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Sample records for montana north dakota

  1. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anna, Lawrence O.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2008-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota.

  2. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 8, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The States of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming compose the 392,764-square-mile area of Segment 8, which is in the north-central part of the continental United States. The area varies topographically from the high rugged mountain ranges of the Rocky Mountains in western Montana and Wyoming to the gently undulating surface of the Central Lowland in eastern North Dakota and South Dakota (fig. 1). The Black Hills in southwestern South Dakota and northeastern Wyoming interrupt the uniformity of the intervening Great Plains. Segment 8 spans the Continental Divide, which is the drainage divide that separates streams that generally flow westward from those that generally flow eastward. The area of Segment 8 is drained by the following major rivers or river systems: the Green River drains southward to join the Colorado River, which ultimately discharges to the Gulf of California; the Clark Fork and the Kootenai Rivers drain generally westward by way of the Columbia River to discharge to the Pacific Ocean; the Missouri River system and the North Platte River drain eastward and southeastward to the Mississippi River, which discharges to the Gulf of Mexico; and the Red River of the North and the Souris River drain northward through Lake Winnipeg to ultimately discharge to Hudson Bay in Canada. These rivers and their tributaries are an important source of water for public-supply, domestic and commercial, agricultural, and industrial uses. Much of the surface water has long been appropriated for agricultural use, primarily irrigation, and for compliance with downstream water pacts. Reservoirs store some of the surface water for flood control, irrigation, power generation, and recreational purposes. Surface water is not always available when and where it is needed, and ground water is the only other source of supply. Ground water is obtained primarily from wells completed in unconsolidated-deposit aquifers that consist mostly of sand and gravel, and from wells

  3. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive oil and gas assessment of the Williston Basin, which encompasses more than 90 million acres in parts of North Dakota, eastern Montana, and northern South Dakota. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined 11 TPS and 19 Assessment Units (AU).

  4. Transition year labeling error characterization study. [Kansas, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, N. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Labeling errors made in the large area crop inventory experiment transition year estimates by Earth Observation Division image analysts are identified and quantified. The analysis was made from a subset of blind sites in six U.S. Great Plains states (Oklahoma, Kansas, Montana, Minnesota, North and South Dakota). The image interpretation basically was well done, resulting in a total omission error rate of 24 percent and a commission error rate of 4 percent. The largest amount of error was caused by factors beyond the control of the analysts who were following the interpretation procedures. The odd signatures, the largest error cause group, occurred mostly in areas of moisture abnormality. Multicrop labeling was tabulated showing the distribution of labeling for all crops.

  5. Catastrophic flood origin, little Missouri River valley, Montana, South Dakota, and North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, E.N.

    1988-07-01

    Mosaics of photographically reduced topographic maps demonstrate the Little Missouri River valley was developed by gigantic floods. Catastrophic flood landforms, oriented in a northwest-southeast direction, cross the entire Little Missouri drainage basin. Field evidence, consisting of abundant flood-deposited alluvium, supports map evidence. Flood-produced landforms, cut in easily eroded claystone bedrock, appear fresh, suggesting that floods occurred late during the last glacial cycle. Sheets of water, several hundred kilometers wide, flowed in a southeast direction, parallel with a continental ice margin. Erosion lowered the regional surface from a level corresponding to the tops of the highest present-day buttes to the surface now crossed by the headwaters of the Moreau, Grand, Cannonball, Heart, and Green Rivers. Spillway trenches served to channel flow and rapidly cut headward into easily eroded claystone. These trenches include the Moreau, Grand, Cannonball, Heart, and Missouri valleys. The Missouri valley in western North Dakota became the dominant spillway as tributary trenches systematically cut off flow feeding competing spillways. Formation of the Little Missouri spillway, first as a north-trending valley, progressively cut off floodwaters flowing into the Heart, Cannonball, Grand, and Moreau spillways. The north end of the Little Missouri spillway also was cut off by a deeper east-trending spillway. Huge sheets of floodwater continued to pour across the divide west of the Little Missouri continuing to lower that surface. These floodwaters were cut off by development of the Yellowstone spillway in eastern Montana.

  6. Lightning fires in North Dakota grasslands and in pine-savanna lands of South Dakota and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.

    1984-01-01

    Lightning strike fires which occurred between 1940 and 1981 were studied in mixed-grass prairie grasslands and in pine-savanna lands in the Northern Great Plains region. A majority (73%) of ignitions occurred during July and August, while a lesser number was recorded in April, May, June, and September. The April-September period is also the average time of the freeze-free period and approximates the average distribution period for thunderstorm activity in this region. The area burned by each of 293 lightning fires (most of which were suppressed) ranged from 0.004-1158.3 ha (mean = 10.8 ha). The frequency of lightning fires in mixed-grass prairie grasslands averaged 6.0/yr per 10,000 km2 in eastern North Dakota, 22.4/yr per 10,000 km2 in southcentral North Dakota, 24.7/yr per 10,000 km2 in western North Dakota, and 91.7/yr per 10,000 km2 in pine-savanna lands in northwestern South Dakota and southeastern Montana. The ecological role of lightning-set fires is discussed relative to the development of resource research and management plans and to the interpretation of historical records of natural fire occurrence in the Northern Great Plains region.

  7. Evaluation of the procedure for separating barley from other spring small grains. [North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota and Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magness, E. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The success of the Transition Year procedure to separate and label barley and the other small grains was assessed. It was decided that developers of the procedure would carry out the exercise in order to prevent compounding procedural problems with implementation problems. The evaluation proceeded by labeling the sping small grains first. The accuracy of this labeling was, on the average, somewhat better than that in the Transition Year operations. Other departures from the original procedure included a regionalization of the labeling process, the use of trend analysis, and the removal of time constraints from the actual processing. Segment selection, ground truth derivation, and data available for each segment in the analysis are discussed. Labeling accuracy is examined for North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana as well as for the entire four-state area. Errors are characterized.

  8. Geohydrology of bedrock aquifers in the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Downey, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Development of energy-related resources in the northern Great Plains of the US will require large quantities of ground water. Because Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming are semiarid, the primary local sources of nonappropriated water are the deep bedrock aquifers of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. The US Geological Survey undertook a 4-year interdisciplinary study that has culminated in a digital-simulation model of the regional flow system and incorporates the results of geochemical, hydrologic, and geologic studies. Rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age form at least five artesian aquifers that are recharged in the mountainous areas of Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming. The aquifers extend for more than 600 mi to discharge areas in the northeastern part of North Dakota and in Manitoba. In general, the direction of flow in each aquifer is east to northeast, but flow is deflected to the north and south around the Williston basin. Flow through the Williston basin is restricted because of brine (200,000-350,000 mg/l), halite beds, geologic structures, and decreased permeability of rocks in the deeper parts of the basin. Fracture systems and lineaments transverse the entire area and act either as conduits or as barriers to ground-water flow, depending on their hydrogeologic and geochemical history. Vertical leakage from the aquifers is restricted by shale with low permeability, by halite beds, and by stratigraphic traps or low-permeability zones associated with petroleum accumulations. However, interaquifer leakage appears to occur through and along some of the major lineaments and fractures. Interaquifer leakage may be a major consideration in determining the quality of water produced from wells.

  9. Assessment of undiscovered oil resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin Province, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Higley, Debra K.; Klett, Timothy R.; Lewan, Michael D.; Lillis, Paul G.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 7.4 billion barrels of oil, 6.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.53 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations in the Williston Basin Province of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota.

  10. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil Resources in the Devonian-Mississippian Bakken Formation, Williston Basin Province, Montana and North Dakota, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Lewan, Michael D.; Anna, Lawrence O.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Klett, Timothy R.; Charpentier, Ronal R.

    2008-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.65 billion barrels of oil, 1.85 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 148 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Bakken Formation of the Williston Basin Province, Montana and North Dakota.

  11. 33 CFR 165.T11-0511 - Safety Zone; Missouri River from the border between Montana and North Dakota.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone; Missouri River from... Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.T11-0511 Safety Zone; Missouri River from the border between... Missouri River from the border between Montana and North Dakota at 104.05 degrees west longitude to...

  12. Geohydrology of bedrock aquifers in the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Downey, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age underlie the entire northern Great Plains of the United States. These rocks form 5 artesian aquifer systems that are recharged in the mountainous areas of Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming and extend more than 600 miles to discharge areas in the northeastern part of North Dakota and in the Canadian Province of Manitoba. Generally, the principal direction of flow in each aquifer is deflected to the north and south around the Williston basin. Flow through the Williston basin is restricted because of geologic structure, and decreased permeability of rocks in the deeper parts of the basin. Major fracture systems or lineaments traverse the geologic section and are either vertical or horizontal conduits, or barriers to, groundwater flow. Vertical leakage from the aquifers is restricted by shale of minimal permeability, halite beds, and stratigraphic traps or minimal-permeability zones associated with petroleum accumulations. Interaquifer leakage appears to occur through and along some of the major lineaments. During the Pleistocene Epoch, thick ice sheets completely covered the discharge areas of the bedrock aquifers. This effectively blocked flow northeastward from the system and, at some locations, it may have caused a reversal of flow. The existing flow, system therefore, may not have reached hydrologic equilibrium with the stress of the last glacial period. (USGS)

  13. Availability of selected meteorological data in computer-based files of the U.S. Geological Survey, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, Brenda L.; Cary, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Meteorological data were located, acquired, and stored from selected stations in Montana and North Dakota coal regions and adjacent areas including South Dakota and Wyoming. Data that were acquired have potential use in small watershed modeling studies. Emphasis was placed on acquiring data that was collected during the period 1970 to the present (1984). A map shows the location and type of stations selected. A narration summarizing conventions used in acquiring and storing the meteorological data is provided along with the various retrieval options available. Individual station descriptions are followed by tables listing the meteorological variables collected, period of obtained record, percentage of data recovery, and the instruments used and their description. (USGS)

  14. Paleogeographic setting of Pennsylvanian Tyler formation and relation to underlying Mississippian rocks in Montana and North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Maughan, E.K.

    1984-02-01

    Pennsylvanian sedimentary rocks in the northern Rocky Mountains and in the northern Great Plains of the United States were deposited primarily on a broad marine shelf between the North American craton and the late Paleozoic continental margin in Idaho and adjacent states. The Lower Pennsylvanian (Morrowan) Tyler Formation comprises detrital sediments and some limestone beds in Montana and North Dakota that were deposited along an eastward-transgressing marine shoreline after regional uplift, warping, and faulting had resulted in an erosional unconformity on top of Mississippian strata. The Lower Pennsylvanian shoreline finally extended onto the cratonic interior in eastern North Dakota. Initial Tyler sediments were deposited as a deltaic and fluviolacustrine complex succeeded by littoral deposits as the Early Pennsylvanian shoreline transgressed eastward across the shelf. The Tyler Formation is subdivided into the Stonehouse Canyon Member at the base, the Bear Gulch Member, and the Cameron Creek Member at the top.

  15. Geology of the Williston basin, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, with reference to subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandberg, C.A.

    1962-01-01

    The southern Williston basin, which underlies about 110,000 square miles #n North Dakota, South Dakota, and eastern Montana, is part of a large structural and sedimentary basin. Its surface is a flat to gently rolling plain, standing about 1,500 to 3,500 feet above sea level and locally studded by a few high buttes. The sedimentary sequence that fills the basin has a maximum thickness of about 16,700 feet and rests on Precambrian metamorphic rocks at depths of 500 to 13,900 feet below sea level. It contains rocks of every geologic system, from Cambrian to Quaternary. Rocks of Middle Cambrian through Middle Ordovician age are largely shale and sandstone, as much as 1,200 feet thick; rocks of Late Ordovician through Pennsylvanian age are largely limestone and dolomite, as much as 7,500 feet thick; and rocks of Permian through Tertiary age are predominantly shale and siltstone, as much as 8,000 feet thick. Pleistocene glacial drift mantles the northern and eastern parts of the area. Rocks of the Williston basin are gently folded and regional dips are 1? or less from the margins to the basin center. Dips on the flanks of the major anticlinal folds, the Nesson and cedar Creek anticlines and the Poplar and Bowdoin domes, generally are about 1? to 3? except on the steep west limb of the Cedar Creek anticline. The basin was shaped by Laramide orogeny during latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary time. Most of the present structural features, however, were initiated during the Precambrian and reactivated by several subsequent orogenies, of which the latest was the Laramide. The most important mineral resource of the area is oil, which is produced predominantly from the Paleozoic carbonate sequence and largely on three of the major anticlinal folds, and lignite, which is present near the surface in Paleocene rocks. The subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes at some places in the Williston basin appears to be geographically and geologically feasible. Many sites, at which

  16. Rocks, resolution, and the record at the terrestrial K/T boundary, eastern Montana and western North Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fastovsky, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Reconstructions of mass extinction events are based upon faunal patterns, reconstructed from numerical and diversity data ultimately derived from rocks. It follows that geological complexity must not be subsumed in the desire to establish patterns. This is exemplified at the Terrestrial Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary in eastern Montana and western North Dakota, where there are represented all of the major indicators of the terrestrial K/T transition: dinosaurian and non-dinosaurian vertebrate faunas, pollen, a megaflora, iridium, and shocked quartz. It is the patterns of these indicators that shape ideas about the terrestrial K/T transition. In eastern Montana and western North Dakota, the K/T transition is represented lithostratigraphically by the Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation, and the Tertiary Tullock Formation. Both of these are the result of aggrading, meandering, fluvial systems, a fact that has important consequences for interpretations of fossils they contain. Direct consequences of the fluvial depositional environments are: facies are lenticular, interfingering, and laterally discontinuous; the occurrence of fossils in the Hell Creek and Tullock formations is facies-dependent; and the K/T sequence in eastern Montana and western North Dakota is incomplete, as indicated by repetitive erosional contacts and soil successions. The significance for faunal patterns of lenticular facies, facies-dependent preservation, and incompleteness is discussed. A project attempting to reconstruct vertebrate evolution in a reproducible manner in Hell Creek-type sediments must be based upon a reliable scale of correlations, given the lenticular nature of the deposits, and a recognition of the fact that disparate facies are not comparable in terms of either numbers of preserved vertebrates or depositional rates.

  17. Divisions of potential fracture permeability, based on distribution of structures and linear features in sedimentary rocks, northern Great Plains-Rocky Mountains region of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, and northern Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.

    1986-01-01

    Division of fracture traces in sedimentary rocks of Cenozoic to Precambrian Age - Eastern and central North and South Dakota and northern Nebraska include only Cenozoic to Pennsylvanian rocks at the surface and at relatively shallow depths; the area of shallow thrust faulting in north-central Montana includes many Cretaceous rocks. Fractures in the deeper rocks in these areas vary, depending on the local structure. Large areas of western Montana are underlain by Precambrian sedimentary rocks. 

  18. Assessment of Undiscovered Technically Recoverable Oil and Gas Resources of the Bakken Formation, Williston Basin, Montana and North Dakota, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, R.M.; Roberts, L.N.R.; Cook, T.A.; Lewan, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and associated gas resources of the Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation in the U.S. portion of the Williston Basin of Montana and North Dakota and within the Williston Basin Province. The assessment is based on geologic elements of a total petroleum system (TPS), which include (1) source-rock distribution, thickness, organic richness, maturation, petroleum generation, and migration; (2) reservoir-rock type (conventional or continuous), distribution, and quality; and (3) character of traps and time of formation with respect to petroleum generation and migration. Framework studies in stratigraphy and structural geology and modeling of petroleum geochemistry, combined with historical exploration and production analyses, were used to estimate the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil resource of the Bakken Formation. Using this framework, the USGS defined a Bakken-Lodgepole TPS and seven assessment units (AU) within the system. For the Bakken Formation, the undiscovered oil and associated gas resources were quantitatively estimated for six of these AUs.

  19. Geology and undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Madison Group, Williston Basin, North Dakota and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Anna, Lawrence O.

    2010-01-01

    Two of the total petroleum systems (TPS) defined as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of the Williston Basin contain Mississippian Madison Group strata: 1) the Bakken-Lodgepole TPS, which includes the Lodgepole Formation; and 2) the Madison TPS, which includes the Mission Canyon, Charles, and Spearfish formations. The Bakken-Lodgepole TPS is defined as the area in which oil generated from the upper and lower shales of the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation has accumulated in reservoirs in the Three Forks, Bakken, and Lodgepole formations. Two conventional assessment units (AU) have been identified within the Bakken-Lodgepole TPS, including one in the Bakken Formation and another in the Waulsortian mound reservoirs of the lower Lodgepole Formation. Lodgepole Formation Waulsortian mound oil production has been restricted to a small part of Stark County, North Dakota. Reservoirs are sealed by middle and upper Lodgepole Formation tight argillaceous limestones. Several nonproductive mounds and mound-like structures have also been identified in the Lodgepole Formation. Productivity correlates closely with the oil window of the Bakken Formation shales, and also indicates the likelihood of limited lateral migration of Bakken Formation oil into Lodgepole Formation reservoirs in North Dakota and Montana. Such considerations limit the estimated mean of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources to 8 million barrels of oil (MMBO) for the Lodgepole Formation conventional reservoirs. The Madison TPS is defined as the area where oil generated from Mission Canyon and Charles formation source rocks has accumulated in reservoirs of the Mission Canyon and Charles formations and in reservoirs within the Triassic Spearfish Formation. One continuous reservoir AU, the Mission Canyon-Charles AU, was defined within the Madison TPS; its boundary coincides with the TPS boundary. There is extensive conventional production throughout the AU on major

  20. Element concentrations in bed sediment of the Yellowstone River basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming; a retrospective analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.A.; Zelt, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical data for bed sediment were analyzed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program investigation of the Yellowstone River Basin in parts of Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming. The primary data set consisted of about 13,000 samples collected during 1974-79 for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Data were available for 50 elements, although not all samples were analyzed for all elements. Element concentrations varied spatially and were associated with geologic settings or ecoregions. Factor analysis indicated three groups of associated elements: factor 1 elements were strongly correlated with basaltic rocks, factor 2 elements were strongly correlated with granitic rocks, and factor 3 elements were strongly correlated with carbonate rocks. Scores for factor 1 were highest for bed-sediment samples associated with volcanic rocks of Tertiary and Cretaceous age in the Absaroka volcanic field and crystalline rocks of Precambrian age in the Beartooth Mountains. Scores for factor 2 were highest for samples associated with volcanic rocks of Quaternary age on the Yellowstone Plateau, crystalline rocks of Precambrian age, and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age in the Wyoming Basin ecoregion. Scores for factor 3 were highest in samples associated with sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age and volcanic rocks of Cretaceous and Tertiary age. Descriptive statistics are presented to serve as a baseline for element concentrations in bed sediment associated with eight geologic settings or ecoregions in the study unit. Some of the concentrations of chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in bed-sediment samples from areas of crystalline rocks in the Beartooth Mountains and other formations in the western part of the study unit exceeded sediment-quality assessment values associated with toxic effects to aquatic life.

  1. The influence of snow depth and surface air temperature on satellite-derived microwave brightness temperature. [central Russian steppes, and high plains of Montana, North Dakota, and Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, J. L.; Hall, D. K.; Chang, A. T. C.; Rango, A.; Allison, L. J.; Diesen, B. C., III

    1980-01-01

    Areas of the steppes of central Russia, the high plains of Montana and North Dakota, and the high plains of Canada were studied in an effort to determine the relationship between passive microwave satellite brightness temperature, surface air temperature, and snow depth. Significant regression relationships were developed in each of these homogeneous areas. Results show that sq R values obtained for air temperature versus snow depth and the ratio of microwave brightness temperature and air temperature versus snow depth were not as the sq R values obtained by simply plotting microwave brightness temperature versus snow depth. Multiple regression analysis provided only marginal improvement over the results obtained by using simple linear regression.

  2. Quaternary geologic map of the Wolf Point 1° × 2° quadrangle, Montana and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fullerton, David S.; Colton, Roger B.; Bush, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    The Wolf Point quadrangle encompasses approximately 16,084 km2 (6,210 mi2). The northern boundary is the Montana/Saskatchewan (U.S.-Canada) boundary. The quadrangle is in the Northern Plains physiographic province and it includes the Peerless Plateau and Flaxville Plain. The primary river is the Missouri River.The map units are surficial deposits and materials, not landforms. Deposits that comprise some constructional landforms (for example, ground-moraine deposits, end-moraine deposits, and stagnation-moraine deposits, all composed of till) are distinguished for purposes of reconstruction of glacial history. Surficial deposits and materials are assigned to 23 map units on the basis of genesis, age, lithology or composition, texture or particle size, and other physical, chemical, and engineering characteristics. It is not a map of soils that are recognized in pedology or agronomy.  Rather, it is a generalized map of soils recognized in engineering geology, or of substrata or parent materials in which pedologic or agronomic soils are formed.  Glaciotectonic (ice-thrust) structures and deposits are mapped separately, represented by a symbol. The surficial deposits are glacial, ice-contact, glaciofluvial, alluvial, lacustrine, eolian, colluvial, and mass-movement deposits.Till of late Wisconsin age is represented by three map units. Till of Illinoian age also is mapped.  Till deposited during pre-Illinoian glaciations is not mapped, but is widespread in the subsurface.  Linear ice-molded landforms (primarily drumlins), shown by symbol, indicate directions of ice flow during late Wisconsin and Illinoian glaciations. The Quaternary geologic map of the Wolf Point quadrangle, northeastern Montana and North Dakota, was prepared to provide a database for compilation of a Quaternary geologic map of the Regina 4° × 6° quadrangle, United States and Canada, at scale 1:1,000,000, for the U.S. Geological Survey Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States map series

  3. Quaternary geologic map of the Wolf Point 1° × 2° quadrangle, Montana and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fullerton, David S.; Colton, Roger B.; Bush, Charles A.

    2016-09-08

    The Wolf Point quadrangle encompasses approximately 16,084 km2 (6,210 mi2). The northern boundary is the Montana/Saskatchewan (U.S.-Canada) boundary. The quadrangle is in the Northern Plains physiographic province and it includes the Peerless Plateau and Flaxville Plain. The primary river is the Missouri River.The map units are surficial deposits and materials, not landforms. Deposits that comprise some constructional landforms (for example, ground-moraine deposits, end-moraine deposits, and stagnation-moraine deposits, all composed of till) are distinguished for purposes of reconstruction of glacial history. Surficial deposits and materials are assigned to 23 map units on the basis of genesis, age, lithology or composition, texture or particle size, and other physical, chemical, and engineering characteristics. It is not a map of soils that are recognized in pedology or agronomy.  Rather, it is a generalized map of soils recognized in engineering geology, or of substrata or parent materials in which pedologic or agronomic soils are formed.  Glaciotectonic (ice-thrust) structures and deposits are mapped separately, represented by a symbol. The surficial deposits are glacial, ice-contact, glaciofluvial, alluvial, lacustrine, eolian, colluvial, and mass-movement deposits.Till of late Wisconsin age is represented by three map units. Till of Illinoian age also is mapped.  Till deposited during pre-Illinoian glaciations is not mapped, but is widespread in the subsurface.  Linear ice-molded landforms (primarily drumlins), shown by symbol, indicate directions of ice flow during late Wisconsin and Illinoian glaciations. The Quaternary geologic map of the Wolf Point quadrangle, northeastern Montana and North Dakota, was prepared to provide a database for compilation of a Quaternary geologic map of the Regina 4° × 6° quadrangle, United States and Canada, at scale 1:1,000,000, for the U.S. Geological Survey Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States map series

  4. A resource evaluation of the Bakken Formation (Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian) continuous oil accumulation, Williston Basin, North Dakota and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoker, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation in the United States portion of the Williston Basin is both the source and the reservoir for a continuous oil accumulation - in effect a single very large field - underlying approximately 17,800 mi2 (46,100 km2) of North Dakota and Montana. Within this area, the Bakken Formation continuous oil accumulation is not significantly influenced by the water column and cannot be analyzed in terms of conventional, discrete fields. Rather, the continuous accumulation can be envisioned as a collection of oil-charged cells, virtually all of which are capable of producing some oil, but which vary significantly in their production characteristics. Better wellperformance statistics are linked regionally to higher levels of thermal maturity and to lower levels of reservoir heterogeneity. Although portions of the Bakken Formation continuous oil accumulation have reached a mature stage of development, the accumulation as a whole is far from depleted.

  5. Plan of study of the hydrology of the Madison Limestone and associated rocks in Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1975-01-01

    A major part of the United States ' coal reserves is in the Fort Union coal region of the Northern Great Plains. Large-scale development of these reserves would place a heavy demand on the area 's limited water resources. Surface water is poorly distributed in time and space. Its use for coal development in parts of the area would require storage reservoirs and distribution systems, whereas in the rest of the area surface water is fully appropriated and its use would deprive present users of their supply. Preliminary studies by the U.S. Geological Survey and State agencies in Wyoming, Montana, and South Dakota indicate that the Madison Limestone and associated rocks might provide a significant percentage of the total water requirements for coal development. This report briefly summarized the present knowledge of the geohydrology of the Madison and associated rocks, identifies the need for additional data, and outlines a 5-year plan for a comprehensive study of the hydrology of these rocks. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. North Dakota geology school receives major gift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    Petroleum geology and related areas of study at the University of North Dakota (UND) received a huge financial boost with the announcement on 24 September of $14 million in private and public partnership funding. The university announced the naming of the Harold Hamm School of Geology and Geological Engineering, formerly a department within the College of Engineering and Mines, in recognition of $10 million provided as a gift by oilman Harold Hamm and Continental Resources, Inc. Hamm is the chair and chief executive officer of Continental, the largest leaseholder in the Bakken Play oil formation in North Dakota and Montana, and he is also an energy policy advisor to Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney. UND also received $4 million from the Oil and Gas Research Program of the North Dakota Industrial Commission to support geology and geological engineering education and research.

  7. Map showing spatial and temporal relations of mountain and continental glaciations on the Northern Plains, primarily in northern Montana and northwestern North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fullerton, David S.; Colton, Roger B.; Bush, Charles A.; Straub, Arthur W.

    2004-01-01

    This report is an overview of glacial limits and glacial history on the plains in northern Montana and northeastern North Dakota (long 102?-114?W.) and also in adjacent southern Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada. In the Rocky Mountains and on the plains adjacent to the mountains in Montana, the map also depicts spatial relations of valley glaciers and piedmont ice lobes to continental ice sheets. Glacial limits east of 102?, in the United States and also in adjacent Canada, are depicted on published maps of the U.S. Geological Survey Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States (I-1420) map series. The limits shown here are from data compiled for the Lethbridge, Regina, Yellowstone, and Big Horn Mountains 4? x 6? quadrangles in the Quaternary Geologic Atlas series. This geospatial database has been prepared with a degree of detail appropriate for viewing at a scale of 1:1,000,000. Because of the degree of generalization required, the map is intended for regional analysis, rather than for detailed analysis in specific areas. It depicts the geographic positions of the limits of mountain and continental glaciations and the limits of selected glacial readvances. That information provides a foundation for reconstruction of geologic history and for reconstruction. The base map is simplified. Selected hydrographic features, selected towns and cities, selected physiographic features, and a grid of 1? x 2? topographic quadrangles are included to aid the reader in location of the glacial limits and other features that are depicted here on other maps at different scales. Most of the geologic data were compiled at 1:250,000 scale. The nominal reading scale of the digitized map data is 1:1,000,000. Enlargement will not restore resolution that was lost by simplification or generalization of data. Accompanying illustrations show regional directions of ice movement from Canada into the United States during maximum Illinoian glaciation, during maximum late Wisconsin glaciation

  8. Timing of the deposition of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene coal-bearing deposits in the Greater Glendive area, Montana and North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    With the aid of a grant from the National Geographic Society, a cooperative agreement with the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Late Cretaceous and Paleocene geologic and paleontologic field studies were undertaken in Makoshika, State Park and vicinity, Dawson County, Montana. This region was chosen as a study area because of its potential for yielding new fossil localities and extensive exposures both above and below the K/T boundary, as suggested by previous research by David W. Krause and Joseph H. Hartman. Related field studies were also undertaken in areas adjacent to the Cedar Creek Anticline in North Dakota. This work was part of ongoing research to document change in the composition of mammalian and molluscan faunas during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene and to relate observed patterns to floral and invertebrate changes in composition. This study focuses on the record of mammals and mollusks in the Makoshika stratigraphic section and places old and new observations into a paleomagnetic and palynomorph framework. Of particular interest is the appearance and diversification of archaic ungulate mammals. Simultaneous dinosaur extinction with ungulate radiation has been invoked in gradual, as opposed to catastrophic, models of faunal change at the K/T boundary. However, supposed Cretaceous localities bearing archaic ungulates and other mammals of {open_quotes}Paleocene aspect{close_quotes} may be the product of faunal reworking. Elsewhere in the Williston Basin (e.g., Garfield and McCone Counties, Montana), the molluscan record of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene strata indicates the extinction of all of the highly sculptured unionid bivalves just prior to the onset of coal swamps and subsequent coal formation.

  9. Workforce: North Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Between 2002 and 2012, the rate of job growth in North Dakota will be modest: under 1 percent annually. However, a large number of positions-close to a quarter of all jobs in the state-will open up for hiring due to retirements and separations. In addition, the demand for well-educated employees will only increase over the next several years. In…

  10. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  11. Preliminary digital model of ground-water flow in the Madison Group, Powder River Basin and adjacent areas, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, and Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, L.F.

    1976-01-01

    A digital simulation model was used to analyze regional ground-water flow in the Madison Group aquifer in the Powder River Basin in Montana and Wyoming and adjacent areas. Most recharge to the aquifer originates in or near the outcrop areas of the Madison in the Bighorn Mountains and Black Hills, and most discharge occurs through springs and wells. Flow through the aquifer in the modeled areas was approximately 200 cubic feet per second. The aquifer can probably sustain increased ground-water withdrawals of up to several tens of cubic feet per second, but these withdrawals probably would significantly lower the potentiometric surface in the Madison aquifer in a large part of the basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Developing methods for probabilistic assessment of water requirements for oil and gas extraction, applied to the Bakken Formation of North Dakota and Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, S. S.; Thamke, J. N.; Cook, T.

    2011-12-01

    The widespread use of hydraulic fracturing in oil and gas production has brought with it greater access to petroleum resources and also a range of concerns regarding water resources. The authors are developing methods to quantify, on a regional (basin) scale, the water volumes that may be required for hydraulic fracturing associated with oil and gas production. Building from established U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) petroleum assessment methods, we define all relevant quantities as probability distributions and we employ Monte Carlo techniques to calculate probabilistic estimates of necessary water quantities. The prototype methods are intended to be general, such that they can eventually be applied in any location where such a study is warranted. Current work focuses on the Bakken Formation, an oil-rich shale unit in the Williston Basin of North Dakota and Montana, and partially within the Prairie Potholes wetlands region. The 2008 USGS probabilistic estimate of undiscovered, technically recoverable, oil in the Bakken Formation has a mean value of 3,649 million barrels, distributed among six geologically defined sub-regions termed "assessment units". The USGS petroleum assessment provides key inputs to this water assessment, including the land area of each assessment unit, the fraction of that area that has the potential to add to reserves in the future, and the area that is drained by each well; all of these are defined as probability distributions. Combining these quantities, we can readily calculate the number of possible future wells along with robust uncertainty bounds. We determine the range of possible water volumes required per well by tabulating and analyzing water volumes used for hydraulic fracturing of wells that were drilled in recent years in the Bakken area using technology similar to that which is expected to be used in the future (in this case, horizontal wells stimulated with slick-water hydraulic fracturing). The water assessment methods

  13. Fargo, North Dakota, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated version Click on the image for high resolution TIFF file

    Why does Fargo flood? The Red River of the North, which forms the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, has a long history of severe floods. Major floods include those of 1826, 1897, 1950, 1997, and now 2009. The 1997 flood caused billions of dollars of damage, with greatest impact to the city of Grand Forks, north of and downstream from Fargo. The 2009 flood, which has primarily impacted Fargo, appears to have peaked early on March 28.

    Several factors combine to cause floods. Obviously, rainfall and snowmelt rates (and their geographic distribution) are the fundamental variables that create flooding in some years and not others. But the repetition of flooding in Fargo (and areas downstream), rather than in adjacent regions, can be attributed largely to its topographic setting and geologic history.

    The formation of landforms in the geologic past is often interpretable from digital topographic data, such as that supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This image, covering parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, displays ground elevation as brightness (higher is brighter) plus has simulated shading (with illumination from the north) to enhance topographic detail such as stream channels, ridges, and cliffs.

    The Red River of the North is the only major river that flows northward from the United States into Canada. In this scene it flows almost straight north from Fargo. North of this image it continues past the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, and into Lake Winnipeg, which in turn drains to Hudson Bay. In the United States, the river lies in a trough that was shaped by continental glaciers that pushed south from Canada during the Pleistocene epoch, up to about 10,000 years ago. This trough is about 70 km (45 miles) wide and tens of meters (very generally about 100 feet) deep. Here near Fargo it lies on

  14. Geologic framework of the ground-water system in Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks in the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Anna, L.O.

    1986-01-01

    Energy development in the Northern Great Plains will place new and increased demands on ground-water development. Water from Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks might supply part of the needed water. Geologic framework of the ground-water flow system in the Northern Great Plains is divided into two parts: structural and stratigraphic. Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks are divided into six chronostratigraphic intervals. Thickness and sedimentological variations of each interval show distinct patterns or lineaments. These lineaments may reflect paleogeographic and paleostructural trends. The tectonic and sedimentation model most appropriate for the lineaments and the orientations of these lineaments can be explained best by a horizontal stress system. This system created the structural configuration of grabens, half-grabens, and horsts, initiated in Precambrian time, that influenced the position of depositional environments, subsequently influenced the lateral and vertical distribution of sediments, and was enhanced by eustatic changes in sea level. Orientation of tensional and compressional structural features and lineaments is predictable under this stress system. Tensional features, oriented east-west and northeast-southwest, enhance secondary porosity or permeability; thus, they become partial conduits for ground-water flow. Compressional features, oriented generally north-south and northwest-southeast, decrease porosity or permeability and become barriers or partial barriers to ground-water flow.

  15. Celebrate North Dakota's First 100 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Lowell

    1989-01-01

    This issue of "Insights" celebrates North Dakota's centennial. The information and activities it contains were meant for classroom use by teachers from North Dakota during the centennial year, but could provide others with a glimpse of that state's history. A fact sheet on "North Dakota Centennial Dates" gives a brief explanation of the important…

  16. Teacher Burnout in North Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowers, Erin N.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed study dissertation was to determine if teachers in North Dakota public schools show signs of teacher burnout and the extent to which NCLB is a major stress factor. The research questions were: To what extent are teachers experiencing symptoms of burnout? What are the factors of burnout? The research hypothesis was: The…

  17. North Dakota Dance Content Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sue; Farrell, Renee; Robbins, Susan; Simonson, Paula; Stanley, Melissa

    Dance should be seen as an authentic avenue for allowing students to learn kinesthetically by using movement that is essential to brain development. Ideally students would be exposed to dance forms and patterns in other art forms like music and drama as well as units within physical education classes. These North Dakota standards may be taught…

  18. Faculty Development Programs in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jacqueline D., Ed.; Young, Robert E., Ed.

    Faculty development programs in Minnesota, South Dakota, and North Dakota, which were funded by the Bush Foundation, are described. Activities include advising, curriculum development and course review, department reviews, grants, humanistic studies, internships and interdisciplinary teaching, journals, leave supplements, master teachers,…

  19. Developing State Leadership for Education in North Dakota. Educational Development for North Dakota, 1967-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Dept. of Public Instruction, Bismarck.

    Attention is directed in this document to the North Dakota State Department of Public Instruction and its necessary role in refining and implementing a comprehensive plan for educational improvement in North Dakota. The thesis is advanced that expanded leadership at the state level is crucial for educational improvement in North Dakota. It is also…

  20. 77 FR 9260 - Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South... public that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) has established the Dakota Grassland... Grassland Conservation Area on September 21, 2011, with the purchase of a 318.18-acre grassland easement...

  1. North Dakota Energy Workforce Development

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Drake

    2014-12-29

    Bismarck State College, along with its partners (Williston State College, Minot State University and Dickinson State University), received funding to help address the labor and social impacts of rapid oilfield development in the Williston Basin of western North Dakota. Funding was used to develop and support both credit and non-credit workforce training as well as four major symposia designed to inform and educate the public; enhance communication and sense of partnership among citizens, local community leaders and industry; and identify and plan to ameliorate negative impacts of oil field development.

  2. 68. Montana Theater, built on North Montana Street in 1901 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Montana Theater, built on North Montana Street in 1901 as Sutton's New Grand Theatre, had a seating capacity of 2,175. In its heyday, this theater attracted the most famous acts of vaudville, opera, and theater. The upper stories are built of yellow painted brick, with terra-cotta applied in a stone pattern on the ground floor. The entrance has been modernized with a wall of glass bricks. On the north side of the theater is a four story building which provided a side entrance to the theater and had storefronts, with apartments above. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  3. 76 FR 58533 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of filing of plats of survey. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) will file the plat of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State...

  4. Estimated level 1.5 bridge scour at selected sites in North Dakota, 1999-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2003-01-01

    The Level 1.5 method is a limited-detail method that is used for quick estimates of bridge scour. The method was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in Montana and was used to estimate scour depths at 215 bridge sites located on secondary roads throughout North Dakota. The estimated scour depths are presented in tabular form.

  5. Libraries in North Dakota: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/northdakota.html Libraries in North Dakota To use the sharing features ... please enable JavaScript. Fargo SANFORD HEALTH SANFORD VIRTUAL LIBRARY 530 6th Ave N FARGO, ND 58102 701- ...

  6. Toward Strengthening North Dakota's Fiscal System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Frederick D.

    This report describes and evaluates the North Dakota state/local fiscal system, especially as it relates to financing public education. It identifies and evaluates various fiscal policy options for raising additional tax revenue for support of schools and other public services in ways consistent with the basic characteristics of the North Dakota…

  7. 76 FR 33803 - North Dakota Disaster Number ND-00025

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... Assistance Only for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-1981-DR), dated 05/10/2011. Incident: Flooding. Incident... Non-Profit organizations in the State of North Dakota, dated 05/10/2011, is hereby amended to...

  8. 75 FR 42471 - North Dakota Disaster Number ND-00022

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Assistance Only for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-1907-DR), dated 04/30/2010. Incident: Flooding. Incident... Non-Profit organizations in the State of NORTH DAKOTA, dated 04/30/2010, is hereby amended...

  9. 76 FR 45643 - North Dakota Disaster Number ND-00025

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Assistance Only for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-1981-DR), dated 05/10/2011. Incident: Flooding... Private Non-Profit organizations in the State of North Dakota, dated 05/10/2011, is hereby amended...

  10. School Emergency Preparedness in North Dakota Public School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiontek, Steven Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The basis for this study was to determine: (1) If school districts in North Dakota have an emergency response plan; (2) How comprehensive their emergency response plan is; (3) How well prepared school districts in North Dakota are for any type of disaster; and (4) The extent to which North Dakota LEAD Center school emergency response training and…

  11. The North Dakota Beef Industry Survey: Implications for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlen, Carl R.; Hadrich, Joleen C.; Lardy, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    A portion of the North Dakota Beef Industry Survey was developed to determine how educational programs can evolve to meet future needs of North Dakota beef producers. Of the 2,500 surveys mailed out to beef producers, 527 responses were completed and returned. Results highlight the level of education of North Dakota beef producers, anticipated use…

  12. Field notes on birds observed in Dakota and Montana along the forty-ninth parallel during the seasons of 1873 and 1874

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coues, Elliott

    1878-01-01

    The following notes result from observations made in the field during my connection with the United States Northern Boundary Commission_ Archibald Campbell, Esq., Commissioner, Major W.J Twining, Corps of Engineers, U.S.A. Chief Astronomer.  The line surveyed by the Commission in 1873 and 1874 extended from the Red River of the North to the Rocky Mountains, a distance of 850 miles, along the northern border of the Territories of Dakota and Montana, in latitude 49° north.

  13. Paleotectonic controls on deposition of Niobrara formation, Eagle sandstone, and equivalent rocks (Upper Cretaceous), Montana and South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Shurr, G.W.; Rice, D.D.

    1985-05-01

    The deposition of the Niobrara Formation, Eagle Sandstone, and equivalent Upper Cretaceous rocks was controlled by paleotectonic activity on lineament-bound basement blocks in Montana and South Dakota. Linear features observed on Landsat images provide an interpretation of lineament geometry that is independent of stratigraphic data. Paleotectonism on lineament-bound blocks is documented in three areas that were located in distinctly different depositional environments. In central Montana, coastal and inner-shelf sandstones and nonmarine coastal-plain and wave-dominated delta deposits reflect paleotectonic control by lineaments trending north-south, east-west, northwest, and northeast. In the northern Black Hills, chalks and outer-shelf sandstones reflect control by lineaments trending north-south, northwest, and north-east. In central South Dakota, erosion and deposition of chalk and calcareous shale on a west-sloping carbonate ramp were controlled by lineaments that generally trend northeast and northwest. Paleotectonism on lineament-bound blocks characterized four tectonic zones located in the Late Cretaceous seaway; the western foredeep, the west-median trough, the east-median hinge, and the eastern platform. The regional geometry of all four tectonic zones appears to be related to the geometry of the convergent plate margin on the west. Paleotectonic activity on lineament-bound blocks may have been the result of horizontal forces related to the convergent margin and to vertical forces related to the movement of the North American plate.

  14. Social Studies for North Dakota Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Dept. of Public Instruction, Bismarck.

    The educational philosophy, objectives, and competencies for social studies education in the North Dakota elementary and secondary schools are presented in this document. Three major objectives make up the social studies program. First, an interdisciplinary approach is emphasized, utilizing the concepts and generalizations of the various…

  15. 1975 Rural Manpower Report [North Dakota].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Employment Security Bureau, Bismarck. Employment Service Div.

    One of the North Dakota Employment Security Bureau's objectives is to provide equality of services in all programs administered by the Bureau to rural area residents throughout the State. This includes services to agriculture, business, government, and workers in meeting their employment and manpower needs. The Supervisor of Rural Manpower…

  16. 1974 Rural Manpower Report. [North Dakota].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Employment Security Bureau, Bismarck. Employment Service Div.

    The North Dakota Employment Security Bureau provides equality of services in all programs administered by the Bureau to rural area residents throughout the State. It also provides services to agriculture, business, government, and workers in meeting their employment and manpower needs. The Supervisor of Rural Manpower Services provides supervision…

  17. Higher Education in North Dakota Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Bill

    2009-01-01

    This document presents a speech delivered by Chancellor Bill Goertz at the meeting of the State Board of Higher Education last November 19, 2009. In his speech, Chancellor Goertz reports that: (1) according to a Delta Cost Project report, North Dakota ranked among the top five states in regard to market-based productivity; (2) the Midwest Higher…

  18. Combination Administrative Positions in North Dakota Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Robert E.

    Decreasing enrollments and financial problems have led to considerable restructuring in North Dakota schools. One form of restructuring was the creation of dual-role administrative positions combining two or all of the roles of superintendent, elementary principal, and secondary principal. In 1987, 47 of 51 administrators holding such positions…

  19. 78 FR 6062 - North Dakota Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... the North Dakota program in the December 15, 1980 Federal Register (45 FR 82214). You can also find... Enforcement, Dick Cheney Federal Building, POB 11018, 150 East B Street, Casper, Wyoming 82601-1018. For... Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Dick Cheney Federal Building, P.O. Box 11018, 150 East B...

  20. 30 CFR 934.20 - Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan... DAKOTA § 934.20 Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan. The North Dakota Abandoned Mine Plan as... 82601-1918; Telephone: (307) 261-5776. North Dakota Public Service Commission, Abandoned Mine...

  1. 30 CFR 934.20 - Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan... DAKOTA § 934.20 Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan. The North Dakota Abandoned Mine Plan as... 82601-1918; Telephone: (307) 261-5776. North Dakota Public Service Commission, Abandoned Mine...

  2. 30 CFR 934.20 - Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan... DAKOTA § 934.20 Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan. The North Dakota Abandoned Mine Plan as... 82601-1918; Telephone: (307) 261-5776. North Dakota Public Service Commission, Abandoned Mine...

  3. 30 CFR 934.20 - Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan... DAKOTA § 934.20 Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan. The North Dakota Abandoned Mine Plan as... 82601-1918; Telephone: (307) 261-5776. North Dakota Public Service Commission, Abandoned Mine...

  4. 76 FR 7810 - Notice of Proposed Change to Section I of the South Dakota and North Dakota State Technical Guides

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Notice of Proposed Change to Section I of the South Dakota and... Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Notice of Availability of proposed changes in the South Dakota and North... South Dakota and North Dakota have determined that changes must be made to the NRCS State...

  5. North Dakota to Central Quebec

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video was taken by the crew of Expedition 30 onboard the International Space Station. The sequence of shots was taken January 26, 2012 from 10:04:56 to 10:10:42 GMT, on a pass from North Dakot...

  6. Teaching about East Asia in North Dakota Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Fredrick E.

    The current practice of teaching about East Asia in North Dakota schools was surveyed. From a list of 607 North Dakota social studies teachers, ranging from grades 7 to 12 in both public and private schools, a target sample of 266 teachers was administered a questionnaire. All regions of the states, with at least one teacher form each school, were…

  7. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: North Dakota, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in North Dakota for 2010. In grade 8 reading and math (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), North Dakota showed across-the-board gains at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for the state's major racial/ethnic…

  8. 75 FR 15448 - North Dakota; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency North Dakota; Emergency and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of the Presidential declaration of an emergency for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-3309-EM), dated March 14, 2010, and...

  9. Alternative utilization of wheat starch, Grafton, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    In 1978, North Dakota State University (NDSU), in cooperation with the Economic Development Administration, completed a study of the feasibility of a vital wheat gluten starch processing plant in North Dakota. The overall objective of this study is to determine the most feasible alternatives for utilizing the by-product starch slurry from a vital wheat gluten processing plant.

  10. North Dakota University System Resource Guide. 2007 Legislative Session

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota University System, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This resource guide describes the North Dakota University System and provides information about the programs and costs of higher education in the North Dakota system. An introduction describes the institutions in the system: two doctoral universities, one master's degree-granting university, three universities that offer bachelor's degrees and…

  11. North Dakota University System Resource Guide. 2005 Legislative Session

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota University System, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This resource guide describes the North Dakota University System and provides information about the programs and costs of higher education in the North Dakota system. An introduction describes the institutions in the system: two doctoral universities, one master's degree-granting university, three universities that offer bachelor's degrees and…

  12. North Dakota Early Childhood Tracking System - Background Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Legislative Council, Bismarck.

    This report responds to a North Dakota legislative mandate to study the state's early childhood tracking system for children who are at risk for developmental delays. Introductory sections summarize critical definitions and relevant federal legislation (specifically Part H of Public Law 99-457). The North Dakota program is then reviewed. Nineteen…

  13. 14. Plan drawing: North Dakota State Highway Department Stress ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Plan drawing: North Dakota State Highway Department - Stress and camber diagrams for 162" truss - Lost Bridge, Spanning Little Missouri River, twenty-three miles north of Killdeer, ND, on State Highway No. 22, Killdeer, Dunn County, ND

  14. 13. Plan drawing: North Dakota State Highway Department Log ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Plan drawing: North Dakota State Highway Department - Log of test borings - Lost Bridge, Spanning Little Missouri River, twenty-three miles north of Killdeer, ND, on State Highway No. 22, Killdeer, Dunn County, ND

  15. Mars ROCKS! in North Dakota, Solar System Ambassador Program in North Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milford, C. R.; Marek, M.

    2005-01-01

    Mars is Rock'n in the Midwest! With a total of 5 currently running space missions exploring the red planet, what can teachers locally do to bring Mars into the classroom and capitalize on free and low-cost resources to teach Earth Science in terms of Mars? The NASA/JPL Solar System Ambassador is one such resource that Earth science teachers in the region can utilize. Currently only one Solar System Ambassador exists in the whole state of North Dakota. North Dakota is a rural state with the majority of its population concentrated on the eastern frindges which include the cities of Grand Forks and Fargo. The ruralness of the rest of the state provide a interesting challenge for any outreach program especially the solar system ambassador program.

  16. Resource selection by black-footed ferrets in South Dakota and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jachowski, D.S.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Biggins, D.E.; Livieri, T.M.; Matchett, M.R.; Rittenhouse, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), once extinct in the wild, remains one of the most critically endangered mammals in North America despite 18 years of reintroduction attempts. Because black-footed ferrets are specialized predators of prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.), a better understanding of how black-footed ferrets select resources might provide insight into how best to identify and manage reintroduction sites. We monitored ferret resource selection at two reintroduction sites with different densities of prairie dog populations-one that contained a high density of prairie dogs (Conata Basin, South Dakota) and one that was lower (UL Bend, Montana). We evaluated support for hypotheses about ferret resource selection as related to the distribution of active burrows used by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), interactions between ferrets, and habitat edge effects. We found support for all three factors within both populations; however, they affected ferret resource selection differently at each site. Ferrets at Conata Basin tended to select areas with high prairie dog burrow density, closer to the colony edge, and that overlapped other ferret ranges. In contrast, ferrets at UL Bend tended not to select areas of high active prairie dog burrow density, avoided areas close to edge habitat, and females avoided areas occupied by other ferrets. The differences observed between the two sites might be best explained by prairie dog densities, which were higher at Conata Basin (119.3 active burrows per ha) than at UL Bend (44.4 active burrows per ha). Given the positive growth of ferret populations at Conata Basin, management that increases the density of prairie dogs might enhance ferret success within natural areas. To achieve long-term recovery of ferrets in the wild, conservationists should increasingly work across and outside natural area boundaries to increase prairie dog populations.

  17. US hydropower resource assessment for North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of North Dakota.

  18. 75 FR 23793 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of the Presidential... Miller, Recovery Directorate, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 500 C Street, SW., Washington,...

  19. 78 FR 36557 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of the...

  20. North Dakota Thunderstorm Project. Final report, April 1989-March 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Boe, B.A.

    1991-11-20

    The North Dakota Thunderstorm Project (NDTP) was a national scale research program conducted in central North Dakota during June and July, 1989. The program was hosted and coordinated by the North Dakota Atmospheric Resource Board, and funded jointly by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the State of North Dakota, and the National Science Foundation. Data collection with four Doppler radars, six aircraft, and a variety of supporting instrumentation began 12 June 1989, and continued through 22 July 1989. In all, 106 of the nineteen various predefined experiments were conducted, though severe storms were fewer in number than expected. Several different atmospheric tracer techniques were employed, including gaseous (sulfur hexafluoride), radar chaff, natural (ozone, carbon monoxide), and fluorescent beads.

  1. Overview of Devonian Duperow formation production, Billings anticline, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, Randolph B.

    1989-01-01

    Oil exploration on the Billings anticline began in earnest in 1978, which is a north-plunging structure in the north central part of southwestern North Dakota. Forty-two fields are included in the Billings anticline area. This paper discusses the following features of the Billings anticline: structure, lithology, Duperow production, and some conservative economic scenarios.

  2. 75 FR 8322 - Tatanka Wind Power, LLC, Complainant, v. Montana-Dakota Utilities Company, a Division of MDU...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Tatanka Wind Power, LLC, Complainant, v. Montana-Dakota Utilities Company, a... and Order Nos. 2003 and 2003-A,\\1\\ Tatanka Wind Power, LLC (Complainant) filed a formal...

  3. Arboviruses in North Dakota, 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John F; Main, Andy J; Armstrong, Philip M; Andreadis, Theodore G; Ferrandino, Francis J

    2015-02-01

    To investigate arbovirus transmission in North Dakota, we collected and screened mosquitoes for viral infection by Vero cell culture assay. Seven viruses were isolated from 13 mosquito species. Spatial and temporal distributions of the important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV), Cache Valley virus, Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), and trivittatus virus are reported. Snowshoe hare virus, Potosi virus, and western equine encephalomyelitis virus were also isolated. The risks of Culex tarsalis and Aedes vexans transmitting WNV to humans were 61.4% and 34.0% in 2003-2006, respectively, but in 2003 when the largest epidemic was reported, risks for Ae. vexans and Cx. tarsalis in Cass County were 73.6% and 23.9%, respectively. Risk of humans acquiring an infectious bite was greatest from about the second week of July through most of August. West Nile virus sequences were of the WN02 genotype. Most JCV strains belonged to a single clade of genetically related strains. Cache Valley virus and JCV were prevalent during August and early September and during July and August, respectively.

  4. Arboviruses in North Dakota, 2003–2006

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, John F.; Main, Andy J.; Armstrong, Philip M.; Andreadis, Theodore G.; Ferrandino, Francis J.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate arbovirus transmission in North Dakota, we collected and screened mosquitoes for viral infection by Vero cell culture assay. Seven viruses were isolated from 13 mosquito species. Spatial and temporal distributions of the important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV), Cache Valley virus, Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), and trivittatus virus are reported. Snowshoe hare virus, Potosi virus, and western equine encephalomyelitis virus were also isolated. The risks of Culex tarsalis and Aedes vexans transmitting WNV to humans were 61.4% and 34.0% in 2003–2006, respectively, but in 2003 when the largest epidemic was reported, risks for Ae. vexans and Cx. tarsalis in Cass County were 73.6% and 23.9%, respectively. Risk of humans acquiring an infectious bite was greatest from about the second week of July through most of August. West Nile virus sequences were of the WN02 genotype. Most JCV strains belonged to a single clade of genetically related strains. Cache Valley virus and JCV were prevalent during August and early September and during July and August, respectively. PMID:25487728

  5. Arboviruses in North Dakota, 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John F; Main, Andy J; Armstrong, Philip M; Andreadis, Theodore G; Ferrandino, Francis J

    2015-02-01

    To investigate arbovirus transmission in North Dakota, we collected and screened mosquitoes for viral infection by Vero cell culture assay. Seven viruses were isolated from 13 mosquito species. Spatial and temporal distributions of the important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV), Cache Valley virus, Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), and trivittatus virus are reported. Snowshoe hare virus, Potosi virus, and western equine encephalomyelitis virus were also isolated. The risks of Culex tarsalis and Aedes vexans transmitting WNV to humans were 61.4% and 34.0% in 2003-2006, respectively, but in 2003 when the largest epidemic was reported, risks for Ae. vexans and Cx. tarsalis in Cass County were 73.6% and 23.9%, respectively. Risk of humans acquiring an infectious bite was greatest from about the second week of July through most of August. West Nile virus sequences were of the WN02 genotype. Most JCV strains belonged to a single clade of genetically related strains. Cache Valley virus and JCV were prevalent during August and early September and during July and August, respectively. PMID:25487728

  6. Foods of breeding pintails in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.

    1974-01-01

    Food habits of breeding pintails (Anas acuta) were studied relative to sex, land use, and reproductive condition during the spring and summer of 1969, 1970, and 1971 in eastern North Dakota. Hens and drakes, respectively, consumed 79.2 percent and 30.0 percent animal matter on nontilled wetlands and consumed 16.6 percent and 1.1 percent animal matter on tilled wetlands. Aquatic dipterans (primarily larval forms), snails, fairy shrimp, and earthworms accounted for 71 percent of the diet of hens on nontilled wetlands, while barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli) seeds formed 71 percent of the diet of hens on tilled wetlands. Cereal grain seeds formed 84 percent of the diet of 10 hens feeding on cropland. The diet of hens was influenced by reproductive status. Animal foods were predominant during the laying period (77.1 percent) but were less important in the postlaying diet (28.9 percent). Invertebrates formed 83.9 percent of the diet of renesting hens, 61.0 percent were dipteran larvae and snails. High consumption of animal foods during egg formation presumably is related to invertebrates being superior to plants in providing certain nutrients required for production of viable eggs. Research findings suggest that food requirements of prairie-nesting pintails can be met most effectively by providing pairs access to shallow, nontilled wetland habitat subject to periodic drawdowns.

  7. The Newporte impact structure, North Dakota, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberl, C.; Reimold, W.U.

    1995-12-31

    The 3-km-diameter Newporte structure is located close to the USA - Canada border in North Dakota, in the Williston Basin. The structure is currently covered by about 3 km of various supracrustal rock formations and was first studied in the course of hydrocarbon exploration in the late 1970s. The structure is situated in Precambrian crystalline basement, which is highly fractured and brecciated. Detailed petrographic and geochemical studies of rock samples from the Duerre 43-5, the Mott 14-34, and the Wisdahl 23 -10 drill cores show the presence of three types of breccias: a mainly granite-derived breccia, a predominantly (meta) sediment-derived breccia, and a mixed breccia type. Quartz grains (as well as a few rare feldspar grains) from all three breccia types show planar deformation features (PDFs) with up to five sets per grain. Measurements of the crystallographic orientations of the PDFs show predominantly (10{bar 1}3) ({omega}) and (10{bar 1}2) ({pi}) orientations, which are characteristic of shock metamorphism and indicate peak shock pressures in excess of 12 GPa. The major and trace element composition of the target rocks (granitoid and sedimentary rocks) and the fragmental impact breccias was measured. All three rock types (sediments, granitoids, and breccias) show a wide compositional range. Mixing calculations were performed and yield results and are in general agreement with the petrographic observations, but the compositional similarity of the target rock components and their wide range in chemical composition make unambiguous mixing calculations difficult. The results of our study confirm the impact origin of the Newporte structure. 43 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Energy Integrated Dairy Farm System in North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, G.; Lindley, J.; Hirning, H.; Giles, J.

    1986-11-01

    The EIFS project at North Dakota State University, located at Fargo, North Dakota, is an effort to show how a Northern Great Plains EIFS might be operated. This farm used a combination of energy conservation, energy capture, and energy production. Energy conservation was demonstrated using reduced tillage in a typical cropping system and by using heat reclamation equipment on the ventilation system and the milk cooler in the dairy barn. Energy capture was demonstrated with a solar collector used to preheat ventilation air. Energy production was demonstrated with the construction of an anaerobic digester to produce methane from manure. This manual describes the design, construction, operation, and performance of the EIFS developed at North Dakota State University.

  9. 78 FR 29202 - Environmental Impact Statement: Grand Forks County, North Dakota and Polk County, Minnesota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Grand Forks County, North Dakota and Polk... prepared for a proposed highway project in Grand Forks County, North Dakota and Polk County, Minnesota. FOR... Sorlie Bridge over the Red River between Grand Forks, North Dakota and East Grand Forks,...

  10. 30 CFR 934.25 - Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine land... STATE NORTH DAKOTA § 934.25 Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments...; right of entry; land acquisition, management, and disposition; other policies and procedures....

  11. A State Education Associations Leadership Study in Cooperation: The North Dakota Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuelke, Dennis C.; Hill, Richard L.

    More than a decade ago the manner in which the North Dakota educational community related to the state legislature changed suddenly and dramatically. The North Dakota School Boards Association (NDSBA) employed a new executive director. Administrators in the state created a new entity, the North Dakota Council of School Administrators (NDCSA), and…

  12. 77 FR 67643 - Enbridge Pipelines (North Dakota) LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Enbridge Pipelines (North Dakota) LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory... Practices and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2)(2012), Enbridge Pipelines (North Dakota) LLC, filed a petition... expansion and extension of the Enbridge North Dakota pipeline system known as the Sandpiper Project, as...

  13. A noteworthy record and the breeding distribution of the blue grosbeak in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    The northern limit of the blue grosbeak's (Guiraca caerulea) breeding distribution occurs in southern North Dakota. Records of the blue grosbeak in North Dakota are uncommon. Here, I report my observation of a blue grosbeak at a site where the species was recorded 25 years earlier. A summary of the species' distribution and records in North Dakota are provided.

  14. Dunn-Nokota Methanol Project, Dunn County, North Dakota. Volume IV. Product transportation analysis. [Proposed methanol project near Dunn Center, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this portion of the study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of transportation of methanol and by-products to predefined marketing areas by various modes of transportation including pipeline, rail, truck, and water. The study included a review of codes, standards and regulations; product characteristics in relation to transportation, tentative corridor route selections, permitting requirements, use of existing transportation systems, preliminary engineering costs for the pipeline section and transportation costs for available common carrier modes. The market areas considered in this part of the study were established in the Market Analysis Study (Volume III). The primary market area includes North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, and Michigan. The secondary market area includes Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Nebraska, Missouri, and Ohio. The West Coast market area consists of California, Oregon, and Washington. The study included investigation of use of existing pipeline systems and tentative selection of routings for eleven system alternatives, in corridors adjacent to existing or proposed pipelines. The eleven alternative pipeline routes are identified in Table 2-1 and include new dedicated systems and use of existing systems by batching. A generalized map showing the geographic relationship of the alternative routes is shown in Figure 2-1 and Figure 2-2 indicates possible terminal locations for the Minneapolis and Chicago areas.

  15. Agricultural Decision Making Using North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyuz, F.; Mullins, B.; Morlock, D.; Carcoana, R.

    2010-09-01

    The North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network (NDAWN) consists of 72 automated weather stations spread across agricultural locations of North Dakota, the Red River Valley, and border regions of surrounding states. The NDAWN Center is a part of the Department of Soil Science, North Dakota State University. The NDAWN stations measure wind speed and direction, air temperature, rainfall, solar radiation, pressure (31 stations), atmospheric moisture and soil temperatures under bare and turf at 10 cm (4 inch) depth. The center provides daily summaries consisting of maximums and minimums as well as time of occurrence, and various totals or averages for all variables in English or metric units. Measured and calculated variables along with complete descriptions are available. The NDAWN Center web site: http://ndawn.ndsu.nodak.edu/ allows direct access to NDAWN data in various special and temporal scales. The voice modem accommodates those who do not have internet access. The NDAWN Center has assisted many North Dakotans in making weather critical decisions concerning their crops, livestock, and livelihood. The stations provide weather data, which was instrumental in developing various agricultural models including but not limited to the late blight model, degree day and growth stage models for barley, corn, canola, potato, sugarbeet, sunflower, wheat and other small grains, irrigation scheduling, crop water use, sugarbeet root maggot, and insect development models. Late blight model, for example, predicts when leaf disease can occur in potato plants. Late blight doesn't occur in North Dakota every year and is prevalent during cool and moist periods of weather. In 1993-94, this model predicted that late blight would occur and growers were able to use fungicide applications to prevent the disease. Another direct benefit of NDAWN data is that it provides universities and the National Weather Service with an additional database for research and forecasting applications

  16. 76 FR 31389 - North Dakota Disaster #ND-00026

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... State of North Dakota (FEMA-1986-DR), dated 05/20/2011. Incident: Severe winter storm. Incident Period: 04/29/2011 through 05/01/2011. Effective Date: 05/20/2011. Physical Loan Application Deadline Date... disaster declaration on 05/20/2011, Private Non- Profit organizations that provide essential services...

  17. 78 FR 45547 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of the Presidential... Response and Recovery, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 500 C Street SW., Washington, DC 20472,...

  18. 76 FR 34089 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: This is a notice of the Presidential... Response and Recovery, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 500 C Street, SW., Washington, DC 20472,...

  19. North Dakota Leadership Training Boosts Confidence and Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flage, Lynette; Hvidsten, Marie; Vettern, Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    Effective leadership is critical for communities as they work to maintain their vitality and sustainability for years to come. The purpose of the study reported here was to assess confidence levels and community engagement of community leadership program participants in North Dakota State University Extension programs. Through a survey…

  20. 1973 Rural Manpower Report. [North Dakota]. ES-225F.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Employment Security Bureau, Bismarck. Employment Service Div.

    The Rural Manpower Service's objective is to provide the State's rural people "equity of access" to all programs administered by the North Dakota Employment Security Bureau. It provides services to agriculture, business, government, and workers in meeting their employment and manpower needs. Functional supervision and direction to the program are…

  1. North Dakota Sunflower Insect Pest Survey, 2006-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major insect pest species that cause economic losses to sunflower producers in North Dakota are banded sunflower moth (Cochylis hospes Walsingham), red sunflower seed weevil (Smicronyx fulvus Le Conte), and sunflower midge (Contarinia schulzi Gagne). New emerging insect pests include lygus bugs ...

  2. At North Dakota State, Women Are Few and Far Between

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2007-01-01

    At North Dakota State University, only 10 of 156 full professors are female. This places the university near the bottom of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP)'s report ranking 1,445 institutions on the basis of what proportion of their tenured faculty members are female. At a time when recruiting women has become a top…

  3. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials and develops staffing level projections (1976-1982) based on available information for the State of North Dakota. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste,…

  4. Letter from North Dakota: Inviting the People to See

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickler, Eve

    1974-01-01

    A descriptive account of the diverse experiences and reactions, both positive and negative, of a resource teacher for a Follow Through Program at an Indian elementary school in Fort Yates, North Dakota, and her attempts to promote teacher cooperation and engender local involvement in the school. (EH)

  5. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... of the proposed action is to provide a reliable source of high quality treated water to northwestern... quality treated water because northwestern North Dakota has experienced water supply problems for many... of a biota water treatment plant, to treat the source water from Lake Sakakawea before it...

  6. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... of the proposed action is to provide a reliable source of high quality treated water to northwestern... quality treated water because northwestern North Dakota has experienced water supply problems for many... of a biota water treatment plant, to treat the source water from Lake Sakakawea before it...

  7. North Dakota State Plan for Long-Range Library Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Library Commission, Bismarck.

    Programs for North Dakota's long-range library development have been planned which will provide for meeting the assessed needs of the state's population insofar as funds permit, and insofar as it is possible to satisfy these needs through the provision of public library service. The assessment of needs of student clientele and the development of…

  8. 2012 North Dakota Transgenic Barley FHB Nursery Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2012 North Dakota transgenic field trials consisted of 23 barley lines, tested in three misted and three non-misted replicates. Plots were sown on May 9, 2012 in hill plots with 10 seed per hill spaced at 30 cm, and all plots were inoculated using the grain spawn method at heading. Lines include...

  9. Child and Family Resource Program (Bismarck, North Dakota). Program Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report describes the Bismarck, North Dakota site of the Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP), a Head Start-affiliated program designed to elicit community and family involvement in fostering optimum development of preschool children. The Bismarck program, located at one of 11 demonstration sites of the national CFRP, was coordinated by…

  10. North Dakota Visual Arts Curriculum Guide, Grade 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Dept. of Public Instruction, Bismarck.

    This document is the secondary level visual arts component of the North Dakota Arts Curriculum Project. After a presentation of the philosophy, goals, and objectives for the visual arts program, the guide is organized into four sections. The first section, "Visual Arts Program Components," presents an overview of educational considerations, the…

  11. Competency-Based Vocational Education in North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck.

    This package consists of eight booklets dealing with competency-based vocational education (CBVE). The first booklet is a brochure outlining CBVE in North Dakota. The second booklet, an instructional unit written for vocational education teachers, deals with the characteristics and components of mastery learning and competency-based instruction.…

  12. Macrofossils of Bakken Formation (Devonian and Mississippian), Williston Basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Thrasher, L.; Holland, F.D. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    Results of this study of the macrofossils of the Bakken Formation in North Dakota have reinforced the suggestion, based on previous paleontological work in Saskatchewan, that the Bakken is of both Devonian and Mississippian age, rather than being entirely of Lower Mississippian age as originally considered. Increased drilling and coring activity in the North Dakota part of the Williston Basin has provided the opportunity for acquiring a larger fauna that was previously available. Based on lithologic character, the Bakken has been divided into three informal members. These consist of a calcareous siltstone unit between two lithologically similar units of carbonaceous shale. These black shales contain similar faunas distinct from that of the middle member. The black shales contain inarticulate brachiopods, conchostracans, and rare cephalopods and fish remains as well as more abundant conodonts, ostracods, and palynomorphs. The middle siltstone unit contains a more abundant and diverse fauna consisting of inarticulate and articulate brachiopods together with corals, gastropods, cephalopods, ostracods, echinoderm remains, and trace fossils. This is the first report of cephalopods, conchostracans, ostracods, corals, trace fossils, and some of the brachiopods in the Bakken, although all, except the gastropods, have been reported from stratigraphic equivalents (Exshaw Formation of south-central Montana, the Leatham Formation of northeastern Utah, and the middle member of the Pilot Shale in western Utah and eastern Nevada).

  13. Geology of the Knife River area, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, William Edward

    1953-01-01

    The Knife River area, consisting of six 15-minute quadrangles, includes the lower half of the Knife River valley in west-central North Dakota. The area, in the center of the Williston Basin, is underlain by the Tongue River member of the Fort Union formation (Paleocene) and the Golden Valley formation (Eocene). The Tongue River includes beds equivalent to the Sentinel Butte shale; the Golden Valley formation, which receives its first detailed description in this report, consists of two members, a lower member of gray to white sandy kaolin clay and an upper member of cross-bedded micaceous sandstone. Pro-Tongue River rocks that crop out in southwestern North Dakota include the Ludlow member of the Fort Union formation, the Cannonball marine formation (Paleocene) and the Hell Creek, Fox Hills, and Pierre formations, all upper Cretaceous. Post-Golden Valley rocks include the White River formation (Oligocene) and gravels on an old planation surface that may be Miocene or Pliocent. Surficial deposits include glacial and fluvial deposits of Pleistocene age and alluvium, dune sand, residual silica, and landslide blocks of Recent age. Three ages of glacial deposits can be differentiated, largely on the basis of three fills, separated by unconformities, in the Knife River valley. All three are of Wisconsin age and probably represent the Iowan, Tazewell, and Mankato substages. Deposits of the Cary substage have not been identified either in the Knife River area or elsewhere in southern North Dakota. Iowan glacial deposits form the outermost drift border in North Dakota. Southwest of this border are a few scattered granite boulders that are residual from the erosion of either the White River formation or a pre-Wisconsin till. The Tazewell drift border cannot be followed in southern North Dakota. The Mankato drift border can be traced in a general way from the South Dakota State line northwest across the Missouri River and through the middle of the Knife River area. The major

  14. Corals of Madison Group (Mississippian), Williston Basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, D.L.; Holland, F.D. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    Coral faunas studied from subsurface cores of the Mississippian Madison Group in the Williston Basin of North Dakota indicate that Sando's coral zones for outcrops in western North America can be extended into the subsurface of North Dakota. Coral zones II and III are recognized as corresponding roughly to lower and upper Mission Canyon strata, respectively. These data were obtained from 12 wells along the northern border of North Dakota in Divide, Burke, Renville, and Bottineau Counties, and two wells near the center of Williston basin in Dunn and McKenzie Counties. Corals found in dark argillaceous crinoid-skeletal wackestones representing deeper waters are robust, and this may infer a hospitable environment for their growth. However, evidence from the coral and lithologic associations refute the pervading dogma that the occurrence of corals is strictly facies controlled. Abundant smaller corals have been found from buff-colored skeletal wackestones and algal mudstones which alternate with subaqueous anhydrites representing a marginal marine environment. In addition, corals have been found in buff-colored skeletal and peloidal grainstones of adjacent shoals and in brown pisolitic-oolitic packstones-wackestones of possible tidal ponds. These latter deposits may represent allochthonous accumulations, but the amount of time involved in transport of corals would not invalidate their usefulness as biostratigraphic tools.

  15. Critical systems for public health management of floods, North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Wiedrich, Tim W; Sickler, Juli L; Vossler, Brenda L; Pickard, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Availability of emergency preparedness funding between 2002 and 2009 allowed the North Dakota Department of Health to build public health response capabilities. Five of the 15 public health preparedness capability areas identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2011 have been thoroughly tested by responses to flooding in North Dakota in 2009, 2010, and 2011; those capability areas are information sharing, emergency operations coordination, medical surge, material management and distribution, and volunteer management. Increasing response effectiveness has depended on planning, implementation of new information technology, changes to command and control procedures, containerized response materials, and rapid contract procedures. Continued improvement in response and maintenance of response capabilities is dependent on ongoing funding.

  16. Guide to North Dakota's Ground-Water Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Q.F.

    1983-01-01

    Ground water, the water we pump from the Earth through wells or that which flows naturally from springs, is one of North Dakota's most valuable resources. More than 60 percent of the people living in the State use ground water for one purpose of another. It is the only source of water for thousands of farm families and their livestock. Almost all smaller cities and villages depend solely on groudn water as a source of supply. Increasingly, ground water is being used to irrigate crops and grasslands (fig. 1) during protracted dry spells so common in North Dakota. During recent years there has been a rapid development of rural water ditribution systems in which thousands of farms and rurals residences are connected via underground pipeline to a single water source, usually wells pumping ground water.

  17. Commercial sunflowers: food for red foxes in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.; Allen, S.H.; Fleskes, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Stomach contents of 70 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) shot in east-central North Dakota during January 1982 and January 1983 were examined. Commercial sunflower seeds were the most frequently found food item, occurring each year in three-fourths of the stomachs and composing about half of the contents. The remainder of the diet was primarily mammals, but included birds, insects, amphibians, and refuse.

  18. COFIRING OF BIOMASS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA

    SciTech Connect

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-11-01

    Project kickoff meetings were held this period. One meeting was held at the University of North Dakota (UND) for team members, and a second meeting was held at National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as part of a kickoff for the Cofiring Program under the Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Office. The project is currently involved in the resource assessment task and is finding some promising fuels.

  19. Salt toxicosis in waterfowl in North Dakota (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Kartch, F.X.; Stroud, R.K.; Smith, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    About 150 waterfowl died and another 250 became weak and lethargic from suspected salt poisoning after using White Lake, a highly saline lake in Mountrail County, North Dakota. Frigid temperatures made fresh water unavailable, forcing the birds to ingest the saline waters with resultant toxic effects. Sick birds recovered when removed from the salt water and released into fresh water marshes. Brain sodium levels were higher in dead geese submitted for necropsy than in controls.

  20. Brine Spills Associated with Unconventional Oil Development in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Nancy E; Harkness, Jennifer S; Vengosh, Avner

    2016-05-17

    The rapid rise of unconventional oil production during the past decade in the Bakken region of North Dakota raises concerns related to water contamination associated with the accidental release of oil and gas wastewater to the environment. Here, we characterize the major and trace element chemistry and isotopic ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr, δ(18)O, δ(2)H) of surface waters (n = 29) in areas impacted by oil and gas wastewater spills in the Bakken region of North Dakota. We establish geochemical and isotopic tracers that can identify Bakken brine spills in the environment. In addition to elevated concentrations of dissolved salts (Na, Cl, Br), spill waters also consisted of elevated concentrations of other contaminants (Se, V, Pb, NH4) compared to background waters, and soil and sediment in spill sites had elevated total radium activities ((228)Ra + (226)Ra) relative to background, indicating accumulation of Ra in impacted soil and sediment. We observed that inorganic contamination associated with brine spills in North Dakota is remarkably persistent, with elevated levels of contaminants observed in spills sites up to 4 years following the spill events.

  1. Brine Spills Associated with Unconventional Oil Development in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Nancy E; Harkness, Jennifer S; Vengosh, Avner

    2016-05-17

    The rapid rise of unconventional oil production during the past decade in the Bakken region of North Dakota raises concerns related to water contamination associated with the accidental release of oil and gas wastewater to the environment. Here, we characterize the major and trace element chemistry and isotopic ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr, δ(18)O, δ(2)H) of surface waters (n = 29) in areas impacted by oil and gas wastewater spills in the Bakken region of North Dakota. We establish geochemical and isotopic tracers that can identify Bakken brine spills in the environment. In addition to elevated concentrations of dissolved salts (Na, Cl, Br), spill waters also consisted of elevated concentrations of other contaminants (Se, V, Pb, NH4) compared to background waters, and soil and sediment in spill sites had elevated total radium activities ((228)Ra + (226)Ra) relative to background, indicating accumulation of Ra in impacted soil and sediment. We observed that inorganic contamination associated with brine spills in North Dakota is remarkably persistent, with elevated levels of contaminants observed in spills sites up to 4 years following the spill events. PMID:27119384

  2. Ancient Granite Gneiss in the Black Hills, South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Zartman, R E; Norton, J J; Stern, T W

    1964-07-31

    Granite gneiss, with an age of approximately 2.5 billion years, in the Black Hills, South Dakota, provides a link between ancient rocks in western Wyoming and Montana and in eastern North and South Dakota and Minnesota. The discovery suggests that early Precambrian rocks covered an extensive area in northcentral United States and were not restricted to several small nuclei.

  3. Ancient granite gneiss in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zartman, R.E.; Norton, J.J.; Stern, T.W.

    1964-01-01

    Granite gneiss, with an age of approximately 2.5 billion years, in the Black Hills, South Dakota , provides a link betweeen ancient rocks in western Wyoming and Montana and in eastern North and South Dakota and Minnesota. The discovery suggests that early Precambrian rocks covered an extensive area in northcentral United States and were not restricted to several small nuclei.

  4. Subsidence history of Williston basin in North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Lefever, R.D.

    1988-07-01

    The tectonic subsidence history of the Williston basin in North Dakota has been estimated through the examination of wireline logs from 30 wells that penetrated to Precambrian basement. The initial subsidence of the basin in North Dakota began at a time not later than during deposition of the middle portion of the Deadwood Formation (earliest Ordovician; about 495-490 Ma), significantly earlier than had been estimated by most workers. The initial subsidence was centered in a north-south-trending elongate area in western North Dakota; the maximum calculated tectonic subsidence rate for this event is about 15 m/m.y. Since the Early Ordovician, exclusive of the basin initiation event, the basin has undergone at least five distinct episodes of tectonic subsidence: (1) from about 450-420 Ma, (2) from 420-355 Ma, (3) from 355-315 Ma, (4) from 270-245 Ma, and (5) beginning in the interval between about 90 and 70 Ma. Each of the subsidence episodes was characterized by a rapid initial subsidence, followed by a decline to very low subsidence rates. The maximum calculated initial subsidence rates for these episodes are 26, 32, 16, 9, and 15 m/m.y, respectively. The time between episodes 4 and 5 seems to have been one of relative quiescence; the few rocks preserved from that time interval were deposited during highstands of sea level. The subsidence history curves for episodes 1-4 are consistent with a thermal expansion model; however, with the exception of episode 3 and possibly episode 4, none of the first four subsidence events appears to be temporally coincident with major tectonic events elsewhere in North America.

  5. Fish community persistence in Eastern North and South Dakota Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shearer, J.S.; Berry, C.R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the James River in North and South Dakota has experienced records in minimum and maximum discharge. Our objectives were to compare: (1) the fish community in the main river after dry (1988-90) and wet (1993-2000) years, and (2) the fish community of both the main river and tributaries between dry (1975) and wet (1998-2000) years. In South Dakota in the main river, there were 10 families and 29 species after several dry years and 11 families and 35 species after several wet years. Percichthyidae was the additional family after the wet years. Basinwide, there were 41 species present after the dry 1970s and 50 species after the wet 1990s. Overall, 93% of the species collected in 1975 have persisted. Our results provide some support for the flood pulse concept, and the findings suggest that the fish community can be useful for biomonitoring of prairie streams.

  6. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for selected streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North basin, North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Dressler, Valerie M.

    2002-01-01

    The quantity and quality of current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are concerns of people who reside within the basin. Additional water resources are needed because of recent growth in population, industry, and agriculture. How the management of current and future water-resources will impact water quality within the basin is a critical issue. Water-quality data, particularly for surface-water sources, will help water-resources managers make decisions about current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for 43 streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are presented in this report. Statistical summaries include sample size, maximum, minimum, mean, and values for the 95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, and 5th percentiles.

  7. 78 FR 35781 - North Dakota Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... proposed rule published January 29, 2013 (78 FR 6062), is reopened. We will accept written comments on this... the December 15, 1980 Federal Register (45 FR 82214). You can also find later actions concerning North... proposed amendment in the January 29, 2013 Federal Register (78 FR 6062; Administrative Record No....

  8. Regional regression equations to estimate peak-flow frequency at sites in North Dakota using data through 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2015-01-01

    Annual peak-flow frequency data from 231 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in North Dakota and parts of Montana, South Dakota, and Minnesota, with 10 or more years of unregulated peak-flow record, were used to develop regional regression equations for exceedance probabilities of 0.5, 0.20, 0.10, 0.04, 0.02, 0.01, and 0.002 using generalized least-squares techniques. Updated peak-flow frequency estimates for 262 streamflow-gaging stations were developed using data through 2009 and log-Pearson Type III procedures outlined by the Hydrology Subcommittee of the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data. An average generalized skew coefficient was determined for three hydrologic zones in North Dakota. A StreamStats web application was developed to estimate basin characteristics for the regional regression equation analysis. Methods for estimating a weighted peak-flow frequency for gaged sites and ungaged sites are presented.

  9. Regional regression equations to estimate peak-flow frequency at sites in North Dakota using data through 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2015-08-06

    Annual peak-flow frequency data from 231 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in North Dakota and parts of Montana, South Dakota, and Minnesota, with 10 or more years of unregulated peak-flow record, were used to develop regional regression equations for exceedance probabilities of 0.5, 0.20, 0.10, 0.04, 0.02, 0.01, and 0.002 using generalized least-squares techniques. Updated peak-flow frequency estimates for 262 streamflow-gaging stations were developed using data through 2009 and log-Pearson Type III procedures outlined by the Hydrology Subcommittee of the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data. An average generalized skew coefficient was determined for three hydrologic zones in North Dakota. A StreamStats web application was developed to estimate basin characteristics for the regional regression equation analysis. Methods for estimating a weighted peak-flow frequency for gaged sites and ungaged sites are presented.

  10. 75 FR 11166 - Enbridge Pipelines (North Dakota) LLC; Notice of Motion to Approve Modification of Approved...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Enbridge Pipelines (North Dakota) LLC; Notice of Motion to Approve..., Enbridge Pipelines (North Dakota) LLC (Enbridge), with the support of twelve Shippers and a Connecting Pipeline, submitted a modification to the Offer of Settlement (Supplement) approved in Docket No....

  11. An Investment in a Brighter Future for North Dakota: Summary of the 2007 NDUS Legislative Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota University System, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The single most important factor that will determine the success of North Dakota will be its human capital. The primary developer and source of that capital is the University System. This brochure describes the North Dakota University System's requests in parity and equity funding. It also describes the System's activities that contribute to the…

  12. North Dakota Department of Public Instruction 2007-2009 Biennial Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Biennial Report presents a summary of programs and services provided by the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction for 2007-2009. The State Superintendent notes that while North Dakota's education system is good, slippage in test scores is occurring, cracks in the education system are developing and some students are falling through…

  13. Building Sense of Community in Rural North Dakota Towns: Opportunities for Community Education Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flage, Lynette Jo

    2010-01-01

    Many rural North Dakota communities struggle with the loss of services, schools, and population due to a changing landscape, but does a strong sense of community help anchor residents to their town? The purpose of this study was to describe sense of community and its relationship to actions promoting social capital in rural North Dakota towns.…

  14. A Call for: Educational Leadership and Action. Essential Information on North Dakota Education for Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Staff members of the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction have partnered with members of the P-16 Education Task Force, and support the various principles developed by task force members. The task force was initiated by the joint boards on public education in September of 2005 whose vision is "All North Dakota students will be educated in…

  15. 76 FR 58569 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Forestry Smoke Management Techniques f. Enforceability of North Dakota's Measures g. Anticipated Net Effect... our proposed partial disapproval of North Dakota's regional haze SIP. In lieu of this proposed FIP, or... meet the Act's requirements concerning non- interference with programs to protect visibility in...

  16. Range expansion of pileated woodpecker in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dechant, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Natural history writings from explorers such as M. Lewis, W. Clark, J. J. Audubon, S. F. Baird, and E. Coues failed to mention the pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus ) in North Dakota throughout the 1800's. The first published reference to the species was in the early 1900's in the valley of the Red River of the North, part of the Agassiz Lake Plain of eastern North Dakota. Sightings increased in the Agassiz Lake Plain in the mid-1900's but remained rare west of the Agassiz Lake Plain until the late 1900's. Ornithologists suggest that the species has recently established small, permanent populations in the Turtle Mountains, Devils Lake area, and along the Sheyenne River, especially in the Sheyenne National Grassland. I present information that supports the idea that the pileated woodpecker is establishing populations in the aforementioned areas and is moving even farther west. I also document the presence of the pileated woodpecker along the James River and the first record for Stutsman County.

  17. Reproduction of raccoons (Procyon lotor) in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritzell, E.K.

    1978-01-01

    Necropsies and observations of captive and radio-equipped individuals provided reproductive data from a raccoon population in the northern prairies. The mean parturition date of adult females was 8 May and the mean litter size was 4.8. Only two of the 14 yearling females examined prior to 1 July were pregnant; they had estimated parturition dates of 20 May and 22 June. Penes of most yearling males became extrusible in July or August. Testes weights and sperm smears suggest that yearling males in North Dakota are not reproductively active. Reproductive patterns of raccoons near the northern periphery of their range and those at lower latitudes are compared and discussed.

  18. Electron Donor Potential of Eastern North Dakota Shale Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas Klapperich, R. J.; Korom, S. F.

    2007-12-01

    We have a network of 16 in situ mesocosms (ISMs) used to study aquifer denitrification at 9 sites in North Dakota and Minnesota. The site in the Elk Valley aquifer in northeastern North Dakota has the highest denitrification rates and the greatest concentration of electron donors (organic carbon ~0.4%, pyrite as S ~0.4%, and ferrous iron ~0.3%) in the sediments. In contrast, denitrification rates at our other ISM sites are lower (or even below detection), as are the electron donor concentrations in the sediments. Knowing that the sediments at all of our ISM sites were placed as outwash during the last Wisconsinan glaciation (~12ka), we wonder what caused the variation in electron donor supplies in our aquifers. It has been suggested that variations is the electron donor concentrations in the various Late Cretaceous shale strata exposed during glaciation may help explain the variation in electron donor concentrations in overlying aquifers formed nearby. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the amount of electron donors available in these bedrock units. Bedrock samples (n = 39) from 20 sites in eastern North Dakota were obtained by drilling during the summer of 2006 in conjunction with the North Dakota State Water Commission. Samples were frozen before analysis for bulk mineralogical content by X-ray diffraction, organic carbon, pyrite as inorganic S, and ferrous iron contents. It was hypothesized that the Pierre Shale would have the highest donor concentration, but it appears that other formations, such as the Carlile and Greenhorn contain higher concentrations of electron donors. Organic carbon concentrations in the Pierre (< 0.01% to 1.0%) are relatively low while concentrations in the Carlile (3.5% - 6.5%) and Greenhorn (~8.5%) are significantly higher. Pyrite as inorganic S concentrations in the Pierre (< 0.01% to 0.2%), Carlile (0.3% - 0.5%), and Greenhorn (~0.5%) are similarly distributed. In the future, it may be possible to create a qualitative index

  19. Geology and ground water resources of Wells County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Binemie, John P.; Falgle, George A.; Bred, Ronald J.; Reid, John R.; Buturla, Frank

    1970-01-01

    Wells County is in east-central North Dakota on the eastern flank of the Williston Basin. It is underlain by 4000 to 6000 feet of Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that dip gently to the west. The uppermost Cretaceous rocks, the Hell Creek, Fox Hills and Pierre Formations, lie directly beneath the glacial drift; isolated exposures of the Fox Hills and Pierre rocks occur in the Sheyenne River valley. Glacial drift covers the entire area averaging about 100 feet thick. In certain buried valleys it is more than 400 feet thick.

  20. 78 FR 59713 - Notice of Availability of the North Dakota Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource Management Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... FR 77008), and ended on March 23, 2012. The BLM held one scoping open house in North Dakota in... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the North Dakota Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource... Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has prepared a North Dakota Greater Sage-Grouse (GRSG) Draft...

  1. Water resources of the Lake Traverse Reservation, South and North Dakota, and Roberts County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ryan F.

    2001-01-01

    In 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe; Roberts County; and the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Geological Survey Program, began a 6-year investigation to describe and quantify the water resources of the area within the 1867 boundary of the Lake Traverse Reservation and adjacent parts of Roberts County. Roberts County is located in extreme northeastern South Dakota, and the 1867 boundary of the Lake Traverse Reservation encompasses much of Roberts County and parts of Marshall, Day, Codington, and Grant Counties in South Dakota and parts of Richland and Sargent Counties in southeast North Dakota. This report includes descriptions of the quantity, quality, and availability of surface and ground water, the extent of the major glacial and bedrock aquifers and named outwash groups, and surface- and ground-water uses within the 1867 boundary of the Lake Traverse Reservation and adjacent parts of Roberts County. The surface-water resources within the 1867 boundary of the Lake Traverse Reservation and adjacent parts of Roberts County include rivers, streams, lakes, and wetlands. The Wild Rice and Bois de Sioux Rivers are tributaries of the Red River within the Souris-Red-Rainy River Basin; the Little Minnesota, Jorgenson, and North Fork Whetstone Rivers are tributaries of the Minnesota River within the Upper Mississippi River Basin, and the James and Big Sioux Rivers are tributaries within the Missouri River Basin. Several of the larger lakes within the study area have been developed for recreation, while many of the smaller lakes and wetlands are used for livestock watering or as wildlife production areas. Statistical summaries are presented for the water-quality data of six selected streams within the study area, and the dominant chemical species are listed for 17 selected lakes within the study area. The glacial history of the study area has led to a rather complex system of glacial

  2. Nontarget bird exposure to DRC-1339 during fall in North Dakota and spring in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Thomas W.; Custer, Christine M.; Dummer, Paul M.; Linz, George M.; Sileo, Louis; Stahl, Randal S.; Johnston, John J.; Linz, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Blackbirds frequently use ripening sunflower (Heltantbus annuus) as a food source in the northern Great Plains. In 1999 and 2000, the avicide DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride) was used experimentally on fall-ripening sunflower fields in North Dakota so researchers could evaluate its effectiveness for reducing crop depredations by blackbirds. DRC-1339 was applied to rice and broadcast on the ground in a confined area within ripening sunflower fields. One objective of this study was to determine whether nontarget birds, birds other than blackbirds, were eating rice and were exposed to the DRC-1339. In 1999, 8 of 11 (73%) sparrows collected by shotgun in sunflower fields treated with DRe-1339 had rice in their gastrointestinal (GI) tracts. In 2000, 5 mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) and 3 sparrows were collected by shotgun in sunflower fields treated with DRC-1339. Three doves had rice in their GI tracts, 4 doves and all 3 sparrows had measurable DRC1339 concentrations in their GI tracts, and 3 mourning doves and 1 savannah sparrow (Passerculus sanduncbensis) exhibited histopathological signs of kidney damage. In April 2002, untreated rice was applied to corn stubble plots in South Dakota to determine which bird species ate rice. In 2002, 3 of 3 song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) collected by shotgun had rice in their GI tracts. Our results demonstrate that the use of DRC-1339 to control blackbirds in the northern Great Plains will likely expose nontarget birds to the DRC-1339 bait.

  3. Prediction of gas production using well logs, Cretaceous of north-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hester, T.C.

    1999-01-01

    Cretaceous gas sands underlie much of east-central Alberta and southern Saskatchewan, eastern Montana, western North Dakota, and parts of South Dakota and Wyoming. Estimates of recoverable biogenic methane from these rocks in the United States are as high as 91 TCF. In northern Montana, current production is localized around a few major structural features, while vast areas in between these structures are not being exploited. Although the potential for production exists, the lack of commercial development is due to three major factors: 1) the lack of pipeline infrastructure; 2) the lack of predictable and reliable rates of production; and 3) the difficulty in recognizing and selecting potentially productive gas-charged intervals. Unconventional (tight), continuous-type reservoirs, such as those in the Cretaceous of the northern Great Plains, are not well suited for conventional methods of formation evaluation. Pay zones frequently consist only of thinly laminated intervals of sandstone, silt, shale stringers, and disseminated clay. Potential producing intervals are commonly unrecognizable on well logs, and thus are overlooked. To aid in the identification and selection of potential producing intervals, a calibration system is developed here that empirically links the 'gas effect' to gas production. The calibration system combines the effects of porosity, water saturation, and clay content into a single 'gas-production index' (GPI) that relates the in-situ rock with production potential. The fundamental method for isolating the gas effect for calibration is a crossplot of neutron porosity minus density porosity vs gamma-ray intensity. Well-log and gas-production data used for this study consist of 242 perforated intervals from 53 gas-producing wells. Interval depths range from about 250 to 2400 ft. Gas volumes in the peak calendar year of production range from about 4 to 136 MMCF. Nine producing formations are represented. Producing-interval data show that porosity

  4. Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota Session. Volume 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martlett, Stephen A., Ed.; Meyer, Jim, Ed.

    This collection of eight papers and six "data squibs" (short research findings) are based on topics and languages under study by students and staff of the linguistics program of the University of North Dakota. The papers are: (1) "Dakota Sioux Objects" (Thomas M. Pinson); (2) "The Tapir: A Yanomami Text" (Irma Thiele); (3) "One Less Crazy Rule"…

  5. Coleoptera species inhabiting prairie wetlands of the Cottonwood Lake Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, B.A.; Swanson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aquatic Coleoptera of a prairie wetland complex in Stutsman County, North Dakota, were collected from April 1979 to November 1980. Identification of 2594 individuals confirmed 57 species, including seven new records for North Dakota. Two seasonally flooded and two semipermanent wetlands, totaling 7.43 ha, contained 53% of the Dytiscidae, 43% of the Haliplidae, 38% of the Hydrophilidae, and 22% of the Gyrinidae species previously identified from North Dakota. Although 49.1% of the Coleoptera species occurred in both types of wetlands, the occurrence of 29 species varied by wetland class.

  6. Little known mid-Paleozoic salts of northwestern North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.W.; Anderson, S.B.

    1984-07-01

    Four Paleozoic formations that contain bedded salts previously undescribed in North Dakota have been identified and mapped. They are the Silurian Interlake, and Devonian Ashern, Souris River, and Duperow Formations. A series of stratigraphically and areally discontinuous, thin, bedded salts has been identified in the Silurian Interlake Formation. As many as five, thin, bedded salts are present in the upper gray member of the Devonian Ashern Formation. Where found, these salts are stratigraphically correlatable but laterally discontinuous. A thin, bedded salt is present in both the Souris River and Duperow. These salts are laterally continuous with salts previously described in Saskatchewan. Although the occurrences of the salts discussed commonly are discontinuous, knowledge of their presence can be helpful in designing a drilling and testing program for wells in areas where they occur. Furthermore, a knowledge of the presence of these salts is helpful in understanding the overall tectonic and depositional history of the Williston basin.

  7. Small Wind Electric Systems: A North Dakota Consumer's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-04-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A North Dakota Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  8. Weather and pheasant populations in southwestern North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martinson, R.K.; Grondahl, C.R.

    1966-01-01

    High productivity and survival of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) were correlated with high rainfall and cool temperatures in May and June during an 8-year period in southwestern North Dakota. These findings differed markedly from those of several earlier studies in the less arid midwestern United States where cool, wet weather in the spring generally affected pheasant populations adversely. General trends in the pheasant population could be explained on the basis of precipitation in May and June. The population was relatively high during the mid-1950's when wet and dry May and June periods occurred in alternate years but declined markedly after 2 consecutive years of spring and summer drought. The population remained at a static low during 1960 through 1963 when wet and dry spring and summer periods again occurred alternately.

  9. Use of North Dakota lignite in advanced power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Willson, W.G.; Hurley, J.P.; Sharp, L.

    1992-12-01

    In order to develop critical data for Department of Energy (DOE) and private industry for advanced high-efficiency power systems using North Dakota lignite in pressurized gasification and combustion systems, tests were performed in bench-scale equipment at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). The primary objectives were to (1) determine the conversion levels for Center ND lignite under pressurized fluid-bed gasification conditions with sorbent addition as a function of temperature, (2) determine the sulfur capture using limestone or dolomite under gasification conditions giving 90% or higher carbon conversion, (3) evaluate char/coal conversion and sulfur capture in a pressurized fluid-bed combustor, (4) assess the potential for bed agglomeration under the preferred operating conditions for both systems.

  10. JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

    2008-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment was performed to determine likely revenue streams for the produced carbon. Activated carbon was produced from lignite coal in both laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactors and in a small pilot-scale rotary kiln. The EERC was successfully able to upgrade the laboratory-scale activated carbon production system to a pilot-scale rotary kiln system. The activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite was superior to commercial grade DARCO{reg_sign} FGD and Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product with respect to iodine number. The iodine number of North Dakota lignite-derived activated carbon was between 600 and 800 mg I{sub 2}/g, whereas the iodine number of DARCO FGD was between 500 and 600 mg I{sub 2}/g, and the iodine number of Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product was around 275 mg I{sub 2}/g. The EERC performed both bench-scale and pilot-scale mercury capture tests using the activated carbon made under various optimization process conditions. For comparison, the mercury capture capability of commercial DARCO FGD was also tested. The lab-scale apparatus is a thin fixed-bed mercury-screening system, which has been used by the EERC for many mercury capture screen tests. The pilot-scale systems included two combustion units, both equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Activated carbons were also tested in a slipstream baghouse at a Texas power plant. The results indicated that the activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite coal is capable of removing mercury from flue gas. The tests showed that activated carbon with the greatest iodine number

  11. Dakota :

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Brian M.; Ebeida, Mohamed Salah; Eldred, Michael S; Jakeman, John Davis; Swiler, Laura Painton; Stephens, John Adam; Vigil, Dena M.; Wildey, Timothy Michael; Bohnhoff, William J.; Eddy, John P.; Hu, Kenneth T.; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bauman, Lara E; Hough, Patricia Diane

    2014-05-01

    The Dakota (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a exible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. Dakota contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quanti cation with sampling, reliability, and stochastic expansion methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the Dakota toolkit provides a exible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a theoretical manual for selected algorithms implemented within the Dakota software. It is not intended as a comprehensive theoretical treatment, since a number of existing texts cover general optimization theory, statistical analysis, and other introductory topics. Rather, this manual is intended to summarize a set of Dakota-related research publications in the areas of surrogate-based optimization, uncertainty quanti cation, and optimization under uncertainty that provide the foundation for many of Dakota's iterative analysis capabilities.

  12. North Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    1981-10-01

    The North Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Dakota.

  13. 2009 Spring floods in North Dakota, western Minnesota, and northeastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Gross, Tara A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, record-breaking snowfalls and additional spring moisture caused severe flooding in parts of the Missouri River and Red River of the North (Red River) Basins in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota. There were 48 peak of record stages and 36 discharges recorded at U.S. Geological Survey streamgages located in both basins between March 20 and May 15, 2009. High water continued to affect many communities up and down the rivers' main stems and tributaries for nearly 2 months. Record snowfall for single-day totals, as well as monthly totals, occurred throughout the Missouri River and Red River of the North Basins. Additional moisture in the spring as well as the timing of warmer temperatures caused record flooding in many places in both basins with many locations reporting two flood crests. Ice jams on the Missouri River, located north and south of Bismarck, N. Dak., caused flooding. Southwest Bismarck was evacuated as rising waters first began inundating homes in low-lying areas along the river and then continued flowing into the city's lower south side. On March 24, 2009, the peak stage of the Missouri River at Bismarck, N. Dak. streamgage was 16.11 feet, which was the highest recorded stage since the completion of Garrison Dam in 1954. South of Bismarck, the Missouri River near Schmidt, N. Dak. streamgage recorded a peak stage of 24.24 feet on March 25, 2009, which surpassed the peak of record of 23.56 feet that occurred on December 9, 1976. While peak stage reached record levels at these streamgages, the discharge through the river at these locations did not reach record levels. The record high stages resulted from ice jams occurring on the Missouri River north and south of the cities of Bismarck and Mandan. At the Red River of the North at Fargo, N. Dak. streamgage, the Red River reached a record stage of 40.84 feet surpassing the previous peak of record stage of 39.72 feet set in 1997. The associated peak streamflow of 29,500 cubic feet per second

  14. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

    2004-04-30

    The state of North Dakota is considering updating its commercial building energy code. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to North Dakota residents from updating and requiring compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in the analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST simulation combined with a Life-cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess correspodning economic costs and benefits.

  15. Impact origin of the Newporte structure, Williston basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Forsman, N.F.; Gerlach, T.R.; Anderson, N.L.

    1996-05-01

    The Newporte field is located just south of the United States-Canada border in Renville County, North Dakota, in the north-central portion of the Williston basin. Integration of seismic, well-log, and core data supports the interpretation of an impact origin for the Newporte structure. The structure involves both Precambrian basement and lower Paleozoic sedimentary units. Oil and gas production began in 1977 from brecciated basement rocks along the rim of the 3.2-km-diameter circular structure. Both well logs and seismic data were used to determine thickness changes of sedimentary units overlying the structure. Resulting isopach maps reveal a circular, bowl-shaped feature with a recognizable rim. Microscopic shock metamorphic features in quartz and feldspar are visible in basement clasts that form a mixed breccia with Cambrian Deadwood sandstone within the western rim of the structure. A Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician age is suggested for the structure because of the presence of flatlying Deadwood sandstone overlying mixed basement/sandstone breccia along portions of the rim. Identification of the Newporte structure as an impact crater adds to the growing base of evidence revealing the relevance of impact craters to petroleum exploration.

  16. North Dakota`s Dickinson Lodgepole discovery: A Preliminary exploration model

    SciTech Connect

    LeFever, J.A.; Halabura, S.P.; Martiniuk, C.D.; Fischer, D.W.

    1995-08-14

    Interest in the Mississippian Lodgepole formation of North Dakota has intensified since the successful completion of the Duncan Oil Inc. 1-11 Knopik flowing 2,707 b/d of oil and 1.55 MMcfd of gas 430 cu m of oil and 43,891 cu m of gas. The play began when Conoco drilled an in-field wildcat in an attempt to establish deeper production in Dickinson oil field. The discovery well, 74 Dickinson State, was completed in a clean lower Lodgepole limestone section that is thought to represent a Waulsortian mound. The most important questions asked concerning the Lodgepole play are whether or not it will step out of the Dickinson area, what are the factors that control the development of these mounds, what controlled the development of the reservoir and trap, and how it was charged with oil. Other than the reservoir section, the most significant feature observed from wireline logs of the area is the anomalously thick Bakken formation (Mississippian-Devonian). This observation is important to understanding the Lodgepole play and can be used to help explore for similar features elsewhere in the basin. The paper describes the regional setting, the Lodgepole stratigraphy, deposition, regional equivalents, and a salt collapse model that can readily explain the features observed at the Dickinson field.

  17. Climate change impacts on North Dakota: agriculture and hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilenko, A.; Zhang, X.; Lim, Y.; Teng, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    North Dakota is one of the principal producers of agricultural commodities in the USA, including over half of the total spring wheat production. While the region includes some of the best agricultural lands in the world, the steep temperature and precipitation gradients also make it one of the most sensitive to climate change. Over the 20th century, both the temperature and the pattern of precipitation in the state have changed. One of the most dramatic examples of the consequences of this change is the Devils Lake flooding. Devils Lake is a terminal lake with a surface area of about 500 km2 in a 9,867 km2 closed watershed, located in the northeastern part of the state. The recent changes in climate interrupted the 5-7 year long wet/dry cycle, resulting in a persistently wet state. The change in the water balance has led to a substantial increase in the lake level from 427.0 m in 1940 to 434.6 m in 1993 to 443.2 m in 2011. The resulting flooding has threatened the local communities, costing $450 million in mitigation efforts thus far. If the elevation reaches 444.4 m, the saline, eutrophic lake will naturally spill into the Sheyenne River, eventually flowing into Lake Winnipeg. In two studies, we estimated the climate change impacts on crop yields and on the hydrology of the Devils Lake basin. The projections of six GCMs, driven by three SRES scenarios were statistically downscaled for eight different locations throughout the state, for the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s climate. Averaged over all GCMs, there is a small increase in precipitation, by 0.6 - 1.1% in 2020s, 3.1 - 3.5% in 2050s, and 3.0 - 7.6% in 2080s. This change in precipitation varies with the seasons, with cold seasons becoming wetter and warm seasons not changing. For projections of climate change impacts on the hydrology of the Devils Lake basin, we additionally used the information on the spatial distribution of precipitation over the basin from the NASA TRMM TMPA 3B42-V6 product, which combines

  18. Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoner, Jeffrey D.; Lorenz, David L.; Wiche, Gregg J.; Goldstein, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the physical, chemical, and aquatic-biological characteristics that could affect regional water quality in the Red River of the North study unit. These characteristics define the overall environmental setting of the study unit. This report provides base line and historical information for future reports that will address specific water-quality issues and processes controlling and affecting water quality in the study unit, and for reports for the national-synthesis component of the NAWQA program that will integrate the results of the study-unit investigations.

  19. 78 FR 46931 - Intent To Hold North Dakota Task Force Meeting as Established by the Missouri River Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... improve conservation, protect recreation from sedimentation, improve water quality, improve erosion control, and protect historic and cultural sites along the Missouri River in North Dakota from...

  20. A Discriminant Analysis of Majors in the College Business and Public Administration at the University of North Dakota. North Dakota Economics Studies, Number 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedefalk, Rolf K.

    Researchers have demonstrated that particular careers attract individuals with distinct identifiable personality profiles and learning styles, and this idea is extended to the selection of majors within the College of Business and Public Administration (BPA) at the University of North Dakota. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was used both to…

  1. Comparative Analysis of TIAA/CREF and North Dakota Public Employee Retirement System Pension Fund. North Dakota Economic Studies Number 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong W.

    Quantitative financial measures were applied to evaluate the performance of the North Dakota Public Employee Retirement System (NDPERS) pension fund portfolios and the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association (TIAA)/College Retirement Equities Fund (CREF) portfolios, thus providing a relative performance assessment. Ten years of data were…

  2. View of north central Wyoming and southern Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A view of approximately 3,600 square miles of north central Wyoming and southern Montana as seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The Big Horn River flowing northward crosses between the northwest trending Big Horn Mountains and the Pryor Mountains. Yellowtail Reservoir, in the center of the picture, is impounded by a dam across the Big Horn River. A sharp contrast is clearly evident between the small rectangular crop areas along the Big Horn River (upper right) and the strip farming (yellow) practiced on the rolling hill along the Big Horn River and its tributaries (upper left corner and right edge). The low sun angle enhances the structural features of the mountains as well as the drainage patterns in the adjacent basins. Rock formations appear in this color photograph as they would to the eye from this altitude. The distinctive redbeds can be traced along the fr

  3. COFIRING OF BIOMASS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip N. Hutton

    2002-01-01

    A project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory was completed by the Energy & Environmental Research Center to explore the potential for cofiring biomass at the University of North Dakota (UND). The results demonstrate how 25% sunflower hulls can be cofired with subbituminous coal and provide a 20% return on investment or 5-year payback for the modifications required to enable firing biomass. Significant outcomes of the study are as follows. A complete resource assessment presented all biomass options to UND within a 100-mile radius. Among the most promising options in order of preference were sunflower hulls, wood residues, and turkey manure. The firing of up to 28% sunflower hulls by weight was completed at the university's steam plant to identify plant modifications that would be necessary to enable cofiring sunflower hulls. The results indicated investments in a new equipment could be less than $408,711. Data collected from test burns, which were not optimized for biomass firing, resulted in a 15% reduction in sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions, no increase in opacity, and slightly better boiler efficiency. Fouling and clinkering potential were not evaluated; however, no noticeable detrimental effects occurred during testing. As a result of this study, UND has the potential to achieve a cost savings of approximately $100,000 per year from a $1,500,000 annual fossil fuel budget by implementing the cofiring of 25% sunflower hulls.

  4. COFIRING OF BIOMASS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip N. Hutton

    2001-04-01

    Combustion testing of sunflower-coal blends on Boilers No. 3 and 5 at the University of North Dakota (UND) Steam Plant facility was completed. A total of four combustion tests were performed. In each boiler, a baseline combustion test was performed on subbituminous coal and a combustion test was performed on a sunflower-coal blend of approximately 25 wt% sunflower hulls. A cold-flow test was also performed on the boiler feed system. A summary review of the test results is included in this report, along with pictures. Additional analysis is currently being performed on the combustion test data. We have completed Task 2, Fuel-Handling Issues, and are currently working on completing Tasks 3 and 5. Accomplishments for this quarter: (1) Successfully mixed sunflower-coal blend in the UND Steam Plant facility's current feed system. (2) Successfully combusted a 25% sunflower-75% coal (approximately) blend in Boilers No. 3 and 5. (3) Identified potential dust problems with the feed system. (4) Identified potential feed problems at the stokers and in the fireboxes. (5) Obtained test data on the combustion tests.

  5. Holocene eolian activity in the Minot dune field, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Been, J.; Mahan, S.A.; Burdett, J.; Skipp, G.; Rowland, Z.M.

    1997-01-01

    Stabilized eolian sand is common over much of the Great Plains region of the United States and Canada, including a subhumid area of ??? 1500 km2 near Minot, North Dakota. Eolian landforms consist of sand sheets and northwest-trending parabolic dunes. Dunes and sand sheets in the Minot field are presently stabilized by a cover of prairie grasses or oak woodland. Stratigraphic studies and accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of paleosols indicate at least two periods of eolian sand movement in the late Holocene. Pedologic data suggest that all of the dune field has experienced late Holocene dune activity, though not all parts of the dune field may have been active simultaneously. Similar immobile element (Ti, Zr, La, Ce) concentrations support the interpretation that eolian sands are derived from local glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine sediments. However, glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial source sediments have high Ca concentrations from carbonate minerals, whereas dune sands are depleted in Ca. Because noneolian-derived soils in the area are calcareous, these data indicate that the Minot dune field may have had extended periods of activity in the Holocene, such that eolian abrasion removed soft carbonate minerals. The southwest-facing parts of some presently stabilized dunes were active during the 1930s drought, but were revegetated during the wetter years of the 1940s. These observations indicate that severe droughts accompanied by high temperatures are the most likely cause of Holocene eolian activity.

  6. Climate Change Impacts on North Dakota: Agriculture and Hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirilenko, Andrei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Lim, Yeo Howe; Teng, William L.

    2011-01-01

    North Dakota is one of the principal producers of agricultural commodities in the USA, including over half of the total spring wheat production. While the region includes some of the best agricultural lands in the world, the steep temperature and precipitation gradients also make it one of the most sensitive to climate change. Over the 20th century, both the temperature and the pattern of precipitation in the state have changed; one of the most dramatic examples of the consequences of this change is the Devils Lake flooding. In two studies, we estimated the climate change impacts on crop yields and on the hydrology of the Devils Lake basin. The projections of six GCMs, driven by three SRES scenarios were statistically downscaled for multiple locations throughout the state, for the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s climate. Averaged over all GCMs, there is a small increase in precipitation, by 0.6 - 1.1% in 2020s, 3.1 - 3.5% in 2050s, and 3.0 - 7.6% in 2080s. This change in precipitation varies with the seasons, with cold seasons becoming wetter and warm seasons not changing.

  7. Tundra swan habitat preferences during migration in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earnst, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    I studied tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) habitat preference in North Dakota during autumn migration, 1988-89. Many thousand tundra swans stop in the Prairie Pothole region during autumn migration, but swan resource use has not been quantified. I examined habitat preference in relation to an index of sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) presence, extent of open water, and wetland size. I compared habitat preference derived from counts of all swans to those derived from foraging swans only and cygnets only. Foraging swans preferred wetlands with sago pondweed (P = 0.03); the number of foraging swans per wetland was >4 times higher on wetlands with sago pondweed than on wetlands without sago. In contrast, nonforaging swans did not prefer wetlands with sago pondweed (P = 0.85) but preferred large wetlands (P = 0.02) and those with a high proportion of contiguous open water (P < 0.01). Thus, conclusions about habitat preference derived from counts of all swans, most of which were nonforaging, would not have revealed the importance of sago pondweed. Cygnets were more likely to be feeding than adults (P = 0.03) and occurred proportionately more often in smaller flocks (P = 0.04), but cygnets and adults had similar habitat preferences.

  8. A spring aerial census of red foxes in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.; Pfeifer, W.K.; Allen, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    Systematic aerial searches were flown on transects to locate adult red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), pups, and rearing dens on 559.4 km2 (six townships) in eastern North Dakota during mid-May and mid-June each year from 1969 through 1973 and during mid-April 1969 and early May 1970. The combined sightings of foxes and fox dens from the mid-May and mid-June searches were used to identify individual fox families. The number of fox families was used as the measurement of density. Dens, highly visible during the mid-May searches, were the most reliable family indicator; 84 percent of 270 families identified during the study were represented by dens. Adult foxes second in importance, were most observable during the mid-May searches when 20 to 35 percent of those estimated to be available were sighted. Adult sightings during other search periods ranged from 4 to 17 percent of those available. Pup sightings were the most variable family indicator, but they led to the discovery of some dens. Sources of error for which adjustment factors were determined are: den moves exceeding criterion established for the spacing of dens in a single family, overestimation of the number of fox families living near township boundaries, and the percentage of fox families overlooked during the aerial searches. These adjustment factors appeared to be largely compensatory.

  9. Records of northern mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos, occurrences in North Dakota during the Twentieth Century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.; Martin, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) is a common bird in the southern United States that has been expanding its breeding range into the northern United States and southern Canada. During the twentieth century, there were 128 reports of Northern Mockingbird occurrences in North Dakota, including 106 reports during the breeding season (15 April to 31 August) and 22 during the nonbreeding season (1 September to 14 April). The species has been largely absent from North Dakota from January through mid-April. Prior to the 1930s, there was only one record (1916) of the Northern Mockingbird in the state. Observations of Northern Mockingbirds in North Dakota increased markedly between the 1930s and 1990s. On average, there were 0.3 reports of mockingbirds per year in 1931-1940, 0.6 in 1941-1950, 1.1 in 1951-1960, 1.6 in 1961-1970, 2.4 in 1971-1980, 2.3 in 1981-1990, and 4.5 in 1991-2000. The species has been observed in North Dakota nearly annually since 1958. At least six reports during the twentieth century included evidence of nesting (nests or dependent young). Based on mockingbird records during the twentieth century, we designate the current status of the Northern Mockingbird in North Dakota as a rare spring migrant, rare summer visitant, casual nester, and a casual fall and winter visitant.

  10. Records of Northern Mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos, occurrences in North Dakota during the twentieth century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.; Martin, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) is a common bird in the southern United States that has been expanding its breeding range into the northern United States and southern Canada. During the twentieth century, there were 128 reports of Northern Mockingbird occurrences in North Dakota, including 106 reports during the breeding season (15 April to 31 August) and 22 during the nonbreeding season (1 September to 14 April). The species has been largely absent from North Dakota from January through mid-April. Prior to the 1930s, there was only one record (1916) of the Northern Mockingbird in the state. Observations of Northern Mockingbirds in North Dakota increased markedly between the 1930s and 1990s. On average, there were 0.3 reports of mockingbirds per year in 1931-1940, 0.6 in 1941-1950, 1.1 in 1951-1960, 1.6 in 1961-1970, 2.4 in 1971-1980, 2.3 in 1981-1990, and 4.5 in 1991-2000. The species has been observed in North Dakota nearly annually since 1958. At least six reports during the twentieth century included evidence of nesting (nests or dependent young). Based on mockingbird records during the twentieth century, we designate the current status of the Northern Mockingbird in North Dakota as a rare spring migrant, rare summer visitant, casual nester, and a casual fall and winter visitant.

  11. Farm Family Adaptations to Severe Economic Distress: North Dakota. Results of the 1989 Regional Farm Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrom, Brenda L.; And Others

    During the farm crisis of the 1980s, many midwestern farm families suffered financial distress, but by 1989 an uneven financial recovery was under way. This report summaries data collected from 273 North Dakota farm operators (a 39% response) and 232 spouses (a 33% response) as part of a large survey conducted in 12 North Central states. The…

  12. Historic and unregulated monthly streamflow for selected sites in the Red River of the North basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, 1931-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, Douglas G.; Dressler, Valerie M.

    2002-01-01

    Operation of the Garrison Diversion Unit in North Dakota may have various effects on the quantity and quality of streamflow in the Sheyenne River and the Red River of the North. To model the effects that the Garrison Diversion Unit could have on water quality, gaged and estimated historic streamflow data and estimated unregulated streamflow data were compiled to develop a complete monthly streamflow record for January 1931 through September 1999 (the data-development period) for 35 sites in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota.During the entire data-development period, gaged streamflow data were available for only 4 of the 35 sites, incomplete data of various length were available for 10 sites, and no data were available for 21 sites. Drainage- area ratio and Maintenance of Variance Extension Type 1 methods were used to estimate the historic streamflow for months when no data were available.Unregulated streamflow for the 35 sites was estimated by eliminating the hydrologic effects of Orwell Reservoir, Lake Traverse, Mud Lake, Lake Ashtabula, and surface-water withdrawals. Modeled flows at the Red River of the North at Wahpeton by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers were used to eliminate the effects of Orwell Reservoir, Lake Traverse, and Mud Lake, and water-balance procedures were used to eliminate the effects of Lake Ashtabula.

  13. Hydrocarbon emissions in the Bakken oil field in North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke-Maday, I.; Petron, G.; Miller, B.; Frost, G. J.; Peischl, J.; Kort, E. A.; Smith, M. L.; Karion, A.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Montzka, S. A.; Sweeney, C.; Ryerson, T. B.; Tans, P. P.; Schnell, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Within the past five years, the production of oil and natural gas in the United States from tight formations has increased rapidly due to advances in technology, such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. With the expansion of oil and natural gas extraction operations comes the need to better quantify their emissions and potential impacts on climate forcing and air quality. The Bakken formation within the Williston Basin in North Dakota has emerged as a large contributor to the recent growth in oil production and accounts for over 10% of domestic production. Close to 30% of associated gas co-produced with the oil is flared. Very little independent information is currently available to assess the oil and gas industry emissions and their impacts on regional air quality. In May 2014, an airborne field campaign was conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory and the University of Michigan to investigate hydrocarbon emissions from operations in the oil field. Here, we present results from the analysis for methane, several non-methane hydrocarbons and combustion tracers in 72 discrete air samples collected by the aircraft on nine different flights. Samples were obtained in the boundary layer upwind and downwind of the operations and in the free troposphere. We will show results of a multiple species analysis and compare them with field campaign data from other U.S. oil and gas fields, measurements from NOAA's Global Monitoring Division long-term observing network, and available bottom-up information on emissions from oil and gas operations.

  14. Erionite exposure in North Dakota and Turkish villages with mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Michele; Baris, Y Izzettin; Bertino, Pietro; Brass, Brian; Comertpay, Sabahattin; Dogan, A Umran; Gaudino, Giovanni; Jube, Sandro; Kanodia, Shreya; Partridge, Charles R; Pass, Harvey I; Rivera, Zeyana S; Steele, Ian; Tuncer, Murat; Way, Steven; Yang, Haining; Miller, Aubrey

    2011-08-16

    Exposure to erionite, an asbestos-like mineral, causes unprecedented rates of malignant mesothelioma (MM) mortality in some Turkish villages. Erionite deposits are present in at least 12 US states. We investigated whether increased urban development has led to erionite exposure in the United States and after preliminary exploration, focused our studies on Dunn County, North Dakota (ND). In Dunn County, ND, we discovered that over the past three decades, more than 300 miles of roads were surfaced with erionite-containing gravel. To determine potential health implications, we compared erionite from the Turkish villages to that from ND. Our study evaluated airborne point exposure concentrations, examined the physical and chemical properties of erionite, and examined the hallmarks of mesothelial cell transformation in vitro and in vivo. Airborne erionite concentrations measured in ND along roadsides, indoors, and inside vehicles, including school buses, equaled or exceeded concentrations in Boyali, where 6.25% of all deaths are caused by MM. With the exception of outdoor samples along roadsides, ND concentrations were lower than those measured in Turkish villages with MM mortality ranging from 20 to 50%. The physical and chemical properties of erionite from Turkey and ND are very similar and they showed identical biological activities. Considering the known 30- to 60-y latency for MM development, there is reason for concern for increased risk in ND in the future. Our findings indicate that implementation of novel preventive and early detection programs in ND and other erionite-rich areas of the United States, similar to efforts currently being undertaken in Turkey, is warranted.

  15. Ferruginous hawk populations and habitat use in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmer, D.S.; Stewart, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis) were studied in central North Dakota on a 1,259-km2 intensive study block and on a surrounding study area (16,519 km2) from 1977 to 1979. A total of 629 occupied nests was examined. Highest nest densities (0.08 nest/km2) were in the Missouri Coteau in 1979. Few nests were found on the more intensively cultivated Drift Plain. We estimated the breeding population in the study area each year using 148 sample plots (mean = 440 nesting pairs). Pairs that nested on the ground selected only sites on rugged landforms in isolated areas, mostly end and dead-ice moraines. Land use within 1.0 km of nests was mostly (76.5%) pasture and haylands. About 95% of the area around ground nests was grassland. Tree and tower nesting birds appeared less sensitive to surrounding land use. Pairs on the intensive study block used a wide variety of nest sites including trees (63.6%), ground (20.9%), power line towers (8.0%), haystacks (5.4%), and rock piles, utility poles, and shrubs (2.1%). Reoccupancy rates were higher (63.7%) for tower nests than for other sites. Nest success was related to the type of nest site and was highest (86.7%) in certain power line towers. Mean number of young fledged per occupied nest was highest (2.8) for ground nests. Summer storms were a major cause of loss; tree nests were particularly vulnerable. Richardson's ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii) were taken as prey most often. Ferruginous hawks are closely associated with grasslands, particularly native prairie.

  16. Sustaining a Public Agenda for Higher Education: A Case Study of the North Dakota Higher Education Roundtable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Jason E.

    2008-01-01

    Based on document analysis and 40 interviews with Roundtable participants and other stakeholders across North Dakota, this report assesses the factors that enabled the North Dakota Higher Education Roundtable vision to be sustained for more than seven years, identifies obstacles encountered during the sustainability process, and provides…

  17. A Mixed Method Study of Positional Leadership of North Dakota 4-H Ambassador and State FFA Officer Alumni

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Nels Milan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed method study was to determine the positional leadership of North Dakota 4-H and FFA leadership alumni. This study determined the influence of youth development programs on statewide leadership alumni (those who served from 1970 to 2000) and community leadership roles as adults. Former North Dakota 4-H Ambassador Alumni…

  18. Experimental program to stimulate competitive energy research in North Dakota: Summary and significance of DOE Trainee research

    SciTech Connect

    Boudjouk, Philip

    1999-07-01

    The general goals of the North Dakota DOE/EPSCoR Program are to enhance the capabilities of North Dakota's researchers to conduct nationally competitive energy-related research and to develop science and engineering human resources to meet current and future needs in energy-related areas. Doctoral students were trained and energy research was conducted.

  19. 78 FR 46938 - St. Paul Park Refining Co. LLC v. Enbridge Pipelines (North Dakota) LLC; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... 385.206, and section 343.1(a) of the Commission's Procedural Rules Applicable to Oil Pipeline... Energy Regulatory Commission St. Paul Park Refining Co. LLC v. Enbridge Pipelines (North Dakota) LLC... a formal complaint against Enbridge Pipelines (North Dakota) LLC (Respondent) pursuant to sections...

  20. Advancing Postsecondary Opportunity, Completion, and Productivity: Essential Performance Indicators for North Dakota and Selected Peer States. 2012-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midwestern Higher Education Compact, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report portrays various performance indicators that are intended to facilitate an assessment of the postsecondary education system in North Dakota. Descriptive statistics are presented for North Dakota and five other comparison states as well as the nation. Comparison states were selected according to the degree of similarity of population…

  1. North Dakota K-12 & School Choice Survey: What Do Voters Say about K-12 Education? Polling Paper Number 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPerna, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The "North Dakota K-12 & School Choice Survey" project, commissioned by the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice and conducted by Braun Research, Inc. (BRI), measures North Dakota registered voters' familiarity and views on a range of K-12 education topics and school choice reforms. The author and his colleagues report response levels and…

  2. 75 FR 57017 - Enbridge Pipelines (North Dakota) LLC; Enbridge Pipelines (Bakken) L.P.; Notice of Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enbridge Pipelines (North Dakota) LLC; Enbridge Pipelines (Bakken) L.P...), Enbridge Pipelines (North Dakota) LLC (EPND) and Enbridge Pipelines (Bakken) L.P. (Enbridge Bakken...

  3. 2009 Fall Enrollment: North Dakota Institutions of Higher Education. Creating a University System for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepp, Julie; Duben-Kalash, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Included in this publication are the enrollment data supplied to the North Dakota University System (NDUS) by North Dakota institutions of postsecondary education. This paper contains the following sections: (1) Definitions; and (2) Institutional Abbreviations. Statistical data are presented in the following 17 tables: (1) Headcount Enrollment;…

  4. Identifying a Statistical Model for North Dakota K-12 Public School Transportation Funding by Comparing Fifteen State Transportation Funding Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holen, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the history of North Dakota K-12 transportation funding system, identify how school districts are reimbursed for transportation expenses, and compare this information with fourteen other state transportation funding systems. North Dakota utilizes a block grant structure that has been in place since 1972 and…

  5. 77 FR 75119 - Dakota Prairie Grasslands, North Dakota; Oil and Gas Development Supplemental Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... Leader, at 240 W. Century Avenue, Bismarck, ND 58503, by email at kdunlap@fs.fed.us or by phone at 701... online at: http://www.fs.fed.us/nepa/fs-usda-pop.php/?project=40652 . Responsible Official Dennis Neitzke, Grasslands Supervisor, Dakota Prairie Grasslands, ] 240 W. Century Avenue, Bismarck, ND 58503. Nature...

  6. Data uses and funding of the streamflow-gaging program in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    This project documents the uses, funding, and availability of the streamflow data currently collected in North Dakota. Presently (1984), 94 streamflow-gaging stations are operated in North Dakota on a budget of $663,000. Station type, data uses, and funding sources are identified for each of the 94 stations. Data from all stations have multiple uses. All stations have sufficient justification for continuation, but five stations primarily are used in short-term research studies. Those five stations are scheduled to be discontinued at the end of the 1985 water year. (USGS)

  7. New records of Merriam’s Shrew (Sorex merriami) from western North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    M. J.Shaughnessy Jr.,; Woodman, Neal

    2015-01-01

    Despite having a broad geographic distribution, Merriam's Shrew (Sorex merriami Dobson 1890) is known from a relatively few, widely-scattered localities. In North Dakota, the species was known from only a single poorly-preserved specimen collected in 1913 near Medora. We recently collected two new specimens of Merriam's Shrew from Billings and McKenzie counties in the western quarter of the state. These specimens confirm the presence of S. merriami in North Dakota and better define the northeastern edge of the species' distribution.

  8. Chemical and morphological comparison of erionite from Oregon, North Dakota, and Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowers, Heather; Adams, David T.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Nutt, Constance J.

    2010-01-01

    Erionite, a fibrous zeolite, occurs in pediment gravel deposits near Killdeer Mountain, North Dakota. Material from these pediment deposits has been excavated for use as roadbed throughout Dunn County, North Dakota. Erionite also occurs in the Cappadocian region of Turkey, where a link between malignant mesothelioma and inhalation of this mineral has been established. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 8, requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compare the chemistry and morphology of erionite collected from the Killdeer Mountains to those collected from villages in Turkey and from Rome, Oregon, which has also been linked to disease in animal studies.

  9. Modeled sulfate concentrations in North Dakota streams, 1993-2008, based on spatial basin characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2014-01-01

    Modeled sulfate concentrations generally were highest (greater than 750 milligrams per liter) in basins in western North Dakota and lowest (less than 250 milligrams per liter) in basins in the upper Sheyenne River and upper James River. Area-weighted means for the basin characteristics also were computed for 10-digit and 8-digit hydrologic units for streams in North Dakota and modeled sulfate concentrations were computed from the characteristics. The resulting distribution of modeled sulfate concentrations was similar to the distribution of estimates for the 12-digit hydrologic units, but less variable because the basin characteristics were averaged over larger areas.

  10. Water resources data--North Dakota, water year 2004, volume 2. Ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, S.M.; Wald, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for North Dakota consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality for streams; contents, stage, and water quality for lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality for ground-water wells. Volume 2 contains water-level records for 135 ground-water wells and water-quality records for 97 monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in North Dakota.

  11. Precambrian basement geology of North and South Dakota.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klasner, J.S.; King, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    Combined analysis of drill-hole, gravity and magnetic data indicates that the Precambrian rocks in the basement of the Dakotas may be divided into a series of lithotectonic terrains. On the basis of an analysis of geological and geophysical data in the Dakotas and from the surrounding states and Canada, it is shown how the exposed Precambrian rocks of the adjacent shield areas project into the study area. Brief comments are made on the tectonic implications of this study. Geological and geophysical characteristics of 11 terrains are tabulated. -P.Br.

  12. Mallard recruitment in the agricultural environment of North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, L.M.; Gilmer, D.S.; Shaiffer, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    Recruitment of a mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) population was assessed on a 10,041-km2 study area in central North Dakota during 1977-80. We equipped 338 hens with radio transmitters and monitored them during the breeding season. Two hundred thirty-five of these hens furnished data reported here. Habitat use, nest site selection, fate of nests, and the rate of renesting were measured. Survival of hens during April-September and survival of young were determined. There was a high negative correlation between nest initiation date and mean April or May temperature. Hens selected nest sites most frequently in grassland and least frequently in cropland, but habitat use compared to availability indicated preference for road right-of-way and odd areas of cover and rejection of cropland. Use of other habitats was in proportion to their availability. Nest success was only 8% during the study. Hen success, a function of nest success and renesting rate, averaged 15% and varied among years because of increased renesting in wet years. In all years, 2-year-old and older hens were twice as successful as first-year nesters. Nesting effort was correlated with water conditions as derived from aerial photographs. April-September survival of hens averaged 80% because predation was heavy when hens were on nests. Only 74% of the hens that hatched a clutch were observed later with at least 1 surviving duckling. On average, hens in the spring population recruited only 0.27 young females to the fall population. Based on this recruitment estimate, published survival estimates and a model previously developed for a closed population, we predict a 20% annual population decline. Nest success of 15% and a resulting hen success of 31% would be required for a stable population. The results suggest that the population on the study area is not maintaining itself but is being supplemented by pioneering birds. A serious recruitment problem has resulted from nest predation. Additional research is

  13. Effects of weather on breeding ducks in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammond, M.C.; Johnson, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    The present report quantifies relations between weather and several aspects of the breeding biology of four duck species: mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), gadwall (A. strepera), blue-winged teal (A. discors), and redhead (Aythya americana). Data were obtained from two locations in North Dakota,--the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, intermittently during 1936-68, and the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center's Woodworth Station during 1965-77. Arrival dates varied with mean temperature before and during the usual arrival period; early-arriving species were affected by early-season temperatures, and later-arriving species by temperatures later in spring. After temperature effects were accounted for, first arrivals were seen at the more southern Woodworth Station a few days earlier than at Salyer. High spring temperatures also seemed to induce early nesting. The mallard, which nested earliest, was most affected by temperatures during April whereas the other species were most affected by temperatures during late April and May. Peak hatching dates were also earlier in years with higher temperatures in May. Earlier peaks were associated with early first nests, so it was difficult to separate the effects of weather and date of initial nesting. Peaks at Woodworth occurred earlier than at Salyer, after temperature differences were taken into account. The period of most active nesting was longest for the early-nesting mallard, shortest for the late-nesting gadwall, and intermediate for the blue-winged teal and redhead. For two species, precipitation during the breeding season may have prolonged nesting activities. We also found that late nesting seasons tend to be compressed. Productivity at Salyer, measured by the brood to pair ratio, was generally greater in years with higher temperatures during 23 April-3 June. Effects were more pronounced among early-nesting species. Average brood size for Classes I and II tended to decline during the 1947-62 period at Salyer

  14. North Dakota Curriculum Frameworks, Volume II: Arts Education, Business Education, Foreign Language, Health, Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Dept. of Public Instruction, Bismarck.

    Curriculum frameworks for North Dakota elementary-secondary education are presented in this document. These frameworks are voluntary and serve to promote interdisciplinary learning, active learning, and student diversity. They are part of a larger systemic approach to improve instruction in the state's schools and to identify content outcomes and…

  15. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Program of Studies--Level II. Research Series No. 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck. Research Coordinating Unit.

    This industrial arts program of a studies guide is the product of a research project designed to (1) ascertain programs and curricula trends of senior high school industrial arts in the fifty states, (2) develop a philosophical rationale for senior high schools in North Dakota secondary schools, and (3) develop a master plan and program of study…

  16. 76 FR 59149 - North Dakota; Amendment No. 11 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency North Dakota; Amendment No. 11 to Notice of a Major Disaster...; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033, Disaster Legal Services; 97.034, Disaster Unemployment...

  17. 76 FR 51048 - North Dakota; Amendment No. 9 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency North Dakota; Amendment No. 9 to Notice of a Major Disaster... drawing funds: 97.030, Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling;...

  18. 76 FR 59148 - North Dakota; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency North Dakota; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of an Emergency... Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033, Disaster Legal Services; 97.034, Disaster...

  19. 78 FR 29760 - North Dakota; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency North Dakota; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of an Emergency...; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033, Disaster Legal Services; 97.034,...

  20. Biomass composition of perennial grasses for biofuel production in North Dakota, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful development of biofuels from biomass feedstocks depends on high yields and acceptable quality. We investigated the chemical composition of ten perennial grasses and mixtures across environments in North Dakota, USA. The contents of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid deter...

  1. Detailed composition analyses of diverse oat genotype kernels grown in different environments in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional composition of oat kernels from 18 genotypes grown in 6 environments in North Dakota (USA) was analyzed by chemical means. Of the macro-nutrients, mean starch concentration was 56.5%, protein was 18.1%, oil was 7.9%, neutral detergent fiber (insoluble fiber) was 6.0%, beta-glucan (solubl...

  2. Subspecies composition of sandhill crane harvest in North Dakota, 1968-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, W.L.; Johnson, D.H.; Kohn, S.C.; Urbanek, R.P.; Stahlecker, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    North Dakota is a major fall staging area for the Midcontinent Population of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis), which is composed of three subspecies: the greater (G. c. tabida), Canadian (G. c. rowani), and lesser (G. c. canadensis). The number of cranes killed by hunters in North Dakota averaged 6,793 during 1990-94 seasons, ranking second highest among crane-hunting states. The distribution of harvest among subspecies is important, due to concerns about the poorly known status of these subspecies, especially the greater. We estimated subspecies composition of the harvest in North Dakota using morphometric data collected from field samples of birds harvested since 1968. Subspecies composition varied both spatially (across counties from east to west) and temporally (among 3 periods of distinct harvest regulations and within season). Lessers predominated in the west and Canadians and greaters in the east. For the 1990-94 period we estimated that mortality due to hunting in North Dakota averaged at least 1,085 (18%) greaters, 2,138 (36%) Canadians, and 2,716 (46%) lessers.

  3. 75 FR 71023 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plan Revisions; State of North Dakota...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... year with particularly severe meteorology (weather that is conducive to ozone and/or particulate... September 17, 2010 (75 FR 56935 and 75 FR 56928) because ``EPA's rationale for approving both SIPs is the... action for North Dakota (75 FR 56928).\\1\\ \\1\\ Similarly, in our response to the same WG comments in...

  4. 78 FR 24700 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... 78 FR 16452, is extended. Comments must be received on or before June 17, 2013. The public hearings..., (303) 312-6281, Fallon.Gail@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On March 15, 2013, we published a... plants in North Dakota. See 78 FR 16452. Public hearings will be held on Wednesday, May 15, 2013, from...

  5. 76 FR 32369 - North Dakota; Amendment No. 4 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency North Dakota; Amendment No. 4 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice amends the..., Office of Response and Recovery, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 500 C Street, SW., Washington,...

  6. 75 FR 42458 - North Dakota; Amendment No. 4 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency North Dakota; Amendment No. 4 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice amends the...: Peggy Miller, Recovery Directorate, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 500 C Street, SW.,...

  7. The Effect of the Boys Town Education Model on One Elementary School in North Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffry Scott

    2011-01-01

    Keeping schools safe and productive is an increasing concern for educators everywhere. This research focused on how one elementary school in West Fargo, North Dakota, implemented a school wide discipline approach to help decrease negative student behaviors. The researcher compared and contrasted three different discipline models. The researcher…

  8. North Dakota University System Annual Financial Report, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota University System, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report provides financial data for the North Dakota University System (the "System") for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2007. The Management Discussion and Analysis; the Statement of Net Assets; the Statement of Revenues, Expenses, and Changes in Net Assets; and the Statement of Cash Flows provide information on the System as a whole and…

  9. Prevalence and incidence of sunflower downy mildew in North Dakota from 2001 to 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii) is an economic problem in sunflowers in North Dakota (ND), which historically produces about half the U.S. sunflower crop. From 2001 to 2011, the prevalence and incidence of downy mildew was monitored in ND as part of two large survey efforts, namely a m...

  10. Factors Associated with Expectations: North Dakota High School Seniors. Educational Research Series No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabick, Lawrence W.

    Questionnaires were completed on a single day (spring 1973) by high school seniors from 18 large and small, rural and urban, schools located throughout North Dakota in an effort to establish correlation between desired and expected occupations and expressed educational expectations. Tabular data supported previous studies which established…

  11. Burnout and Job Expectations of State Agency Rehabilitation Counselors in North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Kathleen D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-six North Dakota rehabilitation counselors were surveyed to examine the relationship between burnout and expectations about selected job factors. Results indicated that burnout is negatively related to current job expectations, and positively related to job expectations at the time of initial employment and to changes in expectations.…

  12. Projected Prevalence of Alzheimer's Disease among North Dakota's Elderly. Report Series No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goreham, Gary A.; Rathge, Richard W.

    This report on Alzheimer's disease in North Dakota discusses the heightened awareness of the disease and the shift in the age structure as two possible reasons for the increase in recognized incidences of the disease. It explains the three epidemiological indices commonly used to describe a population in the study of dementing illnesses:…

  13. 78 FR 27888 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of North Dakota; Interstate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... or disagree; suggest alternatives and substitute language for your requested changes. d. Describe any... (August 8, 2011, 76 FR 48208). CSAPR was intended to replace the earlier Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR.... North Dakota was entirely within the modeling domain for the air quality modeling analyses used in...

  14. North Dakota 1991 Close Up--A Legislative Insight. Participant Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Dept. of Public Instruction, Bismarck.

    This guide is designed for those who participate in North Dakota's Close Up program, a program that provides the state's young people with the opportunity to experience government firsthand in an innovative and participatory setting. The state's 1991 legislative program offers a broad range of activities for student participants, including:…

  15. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. North Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on North Dakota's college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  16. A Survey of the Music Integration Practices of North Dakota Elementary Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, KariJo; Dearden, Katherine Norman; West, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the nature of North Dakota elementary classroom teachers' (NDECT) music integration in the general classroom. The majority of NDECTs integrated music with: the subjects of Language Arts (62.01%), Mathematics (55.00%), and Physical Education (50.89%); the settings of Group Work Time (64.29%),…

  17. Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota Session, Volume 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derbyshire, Desmond C., Ed.

    Six papers resulting from the fieldwork projects of members of the Summer Institute of Linguistics program at the University of North Dakota include: "A Relational Grammar Approach to Kera Syntax" (Janet K. Camburn), a syntactic study of an Afroasiatic language; "Clitic Doubling and M-Chains in Piraha" (Dan Everett), examining the applicability of…

  18. Relationship between the natural abundance of soil nitrogen isotopes and condition in North Dakota wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    A statewide condition assessment of North Dakota wetlands in the summer of 2011 was conducted as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Wetland Condition Assessment (NWCA). Two other wetland condition assessments, the Index of Plant Community Integrity (IPCI...

  19. 75 FR 69435 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Water Treatment Rule and Stage 2 Disinfection By-Product Rule which correspond to the National Primary... AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of North Dakota AGENCY... 1413 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 42 U.S.C. 300g-2, and 40 CFR 142.13, public notice...

  20. Alcohol on College Campuses in North Dakota: Levels of Consumption, Gender, and Negative Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Lory M.

    2009-01-01

    It is common knowledge that many college students consume alcohol and/or binge drink. North Dakota colleges and universities are not immune to high levels of alcohol consumption, as they are among the leaders for binge drinking for people aged 18 to 25. Any number of reasons could explain this behavior, including new freedoms enjoyed by many 18 to…

  1. Inmigrants to the Northern Great Plains: Survey Results from Nebraska and North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leistritz, F. Larry; Cordes, Sam; Sell, Randall S.; Allen, John C.; Filkins, Rebecca

    2000-01-01

    A study of characteristics and motives of migrants to the Northern Great Plains surveyed 1,590 new residents in Nebraska and North Dakota. New arrivals were younger and had higher educational levels than existing residents. Most often cited reasons for moving were desire to be closer to relatives, safety concerns, and quality of the natural…

  2. The Roundtable on Higher Education: Creating a North Dakota University System for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Sharon; Etemad, Sharon; McCann, Joe; Thigpen, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the Roundtable on Higher Education, which brought together stakeholders of the North Dakota University System (NDUS) to establish a common vision, a clear set of expectations, and the results for which the system would be held accountable. Reports that the Roundtable reached a level of accomplishment beyond any expectations, and that the…

  3. Prevalence of Psychoactive Drug Use among North Dakota Group Home Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Larry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A survey of 809 persons with mental retardation residing in community settings in North Dakota found that 37 percent were using psychoactive medications. Excluding anticonvulsant medications, only 18 percent were receiving psychoactive medications. A total of 37 percent of the individuals receiving medications other than anticonvulsants did not…

  4. Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota Session, Volume 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, John P.; Daly, Margaret H.

    The working papers in this volume, written by staff and advanced students of the Summer Institute of Linguistics at the University of North Dakota, include the following: "The Antigone Constraint" (David Tuggy); "Clause Types in Southeastern Tepehuan" (Thomas L. Willett); "Sentence Components in Southeastern Tepehuan" (Thomas L. Willett); "Ethical…

  5. Breeding bird community colonization of sown stands of native grasses in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Arnold, T.W.; Barta, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Breeding passerine birds were studied in three native grass plantings of predominantly western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii) and green needlegrass (Stipa viridula) in south-central North Dakota during 1982-1984. A total of eight different species of passerines readily colonized this relatively new type of wildlife habitat during the second, third. and fourth growing seasons.

  6. Establishment and yield of perennial grass monocultures and binary mixtures for bioenergy in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop appropriate bioenergy production systems to match site-specific situations, establishment and yield were evaluated for switchgrass, intermediate wheatgrass, tall wheatgrass, and three binary mixtures at four sites in North Dakota from 2006 to 2011. Canopy cover at harvest for intermediat...

  7. Molecular and Immunohistochemical Detection of Assemblage E Giardia duodenalis in Scouring North Dakota Calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tissue and/or fecal samples were collected from scouring calves that were submitted to the North Dakota State University, Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. The samples were tested for presence of Giardia antigens using a SNAP Giardia-antigen test kit. To confirm a positive diagnosis, all Giardia-ant...

  8. Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics 1989, University of North Dakota Session, Volume 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, Robert A., Ed.; Bickford, J. Albert, Ed.

    The volume represents in microcosm the sort of faculty-trainee-student interaction that is a priority at the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) at the University of North Dakota. Seven studies by faculty and students of SIL include the following: "Lexical Variation in Mexican Sign Language" (J. Albert Bickford); "Reflexives in Veracruz Huastec"…

  9. A Feasibility Study for Mobile Marketing and Distribution Occupational Laboratories in North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohns, Donald P.

    A study determined the feasibility of a mobile laboratory for marketing and distribution in North Dakota. It attempted to answer four questions: (1) What types of staffing, equipment, curriculum, and delivery systems are presently being utilized in mobile laboratories throughout the nation? (2) What significant information obtained from mobile…

  10. An Investigation of North Dakota's Special Education Commerical Curriculum Material: No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Drew; Hartman, Donna

    Questionnaires completed by 126 instructors of handicapped students in North Dakota were analyzed to examine the use of curriculum materials in special education. Teachers were asked to list at least 10 curriculum materials presently used by the students. Of the 536 materials named, 255 were classified through the use of the Annehurst Curriculum…

  11. Development Priorities in the West River Region, North Dakota: A Social Attitude and Communication Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowes, John E.; Stamm, Keith R.

    Presenting a descriptive and prescriptive analysis of the social variables important to planning and informed public participation in the development of the West River Diversion Project in North Dakota (WRDP), this report is organized via the following sections: (1) Knowledge and Evaluation of the Project (How aware are people of the WRDP and its…

  12. North Dakota Industrial Arts Teachers Handbook. Energy/Power Curriculum Guide, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugan, Don

    This handbook provides teachers with support material to more fully implement the North Dakota Energy and Power Curriculum Guide, Level I. It first presents the body of knowledge for Energy/Power Technology as taken from the curriculum guide. The guide is then addressed unit by unit, topic by topic. These seven units are covered: Energy/Power…

  13. Model Store Curriculum. A Developmental Model for North Dakota Schools. Final Report. Research Series No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goschen, Todd; Warcup, Dennis

    The final report evaluates the activities of the first nine weeks of a project designed to develop a curriculum guide for a school-model store at a North Dakota high school. The program combines the favorable aspects of both the school store and the model store, providing "live" experiences as well as simulated ones. The Distributive Education One…

  14. 76 FR 44027 - North Dakota; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency North Dakota; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice amends...

  15. 76 FR 60514 - North Dakota; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency North Dakota; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice amends...

  16. Geology and ground water resources of Burleigh County, North Dakota: Part 1 - geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kume, Jack; Hansen, Dan E.

    1965-01-01

    Burleigh County in south-central North Dakota lies within the Missouri River Trench, Coteau Slope, and Missouri Coteau physiographic districts of the Glaciated Missouri Plateau section. Subdivisions of the Coteau Slope in Burleigh County are the Burnt Creek, Badger Creek Uplands, Lake McKenzie Basin, Long Lake, Apple Creek Uplands, Long Lake Basin, and Painted Woods Creek subdistricts.

  17. 76 FR 60777 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Dakota; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... visibility in other states. See 76 FR 58570. To accommodate the Governor of North Dakota's request submitted... at the public hearings. Verbatim transcripts, in English, of the hearings and written statements will be included in the rulemaking docket. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental...

  18. Long term contracts, expansion, innovation and stability: North Dakota's lignite mines thrive

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-08-15

    North Dakota's lignite coal industry is mainly located in three countries in the central part of the state. Its large surface lignite mines are tied through long-term (20-40 years) contracts to power plants. The article talks about operations at three of the most productive mines - the Freedom mine, Falkirk mine and Center Mine. 4 figs.

  19. Contributions of the Conservation Reserve Program to populations of breeding birds in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.; Igl, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that habitat provided by the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), a feature of the 1985 farm bill, is used by many birds. The present study quantitatively assesses the importance of the CRP by estimating changes in breeding-bird populations of North Dakota projected if CRP land would revert to cultivation. Of 18 species that were common in CRP or crop fields or both, 12 were more abundant in CRP habitats. Six of these species had suffered significant population declines during 1967-1990, according to the North American Breeding Bird Survey. In contrast, none of the six species that were more common in cropland than in CRP fields had declined significantly. Termination of the Conservation Reserve Program and a return of enrolled land to cultivation is projected to cause population declines in North Dakota exceeding 17% for Sedge wren (Cistothorus platensis), Grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), Dickcissel (Spiza americana), and Lark Bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys).

  20. Depositional model for Rival and Midale subintervals (Mississippian), north-central Burke County, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, T.L.

    1988-07-01

    The Rival and Midale subintervals (Charles Formation, Upper Mississippian), north-central Burke County, North Dakota, represent two relative sea level fluctuations. Updip (northeast), the Rival subinterval contains fine to medium-bedded and chicken-wire anhydrite with interbedded algal bindstone that was deposited on supratidal flats. Basinward (southwest), the lithology changes to oncolitic, peloidal, intraclastic grainstone/packstone that was deposited in intertidal and subtidal restricted lagoonal environments. Evaporites precipitated in the sediment of the intertidal to shallow subtidal restricted lagoonal environment. Overlying the Rival subinterval is skeletal wackestone and packstone of the lower Midale subinterval. The presence of normal-marine fauna (crinoids, brachiopods, trilobites, rugose and tabulate coral) indicates a significant relative sea level transgression occurred following deposition of the Rival. The middle and upper Midale subinterval consists of intensely burrowed dolowackestone and dolomudstone that contain a less diversified faunal assemblage. Overlying the Midale carbonates is a transitional zone of calcareous shale and dolomite that grades upward into mottled (burrowed.) and finely laminated microgranular dolomite and anhydrite. The upper Midale section represents a relative sea level regression (shoreline progradation). Updip (northeast) reservoirs produce from the Midale carbonates, which are sealed laterally and vertically by calcarous shale and microgranular dolomitic anhydrite of the Midale Evaporite. Downdip (southwest), the Rival produces from porous grainstone, which is sealed laterally by intertidal/supratidal carbonates and evaporites, resulting in a stratigraphic trap. Vuggy and intergranular porosity are the major porosity types in the Rival grainstone, and moldic and intercrystalline porosity are dominant in the Midale dolowackestone.

  1. Reasons Why Students Did Not Complete Two-Year Post-Secondary Farm Management Programs in North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Lyle B.; Luft, Vernon D.

    1982-01-01

    This research study identifies major reasons that caused students enrolled in two-year postsecondary farm management programs, at five postsecondary institutions in North Dakota, not to complete the prescribed course of study in which they were enrolled. (SSH)

  2. A probable extralimital postbreeding assembly of bufflehead Bucephala albeola in southcentral North Dakota, USA, 1994-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    The Bufflehead Bucephala albeola predominantly in Canada and Alaska (USA). Evidence suggests that the species may have recently expanded its breeding range southward into central and south-central North Dakota. This paper presents data on observations of Buffleheads during the breeding season in Kidder County, North Dakota, 1994-2002, and discusses the possibility that the species has not expanded its breeding range but rather has established an extralimital post-breeding staging area south of its typical breeding range.

  3. Crustal structure of North Dakota from joint inversion of surface wave dispersion and teleseismic P-wave reciever functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Braden Michael

    Studying and determining crustal structure of the Earth is important for understanding the interior of the Earth. Using methods like receiver functions and surface wave dispersion allows the determination of differences in structure and composition through the crust. Jointly inverting receiver functions and surface wave dispersion reduces the error and over-interpretation of the crustal structure estimation. Receiver functions and surface wave dispersion invert well together because receiver functions are very sensitive to velocity contrasts and vertical travel times, and surface wave dispersion is sensitive to average velocity and insensitive to sharp velocity contrasts. By jointly inverting receiver functions and surface wave dispersion, shear wave velocity profiles can be created to determine the properties of the crustal structure and velocity contrasts. With the use of IRIS Transportable Array stations data throughout the United States, this thesis takes a closer look at the crustal structure of North Dakota through the joint inversion of surface wave dispersion and teleseismic P-wave receiver functions. The receiver functions in North Dakota show shallow sediment effects that affect the joint inversion process. In western North Dakota the Williston basin and in eastern North Dakota the Red River Valley cause ringing effects in the receiver functions. The shallow sediments in North Dakota control and overpower the rest of the crustal signal in the receiver functions, and thus affect the ability of determining the crustal shear wave velocity structure of North Dakota through the joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion, thus the use of background geology is necessary.

  4. An evaluation of hydrothermal resources of North Dakota. Phase 1, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Kenneth L.; Winczewski, Laramie M.; Umphrey, Howard R.; Anderson, Sidney B.

    1980-04-01

    The object of this study is to evaluate the hydrothermal resources of North Dakota. This evaluation is based on an analysis of existing data on file with the North Dakota Geological Survey (N.D.G.S.) and other state and federal agencies. The principle source of data used during phase I was the oil and gas well files maintained by the N.D.G.S. These files contain the information necessary to conduct an initial evaluation of the hydro-thermal resources of the state. Stratigraphic data, bottomhole-temperature data, and chemical data are presented in map form to show the geothermal gradient, temperature, and depth of potential hydrothermal aquifers and the chemical characteristics of potential hydrothermal aquifers.

  5. Characterization of Gas Flaring in North Dakota using the Satellite Data Product, VIIRS Nightfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baugh, K.

    2015-12-01

    Oil production in the North Dakota, USA Bakken Formation has increased dramatically over the last decade. The natural gas associated with this oil production is typically burned off, or flared, if there does not exist infrastructure to transport the natural gas to market. This flaring activity can be characterized using the satellite Nightfire data product, generated at NOAA NCEI. Nightfire uses nighttime data from the infrared bands of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument, onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) platform, and identifies hotspots at the time of overpass. In addition, Nightfire gives estimates of the temperature, size, and radiant heat of the hotspots. This presentation will show the spatial and temporal distribution of gas flaring in North Dakota from 2012-2015. In addition, a summary of calibration work to estimate flared gas volumes from Nightfire detections will be presented.

  6. Proceedings of the third workshop on the energy development board of Mercer County, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    1980-03-01

    Two earlier workshops concerned with managing growth in Mercer County, North Dakota focused on the activities of the Energy Development Board (EDB) and were held in 1977 and 1978, respectively. This third workshop, Energy Development in Rural Areas - Local Implementation of National Priorities addresses the transferability of the EDB as an organization approach for managing energy-related rapid growth; the potential for developing integrated energy resource conservation/economic plans in rural energy development areas; and Federal policy and initiatives regarding energy-impact assistance. Panel discussions on these subjects were conducted and the comments are presented. The introductory address by Wayne Sanstead, Lt. Gov. of North Dakota and the keynote address by Edward Helminski, White House Management Task Force on Energy Shortages, are included.

  7. Evaluation of hydrothermal resources of North Dakota. Phase II. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, K.L.; Howell, F.L.; Winczewski, L.M.; Wartman, B.L.; Umphrey, H.R.; Anderson, S.B.

    1981-06-01

    This evaluation of the hydrothermal resources of North Dakota is based on existing data on file with the North Dakota Geological Survey (NDGS) and other state and federal agencies, and field and laboratory studies conducted. The principal sources of data used during the Phase II study were WELLFILE, the computer library of oil and gas well data developed during the Phase I study, and WATERCAT, a computer library system of water well data assembled during the Phase II study. A field survey of the shallow geothermal gradients present in selected groundwater observation holes was conducted. Laboratory determinations of the thermal conductivity of core samples is being done to facilitate heat-flow calculations on those hole-of-convenience cased.

  8. Techniques for estimating peak-flow frequency relations for North Dakota streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    1992-01-01

    This report presents techniques for estimating peak-flow frequency relations for North Dakota streams. In addition, a generalized skew coefficient analysis was completed for North Dakota to test the validity of using the generalized skew coefficient map in Bulletin 17B of the Hydrology Subcommittee of the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data, 1982, 'Guidelines for Determining Flood Flow Frequency.' The analysis indicates that the generalized skew coefficient map in Bulletin 17B provides accurate estimates of generalized skew coefficient values for natural-flow streams in North Dakota. Peak-flow records through 1988 for 192 continuous- and partial-record streamflow gaging stations that had 10 or more years of record were used in a generalized least-squares regression analysis that relates peak flows for selected recurrence intervals to selected basin characteristics. Peak-flow equations were developed for recurrence intervals of 2, 10, 15, 25, 50, 100, and 500 years for three hydrologic regions in North Dakota. The peak-flow equations are applicable to natural-flow streams that have drainage areas of less than or equal to 1,000 square miles. The standard error of estimate for the three hydrologic regions ranges from 60 to 70 percent for the 100-year peak-flow equations. Methods are presented for transferring peak-flow data from gaging stations to ungaged sites on the same stream and for determining peak flows for ungaged sites on ungaged streams. Peak-flow relations, weighted estimates of peak flow, and selected basin characteristics are tabulated for the 192 gaging stations used in the generalized skew coefficient and regression analyses. Peak-flow relations also are provided for 63 additional gaging stations that were not used in the generalized skew coefficient and regression analyses. These 63 gaging stations generally represent streams that are significantly controlled by regulation and those that have drainage areas greater than 1,000 square miles.

  9. A decoy trap for breeding-season mallards in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, D.E.; Lokemoen, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    A modified decoy trap was effective for capturing wild adult male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) during the 1980-81 breeding seasons in North Dakota. Key features contributing to the trap's success included a central decoy cylinder, large capture compartments with spring-door openings, an adjustable trigger mechanism with a balanced door attachment that was resistant to trap movement, and the use of F1, wild-stock or game-farm female decoys.

  10. Water-resources activities, North Dakota District, fiscal year 1994-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Cathy R.

    1995-01-01

    The report "Water-Resources Activities, North Dakota District, Fiscal Year 1994-95," was prepared to inform interested Federal, State, and local agencies and private individuals of the activities of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, in the State. Information on each project includes objectives, approach, progress, plans for fiscal year 1995, completed and planned report products, and the name of the project chief.

  11. Climatic data for the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturrock, A.M.; Hanson, B.A.; Scarborough, J.L.; Winter, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, includes study of evaporation. Presented here are those climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies, including: water-surface temperature, sediment temperature dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperatures, vapor pressure at and above the water surface, wind speed, and short- and long-wave radiation. Data were collected at raft and land stations. (USGS)

  12. Climatic data for the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturrock, A.M.; Hanson, B.A.; Scarborough, J.L.; Winter, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, includes study of evaporation. Climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies that were collected during 1983 include water-surface temperature, sediment temperature, dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperature, vapor pressure at and above the water surface, wind speed, and short-and long-wave radiation. Data are collected at raft and land stations. (USGS)

  13. 40 CFR 272.1751 - North Dakota State-administered program: Final authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... August 24, 1990, July 6, 1992, June 6, 1994, March 20, 2000, November 25, 2005, and April 14, 2008. (b...); 33-24-07-03.4; 33-24-07-04 through 33-24-07-14; and 33-24-07-25 through 33-24-07-27. (3) The... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies of the North Dakota statutes...

  14. 40 CFR 272.1751 - North Dakota State-administered program: Final authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... August 24, 1990, July 6, 1992, June 6, 1994, March 20, 2000, November 25, 2005, and April 14, 2008. (b...); 33-24-07-03.4; 33-24-07-04 through 33-24-07-14; and 33-24-07-25 through 33-24-07-27. (3) The... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies of the North Dakota statutes...

  15. 40 CFR 272.1751 - North Dakota State-administered program: Final authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... August 24, 1990, July 6, 1992, June 6, 1994, March 20, 2000, November 25, 2005, and April 14, 2008. (b...); 33-24-07-03.4; 33-24-07-04 through 33-24-07-14; and 33-24-07-25 through 33-24-07-27. (3) The... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies of the North Dakota statutes...

  16. 77 FR 12582 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ...In accordance with the provisions of section 1413 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 42 U.S.C. 300g-2, and 40 CFR 142.13, public notice is hereby given that the state of North Dakota has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program by adopting federal regulations for the Lead/Copper Rule Short-Term Regulatory Revisions and Clarifications and the Public Notice Rule that......

  17. Casino gambling among older adults in North Dakota: a policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Bjelde, Kristine; Chromy, Barbara; Pankow, Debra

    2008-12-01

    This article examined social issues surrounding casino gambling among older adults both nationally and in the state of North Dakota. An exploratory review of gambling trends among older adults and an examination of policies to protect older gamblers revealed that older adults are targeted by the gaming industry as a lucrative market (Singh et al. J Retail Leisure Property 2007, 6(1):61-68). The authors used the national literature to frame their qualitative study, which explored gambling issues among older adults in North Dakota from the perspective of six counselors trained in gambling addiction who provide treatment services in the state. Findings indicated that relatively few policies existed at the state and national levels to protect older, more vulnerable adults who gamble. Further, the six casinos in North Dakota were viewed as very effective in marketing their casino gaming opportunities to older citizens by the gambling treatment providers interviewed. Additionally, barriers to gambling addiction treatment involved lack of available services and distance to receive services in this rural state. Based on the findings of this study, social policy changes which could lead to increased protection for older adult gamblers in the state were included.

  18. Flight feather molt in Yellow-headed Blackbirds (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Linz, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Yellow-headed Blackbirds (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) in central North Dakota undergo prebasic molt or prejuvenile molt during late summer. Nestling Yellow-headed Blackbirds initiate a complete prejuvenile molt, grow their primary and secondary regimes in about 40 days, completing molt after they leave the nest by the first week in August. Remiges are not replaced during the subsequent preformative molt, being retained until the second prebasic molt. Nonlinear (logistic) regression of primary remex growth during definitive prebasic molts of Yellow-headed Blackbirds indicated 38 days were required to complete the linear phase of growth (between 10% and 90% of total primary length). Males added 19.5 mm/d and females added 15.7 mm/d to the total length of all primaries during this linear growth phase; an average of 4–5 mm per primary remex per day. Definitive prebasic molting of primary remiges in males and females was initiated in late June, after nesting and brood rearing were completed. Molts of Yellow-headed Blackbirds were completed by early September, before birds emigrated from North Dakota during mid-September. Because of their comparatively early completion of molt and emigration from the state, as well as their more diverse diet, agricultural depredation caused by Yellow-headed Blackbirds in North Dakota is likely less than that of Red-winged Blackbirds and Common Grackles.

  19. First report of Jefferson's ground sloth (Megalonyx jeffersonii) in North Dakota: Paleobiogeographical and paleoecological significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoganson, J.W.; McDonald, H. Gregory

    2007-01-01

    A well-preserved ungual of a pes documents the presence of Jefferson's ground sloth (Megalonyx jeffersonii) at the end of the Wisconsinan in North Dakota. This is the 1st report of M. jeffersonii in North Dakota, and one of few records from the upper Great Plains. An accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon age of 11,915 ?? 40 years ago was obtained from the specimen, suggesting that the sloth resided in North Dakota during the Rancholabrean Land Mammal Age, just before extinction of the species. Palynological records from sites near the sloth occurrence and of the same age indicate that it resided in a cool, moist, spruce-dominated forest habitat in a riparian setting along the Missouri River. Its presence in that setting corroborates the notion that Jefferson's ground sloth was a browsing inhabitant of gallery forests associated with rivers. It is likely that M. jeffersonii used river valleys, such as the Missouri River valley, as migration routes. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

  20. Avian use of Sheyenne Lake and associated habitats in central North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faanes, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    A study of avian use of various habitats was conducted in the Sheyenne Lake region of central North Dakota during April-June 1980. Population counts of birds were made in wetlands of various classes, prairie thickets, upland native prairie, shelterbelts, and cropland. About 22,000 breeding bird pairs including 92 species that nested occupied the area. Population means for most species were equal to or greater than statewide means. Red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), yellow-headed blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus), mourning dove (Zenaida macroura), and blue-winged teal (Anas discors) were the most numerous species, and made up 32.9% of the total population . Highest densities of breeding birds occurred in shelterbelts, semipermanent wetlands, and prairie thickets. Lowest densities occurred in upland native prairie and cropland. The study area was used by 49.6% of the total avifauna of the State, and 51% of the breeding avifauna of North Dakota probably nested in the study area. The diversity of birds using the area was unusual in that such a large number of species occupied a relatively small area. The close interspersion of many native habitats, several of which are unique in North Dakota, probably accounted for this diversity. Data on dates of occurrence, nesting records, and habitat use are presented for the 175 species recorded in 1980. Observations of significance by refuge staff are also provided.

  1. Gas desorption and adsorption isotherm studies of coals in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and adjacent basins in Wyoming and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stricker, Gary D.; Flores, Romeo M.; McGarry, Dwain E.; Stillwell, Dean P.; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Stillwell, Cathy R.; Ochs, Alan M.; Ellis, Margaret S.; Osvald, Karl S.; Taylor, Sharon L.; Thorvaldson, Marjorie C.; Trippi, Michael H.; Grose, Sherry D.; Crockett, Fred J.; Shariff, Asghar J.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the State Office, Reservoir Management Group (RMG), of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Casper (Wyoming), investigated the coalbed methane resources (CBM) in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, from 1999 to the present. Beginning in late 1999, the study also included the Williston Basin in Montana and North and South Dakota and Green River Basin and Big Horn Basin in Wyoming. The rapid development of CBM (referred to as coalbed natural gas by the BLM) during the early 1990s, and the lack of sufficient data for the BLM to fully assess and manage the resource in the Powder River Basin, in particular, gave impetus to the cooperative program. An integral part of the joint USGS-BLM project was the participation of 25 gas operators that entered individually into confidential agreements with the USGS, and whose cooperation was essential to the study. The arrangements were for the gas operators to drill and core coal-bed reservoirs at their cost, and for the USGS and BLM personnel to then desorb, analyze, and interpret the coal data with joint funding by the two agencies. Upon completion of analyses by the USGS, the data were to be shared with both the BLM and the gas operator that supplied the core, and then to be released or published 1 yr after the report was submitted to the operator.

  2. Upper cretaceous microbial petroleum systems in north-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lillis, Paul G.

    2007-01-01

    Methanogenesis began soon after the deposition (early-stage methanogenesis) of the Cenomanian to Campanian source sediments, and was either sustained or rejuvenated by episodic meteoric water influx until sometime in the Paleogene. Methanogenesis probably continued until CO2 and hydrogen were depleted or the pore size was compacted to below tolerance levels of the methanogens. The composition of the Montana and Colorado Group gases and coproduced formation water precludes a scenario of late-stage methanogenesis like the Antrim gas system in the Michigan basin. Some portion of the methane charge was originally dissolved in the pore waters, and subsequent reduction in hydrostatic pressure caused the methane to exsolve and migrate into local stratigraphic and structural traps. The critical moment of the microbial gas systems is this timing of exsolution rather than the time of generation (methanogenesis). Other studies suggest that the reduction in hydrostatic pressure may have been caused by multiple geologic events including the lowering of sea level in the Late Cretaceous, and subsequent uplift and erosion events, the youngest of which began about 5 Ma.

  3. Study of the geothermal production potential in the Williston Basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Min H.

    1991-09-10

    Preliminary studies of geothermal production potential for the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin have been carried out. Reservoir data such as formation depth, subsurface temperatures, and water quality were reviewed for geothermal brine production predictions. This study, in addition, provides important information about net pay thickness, porosity, volume of geothermal water available, and productivity index for future geothermal direct-use development. Preliminary results show that the Inyan Kara Formation of the Dakota Group is the most favorable geothermal resource in terms of water quality and productivity. The Madison, Duperow, and Red River Formations are deeper formations but because of their low permeability and great depth, the potential flow rates from these three formations are considerably less than those of the Inyan Kara Formation. Also, poor water quality and low porosity will make those formations less favorable for geothermal direct-use development.

  4. 78 FR 33052 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 267-Fargo, North Dakota; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... Production Activity; CNH America, LLC (Construction and Agricultural Equipment Production); Fargo, North... production activity to the FTZ Board on behalf of CNH America, LLC (CNH), located in Fargo, North Dakota. The.... Production under FTZ procedures could exempt CNH from customs duty payments on the foreign status...

  5. Agro-climatic and land suitability mapping for switchgrass grown as a bioenergy crop in North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, Navin

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L), a native warm-season perennial grass, grows in Central and North American tall-grass prairie. The plant is immense biomass producer and can reach heights up to three meters or more in wet areas. Its high lignocellulosic content makes switchgrass an appropriate candidate for bio-ethanol production. Annual crops, used for bioenergy production such as corn, soybeans, often results in loss of soil organic matter and release of soil carbon, whereas perennial crops like switchgrass can help build soil organic matter and store more soil carbon due to the large amount of underground biomass they produce. North Dakota has been identified as a potential area for perennial switchgrass biomass production for bioenergy purpose. Switchgrass is a C4 grass that has the potential as feedstock for a cellulosic based biofuels industry in the Northern Great Plains. The objective of the present study is to conduct a GIS and Remote Sensing-based land suitability evaluation for switchgrass production in North Dakota. The process involved spatial analysis of several physiographical data including climate, soil and land use. Land suitability for switchgrass was determined as a function of agro-climatic factors governing switchgrass establishment, potential biomass yield, and long term land use practice in North Dakota. The outputs of the analysis were agro-climatic establishment risk map, switchgrass yield potential map and temporal land use variation map in North Dakota. A switchgrass suitability map was the final outcome of the analysis which was a weighted composite overlay of the analyzed factors governing switchgrass production. The suitability map showed relative land suitability for switchgrass production in North Dakota without competing with local agriculture or negatively impacting permanent grassland. The study will be helpful for users or decision makers in planning switchgrass biomass feedstock production and policy development governing

  6. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the upper Minnesota River basin, west-central Minnesota, northeastern South Dakota and southeastern North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanocki, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Data that describe the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected points on streams in the Upper Minnesota River Basin, located in west-central Minnesota, north-eastern South Dakota, and southeastern North Dakota, are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both laker and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. The points on the stream include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outlets of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, highflow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  7. Avian use of forest habitats in the Pembina Hills of northeastern North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faanes, C.A.; Andrew, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    North Dakota has the least extensive total area of forested habitats of any of the 50 United States. Although occurring in limited area, forest communities add considerably to the total ecological diversity of the State. The forests of the Pembina Hills region in northeastern North Dakota are one of only three areas large enough to be considered of commercial value. During 1981 we studied the avifauna of the upper valley of the Pembina River in the Pembina Hills. Field work extended from 20 April to 23 July; breeding bird censuses were conducted 7 June to 2 July. Of the 120 bird species recorded during the study period, 79 species were recorded during the breeding season. The total breeding population was estimated at nearly 76,000 breeding pairs. The wood warblers (Parulidae) were the most numerous family, accounting for about 28,000 breeding pairs. The yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia) was the most abundant breeding species, making up 19.4% of the population. American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) was second in abundance, accounting for 10.5% of the breeding population. Largest breeding densities occurred in the willow (Salix sp.) shrub community. Although supporting the lowest mean breeding density, quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) forests supported the highest species diversity. First State breeding records were recorded for alder flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum) and golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera). Records were obtained for 12 species considered rare or unusual in North Dakota during the breeding season. The status of all species known to have occurred in the study area is described in an annotated species list.

  8. River Gain and Loss Studies for the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2004-01-01

    The Dakota Water Resources Act passed by the U.S. Congress in 2000 authorized the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a comprehensive study of future water-quantity and -quality needs of the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin in North Dakota and of possible options to meet those water needs. To obtain the river gain and loss information needed to properly account for available streamflow within the basin, available river gain and loss studies for the Sheyenne, Turtle, Forest, and Park Rivers in North Dakota and the Wild Rice, Sand Hill, Clearwater, South Branch Buffalo, and Otter Tail Rivers in Minnesota were reviewed. Ground-water discharges for the Sheyenne River in a reach between Lisbon and Kindred, N. Dak., were about 28.8 cubic feet per second in 1963 and about 45.0 cubic feet per second in 1986. Estimated monthly net evaporation losses for additional flows to the Sheyenne River from the Missouri River ranged from 1.4 cubic feet per second in 1963 to 51.0 cubic feet per second in 1976. Maximum water losses for a reach between Harvey and West Fargo, N. Dak., for 1956-96 ranged from about 161 cubic feet per second for 1976 to about 248 cubic feet per second for 1977. Streamflow gains of 1 to 1.5 cubic feet per second per mile were estimated for the Wild Rice, Sand Hill, and Clearwater Rivers in Minnesota. The average ground-water discharge for a 5.2-mile reach of the Otter Tail River in Minnesota was about 14.1 cubic feet per second in August 1994. The same reach lost about 14.1 cubic feet per second between February 1994 and June 1994 and about 21.2 cubic feet per second between August 1994 and August 1995.

  9. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, New Rockford Quadrangle, North Dakota. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    An airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey was conducted over eleven (11) 2/sup 0/ x 1/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2/sup 0/ x 1/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. The quadrangles located within the North and South Dakota survey area include Devil's Lake, New Rockford, Jamestown, Aberdeen, Huron, Mitchell, and Sioux Falls. This report discusses the results obtained over the New Rockford map area. Traverse lines were flown in an east-west direction at a line spacing of six (6) miles. Tie lines were flown north-south approximately twenty-four (24) miles apart. A total of 21,481 line miles of geophysical data were acquired, compiled, and interpreted during the survey, of which 1397 line miles are in this quadrangle. The purpose of this study is to acquire and compile geologic and other information with which to assess the magnitude and distribution of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States.

  10. A temporal/spectral analysis of small grain crops and confusion crops. [North Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Spectral data from the LANDSAT-2 satellite were used to study the growth cycles of fields of wheat, barley, alfalfa, corn, sunflowers, soybeans, rye, flax, oats, millet, grass, and hay. Signatures of pastures, trees, and idle fallow were also studied. The growth cycles were portrayed in the form of temporal plots of the greeness-brightness transformation vector applied to average channel pixel values within the fields, all of which were in three counties in North Dakota. The plots of each crop reveal characteristics which can be used in crop classification procedures.

  11. Composition and stability of coyote families and territories in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, S.H.; Hastings, J.O.; Kohn, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Coyote (Canis latrans) families studied in North Dakota during 1976 to 1978 contained three or more adults during the spring-summer season, and they occupied large contiguous, non-overlapping territories. Coyote territories averaged 61 km2 during the spring-summer season and 30 km2 during fall-winter season. Three of four families occupied territories that were similar in size for two consecutive years; however, boundaries changed within individual families when one or both alpha adults were killed. All coyotes replacing dead alpha adults were 1 year old.

  12. Contaminant levels in eggs of American white pelicans, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, from Chase Lake, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, Pamela J.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Johnson, Kevin M.

    2008-01-01

    American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) are colonial nesters, making them susceptible to site-specific mortality factors. One of the largest known breeding colonies is at Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge in North Dakota. In 2004, this colony suffered total reproductive failure. In 2005, we collected abandoned eggs from this colony to test for environmental contaminants. Nine eggs were analyzed for 28 organochlorine pesticides, total polychlorinated biphenyls, and 26 inorganic elements. Based on concentrations in this sample of eggs and levels linked to reproductive problems in birds, adult pelicans in the Chase Lake breeding colony are not at known risk from any of the environmental contaminants we measured.

  13. Inventory and analyses of information for flood plain management in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, D.G.; Wald, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Governmental units that have been identified as having flood hazard areas but do not have detailed base flood information are required to use the ' best available data ' to regulate new development or expansion of existing development in flood prone areas. Information for flood plain management has been identified for 95 governmental units in North Dakota and includes the determination of what data are available regarding flood hazards, hydraulics, and hydrology, and a review of these data to determine their adequacy for use in flood plain management. (USGS)

  14. Feasibility of establishing a 100-ton per day sunflower seed crushing plant at Clifford, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    Considerable interest is currently being shown in the concept of local processing of agricultural products. The production of sunflowers in North Dakota has shown tremendous growth over the past years. Cash receipts from sunflowers have made it the second most important cash crop in the state. It is felt that the plant can be justified as an energy producing facility. A sunflower crushing plant has to be feasible when competing as a producer of oil within traditional markets. The use of the oil as a source of energy is to be considered as an intangible benefit to the community, if sunflower oil is found to be an acceptable fuel.

  15. Water storage capacity of natural wetland depressions in the Devils Lake basin of North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludden, A.P.; Frink, D.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    Photogrammetric mapping techniques were used to derive the water storage capacities of natural wetland depressions other than lakes in the Devils Lake Basin of North Dakota. Results from sample quarter-section areas were expanded to the entire basin. Depressions in the Devils Lake Basin have a maximum storage capacity of nearly 811,000 cubic dekameters (657,000 acre-feet). The depressions store about 72 percent of the total runoff volume from a 2-year-frequency runoff and about 41 percent of the total runoff volume from a 100-year-frequency runoff.

  16. Streamflow statistics for selected streams in North Dakota, Minnesota, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Statistical summaries of streamflow data for the periods of record through water year 2009 for selected active and discontinued U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in North Dakota, Minnesota, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan were compiled. The summaries for each streamflow-gaging station include a brief station description, a graph of the annual peak and annual mean discharge for the period of record, statistics of monthly and annual mean discharges, monthly and annual flow durations, probability of occurrence of annual high discharges, annual peak discharge and corresponding gage height for the period of record, and monthly and annual mean discharges for the period of record.

  17. Morphometric changes in Yellow-headed Blackbirds during summer in central North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Linz, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Temporal stability of morphometric measurements is desirable when using avian morphology as a predictor of geographic origin. Therefore, to assess their temporal stability, we examined changes in morphology of Yellow-headed Blackbirds (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) from central North Dakota during summer. Measurements differed among age classes and between sexes. As expected, due to growth and maturation, measurements on hatching-year birds increased over summer. Measurements of adult plumage fluctuated with prebasic molt and exhibited age-specific discontinuities. Body mass of adult birds increased over summer, whereas both culmen length and skull length decreased. Only body length and length of internal skeletal elements were temporally stable in adult Yellow-headed Blackbirds.

  18. University of North Dakota citation FIRE Cirrus 2 mission summary and data report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poellot, Michael R.; Henderson, Brian

    1994-01-01

    The following document represents a summary overview of the data collected by the University of North Dakota Citation research aircraft during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Cirrus IFO-2. The purpose of this report is to provide a quick-look summary of select parameters to FIRE investigators to assist in the use of this data set. The full data set resides in the FIRE archive. The data presented in this report should be considered preliminary and should not be used for reproduction.

  19. Estimation of Monthly Evaporation from Lake Ashtabula in North Dakota, Orwell Lake in Minnesota, and Lake Traverse in Minnesota and South Dakota, 1931-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.

    2003-01-01

    Reservoirs on tributaries of the Red River of the North provide water for Fargo and Grand Forks, N. Dak., and other cities along the river. Adequate estimates of evaporative losses from the reservoirs are needed to determine the total water supply in the Basin. Many equations could be used to estimate lake or reservoir evaporation. However, in addition to measurements of air temperature, the equations require measurements of net radiation, wind speed, and relative humidity. Evaporation and air temperature data from energy budget evaporation sites at Wetland P1 in North Dakota and at Williams Lake in Minnesota are available. Air temperature data collected from climate stations near Lake Ashtabula in North Dakota, from Orwell Lake in Minnesota, and from Lake Traverse in Minnesota and South Dakota also are available. Therefore, the combined data sets were used to estimate monthly evaporation from Lake Ashtabula, Orwell Lake, and Lake Traverse. Averaged monthly mean air temperatures determined for each reservoir study site were used to calculate monthly evaporation data sets for 1931-2001. Results from the procedure that estimates reservoir evaporation indicate that slight downward trends in annual evaporation occurred from 1931-2001. The trends may have been caused by the selected time period of the study, which began with the drought conditions in the mid 1930's and ended with the more wet conditions in the late 1990's. Average annual evaporation values for each reservoir for 1931-2001 correspond well with published average annual lake evaporation values for 1946-55.

  20. Madison Group (Mississippian) reservoir facies of Williston Basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, R.F.

    1985-02-01

    Twenty-seven oil fields producing from the Mission Canyon Limestone and Charles Formation (Madison Group) were studied: 1) along the eastern basin margin (Bluell, Sherwood, Mohall, Glenburn, Haas, and Chola fields), 2) northeast of Nesson anticline (Foothills, North Black Slough, South Black Slough, Rival, Lignite, and Flaxton), 3) along Nesson anticline (North Tioga, Tioga, Beaver Lodge, Capa, Hoffland, Charlson, Hawkeye, Blue Buttes, Antelope, and Clear Creek), and 4) south of the basin center (Lone Butte, Little Knife, Big Stick, Fryburg, and Medora). Mission Canyon reservoirs along the eastern margin are in several shoaling-upward carbonate to anhydrite cycles of pisolitic packstone or grainstone buildups. South of the basin center, only a single shoaling-upward sequence is present, with dolomitized, mostly restructed-marine skeletal wackstone to pelletal wackstone or packstone reservoir facies. Nesson anticline, between these 2 areas, contains a single shoaling-upward sequence without an anhydrite cap. In northern Nesson anticline, Mission Canyon reservoir facies are oolitic-pisolitic, intraclastic wackestone or grainstone buildups or open-marine skeletal packstone or grainstone. Both limestones and dolostones are productive in southern Nesson anticline. Limestone reservoir facies are transitional, open to restricted-marine slightly intraclastic, skeletal wackestone or packstone facies. Dolostone reservoir facies are restricted-marine mudstone to skeletal mudstone and pelletal wackestone or packstone. Northeast of the Nesson anticline, production is from oolitic to pisolitic packstone or grainstone buildups in the Rival subinterval and from restricted-marine, dolomitized spiculitic mudstone in the Midale subinterval (base of Charles Formation). In the northern Nesson anticline, Rival reservoir facies are offshore open to restricted-marine, skeletal, intraclastic, pelletal wackestone and/or packstones.

  1. The Rural School Building in North Central and Northwestern North Dakota: A Brief Description. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Mary C.

    The time period and the pioneer conditions that existed when north central and northwestern North Dakota were settled determined the type of rural schools that were established there. Those areas were settled between 1885 and 1910. Most of the settlers in that area of the state were of Scandinavian (particularly Norwegian) extraction. The vast…

  2. Comparison of CRD, APU, and state models for Iowa corn and soybeans and North Dakota barley and spring wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, V.

    1983-01-01

    A comparison was made among the CEAS crop reporting district (CRD), agrophysical unit (APU), and state level multiple regression yield models for corn and soybeans in Iowa and barley and spring wheat in North Dakota. The best predictions were made by the state model for North Dakota spring wheat, by the APU models for barley, by the CRD models for Iowa soybeans, and by APU covariance models for Iowa corn. Because of this lack of consistency of model performance, CRD models would be recommended due to the availability of the data.

  3. Water quality in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoner, Jeffrey D.; Lorenz, D.L.; Goldstein, R.M.; Brigham, M.E.; Cowdery, T.K.

    1998-01-01

    This report is intended to summarize major findings that emerged between 1992 and 1995 from the water-quality assessment of the River River of the North basin study unit and to relate these findings to water-quality issues of regional and national concern. The information in primarily intended for those who are involved in water-resource management. Yet the information contained here may also interest those who simply wish to know more about the quality of water in the rivers and aquifers in the area where they live.

  4. Water-quality trend analysis and sampling design for streams in North Dakota, 1971-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, to analyze historical water-quality trends in selected dissolved major ions, nutrients, and dissolved trace metals for 10 streams in southwestern and eastern North Dakota and to develop an efficient sampling design to monitor future water-quality trends. A time-series model for daily streamflow and constituent concentration was used to identify significant concentration trends, separate natural hydroclimatic variability in concentration from variability that could have resulted from anthropogenic causes, and evaluate various sampling designs to monitor future water-quality trends. The interannual variability in concentration as a result of variability in streamflow, referred to as the annual concentration anomaly, generally was high for all constituents and streams used in the trend analysis and was particularly sensitive to the severe drought that occurred in the late 1980's and the very wet period that began in 1993 and has persisted to the present (2002). Although climatic conditions were similar across North Dakota during the trend-analysis period (1971-2000), significant differences occurred in the annual concentration anomalies from constituent to constituent and location to location, especially during the drought and the wet period. Numerous trends were detected in the historical constituent concentrations after the annual concentration anomalies were removed. The trends within each of the constituent groups (major ions, nutrients, and trace metals) showed general agreement among the streams. For most locations, the largest dissolved major-ion concentrations occurred during the late 1970's and concentrations in the mid- to late 1990's were smaller than concentrations during the late 1970's. However, the largest concentrations for three of the Missouri River tributaries and one of the Red River of the North

  5. Water Use and Management in the Bakken Shale Oil Play in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Horner, R M; Harto, C B; Jackson, R B; Lowry, E R; Brandt, A R; Yeskoo, T W; Murphy, D J; Clark, C E

    2016-03-15

    Oil and natural gas development in the Bakken shale play of North Dakota has grown substantially since 2008. This study provides a comprehensive overview and analysis of water quantity and management impacts from this development by (1) estimating water demand for hydraulic fracturing in the Bakken from 2008 to 2012; (2) compiling volume estimates for maintenance water, or brine dilution water; (3) calculating water intensities normalized by the amount of oil produced, or estimated ultimate recovery (EUR); (4) estimating domestic water demand associated with the large oil services population; (5) analyzing the change in wastewater volumes from 2005 to 2012; and (6) examining existing water sources used to meet demand. Water use for hydraulic fracturing in the North Dakota Bakken grew 5-fold from 770 million gallons in 2008 to 4.3 billion gallons in 2012. First-year wastewater volumes grew in parallel, from an annual average of 1,135,000 gallons per well in 2008 to 2,905,000 gallons in 2012, exceeding the mean volume of water used in hydraulic fracturing and surpassing typical 4-year wastewater totals for the Barnett, Denver, and Marcellus basins. Surprisingly, domestic water demand from the temporary oilfield services population in the region may be comparable to the regional water demand from hydraulic fracturing activities. Existing groundwater resources are inadequate to meet the demand for hydraulic fracturing, but there appear to be adequate surface water resources, provided that access is available. PMID:26866674

  6. Potential for enhancing nongame bird habitat values on abandoned mine lands of western North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Burley, J.B.; Hopkins, R.B.

    1984-12-01

    Throughout western North Dakota the number of unreclaimed surface coal and coal-uranium mines might total over 1100. We examined the potential for enhancing the nongame bird habitat values of unreclaimed mine lands in the arid, western region of North Dakota. Generally, the greatest variety of birds occurred in natural and planted woodlands, while fewer birds occurred in unreclaimed mine lands, grasslands, shrublands and croplands. Deciduous woodland types supported more species of birds than coniferous types. Planted woodlands supported about the same number of bird species as some natural deciduous woodland types and more species than coniferous woods. Unreclaimed mine lands supported more species than grasslands and croplands, and about the same number of species as native shrublands. The highest bird densities were in planted woodlands. Bird diversity varied positively with habitat diversity. The bird fauna of unreclaimed mine lands can be enhanced by creating more diverse habitats. Seventeen guidelines to enhance unreclaimed mine lands for nongame birds are presented. These guidelines can be used in preserving habitats threatened by surface mining and reclaiming previously mined lands.

  7. Water Resources Data North Dakota Water Year 2003, Volume 1. Surface Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, S.M.; Lundgren, R.F.; Sether, B.A.; Norbeck, S.W.; Lambrecht, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for North Dakota consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality for streams; contents, stage, and water quality for lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality for ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records of water discharge for 108 streamflow-gaging stations; stage only for 24 river-stage stations; contents and/or stage for 14 lake or reservoir stations; annual maximum discharge for 32 crest-stage stations; and water-quality for 99 streamflow-gaging stations, 5 river-stage stations, 11 lake or reservoir stations, 8 miscellaneous sample sites on rivers, and 63 miscellaneous sample sites on lakes and wetlands. Data are included for 7 water-quality monitor sites on streams and 2 precipitation-chemistry stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in North Dakota.

  8. Water Resources Data North Dakota Water Year 2001, Volume 1. Surface Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harkness, R.E.; Berkas, W.R.; Norbeck, S.W.; Robinson, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for North Dakota consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality for streams; contents, stage, and water quality for lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality for ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records of water discharge for 103 streamflow-gaging stations; stage only for 20 river-stage stations; contents and/or stage for 13 lake or reservoir stations; annual maximum discharge for 35 crest-stage stations; and water-quality for 94 streamflow-gaging stations, 2 river-stage stations, 9 lake or reservoir stations, 7 miscellaneous sample sites on rivers, and 58 miscellaneous sample sites on lakes and wetlands. Data are included for 9 water-quality monitor sites on streams and 2 precipitation-chemistry stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in North Dakota.

  9. Occurrence of Emerging Contaminants in Water and Bed Material in the Missouri River, North Dakota, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Damschen, William C.; Lundgren, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe, conducted a reconnaissance study to determine the occurrence of emerging contaminants in water and bed sediment within the Missouri River upstream and downstream from the cities of Bismarck and Mandan, North Dakota, and upstream from the city of Fort Yates, North Dakota, during September-October 2007. At each site, water samples were collected twice and bed-sediment samples were collected once. Samples were analyzed for more than 200 emerging contaminants grouped into four compound classes - wastewater compounds, human-health pharmaceutical compounds, hormones, and antibiotics. Only sulfamethoxazole, an antibiotic, was present at a concentration higher than minimum detection limits. It was detected in a water sample collected downstream from the cities of Bismarck and Mandan, and in bed-sediment samples collected at the two sites downstream from the cities of Bismarck and Mandan and upstream from Fort Yates. Sulfamethoxazole is an antibiotic commonly used for treating bacterial infections in humans and animals.

  10. Water Resources Data North Dakota Water Year 2002 Volume 1. Surface Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harkness, R.E.; Lundgren, R.F.; Norbeck, S.W.; Robinson, S.M.; Sether, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for North Dakota consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality for streams; contents, stage, and water quality for lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality for ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records of water discharge for 106 streamflow-gaging stations; stage only for 22 river-stage stations; contents and/or stage for 14 lake or reservoir stations; annual maximum discharge for 35 crest-stage stations; and water-quality for 96 streamflow-gaging stations, 3 river-stage stations, 11 lake or reservoir stations, 8 miscellaneous sample sites on rivers, and 63 miscellaneous sample sites on lakes and wetlands. Data are included for 7 water-quality monitor sites on streams and 2 precipitation-chemistry stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in North Dakota.

  11. Waterfowl nesting on interstate highway right-of-way in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oetting, R.B.; Cassel, J.F.

    1971-01-01

    We studied 630 acres of roadside along 23 miles of Interstate 94 in Stutsman County, North Dakota, to assess wildlife values of highway rights-of-way. We found 422 duck nests that had an overall success of 57 percent in 1968, 1969, and 1970. Mammalian predators were responsible for 85 percent of the destroyed nests. To test the effect of mowing on duck nest initiation and success, alternate 1-mile blocks of the study area were not mowed in the fall of 1968. In 1969 and 1970, significantly more ducks chose unmowed vegetation in preference to mowed vegetation for nest sites. Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), pintails (A. acuta), and gadwalls (A. strepera) were especially responsive to unmowed vegetation. Success of duck nests in unmowed vegetation was 62 percent compared with 51 percent in mowed vegetation. Sixteen percent of the nests were unhatched by July 5, the beginning mowing date previously recommended by the North Dakota Highway Department. Wildlife killed by traffic did not increase when half the mile blocks were unmowed, and no significant difference was observed in buildup of snow between mowed and unmowed blocks in the winter of 1968-69. Of 182 motorists interviewed in the study area, 82 percent had not noticed the unmowed rights-of-way. We strongly recommend no mowing of ditch bottoms or back slopes, minimal mowing of inslopes, and no mowing before July 20 to enhance waterfowl nesting and to reduce maintenance costs of highway rights-of-way in duck-producing regions.

  12. Could blackbird mortality from avicide DRC-1339 contribute to avian botulism outbreaks in North Dakota?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, D.R.; Samuel, M.D.; Rocke, T.E.; Johnson, K.M.; Linz, G.

    2004-01-01

    Blackbird (family lcteridae) depredation on sunflower (Helianthus annuus) crops in the prairie states of the United States has motivated the proposed use of an avicide, DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline), to decrease their numbers. The resulting mortality of blackbirds at wetland roosts could increase the potential of avian botulism occurring in affected marshes. To assess this possibility, we seeded (artificially placed) blackbird carcasses in selected wetlands in Stutsman County, North Dakota, during August-September 2000 and July-September 2001 to evaluate their rate of decomposition and role in initiating avian botulism outbreaks. We monitored carcasses to determine their persistence, the frequency and amount of maggots produced, and the presence of type C botulinum toxin. In 10 of our 12 study wetlands, blackbird carcasses were not rapidly removed by scavengers, thus providing substrate for maggot growth and potential production of Clostridium botulinum toxin. Decomposition of carcasses occurred rapidly, and maggot production averaged 4a??5 g per carcass within 9 days. We were unable to detect C. botulinum type C toxin in any of the 377 blackbird carcasses or the 112 samples of maggots we collected in 2000 or 2001. None of the 25 blackbird carcasses we tested contained botulinum spores, the most probable explanation for the absence of botulinum toxin production. Our results indicate that the likelihood of DRC-1339-poisoned blackbirds causing botulism outbreaks would be minimal in North Dakota wetlands during late summer and early autumn.

  13. Water resources data--North Dakota, water year 2004, volume 1. Surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, S.M.; Lundgren, R.F.; Sether, B.A.; Norbeck, S.W.; Lambrecht, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for North Dakota consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality for streams; contents, stage, and water quality for lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality for ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records of water discharge for 106 streamflow-gaging stations; stage only for 23 river-stage stations; contents and/or stage for 14 lake or reservoir stations; annual maximum discharge for 31 crest-stage stations; and water-quality for 92 streamflow-gaging stations, 6 river-stage stations, 15 lake or reservoir stations, 22 miscellaneous sample sites on rivers, and 67 miscellaneous sample sites on lakes and wetlands. Data are included for 5 water-quality monitor sites on streams and 2 precipitation-chemistry stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in North Dakota.

  14. Normal crop calendars. Volume 2: The spring wheat states of Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, W. L., III (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The state crop calendars for the principal spring wheat producing states within the United States are presented. These crop calendars are an update of those produced for the large area crop inventory experiment multilabeling task during 1978and are compiled for the foreign commodity production forecasting (FCPF) project of the agriculture and resources inventory surveys through aerospace remote sensing program.

  15. Geological controls on soil parent material geochemistry along a northern Manitoba-North Dakota transect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    As a pilot study for mapping the geochemistry of North American soils, samples were collected along two continental transects extending east–west from Virginia to California, and north–south from northern Manitoba to the US–Mexican border and subjected to geochemical and mineralogical analyses. For the northern Manitoba–North Dakota segment of the north–south transect, X-ray diffraction analysis and bivariate relations indicate that geochemical properties of soil parent materials may be interpreted in terms of minerals derived from Shield and clastic sedimentary bedrock, and carbonate sedimentary bedrock terranes. The elements Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and Ti occur primarily in silicate minerals decomposed by aqua regia, likely phyllosilicates, that preferentially concentrate in clay-sized fractions; Cr and Ti also occur in minerals decomposed only by stronger acid. Physical glacial processes affecting the distribution and concentration of carbonate minerals are significant controls on the variation of trace metal background concentrations.

  16. Hunger and Nutrition Problems among American Indians: A Case Study of North Dakota. Hearing before the Select Committee on Hunger. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (New Town, North Dakota, July 10, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Hunger.

    This document reports the oral and written testimony of 14 witnesses who discussed general health and nutrition problems among American Indians and focused on the high incidence of diabetes among North Dakota Indians. Diabetes was relatively rare among American Indians before 1940. Nearly one in three members of The Three Affiliated Tribes aged 40…

  17. Pressurized grout remote backfilling at AML sites near Beulah and Zap, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, E.J.; Dodd, W.E.

    1999-07-01

    The Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Division of the North Dakota Public Service Commission (PSC) is charged with the reclamation of hazardous abandoned mine sites in North Dakota. Several underground lignite coalmines were operated near the cities of Beulah and Zap, North Dakota, from the early 1900's until about 1955. Coal seams in this area were relatively thick and the overburden generally shallow. As these mines have deteriorated with time, deep collapse features, or sinkholes, have surfaced in many areas. These features are very dangerous, especially when they occur at or near residential and commercial areas and public roads. In the past five years, sinkholes have surfaced beneath a commercial building (boat dealership, lounge, and gas station) and beneath a nearby occupied mobile home north of Beulah. sinkholes have also surfaced near KHOL Radio Station in Beulah and in the right of way of a public road south of Zap. The AML Division has conducted several emergency sinkhole-filling projects in these areas. In 1995--97, the AML Division conducted exploratory drilling which confirmed the presence of collapsing underground mines at these sites. The remediation of these sites around Beulah/Zap will take place over several years and involve three or more separate contracts due to budget considerations. In 1997, the AML Division began reclamation at these sties utilizing pressurized grout remote backfilling. In this technique, a cementitious grout is pumped through cased drill holes directly into the mine cavities to fill them and thereby stabilize the surface from collapse. The successful contractor for Phase One of the project was The Concrete Doctor, Inc. (TCDI). This paper will concentrate on Phase One of this work performed from June through September 1997. This project is especially interesting because grout was pumped through holes drilled inside the occupied commercial building. Grout was also pumped through angled holes that intercepted mined workings directly

  18. Industrial Crafts (Production.) Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for an industrial crafts course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  19. Plastic Technology (Production). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for a plastic technology course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  20. 76 FR 47593 - Award of Replacement Grant for Preventive Health to Lutheran Social Services of North Dakota...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... to Lutheran Social Services of North Dakota, Fargo, ND AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF... for medical screening and initial medical treatment for refugees. Amount of Award: $66,000. SUMMARY... arriving refugees have access to preventive health screenings, the Administration for Children and...

  1. A Profile of Secondary Teachers and Schools in North Dakota: Implications for the Student Teaching Experience in Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, R. Brent; Edwards, M. Craig

    2011-01-01

    This study was an inquiry of secondary teachers' perceptions of the agricultural education student teaching experience in North Dakota. The sampling frame (N = 89) included all secondary teachers in the state; the final return rate was 74%. The instrument included 16 items identifying selected characteristics of secondary teachers and their…

  2. Discussion Summary & Recommendations: Private Sector Members of Roundtable on Higher Education. Meeting at Kathryn, North Dakota, April 5, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota University System, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A majority of the private sector members on the Roundtable on Higher Education (See Attachment-A) gathered at the Corporate Adventures training center in Kathryn, North Dakota, on April 5, 2006. Also attending were Senator Ray Holmberg, Chair of the Roundtable on Higher Education and Eddie Dunn on behalf of Dr. Robert Potts, Chancellor of the…

  3. Effect of transgenic corn hybrids and a soil insecticide on corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) beetle emergence in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Northern, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence, and western corn rootworms, D. virgifera virgifera LeConte, are economic pests of corn, Zea mays L. (Poaceae) in North Dakota. Many area corn growers rely on transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn hybrids to manage corn rootworms. Our objective was...

  4. Assessment of Pharmacists' Perception of Patient Care Competence and Need for Training in Rural and Urban Areas in North Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Few studies have examined pharmacists' level of patient care competence and need for continuous professional development in rural areas. Purpose: To assess North Dakota pharmacists' practice setting, perceived level of patient care competencies, and the need for professional development in urban and rural areas. Methods: A survey was…

  5. Defining Economic Success as It Pertains to Native American Owned Businesses Located on/or Adjacent to North Dakota Reservations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Barbara Elise

    2013-01-01

    Successful economic development is essential in building and sustaining a healthy community. The purpose of this study was to identify indicators of successful economic development as it pertained to Native American owned businesses located on/or adjacent to North Dakota reservations. More specifically this study sought to explore specific…

  6. Transportation (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for a transportation course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  7. Graphic Arts (Graphic Communications). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehls, Eddie; And Others

    This course guide for a graphic arts course is one of four developed for the graphic communications area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  8. Power Technology (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for a power technology course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  9. Negligence on the Playing Field: Determining the Scope of Legal Liability. North Dakota Economic Studies, Number 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karns, Jack E.

    In recent years the number of lawsuits brought by injured secondary school athletes alleging negligence on the part of coaches, school officials, and referees has risen dramatically. This study analyzes the legal liability implications for administrators and others involved in school sports in North Dakota. An introductory section describes…

  10. Design/Drafting (Graphic Communications). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehls, Eddie; And Others

    This course guide for a design/drafting course is one of four developed for the graphic communications area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  11. Early Childhood Education for Handicapped Children (Ages 3 through 5). Special Education in North Dakota. Guide VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niebergall, Shelby; Oas, Brenda

    This guide is designed primarily for use by personnel involved in North Dakota public school programs for preschool-age handicapped children (ages 3-5). It is also intended to provide parents and personnel in health, human services, and other child service agencies with an understanding of the scope and purpose of educational services for young…

  12. Photography (Graphic Communications). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehls, Eddie; And Others

    This course guide for a photography course is one of four developed for the graphic communications area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  13. Energy Sources (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for an energy sources course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  14. Wood Technology (Production). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for a wood technology course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  15. "Things As They Should Be": Jeffersonian Idealism and Rural Rebellion in Minnesota and North Dakota, 1910-1920.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remele, Larry

    Thomas Jefferson's elevation of the small landowning farmer to the guardian and bastion of democracy became the centerpiece for a later generation's struggle. Jeffersonian democracy, a philosophy based on the belief that "those who labor in the earth are the chosen people of God" guided the rural insurgents that swept Minnesota and North Dakota in…

  16. 77 FR 21106 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease NDM 95190, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... reinstatement of the lease per Sec. 31 (d) and (e) of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 (30 U.S.C. 188). We are... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease NDM 95190, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Per 30 U.S.C....

  17. Results of a modeling workshop concerning preservation and protection of wetlands in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Hamilton, David B.; Roelle, James E.

    1981-01-01

    In a recently signed letter, the Governor of North Dakota and the Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Fish and Wildlife and Parks charged a joint state-federal study group with examination of two separate questions: 1) mitigation for the Garrison Diversion Project; and 2) planning for long-range protection and preservation of fish and wildlife habitat in North Dakota. The cochair for this study group (the Secretary of the Interior's Field Representative, Denver, Colorado, and the Natural Resources Coordinator for North Dakota) further articulated the charge concerning the second of these two questions to include three steps: 1) development of a general plan for preservation and protection of migratory waterfowl and their associated wetland habitat; 2) a comprehensive analysis of alternative strategies, including opportunities and constraints, for achieving the goals articulated in Step 1; and 3) design of a coordinated state-federal public information program to assist in plan implementation. In order to obtain input from a variety of interests, the joint study group initiated step 2 activities with a five-day workshop in Bismarck, N. D.; December 8-12, 1980. The objectives of the workshop were: 1) to identify alternative strategies for preserving and enhancing waterfowl production habitat in North Dakota; 2) to identify opportunities and constraints associated with those alternatives; and 3) to promote communication and understanding of the implications of those alternatives for all affected parties. To achieve these objectives, the workshop utilized a group of concepts and techniques collectively known as Adaptive Environmental Assessment (AEA). Developed by Dr. C. S. Holling and his co-workers at the University of British Columbia, the AEA process involves planners, managers, scientists, and other interested parties in a structures atmosphere whose focus is the construction and examination of a computerized simulation model of the resource system under

  18. Dunn-Nokota methanol project, Dunn County, North Dakota. Volume VI. Tax, legal and regulatory analysis. [Proposed methanol project near Dunn Center, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the Tax, Legal and Regulatory Analysis section of the study was to evaluate the basic tax, legal and regulatory premises upon which the Project and other parts of the study are based. The major part of these analyses concern federal income tax principles affecting the construction of a large-scale alternative energy project, particularly the application of the investment and energy tax credits, the recovery of costs through depreciation, treatment of pre-construction expenditures, capitalization of real property construction period interest, and leasing and project organization principles. Portions of the tax analysis were revised after their completion because of the passage in late August of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 (the 1982 Tax Act), which makes important changes in the law. North Dakota state principles are also discussed. The balance of the legal report deals with non-income tax and tariff matters, permit requirements, federal coal leasing principles, prehistory and cultural resources, legal title to the project site, Federal Clean Air Act considerations, and other regulatory matters.

  19. The High School Physics Curriculum and the University of North Dakota Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolby, C.; Hardersen, P.

    2013-04-01

    As astronomy is a subject largely absent in the secondary classroom for many reasons, the research presented here attempts to make astronomy education an option for high school students across the state of North Dakota. Through implementation of a two-week astronomy course at Grand Forks Central High School (GFCHS), two class periods totaling nineteen physics students (fourteen in the first class period and five in the second class period) were given the opportunity to learn material that would have otherwise been unavailable to them. Four of these students were female and fifteen of these students were male. During ten class periods from April 16, 2012 through April 27, 2012, instruction included presentation of basic astronomy concepts and observational techniques as well as student participation in demonstrations and activities regarding the course content. Students were given the option to visit the University of North Dakota (UND) Observatory the evening of April 20, 2012 for a public “star party” where they received a tour of the university's telescopes and other research equipment. During class time on April 25, 2012, students took a field trip to the John D. Odegard School of Aerospace Sciences to tour both Aviation and Space Studies facilities at UND. The lesson plan for the course also included a group project utilizing the telescopes at the UND Observatory for remote observing to complete research on the astrometry of an asteroid. Students were given a pre-test at the start of the two-week course, daily exit surveys at the end of each class period, and a post-test at the end of the two-week course. These assessments were used to evaluate student enjoyment, progress, and overall perception of the astronomy course. This research identified common misconceptions in astronomy held by the learners as well as the most effective teaching methods. It was found that this course was overall successful in promoting the students' learning of astronomy in a short

  20. 76 FR 37647 - Safety Zone; Missouri River From the Border Between Montana and North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... with rising flood water. Operation in this zone is restricted unless specifically authorized by the... rising flood water. The impacts on routine navigation are expected to be minimal. Small Entities Under... destruction, loss or injury due to the hazards associated with rising flood water. If you are a small...

  1. Environmental setting of the Yellowstone River basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zelt, Ronald B.; Boughton, G.K.; Miller, K.A.; Mason, J.P.; Gianakos, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    Natural and anthropogenic factors influence water-quality conditions in the Yellowstone River Basin. Physiography parallels the structural geologic setting that is generally composed of several uplifts and structural basins. Contrasts in climate and vegetation reflect topographic controls and the midcontinental location of the study unit. Surface-water hydrology reflects water surpluses in mountainous areas that are dominated by snowmelt runoff, and arid to semiarid conditions in the plains that are dissected by typically irrigated valleys in the remainder of the study unit. Principal shallow aquifers are Tertiary sandstones and unconsolidated Quaternary deposits. Human population, though sparsely distributed in general, is growing most rapidly in a few urban centers and resort areas, mostly in the northwestern part of the basin. Land use is areally dominated by grazing in the basins and plains and economically dominated by mineral-extraction activities. Forests are the dominant land cover in mountainous areas. Cropland is a major land use in principal stream valleys. Water use is dominated by irrigated agriculture overall, but mining and public-supply facilities are major users of ground water. Coal and hydrocarbon production and reserves distinguish the Yellowstone River Basin as a principal energy-minerals resources region. Current metallic ore production or reserves are nationally significant for platinum-group elements and chromium.The study unit was subdivided as an initial environmental stratification for use in designing the National Water-Quality Assessment Program investigation that began in 1997. Ecoregions, geologic groups, mineral-resource areas, and general land-cover and land-use categories were used in combination to define 18 environmental settings in the Yellowstone River Basin. It is expected that these different settings will be reflected in differing water-quality or aquatic-ecological characteristics.

  2. Water quality in the Yellowstone River Basin, Wyoming, Montana, and North Dakota, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.; Bartos, Timothy T.; Clark, Melanie L.; Miller, Kirk A.; Porter, Stephen D.; Quinn, Thomas L.

    2004-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1999?2001 assessment of water quality in the Yellowstone River Basin. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in a particular basin or aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or in the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as the effects of agricultural and urban land use on water quality, human health, drinking water, source-water protection, hypoxia and excessive growth of algae and plants, pesticide registration, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report also is for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live, and how that water quality compares to the quality of water in other areas across the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the Yellowstone River Basin summarized in this report are discussed in detail in other reports that can be accessed from http://wy.water.usgs.gov/YELL/index.htm. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report, in addition to reports in this series from other basins, can be accessed from the national NAWQA Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa).

  3. 76 FR 53820 - Safety Zone; Missouri River From the Border Between Montana and North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... destruction to levees and vessels and tows. DATES: Section 165.T11-0511 temporarily added at 76 FR 37647, June... pursuant to the temporary final Rule at docket USCG-2011-0511 (76 FR 37647) established a safety zone for...; Department of Homeland Security Delegation No. 0170.1. 0 2. Section 165.T11-0511 temporarily added at 76...

  4. Contributions to North American Ethnology, Volume VII: A Dakota-English dictionary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riggs, Stephen Return; Dorsey, James Owen; Powell, John Wesley

    1890-01-01

    This volume consists of a Dakota-English dictionary. The Dakota, commonly known as the Sioux, forms the leading and best known division of the Siouan linguistic family. The Dakota language now consists of three well defined dialects, the Santee, Yankton and Teton.

  5. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Phase 3 direct wheat study of North Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinsler, M. C.; Nichols, J. D.; Ona, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The green number and brightness scatter plots, channel plots of radiance values, and visual study of the imagery indicate separability between barley and spring wheat/oats during the wheat mid-heading to mid-ripe stages. In the LACIE Phase 3 North Dakota data set, the separation time is more specifically the wheat soft dough stage. At this time, the barley is ripening, and is therefore, less green and brighter than the wheat. Only 4 of the 18 segments studied indicate separation of barley/other spring small grain, even though 11 of the segments have acquisitions covering the wheat soft dough stage. The remaining seven segments had less than 5 percent barley based on ground truth data.

  6. A quantification of methane emissions from the Bakken shale play region of North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Karion, A.; Aikin, K. C.; Kort, E. A.; Newberger, T.; Smith, M. L.; Sweeney, C.; Trainer, M.; Wolter, S.

    2014-12-01

    Natural gas extracted from shale formations accounts for 40% of the domestic U.S. natural gas supply. Although natural gas combustion emits less carbon dioxide per energy produced than other fossil fuels, this climate benefit may be offset by the methane emitted to the atmosphere through leaks in the natural gas production and distribution infrastructure. To better understand the climate impacts of the oil and natural gas extracted from the Bakken shale play in North Dakota, we present airborne measurements of methane taken over this region aboard a NOAA Twin Otter aircraft during Spring 2014. Using the mass balance technique, we estimate methane emissions from the region with four flights intended for this purpose in May 2014. We further attribute these methane emissions to the oil and gas industry using measurements of ethane and other hydrocarbons aboard the Twin Otter.

  7. Economic and social impacts of rapid shale oil development in western North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, Wannakuwatte Mitiwaduge Felix Nirmal

    This dissertation comprises of five qualitative and exploratory studies. The studies focus on the social and economic impacts of rapid shale oil development, which is colloquially referred to as an "oil boom" on the communities and its members in western North Dakota. The dissertation presents a detailed exploration of the impacts and implications of the boom on community values and attitudes, quality of life, and community development. Impact of the boom on each topic is presented as an independent article or chapter. The data for the dissertation was collected through open-ended, face-to-face interviews. The findings highlight the opportunities created by the boom, barriers inhibiting community development, and the solutions necessary to achieve the community development potential created by the economic activity of the oil boom.

  8. Watershed scale response to climate change--Starkweather Coulee Basin, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.; Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Fourteen basins for which the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System has been calibrated and evaluated were selected as study sites. Precipitation Runoff Modeling System is a deterministic, distributed parameter watershed model developed to evaluate the effects of various combinations of precipitation, temperature, and land use on streamflow and general basin hydrology. Output from five General Circulation Model simulations and four emission scenarios were used to develop an ensemble of climate-change scenarios for each basin. These ensembles were simulated with the corresponding Precipitation Runoff Modeling System model. This fact sheet summarizes the hydrologic effect and sensitivity of the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System simulations to climate change for the Starkweather Coulee Basin near Webster, North Dakota.

  9. Use of natural basin wetlands by breeding waterfowl in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrud, H.A.; Stewart, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    Use of basin wetlands by breeding populations of 12 species of waterfowl was investigated in 1965 and during 1967-69 throughout the prairie pothole region of North Dakota. Data were obtained primarily by random sampling techniques. Of the total population occupying natural basin wetlands 55 percent occupied seasonal and 36 percent occupied semipermanent wetlands. Seasonal wetlands contained 60 percent of the population of dabbling ducks, while semipermanent wetlands supported 75 percent of the population of diving ducks. On basins with ponded water, highest concentrations of breeding pairs occurred on temporary, seasonal, and semipermanent wetlands; moderate concentrations were recorded on ephemeral, fen, and undifferentiated tillage wetlands, and low concentrations occurred on permanent and alkali wetlands. The proportion of basins that retained ponded water had a direct bearing on the value of each type of wetland to breeding waterfowl. Relative values of the more intermittent types of wetlands are greatly increased during years of ample precipitation.

  10. Grazing intensity effects on the breeding avifauna of North Dakota native grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrud, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    A breeding bird census and plant survey was conducted on 180 samples of lightly, moderately, and heavily grazed and hayed native grasslands in North Dakota in 1974. The ten most important cover plants on each of eight major physiographic landforms in three of the four regions (the Agassiz Lake Plain excluded) overlapped so extensively that only 19 species were involved: 13 grasses or sedges, four forbs, one shrub, and one clubmoss. Bird densities were generally highest in (i) regions and landforms containing numerous natural basin wetlands, (ii) flatter, glaciated landforms containing more fertile soils, and (iii) landforms of greater relief and high habitat heterogeneity. Avian species richness tended to decrease with increased grazing intensity, but total bird density increased due to higher populations of a few species, and hayland that had been mowed and raked during the previous growing season was highly attractive to some species.

  11. JV Task 99-Integrated Risk Analysis and Contaminant Reduction, Watford City, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Jaroslav Solc; Barry W. Botnen

    2007-05-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a limited site investigation and risk analyses for hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater at a Construction Services, Inc., site in Watford City, North Dakota. Site investigation confirmed the presence of free product and high concentrations of residual gasoline-based contaminants in several wells, the presence of 1,2-dichloroethane, and extremely high levels of electrical conductivity indicative of brine residuals in the tank area south of the facility. The risk analysis was based on compilation of information from the site-specific geotechnical investigation, including multiphase extraction pilot test, laser induced fluorescence probing, evaluation of contaminant properties, receptor survey, capture zone analysis and evaluation of well head protection area for municipal well field. The project results indicate that the risks associated with contaminant occurrence at the Construction Services, Inc. site are low and, under current conditions, there is no direct or indirect exposure pathway between the contaminated groundwater and soils and potential receptors.

  12. Crop weather models of barley and spring wheat yield for agrophysical units in North Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leduc, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Models based on multiple regression were developed to estimate barley yield and spring wheat yield from weather data for Agrophysical units(APU) in North Dakota. The predictor variables are derived from monthly average temperature and monthly total precipitation data at meteorological stations in the cooperative network. The models are similar in form to the previous models developed for Crop Reporting Districts (CRD). The trends and derived variables were the same and the approach to select the significant predictors was similar to that used in developing the CRD models. The APU models show sight improvements in some of the statistics of the models, e.g., explained variation. These models are to be independently evaluated and compared to the previously evaluated CRD models. The comparison will indicate the preferred model area for this application, i.e., APU or CRD.

  13. Nocturnal activity and foraging of prairie raccoons (Procyon lotor) in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Nocturnal activity and foraging of 39 radio-equipped raccoons (Procyon lotor) in eastern North Dakota were studied from April-July in 1974-1976. Sixteen of the raccoons were collected after foraging bouts for stomach content analysis. Raccoon activity consisted of running (13%), walking (49%) and local movement in confined areas (38%). Local movement was foraging on large or locally abundant food items. Adult males traveled farther in a night, ran twice as often, and moved locally only half as often as adult females and yearlings. Differences in activity patterns between adult females and yearlings were not detected. There was no difference among age-sex groups in use of foraging habitats. All raccoons foraged extensively in farmyards and wetlands. Stomach content analysis substantiated foraging determinations obtained by radiotelemetry. Principal foods were grain, aquatic animals, rodents, birds and bird eggs.

  14. Ethyl parathion in wetlands following aerial application to sunflowers in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tome, M.W.; Grue, C.E.; DeWeese, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    An operational aerial application of parathion to sunflower fields resulted in greater or equal spray deposit in wetlands adjacent to or surrounded by sunflower fields than in the sunflower fields. In another application, when the applicator attempted to avoid contamination of the wetlands, parathion still drifted into wetlands in detectable amounts; in 2 of 4 comparisons, spray deposit in wetlands and sunflower fields did not differ. Weather during both spray operations was ideal for North Dakota, Le., wind speeds <16 km/ hour, excellent visibility, and temperature <24 C. We review how spray droplet size, weather, terrain, and type of application equipment interact to determine the amount of drift from any application of pesticide. With this information, wildlife managers should be able to make decisions pertaining to insecticide applications that will minimize drift and reduce negative impacts to nontarget organisms

  15. Breeding birds and vegetation structure in western North Dakota wooded draws

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faanes, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Populations and distribution of breeding birds occupying wooded draws were studied in a five-county region of western North Dakota during June 1982. Wooded draw vegetation was dominated by green ash, which occurred in 96% of the draws sampled. Chokecherry and juneberry were the most frequent shrub species. I recorded 49 bird species in the 30 draws censused. Rufous-sided towhee, brown-headed cowbird, house wren, and American goldfinch were the most numerous bird species present. Significant correlations were found between (1) the number of live trees and bird species evenness, (2) density of dead trees and bird species diversity and richness, (3) density of shrubs with bird species evenness, and (4) foliage volume in the high ground layer and bird species evenness.

  16. Characteristics of central North Dakota wetlands determined from sample aerial photographs and ground study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, L.M.; Gilmer, D.S.; Mechlin, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Wetland characteristics were assessed from a systematic sample of 66 plots, 3.22 km2 each, drawn from a 10,041-km2 study area in central North Dakota. Each plot was visited once and 8 sets of aerial photographs were obtained in 3 years. Density of wetland basins was 11.00 ha/km2, and area averaged 9.7 ha/km2. Seasonal and temporary wetlands were most abundant; semipermanent wetlands occupied the greatest area. Basin size was positively correlated with water permanence. Discriminant function analysis based on size and an index to wetness derived from photographs misclassified 33% of the wetland basins. Forty percent of the wetlands were tilled. Photography of sample plots is potentially useful for determining number of basins and wetland area, but precise classification of plant communities in this region would require ground study.

  17. Energy integrated farm system: North Dakota State University Agricultural Experiment Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    North Dakota State University Agricultural Experiment Station, a dairy farm with wheat, barley, sugar beet, and soybean crops, is designed to conserve energy through energy integrated concepts including wind break and solar energy for heating buildings, methane digestion, and energy conservation crop practices. The integrated energy concepts to be demonstrated are: generation of methane from manure; use of a milk-to-water heat exchanger and rock-bed heat storage in dairy operations; use of a solar collector energy system for space heat in the dairy barn (calf warming); efficient solid-liquid separation in manure collection system; use of digester effluent as bedding and fertilizer; and energy conservation by improved agriculture practices, such as conservation tillage, pest management, and soil testing for efficient use of fertilizer.

  18. 16-year trends in elements of lichens at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J P; Wetmore, C M

    2000-12-18

    An epiphytic lichen and a soil lichen in two very closely related genera (Parmelia sulcata and Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa, respectively) were sampled 16 years apart at Theodore Roosevelt National Park in North Dakota and measured for their elemental content. Mercury and cadmium decreased approximately 30% over the time period in both species. Sulfur decreased 8% in the epiphytic species, but increased 20% in the soil lichen. Factor analysis revealed that soil elements were higher in the soil lichen, indicating there was some soil contamination in that species. A relationship between iron and titanium was found only in the soil lichen. Sulfur and mercury were highly enriched in both species relative to the soil, which suggests that the atmosphere is a contributing source of these elements. New baseline values were calculated, 22 elements for both species, although it is not recommended that the soil lichen be sampled in the future.

  19. Impact of Camping on Soil Properties at Strawberry Lake, North Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Tibor, Matthew A.

    2014-05-01

    Recreational activity at campsites can cause compaction and metal contamination of soils. This study compared the bulk densities, penetration resistance values, organic matter contents, and Zn, Mn, and Cu contents of soils sampled from zones of varying recreational activity within the campsites at Strawberry Lake, North Dakota, USA. The results of this study showed that there were statistically significant increases in the soil bulk densities and soil penetration resistance values compared to the controls. However, the low recreational intensity has not compacted the surface soils beyond an average of 1.36 g cm-3, which is not dense enough to hinder the root growth of the surrounding vegetation. There were no statistically significant differences between the soil organic matter content of the different activity zones at the 95% confidence interval. Zinc values were four orders of magnitude and Cu values three to four orders of magnitude below US EPA guideline limits. The EPA does not have guidelines for Mn, but Mn levels were lower than reported typical natural values for a nearby area. Therefore, metal contents were not high enough to be of concern. Taken together, these results were interpreted to indicate that the low-intensity camping activities that occur at Strawberry Lake campground have not had a significant negative impact on the soils found there. Additional information on this study can be found in Tibor and Brevik (2013). Reference Tibor, M.A., and E.C. Brevik. 2013. Anthropogenic Impacts on Campsite Soils at Strawberry Lake, North Dakota. Soil Horizons 54: doi:10.2136/sh13-06-0016.

  20. Analysis of the peak-flow gaging network in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    1996-01-01

    A network analysis technique using generalized least-squares regression was used to evaluate the current (1993) peak-flow gaging network that provides regional peak-flow information for North Dakota. The analysis was conducted to evaluate the current (1993) network and to determine if reactivating discontinued gaging stations and adding new gaging stations on small drainage areas would improve regional peak-flow information. Peak flows having recurrence intervals of 15, 50, and 100 years and planning horizons of zero and 10 years for three hydrologic regions in North Dakota were used in the network analysis. Results of the network analysis indicate that the average sampling mean-square error could be reduced by about 10 percent for the 15-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence intervals by reactivating a minimum of two to five discontinued gaging stations in each hydrologic region. The reactivated discontinued gaging stations added to the current (1993) network should be located on streams having small drainage areas and steep main-channel slopes. For the 15-year recurrence interval and a 10-year planning horizon, adding a new gaging station at two new locations in each region instead of reactivating two discontinued gaging stations in each region would reduce the average sampling mean-square error by an average of about 13 percent in each region. The new gaging stations added to the current (1993) network should be located on streams having small drainage areas and mild or steep main-channel slopes in order to obtain improved regional peak-flow information.

  1. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of Dawson Bay Formation carbonate unit (Middle Devonian), Williston basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Pound, W.

    1988-07-01

    The Middle Devonian Dawson Bay Formation carbonate unit is present in the subsurface of North Dakota except where truncated by postdepositional erosion. The carbonate unit thickens from the erosional limit to a maximum thickness of 47.5 m (156 ft) in Renville County and reaches a maximum depth of 3798 m (12,460 ft) below the surface in McKenzie County. In North Dakota, a submarine hardground separates the carbonate unit from the underlying second red bed member of the Dawson Bay Formation. The upper contact with the Souris River Formation is conformable except in those areas where the Dawson Bay Formation was exposed to subaerial erosion prior to deposition of the Souris River sediments. The Dawson Bay carbonate unit is predominantly dolomitic and fossiliferous limestone or fossiliferous dolostone. The carbonate unit can be subdivided into five lithofacies on the basis of characteristic fossil fauna, flora, and other lithologic features. Lithofacies analysis of the Dawson Bay carbonates suggests a shallowing-upward succession of depositional environments and associated energy zones as follows: shallow epeiric sea (very low energy), stromatoporoid biostrome/bioherm (low energy), very shallow epeiric sea (very low energy), restricted shallow epeiric sea (extremely low energy), and shallow epeiric sea shoreline (variable energy). Eogenetic diagenesis includes color-mottling, dolomitization of micrite to microcrystalline dolomite with penecontemporaneous anhydrite replacement of cryptalgal mudstones and boundstones, cementation by sparry calcite, and vuggy porosity development. Mesogenetic diagenesis includes formation of mosaic dolomites, cementation by blocky equant calcite, neomorphism, pressure-solution, fracturing, halite cementation, and hydrocarbon emplacement.

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle pen surfaces in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shafiqur; Borhan, Md Saidul; Swanson, Kendall

    2013-01-01

    There is a global interest to quantify and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) (e.g. methane-CH4, nitrous oxide-N2O and carbon dioxide-CO2) emissions in animal feeding operations. The goal of this study was to quantify GHG emissions from the feedlot pen surface under North Dakota climatic conditions. In this study gaseous flux from the pen surfaces was generated using a custom-made wind tunnel at different times of the year (summer, fall, winter and spring). Gaseous fluxes (air samples) were drawn in the Tedlar bags using a vacuum chamber and gas concentrations were measured using a gas chromatograph within 24 h of sampling. The CH4 concentrations and flux rates (FRs) or flux among the months were not significantly different. Overall CH4, CO2 and N2O concentrations over a 7-month period were 2.66, 452 and 0.67 ppm, respectively. Estimated overall CH4, CO and N2O FRs were 1.32, 602 and 0.90 g m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Estimated emission rates using the wind tunnel were 38 g hd(-1) d(-1), 17 kg hd(-1) d(-1) and 26 g hd(-1) d(-1) for CH4, CO2 and N2O, respectively. The emission factors for GHG estimated in the research for North Dakota climate were the first of its kind, and these emission estimates can be used as a basis for planning and implementing management practices to minimize GHG emissions.

  3. Climatology, hydrology, and simulation of an emergency outlet, Devils Lake basin, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiche, Gregg J.; Vecchia, A.V.; Osborne, Leon; Wood, Carrie M.; Fay, James T.

    2000-01-01

    Devils Lake is a natural lake in northeastern North Dakota that is the terminus of a nearly 4,000-square-mile subbasin in the Red River of the North Basin. The lake has not reached its natural spill elevation to the Sheyenne River (a tributary of the Red River of the North) in recorded history. However, geologic evidence indicates a spill occurred sometime within the last 1,800 years. From 1993 to 1999, Devils Lake rose 24.5 feet and, at the present (August 2000), is about 13 feet below the natural spill elevation. The recent lake-level rise has caused flood damages exceeding $300 million and triggered development of future flood-control options to prevent further infrastructure damage and reduce the risk of a potentially catastrophic uncontrolled spill. Construction of an emergency outlet from the west end of Devils Lake to the Sheyenne River is one flood-control option being considered. This report describes the climatologic and hydrologic causes of the recent lake level rise, provides information on the potential for continued lake-level rises during the next 15 years, and describes the potential effectiveness of an emergency outlet in reducing future lake levels and in reducing the risk of an uncontrolled spill. The potential effects of an outlet on downstream water quantity and quality in the upper Sheyenne River also are described.

  4. Water quality of streams in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1970-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tornes, Lan H.

    2005-01-01

    Data for the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota were analyzed to determine whether the water quality of streams in the basin is adequate to meet future needs. For the Red River at Emerson, Manitoba, site, pH values, water temperatures, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations generally were within the criteria established for the protection of aquatic life. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 245 to 1,100 milligrams per liter. Maximum sulfate and chloride concentrations were near, but did not exceed, the established secondary maximum contaminant level. The trace elements considered potentially harmful generally were at concentrations that were less than the established guidelines, standards, and criteria. The concentrations of lead that were detected may have occurred as a result of sample contamination. For the Red River upstream from Emerson, Manitoba, sites, pH and other field values rarely exceeded the criteria established for the protection of aquatic life. Many constituent concentrations for the Red River below Fargo, N. site exceeded water-quality guidelines, standards, and criteria. However, the trace-element exceedances could be natural or could be related to pollution or sample contamination. Many of the tributaries in the western part of the Red River Basin had median specific-conductance values that were greater than 1,000 microsiemens per centimeter. Sulfate concentrations occasionally exceeded the established drinking-water standard. Median arsenic concentrations were 6 micrograms per liter or less, and maximum concentrations rarely exceeded the 10-microgram-per-liter drinking-water standard that is scheduled to take effect in 2006. The small concentrations of lead, mercury, and selenium that occasionally were detected may have been a result of sample contamination or other factors. The tributaries in the eastern part of the Red River Basin had median specific-conductance values that were less than

  5. Pesticide Concentrations in Wetlands on the Lake Traverse Reservation, South and North Dakota, July 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neitzert, Kathleen M.; Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2007-01-01

    During July 2006, water samples were collected from selected Lake Traverse wetlands within the historic Reservation boundary in northeastern South Dakota and southeastern North Dakota as part of a reconnaissance-level assessment by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate (SWO) Sioux Tribe. Eighteen wetlands were sampled by the SWO and USGS personnel after primary pesticide application occurred on the Lake Traverse Reservation. Samples were analyzed for 61 pesticide compounds. In addition, the samples were analyzed for physical properties that might help further characterize the water quality of the wetlands. During July 2006, water samples were collected from 18 wetlands and were analyzed for 61 widely used pesticide compounds. Pesticides were detected in 17 of the 18 sampled wetlands. In the 17 wetlands in which pesticides weredetected, the number of pesticides detected ranged from two to eight. Of the 61 pesticides for which the samples were analyzed, 51 pesticides were not detected in any of the wetland samples. Ten pesticides were detected in water samples from at least one of the wetlands at small concentrations. Atrazine and de-ethyl atrazine were detected in samples from 17 of the 18 wetlands. The minimum, maximum, and median concentrations of dissolved atrazine detected were 0.007, 0.12, and 0.064 microgram per liter (?g/L), respectively. Two pesticides (picloram and simazine) were detected in only one wetland each. None of the pesticide concentrations exceeded any U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels for drinking water, and concentrations were much less than levels considered toxic for humans or aquatic species.

  6. Behaviour patterns of Mallard Anas Platyrhynchos pairs and broods in Minnesota and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, P.J.; Buhl, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    Few studies have quantitatively examined Mallard behaviour in North America during the breeding season. We estimated diurnal time budgets of unmarked Mallard males, females, and broods from over 1,200 hours of observations at two study areas in western Minnesota and south-central North Dakota during 1988-91. Paired males spent less time feeding and more time alert than did females. Both pair members were engaged in the same behaviour about 67% of the time; the male was always most likely to be doing the same thing as the female, but when the male was resting on water or alert, the female was most likely to be feeding. Females with broods spent less time feeding and more time alert and in locomotion than did females without broods. Behaviour of brood females did not differ with brood age or size. Females temporarily left their broods alone 45 times - about once for each 11 hours of observation. Female absences ranged from 2 to >80 minutes (x>27 min); length of absence was not related to brood age or size. Broods of all ages (a few days old to near fledging) and sizes (1-10 ducklings) were left alone on land and water; broods mostly rested and fed during female absences. Brood females spent less time feeding and more time alert than did broods. Females and their broods were engaged in the same behaviour 6267% of the time; the female was always most likely to be doing the same behaviour as her brood, but when the female was resting on water, the brood was most likely to be feeding, and when the female was alert, the brood was most likely to be feeding (North Dakota site) or resting on land (Minnesota site). Daily activity patterns varied between sites for both pairs and broods. Feeding and resting behaviour showed opposite daily patterns, suggesting that time allocated to feeding constrained time spent resting. Differences between sites and years in time spent feeding by pairs and broods probably reflected varying water conditions and food availability. In light of

  7. Aquatic communities and contaminants in fish from streams of the Red River of the North basin, Minnesota and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Available data on the ecology of aquatic organisms in the Red River of the North Basin, a study unit of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program, were collated from numerous sources. Lack of information for invertebrates and algae precluded a general summary of distribution and ecology throughout the basin. Data on fish species distributions in the major streams of the Red River of the North Basin were analyzed based on the drainage area of the stream and the number of ecoregions the stream flowed through. Species richness increased with both drainage area (log drainage area in square kilometers, R2=0.41, p=0.0055) and the number of ecoregions a river flowed through. However, theses two factors are autocorrelated because the larger the drainage, the more likely that the river will flow through more than one ecoregion. A cluster analysis identified five river groups based on similarity of species within the fish community. Analysis of trophic and taxonomic composition provided justification for the cluster groups. There were significant differences (p=0.05) in the trophic composition of the river cluster groups with respect to the number of predator species, omnivore species, benthic insectivore species, and general insectivore species. Although there were no significant differences in the number of species in the bass and sunfish family or the sucker family, the number of species in the minnow family and the darter subfamily were different (p=0.05) among the groups identified by cluster analysis. Data on contaminant concentrations in fish from the Red River of the North indicated that most trace elements and organochlorine compounds present in tissues were not at levels toxic to fish or humans. Minnesota and North Dakota have issued a fish consumption advisory based on levels of mercury and (or) PCBs found in some species.

  8. Greenhouse gas fluxes of a shallow lake in south-central North Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tangen, Brian; Finocchiaro, Raymond; Gleason, Robert A.; Dahl, Charles F.

    2016-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes of aquatic ecosystems in the northern Great Plains of the U.S. represent a significant data gap. Consequently, a 3-year study was conducted in south-central North Dakota, USA, to provide an initial estimate of GHG fluxes from a large, shallow lake. Mean GHG fluxes were 0.02 g carbon dioxide (CO2) m−2 h−1, 0.0009 g methane (CH4) m−2 h−1, and 0.0005 mg nitrous oxide (N2O) m−2 h−1. Fluxes of CO2 and CH4 displayed temporal and spatial variability which is characteristic of aquatic ecosystems, while fluxes of N2O were consistently low throughout the study. Comparisons between results of this study and published values suggest that mean daily fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O fromLong Lakewere low, particularly when compared to the well-studied prairie pothole wetlands of the region. Similarly, cumulative seasonal CH4 fluxes, which ranged from 2.68–7.58 g CH4 m−2, were relatively low compared to other wetland systems of North America. The observed variability among aquatic ecosystems underscores the need for further research.

  9. Progress report: chemical character of surface waters in the Devils Lake Basin, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swenson, Herbert A.

    1950-01-01

    Devils Lake in northeastern North Dakota was at one time the most popular summer resort in the state. With decline in lake level the lake has become a shallow body pf vary saline water, which scenic value and recreational appeal completely destroyed. Under the Missouri River development program, it is proposed to restore the lake level to an altitude of 1,425 feet by diversion of Missouri River water. The chemical character of the water in Devils Lake and in other surface bodies in Devils Lake Basin is determined from the analyses of 95 samples. The physical and chemical properties of lake bed deposits are also shown. Lake water in the basin vary considerable in both concentration and composition, ranging from fresh bicarbonate waters of 300 parts per million dissolved solids to sulfate waters of over 100,000 parts per million of soluble salts. Twenty-four samples indicates the chemical character of water in the Red River of the North and its tributaries. The probable concentration of dissolved solids in water of Devils Lake at altitude 1,425 feet has been estimated as ranging from 3,000 to 7,600 parts per million. Final concentration will largely depend upon the percentage of deposited salts reentering solution and the quality of the inflow water. The possible effects of lake effluents on downstream developments, with particular reference to sanitation and pollution problems, are also discussed in this report.

  10. Characterization of Atmospheric Volatile Organic Compounds in the North Dakota Bakken Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sive, B. C.; Zhou, Y.; Day, D.; Desyaterik, Y.; Evanoski-Cole, A. R.; Gebhart, K.; Hecobian, A.; Li, Y.; Malm, W. C.; Prenni, A. J.; Schichtel, B. A.; Schurman, M. I.; Sullivan, A.; Vimont, J.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    A field campaign was conducted from 23 November 2013 through 28 March 2014 in the Bakken formation of North Dakota to investigate the impacts of rapidly increasing oil and gas production operations on air quality throughout the region. Whole air samples were collected at three different sites during the study period for volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements. The main sampling location was the north unit of Theodore Roosevelt National Park (THRO), where one daytime and one nighttime sample were collected each day throughout the campaign period. Daytime samples were also collected every second day at the Fort Union Trading Post National Historic Site (FOUS) and once a week at the Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, MT. A signature of elevated nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) mixing ratios was observed throughout the campaign at all three sites; THRO and FOUS had the highest levels as they are located in high well density areas. Moreover, the C2-C5 alkane mixing ratios were approximately an order of magnitude greater than regional background levels. Light alkane mixing ratios at THRO, the most impacted site, were similar to those at urban sites influenced by petrochemical industry emissions, with ethane and propane reaching maximums of 95 ppbv and 164 ppbv, respectively. The i-pentane to n-pentane ratio for all sites was ~0.75, clearly demonstrating the widespread impact from oil and gas production emissions throughout the region. Alkanes dominated the hydroxyl radical reactivity, and their overall influence on regional air quality will be explored.

  11. Changes in breeding bird populations in North Dakota: 1967 to 1992-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.; Johnson, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    We compared breeding bird populations in North Dakota using surveys conducted in 1967 and 1992-93. In decreasing order, the five most frequently occurring species were Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris), Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and Eastern Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus). The five most abundant species--Horned Lark, Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus), Red-winged Blackbird, Western Meadowlark, and Brown-headed Cowbird-accounted for 31-41% of the estimated statewide breeding bird population in the three years. Although species composition remained relatively similar among years, between-year patterns in abundance and frequency varied considerably among species. Data from this survey and the North American Breeding Bird Survey indicated that species exhibiting significant declines were primarily grassland- and wetland-breeding birds, whereas species exhibiting significant increases primarily were those associated with human structures and woody vegetation. Population declines and increases for species with similar habitat associations paralleled breeding habitat changes, providing evidence that factors on the breeding grounds are having a detectable effect on breeding birds in the northern Great Plains.

  12. Land use effects on pesticides in sediments of prairie pothole wetlands in North and South Dakota.

    PubMed

    McMurry, Scott T; Belden, Jason B; Smith, Loren M; Morrison, Shane A; Daniel, Dale W; Euliss, Betty R; Euliss, Ned H; Kensinger, Bart J; Tangen, Brian A

    2016-09-15

    Prairie potholes are the dominant wetland type in the intensively cultivated northern Great Plains of North America, and thus have the potential to receive pesticide runoff and drift. We examined the presence of pesticides in sediments of 151 wetlands split among the three dominant land use types, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), cropland, and native prairie, in North and South Dakota in 2011. Herbicides (glyphosate and atrazine) and fungicides were detected regularly, with no insecticide detections. Glyphosate was the most detected pesticide, occurring in 61% of all wetlands, with atrazine in only 8% of wetlands. Pyraclostrobin was one of five fungicides detected, but the only one of significance, being detected in 31% of wetlands. Glyphosate was the only pesticide that differed by land use, with concentrations in cropland over four-times that in either native prairie or CRP, which were equal in concentration and frequency of detection. Despite examining several landscape variables, such as wetland proximity to specific crop types, watershed size, and others, land use was the best variable explaining pesticide concentrations in potholes. CRP ameliorated glyphosate in wetlands at concentrations comparable to native prairie and thereby provides another ecosystem service from this expansive program. PMID:27219502

  13. Influence of trees in the landscape on parasitism rates of grassland passerine nests in Southeastern North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, P.J.; Buhl, D.A.; Shaffer, J.A.; Winter, M.; Johnson, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    Woody vegetation has been linked to increased rates of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism for some grassland hosts. In northern North Dakota, however, studies reported that parasitism of grassland passerine nests was lower in landscapes with trees than in those without trees. We looked for evidence of this pattern elsewhere, using data from two studies conducted on the Sheyenne National Grassland in southeastern North Dakota. Specifically, we examined the probability of parasitism relative to percent tree cover within 2 km of a nest. We found a negative relationship for grassland passerine nests of all species tested. Our results support the suggestion that cowbirds are less likely to parasitize nests of grassland passerines where tree cover on the landscape is greater. This pattern could be explained by cowbirds switching to alternative hosts in woodlands, but this hypothesis needs further testing. ?? 2009 by The Cooper Ornithological Society. All rights reserved.

  14. The Western Progression of Lyme Disease: Infectious and Nonclonal Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Populations in Grand Forks County, North Dakota

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Brandee L.; Russart, Nathan M.; Gaultney, Robert A.; Floden, Angela M.; Vaughan, Jefferson A.

    2014-01-01

    Scant attention has been paid to Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ixodes scapularis, or reservoirs in eastern North Dakota despite the fact that it borders high-risk counties in Minnesota. Recent reports of B. burgdorferi and I. scapularis in North Dakota, however, prompted a more detailed examination. Spirochetes cultured from the hearts of five rodents trapped in Grand Forks County, ND, were identified as B. burgdorferi sensu lato through sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, the 16S rRNA gene-ileT intergenic spacer region, flaB, ospA, ospC, and p66. OspC typing revealed the presence of groups A, B, E, F, L, and I. Two rodents were concurrently carrying multiple OspC types. Multilocus sequence typing suggested the eastern North Dakota strains are most closely related to those found in neighboring regions of the upper Midwest and Canada. BALB/c mice were infected with B. burgdorferi isolate M3 (OspC group B) by needle inoculation or tick bite. Tibiotarsal joints and ear pinnae were culture positive, and B. burgdorferi M3 was detected by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the tibiotarsal joints, hearts, and ear pinnae of infected mice. Uninfected larval I. scapularis ticks were able to acquire B. burgdorferi M3 from infected mice; M3 was maintained in I. scapularis during the molt from larva to nymph; and further, M3 was transmitted from infected I. scapularis nymphs to naive mice, as evidenced by cultures and qPCR analyses. These results demonstrate that isolate M3 is capable of disseminated infection by both artificial and natural routes of infection. This study confirms the presence of unique (nonclonal) and infectious B. burgdorferi populations in eastern North Dakota. PMID:25304515

  15. Organochlorine and mercury residues in Swainson's and ferruginous hawk eggs collected in North and South Dakota, 1974-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stendell, R.C.; Gilmer, D.S.; Coon, N.C.; Swineford, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury were measured in eggs of Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni) and ferruginous hawks (B. regalis) collected in North and South Dakota during 1974?79. DDE was the most common compound detected in the eggs, but residues were below levels known to have adverse effects on reproduction. Other organochlorine compounds and mercury were found at low levels. Eggs of ferruginous hawks tended to contain more compounds with higher residues than eggs of Swainson's hawks.

  16. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Beranich, S.; Berger, N.; Bierley, D.; Bond, T.M.; Burt, C.; Caldwell, J.A.; Dery, V.A.; Dutcher, A.; Glover, W.A.; Heydenburg, R.J.; Larson, N.B.; Lindsey, G.; Longley, J.M.; Millard, J.B.; Miller, M.; Peel, R.C.; Persson-Reeves, C.H.; Titus, F.B.; Wagner, L.

    1989-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), to clean up the Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, uraniferous lignite processing sites to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at these sites. Remedial action at these sites must be performed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards promulgated for the remedial action and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The inactive Belfield uraniferous lignite processing site is one mile southeast of Belfield, North Dakota. The inactive Bowman uraniferous lignite processing site at the former town of Griffin, is seven miles northwest of Bowman, North Dakota and 65 road miles south of Belfield. Lignite ash from the processing operations has contaminated the soils over the entire 10.7-acre designated Belfield site and the entire 12.1-acre designated Bowman site. Dispersion of the ash has contaminated an additional 20.6 acres surrounding the Belfield processing site and an additional 59.2 acres surrounding the Bowman processing site. The proposed remedial action is to relocate the contaminated materials at the Belfield processing site to the Bowman processing/disposal site for codisposal with the Bowman contaminated soils. The environmental impacts assessed in this EA were evaluated for the proposed remedial action and the no action alternative and demonstrate that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and would be performed in compliance with applicable environmental laws. The no action alternative would not be consistent with the intent of Public Law 95-604 and would not comply with the EPA standards. 48 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. The Western progression of lyme disease: infectious and Nonclonal Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato populations in Grand Forks County, North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Stone, Brandee L; Russart, Nathan M; Gaultney, Robert A; Floden, Angela M; Vaughan, Jefferson A; Brissette, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    Scant attention has been paid to Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ixodes scapularis, or reservoirs in eastern North Dakota despite the fact that it borders high-risk counties in Minnesota. Recent reports of B. burgdorferi and I. scapularis in North Dakota, however, prompted a more detailed examination. Spirochetes cultured from the hearts of five rodents trapped in Grand Forks County, ND, were identified as B. burgdorferi sensu lato through sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, the 16S rRNA gene-ileT intergenic spacer region, flaB, ospA, ospC, and p66. OspC typing revealed the presence of groups A, B, E, F, L, and I. Two rodents were concurrently carrying multiple OspC types. Multilocus sequence typing suggested the eastern North Dakota strains are most closely related to those found in neighboring regions of the upper Midwest and Canada. BALB/c mice were infected with B. burgdorferi isolate M3 (OspC group B) by needle inoculation or tick bite. Tibiotarsal joints and ear pinnae were culture positive, and B. burgdorferi M3 was detected by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the tibiotarsal joints, hearts, and ear pinnae of infected mice. Uninfected larval I. scapularis ticks were able to acquire B. burgdorferi M3 from infected mice; M3 was maintained in I. scapularis during the molt from larva to nymph; and further, M3 was transmitted from infected I. scapularis nymphs to naive mice, as evidenced by cultures and qPCR analyses. These results demonstrate that isolate M3 is capable of disseminated infection by both artificial and natural routes of infection. This study confirms the presence of unique (nonclonal) and infectious B. burgdorferi populations in eastern North Dakota. PMID:25304515

  18. Regression equations to estimate seasonal flow duration, n-day high-flow frequency, and n-day low-flow frequency at sites in North Dakota using data through water year 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara; Gross, Tara A.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal mean daily flow data from 119 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in North Dakota; the surrounding states of Montana, Minnesota, and South Dakota; and the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan with 10 or more years of unregulated flow record were used to develop regression equations for flow duration, n-day high flow and n-day low flow using ordinary least-squares and Tobit regression techniques. Regression equations were developed for seasonal flow durations at the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percent exceedances; the 1-, 7-, and 30-day seasonal mean high flows for the 10-, 25-, and 50-year recurrence intervals; and the 1-, 7-, and 30-day seasonal mean low flows for the 2-, 5-, and 10-year recurrence intervals. Basin and climatic characteristics determined to be significant explanatory variables in one or more regression equations included drainage area, percentage of basin drainage area that drains to isolated lakes and ponds, ruggedness number, stream length, basin compactness ratio, minimum basin elevation, precipitation, slope ratio, stream slope, and soil permeability. The adjusted coefficient of determination for the n-day high-flow regression equations ranged from 55.87 to 94.53 percent. The Chi2 values for the duration regression equations ranged from 13.49 to 117.94, whereas the Chi2 values for the n-day low-flow regression equations ranged from 4.20 to 49.68.

  19. Regression equations to estimate seasonal flow duration, n-day high-flow frequency, and n-day low-flow frequency at sites in North Dakota using data through water year 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara; Gross, Tara A.

    2016-02-09

    Seasonal mean daily flow data from 119 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in North Dakota; the surrounding states of Montana, Minnesota, and South Dakota; and the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan with 10 or more years of unregulated flow record were used to develop regression equations for flow duration, n-day high flow and n-day low flow using ordinary least-squares and Tobit regression techniques. Regression equations were developed for seasonal flow durations at the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percent exceedances; the 1-, 7-, and 30-day seasonal mean high flows for the 10-, 25-, and 50-year recurrence intervals; and the 1-, 7-, and 30-day seasonal mean low flows for the 2-, 5-, and 10-year recurrence intervals. Basin and climatic characteristics determined to be significant explanatory variables in one or more regression equations included drainage area, percentage of basin drainage area that drains to isolated lakes and ponds, ruggedness number, stream length, basin compactness ratio, minimum basin elevation, precipitation, slope ratio, stream slope, and soil permeability. The adjusted coefficient of determination for the n-day high-flow regression equations ranged from 55.87 to 94.53 percent. The Chi2 values for the duration regression equations ranged from 13.49 to 117.94, whereas the Chi2 values for the n-day low-flow regression equations ranged from 4.20 to 49.68.

  20. 9C-3D seismic interpretation of the Bakken Formation, Banner Field, North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comegys, Lillian R.

    The Bakken Petroleum System is a multi-reservoir play with estimated total undiscovered resources of 3.649 BBO oil and 1.85 TCF natural gas in the United States portion of the Williston Basin (Pollastro 2008). The presence of natural fractures in all three members of the Bakken Formation have been linked to high initial production (IP) and cumulative production from the Antelope Field and better reservoir potential in the Elm Coulee Field and Sanish Fields (Sturm and Gomez 2009; Honsberger 2012; Theloy 2011). Therefore, the ability of seismic data to determine the presence, orientation, and density of natural fractures is an important achievement for petroleum exploration and exploitation. The STAMPEDE 9-component seismic survey is located in Mountrail County, North Dakota, in the Banner Field, southeast of the Parshall and Sanish Fields. It is the goal of the Reservoir Characterization Project to analyze the structural influences on reservoir properties in the STAMPEDE survey area using the compressional and pure shear seismic volumes supplemented by the public well information available on the North Dakota Industrial Commission website. Fracturing induced by basement faulting and lithology changes is detectable using multicomponent seismic data in the Stampede seismic survey. Shear wave splitting analysis delineates zones of different fracture orientation and density. These areas correlate to interpreted fault intersections and the predicted area of increased fracture frequency based on facies changes in the Middle Bakken Member and its mechanical stratigraphy. Wrench fault mechanics are at work in the study area, creating isolated convergent and divergent stress regimes in the separate fault blocks. Main fault interpretations are based on shear wave isochron mapping, wireline log mapping, seismic panel observations. Fracture interpretations were made on the analysis of shear time and amplitude anisotropy maps and the correlation of a P-wave Velocity Variation

  1. Re-Evaluating Geothermal Potential with GIS Methods and New Data: Williston Basin, North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, A. M.; Gosnold, W. D.; UND Geothermal Laboratory

    2011-12-01

    The University of North Dakota Geothermal Laboratory is working on the National Geothermal Data Aggregation project in conjunction with Southern Methodist University (SMU) and other partners, and funded by the Department of Energy to collect data for exploration and utilization of resources for geothermal power production. We have examined 10,951 wells in the Williston Basin to determine accurate methods for estimating power extraction potential in a sedimentary basin. The calculations we used involved defining the area of wells within designated ranges and calculating the geothermal fluid reservoir volume using porosity data from the North Dakota Geological Survey Wilson M. Laird Core Library. We defined the parameters for our calculations as: bottom-hole temperature (BHT), formation thickness data, surface area of the polygon around wells within the temperature range, and porosity data. The wells in each formation with a BHT over 90°C were imported into ArcGIS, buffered to 1.6 kilometers from centroid, and outlined with a polygon feature to define the surface area. We then included average formation thickness to determine an approximate volume for ten water and rock reservoirs. In calculating this available energy the following three assumptions were made; that 1/1000 of the water volume is available to use per year, that the temperature is lowered to 50°C during electrical power production, and that the efficiency of the binary power plant utilized is 14%. The estimated recoverable energy in the volume of rock containing geothermal fluids by temperature range is as follows: 1.32 x 108 MW for 90°-100° C, 1.92 x 108 MW for 100°-110° C, 2.15 x 108 MW for 110°-120° C, 2.4 x 108 MW for 120°-130° C, 1.4 x 108 MW for 130°-140° C, 4.95 x 107 MW for 140°-150° C, and 3.67 x 107 MW for 150° C and up.

  2. Hydrogeological restrictions to saline ground-water discharge in the Red River of the North drainage basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, M.L. Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND )

    1992-01-01

    Discharge of saline water from bedrock aquifers along the eastern margin of the Williston basin is restricted by surficial glacial till and lacustrine deposits in the Red River of the North drainage basin. Water from these aquifers reaches the surface by (1) diffusion; (2) slow, upward seepage along zones of relatively larger hydraulic conductivity in the till and lacustrine deposits; or (3) flow from artesian wells. Ground-water quality varies near the surface because of mixing of water being discharged from bedrock aquifers with shallower ground water in the surficial deposits. Ground-water quality, hydraulic-gradient, and hydraulic-conductivity data obtained from pumped-well and slug tests indicate that flow in the surficial deposits is eastward, but at slow rates because of small hydraulic conductivities. Base-flow and specific-conductance measurements of water in tributaries to the Red River of the North indicate that focused points of ground-water discharge result in substantial increases in salinity in surface water in the northern part of the basin in North Dakota. Core analyses and drillers' logs were used to generalize hydrogeologic characteristics of the deposits in the basin, and a two-dimensional ground-water-flow model was used to simulate the basin's geohydrologic processes. Model results indicate that the ground-water flow paths in the bedrock aquifers and surficial deposits converge, and that water from the bedrock aquifers contributes to the overall increase in ground-water discharge toward the east. Model results are supported by water-quality data collected along an east-west hydrogeologic section.

  3. Use of no-till winter wheat by nesting ducks in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duebbert, H.F.; Kantrud, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Nesting of dabbling ducks (Anatinae) was studied in fields of no-till winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the prairie pothole region of North Dakota during 1984 and 1985. Total area of 59 fields searched in 1984 was 1,135 ha and total area of 70 fields searched in 1985 was 1,175 ha. Field sizes ranged from 3 ha to 110 ha. Nests of five duck species were found: blue-winged teal (Anas discors), 55 nests; northern pintail (A. acuta), 44; mallard (A. platyrhynchos), 29; gadwall (A. strepera), 15; and northern shoveler (A. clypeata), 8. The average number of nests found was 8/100 ha in 1984 and 6/100 ha in 1985. Nest success for all species averaged 26% in 1984 and 29% in 1985. Predation by mammals was the principal cause of nest destruction. No egg or hen mortality could be attributed to pesticide use. Only 6 of 151 nests (4%) were abandoned during the two years. We also found 29 nests of seven other ground-nesting bird species. The trend toward increased planting of no-till winter wheat in the prairie pothole region should benefit production of ducks and other ground-nesting birds.

  4. The flora of the Cottonwood Lake Study Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushet, D.M.; Euliss, N.H.; Lane, S.P.; Goldade, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The 92 ha Cottonwood Lake Study Area is located in south-central North Dakota along the eastern edge of a glacial stagnation moraine known as the Missouri Coteau. The study area has been the focus of biologic and hydrologic research since the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service purchased the site in 1963. We studied the plant communities of the Cottonwood Lake Study Area from 1992 to 2001. During this time period, the vascular flora of the study area consisted of 220 species representing 51 families. Over half of the species were perennial forbs (117 species). Perennial grasses (26 species) and annual forbs (22 species) made up the next two largest physiognomic groupings. The flora, having a mean Coefficient of Conservatism of 4.6 and a Floristic Quality Index of 62, consisted of 187 native species. Thirty-three species were non-natives. Our annotated list should provide information useful to researchers, graduate students, and others as they design and implement future studies in wetlands and uplands both in and around the Cottonwood Lake Study Area.

  5. Spatial relations between sympatric coyotes and red foxes in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.; Allen, S.H.; Hastings, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    Spatial relations between coyotes (Canis latrans) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on a 360-km2 area in North Dakota were studied during 1977-78. Coyote families occupied large (mean = 61.2 km2), relatively exclusive territories that encompassed about one-half of the study area. Fox families occupied much smaller (mean = 11.9 km2), relatively exclusive, territories that overlapped perimeters of coyote territories and/or encompassed area unoccupied by coyotes. No fox family lived totally within a coyote territory, but 3 fox families lived within the 153.6-km2 home range of an unattached yearling male coyote. Both coyotes and foxes, from families with overlapping territories, tended to use their overlap areas less than was expected by amount of overlap. Encounters between radio-equipped coyotes and foxes from families with overlapping territories occurred less often than was expected by chance. Foxes living near coyotes exhibited considerable tenacity to their territories, and no monitored fox was killed by coyotes during 2,518 fox-days of radio surveillance. A hypothesis for coyote-induced fox population declines, based largely on fox avoidance mechanisms, is presented.

  6. Influence of flow variability on floodplain formation and destruction, Little Missouri River, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, J.R.; Friedman, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Resolving observations of channel change into separate planimetric measurements of floodplain formation and destruction reveals distinct relations between these processes and the flow regime. We analyzed a time sequence of eight bottomland images from 1939 to 2003 along the Little Missouri River, North Dakota, to relate geomorphic floodplain change to flow along this largely unregulated river. At the decadal scale, floodplain formation and destruction varied independently. Destruction was strongly positively correlated with the magnitude of infrequent high flows that recur every 5-10 yr, whereas floodplain formation was negatively correlated with the magnitude of frequent low flows exceeded 80% of the time. At the century scale, however, a climatically induced decrease in peak flows has reduced the destruction rate, limiting the area made available for floodplain formation. The rate of destruction was not uniform across the floodplain. Younger surfaces were consistently destroyed at a higher rate than older surfaces, suggesting that throughput of contaminants would have occurred more rapidly than predicted by models that assume uniform residence time of sediment across the floodplain. Maps of floodplain ages produced by analysis of sequential floodplain images are similar to maps of forest ages produced through dendrochronology, confirming the assumption of dendrogeomorphic studies that riparian tree establishment in this system is limited to recent channel locations. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  7. Multi-element composition of soils of seasonal wetlands across North Dakota, USA.

    PubMed

    Yellick, A H; Jacob, D L; DeKeyser, E S; Hargiss, C L M; Meyers, L M; Ell, M; Kissoon-Charles, L T; Otte, M L

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to assess if the soils of wetlands of different condition varied in terms of element composition. The rationale was that compared to wetlands of good condition, wetlands of poor condition-which in the region have typically been disturbed by agricultural activities, are lower in biodiversity and have fewer native species-would have been altered in their physical and chemical soil characteristics. This in turn would have altered the element composition of the soils. The concentrations of about 50 elements in the topsoil of 43 seasonal wetlands of varying condition, as measured by plant community based assessments, across North Dakota were determined. Organic matter content of the soils increased as condition increased, and it was the most important variable explaining 40 % of variation in the concentrations of elements. This can be partly explained by binding of elements to organic matter (S, Se) and for most other elements (that bind mostly to the inorganic fraction) by displacement by organic matter. The biogeochemistry of S is further implicated in the distribution of Ca, most likely via formation of insoluble gypsum (calcium sulfate).

  8. Genetic sequence relationships of Winnipegosis platform carbonates, southern Elk Point basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Shanley, K.W.; Cross, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    Examination of cores and well log data from the Winnipegosis Formation (Givetian) within a study area of approximately 11,500 mi/sup 2/ (30,000 km/sup 2/) in northern North Dakota allows recognition of seven time-stratigraphic progradational units within the Winnipegosis Formation. Together with the underlying Ashern Formation, these units are arranged in landward-stepping, vertical stacking, and seaward-stepping geometric patterns, which reflect changes in relative sea level. Abrupt juxtaposition of shallow over deeper water lithologies, evidence for subaerial exposure, and onlap geometries further suggest that these progradational units form two larger, Vail-type sequences separated by regionally persistent unconformities or their correlative conformities. Sea level rise during the early Eifelian caused southeastward onlap of the Ashern Formation onto Middle Silurian carbonates of the Interlake Formation. Maximum flooding, expressed by deepest marine facies and a hardground surface, suggests the existence of a condensed section at the top of the Ashern Formation. This was developed during the maximum rate of sea level rise. A decrease in the rate of sea level rise resulted in aggradation of lower Winnipegosis units on a gently dipping ramp. These are represented by nodular and burrowed open marine limestones with scattered stromatoporoid patch reefs and grainstone shoals. During the subsequent sea level fall, represented by Temple units, a shelf margin with pronounced depositional topography and adjacent starved basin were developed. Temple strata include coral-brachiopod-stromatoporoid reefs and productive fore-reef talus deposits along the shelf margin rim.

  9. North Dakota aeromagnetic and gravity maps and data, a web site for distribution of data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweeney, Ronald E.; Hill, Patricia L.

    2003-01-01

    The North Dakota aeromagnetic grid is constructed from grids that combine information collected in 13 separate aeromagnetic surveys conducted between 1978 and 2001. The data from these surveys are of varying quality. The design and specifications (terrain clearance, sampling rates, line spacing, and reduction procedures) varied from survey to survey depending on the purpose of the project and the technology of that time. Every attempt was made to acquire the data in digital form. Most of the available digital data were obtained from aeromagnetic surveys flown by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), flown on contract with the USGS, or were obtained from other federal agencies and state universities. Some of the 1980 data are available only on hand-contoured maps and had to be digitized. These maps were digitized along flight-line/contour-line intersections, which is considered to be the most accurate method of recovering the original data. Digitized data are available as USGS Open File Report 99-557. All surveys have been continued to 304.8 meters (1000 feet) above ground and then blended or merged together.

  10. Oxidation of North Dakota scrubber sludge for soil amendment and production of gypsum. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hassett, D.J.; Moe, T.A.

    1997-10-01

    Cooperative Power`s Coal Creek Station (CCS) the North Dakota Industrial Commission, and the US Department of Energy provided funds for a research project at the Energy and Environmental Research Center. The goals of the project were (1) to determine conditions for the conversion of scrubber sludge to gypsum simulating an ex situ process on the laboratory scale; (2) to determine the feasibility of scaleup of the process; (3) if warranted, to demonstrate the ex situ process for conversion on the pilot scale; and (4) to evaluate the quality and handling characteristics of the gypsum produced on the pilot scale. The process development and demonstration phases of this project were successfully completed focusing on ex situ oxidation using air at low pH. The potential to produce a high-purity gypsum on a commercial scale is excellent. The results of this project demonstrate the feasibility of converting CCS scrubber sludge to gypsum exhibiting characteristics appropriate for agricultural application as soil amendment as well as for use in gypsum wallboard production. Gypsum of a purity of over 98% containing acceptable levels of potentially problematic constituents was produced in the laboratory and in a pilot-scale demonstration.

  11. Wabek and Plaza fields: Carbonate shoreline traps in the Williston basin of North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Sperr, T. ); Hendricks, M.L. ); Stancel, S.G.

    1991-06-01

    Wabek and Plaza fields in Mountrail and Ware counties, North Dakota, will ultimately produce 8 million and 3 million bbl of oil, respectively, from reservoirs in the Sherwood and Bluell intervals of the Mississippian Mission Canyon Formation. Both fields produce from porous, oolitic, and pisolitic lime packstones and grainstones deposited as shoals along a low-energy shoreline. A facies change to impermeable dolomitic and salina/sabkha environments to the east provides the updip trap. The Sherwood at Wabek has more than 100 ft of oil column driven by solution gas and water influx. Effective porosity consists of interparticle, vuggy, and minor dolomitic intercrystalline porosity. Log porosities range from 6 to 26%, averaging about 10%, and net pay averages about 26 ft. One mile west of Wabek, Plaza field produces from the Bluell, stratigraphically overlying the Sherwood. Log porosities range from 6 to 16%, averaging about 9%. Net pay averages about 6 ft. An oil-water contact is not yet defined, but at least 120 ft of oil column are present. Regional depositional slope and local depositional topography were major controls on Mission Canyon shoreline trends and the development of reservoir facies. In the Wabek-Plaza complex, the position and trend of the Sherwood and Bluell shorelines can be related to structural trends indentified in the crystalline basement from aeromagnetic data. Locally, thickness variations in the underlying Mohall interval amplified relief on the Wabek-Plaza structure and influenced the deposition of shoreline reservoirs.

  12. Rural North Dakota's oil boom and its impact on social services.

    PubMed

    Weber, Bret A; Geigle, Julia; Barkdull, Carenlee

    2014-01-01

    Over the last five years, North Dakota has experienced an oil boom based on high oil prices and hydraulic fracturing technologies. This has brought economic expansion and population growth to rural communities that had previously experienced decades of depopulation and economic struggle. Although the state has enjoyed many benefits--especially in juxtaposition to a sluggish national economy--the boom has also meant the arrival of economic refugees and dramatic impacts on largely rural social service systems. In the midst of a rapidly changing situation, available information tends to swing between euphoria over economic success and hysteria about rising crime and shifting cultures. In response, the authors used a primary focus group with county social service directors from across the state and a followup focus group with social workers operating on the edge of oil activity. Grounded in resilience theory, qualitative analysis of the primary focus group, and triangulation of data from other sources, this study provides a more objective report of the housing and social challenges, the benefits of the boom, and the challenges to solutions.

  13. Effects of grazing on nesting by upland sandpipers in southcentral North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Bonnie S.; Kruse, Arnold D.

    1993-01-01

    Grazing by livestock is often used to reduce litter, improve plant vigor, and alter plant species composition, but additional information is needed on the effects of these management practices on upland-nesting birds. Thus, we conducted an experimental study of the effect of grazing on nest density and nest success of upland sandpipers (Bartramia longicauda) in southcentral North Dakota from 1981 to 1987. Our experimental design consisted of 4 treatments and 1 control, each applied to 1 field in each of 3 study areas. The treatments represented options available to grassland managers: spring grazing, autumn grazing, autumn-and-spring grazing, season-long grazing, and control (ungrazed during the study). Nests (n = 342) were found by searching study areas with a cable-chain drag. Nest density was lower (P = 0.006) for treatments where cattle were present (spring, autumn-and-spring, and season-long) than where cattle were not present (autumn and control) during the nesting season. We concluded that grazing during the nesting season reduced the nest density of upland sandpipers. Nest success varied among years (P = 0.01) and was low in the first year of grazing and higher at the end of the study period. We found little evidence that the grazing treatment influenced nest success. We recommend that public lands with breeding populations of upland sandpipers include a complex of fields under various management practices, including fields undisturbed during the nesting season.

  14. Brood parasitism among waterfowl nesting on islands and peninsulas in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lokemoen, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    During 1985 and 1986 I studied interspecific brood parasitism among seven species of waterfowl nesting on 36 islands and 24 peninsulas in central North Dakota. On islands, 40% of 178 nests were parasitized with an average of 4.3 parasitic eggs, and on peninsulas 2% of 275 nests were parasitized with an average of 2.2 parasitic eggs. Redheads (Aythya americana) were the primary parasite, adding eggs to 92% of all parasitized nests. Species nesting in open cover were parasitized at a higher rate than species nesting in dense cover. Nests with parasitic eggs had fewer host eggs and there was a negative association between the number of parasitic eggs and the success of host eggs. Parasitized nests had lower success, but additional parasitic eggs had no added influence on nest success. Interspecific brood parasitism had significant negative effects on dabbling ducks on islands but Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) were little affected. Even so, the number of young hatched per nest was much higher on islands because of the high loss of eggs to predators on the mainland. Parasitic eggs were deposited during the middle of the nesting season, but the peak of parasitic laying occurred before the peak of normal nesting.

  15. Diet and gut morphology of male mallards during winter in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, R.E.; Cox, R.R.; Afton, A.D.; Ankney, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    A free-ranging Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) population was investigated during winter (December-January 1996-1999) below the Garrison Dam, North Dakota, USA, to relate diet to gut morphology variation in males. Four explanatory variables (fish consumption, male age, winter, and body size) were evaluated as to whether they influenced five response variables associated with gut characteristics of Mallards. Response variables were lower gastro-intestinal tract mass (LGIT), dry liver mass, dry gizzard mass, small intestine length, and ceca length. Diets of Mallards were comprised primarily of Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax) and concomitantly variation in gizzard mass was small. LGIT mass of juveniles was larger than that of adults, greater for those that consumed fish, and greater during the coldest and snowiest winter. Liver mass and small intestine length of Mallards that consumed fish were greater than those that did not. Mallards may maintain lengthy intestines to increase digestive efficiency. Gut size variation was not entirely attributable to dietary composition but also influenced by body size and environmental conditions such that over-winter survival is maximized.

  16. Legacy data for a northern prairie grassland: Woodworth Study Area, North Dakota, 1963-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Shelby H.; Austin, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological data commonly become more valuable through time. Such legacy data provide baseline records of past biological, physical, and social information that provide historical perspective and are necessary for assessment of stasis or change. Legacy data collected at the Woodworth Study Area (WSA), a contiguous block of grasslands, croplands, and wetlands covering more than 1,000 hectares of the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, are cataloged and summarized in this study. The WSA is one of the longest researched grassland sites in the Upper Midwest. It has an extensive history of settlement, land use, and management that provides a deeper context for future research. The WSA data include long-term vegetation transect records, land use history, habitat management records, geologic information, wetland hydrology and chemistry information, and spatial images. Substantial parts of these data have not been previously reported. The WSA is representative of many other lands purchased by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in the Prairie Pothole Region from the 1930s to the 1970s; therefore, synthesized data from the WSA are broadly applicable to topics of concern in northern grasslands, such as increases in non-native plants, managing for biodiversity, and long-term effects of habitat management. New techniques are also described that were used to preserve these data for future analyses. The data preservation techniques are applicable to any project with data that should be preserved for 100 years or more.

  17. Economic Impact of Harvesting Corn Stover under Time Constraint: The Case of North Dakota

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Maung, Thein A.; Gustafson, Cole R.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the impact of stochastic harvest field time on profit maximizing potential of corn cob/stover collection in North Dakota. Three harvest options are analyzed using mathematical programming models. Our findings show that under the first corn grain only harvest option, farmers are able to complete harvesting corn grain and achieve maximum net income in a fairly short amount of time with existing combine technology. However, under the second simultaneous corn grain and cob (one-pass) harvest option, farmers generate lower net income compared to the net income of the first option. This is due to the slowdown in combinemore » harvest capacity as a consequence of harvesting corn cobs. Under the third option of separate corn grain and stover (two-pass) harvest option, time allocation is the main challenge and our evidence shows that with limited harvest field time available, farmers find it optimal to allocate most of their time harvesting grain and then proceed to harvest and bale stover if time permits at the end of harvest season. The overall findings suggest is that it would be more economically efficient to allow a firm that is specialized in collecting biomass feedstock to participate in cob/stover harvest business.« less

  18. North Dakota assistance program for dementia caregivers lowered utilization, produced savings, and increased empowerment.

    PubMed

    Klug, Marilyn G; Halaas, Gwen Wagstrom; Peterson, Mandi-Leigh

    2014-04-01

    North Dakota's state-funded Dementia Care Services Program provides individualized assistance to caregivers of persons with dementia. Caregivers can contact program representatives at any time and may continue to contact them throughout the years they are caring for the person with dementia. During the program's first forty-two months of operation (January 2010 to June 2013), care consultants assisted 1,750 caregivers, primarily family members, of 951 persons with dementia. In survey responses and other self-reported data, the unpaid caregivers credited the assistance program with helping them feel more empowered, consider their charges less likely to be placed in long-term care, and use less potentially avoidable medical services such as hospitalizations and 911 calls. The program's estimated potential savings were $39.2 million from delayed long-term care placement and $0.8 million from reduced use of medical services, and its two-year costs were $1.2 million. The program's success with its rural service population, for which travel tends to be difficult and resources limited, provides a model for others to adapt. It also encourages further research on impacts of individualized support programs on persons with dementia and their caregivers. PMID:24711321

  19. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-six. North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of North Dakota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  20. Fly ash utilization in McLean County, North Dakota. Topical report, Task 7.25

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, C.J.

    1993-03-01

    In 1989, the McLean County Commissioners requested assistance from personnel at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) with the construction of a section of road and a boat ramp in their county. Assistance was sought from the EERC because the county`s construction plans called for partial replacement of the lime and portland cement normally used for soil stabilization with fly ash. Since the EERC had recently conducted several research projects dealing with the use of coal combustion by-products for road construction, the commissioners requested that EERC personnel help to determine appropriate formulas for the stabilized soil mixtures to be used for both the road and boat ramp applications. An additional incentive was provided when the management of the Coal Creek Power Plant offered to donate the necessary fly ash at no cost. This project was performed as a joint venture between McLean County and the EERC. The EERC was primarily responsible for conducting a laboratory testing program to develop soil stabilization mixtures for the two construction activities. These mixtures were to contain a relatively high percentage of fly ash and to exhibit sufficient strength and durability so that the road and boat ramp would both have a service life of 20 years or more. McLean County would be primarily responsible for the road and boat ramp construction activities. The funding for the EERC portion of the project was provided by the US Department of Energy through a joint venture support program.

  1. Assessment of groundwater quality data for the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation, Rolette County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lundgren, Robert F.; Vining, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation relies on groundwater supplies to meet the demands of community and economic needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians, examined historical groundwater-level and groundwater-quality data for the Fox Hills, Hell Creek, Rolla, and Shell Valley aquifers. The two main sources of water-quality data for groundwater were the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database and the North Dakota State Water Commission database. Data included major ions, trace elements, nutrients, field properties, and physical properties. The Fox Hills and Hell Creek aquifers had few groundwater water-quality data. The lack of data limits any detailed assessments that can be made about these aquifers. Data for the Rolla aquifer exist from 1978 through 1980 only. The concentrations of some water-quality constituents exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant levels. No samples were analyzed for pesticides and hydrocarbons. Numerous water-quality samples have been obtained from the Shell Valley aquifer. About one-half of the water samples from the Shell Valley aquifer had concentrations of iron, manganese, sulfate, and dissolved solids that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant levels. Overall, the data did not indicate obvious patterns in concentrations.

  2. Agricultural and recreational impacts of the conservation reserve program in rural North Dakota, USA.

    PubMed

    Bangsund, Dean A; Hodur, Nancy M; Leistritz, F Larry

    2004-07-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), created in 1985, provides conservation benefits and agricultural supply control through voluntary, long-term retirement of crop land. While the effects of the CRP on the agricultural sector are well understood, the implications of its conservation benefits for rural economies remain largely undocumented. To quantify the effects on rural economies, this study addressed the net economic effects of decreased agricultural activity and increased recreational activity associated with the CRP in six rural areas of North Dakota from 1996 to 2000. Based on the level of economic activity that would have occurred in the absence of the program, net revenues from CRP land if returned to agricultural production in the six study areas were estimated at $50.2 million annually or $37 per acre of land currently enrolled in the CRP. Recreational (hunting) revenues as a result of the CRP in the study areas were estimated at $12.8 million annually or $9.45 per CRP-acre. The net economic effect of the CRP (lost agricultural revenues and gains in recreational expenditures) indicated that several areas of the state are not as economically burdened by the CRP as previous research has suggested. In addition, the net economic effects of the program would appear more favourable if revenues from all CRP-based recreation were included. The degree that recreational revenues offset agricultural losses might be further enhanced by enterprises that capitalize on the economic opportunities associated with expanded recreational activities on CRP lands.

  3. Preliminary analysis of University of North Dakota aircraft data from the FIRE Cirrus IFO-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poellot, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    The stated goals of the First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment (FIRE) are 'to promote the development of improved cloud and radiation parameterization for use in climate models, and to provide for assessment and improvement of ISCCP projects'. FIRE Phase 2 has focused on the formation, maintenance and dissipation of cirrus and marine stratocumulus cloud systems. These objectives have been approached through a combination of modeling, extended-time observations and intensive field observation (IFO) periods. The work under this grant was associated with the FIRE Cirrus IFO 2. This field measurement program was conducted to obtain observations of cirrus cloud systems on a range of scales from the synoptic to the microscale, utilizing simultaneous measurements from a variety of ground-based, satellite and airborne platforms. By combining these remote and in situ measurements a more complete picture of cirrus systems can be obtained. The role of the University of North Dakota in Phase 2 was three-fold: to collect in situ microphysical data during the Cirrus IFO 2; to process and archive these data; and to collaborate in analyses of IFO data. This report will summarize the activities and findings of the work performed under this grant; detailed description of the data sets available and of the analyses are contained in the Semi-annual Status Reports submitted to NASA.

  4. CLIMATE AND HABITAT INFLUENCE PREVALENCE OF MENINGEAL WORM INFECTION IN NORTH DAKOTA, USA.

    PubMed

    Maskey, James J; Sweitzer, Rick A; Goodwin, Brett J

    2015-07-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a parasite of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and is also a significant pathogen of moose (Alces alces) and other ungulates. Changes in climate or habitat may facilitate range expansion or increase the prevalence of meningeal worm infection in white-tailed deer, resulting in increased exposure to susceptible ungulates. We examined 3,730 white-tailed deer during 2002-05 to determine the prevalence and range of meningeal worm infection in North Dakota, US, and investigated whether these had changed since earlier surveys. We used multiple logistic regression to model potential effects of habitat and climate on prevalence in white-tailed deer. We also examined how habitat influences intermediate hosts by comparing gastropod abundance and microclimate among habitat types. Prevalence in deer was 14% statewide, and prevalence and geographic range had increased since the early 1990 s. Natural woodlands provided the best habitat for intermediate hosts, and increases in prevalence of infection in deer may be due to recent patterns in growing-season precipitation. This study has redefined the geographic distribution of meningeal worm infection and increased understanding of how climate and habitat influence the prevalence and distribution of this parasite. PMID:25973622

  5. Environmental assessment of no remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Belfield and Bowman sites were not included on the original congressional list of processing sites to be designated by the Secretary of Energy. Instead, the sites were nominated for designation by the Dakota Resource Council in a letter to the DOE (September 7, 1979). In a letter to the DOE (September 12, 1979), the state of North Dakota said that it did not believe the sites would qualify as processing sites under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) because the activities at the sites involved only the ashing of uraniferous lignite coal and the ash was shipped out of state for actual processing. Nevertheless, on October 11, 1979, the state of North Dakota agreed to the designation of the sites because they met the spirit of the law (reduce public exposure to radiation resulting from past uranium operations). Therefore, these sites were designated by the Secretary of Energy for remedial action. Because of the relatively low health impacts determined for these sites, they were ranked as low priority and scheduled to be included in the final group of sites to be remediated.

  6. Hydrologic, water-quality, and biological characteristics of the North Fork Flathead River, Montana, water years 2007-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Taylor J.; Schweiger, E. William; Mast, M. Alisa; Clow, David W.

    2012-01-01

    In water year 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, began a 2-year study to collect hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data to provide a baseline characterization of the North Fork Flathead River from the United States-Canada border to its confluence with the Middle Fork of the Flathead River near Columbia Falls, Montana. Although mining in the Canadian portion of the North Fork Basin was banned in 2010 by a Memorandum of Understanding issued by the Province of British Columbia, baseline characterization was deemed important for the evaluation of any potential future changes in hydrology, water quality, or aquatic biology in the basin. The North Fork Basin above Columbia Falls (including Canada) drains an area of 1,564 square miles, and the study area encompasses the portion of the basin in Montana, which is 1,126 square miles. Seasonal patterns in the hydrology of the North Fork are dominated by the accumulation and melting of seasonal snowpack in the basin. Low-flow conditions occurred during the late-summer, fall, and winter months, and high-flow conditions coincided with the spring snowmelt. Substantial gains in streamflow occurred along the study reach of the North Fork, 85 percent of which were accounted for by tributary inflows during low-flow conditions, indicating unmeasured streamflow inputs along the main stem were 15 percent or less.

  7. Structural history and reservoir characteristics (Mississippian) of Nesson anticline, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, R.F.; Anderson, S.B.; Lefever, J.A.; Gerhard, L.C.; Lefever, R.D.

    1988-07-01

    Nesson anticline is the largest hydrocarbon productive structure in the North Dakota portion of the Williston basin. Nesson anticline was discovered in 1951, just a few months after discovery of oil in the Williston basin. Fifty-four fields, producing from 14 lower to middle Paleozoic formations, are scattered along the north-south length of the anticline. Nesson anticline fields have produced a total of 377 million bbl of oil, with the Madison Group accounting for two-thirds of the total production. Central southern parts of the anticline were subdivided into nine areas that revealed episodic and independent structural movement since the late Precambrian. All Phanerozoic periods are present within the stratigraphic section. Unconformity-bound, major tectonic-eustatic sequences were mapped along the length of the Nesson anticline, and sedimentary tectonics were documented for the entire Phanerozoic. Greatest amounts of tectonic development of the anticline were during the Devonian to Early Mississippian. Post-Greenhorn, Laramide tectonism was responsible for the last major structural deformation of the anticline. Selected oil fields, productive from the Madison Group, were studied where they are productive from the Mission Canyon Formation and the Rival (Nesson) subinterval. These intervals record sediment infill of a slowly shrinking epeiric sea, as a series of shorelines separated by brief transgressions prograded toward the center of the basin. The Mission Canyon Formation can be characterized as a major shallowing-upward sequence, which upsection is (1) shallow open marine, (2) transitional open to restricted marine, (3) restricted marine, and (4) fringing marginal marine. Barrier island and shoreline buildup complexes developed along the shoreline, with bedded evaporites located away from the anticline toward the east and south.

  8. Hydrologic and climatologic factors affecting water levels of Devils Lake, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiche, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    High water levels of Devils Lake, North Dakota, and other terminal lakes, have, in recent years, threatened highways, agricultural land, recreational cabins, and communities located near these lakes. This study was undertaken to describe the hydrology of the Devils Lake basin and to determine how to estimate future water level probabilities. Analysis of the available hydrologic and climatologic data indicates the water level of Devils Lake fluctuates largely in response to climatic variability. Average annual net storage gain has varied from 70 ,000 acre-feet for 1969-83 to as little as 4,530 acre-feet for 1931-40. In addition to the influence of climatic variability on the inflow to Devils Lake, an interconnected chain of lakes upstream of Devils Lake retains runoff and acts as an evaporation basin for runoff from the Devils Lake basin. During 1965-67, at least 112,000 acre-feet of water was stored in this upstream chain of lakes. A review of research conducted on other terminal lakes indicated that the water level in these lakes fluctuated primarily in response to climate variability. There is agreement between water level fluctuations of terminal lakes in Western North America and water level fluctuations of Devils lake during times of climatic extremes. No standardized methods are available for computing water level probabilities of terminal lakes. Most of the development of a method for determining future water level probabilities has been focused on Great Salt Lake, Utah. A number of techniques have been used to estimate the future water-level probabilities for Great Salt Lake; however, they provide a wide range in probability of occurrence for any given water level. (Author 's abstract)

  9. Leachate generated by an oil-and-gas brine pond site in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, E.C.; Kehew, A.E.; Groenewold, G.H.; Beal, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    Two unlined ponds were used for holding and evaporation of brines produced with oil and gas at a well site in north-central North Dakota. The brine-evaporation ponds were in use from 1959 up to the late 1970s when they were backfilled and leveled. Continued salt-water migration at this site since closure has decreased crop yields in surrounding fields and has killed trees in a shelterbelt within an area of approximately 10 acres. An apparent resistivity survey delineated a 360,000-ha area of extremely low resistivity. Isoconcentration maps indicate that a highly saline leachate plume extends laterally in a 500-foot radius around the ponds and vertically to a depth of 70 feet below the surface. Ground-water recharge at this site is low because of the semiarid climate and the low hydraulic conductivity of the near-surface sediments and, as a result, very little flushing of the brine from the sediment beneath the ponds has occurred. Pore water within the unsaturated zone beneath the reclaimed ponds contain essentially the same ionic concentrations as that of brine impounded in these pits 10 to 25 years ago. Based upon the results of this research, we estimate that brine leachate will continue to migrate at slow rates from this site for tens and possibly hundreds of years if no action is taken. The construction of a mound over the site and/or an infiltration gallery around the perimeter would minimize the spread of brine and make it possible to return this land to production in the foreseeable future.

  10. Natural groundwater recharge in an upland area of central North Dakota, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rehm, B.W.; Moran, S.R.; Groenewold, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    The magnitude of groundwater recharge to coal aquifers in a 150-km2 area in west-central North Dakota was determined using three separate approaches: (1) the net water level rise in water-table wells; (2) calculations of the fluid flux between nested piezometers, using the Darcy equation and measured values of hydraulic conductivity and vertical gradients; and (3) evaluation of the inputs to and outputs from the coal aquifer, using a steady-state control volume approach in which the aquifer was divided into semi-rectangular cells bounded by equipotential lines and flow lines. Measurements of potential gradients and hydraulic conductivity permitted indirect determination of all components of flow into and out of the cell except the recharge input, which was determined by difference. All methods yielded consistent results on the order of 0.04-0.01 m yr.-1 These values, which represent 2-9% of the annual precipitation, are consistent with results of other studies on recharge throughout the prairies of North America. Evaluation of site hydrology and stable-isotope data indicates that recharge is restricted in both time and place. Most recharge occurs in late spring and in the fall following heavy rainfall events. During these seasons the ground is not frozen and vegetation is not transpiring large amounts of water. Some recharge may occur during very heavy localized summer storms, but it is not considered volumetrically significant. Major permanent depressions on the site are a source of significant recharge. In addition, the extensive area of ephemeral standing water bodies that result from snowmelt can produce significant amounts of infiltration over the entire site. ?? 1982.

  11. Climate and flow variation revealed in tree rings of riparian cottonwood, western North Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, J. M.; Edmondson, J. R.; Meko, D. M.; Touchan, R.; Griffin, E. R.; Zhou, H.

    2014-12-01

    In the western Great Plains, where old upland trees are scarce, rings of riparian trees provide an important opportunity for reconstructing past river flow and climate. We present data from 489 plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides ssp. monilifera) trees along the Little Missouri River in western North Dakota. The trees are in randomly selected flood-plain locations within the North and South units of Theodore Roosevelt National Park. The two sites are separated by 160 river km. The Little Missouri watershed contains foothills but no mountains, and most annual high flows result from snowmelt in March or April. Cores were collected and processed using standard dendrochronological methods. The effect of tree age was removed from the chronology using a single relation for the site as a whole (age-curve standardization), which preserves century-scale variation. Trees were as old as 371 years. Given that cottonwood establishment depends upon channel migration, abundant establishment from 1864-1891 at both sites suggests that one or more large floods occurred prior to this period. At the North Unit, establishment continued at a lower rate during the next century, but upstream at the South Unit, tree establishment was greatly curtailed after the 1800s. Comparison of General Land Office Maps from 1907 to recent satellite imagery confirms that channel migration in the last century was much greater within the North Unit, a difference caused in part by a downstream increase in flood amplification by ice jamming. Ring widths show that even on the flood plain riparian trees were chronically drought stressed. At both sites growth was strongly positively correlated with flow and precipitation and weakly negatively correlated with temperature. Growth was most strongly correlated with flow and precipitation in April-July, which is consistent with dendrometer-band measurements showing growth cessation in August. Whereas cottonwood establishment decreased in the 1900s, ring widths

  12. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Wind Energy Center Edgeley/Kulm Project, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-04-15

    The proposed Edgeley/Kulm Project is a 21-megawatt (MW) wind generation project proposed by Florida Power and Light (FPL) Energy North Dakota Wind LLC (Dakota Wind) and Basin Electric Power Cooperative (Basin). The proposed windfarm would be located in La Moure County, south central North Dakota, near the rural farming communities of Kulm and Edgeley. The proposed windfarm is scheduled to be operational by the end of 2003. Dakota Wind and other project proponents are seeking to develop the proposed Edgeley/Kulm Project to provide utilities and, ultimately, electric energy consumers with electricity from a renewable energy source at the lowest possible cost. A new 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line would be built to transmit power generated by the proposed windfarm to an existing US Department of Energy Western Area Power Administration (Western) substation located near Edgeley. The proposed interconnection would require modifying Western's Edgeley Substation. Modifying the Edgeley Substation is a Federal proposed action that requires Western to review the substation modification and the proposed windfarm project for compliance with Section 102(2) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 U.S.C. 4332, and Department of Energy NEPA Implementing Procedures (10 CFR Part 1021). Western is the lead Federal agency for preparation of this Environmental Assessment (EA). The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is a cooperating agency with Western in preparing the EA. This document follows regulation issued by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for implementing procedural provisions of NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508), and is intended to disclose potential impacts on the quality of the human environment resulting from the proposed project. If potential impacts are determined to be significant, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement would be required. If impacts are determined to be insignificant, Western would complete a Finding of No Significant

  13. Terrestrial ecosystem destabilization at the K/T boundary in southwestern North Dakota, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercovici, Antoine; Pearson, Dean; Villanueva-Amadoz, Uxue

    2010-05-01

    Much of the debate regarding mass extinction events tend to discuss the relationship between such events relative to the moment and timing of internal or external factors (such as volcanism, impact(s), climate, sea-level changes and so on). However, the details of the extinction process itself is still poorly understood, and most of the analysis are based on biodiversity patterns without integrating the biogeographic and environmental context. Another way of approaching the problem would be to propose precise paleoenvironment reconstructions and analyzing their evolution through time, which allows for the understanding of such processes. The badlands of southwestern North Dakota provides some of the most prolific exposures of the continental Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary in the world. The stratigraphical context indicates that the K/T boundary is coincident or lies in close proximity to the contact between the Hell Creek and the Fort Union Formations. In this area, a series of eight stratigraphical sections across a 40 km north-south transect were studied. These sections bracket the formational contact on a 10 m stratigraphical interval. Reconstruction of the depositional environment was undertaken at a centimeter scale by using sedimentological data, as well as palynological, paleobotanical and palaeontological content of the strata, using the K/T boundary as a precise chronological datum of correlation between the sections. Results shows a consistent evolution of pattern across the entire study area : 1) The uppermost 10 to 20 cm of the Hell Creek Formation always corresponds to a sequence of dark rooted mudstone. Pollen content is consistent with a Cretaceous age and displays a diversity of terrestrial taxa. 2) Immediately above, the formation contact lies at the lower part of the first laterally traceable lignite horizon. The K/T boundary indicators (iridium anomaly, shocked quartz, fern spike and boundary claystone) are located at or adjacent to this

  14. Geohydrology of the Souris River Valley in the vicinity of Minot, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1967-01-01

    The Minor area is in the north-central part of North Dakota and includes part of the Souris River valley. The region is covered by glacial drift of late Wisconsin age except ill small areas where the Fort Union Formation of Tertiary age crops out. Thickness of the drift is controlled .by the topography of the bedrock. In places the drift is more than 450 feet thick, but it averages about 100 feet thick. Water from the Fort Union Formation is soft and is of sodium bicarbonate type that is undesirable for many uses. Wells in the formation produce only a few gallons per minute. Six glacial aquifers were studied in the report area, but detailed work was limited to the Minor aquifer. The Sundre buried-channel and the lower Souris aquifers contain large quantities of hard water of good chemical quality, but little is known of their hydraulic characteristics owing ,to lack of development. The North Hill and South Hill aquifers generally pro-tide small quantities of hard water that may be high in iron and sodium. The northwest buried-channel aquifer has a high content of iron and chloride. Locally as much as 1,000 gallons per minute may be pumped from it. The Minor aquifer is a thick deposit of sand and gravel confined to the Souris River valley. The water level has declined more than 70 feet since the first municipal well began pumping in 1916. In .some places the water level in the aquifer declined more than 20 feet during 1961-1963. The rapid decline in water level indicates that a serious water shortage may arise in the near future unless counter measures are taken to prevent it. The Minor aquifer is under both artesian and water-table conditions. In places the transmissibility exceeds 250,000 gallons per day per foot. In 1963, 13 municipal wells pumiced an average of nearly 4 million gallons per day from the aquifer. Some wells produce as much as 1,000 gallons per minute. The Minor aquifer receives most of its recharge from the buried glaciofluvial deposits and from

  15. Evaluation of water-quality characteristics and sampling design for streams in North Dakota, 1970–2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Vining, Kevin C.; Densmore, Brenda K.; Lundgren, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the need to examine the large amount of historic water-quality data comprehensively across North Dakota and evaluate the efficiency of the State-wide sampling programs, a study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the North Dakota State Water Commission and the North Dakota Department of Health to describe the water-quality data collected for the various programs and determine an efficient State-wide sampling design for monitoring future water-quality conditions. Although data collected for the North Dakota State Water Commission High-Low Sampling Program, the North Dakota Department of Health Ambient Water-Quality Network, and other projects and programs provide valuable information on the quality of water in streams in North Dakota, the objectives vary among the programs, some of the programs overlap spatially and temporally, and the various sampling designs may not be the most efficient or relevant to the objectives of the individual programs as they have changed through time. One objective of a State-wide sampling program was to evaluate ways to describe the spatial variability of water-quality conditions across the State in the most efficient manner. Weighted least-squares regression analysis was used to relate the average absolute difference between paired downstream and upstream concentrations, expressed as a percent of the average downstream concentration, to the average absolute difference in daily flow between the downstream and upstream pairs, expressed as a percent of the average downstream flow. The analysis showed that a reasonable spatial network would consist of including the most downstream sites in large basins first, followed by the next upstream site(s) that roughly bisect the downstream flows at the first sites, followed by the next upstream site(s) that roughly bisect flows for the second sites. Sampling sites to be included in a potential State-wide network were prioritized into 3 design levels: level 1

  16. Sedimentation and chemical quality of surface water in the Heart River drainage basin, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maderak, Marion L.

    1966-01-01

    The Heart River drainage basin of .southwestern North Dakota comprises an area of 3,365 square miles and lies within the Missouri Plateau of the Great Plains province. Streamflow of the Heart River and its tributaries during 1949-58 was directly proportional to .the drainage area. After the construction of Heart Butte Dam in 1949 and Dickinson Dam in 1950, the mean annual streamflow near Mandan was decreased an estimated 10 percent by irrigation, evaporation from the two reservoirs, and municipal use. Processes that contribute sediment to the Heart River are mass wasting, advancement of valley heads, and sheet, lateral stream, and gully erosion. In general, glacial deposits, terraces, and bars of Quaternary age are sources of sand and larger sediment, and the rocks of Tertiary age are sources of clay, silt. and sand. The average annual suspended-sediment discharges near Mandan were estimated to be 1,300,000 tons for 1945-49 and 710,000 tons for 1970-58. The percentage composition of ions in water of the Heart River, based on average concentrations in equivalents per million for selected ranges of streamflow, changes with flow and from station to station. During extremely low flows the water contains a large percentage of sodium and about equal percentages of bicarbonate and .sulfate, and during extremely high flows the water contains a large percentage of calcium plus magnesium and bicarbonate. The concentrations, in parts per million, of most of the ions vary inversely with flow. The water in the reservoirs--Edward Arthur Patterson Lake and Lake Tschida--during normal or above-normal runoff is of suitable quality for public use. Generally, because of medium or high salinity hazards, the successful long-term use of Heart River water for irrigation will depend on a moderate amount of leaching, ,adequate drainage, ,and the growing of crops that have moderate or good salt tolerance.

  17. Floodplain Mapping and Wetland Connectivity to Lotic Aquatic Systems of Indiana and North Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, C.; Hall, A.; D'Amico, E.; Sangwan, N.; Merwade, V.

    2015-12-01

    In a recent literature review of over 1,350 publications, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that wetlands in floodplains are physically, chemically, and biologically integrated with rivers and can improve downstream water quality. However, current knowledge on the extent of floodplains is limited, with national-scale maps unavailable with the exception of coarse-scale Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs). Recently, novel approaches to rapidly and inexpensively map floodplains using widely available soil survey data have been developed, as have approaches using hydrogeomorphic metrics. To better understand wetland connectivity to other aquatic systems, we contrasted FIRMs with soil-based, hydrogeomorphic, and simple distance-based metrics in watersheds of Indiana and North Dakota. Soil-based, hydrogeomorphic, and distance-based measures were particularly useful in determining connectivity. For example, in the White River of Indiana, these three measures connected 74-86% of the watershed's wetland area while the FEMA FIRMs only connected 58% of the watershed's wetland area, with omissions coming from stark demarcations of FIRMs at seemingly arbitrary locations. Overall, we found that FEMA FIRMs were generally unsuitable for use in determining watershed-scale floodplains, as FIRMs tended to focus on urban areas at the expense of agricultural (or non-urban) regions. Distance-based connectivity measures likely over-estimated floodplain extent through the "creation" of non-existent floodplains on low-order streams. As with any method, the accuracy of the hydrogeomorphic and soil-based measures was highly dependent on the resolution and quality of the input data. However, these two methods in particular appear to hold great promise for accurately extending our knowledge of floodplains throughout the conterminous United States.

  18. Palynomorphs of the Hagel Bed (lignite), Sentinel Butte Formation, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Steadman, E.N.

    1985-01-01

    The Hagel bed is an important economic lignite and is the lowermost named lignite in the Sentinel Butte Formation. The Hagel bed extends throughout the Knife River Basin coal-mining area of central North Dakota. Stratigraphic sections were measured from the highwalls of the Center mine, Glenharold mine and Falkirk mine. Samples from these stratigraphic sections were described and analyzed (using standard palynological techniques) for their palynomorph content. Pollen and spores proved to be well preserved and abundant. Over seventy palynomorph species and morphotypes were identified. Listed in Table 1 are some of the significant species present and their modern-day equivalents. The genera present suggest a wet, temperature, depositional environment. The palynologic data has been quantified (using conventional percentage-frequency data) to elucidate trends present. The samples have a relatively consistent palynoflora and tyically contain a combination of lowland swamp taxa (e.q. Sphagnum, and some Taxodiaceae) and an upland element (e.q. Corylus, Alnus, Pinus). This combination is interpreted as representing taxa living in the depositional environment (a swamp) along with taxa brought in as detritus from adjacent upland source areas. Palynomorphs of the family Taxodiaceae (such as redwoods, cyprus, and yews) are commonly the dominant forms in Hagel bed samples and are a major constituent in all of them. An abundance of this sort of microfossil suggests a very moist forest-moor type of depositional environment. The abundance of the Taxodiaceae in the associated claystones and silstones suggests that these were deposited in swamp marginal environment in the area studied. 3 references, 1 table.

  19. Genetic sequence relationships of Winnipegosis platform carbonates, Southern Elk Point basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Shanley, K.W.; Cross, T.A.

    1988-07-01

    Examination of cores and well-log data from the Winnipegosis Formation (Givetian) within a study area of approximately 11,500 mi/sup 2/ (30,000 km/sup 2/) in northern North Dakota allows recognition of seven time-stratigraphic progradational units within the Winnipegosis Formation. Together with the underlying Ashern Formation, these units are arranged in landward-stepping, vertical stacking, and seaward-stepping geometric patterns, which reflect changes in relative sea level. Abrupt juxtaposition of shallow over deeper water lithologies, evidence for subaerial exposure, and onlap geometries further suggest that these progradational units form two larger Vail-type sequences separated by regionally persistent unconformities or their correlative conformities. Sea level rise during the early Eifelian caused southeastward onlap of the Ashern Formation onto Middle Silurian carbonates of the Interlake Formation. Maximum flooding, expressed by deepest marine facies and a hardground surface, suggests the existence of a condensed section at the top of the Ashern Formation. This section was developed during the maximum rate of sea level rise. A decrease in the rate of sea level rise resulted in aggradation of lower Winnipegosis units on a gently dipping ramp. These units are presented by nodular and burrowed open-marine limestones with scattered stromatoporoid patch reefs and grainstone shoals. During the subsequent sea level fall, represented by Temple units, a shelf margin with pronounced depositional topography and adjacent starved basin were developed. Temple strata include coral-brachiopod-stromatoporoid reefs and productive fore-reef talus deposits along the shelf-margin rim. With increased rates of sea level fall, the platform interior and shelf margin were subaerially exposed, slope carbonates were dolomitized, and the E-shale was deposited as a lowstand wedge.

  20. Concentrated nesting of mallards and gadwalls on Miller Lake Island, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duebbert, H.F.; Lokemoen, J.T.; Sharp, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Island-nesting mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and gadwalls (A. strepera) were studied on a 4.5-ha island in 385-ha Miller Lake in northwestern North Dakota during 1976-80. During the 5-year study, 2,561 duck nests of 9 species were found on Island A located 180 m offshore; 59% were mallard and 34% were gadwall. In patches of shrub cover, which contained the greatest concentrations of nests, densities ranged from 241 to 389 mallard nests/ha and from 139 to 237 gadwall nests/ha. Over 97% of the nests were placed in 4 patches of shrubs totaling about 1 ha of western snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis)--Woods rose (Rosa woodsii) cover, which composed about 30% of the island's vegetation. Average hatching success was 85% for clutches of all species. Abandonment averaged 14% (348 of 2,426 nests) and was the major cause of egg failure. Only 15 nests (<1%) were destroyed, primarily by ring-billed (Larus delawarensis) or California gulls (L. californicus). A minimum of 15,960 ducklings including 9,300 mallards and 5,150 gadwalls hatched on 4.5-ha Island A. Hatching rates of eggs in successful nests averaged 83% for mallards and 87% for gadwalls. Despite the close spacing of nests, most individual hens maintained normal nesting regimes. Eighty-one percent of the mallard clutches contained 7-13 eggs and 81% of the gadwall clutches contained 8-14 eggs. Island A in Miller Lake provides an outstanding example of the potential for high reproduction levels of mallards and gadwalls nesting in small areas of predator-free habitats.

  1. Constructing vegetation productivity equations by employing undisturbed soils data: An Oliver County, North Dakota case study

    SciTech Connect

    Burley, J.B.; Polakowski, K.J.; Fowler, G.

    1996-12-31

    Surface mine reclamation specialists have been searching for predictive methods to assess the capability of disturbed soils to support vegetation growth. We conducted a study to develop a vegetation productivity equation for reclaiming surface mines in Oliver County, North Dakota, thereby allowing investigators to quantitatively determine the plant growth potential of a reclaimed soil. The study examined the predictive modeling potential for both agronomic crops and woody plants, including: wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), grass and legume mixtures, Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), Black Hills spruce (Picea glauca var. densata Bailey), Colorado spruce (Picea pungens Engelm.), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var. scope Engelm.), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.), Eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides (Bart. ex Marsh.), Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.), Siberian peashrub (Caragana arborescens Lam), American plum (Prunus americans Marsh.), and chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana L.). An equation was developed which is highly significant (p<0.0001), explaining 81.08% of the variance (coefficient of multiple determination=0.8108), with all regressors significant (p{le}0.048, Type II Sums of Squares). The measurement of seven soil parameters are required to predict soil vegetation productivity: percent slope, available water holding capacity, percent rock fragments, topographic position, electrical conductivity, pH, and percent organic matter. While the equation was developed from data on undisturbed soils, the equation`s predictions were positively correlated (0.71424, p{le}0.0203) with a small data set (n=10) from reclaimed soils.

  2. Small-area snow surveys on the northern plains of North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, D.G.; Carroll, T.R.; Steppuhn, Harold

    1985-01-01

    The variation in snow cover over small areas is the focus of this study of the feasibility of using aerial surveys to obtain information on the snow water equivalent of the snow cover in order to minimize the necessity of labor intensive ground snow surveys. A low-flying aircraft was used to measure attenuations of natural terrestrial gamma radiation by snow cover. Aerial and ground snow surveys of eight 1-mile snow courses and one 4-mile snow course in North Dakota were used in the evaluation, with ground snow surveys used as the base to evaluate aerial data. Each of the 1-mile snow courses consisted of a single land use and all had the same terrain type (plane). The 4-mile snow course consists of a variety of land uses and the same terrain type (plane). Using the aerial snow-survey technique, the snow water equivalent of the 1-mile snow courses was measured with three passes of the aircraft. Use of more than one pass did not improve the results. The mean absolute difference between the aerial- and ground-measured snow water equivalents for the 1-mile snow courses was 26 percent (0.77 inches). The aerial snow water equivalents determined for the 1-mile snow courses were used to estimate the variations in the snow water equivalents over the 4-mile snow course. The weighted mean absolute difference for the 4-mile snow course was 27 percent (0.8 inches). Variations in snow water equivalents could not be verified adequately by segmenting the aerial snow-survey data because of the uniformity found in the snow cover. On the 4-mile snow course, about two-thirds of the aerial snow-survey data agreed with the ground snow-survey data within the accuracy of the aerial technique (+or-0.5 inch of the mean snow water equivalent). (USGS)

  3. Scaup migration patterns in North Dakota relative to temperatures and water conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Granfors, D.A.; Johnson, M.A.; Kohn, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    Greater (Aythya marila) and lesser scaup (A. affinis) have protracted spring migrations. Migrants may still be present on southern breeding areas when the annual Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Surveys (WBPHS) are being conducted. Understanding factors affecting the chronology and rate of spring migration is important for the interpretation of data from annual population surveys. We describe the general temporal pattern of scaup numbers in south-central North Dakota in spring, examine the relationships between scaup numbers and measures of local water conditions and spring temperatures, and assess timing of the WBPHS relative to numbers of scaup occurring in the study area in late May. Scaup were counted weekly on a 95-km, 400-m-wide transect from late March through May, 1957-1999. Average numbers of scaup per count were positively associated with numbers of seasonal, semipermanent, and total ponds. Average minimum daily ambient temperatures showed a trend of increasing temperatures over the 43 years, and dates of peak scaup counts became progressively earlier. Weeks of early migration usually had higher temperatures than weeks of delayed migration. The relationship between temperature and timing of migration was strongest during the second and third weeks of April, which is A# 1 week before numbers peak (median date = 19 Apr). Trends in sex and pair ratios were not consistent among years. Counts in late May-early June indicated considerable annual variability in the magnitude of late migrants. Scaup numbers during this period seemed to stabilize in only 5 of the 19 years when 2 or more surveys were conducted after the WBPHS. These findings corroborate concerns regarding the accuracy of the WBPHS for representing breeding populations of scaup and the possibility of double-counting scaup in some years.

  4. Time-specific patterns of nest survival for ducks and passerines breeding in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, Terry L.; Grant, Todd A.

    2012-01-01

    In many bird species, survival can vary with the age of the nest, with the date a nest was initiated, or among years within the same nesting area. A literature review showed that patterns of survival vary in relation to nest age and date and are often contradictory. Inconsistencies could be a result of temporal variation in the environment or life-history differences among species. We examined patterns of nest survival in relation to nest age, date, and year for several duck and passerine species nesting at a single location in North Dakota during 1998–2003. We predicted that if environment shaped nest survival patterns, then temporal patterns in survival might be similar among three species of upland nesting ducks, and also among three species of grassland passerines nesting at the same site. We expected that survival patterns would differ between ducks and passerines because of relatively disparate life histories and differences in predators that prey on their nests. Nest survival was rarely constant among years, seasonally, or with age of the nest for species that we studied. As predicted, the pattern of survival was similar among duck species, driven mainly by differences in nest survival associated with nest initiation date. The pattern of survival also was similar among passerine species, but nest survival was more influenced by nest age than by date. Our findings suggest that some but not all variation in temporal patterns of nest survival in grassland birds reported in the literature can be explained on the basis of temporal environmental variation. Because patterns of survival were dissimilar among ducks and passerines, it is likely that mechanisms such as predation or brood parasitism have variable influences on productivity of ducks and passerines nesting in the same area. Our results indicate that biologists and managers should not assume that temporal environmental variations, especially factors that affect nest survival, act similarly on all

  5. A small Internet controllable observatory for research and education at the University of North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardersen, P. S.; de Silva, S.; Reddy, V.; Cui, P.; Kumar, S.; Gaffey, M. J.

    2006-06-01

    One of the challenges in astronomy education today is to introduce college students to the real-world practice and science of observational astronomy. Along with a good theoretical background, college students can gain an earlier, deeper understanding of the astronomy profession through direct observational and data reduction experience. However, building and managing a modest observatory is still too costly for many colleges and universities. Fortunately, advances in commercial astronomical hardware and software now allow universities to build and operate small Internet controllable observatories for a modest investment. The advantages of an Internet observatory include: 1) remote operation from a comfortable location, 2) immediate data access, 3) telescope control via a web browser, and 4) allowing both on-campus and distance education students the ability to conduct a variety of observing projects. Internet capabilities vastly expand the number of students who will be able to use the observatory, thus exposing them to astronomy as a science and as a potential career. In September 2005, the University of North Dakota (UND) Department of Space Studies began operating a small, recently renovated Internet controllable observatory. Housed within a roll-off roof 10 miles west of UND, the observatory includes a Meade 16-inch, f/10 Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope, an SBIG STL-6303e CCD with broadband filters, ACP observatory control software, focuser, and associated equipment. The observatory cost \\25,000 to build in 1996; 2005 renovation costs total \\28,000. An observatory operator prepares the telescope for use each night. Through remote operation, the roof is opened and the telescope/CCD power is turned on. The telescope is then aligned and focused before allowing students to access the observatory. Students communicate with the observatory operator via an online chat room and via telephone, if necessary, to answer questions and resolve any problems. Additional

  6. Nest spacing, habitat selection, and behavior of waterfowl on Miller Lake Island, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lokemoen, J.T.; Duebbert, H.F.; Sharp, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The nesting behavior of a concentration of nesting mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and gadwalls (A. strepera) was studied on a 4.5-ha island in Miller Lake, North Dakota, in 1977. A single 0.59-ha clump of thick shrub contained 225 simultaneously active mallard nests on 10 May. During the peak nesting period, mallard nests were spaced an average of 2.7 m from conspecifics. Active nests of all species peaked at 327, spaced an average of 2.1 m apart. Nests were clustered in thick shrub with moderate numbers in open shrub and few in grassland. Nest placement was significantly related to the amount of vegetative screening although mammalian predators were absent on the island. Cover density appeared to be important to the nesting hens as vegetation screened nests from potential avian predators and from harassment by other conspecific nesting hens and drakes. Mallards and gadwalls nesting on this island used wetlands in >100 km2 around Miller Lake. During daylight hours in late April 1978, an average of 4.9 mallards/minute arrived at the island; a peak of 17.2 mallards/minute arrived at 0800. In late April 1978, as many as 26 mallard pairs/ha occurred on favored wetlands and behavioral aggression was intense. Yet, most mallard hens maintained adequate space to acquire food and other requisites. Mallards and gadwalls were sufficiently adaptable to successfully exploit the Miller Lake island and environments that resulted in high reproductive success. Other local breeding Anatidae because of behavioral constraints were unable to exploit the same situation.

  7. Regional economic impacts of water management alternatives: the case of Devils Lake, North Dakota, USA.

    PubMed

    Leistritz, F Larry; Leitch, Jay A; Bangsund, Dean A

    2002-12-01

    Devils Lake, located in a closed basin in northeastern North Dakota has over a century-long history of highly fluctuating water levels. The lake has risen nearly 25 feet (7.7 m) since 1993, more than doubling its surface area. Rising water levels have affected rural lands, transportation routes, and communities near the lake. In response to rising lake levels, Federal, state and local agencies have adopted a three-part approach to flood damage reduction, consisting of (1) upper basin water management to reduce the amount of water reaching the lake, (2) protection for structures and infrastructure if the lake continues to rise, and (3) developing an emergency outlet to release some lake water. The purpose of this study was to provide information about the net regional economic effects of a proposed emergency outlet for Devils Lake. An input-output model was used to estimate the regional economic effects of the outlet, under two scenarios: (1) the most likely future situation (MLS) and (2) a best case situation (BCS) (i.e., where the benefits from the outlet would be greatest), albeit an unlikely one. Regional economic effects of the outlet include effects on transportation (road and railroad construction), agriculture (land kept in production, returned to production sooner, or kept in production longer), residential relocations, and outlet construction expenditures. Effects are measured as changes in gross business volume (gross receipts) for various sectors, secondary employment, and local tax collections. The net regional economic effects of the proposed outlet would be relatively small, and consideration of these economic impacts would not strengthen the case for an outlet.

  8. Water-Balance Model of a Wetland on the Fort Berthold Reservation, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.

    2007-01-01

    A numerical water-balance model was developed to simulate the responses of a wetland on the Fort Berthold Reservation, North Dakota, to historical and possible extreme hydrological inputs and to changes in hydrological inputs that might occur if a proposed refinery is built on the reservation. Results from model simulations indicated that the study wetland would likely contain water during most historical and extreme-precipitation events with the addition of maximum potential discharges of 0.6 acre-foot per day from proposed refinery holding ponds. Extended periods with little precipitation and above-normal temperatures may result in the wetland becoming nearly dry, especially if potential holding-pond discharges are near zero. Daily simulations based on the historical-enhanced climate data set for May and June 2005, which included holding-pond discharges of 0.6 acre-foot per day, indicated that the study-wetland maximum simulated water volume was about 16.2 acre-feet and the maximum simulated water level was about 1.2 feet at the outlet culvert. Daily simulations based on the extreme summer data set, created to represent an extreme event with excessive June precipitation and holding-pond discharges of 0.6 acre-foot per day, indicated that the study-wetland maximum simulated water volume was about 38.6 acre-feet and the maximum simulated water level was about 2.6 feet at the outlet culvert. A simulation performed using the extreme winter climate data set and an outlet culvert blocked with snow and ice resulted in the greatest simulated wetland water volume of about 132 acre-feet and the greatest simulated water level, which would have been about 6.2 feet at the outlet culvert, but water was not likely to overflow an adjacent highway.

  9. Challenges of Communicating Climate Change in North Dakota: Undergraduate Internship and Collaboration with Middle School Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullendore, G. L.; Munski, L.; Kirilenko, A.; Remer, F.; Baker, M.

    2012-12-01

    In summer 2010, the University of North Dakota (UND) hosted an internship for undergraduates to learn about climate change in both the classroom and group research projects. As a final project, the undergraduates were tasked to present their findings about different aspects of climate change in webcasts that would be later used in middle school classrooms in the region. Interns indicated that participation significantly improved their own confidence in future scholarly pursuits. Also, communicating about climate change, both during the project and afterwards, helped the interns feel more confident in their own learning. Use of webcasts widened the impact of student projects (e.g. YouTube dissemination), and multiple methods of student communication should continue to be an important piece of climate change education initiatives. Other key aspects of the internship were student journaling and group building. Challenges faced included media accessibility and diverse recruiting. Best practices from the UND internship will be discussed as a model for implementation at other universities. Lesson plans that complement the student-produced webcasts and adhere to regional and national standards were created during 2011. Communication between scientists and K-12 education researchers was found to be a challenge, but improved over the course of the project. These lesson plans have been reviewed both during a teacher workshop in January 2012 and by several Master teachers. Although select middle school educators have expressed enthusiasm for testing of these modules, very little hands-on testing with students has occurred. Wide-ranging roadblocks to implementation exist, including the need for adherence to state standards and texts, inadequate access to technology, and generally negative attitudes toward climate change in the region. Feedback from regional educators will be presented, and possible solutions will be discussed. Although some challenges are specific to the

  10. Nest sites of ducks in grazed mixed-grass prairie in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duebbert, H.F.; Lokemoen, J.T.; Sharp, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Habitat use and nesting success of seven species of dabbling ducks were evaluated in five vegetative associations within grazed mixed-grass prairie in central North Dakota. During 1976-80, 548 nests were found on 412 ha of grazed prairie for an annual average density of 27 nests/100 ha. Numbers of nests found ranged from 1/100 ha in 1977 (a drought year) to 58/100 ha in 1979 (a very wet year), reflecting the variability that may be expected in a dynamic prairie wetland environment. Nesting success ranged from an average of 23% in the western snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis) association to 34% in the mixed-grass association. Forty-two percent of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) nests and 35% of the gadwall (A. strepera) nests were in patches of western snowberry and/or Wood's rose (Rosa woodsii) that made up 2% of the available cover. Numbers of nests of blue-winged teal (A. discors) and northern shoveler (A. clypeata) were highest in cool-season grasses, especially green needlegrass (Stipa viridula) and western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii). Height/density (HD) of residual cover decreased exponentially with increased grazing pressure. Use of grazed prairie by blue-winged teal was maximized when the HD of residual cover was 0.5 dm or higher, as could be maintained under light grazing. Results of this study indicated that properly grazed mixed-grass prairie can provide adequate nesting habitat for dabbling ducks. We recommend that preservation and sound ecological management be focused on large tracts of mixed-grass prairie with complexes of seasonal and semipermanent wetlands.

  11. Use of water developments by female elk at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, Glen A.; Oehler, Michael W.; Sexton, Chad L.

    2014-01-01

    Development of water sources for wildlife is a widespread management practice with a long history; however, needs of wildlife and availability of water depend on myriad interacting factors that vary among species and localities. Benefits are therefore situational, establishing a need for evaluation of water use in varied settings. We used global-positioning-system (GPS) collars and time-lapse videography to estimate the distribution of elk (Cervus elaphus) activity and frequency of water-development use at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota, during June–September, 2003–2006. Elk were located further than expected from the Little Missouri River and did not preferentially use areas near developments. Of 26,081 relocations obtained at 7-h intervals, 88% were >800 m and 74% were >1600 m from permanent surface water. Elk were videotaped at water developments on 90 occasions during 19,402 h of monitoring but used water in only 52% of cases (SE = 5.3%). The probability of detecting elk at developments during visits was 0.51 (SE = 0.08). Nevertheless, elk tracked with GPS collars at 15-min intervals approached to within 100 m of developments on only 2.7% (SE = 0.6%) of 766 days, and approached randomly selected locations nearly as frequently (x¯ = 2.2%, SE = 0.13%). Our results do not rule out use of drinking water by elk at THRO; however, elk were not dependent on water from developments or the Little Missouri River. Prevailing perceptions of water use by elk derive primarily from general associations of elk activity with locations of water sources. Technological advances that permit nearly continuous, precise monitoring present an opportunity to improve understanding of water use by elk, incidental to other investigations.

  12. Progressing science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education in North Dakota with near-space ballooning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Marissa Elizabeth

    The United States must provide quality science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education in order to maintain a leading role in the global economy. Numerous initiatives have been established across the United States that promote and encourage STEM education within the middle school curriculum. Integrating active learning pedagogy into instructors' lesson plans will prepare the students to think critically - a necessary skill for the twenty first century. This study integrated a three-week long Near Space Balloon project into six eighth grade Earth Science classes from Valley Middle School in Grand Forks, North Dakota. It was hypothesized that after the students designed, constructed, launched, and analyzed their payload experiments, they would have an increased affinity for high school science and math classes. A pre- and post-survey was distributed to the students (n=124), before and after the project to analyze how effective this engineering and space mission was regarding high school STEM interests. The surveys were statistically analyzed, comparing means by the Student's t-Test, specifically the Welch-Satterthwaite test. Female students displayed a 57.1% increase in math and a 63.6% increase in science; male students displayed a 46.6% increase in science and 0% increase in math. Most Likert-scale survey questions experienced no statistically significant change, supporting the null hypothesis. The only survey question that supported the hypothesis was, "I Think Engineers Work Alone," which experienced a 0.24% decrease in student understanding. The results suggest that integrating a three-week long Near Space Balloon project into middle school curricula will not directly influence the students' excitement to pursue STEM subjects and careers. An extensive, yearlong ballooning mission is recommended so that it can be integrated with multiple core subjects. Using such an innovative pedagogy method as with this balloon launch will help students master the

  13. Sedimentation and tectonic implications of Cambrian-Ordovician clastics, Renville county, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Mescher, P.K.; Pol, J.C.

    1985-02-01

    Cambrian-Ordovician clastics of the Deadwood Formation were studied in detail from Newporte field in Renville County, North Dakota. This small Cambrian-Ordovician oil pool was extensively cored, often to the Precambrian basement, allowing close examination of clastic deposition influenced by local basement tectonics. In Renville County, the basal unit consists of a well-rounded, fine to medium-grained glauconitic quartz sandstone. Paleohighs appear to have had a pronounced effect on Deadwood sedimentation. Sands, from quiet water settings, show poor to moderate sorting, are commonly finely laminated, and/or show traces of minor small-scale cross-bedding. In places, bedding planes are highly disrupted, suggesting intervals of intense bioturbation (Skolithos). Sands associated with paleohighs are clean, well sorted, and commonly friable. Their association with basement structure is suggestive of beach-barrier-bar sequences related to irregularly upthrown basement blocks. In one example, this clean basal sand is associated with an upthrown basement block and is sharply truncated by the pre-Winnipeg (early Ordovician) unconformity. The first unit above the basal sandstone in structurally lower wells is an anomalous conglomerate unit. Large angular basement clasts up to cobble size were viewed in core. This unit grades upward into a fine sand sequence and distally grades into a marine sand. It terminates abruptly in upthrown wells and indicates rapid fault movement and offset during middle Deadwood deposition, with development of localized fanglomerate sequences associated with fault scarps. Immediately capping this sequence is a dark-gray marine shale that thins depositionally toward paleohighs.

  14. Soil Organic Carbon Beneath Croplands and Re-established Grasslands in the North Dakota Prairie Pothole Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Rebecca L.; Eken, Mikki R.; West, Mark S.

    2015-05-01

    Grassland ecosystems established under the conservation reserve program (CRP) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) currently provide soil conservation and wildlife habitat services. We aimed to determine if these lands also sequester soil organic carbon (SOC), as compared with neighboring croplands across multiple farms in the North Dakota PPR. We sampled soil from small plots at 17 private farms in the central North Dakota PPR, where long-term (≥15 years) grasslands managed under the CRP were paired with neighboring annual croplands. Cores were collected to 100 cm and split into 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-70, and 70-100 cm soil depth layers. We hypothesized the effect of land use on soil organic carbon (SOC), root carbon (C), and bulk density would be greatest near the surface. For 0-10 and 10-20 cm layers, grasslands managed under the CRP were lower in bulk density and higher in SOC. From 0 to 70 cm, grasslands managed under the CRP were higher in root C. Average (±standard error) SOC for re-established grasslands and croplands was 25.39 (0.91) and 21.90 (1.02), respectively, for the 0-10 cm soil layer and 19.88 (0.86) and 18.31 (0.82), respectively, for the 10-20 soil layer. Compared to croplands, re-established grasslands sampled in the North Dakota PPR were 3-13 % lower in bulk density and 9-16 % higher in SOC from 0 to 20 cm, while root C was 2-6 times greater from 0 to 70 cm.

  15. Hydrographic surveys of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers at selected bridges and through Bismarck, North Dakota, during the 2011 flood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Brenda K.; Strauch, Kellan R.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Transportation and the North Dakota State Water Commission, completed hydrographic surveys at six Missouri River bridges and one Yellowstone River bridge during the 2011 flood of the Missouri River system. Bridges surveyed are located near the cities of Cartwright, Buford, Williston, Washburn, and Bismarck, N. Dak. The river in the vicinity of the bridges and the channel through the city of Bismarck, N. Dak., were surveyed. The hydrographic surveys were conducted using a high-resolution multibeam echosounder (MBES), the RESON SeaBatTM 7125, during June 6–9 and June 28–July 9, 2011. The surveyed area at each bridge site extended 820 feet upstream from the bridge to 820 feet downstream from the bridge. The surveyed reach through Bismarck consisted of 18 miles of the main channel wherever depth was sufficient. Results from these emergency surveys aided the North Dakota Department of Transportation in evaluating the structural integrity of the bridges during high-flow conditions. In addition, the sustained high flows made feasible the surveying of a large section of the normally shallow channel with the MBES. In general, results from sequential bridge surveys showed that as discharge increased between the first and second surveys at a given site, there was a general trend of channel scour. Locally, complex responses of scour in some areas and deposition in other areas of the channel were identified. Similarly, scour around bridge piers also showed complex responses to the increase in flow between the two surveys. Results for the survey area of the river channel through Bismarck show that, in general, scour occurred around river structures or where the river has tight bends and channel narrowing. The data collected during the surveys are provided electronically in two different file formats: comma delimited text and CARIS Spatial ArchiveTM (CSARTM) format.

  16. Soil organic carbon beneath croplands and re-established grasslands in the North Dakota Prairie Pothole Region.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Rebecca L; Eken, Mikki R; West, Mark S

    2015-05-01

    Grassland ecosystems established under the conservation reserve program (CRP) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) currently provide soil conservation and wildlife habitat services. We aimed to determine if these lands also sequester soil organic carbon (SOC), as compared with neighboring croplands across multiple farms in the North Dakota PPR. We sampled soil from small plots at 17 private farms in the central North Dakota PPR, where long-term (≥15 years) grasslands managed under the CRP were paired with neighboring annual croplands. Cores were collected to 100 cm and split into 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-70, and 70-100 cm soil depth layers. We hypothesized the effect of land use on soil organic carbon (SOC), root carbon (C), and bulk density would be greatest near the surface. For 0-10 and 10-20 cm layers, grasslands managed under the CRP were lower in bulk density and higher in SOC. From 0 to 70 cm, grasslands managed under the CRP were higher in root C. Average (±standard error) SOC for re-established grasslands and croplands was 25.39 (0.91) and 21.90 (1.02), respectively, for the 0-10 cm soil layer and 19.88 (0.86) and 18.31 (0.82), respectively, for the 10-20 soil layer. Compared to croplands, re-established grasslands sampled in the North Dakota PPR were 3-13 % lower in bulk density and 9-16 % higher in SOC from 0 to 20 cm, while root C was 2-6 times greater from 0 to 70 cm.

  17. POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON FROM NORTH DAKOTA LIGNITE: AN OPTION FOR DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT CONTROL IN WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel J. Stepan; Thomas A. Moe; Melanie D. Hetland; Margaret L. Laumb

    2001-06-01

    New federal drinking water regulations have been promulgated to restrict the levels of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in finished public water supplies. DBPs are suspected carcinogens and are formed when organic material is partially oxidized by disinfectants commonly used in the water treatment industry. Additional federal mandates are expected in the near future that will further affect public water suppliers with respect to DBPs. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) has traditionally been used by the water treatment industry for the removal of compounds contributing to taste and odor problems. PAC also has the potential to remove naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) from raw waters prior to disinfection, thus controlling the formation of regulated DBPs. Many small water systems are currently using PAC for taste and odor control and have the potential to use PAC for controlling DBPs. This project, a cooperative effort between the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Grand Forks Water Treatment Plant, and the University of North Dakota Department of Civil Engineering, consists of several interrelated tasks. The objective of the research was to evaluate a cost-effective PAC produced from North Dakota lignite for removing NOM from water and reducing trihalomethane formation potential. The research approach was to develop a statistically valid testing protocol that can be used to compare dose-response relationships between North Dakota lignite-derived PAC and commercially available PAC products. A statistical analysis was performed to determine whether significant correlations exist between operating conditions, water properties, PAC properties, and dose-response behavior. Pertinent physical and chemical properties were also measured for each of the waters and each of the PACs.

  18. History of U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging on the Souris River in and near Minot, North Dakota, 1903–2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Kevin K.; Robinson, Steven M.

    2016-09-07

    The U.S. Geological Survey began collecting streamflow data, in cooperation with the North Dakota State Water Commission, on the Souris River in and near Minot, North Dakota, in April 1903. The gage was started up to better understand the water resources available in North Dakota. Currently (2016), water availability is still important as well as the flood monitoring and forecasting that has become an important component of this gage. Gage-height and streamflow data for the Souris River in and near Minot have been collected at five different streamgage locations during the years. This fact sheet describes the history of streamgaging (locations, gage-height data, and streamflow data) and flooding on the Souris River in and near Minot since 1903.

  19. Storm-water characterization and lagoon sediment analysis, Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, J.G.; Vaughn, R.W.; Scott, P.T.

    1990-08-01

    Sampling was conducted in the wastewater treatment lagoons and stormwater runoff at Grand Forks AFB. The base was concerned about whether the unlined lagoons were creating a potential groundwater contamination problem and whether their stormwater runoff met North Dakota state stream standards. Lagoon sediment did not contain Extraction Procedure hazardous chemicals. Stormwater runoff exceeded state standards for boron, phosphates, and phenols and contained trace levels of methylene chloride. Characterization of lagoon influent showed it to be generally representative of domestic sewage, but also contained trace levels of boron, phenols, toluene, cyanide, chloroform, methylene chloride and ethyl benzene.

  20. Palynologically calibrated vertebrate record from North Dakota consistent with abrupt dinosaur extinction at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, D.A.; Schaefer, T.; Johnson, K.R.; Nichols, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    New data from 17 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary sections and 53 vertebrate sites in the Hell Creek and Fort Union Formations in southwestern North Dakota document a 1.76 m barren interval between the highest Cretaceous vertebrate fossils and the palynologically recognized K-T boundary. The boundary is above the formational contact at 15 localities and coincident with it at two, demonstrating that the formational contact is diachronous. Dinosaurs are common in the highest Cretaceous vertebrate samples and a partial dinosaur skeleton in the Fort Union Formation is the highest recorded Cretaceous vertebrate fossil in this area.

  1. Regression Equations for Estimating Concentrations of Selected Water-Quality Constituents for Selected Gaging Stations in the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2004-01-01

    The Dakota Water Resources Act, passed by the U.S. Congress on December 15, 2000, authorized the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a comprehensive study of future water-quantity and quality needs of the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota and possible options to meet those water needs. Previous Red River of the North Basin studies conducted by the Bureau of Reclamation used streamflow and water-quality data bases developed by the U.S. Geological Survey that included data for 1931-84. As a result of the recent congressional authorization and results of previous studies by the Bureau of Reclamation, redevelopment of the streamflow and water-quality data bases with current data through 1999 are needed in order to evaluate and predict the water-quantity and quality effects within the Red River of the North Basin. This report provides updated statistical summaries of selected water-quality constituents and streamflow and the regression relations between them. Available data for 1931-99 were used to develop regression equations between 5 selected water-quality constituents and streamflow for 38 gaging stations in the Red River of the North Basin. The water-quality constituents that were regressed against streamflow were hardness (as CaCO3), sodium, chloride, sulfate, and dissolved solids. Statistical summaries of the selected water-quality constituents and streamflow for the gaging stations used in the regression equations development and the applications and limitations of the regression equations are presented in this report.

  2. Pesticide concentrations in wetlands on the Lake Traverse Indian Reservation, South and North Dakota, July 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Thompson, Ryan F.

    2016-05-04

    During July 2015, water samples were collected from 18 wetlands on the Lake Traverse Indian Reservation in northeastern South Dakota and southeastern North Dakota and analyzed for physical properties and 54 pesticides. This study by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate was designed to provide an update on pesticide concentrations of the same 18 wetlands that were sampled for a reconnaissance-level assessment during July 2006. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the assessment of pesticide concentrations in selected Lake Traverse Indian Reservation wetlands during July 2015 and provide a comparison of pesticide concentrations between 2006 and 2015.Of the 54 pesticides that were analyzed for in the samples collected during July 2015, 47 pesticides were not detected in any samples. Seven pesticides—2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (CIAT); 2,4–D; acetachlor; atrazine; glyphosate; metolachlor; and prometon—were detected in the 2015 samples with estimated concentrations or concentrations greater than the laboratory reporting level, and most pesticides were detected at low concentrations in only a few samples. Samples from all wetlands contained at least one detected pesticide. The maximum number of pesticides detected in a wetland sample was six, and the median number of pesticides detected was three.The most commonly detected pesticides in the 2015 samples were atrazine and the atrazine degradate CIAT (also known as deethylatrazine), which were detected in 14 and 13 of the wetlands sampled, respectively. Glyphosate was detected in samples from 11 wetlands, and metolachlor was detected in samples from 10 wetlands. The other detected pesticides were 2,4–D (4 wetlands), acetochlor (3 wetlands), and prometon (1 wetland).The same pesticides that were detected in the 2006 samples were detected in the 2015 samples, with the exception of simazine, which was detected only in one sample in 2006

  3. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program Western Pilot Project - Conditions of North Dakota Perennial Streams for Water Chemistry and Mercury in Fish Tissue, 2000-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.; Lundgren, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-five sampling sites, selected by a statistical design to represent lengths of perennial streams in North Dakota, were chosen to be sampled for water chemistry and mercury in fish tissue to establish unbiased baseline data. From the assessment of all water chemistry constituents, the percentage of stream length considered to be in poor condition was greater in the Rangeland Plains than in the Cultivated Plains. About 30 percent of perennial stream length in North Dakota was considered to be in good condition on the basis of mercury concentrations in fish tissue.

  4. Fires in Idaho and Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    2000 continues to be the worst fire season in the United States in decades. By August 8, 2000, fires in Montana and Idaho had burned more than 250,000 acres. Resources were stretched so thin that Army and Marine soldiers were recruited to help fight the fires. President Clinton visited Payette National Forest to lend moral support to the firefighters. Dense smoke from Idaho and western Montana is visible stretching all the way to North and South Dakota in this image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). The image was taken on August 7, 2000. Although the primary mission of SeaWiFS is to measure the biology of the ocean, it also provides stunning color imagery of the Earth's surface. For more information about fires in the U.S., visit the National Interagency Fire Center. To learn more about using satellites to monitor fires, visit Global Fire Monitoring and New Technology for Monitoring Fires from Space in the Earth Observatory. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  5. Measurements of ambient volatile organic carbons in rural, urban and areas with oil and gas activity in North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecobian, A.; Prenni, A. J.; Day, D.; Zhou, Y.; Sive, B. C.; Schichtel, B. A.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Recent increases in oil and gas extraction activities and well counts in North Dakota have raised questions on the ambient impact of the emissions from these processes. A Chevy Tahoe SUV was equipped with a PICARRO G2203 analyzer to measure methane and acetylene, a PICARRO A0941 mobile kit to measure GPS coordinates, an AethLabs micro-aethalometer to measure black carbon concentrations and a Radiance Research nephelometer to measure light scattering coefficient values. The SUV was used as a mobile platform to drive through different locations in North Dakota and measure the compounds noted above and also collect ambient air samples. The methane and acetylene concentrations were used to identify areas of interest, where evacuated stainless steel canisters were used to collect air samples and then transported to the laboratory where a three gas chromatograph system equipped with two flame ionization detectors (FID), two electron capture detectors (ECD), and a mass spectrometer (MS) was used to measure various VOC concentrations. The results from these measurements will be discussed here with an emphasis on the differences between rural and urban areas and locations with high instances oil and gas activities.

  6. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial actions at Belfield and Bowman inactive lignite ashing sites in southwestern North Dakota to reduce the potential public health impacts from the residual radioactivity remaining at the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards (40 CFR 192) that contain measures to control the residual radioactive materials and other contaminated materials, and proposed standards to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial action at the Belfield and Bowman sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The Belfield and Bowman designated sites were used by Union Carbide and Kerr-McGee, respectively, to process uraniferous lignite in the 1960s. Uranium-rich ash from rotary kiln processing of the lignite was loaded into rail cars and transported to uranium mills in Rifle, Colorado, and Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, respectively. As a result of the ashing process, there is a total of 158,400 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) [121,100 cubic meters (m{sup 3})] of radioactive ash-contaminated soils at the two sites. Windblown ash-contaminated soil covers an additional 21 acres (8.5 ha) around the site, which includes grazing land, wetlands, and a wooded habitat.

  7. An exploratory study of the correlates of intent to quit among certified registered nurse anesthetists in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Szigeti, E; Largent, R N; Eberhardt, B J

    1990-07-01

    Certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) provide the majority of anesthesia services in rural hospitals. Some services provided by CRNAs are routine, while others are for emergency conditions. The effect of the current nurse shortage on the potential pool of nurse anesthetists becomes a critical concern when considering the nature of CRNA services in rural areas. This study investigated the potential factors that relate to the desire of CRNAs to continue practicing in rural hospitals of North Dakota. All CRNAs licensed in North Dakota (n = 125) were mailed survey questionnaires. Approximately five weeks later responses were received from 54 respondents for an overall return rate of 43 percent. Correlational analyses were used to examine responses of the subjects. A moderate degree of relationship was found among the work-related variables. The average interscale correlation, calculated using an r to z transformation, for the seven work-related variables was 0.47. Overall, pay and promotion satisfaction exhibited strong (r greater than 0.60) correlations with turnover intentions. Supervisory satisfaction was only moderately (r = -0.33) related to intention to quit. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for the management of CRNAs in rural hospitals. Revised salary schedules, clinical ladders for promotions, supervisory training, and the identification of potential performance constraints are suggested as areas in which rural hospitals should focus attention in an attempt to manage turnover in CRNAs. PMID:10105942

  8. Vapor-phase and particulate-associated pesticides and PCB concentrations in eastern North Dakota air samples

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Miller, D.J.; Louie, P.K.K.

    1996-05-01

    Vapor-phase and suspended particulate (<50 {mu}m) samples were collected on polyurethane foam (PUF) and quartz fiber filters in rural North Dakota to determine the air concentrations of pesticides in an area where agriculture is a primary source of semivolatile pollutants. Samples were collected at two sites from 1992 to 1994 that were at least 0.4 km from the nearest farmed fields and known application of pesticides, and analyzed for 22 different organochlorine, triazine, and acid herbicide pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were found above the detection limits (typically <1 pg/m{sup 3}). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were much lower (<50 pg/m{sup 3} in all cases) than many of the pesticides. These results demonstrate that pesticides are among the most prevalent chlorinated semivolatile pollutants present in rural North Dakota, that significant transport of pesticides occurs both in the vapor-phase and on suspended particulate matter, and that blown soil may be a significant mechanism for introducing pesticides into surface and ground waters. 32 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Mercury and Methylmercury in Water and Bottom Sediments of Wetlands at Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sando, Steven K.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Johnson, Kevin M.; Lundgren, Robert F.; Emerson, Douglas G.

    2007-01-01

    Certain ecosystem types, particularly wetlands, have environmental characteristics that can make them particularly sensitive to mercury inputs and that can result in large mercury concentrations in fish or other aquatic biota. To provide information needed to make effective management decisions to decrease human and wildlife exposure to methylmercury in northern prairie pothole wetlands, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, conducted a study to assess mercury and methylmercury concentrations in wetlands at the Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge (the Refuge) in northwest North Dakota. In April 2003 and 2004, water and bottom-sediment samples were collected from 44 individual wetlands that were classified as one of four wetland types. Many factors that may affect methylmercury production were considered in the study. The prairie pothole wetlands at the Refuge had large ranges in major environmental characteristics. Hydrologic differences, most notably semiannual wetting and drying cycles, that are intrinsic to prairie pothole wetlands affected methylmercury concentrations. This likely resulted from the stimulation of anaerobic microbial activity following reflooding of soils, particularly soils containing substantial organic carbon. Among the four wetland types considered for this study, seasonal and semipermanent wetlands generally had the largest methylmercury concentrations. Regardless of wetland type, however, methylmercury concentrations at the Refuge are large in relation to reported concentrations for natural aquatic systems.

  10. Digital data to support development of a pesticide management plan for the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, Sioux County, North Dakota, and Corson County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to support development of pesticide management plans for Indian Reservations, the U.S. Geological Survey has been working in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to make selected information available to the Tribes or in a format easier for the Tribes to use. As a result of this program, four digital data sets related to the geology or hydrology of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation were produced as part of this report. The digital data sets are based on maps published in 1982 at the 1:250,000 scale in 'Geohydrology of the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, North and South Dakota,' U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-644 by L.W. Howells. The digital data sets were created by 1) scanning the appropriate map to create an image file, 2) registering the image file to real-world coordinates, 3) creating a new image file rectified to real-world coordinates, and 4) digitizing of the features of interest using the rectified image as a guide. As digital data sets, the information can be used in a geographic information system in combination with other information to help develop a pesticide management plan.

  11. Garnet peridotites from Williams kimberlites, north-central Montana, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn, B.C.; McGee, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    Two Williams kimberlites, 250x350m and 37x390m, in the eastern part of a swarm of 30 middle Eocene alnoitic diatremes in north-central Montana, USA, contain xenoliths of garnet-bearing lherzolites, harzburgites and dunites, in addition to spinel peridotites and upper and lower crustal amphibolites and granulites. Colluvial purple, red, and pink garnets are dominantly Mg- and Cr-rich, indicating their derivation From peridotites or megacrysts, and have CaO and Cr2O3 contents that fall in the lherzolite trend. Temperatures were calculated by the Lindsley-Dixon 20 kb method for lherzolites and by the O'Neill-Wood method for harzburgites and dunites, and pressures were calculated by the MacGregor method, or were assumed to be 50 kb for dunites. Most peridotites equilibrated at 1220-1350?C and 50-60 kb, well above a 44mW/m2 shield geotherm and on or at higher P than the graphite-diamond boundary. Four lherzolites are low T-P (830-990?C, 23-42 kb) and are close to the shield geotherm. All four low T-P lherzolites have coarse textures whereas the high T-P cluster has both coarse and porphyroclastic textures, indicating a range of conditions of deformation and recrystallization in a restricted high T-P range. The tiny size (0.01-0.2 mm) of granulated and euhedral olivines in several xenoliths shows that deformation was occurring just prior to incorporation in kimberlite and that ascent was rapid enough (40-70 km/hr) to retard Further coarsening of fine-grained olivine. For other high T-P peridotites, cessation of deformation and beginning of recrystallization before or during inclusion in kimberlite is suggested by larger (up to 3mm) euhedral olivines in a matrix of fine granulated olivine or by optical continuity of large and nearby small olivines. Two low T-P lherzolites contain distinctive, phlogopite-rimmed, 5-8mm clots of moderate-Cr garnet + Cr-spinel + Cr-diopside + enstatite that are inferred to have formed by reaction of an initial high-Cr garnet brought into the

  12. Effects of grazing and burning on densities and habitats of breeding ducks in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kruse, Arnold D.; Bowen, Bonnie S.

    1996-01-01

    Native grassland communities controlled by public agencies become increasingly important to the maintenance of many wildlife species as privately owned grasslands are destroyed or degraded for farming, mining, and development. In turn, wildlife on publicly owned grasslands are affected by the management techniques practiced by local managers. We studied the effects of grazing and prescribed burning on upland-nesting ducks and the structure and type of vegetation from 1980 to 1988 at the Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in northwestern North Dakota. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), the most abundant species at Lostwood NWR, had lower (P < 0.05) annual nest densities on experimental and control fields in the later years than in the early years of the study. Spring burning reduced (P = 0.016) nest densities of gadwall (A. strepera). Spring grazing reduced nest densities of gadwall (P = 0.014), and blue-winged teal (A. discors, P = 0.023). Nest density of gadwall increased (P = 0.018) after spring grazing was terminated. On the summer burn/spring graze fields, blue-winged teal had lower (P = 0.010) nest densities after treatments (1987-88) than before treatments (1980-81). Nest success was high (mallard 34%, gadwall 45%, blue-winged teal 31%) but was not influenced (P 0.16) by the burning and grazing treatments. During the study, the amount of grass/brush increased, whereas the amount of brush and brush/grass decreased on control and treatment fields. During the years with burning and grazing, short vegetation increased and tall vegetation decreased. On the spring graze fields, 1 year after grazing ended the vegetation was similar to that on the control fields. The spring burn and summer burn/spring graze fields recovered more slowly. Brushy species such as western snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis) provided attractive nesting habitat for many upland-nesting waterfowl species, especially mallard, gadwall, American wigeon (A. americana), and northern pintail (A

  13. Recent formation of arroyos in the Little Missouri Badlands of southwestern North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonzalez, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    In the Little Missouri Badlands of southwestern North Dakota, the channels of ephemeral streams are incised 2 to 10 m or more into mid-to-late Holocene alluvium. The objectives of this study were to determine the timing and cause(s) of the most recent episodes of fluvial incision and to develop a process-response model that illustrates the formation and evolution of arroyos in this region. The purpose was to distinguish natural from anthropogenic changes to the landscape and to discriminate allogenic from autogenic causes of incision, thereby gaining a greater sense of how steep, relatively small, ephemeral streams evolve. Dendrochronologic and dendrogeomorphic analyses of riparian cottonwoods provide an inexpensive, high-resolution dating method to constrain the time of incision, thereby permitting determination of the cause(s) of incision by evaluating environmental conditions prior to and at the onset of fluvial incision. An examination of seven small (10 to 100 km2) drainage basins indicated ephemeral streams have undergone a four-stage cycle of change within the past 200 years, comprising(i) an initial period of relative geomorphic stability with pedogenesis on the flood plain and low rates of lateral channel migration, (ii) a period of channel incision with subsequent widening of the flood plain through lateral corrasion along middle and upstream reaches, (iii) a concomitant period of aggradation along downstream reaches and, finally, (iv) a period of downstream incision. Dendrochronologic data and dendrogeomorphic relations indicate there have been three distinct periods of fluvial incision in the past 200 years. The first period of incision began in the 1860s and 1870s prior to the onset of European settlement and intensive grazing by domesticated cattle in the area. This period of incision occurred along the middle reaches of all seven of the streams examined and coincided with a severe, protracted drought, suggesting an allogenic cause. The second period

  14. The artesian water supply of the Dakota sandstone in North Dakota, with special reference to the Edgeley quadrangle: Chapter E in Contributions to the hydrology of the United States, 1923-1924

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinzer, Oscar E.; Hard, Herbert A.

    1925-01-01

    The Dakota sandstone and the overlying dense plastic shales form the most remarkable artesian basin in the United States with respect to its great extent, the long distances through which its water has percolated from the outcrops of the sandstone in the western mountains to the areas of artesian flow, and especially the tremendous pressure under which the water in the sandstone was originally by thick and continuous cover of impermeable shales. In 1882 a well was drilled to the Dakota sandstone at Aberdeen, S. Dak., by the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Co. This well was reported by Nettleton1 to have been "the first bore put down which reached the artesian basin of the Dakotas." In 1896 Darton2 estimated that about 400 artesian wells had been drilled to the Dakota sandstone, presumably in South Dakota and adjacent parts of the artesian basin in North Dakota which he investigated.3 The strongest of these wells had pressures ranging from 100 to more than 200 pounds to the square inch and flows ranging from 1,000 to more than 4,000 gallons a minute. The present brief paper is based chiefly on the data that have been obtained in the successive surveys in regard to about 230 artesian wells in or near the Edgeley quadrangle. A table of these well data is on file in the United States Geological Survey and is to be published in the detailed report on the geology and hydrology of the Edgeley and La Moure quadrangles that has been prepared by Mr. Hard. The well data obtained by Mr. Hard have already been published in a report prepared by him in his capacity as State flood-control engineer.

  15. Climate Simulation and Flood Risk Analysis for 2008-40 for Devils Lake, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2008-01-01

    Devils Lake and Stump Lake in northeastern North Dakota receive surface runoff from a 3,810-square-mile drainage basin, and evaporation provides the only major water loss unless the lakes are above their natural spill elevation to the Sheyenne River. In September 2007, flow from Devils Lake to Stump Lake had filled Stump Lake and the two lakes consisted of essentially one water body with an elevation of 1,447.1 feet, about 3 feet below the existing base flood elevation (1,450 feet) and about 12 feet below the natural outlet elevation to the Sheyenne River (1,459 feet). Devils Lake could continue to rise, causing extensive additional flood damages in the basin and, in the event of an uncontrolled natural spill, downstream in the Red River of the North Basin. This report describes the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, to evaluate future flood risk for Devils Lake and provide information for developing updated flood-insurance rate maps and planning flood-mitigation activities such as raising levees or roads. In about 1980, a large, abrupt, and highly significant increase in precipitation occurred in the Devils Lake Basin and elsewhere in the Northern Great Plains, and wetter-than-normal conditions have persisted through the present (2007). Although future precipitation is impossible to predict, paleoclimatic evidence and recent research on climate dynamics indicate the current wet conditions are not likely to end anytime soon. For example, there is about a 72-percent chance wet conditions will last at least 10 more years and about a 37-percent chance wet conditions will last at least 30 more years. A stochastic simulation model for Devils Lake and Stump Lake developed in a previous study was updated and used to generate 10,000 potential future realizations, or traces, of precipitation, evaporation, inflow, and lake levels given existing conditions on September 30, 2007, and randomly

  16. Identification of Diaporthe longicolla on dry edible peas (Pisum sativum), dry edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybeans (Glycine max) in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaporthe longicolla is a fungal pathogen that causes Phomopsis seed decay and stem disease of soybean, economically important diseases in some U.S. states. Dry edible bean, dry edible pea and soybean stems with unidentified lesions were collected from fields in North Dakota. Diaporthe longicolla ...

  17. A Programmed Enterprise Analysis Teaching Guide for Selected Farm Enterprises in North Dakota: Prepared as Part of the Farm Management Education In-Service Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck.

    The series of programmed teaching guides for the enterprise analysis of selected enterprises was prepared by the participants in a Farm Management Education In-Service Workshop at North Dakota State University. The guide should be useful to teachers of adult Farm Managment classes in helping to teach farmers to make a thorough analysis of the…

  18. Vocational-Technical Education. Preparing North Dakota's At-Risk Populations for Competitive Employment for the 1990s and Beyond. An Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Council on Vocational Education, Bismarck.

    North Dakota's vocational-technical education (VTE) system was evaluated in order to determine (1) the effectiveness and adequacy of the delivery system in carrying out the purposes of the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act and the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) and (2) the effectiveness and adequacy of the coordination between the two…

  19. State Board of Higher Education Institutions and Departments under Its Jurisdiction. State of North Dakota Twenty-Third Biennial Report, July 1, 1981 thru June 30, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Board of Higher Education, Bismarck.

    The 1981-1983 report of the North Dakota State Board of Higher Education is presented with information on individual universities and colleges. In addition to financial statements, school profiles include information on: institutional mission and goals, enrollment by class, enrollment by curricula, degrees, the curriculum, instructional…

  20. The Country School as an Historic Site and the Movement to Improve Rural Schools in North Dakota. Country School Legacy: Humanities on the Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rylance, Dan

    Country schools were important in the growth and development of North Dakota. While most of the early schools were constructed of wood, some were constructed of stone, sod, or logs. Standardization was established by 1915, and the white framed one-room school was duplicated in every township of the state until the end of World War II. A former…

  1. Full chain life cycle assessment of greenhouse gases and energy demand for canola-derived jet fuel in North Dakota, United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The success of long-term sustainable biofuel production on agricultural lands is still questionable. To this end, we investigated the effects of crop prices on the changes of agricultural land use for biofuel canola production in three wheat crop management zones in North Dakota. The effects of cano...

  2. Electrical/Electronic Technology (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for an electrical/electronic technology course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a…

  3. Water-quality trend analysis and sampling design for the Souris River, Saskatchewan, North Dakota, and Manitoba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2000-01-01

    The Souris River Basin is a 24,600-square-mile basin located in southeast Saskatchewan, north-central North Dakota, and southwest Manitoba. The Souris River Bilateral Water Quality Monitoring Group, formed in 1989 by the governments of Canada and the United States, is responsible for documenting trends in water quality in the Souris River and making recommendations for monitoring future water-quality conditions. This report presents results of a study conducted for the Bilateral Water Quality Monitoring Group by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, to analyze historic trends in water quality in the Souris River and to determine efficient sampling designs for monitoring future trends. U.S. Geological Survey and Environment Canada water-quality data collected during 1977-96 from four sites near the boundary crossings between Canada and the United States were included in the trend analysis.A parametric time-series model was developed for detecting trends in historic constituent concentration data. The model can be applied to constituents that have at least 90 percent of observations above detection limits of the analyses, which, for the Souris River, includes most major ions and nutrients and many trace elements. The model can detect complex nonmonotonic trends in concentration in the presence of complex interannual and seasonal variability in daily discharge. A key feature of the model is its ability to handle highly irregular sampling intervals. For example, the intervals between concentration measurements may be be as short as 10 days to as long as several months, and the number of samples in any given year can range from zero to 36.Results from the trend analysis for the Souris River indicated numerous trends in constituent concentration. The most significant trends at the two sites located near the upstream boundary crossing between Saskatchewan and North Dakota consisted of increases in concentrations of most

  4. Identifying priority chronic wasting disease surveillance areas for mule deer in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, Robin E.; Gude, Justin; Anderson, N.J.; Ramsey, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal prion disease that affects a variety of ungulate species including mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). As of 2014, no CWD cases had been reported in free-ranging ungulates in Montana. However, nearby cases in Canada, Wyoming, and the Dakotas indicated that the disease was encroaching on Montana's borders. Mule deer are native and common throughout Montana, and they represent a significant portion of the total hunter-harvested cervids in the state. The arrival of CWD in Montana may have significant ecosystem and socioeconomic impacts as well as potential consequences for wildlife management. We used 18,879 mule deer locations from 892 individual deer collected during 1975–2011 and modeled habitat selection for 7 herds in 5 of the 7 wildlife management regions in Montana. We estimated resource selection functions (RSF) in a Bayesian framework to predict summer and winter habitat preferences for mule deer. We estimated deer abundance from flyover counts for each region, and used the RSF predictions as weights to distribute the deer across the region. We then calculated the distance to the nearest known infected herds. We predicted areas of high risk of CWD infection in mule deer as areas with densities above the median density estimate and within the lowest quartile of distances to known infected herds. We identified these areas, the southeast corner of Montana and the north-central border near Alberta and Saskatchewan, as priority areas for CWD surveillance and management efforts. 

  5. Water-use data for the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, 1979-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Arntson, Allan D.; Ryberg, Karen R.; Dahl, Ann L.; Lieb, Amy

    2004-01-01

    The Red River of the North, located in the north-central plains of the United States, plays an important role in population growth and economic development of the region. Because of recent and projected growth in population, industry, and agriculture in the Red River of the North Basin, alternatives to additional water resources will be needed to supplement future water needs. Past and current water-use data are needed to help select the most viable water-resource alternatives. Withdrawal and return flow data were collected from various sources throughout the Red River of the North Basin from 1979 through 2001. The withdrawal data were aggregated by subbasin, monthly totals, and water-use categories. The return flow data were aggregated by subbasin and monthly totals. The Red River of the North Basin was divided into subbasins based on locations of U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations and by specifically-identified reaches. Results of the water-use compilation are provided in this report.

  6. Seasonal Soil Nitrogen Mineralization within an Integrated Crop and Livestock System in Western North Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Pfenning, Lauren; Brevik, Eric C.

    2015-04-01

    Protecting natural resources while maintaining or maximizing crop yield potential is of utmost importance for sustainable crop and livestock production systems. Since soil organic matter and its decomposition by soil organisms is at the very foundation of healthy productive soils, systems research at the North Dakota State University Dickinson Research Extension Center is evaluating seasonal soil nitrogen fertility within an integrated crop and livestock production system. The 5-year diverse crop rotation is: sunflower (SF) - hard red spring wheat (HRSW) - fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (THV; spring harvested for hay)/spring seeded 7-species cover crop (CC) - Corn (C) (85-90 day var.) - field pea-barley intercrop (PBY). The HRSW and SF are harvested as cash crops and the PBY, C, and CC are harvested by grazing cattle. In the system, yearling beef steers graze the PBY and C before feedlot entry and after weaning, gestating beef cows graze the CC. Since rotation establishment, four crop years have been harvested from the crop rotation. All crops have been seeded using a JD 1590 no-till drill except C and SF. Corn and SF were planted using a JD 7000 no-till planter. The HRSW, PBY, and CC were seeded at a soil depth of 3.8 cm and a row width of 19.1 cm. Seed placement for the C and SF crops was at a soil depth of 5.1 cm and the row spacing was 0.762 m. The plant population goal/ha for C, SF, and wheat was 7,689, 50,587, and 7,244 p/ha, respectively. During the 3rd cropping year, soil bulk density was measured and during the 4th cropping year, seasonal nitrogen fertility was monitored throughout the growing season from June to October. Seasonal nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), total season mineral nitrogen (NO3-N + NH4-N), cropping system NO3-N, and bulk density were measured in 3 replicated non-fertilized field plot areas within each 10.6 ha triple replicated crop fields. Within each plot area, 6 - 20.3 cm x 0.61 m aluminum irrigation

  7. Waterfowl production on the Woodworth Station in south-central North Dakota, 1965-1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Kirsch, L.M.; Klett, A.T.; Miller, H.W.

    1992-01-01

    During 17 years of study at the Woodworth, North Dakota study area, the percent of 548 wetland basin with water during 1-15 May ranged from 8 to 87 and averaged 56; waterfowl pair densities varied from 19 to 56/km2 and averaged 40/km2. Pond occupancy by duck pairs averaged 37% during mid-May counts and 48% for late May and early June counts. A positive linear relation occurred between the estimated number of duck pairs and the percent of basins with water during 1-15 May.There were 3,339 duck nests found in grassland habitats from 1966 through 1981. Approximately 66% (85% Mayfield) of these were depredated or abandoned. Mammals caused 88% of nest failures. Half or more of the eventually successful clutches were unhatched by 10 July in 9 of 16 years. Haying would have disturbed or destroyed an average of 43%, 33%, 22%, 15%, and 9% of the duck nests if initiated on 10 July, 15 July, 20 July, 25 July, and 1 August, respectively.The total average size of completed clutch for all species was 29% smaller at the end of the nesting season than at the beginning, underscoring the importance of protecting early clutches.Production averaged 30 broods per 100 pairs of ducks and ranged from 15 to 61 broods per 100 pairs. Brood densities ranged from 10 to 63/km2 and averaged 12/km2. Mean brood size averaged 6.4 for all species. July broods averaged 7.2 ducklings and August broods 5.7 ducklings. Duckling loss averaged 2.6 per brood and 85% (2.2 ducklings) of this loss was estimated to occur during the first 14 days after hatch.Wetlands of all sizes and classes were important at some time to one species of duck or another. With the exception of some diving ducks, all species used a complex of sizes and classes of wetlands for space, food, and shelter necessary for nesting and brooding. Pair counts during 20 May-7 June were most indicative of the breeding population. A combination of two brood counts resulted in the best estimate of annual production. An average of only 50% of the

  8. Resource management and operations in central North Dakota: Climate change scenario planning workshop summary November 12-13, 2015, Bismarck, ND

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Shuurman, Gregor; Symstad, Amy; Ray, Andrea; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Miller, Brian; Rowland, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The Scaling Climate Change Adaptation in the Northern Great Plains through Regional Climate Summaries and Local Qualitative-Quantitative Scenario Planning Workshops project synthesizes climate data into 3-5 distinct but plausible climate summaries for the northern Great Plains region; crafts quantitative summaries of these climate futures for two focal areas; and applies these local summaries by developing climate-resource-management scenarios through participatory workshops and, where possible, simulation models. The two focal areas are central North Dakota and southwest South Dakota (Figure 1). The primary objective of this project is to help resource managers and scientists in a focal area use scenario planning to make management and planning decisions based on assessments of critical future uncertainties.This report summarizes project work for public and tribal lands in the central North Dakota focal area, with an emphasis on Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site. The report explainsscenario planning as an adaptation tool in general, then describes how it was applied to the central North Dakota focal area in three phases. Priority resource management and climate uncertainties were identified in the orientation phase. Local climate summaries for relevant, divergent, and challenging climate scenarios were developed in the second phase. In the final phase, a two-day scenario planning workshop held November 12-13, 2015 in Bismarck, ND, featured scenario development and implications, testing management decisions, and methods for operationalizing scenario planning outcomes.

  9. An evaluation of the signature extension approach to large area crop inventories utilizing space image data. [Kansas and North Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F. (Principal Investigator); Cicone, R. C.; Stinson, J. L.; Balon, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Two examples of haze correction algorithms were tested: CROP-A and XSTAR. The CROP-A was tested in a unitemporal mode on data collected in 1973-74 over ten sample segments in Kansas. Because of the uniformly low level of haze present in these segments, no conclusion could be reached about CROP-A's ability to compensate for haze. It was noted, however, that in some cases CROP-A made serious errors which actually degraded classification performance. The haze correction algorithm XSTAR was tested in a multitemporal mode on 1975-76 LACIE sample segment data over 23 blind sites in Kansas and 18 sample segments in North Dakota, providing wide range of haze levels and other conditions for algorithm evaluation. It was found that this algorithm substantially improved signature extension classification accuracy when a sum-of-likelihoods classifier was used with an alien rejection threshold.

  10. Lack of significant changes in the herpetofauna of Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota, since the 1920s

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hossack, B.R.; Corn, P.S.; Pilliod, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    We surveyed 88 upland wetlands and 12 1-km river sections for amphibians in Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota, during 2001–2002 to gather baseline data for future monitoring efforts and to evaluate changes in the distribution of species. We compared our results to collections of herpetofauna made during 1920–1922, 1954 and 1978–1979. The boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata) was the most common amphibian in upland wetlands, followed by the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum), Woodhouse's toad (Bufo woodhousii), northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens), plains spadefoot (Spea bombifrons) and the Great Plains toad (B. cognatus). Bufo woodhousii was the only species that bred in the river. Our records for reptiles are less complete than for amphibians but no losses from the community are evident. The herpetofauna in Theodore Roosevelt National Park seems unchanged during at least the last half-century and likely since 1920–1922.

  11. Summary of surface-water quality, ground-water quality, and water withdrawals for the Spirit Lake Reservation, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.; Cates, Steven W.

    2006-01-01

    Available surface-water quality, ground-water quality, and water-withdrawal data for the Spirit Lake Reservation were summarized. The data were collected intermittently from 1948 through 2004 and were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey databases, North Dakota State Water Commission databases, and Spirit Lake Nation tribal agencies. Although the quality of surface water on the reservation generally is satisfactory, no surface-water sources are used for consumable water supplies. Ground water on the reservation is of sufficient quality for most uses. The Tokio and Warwick aquifers have better overall water quality than the Spiritwood aquifer. Water from the Spiritwood aquifer is used mostly for irrigation. The Warwick aquifer provides most of the consumable water for the reservation and for the city of Devils Lake. Annual water withdrawals from the Warwick aquifer by the Spirit Lake Nation ranged from 71 million gallons to 122 million gallons during 2000-04.

  12. West Nile virus antibody prevalence in red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) from North Dakota, USA (2003-2004).

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Heather; Linz, George; Clark, Larry; Salman, Mo

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the role that red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) may have played in disseminating West Nile virus (WNV) across the United States. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays designed to detect WNV antibodies in avian species we were able to determine the WNV antibody prevalence in a cohort of red-winged blackbirds in central North Dakota in 2003 and 2004. The peak WNV antibody prevalence was 22.0% in August of 2003 and 18.3% in July of 2004. The results of this study suggest that red-winged blackbird migratory populations may be an important viral dispersal mechanism with the ability to spread arboviruses such as WNV across the United States.

  13. Evaporation from a small prairie wetland in the Cottonwood Lake Area, North Dakota - An energy-budget study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, R.S.; Winter, T.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Sturrock, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Evaporation from Wetland Pl in the Cottonwood Lake area of North Dakota, USA was determined by the energy-budget method for 1982-85 and 1987. Evaporation rates were as high as 0.672 cm day-1. Incoming solar radiation, incoming atmospheric radiation, and long-wave radiation emitted from the water body are the largest energy fluxes to and from the wetland. Because of the small heat storage of the water body, evaporation rates closely track solar radiation on short time scales. The effect of advected energy related to precipitation is small because the water quickly heats up by solar radiation following precipitation. Advected energy related to ground water is minimal because ground-water fluxes are small and groundwater temperature is only about 7 ??C. Energy flux related to sediment heating and thermal storage in the sediments, which might be expected to be large because the water is clear and shallow, affects evaporation rates by less than 5 percent.

  14. Mineralized soft-tissue structure and chemistry in a mummified hadrosaur from the Hell Creek Formation, North Dakota (USA).

    PubMed

    Manning, Phillip L; Morris, Peter M; McMahon, Adam; Jones, Emrys; Gize, Andy; Macquaker, Joe H S; Wolff, George; Thompson, Anu; Marshall, Jim; Taylor, Kevin G; Lyson, Tyler; Gaskell, Simon; Reamtong, Onrapak; Sellers, William I; van Dongen, Bart E; Buckley, Mike; Wogelius, Roy A

    2009-10-01

    An extremely well-preserved dinosaur (Cf. Edmontosaurus sp.) found in the Hell Creek Formation (Upper Cretaceous, North Dakota) retains soft-tissue replacement structures and associated organic compounds. Mineral cements precipitated in the skin apparently follow original cell boundaries, partially preserving epidermis microstructure. Infrared and electron microprobe images of ossified tendon clearly show preserved mineral zonation, with silica and trapped carbon dioxide forming thin linings on Haversian canals within apatite. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of materials recovered from the skin and terminal ungual phalanx suggests the presence of compounds containing amide groups. Amino acid composition analyses of the mineralized skin envelope clearly differ from the surrounding matrix; however, intact proteins could not be obtained using protein mass spectrometry. The presence of endogenously derived organics from the skin was further demonstrated by pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (Py-GCMS), indicating survival and presence of macromolecules that were in part aliphatic (see the electronic supplementary material).

  15. JV Task-130 Technological Synergies for Recovery of Organic Pollutants from a Coal Seam at Garrison, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Jaroslav Solc

    2009-03-15

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) initiated remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater associated with gasoline release at the Farmers Union Oil station in Garrison, North Dakota. The remedial strategy implemented is based on application of two innovative concepts: (1) simultaneous operation of soil vapor and multiphase extraction systems allowing for water table control in challenging geotechnical conditions and (2) controlled hot-air circulation between injection and extraction wells to accelerated in situ volatilization and stripping of contaminants of concern (COC) alternatively using the same wells as either extraction or injection points. A proactive remedial approach is required to reduce high COC levels in the source and impacted areas and to eliminate long-term health risks associated with contaminant migration to water-bearing zones used as a regional water supply source. This report compiles results of Phase I focused on design, construction, and start-up of remediation systems.

  16. JV Task 106 - Feasibility of CO2 Capture Technologies for Existing North Dakota Lignite-Fired Pulverized Coal Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Jones; Brandon M. Pavlish; Melanie D. Jensen

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this project is to provide a technical review and evaluation of various carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture technologies, with a focus on the applicability to lignite-fired facilities within North Dakota. The motivation for the project came from the Lignite Energy Council's (LEC's) need to identify the feasibility of CO{sub 2} capture technologies for existing North Dakota lignite-fired, pulverized coal (pc) power plants. A literature review was completed to determine the commercially available technologies as well as to identify emerging CO{sub 2} capture technologies that are currently in the research or demonstration phase. The literature review revealed few commercially available technologies for a coal-fired power plant. CO{sub 2} separation and capture using amine scrubbing have been performed for several years in industry and could be applied to an existing pc-fired power plant. Other promising technologies do exist, but many are still in the research and demonstration phases. Oxyfuel combustion, a technology that has been used in industry for several years to increase boiler efficiency, is in the process of being tailored for CO{sub 2} separation and capture. These two technologies were chosen for evaluation for CO{sub 2} separation and capture from coal-fired power plants. Although oxyfuel combustion is still in the pilot-scale demonstration phase, it was chosen to be evaluated at LEC's request because it is one of the most promising emerging technologies. As part of the evaluation of the two chosen technologies, a conceptual design, a mass and energy balance, and an economic evaluation were completed.

  17. SUBTASK 1.7 EVALUATION OF KEY FACTORS AFFECTING SUCCESSFUL OIL PRODUCTION IN THE BAKKEN FORMATION, NORTH DAKOTA PHASE II

    SciTech Connect

    Darren D. Schmidt; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen; Damion J. Knudsen; John A. Harju; Edward N. Steadman

    2011-10-31

    Production from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations continues to trend upward as forecasts predict significant production of oil from unconventional resources nationwide. As the U.S. Geological Survey reevaluates the 3.65 billion bbl technically recoverable estimate of 2008, technological advancements continue to unlock greater unconventional oil resources, and new discoveries continue within North Dakota. It is expected that the play will continue to expand to the southwest, newly develop in the northeastern and northwestern corners of the basin in North Dakota, and fully develop in between. Although not all wells are economical, the economic success rate has been near 75% with more than 90% of wells finding oil. Currently, only about 15% of the play has been drilled, and recovery rates are less than 5%, providing a significant future of wells to be drilled and untouched hydrocarbons to be pursued through improved stimulation practices or enhanced oil recovery. This study provides the technical characterizations that are necessary to improve knowledge, provide characterization, validate generalizations, and provide insight relative to hydrocarbon recovery in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations. Oil-saturated rock charged from the Bakken shales and prospective Three Forks can be produced given appropriate stimulation treatments. Highly concentrated fracture stimulations with ceramic- and sand-based proppants appear to be providing the best success for areas outside the Parshall and Sanish Fields. Targeting of specific lithologies can influence production from both natural and induced fracture conductivity. Porosity and permeability are low, but various lithofacies units within the formation are highly saturated and, when targeted with appropriate technology, release highly economical quantities of hydrocarbons.

  18. Libraries in Montana: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/montana.html Libraries in Montana To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Billings Billings Clinic Medical Library 2825 8th Avenue North Billings, MT 59107-5100 ...

  19. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Montana Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter D in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hearn, B. Carter; Parks, Heather L.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Anderson, Eric D.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Denning, Paul D.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Folger, Helen W.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Granitto, Matthew; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; Kelley, Karen D.; Ober, Joyce A.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Sangine, Elizabeth S.; Schweitzer, Peter N.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Montana SFA. The proposed withdrawal area that is evaluated in this report is located in north-central Montana, and includes parts of Fergus, Petroleum, Phillips, and Valley Counties.

  20. Some hydrologic aspects of proposed coal mining in the north fork of the Flathead River headwaters area, northwest Montana and southeast British Columbia. Completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, R.A.; Van Voast, W.A.; Sonderegger, J.L.

    1984-12-01

    The proposed Cabin Creek coal mine in Canada, just north of the Montana-British Columbia border, has caused considerable concern in Montana because of its potential impact on the North Fork of the Flathead River. The objective of the project was to assess the impact of mining activity at the Cabin Creek site on water quality in the Flathead River. The results of the project indicate that acid mine drainage from the Cabin Creek mine should not be a problem. Analysis of the coal samples indicated that the acid-neutralizing potential exceeded the acid producing potential. Mineralization of waters entering the North Fork could result in some degradation of water quality, as could sediment from soil disturbances. The extent of degradation will depend on mining practices and on the location of retention facilities for water and other residual materials extracted from the mine.

  1. National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Data collection in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoner, J.D.; Lorenz, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    A water-quality assessment began in 1991 for the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin as part of a national study. Data collection for the reconnainssance and intensive phases of the study briefly is described for each of the major components (streams, aquatic biology, and ground water) used to assess regional water quality. The data will be analyzed to address national and local water-quality concerns.

  2. Nutrients, suspended sediment, and pesticides in streams in the Red River of the North basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1993-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tornes, L.H.; Brigham, M.E.; Lorenz, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    The most heavily used herbicides, 2,4-D and MCPA, were infrequently detected in stream-water samples. Of the estimated applications of atrazine, triallate, and 2,4-D, about 0.9, 0.06, and 0.02 percent of each of these compounds, respectively, was carried out of the study unit by the Red River of the North during 1993-95.

  3. Chemical quality of surface waters in Devils Lake basin, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swenson, Herbert; Colby, Bruce R.

    1955-01-01

    Devils Lake basin, a closed basin in northeastern North Dakota, covers about 3,900 square miles of land, the topography of which is morainal and of glacial origin. In this basin lies a chain of waterways, which begins with the Sweetwater group and extends successively through Mauvais Coulee, Devils Lake, East Bay Devils Lake, and East Devils Lake, to Stump Lake. In former years when lake levels were high, Mauvais Coulee drained the Sweetwater group and discharged considerable water into Devils Lake. Converging coulees also transported excess water to Stump Lake. For at least 70 years prior to 1941, Mauvais Coulee flowed only intermittently, and the levels of major lakes in this region gradually declined. Devils Lake, for example, covered an area of about 90,000 acres in 1867 but had shrunk to approximately 6,500 acres by 1941. Plans to restore the recreational appeal of Devils Lake propose the dilution and eventual displacement of the brackish lake water by fresh water that would be diverted from the Missouri River. Freshening of the lake water would permit restocking Devils Lake with fish. Devils and Stump Lake have irregular outlines and numerous windings and have been described as lying in the valley of a preglacial river, the main stem and tributaries of which are partly filled with drift. Prominent morainal hills along the south shore of Devils Lake contrast sharply with level farmland to the north. The mean annual temperature of Devils Lake basin ranges between 36 ? and 42 ? F. Summer temperatures above 100 ? F and winter temperatures below -30 ? Fare not uncommon. The annual precipitation for 77 years at the city of Devils Lake averaged 17.5 inches. Usually, from 75 to 80 percent of the precipitation in the basin falls during the growing season, April to September. From 1867 to 1941 the net fall of the water surface of Devils Lake was about 38 feet. By 1951 the surface had risen fully 14 feet from its lowest altitude, 1,400.9 feet. Since 1951, the level has

  4. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Powder River Basin, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska: Chapter B in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craddock, William H.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Mars, John L.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Gosai, Mayur A.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven A.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents ten storage assessment units (SAUs) within the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska. The Powder River Basin contains a thick succession of sedimentary rocks that accumulated steadily throughout much of the Phanerozoic, and at least three stratigraphic packages contain strata that are suitable for CO2 storage. Pennsylvanian through Triassic siliciclastic strata contain two potential storage units: the Pennsylvanian and Permian Tensleep Sandstone and Minnelusa Formation, and the Triassic Crow Mountain Sandstone. Jurassic siliciclastic strata contain one potential storage unit: the lower part of the Sundance Formation. Cretaceous siliciclastic strata contain seven potential storage units: (1) the Fall River and Lakota Formations, (2) the Muddy Sandstone, (3) the Frontier Sandstone and Turner Sandy Member of the Carlile Shale, (4) the Sussex and Shannon Sandstone Members of Cody Shale, and (5) the Parkman, (6) Teapot, and (7) Teckla Sandstone Members of the Mesaverde Formation. For each SAU, we discuss the areal distribution of suitable CO2 reservoir rock. We also characterize the overlying sealing unit and describe the geologic characteristics that influence the potential CO2 storage volume and reservoir performance. These characteristics include reservoir depth, gross thickness, net thickness, porosity, permeability, and groundwater salinity. Case-by-case strategies for estimating the pore volume existing within structurally and (or) stratigraphically closed traps are presented. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information included herein will be employed to calculate the potential storage space in the various SAUs.

  5. Sources and cycling of major ions and nutrients in Devils Lake, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lent, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Devils Lake is a saline lake in a large, closed drainage basin in northeastern North Dakota. Previous studies determined that major-ion and nutrient concentrations in Devils Lake are strongly affected by microbially mediated sulfate reduction and dissolution of sulfate and carbonate minerals in the bottom sediments. These studies documented substantial spatial variability in the magnitude of calculated benthic fluxes coincident with the horizontal salinity gradient in Devils Lake. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate seasonal variability in benthic-flux rates, and to understand the effect of these fluxes on the major- chemistries in Devils Lake between May and October 1991. During the study period, the water column was well mixed, and specific conductance, pH, and temperature did not vary with depth. Dissolved oxygen was enriched near the lake surface due to photosynthesis. Major-ion concentrations and nutrient concentrations did not vary with depth. Because the water-quality data were obtained during open-water periods, the vertical profiles reflect well-mixed conditions. However, the first and last profiles for the study period did document near-bottom maxima of major cations. Secchi-disk depth varied from 0.82 meter on May 7, 1991, to 2.13 meters on June 5, 1991. The mean Secchi-disk depth during the study period was 1.24 meters. Seasonal variations in Secchi-disk depths were attributed to variations in primary productivity and phytoplankton communities. Nutrient cycles in Devils Lake were evaluated using gross primary productivity rate data, sediment trap data, and major-ion and nutrient benthic-flux rate data. Gross primary productivity rate was smallest in May (0.076 gram of carbon per square meter per day) and largest in September (1.8 grams of carbon per square meter per day). Average gross primary productivity for the study period was 0.87 gram of carbon per square meter per day. Average gross primary productivity is consistent with historic

  6. Conceptual and numerical models of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marini, Katrina A.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Aurand, Katherine R.; Putnam, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey report documents a conceptual and numerical model of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota, that can be used to evaluate and manage the city of Aberdeen's water resources. The glacial aquifer system in the model area includes the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James aquifers, with intervening confining units composed of glacial till. The Elm aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to about 95 feet (ft), with an average thickness of about 24 ft; the Middle James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 91 ft, with an average thickness of 13 ft; and the Deep James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 165 ft, with an average thickness of 23 ft. The confining units between the aquifers consisted of glacial till and ranged in thickness from 0 to 280 ft. The general direction of groundwater flow in the Elm aquifer in the model area was from northwest to southeast following the topography. Groundwater flow in the Middle James aquifer was to the southeast. Sparse data indicated a fairly flat potentiometric surface for the Deep James aquifer. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity for the Elm aquifer determined from aquifer tests ranged from 97 to 418 feet per day (ft/d), and a confined storage coefficient was determined to be 2.4x10-5. Estimates of the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments separating the Elm River from the Elm aquifer, determined from the analysis of temperature gradients, ranged from 0.14 to 2.48 ft/d. Average annual precipitation in the model area was 19.6 inches per year (in/yr), and agriculture was the primary land use. Recharge to the Elm aquifer was by infiltration of precipitation through overlying outwash, lake sediments, and glacial till. The annual recharge for the model area, calculated by using a soil-water-balance method for water year (WY) 1975-2009, ranged from 0.028 inch in WY 1980 to 4.52 inches in WY 1986, with a mean of 1.56 inches. The annual potential

  7. Simulation of Constituent Transport in the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota, During Unsteady-Flow Conditions, 1977 and 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nustad, Rochelle A.; Bales, Jerad D.

    2006-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation identified eight water-supply alternatives for the Red River Valley Water Supply Project. Of those alternatives, six were considered for this study. Those six alternatives include a no-action alternative, two in-basin alternatives, and three interbasin alternatives. To address concerns of stakeholders and to provide information for an environmental impact statement, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, developed and applied a water-quality model to simulate the transport of total dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, sodium, and total phosphorus during unsteady-flow conditions and to simulate the effects of the water-supply alternatives on water quality in the Red River and the Sheyenne River. The physical domain of the model, hereinafter referred to as the Red River model, includes the Red River from Wahpeton, North Dakota, to Emerson, Manitoba, and the Sheyenne River from below Baldhill Dam, North Dakota, to the confluence with the Red River. Boundary conditions were specified for May 15 through October 31, 2003, and January 15 through June 30, 2004. Measured streamflow data were available for August 1 through October 31, 2003, and April 1 through June 30, 2004, but water-quality data were available only for September 15 through 16, 2003, and May 10 through 13, 2004. The water-quality boundary conditions were assumed to be time invariant for the entire calibration period and to be equal to the measured value. The average difference between the measured and simulated streamflows was less than 4 percent for both calibration periods, and most differences were less than 2 percent. The average differences are considered to be acceptable because the differences are less than 5 percent, or the same as the error that would be expected in a typical streamflow measurement. Simulated total dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, and sodium concentrations generally were less than measured concentrations for both

  8. Nutrients, suspended sediment, and pesticides in waters of the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1970-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tornes, L.H.; Brigham, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    A relatively large fraction of stream samples had detectable quantities of 2,4-D, a- and y-HCH, and atrazine. These samples covered time spans of as much as 15 years and were from sites downstream from large drainage basins; however, concentrations were well below US EPA MCLs. One county-level study showed higher 2,4-D concentrations at upstream sites than at the outlet from a small basin. This indicates that downstream sites may fail to show impaired water-quality and the fate of pesticides used in the basin. Following the 1972 ban on DDT, concentrations of DDT in fish samples from the Red River of the North quickly decreased. Fish concentrations of DDE and DDD decreased more slowly. Low levels of DDE and DDD were detected in fish 14 years after the DDT ban.

  9. Historic and naturalized monthly streamflow for selected sites in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota, 1931-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, Douglas G.

    2005-01-01

    Historic monthly streamflow data were compiled and missing historic and naturalized monthly streamflow data were estimated to develop a database of updated streamflow data for January 1931 through December 2001 (the data-development period) for 35 sites in the Red River of the North Basin. Of the 35 sites, 4 had gaged historic monthly streamflow data for the entire data-development period, 10 had gaged historic monthly streamflow data for part of the data-development period, and 21 had no gaged historic monthly streamflow data. To develop the database, a modified drainage-area ratio method, a maintenance of variance extension type 1 method, and a water-balance method were used to estimate the missing historic monthly streamflow data. Naturalized streamflow for the 35 sites was estimated by eliminating the hydrologic effects of Orwell Dam, Reservation Dam, White Rock Dam, Baldhill Dam, surfacewater withdrawals, and return flows.

  10. Formation, diagenesis and FOC-RFC cementation of fossiliferous concretions of the Fox Hills Fm. , (Upper Cretaceous) of North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, S.J.; Erickson, J.M.; Owen, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    Carbonate-cemented, fossil-rich concretions are a prominent feature in the clastic, marine rocks of the Fox Hills Fm., of North Dakota and South Dakota. Preliminary petrographic, paleontologic, chemical and isotopic data from three sandstone concretions suggest initial nucleation at very shallow burial depths (< 1m). Decomposition of organic-rich fecal material produced localized anoxic and alkaline conditions which induced phosphatization, sulfate reduction (pyrite formation) and possibly adipocire (Ca(RCOO)/sub 2/) formation. These processes were responsible for the formation of an unlithified proto-concretion. The elevated pH at the concretion site allowed calcite precipitation while calcareous shell material in the surrounding sediment experience dissolution. Transformation of adipocire (.) produced a ferroan isopachous carbonate cement. Following this, Fascicular-optic and Radiaxial-fibrous calcite, volumetrically the most significant cement was precipitated. RFC represents the morphological transition from acicular FOC to the late stage, equant, Blocky Calcite (BC). Scanning Electron Microscopy of FOC-RFC indicates the habit of radiating crystals and constituent subcrystals and suggests causes for the unusual optical properties of FOC and RFC. Atomic Absorption data demonstrate decreases in Mg, Fe, Sr and Mn between FOC and BC. Cathodoluminescence (CL) reveals gradational boundaries between morphologically distinct cements and a bright zone corresponding to RFC. Most well preserved aragonitic shells indicate few signs of replacement by calcite. However, some pelecypod shells show an unusual form of replacement whereby shell volume and structure are preserved, although completely replaced by FOC. CL also reveals the amount of replacement as indicated by a blending of carbonate luminescent colors (calcite = red; aragonite = blue).

  11. Estimation of flood flows on the Big Sioux River between Akron, Iowa, and North Sioux City, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niehus, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents estimated flood flows for specified frequencies at selected locations on the Big Sioux River between the Akron, Iowa, streamflow-gaging station and North Sioux City, South Dakota. The selected locations include: at the Akron gaging station, downstream from the Richland-Westfield Creek Basins, downstream from the Brule Creek Basin, downstream from the Upper West Boundary Big Ditch and Rock Creek Basins, downstream from Broken Kettle Basin, and downstream from North Sioux City. The flood flows for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year recurrence intervals will be used to support a Federal Emergency Management Agency Flood Insurance Study. Four methods were used to estimate the flood flows. The first method involved the use of drainage-area ratios raised to specified exponents to transfer the flood-frequency relation from the Akron gage to the selected downstream locations. The second method was a flood-frequency analysis based on a summation of the Akron gaging-station peak flows and concurrent tributary daily flows from within the various study reaches. The third method was an independence/dependence analysis of the Akron gaging-station flows and the tributary flows from the various study reaches. The fourth method was a flood-frequency analysis assuming complete dependence of the Akron peak flows and the tributary peak flows from the various study reaches. Based on the various analyses that were done, the drainage-area-ratio method best estimated the flood flows for the Akron to North Sioux City reach of the Big Sioux River. The best estimates of 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year flood flows at the location downstream from North Sioux City are 35,300, 70,400, 89,100, and 142,000 cubic feet per second, respectively.

  12. Quality and age of shallow groundwater in the Bakken Formation production area, Williston Basin, Montana and North Dakota.

    PubMed

    McMahon, P B; Caldwell, R R; Galloway, J M; Valder, J F; Hunt, A G

    2015-04-01

    The quality and age of shallow groundwater in the Bakken Formation production area were characterized using data from 30 randomly distributed domestic wells screened in the upper Fort Union Formation. Comparison of inorganic and organic chemical concentrations to health based drinking-water standards, correlation analysis of concentrations with oil and gas well locations, and isotopic data give no indication that energy-development activities affected groundwater quality. It is important, however, to consider these results in the context of groundwater age. Most samples were recharged before the early 1950s and had 14C ages ranging from <1000 to >30,000 years. Thus, domestic wells may not be as well suited for detecting contamination associated with recent surface spills as shallower wells screened near the water table. Old groundwater could be contaminated directly by recent subsurface leaks from imperfectly cemented oil and gas wells, but horizontal groundwater velocities calculated from 14C ages imply that the contaminants would still be less than 0.5 km from their source. For the wells sampled in this study, the median distance to the nearest oil and gas well was 4.6 km. Because of the slow velocities, a long-term commitment to groundwater monitoring in the upper Fort Union Formation is needed to assess the effects of energy development on groundwater quality. In conjunction with that effort, monitoring could be done closer to energy-development activities to increase the likelihood of early detection of groundwater contamination if it did occur. PMID:25392910

  13. Quality and age of shallow groundwater in the Bakken Formation production area, Williston Basin, Montana and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Peter B.; Caldwell, Rodney R.; Galloway, Joel M.; Valder, Joshua F.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    The quality and age of shallow groundwater in the Bakken Formation production area were characterized using data from 30 randomly distributed domestic wells screened in the upper Fort Union Formation. Comparison of inorganic and organic chemical concentrations to health based drinking-water standards, correlation analysis of concentrations with oil and gas well locations, and isotopic data give no indication that energy-development activities affected groundwater quality. It is important, however, to consider these results in the context of groundwater age. Most samples were recharged before the early 1950s and had 14C ages ranging from 30,000 years. Thus, domestic wells may not be as well suited for detecting contamination associated with recent surface spills as shallower wells screened near the water table. Old groundwater could be contaminated directly by recent subsurface leaks from imperfectly cemented oil and gas wells, but horizontal groundwater velocities calculated from 14C ages imply that the contaminants would still be less than 0.5 km from their source. For the wells sampled in this study, the median distance to the nearest oil and gas well was 4.6 km. Because of the slow velocities, a long-term commitment to groundwater monitoring in the upper Fort Union Formation is needed to assess the effects of energy development on groundwater quality. In conjunction with that effort, monitoring could be done closer to energy-development activities to increase the likelihood of early detection of groundwater contamination if it did occur.

  14. Registration verification of SEA/AR fields. [Oregon, Texas, Montana, Nebraska, Washington, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and North Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, W. W.; Lautenschlager, L. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A method of field registration verification for 20 SEA/AR sites for the 1979 crop year is evaluated. Field delineations for the sites were entered into the data base, and their registration verified using single channel gray scale computer printout maps of LANDSAT data taken over the site.

  15. Reconnaissance for trace elements in North Dakota and eastern Montana. Part 1. Geology and radioactivity. Part 2. Reserves and summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyant, Donald G.; Beroni, Ernest P.

    1950-01-01

    The exact mode of origin of the uranium in the lignite is not known. Uranium may have accumulated in swamps at the same time as the organic debris, or it may have been introduced by ground water after the formation of lignite. In either case carbon or carbon compounds apparently caused the precipitation or fixation of uranium. Further work is needed to determine the origin of this type of uranium deposit.

  16. 75 FR 30850 - Final Supplementary Rules for Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana, North Dakota, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... published as proposed final supplementary rules on August 13, 2009 in the Federal Register (74 FR 40839-40841). Comments were solicited in that publication and could be submitted by mail, electronic means, or... at 72 FR 19958 (April 20, 2007). The rules in the Notice of Camping Limits on Public Lands in...

  17. Quality and age of shallow groundwater in the Bakken Formation production area, Williston Basin, Montana and North Dakota.

    PubMed

    McMahon, P B; Caldwell, R R; Galloway, J M; Valder, J F; Hunt, A G

    2015-04-01

    The quality and age of shallow groundwater in the Bakken Formation production area were characterized using data from 30 randomly distributed domestic wells screened in the upper Fort Union Formation. Comparison of inorganic and organic chemical concentrations to health based drinking-water standards, correlation analysis of concentrations with oil and gas well locations, and isotopic data give no indication that energy-development activities affected groundwater quality. It is important, however, to consider these results in the context of groundwater age. Most samples were recharged before the early 1950s and had 14C ages ranging from <1000 to >30,000 years. Thus, domestic wells may not be as well suited for detecting contamination associated with recent surface spills as shallower wells screened near the water table. Old groundwater could be contaminated directly by recent subsurface leaks from imperfectly cemented oil and gas wells, but horizontal groundwater velocities calculated from 14C ages imply that the contaminants would still be less than 0.5 km from their source. For the wells sampled in this study, the median distance to the nearest oil and gas well was 4.6 km. Because of the slow velocities, a long-term commitment to groundwater monitoring in the upper Fort Union Formation is needed to assess the effects of energy development on groundwater quality. In conjunction with that effort, monitoring could be done closer to energy-development activities to increase the likelihood of early detection of groundwater contamination if it did occur.

  18. Chemical composition of atmospheric precipitation in Minnesota and North Dakota. Final report, July 1, 1977-Jun 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Precipitation chemistry in central North American appears to e controlled by interaction between soil-derived alkaline dust and gaseous NH/sub 3/ from the cultivated prairie and anthropogenic acid aerosols from the urban-industrial Lower Great Lakes-Ohio Valley region. Analyses of major ions and trace metals in precipitation event and snow core samples along a 600-km transect from the North Dakota prairie to the northeastern Minnesota forest indicate that loadings and concentrations of Ca/sup + +/, Mg/sup + +/, P/sub tot/, Al, Fe, M/sub n/, and other soil-derived material decrease with increasing distance from the prairie. Acidity is highest in the east and decreases to the west. Sulfate has natural sources in the west and anthropogenic sources in the east; its concentration was least at sites in the middle of the transect. Acidity increased and inputs of soil-derived elements decreased during winter when snow and freezing temperatures reduced alkaline influxes to the region. Atmospheric inputs of N and P may be beneficial to nutrient-poor ecosystems. However, precipitation in the eastern portions of the region which are highly sensitive to acid inputs, is approaching levels of acidity known to cause adverse effects. Any increase in acid loading will increase this danger.

  19. Modeling vulnerability of groundwater to pollution under future scenarios of climate change and biofuels-related land use change: a case study in North Dakota, USA.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruopu; Merchant, James W

    2013-03-01

    Modeling groundwater vulnerability to pollution is critical for implementing programs to protect groundwater quality. Most groundwater vulnerability modeling has been based on current hydrogeology and land use conditions. However, groundwater vulnerability is strongly dependent on factors such as depth-to-water, recharge and land use conditions that may change in response to future changes in climate and/or socio-economic conditions. In this research, a modeling framework, which employs three sets of models linked within a geographic information system (GIS) environment, was used to evaluate groundwater pollution risks under future climate and land use changes in North Dakota. The results showed that areas with high vulnerability will expand northward and/or northwestward in Eastern North Dakota under different scenarios. GIS-based models that account for future changes in climate and land use can help decision-makers identify potential future threats to groundwater quality and take early steps to protect this critical resource.

  20. Differences in the chemical composition of Arnica montana flowers from wild populations of north Italy.

    PubMed

    Clauser, Maria; Aiello, Nicola; Scartezzini, Fabrizio; Innocenti, Gabbriella; Dall'Acqua, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The flower heads of fourteen wild Arnica montana L. populations were collected in the summer of 2010 in the provinces of Trento, Brescia and Bergamo (Italy). The dried flowers were analyzed to assess their chemical diversity. HLPC-MS analysis led to the identification of phenolic derivatives and sesquiterpene lactones in the samples, confirming literature data. Quali-quantitative analysis of the flower heads showed similar qualitative patterns both for the phenolic as well as sesquiterpene lactone derivatives, while significant variability was obtained in the amounts (HPLC-DAD) of sesquiterpene lactones (0.45-2.31%), phenolic acids (1.44-2.88%) and flavonoids (0.96-2.44%). The highest quantities of sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids and phenolic acids were found in Malga Fregasoga (1703 m above sea level), Rifugio Camini (1608 m a.s.l.) and Malga Sass (1817 m a.s.l.) samples, respectively.

  1. Water-Quality Data for Water- and Wastewater-Treatment Plants Along the Red River of the North, North Dakota and Minnesota, January through October 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Damschen, William C.; Hansel, John A.; Nustad, Rochelle A.

    2008-01-01

    From January through October 2006, six sets of water-quality samples were collected at 28 sites, which included inflow and outflow from seven major municipal water-treatment plants (14 sites) and influent and effluent samples from seven major municipal wastewater treatment plants (14 sites) along the Red River of the North in North Dakota and Minnesota. Samples were collected in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation for use in the development of return-flow boundary conditions in a 2006 water-quality model for the Red River of the North. All samples were analyzed for nutrients and major ions. For one set of effluent samples from each of the wastewater-treatment plants, water was analyzed for Eschirichia coli, fecal coliform, 20-day biochemical oxygen demand, 20-day nitrogenous biochemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. In general, results from the field equipment blank and replicate samples indicate that the overall process of sample collection, processing, and analysis did not introduce substantial contamination and that consistent results were obtained.

  2. Supplemental characterization of the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Additional characterization was performed at the Belfield and Bowman sites to resolve issues raised at the preliminary design meetings held in San Francisco in May and July, 1988. The characterization was performed in September of 1988. Radiation surveys were performed at the grain elevator at Bowman, and the Dakota Honey building and the kiln foundation at Belfield. The exterior of the grain elevator at Bowman was surveyed for both total and removable alpha contamination. Measurements were made on the exterior of the vertical elevator walls and on the horizontal foundation slab. Soil samples were taken at six locations around the immediate perimeter of the grain elevator. Interior measurements at the grain elevator consisted of both alpha and gamma radiation surveys. Both total and removable alpha measurements were performed on the interior walls and floors. Gamma measurements were made at the floor surface and at one meter above the floor surface. The Dakota Honey building at Belfield was also surveyed for total alpha contamination, removable alpha contamination, and gamma radiation. Alpha measurements were performed at specific locations on the concrete slab floor. Soil samples were taken from beneath the slab to a depth of approximately three feet and were analyzed for Ra-226. The visible kiln foundation at the Belfield site was surveyed for total and removable alpha contamination. Alpha measurements were performed on the vertical kiln foundation walls and the horizontal surfaces. Soil samples were taken from a hole in the center of the foundation to a depth of 18 inches and were analyzed for Ra-226. Also, a sample of the concrete surface of the foundation was taken and analyzed for Ra-226.

  3. Machine-readable data files from the Madison Limestone and northern Great Plains regional aquifer system analysis projects, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Downey, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    Lists of machine-readable data files were developed for the Madison Limestone and Northern Great Plains Regional Aquifer System Analysis (RASA) projects. They are stored on magnetic tape and available from the U.S. Geological Survey. Record format, file content, and size are given for: (1) Drill-stem-test data for Paleozoic and Mesozoic formations, (2) geologic data from the Madison Limestone project, (3) data sets used in the regional simulation model, (4) head data for the Lower and Upper Cretaceous aquifers, and (5) geologic data for Mesozoic formations of the Northern Great Plains. (USGS)

  4. Preliminary evaluation of the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan crop calendar shift algorithm for estimation of spring wheat development stage. [North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, D. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    An algorithm for estimating spectral crop calendar shifts of spring small grains was applied to 1978 spring wheat fields. The algorithm provides estimates of the date of peak spectral response by maximizing the cross correlation between a reference profile and the observed multitemporal pattern of Kauth-Thomas greenness for a field. A methodology was developed for estimation of crop development stage from the date of peak spectral response. Evaluation studies showed that the algorithm provided stable estimates with no geographical bias. Crop development stage estimates had a root mean square error near 10 days. The algorithm was recommended for comparative testing against other models which are candidates for use in AgRISTARS experiments.

  5. Geochemistry of water in aquifers and confining units of the Northern Great Plains in parts of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busby, J.F.; Kimball, B.A.; Downey, J.S.; Peter, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The geochemistry of water in five aquifers and two confining units in the Williston Basin of the Northern Great Plains is similar and is controlled by halite dissolution. In areas outside the Williston Basin ground-water is fresh and controlled by the solution chemistry of carbonate and sulfate minerals.

  6. AgRISTARS: Foreign commodity production forecasting. Project test reports document, volume 1. [using North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waggoner, J. T.; Phinney, D. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting testing activities through June 1981 are documented. A log of test reports is presented. Standard documentation sets are included for each test. The documentation elements presented in each set are summarized.

  7. Evaluation of constructed ponds as a means of replacing natural wetland habitat affected by highway projects in North Dakota - Phase 2. Final report, July 1981-March 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Kreil, K.L.; Crawford, R.D.

    1986-03-01

    Landfill extraction during highway expansion resulted in construction of artificial wetlands in Pembina, Barnes, Nelson and Ramsey Counties, North Dakota. Twenty of these constructed wetlands were studied from 1981 to 1984 to determine (1) waterfowl pair, nesting and brood use, (2) marsh, shore and upland bird use, and (3) abundance and diversity of plants and aquatic invertebrates. Comparisons were made between data collected on constructed ponds with six natural basins nearby.

  8. Trace elements and organic chemicals in stream-bottom sediments and fish tissues, Red River of the North basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brigham, M.E.; Goldstein, R.M.; Tornes, L.H.

    1998-01-01

    Stream-bottom sediment and fish-tissue samples from the Red River of the North Basin, were analyzed for a large suite of chemical elements and organic chemicals. Cadmium, lead, and mercury were widespread in sediments, at concentrations not indicative of acute contamination. Mercury, the element of greatest health concern in the region, was detected at low concentrations in 38 of 43 sediment samples (<0.02-0.13 micrograms per gram) and all of eleven fish-liver samples (0.03-0.6 micrograms per gram dry weight, or 0.0066-0.13 micrograms per gram wet weight). Concentrations of many elements appeared to be controlled by mineral rather than anthropogenic sources. DDT and its metabolites were the most frequently detected synthetic organochlorines: p,p'-DDE was detected in 9 of 38 sediment samples (concentration range: <1-16 nanograms per gram) and also frequently in whole-fish samples. Total DDT (the sum of DDT and its metabolites) concentrations ranged from <5 to 217 nanograms per gram, and at least one component of total DDT was detected in 19 of 23 fish samples. Concentrations of DDT and its metabolites in stream sediments were significantly higher in the intensively cropped Red River Valley Lake Plain, compared to upland areas, probably because of greater historical DDT usage in the lake plain. Several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in stream-bottom sediments. Although the potentially toxic chemicals measured in this study were at low levels, relative to more contaminated areas of the Nation, maximum concentrations of some chemicals are of concern because of their possible effects on aquatic biota and human health.

  9. Nutrients, suspended sediment, and pesticides in water of the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota and North Dakota, 1990-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, V.G.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient, suspended sediment, and pesticide data from 1990 through 2004 in the Red River of the North Basin were compiled, summarized, and compared to historical data. Streamflow varied widely throughout the basin during the 1990-2004 study period. For 19 of 22 streamflow sites, median annual streamflow during the study period exceeded the long-term average streamflow. High streamflow can have a substantial effect on water quality. In water samples from selected surface-water sites, nitrite plus nitrate concentrations ranged from less than 0.005 to 7.7 milligrams per liter; total Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 7.5 milligrams per liter; total phosphorus concentrations ranged from less than 0.005 to 4.14 milligrams per liter; and dissolved phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.003 to 4.13 milligrams per liter. Surface-water samples from the Pembina River basin generally had higher nitrite plus nitrate, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment concentrations compared to samples from other Red River Basin sites. Historical data from 1970 through 1990 showed relatively high nitrite plus nitrate and suspended sediment concentrations in samples from some Pembina River sites; in contrast to the 1990-2004 period, total phosphorus concentrations from the 1970-90 period generally were highest at Red River of the North sites. Nitrate concentrations in ground-water samples for the 1990-2004 period were highest in Sheridan County, North Dakota and Marshall and Otter Tail Counties in Minnesota. Concentrations of nitrate in ground water in Marshall and Otter Tail Counties corresponded to relatively high reported fertilizer applications during 2002; however, Sheridan County did not have the high fertilizer applications in 2002 compared to other North Dakota and Minnesota counties. The most frequently detected pesticides or pesticide metabolites were 2, 4-D, bentazon, de-ethylatrazine, metolachlor, picloram, and triallate in surface water and alachlor

  10. Assessment of water-quality data from Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota--2008 through 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tangen, Brian A.; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Gleason, Robert A.; Rabenberg, Michael J.; Dahl, Charles F.; Ell, Mike J.

    2013-01-01

    ong Lake National Wildlife Refuge, located in south-central North Dakota, is an important habitat for numerous migratory birds and waterfowl, including several threatened or endangered species. The refuge is distinguished by Long Lake, which is approximately 65 square kilometers and consists of four primary water management units. Water levels in the Long Lake units are maintained by low-level dikes and water-control structures, which after construction during the 1930s increased the water-storage capacity of Long Lake and reduced the frequency and volume of flushing flows downstream. The altered water regime, along with the negative precipitation:evaporation ratio of the region, may be contributing to the accumulation of water-borne chemical constituents such as salts, trace metals, and other constituents, which at certain threshold concentrations may impair aquatic plant, invertebrate, and bird communities of the refuge. The refuge’s comprehensive conservation planning process identified the need for water-quality monitoring to assess current (2013) conditions, establish comparative baselines, evaluate changes over time (trends), and support adaptive management of the wetland units. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and North Dakota Department of Health began a water-quality monitoring program at Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge to address these needs. Biweekly water-quality samples were collected for ions, trace metals, and nutrients; and in situ sensors and data loggers were installed for the continuous measurement of specific conductance and water depth. Long Lake was characterized primarily by sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate ions. Overall results for total alkalinity and hardness were 580 and 329 milligrams per liter, respectively; thus, Long Lake is considered alkaline and classified as very hard. The mean pH and sodium adsorption ratio for Long Lake were 8.8 and 10, respectively. Total dissolved solids concentrations

  11. Prevalence of prone sleeping position and selected infant care practices of North Dakota infants: a comparison of whites and Native Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Burd, L

    1994-01-01

    A cross-sectional prevalence study was done in four primary care clinics (two rural and two urban sites) and four Native American clinics serving members of the Chippewa, Sioux, Hidasta, Arikara, and Mandan tribes, all in North Dakota, to determine the prevalence of prone, supine, and side sleeping position in white and Native American infants. Questionnaires for 325 infants (259 whites and 66 Native Americans) between birth and 6 months of age were completed by the infants' mothers. They reported that 69 percent of the infants slept prone, 17 percent slept supine, and 14 percent slept on their side. Native American infants, who are at 3.2 times the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome compared with other North Dakota infants, slept prone 46.9 percent of the time compared with 74.4 percent of white infants (chi 2 = 23.61; 1 df; P < .0001). No differences were observed in the prevalence of the side sleeping position. Eighteen percent of the infants slept in the position reported due to advice from a physician or nurse, 8 percent of the infants slept with more than two blankets, and 5 percent slept with a pillow. Native American infants in North Dakota did not have a higher prevalence of exposure to prone sleeping position. PMID:8190870

  12. A new species of Ischyodus (Chondrichthyes: Holocephali: Callorhynchidae) from Upper Maastrichtian Shallow marine facies of the Fox Hills and Hell Creek Formations, Williston basin, North Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoganson, J.W.; Erickson, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    A new species of chimaeroid, Ischyodus rayhaasi sp. nov., is described based primarily upon the number and configuration of tritors on palatine and mandibular tooth plates. This new species is named in honour of Mr Raymond Haas. Fossils of I. rayhaasi have been recovered from the Upper Maastrichtian Fox Hills Formation and the Breien Member and an unnamed member of the Hell Creek Formation at sites in south-central North Dakota and north-central South Dakota, USA. Ischyodus rayhaasi inhabited shallow marine waters in the central part of the Western Interior Seaway during the latest Cretaceous. Apparently it was also present in similar habitats at that time in the Volga region of Russia. Ischyodus rayhaasi is the youngest Cretaceous species Ischyodus known to exist before the Cretaceous/Tertiary extinction, and the species apparently did not survive that event. It was replaced by Ischyodus dolloi, which is found in the Paleocene Cannonball Formation of the Williston Basin region of North Dakota and is widely distributed elsewhere. ?? The Palaeontological Association.

  13. Water-quality trend analysis and sampling design for streams in the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1970-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2005-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation is considering several alternatives to meet the future municipal, rural, and industrial water-supply needs in the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin, and an environmental impact statement is being prepared to evaluate the potential effects of the various alternatives on the water quality and aquatic health in the basin in relation to the historical variability of streamflow and constituent concentration. Therefore, a water-quality trend analysis was needed to determine the amount of natural water-quality variability that can be expected to occur in the basin, to determine if significant water-quality changes have occurred as a result of human activities, to explore potential causal mechanisms for water-quality changes, and to establish a baseline from which to monitor future water-quality trends. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, to analyze historical water-quality trends in two dissolved major ions, dissolved solids, three nutrients, and two dissolved trace metals for nine streamflow-gaging stations in the basin. Annual variability in streamflow in the Red River Basin was high during the trend-analysis period (1970-2001). The annual variability affects constituent concentrations in individual tributaries to the Red River and, in turn, affects constituent concentrations in the main stem of the Red River because of the relative streamflow contribution from the tributaries to the main stem. Therefore, an annual concentration anomaly, which is an estimate of the interannual variability in concentration that can be attributed to long-term variability in streamflow, was used to analyze annual streamflow-related variability in constituent concentrations. The concentration trend is an estimate of the long-term systematic changes in concentration that are unrelated to seasonal or long-term variability in streamflow. Concentrations that have both

  14. Water resources of the Rattlesnake Butte area, a site of potential lignite mining in west-central North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horak, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    The D and E lignite beds, the two mineable beds in the lower Sentinel Butte Member (Fort Union Formation), underlies the entire Rattlesnake Butt study area, North Dakota but are unsaturated over much of their area of occurrence. Ground-water flow in both lignite aquifers is largely controlled by topography. Interconnected sand beds form aquifers between the E and D beds (E-D aquifer) and below the D bed (D-HT aquifer). Both aquifers underlie the central part of the study area and consist of fine silty sand. Depth to the aquifers is as much as 320 feet. Aquifers also occur in strata of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary age. Aquifers in the Fox Hills Sandstone (Cretaceous) and lower Tongue River Member (Tertiary) lie at depths of about 1,700 and 750 feet, respectively. All aquifers yield a sodium bicarbonate or sodium sulfate type water. Mean dissolved-solids concentrations in the four shallowest aquifers ranged from 1,290 to 1,970 milligrams per litter. North Creek and an unnamed tributary of Green River drain most of the study area. North Creek, the major drain, ceases to flow during several months of most years, while the Green River tributary, with a smaller basin area, has sustained base flows of 0.15 to 0.25 cubic foot per second. Mining-induced impacts on the shallow ground-water flow system would be very localized because of the already low water levels and the segmented nature of the flow system in the lignite aquifers. (USGS)

  15. Calibration of a Water-Quality Model for Low-Flow Conditions on the Red River of the North at Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lundgren, Robert F.; Nustad, Rochelle A.

    2008-01-01

    A time-of-travel and reaeration-rate study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, and the cities of Fargo, North Dakota, and Moorhead, Minnesota, to provide information to calibrate a water-quality model for streamflows of less than 150 cubic feet per second. Data collected from September 24 through 27, 2003, were used to develop and calibrate the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program model (hereinafter referred to as the Fargo WASP water-quality model) for a 19.2-mile reach of the Red River of the North. The Fargo WASP water-quality model was calibrated for the transport of dye by fitting simulated time-concentration dye curves to measured time-concentration dye curves. Simulated peak concentrations were within 10 percent of measured concentrations. Simulated traveltimes of the dye cloud centroid were within 7 percent of measured traveltimes. The variances of the simulated dye concentrations were similar to the variances of the measured dye concentrations, indicating dispersion was reproduced reasonably well. Average simulated dissolved-oxygen concentrations were within 6 percent of average measured concentrations. Average simulated ammonia concentrations were within the range of measured concentrations. Simulated dissolved-oxygen and ammonia concentrations were affected by the specification of a single nitrification rate in the Fargo WASP water-quality model. Data sets from August 1989 and August 1990 were used to test traveltime and simulation of dissolved oxygen and ammonia. For streamflows that ranged from 60 to 407 cubic feet per second, simulated traveltimes were within 7 percent of measured traveltimes. Measured dissolved-oxygen concentrations were underpredicted by less than 15 percent for both data sets. Results for ammonia were poor; measured ammonia concentrations were underpredicted by as much as 70 percent

  16. Landsat linear features in Montana plains

    SciTech Connect

    Shurr, G.W.

    1983-08-01

    Multispectral scanner images obtained from satellites provide a unique regional perspective of geologic features on the earth's surface. Linear features observed on Landsat images are particularly conspicuous and can be mapped easily. In Montana, east of long. 110/sup 0/W and in adjoining parts of Canada, the Dakotas, and Wyoming, linear features have been mapped on 14 images. Black and white film products in bands 5 and 7 at a scale of 1:1,000,000 were employed. Specific linear features observed on both bands were compiled on a mosaic covering more than 90,000 mi/sup 2/ (233,000 km/sup 2/). Trends to the northwest and northeast are most common, but north-south and east-west linear features are also observed. Four separate tectonic regions of the Montana plains seem to be characterized by different populations of linear features. Published syntheses of geophysical, structural and stratigraphic data can be used to establish the geologic significance of specific linear features. Magnetic, gravity, and seimsic data suggest that linear features may reflect basement structural elements such as fault-bounded blocks. Some specific geologic structures shown on structure contour maps are marked by linear features. Paleotectonic features interpreted from stratigraphic maps have surface expression on Landsat that have not been recognized previously.

  17. Geology of the north end of the Ruby Range, southwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tysdal, Russell G.

    1970-01-01

    This study consists of two parts: stratigraphy and sedimentation, and structure of rocks in the northern one-third of the Ruby Range of southwestern Montana. Detailed studies of Cambrian marine dolomite rocks in the Red Lion Formation and in the upper part of the Pilgrim Limestone resulted in their division into distinct rock units, termed lithofacies. These lithofacies contain features suggestive of subtidal, intertidal, and supratidal environments similar to those presently forming in the Persian Gulf. Stromatolltic structures occurring in the uppermost part of the Red Lion Formation are similar to those presently forming in Shark Bay, Australia. The Ruby Range within the map area is broken into a series of northwest-plunging basement (Precambrian metamorphic rock) blocks, differentially uplifted during the Cretaceous-Tertiary orogenic period. These blocks are bordered by upthrust faults, which are nearly vertical in their lower segments and are .low-angle in their uppermost parts. Asymmetrical folds in Paleozoic sedimentary rocks formed in response to the differential uplift of the blocks; thus they too plunge to the northwest. Displaced masses of rock border the range on the three sides within the map area and are interpreted as gravity-slide features resulting from uplift of the range. Normal faulting began blocking out the present range margins by Oligocene time.

  18. Flood of April 1989 in the Wahpeton-Breckenridge and Fargo-Moorhead areas, Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, Gerald L.; Harkness, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    The most severe flooding during the April 1989 flood in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota and Minnesota occurred in the Wahpeton-Breckenridge area. Flood stage on April 5, 1989, was the highest stage that has been reported in almost 100 years. The 1989 peak flow was not as large as that of the 1969 flood, which had the largest peak flow since the Wahpeton gage was installed in 1942. The 1989 peak stage, however, was more than 1 foot higher than during the 1969 flood because of backwater from ice. Cooler weather subsequent to the peak at Wahpeton slowed the snowmelt and allowed the peak to attenuate as it moved downstream; thus, the severity of flooding in the Fargo-Moorhead area and in areas farther downstream was reduced. Advance flood warning allowed communities downstream from the Wahpeton-Breckenridge area to prepare for the flood and was instrumental in reducing flood damage. Aerial photographs were used to delineate the extent of the April 1989 flood in the Wahpeton-Breckenridge and the Fargo-Moorhead areas on topographic maps. The aerial photographs of the Wahpeton-Breckenridge area were taken during the flood peak on April 5 and those of the Fargo-Moorhead area were taken during the flood peak on April 9.

  19. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Belfield Site, Belfield, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has evaluated the Belfield site in order to assess the problems resulting from the existence of radiactive ash at Belfield, South Dakota. This engineering assessment has included drilling of boreholes and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of ash and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actons. Radon gas released from the 55,600 tons of ash and contaminated material at the Belfield site constitutes a significant environmental impact, although external gamma radiation also is a factor. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the ash and contaminated materials to remote disposal sites, and decontamination of the Belfield site. Cost estimates for the four options range from about $1,500,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $2,500,000 for disposal at a distance of about 17 mi from the Belfield site. Reprocessing the ash for uranium recovery is not feasible because of the extremely small amount of material available at the site and because of its low U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ content.

  20. Reconstruction of vegetation and lake level at Moon Lake, North Dakota, from high-resolution pollen and diatom data

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, E.C.; Laird, K.R.; Mueller, P.G. |

    1995-06-01

    High-resolution fossil-pollen and diatom data from Moon Lake, North Dakota, reveal major climate and vegetation changes near the western margin of the tall-grass prairie. Fourteen AMS radiocarbon dates provide excellent time control for the past {approximately}11,800 {sup 14}C years B.P. Picea dominated during the late-glacial until it abruptly declined {approximately}10,300 B.P. During the early Holocene ({approximately}10,300-8000 B.P.), deciduous trees and shrubs (Populus, Betula, Corylus, Quercus, and especially Ulmus) were common, but prairie taxa (Poaceae, Artemisia, and Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae) gradually increased. During this period the diatoms indicate the lake becoming gradually more saline as water-level fell. By {approximately}8000 B.P., salinity had increased to the point that the diatoms were no longer sensitive to further salinity increases. However, fluctuating pollen percentages of mud-flat weeds (Ambrosia and Iva) indicate frequently changing water levels during the mid-Holocene ({approximately}8000-5000 B.P.). The driest millennium was 7000-6000 B.P., when Iva annua was common. After {approximately}3000 B.P. the lake became less-saline, and the diatoms were again sensitive to changing salinity. The Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age are clearly evident in the diatom data.