Science.gov

Sample records for moon conductivity profiles

  1. Moon

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... Moon. The purpose of this acrobatic feat is to assist in the calibration of several of Terra's instruments. Over a 16-minute interval, the ... Shown here are "raw" red-band data, with no adjustments for radiometric calibration. Because the pitch rate of the spacecraft resulted in ...

  2. Method for Identifying Lava Tubes Among Pit Craters Using Brightness Profile Across Pits on the Moon or Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jongil; Hong, Ik-Seon; Cho, Eunjin; Yi, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Caves can serve as major outposts for future human exploration of the Moon and Mars. In addition, caves can protect people and electronic equipment from external hazards such as cosmic ray radiation and meteorites impacts and serve as a shelter. Numerous pit craters have been discovered on the Moon and Mars and are potential entrances to caves; the principal topographic features of pit craters are their visible internal floors and pits with vertical walls. We have devised two topographical models for investigating the relationship between the topographical characteristics and the inner void of pit craters. One of our models is a concave floor void model and the other is a convex floor tube model. For each model, optical photographs have been obtained under conditions similar to those in which optical photographs have been acquired for craters on the Moon and Mars. Brightness profiles were analyzed for determining the profile patterns of the void pit craters. The profile patterns were compared to the brightness profiles of Martian pit craters, because no good-quality images of lunar pit craters were available. In future studies, the model profile patterns will be compared to those of lunar pit craters, and the proposed method will likely become useful for finding lunar caves and consequently for planning lunar bases for manned lunar expeditions.

  3. Thermal Conductive Heat Transfer and Partial Melting of Volatiles in Icy Moons, Asteroids, and Kuiper Belt Objects (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Furfaro, R.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal gradients within conductive layers of icy satellite and asteroids depend partly on heat flow, which is related to the secular decay of radioactive isotopes, to heat released by chemical phase changes, by conversion of gravitational potential energy to heat during differentiation, tidal energy dissipation, and to release of heat stored from prior periods. Thermal gradients are also dependent on the thermal conductivity of materials, which in turn depends on their composition, crystallinity, porosity, crystal fabric anisotropy, and details of their mixture with other materials. Small impurities can produce lattice defects and changes in polymerization, and thereby have a huge influence on thermal conductivity, as can cage-inclusion (clathrate) compounds. Heat flow and thermal gradients can be affected by fluid phase advection of mass and heat (in oceans or sublimating upper crusts), by refraction related to heterogeneities of thermal conductivity due to lateral variations and composition or porosity. Thermal profiles depend also on the surface temperature controlled by albedo and climate, surface relief, and latitude, orbital obliquity and surface insolation, solid state greenhouses, and endogenic heating of the surface. The thermal state of icy moon interiors and thermal gradients can be limited at depth by fluid phase advection of heat (e.g., percolating meteoric methane or gas emission), by the latent heat of phase transitions (melting, solid-state transitions, and sublimation), by solid-state convective or diapiric heat transfer, and by foundering. Rapid burial of thick volatile deposits can also affect thermal gradients. For geologically inactive or simple icy objects, most of these controls on heat flow and thermal gradients are irrelevant, but for many other icy objects they can be important, in some cases causing large lateral and depth variations in thermal gradients, large variations in heat flow, and dynamically evolving thermal states. Many of

  4. Vertical profile of atmospheric conductivity that matches Schumann resonance observations.

    PubMed

    Nickolaenko, Alexander P; Galuk, Yuri P; Hayakawa, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the vertical profile of atmospheric conductivity in the range from 2 to 98 km. The propagation constant of extremely low frequency (ELF) radio waves was computed for this profile by using the full wave solution. A high correspondence is demonstrated of the data thus obtained to the conventional standard heuristic model of ELF propagation constant derived from the Schumann resonance records performed all over the world. We also suggest the conductivity profiles for the ambient day and ambient night conditions. The full wave solution technique was applied for obtaining the corresponding frequency dependence of propagation constant relevant to these profiles. By using these propagation constants, we computed the power spectra of Schumann resonance in the vertical electric field component for the uniform global distribution of thunderstorms and demonstrate their close similarity in all the models. We also demonstrate a strong correspondence between the wave attenuation rate obtained for these conductivity profiles and the measured ones by using the ELF radio transmissions. PMID:26877906

  5. A Web-GIS for the Kaguya/Spectral Profiler data, "GEKKO" (moonlight in Japanese): toward comprehensive mapping of the surface minerals on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Y.; Hayashi, Y.; Hirata, N.; Terazono, J.; Demura, H.; Matsunaga, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yokota, Y.; Ohtake, M.; Ootake, H.

    2015-10-01

    The "GEKKO" is a Web -GIS to exhibit the reflectance spectra of the Moon observed by the Spectral Profiler (SP) onboard Kaguya satellite. The client can access the system via a web browser and select any area of the whole Moon. The client can view, plot and download the SP data observed at the corresponding location on the referenced lunar image just by mouse-clicks. The system also provides some basic analysis functions. The operation and service of "GEKKO" started in August 2014 for the Japanese lunar science community. We now plan to cultivate the potential users internationally. We are implementing new functions and extending the system. Our final goal is comprehensive mapping of the surface minerals on the Moon.

  6. Moon Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    When teaching Moon phases, the focus seems to be on the sequence of Moon phases and, in some grade levels, how Moon phases occur. Either focus can sometimes be a challenge, especially without the use of models and observations of the Moon. In this month's column, the author describes some of the lessons that he uses to teach the phases of the Moon…

  7. Focus: Reaching for the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Emily; Chadha, Kulvinder Singh

    2008-05-01

    The man in the moon. Blue moon. Heavy bombardment era. Black moon. Mechanics of the moon. Perigee/apogee. Blood moon. Harvest moon. Destination moon. Wet moon. Moon Britannia. Moon rocks come down to Earth. Fairy moon.

  8. The deep lunar electrical conductivity profile - Structural and thermal inferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Herbert, F.; Sonett, C. P.

    1982-01-01

    Simultaneous lunar surface and orbital magnetometer records are reexamined, to ascertain intervals which may be suitable for measuring lunar inductive response in the solar wind and terrestrial magnetosheath. Power spectral estimates of the response tangent to the lunar surface, defined in terms of transfer and gain functions, are obtained for the 0.0001-0.01 Hz frequency range. The maximum consistency of estimates from different time intervals is found when the initial analysis is limited to the tangential direction of maximum incident power, or that direction in which the ratio of signal to background noise is greatest. Spherically symmetric plasma confinement theory is used in the interpretation of transfer function data, by way of forward model calculations, under the assumption of continuous electrical conductivity increase with depth. Results are presented for internal electrical conductivity profile, metallic core radius, and selenotherm limits.

  9. Thermal conductivity and temperature profiles in carbon electrodes for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burheim, Odne S.; Aslan, Mesut; Atchison, Jennifer S.; Presser, Volker

    2014-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of supercapacitor film electrodes composed of activated carbon (AC), AC with 15 mass% multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), AC with 15 mass% onion-like carbon (OLC), and only OLC, all mixed with polymer binder (polytetrafluoroethylene), has been measured. This was done for dry electrodes and after the electrodes have been saturated with an organic electrolyte (1 M tetraethylammonium-tetrafluoroborate in acetonitrile, TEA-BF4). The thermal conductivity data was implemented in a simple model of generation and transport of heat in a cylindrical cell supercapacitor systems. Dry electrodes showed a thermal conductivity in the range of 0.09-0.19 W K-1 m-1 and the electrodes soaked with an organic electrolyte yielded values for the thermal conductivity between 0.42 and 0.47 W K-1 m-1. It was seen that the values related strongly to the porosity of the carbon electrode materials. Modeling of the internal temperature profiles of a supercapacitor under conditions corresponding to extreme cycling demonstrated that only a moderate temperature gradient of several degrees Celsius can be expected and which depends on the ohmic resistance of the cell as well as the wetting of the electrode materials.

  10. Cardiovascular profiles of scleroderma patients with arrhythmias and conduction disorders.

    PubMed

    Muresan, L; Petcu, A; Pamfil, C; Muresan, C; Rinzis, M; Mada, R O; Gusetu, G N; Pop, D; Zdrenghea, D; Rednic, S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Arrhythmias and conduction disorders are common among patients with scleroderma. Their early identification is important, since scleroderma patients with arrhythmias have a higher mortality risk compared with scleroderma patients without arrhythmias. The aim of this study was to characterize the cardiovascular profiles of scleroderma patients with different types of arrhythmias and conduction disorders. Methods One hundred and ten consecutive patients with a diagnosis of systemic sclerosis according to the ACR criteria were included in the study. Patients underwent a 12-lead ECG and a 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring for arrhythmias and conduction disorders identification. Blood sample testing, echocardiography, spirometry, chest X-ray and, when considered appropriate, high resolution chest CT were also performed. A subgroup of 21 patients underwent NT-pro BNP level measurements. Patients' clinical and para-clinical characteristics were compared according to the presence or absence of arrhythmias and conduction disorders. Results The prevalence of arrhythmia and conduction disturbances was 60.9%. Patients with such disorders were older (54.4 ± 13.3 vs. 49.7 ± 10.1 years, p=0.05), had a higher prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (p=0.008), valve disease (p < 0.001), especially mitral and tricuspid regurgitation, chamber enlargement on echocardiography (left atrial and right ventricular, p = 0.012 and 0.005, respectively) as well as higher NT-pro BNP levels: 265.5 ± 399.7 vs. 163 ± 264.3 pg/ml, p=0.04. Conclusion Arrhythmias and conduction disorders are common in patients with scleroderma. Patients with such disorders are older, have a higher prevalence of pulmonary hypertension, more severe mitral and tricuspid regurgitation, left atrial and right ventricular dilation on echocardiography.

  11. DEPTH CONTINUOUS HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY PROFILING USING AN ACTIVE SOURCE PENETROMETER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, M.; Elsworth, D.

    2009-12-01

    A method is developed to recover depth-continuous hydraulic conductivity profiles of an unconsolidated saturated aquifer using an active source penetrometer, the Hydraulic Profiling Tool (HPT). The tool yields estimates of K through continuous injection of fluid in the subsurface from a small port on the probe shaft while controlled measurements of net applied fluid pressure required to maintain a specified flow rate (typically 350 mL/min) are recorded. The tool gathers these data of flow rate and measured applied pressure during halted and constant-rate penetration (typically 2cm/sec) of the probe. The analysis is developed in two parts, first to explore the interplay between advective effects controlled by penetration rate and secondly flow volume effects controlled by the targeted flow rate. These two effects are analyzed through their respective influence on the measured applied pressure response in ΔP/σv’-Q/ΔP space, which shows a linear relationship for the flow rate to applied pressure response when Q/ΔP > 1 and when Q/ΔP < 1 the response tends towards an asymptotic limit representing soil failure limits as ΔP/σv’ > 1. The analysis shows that penetration rate does not significantly influence the applied pressure response at the tested penetration rates (0 ≤ U(cm/s)≤ 4). The targeted applied flow rate does however influence the applied pressure response as flow rates less than ~300 mL/min show a scattering of the data in ΔP/σv’-Q/ΔP space, where above 300 mL/min the data begins to form a linear response. A targeted flow rate of QT = 400mL/min is suggested as a suitable flow rate based on this analysis. Measurements of hydraulic conductivity are then obtained for the HPT data through the derivation of an equation based on a recast form of Darcy’s law where considerations of the flow geometry as K = (QHPT/ΔP)(δw/πΦ). K profiles obtained for the HPT system are then compared against K profiles obtained from an independent method (PSU

  12. Pluto's moons named

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-07-01

    In the end, it did not matter that the name Vulcan came in first place by a landslide in a nonbinding public vote to suggest names for the fourth and fifth known moons of Pluto. Despite the independent vote conducted by the SETI Institute in Mountain View, Calif., on behalf of the team that discovered the moons, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) did not select the name for a Plutonian moon. The decision came much to the dismay of actor William Shatner (who played Captain Kirk in Star Trek). Shatner had pushed for the name Vulcan to honor the home planet of Star Trek character Dr. Spock.

  13. Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy of astronomical and laboratory sources at 8.5 micron. [absorption line profiles of nitrogen oxide and black body emission from Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, M.; Kostiuk, T.; Cohen, S.; Buhl, D.; Vonthuna, P. C.

    1974-01-01

    The first infrared heterodyne spectrometer using tuneable semiconductor (PbSe) diode lasers has been constructed and was used near 8.5 micron to measure absorption line profiles of N2O in the laboratory and black body emission from the Moon and from Mars. Spectral information was recorded over a 200 MHz bandwidth using an 8-channel filter bank. The resolution was 25 MHz and the minimum detectable (black body) power was 1 x 10 to the minus 16th power watts for 8 minutes of integration. The results demonstrate the usefulness of heterodyne spectroscopy for the study of remote and local sources in the infrared.

  14. Moon Rise

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the International Space Station in May 2012, Expedition 31 astronaut Don Pettit opened the shutters covering the cupola observation windows in time to watch the moon rise. The time-lapse sce...

  15. Nightside electromagnetic response of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Smith, B. F.; Sonett, C. P.; Colburn, D. S.; Schwartz, K.

    1972-01-01

    The electromagnetic response of the Moon to excitation by the time dependent fluctuations of the interplanetary magnetic field is given for the dark or antisolar hemisphere of the Moon. Six hours of time series data from the Explorer 35 magnetometer and the lunar surface magnetometer on Apollo 12 are used to obtain the Fourier spectral amplitudes of the surface and interplanetary fields from which transfer functions are calculated for the east-west, north-south, and vertical directions at the Apollo site. A critical discussion of lunar conductivity profiles derived from night side radial magnetic field data and vacuum scattering theory is presented. Limitations are shown that there is no evidence for a lunar core as conducting as 0.01 mhos/m.

  16. MEASURING VERTICAL PROFILES OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY WITH IN SITU DIRECT-PUSH METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) staff developed a field procedure to measure hydraulic conductivity using a direct-push system to obtain vertical profiles of hydraulic conductivity. Vertical profiles were obtained using an in situ field device-composed of a
    Geopr...

  17. Focus on the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Deborah

    1980-01-01

    Described is the observation of the moon with binoculars. Descriptions of the thin crescent moon, three-day-old moon, five-day-old moon, first quarter moon, 10-day-old moon and the full moon are presented and characteristics of each phase are included. (DS)

  18. Velocity, temperature, and electrical conductivity profiles in hydrogen-oxygen MHD duct flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greywall, M. S.; Pian, C. C. P.

    1978-01-01

    Two-dimensional duct flow computations for radial distributions of velocity, temperature, and electrical conductivity are reported. Calculations were carried out for the flow conditions representative of a hydrogen-oxygen combustion driven MHD duct. Results are presented for: profiles of developing flow in a smooth duct, and for profiles of fully developed pipe flow with a specified streamwise shear stress distribution. The predicted temperature and electrical conductivity profiles for the developing flows compare well with available experimental data.

  19. Shepherd Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Shepherd Moons

    The New Horizons spacecraft took the best images of Jupiter's charcoal-black rings as it approached and then looked back at Jupiter in February 2007. This sequence of pictures from the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) shows the well-defined lanes of gravel- to boulder-sized material composing the bulk of the rings; labels point out how these narrow rings are confined in their orbits by small 'shepherding' moons (Metis and Adrastea).

  20. An autonomous expendable conductivity, temperature, depth profiler for ocean data collection

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, J.; McCoy, K.

    1992-10-01

    An Autonomous Expendable Conductivity-Temperature-Depth Profiler (AXCTD) for profiling temperature, conductivity, pressure, and other parameters in remote oceanic regions is described. The AXCTD is a microcomputer-controlled sensor package that can be deployed by unskilled operators from ships or aircraft. It records two CTD profiles (one during descent and another during ascent) and CTD times series while on the bottom and adrift at the surface. Recorded data are transmitted to an ARGOS satellite with ground-positioning capabilities. The AXCTD can provide ``sea truth`` for remote sensing, perform environmental and military surveillance missions, and acquire time-series and synoptic data for computer models.

  1. An autonomous expendable conductivity, temperature, depth profiler for ocean data collection

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, J. ); DeRoos, B.G. ); McCoy, K. )

    1992-10-01

    An Autonomous Expendable Conductivity-Temperature-Depth Profiler (AXCTD) for profiling temperature, conductivity, pressure, and other parameters in remote oceanic regions is described. The AXCTD is a microcomputer-controlled sensor package that can be deployed by unskilled operators from ships or aircraft. It records two CTD profiles (one during descent and another during ascent) and CTD times series while on the bottom and adrift at the surface. Recorded data are transmitted to an ARGOS satellite with ground-positioning capabilities. The AXCTD can provide sea truth'' for remote sensing, perform environmental and military surveillance missions, and acquire time-series and synoptic data for computer models.

  2. Velocity, temperature, and electrical conductivity profiles in hydrogen-oxygen MHD duct flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greywall, M. S.; Pian, C. C. P.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents results of two-dimensional duct flow computations for radial distributions of velocity, temperature, and electrical conductivity. Calculations were carried out for the flow conditions representative of NASA Lewis hydrogen-oxygen combustion driven MHD duct. Results are presented for two sets of computations: (1) profiles of developing flow in a smooth duct, and (2) profiles of fully developed pipe flow with a specified streamwise shear stress distribution. The predicted temperature and electrical conductivity profiles for the developing flows compared well with available experimental data.

  3. From the Cover: Explaining the moon illusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Lloyd; Kaufman, James H.

    2000-01-01

    An old explanation of the moon illusion holds that various cues place the horizon moon at an effectively greater distance than the elevated moon. Although both moons have the same angular size, the horizon moon must be perceived as larger. More recent explanations hold that differences in accommodation or other factors cause the elevated moon to appear smaller. As a result of this illusory difference in size, the elevated moon appears to be more distant than the horizon moon. These two explanations, both based on the geometry of stereopsis, lead to two diametrically opposed hypotheses. That is, a depth interval at a long distance is associated with a smaller binocular disparity, whereas an equal depth interval at a smaller distance is associated with a larger disparity. We conducted experiments involving artificial moons and confirmed the hypothesis that the horizon moon is at a greater perceptual distance. Moreover, when a moon of constant angular size was moved closer it was also perceived as growing smaller, which is consistent with the older explanation. Although Emmert's law does not predict the size-distance relationship over long distances, we conclude that the horizon moon is perceived as larger because the perceptual system treats it as though it is much farther away. Finally, we observe that recent explanations substitute perceived size for angular size as a cue to distance. Thus, they imply that perceptions cause perceptions.

  4. The Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, P. H.

    2003-12-01

    Oxygen isotopic data suggest that there is a genetic relationship between the constituent matter of the Moon and Earth (Wiechert et al., 2001). Yet lunar materials are obviously different from those of the Earth. The Moon has no hydrosphere, virtually no atmosphere, and compared to the Earth, lunar materials uniformly show strong depletions of even mildly volatile constituents such as potassium, in addition to N2, O2, and H2O (e.g., Wolf and Anders, 1980). Oxygen fugacity is uniformly very low ( BVSP, 1981) and even the earliest lunar magmas seem to have been virtually anhydrous. These features have direct and far-reaching implications for mineralogical and geochemical processes. Basically, they imply that mineralogical diversity and thus variety of geochemical processes are subdued; a factor that to some extent offsets the comparative dearth of available data for lunar geochemistry.The Moon's gross physical characteristics play an important role in the more limited range of selenochemical compared to terrestrial geochemical processes. Although exceptionally large (radius=1,738 km) in relation to its parent planet, the Moon is only 0.012 times as massive as Earth. By terrestrial standards, pressures inside the Moon are feeble: the upper mantle gradient is 0.005 GPa km -1 (versus 0.033 GPa km -1 in Earth) and the central pressure is slightly less than 5 GPa. However, lunar interior pressures are sufficient to profoundly influence igneous processes (e.g., Warren and Wasson, 1979b; Longhi, 1992, 2002), and in this sense the Moon more resembles a planet than an asteroid.Another direct consequence of the Moon's comparatively small size was early, rapid decay of its internal heat engine. But the Moon's thermal disadvantage has resulted in one great advantage for planetology. Lunar surface terrains, and many of the rock samples acquired from them, retain for the most part characteristics acquired during the first few hundred million years of solar system existence. The

  5. Conductivity profiles corresponding to the knee model and relevant SR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H. J.; Hayakawa, M.; Galuk, Yu. P.; Nickolaenko, A. P.

    2016-03-01

    There are many models describing ELF radio propagation in the uniform Earth-ionosphere cavity. One of the most popular models is the knee model by Mushtak and Williams (2002). Unfortunately, this model only verbally describes the relevant conductivity profile of atmosphere, which is obligatory in the direct computational techniques. We introduce a conductivity profile based on this description and derive the related frequency dependence of complex propagation constant (f) using the rigorous full wave solution (FWS). Then, for the first time the Schumann resonance (SR) spectra for the same atmospheric conductivity profile are compared to those by different computational techniques. In two of them we use the formal zonal harmonic series representation (ZHSR) for the fields with the propagation constant (f) found either from the knee model formulas or from the FWS for the relevant conductivity profile. The third technique is based on the direct three-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique with the same conductivity profile. Comparison reveals that the FWS and FDTD results are practically coincident in the whole SR band. The knee model spectra are close to those of FWS and FDTD data in the vicinity of the first SR mode, whereas deviations from the rigorous solutions proportionally increase with the frequency. Special attention is paid to the characteristic heights of ionosphere that provide coincident results for the FDTD spectra and the ZHSR spectra with FWS propagation constant.

  6. The New Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotts, Arlin

    2014-10-01

    Preface; 1. The importance of the Moon; 2. First steps; 3. Moon/Mars; 4. An international flotilla; 5. Moon rise from the ashes; 6. Moons past; 7. The pull of the far side; 8. False seas, real seas; 9. Inconstant Moon; 10. Moonlighting; 11. Lunar living room; 12. Lunar power; 13. Stepping stone; 14. Return to Earth; Index.

  7. Conductivity Profile Determination by Eddy Current for Shot Peened Superalloy Surfaces Toward Residual Stress Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.; Lo, C. C. H.; Frishman, A. M.; Lee, C.; Nakagawa, N.

    2007-03-21

    This paper describes an eddy current model-based method for inverting near-surface conductivity deviation profiles of surface treated materials from swept-high frequency eddy current (SHFEC) data. This work forms part of our current research directed towards the development of an electromagnetic nondestructive technique for assessing residual stress of shot-peened superalloy components. The inversion procedure is based on the use of a parameterized function to describe the near-surface conductivity as a function of depth for a shot-peened surface, and the laterally uniform multi-layer theory of Cheng, Dodd and Deeds to calculate the resulting coil impedance deviations. The convergence of the inversion procedure has been tested against synthesized eddy current data. As a demonstration, the conductivity deviation profiles of a series of Inconel 718 specimens, shot peened at various Almen intensities, have been obtained by inversion. Several consistency tests were conducted to examine the reliability of the inverted conductivity profiles. The results show that conductivity deviation profiles can be reliably determined from SHFEC data within the accuracy of the current measurement system.

  8. Evolution of the Moon

    NASA Video Gallery

    From year to year, the moon never seems to change. Craters and other formations appear to be permanent now, but the moon didn't always look like this. Learn about how the moon evolved from its earl...

  9. Empathy in Children with Autism and Conduct Disorder: Group-Specific Profiles and Developmental Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwenck, Christina; Mergenthaler, Julia; Keller, Katharina; Zech, Julie; Salehi, Sarah; Taurines, Regina; Romanos, Marcel; Schecklmann, Martin; Schneider, Wolfgang; Warnke, Andreas; Freitag, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A deficit in empathy is discussed to underlie difficulties in social interaction of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and conduct disorder (CD). To date, no study has compared children with ASD and different subtypes of CD to describe disorder-specific empathy profiles in clinical samples. Furthermore, little is known about…

  10. Development of an angular scanning system for sensing vertical profiles of soil electrical conductivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apparent soil electrical conductivity (EC**a**) is typically mapped to define soil spatial variability within an agricultural field. Knowledge of the vertical variability of EC**a** is desired to define site-specific behavior of the soil profile. A Pneumatic Angular Scanning System (PASS) was develo...

  11. Personality risk profile for conduct disorder and substance use disorders in youth.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kristen G; Tapert, Susan F; Moadab, Ida; Crowley, Thomas J; Brown, Sandra A

    2007-10-01

    The five factor model of personality is a useful metric to describe personality profiles associated with maladaptive functioning. Using the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), we examined a conceptually based profile of high neuroticism, low agreeableness and low conscientiousness among 243 youth (aged 13-18 years) with varying degrees of conduct disorder (CD) and substance use disorders (SUD). Comparisons of the NEO-FFI personality dimensions between CD/SUD youth and adolescent siblings (N=173), and relations between the personality dimensions and behavioral indicators of conduct disorder and substance involvement were examined. Youth with CD and SUD had greater neuroticism, lower agreeableness, and lower conscientiousness than siblings of a similar age. The NEO-FFI scales predicted aggression and substance involvement for both probands and siblings in this cross-sectional investigation. These findings support the role for personality in models of the etiology and persistence of conduct disorder and substance use disorders. PMID:17408870

  12. Analyzing Conductivity Profiles in Stream Waters Influenced by Mine Water Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räsänen, Teemu; Hämäläinen, Emmy; Hämäläinen, Matias; Turunen, Kaisa; Pajula, Pasi; Backnäs, Soile

    2015-04-01

    Conductivity is useful as a general measure of stream water quality. Each stream inclines to have a quite constant range of conductivity that can be used as a baseline for comparing and detecting influence of contaminant sources. Conductivity in natural streams and rivers is affected primarily by the geology of the watershed. Thus discharges from ditches and streams affect not only the flow rate in the river but also the water quality and conductivity. In natural stream waters, the depth and the shape of the river channel change constantly, which changes also the water flow. Thus, an accurate measuring of conductivity or other water quality indicators is difficult. Reliable measurements are needed in order to have holistic view about amount of contaminants, sources of discharges and seasonal variation in mixing and dilution processes controlling the conductivity changes in river system. We tested the utility of CastAway-CTD measuring device (SonTek Inc) to indicate the influence of mine waters as well as mixing and dilution occurring in the recipient river affected by treated dewatering and process effluent water discharges from a Finnish gold mine. The CastAway-CTD measuring device is a small, rugged and designed for profiling of depths of up to 100m. Device measures temperature, salinity, conductivity and sound of speed using 5 Hz response time. It has also built-in GPS which produces location information. CTD casts are normally used to produce vertical conductivity profile for rather deep waters like seas or lakes. We did seasonal multiple Castaway-CTD measurements during 2013 and 2014 and produced scaled vertical and horizontal profiles of conductivity and water temperature at the river. CastAway-CTD measurement pinpoints how possible contaminants behave and locate in stream waters. The conductivity profiles measured by CastAway-CTD device show the variation in maximum conductivity values vertically in measuring locations and horizontally in measured cross

  13. Modeling the Influence of Conductivity Profiles on Red Sprite Formation and Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonev, P.; Velinov, P.

    Strong quasi-electrostatic fields generated in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere after a lightning discharge by a succeeding redistribution of the induced spatial charges, are considered to be responsible for red sprite generation. Factors considered here as important for sprite occurrence and size and shape are the discharge parameters and conductivity profile. Thundercloud charges are assumed to be of hundreds of Coulombs distributed within layers with a horizontal extent of tens (or hundreds) of kilometers as typical for big convective multi-cell systems. Cloud- t o -ground positive strokes, characterized by their charge moment change, are considered, and the large continuing currents are taken into account. The thermal breakdown mechanism is considered as responsible for sprite onset. The conditions under which sprites initially occur (i.e. when atmospheric parameters are not disturbed) and their spatial and temporal characteristics are studied in dependence on the conductivity profiles. A self-consistent analytical modeling is proposed for this purpose. Maxwell equations are applied under quasi-electrostatic conditions, when magnetic field component is neglected and the electric field is assumed to be a potential one. The features of a lightning discharge as well as of conductivity profiles (including the slight anisotropy in lower ionosphere) are taken into account in the model. The conductivity profiles are approximated between 0 and 100 km by stepwise profiles, defined on layered atmosphere with ~100 layers. Horizontal conductivity variations occurring at sprite heights (50-90 km) due to electron heating and ionization are represented in the model by a stepped functions in each layer. Continuity of the electrical current density component normal to each sector boundary is required. Results obtained show that for sprite occurrence in daytime conditions larger lightning charge moment change of the parent discharge is needed and sprites are lower localized

  14. Observing the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, Gerald

    2014-03-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. 'Magnificent desolation'; 2. The moon through the looking glass; 3. Telescopes and drawing boards; 4. The Moon in camera; 5. Stacking up the Moon; 6. The physical Moon; 7. Lunarware; 8. 'A to Z' of selected lunar landscapes; 9. TLP or not TLP?; Appendix 1. Telescope collimation; Appendix 2. Field-testing a telescope's optics; Appendix 3. Polar alignment; Index.

  15. Noninvasive Imaging of Head-Brain Conductivity Profiles Using Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaotong; Yan, Dandan; Zhu, Shanan; He, Bin

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a recently introduced non-invasive conductivity imaging modality, which combines the magnetic resonance current density imaging (CDI) and the traditional electrical impedance tomography (EIT) techniques. MREIT is aimed at providing high spatial resolution images of electrical conductivity, by avoiding solving the well-known ill-posed problem in the traditional EIT. In this paper, we review our research activities in MREIT imaging of head-brain tissue conductivity profiles. We have developed several imaging algorithms and conducted a series of computer simulations for MREIT imaging of the head and brain tissues. Our work suggests MREIT brain imaging may become a useful tool in imaging conductivity distributions of the brain and head. PMID:18799394

  16. Monitoring stream stage, channel profile, and aqueous conductivity with time domain reflectometry (TDR).

    SciTech Connect

    Brainard, James Robert; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Coplen, Amy K.; Ruby, Douglas Scott; Coombs, Jason R.; Wright, Jerome L.; Roberts, Jesse Daniel

    2004-11-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) operates by propagating a radar frequency electromagnetic pulse down a transmission line while monitoring the reflected signal. As the electromagnetic pulse propagates along the transmission line, it is subject to impedance by the dielectric properties of the media along the transmission line (e.g., air, water, sediment), reflection at dielectric discontinuities (e.g., air-water or water-sediment interface), and attenuation by electrically conductive materials (e.g., salts, clays). Taken together, these characteristics provide a basis for integrated stream monitoring; specifically, concurrent measurement of stream stage, channel profile and aqueous conductivity. Here, we make novel application of TDR within the context of stream monitoring. Efforts toward this goal followed three critical phases. First, a means of extracting the desired stream parameters from measured TDR traces was required. Analysis was complicated by the fact that interface location and aqueous conductivity vary concurrently and multiple interfaces may be present at any time. For this reason a physically based multisection model employing the S11 scatter function and Cole-Cole parameters for dielectric dispersion and loss was developed to analyze acquired TDR traces. Second, we explored the capability of this multisection modeling approach for interpreting TDR data acquired from complex environments, such as encountered in stream monitoring. A series of laboratory tank experiments were performed in which the depth of water, depth of sediment, and conductivity were varied systematically. Comparisons between modeled and independently measured data indicate that TDR measurements can be made with an accuracy of {+-}3.4x10{sup -3} m for sensing the location of an air/water or water/sediment interface and {+-}7.4% of actual for the aqueous conductivity. Third, monitoring stations were sited on the Rio Grande and Paria rivers to evaluate performance of the TDR system

  17. Acousto-thermometric recovery of the deep temperature profile using heat conduction equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anosov, A. A.; Belyaev, R. V.; Vilkov, V. A.; Dvornikova, M. V.; Dvornikova, V. V.; Kazanskii, A. S.; Kuryatnikova, N. A.; Mansfel'd, A. D.

    2012-09-01

    In a model experiment using the acousto-thermographic method, deep temperature profiles varying in time are recovered. In the recovery algorithm, we used a priori information in the form of a requirement that the calculated temperature must satisfy the heat conduction equation. The problem is reduced to determining two parameters: the initial temperature and the temperature conductivity coefficient of the object under consideration (the plasticine band). During the experiment, there was independent inspection using electronic thermometers mounted inside the plasticine. The error in the temperature conductivity coefficient was about 17% and the error in initial temperature determination was less than one degree. Such recovery results allow application of this approach to solving a number of medical problems. It is experimentally proved that acoustic irregularities influence the acousto-thermometric results as well. It is shown that in the chosen scheme of experiment (which corresponds to measurements of human muscle tissue), this influence can be neglected.

  18. Moon's Pink Mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.; Taylor, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    Since the 2010 remote-sensing discovery of lunar regolith rich in Mg-Al spinel on the rims and central peaks of impact craters and inner rings of basins on the Moon, researchers have been designing experiments to better understand the origin and formation history of spinel-rich rocks and what they mean for the construction of the lunar crust. The newly detected rock type is referred to as pink spinel anorthosite, or PSA, due to high plagioclase and low abundance (<5%) of mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. Two recent studies tested specific hypotheses of PSA production on the Moon. Juliane Gross (American Museum of Natural History and the Lunar and Planetary Institute, LPI) and colleagues at the LPI, University of Hawaii, and NASA Johnson Space Center conducted experiments to model the crystallization of spinel in impact melts from impact events. Tabb Prissel (Brown University) and colleagues from Brown conducted experiments to model a plutonic formation of spinel from magma-wallrock interactions. In each study, comparisons of the remote sensing data with Apollo lunar samples or lunar meteorites were crucial for testing the PSA formation hypotheses with the experimental results. Definitive answers aren't in yet. PSA could form from impact melting of the right target rocks. Equally likely is PSA formation by reaction of basaltic magma and crust. One big unknown is the effect space weathering has in determining the amount of spinel in the PSA..

  19. Charge Storage, Conductivity and Charge Profiles of Insulators as Related to Spacecraft Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, J. R.; Swaminathan, Prasanna; Frederickson, A. R.

    2004-01-01

    Dissipation of charges built up near the surface of insulators due to space environment interaction is central to understanding spacecraft charging. Conductivity of insulating materials is key to determine how accumulated charge will distribute across the spacecraft and how rapidly charge imbalance will dissipate. To understand these processes requires knowledge of how charge is deposited within the insulator, the mechanisms for charge trapping and charge transport within the insulator, and how the profile of trapped charge affects the transport and emission of charges from insulators. One must consider generation of mobile electrons and holes, their trapping, thermal de-trapping, mobility and recombination. Conductivity is more appropriately measured for spacecraft charging applications as the "decay" of charge deposited on the surface of an insulator, rather than by flow of current across two electrodes around the sample. We have found that conductivity determined from charge storage decay methods is 102 to 104 smaller than values obtained from classical ASTM and IEC methods for a variety of thin film insulating samples. For typical spacecraft charging conditions, classical conductivity predicts decay times on the order of minutes to hours (less than typical orbit periods); however, the higher charge storage conductivities predict decay times on the order of weeks to months leading to accumulation of charge with subsequent orbits. We found experimental evidence that penetration profiles of radiation and light are exceedingly important, and that internal electric fields due to charge profiles and high-field conduction by trapped electrons must be considered for space applications. We have also studied whether the decay constants depend on incident voltage and flux or on internal charge distributions and electric fields; light-activated discharge of surface charge to distinguish among differing charge trapping centers; and radiation-induced conductivity. Our

  20. The moon and madness reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Raison, C L; Klein, H M; Steckler, M

    1999-04-01

    Belief that the full moon is associated with psychiatric disturbance persists despite 50 years research showing no association. This article traces the historical roots of belief in the power of the moon to cause disorders the mind, especially insanity and epilepsy. Putative mechanisms of lunar action are critiqued. It is proposed that modern findings showing lack of lunar effect can be reconciled with pre-modern beliefs in the moon's power through a mechanism of sleep deprivation. Prior to the advent of modern lighting the moon was a significant source of nocturnal illumination that affected sleep-wake cycle, tending to cause sleep deprivation around the time of full moon. This partial sleep deprivation would have been sufficient to induce mania/hypomania in susceptible bipolar patients and seizures in patients with seizure disorders. The advent of modern lighting attenuated this lunar effect, especially in modern urban areas, where most 20th century studies of lunar effects on the mind have been conducted. The hypothesis presented in this article is open to empirical validation or falsification. Potential tests for the sleep-deprivation hypothesis of lunar action are discussed.

  1. Pluto's Spinning Moons

    NASA Video Gallery

    Most inner moons in the solar system keep one face pointed toward their central planet; this animation shows that certainly isn’t the case with the small moons of Pluto, which behave like spinning ...

  2. Sun, Moon and Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolvankar, V. G.

    2013-12-01

    During a study conducted to find the effect of Earth tides on the occurrence of earthquakes, for small areas [typically 1000km X1000km] of high-seismicity regions, it was noticed that the Sun's position in terms of universal time [GMT] shows links to the sum of EMD [longitude of earthquake location - longitude of Moon's foot print on earth] and SEM [Sun-Earth-Moon angle]. This paper provides the details of this relationship after studying earthquake data for over forty high-seismicity regions of the world. It was found that over 98% of the earthquakes for these different regions, examined for the period 1973-2008, show a direct relationship between the Sun's position [GMT] and [EMD+SEM]. As the time changes from 00-24 hours, the factor [EMD+SEM] changes through 360 degree, and plotting these two variables for earthquakes from different small regions reveals a simple 45 degree straight-line relationship between them. This relationship was tested for all earthquakes and earthquake sequences for magnitude 2.0 and above. This study conclusively proves how Sun and the Moon govern all earthquakes. Fig. 12 [A+B]. The left-hand figure provides a 24-hour plot for forty consecutive days including the main event (00:58:23 on 26.12.2004, Lat.+3.30, Long+95.980, Mb 9.0, EQ count 376). The right-hand figure provides an earthquake plot for (EMD+SEM) vs GMT timings for the same data. All the 376 events including the main event faithfully follow the straight-line curve.

  3. Our Battered Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Most people have probably heard the tale about the Moon being made out of Swiss cheese because, on Earth, the Moon looks like it is full of holes. Those holes are actually impact craters, circular depressions that formed when objects, such as rocks that orbit the Sun, smashed into the surface of the Moon. The activity described in this article,…

  4. Perceptions about Moon Phases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rider, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Presents research on different techniques to determine the level of understanding among middle school students regarding the phases of the moon. Quotes student responses to provide some insight into students' level of understanding of general knowledge about the moon, moon phases, and modeling the phases. Presents implications for teachers. (KHR)

  5. Look to the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Gerald Wm.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a strategy that helps students visualize and comprehend moon phase changes through activities that use an Earth-centered point of view along with direct observations of the moon. Describes activities that parents can use at home to help children become familiar with observing moon phases. (JRH)

  6. The Moon's Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadogan, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Presents findings and conclusions about the origin of the moon, favoring the capture hypothesis of lunar origin. Advantage of the hypothesis is that it allows the moon to have been formed elsewhere, specifically in a hotter part of the solar nebula, accounting for chemical differences between earth and moon. (JN)

  7. Pluto's Intriguing Moons

    NASA Video Gallery

    We talk a lot about Charon, Pluto's largest moon that's about half the size of its host planet. But what about Pluto’s other moons? They're strange, to say the least. Pluto’s four smaller moons —...

  8. Emergent relation between surface vapor conductance and relative humidity profiles yields evaporation rates from weather data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvucci, Guido D.; Gentine, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    The ability to predict terrestrial evapotranspiration (E) is limited by the complexity of rate-limiting pathways as water moves through the soil, vegetation (roots, xylem, stomata), canopy air space, and the atmospheric boundary layer. The impossibility of specifying the numerous parameters required to model this process in full spatial detail has necessitated spatially upscaled models that depend on effective parameters such as the surface vapor conductance (Csurf). Csurf accounts for the biophysical and hydrological effects on diffusion through the soil and vegetation substrate. This approach, however, requires either site-specific calibration of Csurf to measured E, or further parameterization based on metrics such as leaf area, senescence state, stomatal conductance, soil texture, soil moisture, and water table depth. Here, we show that this key, rate-limiting, parameter can be estimated from an emergent relationship between the diurnal cycle of the relative humidity profile and E. The relation is that the vertical variance of the relative humidity profile is less than would occur for increased or decreased evaporation rates, suggesting that land-atmosphere feedback processes minimize this variance. It is found to hold over a wide range of climate conditions (arid-humid) and limiting factors (soil moisture, leaf area, energy). With this relation, estimates of E and Csurf can be obtained globally from widely available meteorological measurements, many of which have been archived since the early 1900s. In conjunction with precipitation and stream flow, long-term E estimates provide insights and empirical constraints on projected accelerations of the hydrologic cycle.

  9. GPR Profiles of Mirror Lake, NH: Exceptional Signal Penetration in Low Conductivity Water and Subbottom Sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcone, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Subbottom lake stratification is of interest to hydrology and core site selection, and in delta formation, sediment focusing and periglacial dynamics. Mirror Lake, New Hampshire, within the Hubbard Brook research area, has long been studied, but its subbottom stratification has only been estimated from coring that revealed up to 13 m of gyttja above about 1 m of Late Wisconsin glacial silt. However, the very low water conductivity of 0.002-0.003 S/m allows exceptional penetration of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals. Here we discuss several GPR profiles recorded at pulse center frequencies of 60 and 120 MHz along 300-600 m transects that crossed the entire lake in many directions. With care not to misinterpret multiple reflection horizons, the profiles clearly delineate gyttja, till, bedrock horizons, boulder horizons near shore and deltaic deposition. Hyperbolic backscatter in the well-stratified gyttja may be responses from buried logs because they often occur in nests of close, deepening diffractions and much logging historically occurred. Strong local horizons within the gyttja suggest sediment retransport and focusing, as suggested by Davis and Ford in their1982 interpretation of cores. The generally deeper and underlying till is characterized by sections of dense diffractions. In some profile sections internal till horizons appear draped over the bedrock horizons. In others parallel and deep horizons may be responses to bedrock fractures. Using estimated minimal wave speeds based on maximum possible dielectric permittivities calculated from assumed saturated conditions, and partly verified by diffraction interpretation after statics removal, our 60 MHz profiles show gyttja (permittivity no greater than 53) thicknesses of at least 11 m, till (permittivity no greater than 33) thicknesses of at least 25 m and depths to bedrock (Littleton schist) up to 28 m. This till thickness far exceeds the average 4-5 m on the surrounding slopes of the Hubbard Brook

  10. High energy electron processing of icy regoliths on Saturn's moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaible, Micah; Johnson, Robert E.

    2015-11-01

    A unique space weathering phenomenon has been identified on several icy Saturnian moons. Cassini revealed anomalous lens shaped regions in both optical and thermal wavelengths, colloquially known as the 'PacMan' feature, which are centered on the leading hemispheres and approximately symmetric about the equators. In particular, the Cassini InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) measurements of thermal emission in the mid-IR showed that surface temperature variations during a diurnal cycle were smaller inside the anomalous regions. The locations of the anomalies were shown to closely match the expected deposition profile of high energy (~ MeV) electrons moving counter rotational to the moons, suggesting an energetic source to drive their formation. However, the mechanisms by which thermal conductivity enhancement occur lack quantitative comparison with theoretical and experimental results.Electron interactions with the grains can excite molecules, which, if near enough to an intergrain contact, can cause atoms or molecules to migrate into the contact region, thus increasing the contact volume or 'sintering' the grains. Sintering improves the thermal contact between grains, leading to increased effective thermal conductivity of the regolith. Equations previously developed to describe material behavior in nuclear reactor were used to estimate the timescale for the energetic electrons to increase the contact volume sufficiently to describe the enhanced thermal conductivity of the anomalous regions. In order to properly constrain the sintering calculations, the unique electron energy distribution measured in the vicinity of each of the moons was used in the calculations, and molecular dynamics simulations of excited electrons in water ice were carried out to determine the length scale for an average electron excitation or ionization event. This length scale determines the distance from the primary reaction at which electrons can still be mobilized to move into the contact region

  11. Science opportunities in the human exploration of moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilcher, Carl B.; O'Handley, Douglas A.; Nash, Douglas B.

    1989-01-01

    Human exploration of the moon will open up science opportunities not only in lunar science, but also in astronomy and astrophysics, life science, solar and space physics, earth science, and even evolutionary biology. These opportunities may be categorized as those involving study of the moon itself, those in which the moon is used as a platform for investigations, and those conducted in transit between earth and the moon. This paper describes some of these opportunities, and calls on the science community to continue and expand its efforts to define the opportunities, and to work toward their inclusion in plans to return humans permanently to the moon.

  12. Emergent relation between surface vapor conductance and relative humidity profiles yields evaporation rates from weather data.

    PubMed

    Salvucci, Guido D; Gentine, Pierre

    2013-04-16

    The ability to predict terrestrial evapotranspiration (E) is limited by the complexity of rate-limiting pathways as water moves through the soil, vegetation (roots, xylem, stomata), canopy air space, and the atmospheric boundary layer. The impossibility of specifying the numerous parameters required to model this process in full spatial detail has necessitated spatially upscaled models that depend on effective parameters such as the surface vapor conductance (C(surf)). C(surf) accounts for the biophysical and hydrological effects on diffusion through the soil and vegetation substrate. This approach, however, requires either site-specific calibration of C(surf) to measured E, or further parameterization based on metrics such as leaf area, senescence state, stomatal conductance, soil texture, soil moisture, and water table depth. Here, we show that this key, rate-limiting, parameter can be estimated from an emergent relationship between the diurnal cycle of the relative humidity profile and E. The relation is that the vertical variance of the relative humidity profile is less than would occur for increased or decreased evaporation rates, suggesting that land-atmosphere feedback processes minimize this variance. It is found to hold over a wide range of climate conditions (arid-humid) and limiting factors (soil moisture, leaf area, energy). With this relation, estimates of E and C(surf) can be obtained globally from widely available meteorological measurements, many of which have been archived since the early 1900s. In conjunction with precipitation and stream flow, long-term E estimates provide insights and empirical constraints on projected accelerations of the hydrologic cycle. PMID:23576717

  13. Electrical Conductivity of H2O-CO2 rich-Melt at mantle conditions: interpretation of the LAB using petrology-based 1D conductivity profiles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sifre, D.; Gaillard, F.; Hashim, L.; Massuyeau, M.; Gardés, E.; Hier-Majumder, S.

    2014-12-01

    Electromagnetic data images mantle regions more conductive than that of dry olivine. There is no doubt that melt is thermodynamically stable and present in the LAB, but how they can impact on mantle electrical conductivity remains debated. In addition, gravitational segregation and fast melt upwelling, being expected if melt fraction exceeds 2 vol. %, is thought to seriously restrict the role of partial melting at the level of the LAB. Petrological studies realized some 30 years ago have shown that peridotites exposed at the P-T-fO2 conditions of the LAB produced H2O and CO2 rich-melts. The segregation of such melts is not expected since they constitute only about 0.5 vol. % of the peridotite, but electrical conductivities of these melts are poorly known. Therefore, electrical conductivity experiments have been performed in piston cylinder on H2O-CO2 rich melts. Different melt compositions have been explored, from carbonated melts to basalts. The effects of chemical compositions and volatiles on these melts have been determined. The electrical conductivity measurements have shown that hydrous carbonated melts are very conductive, and the incorporation of basalt decreases the conductivity. With these new data, a semi-empirical law predicting the conductivity as a function of H2O and CO2 contents has been produced. Based on this law and the electrical conductivity of olivine, 1D conductivity profiles were constructed. With these profiles, the effect of volatiles content (partitioned between the melt and in the solids), melt fractions (mixing law and interconnection of the melt) and different temperature regimes on conductivity are discussed. These calculations are conducted on oceanic and continental settings with different ages. The electrical conductivities of the mantle is thus a powerful tool to track the fundamental process of mantle incipient melting, which is in turn narrowly associated to the cycling of H2O and CO2 in the upper mantle.

  14. Observing the new Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Roy E.

    2003-04-01

    The first appearance of the new Moon has been used throughout history and is still used today to determine religious calendars. Many methods for predicting the Moon's appearance have been proposed throughout history and new models are still being developed. All these models have to be tested against observations to test their validity. To this end, ancient and modern astronomers have collected observations of new and old crescent Moons. Here we present the results of 539 observations of the Moon made over several years by many experienced observers in good weather conditions. In addition to determining whether or not the Moon was seen, the times of its first and last appearance were also carefully recorded. The addition of the appearance time means that even an easily visible Moon, recorded when it can barely be seen, may be compared with a visibility criterion. The observational data base greatly expands on previously published reports.

  15. Interior of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of geophysical measurements made from Earth, from spacecraft in orbit around the Moon, and by astronauts on the lunar surface allow us to probe beyond the lunar surface to learn about its interior. Similarly to the Earth, the Moon is thought to consist of a distinct crust, mantle, and core. The crust is globally asymmetric in thickness, the mantle is largely homogeneous, and the core is probably layered, with evidence for molten material. This chapter will review a range of methods used to infer the Moon's internal structure, and briefly discuss the implications for the Moon's formation and evolution.

  16. Infrared astronomy from the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwit, Martin

    1994-06-01

    expected to be encountered in observations conducted from the Moon.

  17. Infrared astronomy from the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwit, Martin

    1994-01-01

    expected to be encountered in observations conducted from the Moon.

  18. Of time and the moon.

    PubMed

    Wetherill, G W

    1971-07-30

    Considerable information concerning lunar chronology has been obtained by the study of rocks and soil returned by the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 missions. It has been shown that at the time the moon, earth, and solar system were formed, approximately 4.6 approximately 10(9) years ago, a severe chemical fractionation took place, resulting in depletion of relatively volatile elements such as Rb and Pb from the sources of the lunar rocks studied. It is very likely that much of this material was lost to interplanetary space, although some of the loss may be associated with internal chemical differentiation of the moon. It has also been shown that igneous processes have enriched some regions of the moon in lithophile elements such as Rb, U, and Ba, very early in lunar history, within 100 million years of its formation. Subsequent igneous and metamorphic activity occurred over a long period of time; mare volcanism of the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 sites occurred at distinctly different times, 3.6 approximately 10(9) and 3.3 approximately 10(9) years ago, respectively. Consequently, lunar magmatism and remanent magnetism cannot be explained in terms of a unique event, such as a close approach to the earth at a time of lunar capture. It is likely that these phenomena will require explanation in terms of internal lunar processes, operative to a considerable depth in the moon, over a long period of time. These data, together with the low present internal temperatures of the moon, inferred from measurements of lunar electrical conductivity, impose severe constraints on acceptable thermal histories of the moon. Progress is being made toward understanding lunar surface properties by use of the effects of particle bombardment of the lunar surface (solar wind, solar flare particles, galactic cosmic rays). It has been shown that the rate of micrometeorite erosion is very low (angstroms per year) and that lunar rocks and soil have been within approximately a meter of the lunar surface

  19. The origin of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruskol, Y. L.

    1977-01-01

    The fractionation of the chemical compositions of the moon and the earth and the thermal history of the moon for formation of the moon from an earth-orbiting swarm of bodies during the accumulation of the earth are discussed.

  20. China targets the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-08-01

    China has already launched two spacecraft to the Moon and wants to send rovers and astronauts there as well - and to eventually build its own lunar base. Ziuyan Ouyang, chief scientist of China's lunarprogramme, talks about the country's ambitious Moon plans.

  1. Moon: Old and New

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This video presents the moon as studied by man for more than 20 centuries. It reviews the history of lunar studies before the first moon landing, the major things learned since Apollo 11, and closes with a resume of lunar investigations scientists would like to undertake in the future.

  2. Four-month Moon and Mars crew water utilization study conducted at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station, Devon Island, Nunavut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamsey, M.; Berinstain, A.; Auclair, S.; Battler, M.; Binsted, K.; Bywaters, K.; Harris, J.; Kobrick, R.; McKay, C.

    2009-04-01

    A categorized water usage study was undertaken at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station on Devon Island, Nunavut in the High Canadian Arctic. This study was conducted as part of a long duration four-month Mars mission simulation during the summer of 2007. The study determined that the crew of seven averaged 82.07 L/day over the expedition (standard deviation 22.58 L/day). The study also incorporated a Mars Time Study phase which determined that an average of 12.12 L/sol of water was required for each crewmember. Drinking, food preparation, hand/face, oral, dish wash, clothes wash, shower, shaving, cleaning, engineering, science, plant growth and medical water were each individually monitored throughout the detailed study phases. It was determined that implementing the monitoring program itself resulted in an approximate water savings of 1.5 L/day per crewmember. The seven person crew averaged 202 distinct water draws a day (standard deviation 34) with high water use periods focusing around meal times. No statistically significant correlation was established between total water use and EVA or exercise duration. Study results suggest that current crew water utilization estimates for long duration planetary surface stays are more than two times greater than that required.

  3. The Moon Village Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Piero; Foing, Bernard H.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Haignere, Claudie; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The "Moon Village" concept Space exploration is anchored in the International Space Station and in the current and future automatic and planetary automatic and robotic missions that pave the way for future long-term exploration objectives. The Moon represents a prime choice for scientific, operational and programmatic reasons and could be the enterprise that federates all interested Nations. On these considerations ESA is currently elaborating the concept of a Moon Village as an ensemble where multiple users can carry out multiple activities. The Moon Village has the ambition to serve a number of objectives that have proven to be of interest (including astronomy, fundamental research, resources management, moon science, etc. ) to the space community and should be the catalyst of new alliances between public and private entities including non-space industries. Additionally the Moon Village should provide a strong inspirational and education tool for the younger generations . The Moon Village will rely both on automatic, robotic and human-tendered structures to achieve sustainable moon surface operations serving multiple purposes on an open-architecture basis. This Europe-inspired initiative should rally all communities (across scientific disciplines, nations, industries) and make it to the top of the political agendas as a the scientific and technological undertaking but also political and inspirational endeavour of the XXI century. The current reflections are of course based on the current activities and plans on board the ISS and the discussion held in international fora such as the ISECG. The paper will present the status of these reflections, also in view of the ESA Council at Ministerial Level 2016, and will give an overview of the on-going activities being carried out to enable the vision of a Moon Village.

  4. Applications of High Etendue Line-Profile Spectro-Polarimetry to the Study of the Atmospheric and Magnetospheric Environments of the Jovian Icy Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Walter M.; Roesler, Fred L.; Jaffel, Lotfi Ben; Ballester, Gilda E.; Oliversen, Ronald J.; Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin

    2003-01-01

    Electrodynamic effects play a significant, global role in the state and energization of the Earth's ionosphere/magnetosphere, but even more so on Jupiter, where the auroral energy input is four orders of magnitude greater than on Earth. The Jovian magnetosphere is distinguished from Earth's by its rapid rotation rate and contributions from satellite atmospheres and internal plasma sources. The electrodynamic effects of these factors have a key role in the state and energization of the ionosphere-corona- plasmasphere system of the planet and its interaction with Io and the icy satellites. Several large scale interacting processes determine conditions near the icy moons beginning with their tenuous atmospheres produced from sputtering, evaporative, and tectonic/volcanic sources, extending out to exospheres that merge with ions and neutrals in the Jovian magnetosphere. This dynamic environment is dependent on a complex network of magnetospheric currents that act on global scales. Field aligned currents connect the satellites and the middle and tail magnetospheric regions to the Jupiter's poles via flux tubes that produce as bright auroral and satellite footprint emissions in the upper atmosphere. This large scale transfer of mass, momentum, and energy (e.g. waves, currents) means that a combination of complementary diagnostics of the plasma, neutral, and and field network must be obtained near simultaneously to correctly interpret the results. This presentation discusses the applicability of UV spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (SHS) to the broad study of this system on scales from satellite surfaces to Jupiter's aurora and corona.

  5. Origin of earth's moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The major geochemical properties of the moon are briefly considered along with the significant facts of the moon's geologic history, and then the three current hypotheses regarding the moon's origin, namely, fission, capture, and binary accretion, are reviewed. The individual merits and improbabilities associated with each mechanism are taken into consideration. Special attention is given to the binary accretion model as the most promising one. In the variants of this model, of crucial importance is the nature of the more general hypothesis assumed for planetary formation from the solar nebula. The two main models differ considerably in the amount of chemical fractionation they allow to accompany planetary formation.

  6. Why the Moon?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, President George W. Bush proposed a new set of goals for NASA which have since been formalized by Congress as the revised United States Space Policy. A major goal is to return humans to the moon by 2020. This prompted a world-wide discussion about what our goals in space ought to be. In 2006 NASA surveyed potential stakeholders asking the question, "Why the Moon?" Responses were received from over 1000 entities including business, industry, academia, and 13 other space agencies. This presentation reports the responses to that questionnaire, as well as current plans for how the return to the moon will be accomplished.

  7. Steps to the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Dale, Alvin E.

    1976-01-01

    On July 20, 1969, man walked on the surface of the Moon and began a new chapter of his studies that will eventually disclose the geologic nature of the Earth's nearest neighbor. Although he has finally reached the Moon and sampled its substance, much work and study remain before he will know the full scientific significance of the first landing. This booklet briefly summarizes the steps man has taken to understand the Moon and what he thinks he has learned to date as a result of his centuries-long speculations and studies.

  8. Moon exploration: lunar radio observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalsky, Alexandre; Zelenyi, Lev; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Gurvits, Leonid; Sadovski, Andrei; Mogilevsky, Mikhail; Gotlib, Vladimir

    The Moon is an attractive base for fundamental scientific studies. The conducting ionosphere of Earth prevents propagation of radio emission coming from the outer space to the Earth’s surface at frequencies below a few MHz. In contrast, the Moon surrounded by a very thin atmosphere and ionosphere is a perfect site for an ultra-long-wavelength (ULW) facility for studies of cosmic radio emission at frequencies below the Earth’s ionosphere cut-off. This range of frequencies is the last unexplored window in the spectrum of the universe’s electromagnetic emission, The radio facility deployed on the Moon’s surface will be a multidisciplinary tool for addressing a wide range of scientific disciplines from cosmology to astrophysics to planetology, solar-terrestrial physics and geophysics. The Moon-based ULW observatory will be an experimental and observational facility for transformational science. One of the most intriguing objectives for the ULW science is a search for terrestrial-like planets in the exosolar systems, i.e. extra-solar planets possessing an intrinsic magnetic field and magnetospheres interacting with a stellar wind. Such the interaction generates radio emission similar to the Auroral Kilometric Radiation (AKR) of the terrestrial magnetosphere. The intrinsic magnetic field shielding the planetary surface from the cosmic radiation is one of the strong indicators of possible habitability of an exoplanet. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: This work was supported by the PP RAS 22 grant.

  9. What's New on the Moon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Bevan M.

    This document presents an overview of knowledge gained from the scientific explorations of the moon between 1969 and 1972 in the Apollo Program. Answers are given to questions regarding life on the moon, surface composition of rocks on the moon, the nature of the moon's interior, characteristics of lunar "soil," the age, history and origin of the…

  10. Two-tracer spectroscopy diagnostics of temperature profile in the conduction layer of a laser-ablated plastic foil

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jiyan; Yang Guohong; Hu Xin; Yang Jiamin; Ding Yaonan; Ding Yongkun; Zhang Baohan; Zheng Zhijian; Xu Yan; Yan Jun; Pei Wenbin

    2010-11-15

    A technique that combines the diagnostics of electron temperature history and the measurements of ablation velocity with two-tracer x-ray spectroscopy has been developed for diagnosing the temperature profiles in the thermal conduction layers of laser-ablated plastic foils. The electron temperature in the plastic ablator was diagnosed using the isoelectronic line ratios of Al Ly{alpha} line to Mg Ly{alpha} line, emitted from a tracer layer of Al/Mg mixture buried under the ablator. The ablation velocity was inferred from the time delay between the onset time of x-ray line emissions from Al and Mg tracer layers buried at two depths in the ablator, respectively. From the measured electron temperatures and ablation velocity, the electron temperature profile in the conduction layer was inferred. The measured temperature profile was compared with the simulated one and reasonable agreement was found.

  11. Geometry and Moon Phases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kenneth W.; Harrell, Marvin E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity, designed to comply with the National Science Education Standards, that integrates science and mathematics concepts. Mathematical modeling of the moon's phases is employed to show students the role of mathematics in describing scientific phenomena. (DKM)

  12. Off to the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loud, Gwyneth E.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an activity which simulates a trip to the moon. Explains the preparations, procedures, and tests involved in this culminating activity of an astronomy unit for the third grade student. Examples of student's assignments during the exercise are included. (ML)

  13. Origin of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, David

    2006-01-01

    Many ideas have been proposed for the origin of the Moon, but only one has stood the test of time: During the formation of Earth, about 4.5 billion years ago, our planet was hit by a projectile the size of Mars, leading to a close-in disk of molten material in earth orbit. From this material, our Moon formed in about a thousand years. I will explain how the properties of the Moon can be explained by this model and why the alternative ideas are either incorrect or highly improbable. I will also talk about some new developments in this area that come from a consideration of chemistry and isotopic measurements. Finally. I will talk about what we don't know and why the Moon is still an interesting place for further exploration.

  14. The Moon: Biogenic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Chang, Sherwood

    1992-01-01

    The specific objectives of the organic chemical exploration of the Moon involve the search for molecules of possible biological or prebiological origin. Detailed knowledge of the amount, distribution, and exact structure of organic compounds present on the Moon is extremely important to our understanding of the origin and history of the Moon and to its relationship to the history of the Earth and solar system. Specifically, such knowledge is essential for determining whether life on the Moon exists, ever did exist, or could develop. In the absence of life or organic matter, it is still essential to determine the abundance, distribution, and origin of the biogenic elements (e.g., H, C, O, N, S, P) in order to understand how the planetary environment may have influenced the course of chemical evolution. The history and scope of this effort is presented.

  15. ARTEMIS Orbits Magnetic Moon

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's THEMIS spacecraft have completed their mission and are still working perfectly, so NASA is re-directing the outermost two spacecraft to special orbits around the Moon. Now called ARTEMIS, th...

  16. Robotics and telepresence for moon missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallaberger, Christian

    1994-10-01

    An integrated moon program has often been proposed as a logical next step for today's space efforts. In the context of preparing for the possibility of launching a moon program, the European Space Agency is currently conducting an internal study effort which is focusing on the assessment of key technologies. Current thinking has this moon program organized into four phases. Phase 1 will deal with lunar resource exploration. The goal would be to produce a complete chemical inventory of the moon, including oxygen, water, other volatiles, carbon, silicon, and other resources. Phase 2 will establish a permanent robotic presence on the moon via a number of landers and surface rovers. Phase 3 will extend the second phase and concentrate on the use and exploitation of local lunar resources. Phase 4 will be the establishment of a first human outpost. Some preliminary work such as the building of the outpost and the installation of scientific equipment will be done by unmanned systems before a human crew is sent to the moon.

  17. The moon and SETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Jerome

    1992-04-01

    The search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) is discussed focusing on the unique position of the earth-moon as double planet. The presence of moon is considered to have had profound effects on the evolution of the earth and life upon it. It is hypothesized that the nearest civilization may be tens of thousands of light years away from the Galaxy, and SETI may be more successful in contacting civilizations in nearby galaxies than in the Milky Way.

  18. A study of the properties of beryllium doped silicon with particular emphasis on diffusion mechanisms: Profiles of depth dependent conductivity as determined by electrical surface probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franks, R. K.; Robertson, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    Very large diffusion coefficients were encountered and required the determination of impurity profiles for samples approximately 1 cm thick. Since conductivity values are readily converted into concentrations of electrically active impurities, the major problem became that of accurately determining the conductivity profiles of beryllium diffused silicon samples. Four-point probe measurements on samples having depth conductivities are interpreted in terms of conductivity profiles, based on an exact solution of the problem of exponentially depth dependent conductivity. Applications include surface conductivity determination where the form of the conductivity profile is known, and conductivity profile determination from probe measurements taken as the sample surface is progressively lapped away. The application is limited to samples having conductivity monotonically decreasing with depth from the probed surface.

  19. Forum on Concepts and Approaches for Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The papers presented at this conference primarily discuss instruments and techniques for conducting science on Jupiter's icy moons, and geologic processes on the moons themselves. Remote sensing of satellites, cratering on satellites, and ice on the surface of Europa are given particular attention. Some papers discuss Jupiter's atmosphere, or exobiology.

  20. Moon (Form-Origin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2016-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  1. Moon (Form-Origin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2014-05-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  2. Moon (Form-Origin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2013-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  3. Moon (Form-Origin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2015-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  4. An analytical model of sub-Alfvénic moon-plasma interactions with application to the hemisphere coupling effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Sven

    2015-09-01

    We develop a new analytical model of the Alfvén wing that is generated by the interaction between a planetary moon's ionosphere and its magnetospheric environment. While preceding analytical approaches assumed the obstacle's height-integrated ionospheric conductivities to be spatially constant, the model presented here can take into account a continuous conductance profile that follows a power law. The electric potential in the interaction region, determining the electromagnetic fields of the Alfvén wing, can then be calculated from an Euler-type differential equation. In this way, the model allows to include a realistic representation of the "suspension bridge"-like conductance profile expected for the moon's ionosphere. The major drawback of this approach is its restriction to interaction scenarios where the ionospheric Pedersen conductance is large compared to the Hall conductance, and thus, the Alfvénic perturbations are approximately symmetric between the planet-facing and the planet-averted hemispheres of the moon. The model is applied to the hemisphere coupling effect observed at Enceladus, i.e., to the surface currents and the associated magnetic discontinuities that arise from a north-south asymmetry of the obstacle to the plasma flow. We show that the occurrence of this effect is very robust against changes in the conductance profile of Enceladus' plume, and we derive upper limits for the strength of the magnetic field jumps generated by the hemisphere coupling effect. During all 11 reported detections of the hemisphere coupling currents at Enceladus, the observed magnetic field jumps were clearly weaker than the proposed limits. Our findings are also relevant for future in situ studies of putative plumes at the Jovian moon Europa.

  5. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color photograph is a composite of 15 images of the Moon taken through three color filters by Galileo's solid-state imaging system during the spacecraft's passage through the Earth-Moon system on December 8, 1992. When this view was obtained, the spacecraft was 425,000 kilometers (262,000 miles) from the Moon and 69,000 kilometers (43,000 miles) from Earth. The false-color processing used to create this lunar image is helpful for interpreting the surface soil composition. Areas appearing red generally correspond to the lunar highlands, while blue to orange shades indicate the ancient volcanic lava flow of a mare, or lunar sea. Bluer mare areas contain more titanium than do the orange regions. Mare Tranquillitatis, seen as a deep blue patch on the right, is richer in titanium than Mare Serenitatis, a slightly smaller circular area immediately adjacent to the upper left of Mare Tranquillitatis. Blue and orange areas covering much of the left side of the Moon in this view represent many separate lava flows in Oceanus Procellarum. The small purple areas found near the center are pyroclastic deposits formed by explosive volcanic eruptions. The fresh crater Tycho, with a diameter of 85 kilometers (53 miles), is prominent at the bottom of the photograph, where part of the Moon's disk is missing.

  6. Electromagnetic induction in the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonett, C. P.

    1982-01-01

    The moon constitutes a nonhydromagnetic, but electrically conducting, target for the solar wind whose response reaches a peak as frequency increases and diminishes with further increase in frequency, suggesting the presence of the magnetic quadrupole moment. Magnetometer measurements of induction using Explorer and Apollo instruments are studied from both the harmonic and transient standpoint, and the resulting determination of internal bulk electrical conductivity is discussed. The closeness of the estimated internal temperature to the Ringwood-Essene solidus at 150-250 km depths suggests a layer of enhanced conductivity in lieu of high temperature. A reduced core radius estimate with a one-sigma upper limit of 360 km is reported. The discussion of lunar electrodynamics presented is restricted to the problem of induction, with only passing reference to flow fields and regional electric fields.

  7. Effect of Magnetic Mirror on the Asymmetry of the Radial Profile of Near-Wall Conductivity in Hall Thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Daren; Liu, Hui; Fu, Haiyang

    2009-06-01

    Considering the actual magnetic field configuration in a Hall thruster, the effect of magnetic mirror on the radial profile of near-wall conductivity (NWC) is studied in this paper. The plasma electron dynamic process is described by the test particle method. The Monte Carlo scheme is used to solve this model. The radial profile of electron mobility is obtained and the role of magnetic mirror in NWC is analysed both theoretically and numerically. The numerical results show that the electron mobility peak due to NWC is inversely proportional to the magnetic mirror ratio and the asymmetry of electron mobility along the radial direction gets greater when the magnetic mirror is considered. This effect indicates that apart from the disparity in the magnetic field strength, the difference in the magnetic mirror ratio near the inner and outer walls would actually augment the asymmetry of the radial profile of NWC in Hall thrusters.

  8. CONDUCTIVITY PROFILE RATE OF CHANGE FROM FIELD AND LABORATORY DATA WITHIN BIODEGRADING PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present the results of long term (500 days) measurements of the bulk conductivity in a field and laboratory experiment. Our objective was to determine the rate of change in bulk conductivity and whether this rate of change correlated with the petroleum hydrocarbon degradation...

  9. Santa and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, P.

    2012-05-01

    This article reflects on the use of illustrations of the Moon in images of Santa Claus, on Christmas gift-wrapping paper and in children's books, in two countries which have been important in shaping the image of Santa Claus and his predecessor Sinterklaas: the USA and the Netherlands. The appearance of the Moon in Halloween illustrations is also considered. The lack of either knowledge concerning the physical origin of the Moon's phases, or interest in understanding them, is found to be widespread in the Netherlands, but is also clearly present in the USA, and is quite possibly global. Certainly incomplete, but surely representative, lists that compile occurrences of both scientifically correct and scientifically incorrect gift- wrapping paper and children's books are also presented.

  10. The application of thermal conductivity measurements to the Kuqa River profile, China, and implications for petrochemical generation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jiarui; Gao, Zhiyong; Zhu, Rukai; Luo, Zhong; Zhang, Linyan

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of thermal conductivity of rocks is important to understand the thermal properties of earth materials, the characteristics of terrestrial heat flow, and the formation of oil. In this paper we report thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and heat capacity data for 12 conglomerate, sandstone, and gypsum-bearing samples from the Paleogene Kuqa River profile in Kuqa, China. Samples were measured via the hot disk technique, yielding thermal conductivity values of 0.436 to 0.998 W/mK, thermal diffusivity measurements of 0.395 to 1.314 mm(2)/s, and heat capacity values of 0.439 to 1.717 MJ/m(3)K. These analyses reveal that gypsum-bearing rocks, with their low thermal conductivity, can act as excellent insulators over oil and gas reservoirs, aiding the formation and thermal maturation of petroleum. PMID:24255869

  11. The application of thermal conductivity measurements to the Kuqa River profile, China, and implications for petrochemical generation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jiarui; Gao, Zhiyong; Zhu, Rukai; Luo, Zhong; Zhang, Linyan

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of thermal conductivity of rocks is important to understand the thermal properties of earth materials, the characteristics of terrestrial heat flow, and the formation of oil. In this paper we report thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and heat capacity data for 12 conglomerate, sandstone, and gypsum-bearing samples from the Paleogene Kuqa River profile in Kuqa, China. Samples were measured via the hot disk technique, yielding thermal conductivity values of 0.436 to 0.998 W/mK, thermal diffusivity measurements of 0.395 to 1.314 mm(2)/s, and heat capacity values of 0.439 to 1.717 MJ/m(3)K. These analyses reveal that gypsum-bearing rocks, with their low thermal conductivity, can act as excellent insulators over oil and gas reservoirs, aiding the formation and thermal maturation of petroleum.

  12. Crustal electrical conductivity of the Indian continental subduction zone: New data from the profile in the Garhwal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, E. Yu.; Israil, M.; Gupta, P.; Koshurnikov, A. V.; Smirnov, M. Yu.; Cherevatova, M. V.

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of studying the geoelectrical structure of the zone of continental subduction of the Indian lithospheric plate within the Gahrwal Himalaya. In the framework of the Russian-Indian project, the data of the broadband magnetotelluric soundings conducted by the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee on the regional profile across the structures of the orogen were expanded, processed, and interpreted by the new program tools adapted for the measurements in the mountain conditions and for the presence of industrial noise. The constructed model of the deep electrical conductivity cross section for Garhwal revealed its two-dimensional (2D) features and more accurately delineated the location of the midcrustal conductor associated with the ramp structure of the detachment plane. The correlations with the regional distribution of the earthquake hypocenters and the seismotomographic images suggest a common, fluid-related nature of the seismic and geoelectrical anomalies in the crust of the Garhwal Tectonic Corridor and enabled the identification of the seismogenerating zones. Among the data of the expanded profile set of magnetotelluric and magnetovariational transfer functions, the response of a poorly explored deep conductive body is revealed. This object is located east of the profile and is probably associated with the activation of the ancient trans-Himalayan cratonic structures which prepares the segmentation of the Himalayan arc.

  13. Sub-nA spatially resolved conductivity profiling of surface and interface defects in ceria films

    DOE PAGES

    Farrow, Tim; Yang, Nan; Doria, Sandra; Belianinov, Alex; Jesse, Stephen; Arruda, Thomas M.; Balestrino, Giuseppe; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kumar, Amit

    2015-03-17

    Spatial variability of conductivity in ceria is explored using scanning probe microscopy with galvanostatic control. Ionically blocking electrodes are used to probe the conductivity under opposite polarities to reveal possible differences in the defect structure across a thin film of CeO2. Data suggest the existence of a large spatial inhomogeneity that could give rise to constant phase elements during standard electrochemical characterization, potentially affecting the overall conductivity of films on the macroscale. The approach discussed here can also be utilized for other mixed ionic electronic conductor systems including memristors and electroresistors, as well as physical systems such as ferroelectric tunnelingmore » barriers« less

  14. Sub-nA spatially resolved conductivity profiling of surface and interface defects in ceria films

    SciTech Connect

    Farrow, Tim; Yang, Nan; Doria, Sandra; Belianinov, Alex; Jesse, Stephen; Arruda, Thomas M.; Balestrino, Giuseppe; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kumar, Amit

    2015-03-17

    Spatial variability of conductivity in ceria is explored using scanning probe microscopy with galvanostatic control. Ionically blocking electrodes are used to probe the conductivity under opposite polarities to reveal possible differences in the defect structure across a thin film of CeO2. Data suggest the existence of a large spatial inhomogeneity that could give rise to constant phase elements during standard electrochemical characterization, potentially affecting the overall conductivity of films on the macroscale. The approach discussed here can also be utilized for other mixed ionic electronic conductor systems including memristors and electroresistors, as well as physical systems such as ferroelectric tunneling barriers

  15. Sub-nA spatially resolved conductivity profiling of surface and interface defects in ceria films

    SciTech Connect

    Farrow, Tim; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Nan; Doria, Sandra; Balestrino, Giuseppe; Belianinov, Alex; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Arruda, Thomas M.

    2015-03-01

    Spatial variability of conductivity in ceria is explored using scanning probe microscopy with galvanostatic control. Ionically blocking electrodes are used to probe the conductivity under opposite polarities to reveal possible differences in the defect structure across a thin film of CeO{sub 2}. Data suggest the existence of a large spatial inhomogeneity that could give rise to constant phase elements during standard electrochemical characterization, potentially affecting the overall conductivity of films on the macroscale. The approach discussed here can also be utilized for other mixed ionic electronic conductor systems including memristors and electroresistors, as well as physical systems such as ferroelectric tunneling barriers.

  16. The Tethered Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, Kevin; Lupu, Roxana Elena; Dubrovolskis, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    A reasonable initial condition on Earth after the Moonforming impact is that it begins as a hot global magma ocean1,2. We therefore begin our study with the mantle as a liquid ocean with a surface temperature on the order of 3000- 4000 K at a time some 100-1000 years after the impact, by which point we can hope that early transients have settled down. A 2nd initial condition is a substantial atmosphere, 100-1000 bars of H2O and CO2, supplemented by smaller amounts of CO, H2, N2, various sulfur-containing gases, and a suite of geochemical volatiles evaporated from the magma. Third, we start the Moon with its current mass at the relevant Roche limit. The 4th initial condition is the angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system. Canonical models hold this constant, whilst some recent models begin with considerably more angular momentum than is present today. Here we present a ruthlessly simplified model of Earth's cooling magmasphere based on a full-featured atmosphere and including tidal heating by the newborn Moon. Thermal blanketing by H2O-CO2 atmospheres slows cooling of a magma ocean. Geochemical volatiles - chiefly S, Na, and Cl - raise the opacity of the magma ocean's atmosphere and slow cooling still more. We assume a uniform mantle with a single internal (potential) temperature and a global viscosity. The important "freezing point" is the sharp rheological transition between a fluid carrying suspended crystals and a solid matrix through which fluids percolate. Most tidal heating takes place at this "freezing point" in a gel that is both pliable and viscous. Parameterized convection links the cooling rate to the temperature and heat generation inside the Earth. Tidal heating is a major effect. Tidal dissipation in the magma ocean is described by viscosity. The Moon is entwined with Earth by the negative feedback between thermal blanketing and tidal heating that comes from the temperature-dependent viscosity of the magma ocean. Because of this feedback, the rate

  17. Thermal conductivity versus depth profiling of inhomogeneous materials using the hot disc technique.

    PubMed

    Sizov, A; Cederkrantz, D; Salmi, L; Rosén, A; Jacobson, L; Gustafsson, S E; Gustavsson, M

    2016-07-01

    Transient measurements of thermal conductivity are performed with hot disc sensors on samples having a thermal conductivity variation adjacent to the sample surface. A modified computational approach is introduced, which provides a method of connecting the time-variable to a corresponding depth-position. This allows highly approximate-yet reproducible-estimations of the thermal conductivity vs. depth. Tests are made on samples incorporating different degrees of sharp structural defects at a certain depth position inside a sample. The proposed methodology opens up new possibilities to perform non-destructive testing; for instance, verifying thermal conductivity homogeneity in a sample, or estimating the thickness of a deviating zone near the sample surface (such as a skin tumor), or testing for presence of other defects.

  18. Thermal conductivity versus depth profiling of inhomogeneous materials using the hot disc technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizov, A.; Cederkrantz, D.; Salmi, L.; Rosén, A.; Jacobson, L.; Gustafsson, S. E.; Gustavsson, M.

    2016-07-01

    Transient measurements of thermal conductivity are performed with hot disc sensors on samples having a thermal conductivity variation adjacent to the sample surface. A modified computational approach is introduced, which provides a method of connecting the time-variable to a corresponding depth-position. This allows highly approximate - yet reproducible - estimations of the thermal conductivity vs. depth. Tests are made on samples incorporating different degrees of sharp structural defects at a certain depth position inside a sample. The proposed methodology opens up new possibilities to perform non-destructive testing; for instance, verifying thermal conductivity homogeneity in a sample, or estimating the thickness of a deviating zone near the sample surface (such as a skin tumor), or testing for presence of other defects.

  19. Thermal conductivity versus depth profiling of inhomogeneous materials using the hot disc technique.

    PubMed

    Sizov, A; Cederkrantz, D; Salmi, L; Rosén, A; Jacobson, L; Gustafsson, S E; Gustavsson, M

    2016-07-01

    Transient measurements of thermal conductivity are performed with hot disc sensors on samples having a thermal conductivity variation adjacent to the sample surface. A modified computational approach is introduced, which provides a method of connecting the time-variable to a corresponding depth-position. This allows highly approximate-yet reproducible-estimations of the thermal conductivity vs. depth. Tests are made on samples incorporating different degrees of sharp structural defects at a certain depth position inside a sample. The proposed methodology opens up new possibilities to perform non-destructive testing; for instance, verifying thermal conductivity homogeneity in a sample, or estimating the thickness of a deviating zone near the sample surface (such as a skin tumor), or testing for presence of other defects. PMID:27475584

  20. Thermal conductivity profile determination in proton-irradiated ZrC by spatial and frequency scanning thermal wave methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, C.; Chirtoc, M.; Horny, N.; Antoniow, J. S.; Pron, H.; Ban, H.

    2013-10-07

    Using complementary thermal wave methods, the irradiation damaged region of zirconium carbide (ZrC) is characterized by quantifiably profiling the thermophysical property degradation. The ZrC sample was irradiated by a 2.6 MeV proton beam at 600 °C to a dose of 1.75 displacements per atom. Spatial scanning techniques including scanning thermal microscopy (SThM), lock-in infrared thermography (lock-in IRT), and photothermal radiometry (PTR) were used to directly map the in-depth profile of thermal conductivity on a cross section of the ZrC sample. The advantages and limitations of each system are discussed and compared, finding consistent results from all techniques. SThM provides the best resolution finding a very uniform thermal conductivity envelope in the damaged region measuring ∼52 ± 2 μm deep. Frequency-based scanning PTR provides quantification of the thermal parameters of the sample using the SThM measured profile to provide validation of a heating model. Measured irradiated and virgin thermal conductivities are found to be 11.9 ± 0.5 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1} and 26.7 ±1 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1}, respectively. A thermal resistance evidenced in the frequency spectra of the PTR results was calculated to be (1.58 ± 0.1) × 10{sup −6} m{sup 2} K W{sup −1}. The measured thermal conductivity values compare well with the thermal conductivity extracted from the SThM calibrated signal and the spatially scanned PTR. Combined spatial and frequency scanning techniques are shown to provide a valuable, complementary combination for thermal property characterization of proton-irradiated ZrC. Such methodology could be useful for other studies of ion-irradiated materials.

  1. Nystagmus in laurence-moon-biedl syndrome.

    PubMed

    Janati, A Bruce; ALGhasab, Naif Saad; Haq, Fazal; Abdullah, Ahmad; Osman, Aboubaker

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Laurence-Moon-Biedl (LMB) syndrome is a rare autosomal-recessive ciliopathy with manifold symptomatology. The cardinal clinical features include retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, intellectual delay, polydactyly/syndactyly, and hypogenitalism. In this paper, the authors report on three siblings with Laurence-Moon-Biedl syndrome associated with a probable pseudocycloid form of congenital nystagmus. Methods. This was a case study conducted at King Khaled Hospital. Results. The authors assert that the nystagmus in Laurence-Moon-Biedl syndrome is essentially similar to idiopathic motor-defect nystagmus and the nystagmus seen in optic nerve hypoplasia, ocular albinism, and bilateral opacities of the ocular media. Conclusion. The data support the previous hypothesis that there is a common brain stem motor abnormality in sensory-defect and motor-defect nystagmus. PMID:25984376

  2. Laser 'Footprints' on the Moon

    NASA Video Gallery

    As the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) circles the moon, a sophisticated instrument bounces laser light off the moon's surface 28 times per second. An array of five sensors arranged in an X-shap...

  3. 2017 Eclipse and the Moon's Orbit

    NASA Video Gallery

    Solar eclipses can only occur at New Moon, when the Moon is between the Earth and the Sun. But not every New Moon produces an eclipse. The Moon's orbit is slightly tilted, and as seen in this anima...

  4. SELENE: The Moon-Orbiting Observatory Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, H.; Kato, M.; Sasaki, S.; Iijima, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Takizawa, Y.

    The Moon-orbiting SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) mission is prepared in Japan for lunar science and technology development. The launch target has been changed from 2005 to 2006 because of the launch failure of H2A rocket in 2003. The spacecraft consists of a main orbiting satellite at about 100 km altitude in the polar orbit and two sub-satellites in the elliptical orbits. The scientific objectives of the mission are; 1) study of the origin and evolution of the Moon, 2) in-situ measurement of the lunar environment, and 3) observation of the solar-terrestrial plasma environment. SELENE carries the instruments for scientific investigation, including mapping of lunar topography and surface composition, measurement of the gravity and magnetic fields, and observation of lunar and solar-terrestrial plasma environment. The total mass of scientific payload is about 300 kg. The mission period will be 1 year. If extra fuel is available, the mission will be extended in a lower orbit around 50 km. The elemental abundances are measured by x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers. Alpha particles from the radon gas and polonium are detected by an alpha particle spectrometer. The mineralogical abundance is characterized by a multi-band imager. The mineralogical composition is identified by a spectral profiler which is a continuous spectral analyzer. The surface topographic data are obtained by a high resolution terrain camera and a laser altimeter. The inside structure up to 5 km below the lunar surface is observed by the radar sounder experiment using a 5 MHz radio wave. A magnetometer and an electron reflectometer provides data on the lunar surface magnetic field. Doppler tracking of the orbiter via the sub-satellite when the orbiter is in the far side is used to determine the gravity field of the far side. Radio sources on the two sub-satellites are used to conduct differential VLBI observation from the ground stations. The lunar environment of high energy particles

  5. Searching the Sinus Amoris: Using profiles of geological units, impact and volcanic features to characterize a major terrane interface on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P.; Joerg, S.; Dehon, R.

    1994-01-01

    Geochemical profiles of surface units, impact, and volcanic features are studied in detail to determine the underlying structure in an area of extensive mare/highland interface, Sinus Amoris. This study region includes and surrounds the northeastern embayment of Mare Tranquillitatis. The concentrations of two major rock-forming elements (Mg and Al), which were derived from the Apollo 15 orbital geochemical measurements, were used in this study. Mapped units and deposits associated with craters in the northwestern part of the region tend to have correlated low Mg and Al concentrations, indicating the presence of Potassium (K)-Rare Earth Elements (REE)-Phosphorus (P) (KREEP)-enriched basalt. Found along the northeastern rim of Tranquillitatis were areas with correlated high Mg and Al concentration, indicating the presence of troctolite. Distinctive west/east and north/south trends were observed in the concentrations of Mg and Al, and, by implication, in the distribution of major rock components on the surface. Evidence for a systematic geochemical transition in highland or basin-forming units may be observed here in the form of distinctive differences in chemistry in otherwise similar units in the western and eastern portions of the study region.

  6. A Lunar Far Side Radio Array As The First Astronomical Observatory On The Moon: Precursor Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.

    far-side locations. (2) Electrical properties of the Lunar surface, including permittivity and conductivity; their variation with depth and radio wave frequency. (3) The electron density profile above the Lunar surface during the day, the night, and the transition in-between. (4) Magnetic fields at candidate sites. (5) Detailed topology at candidate sites. Some ideas are suggested for inexpensive precursor missions in the very near future with significant scientific returns of their own. To realize the dream of observing the universe from the Moon, it is time for an international team to begin seriously proposing these precursor missions.

  7. Water on the moon?

    PubMed

    Anders, E

    1970-09-25

    If the planets formed at falling temperatures with volatile substances accreting last, the low abundance of lead, bismuth, indium, and thallium in lunar rocks implies an initial water content of no more than 370 grams per square centimeter, and probably much less. The depletion of volatile substances might be expected a priori if the moon accreted as an original satellite of the earth.

  8. The Moon Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Willmore, Sandra; Smith, Walter S.

    2006-01-01

    What Australia, Alaska, Qatar, Indiana, and Ohio have in common is the authentic writing More Observations Of Nature (MOON) project. In this unique project, teachers from these disparate geographic locations teamed up to instruct children in grades four through eight via the internet on a nearly universally challenging subject for teachers in the…

  9. [The moon and delivery].

    PubMed

    Romero Martínez, Jorge; Guerrero Guijo, Inmaculada; Artura Serrano, Antonio

    2004-11-01

    In different cultures and mythologies, the moon is related with fertility, pregnancy and delivery. Professional obstetricians also notice an increase in care demands on the days when the moon is full. Many studies have been made which try to correlate delivery processes to the phases of the moon with contradictory results. The authors plan to try to find any basis in fact which support these popular beliefs and to discover if lunar phases bear an influence on the distribution of deliveries. They carried out a descriptive transversal study on a total of 1715 unassisted deliveries over the course of ten complete lunar cycles. The authors have carried out a descriptive and inferential analysis, a one way ANOVA and a Kruskal Wallis test on their three data bases which are general, primipara and multipara in which they contemplated the total number of deliveries per phase, the mean of each phase, as well as the central day in each phase of the lunar cycle. The differences found in the distribution of deliveries over the four lunar phases, along with the comparison of the means and the comparison of the number of deliveries on the central day in each phase are not statistically significant. The different phases in the lunar cycle and especially the full moon do not appear to have any influence over the distribution of deliveries in this study.

  10. Astrophysics from the moon.

    PubMed

    Burke, B F

    1990-12-01

    The surface of the moon would be an excellent location for astronomical telescopes, and, if a lunar base were to be established, the construction and maintenance of instruments would become feasible. The prospects are reviewed, with particular attention given to large optical aperturesynthesis instruments analogous to the Very Large Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Typical parameters for a particular system are presented.

  11. Galileo Earth Moon Flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-12-01

    This video has five sections. The first is a live discussion of the information that scientists hope to gain by the Galileo flyby of the Moon. This section has no introduction. There is a great deal of the discussion about the lunar craters and lunar volcanism. There is also some discussion of the composition of the far side of the moon. The second section is a short animation that shows the final step to Jupiter with particular emphasis on the gravitational assisted velocity boost, which was planned to give the spacecraft the requisite velocity to make the trip to Jupiter. The next section is an update of the status of the flyby of the Moon, and the Earth, with an explanation of the trajectory around the earth, and the moon. A photograph of the tracking station in Canberra, Australia is included. The next section is a tour of a full-scale model of the spacecraft. The last section is a discussion with the person charged with the procurement of the instrumentation aboard the spacecraft; the importance of the lunar flyby to assist in the calibration of the instruments is discussed.

  12. The Moon Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Pat; Leddy, Diana; Johnson, Lindy; Biggam, Sue; Locke, Suzan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a first-grade research project that incorporates trade books and challenges misconceptions. Educators see the power of their students' wonder at work in their classrooms on a daily basis. This wonder must be nourished by students' own experiences--observing the moon on a crystal clear night--as well as by having…

  13. The Chemist's Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, James R.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes chemical information about the lunar surface on the basis of experiments performed in orbit and analyses of lunar soil and rocks. Indicates that the Apollo program completes chemical mapping of about 20 percent of the Moon with 80 percent remaining to be solved in the future. (CC)

  14. Does the Moon Spin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Robert; Simpson, Frances

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the question, "Does the Moon spin?", and show how the question is investigated. They emphasise the importance of the process by which people work out what they know, by "learning from the inside out." They stress that those involved in science education have to challenge current conceptions and ideas, making…

  15. Touching the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLinden, Mike

    1995-01-01

    The Progressive Tactile Timetable was developed to enable pupils with visual impairments and severe learning difficulties to progress from use of concrete symbols (objects of reference) to the abstract tactile Moon code (a simplified raised line version of the Roman print alphabet). A case study illustrates its application with an adolescent with…

  16. The tethered Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, Kevin J.; Lupu, Roxana; Dobrovolskis, Anthony; Sleep, Norman H.

    2015-10-01

    We address the thermal history of the Earth after the Moon-forming impact, taking tidal heating and thermal blanketing by the atmosphere into account. The atmosphere sets an upper bound of ∼100 W/m2 on how quickly the Earth can cool. The liquid magma ocean cools over 2-10 Myr, with longer times corresponding to high angular-momentum events. Tidal heating is focused mostly in mantle materials that are just beginning to freeze. The atmosphere's control over cooling sets up a negative feedback between viscosity-dependent tidal heating and temperature-dependent viscosity of the magma ocean. While the feedback holds, evolution of the Moon's orbit is limited by the modest radiative cooling rate of Earth's atmosphere. Orbital evolution is orders of magnitude slower than in conventional constant Q models, which promotes capture by resonances. The evection resonance is encountered early, when the Earth is molten. Capture by the evection resonance appears certain but unlikely to generate much eccentricity because it is encountered early when the Earth is molten and Q⊕ ≫Q☾. Tidal dissipation in the Earth becomes more efficient (Q⊕ ≪Q☾) later when the Moon is between ∼ 20R⊕ and ∼ 40R⊕. If lunar eccentricity grew great, this was when it did so, perhaps setting the table for some other process to leave its mark on the inclination of the Moon.

  17. The Tethered Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, Kevin; Lupu, R.; Fegley, B.; Marley, M.; Sleep, N.; Dobrovolskis, A.

    2013-10-01

    Cosmic collisions between terrestrial planets resemble somewhat the life cycle of the phoenix: worlds collide, are consumed in flame, and after the debris has cleared, shiny new worlds emerge aglow with possibilities. And glow they do, for they are molten. How brightly they glow, and for how long, is determined by their atmospheres, and by their moons. stop. It is well known that the atmosphere's thermal blanketing effect prevents a magma ocean from cooling rapidly. Several models have considered thick H2O-CO2 atmospheres over cooling magma oceans. These models address how the magma ocean freezes, how long it takes to freeze, and how, when, and what is degassed. stop. The atmosphere over a magmasphere is very hot and so contains the geochemical volatiles that can evaporate from a magma ocean, such as sulfur, alkalis and halogens, in addition to H2O and CO2. We compute 1-D non-gray radiative-convective atmospheric structure models that include all the molecular and atomic opacity sources that would be present in equilibrium over a magma ocean. We use these to compute cooling rates for hot post-giant-impact terrestrial planets. Our model is in excellent asymptotic agreement with two recent independent calculations of the runaway greenhouse limit for H2O-CO2 atmosphere. For cooling of the magma ocean itself, we use parameterizations recommended by Solomatov. stop. Tidal heating of the Earth by the Moon is important, because it is a big term, and because it occurs mostly in mantle materials that are just beginning to freeze, which frustrates freezing. The Moon is entwined with Earth by a negative feedback between thermal blanketing and tidal heating that comes from the temperature-dependent viscosity of the magma ocean. Because of this feedback, the rate that the Moon's orbit evolves is limited by the modest radiative cooling rate of Earth's atmosphere, which in effect tethers the Moon to the Earth. Consequently the Moon's orbit evolves orders of magnitude more slowly

  18. New down-hole TDR method for deep profile soil water content and bulk electrical conductivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprehensive irrigation and salinity management both require accurate knowledge of field soil water content and bulk electrical conductivity to depths greater than the root zone depth in agricultural fields. Scientists at the USDA-ARS Conservation & Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, Texas, ...

  19. An improved calibration method for the drift of the conductivity sensor on autonomous CTD profiling floats by θ- S climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, W. Brechner; Wong, Annie P. S.

    2009-03-01

    An improved method to estimate the time-varying drift of measured conductivity from autonomous CTD profiling floats has been developed. This procedure extends previous methods developed by Wong, Johnson and Owens [2003. Delayed-mode calibration of autonomous CTD profiling float salinity data by θ- S climatology. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 20, 308-318] and Böhme and Send [2005. Objective analyses of hydrographic data for referencing profiling float salinities in highly variable environments. Deep-Sea Research Part II, 52, 651-664]. It uses climatological salinity interpolated to the float positions and observed θ surfaces and chooses 10 'best' levels that are within well-mixed mode waters or deep homogeneous water masses. A piece-wise linear fit is used to estimate the temporally varying multiplicative adjustment to the float potential conductivities. An objective, statistical method is used to choose the breakpoints in the float time series where there are multiple drift trends. In the previous methods these breakpoints were chosen subjectively by manually splitting the time series into separate segments over which the fits were made. Our statistical procedure reduces the subjectivity by providing an automated way for doing the piece-wise linear fit. Uncertainties in this predicted adjustment are estimated using a Monte-Carlo simulation. Examples of this new procedure as applied to two Argo floats are presented.

  20. Experience the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; Benacchio, L.; Boccato, C.

    2011-10-01

    The Moon is, together with the Sun, the very first astronomical object that we experience in our life. As this is an exclusively visual experience, people with visual impairments need a different mode to experience it too. This statement is especially true when events, such as more and more frequent public observations of sky, take place. This is the reason why we are preparing a special package for visual impaired people containing three brand new items: 1. a tactile 3D Moon sphere in Braille with its paper key in Braille. To produce it we used imaging data obtained by NASA's mission Clementine, along with free image processing and 3D rendering software. In order to build the 3D small scale model funding by Europlanet and the Italian Ministry for Research have been used. 2. a multilingual web site for visually impaired users of all ages, on basic astronomy together with an indepth box about the Moon; 3. a book in Braille with the same content of the Web site mentioned above. All the items will be developed with the collaboration of visually impaired people that will check each step of the project and support their comments and criticism to improve it. We are going to test this package during the next International Observe the Moon Night event. After a first testing phase we'll collect all the feedback data in order to give an effective form to the package. Finally the Moon package could be delivered to all those who will demand it for outreach or educational goals.

  1. Global electromagnetic induction in the moon and planets. [poloidal eddy current transient response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments and analyses concerning electromagnetic induction in the moon and other extraterrestrial bodies are summarized. The theory of classical electromagnetic induction in a sphere is first considered, and this treatment is extended to the case of the moon, where poloidal eddy-current response has been found experimentally to dominate other induction modes. Analysis of lunar poloidal induction yields lunar internal electrical conductivity and temperature profiles. Two poloidal-induction analytical techniques are discussed: a transient-response method applied to time-series magnetometer data, and a harmonic-analysis method applied to data numerically Fourier-transformed to the frequency domain, with emphasis on the former technique. Attention is given to complicating effects of the solar wind interaction with both induced poloidal fields and remanent steady fields. The static magnetization field induction mode is described, from which are calculated bulk magnetic permeability profiles. Magnetic field measurements obtained from the moon and from fly-bys of Venus and Mars are studied to determine the feasibility of extending theoretical and experimental induction techniques to other bodies in the solar system.

  2. The Moon is a Planet Too: Lunar Science and Robotic Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of what is known about the moon, and draws parallels between the moon and any other terrestrial planet. The Moon is a cornerstone for all rocky planets The Moon is a terrestrial body, formed and evolved similarly to Earth, Mars, Mercury, Venus, and large asteroids The Moon is a differentiated body, with a layered internal structure (crust, mantle, and core) The Moon is a cratered body, preserving a record of bombardment history in the inner solar system The Moon is an active body, experiencing moonquakes, releasing primordial heat, conducting electricity, sustaining bombardment, and trapping volatile molecules Lunar robotic missions provide early science return to obtain important science and engineering objectives, rebuild a lunar science community, and keep our eyes on the Moon. These lunar missions, both past and future are reviewed.

  3. Moons Around Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This series of 10 Hubble Space Telescope images captures several small moons orbiting Saturn. Hubble snapped the five pairs of images while the Earth was just above the ring plane and the Sun below it. The telescope captured a pair of images every 97 minutes as it circled the Earth. Moving out from Saturn, the visible rings are: the broad C Ring, the Cassini Division, and the narrow F Ring.

    The first pair of images shows the large, bright moon Dione, near the middle of the frames. Two smaller moons, Pandora (the brighter one closer to Saturn) and Prometheus, appear as if they're touching the F Ring. In the second frame, Mimas emerges from Saturn's shadow and appears to be chasing Prometheus.

    In the second image pair, Mimas has moved towards the tip of the F Ring. Rhea, another bright moon, has just emerged from behind Saturn. Prometheus, the closest moon to Saturn, has rounded the F Ring's tip and is approaching the planet. The slightly larger moon Epimetheus has appeared.

    The third image pair shows Epimetheus, as a tiny dot just beyond the tip of the F Ring. Prometheus is in the lower right corner. An elongated clump or arc of debris in the F ring is seen as a slight brightening on the far side of this thin ring.

    In the fourth image pair, Epimetheus, in the lower right corner, streaks towards Saturn. The long ring arc can be seen in both frames.

    The fifth image pair again captures Mimas, beyond the tip of the F Ring. The same ring arc is still visible.

    In addition to the satellites, a pair of stars can be seen passing behind the rings, appearing to move towards the lower left due to Saturn's motion across the sky.

    The images were taken Nov. 21, 1995 with Wide Field Planetary Camera-2.

    The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on

  4. Water on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendleton, Yvonne

    2015-08-01

    After years of thinking the Moon is dry, we now know there are three ways in which water appears on the Moon today:1) The hypothesized buried deposits of volatiles at the lunar poles were found at Cabeus crater. There are questions about the origin of such volatiles (i.e., in-falling comets & meteorites, migrating surficial OH/H2O, and accumulated release from the interior), but there is no doubt the water is there. This long suspected polar water was the most recent form to be confirmed on the Moon.2) Widespread, thinly- distributed, surficial OH (or H2O) is the most recently formed lunar water, and its discovery was completely unexpected. It occurs across all types of lunar terrain, but is more difficult to detect in the warmer equatorial terrain where thermal emission is strongest. The consensus is that this OH is indeed derived from solar wind H linked to O from the surface silicate rocks. Although pervasive, we don’t know how quickly it forms, nor how mobile it is.3) The amount of water present when the Moon formed is now documented in lunar materials from Apollo samples (preserved in the lunar mantle material found in volcanic glass beads). Sample analyses made during the Apollo days were not sufficiently precise to distinguish between indigenous lunar water and terrestrial contamination. Measurements with modern equipment are not only more precise (both elemental and isotopic), but can be made in a manner to constrain a host of processes (e.g. diffusion, thermal cycling) that have acted on these samples during their residence on the Moon. The mysteries associated with all these ‘water’ forms are being pursued by teams and scientists around the world. The paradigm-shifting work that reported these discoveries in recent years are from: the NASA LCROSS (lunar impact mission) team (2010), M3 team/ on the Indian Chandrayan Mission (2009), and lunar sample chemists (2008). NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, GRAIL, ESA Smart-1, Japanese Kaguya, and other

  5. Monitoring gradient profile on-line in micro- and nano-high performance liquid chromatography using conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Apeng; Lu, Joann J; Cao, Chengxi; Liu, Shaorong

    2016-08-19

    In micro- or nano-flow high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), flow-splitters and gradient elutions are commonly used for reverse phase HPLC separations. When a flow splitter was used at a high split-ratio (e.g., 1000:1 or higher), the actual gradient may deviate away from the programmed gradient. Sometimes, mobile phase concentrations can deviate by as much as 5%. In this work, we noticed that the conductivity (σ) of a gradient decreased with the increasing organic-solvent fraction (φ). Based on the relationship between σ and φ, a method was developed for monitoring gradient profile on-line to record any deviations in these HPLC systems. The conductivity could be measured by a traditional conductivity detector or a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D). The method was applied for assessing the performance of an electroosmotic pump (EOP) based nano-HPLC. We also observed that σ value of the gradient changed with system pressure; a=0.0175ΔP (R(2)=0.964), where a is the percentage of the conductivity increase and ΔP is the system pressure in bar. This effect was also investigated.

  6. Monitoring gradient profile on-line in micro- and nano-high performance liquid chromatography using conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Apeng; Lu, Joann J; Cao, Chengxi; Liu, Shaorong

    2016-08-19

    In micro- or nano-flow high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), flow-splitters and gradient elutions are commonly used for reverse phase HPLC separations. When a flow splitter was used at a high split-ratio (e.g., 1000:1 or higher), the actual gradient may deviate away from the programmed gradient. Sometimes, mobile phase concentrations can deviate by as much as 5%. In this work, we noticed that the conductivity (σ) of a gradient decreased with the increasing organic-solvent fraction (φ). Based on the relationship between σ and φ, a method was developed for monitoring gradient profile on-line to record any deviations in these HPLC systems. The conductivity could be measured by a traditional conductivity detector or a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D). The method was applied for assessing the performance of an electroosmotic pump (EOP) based nano-HPLC. We also observed that σ value of the gradient changed with system pressure; a=0.0175ΔP (R(2)=0.964), where a is the percentage of the conductivity increase and ΔP is the system pressure in bar. This effect was also investigated. PMID:27435687

  7. The moon in heiligenschein

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildey, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of 25 photometric digital images of the moon has been carried out to obtain a single image in a new mapping parameter, the Heiligenschein exponent. The data necessarily represent a range of lunar phases, but all are within 10 hours of full moon. The new parameter characterizes the rate at which lunar features brighten as their local phase angles approach zero. Although considerable contrast is present in this parameter, there is only a small correlation with normal albedo. In particular, the large albedo difference between maria and highlands is not simply reflected in Heiligenschein differences, which are larger within each category of terrain than the difference between the Heiligenschein averages of each. A correlation with age may be present in both the maria and the highlands, but its determination will require separation into distinct geochemical provinces. Copyright ?? 1978 AAAS.

  8. Origin of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringwood, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    The similarities in siderophile abundances strongly suggest that the Moon was derived from the Earth's mantle after the Earth's core had formed. The energy required to remove material from the Earth's mantle and place it into geocentric orbit can be supplied most readily by impact processes during accretion of the Earth. Impacts of late-accreting, high-velocity planetismals would evaporate many times their masses of mantle material. These gases would be accompanied by a massive spray of shock-melted silicate droplets. It is suggested that the gases produced from such near-equatorial impacts were rapidly spun out into equatorial geocentric orbit. The evaporated material was selectively recondensed, and, accompanied by the shock melted, devolatilized silicate droplets, accreted to form a sediment ring of Earth-orbiting planetismals. This sediment ring also captured a significant proportion of Earth-bound planetismals. The Moon was formed by accretion from planetismals comprising the sediment ring.

  9. The Tethered Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, K.; Lupu, R.; Dobrovolskis, A.

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic collisions between terrestrial planets resemble somewhat the life cycle of the phoenix: worlds collide, are consumed in flame, and after the debris has cleared, shiny new worlds emerge aglow with possibilities. And glow they do, for they are molten. How brightly they glow, and for how long, is determined by their atmospheres and their moons. A reasonable initial condition on Earth after the Moon-forming impact is that it begins as a hot global magma ocean. We therefore begin our study with the mantle as a liquid ocean with a surface temperature on the order of 3000-4000 K at a time some 100-1000 years after the impact, by which point we can hope that early transients have settled down.

  10. Babies and the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toepker, Terrence P.

    2000-02-01

    ``More babies are born under a full moon than at any other time.'' Many of us have heard this assertion, and a few years ago I tried to get data that would support it. The note ``A Lesson in Curve Fitting'' by Scott Calvin (Phys. Teach. 37, 340, Sept. 1999) provoked me to pass some of the data on to readers of The Physics Teacher.

  11. The Oldest Moon Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, M.

    2004-04-01

    Anorthosites, rocks composed almost entirely of plagioclase feldspar, are the oldest rocks on the Moon. They appear to have formed when feldspar crystallized and floated to the top of a global magma ocean that surrounded the Moon soon after it formed. Not all ages determined for anorthosites, however, are as old as we expected--one appeared to be only 4.29 billion years old. While 4.29 billion years sounds very ancient, a magma ocean ought to have solidified well within 100 million years of lunar origin about 4.55 billion years ago. One possibility is that the young ages reflect impact events, not the original time of igneous crystallization. My colleagues Lars Borg (University of New Mexico) and Larry Nyquist and Don Bogard (Johnson Space Center) and I studied an anorthosite (rock 67215) relatively rich in pyroxene, allowing us to determine a precise crystallization age of 4.40 billion years. But even that age might have been affected by the subsequent shock heating event that reset the low-temperature components in this rock about 500 million years after it formed. By examining data for all of the previously dated lunar anorthosites, we were able to show that plagioclase feldspar is more prone to shock damage than are the pyroxenes in these rocks, so we plotted only the pyroxene data for four different anorthosites on a samarium-neodymium isochron diagram. These data fall on a well-defined line indicating a crystallization age for the anorthosites of 4.46 billion years, consistent with very early, widespread melting of the Moon. Other data for 67215 show that it comes from a relatively shallow depth in the crust, giving us clues to the structure of the lunar crust. Studies like this one are filling in the picture of how the initial crust of the Moon formed, which in turn sheds light on the formation of the terrestrial planets.

  12. The New Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, Carle

    After an extended drought, new data about the Moon are finally made available to a hungry planetary science community. SMART-1 [ESA] led the way with an innovative technology demonstration mission to the Moon. An international armada of more complex missions with advanced sensors followed in rapid succession: SELENE1Kaguya [JAXA], ChangE [CNSA], Chandrayaan-1 [ISRO], and LRO1LCROSS [NASA]. The data from these modern robotic mis-sions are being calibrated, validated, and distributed and new results and insights are appearing throughout the peer-reviewed scientific literature. With these new data, the Moon indeed con-tinues to surprise us. We now know hydrated materials exist far more abundantly in the interior than ever suspected, water and hydrated materials are currently widespread across the surface of the Moon, and some polar areas appear to be locations where hydrous materials are con-centrated. We recognize that the large basins provide windows into early crustal processes and we have identified direct compositional products of the Magma Ocean. We have uncovered secondary deep magmatic products of the lunar crust and characterized basin impact melt that was possibly derived from the mantle. Basaltic volcanism has been documented to have oc-curred over extended periods of time (perhaps in pulses) on both the nearside as ell as farside, and some of the youngest basalts are highly picritic (olivine rich) in nature. We are probing Earth's nearest neighbor to build an understanding of the earliest events of planet evolution. The harvesting of this wealth of data has just begun.

  13. Moon's North Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Mariner 10 was launched on November 3, 1973, 12:45 am PST, from Cape Canaveral on an Atlas/Centaur rocket (a reconditioned Intercontinental Ballistic Missile - ICBM). Within 12 hours of launch the twin cameras were turned on and several hundred pictures of both the Earth and the Moon were acquired over the following days.

    In this unusual view eastern Mare Frigor is near the center of the disc, while Mare Crisiumis the large circular feature near the lower right limb. The heavily cratered region shown in the top of the mosaic shows portions of the Moon not seen from the Earth.

    This mosaic is composed of 22 frames acquired in orange (15), clear (4), UV (2), and UV-polarized (1) wavelengths by the Mariner 10 Spacecraft.

    The Mariner 10 mission is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  14. Jovian Moon Sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B. C.; Gamber, R. T.; Sutter, B. M.; Faulconer, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, a lot of interest has been focused on Europa and Ganymede due the evidence of subsurface water oceans. Unique methods of exploring the Jovian moons have been developed that allow sampling of the lunar surfaces. These methods include low cost concepts to collect a surface sampled return it to Earth using concepts similar to the Stardust Discovery mission. The spacecraft can be placed on a ballistic trajectory that will carry it close to the surface of the moons of Jupiter. High resolution imaging of the surface can be collected during the approach phase. Small projectiles can be released and used to kick up a plume of surface material. Unique collectors can capture material from this plume as the spacecraft flies over the surface and through the plume of small particles. The spacecraft is protected from damage by shields. This material can then be retracted into a small Sample Return Capsule, SRC, similar to the Stardust capsule. Aerogel and other absorbant materials are used as the collecting medium. A ballistic return to Earth allows for tracking and capture of the capsule at Earth and return to the Utah Test and Training range. Small hard-landing capsules can be dropped to the surface of the moons during the low flyby by using a retrorocket to slow the capsules. These small landers can also collect critical data on the surface composition and relay it to the flyby spacecraft.

  15. Use of temperature profiles beneath streams to determine rates of vertical ground-water flow and vertical hydraulic conductivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapham, Wayne W.

    1989-01-01

    The use of temperature profiles beneath streams to determine rates of vertical ground-water flow and effective vertical hydraulic conductivity of sediments was evaluated at three field sites by use of a model that numerically solves the partial differential equation governing simultaneous vertical flow of fluid and heat in the Earth. The field sites are located in Hardwick and New Braintree, Mass., and in Dover, N.J. In New England, stream temperature varies from about 0 to 25 ?C (degrees Celsius) during the year. This stream-temperature fluctuation causes ground-water temperatures beneath streams to fluctuate by more than 0.1 ?C during a year to a depth of about 35 ft (feet) in fine-grained sediments and to a depth of about 50 ft in coarse-grained sediments, if ground-water velocity is 0 ft/d (foot per day). Upward flow decreases the depth affected by stream-temperature fluctuation, and downward flow increases the depth. At the site in Hardwick, Mass., ground-water flow was upward at a rate of less than 0.01 ft/d. The maximum effective vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments underlying this site is 0.1 ft/d. Ground-water velocities determined at three locations at the site in New Braintree, Mass., where ground water discharges naturally from the underlying aquifer to the Ware River, ranged from 0.10 to 0.20 ft/d upward. The effective vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments underlying this site ranged from 2.4 to 17.1 ft/d. Ground-water velocities determined at three locations at the Dover, N.J., site, where infiltration from the Rockaway River into the underlying sediments occurs because of pumping, were 1.5 ft/d downward. The effective vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments underlying this site ranged from 2.2 to 2.5 ft/d. Independent estimates of velocity at two of the three sites are in general agreement with the velocities determined using temperature profiles. The estimates of velocities and conductivities derived from the

  16. Explaining the Birth of the Martian Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    led to the formation of large clumps, which eventually agglomerated to form Phobos and Deimos.The authors find that Phobos and Deimos most likely formed in the outer regions of the accretion disk that was created by a large impact with Mars. [Adapted from Ronnet et al. 2016]In the study conducted by Ronnet, Vernazza, and collaborators, the authors investigated the composition and texture of the dust that would have crystallized in an impact-generated accretion disk making up Marss moons. They find that Phobos and Deimos could not have formed out of the extremely hot, magma-filled inner regions of such a disk, because this would have resulted in different compositions than we observe.Phobos and Deimos could have formed, however, in the very outer part of an impact-generated accretion disk, where the hot gas condensed directly into small solid grains instead of passing through the magma phase. Accretion of such tiny grains would naturally explain the similarity in physical properties we observe between Marss moons and some main-belt asteroids and yet this picture is also consistent with the moons current orbital parameters.The authors argue that the formation of the Martian moons from the outer regions of an impact-generated accretion disk is therefore a plausible scenario, neatly reconciling the observed physical properties of Phobos and Diemos with their orbital properties.CitationT. Ronnet et al 2016 ApJ 828 109. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/828/2/109

  17. Moon: electrical properties of the uppermost layers.

    PubMed

    Strangway, D W

    1969-09-01

    Presently available data on the electrical conductivity of the uppermost lunar surface layers are in accord with the presence of dry, powdered rocks in which the dielectric loss tangent is frequency-independent over several decades of frequency. These powders have typical direct-current conductivity values of about 10(-13) to 10(-16) mhos per meter and dielectric constants of about 3.0, depending on the packing. Thus the surface layers of the moon are likely to have an extremely low electrical conductivity. At high frequencies normal dielectric losses lead to much higher apparent conductivities that are frequency-dependent.

  18. Conductive heating and microwave hydrolysis under identical heating profiles for advanced anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Seyedeh Neda; Eskicioglu, Cigdem; Bobowski, Jake; Johnson, Thomas

    2013-09-15

    Microwave (2.45 GHz, 1200 W) and conventional heating (custom pressure vessel) pretreatments were applied to dewatered municipal waste sludge (18% total solids) using identical heating profiles that span a wide range of temperatures (80-160 °C). Fourteen lab-scale semi-continuous digesters were set up to optimize the energy (methane) output and sludge retention time (SRT) requirements of untreated (control) and thermally pretreated anaerobic digesters operated under mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. Both pretreatment methods indicated that in the pretreatment range of 80-160 °C, temperature was a statistically significant factor (p-value < 0.05) for increasing solubilization of chemical oxygen demand and biopolymers (proteins, sugars, humic acids) of the waste sludge. However, the type of pretreatment method, i.e. microwave versus conventional heating, had no statistically significant effect (p-value >0.05) on sludge solubilization. With the exception of the control digesters at a 5-d SRT, all control and pretreated digesters achieved steady state at all three SRTs, corresponding to volumetric organic loading rates of 1.74-6.96 g chemical oxygen demand/L/d. At an SRT of 5 d, both mesophilic and thermophilic controls stopped producing biogas after 20 d of operation with total volatile fatty acids concentrations exceeding 1818 mg/L at pH <5.64 for mesophilic and 2853 mg/L at pH <7.02 for thermophilic controls, while the pretreated digesters continued producing biogas. Furthermore, relative (to control) organic removal efficiencies dramatically increased as SRT was shortened from 20 to 10 and then 5 d, indicating that the control digesters were challenged as the organic loading rate was increased. Energy analysis showed that, at an elevated temperature of 160 °C, the amount of methane recovered was not enough to compensate for the energy input. Among the digesters with positive net energy productions, control and pretreated digesters at 80 °C were more

  19. Depth profiling of Stratum corneum hydration in vivo: a comparison between conductance and confocal Raman spectroscopic measurements.

    PubMed

    Boncheva, Mila; de Sterke, Johanna; Caspers, Peter J; Puppels, Gerwin J

    2009-10-01

    The high-frequency electrical conductance of tape-stripped human skin in vivo can be used to evaluate the hydration profile of Stratum corneum (SC). Tape-stripping provides access to the underlying SC layers, and the conductance of these layers (as measured by the Skicon instrument) correlates well with their water content, as demonstrated by independent confocal Raman spectroscopic measurements. The correlation shows high inter-individual variance and is not linear over the full measurement range of the instrument, but is helpful to discriminate between dry, normal and highly hydrated SC. The depth profile of hydration in tape-stripped SC corresponds to the one in intact SC only if the barrier function of the skin is not impaired. Thus, conductometry of tape-stripped skin must be used in conjunction with a method that allows to estimate the barrier damage inflicted to SC during the tape-stripping procedure, for example, measurement of the trans-epidermal water loss. The methodology described here is simple, rapid and minimally invasive, and it employs commercially available instrumentation that is cheap, portable and easy to use. This approach is applicable to in vivo estimation of the SC hydration in studies in the areas of dermatology, skin care and transdermal drug delivery.

  20. Jupiter's Moons: Family Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This montage shows the best views of Jupiter's four large and diverse 'Galilean' satellites as seen by the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) on the New Horizons spacecraft during its flyby of Jupiter in late February 2007. The four moons are, from left to right: Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. The images have been scaled to represent the true relative sizes of the four moons and are arranged in their order from Jupiter.

    Io, 3,640 kilometers (2,260 miles) in diameter, was imaged at 03:50 Universal Time on February 28 from a range of 2.7 million kilometers (1.7 million miles). The original image scale was 13 kilometers per pixel, and the image is centered at Io coordinates 6 degrees south, 22 degrees west. Io is notable for its active volcanism, which New Horizons has studied extensively.

    Europa, 3,120 kilometers (1,938 miles) in diameter, was imaged at 01:28 Universal Time on February 28 from a range of 3 million kilometers (1.8 million miles). The original image scale was 15 kilometers per pixel, and the image is centered at Europa coordinates 6 degrees south, 347 degrees west. Europa's smooth, icy surface likely conceals an ocean of liquid water. New Horizons obtained data on Europa's surface composition and imaged subtle surface features, and analysis of these data may provide new information about the ocean and the icy shell that covers it.

    New Horizons spied Ganymede, 5,262 kilometers (3,268 miles) in diameter, at 10:01 Universal Time on February 27 from 3.5 million kilometers (2.2 million miles) away. The original scale was 17 kilometers per pixel, and the image is centered at Ganymede coordinates 6 degrees south, 38 degrees west. Ganymede, the largest moon in the solar system, has a dirty ice surface cut by fractures and peppered by impact craters. New Horizons' infrared observations may provide insight into the composition of the moon's surface and interior.

    Callisto, 4,820 kilometers (2,995 miles) in diameter, was imaged

  1. Determinants of symptom profile and severity of conduct disorder in a tertiary level pediatric care set up: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprakash, R.; Rajamohanan, K.; Anil, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Conduct disorders (CDs) are one of the most common causes for referral to child and adolescent mental health centers. CD varies in its environmental factors, symptom profile, severity, co-morbidity, and functional impairment. Aims: The aim was to analyze the determinants of symptom profile and severity among childhood and adolescent onset CD. Settings and Design: Clinic based study with 60 consecutive children between 6 and 18 years of age satisfying International Classification of Disease-10 Development Control Rules guidelines for CD, attending behavioral pediatrics unit outpatient. Materials and Methods: The family psychopathology, symptom severity, and functional level were assessed using parent interview schedule, revised behavioral problem checklist and Children's Global Assessment Scale. Statistical Analysis: The correlation and predictive power of the variables were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 version. Results: There was significant male dominance (88.3%) with boy girl ratio 7.5:1. Most common comorbidity noticed was hyperkinetic disorders (45%). Childhood onset group was more predominant (70%). Prevalence of comorbidity was more among early onset group (66.7%) than the late-onset group (33.3%). The family psychopathology, symptom severity, and the functional impairment were significantly higher in the childhood onset group. Conclusion: The determinants of symptom profile and severity are early onset (childhood onset CD), nature, and quantity of family psychopathology, prevalence, and type of comorbidity and nature of symptom profile itself. The family psychopathology is positively correlated with the symptom severity and negatively correlated with the functional level of the children with CD. The symptom severity was negatively correlated with the functional level of the child with CD. PMID:25568472

  2. Spacesuit Cooling on the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2009-01-01

    NASA is planning to return to the moon and then explore Mars. A permanent base at the south pole of the moon will be the test bed for Mars. At the moon base, two crewmembers are expected to conduct Extravehicular Activity (EVA) six days every week. Current spacesuits are cooled by the sublimation of water ice into vacuum. A single 7 hour EVA near the lunar equator in daylight can expend up to 5 kilograms of water. Because of the high cost of transporting spacesuit cooling water to the moon, the water for one EVA could cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. The lunar south pole and Mars have low surface temperatures that make cooling much easier than at the lunar equator. Alternate cooling methods and keeping to cool environments can reduce or eliminate the loss of water for spacesuit cooling. If cooling water is not needed, a recycling life support system can provide all the required crew water and oxygen without transporting additional water from Earth.

  3. Astrobiology Field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments: Preface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foing, B. H.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2011-01-01

    Extreme environments on Earth often provide similar terrain conditions to landing/operation sites on Moon and Mars. Several field campaigns (EuroGeoMars2009 and DOMMEX/ILEWG EuroMoonMars from November 2009 to March 2010) were conducted at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah. Some of the key astrobiology results are presented in this special issue on Astrobiology field research in Moon/Mars analogue environments relevant to investigate the link between geology, minerals, organics and biota. Preliminary results from a multidisciplinary field campaign at Rio Tinto in Spain are presented.

  4. A upper mantle electrical conductivity profile beneath the Australian continent and a comparison with a laboratory-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiki, M.; Fujita, K.; Wang, L.; Hitchman, A. P.

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the standard electrical conductivity profile beneath a continental craton, we conducted magnetotelluric observations with long dipole span near Alice Springs, central Australia. Central Australia is located in mid-geomagnetic latitudes, which makes it suitable to conduct magnetotelluric studies and its location in the center of a continent means we can expect the oceanic effect to be minimized. Moreover, seismic tomographic studies detect no lower mantle upwelling beneath Australia. We utilized geomagnetic data acquired at the Alice Springs geomagnetic observatory maintained by Geoscience Australia. The power spectrum densities of 3 components of the geomagnetic data are not distinctive at four principal tidal constituents (M2, S2, O1, and K1) frequencies except S2, which suggest the observed electromagnetic field variations are not affected by motional induction. Using the BIRRP processing code (Chave and Thomson, 2004), we estimated the MT and GDS transfer functions from 100 to 106 sec in period. The MT-compatible response functions converted from GDS response functions are resistive compared to the Canadian Shield (Chave et al., 1993) around 105 sec in period. The calculated MT responses have also resistive apparent resistivity values in overall period range. We inverted the average MT responses into a one-dimensional conductivity structure with the Occam inversion (Constable et al., 1987). We compared the resultant one-dimensional structure with the electrical conductivity profiles predicted from the compositional models of the earth's upper mantle by calculating phase diagrams in the CFMAS (CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2) system. The on-craton and off-craton chemical composition models (Rudnick et al., 1998) were adopted for tectosphere. The Perple_X (e.g. Connolly, 2005) programs were utilized for obtaining mineral proportions and compositions with depth by minimizing the total Gibbs free energy. The used thermodynamic data base was SFO05 (Stixrude and

  5. Impact origin of the Moon

    SciTech Connect

    Slattery, W.L.

    1998-12-31

    A few years after the Apollo flights to the Moon, it became clear that all of the existing theories on the origin of the Moon would not satisfy the growing body of constraints which appeared with the data gathered by the Apollo flights. About the same time, researchers began to realize that the inner (terrestrial) planets were not born quietly -- all had evidences of impacts on their surfaces. This fact reinforced the idea that the planets had formed by the accumulation of planetesimals. Since the Earth`s moon is unique among the terrestrial planets, a few researchers realized that perhaps the Moon originated in a singular event; an event that was quite probable, but not so probable that one would expect all the terrestrial planets to have a large moon. And thus was born the idea that a giant impact formed the Moon. Impacts would be common in the early solar system; perhaps a really large impact of two almost fully formed planets of disparate sizes would lead to material orbiting the proto-earth, a proto-moon. This idea remained to be tested. Using a relatively new, but robust, method of doing the hydrodynamics of the collision (Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics), the author and his colleagues (W. Benz, Univ. of Arizona, and A.G.W. Cameron, Harvard College Obs.) did a large number of collision simulations on a supercomputer. The author found two major scenarios which would result in the formation of the Moon. The first was direct formation; a moon-sized object is boosted into orbit by gravitational torques. The second is when the orbiting material forms a disk, which, with subsequent evolution can form the Moon. In either case the physical and chemical properties of the newly formed Moon would very neatly satisfy the physical and chemical constraints of the current Moon. Also, in both scenarios the surface of the Earth would be quite hot after the collision. This aspect remains to be explored.

  6. The origin of the moon.

    PubMed

    Boss, A P

    1986-01-24

    The origin of the moon is considered within the theory of formation of the terrestrial planets by accumulation of planetesimals. The theory predicts the occurrence of giant impacts, suggesting that the moon formed after a roughly Mars-sized body impacted on the protoearth. The impact blasted portions of the protoearth and the impacting body into geocentric orbit, forming a prelunar disk from which the moon later accreted. Although other mechanisms for formation of the moon appear to be dynamically impossible or implausible, fundamental questions must be answered before a giant impact origin can be considered both possible and probable.

  7. The 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Lee

    2014-01-01

    The 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) scientific investigations were completed on Mauna Kea volcano in Hawaii in July 2012. The investigations were conducted on the southeast flank of the Mauna Kea volcano at an elevation of approximately 11,500 ft. This area is known as "Apollo Valley" and is in an adjacent valley to the Very Large Baseline Array dish antenna.

  8. Temperature profiles from Salt Valley, Utah, thermal conductivity of 10 samples from drill hole DOE 3, and preliminary estimates of heat flow

    SciTech Connect

    Sass, J.H.; Lachenbruch, A.H.; Smith, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    As part of a thermal study of the Salt Valley anticline, Paradox Basin, Utah, temperature profiles were obtained in nine wells drilled by the Department of Energy. Thermal conductivities were also measured on ten samples judged to be representative of the rocks encountered in the deepest hole (DOE 3) (R. J. Hite, personal communication, November 21, 1980). In this interim report, the temperature profiles and thermal conductivities are presented, together with some preliminary interpretive remarks and some suggestions for additional work.

  9. More Saturnian Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    Saturn takes the lead Following the discovery of at least four additional moons of that planet, Saturn has again taken the lead as the planet with the greatest number of known natural satellites. A corresponding announcement was made today by an international team of astronomers [1] at a meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences (DPS) of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) in Pasadena (California, USA). The four new faint bodies were spotted during observations in August-September 2000 at several astronomical telescopes around the world. Subsequent orbital calculations have indicated that these objects are almost certainly new satellites of the giant planet. Two Saturnian moons found at La Silla ESO PR Photo 29a/00 ESO PR Photo 29a/00 [Preview - JPEG: 263 x 400 pix - 26k] [Normal - JPEG: 525 x 800 pix - 93k] ESO PR Photo 29b/00 ESO PR Photo 29b/00 [Preview - JPG: 289 x 400 pix - 43k] [Normal - JPG: 578 x 800 pix - 432k] ESO PR Photo 29c/00 ESO PR Photo 29c/00 [Animated GIF: 330 x 400 pix - 208k] Captions : The photos show the discovery images of two new Saturnian moons, as registered on August 7, 2000, with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) camera at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at the La Silla Observatory. Photo PR 29a/00 displays the faint image of the newly discovered moon S/2000 S 1 in the lower right corner of the field. A spiral galaxy is seen in the upper left corner of this photo. The other objects are (background) stars in the Milky Way. Photo PR 29b/00 is a combination of three successive WFI exposures of the second moon, S/2000 S 2 . Because of its motion, there are three images (to the left). Photo PR 29c/00 is an animated GIF image of the same three exposures that demonstrates this motion. Technical details are found below. The observations of the first two objects are described on a Circular of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) that was issued today [2]. The images of these new moons were first registered on exposures made on August 7, 2000

  10. Moon manned mission scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, G.; Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Nealy, J. E.; Badavi, F. F.

    An analysis is performed on the radiation environment found around and on the surface of the Moon, and applied to different possible lunar mission scenarios. An optimization technique has been used to obtain mission scenarios minimizing the astronaut radiation exposure and at the same time controlling the effect of shielding, in terms of mass addition and material choice, as a mission cost driver. The scenarios are evaluated from the point of view of radiation safety with the radiation protection quantities recommended for LEO scenarios.

  11. Magmatism on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaut, Chloé; Thorey, Clément; Pinel, Virginie

    2016-04-01

    Volcanism on the Moon is dominated by large fissure eruptions of mare basalt and seems to lack large, central vent, shield volcanoes as observed on all the other terrestrial planets. Large shield volcanoes are constructed over millions to several hundreds of millions of years. On the Moon, magmas might not have been buoyant enough to allow for a prolonged activity at the same place over such lengths of time. The lunar crust was indeed formed by flotation of light plagioclase minerals on top of the lunar magma ocean, resulting in a particularly light and relatively thick crust. This low-density crust acted as a barrier for the denser primary mantle melts. This is particularly evident in the fact that subsequent mare basalts erupted primarily within large impact basins where at least part of the crust was removed by the impact process. Thus, the ascent of lunar magmas might have been limited by their reduced buoyancy, leading to storage zone formation deep in the lunar crust. Further magma ascent to shallower depths might have required local or regional tensional stresses. Here, we first review evidences of shallow magmatic intrusions within the lunar crust of the Moon that consist in surface deformations presenting morphologies consistent with models of magma spreading at depth and deforming an overlying elastic layer. We then study the preferential zones of magma storage in the lunar crust as a function of the local and regional state of stress. Evidences of shallow intrusions are often contained within complex impact craters suggesting that the local depression caused by the impact exerted a strong control on magma ascent. The depression is felt over a depth equivalent to the crater radius. Because many of these craters have a radius less than 30km, the minimum crust thickness, this suggests that the magma was already stored in deeper intrusions before ascending at shallower depth. All the evidences for intrusions are also preferentially located in the internal

  12. Does Vesta Have Moons?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFadden, L. A.; Sykes, M.; Joy, S.; Tricarico, P.; O'Brien, D.; Li, J. Y.; Mutchler, M.; Memarsadeghi, N.; Safavi, H.; Gutierrez-Marques, P.; Nathues, A.; Sierks, H.; Schroder, S.; Polansky, C.; Jacobson, R.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Rayman, M.; Weinstein-Weiss, S.; Palmer, E.

    2011-01-01

    Previous searches for moons around Vesta have found nothing to an upper limit of 22.5 magnitude, that corresponds to 44 +/- 4 m diameter assuming the same albedo as Vesta. The Dawn mission's approach phase has dedicated satellite search observations consisting of two mosaic sequences bracketing the first observations of a complete rotation of Vesta scheduled for early July, 2011. In addition, we use the approach optical navigation image sequences for initial satellite searches. We will report any findings from these observations, and upper limits of magnitude and size.

  13. Orbital eccentricity of Mercury and the origin of the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, A. G. W.

    1972-01-01

    The results of some recent work conducted by Anderson (1972) are considered. If Anderson is correct in his conclusion that the bulk composition of the moon resembles that of the Allende inclusions, then the natural place for the formation of the moon in the solar system is inside the orbit of Mercury, through planetary accumulation from the condensed material to be found there. This explains the anomalous large eccentricity of the orbit of Mercury.

  14. Jupiter's Hot, Mushy Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Jupiter's moon Io is the most volcanically active body in the Solar System. Observations by instruments on the Galileo spacecraft and on telescopes atop Mauna Kea in Hawai'i indicate that lava flows on Io are surprisingly hot, over 1200 oC and possibly as much as 1300 oC; a few areas might have lava flows as hot as 1500 oC. Such high temperatures imply that the lava flows are composed of rock that formed by a very large amount of melting of Io's mantle. This has led Laszlo Keszthelyi and Alfred S. McEwen of the University of Arizona and me to reawaken an old hypothesis that suggests that the interior of Io is a partially-molten mush of crystals and magma. The idea, which had fallen out of favor for a decade or two, explains high-temperature hot spots, mountains, calderas, and volcanic plains on Io. If correct, Io gives us an opportunity to study processes that operate in huge, global magma systems, which scientists believe were important during the early history of the Moon and Earth, and possibly other planetary bodies as well. Though far from proven, the idea that Io has a ocean of mushy magma beneath its crust can be tested with measurements by future spacecraft.

  15. More Saturnian Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    Saturn takes the lead Following the discovery of at least four additional moons of that planet, Saturn has again taken the lead as the planet with the greatest number of known natural satellites. A corresponding announcement was made today by an international team of astronomers [1] at a meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences (DPS) of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) in Pasadena (California, USA). The four new faint bodies were spotted during observations in August-September 2000 at several astronomical telescopes around the world. Subsequent orbital calculations have indicated that these objects are almost certainly new satellites of the giant planet. Two Saturnian moons found at La Silla ESO PR Photo 29a/00 ESO PR Photo 29a/00 [Preview - JPEG: 263 x 400 pix - 26k] [Normal - JPEG: 525 x 800 pix - 93k] ESO PR Photo 29b/00 ESO PR Photo 29b/00 [Preview - JPG: 289 x 400 pix - 43k] [Normal - JPG: 578 x 800 pix - 432k] ESO PR Photo 29c/00 ESO PR Photo 29c/00 [Animated GIF: 330 x 400 pix - 208k] Captions : The photos show the discovery images of two new Saturnian moons, as registered on August 7, 2000, with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) camera at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at the La Silla Observatory. Photo PR 29a/00 displays the faint image of the newly discovered moon S/2000 S 1 in the lower right corner of the field. A spiral galaxy is seen in the upper left corner of this photo. The other objects are (background) stars in the Milky Way. Photo PR 29b/00 is a combination of three successive WFI exposures of the second moon, S/2000 S 2 . Because of its motion, there are three images (to the left). Photo PR 29c/00 is an animated GIF image of the same three exposures that demonstrates this motion. Technical details are found below. The observations of the first two objects are described on a Circular of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) that was issued today [2]. The images of these new moons were first registered on exposures made on August 7, 2000

  16. The Moon in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Troland, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    The Moon's cycle of phases is one of the most familiar natural phenomena, yet also one of the most misunderstood. This probably comes as no surprise, but research has found that a significant segment of the population, including both elementary students and teachers, mistakenly believes that the Moon's phases are caused by the shadow of the Earth.…

  17. How High Is the Moon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    Presents background information on the method used by Hipparchus to determine the distance between the earth and the moon. Describes student activities that employ Hipparchus's Method and Aristarchus's Method for determining the relative distance of the sun and the moon from the earth and Eratosthenes's Method for finding the circumference of the…

  18. Field Trip to the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the geology of a single area of the Moon, the Imbrium Basin, and shows how geologists have combined basic geologic principles with evidence collected by the Apollo missions to learn more about the history of the Moon as a whole. In this article, the author discusses lunar geology teaching tips and mapping the Imbrium Basin…

  19. The origin of the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Recent studies of the dynamics and thermodynamics of the early solar nebula have provided a basis for a theory of the origin of the moon which is consistent with presently developed views of the origin of the solar system. The hypothesis of inhomogeneous planetary accretion is extended. It is suggested that the anomalous properties of the moon, such as its enrichment in Ca, Al, Ti, and other refractories and its depletion in iron and volatiles can be explained if the bulk of the moon represents a high temperature condensate. It is proposed that the moon is composed chiefly of compounds that condense before iron and that the volatile content of the moon was brought in as a thin veneer after the solar nebula dissipated.

  20. Return to the Moon: Lunar robotic science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1992-02-01

    There are two important aspects of the Moon and its materials which must be addressed in preparation for a manned return to the Moon and establishment of a lunar base. These involve its geologic science and resource utilization. Knowledge of the Moon forms the basis for interpretations of the planetary science of the terrestrial planets and their satellites; and there are numerous exciting explorations into the geologic science of the Moon to be conducted using orbiter and lander missions. In addition, the rocks and minerals and soils of the Moon will be the basic raw materials for a lunar outpost; and the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) of lunar materials must be considered in detail before any manned return to the Moon. Both of these fields -- planetary science and resource assessment -- will necessitate the collection of considerable amounts of new data, only obtainable from lunar-orbit remote sensing and robotic landers. For over fifteen years, there have been a considerable number of workshops, meetings, etc. with their subsequent 'white papers' which have detailed plans for a return to the Moon. The Lunar Observer mission, although grandiose, seems to have been too expensive for the austere budgets of the last several years. However, the tens of thousands of man-hours that have gone into 'brainstorming' and production of plans and reports have provided the precursor material for today's missions. It has been only since last year (1991) that realistic optimism for lunar orbiters and soft landers has come forth. Plans are for 1995 and 1996 'Early Robotic Missions' to the Moon, with the collection of data necessary for answering several of the major problems in lunar science, as well as for resource and site evaluation, in preparation for soft landers and a manned-presence on the Moon.

  1. Return to the Moon: Lunar robotic science missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two important aspects of the Moon and its materials which must be addressed in preparation for a manned return to the Moon and establishment of a lunar base. These involve its geologic science and resource utilization. Knowledge of the Moon forms the basis for interpretations of the planetary science of the terrestrial planets and their satellites; and there are numerous exciting explorations into the geologic science of the Moon to be conducted using orbiter and lander missions. In addition, the rocks and minerals and soils of the Moon will be the basic raw materials for a lunar outpost; and the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) of lunar materials must be considered in detail before any manned return to the Moon. Both of these fields -- planetary science and resource assessment -- will necessitate the collection of considerable amounts of new data, only obtainable from lunar-orbit remote sensing and robotic landers. For over fifteen years, there have been a considerable number of workshops, meetings, etc. with their subsequent 'white papers' which have detailed plans for a return to the Moon. The Lunar Observer mission, although grandiose, seems to have been too expensive for the austere budgets of the last several years. However, the tens of thousands of man-hours that have gone into 'brainstorming' and production of plans and reports have provided the precursor material for today's missions. It has been only since last year (1991) that realistic optimism for lunar orbiters and soft landers has come forth. Plans are for 1995 and 1996 'Early Robotic Missions' to the Moon, with the collection of data necessary for answering several of the major problems in lunar science, as well as for resource and site evaluation, in preparation for soft landers and a manned-presence on the Moon.

  2. Martian Moon, Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-362, 16 May 2003

    Mars has two satellites, Phobos and Deimos. In August and September, 1998, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) had four opportunities for close fly-bys of the inner moon, Phobos. This spectacular view, taken from the MOC archives of over 123,000 images, shows the large crater, Stickney, toward the upper right. Grooves, or troughs, radiate outward from Stickney and are known from Viking and Mariner 9 images to be prevalent all over the surface of Phobos. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper right. Another view of Phobos from 1998 can be seen in: MOC2-66, 11 September 1998, 'Phobos.'

  3. Shooting the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    This story is about an unlikely NASA mission to the Moon. It was unlikely because it was started with far too little time and too-little money to complete. It was unlikely because it was able to take chances to accept risk of failure. It was unlikely because it was searching for the unthinkable: water-ice on the moon... Figure 1-1: LCROSS Mission. The mission of the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) was to investigate the possibility of water ice in craters on the Moon s poles. This is certainly an interesting scientific topic in itself, but I intend to focus on the compelling experience of managing the LCROSS Project in the context of this storied Agency. Perhaps most interesting are the implications this story has for managing any development effort, lunar or not, and working a balance to achieve success. NASA is by design a risk-taking agency within the US Government. It could be argued that NASA s purpose in the aerospace community is to take on the really big challenges that either the corporate world can t afford, are not yet profitable endeavors, or are just too risky for private corporations to entertain. However, expectations of the Agency have evolved. A combination of grim human tragedies and some very public cost and schedule overruns have challenged the public s and Congress s tolerance for risk-taking within the Agency. NASA, which is supposed to be in the business of taking risks to do bold, difficult things, has become less and less able to do so within its cost framework. Yet effectively replacing prudent risk management with attempts to "risk-eliminate" is completely unaffordable. So where does risk-taking fit within the Agency, or within private/corporate organizations for that matter? Where astronauts play there is clearly concern about risk. When an organization puts humans in harm s way, it is understandably going to take extra effort to assure nobody gets hurt. Doing so, of course, costs money - a lot of money to pay for

  4. Moon shots for management.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Gary

    2009-02-01

    In May 2008, a group of management scholars and senior executives worked to define an agenda for management during the next 100 years. The so-called renegade brigade, led by Gary Hamel, included academics, such as C.K. Prahalad, Peter Senge, and Jeffrey Pfeffer; new-age thinkers, like James Surowiecki; and progressive CEOs, such as Whole Foods' John Mackey, W.L. Gore's Terri Kelly, and IDEO's Tim Brown. What drew them together was a set of shared beliefs about the importance of management and a sense of urgency about reinventing it for a new era. The group's first task was to compile a roster of challenges that would focus the energies of management innovators around the world. Accordingly, in this article, Hamel (who has set up the Management Lab, a research organization devoted to management innovation) outlines 25 "moon shots"--ambitious goals that managers should strive to achieve and in the process create Management 2.0. Topping the list is the imperative of extending management's responsibilities beyond just creating shareholder value. To do so will require both reconstructing the field's philosophical foundations so that work serves a higher purpose and fully embedding the ideas of community and citizenship into organizations. A number of challenges focus on ameliorating the toxic effects of hierarchy. Others focus on better ways to unleash creativity and capitalize on employees' passions. Still others seek to transcend the limitations of traditional patterns of management thinking. Not all the moon shots are new, but many tackle issues that are endemic in large organizations. Their purpose is to inspire new solutions to long-simmering problems by making every company as genuinely human as the people who work there. PMID:19266704

  5. Moon shots for management.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Gary

    2009-02-01

    In May 2008, a group of management scholars and senior executives worked to define an agenda for management during the next 100 years. The so-called renegade brigade, led by Gary Hamel, included academics, such as C.K. Prahalad, Peter Senge, and Jeffrey Pfeffer; new-age thinkers, like James Surowiecki; and progressive CEOs, such as Whole Foods' John Mackey, W.L. Gore's Terri Kelly, and IDEO's Tim Brown. What drew them together was a set of shared beliefs about the importance of management and a sense of urgency about reinventing it for a new era. The group's first task was to compile a roster of challenges that would focus the energies of management innovators around the world. Accordingly, in this article, Hamel (who has set up the Management Lab, a research organization devoted to management innovation) outlines 25 "moon shots"--ambitious goals that managers should strive to achieve and in the process create Management 2.0. Topping the list is the imperative of extending management's responsibilities beyond just creating shareholder value. To do so will require both reconstructing the field's philosophical foundations so that work serves a higher purpose and fully embedding the ideas of community and citizenship into organizations. A number of challenges focus on ameliorating the toxic effects of hierarchy. Others focus on better ways to unleash creativity and capitalize on employees' passions. Still others seek to transcend the limitations of traditional patterns of management thinking. Not all the moon shots are new, but many tackle issues that are endemic in large organizations. Their purpose is to inspire new solutions to long-simmering problems by making every company as genuinely human as the people who work there.

  6. Moon Mineralogy Mapper: Unlocking the Mysteries of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runyon, Cassandra

    2006-01-01

    Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) is a state-of-the-art high spectral resolution imaging spectrometer that will characterize and map the mineral composition of the Moon. The M3 instrument will be flown on Chandrayaan-I, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) mission to be launched in March 2008. The Moon is a cornerstone to understanding early solar system processes. M3 high-resolution compositional maps will dramatically improve our understanding about the early evolution of the terrestrial planets and will provide an assessment of lunar resources at high spatial resolution.

  7. MoonNEXT: A European Mission to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J. D.; Koschny, D.; Crawford, I.; Falcke, H.; Kempf, S.; Lognonne, P.; Ricci, C.; Houdou, B.; Pradier, A.

    2008-09-01

    MoonNEXT is a mission currently being studied, under the direction of the European Space Agency, whose launch is foreseen between 2015 and 2018. MoonNEXT is intended to prepare the way for future exploration activities on the Moon, while addressing key science questions. Exploration Objectives The primary goal for the MoonNEXT mission is to demonstrate autonomous soft precision landing with hazard avoidance; a key capability for future exploration missions. The nominal landing site is at the South Pole of the Moon, at the edge of the Aitken basin and in the region of Shackleton crater, which has been identified as an optimal location for a future human outpost by the NASA lunar architecture team [1]. This landing site selection ensures a valuable contribution by MoonNEXT to the Global Exploration Strategy [2]. MoonNEXT will also prepare for future lunar exploration activities by characterising the environment at the lunar surface. The potentially hazardous radiation environment will me monitored while a dedicated instrument package will investigate the levitation and mobility of lunar dust. Experience on Apollo demonstrated the potentially hazardous effects of dust for surface operations and human activities and so an understanding of these processes is important for the future. Life sciences investigations will be carried out into the effects of the lunar environment (including radiation, gravity and illumination conditions) on a man made ecosystem analogous to future life support systems. In doing so MoonNEXT will demonstrate the first extraterrestrial man made ecosystem and develop valuable expertise for future missions. Geological and geochemical investigations will explore the possibilities for In Situ Resource Utilisation (ISRU), which will be essential for long term human habitation on the Moon and is of particular importance at the proposed landing site, given its potential as a future habitat location. Science Objectives In addition to providing extensive

  8. MPST Software: MoonKommand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, John H.; Call, Jared A.; Khanampornpan, Teerapat

    2012-01-01

    This software automatically processes Sally Ride Science (SRS) delivered MoonKAM camera control files (ccf) into uplink products for the GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B spacecraft as part of an education and public outreach (EPO) extension to the Grail Mission. Once properly validated and deemed safe for execution onboard the spacecraft, MoonKommand generates the command products via the Automated Sequence Processor (ASP) and generates uplink (.scmf) files for radiation to the Grail-A and/or Grail-B spacecraft. Any errors detected along the way are reported back to SRS via email. With Moon Kommand, SRS can control their EPO instrument as part of a fully automated process. Inputs are received from SRS as either image capture files (.ccficd) for new image requests, or downlink/delete files (.ccfdl) for requesting image downlink from the instrument and on-board memory management. The Moon - Kommand outputs are command and file-load (.scmf) files that will be uplinked by the Deep Space Network (DSN). Without MoonKommand software, uplink product generation for the MoonKAM instrument would be a manual process. The software is specific to the Moon - KAM instrument on the GRAIL mission. At the time of this writing, the GRAIL mission was making final preparations to begin the science phase, which was scheduled to continue until June 2012.

  9. Report of the Terrestrial Bodies Science Working Group. Volume 4: The moon. [lunar polar orbiter mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, L. A.; Duke, M. B.; Hubbard, N.; Johnson, T. V.; Malin, M. C.; Minear, J.

    1977-01-01

    A rationale for furture exploration of the moon is given. Topics discussed include the objectives of the lunar polar orbiter mission, the mission profile, and general characteristics of the spacraft to be used.

  10. The return of humans to the moon - Scientific challenges and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David C.

    1991-01-01

    The scientific opportunities and challenges involved in the return of humans to the moon are discussed. The opportunities include the scientific study of the moon from the perspectives of its ability to shed light on the origin of the earth-moon system and to serve as a platform from which to conduct a wide variety of scientific activities. Among the challenges, the foremost is the interacton of humans and machines in carrying out these activities in the most effective manner.

  11. Formation and composition of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    Many of the properties of the Moon, including the enrichment in Ca, Al, Ti, U, Th, Ba, Sr, and the REE and the depletion in Fe, Rb, K, Na, and other volatiles can be understood if the Moon represents a high-temperature condensate from the solar nebula. Thermodynamic calculations show that Ca-, Al-, and Ti-rich compounds condense first in a cooling nebula. The initial high temperature mineralogy is gehlenite, spinel, perovskite, Ca-Al-rich pyroxenes, and anorthite. Inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites such as the Allende meteorite are composed primarily of these minerals and, in addition, are highly enriched in refractories such as REE relative to carbonaceous chondrites. These inclusions can yield basalt and anorthosite in the proportions required to eliminate the europium anomaly, leaving a residual spinel-melilite interior. A deep interior high in Ca-Al does not imply an unacceptable mean density or moment of inertia for the Moon. The inferred high-U content of the lunar interior, both from the Allende analog and the high heat flow, indicates a high-temperature interior. The model is consistent with extensive early melting, with shallow melting at 3 AE, and with presently high deep internal temperatures. It is predicted that the outer 250 km is rich in plagioclase and FeO. The low iron content of the interior in this model raises the interior temperatures estimated from electrical conductivity by some 800 C.

  12. The moon as a high temperature condensate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    The accretion during condensation mechanism is used to explain the differences in composition of the terrestrial planets and the moon. Many of the properties of the moon, including the enrichment in Ca, Al, Ti, U, Th, Ba, Sr and the REE and the depletion in Fe, Rb, K, Na and other volatiles can be understood if the moon represents a high temperature condensate from the solar nebula. Thermodynamic calculations show that Ca, Al and Ti rich compounds condense first in a cooling nebula. The high temperature mineralogy is gehlenite, spinel perovskite, Ca-Al-rich pyroxenes and anorthite. The model is consistent with extensive early melting, shallow melting at 3 A.E. and with presently high speed internal temperatures. It is predicted that the outer 250 km is rich in plagioclase and FeO. The low iron content of the interior in this model raises the interior temperatures estimated from electrical conductivity by some 800 C. The lunar crust is 80 percent gabbroic anorthosite, 20 percent basalt and is about 250-270 km thick. The lunar mantle is probably composed of spinel, merwinite and diopside with a density of 3.4 g/cu cm.

  13. Space Science in Action: Moon [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This videotape recording answers key questions about the Moon such as, What keeps it revolving around the Earth?, Why do we see only one side of the Moon?, and What is the origin of the Moon? Students learn about how the Moon has been studied throughout history, including recent lunar missions, its phases, eclipses, and how it causes tides on…

  14. The Moon Beams on Westlake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Jeanne E.

    1979-01-01

    Presented is a community's experience with a lunar sample education kit containing actual pieces of moon rocks and soil on loan from NASA. School and community activities including mini-labs, seminars, and lunar sample viewing sessions, are described. (SA)

  15. How Is Your Moon Geography?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlathery, Glenn

    1971-01-01

    Describes geography of the moon. A brief history of selenographic history is given and basic features including lunar seas, mountains, craters, rays, and faults are described. Lunar photographs are included. (JM)

  16. Where Is the Moon Tonight?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Susann M.; Cornell, Kevin F.; Basista, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the activities that fifth-grade students experienced when learning about the moon, its phases, and eclipses. It illustrates how mathematics and science can be integrated to enhance the learning of both. (Contains 3 figures.)

  17. Gardening Rates on the Moon

    NASA Video Gallery

    The narrow-angle camera (LROC NAC) aboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has photographed a large percentage of the moon's surface multiple times. By looking for differences between earl...

  18. Lunar Orbiter: Moon and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The worlds first view of the Earth taken by a spacecraft from the vicinity of the Moon. The photo was transmitted to Earth by the United States Lunar Orbiter I and recieved at the NASA tracking station at Robledo de Chavela near Madrid, Spain. This crescent of the Earth was photographed August 23 at 16:35 GMT when the spacecraft was on its 16th orbit and just about to pass behind the Moon. This is the view the astronauts will have when they come around the backside of the Moon and face the Earth. The Earth is shown on the left of the photo with the U.S. east coast in the upper left, southern Europe toward the dark or night side of the Earth, and Antartica at the bottom of the Earth crescent. The surface of the Moon is shown on the right side of the photograph.

  19. LRO Takes the Moon's Temperature

    NASA Video Gallery

    During the June 2011 lunar eclipse, scientists will be able to get a unique view of the moon. While the sun is blocked by the Earth, LRO's Diviner instrument will take the temperature on the lunar ...

  20. Felsic Volcanics on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Clegg-Watkins, R. N.; Zanetti, M. R.; Lawrence, S. J.; Stopar, J. D.; Shirley, K. A.; Glitch, T. D.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2016-05-01

    LRO data sets have been used to characterize sites of red-spot volcanism on the Moon, confirming that they are composed of silica-rich materials and establishing key morphometric parameters including shape, slopes, boulder contents, and photometry.

  1. The Next 'Moon Shot' Moment

    NASA Video Gallery

    For the 50th anniversary of President Kennedy's speech to Congress, when he challenged our nation to land a man on the moon and return him safely to Earth, five NASA Langley employees answered the ...

  2. Hints of a Shrinking Moon?

    NASA Video Gallery

    Newly discovered cliffs in the lunar crust indicate the moon shrank globally in the geologically recent past and might still be shrinking today, according to a team analyzing new images from NASA's...

  3. More Surprises from the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Noah

    2011-01-01

    Even with the naked eye, the dark, extensive plains of the lunar maria can be clearly seen on the surface of the Moon. The maria formed after meteorite impacts created large craters that later filled with lava flows. Mare volcanism is the dominant type of volcanic activity on the Moon and the lavas are made up of basaltic rocks. However, non-mare volcanic deposits, though rare, have been observed on the lunar nearside. The deposits are distinguished from the maria because they are compositionally more evolved rich in silica, potassium and thorium. The deposits are limited in surface extent and it was unknown whether similar non-mare volcanism occurred at all on the Moon s farside. Writing in Nature Geoscience, Jolliff et al. report using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter images and compositional data to identify the rare occurrence of more compositionally evolved volcanic deposits in an isolated area on the Moon s farside. In the 1960s and 1970s, rock and soil samples were collected by the Apollo and Luna missions, by the USA and USSR respectively. This material represents a geologic treasure trove that continues to provide a wealth of information about the Moon and its evolution, and it was a very small fraction of these samples that gave the first hint that non-mare volcanic activity might have occurred. The samples contained fragments of complex volcanic rocks that were unrelated to the maria basalts. Violent bombardment of the Moon by meteorite impacts has caused significant mixing of the rocks at its surface, so the fragments could have had a source hundreds or thousands of kilometres away. The origin of the fragments was unknown. Several decades later, the Lunar Prospector mission used a gamma-ray spectrometer to map the distribution and abundance of various elements, including thorium, on the Moon s surface. The maps identified a distinct and large area of high thorium concentration, as well as several smaller, but equally peculiar areas of high thorium

  4. Moon Color Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This color image of the Moon was taken by the Galileo spacecraft at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9, 1990, at a range of about 350,000 miles. The color composite uses monochrome images taken through violet, red, and near-infrared filters. The concentric, circular Orientale basin, 600 miles across, is near the center; the nearside is to the right, the far side to the left. At the upper right is the large, dark Oceanus Procellarum; below it is the smaller Mare Humorum. These, like the small dark Mare Orientale in the center of the basin, formed over 3 billion years ago as basaltic lava flows. At the lower left, among the southern cratered highlands of the far side, is the South-Pole-Aitken basin, similar to Orientale but twice as great in diameter and much older and more degraded by cratering and weathering. The cratered highlands of the near and far sides and the Maria are covered with scattered bright, young ray craters.

  5. Moon - Western Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This image of the western hemisphere of the Moon was taken through a green filter by the Galileo spacecraft at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9 at a range of about 350,000 miles. In the center is the Orientale Basin, 600 miles in diameter, formed about 3.8 billion years ago by the impact of an asteroid-size body. Orientale's dark center is a small mare. To the right is the lunar nearside with the great, dark Oceanus Procellarum above and the small, circular, dark Mare Humorum below. Maria are broad plains formed mostly over 3 billion years ago as vast basaltic lava flows. To the left is the lunar far side with fewer maria but, at lower left, the South-Pole-Aitken basin, about 1200 miles in diameter, which resembles Orientale but is much older and more weathered and battered by cratering. The intervening cratered highlands of both sides, as well as the maria, are dotted with bright, young craters. This image was 'reprojected' so as to center the Orientale Basin, and was filtered to enhance the visibility of small features. The digital image processing was done by DLR, the German Aerospace Research Establishment near Munich, an international collaborator in the Galileo mission.

  6. ESA proposes Moon initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    Upon the invitation of the Swiss Government, the European Space Agency (ESA) is organising from Tuesday 31 May to Friday 3 June 1994 an international workshop on present and future plans for study and exploration of the Moon. This meeting will be held in Beatenberg, Switzerland, and attended by European, Russian and Japanese national space agencies as well as by NASA, the National Aeraunotics & Space Administration. For the media : * - a presentation will be held by Prof. Roger M. Bonnet, ESA Director of Science, and Mr. Jean-Jacques Dordain, Associate Director for Strategy, Planning and International Policy, at ESA Headquarters (8-10, rue Mario Nikis - 75015-PARIS) at 09h00 during a press breakfast on Monday 30 May. An info note describing the main lunar studies which will be presented at the Beatenberg workshop will be distributed on this occasion. * - On Friday 3 June, the press is invited to attend the closing session of the Beatenberg workshop starting at 09h30. This session will be followed by a briefing with the chairmen of the working groups and a lunch.

  7. Infrared astronomy from the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Dan

    1988-01-01

    The Moon offers some remarkable opportunities for performing infrared astronomy. Although the transportation overhead can be expected to be very large compared with that for facilities in Earth orbit, certain aspects of the lunar environment should allow significant simplifications in the design of telescopes with background limited performance, at least in some parts of the thermal infrared spectrum. Why leave the Earth to perform infrared astronomy is addressed as is the reasons for going all the way to the Moon for its environment.

  8. Lunar Orbiter I - Moon & Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    First view of the earth and moon from space. Published in: Spaceflight Revolution: Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, by James R. Hansen. NASA History Series. NASA SP ; 4308. p ii. Caption: 'The picture of the century was this first view of the earth from space. Lunar Orbiter I took the photo on 23 August 1966 on its 16th orbit just before it passed behind the moon. The photo also provided a spectacular dimensional view of the lunar surface.'

  9. Moon 101: Introducing Students to Lunar Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Moon 101 is designed with the purpose of familiarizing students with lunar geology and exploration. Armed with guiding questions, students read articles covering various lunar science topics and browse images from past and current lunar missions to familiarize themselves with available lunar data sets. Moon 101 was originally created for high school students preparing to conduct open-inquiry, lunar research. Most high school students' knowledge of lunar science is limited to lunar phases and tides, and their knowledge of lunar exploration is close to non-existent. Moon 101 provides a summary of the state of knowledge of the Moon's formation and evolution, and the exploration that has helped inform the lunar science community. Though designed for high school students, Moon 101 is highly appropriate for the undergraduate classroom, especially at the introductory level where resources for teaching lunar science are scarce. Moon 101 is comprised of two sections covering lunar science (formation and geologic evolution of the Moon) and one section covering lunar exploration. Students read information on the formation and geologic evolution of the Moon from sources such as the Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) website and the USGS professional paper A Geologic History of the Moon by Wilhelms. While these resources are not peer-reviewed journals, the information is presented at a level more advanced than articles from newspapers and popular science magazines. This ensures that the language is accessible to students who do not have a strong lunar/planetary science background, or a strong science background in general. Formation readings include information on older and current formation hypotheses, including the Giant Impact Hypothesis, the Magma Ocean hypothesis, and the age of the lunar crust. Lunar evolution articles describe ideas such as the Late Heavy Bombardment and geologic processes such as volcanism and impact cratering. After reading the articles

  10. Limits on the lunar temperature profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.

    1982-01-01

    Limits on the selenotherm are estimated using (1) a preferred set of bounds on the lunar electrical conductivity profile; (2) published laboratory conductivity vs. temperature data for an olivine and several aluminous orthopyroxenes; and (3) estimates for the Al2O3 content of the deep interior suggested by bulk composition models. The inferred limits are narrowest in the depth range 450 to 1350 km and are in accord with independent geophysical constraints. Thermal history models which yield present-day selenotherms that are in best agreement with these limits are those which permit subsolidus convection at depths greater than 800 km in the moon.

  11. The Impact of Stereo Display on Student Understanding of Phases of the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cid, Ximena C.; Lopez, Ramon E.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding lunar phases requires three-dimensional information about the relative positions of the Moon, Earth, and Sun, thus using a stereo display in instruction might improve student comprehension of lunar phases or other topics in basic astronomy. We conducted a laboratory (15 sections) on phases of the Moon as part of the introductory…

  12. A goal and strategy for human exploration of the moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivirotto, Donna Shirley

    1990-01-01

    Eventual settlement of the solar system, beginning with the moon and Mars, is proposed, and a strategy for the exploration of and initial settlement of the moon and Mars, based on the model of European settlement of the Americas, is discussed. Strategies suggest an allocation of functions between humans and telerobots to conduct the exploration and initial settlement.

  13. The origin of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasson, J. T.; Warren, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    Bulk density alone shows that the Moon is depleted in metallic FeNi relative to the Earth or to chondritic meteorites. This depletion implies that the Moon formed not from chondrites but from differentiated material. Origin of the Moon by fission from the Earth offers a simple explanation for its depletion in FeNi, but this mechanism seems unlikely because of associated dynamical difficulties. Lunar volatile element depletions were invoked in support of fission, but volatile contents of eucritic meteorites are similarly low and the eucrites did not form by Earth fission. A more plausible origin of the Moon is accretion from the circumterrestrial swarm. The low FeNi content of the Moon is understood if the mean size of interplanetary silicate particles was much smaller than that for metal particles, since this would have led to preferential capture of silicates into Earth orbit, but the question arises whether the mean particle size of the metallic particles was great enough to prevent their capture into the swarm.

  14. Impact Origin of the Moon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, Erik

    2014-05-01

    Earth formed in a series of giant impacts, and the last one made the Moon. This idea, an edifice of post-Apollo science, can explain the Moon's globally melted silicate composition, its lack of water and iron, and its anomalously large mass and angular momentum. But the theory is seriously called to question by increasingly detailed geochemical analysis of lunar rocks. Lunar samples should be easily distinguishable from Earth, because the Moon derives mostly from the impacting planet, in standard models of the theory. But lunar rocks are the same as Earth in O, Ti, Cr, W, K, and other species, to measurement precision. Some regard this as a repudiation of the theory; others say it wants a reformation. Ideas put forward to salvage or revise it are evaluated, alongside their relationships to past models and their implications for planet formation and Earth.

  15. Young Children's Knowledge about the Moon: A Complex Dynamic System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Grady J.; Louisell, Robert D.; Wilhelm, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to use a multidimensional theoretical framework to examine young children's knowledge about the Moon. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and the design was a multiple case study of ten children between the ages of three and eight from the USA and Australia. A detailed, semi-structured interview…

  16. Mission Activity Planning for Humans and Robots on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, C.; Shelton, K.; Lincoln, W.; Elfes, A.; Smith, J.H.; Mrozinski, J.; Hua, H.; Adumitroaie, V.; Silberg, R.

    2008-01-01

    A series of studies is conducted to develop a systematic approach to optimizing, both in terms of the distribution and scheduling of tasks, scenarios in which astronauts and robots accomplish a group of activities on the Moon, given an objective function (OF) and specific resources and constraints. An automated planning tool is developed as a key element of this optimization system.

  17. Rings Around the Sun and Moon: Coronae and Diffraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Les; Laven, Philip; Vollmer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric optical effects can teach much about physics and especially optics. Coronae--coloured rings around the sun or moon--are large-scale consequences of diffraction, which is often thought of as only a small effect confined to the laboratory. We describe coronae, how they are formed and experiments that can be conducted on ones in the sky.…

  18. On the origin of the ionosphere at Moon : a study using results from Chandrayaan-I S-band radio occultation experiment and a photochemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kailasam Madathil, Ambili; Bhardwaj, Anil; Choudhary, Raj Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Using Chandrayaan-1 communication link between orbiter and ground (S-band frequency), the presence of ionosphere at Moon has been explored using Radio Occultation technique. Results obtained from the observations conducted between July 30 and August 14, 2009 show evidence for a possible existence of the Ionosphere at Moon. A few seconds before the occultation of Chandrayaan-1 radio signals, extra fluctuation in the rate of change of difference between the theoretically estimated Doppler and observed Doppler was observed. The fluctuation was more pronounced when the probing radio waves were crossing through the day-night terminator. Using standard onion-peeling technique to invert the phase changes in radio signals to the refractivity of the medium, we estimated the bending angle and hence the electron density profiles for the Lunar medium. The estimated electron density near the Lunar surface was of the order of 400 - 1000 cm ^{-3} which decreased monotonically with increasing altitude till about 40 km above the surface where it became negligible. The observed electron density was compared with the results from a model which was developed based on CHACE measurements abroad Moon Impact Probe of Chandrayaan-I. The model included the photo chemical reactions and solar wind interactions of the lunar plasma. We propose that the ionosphere over Moon could have molecular origin with H _{2}O ^{+},CO_{2} ^{+} and H_{3}O ^{+} as dominant ions.

  19. Lunar electrical conductivity, permeability,and temperature from Apollo magnetometer experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    Magnetometers were deployed at four Apollo sites on the moon to measure remanent and induced lunar magnetic fields. Measurements from this network of instruments were used to calculate the electrical conductivity, temperature, magnetic permeability, and iron abundance of the lunar interior. Global lunar fields due to eddy currents, induced in the lunar interior by magnetic transients, were analyzed to calculate and electrical conductivity profile for the moon, and those profiles were used to calculate the lunar temperature for an assumed lunar material of olivine. Simultaneous measurements by magnetometers on the lunar surface and in orbit around the moon were use to construct a whole-moon hysteresis curve, from which the global lunar magnetic permeability is determined. Total iron abundance (sum of iron in the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic states) was calculated for two assumed compositional models of the lunar interior. Other lunar models with an iron core and with a shallow iron-rich layer also discussed in light of the measured global lunar permeability. Simultaneous magnetic field and solar plasma pressure measurements show that the remanent fields at the Apollo 12 and 16 sites interact with, and are compressed by, the solar wind. Velocities and thicknesses of the earth's magnetopause and bow shock were also estimated from simultaneous magnetometer measurements.

  20. NEXT GENERATION OF TELESCOPES OR DYNAMICS REQUIRED TO DETERMINE IF EXO-MOONS HAVE PROGRADE OR RETROGRADE ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Karen M.; Fujii, Yuka

    2014-08-20

    We survey the methods proposed in the literature for detecting moons of extrasolar planets in terms of their ability to distinguish between prograde and retrograde moon orbits, an important tracer of the moon formation channel. We find that most moon detection methods, in particular, sensitive methods for detecting moons of transiting planets, cannot observationally distinguishing prograde and retrograde moon orbits. The prograde and retrograde cases can only be distinguished where the dynamical evolution of the orbit due to, e.g., three body effects is detectable, where one of the two cases is dynamically unstable, or where new observational facilities, which can implement a technique capable of differentiating the two cases, come online. In particular, directly imaged planets are promising targets because repeated spectral and photometric measurements, which are required to determine moon orbit direction, could also be conducted with the primary interest of characterizing the planet itself.

  1. The Moon; twenty years later

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerr, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    The 20th anniversary of the first landing on the Moon occurred on July 21, 1989. The vast majority of the Moon rocks collected by the Apollo mission astronauts await further study in the continuing effort to unravel the origin and evolution of Earth's nearest neighbor. Not that the 382-kilogram treasure trove of lunar samples has been gathering dust in the Planetary Materials Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center in Houston. It is just that lunar scientists are being very sparing in their use of the rocks. 

  2. What's new on the moon?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    As a result of the Apollo program and other lunar probes, questions that remained unsolved during centuries of speculation and scientific study can now be answered concerning the composition, core, surface, age, and history of the moon. Data obtained from lunar samples and instruments on the lunar surface are being used to gain insight into the history of the earth and the other planets, planetary evolution, the development of planetary magnetic fields, the nature of the solar wind, and how the Sun operates. Projects suggested for using the moon to increase understanding of geophysics are described.

  3. Resource Production on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    A self-sustaining settlement on the moon, or on other airless bodies such as asteroids, will require the ability to refine desired raw materials from available resources, such as lunar or asteroidal regolith. This work will focus on the example case of pro-duction from lunar regolith. The same process sequences could be used at other locations. Stony asteroids typically have regolith similar to that of the moon, and refining of asteroidal material could use the same techniques, adapted for microgravity. Likewise, Martian rock and soil could also be processed by the techniques discussed here.

  4. Scientific exploration of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reviews efforts undertaken to explore the moon and the results obtained, noting that such efforts have involved a successful interdisciplinary approach to solving a number of scientific problems. Attention is given to the interactions of astronomers, cartographers, geologists, geochemists, geophysicists, physicists, mathematicians and engineers. Earth based remote sensing and unmanned spacecraft such as the Ranger and Surveyor programs are discussed. Emphasis is given to the manned Apollo missions and the results obtained. Finally, the information gathered by these missions is reviewed with regards to how it has increased understanding of the moon, and future exploration is considered.

  5. Proposal for revisions of the United Nations Moon Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Vera; Abreu, Neyda; Fritz, J.; Knapmeyer, Martin; Smeenk, Lisa; Ten Kate, Inge; Trüninger, Monica

    . More than 30 years have passed since the Moon Treaty (c. 1979) was elaborated, and since then technology and science have evolved leading to the need to change the requirements. As stated in the Moon Treaty, the State par-ties who had signed the Treaty meet every 5 and 10 years to revise the Treaty and suggest the necessary ratifications and amendments. The present version of the Moon Treaty, however, does not demonstrate ratifications that take into consideration environmental protection and preservation. For this, it is here suggested, that both the Antarctica Treaty (c. 1959), and more importantly, the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (c. 1991) are to be used as references for future documents that will be drawn pertaining the Moon. The Antarctica Treaty is currently one of the world's most successful international agreements and has evolved through time as needs and awareness require. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty reflects concerns regarding the impact of humans on the fragile environment of that continent. This concern is equally critical as new stages of lunar exploration unfold and the effects of such activity are progressively assessed. The key aspects of the Antarctic Protocol applicable to the Moon Treaty are: (1) a ban on commercial mineral resource activity, (2) careful waste disposal management, and (3) protection of areas of par-ticular scientific, environmental, and historical value. These measures should be implemented to prevent irreparable damage of the pristine lunar environment while permitting scientific, educational, and touristic uses and encouraging continued commitment to exploration of the Moon and other planetary bodies irrespective of exploration being robotic or human. A num-ber of other documents that establish an Environmental Code of Conduct for certain areas within the Antarctic continent (e.g., Management Plan for the Antarctic Specially Managed Area No.2, the McMurdo Dry

  6. What Are the Moon's Dark Areas?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar, Varda; Evry, Zipora; Zinn, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    Presents activities designed to help children experimentally determine what the dark areas of the moon consist of, and compares primary children's ideas about the moon with those of early scientists. (WRM)

  7. Below and above boiling point comparison of microwave irradiation and conductive heating for municipal sludge digestion under identical heating/cooling profiles.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Koupaie, E; Eskicioglu, C

    2015-01-01

    This research provides a comprehensive comparison between microwave (MW) and conductive heating (CH) sludge pretreatments under identical heating/cooling profiles at below and above boiling point temperatures. Previous comparison studies were constrained to an uncontrolled or a single heating rate due to lack of a CH equipment simulating MW under identical thermal profiles. In this research, a novel custom-built pressure-sealed vessel which could simulate MW pretreatment under identical heating/cooling profiles was used for CH pretreatment. No statistically significant difference was proven between MW and CH pretreatments in terms of sludge solubilization, anaerobic biogas yield and organics biodegradation rate (p-value>0.05), while statistically significant effects of temperature and heating rate were observed (p-value<0.05). These results explain the contradictory results of previous studies in which only the final temperature (not heating/cooling rates) was controlled.

  8. Planetary Scientist Profile: Noah Petro

    NASA Video Gallery

    Noah Petro is a NASA planetary geologist who studies the surface of airless bodies in space, primarily focusing on the moon. In this video profile, Noah talks about how he was inspired to become a ...

  9. Where was the moon formed?

    PubMed

    Singer, S F; Bandermann, L W

    1970-10-23

    Volatile substances have a low abundance in lunar surface rocks as compared to terrestrial rocks. If this depletion is explained in terms of a late accretion of volatile materials from a solar nebula with falling temperature, then the conclusion can be drawn that the moon accumulated not in earth orbit but as a separate planet, and that it was later captured by the earth.

  10. Backyard Astronomy: Observing Moon Phases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandou, Bob

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity involving the observation of moon phases that can provide a one-on-one learning experience and stimulate interaction between a child and an adult family member. This activity can also be initiated by teachers and outcomes can be integrated into the classroom science curriculum. (JRH)

  11. Geminid Meteors Impact the Moon

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Earth wasn’t the only celestial body to be treated to a Geminid showin December -- the moon also got in on the action! This video shows aGeminid impact flash in the upper right corner. The ...

  12. The Moon and Its Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urey, Harold C.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the origin of the Moon on the basis of the Apollo expeditions as an accumulated gas sphere at its very beginning and, later, a satellite captured by the Earth. Indicates that the model would be substantially believable if further observations should be proved to exist as estimated. (CC)

  13. Geochemical Exploration of the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Isidore

    1984-01-01

    Provides information based on explorations of the Apollo program about the geochemistry of the moon and its importance in developing an understanding of formation/evolution of the solar system. Includes description and some results of orbital remote sensing, lunar x-ray experiments, gamma-ray experiments, alpha-particle experiments, and the Apollo…

  14. Topographic mapping of the Moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, S.S.C.

    1985-01-01

    Contour maps of the Moon have been compiled by photogrammetric methods that use stereoscopic combinations of all available metric photographs from the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions. The maps utilize the same format as the existing NASA shaded-relief Lunar Planning Charts (LOC-1, -2, -3, and -4), which have a scale of 1:2 750 000. The map contour interval is 500m. A control net derived from Apollo photographs by Doyle and others was used for the compilation. Contour lines and elevations are referred to the new topographic datum of the Moon, which is defined in terms of spherical harmonics from the lunar gravity field. Compilation of all four LOC charts was completed on analytical plotters from 566 stereo models of Apollo metric photographs that cover approximately 20% of the Moon. This is the first step toward compiling a global topographic map of the Moon at a scale of 1:5 000 000. ?? 1985 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  15. The Moon Festival Is Here.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Gordon

    This is one of a series of elementary readers written in Cantonese and English and designed to familiarize children with the traditional major Chinese festivals celebrated by the Chinese in America. This booklet describes the celebration of the harvest-time holiday called the Moon Festival. (CLK)

  16. Moon Park: A research and educational facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuriki, Kyoichi; Saito, Takao; Ogawa, Yukimasa

    1992-01-01

    Moon Park has been proposed as an International Space Year (ISY) event for international cooperative efforts. Moon Park will serve as a terrestrial demonstration of a prototype lunar base and provide research and educational opportunities. The kind of data that can be obtained in the Moon Park facilities is examined taking the minimum number of lunar base residents as an example.

  17. The Moon: Been there, done that?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Lunar science is planetary science. Lunar samples teach us about the formation and evolution of the Moon, and the history of all the planets. The Moon is a cornerstone for all rocky planets, since it formed and evolved similarly to Earth, Mars, Mercury, Venus, and large asteroids. Lunar robotic missions provide important science and engineering objectives, and keep our eyes on the Moon.

  18. Lunar electrical conductivity, permeability and temperature from Apollo magnetometer experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    Magnetometers were deployed at four Apollo sites on the moon to measure remanent and induced lunar magnetic fields. Measurements from this network of instruments were used to calculate the electrical conductivity, temperature, magnetic permeability, and iron abundance of the lunar interior. The measured lunar remanent fields range from 3 gammas minimum at the Apollo 15 site to 327 gammas maximum at the Apollo 16 site. Simultaneous magnetic field and solar plasma pressure measurements show that the remanent fields at the Apollo 12 and 16 sites interact with, and are compressed by, the solar wind. Remanent fields at Apollo 12 and Apollo 16 are increased 16 gammas and 32 gammas, respectively, by a solar plasma bulk pressure increase of 1.5 X 10 to the -7th power dynes/sq cm. Global lunar fields due to eddy currents, induced in the lunar interior by magnetic transients, were analyzed to calculate an electrical conductivity profile for the moon. From nightside magnetometer data in the solar wind it was found that deeper than 170 km into the moon the conductivity rises from .0003 mhos/m to .10 mhos/m at 100 km depth. Recent analysis of data obtained in the geomagnetic tail, in regions free of complicating plasma effects, yields results consistent with nightside values.

  19. Seismic While Drilling (SWD) methodology in support to Moon subsurface stratigraphy investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletto, Flavio; Magnani, Piergiovanni; Gelmi, Rolando; Corubolo, Piero; Re, Edoardo; Schleifer, Andrea; Perrone, Antonio; Salonico, Antonio; Coste, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    The knowledge of the Moon subsoil geophysical properties is of great importance, for scientific reasons for the development of the Lunar exploration activities and the envisaged exploitation of its planetary resources. The Moon surface is characterized by the presence of regolith, a powdered material made up of unconsolidated, porous and highly brecciated rock fragments of several different grain sizes and lithologies. Beneath the regolith, a transition zone showing higher acoustic velocities may be present down to the solid bedrock. The bedrock consists of basaltic layers characterized by high seismic velocity and low seismic attenuation. In these conditions, human civil engineering and rover activities, including drilling may be subject to risk due to the lack of knowledge of the complex subsoil properties. Seismic While Drilling is a method used on Earth to support from geophysical point of view the drilling for oil and gas and geothermal exploration. In this application, the characterization of the stratigraphy by vertical seismic profiles in the drilled section, providing seismic images of the to-be-drilled substructures, is obtained using the drill-bit radiated energy. We present the result of a project that studies the adaptation of the method for Lunar drilling purposes, taking into account the specific issues related to the Moon environment and remote communication aspects. The results of a laboratory test conducted in the framework of a European Space Agency project (completed in 2009) with a planetary drill prototype and a simulator of a complete remote system are presented and discussed together with the perspectives for the seismic-while-drilling application for planetary missions.

  20. Environment Challenges for Exploration of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Cooke, William B.; Howard, James W.; Parker, Linda N.; Sharp, John; Schunck, Greg; Suggs. Robert W.; Wang, Joseph W.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program is designing a new generation of human rated launch and space transportation vehicles to first replace the Space Shuttle fleet, then support develop of a permanent human habitat on the Moon, and ultimately prepare for human exploration of Mars. The ambitious first step beyond low Earth orbit is to develop the infrastructure required for conducting missions to a variety of locations on the lunar surface for periods of a week and establishment of a permanent settlement at one of the lunar poles where crews will serve for periods on the order of approx.200 days. We present an overview of the most challenging aspects of the lunar environment that will need to be addressed when developing transport and habitat infrastructure for long term human presence on the Moon including low temperatures and dusty regolith surfaces, radiation environments due to galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles, charging of lunar infrastructure when exposed to lunar plasma environments, and secondary meteor environments generated by primary impacts on the lunar surface.

  1. Searching for alien artifacts on the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. C. W.; Wagner, R. V.

    2013-08-01

    The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) has a low probability of success, but it would have a high impact if successful. Therefore it makes sense to widen the search as much as possible within the confines of the modest budget and limited resources currently available. To date, SETI has been dominated by the paradigm of seeking deliberately beamed radio messages. However, indirect evidence for extraterrestrial intelligence could come from any incontrovertible signatures of non-human technology. Existing searchable databases from astronomy, biology, earth and planetary sciences all offer low-cost opportunities to seek a footprint of extraterrestrial technology. In this paper we take as a case study one particular new and rapidly-expanding database: the photographic mapping of the Moon's surface by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to 0.5 m resolution. Although there is only a tiny probability that alien technology would have left traces on the moon in the form of an artifact or surface modification of lunar features, this location has the virtue of being close, and of preserving traces for an immense duration. Systematic scrutiny of the LRO photographic images is being routinely conducted anyway for planetary science purposes, and this program could readily be expanded and outsourced at little extra cost to accommodate SETI goals, after the fashion of the SETI@home and Galaxy Zoo projects.

  2. Moon base reactor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  3. The role of extracellular conductivity profiles in compartmental models for neurons: particulars for layer 5 pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Riera, Jorge; Enjieu-Kadji, Herve; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-07-01

    With the rapid increase in the number of technologies aimed at observing electric activity inside the brain, scientists have felt the urge to create proper links between intracellular- and extracellular-based experimental approaches. Biophysical models at both physical scales have been formalized under assumptions that impede the creation of such links. In this work, we address this issue by proposing a multicompartment model that allows the introduction of complex extracellular and intracellular resistivity profiles. This model accounts for the geometrical and electrotonic properties of any type of neuron through the combination of four devices: the integrator, the propagator, the 3D connector, and the collector. In particular, we applied this framework to model the tufted pyramidal cells of layer 5 (PCL5) in the neocortex. Our model was able to reproduce the decay and delay curves of backpropagating action potentials (APs) in this type of cell with better agreement with experimental data. We used the voltage drops of the extracellular resistances at each compartment to approximate the local field potentials generated by a PCL5 located in close proximity to linear microelectrode arrays. Based on the voltage drops produced by backpropagating APs, we were able to estimate the current multipolar moments generated by a PCL5. By adding external current sources in parallel to the extracellular resistances, we were able to create a sensitivity profile of PCL5 to electric current injections from nearby microelectrodes. In our model for PCL5, the kinetics and spatial profile of each ionic current were determined based on a literature survey, and the geometrical properties of these cells were evaluated experimentally. We concluded that the inclusion of the extracellular space in the compartmental models of neurons as an extra electrotonic medium is crucial for the accurate simulation of both the propagation of the electric potentials along the neuronal dendrites and the

  4. The role of extracellular conductivity profiles in compartmental models for neurons: particulars for layer 5 pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Riera, Jorge; Enjieu-Kadji, Herve; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-07-01

    With the rapid increase in the number of technologies aimed at observing electric activity inside the brain, scientists have felt the urge to create proper links between intracellular- and extracellular-based experimental approaches. Biophysical models at both physical scales have been formalized under assumptions that impede the creation of such links. In this work, we address this issue by proposing a multicompartment model that allows the introduction of complex extracellular and intracellular resistivity profiles. This model accounts for the geometrical and electrotonic properties of any type of neuron through the combination of four devices: the integrator, the propagator, the 3D connector, and the collector. In particular, we applied this framework to model the tufted pyramidal cells of layer 5 (PCL5) in the neocortex. Our model was able to reproduce the decay and delay curves of backpropagating action potentials (APs) in this type of cell with better agreement with experimental data. We used the voltage drops of the extracellular resistances at each compartment to approximate the local field potentials generated by a PCL5 located in close proximity to linear microelectrode arrays. Based on the voltage drops produced by backpropagating APs, we were able to estimate the current multipolar moments generated by a PCL5. By adding external current sources in parallel to the extracellular resistances, we were able to create a sensitivity profile of PCL5 to electric current injections from nearby microelectrodes. In our model for PCL5, the kinetics and spatial profile of each ionic current were determined based on a literature survey, and the geometrical properties of these cells were evaluated experimentally. We concluded that the inclusion of the extracellular space in the compartmental models of neurons as an extra electrotonic medium is crucial for the accurate simulation of both the propagation of the electric potentials along the neuronal dendrites and the

  5. Bibliography. [of articles on moon and planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopal, Z.; Moutsoulas, M.; Waranius, F. B.

    1983-01-01

    A bibliography of articles entered into the data base at the Lunar and Planetary Institute Library from November 1982 through January 1983 is presented. An abstract of each article is given. The subjects covered by the articles include: the motion of the moon and dynamics of the earth-moon system: shape and gravity field of the moon; the physical structure of the moon, its thermal and stress history; the morphology of the lunar surface, the origin and stratigraphy of lunar formations, and mapping of the moon; the chemical composition of the moon, lunar petrology, mineralogy, and crystallography; electromagnetic properties of the moon; the planets; and other objects, including asteroids, comets, meteorites, and cosmic dust.

  6. Astrophysics from the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Bernard F.

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been conducted for the concept of a lunar base supporting astronomical instruments of power comparable to the VLA, giving attention to aperture-synthesis arrays which could improve angular resolution to the level of a few microarcsec. The only conceivable mode of catastrophic instrument failure envisioned would be a meteorite strike, although the probability for this is small and comparable to that encountered in orbital instruments. Nevertheless, lunar dust may pose problems, lunar soil may be inadequate for support of instrument structures, moonquakes may disturb instruments, gravitational deflection may distort them, and heat radiation and scattered light may exert troublesome influences on observations. Representative parameters for a specific system are presented.

  7. Forming the lunar farside highlands by accretion of a companion moon.

    PubMed

    Jutzi, M; Asphaug, E

    2011-08-03

    The most striking geological feature of the Moon is the terrain and elevation dichotomy between the hemispheres: the nearside is low and flat, dominated by volcanic maria, whereas the farside is mountainous and deeply cratered. Associated with this geological dichotomy is a compositional and thermal variation, with the nearside Procellarum KREEP (potassium/rare-earth element/phosphorus) Terrane and environs interpreted as having thin, compositionally evolved crust in comparison with the massive feldspathic highlands. The lunar dichotomy may have been caused by internal effects (for example spatial variations in tidal heating, asymmetric convective processes or asymmetric crystallization of the magma ocean) or external effects (such as the event that formed the South Pole/Aitken basin or asymmetric cratering). Here we consider its origin as a late carapace added by the accretion of a companion moon. Companion moons are a common outcome of simulations of Moon formation from a protolunar disk resulting from a giant impact, and although most coplanar configurations are unstable, a ∼1,200-km-diameter moon located at one of the Trojan points could be dynamically stable for tens of millions of years after the giant impact. Most of the Moon's magma ocean would solidify on this timescale, whereas the companion moon would evolve more quickly into a crust and a solid mantle derived from similar disk material, and would presumably have little or no core. Its likely fate would be to collide with the Moon at ∼2-3 km s(-1), well below the speed of sound in silicates. According to our simulations, a large moon/Moon size ratio (∼0.3) and a subsonic impact velocity lead to an accretionary pile rather than a crater, contributing a hemispheric layer of extent and thickness consistent with the dimensions of the farside highlands and in agreement with the degree-two crustal thickness profile. The collision furthermore displaces the KREEP-rich layer to the opposite hemisphere

  8. Motivation of Citizen Scientists Participating in Moon Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Shanique; Gay, P. L.; Daus, C. S.

    2011-01-01

    Moon Zoo is an online citizen science project with the aim of providing detailed crater counts for as much of the Moon's surface as possible. In addition to focusing on craters, volunteers are encouraged to remain vigilant for sightings of atypical features which may lead to new discoveries. Volunteers accomplish these tasks by exploring images captured by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) which has a resolution of 50cm per pixel. To be successful, Moon Zoo needs to attract and retain a large population of citizen scientists. In this study, we examine the factors motivating Moon Zoo participants who invest many hours exploring these images. In this, the first of a two-phased study, we conducted a qualitative analysis using semi-structured interviews as a means of data collection. A stratified sample of participants was used in an attempt to uncover the driving forces behind decisions to participate from a wide-range of participants. Inquiring and probing questions were asked about factors which led volunteers to Moon Zoo as well as reasons which kept them committed to exploring the Moon's surface through this online portal. Responses were then categorized using a grounded theory approach, and frequency distributions are calculated where appropriate. Aggregate results from these interviews are presented here including the demographics of the sample and motivators as per the content analysis. The information gathered from this phase will be used to guide the development of an online survey to further explore volunteers’ motivation based on the presented classification schemes. The survey will then be used to guide future research and development in the area of citizen science in the field of astronomy. These findings will also be useful in charting new boundaries for future research.

  9. Map of Jupiter's moon Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-04-01

    Map of Jupiter's moon Io The first global geologic map of the Jovian satellite Io has been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the agency announced on 19 March. “More than 130 years after the USGS first began producing quality geologic maps here on Earth, it is exciting to have the reach of our science extend across 400 million miles to this volcanically active moon of Jupiter,” said USGS director Marcia McNutt. “Somehow it makes the vast expanse of space seem less forbidding to know that similar geologic processes which have shaped our planet are active elsewhere.” The map illustrates the geologic character of the unique and active volcanoes on Io, a planetary body that has about 25 times more volcanic activity than Earth does, according to USGS.

  10. Meteoritic material on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Ganapathy, R.; Higuchi, H.; Anders, E.

    1974-01-01

    Micrometeorites, ancient planetesimal debris from the early intense bombardment, and debris of recent, crater-forming projectiles are discussed and their amounts and compositions have been determined from trace element studies. The micrometeorite component is uniformly distrubuted over the entire lunar surface, but is seen most clearly in mare soils whereas, the ancient component is seen in highland breccias and soils. A few properties of the basin-forming objects are inferred from the trace element data. An attempt is made to reconstruct the bombardment history of the moon from the observation that only basin-forming objects fell on the moon after crustal differentiation. The apparent half-life of basin-forming bodies is close to the calculated value for earth-crossing planetesimals. It is shown that a gap in radiometric ages is expected between the Imbrium and Nectaris impacts, because all 7 basins formed in this interval lie on the farside or east limb.

  11. Impact ejecta on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The partitioning of energy and the distribution of the resultant ejecta on the moon is numerically modeled using a Eulerian finite difference grid. The impact of an iron meteoroid at 15 km/sec on a gabbroic anorthosite lunar crust is examined. The high speed impact induced flow is described over the entire hydrodynamic regime from a time where the peak pressures are 6 Mbar until the stresses everywhere in the flow are linearly elastic, and less than 5 kbar. Shock-induced polymorphic phase changes, (plagioclase and pyroxene to hollandite and perovskite), and the subsequent reversion to low pressure phases are demonstrated to enhance shock wave attenuation. A rate-dependent equation of state is used for describing the hysteretic effect of the phase change. Ballistic equations for a spherical planet are then applied to material with net velocity away from the moon.

  12. Human Exploration of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    1999-01-01

    Human exploration of the Moon tilde-n or, more generally, human exploration of the solar system tilde-n began with the landing of Apollo 11 Lunar Module on the lunar surface. Human exploration continued with growing capability until the departure of the Apollo 17 lunar module from the lunar surface in 1972. Human exploration is currently experiencing what can be called euphemistically a hiatus.

  13. Radio astrometry from the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linfield, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    An array of three radio telescopes on the Moon, separated by 100-1000 km, could measure the positions of compact radio sources 50-100 times more accurately than can be done on Earth. These measurements would form an all-sky reference frame of extreme precision (5-10 micro-arcsec) and stability, with applications to the dynamics of the solar system, our galaxy, and nearby galaxies.

  14. Russian Planetary Program: Phobos and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galimov, E. M.; Marov, M. Ya.; Politshuk, G. M.; Zeleniy, L. M.

    2006-08-01

    Planetary exploration is a cornerstone of space science and technology development. Russia has a great legacy of the world recognized former space missions to the Moon and planets. Strategy of the Russian Federal Space Agency and the Russian Academy of Sciences planetary program for the coming decade is focused on space vehicle of new generation. The basic concept of this spacecraft development is the modern technology utilization, significant cost reduction and meeting objectives of the important science return. The bottom line is the use of middle class Soyuz-type launcher, which places the principal constraint on mass of the vehicle and mission profile. Flexibility in the design of space vehicle, including a possibility of SEP technology utilization, facilitates its adaptability for extended program of the solar system exploration. As the first step, the project is optimized around sample return mission from satellite of Mars Phobos ("Phobos-Grunt" or PSR) which is in the list of the Russian Federal Space Program for 2006 to 2015. It is to be launched in 2009 and completed in 2012. The experience gained from the former Russian "Phobos 88" serves as a clue to provide an important basis for the mission concept enabling solution of many problems of the project design and its implementation. There is a challenge to return relic matter from such small body like Phobos for the ground labs comprehensive study. The payload is also targeted for in-flight and extended remote sensing and in situ measurements using the capable instrument packages. The project is addressed as a milestone in the Russian program of the solar system study, with a potential for future ambitious missions to asteroids and comets pooling international efforts. Also endorsed by the Russian Federal Space Program is "Luna-Glob" mission to the Moon tentatively scheduled for 2011. The goal is to advance lunar science with the well instrumented orbiter, lander, and the network of penetrators. Return back

  15. Blue moons and Martian sunsets.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Kurt; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-03-20

    The familiar yellow or orange disks of the moon and sun, especially when they are low in the sky, and brilliant red sunsets are a result of the selective extinction (scattering plus absorption) of blue light by atmospheric gas molecules and small aerosols, a phenomenon explainable using the Rayleigh scattering approximation. On rare occasions, dust or smoke aerosols can cause the extinction of red light to exceed that for blue, resulting in the disks of the sun and moon to appear as blue. Unlike Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is dominated by micron-size dust aerosols, and the sky during sunset takes on a bluish glow. Here we investigate the role of dust aerosols in the blue Martian sunsets and the occasional blue moons and suns on Earth. We use the Mie theory and the Debye series to calculate the wavelength-dependent optical properties of dust aerosols most commonly found on Mars. Our findings show that while wavelength selective extinction can cause the sun's disk to appear blue, the color of the glow surrounding the sun as observed from Mars is due to the dominance of near-forward scattering of blue light by dust particles and cannot be explained by a simple, Rayleigh-like selective extinction explanation.

  16. Smart-1 Moon Impact Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayala, Andres; Rigger, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the operations to control the Moon impact of the 3-axis stabilized spacecraft SMART-1 in September 2006. SMART-1 was launched on 27/09/2003. It was the first ESA mission to use an Electric Propulsion (EP) engine as the main motor to spiral out of the Earth gravity field and reach a scientific moon orbit [1]. During September 2005 the last EP maneuvers were performed using the remaining Xenon, in order to compensate for the 3rd body perturbations of the Sun and Earth. These operations extended the mission for an additional year. Afterwards the EP performance became unpredictable and low, so that no meaningful operation for the moon impact could be done. To move the predicted impact point on the 16/8/2006 into visibility from Earth an alternative Delta-V strategy was designed. Due to their alignment, the attitude thrusters could not be used directly to generate the Delta-V, so this strategy was based on controlled angular momentum biasing. Firing along the velocity vector around apolune, the remaining Hydrazine left from the attitude control budget was used, to shift the impact to the required coordinates.

  17. Photon Luminescence of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, T.L.; Lee, K.T.

    2009-01-01

    Luminescence is typically described as light emitted by objects at low temperatures, induced by chemical reactions, electrical energy, atomic interactions, or acoustical and mechanical stress. An example is photoluminescence created when photons (electromagnetic radiation) strike a substance and are absorbed, resulting in the emission of a resonant fluorescent or phosphorescent albedo. In planetary science, there exists X-ray fluorescence induced by sunlight absorbed by a regolith a property used to measure some of the chemical composition of the Moon s surface during the Apollo program. However, there exists an equally important phenomenon in planetary science which will be designated here as photon luminescence. It is not conventional photoluminescence because the incoming radiation that strikes the planetary surface is not photons but rather cosmic rays (CRs). Nevertheless, the result is the same: the generation of a photon albedo. In particular, Galactic CRs (GCRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs) both induce a photon albedo that radiates from the surface of the Moon. Other particle albedos are generated as well, most of which are hazardous (e.g. neutrons). The photon luminescence or albedo of the lunar surface induced by GCRs and SEPs will be derived here, demonstrating that the Moon literally glows in the dark (when there is no sunlight or Earthshine). This extends earlier work on the same subject [1-4]. A side-by-side comparison of these two albedos and related mitigation measures will also be discussed.

  18. Blue moons and Martian sunsets.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Kurt; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-03-20

    The familiar yellow or orange disks of the moon and sun, especially when they are low in the sky, and brilliant red sunsets are a result of the selective extinction (scattering plus absorption) of blue light by atmospheric gas molecules and small aerosols, a phenomenon explainable using the Rayleigh scattering approximation. On rare occasions, dust or smoke aerosols can cause the extinction of red light to exceed that for blue, resulting in the disks of the sun and moon to appear as blue. Unlike Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is dominated by micron-size dust aerosols, and the sky during sunset takes on a bluish glow. Here we investigate the role of dust aerosols in the blue Martian sunsets and the occasional blue moons and suns on Earth. We use the Mie theory and the Debye series to calculate the wavelength-dependent optical properties of dust aerosols most commonly found on Mars. Our findings show that while wavelength selective extinction can cause the sun's disk to appear blue, the color of the glow surrounding the sun as observed from Mars is due to the dominance of near-forward scattering of blue light by dust particles and cannot be explained by a simple, Rayleigh-like selective extinction explanation. PMID:24663457

  19. Preliminary data from an instantaneous profile test conducted near the Mixed Waste Landfill, Technical Area 3, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bayliss, S.C.; Goering, T.J.; McVey, M.D.; Strong, W.R.; Peace, J.L.

    1996-04-01

    This paper presents data from an instantaneous profile test conducted near the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Mixed Waste Landfill in Technical Area 3. The test was performed from December 1993 through 1995 as part of the environmental Restoration Project`s Phase 2 RCRA Facility Investigation of the Mixed Waste Landfill. The purpose of the test was to measure the unsaturated hydraulic properties of soils near the Mixed Waste Landfill. The instantaneous profile test and instrumentation are described, and the pressure and moisture content data from the test are presented. These data may be useful for understanding the unsaturated hydraulic properties of soils in Technical Area 3 and for model validation, verification, and calibration.

  20. Positional Catalogues of Saturn's and Jupiter's Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizhakevych, O.; Andruk, V.; Pakuliak, L.; Lukianchuk, V.; Shatokhina, S.

    In the framework of the UkrVO national project (http://ukr-vo.org/) we have started the processing of photographic observations of Saturn's (S1-S8) and Jupiter's (J6-J8) moons. Observations were conducted during 1961-1993 with three astrographs DLFA, DWA, DAZ and Z600 reflector. Plate images were digitized as tif-files with commercial scanners. Image processing was carried out by specific software package in the LINUX-MIDAS-ROMAFOT environment with Tycho2 as reference. The software was developed at the MAO NASU. Obtained positions of objects were compared with theoretically predicted ones in IMCCE (Paris) (www.imcce.fr/sat) online. Rms error of divergence between observed and calculated positions is of 0.20' - 0.35'.

  1. Polarized electromagnetic response of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonett, C. P.; Smith, B. F.; Colburn, D. S.; Schubert, G.; Schwartz, K.

    1974-01-01

    The strong anisotropy in Apollo 15 Lunar Surface Magnetometer (LSM) signals resulting from electromagnetic induction in the moon, forced by fluctuations of the interplanetary magnetic field, is shown to result from intense polarization of the induced field. Arguments are given to show that the anisotropy cannot be explained wholly by asymmetric lunar induction in the presence of the diamagnetic cavity, but must be related to a regional influence. The weaker Apollo 12 anisotropy may also be associated with a regional influence. The site of Apollo 15 LSM at the edge of the Imbrium Basin suggests a preliminary model for calculations based on the possibility that Imbrium and perhaps Serenitatis are sources of the regional effect. Lastly, since the very low frequency induction seems free of the anisotropy, our earlier estimate of deep conductivity remains unchanged.

  2. Admittance–voltage profiling of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN heterostructures: Frequency dependence of capacitance and conductance

    SciTech Connect

    Köhler, K.; Pletschen, W.; Godejohann, B.; Müller, S.; Menner, H. P.; Ambacher, O.

    2015-11-28

    Admittance–voltage profiling of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN heterostructures was used to determine the frequency dependent capacitance and conductance of FET devices in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 1 MHz. The nominally undoped low pressure metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy structures were grown with an Al-content of 30%. An additional 1 nm thick AlN interlayer was placed in one structure before the Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N layer growth. For frequencies below 10{sup 8} Hz it is convenient to use equivalent circuits to represent electric or dielectric properties of a material, a method widely used, for example, in impedance spectroscopy. We want to emphasize the relation between frequency dependent admittance–voltage profiling and the corresponding equivalent circuits to the complex dielectric function. Debye and Drude models are used for the description of the frequency dependent admittance profiles in a range of depletion onset of the two-dimensional electron gas. Capacitance- and conductance-frequency profiles are fitted in the entire measured range by combining both models. Based on our results, we see contributions to the two-dimensional electron gas for our samples from surface states (80%) as well as from background doping in the Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N barriers (20%). The specific resistance of the layers below the gate is above 10{sup 5} Ω cm for both samples and increases with increasing negative bias, i.e., the layers below the gate are essentially depleted. We propose that the resistance due to free charge carriers, determined by the Drude model, is located between gate and drain and, because of the AlN interlayer, the resistance is lowered by a factor of about 30 if compared to the sample without an AlN layer.

  3. Europe rediscovers the Moon with SMART-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    spiralling journey accounted for more than 100 million kilometres, while the Moon - if you wanted to go there in a straight line - is only between 350,000 and 400,000 kilometres away from the Earth. As SMART-1 neared its destination, it began using the gravity of the Moon to bring it into a position where it was captured by the Moon’s gravitational field. This occurred in November 2004. After being captured by the Moon, in January 2005, SMART-1 started to spiral down to its final operational polar elliptical orbit with a perilune (closest point to the lunar surface) altitude of 300 km and apolune (farthest point) altitude of 3000 km. to conduct its scientific exploration mission. What was there to know that we didn’t know already? Despite the number of spacecraft that have visited the Moon, many scientific questions concerning our natural satellite remained unanswered, notably to do with the origin and evolution of the Moon, and the processes that shape rocky planetary bodies (such as tectonics, volcanism, impacts and erosion). Thanks to SMART-1, scientists all over Europe and around the world now have the best resolution surface images ever from lunar orbit, as well as a better knowledge of the Moon’s minerals. For the first time from orbit, they have detected calcium and magnesium using an X-ray instrument. They have measured compositional changes from the central peaks of craters, volcanic plains and giant impact basins. SMART-1 has also studied impact craters, volcanic features and lava tubes, and monitored the polar regions. In addition, it found an area near the north pole where the Sun always shines, even in winter. SMART-1 has roamed over the lunar poles, enabling it to map the whole Moon, including its lesser known far side. The poles are particularly interesting to scientists because they are relatively unexplored. Moreover, some features in the polar regions have a geological history which is distinct from the more closely studied equatorial regions where

  4. Proposal for revisions of the United Nations Moon Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Vera; Abreu, Neyda; Fritz, J.; Knapmeyer, Martin; Smeenk, Lisa; Ten Kate, Inge; Trüninger, Monica

    . More than 30 years have passed since the Moon Treaty (c. 1979) was elaborated, and since then technology and science have evolved leading to the need to change the requirements. As stated in the Moon Treaty, the State par-ties who had signed the Treaty meet every 5 and 10 years to revise the Treaty and suggest the necessary ratifications and amendments. The present version of the Moon Treaty, however, does not demonstrate ratifications that take into consideration environmental protection and preservation. For this, it is here suggested, that both the Antarctica Treaty (c. 1959), and more importantly, the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (c. 1991) are to be used as references for future documents that will be drawn pertaining the Moon. The Antarctica Treaty is currently one of the world's most successful international agreements and has evolved through time as needs and awareness require. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty reflects concerns regarding the impact of humans on the fragile environment of that continent. This concern is equally critical as new stages of lunar exploration unfold and the effects of such activity are progressively assessed. The key aspects of the Antarctic Protocol applicable to the Moon Treaty are: (1) a ban on commercial mineral resource activity, (2) careful waste disposal management, and (3) protection of areas of par-ticular scientific, environmental, and historical value. These measures should be implemented to prevent irreparable damage of the pristine lunar environment while permitting scientific, educational, and touristic uses and encouraging continued commitment to exploration of the Moon and other planetary bodies irrespective of exploration being robotic or human. A num-ber of other documents that establish an Environmental Code of Conduct for certain areas within the Antarctic continent (e.g., Management Plan for the Antarctic Specially Managed Area No.2, the McMurdo Dry

  5. Depth profiles of temperature, specific conductance and oxygen concentration in Lake Powell, Arizona-Utah, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marzolf, G. Richard; Hart, Robert J.; Stephens, Doyle W.

    1998-01-01

    The depth distribution of temperature in lakes and reservoirs establishes vertical-density gradients that regulate the distribution of a wide array of chemical and biological features. In Lake Powell, the depth at which inflowing river water enters the reservoir is controlled by the water temperature of the river compared to the vertical-thermal structure of the reservoir in late spring and early summer. The measurements reported here document the longitudinal and vertical pattern of temperature, specific conductance, and oxygen concentration on several dates in 1992, 1994, and 1995.

  6. Inverse modelling to estimate the profile of conductivity at saturation. A case study for a shallow layered soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negm, Amro; Barontini, Stefano; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2015-04-01

    An experimental field was installed in Summer 2012 in a mountain environment (Cividate Camuno, Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps, 274 m a.s.l.) in order to investigate the soil-water balance and the effectiveness of the eddy correlation technique to measure the evapotranspirative fluxes in a complex topography. The soil is young, shallow and anthropized, grown on the debris of a power plant workings. The genetic sequence is given by A, C and D horizons, as it is common in many Alpine sites. USDA textural classes are silty loam (A, up to 9 cm depth), loam (upper C, 9 to 22 cm), silty clay loam (lower C, 22 to 28 cm) and silty loam (D, deeper than 38 cm), with increasing gravel fraction (pebbles) with depth. Due to the meaningful pebbles presence, the sampled soil cores were disturbed and considered reliable only for porosity, grains size distribution, water content and soil-water retention relationships. In the field a single ring infiltrometer was used to estimate the soil conductivity at saturation. Two infiltration tests were performed, in view of sampling the A-layer and the upper 10 centimeters of the C-layer. The great soil heterogeneity in the upper layers does not merge the hypotheses of the classical approaches to determine the soil conductivity after infiltration tests, therefore a methodology based on inverse modelling was developed. After a preliminary estimate of the conductivities of the A-layer (Ks,A) and of the C-layer (Ks,C) based on the hypothesis of steady percolation at the end of the infiltration tests, a 2D axisymmetrical model was set up for both the tests with the FV-FD AdHydra code, which numerically solves the Richards equation. Then the two infiltration tests were used to iteratively fit both Ks,A (first test) and Ks,C (second test), using as an initial condition for the simulation of the second test the tensiometer-pressure potential map given as an output of the simulation of the first test. The procedure rapidly converged to

  7. The effect of the gravitation of the moon on frequency of births.

    PubMed

    Wake, Ryotaro; Misugi, Takuya; Shimada, Kenei; Yoshiyama, Minoru

    2010-09-23

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the gravitation of the Moon on the frequency of births in Kyoto, Japan. A retrospective cohort analysis of 1007 consecutive births without the use of the induction agents was conducted on a population of births in a private midwife hospital from January, 1966 to December, 2000. There was a significant increase in the cases of births, when the gravitation of the Moon to the Earth was less than 31.5 N. Results of this study suggest that the gravitation of the Moon has an influence on the frequency of births.

  8. Analysis of the temperature profile of ceramic composite materials exposed to combined conduction-radiation between concentric cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Tremante, A.; Malpica, F.

    1998-04-01

    A numerical study is made of the thermal characteristics of semitransparent materials exposed to simultaneous conduction and radiation between concentric cylinders. For extremely high-temperature applications, where radiative transfer plays an important role, ceramic-matrix composites, considered as semitransparent materials, are being explored for potential use in turbine and compressor components, spacecraft structures, engine control systems and nuclear reactors. Through the use of a gray model and the two-flux method, specialized equations are developed that generate a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. To facilitate the solution of this system, an iterative strategy is adopted. In order to demonstrate the versatility and accuracy of the proposed methodology, the results of several numerical experiments are presented and compared with benchmark solutions.

  9. The Early Years: Seeing the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    Spotting the Moon in the sky is like finding a treasure--unexpected and beautiful. When children look for the Moon in the sky, they don't know where to look. The Moon is far away and most easily observed at a time when most young children are sleeping. Because direct contact isn't possible, adults have to be creative in how they help children…

  10. The binary fission origin of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, Alan B.

    1986-01-01

    The major arguments for and against the binary fission model of lunar origin are reviewed. Unresolved problems include: (1) how the protoearth acquired sufficient angular velocity to fission, and (2) how the earth-moon system lost its excess angular momentum after fission. Despite these uncertainties, the compositional similarities between the earth's mantle and the bulk moon suggest that the fission model is worth considering. The proposed sequence of events in the formation of the moon by binary fission is given.

  11. Different ways of viewing the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runyon, C.; Shipp, S.; Guimond, K.; Atkinson, C.; Balch, K.; Tuthill, G.

    When the first astronauts landed on the Moon in 1969 they left a plaque which noted that the efforts of exploration were for all mankind That same spirit still guides NASA and is an important part of their education public outreach E PO programs In 2008 India will launch a mission to the Moon Chandrayaan-1 with a NASA funded instrument onboard Moon Mineralogy Mapper M3 The E PO resources being developed for M3 and Chandrayaan-1 share the cultural significance of the moon around the world as well its scientific history Additionally by employing the strategies of universal design the E PO materials will be accessible to diverse audiences

  12. ISA accelerometer and Moon science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Peron, Roberto; Santoli, Francesco; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Lefevre, Carlo; Nozzoli, Sergio; Reale, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    In recent years the Moon has become again a target for exploration activities, as shown by many performed, ongoing or foreseen missions. The reason for this new wave are manifold. The knowledge of formation and evolution of the Moon to current state is important in order to trace the overall history of Solar System. An effective driving factor is the possibility of building a human settlement on its surface, with all the related issues of environment characterization, safety, resources, communication and navigation. Our natural satellite is also an important laboratory for fundamental physics: Lunar Laser Ranging is continuing to provide important data that constrain possible theories of gravitation. All these topics are providing stimulus and inspirations for new experiments. ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) can provide an important tool for lunar studies. Thanks to its structure (three one-dimensional sensors assembled in a composite structure) it works both in-orbit and on-ground, with the same configuration. It therefore can be used onboard a spacecraft, as a support to a radio science mission, and on the surface of the Moon, as a seismometer. The first option has been explorated in the context of MAGIA (Missione Altimetrica Gravimetrica geochImica lunAre), a proposal for an exploration mission with a noteworthy part dedicated to gravimetry and fundamental physics. The second option is candidate to be hosted on NASA ILN (International Lunar Network) and ESA First Lunar Lander. After a description of the instrument, both of them will be described and discussed, giving emphasis on the integration of the instrument with the other components of the respective experiments.

  13. Uranus rings and two moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Voyager 2 has discovered two 'shepherd' satellites associated with the rings of Uranus. The two moons -- designated 1986U7 and 1986U8 -- are seen here on either side of the bright epsilon ring; all nine of the known Uranian rings are visible. The image was taken Jan. 21, 1986, at a distance of 4.1 million kilometers (2.5 million miles) and resolution of about 36 km (22 mi). The image was processed to enhance narrow features. The epsilon ring appears surrounded by a dark halo as a result of this processing; occasional blips seen on the ring are also artifacts. Lying inward from the epsilon ring are the delta, gamma and eta rings; then the beta and alpha rings; and finally the barely visible 4, 5 and 6 rings. The rings have been studied since their discovery in 1977, through observations of how they diminish the light of stars they pass in front of. This image is the first direct observation of all nine rings in reflected sunlight. They range in width from about 100 km (60 mi) at the widest part of the epsilon ring to only a few kilometers for most of the others. The discovery of the two ring moons 1986U7 and 1986U8 is a major advance in our understanding of the structure of the Uranian rings and is in good agreement with theoretical predictions of how these narrow rings are kept from spreading out. Based on likely surface brightness properties, the moons are of roughly 2O- and 3O-km diameter, respectively. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  14. Laser altimetry of Mercury, Moon, and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Torrence, M. H.; Barnouin, O. S.; Solomon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Since March 29 of this year, the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft has been ranging twice daily to the surface of Mercury from orbit, collecting more than 1 million ranges each month. Mercury joins Earth, Moon, and Mars as a planetary body mapped precisely by laser altimetry from orbit. Ranging covers nearly all of the northern hemisphere. The southern hemisphere largely lies beyond the 1800-km range of MLA from MESSENGER's eccentric orbit, but the 10-cm-precision MLA data will eventually be complemented by less precise radio occultation and limb profiling measurements by the MESSENGER spacecraft, as well as by digital topographic models produced by stereo photogrammetry. Mercury topography is distinguished from its larger and smaller counterparts by a relatively low (<10 km) dynamic range, less than half that of Earth, Moon, and Mars, and two-thirds that of its nearest neighbor, Venus. There are ample indications from the topography of Mercury impact structures as well as from its low-degree shape that Mercury's thermal evolution was complex and differed from those of other terrestrial planets. Central to the thermal history are the extensive contractional tectonic features for which altimetry quantifies accommodated strain. As well, MLA profiles of extensional graben within more than two dozen impact craters and basins, together with topographic and gravity field observations, will constrain the evolution of Mercury's upper crust and lithosphere. Lidar topographic data provide a wealth of geological contextual information regarding impact crater formation and modification, tectonics, volcanism, lithospheric strength, thermal evolution, and internal structure. Topography is essential for orthorectification of images and calibration of reflectance data. Geodetic topography, referenced to the center of mass, in conjunction with gravity, allows an assessment of the distribution of

  15. Live from the Moon - Impact!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On March 24, 1965, a nationwide TV audience watched live video from Ranger 9 as it purposefully crashed into the Moon within the crater Alphonsus. Ranger's six cameras sent back more than 5800 video images during the last 18 minutes of its 3-day journey, the last of the Ranger Project. The last few images show the lunar surface in detail from a few hundred meters above.

    This sequence of images from Camera A was converted from video to film to laser disc to digital files.

  16. Apollo 17 petrology and experimental determination of differentiation sequences in model moon compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, F. N.; Kushiro, I.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental studies of model moon compositions are discussed, taking into account questions related to the differentiation of the outer layer of the moon. Phase relations for a series of proposed lunar compositions have been determined and a petrographic and electron microprobe study was conducted on four Apollo 17 samples. Two of the samples consist of high-titanium mare basalts, one includes crushed anorthosite and gabbro, and another contains blue-gray breccia.

  17. Near-surface ice on Mercury and the Moon: A topographic thermal model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salvail, James R.; Fanale, Fraser P.

    1994-01-01

    A thermal model that can be easily adapted to craters of arbitrary shape is developed and applied to high-latitude impact craters on Mercury and the Moon, Chao Meng Fu crater at -87.5 deg L on Mercury, an unnamed bowl-shaped crater at 86.7 deg L on Mercury, and Peary crater at 88.6 deg L on the Moon. For an assumed input topography and grid of surface elements, the model computes for each element the irradiation from direct insolation and reflected and emitted radiation from other elements, taking into account shadowing by walls of the crater, partial obscuration of the solar disk near the poles and the diurnal, orbital, and seasonal cycles. Temperatures are computed over the surface grid as functions of depth and time from the surface to a specified depth and over the pertinent astronomical cycles, including the effects of direct and indirect surface irradiation, infrared radiation, heat conduction, and interior heating. Vapor fluxes and ice recession times are computed as functions of ice depth over the surface grid. Temperatures profiles, vapor fluxes, and ice recession times were computed for flat surfaces not associated with craters near the poles of Mercury and the Moon. It was found that water ice could have existed throughout geologic time within the maximum radar detection depth of recent observation of Mercury (J. K. Harmon and M. A. Slade, 1992, Science 258, 640-643) poleward of approximately 87 - 88 deg L on Mercury and poleward of approximately 73 deg L on the Moon. For Chao Meng Fu crater it was found that approximately 40% of the crater floor is permanently shadowed from direct solar insolation, while the remainder of the crater floor is periodically illuminated by a partially obscured Sun. Temperatures at the upper levels of the south wall can slightly exceed 550 K. Surface temperatures in the permanently shadowed region of the crater floor are under approximately 130 K, which could have allowed water ice to exist throughout geologic time within the

  18. LIRAS mission for lunar exploration by microwave interferometric radiometer: Moon's subsurface characterization, emission model and numerical simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompili, Sara; Silvio Marzano, Frank; Di Carlofelice, Alessandro; Montopoli, Mario; Talone, Marco; Crapolicchio, Raffaele; L'Abbate, Michelangelo; Varchetta, Silvio; Tognolatti, Piero

    2013-04-01

    The "Lunar Interferometric Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis" (LIRAS) mission is promoted by the Italian Space Agency and is currently in feasibility phase. LIRAS' satellite will orbit around the Moon at a height of 100 km, with a revisiting time period lower than 1 lunar month and will be equipped with: a synthetic aperture radiometer for subsurface sounding purposes, working at 1 and 3 GHz, and a real aperture radiometer for near-surface probing, working at 12 and 24 GHz. The L-band payload, representing a novel concept for lunar exploration, is designed as a Y-shaped thinned array with three arms less than 2.5 m long. The main LIRAS objectives are high-resolution mapping and vertical sounding of the Moon subsurface by applying the advantages of the antenna aperture synthesis technique to a multi-frequency microwave passive payload. The mission is specifically designed to achieve spatial resolutions less than 10 km at surface and to retrieve thermo-morphological properties of the Moon subsurface within 5 m of depth. Among LIRAS products are: lunar near-surface brightness temperature, subsurface brightness temperature gross profile, subsurface regolith thickness, density and average thermal conductivity, detection index of possible subsurface discontinuities (e.g. ice presence). The following study involves the preliminary design of the LIRAS payload and the electromagnetic and thermal characterization of the lunar subsoil through the implementation of a simulator for reproducing the LIRAS measurements in response to observations of the Moon surface and subsurface layers. Lunar physical data, collected after the Apollo missions, and LIRAS instrument parameters are taken as input for the abovementioned simulator, called "LIRAS End-to-end Performance Simulator" (LEPS) and obtained by adapting the SMOS End-to-end Performance Simulator to the different instrumental, orbital, and geophysical LIRAS characteristics. LEPS completely simulates the behavior of the satellite

  19. Habitability potential of icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.; Solomonidou, A.; Bampasidis, G.; Hirtzig, M.; Sohl, F.; Hussmann, H.; Kyriakopoulos, K.; Seymour, K.; Bratsolis, E.; Moussas, X.

    2012-09-01

    The satellites of Jupiter and Saturn have been revealed as extremely astrobiologically interesting bodies presenting promising conditions for habitability and the development and/or maintenance of life. Titan and Enceladus, Saturn's satellites, were found by the Cassini-Huygens mission to possess active organic chemistries with seasonal variations, unique geological features and possibly internal liquid water oceans, among other. Additionally, Jupiter's Europa and Ganymede show indications of harboring liquid water oceans under their icy crusts, which may be in direct contact with a silicate mantle floor and kept warm through time by tidally generated heat. All of these environments satisfy many of the "classical" criteria for habitability (liquid water, energy sources to sustain metabolism and "nutrients" over a period of time long enough to allow the development of life). In order to study the habitability of icy moons around giant planets, we look at the atmosphere-surface-interior connections with their similarities with the Earth as a starting point [1]. The discovery of the water jets on Enceladus, the possibility for cryovolcanic processes on Titan and the hypothetically active mantle of Europa suggest that icy moons around giant planets may well contain subsurface oceans.

  20. Composition of the Moon's Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2004-12-01

    In 1997, PSRD first reported on the trailblazing efforts to map the abundance and distribution of titanium and iron on the entire lunar surface based on Clementine orbital remote sensing data [see PSRD article: Moonbeams and Elements]. Researchers calibrated the remote sensing data with the best ground-truth standards available: lunar soil and rock samples. Since the initial mapping, planetary scientists have been striving to improve the calibration of the remote sensing data to correct for over or under estimates of the global concentrations of primary elements. This work is important because it prevents us from getting erroneous ideas about the Moon's composition and origin. New calibrations to Lunar Prospector and Clementine data by Jeff Gillis (previously at Washington University in St. Louis and now at the University of Hawaii), Brad Jolliff, and Randy Korotev (both at Washington University in St. Louis) have resulted in updated global maps for thorium (Th), potassium (K), and iron oxide (FeO) that are more consistent with the compositions of lunar samples and lunar meteorites, and allow a better understanding of the Moon's formation and evolution.

  1. Introducing the Moon's Orbital Eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    I present a novel way to introduce the lunar orbital eccentricity in introductory astronomy courses. The Moon is perhaps the clearest illustration of the general orbital elements such as inclination, ascending node, eccentricity, perigee, and so on. Furthermore, I like the students to discover astronomical phenomena for themselves, by means of a guided exercise, rather than just telling them the facts.1 The inclination and nodes may be found by direct observation, monitoring carefully the position of the Moon among the stars. Even the regression of the nodes may be discovered in this way2 To find the eccentricity from students' observations is also possible,3 but that requires considerable time and effort. if a whole class should discover it in a short time, here is a method more suitable for a one-day class or home assignment. The level I aim at is, more or less, advanced high school or first-year college students. I assume them to be acquainted with celestial coordinates and the lunar phases, and to be able to use algebra and trigonometry.

  2. Taking Europe To The Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    The first step in this ESA initiated programme is a unique project called 'Euromoon 2000' which is currently being studied by ESA engineers/ scientists and key European Space Industries. The project is intended to celebrate Europe's entry into the New Millennium; and to promote public awareness and interest in science, technology and space exploration. Euromoon 2000 has an innovative and ambitious implementation plan. This includes a 'partnership with industry' and a financing scheme based on raising part of the mission's budget from sponsorship through a dynamic public relations strategy and marketing programme. The mission begins in earnest with the small (approx. 100 kg) LunarSat orbiter satellite, to be designed and built by 50 young scientists and engineers from across Europe. Scheduled for launch in 2000 as a secondary payload on a European Ariane 5 rocket, it will then orbit the Moon, mapping the planned landing area in greater detail in preparation of the EuroMoon Lander in 2001. The Lander's 40 kg payload allocation will accommodate amongst others scientific instrumentation for in-situ investigation of the unique site. Elements of specific support to the publicity and fund-raising campaign will also be considered. The Lander will aim for the 'Peak of Eternal Light' on the rim of the 20 km-diameter, 3 km-deep Shackleton South Pole crater - a site uniquely suited for establishing a future outpost. This location enjoys almost continuous sunlight thus missions can rely on solar power instead of bulky batteries or costly and potentially hazardous nuclear power generation. As a consequence of the undulating South Pole terrain there are also permanently shadowed areas - amongst the coldest in the Solar System resulting in conditions highly favourable for the formation of frozen volatiles (as suggested by the Clementine mission in 1994). Earlier this year (7th January 1998), NASA launched its Lunar Prospector satellite which is currently performing polar lunar

  3. HST Observations of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storrs, A. D.; Garner, C. J.; McIntosh, C. M.; Landis, R. R.; Schultz, A. B.

    2005-12-01

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observed the Moon in August 2005, using the High Resolution Camera (HRC) of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) (proposal ID 10719, PI Garvin). Three sites were observed: the Apollo 15 and 17 landing sites, and Aristarchus crater. Four filters were used: the F658N in the red, the F502N in the visible, the F344N in the UV, and the F250W in the vacuum UV. HST affords spatial resolution of about 100m on the Moon, as well as access to the vacuum UV, which are impossible from ground based observations. Tracking was necessarily done under gyro control and so some image drift occurred between and during exposures. We present HST data that has been processed to remove instrumental distortion and drift during the exposures. We use the MISTRAL image restoration algorithm (Mugnier et al. 2004) and a trailed point spread function to minimize the effects of image motion. We will make mosaics of data in individual filters and where there is spatial overlap between the mosaics, present maps showing both the relative age of the surface material, as well as its overall composition. Mugnier et al. (2004): "MISTRAL: a myopic edge-preserving image restoration method, with application to astronomical adaptive-optics-corrected long-exposure images", JOSA A, vol 21 no. 10, pp. 1841-1854

  4. Meteoritic material on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Ganapathy, R.; Higuchi, H.; Anders, E.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of meteoritic material are found on the moon: micrometeorites, ancient planetesimal debris from the "early intense bombardment," and debris of recent, craterforming projectiles. Their amounts and compositions have been determined from trace element studies. The micrometeorite component is uniformly distributed over the entire lunar surface, but is seen most clearly in mare soils. It has a primitive, C1-chondrite-like composition, and comprises 1 to 1.5 percent of mature soils. Apparently it represents cometary debris. The ancient component is seen in highland breccias and soils. Six varieties have been recognized, differing in their proportions of refractories (Ir, Re), volatiles (Ge, Sb), and Au. All have a fractionated composition, with volatiles depleted relative to siderophiles. The abundance patterns do not match those of the known meteorite classes. These ancient meteoritic components seem to represent the debris of an extinct population of bodies (planetisimals, moonlets) that produced the mare basins during the first 700 Myr of the moon's history. On the basis of their stratigraphy and geographic distribution, five of the six groups are tentatively assigned to specific mare basins: Imbrium, Serenitatis, Crisium, Nectaris, and Humorum or Nubium.

  5. Space Debris Hazards from Fragmentations in Collinear Earth-Moon Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Priyankar; Sharma, Ram Krishan; Tewari, Ashish

    2009-03-01

    The collinear Lagrange points of the Earth-Moon system provide an ideal environment for future missions. L1 point, which lies between the Earth and the Moon, has potential for a manned space station to transport cargo and personnel to the Moon and back. Similarly, L2 point can be a candidate location for communication satellites covering the far side of Moon. Because, Lagrange Points promise to be the hub of future space operations, it has become important to study effect of a spacecraft fragmentation at these points. In this context, Stumpff/Weiss four-body algorithm, which is an extension of the Encke method of orbit propagation, provides a very attractive proposition for the simulation of fragment evolution. The method is 10 to 15 times faster than the other similar techniques and hence permits Monte-Carlo (MC) analysis of fragmentation velocity. Following a fragmentation at Earth-Moon collinear point about 2% of the total number of debris pieces can come within GSO altitude (~ 3.6×104 km). Fragmentation at any one of the Earth-Moon collinear points poses small yet perceptible risk to space operation around the Earth. It is emphasized that there is a genuine need to conduct more detailed study on fragmentation at collinear Earth- Moon points.

  6. The Moon's Phases and the Self Shadow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Timothy; Guy, Mark

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a new way of teaching the phases of the Moon. Through the introduction of a "self shadow" (an idea of a shadow that is not well-known), they illuminate students' understanding of the phases of the Moon and help them understand the distinction between the shadows that cause eclipses and the shadows that relate…

  7. Formative Assessment Probes: The Daytime Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2012-01-01

    The familiar adage "seeing is believing" implies that children will recall a particular phenomenon if they had the experience of seeing it with their own eyes. If this were true, then most children would believe that one could see the Moon in both daytime and at night. However, when children are asked, "Can you see the Moon in the daytime?" many…

  8. Origin and Evolution of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Cuixiang

    2014-01-01

    Since the Moon is the only natural satellite of the Earth, the research on the formation of the Moon can not only find out the formation mechanism of the satellites of Solar System planets but also reveal the evolution law of galaxies in the universe. Hence many hypotheses have been proposed for the Moon's formation, including fission,capture,condensation,and impact event hypothesis, but they all have problems. Recently, the author of this abstract discovered the formation mechanism of the Moon, which can be called ``evolution theory'', and described as follows: During some violent volcanic eruptions of the Earth, some rock debris such as pumice through deep rock hole could achieve a velocity no less than the first cosmic velocity (7.9 km/s) to enter an orbit around the Earth, one of the biggest debris is the young Moon. The orbit of the young Moon might be much closer to the Earth than it is today. There were a lot of ejecta from the Earth in the space. Hence, the Moon has merged these ejecta to become larger and larger, and farther and farther away from the Earth.This can be proved as follows: When the Moon moved around the Earth normally, the centrifugal force produced by the Moon's rotation around the Earth and the Earth's gravitation pull on the Moon had the same size. Let M be the mass of the Earth, m 1 be the mass of the Moon, r m be the radius of the Moon, r be the centroid distance between the Earth and the Moon, v be the tangential velocity of the Moon around the Earth, then Gm 1 M/r 2=m 1 v 2/r, therefore $v=\\sqrt{GM/r}$ . Near the orbit of the Moon, there were also many smaller prograde planetesimals moving around the Earth in circular orbits of radius r x (r-r m \\sqrt{GM/r}$ , which implies v x > v, these planetesimals would finally catch and merge with the Moon.Especially,if a planetesimals was large enough, it would impact the Moon forcefully, making the Moon's velocity increase to a larger

  9. Evolution of the moon: The 1974 model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    Investigations are reported of Apollo and Luna explorations which have brought about the understanding of the moon and its structure. It is shown that with this knowledge of the moon, a better understanding is presented of the earth's origin, structure and composition.

  10. Aperture synthesis imaging from the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Jack O.

    1991-01-01

    Four candidate imaging aperture synthesis concepts are described for possible emplacement on the moon beginning in the next decade. These include an optical interferometer with 10 microarcsec resolution, a submillimeter array with 6 milliarcsec resolution, a moon-earth VLBI experiment, and a very low frequency interferometer in lunar orbit.

  11. Rise and fall of the Martian moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, Erik

    2016-08-01

    The two small satellites of Mars are thought to have accreted from a debris disk formed in a giant impact. Simulations suggest the moons were shepherded into formation by the dynamical influence of one or more short-lived massive inner moons.

  12. After Apollo: Fission Origin of the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, John A.

    1973-01-01

    Presents current ideas about the fission process of the Moon, including loss of mass. Saturnian rings, center of the Moon, binary stars, and uniformitarianism. Indicates that planetary formation may be best explained as a destructive, rather than a constructive process. (CC)

  13. Exploring the moon. [personal historical background perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jastrow, R.

    1981-01-01

    The genesis of lunar exploration programs is described. The idea that the dead moon could give important clues about the origin of the solar system germinated into plans for a soft landing on the moon and then into the Apollo program. The exchanges between NASA scientists and other astronomers that led to these plans are recounted.

  14. Communicating On The Moon Via Fiber Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, George F.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses feasibility of communicating over long distances on Moon via fiber optics. Compares fiber-optic and microwave technologies, concluding fiber optics offer less consumption of power, less weight, less bulk, and lower cost. Present commercial fiber-optic technology appears usable on Moon with minor modifications. Includes tutorial chapter on fiber-optic-communication technology and chapter on efforts to improve technology.

  15. NASAs Evolvable Mars Campaign: Mars Moons Robotic Precursor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Abell, Paul A.; Love, Stanley G.; Lee, David E.; Chappell, Steven P.; Howe, A. Scott; Friedensen, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Human exploration missions to the moons of Mars are being considered within NASA's Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) as an intermediate step for eventual human exploration and pioneering of the surface of Mars. A range of mission architectures is being evaluated in which human crews would explore one or both moons for as little as 14 days or for as long as 500 days with a variety of orbital and surface habitation and mobility options being considered. Relatively little is known about the orbital, surface, or subsurface characteristics of either moon. This makes them interesting but challenging destinations for human exploration missions during which crewmembers must be able to effectively conduct scientific exploration without being exposed to undue risks due to radiation, dust, micrometeoroids, or other hazards. A robotic precursor mission to one or both moons will be required to provide data necessary for the design and operation of subsequent human systems and for the identification and prioritization of scientific exploration objectives. This paper identifies and discusses considerations for the design of such a precursor mission based on current human mission architectures. Objectives of a Mars' moon precursor in support of human missions are expected to include: 1) identifying hazards on the surface and the orbital environment at up to 50-km distant retrograde orbits; 2) collecting data on physical characteristics for planning of detailed human proximity and surface operations; 3) performing remote sensing and in situ science investigations to refine and focus future human scientific activities; and 4) prospecting for in situ resource utilization. These precursor objectives can be met through a combination or remote sensing (orbital) and in-situ (surface) measurements. Analysis of spacecraft downlink signals using radio science techniques would measure the moon's mass, mass distribution, and gravity field, which will be necessary to enable trajectory planning

  16. Working on the moon: The Apollo experience

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    The successful completion of any scientific or engineering project on the Moon will depend, in part, on human ability to do useful work under lunar conditions. In making informed decisions about such things as the use of humans rather than robots for specific tasks, the scheduling of valuable human time, and the design and selection of equipment and tools, good use can be made of the existing experience base. During the six completed landing missions, Apollo lunar surface crews conducted 160 astronaut-hours of extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) and also spent a similar sum of waking hours working in the cramped confines of the Lunar Module. The first three missions were primarily proof-tests of flight hardware and procedures. The ability to land equipment and consumables was very modest but, despite stay times of no more than 32 hours, the crews of Apollos 11, 12, and 14 were able to test their mobility and their capability of doing useful work outside the spacecraft. For the last three missions, thanks to LM modifications which enabled landings with significant amounts of cargo, stay times more than doubled to three days. The crews were able to use Lunar Rovers to conduct extensive local exploration and to travel up to 10 kilometers away from their immediate landing sites. During these final missions, the astronauts spent enough time doing work of sufficient complexity that their experience should be of use in the formulation early-stage lunar base operating plans. 2 refs.

  17. Young Children's Knowledge About the Moon: A Complex Dynamic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venville, Grady J.; Louisell, Robert D.; Wilhelm, Jennifer A.

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to use a multidimensional theoretical framework to examine young children's knowledge about the Moon. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and the design was a multiple case study of ten children between the ages of three and eight from the USA and Australia. A detailed, semi-structured interview was conducted with each child. In addition, each child's parents were interviewed to determine possible social and cultural influences on the child's knowledge. We sought evidence about how the social and cultural experiences of the children might have influenced the development of their ideas. From a cognitive perspective we were interested in whether the children's ideas were constructed in a theory like form or whether the knowledge was the result of gradual accumulation of fragments of isolated cultural information. Findings reflected the strong and complex relationship between individual children, their social and cultural milieu, and the way they construct ideas about the Moon and astronomy. Findings are presented around four themes including ontology, creatures and artefacts, animism, and permanence. The findings support a complex dynamic system view of students' knowledge that integrates the framework theory perspective and the knowledge in fragments perspective. An initial model of a complex dynamic system of young children's knowledge about the Moon is presented.

  18. Russian Scientific Project: "The Moon - 2012+"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A.; Petrova, N.

    2006-08-01

    The realization of the modern long-time programs of comprehensive investigation of the Moon in the framework: "SMART-1" (ESA, 2003+), "SELENE" (JAXA, 2007), "Chandrayaan" (India, 2007), "CHANG'E-I" (CNSA, 2007), "LRO" (NASA, 2008), and "Luna Glob" (Russia, 2012) are aimed at obtaining of broad information about lunar gravity field, precision position in the inertial coordinate system, geometrical and dynamical figure and lunar interior: qualitative parameter Q, Love number k[2], core's radius R[c], core's density etc. Russian scientific project "The Moon - 2012+" is directed on the decision of fundamental problems of celestial mechanics, selenodesy and geophysics of the Moon connected to carrying out of complex theoretical researches and computer modelling: 1. Spin-orbital long-time evolution and physical librations the multilayered Moon: ?) construction of the analytical theory of rotation of the two/ three-layer Moon and reception on its basis of physical libration tables for their application at processing precision supervisions; construction of a lunar annual book. b) The analysis of spin-orbital evolution of the early Moon, an estimation of internal energy dissipation, modelling of the long-term mechanism of maintenance free librations the Moon. 2. Geodynamics of a lunar core: the analysis of differentiation of a lunar core, detailed elaboration of plume-tectonics of a mantle and a core of the early Moon, evolution of a boundary layer a core - mantle, reconstruction of gravitational and viscous - mechanical interaction of a lunar core and a mantle, resonant dissipation of internal energy, calculation free and forced nutations a lunar core, free fluctuations of system a core - mantle. 3. Selenodesy of lunar far - side: the decision of a return problem lunar gravimetry, construction of geodynamic model of a lunar crust, a mantle and a core, border Moho, reconstruction initial mascons on the Moon, creation precision topographical and gravitational models of the

  19. Surface Penetrating Radar Simulations for Jupiter's Icy Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markus, Thorsten; Gogineni, S. P.; Green, J. L.; Reinisch, B. W.; Song, P.; Fung, S. F.; Benson, R. F.; Taylor, W. W. L.; Cooper, F.

    2003-01-01

    The icy moons of Jupiter (Europa, Callisto, and Ganymede) are of similar overall composition but show different surface features as a result of different sub-surface processes. Furthermore, each of these moons could have a liquid ocean of water buried underneath the icy crust, but their depth can only be speculated. For Europa, estimates put the thickness of the ice shell anywhere between 2-30 km, with'a few models predicting up to 100 km. Much of the uncertainties are due to the largely unknown temperature gradients and levels of water impurities across different surface layers. One of the most important geological processes is the possible transportation of heat by ice convection. If the ice is convecting, then an upper limit of about 20 km is set for the depth of the ocean underneath. Convection leads to a sharp increase in temperature followed by a thick region of nearly constant temperature. If ice is not convecting, then an exponentially increasing temperature profile is expected. The crust is thought to be a mixture of ice and rock, and although the exact percentage of rock is not known, it is expected to be low. Additionally, the ice crust could contain salt, similar to sea ice on Earth. The exact amount of salt and how that amount changes with depth is also unknown. In preparation for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission, we performed simulations for a surface-penetrating radar investigating signatures for different possible surface and sub-surface structures of these moons in order to estimate the applicability of using radar with a frequency range between 1 and 50 MHz. This includes simulations of power requirements, attenuation losses, layer resolutions for scenarios with and without the presence of a liquid ocean underneath the ice, cases of convecting and non-convecting ice, different impurities within the ice, and different surface roughnesses.

  20. Constraints on the moon's origin from the partitioning behaviour of tungsten

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, H. E.; Drake, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    An evaluation is conducted of the parameters which control the partitioning of W between metal and silicate in the moon, taking into account information on the possible magnitudes of the lunar W depletion and the possible lunar metal content. A major question regarding depletion of W during partial melting is found to be related to the very homogeneous W/La ratios in lunar samples. It is concluded that a metal content consistent with present geophysical constraints on the size of a metallic lunar core could account for the depletion of W observed in lunar rocks. The low W/La ratio of the moon cannot be used as evidence for the formation of the moon from the earth's mantle by fission following terrestrial core formation. The approximate coincidence of W/La ratios in the earth, moon, and eucrite parent body may only reflect the operation of the same depletion mechanism in similar conditions on several parent bodies.

  1. One Moon, many measurements 2: Photometric corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besse, S.; Yokota, Y.; Boardman, J.; Green, R.; Haruyama, J.; Isaacson, P.; Mall, U.; Matsunaga, T.; Ohtake, M.; Pieters, C.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Yamamoto, S.

    2013-09-01

    Observations of the lunar surface within the past 10 years have been made with various lunar remote sensing instruments, the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) onboard the Chandrayaan-1 mission, the Spectral Profiler (SP), the Multiband Imager (MI), the Terrain Camera (TC) onboard the SELENE mission, and the ground based USGS Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) for some of them. The lunar phase functions derived from these datasets, which are used in the photometric modeling to correct for the various illumination conditions of the data, are compared to assess their differences and similarity in order to improve interpretations of lunar surface spectra. The phase functions are found to be similar across various phase angles except in the 0-20° range. Differences across the 0-20° range likely result from two different inputs in the photometric modeling of the M3 and SP data: (1) M3 has larger emission angles due to the characteristics of the instrument and the attitude of the spacecraft, and (2) M3 viewing geometry was derived from the local topography whereas SP used a spherical Moon (no topography). The combination of these two different inputs affects the phase function at small phase angles where shadows play a more substantial role, with spatial resolution differences between M3 and SP being another possible source for the differences. SP data are found to be redder (i.e., steeper slope with increasing wavelengths) than MI, M3 and ROLO. Finally, the M3 overall reflectance is also found to be lower than that the other instruments (i.e., MI, SP, and ROLO), generally at least 10% darker than MI. These differences can be observed at local scales in specific examples at hundreds of meters resolutions. At regional and global scales, the same differences are found, which demonstrates the overall stability of the various datasets. The observations from M3, TC, SP and MI are very stable and agree well; however caution should be used when making interpretations based on the

  2. The Moon in the UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrix, Amanda

    2014-11-01

    While the Moon has been observed in the UV for decades, the real utility of this spectral region for unlocking some of the Moon’s secrets has only recently been understood. Previously the domain of atmospheric studies, the UV has now emerged as an important spectral region for studying surfaces. The ultraviolet regime is very sensitive to both space weathering effects and composition, including hydration. This presentation will cover a review of early UV lunar observations (e.g., Apollo 17, International Ultraviolet Explorer), as well as early laboratory studies that first shone a light on the importance of this spectral region. The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) instrument, currently in orbit on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft, is providing critical mapping capabilities of UV signatures, including signals from the permanently shadowed regions of the poles. I will discuss some of these exciting results, and extend these to implications for other airless bodies in the solar system.

  3. Blue moons and large fires.

    PubMed

    Porch, W M

    1989-05-15

    Theoretical analysis of simulations of optical effects from the 1950 Canadian forest fires has revealed what conditions are necessary for large fires to cause blue moons and suns. This study shows how large fires can be used to improve our understanding of long range pollution transport on a global scale as well as the evolution of aerosol radiative effects so important to global climate studies. The most important aerosol characteristics are the initial submicron smoke particle concentration and areal extent of the fire and its effect on fire plume dispersion. Capping clouds above the fire and near saturation humidity effects are simulated and found to help establish anomalous optical effects. Data are included showing probable anomalous extinction events associated with concentrated fire plumes.

  4. Does the moon eat colors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisot, J.-P.

    1986-03-01

    The physical chemistry of tropospheric oxidants, particularly H2O2, and the conditions necessary for their dissolution are investigated to account for the supposed bleaching property of the moon at night. The chemistry of OH, HO2, and H2O2 is linked to the photodissociation of O3 through the production of O(1D). Gaseous H2O2 is removed by heterogeneous reactions involving aerosols and liquid water. The dissolution of H2O2, formed by the interaction of water vapor with ozone dissociation products, occurs inside of water droplets in the presence of a support liquid such as dew principally at night when the humidity is more significant. The daily solubility of ambient H2O2 is estimated, and the oxidizing capacity of H2O2 is seen to explain the bleaching properties of dew.

  5. Environmental Change in Icy Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Vance, S.

    2014-12-01

    There is strong evidence that subsurface oceans could exist within several of the outer solar system's ice-rich moons, at Jupiter (Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto), Saturn (Enceladus and Titan), and Neptune (Triton). If liquid water is indeed available in these subsurface environments, then the availability of chemical energy becomes the greatest limitation on whether icy worlds could harbor life. Of these moons, the largest (Ganymede, Callisto, and Titan) are expected to harbor oceans deep within, and high-pressure H2O ice phases are expected farther beneath those deep oceans. In contrast, the oceans of smaller icy worlds—Europa, Enceladus, and Triton—are plausibly in direct contact with rock below. Given that serpentinization or other water-rock geochemical activity could supply reductants directly to their oceans, these icy worlds have the greatest chance to support present-day microbial life. Each of these three icy worlds displays spectacular resurfaced terrains that are very young (crater retention ages ~10s Myr and younger), with their internal activity linked to extremes in tidal heating today and/or in the geologically recent past. However, the degree of their tidal heating may have changed greatly over time. Europa is believed to experience cyclical tidal heating and activity; Enceladus may have experienced cyclical activity or a geologically recent pulse of activity; Triton may have experienced extreme tidal heating upon its capture and orbital circularization. Such dynamic pasts would pose challenges for any life within. We consider the possible effects of severe swings in the activity level of icy worlds, specifically the implications for delivery of chemical energy to their subsurface oceans.

  6. Asteroid Ida and Its Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the first full picture showing both asteroid 243 Ida and its newly discovered moon to be transmitted to Earth from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Galileo spacecraft--the first conclusive evidence that natural satellites of asteroids exist. Ida, the large object, is about 56 kilometers (35 miles) long. Ida's natural satellite is the small object to the right. This portrait was taken by Galileo's charge-coupled device (CCD) camera on August 28, 1993, about 14 minutes before the Jupiter-bound spacecraft's closest approach to the asteroid, from a range of 10,870 kilometers (6,755 miles). Ida is a heavily cratered, irregularly shaped asteroid in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter--the 243rd asteroid to be discovered since the first was found at the beginning of the 19th century. Ida is a member of a group of asteroids called the Koronis family. The small satellite, which is about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile) across in this view, has yet to be given a name by astronomers. It has been provisionally designated '1993 (243) 1' by the International Astronomical Union. ('1993' denotes the year the picture was taken, '243' the asteroid number and '1' the fact that it is the first moon of Ida to be found.) Although appearing to be 'next' to Ida, the satellite is actually in the foreground, slightly closer to the spacecraft than Ida is. Combining this image with data from Galileo's near-infrared mapping spectrometer, the science team estimates that the satellite is about 100 kilometers (60 miles) away from the center of Ida. This image, which was taken through a green filter, is one of a six-frame series using different color filters. The spatial resolution in this image is about 100 meters (330 feet) per pixel.

  7. Discovery of a Makemakean Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Alex H.; Buie, Marc W.; Grundy, Will M.; Noll, Keith S.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the discovery of a satellite in orbit about the dwarf planet (136472) Makemake. This satellite, provisionally designated S/2015 (136472) 1, was detected in imaging data collected with the Hubble Space Telescope’s Wide Field Camera 3 on UTC 2015 April 27 at 7.80 ± 0.04 mag fainter than Makemake and at a separation of 0.″57. It likely evaded detection in previous satellite searches due to a nearly edge-on orbital configuration, placing it deep within the glare of Makemake during a substantial fraction of its orbital period. This configuration would place Makemake and its satellite near a mutual event season. Insufficient orbital motion was detected to make a detailed characterization of its orbital properties, prohibiting a measurement of the system mass with the discovery data alone. Preliminary analysis indicates that if the orbit is circular, its orbital period must be longer than 12.4 days and must have a semimajor axis ≳21,000 km. We find that the properties of Makemake’s moon suggest that the majority of the dark material detected in the system by thermal observations may not reside on the surface of Makemake, but may instead be attributable to S/2015 (136472) 1 having a uniform dark surface. This “dark moon hypothesis” can be directly tested with future James Webb Space Telescope observations. We discuss the implications of this discovery for the spin state, figure, and thermal properties of Makemake and the apparent ubiquity of trans-Neptunian dwarf planet satellites.

  8. Detection to the DepositFan Occurring in the Sun Moon Lake Using Geophysical Sonar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimi, L.

    2014-12-01

    Located in central Taiwan, the Sun Moon Lake is an U-shaped basin with the waters capacity for 138.68 × 106m³. The water is input through two underground tunnels from the Wu-Jie dam in the upstream of the Zhuo-shui river. Although the Wu-Jie dam has been trying to keep the tunnels transporting clean water into the lake, the water is still mixed with muds. The silty water brings the deposits accumulating outwards from positions of the tunnel outlets resulting in a deposit fan formed in the lake. To monitor how the fan is accumulated is then very important in terms of environmental issue, tourism and electric power resources. Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University therefore conducted projects to use the multi-beam echo sounders to collect bathymetric data, and used the Chirp sub-bottom profiler to explore silted pattern inside the deposit fan. With these data, underwater topographic maps were plotted to observe the shape and internal structure of the fan. Moreover, two sets of data obtained in 2006 and 2012 were used to estimate the siltation magnitude and pattern in the six years period.The multi-beam sounder is Resons Seabat 9001s model; it collects 60 values in each of the swaths positioned by the DGPS method.The sub-bottom profiler is the EdgeTech 3100P Chirp Sonar, its acoustic wave frequency is in 2 ~ 16kHz. The data give the siltation amount in the Sun Moon Lake was around 3× 106 m³, which gives annual siltation rate at 5× 105 m³. The leading edge of the deposit fan has been expanded westwards 2 km from the water outlet since the tunnel was built 70 years ago; however, outside the deposit fan, the siltation shows insignificant amount on the water bottom.In the past few years the siltation mainly occurs outside in the east side of lake, more closer to the water outlets, the terrain had been increased from 744 m to 746 m (748.5 meters is stranded level of the lake).Observing sub-bottom profiler data, we can clearly see the location of the

  9. Mixing in the Earth's Mantle after the Moon-forming Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korycansky, Donald

    2016-10-01

    The giant-impact hypothesis has provided a satisfactory explanation for the most salient characteristics of the Earth-Moon system. Recently, however, the discovery that many isotope patterns of the Earth and Moon are nearly identical have cast serious doubt on the most-accepted scenario of the Moon-forming impact and have forced the consideration of significantly different kinds of impacts.The original scenario pictured the grazing impact of a Mars-mass body on the proto-Earth. However, in this scenario the Moon is formed largely from impactor material which is extremely unlikely to share the isotopic patterning of the proto-Earth. Hence, two other ideas have been put forth: in one, the proto-Earth is extremely rapidly rotating, and the impactor is small: the Moon-forming disk is largely Earth material "spun-out" by the impact. In the other picture, the proto-Earth and impactor are roughly the same mass and both Earth and Moon are amalgams of the combined proto-Earth and the impactor.As found by Nakajima and Stevenson (2015) in their calculations of all three scenarios, each idea has significantly different consequences for the degree of mixing of the mantle. I will focus in detail on the stability and mixing of a stratified and shearing mantle. The approach will be from a fluid-dynamic standpoint, for which the starting point is the well-known Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and from shear instabilities in general. The situations will be systematically investigated for relevant profiles of shear and entropy, with the aim of producing a more rigorous assessment of mixing in a post-Moon-forming terrestrial mantle. I will present results from CTH hydrocode simulations of calculations of the mantle under various conditions and velocity profiles to help determine which if any of the competing hypotheses for lunar formation are consistent with inferences of the state of the Earth's mantle in this early period.

  10. Apollo astronaut supports return to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-12-01

    Nearly 40 years after the Apollo 17 Moon launch on 7 December 1972, former NASA astronaut Harrison Schmitt said there is "no question" that the Moon is still worth going to, "whether you think about the science of the Moon or the resources of the Moon, or its relationship to accelerating our progress toward Mars." Schmitt, a geologist and the lunar module pilot for that final Apollo mission, was speaking at a 6 December news briefing about lunar science at the AGU Fall Meeting. "By going back to the Moon, you accelerate your ability to go anywhere else," Schmitt said, because of the ability to gain experience on a solar system body just a 3-day journey from Earth; test new hardware and navigation and communication techniques; and utilize lunar resources such as water, hydrogen, methane, and helium-3. He said lunar missions also would be a way "to develop new generations of people who know how to work in deep space. The people who know how to work [there] are my age, if not older, and we need young people to get that kind of experience." Schmitt, 77, said that a particularly interesting single location to explore would be the Aitken Basin at the Moon's south pole, where a crater may have reached into the Moon's upper mantle. He also said a longer duration exploration program might be able to explore multiple sites.

  11. MIGRATION OF SMALL MOONS IN SATURN's RINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, Benjamin C.; Kenyon, Scott J. E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-02-20

    The motions of small moons through Saturn's rings provide excellent tests of radial migration models. In theory, torque exchange between these moons and ring particles leads to radial drift. We predict that moons with Hill radii r {sub H} {approx} 2-24 km should migrate through the A ring in 1000 yr. In this size range, moons orbiting in an empty gap or in a full ring eventually migrate at the same rate. Smaller moons or moonlets-such as the propellers-are trapped by diffusion of disk material into corotating orbits, creating inertial drag. Larger moons-such as Pan or Atlas-do not migrate because of their own inertia. Fast migration of 2-24 km moons should eliminate intermediate-size bodies from the A ring and may be responsible for the observed large-radius cutoff of r {sub H} {approx} 1-2 km in the size distribution of the A ring's propeller moonlets. Although the presence of Daphnis (r {sub H} Almost-Equal-To 5 km) inside the Keeler gap challenges this scenario, numerical simulations demonstrate that orbital resonances and stirring by distant, larger moons (e.g., Mimas) may be important factors. For Daphnis, stirring by distant moons seems the most promising mechanism to halt fast migration. Alternatively, Daphnis may be a recent addition to the ring that is settling into a low inclination orbit in {approx}10{sup 3} yr prior to a phase of rapid migration. We provide predictions of observational constraints required to discriminate among possible scenarios for Daphnis.

  12. Galileo Teacher Training Program - MoonDays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heenatigala, T.; Doran, R.

    2012-09-01

    Moon is an excellent tool for classroom education. Many teachers fail to implement lunar science in classroom at several levels though - lack of guidance, finding the right materials, and implanting lessons in the school curriculum - just to name a few. To overcome this need, Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP) [1] present MoonDays, a resource guide for teachers globally which can be used both in and out of classroom. GTTP MoonDays includes scientific knowledge, hands-on activities, computing skills, creativity and disability based lesson plans.

  13. Towards A Moon Village: Vision and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    The new DG of ESA, Jan Wörner, has expressed from the very beginning of his duty a clear ambition towards a Moon Village, where Europe could have a lead role. The concept of Moon Village is basically to start with a robotic lunar village and then develop a permanent station on the Moon with different countries and partners that can participate and contribute with different elements, experiments, technologies, and overall support. ESA's DG has communicated about this programme and invited inputs from all the potential stakeholders, especially member states, engineers, industry, scientists, innovators and diverse representatives from the society. In order to fulfill this task, a series of Moon Village workshops have been organized first internally at ESA and then at international community events, and are also planned for the coming months, to gather stakeholders to present their ideas, their developments and their recommendations on how to put Moon Village into the minds of Europeans, international partners and prepare relevant actions for upcoming International Lunar Decade. Moon Village Workshop: The Moon Village Workshop in ESTEC on the 14th December was organized by ILEWG & ESTEC Staff Association in conjunction with the Moon 2020-2030 Symposium. It gathered people coming from all around the world, with many young professionals involved, as well as senior experts and representatives, with a very well gender balanced and multidisciplinary group. Engineers, business experts, managers, scientists, architects, artists, students presented their views and work done in the field of Lunar Exploration. Participants included colleagues from ESA, SGAC Space Generation Advisory Council, NASA, and industries such as OHB SE, TAS, Airbus DS, CGI, etc… and researchers or students from various Universities in Europe, America, and Asia. Working groups include: Moon Habitat Design, Science and Technology potentials on the Moon Village, and Engaging Stakeholders. The Moon

  14. Lunar magnetism and an early cold moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangway, D. W.; Sharpe, H. A.

    1974-01-01

    Models of lunar magnetism have involved dynamo action in a fluid core in an early hot moon; an early cold moon magnetized some time before 4 billion years ago, which has subsequently heated up; and local field sources which, in some models, are related to impact. The present work examines the second possibility and shows that, provided the moon contained a few percent of metallic iron and was exposed to an extra-lunar field of about 10 or 20 oersted while much of it was still below the Curie point of iron, a restricted class of thermal evolution models, which satisfy the known constraints, can be derived.

  15. Towards A Moon Village: Vision and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    The new DG of ESA, Jan Wörner, has expressed from the very beginning of his duty a clear ambition towards a Moon Village, where Europe could have a lead role. The concept of Moon Village is basically to start with a robotic lunar village and then develop a permanent station on the Moon with different countries and partners that can participate and contribute with different elements, experiments, technologies, and overall support. ESA's DG has communicated about this programme and invited inputs from all the potential stakeholders, especially member states, engineers, industry, scientists, innovators and diverse representatives from the society. In order to fulfill this task, a series of Moon Village workshops have been organized first internally at ESA and then at international community events, and are also planned for the coming months, to gather stakeholders to present their ideas, their developments and their recommendations on how to put Moon Village into the minds of Europeans, international partners and prepare relevant actions for upcoming International Lunar Decade. Moon Village Workshop: The Moon Village Workshop in ESTEC on the 14th December was organized by ILEWG & ESTEC Staff Association in conjunction with the Moon 2020-2030 Symposium. It gathered people coming from all around the world, with many young professionals involved, as well as senior experts and representatives, with a very well gender balanced and multidisciplinary group. Engineers, business experts, managers, scientists, architects, artists, students presented their views and work done in the field of Lunar Exploration. Participants included colleagues from ESA, SGAC Space Generation Advisory Council, NASA, and industries such as OHB SE, TAS, Airbus DS, CGI, etc… and researchers or students from various Universities in Europe, America, and Asia. Working groups include: Moon Habitat Design, Science and Technology potentials on the Moon Village, and Engaging Stakeholders. The Moon

  16. Seeing the Moon: A Series of Inquiry Activities Using Light to Investigate the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupla, Christine; Runyon, C.; Shipp, S.; Tremain, A. H.

    2007-12-01

    Seeing the Moon: Using Light to Investigate the Moon is a series of educational activity modules created for the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument aboard the Chandrayaan-1. In these modules, classroom students investigate light and the geologic history of the Moon. Through the hands-on inquiry based activities, 5th to 8th grade students experiment with light and color, collect and analyze authentic data from rock samples using an ALTA reflectance spectrometer, map the rock types of the Moon, and develop theories of the Moon's history. This poster will describe the activities and share the location of the modules. This poster will also share information on the availability of loaner kits which including rock samples and sets of the ALTA reflectance spectrometer.

  17. Dynamo Driven By Inertial Instabilities, Application to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebron, D.; Hollerbach, R.; Vantieghem, S.; Noir, J.; Schaeffer, N.

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale planetary or stellar magnetic fields generated by a dynamo effect are mostly attributed to flows forced by buoyancy forces in electrically conducting fluid layers. However, large-scale, turbulent flows may also be driven by the combined action of boundary topography (i.e. departure from spherical geometry), and mechanical forcings (e.g. libration, tides). This has been previously proposed to explain the magnetic data we have on the star τ-boo, Mars, or the early Moon. In this work, we use theoretical analysis and global magneto-hydrodynamic simulations to show, for the first time, that: (i) the tidal forcing can generate a (dipole-dominated) large-scale magnetic field in global simulations, an hypothesis previously assumed by Le Bars et al. (2011) in their model of lunar magnetic history. (ii) latitudinal libration (i.e. an oscillation of the figure axis with respect to the mean rotation axis) can excite inertial instabilities, which may have driven dynamos in telluric bodies such as the Early Moon. We discuss our results in the light of magnetic observations. In particular, we propose here a new possible mechanism for the early Moon dynamo, based on latitudinal libration driven instabilities. This new scenario is evaluated by comparing the associated estimates of the surface magnetic field strength with the recent paleo-magnetic lunar measurements.

  18. Origin of the Moon: Constraints from volatile elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreutzberger, M. E.; Drake, M. J.; Jones, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Supporting arguments for the lunar fusion hypothesis include the low density of the Moon corresponding to the density of the Earth's mantle and the low volatile content of the lunar rocks vs. those of terrestrial origin. Vapor pressures of the alkali elements and their oxides increase in the following order: Na, K, Rb and Cs. The Moon should, therefore, be more depleted in Cs relative to Rb, Rb relative to K, and K relative to Na than the Earth if the fission model is correct. Analyses of lunar mare basalts and terrestrial mid-ocean ridge and other young basalts indicate that this behavior is not observed. It is possible that monovalent alkali elements might be lost from silicate materials in a different order than that inferred from elemental and oxide vapor pressures, as a result of differences in the way they are bound in silicate materials. To test this hypothesis a series of experiments was conducted to investigate alkali loss at high temperatures. Analyses indicate that the behavior of volatiles dissolved in a silicate melt is similar to that inferred from elemental and oxide vapor pressures. It is concluded that alkali element ratios in the Earth and Moon are not readily interpreted in terms of the fission hypothesis.

  19. A manned exobiology laboratory based on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrke, Charles W.; Ponnamperuma, Cyril; Kuo, Kenneth C.; Mcentire, John E.; Stalling, David L.; Zumwalt, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Establishment of an exobiology laboratory on the Moon would provide a unique opportunity for exploration of extraterrestrial materials on a long-term, ongoing basis, for elucidation of exobiological processes and chemical evolution. A major function of the lunar exobiology laboratory would be to examine samples collected from other planets (e.g., Mars) for the presence of extant or extinct life. By establishing a laboratory on the Moon, preliminary analyses could be conducted away from Earth, thus establishing that extraterrestrial materials are benign before their return to Earth for more extensive investigations. The Moon-based exobiology laboratory would have three major components for study of samples returned from other planets: (1) the search for extant life - this component would focus on the detection and identification of life forms using biological, physical, and chemical methods; (2) the search for extinct life - this component would concentrate on identification of extinct life using micropaleontological physical and chemical means; and (3) the search and evidence of chemical evolution - this component would be devoted to the detection and identification of molecules revealing prebiotic chemical evolution.

  20. Mission to the Moon: Europe's priorities for the scientific exploration and utilisation of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battrick, Bruce; Barron, C.

    1992-06-01

    A study to determine Europe's potential role in the future exploration and utilization of the Moon is presented. To establish the scientific justifications the Lunar Study Steering Group (LSSG) was established reflecting all scientific disciplines benefitting from a lunar base (Moon studies, astronomy, fusion, life sciences, etc.). Scientific issues were divided into three main areas: science of the Moon, including all investigations concerning the Moon as a planetary body; science from the Moon, using the Moon as a platform and therefore including observatories in the broadest sense; science on the Moon, including not only questions relating to human activities in space, but also the development of artificial ecosystems beyond the Earth. Science of the Moon focuses on geographical, geochemical and geological observations of the Earth-Moon system. Science from the Moon takes advantage of the stable lunar ground, its atmosphere free sky and, on the far side, its radio quiet environment. The Moon provides an attractive platform for the observation and study of the Universe. Two techniques that can make unique cause of the lunar platform are ultraviolet to submillimeter interferometric imaging, and very low frequency astronomy. One of the goals of life sciences studies (Science on the Moon) is obviously to provide the prerequisite information for establishing a manned lunar base. This includes studies of human physiology under reduced gravity, radiation protection and life support systems, and feasibility studies based on existing hardware. The overall recommendations are essentially to set up specific study teams for those fields judged to be the most promising for Europe, with the aim of providing more detailed scientific and technological specifications. It is also suggested that the scope of the overall study activities be expanded in order to derive mission scenarios for a viable ESA lunar exploration program and to consider economic, legal and policy matters

  1. Main braking phase for a soft moon landing as a form of trajectory correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhachev, V. N.; Sikharulidze, Yu. G.; Fedotov, V. P.

    2013-12-01

    Rationale is given for the braking profile of a spacecraft making a soft landing on the Moon's surface, including the following four phases: main braking, free fall, repeated braking, and descent at a constant speed. Due to the large altitude differential over the braking path in near-polar regions of the Moon, main braking is proposed as a type of trajectory correction impulse using no altimeter. The boundary problem solution and statistical calculations are used to give the potential energy costs and characteristics of the dispersion characteristics for this phase and choose an optimal thrust-to-weight ratio for the phase.

  2. Upstream Waves and Particles at the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Y.; Halekas, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    This chapter presents an up-to-date catalog of Moon-related particle populations and lunar upstream waves obtained from in situ measurements at low (<˜100 km) and high altitudes, aimed at organizing and clarifying the currently available information on this complex region, where multiple categories of waves and particles coexist. It then briefly outlines the observed properties of a variety of classes of lunar upstream waves, as well as their generation mechanisms currently proposed, in association with the lunar upstream particle distributions. The lunar upstream region magnetically connected to the Moon and its wake, the fore-moon, represents a remarkably rich zoo of different classes of waves and different types of particles. Although recent observations have substantially enhanced our knowledge by revealing a number of new categories of upstream particles and waves at the Moon, many fundamental questions remain unanswered, and these are outlined in the chapter.

  3. NASA Developing Mining Robot for Moon, Mars

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is developing the RASSOR mining robot to collect soil, or regolith, on the moon or Mars so it can be processed into rocket fuel, breathable air and other commodities. By using materials availa...

  4. EPIC View of Moon Transiting the Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation features actual satellite images of the far side of the moon, illuminated by the sun, as it crosses between the DSCOVR spacecraft's Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and tele...

  5. Germany forgoes mission to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2011-01-01

    The German government has announced that it will not pursue any solo missions to the Moon and that the country will instead focus on the commercial uses of space, including communication, navigation and environmental-monitoring satellites.

  6. NASA Camera Catches Moon 'Photobombing' Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    On July 5, 2016, the moon passed between NOAA's DSCOVR satellite and Earth. NASA's EPIC camera aboard DSCOVR snapped these images over a period of about four hours. In this set, the far side of the...

  7. The Moons of Uranus, Neptune and Pluto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert Hamilton; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1985-01-01

    In preparation for the Voyager flybys in 1989, the pace of ground-based investigations of the moons of Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto has quickened considerably. Information derived from these investigations is presented. (JN)

  8. Our World: NASA's New Moon Robot

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA plans to use a six-legged, wheeled robot for missions to the moon and Mars called the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer, or Athlete. Athlete will be used to move the astronauts...

  9. LRO Exposes the Moon's Complex, Turbulent Youth

    NASA Video Gallery

    Using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter’s Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), NASA scientists have created the first-ever comprehensive catalog of large craters on the moon. In this animation, lun...

  10. Moon Phase & Libration 2013: Additional Graphics

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows the phase and libration of the Moon throughout the year 2013, at hourly intervals. Each frame represents one hour. In addition, this version of the visualization shows addi...

  11. A Narrated Tour of the Moon

    NASA Video Gallery

    Although the moon has remained largely unchanged during human history, our understanding of it and how it has evolved over time has evolved dramatically. Thanks to new measurements, we have new and...

  12. Effective Methods of Teaching Moon Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Heather; Hintz, E. G.; Lawler, M. J.; Jones, M.; Mangrubang, F. R.; Neeley, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the effectiveness of several commonly used methods for teaching the causes of moon phases to sixth grade students. Common teaching methods being investigated are the use of diagrams, animations, modeling/kinesthetics and direct observations of moon phases using a planetarium. Data for each method will be measured by a pre and post assessment of students understanding of moon phases taught using one of the methods. The data will then be used to evaluate the effectiveness of each teaching method individually and comparatively, as well as the method's ability to discourage common misconceptions about moon phases. Results from this research will provide foundational data for the development of educational planetarium shows for the deaf or other linguistically disadvantage children.

  13. In the Shadow of the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A description of the moon's total eclipse indicating the path, traveling speed and duration, followed by a concise description of how a total eclipse happens and what scientists actually study with relations to an eclipse. (EB)

  14. China's moon project change: Stratagem and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Sibing

    2003-06-01

    Underlying China's decision to explore the Moon is the assumption that space powers will soon contend for strategic resources on the lunar surface and China does not want to lag behind in the new Moon race. According to the 3-stage plan, a lunar orbiter based on DFH-3 Earth communications satellite platform could be launched by CZ-3A rocket from Xichang in three years to obtain 3-D topographic maps of the Moon and investigate the global distribution of resources through remote sensing. A soft landing mission is scheduled for 2010 to start the second stage of exploration using robotic rovers to survey the lunar surface. Sample return missions will follow. It will take more than ten years to complete the 3-step plan. Human missions to the Moon are not China's near-term goals although principal lunar scientists envision an international lunar base in 2030.

  15. Anthropic selection for the Moon's mass.

    PubMed

    Waltham, Dave

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates whether anthropic selection explains the unusually large size of our Moon. It is shown that obliquity stability of the Earth is possible across a wide range of different starting conditions for the Earth-Moon system. However, the lunar mass and angular momentum from the actual Earth-Moon system are remarkable in that they very nearly produce an unstable obliquity. This may be because the particular properties of our Earth-Moon system simultaneously allow a stable obliquity and a slow rotation rate. A slow rotation rate may have been anthropically selected because it minimizes the equator-pole temperature difference, thus minimizing climatic fluctuations. The great merit of this idea is that it can be tested using extrasolar planet search programs planned for the near future. If correct, such anthropic selection predicts that most extrasolar planetary systems will have significantly larger perturbation frequencies than our own Solar System.

  16. Yes, there was a moon race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberg, James E.

    1990-01-01

    Examination of newly disclosed evidence confirms that the Soviets were indeed striving to reach the moon before the U.S. in 1969. It is noted that a Soviet unmanned lunar probe crashed on the moon's surface only hours before the U.S. Apollo landing. Now confirmed openly are moon-exploration schedules that were competitive with Apollo plans, the names and histories of Soviet lunar boosters and landers, identities of the lunar cosmonauts; and even photos of manned lunar craft are available. Additional details on the troubled moon-probe program are presented: technical problems, continuous changes in goals, schedules, and planning, vehicle and personnel disasters, transfer of authority between ministries, and political power struggles in the scientific community.

  17. The economics of mining the Martian moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Raymond S.; Blacic, James D.; Vaniman, David T.

    1987-01-01

    The costs for extracting and shipping volatiles such as water, carbon, and nitrogen that might be found on Phobos and Deimos are estimated. The costs are compared to the cost of shipping the same volatiles from earth, assuming the use of nuclear powered mining facilities and freighters. Mineral resources and possible products from the Martian moons, possible markets for these products, and the costs of transporting these resources to LEO or GEO or to transportation nodal points are examined. Most of the technology needed to mine the moons has already been developed. The need for extraterrestrial sources of propellants for ion propulsion systems and ways in which the mining of the moons would reduce the cost of space operations near earth are discussed. It is concluded that it would be commercially viable to mine the Martian moons, making a profit of at least a 10 percent return on capital.

  18. International Lunar Observatory Association Advancing 21st Century Astronomy from the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durst, Steve

    2015-08-01

    Long considered a prime location to conduct astronomical observations, the Moon is beginning to prove its value in 21st Century astronomy through the Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope aboard China’s Chang’e-3 Moon lander and through the developing missions of the International Lunar Observatory Association (ILOA). With 24 hours / Earth day of potential operability facilitating long-duration observations, the stable platform of the lunar surface and extremely thin exosphere guaranteeing superior observation conditions, zones of radio-quiet for radio astronomy, and the resources and thermal stability at the lunar South Pole, the Moon provides several pioneering advantages for astronomy. ILOA, through MOUs with NAOC and CNSA, has been collaborating with China to make historic Galaxy observations with the Chang’e-3 LUT, including imaging Galaxy M101 in December 2014. LUT has an aperture of 150mm, covers a wavelength range of 245 to 340 nanometers and is capable of detecting objects at a brightness down to 14 mag. The success of China’s mission has provided support and momentum for ILOA’s mission to place a 2-meter dish, multifunctional observatory at the South Pole of the Moon NET 2017. ILOA also has plans to send a precursor observatory instrument (ILO-X) on the inaugural mission of GLXP contestant Moon Express. Advancing astronomy and astrophysics from the Moon through public-private and International partnerships will provide many valuable research opportunities while also helping to secure humanity’s position as multi world species.

  19. Earth and Moon as viewed from Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-368, 22 May 2003

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Globe diagram illustrates the Earth's orientation as viewed from Mars (North and South America were in view).

    Earth/Moon: This is the first image of Earth ever taken from another planet that actually shows our home as a planetary disk. Because Earth and the Moon are closer to the Sun than Mars, they exhibit phases, just as the Moon, Venus, and Mercury do when viewed from Earth. As seen from Mars by MGS on 8 May 2003 at 13:00 GMT (6:00 AM PDT), Earth and the Moon appeared in the evening sky. The MOC Earth/Moon image has been specially processed to allow both Earth (with an apparent magnitude of -2.5) and the much darker Moon (with an apparent magnitude of +0.9) to be visible together. The bright area at the top of the image of Earth is cloud cover over central and eastern North America. Below that, a darker area includes Central America and the Gulf of Mexico. The bright feature near the center-right of the crescent Earth consists of clouds over northern South America. The image also shows the Earth-facing hemisphere of the Moon, since the Moon was on the far side of Earth as viewed from Mars. The slightly lighter tone of the lower portion of the image of the Moon results from the large and conspicuous ray system associated with the crater Tycho.

    A note about the coloring process: The MGS MOC high resolution camera only takes grayscale (black-and-white) images. To 'colorize' the image, a Mariner 10 Earth/Moon image taken in 1973 was used to color the MOC Earth and Moon picture. The procedure used was as follows: the Mariner 10 image was converted from 24-bit color to 8-bit color using a JPEG to GIF conversion program. The 8-bit color image was converted to 8-bit grayscale and an associated lookup table mapping each gray value of the image to a red-green-blue color triplet (RGB). Each color triplet was root-sum-squared (RSS), and sorted in increasing RSS

  20. Which way to the Moon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Andrew J.; Crawford, Ian A.

    2006-08-01

    A PPARC-led delegation comprising David Parker (BNSC/PPARC Director of Science), Prof. Sir Martin Sweeting (Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd), Ian Crawford (Birkbeck College) and Andrew Ball (Open University) attended the NASA Exploration Strategy Workshop in Washington DC, from 25-28 April 2006 (http://www.aiaa.org/events/expwkshp). NASA initiated the workshop as a first step in its activities during 2006 to define a strategy for lunar exploration, building on the ``Vision for Space Exploration'' announced in 2004 (http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/exploration/main/ and http://exploration.nasa.gov/). Given the backdrop of the Vision framework, the goal was to bring together the reasons why we (meaning humanity) are going back to the Moon and what we want to do there. For many, the answers to these questions have been clear, albeit diverse, for a long time, being articulated and updated in various forms over the years (e.g. ESA 1992, 2003; Spudis 1996, 2001; Crawford 2004a,b; Stern 2005). The answers to the ``why'' and ``what'' questions reflect a wide variety of scientific, technological, commercial and societal motivations.

  1. Moon origin - The impact-trigger hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, William K.

    1986-01-01

    Arguments in favor of the impact-trigger model of lunar origin are presented. Lunar properties favoring this hypothesis include: (1) lunar iron and volatile deficiency; (2) angular momentum of the earth-moon system; and (3) similar O isotopes, bulk iron contents, and densities of earth's mantle and the moon. It is shown that the intense early bombardment averaged during earth's formation was several billion times the present meteoritic mass flux, consistent with a giant impact.

  2. The Moon: Resources, Future Development and Colonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrunk, David; Sharpe, Burton; Cooper, Bonnie; Thangavelu, Madhu

    1999-07-01

    This unique, visionary and innovative book describes how the Moon could be colonised and developed as a platform for science, industrialization and exploration of our Solar System and beyond. Thirty years ago, the world waited with baited breath to watch history in the making, as man finally stepped onto the moon's surface. In the last few years, there has been growing interest in the idea of a return to the moon. This book describes the reasons why we should now start lunar development and settlement, and how this goal may be accomplished. The authors, all of whom are hugely experienced space scientists, consider the rationale and steps necessary for establishing permanent bases on the Moon. Their innovative and scientific-based analysis concludes that the Moon has sufficient resources for large-scale human development. Their case for development includes arguments for a solar-powered electric grid and railroad, creation of a utilities infrastructure, habitable facilities, scientific operations and the involvement of private enterprise with the public sector in the macroproject. By transferring and adapting existing technologies to the lunar environment, the authors argue that it will be possible to use lunar resources and solar power to build a global lunar infrastructure embracing power, communication, transportation, and manufacturing. This will support the migration of increasing numbers of people from Earth, and realization of the Moon's scientific potential. As an inhabited world, the Moon is an ideal site for scientific laboratories dedicated to geosciences, astronomy and life sciences, and most importantly, it would fulfil a role as a proving ground and launch pad for future Solar System exploration. The ten chapters in this book go beyond the theoretical and conceptual. With vision and foresight, the authors offer practical means for establishing permanent bases on the Moon. The book will make fascinating and stimulating reading for students in

  3. Nuclear technologies for Moon and Mars exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear technologies are essential to successful Moon and Mars exploration and settlements. Applications can take the form of nuclear propulsion for transport of crews and cargo to Mars and the Moon; surface power for habitats and base power; power for human spacecraft to Mars; shielding and life science understanding for protection against natural solar and cosmic radiations; radioisotopes for sterilization, medicine, testing, and power; and resources for the benefits of Earth. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. How Apollo Flew to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Nick

    2009-10-01

    Eos readers who were even young children in the summer of 1969 probably will remember the first Moon landing vividly. If, like myself, they went on to develop a lifelong interest in manned spaceflight, they will have read many accounts in the intervening years, as diverse as Norman Mailer's, Andrew Chaikin's, and the first-person reminiscences of NASA astronaut Michael Collins. The prospect of another book about the Moon landing at first may seem uninspiring, and I confess this was my original reaction to the prospect of reading this book. Additionally, in the intervening 40 years since Apollo 11, there have been some superb films including For All Mankind (1989) and In the Shadow of the Moon (2006). The Internet has brought new possibilities for space documentation. The best known Web site on the Apollo missions is the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal, which now is hosted by NASA at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/. The Web site includes commentary from all of the surviving Moon walkers. Scottish space enthusiast W. David Woods created the companion Apollo Flight Journal, found at http://history.nasa.gov/afj//, which focuses on how the missions actually got to the Moon and back. Now Woods has distilled the information into the book How Apollo Flew to the Moon.

  5. The Impact History Of The Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.

    2010-01-01

    The bombardment history of the Earth-Moon system has been debated since the first recognition that the circular features on the Moon may be impact craters. Because the lunar impact record is the only planetary impact record to be calibrated with absolute ages, it underpins our understanding of geologic ages on every other terrestrial planet. One of the more remarkable results to come out of lunar sample analyses is the hypothesis that a large number of impact events occurred on the Moon during a narrow window in time approximately 3.8 to 4.1 billion years ago (the lunar cataclysm ). Subsequent work on the lunar and martian meteorite suites; remote sensing of the Moon, Mars, asteroids, and icy satellites; improved dynamical modeling; and investigation of terrestrial zircons extend the cataclysm hypothesis to the Earth, other terrestrial planets, and possibly the entire solar system. Renewed US and international interest in exploring the Moon offers new potential to constrain the Earth-Moon bombardment history. This paper will review the lunar bombardment record, timing and mechanisms for cataclysmic bombardment, and questions that may be answered in a new age of exploration.

  6. 2010 National Observe the Moon Night!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daou, Doris; Hsu, B. C.; Bleacher, L. V.; Day, B.; Jones, A.; Mitchell, B.; Shaner, A.; Shipp, S.

    2010-05-01

    We are creating a nation-wide, annual public outreach event called "National Observe the Moon Night” (NOMN) that provides opportunities for involving new partners in engaging the public in lunar science and exploration. The 2010 NOMN events will occur at our partner institutions - Ames Research Center (ARC; Moffett Field, CA), Goddard Space Flight Center (GFSC; Greenbelt, MD), Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI; Houston, TX), and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC; Huntsville, AL). The goal of National Observe the Moon Night is to engage the lunar science and education community, our partner networks, amateur astronomers, space enthusiasts, and the general public in annual lunar observation campaigns that share the excitement of lunar science and exploration. National Observe the Moon Night events will use NASA's "Tweet-ups" model and partners' dissemination networks to promote and recruit participation in the events. All information about NOMN will be supplied on a central website, accessible to the public (http://mymoon.lpi.usra.edu/nationalobservethemoonnight). Members of the public are encouraged to host their own NOMN events, and there will be a place for local astronomy clubs, schools, or other groups to post information about NOMN events they are organizing. To assist with their efforts, the website will contain downloadable documents of templates of advertising fliers, Moon maps, and activities that will be distributed at the national events, such as Moon calendar journals. After the events, participants will be able to continue using the website to follow links for more information about sites indicated on their Moon maps.

  7. New approaches to the Moon's isotopic crisis.

    PubMed

    Melosh, H J

    2014-09-13

    Recent comparisons of the isotopic compositions of the Earth and the Moon show that, unlike nearly every other body known in the Solar System, our satellite's isotopic ratios are nearly identical to the Earth's for nearly every isotopic system. The Moon's chemical make-up, however, differs from the Earth's in its low volatile content and perhaps in the elevated abundance of oxidized iron. This surprising situation is not readily explained by current impact models of the Moon's origin and offers a major clue to the Moon's formation, if we only could understand it properly. Current ideas to explain this similarity range from assuming an impactor with the same isotopic composition as the Earth to postulating a pure ice impactor that completely vaporized upon impact. Several recent proposals follow from the suggestion that the Earth-Moon system may have lost a great deal of angular momentum during early resonant interactions. The isotopic constraint may be the most stringent test yet for theories of the Moon's origin.

  8. New approaches to the Moon's isotopic crisis

    PubMed Central

    Melosh, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent comparisons of the isotopic compositions of the Earth and the Moon show that, unlike nearly every other body known in the Solar System, our satellite's isotopic ratios are nearly identical to the Earth's for nearly every isotopic system. The Moon's chemical make-up, however, differs from the Earth's in its low volatile content and perhaps in the elevated abundance of oxidized iron. This surprising situation is not readily explained by current impact models of the Moon's origin and offers a major clue to the Moon's formation, if we only could understand it properly. Current ideas to explain this similarity range from assuming an impactor with the same isotopic composition as the Earth to postulating a pure ice impactor that completely vaporized upon impact. Several recent proposals follow from the suggestion that the Earth–Moon system may have lost a great deal of angular momentum during early resonant interactions. The isotopic constraint may be the most stringent test yet for theories of the Moon's origin. PMID:25114301

  9. New approaches to the Moon's isotopic crisis.

    PubMed

    Melosh, H J

    2014-09-13

    Recent comparisons of the isotopic compositions of the Earth and the Moon show that, unlike nearly every other body known in the Solar System, our satellite's isotopic ratios are nearly identical to the Earth's for nearly every isotopic system. The Moon's chemical make-up, however, differs from the Earth's in its low volatile content and perhaps in the elevated abundance of oxidized iron. This surprising situation is not readily explained by current impact models of the Moon's origin and offers a major clue to the Moon's formation, if we only could understand it properly. Current ideas to explain this similarity range from assuming an impactor with the same isotopic composition as the Earth to postulating a pure ice impactor that completely vaporized upon impact. Several recent proposals follow from the suggestion that the Earth-Moon system may have lost a great deal of angular momentum during early resonant interactions. The isotopic constraint may be the most stringent test yet for theories of the Moon's origin. PMID:25114301

  10. 76 FR 37641 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for the City of Half Moon Bay, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... the City of Half Moon Bay, Half Moon Bay, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of Half Moon Bay, off of Pillar Point Harbor beach, Half Moon Bay, CA in support of the Independence Day...

  11. Space Science for Children: All about the Moon [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This 23-minute videotape gives children, grades K-4, a close-up look at the moon in order to answer the following questions: (1) Why does the moon appear different every night? (2) What does the moon look like up close? (3) What is it like to walk on the moon? and (4) Could we live on the moon someday? A hands-on activity designed to demonstrate…

  12. Forming the lunar farside highlands by accretion of a companion moon.

    PubMed

    Jutzi, M; Asphaug, E

    2011-08-01

    The most striking geological feature of the Moon is the terrain and elevation dichotomy between the hemispheres: the nearside is low and flat, dominated by volcanic maria, whereas the farside is mountainous and deeply cratered. Associated with this geological dichotomy is a compositional and thermal variation, with the nearside Procellarum KREEP (potassium/rare-earth element/phosphorus) Terrane and environs interpreted as having thin, compositionally evolved crust in comparison with the massive feldspathic highlands. The lunar dichotomy may have been caused by internal effects (for example spatial variations in tidal heating, asymmetric convective processes or asymmetric crystallization of the magma ocean) or external effects (such as the event that formed the South Pole/Aitken basin or asymmetric cratering). Here we consider its origin as a late carapace added by the accretion of a companion moon. Companion moons are a common outcome of simulations of Moon formation from a protolunar disk resulting from a giant impact, and although most coplanar configurations are unstable, a ∼1,200-km-diameter moon located at one of the Trojan points could be dynamically stable for tens of millions of years after the giant impact. Most of the Moon's magma ocean would solidify on this timescale, whereas the companion moon would evolve more quickly into a crust and a solid mantle derived from similar disk material, and would presumably have little or no core. Its likely fate would be to collide with the Moon at ∼2-3 km s(-1), well below the speed of sound in silicates. According to our simulations, a large moon/Moon size ratio (∼0.3) and a subsonic impact velocity lead to an accretionary pile rather than a crater, contributing a hemispheric layer of extent and thickness consistent with the dimensions of the farside highlands and in agreement with the degree-two crustal thickness profile. The collision furthermore displaces the KREEP-rich layer to the opposite hemisphere

  13. Recent Impacts on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.; Bowles, Z. R.; Daubar, I.; Povilaitis, R.; Thompson, S. D.; Thompson, T. J.; Wagner, R.

    2013-12-01

    Prior to Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) observations, an understanding of impact rates of meteoroids <1 m in size was based on extrapolation techniques from near-Earth object (NEO) knowledge [1,2,3], meteors in Earth's atmosphere [4], recent impacts recorded on Mars [5,6,7], and lunar 'flashes' (likely impacts) observed by teams such as those at Marshall Space Flight Center [8]. Since July of 2009, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) collects meter scale Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images, with repeat coverage in areas of high interest. Planned and serendipitous re-imaging with similar illumination conditions provides the means to detect temporal surface changes with the ultimate goal of measuring the current flux of impacts on the Moon. To easily detect a change at the surface, NAC-pairs separated in time (temporal pair), with similar illumination geometries are compared. Overlapping regions in a temporal pair are map projected and co-registered and a ratio is computed (second observation / first observation) and examined for temporal anomalies. Some changes are clearly distinguished as newly formed craters with rims and ejecta, while others are simply small (a few pixels) reflectance changes (crater not resolved). Detections are categorized as relatively high reflectance changes (HRC) or low reflectance changes (LRC) relative to the surrounding substrate. To date the LRCs outnumber the HRCs by a factor of ten. Clusters (>3) of changes were discovered in 48 temporal pairs. So far, we have identified 599 individual changes, with 547 LRCs and 48 HRCs. Of the 599 detections, sixteen represent resolved craters, and of these diameters range up to 20 m, suggesting bolide sizes up to ~1 m diameter. The total surface area examined to date is ~25,000 square km and the maximum time window between repeat images is 2.5 years, yielding an estimated minimum 364,000 new lunar craters per year (or one crater per year for every 104 square km) detectable at the scale

  14. Polarization of Saturn's moon Iapetus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejeta, C. T.; Boehnhardt, H.; Bagnulo, S.; Muinonen, K.; Kolokolova, L.; Tozzi, G.

    2012-12-01

    One way to constrain the surface properties of atmosphereless solar system objects is to investigate the properties of the polarized light scattered from their surfaces. Using FORS2 instrument of the ESO VLT, we have carried out a series of polarization measurements of Saturn's moon Iapetus, with an accuracy of ~0.1%, over the maximum phase angle range accessible from the ground (~ 6.0 deg), and over a broad spectral range (400 - 900 nm); thereby identifying the polarimetric characteristics of the bright surface material on its trailing side and, that of the dark material on its leading side. While our linear polarizatiom measurements of Iapetus' two hemispheres show an opposite trend of phase angle dependence, the polarization values measured for the two hemispheres around similar phase angles (between ~3 - 6.0deg) differ by a factor of three. Aimed at providing a quantitative assessment of the polarization observed for Iapetus, we have also carried out simulation of the scattering and absorption properties of light by a medium consisting of spherical volume of randomly positioned monodisperse particles. For this purpose, we used the numerically exact solutions of the Maxwell equations employing the multiple sphere T-matrix method [1]. The modeling entails physical characteristics of the particulate surface such as, porosity of the particulate medium; the number of constituent particles; the size, and optical properties of the scatterers. Our model has retrived, a particle size of ~ 0.10 ≤ r ≤ 0.20μm is dominating both the dark and bright material of Iapetus. Moreover, utilizing the scattering matrix parametrization for single-particle scattering with double Henyey-Greenstein (2HG) scattering phase function, to characterize the resulting multiple scattering, we have carried out coherent backscattering simulations for a spherical random media of scatterers [2], with the goal to obtain polarimetric phase function of Iapetus. The geometric albedo values of

  15. The Icy Moons of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Richard

    The Galilean satellites formed in a nebula of dust and gas that surrounded Jupiter toward the end of the formation of the giant planet itself. Their diverse initial compositions were determined by conditions in the circum-jovian nebula, just as the planets' initial properties were governed by their formation within the circum-solar nebula. The Galilean satellites subsequently evolved under the complex interplay of orbital and geophysical processes, which included the effects of orbital resonances, tides, internal differentiation, and heat. The history and character of the satellites can be inferred from consideration of the formation of planets and the satellites, from studies of their plausible orbital evolution, from measurements of geophysical properties, especially gravitational and magnetic fields, from observations of the compositions and geological structure of their surfaces, and from geophysical modeling of the processes that can relate these lines of evidence. The three satellites with large water-ice components, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto are very different from one another as a result of the ways that these processes have played out in each case. Europa has a deep liquid-water ocean with a thin layer of surface ice, Ganymede and Callisto likely have relatively thin liquid water layers deep below their surfaces, and Callisto remains only partially differentiated, with rock and ice mixed through much of its interior. A tiny inner satellite, Amalthea, also appears to be largely composed of ice. Each of these moons is fascinating in its own right, and the ensemble provides a powerful set of constraints on the processes that led to their formation and evolution.

  16. Temperature and electrical conductivity of the lunar interior from magnetic transient measurements in the geomagnetic tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    Magnetometers were deployed at four Apollo sites on the moon to measure remanent and induced lunar magnetic fields. Measurements from this network of instruments were used to calculate the electrical conductivity, temperature, magnetic permeability, and iron abundance of the lunar interior. Global lunar fields due to eddy currents, induced in the lunar interior by magnetic transients in the geomagnetic tail field, were analyzed to calculate an electrical conductivity profile for the moon: the conductivity increases rapidly with depth from 10 to the minus 9 power mhos/meter at the lunar surface to .0001 mhos/meter at 200 km depth, then less rapidly to .02 mhos/meter at 1000 km depth. A temperature profile is calculated from conductivity: temperature rises rapidly with depth to 1100 K at 200 km depth, then less rapidly to 1800 K at 1000 km depth. Velocities and thicknesses of the earth's magnetopause and bow shock are estimated from simultaneous magnetometer measurements. Average speeds are determined to be about 50 km/sec for the magnetopause and 70 km/sec for the bow shock, although there are large variations in the measurements for any particular boundary crossing.

  17. Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Sun-Earth-Moon Relative Movements--at a Time of Reform in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    In view of students' alternative conceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, we conducted a series of constructivist activities with future elementary and junior high school teachers aimed at changing their conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and of several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

  18. College MOON Project Australia: Preservice Teachers Learning about the Moon's Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulholland, Judith; Ginns, Ian

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a report of the Australian segment of an international multi-campus project centred on improving understanding of the Moon's phases for preservice teachers. Instructional strategies adopted for a science education subject enabled Australian participants to make extended observations of the Moon's phases and keep observational data…

  19. Condensing the Moon from a MAD Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lock, S. J.; Stewart, S. T.; Petaev, M. I.; Leinhardt, Z. M.; Mace, M.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Cuk, M.

    2015-12-01

    The favored theory for lunar origin is the giant impact hypothesis, where a protoplanet collides with the growing Earth and creates an orbiting disk of material that forms the Moon. However, the astonishing isotopic similarity between the Earth and Moon cannot be explained by current giant impact models without appealing to highly specific circumstances. Here, we demonstrate that a condensation model for lunar origin, achieved via a previously unrecognized class of post-impact states, produces the Moon's major characteristics. The required class of post-impact states is defined by (i) a high degree of vaporization and (ii) rapid rotation. When these two criteria are met, the mantle, atmosphere and disk (MAD) form a dynamically and thermodynamically continuous structure that quickly mixes, thereby diluting initial compositional heterogeneities. Then, partial condensation from the pressure-supported mass beyond the Roche limit produces a Moon that is isotopically similar to the bulk silicate Earth and depleted in volatile and moderately volatile elements. Initially, the condensed liquid is composed of silicates. As the structure cools, metal exsolves in the accreting Moon and moonlets. We calculate ~2wt% metal is exsolved from a bulk silicate Earth composition, which is consistent with estimates of the mass of the lunar core. Thus, similar tungsten isotopes are established in the Earth and Moon as metal is exsolved in both bodies after mixing. In our model, the criterion for lunar origin shifts, away from specific impact parameters that inject terrestrial material into orbit, to any collision that transforms the Earth into a rapidly rotating and substantially vaporized MAD planet. Impacts that can transform the Earth are common during the end stages of planet formation. Therefore, the characteristics of our Moon are a natural consequence of forming the Earth.

  20. "A Nightmare Land, a Place of Death": An Exploration of the Moon as a Motif in Herge's "Destination Moon" (1953) and "Explorers on the Moon" (1954)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauvais, Clementine

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the symbolic meaning of the Moon in two "bande dessinee" books from the Tintin series, Herge's "Destination Moon" ("Objectif Lune," 1953) and its sequel "Explorers on the Moon" ("On a Marche sur la Lune," 1954). It argues that these two volumes stand out in the series for their graphic, narrative and philosophical emphasis on…

  1. Lunar electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    Improved analytical techniques are applied to a large Apollo magnetometer data set to yield values of electroconductivity, temperature, magnetic permeability, and iron abundance. Average bulk electroconductivity of the moon is calculated to be .0007 mho/m; a rapid increase with depth to about .003 mho/m within 250 km is indicated. The temperature profile, obtained from the electroconductivity profile for olivine, indicates high lunar temperatures at relatively shallow depths. Magnetic permeability of the moon relative to its environment is calculated to be 1.008 plus or minus .005; a permeability relative to free space of 1.012 plus 0.011, minus 0.008 is obtained. Lunar iron abundances corresponding to this permeability value are 2.5 plus 2.3, minus 1.7 wt% free iron and 5.0-13.5 wt% total iron for a moon composed of a combination of free iron, olivine, and orthopyroxene.

  2. On the origin of Earth's Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Amy C.

    2016-09-01

    The Giant Impact is currently accepted as the leading theory for the formation of Earth's Moon. Successful scenarios for lunar origin should be able to explain the chemical composition of the Moon (volatile content and stable isotope ratios), the Moon's initial thermal state, and the system's bulk physical and dynamical properties. Hydrocode simulations of the impact have long been able to match the bulk properties, but recent, more detailed work on the evolution of the protolunar disk has yielded great insight into the origin of the Moon's chemistry and its early thermal history. Here I show that the community has constructed the elements of an end-to-end theory for lunar origin that matches the overwhelming majority of observational constraints. In spite of the great progress made in recent years, new samples of the Moon, clarification of processes in the impact-generated disk, and a broader exploration of impact parameter space could yield even more insights into this fundamental and uniquely challenging geophysical problem.

  3. Water on The Moon, I. Historical Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotts, Arlin

    2011-10-01

    By mid-19th century, astronomers strongly suspected that the Moon was largely dry and airless, based on the absence of any observable weather. [1] In 1892, William H. Pickering made a series of careful occultation measurements that allowed him to conclude that the lunar surface's atmospheric pressure was less than 1/4000th of Earth's. [2] Any number of strange ideas arose to contradict this, including Danish astronomer/mathematician Peter Andreas Hansen's hypothesis, that the Moon's center of mass is offset by its center of figure by 59 kilometers, meaning that one or two scale-heights of atmosphere could hide on the far side of the Moon, where it might support water oceans and life. [3] Hans Höbiger's 1894 Welteislehre ("World Ice") theory, that the Moon and much of the cosmos is composed of water ice, became the favored cosmology of leaders of Third Reich Germany. [4] Respectable scientists realized that significant amounts of water on the Moon’s surface would rapidly sublime into the vacuum.

  4. Launching to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration, announced in 2004, calls on NASA to finish constructing the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle, and build the new spacecraft needed to return to the Moon and go on the Mars. By exploring space, America continues the tradition of great nations who mastered the Earth, air, and sea, and who then enjoyed the benefits of increased commerce and technological advances. The progress being made today is part of the next chapter in America's history of leadership in space. In order to reach the Moon and Mars within the planned timeline and also within the allowable budget, NASA is building upon the best of proven space transportation systems. Journeys to the Moon and Mars will require a variety of vehicles, including the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the Lunar Surface Access Module. What America learns in reaching for the Moon will teach astronauts how to prepare for the first human footprints on Mars. While robotic science may reveal information about the nature of hydrogen on the Moon, it will most likely tale a human being with a rock hammer to find the real truth about the presence of water, a precious natural resource that opens many possibilities for explorers. In this way, the combination of astronauts using a variety of tools and machines provides a special synergy that will vastly improve our understanding of Earth's cosmic neighborhood.

  5. Moon formation coupled with the protolular disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnoz, Sebastien; Bugnet, Lisa; Michaut, Chloé

    2015-11-01

    It is thought that the Moon accreted from the protolunar disk that was assembled after the last giant impact on Earth. Due to its high temperature, the protolunar disk may act as a thermochemical reactor in which the material is processed before being incorporated into the Moon. Outstanding issues like devolatilisation and istotopic evolution are tied to the disk evolution, however its lifetime, dynamics and thermodynamics are unknown. Here, we numerically explore the long term viscous evolution of the protolunar disk using a one dimensional model where the different phases (vapor and condensed) are vertically stratified.Our major innovation is that we compute at the same time the proto-moon growth along with the disk evolution, and calculate the thermodynamical equilibrium of the proto-lunar seed as it grows.We will discuss the long term dynamics, thermodynamics, cooling timescale and possibility for volatile depletion. We will show that due to different effective viscosities substantial fractionation of volatiles and refractory material is possible.Finally we will compare different scenarios of moon impacts (standard, sub-earths, fast spinning Earth) and their different advantages for explaining today’s moon material content.

  6. Solar sail trajectory design in the Earth-Moon circular restricted three body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ashwati

    The quest to explore the Moon has helped resolve scientific questions, has spurred leaps in technology development, and has revealed Earth's celestial companion to be a gateway to other destinations. With a renewed focus on returning to the Moon in this decade, alternatives to chemical propulsion systems are becoming attractive methods to efficiently use scarce resources and support extended mission durations. Thus, an investigation is conducted to develop a general framework, that facilitates propellant-free Earth-Moon transfers by exploiting sail dynamics in combination with advantageous transfer options offered in the Earth-Moon circular restricted multi-body dynamical model. Both periodic orbits in the vicinity of the Earth-Moon libration points, and lunar-centric long-term capture orbits are incorporated as target destinations to demonstrate the applicability of the general framework to varied design scanarios, each incorporating a variety of complexities and challenges. The transfers are comprised of three phases - a spiral Earth escape, a transit period, and, finally, the capture into a desirable orbit in the vicinity of the Moon. The Earth-escape phase consists of spiral trajectories constructed using three different sail steering strategies - locally optimal, on/off and velocity tangent. In the case of the Earth-libration point transfers, naturally occurring flow structures (e.g., invariant manifolds) arising from the mutual gravitational interaction of the Earth and Moon are exploited to link an Earth departure spiral with a destination orbit. In contrast, sail steering alone is employed to establish a link between the Earth-escape phase and capture orbits about the Moon due to a lack of applicable natural structures for the required connection. Metrics associated with the transfers including flight-time and the influence of operational constraints, such as occultation events, are investigated to determine the available capabilities for Earth-Moon

  7. Moon Zoo: Educating side-by-side with Doing Science (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, P. L.; Moon Zoo Team

    2010-12-01

    The Moon Zoo citizen science project (http://www.moonzoo.org) engages individuals - primarily members of the public - in identifying geological (and sometimes technological) features on the lunar surface. Using a flash-based interface that runs in a web browser, users can mark craters, linear features, and even left-behind lunar landers on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter images. These science tools are embedded in an environment designed to encourage learning and collaboration. On the main Moon Zoo site users can explore educational content, including video tutorials, articles, glossary terms, and flash interactive activities. Additionally, there is a blog and a forum to encourage collaboration and social learning, and a twitter feed for general communications. Through this suite of software Moon Zoo users can contribute to science while learning about the Moon and geology. The Moon Zoo educational content is designed with one purpose in mind: To make sure that a curious user can find information quickly, easily, and on (or within 1-click of) the Moon Zoo site. The Internet is filled with many excellent lunar educational products, and many high-quality digital products exist in offline archives. Finding desired resources, however, can sometimes be a challenge even for professional educators. In order to make finding content easier, we developed a glossary list and a basic concept map for our website that addresses geology, lunar exploration, observing, and the moon in history and culture, and then we populated these terms and concepts with already available materials. We also do things in a way that encourages both doing science tasks and learning at the same time! Specifically, we use pop-out audio and video players that allow users to listen, learn, and classify the lunar surface all at once. To try and understand our users better we are conducting both learning and motivations studies while also monitoring site usage. Our learning assessments use an assessment tool

  8. Declaring the Republic of the Moon - Some artistic strategies for re-imagining the Moon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Frenais., R.

    2014-04-01

    Sooner or later, humans are going back to the Moonwhether to mine it, to rehearse for a Mars mission or to just live there. But how will human activity there reflect what has happened on Earth since the last moon mission, to reflect the diversity and political and social changes that have happened since? Can artists imagine what it would be like to live on the Moon? Artists are already taking part in many scientific endeavours, becoming involved in emerging fields such as synthetic bioloogy, nanotechology, ecological remediation and enthusiastically participating in citizen science. There are already artists in Antarctica. It should be inevitable that artists will sooner or later accompany the next visit by humans to the Moon. But why wait? Artists are already imagining how it would be to live on the Moon, whether in their imaginations or though rehearsals in lunar analogues. In the recent exhibition 'Republic of the Moon' a number of visionary strategies were employed, from the use of earth-moon-earth 'moonbouncing' (Katie Paterson) to the breeding and imprinting of real geese as imagined astronauts. (Agnes Meyer-Brandis). The Outer Space Treaty and the (unsigned) Moon treaty were re-analysed and debates and even small demonstrations were organised protesting (or demanding) the industrial exploitation of the Moon. Fortuitously, China's Chang-e mission landed during the exhibition and the life and death of the rover Jade Rabbit brought a real life drama to the Republic of the Moon. There have been other artistic interventions into lunar exploration, including Aleksandra Mir's First Woman on the Moon, Alicia Framis's Moonlife project and of course the historic inclusion of two artistic artefacts into the Apollo missions, Monument to the Fallen Astronaut (still on the Moon) and the Moon Museum, reportedly inserted by an engineer into the leg of the Lunar Exploration Module. With the worldwide race by the Global Lunar X Prize teams to land a rover independently of any

  9. HUBBLE OBSERVES THE MOONS AND RINGS OF THE PLANET URANUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the planet Uranus reveals the planet's rings, at least five of the inner moons, and bright clouds in the planet's southern hemisphere. Hubble now allows astronomers to revisit the planet at a level of detail not possible since the Voyager 2 spacecraft flew by the planet briefly, nearly a decade ago. Hubble's new view was obtained on August 14, 1994, when Uranus was 1.7 billion miles (2.8 billion kilometers) from Earth. Similar details, as imaged by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, were only previously seen by the Voyager 2 spacecraft that flew by Uranus in 1986 (the rings were discovered by stellar occultation experiments in 1977, but not seen directly until Voyager flew to Uranus). Since the flyby, none of these inner satellites has been observed further, and detailed observations of the rings and Uranus' atmosphere have not been possible, because the rings are lost in the planet's glare as seen through ground-based optical telescopes. Each of the inner moons appears as a string of three dots in this picture because it is a composite of three images, taken about six minutes apart. When these images are combined, they show the motion of the moons compared with the sky background. Because the moons move much more rapidly than our own Moon, they change position noticeably over only a few minutes. (These multiple images also help to distinguish the moons from stars and imaging detector artifacts, i.e., cosmic rays and electronic noise). Thanks to Hubble's capabilities, astronomers will now be able to determine the orbits more precisely. With this increase in accuracy, astronomers can better probe the unusual dynamics of Uranus' complicated satellite system. Measuring the moons' brightness in several colors might offer clues to the satellites' origin by providing new information on their mineralogical composition. Similar measurements of the rings should yield new insights into their composition and origin. One of the four

  10. Negative gravity anomalies on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowin, C.

    1975-01-01

    Two kinds of negative gravity anomalies on the moon are distinguished - those which show a correspondence to lunar topography and those which appear to be unrelated to surface topography. The former appear to be due to mass deficiencies caused by the cratering process, in large part probably by ejection of material from the crater. Anomalies on the far side which do not correspond to topography are thought to have resulted from irregularities in the thickness of the lunar crust. Localized large negative anomalies adjacent to mascons are considered. Although structures on the moon having a half-wavelength of 800 km or less and large negative or positive gravity anomalies are not in isostatic equilibrium, many of these features have mass loadings of about 1000 kg/sq cm which can be statically sustained on the moon.

  11. The Early Shape of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrick-Bethell, I.; Perera, V.; Nimmo, F.; Zuber, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    The origin and nature of the long-wavelength shape of the Moon has been a puzzle for at least 100 years [1-5]. Understanding its origin would provide insight into the patterns of mare volcanism, early thermal evolution, the history of the Moon's orientation, and the Moon's orbital evolution. Previously, we explained the shape and structure of the lunar farside highlands with a model of early tidal heating in the crust [6]. However, we left open the problem of the rest of the Moon's low-order shape, and we did not consider the lunar gravity field together with topography. To address these problems, and further assess the tidal-rotation (spherical harmonic degree-2) origins of the lunar shape, we consider three effects: the Moon's degree-1 spherical harmonics, the Moon's largest basins and mascons, and the choice of reference frame in which we analyze topography. We find that removing the degree-1 terms from a topography map helps illustrate the Moon's degree-2 shape, since the degree-1 harmonics have relatively high power. More importantly, however, when we fit spherical harmonics to topography outside of the largest lunar basins (including South-Pole Aitken, Imbrium, Serenitatis, Nectaris, and Orientale), the degree-2 coefficient values change significantly. When these best-fit harmonics are rotated into a reference frame that only contains the C2,0 and C2,2 harmonics (equivalent to the frame that would have once faced the Earth if the early Moon's shape controlled the moments of inertia), we find that gravity and topography data together imply a mixture of compensated and uncompensated degree-2 topography components. The compensated topography component can be explained by global-scale tidal heating in the early crust, while the uncompensated component can be explained by a frozen 'fossil bulge' that formed at a semi-major axis of about 32 Earth radii. To check these explanations, we can examine the ratios of the C2,0 and C2,2 harmonics for each component. We find

  12. Global Moon Coverage via Hyperbolic Flybys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, Brent; Strange, Nathan; Campagnola, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The scientific desire for global coverage of moons such as Jupiter's Galilean moons or Saturn's Titan has invariably led to the design of orbiter missions. These orbiter missions require a large amount of propellant needed to insert into orbit around such small bodies, and for a given launch vehicle, the additional propellant mass takes away from mass that could otherwise be used for scientific instrumentation on a multiple flyby-only mission. This paper will present methods--expanding upon techniques developed for the design of the Cassini prime and extended missions--to obtain near global moon coverage through multiple flybys. Furthermore we will show with proper instrument suite selection, a flyby-only mission can provide science return similar (and in some cases greater) to that of an orbiter mission.

  13. Magnetism and the history of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangway, D. W.; Gose, W. A.; Pearce, G. W.; Carnes, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    All lunar samples measured to date contain a weak but stable remanent magnetization of lunar origin. The magnetization is carried by metallic iron and is considered to be caused by cooling from above the Curie point in the presence of a magnetic field. Although at present the moon does not have a global field, the remanent magnetization of the rock samples and the presence of magnetic anomalies, both on the near and far side of the moon, imply that the moon experienced a magnetic field during some portion of its history. The field could have been generated in a liquid iron core sustaining a self-exciting dynamo, but there are some basic thermal and geochemical objections that need to be resolved.

  14. Internal constitution and evolution of the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, S. C.; Toksoz, M. N.

    1973-01-01

    The composition, structure and evolution of the moon's interior are narrowly constrained by a large assortment of physical and chemical data. Models of the thermal evolution of the moon that fit the chronology of igneous activity on the lunar surface, the stress history of the lunar lithosphere implied by the presence of mascons, and the surface concentrations of radioactive elements, involve extensive differentiation early in lunar history. This differentiation may be the result of rapid accretion and large-scale melting or of primary chemical layering during accretion; differences in present-day temperatures for these two possibilities are significant only in the inner 1000 km of the moon and may not be resolvable.

  15. The free librations of a dissipative moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, C. F.

    1981-12-01

    It is noted that dissipation in the moon produces a small offset (approximately 0.23 arcsec) of the moon's rotation axis from the plane defined by the ecliptic and lunar orbit normals. Both solid body tidal friction and viscous fluid friction at a core-mantle interface are thought to be plausible mechanisms. The merits of both are discussed, and it is found that solid friction requires a low lunar tidal Q (approximately 28), whereas turbulent fluid friction requires a core with a radius of approximately 330 km to cause the signature observed by lunar laser ranging. Large (approximately 0.4-8.0 arcsec) free librations of the lunar figure have also been detected through laser ranging. Both a very recent impact on the moon and fluid turbulence in the lunar core are considered plausible mechanisms for generating these librations.

  16. Low Energy Transfer to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, W. S.; Lo, M. W.; Marsden, J. E.; Ross, S. D.

    In 1991, the Japanese Hiten mission used a low energy transfer with a ballistic capture at the Moon which required less Δ V than a standard Hohmann transfer. In this paper, we apply the dynamical systems techniques developed in our earlier work to reproduce systematically a Hiten-like mission. We approximate the Sun-Earth-Moon-spacecraft 4-body system as two 3-body systems. Using the invariant manifold structures of the Lagrange points of the 3-body systems, we are able to construct low energy transfer trajectories from the Earth which execute ballistic capture at the Moon. The techniques used in the design and construction of this trajectory may be applied in many situations.

  17. Overview of a Preliminary Destination Mission Concept for a Human Orbital Mission to the Martian Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazanek, D. D.; Abell, P. A.; Antol, J.; Barbee, B. W.; Beaty, D. W.; Bass, D. S.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Coan, D. A.; Colaprete, A.; Daugherty, K. J.; Drake, B. G.; Earle, K. D.; Graham, L. D.; Hembree, R. M.; Hoffman, S. J.; Jefferies, S. A.; Lewis, R.; Lupisella, M. L.; Reeves, D. M.

    2012-06-01

    NASA’s Human Spaceflight Architecture Team has been developing a preliminary mission concept to assess how a human orbital mission to the martian moons might be conducted as a follow-on to an asteroid mission and possibly prior to landing on Mars.

  18. A Case Study of Three Children's Original Interpretations of the Moon's Changing Appearance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    A case study of three children was conducted to shed light on the process that children undergo in developing their understanding of physical phenomena. Using the notion of spontaneous construction and its relationship with school learning of scientific concepts, children's early thoughts of the moon's appearance were explored. Research questions…

  19. Very Long Baseline Interferometry From the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurvits, L. I.

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) occupies a special place among tools for studying the Universe due to its record high angular resolution. The latter depends on the aperture size of interferometer baseline at any given wavelength. Until recently, the available angular resolution in radio domain of about 1 milliarcsecond was limited by the Earth diameter. However, many astrophysical problems require a higher angular resolution. The only way to achieve it is to create an interferometer with the baseline larger than the Earth diameter by placing at least one telescope in space. In February 1997, the first dedicated Space VLBI mission, VSOP, led by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences (Japan) has been launched. Undoubtfully, the VSOP opens a new dimension in the development of radio astronomy tools of extremely high angular resolution. The Moon, as an inevitable step in the exploring and exploiting the Space by the mankind offers several very attractive features for building effective astronomical facilities, particularly radio telescopes. One can mention among these features an RFI-free environment (especially on the far side of the Moon), natural deep cooling of temperature-sensitive detectors, an absence of a natural magnetic field (hence, an ionosphere) and an atmosphere, considerably lower gravitational field (hence lower gravitational deformations of large structures). All these advantages certainly would lead eventually to constructing a highly sensitive radio telescope on the Moon (possibly, a Moon-based analog of the SKAI radio telescope). And once such a telescope is becoming a reality, it would be an obvious mistake not to use it as a part of VLBI system. I briefly discuss the scientific motivation and some technical aspects of a VLBI telescope on the Moon. I conclude, that VLBI could not and should not be considered as a primary drive for a radio astronomy base on the Moon. However, VLBI would be a very valuable addition to the

  20. Tungsten Isotopes, Formation of the Moon, and Lopsided Addition to Earth and Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2015-06-01

    Two studies use vast improvements in measuring tungsten (W) isotopic composition to show that the Moon has a higher 182W/184W ratio than does the modern terrestrial mantle. The studies, done by Mathieu Touboul and colleagues at the University of Maryland, USA and Thomas Kruijer and colleagues at Westfalische Wilhelms University, Munster, Germany, required developing improved isotope separation and measurement techniques in order to make the measurements accurate and precise enough to see the small difference between lunar and terrestrial samples. The Moon has 182W/184W about 25 parts per million higher than the Earth. This is consistent with an interesting story told in both papers: the Moon and Earth both had the same W isotopic composition after the giant impact that formed the Moon, but the Earth acquired a disproportionate amount of chondritic material afterwards, which decreased the terrestrial 182W/184W value. The idea is consistent with current models of the numbers of projectiles that could have intersected the Earth-Moon system as planetary accretion was winding down. The implication is that immediately after the Moon formed it had the same tungsten isotopic composition as the Earth, an important fact that models for the giant impact origin of the Moon must explain.

  1. Helium Production of Prompt Neutrinos on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, V.; Wilson, T. L.; Pinsky, L. S.

    2004-01-01

    The subject of conducting fundamental physics and astronomy experiments on the lunar surface continues to be of interest in the planetary science community. Such an inquiry necessarily requires an analysis of the backscatter albedos produced by Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) when they directly impact the lunar regolith. Unlike the Earth, this happens because the Moon has only a tenuous exosphere. Such secondary radiation constitutes a background that obscures and interferes with measurements conducted in the normal sense of laboratory physics on Earth. Our previous investigations using recent enhancements in the Monte Carlo program known as FLUKA included the production of charged particles, neutrons, photons, and neutrinos by the impact of Galactic protons. That investigation is extended here to include the effect of ionized helium, He-4, or a particles. Because high-energy GCRs excite planetary regoliths into giving rise to charmed mesons, neutrinos are produced. Thus a connection is established for the GCR helium production of prompt neutrinos on the Moon using the physics of charm.

  2. The geologic evolution of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    A synthesis of pre- and post-Apollo 11 studies is presented to produce an outline of the moon's geologic evolution from three lines of evidence: (1) relative ages of lunar landforms and rock types, (2) absolute ages of returned lunar samples, and (3) petrography, chemistry, and isotopic ratios of lunar rocks and soils. It is assumed that the ray craters, circular mare basins, and most intermediate circular landforms are primarily of impact origin, although many other landforms are volcanic or of hybrid origin. The moon's evolution is divided into four main stages, each including several distinct but overlapping events or processes.

  3. The carbon chemistry of the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eglinton, G.; Maxwell, J. R.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1972-01-01

    The analysis of lunar samples has shown that the carbon chemistry of the moon is entirely different from the carbon chemistry of the earth. Lunar carbon chemistry is more closely related to cosmic physics than to conventional organic chemistry. Sources of carbon on the moon are considered, giving attention to meteorites and the solar wind. The approaches used in the analysis of the samples are discussed, taking into account the method of gas chromatography employed and procedures used by bioscience investigators in the study of the lunar fines. The presence of indigenous methane and carbide in the lunar fines was established. Reactions and processes taking place on the lunar surface are discussed.

  4. Two former faces of the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilhelms, D.E.; Davis, D.E.

    1971-01-01

    Systematic geologic mapping of the lunar near side has resulted in the assignment of relative ages to most visible features. As a derivative of this work, geologic and artistic interpretations have been combined to produce reconstructions of the Moon's appearance at two significant points in its history. The reconstructions, although generalized, show the Moon (1) as it probably appeared about 3.3 billion years ago after most of the mare materials had accumulated, and (2) about 4.0 billion years ago after formation of the youngest of the large multiringed basins, but prior to appreciable flooding by mare material.

  5. Martian Moon Eclipses Sun, in Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This panel illustrates the transit of the martian moon Phobos across the Sun. It is made up of images taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on the morning of the 45th martian day, or sol, of its mission. This observation will help refine our knowledge of the orbit and position of Phobos. Other spacecraft may be able to take better images of Phobos using this new information. This event is similar to solar eclipses seen on Earth in which our Moon passes in front of the Sun. The images were taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  6. Evolution of the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Touma, Jihad; Wisdom, Jack

    1994-01-01

    The tidal evolution of the Earth-Moon system is reexamined. Several models of tidal friction are first compared in an averaged Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics. With one of these models, full integrations of the tidally evolving Earth-Moon system are carried out in the complete, fully interacting, and chaotically evolving planetary system. Classic results on the history of the lunar orbit are confirmed by our more general model. A detailed history of the obliquity of the Earth which takes into account the evolving lunar orbit is presented.

  7. Protecting the Moon for research: ILEWG report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We give a report on recommendations with emphasis on environment protection, and since last COSPAR from ILEWG International conferences Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon on held at Cape Canaveral in 2008 (ICEUM10), and in Beijing in May 2010 with IAF (GLUC -ICEUM11). We discuss the different rationale for Moon exploration, as debated at ILEWG. ILEWG Science task group has listed priorities for scientific investigations: clues on the formation and evolution of rocky planets, accretion and bombardment in the inner solar system, comparative planetology processes (tectonic, volcanic, impact cratering, volatile delivery), records astrobiology, survival of organics; past, present and future life; sciences from a biology lunar laboratory. We discuss how to preserve Moon research potential in these areas while operating with instruments, landers, rover during a cooperative robotic village, and during the transition form lunar human outpost to permanent sustainable human base. We discuss how Moon-Mars Exploration can inspire solutions to global Earth sustained development with the trade-off of In-Situ Utilisation of resources; Establishment of permanent robotic infrastructures, Environmental and planetary protection aspects and lessons for Mars; Life sciences laboratories, and support to human exploration. Co-authors: ILEWG Task Groups on Science, Technology and Human Lunar Bases ILEWG Reference documents: http://sci.esa.int/ilewg -10th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, NASA Lunar Ex-ploration Analysis Group-PSace Resources Roundtable, Cape Canaveral October 2008, pro-gramme online at http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ -9th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, ICEUM9 Sorrento 2007, programme online at http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ -8th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Beijing July 2006, programme online at http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ -The Moon and Near Earth Objects (P. Ehrenfreund , B.H. Foing, A

  8. Two Moons Meet over Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This beautiful image of the crescents of volcanic Io and more sedate Europa was snapped by New Horizons' color Multispectral Visual Imaging Camera (MVIC) at 10:34 UT on March 2, 2007, about two days after New Horizons made its closest approach to Jupiter.

    The picture was one of a handful of the Jupiter system that New Horizons took primarily for their artistic, rather than scientific value. This particular scene was suggested by space enthusiast Richard Hendricks of Austin, Texas, in response to an Internet request by New Horizons scientists for evocative, artistic imaging opportunities at Jupiter.

    This image was taken from a range of 4.6 million kilometers (2.8 million miles) from Io and 3.8 million kilometers (2.4 million miles) from Europa. Although the moons appear close in this view, a gulf of 790,000 kilometers (490,000 miles) separates them. The night side of Io is illuminated here by light reflected from Jupiter, which is out of the frame to the right. Europa's night side is completely dark, in contrast to Io, because that side of Europa faces away from Jupiter.

    Here, Io steals the show with its beautiful display of volcanic activity. Three volcanic plumes are visible. Most conspicuous is the enormous 300-kilometer (190-mile) -high plume from the Tvashtar volcano at the 11 o'clock position on Io's disk. Two much smaller plumes are barely visible: one from the volcano Prometheus, at the 9 o'clock position on the edge of Io's disk, and one from the volcano Amirani, seen between Prometheus and Tvashtar along Io's terminator (the line dividing day and night). The plumes appear blue because of the scattering of light by tiny dust particles ejected by the volcanoes, similar to the blue appearance of smoke. In addition, the contrasting red glow of hot lava can be seen at the source of the Tvashtar plume.

    The images are centered at 1 degree north, 60 degrees west on Io, and 0 degrees north, 149 degrees west on Europa. The color in this

  9. Towards a Moon Village : Community Workshops Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    A series of Moon Village Workshops were organised at ESTEC and at ILEWG community events in 2015 and 2016. They gathered a multi-disciplinary group of professionals from all around the world to discuss their ideas about the concept of a Moon Village, the vision of ESA's Director General (DG) Jan Woerner of a permanent lunar base within the next decades [1]. Three working groups focused on 1) Moon Habitat Design; 2) science and technology potentials of the Moon Village, and 3) engaging stake-holders [2-3]. Their results and recommendations are presented in this abstract. The Moon Habitat Design group identified that the lunar base design is strongly driven by the lunar environment, which is characterized by high radiation, meteoroids, abrasive dust particles, low gravity and vacuum. The base location is recommended to be near the poles to provide optimized illumination conditions for power generation, permanent communication to Earth, moderate temperature gradients at the surface and interesting subjects to scientific investigations. The abundance of nearby available resources, especially ice at the dark bottoms of craters, can be exploited in terms of In-Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU). The identified infrastructural requirements include a navigation, data- & commlink network, storage facilities and sustainable use of resources. This involves a high degree of recycling, closed-loop life support and use of 3D-printing technology, which are all technologies with great potential for terrestrial spin-off applications. For the site planning of the Moon Village, proven ideas from urban planning on Earth should be taken into account. A couple of principles, which could improve the quality of a long-term living milieu on the Moon, are creating spacious environments, visibility between interior and exterior spaces, areas with flora, such as gardens and greenhouses, establishing a sustainable community and creating social places for astronauts to interact and relax. The

  10. Escape dynamics and fractal basins boundaries in the three-dimensional Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotos, Euaggelos E.

    2016-03-01

    The orbital dynamics of a spacecraft, or a comet, or an asteroid in the Earth-Moon system in a scattering region around the Moon using the three dimensional version of the circular restricted three-body problem is numerically investigated. The test particle can move in bounded orbits around the Moon or escape through the openings around the Lagrange points L1 and L2 or even collide with the surface of the Moon. We explore in detail the first four of the five possible Hill's regions configurations depending on the value of the Jacobi constant which is of course related with the total orbital energy. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis on the phase space mixing by classifying initial conditions of orbits in several two-dimensional types of planes and distinguishing between four types of motion: (i) ordered bounded, (ii) trapped chaotic, (iii) escaping and (iv) collisional. In particular, we locate the different basins and we relate them with the corresponding spatial distributions of the escape and collision times. Our outcomes reveal the high complexity of this planetary system. Furthermore, the numerical analysis suggests a strong dependence of the properties of the considered basins with both the total orbital energy and the initial value of the z coordinate, with a remarkable presence of fractal basin boundaries along all the regimes. Our results are compared with earlier ones regarding the planar version of the Earth-Moon system.

  11. Detection of a strongly negative surface potential at Saturn's moon Hyperion

    PubMed Central

    Nordheim, T A; Jones, G H; Roussos, E; Leisner, J S; Coates, A J; Kurth, W S; Khurana, K K; Krupp, N; Dougherty, M K; Waite, J H

    2014-01-01

    On 26 September 2005, Cassini conducted its only close targeted flyby of Saturn's small, irregularly shaped moon Hyperion. Approximately 6 min before the closest approach, the electron spectrometer (ELS), part of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) detected a field-aligned electron population originating from the direction of the moon's surface. Plasma wave activity detected by the Radio and Plasma Wave instrument suggests electron beam activity. A dropout in energetic electrons was observed by both CAPS-ELS and the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument Low-Energy Magnetospheric Measurement System, indicating that the moon and the spacecraft were magnetically connected when the field-aligned electron population was observed. We show that this constitutes a remote detection of a strongly negative (∼ −200 V) surface potential on Hyperion, consistent with the predicted surface potential in regions near the solar terminator. PMID:26074639

  12. Odyssey Moon - An Entrepreneurial Model for Sustainable Commercial Lunar Enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, R. D.; Khadem, R.

    2008-07-01

    This paper outlines how a carefully planned private Moon mission could set in motion the technological, political, legal and regulatory precedents that will enable humanity to embrace the Moon into the world's economic sphere.

  13. The Apollo Missions and the Chemistry of the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacer, Richard A.; Ehmann, William D.

    1975-01-01

    Presents the principle chemical features of the moon obtained by analyzing lunar samples gathered on the Apollo missions. Outlines the general physical features of the moon and presents theories on its origin. (GS)

  14. The Latitude Dependence of Dielectric Breakdown on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, A. P.; Stubbs, T. J.; Wilson, J. K.; Hayne, P. O.; Schwadron, N. A.; Spence, H. E.; Izenberg, N. R.

    2016-11-01

    Solar energetic particles may cause dielectric breakdown on the nightside of the Moon. We predict that breakdown weathering may have melted or vaporized about 4-11 wt% of impact gardened regolith on the Moon.

  15. NASA Now Minute: Geology: Structure of the Moon

    NASA Video Gallery

    This program shows how re-examining moon data from the Apollo days withmodern technology helps scientists determine the structure of the moon’sinterior. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a wee...

  16. Clementine observations of the Aristarchus region of the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, A.S.; Robinson, M.S.; Eliason, E.M.; Lucey, P.G.; Duxbury, T.C.; Spudis, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    Multispectral and topographic data acquired by the Clementine spacecraft provide information on the composition and geologic history of the Aristarchus region of the moon. Altimetry profiles show the Aristarchus plateau dipping about 1?? to the north-northwest and rising about 2 kilometers above the surrounding lavas of Oceanus Procellarum to the south. Dark, reddish pyroclastic glass covers the plateau to average depths of 10 to 30 meters, as determined from the estimated excavation depths of 100- to 1000-meter-diameter craters that have exposed materials below the pyroclastics. These craters and the wall of sinuous rilles also show that mare basalts underlie the pyroclastics across much of the plateau. Near-infrared images of Aristarchus crater reveal oilvine-rich materials and two kilometer-sized outcrops of anorthosite in the central peaks. The anorthosite could be either a derivative of local magnesium-suite magmatism or a remnant of the ferroan anorthosite crust that formed over the primordial magma ocean.

  17. To the Moon and Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Hobson, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Introducing science inquiry early in young children's education is imperative, and providing opportunities for conducting investigations that develop process skills can lay a foundation for later learning. Combining inquiry-based instruction with appropriate technology allows the students to explore, reason, test, and revise their ideas about…

  18. Simulating the Phases of the Moon Shortly after Its Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noordeh, Emil; Hall, Patrick; Cuk, Matija

    2014-01-01

    The leading theory for the origin of the Moon is the giant impact hypothesis, in which the Moon was formed out of the debris left over from the collision of a Mars sized body with the Earth. Soon after its formation, the orbit of the Moon may have been very different than it is today. We have simulated the phases of the Moon in a model for its…

  19. Ice on the Bone Dry Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, Paul D.

    2003-01-01

    An abundant supply of water on the Moon would make establishment of a self-sustaining lunar colony much more feasible and less expensive than presently thought. Study of lunar samples revealed that the interior of the Moon is essentially devoid of water, so no underground supplies could be used by lunar inhabitants. However, the lunar surface is bombarded with water-rich objects such as comets, and scientists have suspected that some of the water in these objects could migrate to permanently dark areas at the lunar poles, perhaps accumulating to useable quantities. Analysis of data returned from a radio-wave experiment performed in 1994 while the Clementine spacecraft was orbiting the Moon reveals that deposits of ice exist in permanently dark regions near the south pole of the Moon. Initial estimates suggest that the volume of small lake exists, 1 billion cubic meters. For comparison, this amount of water would be equivalent to the fuel (hydrogen and oxygen) used for more than a million launches of the Space Shuttle from Cape Canaveral!

  20. Discovery of five irregular moons of Neptune.

    PubMed

    Holman, Matthew J; Kavelaars, J J; Grav, Tommy; Gladman, Brett J; Fraser, Wesley C; Milisavljevic, Dan; Nicholson, Philip D; Burns, Joseph A; Carruba, Valerio; Petit, Jean-Marc; Rousselot, Philippe; Mousis, Oliver; Marsden, Brian G; Jacobson, Robert A

    2004-08-19

    Each giant planet of the Solar System has two main types of moons. 'Regular' moons are typically larger satellites with prograde, nearly circular orbits in the equatorial plane of their host planets at distances of several to tens of planetary radii. The 'irregular' satellites (which are typically smaller) have larger orbits with significant eccentricities and inclinations. Despite these common features, Neptune's irregular satellite system, hitherto thought to consist of Triton and Nereid, has appeared unusual. Triton is as large as Pluto and is postulated to have been captured from heliocentric orbit; it traces a circular but retrograde orbit at 14 planetary radii from Neptune. Nereid, which exhibits one of the largest satellite eccentricities, is believed to have been scattered from a regular satellite orbit to its present orbit during Triton's capture. Here we report the discovery of five irregular moons of Neptune, two with prograde and three with retrograde orbits. These exceedingly faint (apparent red magnitude m(R) = 24.2-25.4) moons, with diameters of 30 to 50 km, were presumably captured by Neptune.

  1. Nominally hydrous magmatism on the Moon.

    PubMed

    McCubbin, Francis M; Steele, Andrew; Hauri, Erik H; Nekvasil, Hanna; Yamashita, Shigeru; Hemley, Russell J

    2010-06-22

    For the past 40 years, the Moon has been described as nearly devoid of indigenous water; however, evidence for water both on the lunar surface and within the lunar interior have recently emerged, calling into question this long-standing lunar dogma. In the present study, hydroxyl (as well as fluoride and chloride) was analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry in apatite [Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)(F,Cl,OH)] from three different lunar samples in order to obtain quantitative constraints on the abundance of water in the lunar interior. This work confirms that hundreds to thousands of ppm water (of the structural form hydroxyl) is present in apatite from the Moon. Moreover, two of the studied samples likely had water preserved from magmatic processes, which would qualify the water as being indigenous to the Moon. The presence of hydroxyl in apatite from a number of different types of lunar rocks indicates that water may be ubiquitous within the lunar interior, potentially as early as the time of lunar formation. The water contents analyzed for the lunar apatite indicate minimum water contents of their lunar source region to range from 64 ppb to 5 ppm H(2)O. This lower limit range of water contents is at least two orders of magnitude greater than the previously reported value for the bulk Moon, and the actual source region water contents could be significantly higher.

  2. The moon as a high temperature condensate.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The accretion during condensation mechanism, if it occurs during the early over-luminous stage of the sun, can explain the differences in composition of the terrestrial planets and the moon. An important factor is the variation of pressure and temperature with distance from the sun, and in the case of the moon and captured satellites of other planets, with distance from the median plane. Current estimates of the temperature and pressure in the solar nebula suggest that condensation will not be complete in the vicinity of the terrestrial planets, and that depending on location, iron, magnesium silicates and the volatiles will be at least partially held in the gaseous phase and subject to separation from the dust by solar wind and magnetic effects associated with the transfer of angular momentum just before the sun joins the Main Sequence. Many of the properties of the moon, including the 'enrichment' in Ca, Al, Ti, U, Th, Ba, Sr and the REE and the 'depletion' in Fe, Rb, K, Na and other volatiles can be understood if the moon represents a high temperature condensate from the solar nebula.

  3. The Sodium Tail of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-01-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  4. Assessing the Dangers of Moon Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the sources, problems and some solutions to dust on the moon. While there appeared to be no long term effects from Lunar Dust in Apollo astronauts, the future lunar missions will be longer in duration, and therefore more problems may present themselves. Some of the se problems are reviewed, and plans to deal with them are reviewed.

  5. Apollo 8, Man Around the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet presents a series of photographs depicting the story of the Apollo 8 mission around the moon and includes a brief description as well as quotes from the astronauts. The photographs show scenes of the astronauts training, the Saturn V rocket, pre-flight preparation, blast off, the earth from space, the lunar surface, the earth-based…

  6. Conference on the Origin of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Various topics relating to lunar evolution are discussed. The Moon's ancient orbital history, geophysical and geochemical constraints favoring the capture hypothesis, the site of the lunar core, chemical and petrological constraints, dynamical constraints, and mathematical models are among the topics discussed.

  7. The new race to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Sue

    2014-10-01

    Private companies are vying to be the first to land on the Moon and win the $20m Google Lunar XPRIZE. Sue Bowler reports on how and why they are doing it, and what success in 2015 could mean for the future of space exploration.

  8. Lunar Orbiter Photographic Atlas of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, D. E.; Hughes, J. K.

    1971-01-01

    A selection of the reconstructed photographs taken during 1966 and 1967 by five Lunar Orbiters is presented. The selection provides essentially complete coverage of the near and far sides of the moon in detail. The photographs were reprocessed from the original video data tapes.

  9. Changing Perspectives on Mercury and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denevi, Brett W.

    2015-11-01

    Airless, cratered, and not so different in size, the Moon and Mercury form a natural pair in the inner Solar System. For decades after the 1974 and 1975 Mariner 10 flybys of Mercury, with little compositional information, no concrete evidence for volcanism, and images of less than half of the planet, it was thought that Mercury’s surface may be similar to the lunar highlands: an ancient anorthositic flotation crust subsequently shaped mainly by impact cratering. However, observations from the recently completed MESSENGER mission to Mercury have upended our view of the innermost planet, revealing, for example, a crust that may be rich in graphite and that has been extensively resurfaced by volcanic activity, and geologic activity that may continue today to produce enigmatic “hollows” - a crust very different from that of the Moon. Meanwhile, the Moon has undergone its own revolution, as data from recent spacecraft such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter reveal sites of silicic volcanism indicative of complex differentiation in the mantle, tectonic activity that may be ongoing, recent volcanic activity that alters the paradigm that volcanism died on the Moon over a billion years ago, and evidence that the early chronology of the inner Solar System may not be as well known as once thought. As our views of these two bodies evolve, a new understanding of their differences informs our knowledge of the variety of processes and styles of planetary evolution, and their similarities point to commonalities among all airless bodies.

  10. Differentiation of the matter of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinogradov, A. P.

    1977-01-01

    The following facts were uncovered in comparing the basaltic surface rocks of the moon with terrestrial tholeiitic basalts and ordinary chondrites: (1) there is an excess of the so-called refractory chemical elements, including the group of truly refractory elements, the rare earths, U, and Th, in comparison with their content in primitive terrestrial basalts and chondrites; (2) the so-called siderophilic elements have lower contents in the lunar surface rocks than in terrestrial rocks; (3) the low alkali content (Na, K, Rb) in lunar rocks is established; (4) there is a low content of H2O and the ordinary gases CO2, halides, etc.; (5) the low content of metals with high vapor pressure, (In, Tl, etc.) has been established. It is proposed that U and Th were carried from the internal areas to the peripheral rocks of the moon during magmatic activity, i.e., up to 3 billion years ago. This redistribution of U and Th lead to their concentration in surface layers of the moon, and the heat which they generated was lost into surrounding space. The conclusion is then reached that in order to understand processes on the moon, the chondritic model cannot be used.

  11. The sodium tail of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-12-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  12. Elementary Education: Elementary Students Simulate Moon Walk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes the project of a fourth- and fifth-grade class in simulating a moon walk. Teams consisted of the astronauts, the life support team, the flight program team, the communications team, the scientific team, and the construction team. Their visit to the Marshall Space Flight Center is also described. (SA)

  13. Morphologic studies of the Moon and planets

    SciTech Connect

    El-Baz, F.; Maxwell, T.A.

    1984-09-01

    The impact, volcanic, and tectonic history of the Moon and planets were investigated over an eight year period. Research on the following topics is discussed: lunar craters, lunar basins, lunar volcanoes, correlation of Apollo geochemical data, lunar geology, Mars desert landforms, and Mars impact basins.

  14. Nominally hydrous magmatism on the Moon

    PubMed Central

    McCubbin, Francis M.; Steele, Andrew; Hauri, Erik H.; Nekvasil, Hanna; Yamashita, Shigeru; Hemley, Russell J.

    2010-01-01

    For the past 40 years, the Moon has been described as nearly devoid of indigenous water; however, evidence for water both on the lunar surface and within the lunar interior have recently emerged, calling into question this long-standing lunar dogma. In the present study, hydroxyl (as well as fluoride and chloride) was analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry in apatite [Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH)] from three different lunar samples in order to obtain quantitative constraints on the abundance of water in the lunar interior. This work confirms that hundreds to thousands of ppm water (of the structural form hydroxyl) is present in apatite from the Moon. Moreover, two of the studied samples likely had water preserved from magmatic processes, which would qualify the water as being indigenous to the Moon. The presence of hydroxyl in apatite from a number of different types of lunar rocks indicates that water may be ubiquitous within the lunar interior, potentially as early as the time of lunar formation. The water contents analyzed for the lunar apatite indicate minimum water contents of their lunar source region to range from 64 ppb to 5 ppm H2O. This lower limit range of water contents is at least two orders of magnitude greater than the previously reported value for the bulk Moon, and the actual source region water contents could be significantly higher. PMID:20547878

  15. Concrete structure construction on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsumoto, Shinji; Namba, Haruyuki; Kai, Yoshiro; Yoshida, Tetsuji

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a precast prestressed concrete structure system on the Moon and erection methods for this system. The horizontal section of the structural module is hexagonal so that various layouts of the modules are possible by connecting the adjacent modules to each other. For erection of the modules, specially designed mobile cranes are used.

  16. Morphologic studies of the Moon and planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.; Maxwell, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    The impact, volcanic, and tectonic history of the Moon and planets were investigated over an eight year period. Research on the following topics is discussed: lunar craters, lunar basins, lunar volcanoes, correlation of Apollo geochemical data, lunar geology, Mars desert landforms, and Mars impact basins.

  17. Precession of the Earth-Moon System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2009-01-01

    The precession rate of the Earth-Moon system by the gravitational influence of the Sun is derived. Attention is focussed on a physically transparent but complete presentation accessible to first- or second-year physics students. Both a shortcut and a full analysis are given, which allows the inclusion of this material as an example of the physics…

  18. Using Moon Phases to Measure Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Janet; Lutz, Tracie; LaLonde, Donna E.

    2015-01-01

    Cultures need to accurately record dates and times for various societal purposes, ranging from knowing when to plant crops to planning travel. In ancient times, the sun and moon were used as measurement devices because of the scientific understanding of the physical world at that time. Ancient timekeepers monitored celestial events and either used…

  19. Meeting the Moon from a Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter S.

    2003-01-01

    Engages middle school students and preservice teachers in a long-term (16 weeks) investigation of the moon and provides an opportunity to share, via the internet, their observations with other students around the world. Explains the design of the study including multicultural connections, student observations, internet discussions, and…

  20. Discovery of five irregular moons of Neptune.

    PubMed

    Holman, Matthew J; Kavelaars, J J; Grav, Tommy; Gladman, Brett J; Fraser, Wesley C; Milisavljevic, Dan; Nicholson, Philip D; Burns, Joseph A; Carruba, Valerio; Petit, Jean-Marc; Rousselot, Philippe; Mousis, Oliver; Marsden, Brian G; Jacobson, Robert A

    2004-08-19

    Each giant planet of the Solar System has two main types of moons. 'Regular' moons are typically larger satellites with prograde, nearly circular orbits in the equatorial plane of their host planets at distances of several to tens of planetary radii. The 'irregular' satellites (which are typically smaller) have larger orbits with significant eccentricities and inclinations. Despite these common features, Neptune's irregular satellite system, hitherto thought to consist of Triton and Nereid, has appeared unusual. Triton is as large as Pluto and is postulated to have been captured from heliocentric orbit; it traces a circular but retrograde orbit at 14 planetary radii from Neptune. Nereid, which exhibits one of the largest satellite eccentricities, is believed to have been scattered from a regular satellite orbit to its present orbit during Triton's capture. Here we report the discovery of five irregular moons of Neptune, two with prograde and three with retrograde orbits. These exceedingly faint (apparent red magnitude m(R) = 24.2-25.4) moons, with diameters of 30 to 50 km, were presumably captured by Neptune. PMID:15318214

  1. Solar Interferometric imaging from the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dame, L.; Martic, M.; Porteneuve, J.

    1994-06-01

    We present the concept of a Lunar Interferometer for Solar Physics. In particular we explain the rationale for a compact 2D array and we propose the use of a novel mechanical support structure based on linear mounting rods-these optimizing room and mass issues for transportation to the Moon.

  2. Gamma-ray Albedo of the Moon

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Porter, Troy A.

    2007-06-14

    We use the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework to calculate the gamma-ray albedo of the Moon due to interactions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with moon rock. Our calculation of the albedo spectrum agrees with the EGRET data. We show that the spectrum of gamma-rays from the Moon is very steep with an effective cutoff around 3 GeV (600 MeV for the inner part of the Moon disc). Since it is the only (almost) black spot in the gamma-ray sky, it provides a unique opportunity for calibration of gamma-ray telescopes, such as the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). The albedo flux depends on the incident CR spectrum which changes over the solar cycle. Therefore, it is possible to monitor the CR spectrum using the albedo gamma-ray flux. Simultaneous measurements of CR proton and helium spectra by the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA), and observations of the albedo -rays by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT), can be used to test the model predictions and will enable the GLAST LAT to monitor the CR spectrum near the Earth beyond the lifetime of PAMELA.

  3. Moon Watch: A Parental-Involvement Homework Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter; Gonzalez-Jensen, Margarita; Moy, Tracy

    2000-01-01

    Presents the goals, philosophy, and methods of the SPLASH (Student-Parent Laboratories Achieving Science at Home) program. Describes an at-home, parental-involvement activity called Moon Watch in which students and their parents observe how the phases of the moon and the moon's position in the sky change over a two-week period. (WRM)

  4. Moon Journals: Writing, Art, and Inquiry through Focused Nature Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chancer, Joni; Rester-Zodrow, Gina

    One of the greatest sources of wonder, the moon, becomes the focus of a classroom inquiry in this book which gives an illustration of integrated curriculum. Two teachers recount how their students observed the moon's transit for 28 days, recording their impressions in written and illustrated records called "Moon Journals." The book describes how…

  5. 27 CFR 9.231 - Moon Mountain District Sonoma County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Moon Mountain District... Viticultural Areas § 9.231 Moon Mountain District Sonoma County. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Moon Mountain District Sonoma County”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  6. Moon Phase as a Context for Teaching Scale Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ann; Dickerson, Daniel; Hopkins, Sara

    2007-01-01

    The Sun and the Moon are our most visible neighbors in space, yet their distance and size relative to the Earth are often misunderstood. Science textbooks fuel this misconception because they regularly depict linear images of Moon phases without respect to the actual sizes of the Sun, Earth, and Moon, nor their correlated distances from one…

  7. Towards a Moon Village : Community Workshops Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    A series of Moon Village Workshops were organised at ESTEC and at ILEWG community events in 2015 and 2016. They gathered a multi-disciplinary group of professionals from all around the world to discuss their ideas about the concept of a Moon Village, the vision of ESA's Director General (DG) Jan Woerner of a permanent lunar base within the next decades [1]. Three working groups focused on 1) Moon Habitat Design; 2) science and technology potentials of the Moon Village, and 3) engaging stake-holders [2-3]. Their results and recommendations are presented in this abstract. The Moon Habitat Design group identified that the lunar base design is strongly driven by the lunar environment, which is characterized by high radiation, meteoroids, abrasive dust particles, low gravity and vacuum. The base location is recommended to be near the poles to provide optimized illumination conditions for power generation, permanent communication to Earth, moderate temperature gradients at the surface and interesting subjects to scientific investigations. The abundance of nearby available resources, especially ice at the dark bottoms of craters, can be exploited in terms of In-Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU). The identified infrastructural requirements include a navigation, data- & commlink network, storage facilities and sustainable use of resources. This involves a high degree of recycling, closed-loop life support and use of 3D-printing technology, which are all technologies with great potential for terrestrial spin-off applications. For the site planning of the Moon Village, proven ideas from urban planning on Earth should be taken into account. A couple of principles, which could improve the quality of a long-term living milieu on the Moon, are creating spacious environments, visibility between interior and exterior spaces, areas with flora, such as gardens and greenhouses, establishing a sustainable community and creating social places for astronauts to interact and relax. The

  8. Two Moons and the Pleiades from Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Inverted image of two moons and the Pleiades from Mars

    Taking advantage of extra solar energy collected during the day, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit recently settled in for an evening of stargazing, photographing the two moons of Mars as they crossed the night sky. In this view, the Pleiades, a star cluster also known as the 'Seven Sisters,' is visible in the lower left corner. The bright star Aldebaran and some of the stars in the constellation Taurus are visible on the right. Spirit acquired this image the evening of martian day, or sol, 590 (Aug. 30, 2005). The image on the right provides an enhanced-contrast view with annotation. Within the enhanced halo of light is an insert of an unsaturated view of Phobos taken a few images later in the same sequence.

    On Mars, Phobos would be easily visible to the naked eye at night, but would be only about one-third as large as the full Moon appears from Earth. Astronauts staring at Phobos from the surface of Mars would notice its oblong, potato-like shape and that it moves quickly against the background stars. Phobos takes only 7 hours, 39 minutes to complete one orbit of Mars. That is so fast, relative to the 24-hour-and-39-minute sol on Mars (the length of time it takes for Mars to complete one rotation), that Phobos rises in the west and sets in the east. Earth's moon, by comparison, rises in the east and sets in the west. The smaller martian moon, Deimos, takes 30 hours, 12 minutes to complete one orbit of Mars. That orbital period is longer than a martian sol, and so Deimos rises, like most solar system moons, in the east and sets in the west.

    Scientists will use images of the two moons to better map their orbital positions, learn more about their composition, and monitor the presence of nighttime clouds or haze. Spirit took the five images that make up this composite with the panoramic camera, using the camera's broadband filter, which

  9. Two Moons and the Pleiades from Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Inverted animation of PIA06340 Two Moons and the Pleiades from Mars Annotated animation of PIA06340 Two Moons and the Pleiades from Mars

    Taking advantage of extra solar energy collected during the day, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit recently settled in for an evening of stargazing, photographing the two moons of Mars as they crossed the night sky. In this view, the Pleiades, a star cluster also known as the 'Seven Sisters,' is visible in the lower left corner. The bright star Aldebaran and some of the stars in the constellation Taurus are visible on the right. Spirit acquired this image the evening of martian day, or sol, 590 (Aug. 30, 2005). The image on the right provides an enhanced-contrast view with annotation. Within the enhanced halo of light is an insert of an unsaturated view of Phobos taken a few images later in the same sequence.

    'It is incredibly cool to be running an observatory on another planet,' said planetary scientist Jim Bell of Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., lead scientist for the panoramic cameras on Spirit and Opportunity. In the annotated animation (figure 2), both martian moons, Deimos on the left and Phobos on the right, travel across the night sky in front of the constellation Sagittarius. Part of Sagittarius resembles an upside-down teapot. In this view, Phobos moves toward the handle and Deimos moves toward the lid. Phobos is the brighter object on the right; Deimos is on the left. Each of the stars in Sagittarius is labeled with its formal name. The inset shows an enlarged, enhanced view of Phobos, shaped rather like a potato with a hole near one end. The hole is the large impact creater Stickney, visible on the moon's upper right limb.

    On Mars, Phobos would be easily visible to the naked eye at night, but would be only about one-third as large as the full Moon appears from Earth. Astronauts staring at Phobos from

  10. Launching to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.

    2007-01-01

    America is returning to the Moon in preparation for the first human footprint on Mars, guided by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. This presentation will discuss NASA's mission today, the reasons for returning to the Moon and going to Mars, and how NASA will accomplish that mission. The primary goals of the Vision for Space Exploration are to finish the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle, and build the new spacecraft needed to return people to the Moon and go to Mars. Unlike the Apollo program of the 1960s, this phase of exploration will be a journey, not a race. In 1966, the NASA's budget was 4 percent of federal spending. Today, with 6/10 of 1 percent of the budget, NASA must incrementally develop the vehicles, infrastructure, technology, and organization to accomplish this goal. Fortunately, our knowledge and experience are greater than they were 40 years ago. NASA's goal is a return to the Moon by 2020. The Moon is the first step to America's exploration of Mars. Many questions about the Moon's history and how its history is linked to that of Earth remain even after the brief Apollo explorations of the 1960s and 1970s. This new venture will carry more explorers to more diverse landing sites with more capable tools and equipment. The Moon also will serve as a training ground in several respects before embarking on the longer, more perilous trip to Mars. The journeys to the Moon and Mars will require a variety of vehicles, including the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the Lunar Surface Access Module. The architecture for the lunar missions will use one launch to ferry the crew into orbit on the Ares I and a second launch to orbit the lunar lander and the Earth Departure Stage to send the lander and crew vehicle to the Moon. In order to reach the Moon and Mars within a lifetime and within budget, NASA is building on proven hardware and decades of experience derived from

  11. A proposed space mission around the Moon to measure the Moon Radio-Quiet Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonietti, N.; Pagana, G.; Pluchino, S.; Maccone, C.

    In a series of papers published since 2000 mainly in Acta Astronautica the senior author Maccone dealt with the advantages of the Farside of the Moon for future utilization Clearly the Moon Farside is free from RFI Radio Frequency Interference produced in larger and larger amounts by the increasing human exploitation of radio technologies That author suggested that crater Daedalus located at the center of the Farside was the best possible location to build up in the future one or more radiotelescopes or phased arrays to achieve the maximum sensitivity in radioastronomical and SETI searches Also a radio-quiet region of space above the Farside of the Moon exists and is called the Quiet Cone The Quiet Cone actual size however is largely unknown since it depends on the orbits of radio-emitting satellites around the Earth that are themselves largely unknown due to the military involvements In addition diffraction of electromagnetic waves grazing the surface of the Moon causes further changes in the geometrical shape of the Quiet Cone This riddle can be solved only by direct measurements of the radio attenuation above the Farside of the Moon performed by satellites orbiting the Moon itself In this paper we propose to let one or more low cost radiometers be put into orbit around the Moon to measure the RFI attenuation at different frequencies and altitudes above the Moon The opportunity of adding more payload s such as an ion detector and or a temperature sensor is evaluated also In this regard we present in this paper the experience gained by

  12. Galileo's Medicean Moons (IAU S269)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Cesare; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Coradini, Marcello; Lazzarin, Monica

    2010-11-01

    Preface; 1. Galileo's telescopic observations: the marvel and meaning of discovery George V. Coyne, S. J.; 2. Popular perceptions of Galileo Dava Sobel; 3. The slow growth of humility Tobias Owen and Scott Bolton; 4. A new physics to support the Copernican system. Gleanings from Galileo's works Giulio Peruzzi; 5. The telescope in the making, the Galileo first telescopic observations Alberto Righini; 6. The appearance of the Medicean Moons in 17th century charts and books. How long did it take? Michael Mendillo; 7. Navigation, world mapping and astrometry with Galileo's moons Kaare Aksnes; 8. Modern exploration of Galileo's new worlds Torrence V. Johnson; 9. Medicean Moons sailing through plasma seas: challenges in establishing magnetic properties Margaret G. Kivelson, Xianzhe Jia and Krishan K. Khurana; 10. Aurora on Jupiter: a magnetic connection with the Sun and the Medicean Moons Supriya Chakrabarti and Marina Galand; 11. Io's escaping atmosphere: continuing the legacy of surprise Nicholas M. Schneider; 12. The Jovian Rings Wing-Huen Ip; 13. The Juno mission Scott J. Bolton and the Juno Science Team; 14. Seeking Europa's ocean Robert T. Pappalardo; 15. Europa lander mission: a challenge to find traces of alien life Lev Zelenyi, Oleg Korablev, Elena Vorobyova, Maxim Martynov, Efraim L. Akim and Alexander Zakahrov; 16. Atmospheric moons Galileo would have loved Sushil K. Atreya; 17. The study of Mercury Louise M. Prockter and Peter D. Bedini; 18. Jupiter and the other giants: a comparative study Thérèse Encrenaz; 19. Spectroscopic and spectrometric differentiation between abiotic and biogenic material on icy worlds Kevin P. Hand, Chris McKay and Carl Pilcher; 20. Other worlds, other civilizations? Guy Consolmagno, S. J.; 21. Concluding remarks Roger M. Bonnet; Posters; Author index; Object index.

  13. Learning the moon's phases through CL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, Maria

    2013-04-01

    This work is a CLIL experience for a class of 14-year-old students, a first grade of a Secondary school, level B1/B2. It is presented an Astronomy lesson whose topic is about the Moon's phases, a quite difficult phenomenon to visualize. Students' attention is attracted by presenting them songs and a short documentary; comprehension is made easier using both Internet-based materials and a card game using Cooperative Learning strategies through Johnsons' ' Learning Together'. The lesson consists of three steps for a total length of three hours. The teacher assigns a time limit for each activity. During the pre-task step, students' interest for present-day music is used to catch their attention and make them aware of the importance of the Moon as an inspiring subject for artistic expression such as popular or rock music. Then the students are requested to brainstorm some simple ideas of ther own about the moon. In the task step, a clear short BBC video is shown in order to stimulate students' listening and comprehension skills and an animation is proposed to help them view the moon cycle. In the post-task step, students are engaged in a card game through Johnsons' 'Learning Together'.Learners are divided into pairs and they have to cooperate to rebuild the moon's cicle as fast as they can. Then the two pairs join together to form groups of four and check their answers. The Assessor shares the group's keys with the whole class. The teacher gives feedback. The groups celebrate their success by clapping their hands and saying what they appreciated regarding their way of working together as pairs and groups.

  14. Mars-Moons Exploration, Reconnaissance and Landed Investigation (MERLIN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murchie, S. L.; Chabot, N. L.; Buczkowski, D.; Arvidson, R. E.; Castillo, J. C.; Peplowski, P. N.; Ernst, C. M.; Rivkin, A.; Eng, D.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Maki, J.; trebi-Ollenu, A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Spence, H. E.; Horanyi, M.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Christian, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Mars-Moons Exploration, Reconnaissance and Landed Investigation (MERLIN) is a NASA Discovery mission proposal to explore the moons of Mars. Previous Mars-focused spacecraft have raised fundamental questions about Mars' moons: What are their origins and compositions? Why do the moons resemble primitive outer solar system D-type objects? How do geologic processes modify their surfaces? MERLIN answers these questions through a combination of orbital and landed measurements, beginning with reconnaissance of Deimos and investigation of the hypothesized Martian dust belts. Orbital reconnaissance of Phobos occurs, followed by low flyovers to characterize a landing site. MERLIN lands on Phobos, conducting a 90-day investigation. Radiation measurements are acquired throughout all mission phases. Phobos' size and mass provide a low-risk landing environment: controlled descent is so slow that the landing is rehearsed, but gravity is high enough that surface operations do not require anchoring. Existing imaging of Phobos reveals low regional slope regions suitable for landing, and provides knowledge for planning orbital and landed investigations. The payload leverages past NASA investments. Orbital imaging is accomplished by a dual multispectral/high-resolution imager rebuilt from MESSENGER/MDIS. Mars' dust environment is measured by the refurbished engineering model of LADEE/LDEX, and the radiation environment by the flight spare of LRO/CRaTER. The landed workspace is characterized by a color stereo imager updated from MER/HazCam. MERLIN's arm deploys landed instrumentation using proven designs from MER, Phoenix, and MSL. Elemental measurements are acquired by a modified version of Rosetta/APXS, and an uncooled gamma-ray spectrometer. Mineralogical measurements are acquired by a microscopic imaging spectrometer developed under MatISSE. MERLIN delivers seminal science traceable to NASA's Strategic Goals and Objectives, Science Plan, and the Decadal Survey. MERLIN's science

  15. Protecting the Moon for research: ILEWG report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We give a report on recommendations with emphasis on environment protection, and since last COSPAR from ILEWG International conferences Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon on held at Cape Canaveral in 2008 (ICEUM10), and in Beijing in May 2010 with IAF (GLUC -ICEUM11). We discuss the different rationale for Moon exploration, as debated at ILEWG. ILEWG Science task group has listed priorities for scientific investigations: clues on the formation and evolution of rocky planets, accretion and bombardment in the inner solar system, comparative planetology processes (tectonic, volcanic, impact cratering, volatile delivery), records astrobiology, survival of organics; past, present and future life; sciences from a biology lunar laboratory. We discuss how to preserve Moon research potential in these areas while operating with instruments, landers, rover during a cooperative robotic village, and during the transition form lunar human outpost to permanent sustainable human base. We discuss how Moon-Mars Exploration can inspire solutions to global Earth sustained development with the trade-off of In-Situ Utilisation of resources; Establishment of permanent robotic infrastructures, Environmental and planetary protection aspects and lessons for Mars; Life sciences laboratories, and support to human exploration. Co-authors: ILEWG Task Groups on Science, Technology and Human Lunar Bases ILEWG Reference documents: http://sci.esa.int/ilewg -10th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, NASA Lunar Ex-ploration Analysis Group-PSace Resources Roundtable, Cape Canaveral October 2008, pro-gramme online at http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ -9th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, ICEUM9 Sorrento 2007, programme online at http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ -8th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Beijing July 2006, programme online at http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ -The Moon and Near Earth Objects (P. Ehrenfreund , B.H. Foing, A

  16. Interpreting Ground Temperature Measurements for Thermophysical Properties on Complex Surfaces of the Moon and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasavada, A. R.; Hamilton, V. E.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    With the successful deployments of the Diviner radiometer on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and the REMS ground temperature sensor on the Curiosity Mars rover, records of ground temperature with high accuracy and finely sampled diurnal and seasonal cycles have become available. The detailed shapes of these temperature profiles allow inferences beyond just bulk thermophysical properties. Subtle (or sometime significant) effects of surface roughness, slope, and lateral and vertical heterogeneity may be identified in the surface brightness temperature data. For example, changes in thermal or physical properties with depth in the shallow subsurface affect the conduction and storage of thermal energy. These affect the surface energy balance and therefore surface temperatures, especially the rate of cooling at night. Making unique determinations of subsurface soil properties requires minimizing the uncertainties introduced by other effects. On Mars, atmospheric aerosol opacity and wind-driven sensible heat fluxes also affect the diurnal and annual temperature profiles. On both bodies, variations in thermal inertia, slopes, roughness, albedo, and emissivity within the radiometer footprint will cause the composite brightness temperature to differ from a kinetic temperature. Nevertheless, we have detected potential effects of complex surfaces in the temperature data from both Diviner and Curiosity. On the Moon, the results reveal a nearly ubiquitous surface structure, created mechanically by impact gardening, that controls the thermal response of the surface. On Mars, the thermal response is controlled primarily by grain size, cementation, lithification, and composition. However, the secondary effects of near-surface layering aid in the interpretation of stratigraphy and in the identification of geologic processes that have altered the surface.

  17. A Power Conversion Concept for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2003-01-01

    The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission is currently under study by the Office of Space Science under the Project Prometheus Program. JIMO is examining the use of Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) to carry scientific payloads to three Jovian moons. A potential power system concept includes dual 100 kWe Brayton converters, a deployable pumped loop heat rejection subsystem, and a 400 Vac Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) bus. Many trades were performed in aniving at this candidate power system concept. System-level studies examined design and off-design operating modes, determined startup requirements, evaluated subsystem redundancy options, and quantified the mass and radiator area of reactor power systems from 20 to 200 kWe. In the Brayton converter subsystem, studies were performed to investigate converter packaging options, and assess the induced torque effects on spacecraft dynamics due to rotating machinery. In the heat rejection subsystem, design trades were conducted on heat transport approaches, material and fluid options, and deployed radiator geometries. In the PMAD subsystem, the overall electrical architecture was defined and trade studies examined distribution approaches, voltage levels, and cabling options.

  18. Project "Phobos-Soil": A complex sounding of the Phobos moon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, A.; Ozorovich, Yu; Linkin, V.; Lukomsky, A.; Skalsky, A.; Klimov, S.; Manukin, A.; Khavroshkin, O.; Smirnov, V.

    based on measurements of electric and magnetic fields carried out by the PhPMS plasma-magnetic system flown onboard the "Phobos-Soil" spacecraft. The advantage of the "Phobos-Soil" mission is simultaneous observation of various physical parameters: dust and solar wind flux, interplanetary magnetic field, electric field fluctuations and seismic activity at the surface of the Martian moon et etc. Further statistical and correlation studies will allow to reveal their mutual interconnection and to illuminate the peculiarities of the Phobos internal structure. Measurements of velocity distributions 1 of ions sputtered from the Phobos surface will provide information on the composition variation across the surface thus complementing other measurements of Phobos properties. In situ measurements of a magnetic susceptibility and conductivity of rocks from the surface layer of Phobos is performed directly in the GZU probing channel. It allows to obtain an aprioristic information about the top layer of Phobos rocks (down to 0.5m) which facilitates, then, an interpretation of data recorded with the electromagnetic sounding by means the long wave radar. The complex sounding of the Phobos moon provides not only the information about its structure (important for understanding of the origin of the Mars -Phobos - Deimos system) but also an outstanding experience of sounding at surface of celestial body. This experience is of particular importance for further investigation of subsurface structures of Mars and its paleoclimatic history which will be carried out in the future space missions. References: [1] Clifford S.M. (1993) JGR, 98, 10973-1016. [2] Fanale F.P. (1986) Icarus, 67,1-18.[3] Ozorovich Y.R., Linkin V.M., Smythe W., " Mars Electromagnetic Sounding Experiment - MARSES ", Proceedings of LPI Conference, Houston, 1999. [4] Skalsky A., E. Dubinin, M. Delva, R. Grard, S. Klimov, K. Sauer, and J.-G. Trotignon, Wave observations at the foreshock boundary in the near mars space, Earth

  19. Simulating the Phases of the Moon Shortly After Its Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordeh, Emil; Hall, Patrick; Cuk, Matija

    2014-04-01

    The leading theory for the origin of the Moon is the giant impact hypothesis, in which the Moon was formed out of the debris left over from the collision of a Marssized body with the Earth. Soon after its formation, the orbit of the Moon may have been very different than it is today. We have simulated the phases of the Moon in a model for its formation wherein the Moon develops a highly elliptical orbit with its major axis tangential to the Earth's orbit. This note describes these simulations and their pedagogical value.

  20. Riddles about the origin and thermal history of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, B. Y.; Mayeva, S. V.

    1977-01-01

    Magmatic differentiation of the moon's interior, confirmed through calculations of thermal history, was studied. It appears that differentiation was a result of the moon's initial temperature whose origin remains unknown. In solving this problem, convective models of the moon were considered as well as a two layered differentiated model of the moon, operative over the past 3.5 billion years. The high content of long lived radioactive elements present was investigated in explaining the moon's current thermal properties. The controversy concerning the true nature of magmatic differentiation continues to be unsolved.

  1. Moon and Terrestrial Planets: Unresolved Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, H. H.

    2002-12-01

    Human exploration during Apollo began the documentation of the evolution of the Moon and of its importance in understanding the origin and evolution of the terrestrial planets. This revolution in planetary geology continues as a vigorous and vibrant arena for discovery and debate for new generations of geoscientists. Although much has been learned and, indeed, resolved in lunar science, we are left with major questions unresolved. One fundamental question is that of the origin of the Moon. A large consensus has developed in the planetary science community that the Moon was created by the "giant impact" of a Mars-sized asteroid on the Earth after the accretion of the Earth was largely complete and differentiation had begun. A minority, however, questions this consensus hypothesis because of increasing indications that the lower mantle of the Moon may be largely undifferentiated. If the issue of the high angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system can be resolved through new modeling studies, then capture of a co-orbiting planetesimal may be an important alternative to a "giant impact". Another important question, particularly in consideration of the terrestrial and Martian surface environments during the first 0.8 billion years of Earth history, is the impact record of that period as recorded on the Moon. Again, a large consensus has developed that the 50 or so large and very large impact basins identified on the Moon were created over a very short "cataclysm" between about 3.9 and 3.8 billion years ago. Here also, a minority suggests that this period of large basin formation, although distinct in lunar history, took place over several hundred million years and that the apparent cataclysm is an artifact of sampling the effects of the last few basin-forming impacts. Either way, a previously unavailable source of impactors appeared somewhere in the solar system and greatly affected terrestrial environments at the time the precursors to life were appearing on Earth

  2. Moon originating heavy ions associated with CIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshifumi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Nishino, Masaki; Tsunakawa, Hideo

    2014-05-01

    Existance of a tenuous alkali atmosphere around the Moon was discovered by ground-based optical observations in 1980s. Since then the generation mechanism of the alkali atmosphere has been actively investigated. Currently, photon-stimulated desorption is regarded as the major generation process of the lunar alkai atmosphere such as sodium and potassium. MAP-PACE-IMA on Kaguya found four typical ion populations on the dayside of the Moon. These includes (1) solar wind protons backscattered at the lunar surface, (2) solar wind protons reflected by magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface, (3) reflected/backscattered protons picked-up by the solar wind, and (4) ions originating from the lunar surface/lunar exosphere. One of these populations: (4) ions originating from the lunar surface/lunar exosphere usually consisted of heavy ions such as carbon, oxygen, sodium, and potassium. Some of these ions were generated on the lunar surface by photon-stimulated desorption especially for alkali ions such as sodium and potassium and some others were generated by solar wind sputtering. Photo-ionized neutral particles were also included in these ions. These heavy ions were accelerated by the solar wind convection electric field and detected by the ion energy mass spectrometer MAP-PACE-IMA on Kaguya. Since the gyro-radius of these heavy ions was much larger than the Moon, the energy of these ions detected at 100km altitude was in most cases lower than the incident solar wind ion energy. Two special examples were found where the energy of the heavy ions was higher than the incident solar wind ion energy. These high-energy heavy ions were observed on the dayside of the Moon when CIR (Corotating Interaction Region) passed the Moon. The high energy heavy ions were observed for several hours with the highest heavy ion flux observed when the solar wind pressure increased due to the passage of the CIR. The mass spectrum of the heavy ions observed associated with CIR showed H+, He++, He

  3. A Large Basin on the Near Side of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Charles Joseph

    2007-12-01

    The differences between the surface structure of the near side and the far side of the Moon have been topics of interest ever since photographs of the far side have been available. One recurrent hypothesis is that a large impact on the near side has deposited ejecta on the far side, resulting in thicker crust there. Specific proposals were made by P.H. Cadogan for the Gargantuan Basin and by E.A. Whitaker for the Procellarum Basin. Despite considerable effort, no consensus has been reached on the existence of these basins. The problem of searching for such a basin is one of finding its signature in a somewhat chaotic field of basin and crater impacts. The search requires a model of the topographic shape of an impact basin and its ejecta field. Such a model is described, based on elevation data of lunar basins collected by the Lidar instrument of the Clementine mission and crustal thickness data derived from tracking Clementine and other spacecraft. The parameters of the model are scaled according to the principles of dimensional analysis and isostatic compensation in the early Moon. The orbital dynamics of the ejecta and the curvature of the Moon are also taken into account. Using such a scaled model, a search for the best fit for a large basin led to identification of a basin whose cavity covers more than half the Moon, including the area of all of the impact basins visible on the near side. The center of this basin is at 22 degrees east longitude and 8.5 degrees north latitude and its average radius is approximately 3,160 km. It is a megabasin, a basin that contains other basins (the far side South Pole-Aitken Basin also qualifies for that designation). It has been called the Near Side Megabasin. Much of the material ejected from the basin escaped the Moon, but the remainder formed an ejecta blanket that covered all of the far side beyond the basin rim to a depth of from 6 to 30 km. Isostatic compensation reduced the depth relative to the mean surface to a range

  4. The moon as a stepping stone for a spacefaring civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multhaup, K.

    2008-09-01

    the moon. Robotic spacecraft deliver science for a fraction of the costs of manned exploration. Is this reason enough to question the presence of man in space? Image: NASA. But even among those who basically support the concept of manned exploration, the decision to use the moon as our next destination and stepping stone is challenged. It is feared by some that manned lunar exploration in particular will bog down the space program for decades to come and eventually inhibit human exploration of Mars. Refutation of arguments Both science and exploration have their roots in the human desire to evolve and expand. But if the virtue of human spaceflight is assessed in view of scientific return only, then the question must also be allowed what purpose planetary science has. What do we, the community of planetary scientists, do to benefit mankind? I see two tiers in planetary science. One of them—the well established approach—is to learn about the planets in order to understand our own homeworld and the place that it takes in the solar system. A great many basic questions from this research theme can be answered by theorizing, by observing from the ground, and by sending unmanned spacecraft. But robots can only do so much … In this tier, human spaceflight admittedly is not required, but more than acutely helpful. A geologist EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 3, EPSC2008-A-xxxx, 2008 European Planetary Science Congress, Author(s) 2008 EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 3, EPSC2008-A-00023, 2008 European Planetary Science Congress, Author(s) 2008 walking around on the surface of Mars will possibly learn more about the planet in a day's work than an automated rover slowly crawling from rock to rock in a couple of years. Nonetheless, the billions and billions of dollars that are required to conduct such programs can hardly be justified exclusively by science. Technology will evolve and the quality and quantity of science return from robotic missions will increase. Fig. 3 The proposed Altair lander

  5. Helping the Moon take a selfie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, William H.

    2014-09-01

    It is a fundamental result of introductory optics that a plane mirror must be at least one half of your height if you want to see your entire body. Students are commonly confused about whether this is still true as you back very far away from the mirror. An interesting student question proposed that we observe the Moon’s image in a small makeup mirror. If someone on the Moon had a telescope large enough to see you and your surroundings clearly, would that person also be able to peer over your shoulder and see the entire Moon in your mirror, as you do? The answer provides a useful ‘view’ on mirror reflections.

  6. Highly silicic compositions on the Moon.

    PubMed

    Glotch, Timothy D; Lucey, Paul G; Bandfield, Joshua L; Greenhagen, Benjamin T; Thomas, Ian R; Elphic, Richard C; Bowles, Neil; Wyatt, Michael B; Allen, Carlton C; Donaldson Hanna, Kerri; Paige, David A

    2010-09-17

    Using data from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment, we show that four regions of the Moon previously described as "red spots" exhibit mid-infrared spectra best explained by quartz, silica-rich glass, or alkali feldspar. These lithologies are consistent with evolved rocks similar to lunar granites in the Apollo samples. The spectral character of these spots is distinct from surrounding mare and highlands material and from regions composed of pure plagioclase feldspar. The variety of landforms associated with the silicic spectral character suggests that both extrusive and intrusive silicic magmatism occurred on the Moon. Basaltic underplating is the preferred mechanism for silicic magma generation, leading to the formation of extrusive landforms. This mechanism or silicate liquid immiscibility could lead to the formation of intrusive bodies.

  7. A picture of the moon's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, B.; Mendillo, M.

    1993-07-01

    Atomic sodium is a useful tracer of the tenuous lunar atmosphere because of its high efficiency in scattering sunlight at the D1 (5896 angstroms) and D2 (5890 angstroms) wavelengths. In 1988, Earth-based instruments revealed the presence of sodium at a density of less than 50 atoms per cubic centimeter at lunar altitudes below 100 kilometers. Telescopic observations that are made with a coronograph technique to block out the disk of the moon allow a true picture of the circumlunar atmosphere to be obtained and show the presence of sodium out to a distance of several lunar radii. The distribution of sodium has a solar zenith angle dependence, suggesting that most of the sodium that reaches great altitudes is liberated from the moon's surface by solar photons (by heating or sputtering) or by solar wind impact, in contrast to a source driven by uniform micrometeor bombardment.

  8. Highly silicic compositions on the Moon.

    PubMed

    Glotch, Timothy D; Lucey, Paul G; Bandfield, Joshua L; Greenhagen, Benjamin T; Thomas, Ian R; Elphic, Richard C; Bowles, Neil; Wyatt, Michael B; Allen, Carlton C; Donaldson Hanna, Kerri; Paige, David A

    2010-09-17

    Using data from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment, we show that four regions of the Moon previously described as "red spots" exhibit mid-infrared spectra best explained by quartz, silica-rich glass, or alkali feldspar. These lithologies are consistent with evolved rocks similar to lunar granites in the Apollo samples. The spectral character of these spots is distinct from surrounding mare and highlands material and from regions composed of pure plagioclase feldspar. The variety of landforms associated with the silicic spectral character suggests that both extrusive and intrusive silicic magmatism occurred on the Moon. Basaltic underplating is the preferred mechanism for silicic magma generation, leading to the formation of extrusive landforms. This mechanism or silicate liquid immiscibility could lead to the formation of intrusive bodies. PMID:20847267

  9. To the Moon on a Shoestring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortensen, T. F.; Rasmussen, S.

    2013-09-01

    The Euroluna Team is one of the around 30 teams competing in the Google Lunar X PRIZE Competition. The goal of the competition is to be the first team to successfully land a vehicle on the Moon, drive 500 m, and send video of the drive back to Earth. The Euroluna Team was formed in 2007, and the first flight hardware was acquired in 2010. Euroluna is financed privately with small funds. We have not received any external financial support. Therefore we have made an effort to keep all investments low. This has resulted in a design that uses new technologies and old technologies in a new way. Components are largely based on the Cubesat family and an ion thruster is being used for propulsion. A special strategy for landing on the Moon is under development. Special software of own design is being used for simulation of trajectories and energy consumption.

  10. Water: Communicator In Moon-Earth Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Joan S.

    The Moon's myriad effects upon Earth have been objects of fascination, and subjects for literary works and scientific speculation throughout history. Although many of Moon's influences upon Earth involve water, tidal movement is clearly the most readily associated effect. While very obvious, it however represents only one of a multitude of ways in which lunar forces effect this planet, and all life upon it. Much less apparent, though essential for all of life, is the wide spectrum of subtle fluctuating influences upon the water in the cells of living systems. Water's capacity to respond to extremely subtle changes in physical influences (such as gravitational fields), as associated with Moon phases (N.B. also with planetary constellations and sunspot activity), enables it to communicate such inputs to living systems. The periodicity of changes in natural systems has been of interest to man throughout history. However, only in more recent times has insight into water's behaviour led to its being recognised as a link between the periodicities seen in abiotic (Moon and other planetary) systems and biotic systems. Particular attention has long been paid to systematic fluctuations in agriculture and forestry: Different growth patterns are observed in connection with the Moon phases (and zodiac constellations) at planting time; different characteristics (e.g., fire resistance, pliability, firmness, etc.) of wood are seen in trees harvested at different phases and constellations. . The usefulness of such correlations has influenced planting and harvesting patterns in more traditional-oriented agriculture and forestry. Its acceptance by science has, however, been long in coming. The case similar, as regards physiological fluctuations observed in the medical field. A documented case in point is the correlation between the Moon-phase and risk of hemorrhage during surgery: This is one of many observations on periodicity in body functions, which deserve more research attention

  11. Economic Geology of the Moon: Some Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillett, Stephen L.

    1992-01-01

    Supporting any but the smallest lunar facility will require indigenous resources due to the extremely high cost of bringing material from Earth. The Moon has also attracted interest as a resource base to help support near-Earth space activities, because of the potential lower cost once the necessary infrastructure has been amortized. Obviously, initial lunar products will be high-volume, bulk commodities, as they are the only ones for which the economics of lunar production are conceivably attractive. Certain rarer elements, such as the halogens, C, and H, would also be extremely useful (for propellant, life support, and/or reagents), and indeed local sources of such elements would vastly improve the economics of lunar resource extraction. The economic geology of the Moon is discussed.

  12. Multispectral Mapping of the Moon by Clementine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eliason, Eric M.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Robinson, M.; Lucey, Paul G.; Duxbury, T.; Malaret, E.; Pieters, Carle; Becker, T.; Isbell, C.; Lee, E.

    1998-01-01

    One of the chief scientific objectives of the Clementine mission at the Moon was to acquire global multispectral mapping. A global digital map of the Moon in 11 spectral bandpasses and at a scale of 100 m/pixel is being produced at the U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff Arizona Near-global coverage was acquired with the UVVIS camera (central wavelengths of 415, 750, 900, 950, and 1000 nm) and the NIR camera (1102, 1248, 1499, 1996, 2620, and 2792 nary). We expect to complete processing of the UVVIS mosaics before the fall of 1998, and to complete the NIR mosaics a year later. The purpose of this poster is to provide an update on the processing and to show examples of the products or perhaps even a wall-sized display of color products from the UVVIS mosaics.

  13. Future Astronomical Observatories on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Jack O. (Editor); Mendell, Wendell W. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Papers at a workshop which consider the topic astronomical observations from a lunar base are presented. In part 1, the rationale for performing astronomy on the Moon is established and economic factors are considered. Part 2 includes concepts for individual lunar based telescopes at the shortest X-ray and gamma ray wavelengths, for high energy cosmic rays, and at optical and infrared wavelengths. Lunar radio frequency telescopes are considered in part 3, and engineering considerations for lunar base observatories are discussed in part 4. Throughout, advantages and disadvantages of lunar basing compared to terrestrial and orbital basing of observatories are weighted. The participants concluded that the Moon is very possibly the best location within the inner solar system from which to perform front-line astronomical research.

  14. Some thoughts on astronomy from the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Harlan J.

    1990-07-01

    Factors related and unrelated to lunar astronomy are set forth in an argument for the establishment of planning and facilities development for lunar-based astronomy. The moon is both an important site for permanent occupation following the similar use of a space station and for exploration and exploitation with potential economic returns. In terms of astronomy, the moon provides an ideal environment for observations in the UV, IR, and optical bands. A comparison of evolutionary and revolutionary approaches to developing lunar observatories is given, and the use of smaller instruments is emphasized which guarantees valuable results at a lower cost. The smaller instruments can then be applied to the subsequent development of a lunar observatory with high capability.

  15. Stennis engineer part of LCROSS moon mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Karma Snyder, a project manager at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, was a senior design engineer on the RL10 liquid rocket engine that powered the Centaur, the upper stage of the rocket used in NASA's Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission in October 2009. Part of the LCROSS mission was to search for water on the moon by striking the lunar surface with a rocket stage, creating a plume of debris that could be analyzed for water ice and vapor. Snyder's work on the RL10 took place from 1995 to 2001 when she was a senior design engineer with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne. Years later, she sees the project as one of her biggest accomplishments in light of the LCROSS mission. 'It's wonderful to see it come into full service,' she said. 'As one of my co-workers said, the original dream was to get that engine to the moon, and we're finally realizing that dream.'

  16. Tidal deceleration of the moon's mean motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, M. K.; Eanes, R. J.; Tapley, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    The secular change in the mean motion of the moon, n, caused by the tidal dissipation in the ocean and solid earth is due primarily to the effect of the diurnal and semidiurnal tides. The long-period ocean tides produce an increase in n, but the effects are only 1 percent of the diurnal and semidiurnal ocean tides. In this investigation, expressions for these effects are obtained by developing the tidal potential in the ecliptic reference system. The computation of the amplitude of equilibrium tide and the phase corrections is also discussed. The averaged tidal deceleration of the moon's mean motion, n, from the most recent satellite ocean tide solutions is -25.25 +/- 0.4 arcseconds/sq century. The value for n inferred from the satellite-determined ocean-tide solution is in good agreement with the value obtained from the analysis of 20 years of lunar laser-ranging observations.

  17. Launching to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, C. Herbert

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the planned launching to the Moon, and Mars. It is important to build beyond the capacity to ferry astronauts and cargo to low Earth orbit. NASA is starting to design new vehicles using the past lessons to minimize cost, and technical risks. The training and education of engineers that will continue the work of designing, testing and flying the vehicles is important to NASA. The following questions were addressed: 1) What is NASA's mission? 2) Why do we explore? 3) What is our timeline? 4) Why the Moon first? 5) What will the vehicles look like? 5) What progress have we made? 6) Who will be doing the work? and 7) What are the benefits of space exploration?

  18. Asteroid mining and the moons of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Brian

    1988-04-01

    Near-term asteroid mining and economical manned missions to Phobos and Deimos, the moons of Mars, are reviewed. Phobos and Deimos (PhD) appear to represent key initial steps in industrializing space utilizing asteroidal and lunar resources, paving the way toward an explosive human renaissance in space. More than any other space mission concept-present or future- PhD fulfills the full gamut of rationales: scientific, technological, economical, political, and spiritual.

  19. Problem of hydrogen on the Moon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. V.; Lejkin, G. A.; Sanovich, A. N.

    1993-11-01

    Modern works on the content of hydrogen and hydrogen-containing compounds on the Moon are reviewed in application to the problem of building a lunar base. The problem of the hydrogen content of the fine fraction of the lunar soil is analyzed in detail. It is pointed out for the first time that under lunar conditions not only the polar permafrost regions but also the lunar lava pipes and the buried fragments of their walls can trap volatiles.

  20. The New Face of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, J. N.

    2012-07-01

    The beginning of this century ushered a new era in lunar exploration. It started with the Smart-1 mission, launched in 2003, that was followed in quick succession by Kaguya, Change-1, Chandrayaan-1, LRO, LCROSS, Change-2 and the most recent GRAIL mission, launched in late 2011. Results obtained by these missions have strengthened some of the existing postulates of lunar evolution, such as the global magma hypothesis, questioned many of our earlier views on moon and generated renewed interest in laboratory studies of lunar samples. Moon can no longer be considered as a bone-dry object. Signatures of hydroxyl and water molecules were found at high latitude lunar regions by Chandrayaan-1 mission and LCROSS mission detected water in the plume generated by a planned impact on a permanently shadowed lunar polar site. Laboratory studies confirmed presence of hydroxyl as a structural component in minerals present in lunar rocks. The permanently shadowed regions turned out to be some of the coldest place in the solar system and could potentially host surface/sub-surface water ice and frozen volatiles. New results obtained by these missions suggest the presence of previously unidentified lunar rock types, young volcanic and tectonic activities, layering within the top kilometre of the lunar surface and the possibility that moon host a very tenuous exosphere. Interesting new features of solar wind interactions with the lunar surface and localized lunar magnetic field have also been delineated. The ongoing effort to reconstruct the new face of the moon will get a boost from results from the GRAIL mission on gravity anomalies and from other upcoming missions, LADEE, Chandrayaan-2, Luna Resource and Luna Glob. A general overview of our current ideas of lunar evolution will be presented along with a preview of upcoming efforts to better understand our closest neighbour in space.

  1. Germany's Option for a Moon Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quantius, Dominik

    The German non-profit amateur satellite organisation AMSAT-Deutschland successfully de-signed, built and launched four HEO satellites in the last three decades. Now they are going to build a satellite to leave the Earth orbit based on their flight-proven P3-D satellite design. Due to energetic constraints the most suitable launch date for the planned P5-A satellite to Mars will be in 2018. To efficiently use the relatively long time gap until launch a possible prior Moon mission came into mind. In co-operation with the DLR-Institute of Space Systems in Bremen, Germany, two studies on systems level for a first P5 satellite towards Moon and a following one towards Mars have been performed. By using the DLR's Concurrent Engineering Facility (CEF) two consistent satellite concepts were designed including mission analysis, configuration, propulsion, subsystem dimensioning, payload selection, budgeting and cost. The present paper gives an insight in the accomplished design process and the results of the performed study towards Moon. The developed Moon orbiter is designed to carry the following four main instruments besides flexible communication abilities: • slewable HDTV camera combined with a high gain antenna that allows receiving lunar television using a commercially available satellite TV dish on Earth • sensor imaging infrared spectrometer for mineralogy of lunar silicates and lunar surface temperature measurements • camera for detection and monitoring of impact flashes in visible light (VIS) on lunar night side caused by meteoroid impact events • camera technology test for interplanetary navigation and planetary approach navigation. This study presents a non-industrial satellite concept that could be launched as piggyback load on Ariane 5 into GTO. Due to the fact, that the satellite would be built by the private sector, the mission costs would remain low. Otherwise the scientific and public output would be high using that satellite bus for the instruments

  2. Launching to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, C. Herbert

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the planned launching to the Moon, and Mars. It is important to build beyond the capacity to ferry astronauts and cargo to low Earth orbit. NASA is starting to design new vehicles using the past lessons to minimize cost, and technical risks. The training and education of engineers that will continue the work of designing, testing and flying the vehicles is important to NASA.

  3. The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter reference trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiffen, Gregory J.; Lam, Try

    2006-01-01

    The proposed NASA Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission would have used a single spacecraft to orbit Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa in succession. The enormous Delta-Velocity required for this mission (nearly [25 km/s]) would necessitate the use of very high efficiency electric propulsion. The trajectory created for the proposed baseline JIMO mission may be the most complex trajectory ever designed. This paper describes the current reference trajectory in detail and describes the processes that were used to construct it.

  4. A new moon-induced structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Nicole

    2014-11-01

    Cassini UVIS stellar occultations show prominent gaps within Saturn's ring located only a few km from the Encke and Keeler gap edges. These transparent regions feature sharp edges and measure a few km in radial width. Already the Voyager 2 PPS experiment registered such a gap near the inner Encke gap edge.All gaps identified so far have been found exclusively downstream of the embedded moons Pan and Daphnis, respectively. Interestingly, none has been observed at the inner Keeler gap edge, where temporal and spatial variability of the edge are still poorly understood and most likely driven by the Prometheus 32:31 ILR located nearby. There is evidence for a weak trend between radial width and relative azimuthal distance to the moon. Trends for features found near the inner and outer Encke gap edge are consistent with each other. Two occultations, one tracking and one double star occultation, allow to investigate spatial and temporal morphology of these gaps. Our preliminary results suggest that these structures are individual gaps with an aspect ratio of about 1:5 and may thus be about 10km long.Embedded moons are known to create observable structures - gaps and kinematic wakes - in the surrounding ring. While Pan and Daphnis are massive enough to open a circumferential gap, smaller objects create the propeller features. These new results, however, reveal the existence of a previously unknown and unpredicted moon-associated structure. Its existence offers another avenue in searching for embedded objects, although our preliminary search did not produce examples apart from those reported here for Pan and Daphnis.We acknowledge Tracy Becker for providing an initial list of positive detections. This work is supported by the Cassini project.

  5. Some results of Moon's gravitational field investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haigel, Y. I.; Zazulyak, P. M.

    2016-10-01

    The task of studying the gravitational field of the moon is important for long-term planning of its research using manned and robotic spacecrafts. Determination of harmonic expansion coefficients of selenopotential may not be reliable because of their construction based on different data and different methods of mathematical processing. With mutual comparative assessment of selenopotential models we can get some information about the reliability determination harmonic coefficients.

  6. Habitable moons around extrasolar giant planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. M.; Kasting, J. F.; Wade, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Possible planetary objects have now been discovered orbiting nine different main-sequence stars. These companion objects (some of which might actually be brown dwarfs) all have a mass at least half that of Jupiter, and are therefore unlikely to be hospitable to Earth-like life: jovian planets and brown dwarfs support neither a solid nor a liquid surface near which organisms might dwell. Here we argue that rocky moons orbiting these companions could be habitable if the planet-moon system orbits the parent star within the so-called 'habitable zone', where life-supporting liquid water could be present. The companions to the stars 16 Cygni B and 47 Ursae Majoris might satisfy this criterion. Such a moon would, however, need to be large enough (>0.12 Earth masses) to retain a substantial and long-lived atmosphere, and would also need to possess a strong magnetic field in order to prevent its atmosphere from being sputtered away by the constant bombardment of energetic ions from the planet's magnetosphere.

  7. Habitable moons around extrasolar giant planets.

    PubMed

    Williams, D M; Kasting, J F; Wade, R A

    1997-01-16

    Possible planetary objects have now been discovered orbiting nine different main-sequence stars. These companion objects (some of which might actually be brown dwarfs) all have a mass at least half that of Jupiter, and are therefore unlikely to be hospitable to Earth-like life: jovian planets and brown dwarfs support neither a solid nor a liquid surface near which organisms might dwell. Here we argue that rocky moons orbiting these companions could be habitable if the planet-moon system orbits the parent star within the so-called 'habitable zone', where life-supporting liquid water could be present. The companions to the stars 16 Cygni B and 47 Ursae Majoris might satisfy this criterion. Such a moon would, however, need to be large enough (>0.12 Earth masses) to retain a substantial and long-lived atmosphere, and would also need to possess a strong magnetic field in order to prevent its atmosphere from being sputtered away by the constant bombardment of energetic ions from the planet's magnetosphere.

  8. Exploration of Moon and Mars: ISRO Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murty Sripada, V. S.

    Subsequent to the announcement of the first Moon mission ‘Chandrayaan-1', the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has chalked out a road map for planetary exploration through the year 2020. This includes a follow up mission to Moon, ‘Chandrayaan-2', an orbiter to Mars, a mission to an asteroid and a technology demonstration mission, in preparation to the exploration of outer solar system objects. Chandrayaan-2 will be an orbiter along with a lander/rover. The orbiter will carry payloads intended for chemical/mineral/terrain mapping of lunar surface at greater spatial and spectral resolution than the previously achieved. The lander/rover will carry out in situ investigations of a selected geologic location on Moon that can provide definitive answers to some long standing issues relating to lunar science and lunar resources. One of the important efforts will be to detect water in the shadowed regions, either on the surface or sub-surface layers. Other payloads under consideration will be utilizing nuclear and optical techniques such as APXE and LIBS for in situ and surrounding chemical characterisation, mass spectrometric study of volatiles released by pyrolysing samples etc. The Mars orbiter will mainly be focussing to study Mars aeronomy in addition to geologic mapping and chemical mapping through optical and ˜-spectrometry respectively. The plans a and preparations will be discussed in detail at the meeting.

  9. Habitable moons around extrasolar giant planets.

    PubMed

    Williams, D M; Kasting, J F; Wade, R A

    1997-01-16

    Possible planetary objects have now been discovered orbiting nine different main-sequence stars. These companion objects (some of which might actually be brown dwarfs) all have a mass at least half that of Jupiter, and are therefore unlikely to be hospitable to Earth-like life: jovian planets and brown dwarfs support neither a solid nor a liquid surface near which organisms might dwell. Here we argue that rocky moons orbiting these companions could be habitable if the planet-moon system orbits the parent star within the so-called 'habitable zone', where life-supporting liquid water could be present. The companions to the stars 16 Cygni B and 47 Ursae Majoris might satisfy this criterion. Such a moon would, however, need to be large enough (>0.12 Earth masses) to retain a substantial and long-lived atmosphere, and would also need to possess a strong magnetic field in order to prevent its atmosphere from being sputtered away by the constant bombardment of energetic ions from the planet's magnetosphere. PMID:9000072

  10. Rationale and Roadmap for Moon Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; ILEWG Team

    We discuss the different rationale for Moon exploration. This starts with areas of scientific investigations: clues on the formation and evolution of rocky planets, accretion and bombardment in the inner solar system, comparative planetology processes (tectonic, volcanic, impact cratering, volatile delivery), records astrobiology, survival of organics; past, present and future life. The rationale includes also the advancement of instrumentation: Remote sensing miniaturised instruments; Surface geophysical and geochemistry package; Instrument deployment and robotic arm, nano-rover, sampling, drilling; Sample finder and collector. There are technologies in robotic and human exploration that are a drive for the creativity and economical competitivity of our industries: Mecha-electronics-sensors; Tele control, telepresence, virtual reality; Regional mobility rover; Autonomy and Navigation; Artificially intelligent robots, Complex systems, Man-Machine interface and performances. Moon-Mars Exploration can inspire solutions to global Earth sustained development: In-Situ Utilisation of resources; Establishment of permanent robotic infrastructures, Environmental protection aspects; Life sciences laboratories; Support to human exploration. We also report on the IAA Cosmic Study on Next Steps In Exploring Deep Space, and ongoing IAA Cosmic Studies, ILEWG/IMEWG ongoing activities, and we finally discuss possible roadmaps for robotic and human exploration, starting with the Moon-Mars missions for the coming decade, and building effectively on joint technology developments.

  11. Remote Nuclear Spectrometer for Martian Moon Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Okada, Tatsuaki; Kameda, Shingo; Karouji, Yuzuru; Amano, Yoshiharu; Shibamura, Eido; Cho, Yuichiro; Ohta, Toru; Naito, Masayuki; Kusano, Hiroki; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Kohei; Adachi, Takuto; Kuno, Haruyoshi; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Nakamura, Tomoki; Takashi, Mikouchi; Shimizu, Sota; Shirai, Naoki; Fagan, Timothy J.; Hitachi, Akira; Matias Lopes, José A.; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Niihara, Takafumi; Kim, Kyeong

    2016-07-01

    The Gamma-ray and Neutron Spectrometer (GNS) on the Mars Moon eXploration (MMX) forms part of the geochemistry investigation. The remote observation from spacecraft orbit provides us global information of the Moons showing evidence of their origin. The Gamma-Ray Sensor (GS) detects gamma-ray emissions in the 0.2- to 10-MeV energy range with an energy resolution of <5.5 keV (fwhm) 60Co (1332 keV). The GS consists of a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector as a main detector and a thin plastic scintillation detector surrounding the main detector as an anticoincidence detector. The HPGe crystal is cooled by a compact mechanical cooler below 90K. The Neutron Sensor (NS) consists of a Li-glass scintillator to measure thermal neutrons, and a borated plastic scintillator to measure epithermal and fast neutrons. The GNS measures elements such as O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, K, Th and volatile elements such as H, S and Cl. The GNS shows distinct features of light weight, low power, excellent energy resolution and high hydrogen-sensitivity. The high concentration of such volatile elements as H and S in their Moons shows the evidence that they are primordial bodies in the solar system and low values of Ca/F and Si/Fe-ratios also suggest the primordial origin. The present status of the GNS development will be reviewed.

  12. Formation, Habitability, and Detection of Extrasolar Moons

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Darren; Kipping, David; Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin; Greenberg, Richard; Sasaki, Takanori; Bolmont, Émeline; Grasset, Olivier; Lewis, Karen; Barnes, Rory; Zuluaga, Jorge I.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The diversity and quantity of moons in the Solar System suggest a manifold population of natural satellites exist around extrasolar planets. Of peculiar interest from an astrobiological perspective, the number of sizable moons in the stellar habitable zones may outnumber planets in these circumstellar regions. With technological and theoretical methods now allowing for the detection of sub-Earth-sized extrasolar planets, the first detection of an extrasolar moon appears feasible. In this review, we summarize formation channels of massive exomoons that are potentially detectable with current or near-future instruments. We discuss the orbital effects that govern exomoon evolution, we present a framework to characterize an exomoon's stellar plus planetary illumination as well as its tidal heating, and we address the techniques that have been proposed to search for exomoons. Most notably, we show that natural satellites in the range of 0.1–0.5 Earth mass (i) are potentially habitable, (ii) can form within the circumplanetary debris and gas disk or via capture from a binary, and (iii) are detectable with current technology. Key Words: Astrobiology—Extrasolar planets—Habitability—Planetary science—Tides. Astrobiology 14, 798–835. PMID:25147963

  13. Formation, habitability, and detection of extrasolar moons.

    PubMed

    Heller, René; Williams, Darren; Kipping, David; Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin; Greenberg, Richard; Sasaki, Takanori; Bolmont, Emeline; Grasset, Olivier; Lewis, Karen; Barnes, Rory; Zuluaga, Jorge I

    2014-09-01

    The diversity and quantity of moons in the Solar System suggest a manifold population of natural satellites exist around extrasolar planets. Of peculiar interest from an astrobiological perspective, the number of sizable moons in the stellar habitable zones may outnumber planets in these circumstellar regions. With technological and theoretical methods now allowing for the detection of sub-Earth-sized extrasolar planets, the first detection of an extrasolar moon appears feasible. In this review, we summarize formation channels of massive exomoons that are potentially detectable with current or near-future instruments. We discuss the orbital effects that govern exomoon evolution, we present a framework to characterize an exomoon's stellar plus planetary illumination as well as its tidal heating, and we address the techniques that have been proposed to search for exomoons. Most notably, we show that natural satellites in the range of 0.1-0.5 Earth mass (i) are potentially habitable, (ii) can form within the circumplanetary debris and gas disk or via capture from a binary, and (iii) are detectable with current technology.

  14. EUVE photometric observations of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, G. R.; McDonald, J. S.; Boyd, W. T.; Bowyer, S.

    1994-03-01

    During its all-sky survey, the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite observed the Moon several times at first and last quarters, and once immediately following the Dec. 10 1992 lunar eclipse. We present here a portion of this data, in the form of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images of the Moon and derived geometric albedos. From the EUVE photometer data we obtain average geometric albedos of 0.15% (+/- 0.03%), 3.1% (+/- 0.3%), and 3.5% (+/- 0.3%), over wavelength intervals of 150-240 A, 400-580 A, and 550-650 A, respectively. An upper limit geometric albedo of 0.13% is obtained for the wavelength interval 75-180 A. Also, using previously published ROSAT data, we estimate a lunar geometric albedo of 0.014% (+/- 0.002%) over the wavelength interval 50-80 A. These EUV albedos (and previously published far-ultraviolet albedos) are well fit by the scaled reflectivities of SiO2 and Al2O3. Over the wavelength ranges of the EUVE photometers, the observed brightness of the Moon seems to be largely consistent with reflected sunlight rather than X-ray fluorescence. Since the L- and M-shell fluorescence signal is expected to be carried by only small number of emission lines, however, it will require EUV observations of higher spectral resolution (approximately less than 5 A) to determine their exact contribution, if any, to the lunar EUV spectrum.

  15. Formation, habitability, and detection of extrasolar moons.

    PubMed

    Heller, René; Williams, Darren; Kipping, David; Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin; Greenberg, Richard; Sasaki, Takanori; Bolmont, Emeline; Grasset, Olivier; Lewis, Karen; Barnes, Rory; Zuluaga, Jorge I

    2014-09-01

    The diversity and quantity of moons in the Solar System suggest a manifold population of natural satellites exist around extrasolar planets. Of peculiar interest from an astrobiological perspective, the number of sizable moons in the stellar habitable zones may outnumber planets in these circumstellar regions. With technological and theoretical methods now allowing for the detection of sub-Earth-sized extrasolar planets, the first detection of an extrasolar moon appears feasible. In this review, we summarize formation channels of massive exomoons that are potentially detectable with current or near-future instruments. We discuss the orbital effects that govern exomoon evolution, we present a framework to characterize an exomoon's stellar plus planetary illumination as well as its tidal heating, and we address the techniques that have been proposed to search for exomoons. Most notably, we show that natural satellites in the range of 0.1-0.5 Earth mass (i) are potentially habitable, (ii) can form within the circumplanetary debris and gas disk or via capture from a binary, and (iii) are detectable with current technology. PMID:25147963

  16. Moon-Mars Analogue Mission (EuroMoonMars 1 at the Mars Desert Research Station)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lia Schlacht, Irene; Voute, Sara; Irwin, Stacy; Foing, Bernard H.; Stoker, Carol R.; Westenberg, Artemis

    The Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) is situated in an analogue habitat-based Martian environment, designed for missions to determine the knowledge and equipment necessary for successful future planetary exploration. For this purpose, a crew of six people worked and lived together in a closed-system environment. They performed habitability experiments within the dwelling and conducted Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) for two weeks (20 Feb to 6 Mar 2010) and were guided externally by mission support, called "Earth" within the simulation. Crew 91, an international, mixed-gender, and multidisciplinary group, has completed several studies during the first mission of the EuroMoonMars campaign. The crew is composed of an Italian designer and human factors specialist, a Dutch geologist, an American physicist, and three French aerospace engineering students from Ecole de l'Air, all with ages between 21 and 31. Each crewmember worked on personal research and fulfilled a unique role within the group: commander, executive officer, engineer, health and safety officer, scientist, and journalist. The expedition focused on human factors, performance, communication, health and safety pro-tocols, and EVA procedures. The engineers' projects aimed to improve rover manoeuvrability, far-field communication, and data exchanges between the base and the rover or astronaut. The crew physicist evaluated dust control methods inside and outside the habitat. The geologist tested planetary geological sampling procedures. The crew designer investigated performance and overall habitability in the context of the Mars Habitability Experiment from the Extreme-Design group. During the mission the crew also participated in the Food Study and in the Ethospace study, managed by external groups. The poster will present crew dynamics, scientific results and daily schedule from a Human Factors perspective. Main co-sponsors and collaborators: ILEWG, ESA ESTEC, NASA Ames, Ecole de l'Air, SKOR, Extreme

  17. Electromagnetic sounding of Moon's interior -a proposal for Luna-Globe project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, Valery; Rokityansky, Igor; Dudkin, Fedir; Belyayev, Serhiy; Tereshin, Artem

    The Moon including its deep interior was intensively studied in the time interval 1959-1976, when the data from first lunar missions were recorded, processed and interpreted and the first model of the Moon interior was created. Data of lunar seismology and gravity as well as lunar geography and geology yield clear understanding that lunar crust and mantle are substantially not uniform laterally. Having quite few seismometers and magnetometers at the Moon, only spherically symmetric 1D model of seismic velocities and electrical conductivity was obtained. Next stage of the Moon exploration foresees landing of several robotic missions and it will be then possible to carry out at the Moon's surface geophysical experiments aimed at more careful study of the Moon interior structure. We propose to include in the next planned mission of Russian space program -Luna-Globe -the electromagnetic (EM) sounding of the Moon's mantle in order to clarify more in details its structure. For EM sounding, the spatial-temporal changes of interplanetary magnetic field carried by solar wind (mean intensity 5nT) as well as those of magnetic field in the Earth's magnetosphere tail (˜ 9nT) during its crossing by the Moon may be used. These values define the maximal level of the primary external magnetic field Be. Solar wind magnetic field induces in the Moon mostly poloidal field Bi due to eddy currents driven by variations of Be. For spherically symmetric 1D model, the higher is conductivity of a concentric internal lunar layer, the stronger eddy currents flow in it and the larger is contribution of the layer in Bi, of course, if skin depth is sufficient for this. Poloidal field from deep interior arrives to surface with geometrical attenuation. For example, field produced at Moon surface by currents in conducting layer at the depth R/2 (R = metricconverterProductID1738 km1738 km is Moon radius) attenuates and at the best will be equal to ˜0.1Bi. Practically it means that reliable

  18. Morphometric analysis of a fresh simple crater on the Moon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivaldi, V.; Ninfo, A.; Massironi, M.; Martellato, E.; Cremonese, G.

    In this research we are proposing an innovative method to determine and quantify the morphology of a simple fresh impact crater. Linné is a well preserved impact crater of 2.2 km in diameter, located at 27.7oN 11.8oE, near the western edge of Mare Serenitatis on the Moon. The crater was photographed by the Lunar Orbiter and the Apollo space missions. Its particular morphology may place Linné as the most striking example of small fresh simple crater. Morphometric analysis, conducted on recent high resolution DTM from LROC (NASA), quantitatively confirmed the pristine morphology of the crater, revealing a clear inner layering which highlight a sequence of lava emplacement events.

  19. Are There Oceans Under the Ice of Small Saturnian and Uranian Moons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, C.

    2003-05-01

    Thermal analysis of the large outer-planetary moons (Titan, Callisto, Ganymede) argue strongly for substantial subsurface oceans if they are made up mostly of rock and ice, and if the rock exhibits radioactivity not too different from that of meteoric and lunar material [1]. For Titania, Rhea, Oberon and Iapetus (the TROI moons) with radii just over 700 km, the existence of oceans is less clear. In these bodies, a subsurface ocean may be likely if the rock has sunk to the center of the moon (i.e., the moon is differentiated) and (1) the radiogenic heating rate is on the higher end of that of lunar samples, (2) the bodies experience tidal heating, or (3) the oceans contain compounds such as ammonia that reduce the freezing point of the aqueous environment. A combination of these occurrences would weigh for a subsurface ocean, perhaps of substantial size. That outer-planetary moons with radii larger than about 200 km (e.g.; Enceladus at 250 km) are spherical argues for separation of light and heavy materials, especially in the larger bodies. Otherwise, the moon exhibits an irregular shape (e.g.; Hyperion at 133 km). Primordial radioactivity and collision events may have aided separation. If present-day radiogenicity is that of lunar samples, natural heating is available to maintain global aqueous environments on all of the TROI moons. The ammonia-water eutectics suggested for Titan [2] provide additional margin. The maintenance of oceans in smaller bodies depends on a balance of internal heat generation and thermal isolation by ice or other insulating material. The more important parameter may be the insulating ice, without which an outer-planetary ocean is not possible. The reduced thermal conductivity for impure ice [3] provides even more likelihood for oceans. Calculations for tidal heating within Europa due to orbital resonances [4] suggest that tidal heating amounts to over 40 times its internal radiogenic heating. A value equal only to natural radiogenic

  20. Moon manned missions radiation safety analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; de Anlelis, G.; Badavi, F. F.

    An analysis is performed on the radiation environment found on the surface of the Moon, and applied to different possible lunar base mission scenarios. An optimization technique has been used to obtain mission scenarios minimizing the astronaut radiation exposure and at the same time controlling the effect of shielding, in terms of mass addition and material choice, as a mission cost driver. The optimization process has been realized through minimization of mass along all phases of a mission scenario, in terms of time frame (dates, transfer time length and trajectory, radiation environment), equipment (vehicles, in terms of shape, volume, onboard material choice, size and structure), location (if in space, on the surface, inside or outside a certain habitats), crew characteristics (number, gender, age, tasks) and performance required (spacecraft and habitat volumes), radiation exposure annual and career limit constraint (from NCRP 132), and implementation of the ALARA principle (shelter from the occurrence of Solar Particle Events). On the lunar surface the most important contribution to radiation exposure is given by background Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) particles, mostly protons, alpha particles, and some heavy ions, and by locally induced particles, mostly neutrons, created by the interaction between GCR and surface material and emerging from below the surface due to backscattering processes. In this environment manned habitats are to host future crews involved in the construction and/or in the utilization of moon based infrastructure. Three different kinds of lunar missions are considered in the analysis, Moon Base Construction Phase, during which astronauts are on the surface just to build an outpost for future resident crews, Moon Base Outpost Phase, during which astronaut crews are resident but continuing exploration and installation activities, and Moon Base Routine Phase, with long-term shifting resident crews. In each scenario various kinds of habitats

  1. The Moon as a unifying sociological attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, C.; Pachera, S.; Ciucci, A.

    We propose to develop an economic, fully automated telescope to equip a variety of public and private buildings, such as disco dancings, pubs, resting houses, hospitals, schools etc., optimized to image and project the Moon, both in daylight and nightime. We strongly believe that the wide spread conscience of being part of a common Universe, by imaging the real Moon ( not a series of computer files) and following its changing course, distributed in places where the soul is usually taken in a wave of loneliness, can have a profound effect. In fact, living such an experience of observation in places where people of all ages usually meet, can help them to mix up socially and have fun and acquire new interests and fulfillment. They could confront their doubts, opinions, curiosity. The Moon is the natural choice, being visible even in polluted cities, it comes to the Zenith of a large band on the Earth encompassing each emisphere, it has deeply rooted meanings in all civilizations, and it is therefore the perfect astronomical object towards which humanity should direct its view above the ground. The possibility of the instrument to zoom in and out and to move across the surface of the Moon or to observe in real time the slowly moving line of the terminator, is intended just for the sheer wonder of it. No didactic use is meant to begin with, although interest is sure to be stimulated and may be followed up in many ways. Our object is indeed to make young and older people throughout the world feel our satellite nearer and more familiar in the shapes and names of its features, truly a constant presence in our everyday natural surroundings. When the time will come for human coloniz ation, the Moon could no longer be considered such an extraneous, exotic and faraway new home. The telescope can be built in very large quantities by a variety of firms practically even in underdeveloped countries, easily automated and connected to the world wide web.

  2. Using space manifold dynamics to deploy a small satellite constellation around the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marson, Riccardo; Pontani, Mauro; Perozzi, Ettore; Teofilatto, Paolo

    2010-02-01

    The possibility of communicating with the far side of the Moon is essential for keeping a continuous radio link with lunar orbiting spacecraft, as well as with manned or unmanned surface facilities in locations characterized by poor coverage from Earth. If the exploration and the exploitation of the Moon must be sustainable in the medium/long term, we need to develop the capability to realize and service such facilities at an affordable cost. Minimizing the spacecraft mass and the number of launches is a driving parameter to this end. The aim of this study is to show how Space Manifold Dynamics can be profitably applied in order to launch three small spacecraft onboard the same launch vehicle and send them to different orbits around the Moon with no significant difference in the Delta-V budgets. Internal manifold transfers are considered to minimize also the transfer time. The approach used is the following: we used the linearized solution of the equations of motion in the Circular Restricted Three Body Problem to determine a first-guess state vector associated with the Weak Stability Boundary regions, either around the collinear Lagrangian point L1 or around the Moon. The resulting vector is then used as initial state in a numerical backward-integration sequence that outputs a trajectory on a manifold. The dynamical model used in the numerical integration is four-body and non-circular, i.e. the perturbations of the Sun and the lunar orbital eccentricity are accounted for. The trajectory found in this way is used as the principal segment of the lunar transfer. After separation, with minor maneuvers each satellite is injected into different orbits that lead to ballistic capture around the Moon. Finally, one or more circularization maneuvers are needed in order to achieve the final circular orbits. The whole mission profile, from launch to insertion into the final lunar orbits, is modeled numerically with the commercial software STK.

  3. High-Frequency Eddy Current Conductivity Spectroscopy for Near-Surface Residual Stress Profiling in Surface-Treated Nickel-Base Superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Nabah, Bassam A.; Nagy, Peter B.

    2007-03-21

    Recent research indicated that eddy current conductivity measurements can be exploited for nondestructive evaluation of subsurface residual stress in surface-treated components. This technique is based on the so-called piezoresistive effect, i.e., the stress-dependence of electric conductivity. Previous experimental studies were conducted on excessively peened (Almen 10-16A peening intensity levels) nickel-base superalloy specimens that exhibited harmful cold work in excess of 30% plastic strain. The main reason for choosing peening intensities above recommended normal levels was that the eddy current penetration depth could not be decreased below 0.2 mm without conducting accurate measurements above 10 MHz, which is beyond the operational range of most commercially available eddy current instruments. In this paper we report the development of a new high-frequency eddy current conductivity measuring system that offers an extended inspection frequency range up to 80 MHz with a single probe coil. In addition, the new system offers better reproducibility, accuracy, and measurement speed than the previously used conventional system.

  4. The Radar for Icy Moon Exploration (RIME) on the JUICE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruzzone, L.; Plaut, J.; Alberti, G.; Blankenship, D. D.; Bovolo, F.; Campbell, B. A.; Castelletti, D.; Gim, Y.; Ilisei, A. M.; Kofman, W. W.; Komatsu, G.; McKinnon, W. B.; Mitri, G.; Moussessian, A.; Notarnicola, C.; Orosei, R.; Patterson, G. W.; Pettinelli, E.; Plettemeier, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Radar for Icy Moon Exploration (RIME) is one of the main instruments included in the JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) ESA mission. It is a radar sounder designed for studying the subsurface geology and geophysics of Galilean icy moons (i.e., Ganymede, Europa and Callisto) and for detecting possible subsurface water. RIME is designed for penetration of the icy moons up to a depth of 9 km. Two main operation scenarios are foreseen for RIME: i) flyby observations of Europa, Ganymede and Callisto (from a distance of 1000 km to the closest approach of about 400 km); and ii) circular orbital observations around Ganymede at 500 km of altitude. According to these scenarios, RIME is designed to explore the icy shell of the Galilean icy satellites by characterizing the wide range of compositional, thermal, and structural variation found in the subsurface of these moons. RIME observations will profile the ice shells of the Galilean icy satellites with specific focus on Ganymede given the circular orbital phase. The acquired measures will provide geological context on hemispheric (thousands of km), regional (hundreds of km with multiple overlaps), and targeted (tens of km) scales appropriate for a variety of hypothesis tests. RIME will operate in a single frequency band, centred at 9 MHz. The frequency was selected as the result of extensive study of penetration capabilities, surface roughness of the moons, Jovian radio noise, antenna accommodation, and system design. The 9 MHz frequency provides penetration capabilities and mitigation of surface scattering (which can cause signal loss and clutter issues), at the expense of mapping coverage, as it is likely to obtain high SNR observations only on the anti-Jovian side of the target moons. The RIME antenna is a 16 m dipole. The chirp pulse bandwidth is up to 3 MHz, which provides vertical resolution of about 50 m in ice after side lobe weighting. RIME will also operate with 1 MHz bandwidth to reduce data volume when

  5. Time and Energy, Exploring Trajectory Options Between Nodes in Earth-Moon Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Roland; Condon, Gerald; Williams, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) was released by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) in September of 2011. It describes mission scenarios that begin with the International Space Station and utilize it to demonstrate necessary technologies and capabilities prior to deployment of systems into Earth-Moon space. Deployment of these systems is an intermediate step in preparation for more complex deep space missions to near-Earth asteroids and eventually Mars. In one of the scenarios described in the GER, "Asteroid Next", there are activities that occur in Earth-Moon space at one of the Earth-Moon Lagrange (libration) points. In this regard, the authors examine the possible role of an intermediate staging point in an effort to illuminate potential trajectory options for conducting missions in Earth-Moon space of increasing duration, ultimately leading to deep space missions. This paper will describe several options for transits between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the libration points, transits between libration points, and transits between the libration points and interplanetary trajectories. The solution space provided will be constrained by selected orbital mechanics design techniques and physical characteristics of hardware to be used in both crewed missions and uncrewed missions. The relationships between time and energy required to transfer hardware between these locations will provide a better understanding of the potential trade-offs mission planners could consider in the development of capabilities, individual missions, and mission series in the context of the ISECG GER.

  6. Astronomy and Space Science from the Moon: Proceedings of Symposium E4 of the COSPAR 29th Plenary Meeting held in Washington, DC, 28 Aug.-5 Sep., 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foing, B. H. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the conference was to assess the moon as a base for conducting astronomy, solar system observations, and space sciences. The lunar vacuum allows a complete opening of the electromagnetic window and distortion-free measurements at the highest angular resolution, precision, and temporal stability. The moon is perfect for continuous monitoring of the Sun, Solar System targets, and for deep observations of galactic and extragalactic objects. It is an in-situ laboratory for selenophysics, chemistry, and exobiology. The moon contains useful resources and is accessible from Earth for installation, operations maintenance, robotics, and human activities.

  7. An asteroidal origin for water in the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jessica J.; Kring, David A.; Tartèse, Romain; Franchi, Ian A.; Anand, Mahesh; Russell, Sara S.

    2016-05-01

    The Apollo-derived tenet of an anhydrous Moon has been contested following measurement of water in several lunar samples that require water to be present in the lunar interior. However, significant uncertainties exist regarding the flux, sources and timing of water delivery to the Moon. Here we address those fundamental issues by constraining the mass of water accreted to the Moon and modelling the relative proportions of asteroidal and cometary sources for water that are consistent with measured isotopic compositions of lunar samples. We determine that a combination of carbonaceous chondrite-type materials were responsible for the majority of water (and nitrogen) delivered to the Earth-Moon system. Crucially, we conclude that comets containing water enriched in deuterium contributed significantly <20% of the water in the Moon. Therefore, our work places important constraints on the types of objects impacting the Moon ~4.5-4.3 billion years ago and on the origin of water in the inner Solar System.

  8. Who owns the moon?. [legal aspects of lunar exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhukov, G. P.

    1974-01-01

    It is stipulated that all of mankind owns the moon and that lunar exploration must be exclusively for peaceful purposes. In addition to the right to build stations on the moon, every country has the right to utilize the moon's natural resources. This includes: exploration, extraction, and processing of minerals and other natural resources, and their utilization and processing for local needs and possible also for export to earth.

  9. Mars Moons Prospector Mission with CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udrea, Bogdan; Nayak, Mikey; Allen, Brett; Bourke, Justin; Casariego, Gabriela; Gosselin, Steven; Hiester, Evan; Maier, Margaret; Melchert, Jeanmarie; Patel, Chitrang; Reis, Leslie; Smith, Gregory; Snow, Travis; Williams, Sarah; Franquiz, Francsico

    2015-04-01

    The preliminary design of a low-cost Discovery class mission for prospecting Mars moons Phobos and Deimos is undertaken as capstone senior design class in spacecraft design. The mission design is centred on a mothership that carries a dozen of 12U CubeSats, each of 22x22x34cm in size and 24kg in mass. The mothership is equipped with a set of instruments for the investigation of regolith samples, similar to those with identical functions on the Curiosity and the Mars 2020 rovers. The mothership also serves as a telecommunication hub with Earth. Six of the CubeSats have the role of touching down and picking up soil samples for delivery to the mothership for analysis and the six have the role of visually inspecting the moon at close proximity in visible and near and mid infrared light and deploying instruments on the surface of the moons. A suite of miniaturized instruments are investigated for deployment on the CubeSats. The CubeSats are designed to dock with the mothership to be refueled and they heavily leverage the design of the ARAPAIMA (www.eraucubesat.org) proximity operations 6U CubeSat currently in development at ERAU for the Air Force University Nanosatellite Program. The concept of operations envisions the launch of the mothership as a primary payload on a Mars transfer trajectory. After performing a Mars capture maneuver the mothership undertakes autonomous aerobraking to achieve a highly elliptic orbit with the apoapsis at Deimos altitude of 23,460km. Further maneuvering places the mothership in a relative orbit about Deimos from which the CubeSats are deployed. Once the investigation of Deimos is completed the mothership retrieves its CubeSats and maneuver to achieve a relative orbit about Phobos. An investigation similar to that of Deimos is performed. If the mass margins allow it then an extended mission will attempt to confirm the presence of a dust ring between Phobos and Deimos and conduct multi-point atmospheric investigations with supplemental 3U

  10. Numerical Results of 3-D Modeling of Moon Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod; Antipin, Alexandr

    2014-05-01

    For the last time for the model of the Moon usually had been used the model of mega impact in which the forming of the Earth and its sputnik had been the consequence of the Earth's collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,2] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al26,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone and additionally change the content of Moon forming to silicates. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius of the Earth, the growing area of the future Earth's core can save also the silicate envelope fragments [3]. For understanding the further system Earth-Moon evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on its accumulation stage.In that paper we are modeling the changing of temperature,pressure,velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3d spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach.The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in velocity

  11. Lunar cold spots and crater production on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jean-Pierre; Bandfield, Joshua

    2016-10-01

    A new class of small, fresh impact craters has been recently identified on the Moon through the systematic mapping of lunar surface temperatures by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer instrument aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter [1]. These craters are distinguished by anomalously low nighttime temperatures at distances ~10–100 crater radii. This thermal behavior indicates that impacts modify the surrounding regolith surfaces making them highly insulating with little evidence for either significant deposition or erosion of surface material [2]. These thermophysically distinct surfaces, or "cold spots", appear to be common to all recent impacts and provide a means of uniquely identifying the most recent impact craters on the Moon. We have conducted a survey of the crater population associated with cold spots. Comparison with existing crater chronology models [e.g., 3] constrains the retention-age of the cold spots to ~200,000 yr with a size-frequency distribution (SFD) slope that is consistent with the modeled production function. This implies the rate at which cold spots fade to background levels is independent of initial cold spot size and that the SFD of crater production in the last 200 ka is similar to the long-term average used to establish modeled production functions, though the rate of cratering may have varied [4]. In addition, we observe a longitudinal heterogeneity in cold spot crater density that is consistent with that predicted to occur as a result of the Moon's synchronous rotation [5] and has been observed in the rayed crater population [6], with the cold spot density at the apex of motion (90°W) nearly twice that observed at the antapex (90°E).[1] Bandfield, J., et al. (2011) JGR 116, E00H02. [2] Bandfield, J., et al. (2014) Icarus, 231, 221-231. [3] Neukum, G., et al. (2001) SSR 96, 55–86. [4] Mazrouei, S. et al. (2015) LPSC 46, 2331. [5] Le Fleuvre, M., and Wieczorek, M. A. (2011) Icarus 214, 1-20. [6] Morota, T. and Furumoto, M. (2002) EPSL

  12. On the origin of the Moon by rotational fission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, A. B.

    1984-01-01

    Consistent with the current understanding of the Moon's bulk composition, internal structure, seismic and tectonic characteristics, evidence is discussed which suggests that the Moon originated by fission. The concepts discussed are: (1) all stars are members of close or contact binary systems; (2) advances in dynamical studies of the fission hypothesis show that stellar bodies also undergo fission; (3) the newly formed proto moon would have lost a large fraction of its original mass via mass transfer; and (4) due to the foregoing concepts the result would be a moon of terrestrial mantle material which was depleted in both metallic iron and volatiles.

  13. Moon-based Earth Observation for Large Scale Geoscience Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Huadong; Liu, Guang; Ding, Yixing

    2016-07-01

    The capability of Earth observation for large-global-scale natural phenomena needs to be improved and new observing platform are expected. We have studied the concept of Moon as an Earth observation in these years. Comparing with manmade satellite platform, Moon-based Earth observation can obtain multi-spherical, full-band, active and passive information,which is of following advantages: large observation range, variable view angle, long-term continuous observation, extra-long life cycle, with the characteristics of longevity ,consistency, integrity, stability and uniqueness. Moon-based Earth observation is suitable for monitoring the large scale geoscience phenomena including large scale atmosphere change, large scale ocean change,large scale land surface dynamic change,solid earth dynamic change,etc. For the purpose of establishing a Moon-based Earth observation platform, we already have a plan to study the five aspects as follows: mechanism and models of moon-based observing earth sciences macroscopic phenomena; sensors' parameters optimization and methods of moon-based Earth observation; site selection and environment of moon-based Earth observation; Moon-based Earth observation platform; and Moon-based Earth observation fundamental scientific framework.

  14. Vicarious calibration of GOES imager visible channel using the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, X.; Stone, T.C.; Yu, F.; Han, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the feasibility of a method for vicarious calibration of the GOES Imager visible channel using the Moon. The measured Moon irradiance from 26 undipped moon imagers exhausted all the potential Moon appearances between July 1998 and December 2005, together with the seven scheduled Moon observation data obtained after November 2005, were compared with the USGS lunar model results to estimate the degradation rate of the GOES-10 Imager visible channel. A total of nine methods of determining the space count and identifying lunar pixels were employed in this study to measure the GOES-10 Moon irradiance. Our results show that the selected mean and the masking Moon appears the best method. Eight of the nine resulting degradation rates range from 4.5%/year to 5.0%/year during the nearly nine years of data, which are consistent with most other degradation rates obtained for GOES-10 based on different references. In particular, the degradation rate from the Moon-based calibration (4.5%/year) agrees very well with the MODIS-based calibration (4.4%/year) over the same period, confirming the capability of relative and absolute calibration based on the Moon. Finally, our estimate of lunar calibration precision as applied to GOES-10 is 3.5%.

  15. Evidence for magma oceans on asteroids, the moon, and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Norman, Marc D.

    1992-01-01

    There are sound theoretical reasons to suspect that the terrestrial planets melted when they formed. For Earth, the reasons stem largely from the hypothesis that the moon formed as a result of the impact of a Mars-sized planetesimal with the still accreting Earth. Such a monumental event would have led to widespread heating of the Earth and the materials from which the moon was made. In addition, formation of a dense atmosphere on the Earth (and possibly the Moon) would have led to retention of accretional heat and, thus, widespread melting. In other words, contemporary theory suggests that the primitive Moon and terrestrial planets had magma oceans.

  16. Moon-Based INSAR Geolocation and Baseline Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guang; Ren, Yuanzhen; Ye, Hanlin; Guo, Huadong; Ding, Yixing; Ruan, Zhixing; Lv, Mingyang; Dou, Changyong; Chen, Zhaoning

    2016-07-01

    Earth observation platform is a host, the characteristics of the platform in some extent determines the ability for earth observation. Currently most developing platforms are satellite, in contrast carry out systematic observations with moon based Earth observation platform is still a new concept. The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite and is the only one which human has reached, it will give people different perspectives when observe the earth with sensors from the moon. Moon-based InSAR (SAR Interferometry), one of the important earth observation technology, has all-day, all-weather observation ability, but its uniqueness is still a need for analysis. This article will discuss key issues of geometric positioning and baseline parameters of moon-based InSAR. Based on the ephemeris data, the position, liberation and attitude of earth and moon will be obtained, and the position of the moon-base SAR sensor can be obtained by coordinate transformation from fixed seleno-centric coordinate systems to terrestrial coordinate systems, together with the Distance-Doppler equation, the positioning model will be analyzed; after establish of moon-based InSAR baseline equation, the different baseline error will be analyzed, the influence of the moon-based InSAR baseline to earth observation application will be obtained.

  17. GRAIL Webcast: Twin Spacecraft Bound for the Moon

    NASA Video Gallery

    The moon has captivated humanity's collective imagination for hundreds of years, but despite study with telescopes, astronauts and robotic probes, our nearest neighbor remains a mystery. NASA's Gra...

  18. Measuring the Apparent Size of the Moon with a Digital Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellery, Adam; Hughes, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Moon appears to be much larger closer to the horizon than when higher in the sky. This is called the "Moon illusion" since the observed size of the Moon is not actually larger when the Moon is just above the horizon. This paper describes a technique for verifying that the observed size of the Moon is not larger on the horizon. The technique…

  19. Diagnostic Imaging in the Medical Support of the Future Missions to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a course that reviews the diagnostic imaging techniques available for medical support on the future moon missions. The educational objectives of the course are to: 1) Update the audience on the curreultrasound imaging in space flight; 2) Discuss the unique aspects of conducting ultrasound imaging on ISS, interplanetary transit, ultrasound imaging on ISS, interplanetary transit, and lunar surface operations; and 3) Review preliminary data obtained in simulations of medical imaging in lunar surface operations.

  20. Earth after the Moon-forming Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, K. J.

    2006-01-01

    The Hadean Earth is widely and enduringly pictured as a world of exuberant volcanism, exploding meteors, huge craters, infernal heat, and billowing sulfurous steams; i.e., a world of fire and brimstone punctuated with blows to the head. In the background the Moon looms gigantic in the sky. The popular image has given it a name that celebrates our mythic roots. A hot early Earth is an inevitable consequence of accretion. The Moon-forming impact ensured that Earth as we know it emerged from a fog of silicate vapor. The impact separated the volatiles from the silicates. It took approx. 100 years to condense and rain out the bulk of the vaporized silicates, although relatively volatile elements may have remained present in the atmosphere throughout the magma ocena stage. The magma ocean lasted approx. 2 Myr, its lifetime prolonged by tidal heating and thermal blanketing by a thick CO2-rich steam atmosphere. Water oceans condensed quickly after the mantle solidified, but for some 10-100 Myr the surface would have stayed warm (approx. 500 K) until the CO2 was removed into the mantle. Thereafter the faint young Sun suggests that a lifeless Earth would always have been evolving toward a bitterly cold ice world, but the cooling trend was fiequently interrupted by volcanic or impact induced thaws. A cartoon history of water, temperature, and carbon dioxide in the aftermath of the moon-formining-impact is shown. How long it stays hot depends on how long it takes to scrub the C02 out of the atmosphere.

  1. Evidence for a "Wet" Early Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, Hejiu; Peslier, Anne H.; Zhang, Youxue; Neal, Clive R.

    2013-01-01

    The Moon was thought to have lost its volatiles during impact(s) of a Mars-size planetesimal with the proto Earth [1] and during degassing of an early planet-wide magma ocean [2]. This view of an anhydrous Moon, however, has been challenged by recent discoveries of water on its surface [3-5] and in lunar volcanics [6-10] and regoliths [11]. Indigenous water is suggested to be heterogeneously distributed in the lunar interior and some parts of lunar mantle may contain as much water as Earth's upper mantle [6,10]. This water is thought to have been brought in part through solar wind implantation [3-5,8,11] and meteorite/cometary impacts [3,4,8,12] after the formation of the primary crust. Here we measured water in primary products of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) thereby by-passing the processes of later addition of water to the Moon through impact events or during mantle overturn as suggested by previous studies (e.g., [8,12]). So far, ferroan anorthosite (FAN) is the only available lithology that is believed to be a primary product of the LMO [2]. It is generally accepted that plagioclase, after crystallization, floated in the LMO and formed FAN as the original crust [2]. Therefore, any indigenous water preserved in FAN was partitioned from the LMO. These data can be used to estimate the water content of the magma ocean at the time of plagioclase crystallization, as well as that of the mare magma source regions.

  2. The Origin of the Moon and Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, F. M.

    2004-12-01

    In 1879, George Darwin(1) had proposed that the moon originated from a rapidly spinning Earth on which equatorial gravitative attraction was nearly overcome by centrifical force. During a 1964 conference, D.U. Wise(2) and others analyzed this hypothesis in greater detail. However, recent studies warranted a fundamentally new approach with regards to the origin of the solar system. A re-examination of the spin-off (fission) hypothesis of the moon from the earth, using slightly different assumptions than scientists had previously used (allowing for a more extreme version of an expanding earth), provided the earth's original radius (357 km), density (3.13 x 104 g/cc) and spin rate (0.132 radians/sec.). It was found that Neptune underwent a similar development with the fission of Triton. The remarkably large initial densities, of both Earth and Neptune (7.2 x 105 gm/cc) are consistent with the overall theory(3,4) previously discussed regarding the evolution of the solar system from a neutron star type proto-sun's dense core. The primary calculations involve conservation of angular momentum of each of the rotating and revolving planetary systems. (1) Darwin, G. H. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 170, 1 (1879) (2) D.U. Wise, ``The Earth-Moon System" p. 213, Marsden and Cameron Eds. Plenum Press (1966) (3) Fred M. Johnson, ``Voyage Into Astronomy", Kendall/ Hunt Publ., (1977) (4) Fred M. Johnson, Mem. Soc. Roy. des Sciences de Liége, 6th series, vol. III, p. 609-627 (1972).

  3. Moon-Based Advanced Reusable Transportation Architecture: The MARTA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, R.; Bechtel, R.; Chen, T.; Cormier, T.; Kalaver, S.; Kirtas, M.; Lewe, J.-H.; Marcus, L.; Marshall, D.; Medlin, M.; McIntire, J.; Nelson, D.; Remolina, D.; Scott, A.; Weglian, J.; Olds, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Moon-based Advanced Reusable Transportation Architecture (MARTA) Project conducted an in-depth investigation of possible Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to lunar surface transportation systems capable of sending both astronauts and large masses of cargo to the Moon and back. This investigation was conducted from the perspective of a private company operating the transportation system for a profit. The goal of this company was to provide an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 25% to its shareholders. The technical aspect of the study began with a wide open design space that included nuclear rockets and tether systems as possible propulsion systems. Based on technical, political, and business considerations, the architecture was quickly narrowed down to a traditional chemical rocket using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. However, three additional technologies were identified for further investigation: aerobraking, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and a mass driver on the lunar surface. These three technologies were identified because they reduce the mass of propellant used. Operational costs are the largest expense with propellant cost the largest contributor. ISRU, the production of materials using resources on the Moon, was considered because an Earth to Orbit (ETO) launch cost of 1600 per kilogram made taking propellant from the Earth's surface an expensive proposition. The use of an aerobrake to circularize the orbit of a vehicle coming from the Moon towards Earth eliminated 3, 100 meters per second of velocity change (Delta V), eliminating almost 30% of the 11,200 m/s required for one complete round trip. The use of a mass driver on the lunar surface, in conjunction with an ISRU production facility, would reduce the amount of propellant required by eliminating using propellant to take additional propellant from the lunar surface to Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). However, developing and operating such a system required further study to identify if it was cost effective. The

  4. Mining the Moon, Mars, and Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2000-11-01

    An international group of scientists, mining and aerospace engineers, policy makers, and other specialists met in Golden, Colorado to discuss the use of space resources. Space Resources Roundtable II was held at the Colorado School of Mines, and was sponsored by the School of Mines, NASA, and the Lunar and Planetary Institute. Participants discussed lunar, Martian, and asteroidal resources, along with economic and legal aspects of using extraterrestrial resources. This report focuses on lunar resources. Manufacture of useful materials on the Moon, Mars, or asteroids requires extensive use of what we know about those places through studies of lunar samples and meteorites from asteroids and Mars. It is applied cosmochemistry.

  5. The Ionizing Radiation Environment on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Bhattacharya, M.; Lin, Zi-Wei; Pendleton, G.

    2006-01-01

    The ionizing radiation environment on the moon that contributes to the radiation hazard for astronauts consists of galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles and albedo particles from the lunar surface. We will present calculations of the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent to various organs in this environment during quiet times and during large solar particle events. We will evaluate the contribution of solar particles other than protons and the contributions of the various forms of albedo. We will use the results to determine which particle fluxes must be known in order to estimate the radiation hazard.

  6. Effects of Spacecraft Landings on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, Philip T.; Lane, John E.

    2013-01-01

    The rocket exhaust of spacecraft landing on the Moon causes a number of observable effects that need to be quantified, including: disturbance of the regolith and volatiles at the landing site; damage to surrounding hardware such as the historic Apollo sites through the impingement of high-velocity ejecta; and levitation of dust after engine cutoff through as-yet unconfirmed mechanisms. While often harmful, these effects also beneficially provide insight into lunar geology and physics. Some of the research results from the past 10 years is summarized and reviewed here.

  7. Tidally Heated ExoMoons (THEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobos, V.

    2014-04-01

    More than a thousand exoplanets have been identified to date (Schneider 2014); however, moons orbiting exoplanets have not been discovered, yet. Nevertheless, it is probable that exomoons will be detected in the near future if they are not much more rare in exoplanetary systems than they are in the Solar System (Heller & Barnes 2013, Peters & Turner 2013, Kaltenegger 2010). For this reason it is important to begin to develop basic theoretical models of exomoons in advance of the first detections. Habitability is a particularly important aspect, since life might well develop on a non-planetary body if it has suitable characteristics and environmentals. Tidal forces produced by the planet which the moon orbits can induce friction inside the satellite that will have a warming effect (Peale et al. 1979). In the Solar System there are several examples for moons that have significant heating due to tidal forces. On exomoons that are too far from their central star to have habitable surface temperatures due to radiative heating, it is possible that warmth area of the surface produced by tidal heating could allow the emergence of life (Scharf 2006). This investigation focuses on tidal heating, studying the surface temperature of hypothetical exomoons for different orbital and interior parameters of the body. The aim of our research is to describe the conditions that allow the existence of water reservoirs in the liquid phase state on or near the surface. We modified and extended the public code of Heller & Barnes (2013) for the purposes of this investigation. References Heller, R., Barnes, R. 2013 Exomoon Habitability Constrained by Illumination and Tidal Heating, Astrobiology 13, 18 Kaltenegger, L. 2010 Characterizing habitable exomoons, The Astrophysical Journal Letters 712, 125 Peale, S. J., Cassen, P., Reynolds, R. T. 1979 Melting of Io by Tidal Dissipation, Science 203, 892 Peters, M. A., Turner, E. L. 2013 On the direct imaging of tidally heated exomoons, The

  8. Moon Technology For A New Artform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The keystone of the density slicing process is an instrument called a densitometer, which can "see" many subtle gradations not visible to the human eye. This instrument was integrated into a computerized system which analyzed the tonal density of a moon photo, assigned a color code to each of the various shades, and created on a video monitor a new picture in which each color represented a particular measurement, such as height or depth. Density slicing, applied to telescopic photos and later to close-up views acquired by unmanned spacecraft, provided the foundation for NASA's extensive study and selection of safe Apollo landing sites.

  9. Lunar Flashlight: Illuminating the Moon's South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayne, P. O.; Cohen, B. A.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Paige, D. A.; Camacho, J. M.; Sellar, R. G.; Reiter, J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent reflectance data from LRO instruments suggest water ice and other volatiles may be present on the surface in lunar permanently shadowed regions, though the detection is not yet definitive. Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water and other volatiles associated with lunar permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG) for Human Exploration. These polar volatile deposits are also scientifically interesting, having the potential to reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth-Moon system.

  10. Effects of Spacecraft Landings on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, P. T.; Lane, J. E.

    2013-01-01

    The rocket exhaust of spacecraft landing on the Moon causes a number of observable effects that need to be quantified, including: disturbance of the regolith and volatiles at the landing site; damage to surrounding hardware such as the historic Apollo sites through the impingement of high-velocity ejecta; and levitation of dust after engine cutoff through as-yet unconfirmed mechanisms. While often harmful, these effects also beneficially provide insight into lunar geology and physics. Research results from the past 10 years is summarized and reviewed here.

  11. Human exploration - Moon/Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Handley, Douglas A.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Eploration Initiative launched by the Bush Administration in May, 1990, will intensively explore alternative mission architectures involving the use of the moon as a staging post for manned exploration of Mars. The advanced technologies to be analyzed by the 'Pathfinder' program for prospective use in the alternative missions thus far defined encompass aerobraking, space-based chemical engines, cryogenic fluid systems, space nuclear power, nuclear-thermal and nuclear-electric propulsion, high-rate communications, and planetary photonics. Extensive use of robotics is anticipated in both the lunar and Martian components of the missions being studied.

  12. [Dogs, man-wolves and full moon].

    PubMed

    Goddemeier, Christof

    2002-06-01

    According to a study of the British Medical Journal in England the incidence of dog bites increases at the time of a full moon. The following article first passes the myths dealing with the werewolf. By changing from delinquent to patient during the Enlightenment the werewolf gets important to the history of medicine and psychiatry. From the anthropological point of view the so-called Lycorexia may be understood as an unconscious effort to undo evolution by transformation into beast. By the figure of the "Huckup" in recent variants concerning the werewolf subject a psychological turn of the legend is expressed.

  13. The origin of the moon and the early history of the earth - A chemical model. Part 1: The moon

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, H. St.C. )

    1991-04-01

    The chemical implications of a giant impact model for the origin of the moon are examined, both for the moon and for the earth. The Impactor is taken to be an approximately Mars-sized body. It is argued that the likeliest bulk chemical composition of the moon is quite similar to that of the earth's mantle, and that this composition may be explained in detail if about 80{percent} of the moon came from the primitive earth's mantle after segregation of the earth's core. The other 20{percent} of the moon is modelled as coming from (a) the Impactor, which is constrained to be an oxidized, probably undifferentiated body of roughly CI chondritic composition (on a volatile free basis) and (b) a late stage veneer, with a composition and oxidation state similar to that of the H-group ordinary chondrites. This latter component is the source of all the volatile elements in the moon, which failed to condense from the earth-and Impactor-derived materials; this component constitutes about 4{percent} of the moon. It is argued that Mo may behave as a volatile element under the relatively oxidising conditions necessary for the condensation of the proto-moon. The model accounts satisfactorily for most of the siderophile elements, including Fe, Ni, Co, W, P, and Cu. The relatively well-constrained lunar abundances of V, Cr, and Mn are also accounted for; their depletion in the moon is inherited from the earth's mantle.

  14. The moon as a stepping stone for a spacefaring civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multhaup, K.

    2008-09-01

    the moon. Robotic spacecraft deliver science for a fraction of the costs of manned exploration. Is this reason enough to question the presence of man in space? Image: NASA. But even among those who basically support the concept of manned exploration, the decision to use the moon as our next destination and stepping stone is challenged. It is feared by some that manned lunar exploration in particular will bog down the space program for decades to come and eventually inhibit human exploration of Mars. Refutation of arguments Both science and exploration have their roots in the human desire to evolve and expand. But if the virtue of human spaceflight is assessed in view of scientific return only, then the question must also be allowed what purpose planetary science has. What do we, the community of planetary scientists, do to benefit mankind? I see two tiers in planetary science. One of them—the well established approach—is to learn about the planets in order to understand our own homeworld and the place that it takes in the solar system. A great many basic questions from this research theme can be answered by theorizing, by observing from the ground, and by sending unmanned spacecraft. But robots can only do so much … In this tier, human spaceflight admittedly is not required, but more than acutely helpful. A geologist EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 3, EPSC2008-A-xxxx, 2008 European Planetary Science Congress, Author(s) 2008 EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 3, EPSC2008-A-00023, 2008 European Planetary Science Congress, Author(s) 2008 walking around on the surface of Mars will possibly learn more about the planet in a day's work than an automated rover slowly crawling from rock to rock in a couple of years. Nonetheless, the billions and billions of dollars that are required to conduct such programs can hardly be justified exclusively by science. Technology will evolve and the quality and quantity of science return from robotic missions will increase. Fig. 3 The proposed Altair lander

  15. Prospect for UV observations from the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonova, Margarita; Mathew, Joice; Mohan, Rekhesh; Sreejith, A. G.; Murthy, Jayant; Brosch, Noah; Kappelmann, Norbert; Sharma, Arpit; Narayan, Rahul

    2014-10-01

    Space astronomy in the last 40 years has largely been done from spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) for which the technology is proven and delivery mechanisms are readily available. However, new opportunities are arising with the surge in commercial aerospace missions. We describe here one such possibility: deploying a small instrument on the Moon. This can be accomplished by flying onboard the Indian entry to the Google Lunar X PRIZE competition, Team Indus mission, which is expected to deliver a nearly 30 kgs of payloads to the Moon, with a rover as its primary payload. We propose to mount a wide-field far-UV (130-180 nm) imaging telescope as a payload on the Team Indus lander. Our baseline operation is a fixed zenith pointing but with the option of a mechanism to allow observations of different attitudes. Pointing towards intermediate ecliptic latitude (50∘ or above) ensures that the Sun is at least 40∘ off the line of sight at all times. In this position, the telescope can cover higher galactic latitudes as well as parts of Galactic plane. The scientific objectives of such a prospective are delineated and discussed.

  16. Mapping of the moon: Past and present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopal, Z.; Carder, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    The present work provides an outline of the history of the efforts to map the topography of the surface of the moon, from the days of pre-telescopic astronomy to the present. The first part of the book covers the time span from 1600 to 1960 and reproduces numerous examples of this early, earth-based selenographic work. The manned lunar missions in the 1960's revolutionized the science of lunar mapping with their high-resolution, close-range photography of the moon. In 1959, a comprehensive lunar mapping program was initiated by two DOD mapping agencies - the U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Chart and Information Center (ACIC) and the U.S. Army Map Service (AMS). In the course of this program, the cause of lunar mapping enlisted for the first time the services of professional cartographers; the outcome of their efforts speedily relegated all previous work into absolescence. The methods and results of this work are described, and the underlying principles of physical selenodesy are set forth, including the definition of lunar coordinates and the methods for a determination of three-dimensional coordinates of lunar features. A section is included on lunar mapping in the U.S.S.R.

  17. The moon: Composition determined by nebular processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, J.W.; Hertogen, J.; Anders, E.

    1978-01-01

    The bulk composition of the Moon was determined by the conditions in the solar nebula during its formation, and may be quantitatively estimated from the premise that the terrestrial planets were formed by cosmochemical processes similar to those recorded in the chondrites. The calculations are based on the Ganapathy-Anders 7-component model using trace element indicators, but incorportate improved geophysical data and petrological constraints. A model Moon with 40 ppb U, a core 2% by weight (1.8% metal with ???35% Ni and 0.2% FeS) and Mg/(Fe2++Mg)?????0.75 meets the trace element restrictions, and has acceptable density, heat flow and moment of inertia ratio. The high Ni content of the core permits low-Ti mare basalts to equilibrate with metal, yet still retain substantial Ni. The silicate resembles the Taylor-Jakes?? composition (and in some respects the waif Ganapathy-Anders Model 2a), but has lower SiO2. Minor modifications of the model composition (U=30-35 ppb) yield a 50% melt approximating Apollo 15 green glass and a residuum of olivine plus 3 to 4% spinel; the low SiO2, favors spinel formation, and, contrary to expectation, Cr is not depleted in the liquid. There may no longer be any inconsistency between the cosmochemical approach and arguments based on experimental petrology. ?? 1978 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  18. Astronomy on the Moon: Geological considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    1992-01-01

    The Moon is an excellent site for astronomical observations. This paper describes two geological aspects related to astronomy from the Moon. First it evaluates the sources of gases near a lunar base as input to calculations reported in a separate paper on the growth of an artificial lunar atmosphere. The results suggest that mining for He-3 could produce the most gas (1 kg/sec), but rocket exhaust (0.1 kg/sec) and habitat venting (0.5 kg/sec) are also important. Second, the paper discusses criteria that need to be considered when determining the site of a lunar astronomical facility. These are longitude and latitude (equatorial sites are favored), topography (important to be relatively flat for ease of installation), distance from a lunar base (to be free of seismic noise, dust, and gases), the site's value to lunar geoscience (other factors being equal, a geologically diverse site is better), and its value as a materials resource (mining and observatories are incompatible).

  19. The composition and origin of the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    Many of the properties of the moon can be explained by early condensation processes in the solar nebula. Thermodynamic calculations show that Ca-, Al- and Ti-rich compounds condense first in a cooling nebula. The inital high-temperature mineralogy is gehlenite, spinel, perovskite, (Ca-Al)-rich pyroxenes and anorthite. Inclusions in type III carbonaceous chondrites such as the Allende meteorite are composed primarily of these minerals and are highly enriched in trace refractories such as REE relative to carbonaceous chondrites. These inclusions can yield basalt and anorthosite in the proportions required to eliminate the europium anomaly, leaving a residual spinel-melilite interior. A high-(Ca-Al) deep interior does not imply an unacceptable mean density of moment of inertia for the moon. The inferred high-U content of the lunar interior, both from the Allende analogy and the high heat flow, indicates a high-temperature interior. The model is consistent with extensive early melting, shallow melting at 3 AE, and with presently high deep internal temperatures.

  20. Earth After the Moon Forming Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The Hadean Earth is widely and enduringly pictured as a world of exuberant volcanism, exploding meteors, huge craters, infernal heat, and billowing sulfurous steams; i.e., a world of fire and brimstone punctuated with blows to the head. In the background the Moon looms gigantic in the sky. The popular image has given it a name that celebrates our mythic roots. A hot early Earth is an inevitable consequence of accretion. The Moon-forming impact ensured that Earth as we know it emerged from a fog of silicate vapor. The impact separated the volatiles from the silicates. It took -100 years to condense and rain out the bulk of the vaporized silicates, although relatively volatile elements may have remained present in the atmosphere throughout the magma ocena stage. The magma ocean lasted approx. 2 Myr, its lifetime prolonged by tidal heating and thermal blanketing by a thick (CO2-rich steam atmosphere. Water oceans condensed quickly after the mantle solidified, but for some 10-100 Myr the surface would have stayed warm (approx. 500 K) until the CO2 was removed into the mantle. Thereafter the faint young Sun suggests that a lifeless Earth would always have been evolving toward a bitterly cold ice world, but the cooling trend was frequently interrupted by volcanic or impact induced thaws.