two groups assessment of the fingernails cannot be recommended as a rapid screening test. PMID:19882310

  7. A case of carbon monoxide poisoning with thrombus in the heart: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Cuma; Günay, Nurullah; Büyükaslan, Hasan; Küçükdurmaz, Zekeriya; Bozkurt, Selim

    2005-12-15

    Carbon monoxide is a nonirritant, odorless, colorless gas, and is lighter than air. It is an end product of the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Its effects are most prominent in organs sensitive to oxygen deprivation, such as the heart, brain, and kidney. Carbon monoxide poisoning becomes more abundant in winter and at cold places. In Turkey, every year we see several deaths due to poisonous gas leaks from coal or wood stoves. Deaths particularly due to hypoxia-related central nervous system damage and ventricular dysrhythmias are observed. On the other hand, an association between thromboembolic accidents and carbon monoxide poisoning has been shown in literature. Thromboembolic accidents in the mesenteric, central nervous system, and extremities are reported. However, no atrial thrombus has been mentioned. In this study, a case of an atrial thrombus associated with carbon monoxide poisoning following a diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning and treatment in the emergency room is reported and the literature is revisited. PMID:16282157

  8. Bromine monoxide / sulphur dioxide ratios in relation to volcanological observations at Mt. Etna 2006-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrowski, N.; Giuffrida, G.

    2012-12-01

    Over a 3-yr period, from 2006 to 2009, frequent scattered sunlight DOAS measurements were conducted at Mt. Etna at a distance of around 6 km downwind from the summit craters. During the same period and in addition to these measurements, volcanic observations were made by regularly visiting various parts of Mt. Etna. Here, results from these measurements and observations are presented and their relation is discussed. The focus of the investigation is the bromine monoxide/sulphur dioxide (BrO / SO2) ratio, and its variability in relation to volcanic processes. That the halogen/sulphur ratio can serve as a precursor or indicator for the onset of eruptive activity was already proposed by earlier works (e.g. Noguchi and Kamiya 1963; Menyailov, 1975; Pennisi and Cloarec, 1998; Aiuppa et al., 2002). However, there is still a limited understanding today because of the complexity with which halogens are released, depending on magma composition and degassing conditions. Our understanding of these processes is far from complete, for example of the rate and mechanism of bubble nucleation, growth and ascent in silicate melts (Carroll and Holloway, 1994), the halogen vapour-melt partitioning and the volatile diffusivity in the melt (Aiuppa et al., 2009). With this study we aim to add one more piece to the puzzle of what halogen/sulphur ratios might tell about volcanic activities. Our data set shows an increase of the BrO / SO2 ratio several weeks prior to an eruption, followed by a decline before and during the initial phase of eruptive activities. Towards the end of activity or shortly thereafter, the ratio increases to baseline values again and remains more or less constant during quiet phases. To explain the observed evolution of the BrO / SO2 ratio, a first empirical model is proposed. This model suggests that bromine, unlike chlorine and fluorine, is less soluble in the magmatic melt than sulphur. By using the DOAS method to determine SO2, we actually observe most of the

  9. The role of adsorbed hydroxyl species in the electrocatalytic carbon monoxide oxidation reaction on platinum.

    PubMed

    Kucernak, Anthony R; Offer, Gregory J

    2008-07-01

    The assumption that "OH(ads)" or other oxygen containing species is formed on polycrystalline or nanoparticulate platinum through a fast and reversible process at relatively low potentials is often made. In this paper we discuss the implications of this assumption and the difficulty in reconciling it with experimental phenomena. We show how presenting chrono-amperometric transients as log-log plots for potentials steps in the presence and absence of an adlayer of carbon monoxide on polycrystalline platinum is particularly useful in understanding the time evolution of the CO oxidation reaction. When using log-log plots a clear power law decay can be observed in the transients both in the presence and absence of an adlayer of carbon monoxide. We explain this as an extension of current theory, such that the rate determining step in both cases is the formation of a hydrogen bonded water-OH(ads) network, strongly influenced by anions, and that CO(ads) oxidation occurs, at least in part by the diffusion of OH(ads) through this network. We hypothesize that, at low potentials the formation of OH(ads) at active sites is fast and reversible but that transport of OH(ads) away from those sites may be rate limiting. The assumption that overall OH(ads) formation on platinum is fast and reversible is therefore highly dependent upon the platinum surface and the experimental conditions and it may not be appropriate for polycrystalline surfaces in sulfuric acid. Therefore, although the formation of OH(ads) on platinum in the absence of strongly adsorbing anions on 'ideal' surfaces is almost certainly fast and reversible, on realistic fuel cell relevant surfaces under non-ideal conditions this assumption cannot be made, and instead the formation of an OH(ads) adlayer may be somewhat slow and is associated with the formation of hydrogen bonded water-OH(ads) networks on the surface. We expect this to be a more realistic description for what occurs during CO(ads) oxidation on fuel cell

  10. Carbon monoxide exposure of subjects with documented cardiac arrhythmias. Research report, August 1987-July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E.; Byers, S.; Carroll, L.W.; Younis, L.T.

    1992-09-01

    The authors studied 30 subjects with well-documented coronary artery disease who had an average of at least 30 ventricular ectopic beats per hour over a 20-hour monitoring interval. Subjects were selected and enrolled in a randomized double-blind study; the carbon monoxide exposure was designed to result in 3% or 5% carboxyhemoglobin levels, as measured by gas chromatography. Total and repetitive ventricular arrhythmias were measured for four specific time intervals: (1) two hours before carbon monoxide exposure; (2) during the two-hour carbon monoxide exposure; (3) six hours after carbon monoxide exposure; and (4) approximately 10 hours after exposure, or the remaining recording interval on the Holter monitor. There was no increase in ventricular arrhythmia frequency after carbon monoxide exposure, regardless of the level of carboxyhemoglobin or the type of activity. During steady-state conditions at rest, the number of ventricular ectopic beats per hour was 115 + or - 153 (SD) for room air exposure (0.7% carboxyhemoglobin), 121 + or - 171 for the lower carbon monoxide exposure (3.2% carboxyhemoglobin), and 94 + or - 129 for the higher carbon monoxide exposure (5.1% carboxyhemoglobin). The frequency of complex ventricular ectopy was not altered at the levels of carbon monoxide studied. Secondary analysis of the impact of carbon monoxide on ventricular ectopic beat frequency stratified by baseline ejection fraction, baseline ventricular ectopic beat frequency, and exercise-induced ST-segment changes did not indicate an effect of carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias. However, patients with symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias and symptomatic myocardial ischemia were excluded from the present study.

  11. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

  12. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

  13. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

  14. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

  15. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

  16. Refinery Capacity Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Data series include fuel, electricity, and steam purchased for consumption at the refinery; refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation; and current and projected atmospheric crude oil distillation, downstream charge, and production capacities. Respondents are operators of all operating and idle petroleum refineries (including new refineries under construction) and refineries shut down during the previous year, located in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other U.S. possessions. The Refinery Capacity Report does not contain working and shell storage capacity data. This data is now being collected twice a year as of March 31 and September 30 on the Form EIA-810, "Monthly Refinery Report", and is now released as a separate report Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity.

  17. Knudsen heat capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Babac, Gulru; Reese, Jason M.

    2014-05-15

    We present a “Knudsen heat capacity” as a more appropriate and useful fluid property in micro/nanoscale gas systems than the constant pressure heat capacity. At these scales, different fluid processes come to the fore that are not normally observed at the macroscale. For thermodynamic analyses that include these Knudsen processes, using the Knudsen heat capacity can be more effective and physical. We calculate this heat capacity theoretically for non-ideal monatomic and diatomic gases, in particular, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The quantum modification for para and ortho hydrogen is also considered. We numerically model the Knudsen heat capacity using molecular dynamics simulations for the considered gases, and compare these results with the theoretical ones.

  18. Refinery Capacity Report

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    Data series include fuel, electricity, and steam purchased for consumption at the refinery; refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation; and current and projected atmospheric crude oil distillation, downstream charge, and production capacities. Respondents are operators of all operating and idle petroleum refineries (including new refineries under construction) and refineries shut down during the previous year, located in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other U.S. possessions. The Refinery Capacity Report does not contain working and shell storage capacity data. This data is now being collected twice a year as of March 31 and September 30 on the Form EIA-810, "Monthly Refinery Report", and is now released as a separate report Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity.

  19. Forward capacity market CONEfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, James F.

    2010-11-15

    In ISO New England and PJM it was assumed that sponsors of new capacity projects would offer them into the newly established forward centralized capacity markets at prices based on their levelized net cost of new entry, or ''Net CONE.'' But the FCCMs have not operated in the way their proponents had expected. To clear up the CONEfusion, FCCM designs should be reconsidered to adapt them to the changing circumstances and to be grounded in realistic expectations of market conduct. (author)

  20. Panama Canal capacity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bronzini, M.S.

    1995-04-27

    Predicting the transit capacities of the various Panama Canal alternatives required analyzing data on present Canal operations, adapting and extending an existing computer simulation model, performing simulation runs for each of the alternatives, and using the simulation model outputs to develop capacity estimates. These activities are summarized in this paper. A more complete account may be found in the project final report (TAMS 1993). Some of the material in this paper also appeared in a previously published paper (Rosselli, Bronzini, and Weekly 1994).