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Sample records for moon conductivity profiles

  1. The induced magnetic field of the moon - Conductivity profiles and inferred temperature.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonett, C. P.; Smith, B. F.; Colburn, D. S.; Schubert, G.; Schwartz, K.

    1972-01-01

    Electromagnetic induction in the moon driven by fluctuations of the interplanetary magnetic field is used to determine the lunar bulk electrical conductivity. The earlier data are now augmented by an order of magnitude. The present data clearly show the north-south and east-west transfer function difference as well as the high-frequency rollover suggested earlier. The difference is shown to be compatible over the midfrequency range (0.001 to 0.01 Hz) with a noise source associated with the compression of the local remanent field by solar wind dynamic pressure fluctuations. The rollover of the transfer functions is shown to result from higher order magnetic multipole radiation; electric multipoles appear supressed, although a vestigial TM interaction may still be present. Models for two, three, and four layer; current layer, double current layer, and core plus current layer moons are generated by inversion of the data, using a theory that incorporates higher-order multipoles.

  2. The Induced Magnetic Field of the Moon: Conductivity Profiles and Inferred Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonett, C. P.; Smith, B. F.; Colburn, D. S.; Schubert, G.; Schwartz, K.

    1972-01-01

    Electromagnetic induction in the moon driven by fluctuations of the interplanetary magnetic field is used to determine the lunar bulk electrical conductivity. The present data clearly show the north-south and east-west transfer function difference as well as high frequency rollover. The difference is shown to be compatible over the mid-frequency range with a noise source associated with the compression of the local remanent field by solar wind dynamic pressure fluctuations. Models for two, three, and four layer; current layer, double current layer, and core plus current layer moons are generated by inversion of the data using a theory which incorporates higher order multipoles. Core radii conductivities generally are in the range 1200 to 1300 km and 0.001 to 0.003 mhos/m; and for the conducting shell 1500 to 1700 km with 0.0001 to 0.0007 mhos/m with an outer layer taken as nonconducting. Core temperature based on available olivine data is 700 to 1000 C.

  3. Moon

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  MISR Views the Moon     View Larger Image On ... instruments to look at deep space and the waxing gibbous Moon. The purpose of this acrobatic feat is to assist in the calibration of ...

  4. Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    During its flight, the Galileo spacecraft returned images of the Moon. The Galileo spacecraft took these images on December 7, 1992 on its way to explore the Jupiter system in 1995-97. The distinct bright ray crater at the bottom of the image is the Tycho impact basin. The dark areas are lava rock filled impact basins: Oceanus Procellarum (on the left), Mare Imbrium (center left), Mare Serenitatis and Mare Tranquillitatis (center), and Mare Crisium (near the right edge). This picture contains images through the Violet, 756 nm, 968 nm filters. The color is 'enhanced' in the sense that the CCD camera is sensitive to near infrared wavelengths of light beyond human vision. The Galileo project is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  5. An Estimation of Electrical Conductivity of the Moon Using Kaguya Magnetometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuya, H.; Hayashida, A.; Matsushima, M.; Shimizu, H.; Takahashi, F.; Tsunakawa, H.

    2011-12-01

    The electrical conductivity structure of the moon can be determined by electromagnetic responses. From the simultaneous Apollo 12 and Explorer 35 magnetometer observations, the electrical conductivity structure of the lunar interior has been estimated (e.g. Sonett et al. 1972, Wiskerchen and Sonett 1977, Hood et al.1982). However, it so far contains significant ambiguity in orders of magnitude for the shallow part. The ambiguity principally comes from low sampling rate of Explorer 35, which is 6.14 sec. In order to restrict the ambiguity, we try to use the Kaguya Lunar MAGnetometer (LMAG) data, which has 32Hz sampling rate (Tsunakawa et al. 2010). Because we use only the magnetic field observation of Kaguya as the output of the response, we suppose that the external input is randomly oriented uniform field. If the moon responds, the magnetic field variation or noise is smaller in the radial component comparing to the horizontal component. The randomness is tested if the variations of north and east components are equal or not. The data used are from the nominal observation (about 100km in altitude) and above the Mare Imbrium (15~45N, 0~45W) where crustal field is minimal on the lunar surface. As the satellite takes about 1000sec passing this area, 1024 of one second averaged data is submitted to Fourier transformation to obtain power spectrum. The results when (1) the moon is in earth's tail lobe and (2) the moon is in the solar wind but Kaguya is in the lunar wake are used for analyses, since otherwise there exists plasma above the lunar surface. The power of radial, north and east component (Pr, Pn and Pe, respectively) are divided by total power (P=Pr+Pn+Pe) are plotted against the frequency. The randomness of input is examined whether Pn/P and Pe/P are equal or not. They are equal only for the frequency of 0.2Hz and lower of lunar wake data. The Pr/P data passed those criteria are compared with those calculated in uniform conductivity model, thus the effective

  6. Is the moon hot or cold.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Hanks, T. C.

    1972-01-01

    Basic observations are discussed which do not demand a presently cold moon and are consistent with a hot moon. It is suggested that an iron-deficient, highly resistive, hot lunar interior, capped by a cool, rigid lunar lithosphere with a thickness of several hundred kilometers, can explain the relevant observations and is a reasonable model of the moon today. The strength of the moon, lunar electrical conductivity profiles, the relative absence of present-day volcanic activity, and thermal history considerations are examined. Whether the deep interior of the moon is hot or cold has an important bearing on the overall composition of the moon and its origin.

  7. Scattering attenuation profile of the Moon: Implications for shallow moonquakes and the structure of the megaregolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillet, K.; Margerin, L.; Calvet, M.; Monnereau, M.

    2017-01-01

    We report measurements of the attenuation of short period seismic waves in the Moon based on the quantitative analysis of envelope records of lunar quakes. Our dataset consists of waveforms corresponding to 62 events, including artificial and natural impacts, shallow moonquakes and deep moonquakes, recorded by the four seismometers deployed during Apollo missions 12, 14, 15 and 16. To quantify attenuation and distinguish between elastic (scattering) and inelastic (absorption) mechanisms we measure the time of arrival of the maximum of energy tmax and the coda quality factor Qc . The former is controlled by both scattering and absorption, while the latter is an excellent proxy for absorption. Consistent with the strong broadening of seismogram envelopes in the Moon, we employ diffusion theory in spherical geometry to model the propagation of seismic energy in depth-dependent scattering and absorbing media. To minimize the misfit between predicted and observed tmax for deep moonquakes and impacts, we employ a genetic algorithm and explore a large number of depth-dependent attenuation models quantified by the scattering quality factor Qsc or equivalently the wave diffusivity D, and the absorption quality factor Qi . The scattering and absorption profiles that best fit the data display very strong scattering attenuation (Qsc ≤ 10) or equivalently very low wave diffusivity (D ≈ 2 km2/s) in the first 10 km of the Moon. These values correspond to the most heterogeneous regions on Earth, namely volcanic areas. Below this surficial layer, the diffusivity rises very slowly up to a depth of approximately 80 km where Qsc and D exhibit an abrupt increase of about one order of magnitude. Below 100 km depth, Qsc increases rapidly up to approximately 2000 at a depth of about 150 km, a value similar to the one found in the Earth's mantle. By contrast, the absorption quality factor on the Moon Qi ≈ 2400 is about one order or magnitude larger than on Earth. Our results suggest

  8. Method for Identifying Lava Tubes Among Pit Craters Using Brightness Profile Across Pits on the Moon or Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jongil; Hong, Ik-Seon; Cho, Eunjin; Yi, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Caves can serve as major outposts for future human exploration of the Moon and Mars. In addition, caves can protect people and electronic equipment from external hazards such as cosmic ray radiation and meteorites impacts and serve as a shelter. Numerous pit craters have been discovered on the Moon and Mars and are potential entrances to caves; the principal topographic features of pit craters are their visible internal floors and pits with vertical walls. We have devised two topographical models for investigating the relationship between the topographical characteristics and the inner void of pit craters. One of our models is a concave floor void model and the other is a convex floor tube model. For each model, optical photographs have been obtained under conditions similar to those in which optical photographs have been acquired for craters on the Moon and Mars. Brightness profiles were analyzed for determining the profile patterns of the void pit craters. The profile patterns were compared to the brightness profiles of Martian pit craters, because no good-quality images of lunar pit craters were available. In future studies, the model profile patterns will be compared to those of lunar pit craters, and the proposed method will likely become useful for finding lunar caves and consequently for planning lunar bases for manned lunar expeditions.

  9. Thermal Conductive Heat Transfer and Partial Melting of Volatiles in Icy Moons, Asteroids, and Kuiper Belt Objects (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Furfaro, R.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal gradients within conductive layers of icy satellite and asteroids depend partly on heat flow, which is related to the secular decay of radioactive isotopes, to heat released by chemical phase changes, by conversion of gravitational potential energy to heat during differentiation, tidal energy dissipation, and to release of heat stored from prior periods. Thermal gradients are also dependent on the thermal conductivity of materials, which in turn depends on their composition, crystallinity, porosity, crystal fabric anisotropy, and details of their mixture with other materials. Small impurities can produce lattice defects and changes in polymerization, and thereby have a huge influence on thermal conductivity, as can cage-inclusion (clathrate) compounds. Heat flow and thermal gradients can be affected by fluid phase advection of mass and heat (in oceans or sublimating upper crusts), by refraction related to heterogeneities of thermal conductivity due to lateral variations and composition or porosity. Thermal profiles depend also on the surface temperature controlled by albedo and climate, surface relief, and latitude, orbital obliquity and surface insolation, solid state greenhouses, and endogenic heating of the surface. The thermal state of icy moon interiors and thermal gradients can be limited at depth by fluid phase advection of heat (e.g., percolating meteoric methane or gas emission), by the latent heat of phase transitions (melting, solid-state transitions, and sublimation), by solid-state convective or diapiric heat transfer, and by foundering. Rapid burial of thick volatile deposits can also affect thermal gradients. For geologically inactive or simple icy objects, most of these controls on heat flow and thermal gradients are irrelevant, but for many other icy objects they can be important, in some cases causing large lateral and depth variations in thermal gradients, large variations in heat flow, and dynamically evolving thermal states. Many of

  10. Vertical profile of atmospheric conductivity that matches Schumann resonance observations.

    PubMed

    Nickolaenko, Alexander P; Galuk, Yuri P; Hayakawa, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the vertical profile of atmospheric conductivity in the range from 2 to 98 km. The propagation constant of extremely low frequency (ELF) radio waves was computed for this profile by using the full wave solution. A high correspondence is demonstrated of the data thus obtained to the conventional standard heuristic model of ELF propagation constant derived from the Schumann resonance records performed all over the world. We also suggest the conductivity profiles for the ambient day and ambient night conditions. The full wave solution technique was applied for obtaining the corresponding frequency dependence of propagation constant relevant to these profiles. By using these propagation constants, we computed the power spectra of Schumann resonance in the vertical electric field component for the uniform global distribution of thunderstorms and demonstrate their close similarity in all the models. We also demonstrate a strong correspondence between the wave attenuation rate obtained for these conductivity profiles and the measured ones by using the ELF radio transmissions.

  11. Limb profiles of the Moon from grazing occultation observations collected at RGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soma, Mitsuru; Kato, Yuji

    2002-09-01

    From lunar grazing occultation observations it is shown that the present lunar limb profile data have sometimes large errors, and therefore it is apparent that they need to be modified. For that purpose observations of grazing occultations collected at the Royal Greenwich Observatory until 1980 were analyzed and lunar limb profile data were obtained. As a result the number of the luanr limb profile data obtained from grazing occultations was almost doubled. These profile data are being used for the predictions of lunar grazing occultations in order to locate observers at better positions, so that they can also get good grazing occultation data to improve the lunar limb profiles. These profile data will be used in the future analyses of solar eclipse observations and of the possible errors of the Hipparcos proper motion system.

  12. Moon Jumble

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-23

    A gaggle of moons parade around Saturn rings in this image from NASA Cassini spacecraft in which the large moon Rhea passes in front of the small moon Janus. Go to the Photojournal to view the animation.

  13. Lunar magnetic field measurements, electrical conductivity calculations and thermal profile inferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colburn, D. S.

    1971-01-01

    Steady magnetic field measurements of magnitude 30 to 100 gamma on the lunar surface impose problems of interpretation when coupled with the nondetectability of a lunar field at 0.4 lunar radius altitude and the limb induced perturbations of the solar wind at the Explorer orbit. The lunar time-varying magnetic field clearly indicates the presence of eddy currents in the lunar interior and permits calculation of an electrical conductivity profile. The problem is complicated by the day-night asymmetry of the moon's electromagnetic environment, the possible presence of the transverse magnetic mode, and the variable wave directions of the driving function. The electrical conductivity is calculated to be low near the surface, rising to a peak of .006/ohm meter at 250 km, dropping steeply inwards to a value of about .00005/ohm meter, and then rising toward the interior. A transition at 250 km depth from a high conductivity to a low conductivity material is inferred, suggesting an olivine-like core at approximately 800 C, although other models are possible.

  14. Moon Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    When teaching Moon phases, the focus seems to be on the sequence of Moon phases and, in some grade levels, how Moon phases occur. Either focus can sometimes be a challenge, especially without the use of models and observations of the Moon. In this month's column, the author describes some of the lessons that he uses to teach the phases of the Moon…

  15. Moon Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    When teaching Moon phases, the focus seems to be on the sequence of Moon phases and, in some grade levels, how Moon phases occur. Either focus can sometimes be a challenge, especially without the use of models and observations of the Moon. In this month's column, the author describes some of the lessons that he uses to teach the phases of the Moon…

  16. A Web-GIS for the Kaguya/Spectral Profiler data, "GEKKO" (moonlight in Japanese): toward comprehensive mapping of the surface minerals on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Y.; Hayashi, Y.; Hirata, N.; Terazono, J.; Demura, H.; Matsunaga, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yokota, Y.; Ohtake, M.; Ootake, H.

    2015-10-01

    The "GEKKO" is a Web -GIS to exhibit the reflectance spectra of the Moon observed by the Spectral Profiler (SP) onboard Kaguya satellite. The client can access the system via a web browser and select any area of the whole Moon. The client can view, plot and download the SP data observed at the corresponding location on the referenced lunar image just by mouse-clicks. The system also provides some basic analysis functions. The operation and service of "GEKKO" started in August 2014 for the Japanese lunar science community. We now plan to cultivate the potential users internationally. We are implementing new functions and extending the system. Our final goal is comprehensive mapping of the surface minerals on the Moon.

  17. The deep lunar electrical conductivity profile - Structural and thermal inferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Herbert, F.; Sonett, C. P.

    1982-01-01

    Simultaneous lunar surface and orbital magnetometer records are reexamined, to ascertain intervals which may be suitable for measuring lunar inductive response in the solar wind and terrestrial magnetosheath. Power spectral estimates of the response tangent to the lunar surface, defined in terms of transfer and gain functions, are obtained for the 0.0001-0.01 Hz frequency range. The maximum consistency of estimates from different time intervals is found when the initial analysis is limited to the tangential direction of maximum incident power, or that direction in which the ratio of signal to background noise is greatest. Spherically symmetric plasma confinement theory is used in the interpretation of transfer function data, by way of forward model calculations, under the assumption of continuous electrical conductivity increase with depth. Results are presented for internal electrical conductivity profile, metallic core radius, and selenotherm limits.

  18. Thermal conductivity and temperature profiles in carbon electrodes for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burheim, Odne S.; Aslan, Mesut; Atchison, Jennifer S.; Presser, Volker

    2014-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of supercapacitor film electrodes composed of activated carbon (AC), AC with 15 mass% multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), AC with 15 mass% onion-like carbon (OLC), and only OLC, all mixed with polymer binder (polytetrafluoroethylene), has been measured. This was done for dry electrodes and after the electrodes have been saturated with an organic electrolyte (1 M tetraethylammonium-tetrafluoroborate in acetonitrile, TEA-BF4). The thermal conductivity data was implemented in a simple model of generation and transport of heat in a cylindrical cell supercapacitor systems. Dry electrodes showed a thermal conductivity in the range of 0.09-0.19 W K-1 m-1 and the electrodes soaked with an organic electrolyte yielded values for the thermal conductivity between 0.42 and 0.47 W K-1 m-1. It was seen that the values related strongly to the porosity of the carbon electrode materials. Modeling of the internal temperature profiles of a supercapacitor under conditions corresponding to extreme cycling demonstrated that only a moderate temperature gradient of several degrees Celsius can be expected and which depends on the ohmic resistance of the cell as well as the wetting of the electrode materials.

  19. Pluto's moons named

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-07-01

    In the end, it did not matter that the name Vulcan came in first place by a landslide in a nonbinding public vote to suggest names for the fourth and fifth known moons of Pluto. Despite the independent vote conducted by the SETI Institute in Mountain View, Calif., on behalf of the team that discovered the moons, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) did not select the name for a Plutonian moon. The decision came much to the dismay of actor William Shatner (who played Captain Kirk in Star Trek). Shatner had pushed for the name Vulcan to honor the home planet of Star Trek character Dr. Spock.

  20. Role of convection in the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassen, P.; Reynolds, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    Conduction solutions of the problem of the moon's thermal history can be unstable to solid state convection. To examine the role of solid convection, the stability of models in which the initial distribution of radioactive heat sources is homogeneous and the initial temperature profile is due to accretional heating is analyzed in detail. Growth rates of instabilities are compared with the appropriate conduction times in order to determine the effective viscosities for which solid convection is a dominant process. It is found that instability growth may not have been rapid enough to prevent the extensive partial melting predicted by conduction theory, but convection after resolidification is likely to have occurred, and thus the moon would have cooled faster than it would if it were purely conducting.

  1. Automated conductivity profiler for multilayer GaAs-(AlGa)As structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiles, K. R.; Lee, J. W.

    1982-09-01

    An apparatus for automatic conductivity profiling of GaAs-(AlGa)As multilayer structures is described. The apparatus includes a microprocessor which controls a solenoid valve sequence in order to chemically etch the sample, and a programmable calculator which calculates sample conductance versus number of etch steps from which layer conductivities are calculated. Conductivity profiles of multilayer GaAs-(AlGa)As heterostructure laser material are presented and compared to profiles done by an earlier manual technique.

  2. Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy of astronomical and laboratory sources at 8.5 micron. [absorption line profiles of nitrogen oxide and black body emission from Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, M.; Kostiuk, T.; Cohen, S.; Buhl, D.; Vonthuna, P. C.

    1974-01-01

    The first infrared heterodyne spectrometer using tuneable semiconductor (PbSe) diode lasers has been constructed and was used near 8.5 micron to measure absorption line profiles of N2O in the laboratory and black body emission from the Moon and from Mars. Spectral information was recorded over a 200 MHz bandwidth using an 8-channel filter bank. The resolution was 25 MHz and the minimum detectable (black body) power was 1 x 10 to the minus 16th power watts for 8 minutes of integration. The results demonstrate the usefulness of heterodyne spectroscopy for the study of remote and local sources in the infrared.

  3. September moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavin, M.

    2003-12-01

    Although Mars, through unprecedented proximity, caused great interest in its surface features this summer, its two tiny moons were worthy imaging targets too. A few degrees away was Uranus with Oberon and Titania and further west Neptune and satellite Triton.

  4. Moon Rise

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Aboard the International Space Station in May 2012, Expedition 31 astronaut Don Pettit opened the shutters covering the cupola observation windows in time to watch the moon rise. The time-lapse sce...

  5. Spinning Moons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-10

    Most inner moons in the solar system keep one face pointed toward their central planet; this frame from an animation by NASA New Horizons shows that certainly isnt the case with the small moons of Pluto, which behave like spinning tops. Pluto is shown at center with, in order, from smaller to wider orbit: Charon, Styx, Nix, Kerberos, Hydra. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20152

  6. Nightside electromagnetic response of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Smith, B. F.; Sonett, C. P.; Colburn, D. S.; Schwartz, K.

    1972-01-01

    The electromagnetic response of the Moon to excitation by the time dependent fluctuations of the interplanetary magnetic field is given for the dark or antisolar hemisphere of the Moon. Six hours of time series data from the Explorer 35 magnetometer and the lunar surface magnetometer on Apollo 12 are used to obtain the Fourier spectral amplitudes of the surface and interplanetary fields from which transfer functions are calculated for the east-west, north-south, and vertical directions at the Apollo site. A critical discussion of lunar conductivity profiles derived from night side radial magnetic field data and vacuum scattering theory is presented. Limitations are shown that there is no evidence for a lunar core as conducting as 0.01 mhos/m.

  7. Focus on the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Deborah

    1980-01-01

    Described is the observation of the moon with binoculars. Descriptions of the thin crescent moon, three-day-old moon, five-day-old moon, first quarter moon, 10-day-old moon and the full moon are presented and characteristics of each phase are included. (DS)

  8. Focus on the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Deborah

    1980-01-01

    Described is the observation of the moon with binoculars. Descriptions of the thin crescent moon, three-day-old moon, five-day-old moon, first quarter moon, 10-day-old moon and the full moon are presented and characteristics of each phase are included. (DS)

  9. MEASURING VERTICAL PROFILES OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY WITH IN SITU DIRECT-PUSH METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) staff developed a field procedure to measure hydraulic conductivity using a direct-push system to obtain vertical profiles of hydraulic conductivity. Vertical profiles were obtained using an in situ field device-composed of a
    Geopr...

  10. MEASURING VERTICAL PROFILES OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY WITH IN SITU DIRECT-PUSH METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) staff developed a field procedure to measure hydraulic conductivity using a direct-push system to obtain vertical profiles of hydraulic conductivity. Vertical profiles were obtained using an in situ field device-composed of a
    Geopr...

  11. Velocity, temperature, and electrical conductivity profiles in hydrogen-oxygen MHD duct flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greywall, M. S.; Pian, C. C. P.

    1978-01-01

    Two-dimensional duct flow computations for radial distributions of velocity, temperature, and electrical conductivity are reported. Calculations were carried out for the flow conditions representative of a hydrogen-oxygen combustion driven MHD duct. Results are presented for: profiles of developing flow in a smooth duct, and for profiles of fully developed pipe flow with a specified streamwise shear stress distribution. The predicted temperature and electrical conductivity profiles for the developing flows compare well with available experimental data.

  12. The Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, P. H.; Taylor, G. J.

    Exciting recent developments in lunar geochemistry include the discovery that some lunar magmas had earthlike contents of water and remote-sensing evidence for crustal heterogeneity, including regions rich in magnesian spinel, regions of nearly pure anorthosite, regions of high Mg/Fe, and regions of evolved, silicic composition. The magma ocean hypothesis continues to be tested and refined. Concerns about the initial neodymium isotopic ratio of the ferroan anorthosites have been allayed by evidence that the whole Moon (and Mars and Earth) may have a depleted Nd/Sm ratio. However, age results still show no clear distinction between the ferroan anorthosites and the oldest Mg-suite rocks. Stable isotopic data show remarkably close kinship between the Moon and Earth, so close that it poses difficulty for most existing giant impact scenarios of lunar origin, as these models imply that the Moon forms mainly out of material spalled from a large, late interloping body.

  13. Moon Convention

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-23

    People with similar jobs or interests hold conventions and meetings, so why shouldn't moons? Pandora, Prometheus, and Pan -- seen here, from right to left -- also appear to be holding some sort of convention in this image. Some moons control the structure of nearby rings via gravitational "tugs." The cumulative effect of the moon's tugs on the ring particles can keep the rings' edges from spreading out as they are naturally inclined to do, much like shepherds control their flock. Pan is a prototypical shepherding moon, shaping and controlling the locations of the inner and outer edges of the Encke gap through a mechanism suggested in 1978 to explain the narrow Uranian rings. However, though Prometheus and Pandora have historically been called "the F ring shepherd moons" due to their close proximity to the ring, it has long been known that the standard shepherding mechanism that works so well for Pan does not apply to these two moons. The mechanism for keeping the F ring narrow, and the roles played -- if at all -- by Prometheus and Pandora in the F ring's configuration are not well understood. This is an ongoing topic for study by Cassini scientists. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 29 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Jan. 2, 2015. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.6 million miles (2.6 million kilometers) from the rings and at a Sun-ring-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 86 degrees. Image scale is 10 miles (15 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/pia18306

  14. Shepherd Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Shepherd Moons

    The New Horizons spacecraft took the best images of Jupiter's charcoal-black rings as it approached and then looked back at Jupiter in February 2007. This sequence of pictures from the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) shows the well-defined lanes of gravel- to boulder-sized material composing the bulk of the rings; labels point out how these narrow rings are confined in their orbits by small 'shepherding' moons (Metis and Adrastea).

  15. Earth Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-06-08

    NASA Galileo spacecraft took this image of Earth moon on December 7, 1992 on its way to explore the Jupiter system in 1995-97. The distinct bright ray crater at the bottom of the image is the Tycho impact basin. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00405

  16. Monitoring sodium chloride concentrations and density profiles in solar ponds by electrical conductivity and temperature measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Fynn, R.P.; Short, T.H.; Badger, P.C.; Sciarini, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    A simple accurate and semi-automatic system was developed for monitoring sodium chloride concentrations and density profiles in a solar pond. The profile meter, which measures pond solution conductivity and temperature, and the equations which convert this data into salt concentration and/or brine density, are covered in detail so that any potential users may construct their own equipment. The use of the profile meter, its advantages and disadvantages, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the day-to-day profile monitoring that the conductivity-temperature method enables, and the use of the meter during modification of the pond profiles. A program is also available to calculate the pond profile using a Hewlett-Packard HP-97 programmable calculator.

  17. Profiling depression in childhood and adolescence: the role of conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Riglin, Lucy; Thapar, Anita; Shelton, Katherine H; Langley, Kate; Frederickson, Norah; Rice, Frances

    2016-04-01

    Depression is typically more common in females and rates rise around puberty. However, studies of children and adolescents suggest that depression accompanied by conduct problems may represent a different subtype not characterised by a female preponderance, with differing risk factors and genetic architecture compared to pure-depression. This study aimed to identify aetiologically distinct profiles of depressive symptoms, distinguished by the presence or absence of co-occurring conduct problems. Latent profile analysis was conducted on a school sample of 1648 children (11-12 years) and replicated in a sample of 2006 twins (8-17 years). In both samples pure-depressive and conduct-depressive profiles were identified. The pure-depressive profile was associated with female gender, while the conduct-depressive profile was associated with lower cognitive ability but not with gender. Twin analyses indicated possible differences in genetic aetiology. There was evidence for aetiologically heterogeneous depression symptom profiles based on the presence or absence of co-occurring conduct problems. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  18. Mini Moons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-20

    Are the moons tiny or are the rings vast? Both, in a way! The moons visible in this image from NASA Cassini spacecraft, Pandora and Atlas, are quite small by astronomical standards, but the rings are also enormous. From one side of the planet to the other, the A ring stretches over 170,000 miles 270,000 km. Pandora (50 miles, or 81 kilometers, across) orbits in the vicinity of the F ring, along with neighboring Prometheus, which is not visible in this image. These moons interact frequently with the narrow F ring, producing channels and streamers and other interesting features. Atlas (19 miles, or 30 kilometers across) orbits between the A ring and F ring in the Roche division. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 34 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Feb. 17, 2014. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.7 million miles (2.8 million kilometers) from Pandora and at a Sun-Pandora-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 110 degrees. Image scale is 11 miles (17 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18279

  19. Velocity, temperature, and electrical conductivity profiles in hydrogen-oxygen MHD duct flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greywall, M. S.; Pian, C. C. P.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents results of two-dimensional duct flow computations for radial distributions of velocity, temperature, and electrical conductivity. Calculations were carried out for the flow conditions representative of NASA Lewis hydrogen-oxygen combustion driven MHD duct. Results are presented for two sets of computations: (1) profiles of developing flow in a smooth duct, and (2) profiles of fully developed pipe flow with a specified streamwise shear stress distribution. The predicted temperature and electrical conductivity profiles for the developing flows compared well with available experimental data.

  20. An autonomous expendable conductivity, temperature, depth profiler for ocean data collection

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, J.; McCoy, K.

    1992-10-01

    An Autonomous Expendable Conductivity-Temperature-Depth Profiler (AXCTD) for profiling temperature, conductivity, pressure, and other parameters in remote oceanic regions is described. The AXCTD is a microcomputer-controlled sensor package that can be deployed by unskilled operators from ships or aircraft. It records two CTD profiles (one during descent and another during ascent) and CTD times series while on the bottom and adrift at the surface. Recorded data are transmitted to an ARGOS satellite with ground-positioning capabilities. The AXCTD can provide ``sea truth`` for remote sensing, perform environmental and military surveillance missions, and acquire time-series and synoptic data for computer models.

  1. An autonomous expendable conductivity, temperature, depth profiler for ocean data collection

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, J. ); DeRoos, B.G. ); McCoy, K. )

    1992-10-01

    An Autonomous Expendable Conductivity-Temperature-Depth Profiler (AXCTD) for profiling temperature, conductivity, pressure, and other parameters in remote oceanic regions is described. The AXCTD is a microcomputer-controlled sensor package that can be deployed by unskilled operators from ships or aircraft. It records two CTD profiles (one during descent and another during ascent) and CTD times series while on the bottom and adrift at the surface. Recorded data are transmitted to an ARGOS satellite with ground-positioning capabilities. The AXCTD can provide sea truth'' for remote sensing, perform environmental and military surveillance missions, and acquire time-series and synoptic data for computer models.

  2. Effect of asymmetric concentration profile on thermal conductivity in Ge/SiGe superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Konstanze R.; Cecchi, Stefano; Colombo, Luciano

    2016-05-16

    The effect of the chemical composition in Si/Ge-based superlattices on their thermal conductivity has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Simulation cells of Ge/SiGe superlattices have been generated with different concentration profiles such that the Si concentration follows a step-like, a tooth-saw, a Gaussian, and a gamma-type function in direction of the heat flux. The step-like and tooth-saw profiles mimic ideally sharp interfaces, whereas Gaussian and gamma-type profiles are smooth functions imitating atomic diffusion at the interface as obtained experimentally. Symmetry effects have been investigated comparing the symmetric profiles of the step-like and the Gaussian function to the asymmetric profiles of the tooth-saw and the gamma-type function. At longer sample length and similar degree of interdiffusion, the thermal conductivity is found to be lower in asymmetric profiles. Furthermore, it is found that with smooth concentration profiles where atomic diffusion at the interface takes place the thermal conductivity is higher compared to systems with atomically sharp concentration profiles.

  3. Effect of asymmetric concentration profile on thermal conductivity in Ge/SiGe superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Konstanze R.; Cecchi, Stefano; Colombo, Luciano

    2016-05-01

    The effect of the chemical composition in Si/Ge-based superlattices on their thermal conductivity has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Simulation cells of Ge/SiGe superlattices have been generated with different concentration profiles such that the Si concentration follows a step-like, a tooth-saw, a Gaussian, and a gamma-type function in direction of the heat flux. The step-like and tooth-saw profiles mimic ideally sharp interfaces, whereas Gaussian and gamma-type profiles are smooth functions imitating atomic diffusion at the interface as obtained experimentally. Symmetry effects have been investigated comparing the symmetric profiles of the step-like and the Gaussian function to the asymmetric profiles of the tooth-saw and the gamma-type function. At longer sample length and similar degree of interdiffusion, the thermal conductivity is found to be lower in asymmetric profiles. Furthermore, it is found that with smooth concentration profiles where atomic diffusion at the interface takes place the thermal conductivity is higher compared to systems with atomically sharp concentration profiles.

  4. Moon Waves and Moon Wakes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-30

    This Cassini image features a density wave in Saturn's A ring (at left) that lies around 134,500 km from Saturn. Density waves are accumulations of particles at certain distances from the planet. This feature is filled with clumpy perturbations, which researchers informally refer to as "straw." The wave itself is created by the gravity of the moons Janus and Epimetheus, which share the same orbit around Saturn. Elsewhere, the scene is dominated by "wakes" from a recent pass of the ring moon Pan. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Dec. 18, 2016. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 34,000 miles (56,000 kilometers) from the rings and looks toward the unilluminated side of the rings. Image scale is about a quarter-mile (340 meters) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21060

  5. The Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, P. H.

    2003-12-01

    Oxygen isotopic data suggest that there is a genetic relationship between the constituent matter of the Moon and Earth (Wiechert et al., 2001). Yet lunar materials are obviously different from those of the Earth. The Moon has no hydrosphere, virtually no atmosphere, and compared to the Earth, lunar materials uniformly show strong depletions of even mildly volatile constituents such as potassium, in addition to N2, O2, and H2O (e.g., Wolf and Anders, 1980). Oxygen fugacity is uniformly very low ( BVSP, 1981) and even the earliest lunar magmas seem to have been virtually anhydrous. These features have direct and far-reaching implications for mineralogical and geochemical processes. Basically, they imply that mineralogical diversity and thus variety of geochemical processes are subdued; a factor that to some extent offsets the comparative dearth of available data for lunar geochemistry.The Moon's gross physical characteristics play an important role in the more limited range of selenochemical compared to terrestrial geochemical processes. Although exceptionally large (radius=1,738 km) in relation to its parent planet, the Moon is only 0.012 times as massive as Earth. By terrestrial standards, pressures inside the Moon are feeble: the upper mantle gradient is 0.005 GPa km -1 (versus 0.033 GPa km -1 in Earth) and the central pressure is slightly less than 5 GPa. However, lunar interior pressures are sufficient to profoundly influence igneous processes (e.g., Warren and Wasson, 1979b; Longhi, 1992, 2002), and in this sense the Moon more resembles a planet than an asteroid.Another direct consequence of the Moon's comparatively small size was early, rapid decay of its internal heat engine. But the Moon's thermal disadvantage has resulted in one great advantage for planetology. Lunar surface terrains, and many of the rock samples acquired from them, retain for the most part characteristics acquired during the first few hundred million years of solar system existence. The

  6. Conductivity profiles corresponding to the knee model and relevant SR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H. J.; Hayakawa, M.; Galuk, Yu. P.; Nickolaenko, A. P.

    2016-03-01

    There are many models describing ELF radio propagation in the uniform Earth-ionosphere cavity. One of the most popular models is the knee model by Mushtak and Williams (2002). Unfortunately, this model only verbally describes the relevant conductivity profile of atmosphere, which is obligatory in the direct computational techniques. We introduce a conductivity profile based on this description and derive the related frequency dependence of complex propagation constant (f) using the rigorous full wave solution (FWS). Then, for the first time the Schumann resonance (SR) spectra for the same atmospheric conductivity profile are compared to those by different computational techniques. In two of them we use the formal zonal harmonic series representation (ZHSR) for the fields with the propagation constant (f) found either from the knee model formulas or from the FWS for the relevant conductivity profile. The third technique is based on the direct three-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique with the same conductivity profile. Comparison reveals that the FWS and FDTD results are practically coincident in the whole SR band. The knee model spectra are close to those of FWS and FDTD data in the vicinity of the first SR mode, whereas deviations from the rigorous solutions proportionally increase with the frequency. Special attention is paid to the characteristic heights of ionosphere that provide coincident results for the FDTD spectra and the ZHSR spectra with FWS propagation constant.

  7. From the Cover: Explaining the moon illusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Lloyd; Kaufman, James H.

    2000-01-01

    An old explanation of the moon illusion holds that various cues place the horizon moon at an effectively greater distance than the elevated moon. Although both moons have the same angular size, the horizon moon must be perceived as larger. More recent explanations hold that differences in accommodation or other factors cause the elevated moon to appear smaller. As a result of this illusory difference in size, the elevated moon appears to be more distant than the horizon moon. These two explanations, both based on the geometry of stereopsis, lead to two diametrically opposed hypotheses. That is, a depth interval at a long distance is associated with a smaller binocular disparity, whereas an equal depth interval at a smaller distance is associated with a larger disparity. We conducted experiments involving artificial moons and confirmed the hypothesis that the horizon moon is at a greater perceptual distance. Moreover, when a moon of constant angular size was moved closer it was also perceived as growing smaller, which is consistent with the older explanation. Although Emmert's law does not predict the size-distance relationship over long distances, we conclude that the horizon moon is perceived as larger because the perceptual system treats it as though it is much farther away. Finally, we observe that recent explanations substitute perceived size for angular size as a cue to distance. Thus, they imply that perceptions cause perceptions.

  8. The New Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotts, Arlin

    2014-10-01

    Preface; 1. The importance of the Moon; 2. First steps; 3. Moon/Mars; 4. An international flotilla; 5. Moon rise from the ashes; 6. Moons past; 7. The pull of the far side; 8. False seas, real seas; 9. Inconstant Moon; 10. Moonlighting; 11. Lunar living room; 12. Lunar power; 13. Stepping stone; 14. Return to Earth; Index.

  9. Lonely Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-17

    Pandora is seen here, in isolation beside Saturn's kinked and constantly changing F ring. Pandora (near upper right) is 50 miles (81 kilometers) wide. The moon has an elongated, potato-like shape (see PIA07632). Two faint ringlets are visible within the Encke Gap, near lower left. The gap is about 202 miles (325 kilometers) wide. The much narrower Keeler Gap, which lies outside the Encke Gap, is maintained by the diminutive moon Daphnis (not seen here). This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 23 degrees above the ring plane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Aug. 12, 2016. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 907,000 miles (1.46 million kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 113 degrees. Image scale is 6 miles (9 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20504

  10. Distant Moons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-15

    Saturn's moons Tethys and Hyperion appear to be near neighbors in this Cassini view, even though they are actually 930,000 miles (1.5 million kilometers) apart here. Tethys is the larger body on the left. These two icy moons of Saturn are very different worlds. To learn more about Hyperion (170 miles or 270 kilometers across). This view looks toward the trailing side of Tethys. North on Tethys is up and rotated 1 degree to the left. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Aug. 15, 2015. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 750,000 miles (1.2 million kilometers) from Tethys. Image scale is 4.4 miles (7.0 kilometers) per pixel. The distance to Hyperion was 1.7 million miles (2.7 million kilometers) with an image scale of 10 mile (16 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20493

  11. Conductivity Profile Determination by Eddy Current for Shot Peened Superalloy Surfaces Toward Residual Stress Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.; Lo, C. C. H.; Frishman, A. M.; Lee, C.; Nakagawa, N.

    2007-03-21

    This paper describes an eddy current model-based method for inverting near-surface conductivity deviation profiles of surface treated materials from swept-high frequency eddy current (SHFEC) data. This work forms part of our current research directed towards the development of an electromagnetic nondestructive technique for assessing residual stress of shot-peened superalloy components. The inversion procedure is based on the use of a parameterized function to describe the near-surface conductivity as a function of depth for a shot-peened surface, and the laterally uniform multi-layer theory of Cheng, Dodd and Deeds to calculate the resulting coil impedance deviations. The convergence of the inversion procedure has been tested against synthesized eddy current data. As a demonstration, the conductivity deviation profiles of a series of Inconel 718 specimens, shot peened at various Almen intensities, have been obtained by inversion. Several consistency tests were conducted to examine the reliability of the inverted conductivity profiles. The results show that conductivity deviation profiles can be reliably determined from SHFEC data within the accuracy of the current measurement system.

  12. Evolution of the Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    From year to year, the moon never seems to change. Craters and other formations appear to be permanent now, but the moon didn't always look like this. Learn about how the moon evolved from its earl...

  13. Pocked Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-12-31

    Cassini spied a crater-covered Dione in this image from Dec. 8, 2004. The bright, wispy streaks for which Dione is known are located on the moon's night side to the west. The streaky terrain was imaged at very high resolution by Cassini during its flyby of Dione on Dec. 14, 2004. Dione is 1,118 kilometers (695 miles) across. This view shows mostly the trailing hemisphere of Dione. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow angle camera at a distance of 2.5 million kilometers (1.6 million miles) from Dione and at a Sun-Dione-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 58 degrees. North is up. The image scale is 15 kilometers (9 miles) per pixel. The image has been magnified by a factor of two and contrast-enhanced to aid visibility of surface features. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA06551

  14. Development of an angular scanning system for sensing vertical profiles of soil electrical conductivity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apparent soil electrical conductivity (EC**a**) is typically mapped to define soil spatial variability within an agricultural field. Knowledge of the vertical variability of EC**a** is desired to define site-specific behavior of the soil profile. A Pneumatic Angular Scanning System (PASS) was develo...

  15. Empathy in Children with Autism and Conduct Disorder: Group-Specific Profiles and Developmental Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwenck, Christina; Mergenthaler, Julia; Keller, Katharina; Zech, Julie; Salehi, Sarah; Taurines, Regina; Romanos, Marcel; Schecklmann, Martin; Schneider, Wolfgang; Warnke, Andreas; Freitag, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A deficit in empathy is discussed to underlie difficulties in social interaction of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and conduct disorder (CD). To date, no study has compared children with ASD and different subtypes of CD to describe disorder-specific empathy profiles in clinical samples. Furthermore, little is known about…

  16. Empathy in Children with Autism and Conduct Disorder: Group-Specific Profiles and Developmental Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwenck, Christina; Mergenthaler, Julia; Keller, Katharina; Zech, Julie; Salehi, Sarah; Taurines, Regina; Romanos, Marcel; Schecklmann, Martin; Schneider, Wolfgang; Warnke, Andreas; Freitag, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A deficit in empathy is discussed to underlie difficulties in social interaction of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and conduct disorder (CD). To date, no study has compared children with ASD and different subtypes of CD to describe disorder-specific empathy profiles in clinical samples. Furthermore, little is known about…

  17. EUVE survey observations of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, J. S.; Gladstone, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary survey images of the moon obtained by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer and results of data analysis are presented. The preliminary results indicate that the brightness of the moon varies little from observation to observation. Early results also show that the lunar albedo closely matches the relative reflectivity of mineral found on the moon's surface. Further studies are conducted during the spectroscopy phase of the EUVE mission to confirm current results regarding the presence of X-ray fluorescence in the data.

  18. EUVE survey observations of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, J. S.; Gladstone, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary survey images of the moon obtained by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer and results of data analysis are presented. The preliminary results indicate that the brightness of the moon varies little from observation to observation. Early results also show that the lunar albedo closely matches the relative reflectivity of mineral found on the moon's surface. Further studies are conducted during the spectroscopy phase of the EUVE mission to confirm current results regarding the presence of X-ray fluorescence in the data.

  19. Analyzing Conductivity Profiles in Stream Waters Influenced by Mine Water Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räsänen, Teemu; Hämäläinen, Emmy; Hämäläinen, Matias; Turunen, Kaisa; Pajula, Pasi; Backnäs, Soile

    2015-04-01

    Conductivity is useful as a general measure of stream water quality. Each stream inclines to have a quite constant range of conductivity that can be used as a baseline for comparing and detecting influence of contaminant sources. Conductivity in natural streams and rivers is affected primarily by the geology of the watershed. Thus discharges from ditches and streams affect not only the flow rate in the river but also the water quality and conductivity. In natural stream waters, the depth and the shape of the river channel change constantly, which changes also the water flow. Thus, an accurate measuring of conductivity or other water quality indicators is difficult. Reliable measurements are needed in order to have holistic view about amount of contaminants, sources of discharges and seasonal variation in mixing and dilution processes controlling the conductivity changes in river system. We tested the utility of CastAway-CTD measuring device (SonTek Inc) to indicate the influence of mine waters as well as mixing and dilution occurring in the recipient river affected by treated dewatering and process effluent water discharges from a Finnish gold mine. The CastAway-CTD measuring device is a small, rugged and designed for profiling of depths of up to 100m. Device measures temperature, salinity, conductivity and sound of speed using 5 Hz response time. It has also built-in GPS which produces location information. CTD casts are normally used to produce vertical conductivity profile for rather deep waters like seas or lakes. We did seasonal multiple Castaway-CTD measurements during 2013 and 2014 and produced scaled vertical and horizontal profiles of conductivity and water temperature at the river. CastAway-CTD measurement pinpoints how possible contaminants behave and locate in stream waters. The conductivity profiles measured by CastAway-CTD device show the variation in maximum conductivity values vertically in measuring locations and horizontally in measured cross

  20. Heterogeneous Vertical Hydraulic Conductivity in an Aquitard as Determined by Head Profiles and Pumping Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, D. J.; Bradbury, K. R.; Cherry, J. A.; Gotkowitz, M. G.; Parker, B. L.

    2005-12-01

    The vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) of aquitards is one of the most important parameters in groundwater flow systems but presents special challenges for estimation. It determines the role of the aquitard in a flow system and is a measure of the protection given by the aquitard to underlying aquifers. The properties of aquitards vary vertically and estimates of Kv should reflect this heterogeneity. Vertical head profiles in aquitards show this heterogeneity, and are probably the most important data to be collected in aquitard studies. The heads rarely vary in a linear fashion with depth as would be expected in a homogeneous medium. Instead, most head loss is either at the top or the bottom of the identified aquitard, suggesting that some portion of the aquitard has a much lower Kv than the rest. While this portion is the most effective part of the aquitard, the rest of the aquitard can still present a barrier to flow. We determined the Kv profile of a six-meter thick shaley aquitard, the Eau Claire Formation, by measuring head profiles in, above, and below the aquitard before and during a pumping test. The head profile before the pumping test was measured using three systems: a FLUTeTM multi-level system with pressure transducers, a short interval straddle packer, and series of buried pressure transducers. All three measurements of heads gave similar profiles. The head decreased 1.5 meters in the upper five meters of the aquitard with most of the head drop, nine meters, occurring over the lower meter of the aquitard. The vertical component of gradient varied by a factor of 30. During the pumping test, the head profiles were measured with the FLUTe system and the buried pressure transducers. In general the two measurement systems agreed but significant differences occurred in the lowest conductivity part of the aquitard. The head profile measured by the FLUTe system showed variation similar to that in the rest of the aquitard while the head measured by the

  1. Safety and injury profile of conducted electrical weapons used by law enforcement officers against criminal suspects.

    PubMed

    Bozeman, William P; Hauda, William E; Heck, Joseph J; Graham, Derrel D; Martin, Brian P; Winslow, James E

    2009-04-01

    Conducted electrical weapons such as the Taser are commonly used by law enforcement agencies. The safety of these weapons has been the subject of scrutiny and controversy; previous controlled studies in animals and healthy humans may not accurately reflect the risks of conducted electrical weapons used in actual conditions. We seek to determine the safety and injury profile of conducted electrical weapons used against criminal suspects in a field setting. This prospective, multicenter, observational trial tracked a consecutive case series of all conducted electrical weapon uses against criminal suspects at 6 US law enforcement agencies. Mandatory review of each conducted electrical weapon use incorporated physician review of police and medical records. Injuries were classified as mild, moderate, or severe according to a priori definitions. The primary outcome was a composite of moderate and severe injuries, termed significant injuries. Conducted electrical weapons were used against 1,201 subjects during 36 months. One thousand one hundred twenty-five subjects (94%) were men; the median age was 30 years (range 13 to 80 years). Mild or no injuries were observed after conducted electrical weapon use in 1,198 subjects (99.75%; 95% confidence interval 99.3% to 99.9%). Of mild injuries, 83% were superficial puncture wounds from conducted electrical weapon probes. Significant injuries occurred in 3 subjects (0.25%; 95% confidence interval 0.07% to 0.7%), including 2 intracranial injuries from falls and 1 case of rhabdomyolysis. Two subjects died in police custody; medical examiners did not find conducted electrical weapon use to be causal or contributory in either case. To our knowledge, these findings represent the first large, independent, multicenter study of conducted electrical weapon injury epidemiology and suggest that more than 99% of subjects do not experience significant injuries after conducted electrical weapon use.

  2. Responses of atmospheric electric field and air-earth current to variations of conductivity profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, M.; Ogawa, T.

    1984-05-01

    A global circuit model is constructed to study responses of air-earth current and electric field to a variation of atmospheric electrical conductivity profile. The model includes the orography and the global distribution of thunderstorm generators. The conductivity varies with latitude and exponentially with altitude. The thunderstorm cloud is assumed to be a current generator with a positive source at the top and a negative one at the bottom. The UT diurnal variations of the global current and the ionospheric potential are evaluated considering the local-time dependence of thunderstorm activity. The global distribution of the electric field and the air-earth current are affected by the orography and latitudinal effects. Assuming a variation of conductivity profile, responses of atmospheric electrical parameters are investigated. The nonuniform decrement of the conductivity with altitude increases both the electric field and the air-earth current. The result suggests a possibility that the increment of the electric field and the air-earth current after a solar flare may be caused by this scheme, due to Forbush decrease.

  3. Monitoring stream stage, channel profile, and aqueous conductivity with time domain reflectometry (TDR).

    SciTech Connect

    Brainard, James Robert; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Coplen, Amy K.; Ruby, Douglas Scott; Coombs, Jason R.; Wright, Jerome L.; Roberts, Jesse Daniel

    2004-11-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) operates by propagating a radar frequency electromagnetic pulse down a transmission line while monitoring the reflected signal. As the electromagnetic pulse propagates along the transmission line, it is subject to impedance by the dielectric properties of the media along the transmission line (e.g., air, water, sediment), reflection at dielectric discontinuities (e.g., air-water or water-sediment interface), and attenuation by electrically conductive materials (e.g., salts, clays). Taken together, these characteristics provide a basis for integrated stream monitoring; specifically, concurrent measurement of stream stage, channel profile and aqueous conductivity. Here, we make novel application of TDR within the context of stream monitoring. Efforts toward this goal followed three critical phases. First, a means of extracting the desired stream parameters from measured TDR traces was required. Analysis was complicated by the fact that interface location and aqueous conductivity vary concurrently and multiple interfaces may be present at any time. For this reason a physically based multisection model employing the S11 scatter function and Cole-Cole parameters for dielectric dispersion and loss was developed to analyze acquired TDR traces. Second, we explored the capability of this multisection modeling approach for interpreting TDR data acquired from complex environments, such as encountered in stream monitoring. A series of laboratory tank experiments were performed in which the depth of water, depth of sediment, and conductivity were varied systematically. Comparisons between modeled and independently measured data indicate that TDR measurements can be made with an accuracy of {+-}3.4x10{sup -3} m for sensing the location of an air/water or water/sediment interface and {+-}7.4% of actual for the aqueous conductivity. Third, monitoring stations were sited on the Rio Grande and Paria rivers to evaluate performance of the TDR system

  4. Thermal conductivity and internal temperature profiles of Li-ion secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Frank; Kjelstrup, Signe; Vie, Preben J. S.; Burheim, Odne S.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we report the thermal conductivity for commercial battery components. Materials were obtained from several electrode- and separator manufacturers, and some were extracted from commercial batteries. We measured with and without electrolyte solvent and at different compaction pressures. The experimentally obtained values are used in a thermal model and corresponding internal temperature profiles are shown. The thermal conductivity of dry separator materials was found to range from 0.07 ± 0.01 to 0.18 ± 0.02 WK-1m-1 . Dry electrode (active) materials ranged from 0.13 ± 0.02 to 0.61 ± 0.02 WK-1m-1 . Adding the electrolyte solvent increased the thermal conductivity of electrode (active) materials by at least a factor of 2.

  5. Moon's Pink Mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.; Taylor, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    Since the 2010 remote-sensing discovery of lunar regolith rich in Mg-Al spinel on the rims and central peaks of impact craters and inner rings of basins on the Moon, researchers have been designing experiments to better understand the origin and formation history of spinel-rich rocks and what they mean for the construction of the lunar crust. The newly detected rock type is referred to as pink spinel anorthosite, or PSA, due to high plagioclase and low abundance (<5%) of mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. Two recent studies tested specific hypotheses of PSA production on the Moon. Juliane Gross (American Museum of Natural History and the Lunar and Planetary Institute, LPI) and colleagues at the LPI, University of Hawaii, and NASA Johnson Space Center conducted experiments to model the crystallization of spinel in impact melts from impact events. Tabb Prissel (Brown University) and colleagues from Brown conducted experiments to model a plutonic formation of spinel from magma-wallrock interactions. In each study, comparisons of the remote sensing data with Apollo lunar samples or lunar meteorites were crucial for testing the PSA formation hypotheses with the experimental results. Definitive answers aren't in yet. PSA could form from impact melting of the right target rocks. Equally likely is PSA formation by reaction of basaltic magma and crust. One big unknown is the effect space weathering has in determining the amount of spinel in the PSA..

  6. Charge Storage, Conductivity and Charge Profiles of Insulators as Related to Spacecraft Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, J. R.; Swaminathan, Prasanna; Frederickson, A. R.

    2004-01-01

    Dissipation of charges built up near the surface of insulators due to space environment interaction is central to understanding spacecraft charging. Conductivity of insulating materials is key to determine how accumulated charge will distribute across the spacecraft and how rapidly charge imbalance will dissipate. To understand these processes requires knowledge of how charge is deposited within the insulator, the mechanisms for charge trapping and charge transport within the insulator, and how the profile of trapped charge affects the transport and emission of charges from insulators. One must consider generation of mobile electrons and holes, their trapping, thermal de-trapping, mobility and recombination. Conductivity is more appropriately measured for spacecraft charging applications as the "decay" of charge deposited on the surface of an insulator, rather than by flow of current across two electrodes around the sample. We have found that conductivity determined from charge storage decay methods is 102 to 104 smaller than values obtained from classical ASTM and IEC methods for a variety of thin film insulating samples. For typical spacecraft charging conditions, classical conductivity predicts decay times on the order of minutes to hours (less than typical orbit periods); however, the higher charge storage conductivities predict decay times on the order of weeks to months leading to accumulation of charge with subsequent orbits. We found experimental evidence that penetration profiles of radiation and light are exceedingly important, and that internal electric fields due to charge profiles and high-field conduction by trapped electrons must be considered for space applications. We have also studied whether the decay constants depend on incident voltage and flux or on internal charge distributions and electric fields; light-activated discharge of surface charge to distinguish among differing charge trapping centers; and radiation-induced conductivity. Our

  7. The moons of Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, L. A.; Johnson, T. V.

    1982-01-01

    Knowledge gained of the 17 Saturn moons with observations by the Voyager spacecraft are reviewed. Titan was found to have the only atmosphere, which is opaque and precludes geologic inferences. Synchronous rotation is experienced by the 14 inner moons, with a constant inner face turned toward the planet. Phoebe is too far away from the planet to lose its spin to planetary tidal forces, and has an orbit inclined 150 deg from the equatorial plane, while Iapetus is inclined 14.7 deg in its orbit. The abundance of ice on the moons is accepted as evidence of condensation formation of the moons at very low temperatures. Newly discovered moons of Saturn, including both the shepherd moons, which are suspected to maintain the rings in place, and the moons discovered by earth-based astronomy, are discussed. Finally, photographs of all the moons are examined for definitive details.

  8. The Earth & Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-06-04

    During its flight, NASA’s Galileo spacecraft returned images of the Earth and Moon. Separate images of the Earth and Moon were combined to generate this view. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00342

  9. The moons of Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, L. A.; Johnson, T. V.

    1982-01-01

    Knowledge gained of the 17 Saturn moons with observations by the Voyager spacecraft are reviewed. Titan was found to have the only atmosphere, which is opaque and precludes geologic inferences. Synchronous rotation is experienced by the 14 inner moons, with a constant inner face turned toward the planet. Phoebe is too far away from the planet to lose its spin to planetary tidal forces, and has an orbit inclined 150 deg from the equatorial plane, while Iapetus is inclined 14.7 deg in its orbit. The abundance of ice on the moons is accepted as evidence of condensation formation of the moons at very low temperatures. Newly discovered moons of Saturn, including both the shepherd moons, which are suspected to maintain the rings in place, and the moons discovered by earth-based astronomy, are discussed. Finally, photographs of all the moons are examined for definitive details.

  10. Moon Mapper Looks Homeward

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-08-03

    NASA Moon Minerology Mapper, a guest instrument onboard the Indian Space Research Organization Chandrayaan-1 mission to the moon, looks homeward. Australia is visible in the lower center of the image.

  11. NASA Moon Mineralogy Mapper

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-12-17

    Different wavelengths of light provide new information about the Orientale Basin region of the moon in a composite image taken by NASA Moon Mineralogy Mapper, a guest instrument aboard the Indian Space Research Organization Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft.

  12. Pluto's Spinning Moons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Most inner moons in the solar system keep one face pointed toward their central planet; this animation shows that certainly isn’t the case with the small moons of Pluto, which behave like spinning ...

  13. Phases of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The various aspects that the Moon presents to observers on the Earth as the proportion of its sunlit side which is visible changes in the course of its orbit around the Earth. There are four principle phases: new moon, first quarter, full moon and last quarter. One complete cycle of phases is termed a lunation, and is completed in just over 29½ days, the Moon's synodic period....

  14. Perceptions about Moon Phases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rider, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Presents research on different techniques to determine the level of understanding among middle school students regarding the phases of the moon. Quotes student responses to provide some insight into students' level of understanding of general knowledge about the moon, moon phases, and modeling the phases. Presents implications for teachers. (KHR)

  15. Look to the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Gerald Wm.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a strategy that helps students visualize and comprehend moon phase changes through activities that use an Earth-centered point of view along with direct observations of the moon. Describes activities that parents can use at home to help children become familiar with observing moon phases. (JRH)

  16. Super Moon Rises

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-19

    The full moon is seen as it rises near the National Mall, Saturday, March 19, 2011, in Washington. The full moon tonight is called a "Super Moon" since it is at its closest to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  17. The Moon's Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadogan, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Presents findings and conclusions about the origin of the moon, favoring the capture hypothesis of lunar origin. Advantage of the hypothesis is that it allows the moon to have been formed elsewhere, specifically in a hotter part of the solar nebula, accounting for chemical differences between earth and moon. (JN)

  18. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Andrew Chaikin, author of "A Man on the Moon" speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Buzz Aldrin, the second man to walk on the moon, speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin, the second man to walk on the Moon, speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Michael Weiss-Malik, Product Manager for Moon in Google Earth, Google, Inc., speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. The Moon's Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadogan, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Presents findings and conclusions about the origin of the moon, favoring the capture hypothesis of lunar origin. Advantage of the hypothesis is that it allows the moon to have been formed elsewhere, specifically in a hotter part of the solar nebula, accounting for chemical differences between earth and moon. (JN)

  3. Our Battered Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Most people have probably heard the tale about the Moon being made out of Swiss cheese because, on Earth, the Moon looks like it is full of holes. Those holes are actually impact craters, circular depressions that formed when objects, such as rocks that orbit the Sun, smashed into the surface of the Moon. The activity described in this article,…

  4. Look to the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Gerald Wm.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a strategy that helps students visualize and comprehend moon phase changes through activities that use an Earth-centered point of view along with direct observations of the moon. Describes activities that parents can use at home to help children become familiar with observing moon phases. (JRH)

  5. Pluto's Intriguing Moons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    We talk a lot about Charon, Pluto's largest moon that's about half the size of its host planet. But what about Pluto’s other moons? They're strange, to say the least. Pluto’s four smaller moons —...

  6. Our Battered Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Most people have probably heard the tale about the Moon being made out of Swiss cheese because, on Earth, the Moon looks like it is full of holes. Those holes are actually impact craters, circular depressions that formed when objects, such as rocks that orbit the Sun, smashed into the surface of the Moon. The activity described in this article,…

  7. Perceptions about Moon Phases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rider, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Presents research on different techniques to determine the level of understanding among middle school students regarding the phases of the moon. Quotes student responses to provide some insight into students' level of understanding of general knowledge about the moon, moon phases, and modeling the phases. Presents implications for teachers. (KHR)

  8. Full moon and crime.

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, C P; Sharma, D

    1984-01-01

    The incidence of crimes reported to three police stations in different towns (one rural, one urban, one industrial) was studied to see if it varied with the day of the lunar cycle. The period of the study covered 1978-82. The incidence of crimes committed on full moon days was much higher than on all other days, new moon days, and seventh days after the full moon and new moon. A small peak in the incidence of crimes was observed on new moon days, but this was not significant when compared with crimes committed on other days. The incidence of crimes on equinox and solstice days did not differ significantly from those on other days, suggesting that the sun probably does not influence the incidence of crime. The increased incidence of crimes on full moon days may be due to "human tidal waves" caused by the gravitational pull of the moon. PMID:6440656

  9. Full moon and crime.

    PubMed

    Thakur, C P; Sharma, D

    The incidence of crimes reported to three police stations in different towns (one rural, one urban, one industrial) was studied to see if it varied with the day of the lunar cycle. The period of the study covered 1978-82. The incidence of crimes committed on full moon days was much higher than on all other days, new moon days, and seventh days after the full moon and new moon. A small peak in the incidence of crimes was observed on new moon days, but this was not significant when compared with crimes committed on other days. The incidence of crimes on equinox and solstice days did not differ significantly from those on other days, suggesting that the sun probably does not influence the incidence of crime. The increased incidence of crimes on full moon days may be due to "human tidal waves" caused by the gravitational pull of the moon.

  10. Polar volatiles on Mercury and the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, D. A.; Wood, S. E.; Vasavada, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The possibility that condensed volatiles might be stable in the permanently shadowed polar regions of the Moon and Mercury has been anticipated in a number of theoretical studies. In 1992, VLA-Goldstone and Arecibo observations revealed the presence of bright, depolarized radar features near the poles of Mercury that have been widely interpreted as evidence for the presence of polar ice deposits. Recently acquired high-resolution Arecibo radar images show that the anomalous radar features are concentrated in crater-sized regions whose locations can be made to coincide exactly with the locations of known impact craters in the Mariner-10 images. These new Arecibo images provide an unusual opportunity to learn more about the distribution and history of Mercury's polar ice deposits. We have constructed a thermal model that can predict surface and subsurface temperatures within impact craters on Mercury and the Moon. Included in the calculations are the effects of 1-dimensional subsurface heat conduction, direct sunlight, multiply reflected sunlight within the crater, and re-radiated infrared radiation within the crater. We also use realistic crater topographic profiles for larger flat-floored craters as well as smaller spherical bowl-shaped craters.

  11. GPR Profiles of Mirror Lake, NH: Exceptional Signal Penetration in Low Conductivity Water and Subbottom Sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcone, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Subbottom lake stratification is of interest to hydrology and core site selection, and in delta formation, sediment focusing and periglacial dynamics. Mirror Lake, New Hampshire, within the Hubbard Brook research area, has long been studied, but its subbottom stratification has only been estimated from coring that revealed up to 13 m of gyttja above about 1 m of Late Wisconsin glacial silt. However, the very low water conductivity of 0.002-0.003 S/m allows exceptional penetration of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals. Here we discuss several GPR profiles recorded at pulse center frequencies of 60 and 120 MHz along 300-600 m transects that crossed the entire lake in many directions. With care not to misinterpret multiple reflection horizons, the profiles clearly delineate gyttja, till, bedrock horizons, boulder horizons near shore and deltaic deposition. Hyperbolic backscatter in the well-stratified gyttja may be responses from buried logs because they often occur in nests of close, deepening diffractions and much logging historically occurred. Strong local horizons within the gyttja suggest sediment retransport and focusing, as suggested by Davis and Ford in their1982 interpretation of cores. The generally deeper and underlying till is characterized by sections of dense diffractions. In some profile sections internal till horizons appear draped over the bedrock horizons. In others parallel and deep horizons may be responses to bedrock fractures. Using estimated minimal wave speeds based on maximum possible dielectric permittivities calculated from assumed saturated conditions, and partly verified by diffraction interpretation after statics removal, our 60 MHz profiles show gyttja (permittivity no greater than 53) thicknesses of at least 11 m, till (permittivity no greater than 33) thicknesses of at least 25 m and depths to bedrock (Littleton schist) up to 28 m. This till thickness far exceeds the average 4-5 m on the surrounding slopes of the Hubbard Brook

  12. Emergent relation between surface vapor conductance and relative humidity profiles yields evaporation rates from weather data.

    PubMed

    Salvucci, Guido D; Gentine, Pierre

    2013-04-16

    The ability to predict terrestrial evapotranspiration (E) is limited by the complexity of rate-limiting pathways as water moves through the soil, vegetation (roots, xylem, stomata), canopy air space, and the atmospheric boundary layer. The impossibility of specifying the numerous parameters required to model this process in full spatial detail has necessitated spatially upscaled models that depend on effective parameters such as the surface vapor conductance (C(surf)). C(surf) accounts for the biophysical and hydrological effects on diffusion through the soil and vegetation substrate. This approach, however, requires either site-specific calibration of C(surf) to measured E, or further parameterization based on metrics such as leaf area, senescence state, stomatal conductance, soil texture, soil moisture, and water table depth. Here, we show that this key, rate-limiting, parameter can be estimated from an emergent relationship between the diurnal cycle of the relative humidity profile and E. The relation is that the vertical variance of the relative humidity profile is less than would occur for increased or decreased evaporation rates, suggesting that land-atmosphere feedback processes minimize this variance. It is found to hold over a wide range of climate conditions (arid-humid) and limiting factors (soil moisture, leaf area, energy). With this relation, estimates of E and C(surf) can be obtained globally from widely available meteorological measurements, many of which have been archived since the early 1900s. In conjunction with precipitation and stream flow, long-term E estimates provide insights and empirical constraints on projected accelerations of the hydrologic cycle.

  13. High energy electron processing of icy regoliths on Saturn's moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaible, Micah; Johnson, Robert E.

    2015-11-01

    A unique space weathering phenomenon has been identified on several icy Saturnian moons. Cassini revealed anomalous lens shaped regions in both optical and thermal wavelengths, colloquially known as the 'PacMan' feature, which are centered on the leading hemispheres and approximately symmetric about the equators. In particular, the Cassini InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) measurements of thermal emission in the mid-IR showed that surface temperature variations during a diurnal cycle were smaller inside the anomalous regions. The locations of the anomalies were shown to closely match the expected deposition profile of high energy (~ MeV) electrons moving counter rotational to the moons, suggesting an energetic source to drive their formation. However, the mechanisms by which thermal conductivity enhancement occur lack quantitative comparison with theoretical and experimental results.Electron interactions with the grains can excite molecules, which, if near enough to an intergrain contact, can cause atoms or molecules to migrate into the contact region, thus increasing the contact volume or 'sintering' the grains. Sintering improves the thermal contact between grains, leading to increased effective thermal conductivity of the regolith. Equations previously developed to describe material behavior in nuclear reactor were used to estimate the timescale for the energetic electrons to increase the contact volume sufficiently to describe the enhanced thermal conductivity of the anomalous regions. In order to properly constrain the sintering calculations, the unique electron energy distribution measured in the vicinity of each of the moons was used in the calculations, and molecular dynamics simulations of excited electrons in water ice were carried out to determine the length scale for an average electron excitation or ionization event. This length scale determines the distance from the primary reaction at which electrons can still be mobilized to move into the contact region

  14. Science opportunities in the human exploration of moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilcher, Carl B.; O'Handley, Douglas A.; Nash, Douglas B.

    1989-01-01

    Human exploration of the moon will open up science opportunities not only in lunar science, but also in astronomy and astrophysics, life science, solar and space physics, earth science, and even evolutionary biology. These opportunities may be categorized as those involving study of the moon itself, those in which the moon is used as a platform for investigations, and those conducted in transit between earth and the moon. This paper describes some of these opportunities, and calls on the science community to continue and expand its efforts to define the opportunities, and to work toward their inclusion in plans to return humans permanently to the moon.

  15. Science opportunities in the human exploration of moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilcher, Carl B.; O'Handley, Douglas A.; Nash, Douglas B.

    1989-01-01

    Human exploration of the moon will open up science opportunities not only in lunar science, but also in astronomy and astrophysics, life science, solar and space physics, earth science, and even evolutionary biology. These opportunities may be categorized as those involving study of the moon itself, those in which the moon is used as a platform for investigations, and those conducted in transit between earth and the moon. This paper describes some of these opportunities, and calls on the science community to continue and expand its efforts to define the opportunities, and to work toward their inclusion in plans to return humans permanently to the moon.

  16. Interior of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of geophysical measurements made from Earth, from spacecraft in orbit around the Moon, and by astronauts on the lunar surface allow us to probe beyond the lunar surface to learn about its interior. Similarly to the Earth, the Moon is thought to consist of a distinct crust, mantle, and core. The crust is globally asymmetric in thickness, the mantle is largely homogeneous, and the core is probably layered, with evidence for molten material. This chapter will review a range of methods used to infer the Moon's internal structure, and briefly discuss the implications for the Moon's formation and evolution.

  17. Infrared astronomy from the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwit, Martin

    1994-01-01

    expected to be encountered in observations conducted from the Moon.

  18. Infrared astronomy from the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwit, Martin

    1994-06-01

    expected to be encountered in observations conducted from the Moon.

  19. Infrared astronomy from the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwit, Martin

    1994-01-01

    expected to be encountered in observations conducted from the Moon.

  20. Analysis of a Conductive Heat Flow Profile in the Ecuador Fracture Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolandaivelu, K. P.; Harris, R. N.; Alhamad, A.; Gregory, E. P. M.; Lowell, R. P.; Hobbs, R. W.

    2016-12-01

    We report 18 new conductive heat flow measurements that were collected from a sediment pond located in the Ecuador Fracture Zone (EFZ) in the Panama Basin. These data were collected as part of the major interdisciplinary collaboration entitled Oceanographic and Seismic Characterization of heat dissipation and alteration by hydrothermal fluids at an Axial Ridge (OSCAR), to better understand links between crustal evolution, hydrothermal heat loss and the impact of this heat loss and fluid mass discharge on deep ocean circulation. The data were collected along an East (E) - West (W) transect coincident with a multi-channel seismic reflection profile that extends from the Hole 504B to W of the sediment pond. The co-location of heat flow data with the reflection profile provides information on sediment thickness and underlying crustal structure that aids in the analysis of heat flow in the area. The ages on the younger side (W) and older side (E) of the EFZ at this location are 2Ma and 6Ma respectively, giving a mean predicted heat flow qpred = 284 mW/m2 based on half-space cooling with an uncertainty of +/- 76 mW/m2. Whereas the observed heat flow increases significantly from W-E across the sediment pond with the mean heat flow, qobs = 160 mW/m2. The effect of sedimentation has a negligible effect on the observed heat flow so the heat flow fraction, qobs/qpred, of 56% suggests the 44% deficit primarily results from redistribution of heat by lateral fluid flow in the basement. This analysis does not consider the possible effects of larger scale hydrothermal circulation or mantle related processes. The seismic data indicates that the sediment pond is bounded to the W by an outcrop that penetrates through the sediment layer and a normal fault on the E, providing pathways for fluid circulation between the crust and ocean. A simple aquifer flow model to explain observed deficit yields a fluid flux of approximately 300 ± 200 m2/year per unit of aquifer length perpendicular

  1. Of time and the moon.

    PubMed

    Wetherill, G W

    1971-07-30

    Considerable information concerning lunar chronology has been obtained by the study of rocks and soil returned by the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 missions. It has been shown that at the time the moon, earth, and solar system were formed, approximately 4.6 approximately 10(9) years ago, a severe chemical fractionation took place, resulting in depletion of relatively volatile elements such as Rb and Pb from the sources of the lunar rocks studied. It is very likely that much of this material was lost to interplanetary space, although some of the loss may be associated with internal chemical differentiation of the moon. It has also been shown that igneous processes have enriched some regions of the moon in lithophile elements such as Rb, U, and Ba, very early in lunar history, within 100 million years of its formation. Subsequent igneous and metamorphic activity occurred over a long period of time; mare volcanism of the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 sites occurred at distinctly different times, 3.6 approximately 10(9) and 3.3 approximately 10(9) years ago, respectively. Consequently, lunar magmatism and remanent magnetism cannot be explained in terms of a unique event, such as a close approach to the earth at a time of lunar capture. It is likely that these phenomena will require explanation in terms of internal lunar processes, operative to a considerable depth in the moon, over a long period of time. These data, together with the low present internal temperatures of the moon, inferred from measurements of lunar electrical conductivity, impose severe constraints on acceptable thermal histories of the moon. Progress is being made toward understanding lunar surface properties by use of the effects of particle bombardment of the lunar surface (solar wind, solar flare particles, galactic cosmic rays). It has been shown that the rate of micrometeorite erosion is very low (angstroms per year) and that lunar rocks and soil have been within approximately a meter of the lunar surface

  2. Moon - North Pole

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This view of the north polar region of the Moon was obtained by NASA's Galileo camera during the spacecraft flyby of the Earth-Moon system on December 7 and 8, 1992. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00126

  3. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This false-color photograph is a composite of 15 images of the Moon taken through three color filters NASA's Galileo solid-state imaging system during the spacecraft passage through the Earth-Moon system on December 8, 1992. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00132

  4. Triptych of the Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-09-10

    This composite image was made from NASA Cassini which captured a significant portion of the Moon during a Moon flyby imaging sequence.All three images have been scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right,

  5. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This false-color mosaic of part of the Moon was constructed from 54 images taken by the imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo as the spacecraft flew past the Moon on December 7, 1992. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00129

  6. Moon tree ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-03

    Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise stands with Rosemary Roosa, daughter of late Apollo 14 astronaut Stuart Roosa, beside a 'moon tree' planted at the INFINITY science center on Feb. 3, 2011. The moon tree is a descendent of seeds carried into space by Stuart Roosa on the Apollo 14 mission in 1971.

  7. Apollo 11 Moon Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The crowning achievement for the Saturn V rocket came when it launched Apollo 11 astronauts, Neil Armstrong, Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, and Michael Collins, to the Moon in July 1969. In this photograph, astronaut Aldrin takes his first step onto the surface of the Moon.

  8. Moon: Old and New

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This video presents the moon as studied by man for more than 20 centuries. It reviews the history of lunar studies before the first moon landing, the major things learned since Apollo 11, and closes with a resume of lunar investigations scientists would like to undertake in the future.

  9. Moon: Old and New

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This video presents the moon as studied by man for more than 20 centuries. It reviews the history of lunar studies before the first moon landing, the major things learned since Apollo 11, and closes with a resume of lunar investigations scientists would like to undertake in the future.

  10. Apollo 11 Moon Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The crowning achievement for the Saturn V rocket came when it launched Apollo 11 astronauts, Neil Armstrong, Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, and Michael Collins, to the Moon in July 1969. In this photograph, astronaut Aldrin takes his first step onto the surface of the Moon.

  11. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver, speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Tiffany Montague, Technical Program Manager for NASA and Google Lunar X PRIZE, Google, Inc., speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Brian McLendon, VP of Engineering, Google, Inc., speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Yoshinori Yoshimura, a respresentative from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Miles O'Brien, former chief science and tech correspondent for CNN, speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Google Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Alan Eustace, Senior VP of Engineering and Research, Google, Inc., speaks during a press conference, Monday, July 20, 2009, announcing the launch of Moon in Google Earth, an immersive 3D atlas of the Moon, accessible within Google Earth 5.0, Monday, July 20, 2009, at the Newseum in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Analysis of a conductive heat flow profile in the Ecuador Fracture Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolandaivelu, Kannikha Parameswari; Harris, Robert N.; Lowell, Robert P.; Alhamad, Ahmed; Gregory, Emma P. M.; Hobbs, Richard W.

    2017-06-01

    We report 18 new conductive heat flow measurements collected from a sediment pond located in the inactive part of the Ecuador Fracture Zone in the Panama Basin. The data were collected along an east-west transect coincident with a multi-channel seismic reflection profile that extends from ODP Hole 504B to west of the sediment pond. Conductive models indicate that heat flow should decrease from ≈400 mW m-2 on the 1.5 Ma western plate to ≈200 mW m-2 on the 6 Ma eastern plate; however the observed heat flow increases nearly linearly toward the east from approximately 140 mW m-2 to 190 mW m-2. The mean value of 160 mW m-2 represents an average heat flow deficit of ≈50%, which we attribute to lateral advective heat transfer between exposed outcrops on the western and eastern margins of the sediment pond. We apply the well-mixed aquifer model to explain this eastwardly flow, and estimate a volumetric flow rate per unit length in the north-south direction of ≈ 400 ± 250 m2yr-1 through the basement aquifer. Using a Darcy flow model with the mean flow rate, we estimate permeabilities of ∼10-11 and 10-12 m2 for aquifer thicknesses of 100 and 1000 m, respectively. The estimated permeabilities are similar to other estimates in young oceanic upper crust and suggest that vigorous convection within the basement significantly modifies the thermal regime of fracture zones. Additional heat flow data are needed to determine the prevalence and importance of advective heat transfer in fracture zones on a global scale.

  18. Four-month Moon and Mars crew water utilization study conducted at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station, Devon Island, Nunavut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamsey, M.; Berinstain, A.; Auclair, S.; Battler, M.; Binsted, K.; Bywaters, K.; Harris, J.; Kobrick, R.; McKay, C.

    2009-04-01

    A categorized water usage study was undertaken at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station on Devon Island, Nunavut in the High Canadian Arctic. This study was conducted as part of a long duration four-month Mars mission simulation during the summer of 2007. The study determined that the crew of seven averaged 82.07 L/day over the expedition (standard deviation 22.58 L/day). The study also incorporated a Mars Time Study phase which determined that an average of 12.12 L/sol of water was required for each crewmember. Drinking, food preparation, hand/face, oral, dish wash, clothes wash, shower, shaving, cleaning, engineering, science, plant growth and medical water were each individually monitored throughout the detailed study phases. It was determined that implementing the monitoring program itself resulted in an approximate water savings of 1.5 L/day per crewmember. The seven person crew averaged 202 distinct water draws a day (standard deviation 34) with high water use periods focusing around meal times. No statistically significant correlation was established between total water use and EVA or exercise duration. Study results suggest that current crew water utilization estimates for long duration planetary surface stays are more than two times greater than that required.

  19. Harvest Moon at NASA Goddard

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-18

    September's Harvest Moon as seen around NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. According to folklore, every full Moon has a special name.  There's the Wolf Moon, the Snow Moon, the Worm Moon,  the Sprouting Grass Moon,  the Flower Moon,  the Strawberry Moon, the Thunder Moon,  the Sturgeon Moon, the Harvest Moon, the Hunter's Moon, the Beaver Moon, and the Long Night's Moon. Each name tells us something about the season or month in which the full Moon appears.

This month's full Moon is the Harvest Moon. More about the Harvest Moon from NASA: Science http://1.usa.gov/16lb1eZ Credit: NASA/Goddard/Debbie Mccallum NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  20. Harvest Moon at NASA Goddard

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-20

    September's Harvest Moon as seen around NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. According to folklore, every full Moon has a special name.  There's the Wolf Moon, the Snow Moon, the Worm Moon,  the Sprouting Grass Moon,  the Flower Moon,  the Strawberry Moon, the Thunder Moon,  the Sturgeon Moon, the Harvest Moon, the Hunter's Moon, the Beaver Moon, and the Long Night's Moon. Each name tells us something about the season or month in which the full Moon appears.

This month's full Moon is the Harvest Moon. More about the Harvest Moon from NASA: Science http://1.usa.gov/16lb1eZ Credit: NASA/Goddard/Debbie Mccallum NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  1. Harvest Moon at NASA Goddard

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    September's Harvest Moon as seen around NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. According to folklore, every full Moon has a special name. There's the Wolf Moon, the Snow Moon, the Worm Moon, the Sprouting Grass Moon, the Flower Moon, the Strawberry Moon, the Thunder Moon, the Sturgeon Moon, the Harvest Moon, the Hunter's Moon, the Beaver Moon, and the Long Night's Moon. Each name tells us something about the season or month in which the full Moon appears. This month's full Moon is the Harvest Moon. More about the Harvest Moon from NASA: Science 1.usa.gov/16lb1eZ Credit: NASA/Goddard/Debbie Mccallum NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  2. Moon Taxi - A European view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaze, J. H.; Grimard, M.; Fazi, C.; Theillier, F.

    1992-08-01

    A review is conducted of transportation concepts for relatively small transfer vehicles for earth-to-lunar orbits, lunar shuttles, and earth-return vehicles. Attention is given to the use of Ariane-5 derivatives to accomplish these tasks specifically in the areas of propellant supply, and vehicle maintenance/logistics. Launcher optimization is considered for these tasks with orbital and payload considerations taken into account. A 'lunar vicinity shuttle' is proposed that can accomplish both lunar landings and returns to lunar orbit. The combination of the vehicles is named the Moon Taxi transportation system, and a preliminary feasibility study indicates the suitability of Ariane-5 products for the mass and Isp targets. Specific technological areas critical for the Moon Taxi concept are: cryogenic propellant control, restartable 10-t-thrust engines, and capsule reentry technologies.

  3. Model 'zero-age' lunar thermal profiles resulting from electrical induction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, F.; Sonett, C. P.; Wiskerchen, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal profiles for the moon are calculated under the assumption that a pre-main-sequence T-Tauri-like solar wind excites both transverse magnetic and transverse electric induction while the moon is accreting. A substantial initial temperature rise occurs, possibly of sufficient magnitude to cause subsequent early extensive melting throughout the moon in conjunction with nominal long-lived radioactives. In these models, accretion is an unimportant direct source of thermal energy but is important because even small temperature rises from accretion cause significant changes in bulk electrical conductivity. Induction depends upon the radius of the moon, which we take to be accumulating while it is being heated electrically. The 'zero-age' profiles calculated in this paper are proposed as initial conditions for long-term thermal evolution of the moon.

  4. The Moon Village Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Piero; Foing, Bernard H.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Haignere, Claudie; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The "Moon Village" concept Space exploration is anchored in the International Space Station and in the current and future automatic and planetary automatic and robotic missions that pave the way for future long-term exploration objectives. The Moon represents a prime choice for scientific, operational and programmatic reasons and could be the enterprise that federates all interested Nations. On these considerations ESA is currently elaborating the concept of a Moon Village as an ensemble where multiple users can carry out multiple activities. The Moon Village has the ambition to serve a number of objectives that have proven to be of interest (including astronomy, fundamental research, resources management, moon science, etc. ) to the space community and should be the catalyst of new alliances between public and private entities including non-space industries. Additionally the Moon Village should provide a strong inspirational and education tool for the younger generations . The Moon Village will rely both on automatic, robotic and human-tendered structures to achieve sustainable moon surface operations serving multiple purposes on an open-architecture basis. This Europe-inspired initiative should rally all communities (across scientific disciplines, nations, industries) and make it to the top of the political agendas as a the scientific and technological undertaking but also political and inspirational endeavour of the XXI century. The current reflections are of course based on the current activities and plans on board the ISS and the discussion held in international fora such as the ISECG. The paper will present the status of these reflections, also in view of the ESA Council at Ministerial Level 2016, and will give an overview of the on-going activities being carried out to enable the vision of a Moon Village.

  5. Origin of earth's moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The major geochemical properties of the moon are briefly considered along with the significant facts of the moon's geologic history, and then the three current hypotheses regarding the moon's origin, namely, fission, capture, and binary accretion, are reviewed. The individual merits and improbabilities associated with each mechanism are taken into consideration. Special attention is given to the binary accretion model as the most promising one. In the variants of this model, of crucial importance is the nature of the more general hypothesis assumed for planetary formation from the solar nebula. The two main models differ considerably in the amount of chemical fractionation they allow to accompany planetary formation.

  6. Steps to the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Dale, Alvin E.

    1976-01-01

    On July 20, 1969, man walked on the surface of the Moon and began a new chapter of his studies that will eventually disclose the geologic nature of the Earth's nearest neighbor. Although he has finally reached the Moon and sampled its substance, much work and study remain before he will know the full scientific significance of the first landing. This booklet briefly summarizes the steps man has taken to understand the Moon and what he thinks he has learned to date as a result of his centuries-long speculations and studies.

  7. Why the Moon?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, President George W. Bush proposed a new set of goals for NASA which have since been formalized by Congress as the revised United States Space Policy. A major goal is to return humans to the moon by 2020. This prompted a world-wide discussion about what our goals in space ought to be. In 2006 NASA surveyed potential stakeholders asking the question, "Why the Moon?" Responses were received from over 1000 entities including business, industry, academia, and 13 other space agencies. This presentation reports the responses to that questionnaire, as well as current plans for how the return to the moon will be accomplished.

  8. Shoot the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont-Bloch, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    1. Introducing lunar imaging; 2. Choosing your imaging equipment; 3. Adapting your image device to the instrument; 4. Tuning your telescope for lunar imaging; 5. Wide-field, lunar imaging; 6. High-resolution, lunar imaging; 7. Essential image processing; 8. Advanced image processing; 9. Making 3D lunar images; 10. Measuring and identifying lunar features; 11. Photogenic features of the Moon; 12. Naming, archiving, printing and sharing lunar images; Appendix: maps of the Moon, Lunar 100 and other targets; Web pages, books and freeware for the Moon; Figure data; Index.

  9. Moons around Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) took this photo of Jupiter at 20:42:01 UTC on January 9, 2007, when the spacecraft was 80 million kilometers (49.6 million miles) from the giant planet. The volcanic moon Io is to the left of the planet; the shadow of the icy moon Ganymede moves across Jupiter's northern hemisphere.

    Ganymede's average orbit distance from Jupiter is about 1 million kilometers (620,000 miles); Io's is 422,000 kilometers (262,000 miles). Both Io and Ganymede are larger than Earth's moon; Ganymede is larger than the planet Mercury.

  10. Applications of High Etendue Line-Profile Spectro-Polarimetry to the Study of the Atmospheric and Magnetospheric Environments of the Jovian Icy Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Walter M.; Roesler, Fred L.; Jaffel, Lotfi Ben; Ballester, Gilda E.; Oliversen, Ronald J.; Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin

    2003-01-01

    Electrodynamic effects play a significant, global role in the state and energization of the Earth's ionosphere/magnetosphere, but even more so on Jupiter, where the auroral energy input is four orders of magnitude greater than on Earth. The Jovian magnetosphere is distinguished from Earth's by its rapid rotation rate and contributions from satellite atmospheres and internal plasma sources. The electrodynamic effects of these factors have a key role in the state and energization of the ionosphere-corona- plasmasphere system of the planet and its interaction with Io and the icy satellites. Several large scale interacting processes determine conditions near the icy moons beginning with their tenuous atmospheres produced from sputtering, evaporative, and tectonic/volcanic sources, extending out to exospheres that merge with ions and neutrals in the Jovian magnetosphere. This dynamic environment is dependent on a complex network of magnetospheric currents that act on global scales. Field aligned currents connect the satellites and the middle and tail magnetospheric regions to the Jupiter's poles via flux tubes that produce as bright auroral and satellite footprint emissions in the upper atmosphere. This large scale transfer of mass, momentum, and energy (e.g. waves, currents) means that a combination of complementary diagnostics of the plasma, neutral, and and field network must be obtained near simultaneously to correctly interpret the results. This presentation discusses the applicability of UV spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (SHS) to the broad study of this system on scales from satellite surfaces to Jupiter's aurora and corona.

  11. Geometry and Moon Phases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kenneth W.; Harrell, Marvin E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity, designed to comply with the National Science Education Standards, that integrates science and mathematics concepts. Mathematical modeling of the moon's phases is employed to show students the role of mathematics in describing scientific phenomena. (DKM)

  12. MISR Views the Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-16

    A special maneuver of NASA Terra spacecraft was performed as it traversed the nightside enabling a backward somersault of the spacecraft, allowing the normally Earth-viewing instruments to look at deep space and the waxing gibbous Moon.

  13. Moon - Western Near Side

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-02-08

    This image of the crescent moon was obtained by the Galileo Solid State imaging system on December 8 at 5 a.m. PST as NASA Galileo spacecraft neared the Earth. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00224

  14. Full Moon Feeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; Ballesteros Roselló, F.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Lanzara, M.; Moya, M. J.

    2012-09-01

    The Moon is, together with the Sun, the very first astronomical object that we experience in our life. As this is an exclusively visual experience, people with visual impairments need to follow a different path to experience it too. Here we will show the process of designing and testing a tactile 3D Moon sphere whose goal is to reproduce on a tactile support the experience of observing the Moon visually. We have used imaging data obtained by NASA's mission Clementine, along with free image processing and 3D rendering software. This method is also useful to produce other artifacts that can be employed in the communication of astronomy to all kinds of public. The tactile Moon project for the blind has been funded partially by the 2011 Europlanet Outreach Funding Scheme.

  15. ARTEMIS Orbits Magnetic Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's THEMIS spacecraft have completed their mission and are still working perfectly, so NASA is re-directing the outermost two spacecraft to special orbits around the Moon. Now called ARTEMIS, th...

  16. Moon Express Media Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-03

    Tom Engler, deputy director of Center Planning and Development at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, speaks to members of the media during an event to announce the agency's Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown, or Lunar CATALYST, initiative and introduced one of the partners, Moon Express Inc. of Moffett Field, California. The event took place at Kennedy's automated landing and hazard avoidance technology, or ALHAT, hazard field at the north end of the Shuttle Landing Facility. Moon Express is developing a lander with capabilities that will enable delivery of payloads to the surface of the moon, as well as new science and exploration missions of interest to NASA and scientific and academic communities. Moon Express will base its activities at Kennedy and utilize the Morpheus ALHAT field and a hangar nearby for CATALYST testing. The Advanced Exploration Systems Division of NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate manages Lunar CATALYST.

  17. Moon Express Media Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-03

    Rob Mueller, NASA senior technologist in the Surface Systems Office in Kennedy Space Center's Engineering and Technology Directorate, demonstrates the Regolith Advanced Surface System Operations Robot, or RASSOR, during a media event at Kennedy's automated landing and hazard avoidance technology, or ALHAT, hazard field at the north end of the Shuttle Landing Facility. The event was held to announce Moon Express Inc., of Moffett Field, California is selected to utilize Kennedy facilities for NASA's Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown, or Lunar CATALYST, initiative. Moon Express is developing a lander with capabilities that will enable delivery of payloads to the surface of the moon, as well as new science and exploration missions of interest to NASA and scientific and academic communities. Moon Express will base its activities at Kennedy and utilize the Morpheus ALHAT field and a hangar nearby for CATALYST testing. The Advanced Exploration Systems Division of NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate manages Lunar CATALYST.

  18. Moon Express Media Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-03

    Greg C. Shavers, Lander Technology director at Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama, speaks to members of the media during an event to announce the agency's Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown, or Lunar CATALYST, initiative and introduced one of the partners, Moon Express Inc. of Moffett Field, California. The event took place at Kennedy's automated landing and hazard avoidance technology, or ALHAT, hazard field at the north end of the Shuttle Landing Facility. Moon Express is developing a lander with capabilities that will enable delivery of payloads to the surface of the moon, as well as new science and exploration missions of interest to NASA and scientific and academic communities. Moon Express will base its activities at Kennedy and utilize the Morpheus ALHAT field and a hangar nearby for CATALYST testing. The Advanced Exploration Systems Division of NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate manages Lunar CATALYST.

  19. Moon Express Media Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-03

    Bob Richards, co-founder and chief executive officer of Moon Express Inc., of Moffett Field, California, speaks to the media during an event to announce the company's selection to use Kennedy Space Center's facilities as part of NASA's Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown, or Lunar CATALYST, initiative. The event took place at Kennedy's automated landing and hazard avoidance technology, or ALHAT, hazard field at the north end of the Shuttle Landing Facility. Moon Express is developing a lander with capabilities that will enable delivery of payloads to the surface of the moon, as well as new science and exploration missions of interest to NASA and scientific and academic communities. Moon Express will base its activities at Kennedy and utilize the Morpheus ALHAT field and a hangar nearby for CATALYST testing. The Advanced Exploration Systems Division of NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate manages Lunar CATALYST.

  20. Moon Shadow, Planet Shadow

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-12

    Saturn moon Prometheus casts a narrow shadow on the rings near the much larger shadow cast by the planet in this image taken by NASA Cassini spacecraft about five months after Saturn August 2009 equinox.

  1. Moon Crustal Thickness

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-08

    Global map of crustal thickness of the moon derived from gravity data obtained by NASA GRAIL spacecraft. The lunar near side is represented on the left hemisphere. The far side is represented in the right hemisphere.

  2. Look-alike Moons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-04

    Rhea and Dione seem like dark and light fraternal twins in this image from NASA Cassini spacecraft, with each of these two Saturnian moons displaying a large crater oriented similarly in the northern hemisphere.

  3. Little Tuber Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-01-05

    Saturn small moon Prometheus, slightly overexposed in this image taken by NASA Cassini spacecraft, shows off its potato-like shape as it orbits in the Roche Division between the A ring and thin F ring.

  4. The Moon Beyond 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Over a hundred lunar scientists met in the clear mountain air of the Taos Ski Valley, September 12-14, 2002, to share their discoveries and, most importantly, their questions about the composition, geological evolution, and future exploration of the Moon. The wealth of data from the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions, coupled with continued study of lunar samples, has led lunar scientists to pose sophisticated questions about the Moon. Because of the Moon's central role in planetary science, answers to these questions will help us understand the other rocky bodies in the Solar System. A fascinating array of missions is planned, including orbiting spacecraft and sample-return missions. Human habitation of the Moon may not be far beyond.

  5. The Moon: Biogenic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Chang, Sherwood

    1992-01-01

    The specific objectives of the organic chemical exploration of the Moon involve the search for molecules of possible biological or prebiological origin. Detailed knowledge of the amount, distribution, and exact structure of organic compounds present on the Moon is extremely important to our understanding of the origin and history of the Moon and to its relationship to the history of the Earth and solar system. Specifically, such knowledge is essential for determining whether life on the Moon exists, ever did exist, or could develop. In the absence of life or organic matter, it is still essential to determine the abundance, distribution, and origin of the biogenic elements (e.g., H, C, O, N, S, P) in order to understand how the planetary environment may have influenced the course of chemical evolution. The history and scope of this effort is presented.

  6. Geometry and Moon Phases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kenneth W.; Harrell, Marvin E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity, designed to comply with the National Science Education Standards, that integrates science and mathematics concepts. Mathematical modeling of the moon's phases is employed to show students the role of mathematics in describing scientific phenomena. (DKM)

  7. What's New on the Moon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Bevan M.

    This document presents an overview of knowledge gained from the scientific explorations of the moon between 1969 and 1972 in the Apollo Program. Answers are given to questions regarding life on the moon, surface composition of rocks on the moon, the nature of the moon's interior, characteristics of lunar "soil," the age, history and…

  8. Two-tracer spectroscopy diagnostics of temperature profile in the conduction layer of a laser-ablated plastic foil

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jiyan; Yang Guohong; Hu Xin; Yang Jiamin; Ding Yaonan; Ding Yongkun; Zhang Baohan; Zheng Zhijian; Xu Yan; Yan Jun; Pei Wenbin

    2010-11-15

    A technique that combines the diagnostics of electron temperature history and the measurements of ablation velocity with two-tracer x-ray spectroscopy has been developed for diagnosing the temperature profiles in the thermal conduction layers of laser-ablated plastic foils. The electron temperature in the plastic ablator was diagnosed using the isoelectronic line ratios of Al Ly{alpha} line to Mg Ly{alpha} line, emitted from a tracer layer of Al/Mg mixture buried under the ablator. The ablation velocity was inferred from the time delay between the onset time of x-ray line emissions from Al and Mg tracer layers buried at two depths in the ablator, respectively. From the measured electron temperatures and ablation velocity, the electron temperature profile in the conduction layer was inferred. The measured temperature profile was compared with the simulated one and reasonable agreement was found.

  9. Moons Metrology System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drass, Holger; Metrology Team

    2017-09-01

    "MOONS is a new fiber-fed spectrograph for the VLT. Equipped with two triple-arm spectrographs MOONS will produce spectra for 1000 targets simultaneously. To ensure the accurate positioning of the 1000 fibers, a metrology system has been designed to provide position measurements within 10 μm. This talk presents the updated design of the metrology system at the end of the final design phase."

  10. Validities and abilities in criminal profiling: a critique of the studies conducted by Richard Kocsis and his colleagues.

    PubMed

    Bennell, Craig; Jones, Natalie J; Taylor, Paul J; Snook, Brent

    2006-06-01

    In a recent issue of this journal, Kocsis reviewed the criminal profiling research that he and his colleagues have conducted during the past 4 years. Their research examines the correlates of profile accuracy with respect to the skills of the individual constructing the profile, and it has led Kocsis to draw conclusions that are important to the profiling field. In this article, the authors review the contributions of the Kocsis studies and critique their methodological and conceptual foundations. The authors raise a number of concerns and argue that data from the Kocsis studies fail to support many of the conclusions presented in his recent review. The authors present evidence in support of their assertions and provide recommendations that will allow future research in the area to generate data that are more meaningful and generalizable.

  11. Lunar Observer - Scouting for a moon base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, G. L.; Nock, K. T.

    1990-01-01

    The proposed 1996 Lunar Observer mission to the moon is described. Lunar Observer is intended to acquire the definitive data set of the moon from which an enduring and flexible lunar base site selection can be made. A mission profile is summarized and mission phases defined. The fourteen proposed experiments are described and their measurement capabilities outlined. The spacecraft, a derivation of the planned Mars Observer spacecraft design, is described. A description is included of a subsatellite, which is used to obtain the first measurements of the lunar far side gravity field.

  12. Robotics and telepresence for moon missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallaberger, Christian

    1994-01-01

    An integrated moon program has often been proposed as a logical next step for today's space efforts. In the context of preparing for the possibility of launching a moon program, the European Space Agency is currently conducting an internal study effort which is focusing on the assessment of key technologies. Current thinking has this moon program organized into four phases. Phase 1 will deal with lunar resource exploration. The goal would be to produce a complete chemical inventory of the moon, including oxygen, water, other volatiles, carbon, silicon, and other resources. Phase 2 will establish a permanent robotic presence on the moon via a number of landers and surface rovers. Phase 3 will extend the second phase and concentrate on the use and exploitation of local lunar resources. Phase 4 will be the establishment of a first human outpost. Some preliminary work such as the building of the outpost and the installation of scientific equipment will be done by unmanned systems before a human crew is sent to the moon.

  13. A study of the properties of beryllium doped silicon with particular emphasis on diffusion mechanisms: Profiles of depth dependent conductivity as determined by electrical surface probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franks, R. K.; Robertson, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    Very large diffusion coefficients were encountered and required the determination of impurity profiles for samples approximately 1 cm thick. Since conductivity values are readily converted into concentrations of electrically active impurities, the major problem became that of accurately determining the conductivity profiles of beryllium diffused silicon samples. Four-point probe measurements on samples having depth conductivities are interpreted in terms of conductivity profiles, based on an exact solution of the problem of exponentially depth dependent conductivity. Applications include surface conductivity determination where the form of the conductivity profile is known, and conductivity profile determination from probe measurements taken as the sample surface is progressively lapped away. The application is limited to samples having conductivity monotonically decreasing with depth from the probed surface.

  14. Worlds Without Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    Many of the exoplanets that weve discovered lie in compact systems with orbits very close to their host star. These systems are especially interesting in the case of cool stars where planets lie in the stars habitable zone as is the case, for instance, for the headline-making TRAPPIST-1 system.But other factors go into determining potential habitability of a planet beyond the rough location where water can remain liquid. One possible consideration: whether the planets have moons.Supporting HabitabilityLocations of equality between the Hill and Roche radius for five different potential moon densities. The phase space allows for planets of different semi-major axes and stellar host masses. Two example systems are shown, Kepler-80 and TRAPPIST-1, with dots representing the planets within them. [Kane 2017]Earths Moon is thought to have been a critical contributor to our planets habitability. The presence of a moon stabilizes its planets axial tilt, preventing wild swings in climate as the stars radiation shifts between the planets poles and equator. But what determines if a planet can have a moon?A planet can retain a moon in a stable orbit anywhere between an outer boundary of the Hill radius (beyond which the planets gravity is too weak to retain the moon) and an inner boundary of the Roche radius (inside which the moon would be torn apart by tidal forces). The locations of these boundaries depend on both the planets and moons properties, and they can be modified by additional perturbative forces from the host star and other planets in the system.In a new study, San Francisco State University scientist Stephen R. Kane modeled these boundaries for planets specifically in compact systems, to determine whether such planets can host moons to boost their likelihood of habitability.Allowed moon density as a function of semimajor axis for the TRAPPIST-1 system, for two different scenarios with different levels of perturbations. The vertical dotted lines show the locations

  15. Influence of the flow profile to Lorentz force velocimetry for weakly conducting fluids—an experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiederhold, A.; Ebert, R.; Weidner, M.; Halbedel, B.; Fröhlich, T.; Resagk, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Lorentz force velocimetry (LFV) is a highly feasible contactless method for measuring flow rate in a pipe or in a channel. This method has been established for liquid metal flows but also for weakly conducting electrolytes where the Lorentz force amplitudes are typically six orders smaller than the ones from liquid metal flows. Due to an increased resolution of the Lorentz force measurements which was the main focus of research in the last years, now it is possible to investigate the influence of the flow profile on the amplitude of the Lorentz force. Even if there is a semi-theoretical approach an experimental validation is still outstanding. Therefore we have tested symmetric and asymmetric flow profiles to test the LFV for weakly conducting fluids for typical industrial flows. Salt water has been used as a test electrolyte with constant values of the electrical conductivity from 0.035 to 20 S m-1 and of the flow velocity in a range of 0.5-3 m s-1. We confirmed by extensive measurements that LFV is a suitable method for flow measurements even for different flow profiles within 5% measurement uncertainty. For a wide range of applications in research and industry the LFV should be not sensitive to various flow profiles.

  16. The Moon's Shadow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Solar eclipses occur when the Moon passes between the Earth and Sun so that the Moon's shadow falls on the Earth. Although solar eclipses are rarely seen at any given location on Earth, they can be observed somewhere on the Earth's surface at least twice and as often as five times per year. Eclipses can be observed by most Earth-orbiting satellites that have wide fields of view. Therefore, scientists working with data sets derived from these satellite sensors should be aware of the reduced solar irradiance within the area of the Moon's shadow. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows a composite of two adjacent viewing swaths acquired on December 25, 2000 in two consecutive overpasses. The scene covers an area from the Great Lakes in the north to Georgia toward the south. (The full scene covers from Northern Quebec to Florida). Notice that the swath on the left side of the image [acquired at 17:30 UTC (12:30 EST)] is considerably darker than the swath on the right [acquired at 15:50 UTC (10:50 EST)_eclips] due to the Moon's shadow. This eclipse was partial (there was no place on Earth where the Sun was completely hidden behind the Moon). The greatest eclipse occurred in Baffin Island, north of this image, with a maximum eclipse magnitude of 0.72 (72% of the Sun was screened by the Moon at that location). The Moon's shadow (penumbra) extended as far as Nicaragua, much further south of this image. The penumbra covered an area of more than 12000 km diameter on Earth. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

  17. Moon (Form-Origin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2015-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  18. Moon (Form-Origin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2016-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  19. Moon (Form-Origin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2014-05-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  20. Moon (Form-Origin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2013-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  1. Moon (Form-Origin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias; Soumelidou, Despina; Tsiapas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  2. Forum on Concepts and Approaches for Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The papers presented at this conference primarily discuss instruments and techniques for conducting science on Jupiter's icy moons, and geologic processes on the moons themselves. Remote sensing of satellites, cratering on satellites, and ice on the surface of Europa are given particular attention. Some papers discuss Jupiter's atmosphere, or exobiology.

  3. Forum on Concepts and Approaches for Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The papers presented at this conference primarily discuss instruments and techniques for conducting science on Jupiter's icy moons, and geologic processes on the moons themselves. Remote sensing of satellites, cratering on satellites, and ice on the surface of Europa are given particular attention. Some papers discuss Jupiter's atmosphere, or exobiology.

  4. Earth - Moon Conjunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    On December 16, 1992, 8 days after its encounter with Earth, the Galileo spacecraft looked back from a distance of about 6.2 million kilometers (3.9 million miles) to capture this remarkable view of the Moon in orbit about Earth. The composite photograph was constructed from images taken through visible (violet, red) and near-infrared (1.0-micron) filters. The Moon is in the foreground; its orbital path is from left to right. Brightly colored Earth contrasts strongly with the Moon, which reacts only about one-third as much sunlight as our world. To improve the visibility of both bodies, contrast and color have been computer enhanced. At the bottom of Earth's disk, Antarctica is visible through clouds. The Moon's far side can also be seen. The shadowy indentation in the Moon's dawn terminator--the boundary between its dark and lit sides--is the South Pole-Aitken Basin, one of the largest and oldest lunar impact features. This feature was studied extensively by Galileo during the first Earth flyby in December 1990.

  5. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color photograph is a composite of 15 images of the Moon taken through three color filters by Galileo's solid-state imaging system during the spacecraft's passage through the Earth-Moon system on December 8, 1992. When this view was obtained, the spacecraft was 425,000 kilometers (262,000 miles) from the Moon and 69,000 kilometers (43,000 miles) from Earth. The false-color processing used to create this lunar image is helpful for interpreting the surface soil composition. Areas appearing red generally correspond to the lunar highlands, while blue to orange shades indicate the ancient volcanic lava flow of a mare, or lunar sea. Bluer mare areas contain more titanium than do the orange regions. Mare Tranquillitatis, seen as a deep blue patch on the right, is richer in titanium than Mare Serenitatis, a slightly smaller circular area immediately adjacent to the upper left of Mare Tranquillitatis. Blue and orange areas covering much of the left side of the Moon in this view represent many separate lava flows in Oceanus Procellarum. The small purple areas found near the center are pyroclastic deposits formed by explosive volcanic eruptions. The fresh crater Tycho, with a diameter of 85 kilometers (53 miles), is prominent at the bottom of the photograph, where part of the Moon's disk is missing.

  6. CONDUCTIVITY PROFILE RATE OF CHANGE FROM FIELD AND LABORATORY DATA WITHIN BIODEGRADING PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present the results of long term (500 days) measurements of the bulk conductivity in a field and laboratory experiment. Our objective was to determine the rate of change in bulk conductivity and whether this rate of change correlated with the petroleum hydrocarbon degradation...

  7. CONDUCTIVITY PROFILE RATE OF CHANGE FROM FIELD AND LABORATORY DATA WITHIN BIODEGRADING PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present the results of long term (500 days) measurements of the bulk conductivity in a field and laboratory experiment. Our objective was to determine the rate of change in bulk conductivity and whether this rate of change correlated with the petroleum hydrocarbon degradation...

  8. Electromagnetic induction in the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonett, C. P.

    1982-01-01

    The moon constitutes a nonhydromagnetic, but electrically conducting, target for the solar wind whose response reaches a peak as frequency increases and diminishes with further increase in frequency, suggesting the presence of the magnetic quadrupole moment. Magnetometer measurements of induction using Explorer and Apollo instruments are studied from both the harmonic and transient standpoint, and the resulting determination of internal bulk electrical conductivity is discussed. The closeness of the estimated internal temperature to the Ringwood-Essene solidus at 150-250 km depths suggests a layer of enhanced conductivity in lieu of high temperature. A reduced core radius estimate with a one-sigma upper limit of 360 km is reported. The discussion of lunar electrodynamics presented is restricted to the problem of induction, with only passing reference to flow fields and regional electric fields.

  9. The moons of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Torrence V.; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Soderblom, Laurence A.

    1987-01-01

    The topographies of the major moons of Uranus are described, and reasons for the appearances of the surfaces are given. Oberon and Titania, the two outermost major moons, have similar bulk properties but different appearances. Oberon appears to have been a largely passive structure for incoming projectiles, while Titania's surface shows extensive resurfacing. Umbriel and Ariel also have similar bulk properties and contrasting appearances, the former being totally bland except for two unexplained bright spots and the latter having a extensive network of surface faults. Miranda, the smallest and innermost of the major moons, has three large, remarkable ovoid regions on its surface. It is suggested that these ovoids are due to an uncompleted differentiation process.

  10. Moon rock in JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-07

    ISS020-E-007383 (FOR RELEASE 21 JULY 2009) --- A moon rock brought to Earth by Apollo 11, humans? first landing on the moon in July 1969, is shown as it floats aboard the International Space Station. Part of Earth and a section of a station solar panel can be seen through the window. The 3.6 billion year-old lunar sample was flown to the station aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-119 in April 2009 in honor of the July 2009 40th anniversary of the historic first moon landing. The rock, lunar sample 10072, was flown to the station to serve as a symbol of the nation?s resolve to continue the exploration of space. It will be returned on shuttle mission STS-128 to be publicly displayed.

  11. Santa and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, P.

    2012-05-01

    This article reflects on the use of illustrations of the Moon in images of Santa Claus, on Christmas gift-wrapping paper and in children's books, in two countries which have been important in shaping the image of Santa Claus and his predecessor Sinterklaas: the USA and the Netherlands. The appearance of the Moon in Halloween illustrations is also considered. The lack of either knowledge concerning the physical origin of the Moon's phases, or interest in understanding them, is found to be widespread in the Netherlands, but is also clearly present in the USA, and is quite possibly global. Certainly incomplete, but surely representative, lists that compile occurrences of both scientifically correct and scientifically incorrect gift- wrapping paper and children's books are also presented.

  12. Moon - North Pole Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of the Moon's north pole is a mosaic assembled from 18 images taken by Galileo's imaging system through a green filter as the spacecraft flew by on December 7, 1992. The left part of the Moon is visible from Earth; this region includes the dark, lava-filled Mare Imbrium (upper left); Mare Serenitatis (middle left); Mare Tranquillitatis (lower left), and Mare Crisium, the dark circular feature toward the bottom of the mosaic. Also visible in this view are the dark lava plains of the Marginis and Smythii Basins at the lower right. The Humboldtianum Basin, a 650-kilometer (400-mile) impact structure partly filled with dark volcanic deposits, is seen at the center of the image. The Moon's north pole is located just inside the shadow zone, about a third of the way from the top left of the illuminated region.

  13. HUBBLE SHOOTS THE MOON

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In a change of venue from peering at the distant universe, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has taken a look at Earth's closest neighbor in space, the Moon. Hubble was aimed at one of the Moon's most dramatic and photogenic targets, the 58 mile-wide (93 km) impact crater Copernicus. The image was taken while the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) was aimed at a different part of the moon to measure the colors of sunlight reflected off the Moon. Hubble cannot look at the Sun directly and so must use reflected light to make measurements of the Sun's spectrum. Once calibrated by measuring the Sun's spectrum, the STIS can be used to study how the planets both absorb and reflect sunlight. (upper left) The Moon is so close to Earth that Hubble would need to take a mosaic of 130 pictures to cover the entire disk. This ground-based picture from Lick Observatory shows the area covered in Hubble's photomosaic with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.. (center) Hubble's crisp bird's-eye view clearly shows the ray pattern of bright dust ejected out of the crater over one billion years ago, when an asteroid larger than a mile across slammed into the Moon. Hubble can resolve features as small as 600 feet across in the terraced walls of the crater, and the hummock-like blanket of material blasted out by the meteor impact. (lower right) A close-up view of Copernicus' terraced walls. Hubble can resolve features as small as 280 feet across. Credit: John Caldwell (York University, Ontario), Alex Storrs (STScI), and NASA

  14. HUBBLE SHOOTS THE MOON

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In a change of venue from peering at the distant universe, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has taken a look at Earth's closest neighbor in space, the Moon. Hubble was aimed at one of the Moon's most dramatic and photogenic targets, the 58 mile-wide (93 km) impact crater Copernicus. The image was taken while the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) was aimed at a different part of the moon to measure the colors of sunlight reflected off the Moon. Hubble cannot look at the Sun directly and so must use reflected light to make measurements of the Sun's spectrum. Once calibrated by measuring the Sun's spectrum, the STIS can be used to study how the planets both absorb and reflect sunlight. (upper left) The Moon is so close to Earth that Hubble would need to take a mosaic of 130 pictures to cover the entire disk. This ground-based picture from Lick Observatory shows the area covered in Hubble's photomosaic with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.. (center) Hubble's crisp bird's-eye view clearly shows the ray pattern of bright dust ejected out of the crater over one billion years ago, when an asteroid larger than a mile across slammed into the Moon. Hubble can resolve features as small as 600 feet across in the terraced walls of the crater, and the hummock-like blanket of material blasted out by the meteor impact. (lower right) A close-up view of Copernicus' terraced walls. Hubble can resolve features as small as 280 feet across. Credit: John Caldwell (York University, Ontario), Alex Storrs (STScI), and NASA

  15. The application of thermal conductivity measurements to the Kuqa River profile, China, and implications for petrochemical generation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jiarui; Gao, Zhiyong; Zhu, Rukai; Luo, Zhong; Zhang, Linyan

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of thermal conductivity of rocks is important to understand the thermal properties of earth materials, the characteristics of terrestrial heat flow, and the formation of oil. In this paper we report thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and heat capacity data for 12 conglomerate, sandstone, and gypsum-bearing samples from the Paleogene Kuqa River profile in Kuqa, China. Samples were measured via the hot disk technique, yielding thermal conductivity values of 0.436 to 0.998 W/mK, thermal diffusivity measurements of 0.395 to 1.314 mm(2)/s, and heat capacity values of 0.439 to 1.717 MJ/m(3)K. These analyses reveal that gypsum-bearing rocks, with their low thermal conductivity, can act as excellent insulators over oil and gas reservoirs, aiding the formation and thermal maturation of petroleum.

  16. Sub-nA spatially resolved conductivity profiling of surface and interface defects in ceria films

    SciTech Connect

    Farrow, Tim; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Nan; Doria, Sandra; Balestrino, Giuseppe; Belianinov, Alex; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Arruda, Thomas M.

    2015-03-01

    Spatial variability of conductivity in ceria is explored using scanning probe microscopy with galvanostatic control. Ionically blocking electrodes are used to probe the conductivity under opposite polarities to reveal possible differences in the defect structure across a thin film of CeO{sub 2}. Data suggest the existence of a large spatial inhomogeneity that could give rise to constant phase elements during standard electrochemical characterization, potentially affecting the overall conductivity of films on the macroscale. The approach discussed here can also be utilized for other mixed ionic electronic conductor systems including memristors and electroresistors, as well as physical systems such as ferroelectric tunneling barriers.

  17. Sub-nA spatially resolved conductivity profiling of surface and interface defects in ceria films

    SciTech Connect

    Farrow, Tim; Yang, Nan; Doria, Sandra; Belianinov, Alex; Jesse, Stephen; Arruda, Thomas M.; Balestrino, Giuseppe; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kumar, Amit

    2015-03-17

    Spatial variability of conductivity in ceria is explored using scanning probe microscopy with galvanostatic control. Ionically blocking electrodes are used to probe the conductivity under opposite polarities to reveal possible differences in the defect structure across a thin film of CeO2. Data suggest the existence of a large spatial inhomogeneity that could give rise to constant phase elements during standard electrochemical characterization, potentially affecting the overall conductivity of films on the macroscale. The approach discussed here can also be utilized for other mixed ionic electronic conductor systems including memristors and electroresistors, as well as physical systems such as ferroelectric tunneling barriers

  18. Sub-nA spatially resolved conductivity profiling of surface and interface defects in ceria films

    DOE PAGES

    Farrow, Tim; Yang, Nan; Doria, Sandra; ...

    2015-03-17

    Spatial variability of conductivity in ceria is explored using scanning probe microscopy with galvanostatic control. Ionically blocking electrodes are used to probe the conductivity under opposite polarities to reveal possible differences in the defect structure across a thin film of CeO2. Data suggest the existence of a large spatial inhomogeneity that could give rise to constant phase elements during standard electrochemical characterization, potentially affecting the overall conductivity of films on the macroscale. The approach discussed here can also be utilized for other mixed ionic electronic conductor systems including memristors and electroresistors, as well as physical systems such as ferroelectric tunnelingmore » barriers« less

  19. The Tethered Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, Kevin; Lupu, Roxana Elena; Dubrovolskis, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    A reasonable initial condition on Earth after the Moonforming impact is that it begins as a hot global magma ocean1,2. We therefore begin our study with the mantle as a liquid ocean with a surface temperature on the order of 3000- 4000 K at a time some 100-1000 years after the impact, by which point we can hope that early transients have settled down. A 2nd initial condition is a substantial atmosphere, 100-1000 bars of H2O and CO2, supplemented by smaller amounts of CO, H2, N2, various sulfur-containing gases, and a suite of geochemical volatiles evaporated from the magma. Third, we start the Moon with its current mass at the relevant Roche limit. The 4th initial condition is the angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system. Canonical models hold this constant, whilst some recent models begin with considerably more angular momentum than is present today. Here we present a ruthlessly simplified model of Earth's cooling magmasphere based on a full-featured atmosphere and including tidal heating by the newborn Moon. Thermal blanketing by H2O-CO2 atmospheres slows cooling of a magma ocean. Geochemical volatiles - chiefly S, Na, and Cl - raise the opacity of the magma ocean's atmosphere and slow cooling still more. We assume a uniform mantle with a single internal (potential) temperature and a global viscosity. The important "freezing point" is the sharp rheological transition between a fluid carrying suspended crystals and a solid matrix through which fluids percolate. Most tidal heating takes place at this "freezing point" in a gel that is both pliable and viscous. Parameterized convection links the cooling rate to the temperature and heat generation inside the Earth. Tidal heating is a major effect. Tidal dissipation in the magma ocean is described by viscosity. The Moon is entwined with Earth by the negative feedback between thermal blanketing and tidal heating that comes from the temperature-dependent viscosity of the magma ocean. Because of this feedback, the rate

  20. The Saturnian moon Enceladus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This high-resolution image of Enceladus was made from several images obtained Aug. 25, 1981, by Voyager 2 from a range of 119,000 kilometers (74,000 miles). It shows further surface detail on this Saturnian moon. Enceladus is seen to resemble Jupiter's moon Ganymede, which is, however, about 10 times larger. Faintly visible here in light reflected from Saturn is the hemisphere turned away from the sun. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

  1. The moon's ancient magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runcorn, S. K.

    1987-12-01

    While the moon at present has no magnetic field, magnetized areas on its surface called magnetic anomalies do exist. Evidence is presented here that these anomalies are due to an ancient magnetic field. This field was produced by an internal dynamo due to a once molten lunar core of iron. The anomalies fall into three groups which were formed at different times and point in different directions, indicating that the moon underwent reorientation during its early history. It is shown that this reorienation could have been caused by the impact of disintegrated lunar satellites on the lunar surface.

  2. Martian Moon Blocks Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the transit of Mars' moon Phobos across the Sun. It is made up of images taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on the morning of the 45th martian day, or sol, of its mission. This observation will help refine our knowledge of the orbit and position of Phobos. Other spacecraft may be able to take better images of Phobos using this new information. This event is similar to solar eclipses seen on Earth in which our Moon passes in front of the Sun. The images were taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  3. An analytical model of sub-Alfvénic moon-plasma interactions with application to the hemisphere coupling effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Sven

    2015-09-01

    We develop a new analytical model of the Alfvén wing that is generated by the interaction between a planetary moon's ionosphere and its magnetospheric environment. While preceding analytical approaches assumed the obstacle's height-integrated ionospheric conductivities to be spatially constant, the model presented here can take into account a continuous conductance profile that follows a power law. The electric potential in the interaction region, determining the electromagnetic fields of the Alfvén wing, can then be calculated from an Euler-type differential equation. In this way, the model allows to include a realistic representation of the "suspension bridge"-like conductance profile expected for the moon's ionosphere. The major drawback of this approach is its restriction to interaction scenarios where the ionospheric Pedersen conductance is large compared to the Hall conductance, and thus, the Alfvénic perturbations are approximately symmetric between the planet-facing and the planet-averted hemispheres of the moon. The model is applied to the hemisphere coupling effect observed at Enceladus, i.e., to the surface currents and the associated magnetic discontinuities that arise from a north-south asymmetry of the obstacle to the plasma flow. We show that the occurrence of this effect is very robust against changes in the conductance profile of Enceladus' plume, and we derive upper limits for the strength of the magnetic field jumps generated by the hemisphere coupling effect. During all 11 reported detections of the hemisphere coupling currents at Enceladus, the observed magnetic field jumps were clearly weaker than the proposed limits. Our findings are also relevant for future in situ studies of putative plumes at the Jovian moon Europa.

  4. Very preliminary reference Moon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Raphaël F.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, Jeannine; Chevrot, Sébastien; Lognonné, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    The deep structure of the Moon is a missing piece to understand the formation and evolution of the Earth-Moon system. Despite the great amount of information brought by the Apollo passive seismic experiment (ALSEP), the lunar structure below deep moonquakes, which occur around 900 km depth, remains largely unknown. We construct a reference Moon model which incorporates physical constraints, and fits both geodesic (lunar mass and polar moment of inertia, and Love numbers) and seismological (body wave arrivals measured by Apollo network) data. In this model, the core radius is constrained by the detection of S waves reflected from the core. In a first step, for each core radius, a radial model of the lunar interior, including P and S wave velocities and density, is inverted from seismic and geodesic data. In a second step, the core radius is determined from the detection of shear waves reflected on the lunar core by waveform stacking of deep moonquake Apollo records. This detection has been made possible by careful data selection and processing, including a correction of the gain of horizontal sensors based on the principle of energy equipartition inside the coda of lunar seismic records, and a precise alignment of SH waveforms by a non-linear inversion method. The Very Preliminary REference MOON model (VPREMOON) obtained here has a core radius of 380 ± 40 km and an average core mass density of 5200 ± 1000 kg/m 3. The large error bars on these estimates are due to the poorly constrained S-wave velocity profile at the base of the mantle and to mislocation errors of deep moonquakes. The detection of horizontally polarized S waves reflected from the core and the absence of detection of vertically polarized S waves favour a liquid state in the outermost part of the core. All these results are consistent, within their error bars, with previous estimates based on lunar rotation dissipation ( Williams et al., 2001) and on lunar induced magnetic moment ( Hood et al., 1999).

  5. Crustal electrical conductivity of the Indian continental subduction zone: New data from the profile in the Garhwal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, E. Yu.; Israil, M.; Gupta, P.; Koshurnikov, A. V.; Smirnov, M. Yu.; Cherevatova, M. V.

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of studying the geoelectrical structure of the zone of continental subduction of the Indian lithospheric plate within the Gahrwal Himalaya. In the framework of the Russian-Indian project, the data of the broadband magnetotelluric soundings conducted by the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee on the regional profile across the structures of the orogen were expanded, processed, and interpreted by the new program tools adapted for the measurements in the mountain conditions and for the presence of industrial noise. The constructed model of the deep electrical conductivity cross section for Garhwal revealed its two-dimensional (2D) features and more accurately delineated the location of the midcrustal conductor associated with the ramp structure of the detachment plane. The correlations with the regional distribution of the earthquake hypocenters and the seismotomographic images suggest a common, fluid-related nature of the seismic and geoelectrical anomalies in the crust of the Garhwal Tectonic Corridor and enabled the identification of the seismogenerating zones. Among the data of the expanded profile set of magnetotelluric and magnetovariational transfer functions, the response of a poorly explored deep conductive body is revealed. This object is located east of the profile and is probably associated with the activation of the ancient trans-Himalayan cratonic structures which prepares the segmentation of the Himalayan arc.

  6. A 1-D radiative conductive model to study the SOIR/VEx thermal profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahieux, Arnaud; Erwin, Justin T.; Chamberlain, Sarah; Robert, Séverine; Carine Vandaele, Ann; Wilquet, Valérie; Thomas, Ian; Yelle, Roger V.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup

    2015-04-01

    SOIR is an infrared spectrometer on board Venus Express that probes the Venus terminator region since 2006. The measurements are taken on the morning and evening sides of the terminator, covering all latitudes from the North Pole to the South Pole. Its wavelength range - 2.2 to 4.3 μm - allows a detailed chemical inventory of the Venus atmosphere [1-5], such as CO2, CO, H2O, HCl, HF, SO2 and aerosols. CO2 is detected from 70 km up to 165 km, CO from 70 km to 140 km, and the minor species typically below 110 km down to 70 km. Number density profiles of these species are computed from the measured spectra. Temperature profiles are obtained while computing the spectral inversion of the CO2 spectra combined with the hydrostatic law [6]. These temperature measurements show a striking permanent temperature minimum (at 125 km) and a weaker temperature maximum (over 100-115 km). The time variability of the CO2 density profiles spans over two orders of magnitude, and a clear trend is seen with latitude. The temperature variations are also important, of the order of 35 K for a given pressure level, but the latitude variation are small. Miss-RT, a 1D radiative transfer model has been developed to reproduce the SOIR terminator profiles, derived from the Mars thermosphere code presented in [7]. This model has been expanded to better account for the CO2, CO, and O non-LTE radiative heating and cooling processes which have to be considered in the dense atmosphere of Venus. Radiative cooling by minor species detected by SOIR (e.g. HCl, SO2, and H2O) are found to be small in comparison to the 15 μm CO2 cooling. Aerosol cooling in the 60-90km altitude range may be important to the thermal balance. There is a good agreement between the 1D model temperature profile and the mean SOIR temperature profile. Further we can suggest parameters that can be adjusted to improve the agreement between the model and measurements. The remaining differences can be attributed to the atmosphere

  7. Volcanism and magnetism of the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, J. D. R.; Woolfson, M. M.

    1983-02-01

    It is proposed that the early Moon had molten material close to its surface, particularly in the equatorial region, due to a combination of fast accretion and tidal flexing after Earth capture. An eccentric orbit of the Earth-Moon system about an early Sun with a high magnetic dipole moment (8 × 1025 T m3) would give magnetic fields over 10-4 T on the lunar surface. These are produced by circular currents in an equatorial conducting ring, induced by variations in the solar field.

  8. Thermal conductivity profile determination in proton-irradiated ZrC by spatial and frequency scanning thermal wave methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, C.; Chirtoc, M.; Horny, N.; Antoniow, J. S.; Pron, H.; Ban, H.

    2013-10-07

    Using complementary thermal wave methods, the irradiation damaged region of zirconium carbide (ZrC) is characterized by quantifiably profiling the thermophysical property degradation. The ZrC sample was irradiated by a 2.6 MeV proton beam at 600 °C to a dose of 1.75 displacements per atom. Spatial scanning techniques including scanning thermal microscopy (SThM), lock-in infrared thermography (lock-in IRT), and photothermal radiometry (PTR) were used to directly map the in-depth profile of thermal conductivity on a cross section of the ZrC sample. The advantages and limitations of each system are discussed and compared, finding consistent results from all techniques. SThM provides the best resolution finding a very uniform thermal conductivity envelope in the damaged region measuring ∼52 ± 2 μm deep. Frequency-based scanning PTR provides quantification of the thermal parameters of the sample using the SThM measured profile to provide validation of a heating model. Measured irradiated and virgin thermal conductivities are found to be 11.9 ± 0.5 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1} and 26.7 ±1 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1}, respectively. A thermal resistance evidenced in the frequency spectra of the PTR results was calculated to be (1.58 ± 0.1) × 10{sup −6} m{sup 2} K W{sup −1}. The measured thermal conductivity values compare well with the thermal conductivity extracted from the SThM calibrated signal and the spatially scanned PTR. Combined spatial and frequency scanning techniques are shown to provide a valuable, complementary combination for thermal property characterization of proton-irradiated ZrC. Such methodology could be useful for other studies of ion-irradiated materials.

  9. The full moon and admission to emergency rooms.

    PubMed

    Zargar, Moosa; Khaji, Ali; Kaviani, Ahmad; Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Yunesian, Masud; Abdollahi, Morteza

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate an ancient hypothesis; the moon effect might increase incidence of injuries and hence admission of patients with trauma to Emergency Rooms (ERs) on full moon days. During thirteen months, 58000 trauma patients admitted in three hospitals that had the highest load of trauma patients in Tehran were studied. Due to lack of complete data, 3543 patients (6.1%) were excluded from the study, leaving 54457 cases for further analysis. We selected lunar calendar for our study, so dates of patients' admissions were converted to lunar months and three day- periods with 15th as middle day were defined as full moon days. In our study the number of trauma patients was not increased during the full moon days against other days of lunar month. Statistical analyses of data didn't exhibit a positive relation between full moon days and increasing of trauma patient admission to ERs. An association between assault and attempted suicide was not observed around the full moon days either. The results did not show significant reduction of GCS score of patients on full moon days and there was not any increase in severity of traumatic injury sustained during full moon days. It seems necessary to conduct studies regarding the probability of moon effect through on different database, geographic areas and for appropriate periods in order to reach a conclusive result.

  10. Moon As Seen By NIMS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-02-08

    These four images of the Moon are from data acquired by NASA Galileo spacecraft Near-Earth Mapping Spectrometer during Galileo December 1992 Earth/Moon flyby. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00231

  11. Laser 'Footprints' on the Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    As the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) circles the moon, a sophisticated instrument bounces laser light off the moon's surface 28 times per second. An array of five sensors arranged in an X-shap...

  12. The Moon Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Willmore, Sandra; Smith, Walter S.

    2006-01-01

    What Australia, Alaska, Qatar, Indiana, and Ohio have in common is the authentic writing More Observations Of Nature (MOON) project. In this unique project, teachers from these disparate geographic locations teamed up to instruct children in grades four through eight via the internet on a nearly universally challenging subject for teachers in the…

  13. Moon - North Pole Mosaic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-02-05

    This view of the Moon north pole is a mosaic assembled from 18 images taken by NASA's Galileo imaging system through a green filter as the spacecraft flew by on December 7, 1992. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00130

  14. Moon Color Visualizations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    These color visualizations of the Moon were obtained by NASA Galileo spacecraft as it left the Earth after completing its first Earth Gravity Assist. The images were acquired Dec. 8-9, 1990. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00075

  15. Moon - Western Hemisphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This image of the western hemisphere of the Moon was taken through a green filter by NASA's Galileo spacecraft at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9 at a range of about 350,000 miles. In the center is the Orientale Basin. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00120

  16. The Moon Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Pat; Leddy, Diana; Johnson, Lindy; Biggam, Sue; Locke, Suzan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a first-grade research project that incorporates trade books and challenges misconceptions. Educators see the power of their students' wonder at work in their classrooms on a daily basis. This wonder must be nourished by students' own experiences--observing the moon on a crystal clear night--as well as by having…

  17. Meteoroids Impact the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, D. E.

    2017-01-01

    Most meteoroids are broken up by Earth's atmosphere before they reach the ground. The Moon, however, has little-to-no atmosphere to prevent meteoroids from impacting the lunar surface. Upon impact they excavate a crater and generate a plume of debris. A flash of light at the moment of impact can also be seen. Meteoroids striking the Moon create an impact flash observable by telescopes here on Earth. NASA observers use telescopes at the Automated Lunar and Meteor Observatory (ALaMO) to routinely monitor the Moon for impact flashes each month when the lunar phase is right. Flashes recorded by two telescope simultaneously rule out false signals from cosmic rays and satellites. Over 400 impact flashes have been observed by NASA since 2005. This map shows the location of each flash. No observations are made near the poles or center line. On average, one impact is observed every two hours. The brightest and longest-lasting impact flash was observed in Mare Imbrium on March 17, 2013. The imaging satellite Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, in orbit around the Moon, discovered the fresh crater created by this impact. The crater is 60 across and was caused by a meteoroid 9 inches in diameter likely traveling at a speed of 57,000 mph!

  18. The Chemist's Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, James R.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes chemical information about the lunar surface on the basis of experiments performed in orbit and analyses of lunar soil and rocks. Indicates that the Apollo program completes chemical mapping of about 20 percent of the Moon with 80 percent remaining to be solved in the future. (CC)

  19. Galileo Earth Moon Flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This video has five sections. The first is a live discussion of the information that scientists hope to gain by the Galileo flyby of the Moon. This section has no introduction. There is a great deal of the discussion about the lunar craters and lunar volcanism. There is also some discussion of the composition of the far side of the moon. The second section is a short animation that shows the final step to Jupiter with particular emphasis on the gravitational assisted velocity boost, which was planned to give the spacecraft the requisite velocity to make the trip to Jupiter. The next section is an update of the status of the flyby of the Moon, and the Earth, with an explanation of the trajectory around the earth, and the moon. A photograph of the tracking station in Canberra, Australia is included. The next section is a tour of a full-scale model of the spacecraft. The last section is a discussion with the person charged with the procurement of the instrumentation aboard the spacecraft; the importance of the lunar flyby to assist in the calibration of the instruments is discussed.

  20. Crescent Earth and Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This picture of a crescent-shaped Earth and Moon -- the first of its kind ever taken by a spacecraft -- was recorded Sept. 18, 1977, by NASA's Voyager 1 when it was 7.25 million miles (11.66 million kilometers) from Earth. The Moon is at the top of the picture and beyond the Earth as viewed by Voyager. In the picture are eastern Asia, the western Pacific Ocean and part of the Arctic. Voyager 1 was directly above Mt. Everest (on the night side of the planet at 25 degrees north latitude) when the picture was taken. The photo was made from three images taken through color filters, then processed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Image Processing Lab. Because the Earth is many times brighter than the Moon, the Moon was artificially brightened by a factor of three relative to the Earth by computer enhancement so that both bodies would show clearly in the print. Voyager 2 was launched Aug. 20, 1977, followed by Voyager 1 on Sept. 5, 1977, en route to encounters at Jupiter in 1979 and Saturn in 1980 and 1981. JPL manages the Voyager mission for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  1. Moon Express Media Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-03

    Bob Richards, standing at left in front of the cameras, co-founder and chief executive officer of Moon Express Inc., of Moffett Field, California, speaks to the media during an event to announce the company's selection to utilize Kennedy Space Center facilities as part of NASA's Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown, or Lunar CATALYST, initiative. Third from left in the group is former NASA Apollo astronaut Buzz Aldrin. The event took place at Kennedy's automated landing and hazard avoidance technology, or ALHAT, hazard field at the north end of the Shuttle Landing Facility. Moon Express is developing a lander with capabilities that will enable delivery of payloads to the surface of the moon, as well as new science and exploration missions of interest to NASA and scientific and academic communities. Moon Express will base its activities at Kennedy and utilize the Morpheus ALHAT field and a hangar nearby for CATALYST testing. The Advanced Exploration Systems Division of NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate manages Lunar CATALYST.

  2. Moon Express Media Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-03

    Rob Mueller, left, NASA senior technologist in the Surface Systems Office in Kennedy Space Center's Engineering and Technology Directorate, talks with former NASA Apollo astronaut Buzz Aldrin during a demonstration of the Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot, or RASSOR, at the automated landing and hazard avoidance technology, or ALHAT, hazard field at the north end of the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The event was held to announce Moon Express Inc., of Moffett Field, California is selected to utilize Kennedy facilities for NASA's Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown, or Lunar CATALYST, initiative. Moon Express is developing a lander with capabilities that will enable delivery of payloads to the surface of the moon, as well as new science and exploration missions of interest to NASA and scientific and academic communities. Moon Express will base its activities at Kennedy and utilize the Morpheus ALHAT field and a hangar nearby for CATALYST testing. The Advanced Exploration Systems Division of NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate manages Lunar CATALYST.

  3. Moon Express Media Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-03

    Rob Mueller, left, NASA senior technologist in the Surface Systems Office in Kennedy Space Center's Engineering and Technology Directorate, talks with former NASA Apollo astronaut Buzz Aldrin during a demonstration of the Regolith Advanced Surface System Operations Robot, or RASSOR, at the automated landing and hazard avoidance technology, or ALHAT, hazard field at the north end of the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The event was held to announce Moon Express Inc., of Moffett Field, California is selected to utilize Kennedy facilities for NASA's Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown, or Lunar CATALYST, initiative. Moon Express is developing a lander with capabilities that will enable delivery of payloads to the surface of the moon, as well as new science and exploration missions of interest to NASA and scientific and academic communities. Moon Express will base its activities at Kennedy and utilize the Morpheus ALHAT field and a hangar nearby for CATALYST testing. The Advanced Exploration Systems Division of NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate manages Lunar CATALYST.

  4. Moon Express Media Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-03

    Members of the media watch a demonstration of the Regolith Advanced Surface System Operations Robot, or RASSOR, during a media event at the automated landing and hazard avoidance technology, or ALHAT, hazard field at the north end of the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Tom Engler, center, in the suit, deputy director of Kennedy's Center Planning and Development, announced Moon Express Inc., of Moffett Field, California is selected to utilize Kennedy facilities for NASA's Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown, or Lunar CATALYST, initiative. Moon Express is developing a lander with capabilities that will enable delivery of payloads to the surface of the moon, as well as new science and exploration missions of interest to NASA and scientific and academic communities. Moon Express will base its activities at Kennedy and utilize the Morpheus ALHAT field and a hangar nearby for CATALYST testing. The Advanced Exploration Systems Division of NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate manages Lunar CATALYST.

  5. The tethered Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, Kevin J.; Lupu, Roxana; Dobrovolskis, Anthony; Sleep, Norman H.

    2015-10-01

    We address the thermal history of the Earth after the Moon-forming impact, taking tidal heating and thermal blanketing by the atmosphere into account. The atmosphere sets an upper bound of ∼100 W/m2 on how quickly the Earth can cool. The liquid magma ocean cools over 2-10 Myr, with longer times corresponding to high angular-momentum events. Tidal heating is focused mostly in mantle materials that are just beginning to freeze. The atmosphere's control over cooling sets up a negative feedback between viscosity-dependent tidal heating and temperature-dependent viscosity of the magma ocean. While the feedback holds, evolution of the Moon's orbit is limited by the modest radiative cooling rate of Earth's atmosphere. Orbital evolution is orders of magnitude slower than in conventional constant Q models, which promotes capture by resonances. The evection resonance is encountered early, when the Earth is molten. Capture by the evection resonance appears certain but unlikely to generate much eccentricity because it is encountered early when the Earth is molten and Q⊕ ≫Q☾. Tidal dissipation in the Earth becomes more efficient (Q⊕ ≪Q☾) later when the Moon is between ∼ 20R⊕ and ∼ 40R⊕. If lunar eccentricity grew great, this was when it did so, perhaps setting the table for some other process to leave its mark on the inclination of the Moon.

  6. Astrophysics from the moon.

    PubMed

    Burke, B F

    1990-12-07

    The surface of the moon would be an excellent location for astronomical telescopes, and, if a lunar base were to be established, the construction and maintenance of instruments would become feasible. The prospects are reviewed, with particular attention given to large optical aperturesynthesis instruments analogous to the Very Large Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Typical parameters for a particular system are presented.

  7. Moon or Abstract Expressionism?

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-22

    Seeing small areas of the Moon at 50 cm per pixel often presents unexpected views, and sometimes it is hard to interpret the geology at first glance, much less what is up and what is down, as evidenced by NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  8. Does the Moon Spin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Robert; Simpson, Frances

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the question, "Does the Moon spin?", and show how the question is investigated. They emphasise the importance of the process by which people work out what they know, by "learning from the inside out." They stress that those involved in science education have to challenge current conceptions and ideas, making…

  9. Moon Color Composite

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-02-02

    This color image of the Moon was taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9, 1990, at a range of about 350,000 miles. The concentric, circular Orientale basin, is near the center; the nearside is to the right, the far side to the left. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00113

  10. Gas Giant, Mini Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-15

    The diminutive moon Mimas can be found hiding in the middle of this view of a crescent of Saturn bisected by rings in this image captured by NASA Cassini spacecraft. Mimas appears as a dark speck just about the ringplane near the center of the image. Th

  11. The Earth & Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    During its flight, the Galileo spacecraft returned images of the Earth and Moon. Separate images of the Earth and Moon were combined to generate this view. The Galileo spacecraft took the images in 1992 on its way to explore the Jupiter system in 1995-97. The image shows a partial view of the Earth centered on the Pacific Ocean about latitude 20 degrees south. The west coast of South America can be observed as well as the Caribbean; swirling white cloud patterns indicate storms in the southeast Pacific. The distinct bright ray crater at the bottom of the Moon is the Tycho impact basin. The lunar dark areas are lava rock filled impact basins. This picture contains same scale and relative color/albedo images of the Earth and Moon. False colors via use of the 1-micron filter as red, 727-nm filter as green, and violet filter as blue. The Galileo project is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  12. Crescent Earth and Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This picture of a crescent-shaped Earth and Moon -- the first of its kind ever taken by a spacecraft -- was recorded Sept. 18, 1977, by NASA's Voyager 1 when it was 7.25 million miles (11.66 million kilometers) from Earth. The Moon is at the top of the picture and beyond the Earth as viewed by Voyager. In the picture are eastern Asia, the western Pacific Ocean and part of the Arctic. Voyager 1 was directly above Mt. Everest (on the night side of the planet at 25 degrees north latitude) when the picture was taken. The photo was made from three images taken through color filters, then processed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Image Processing Lab. Because the Earth is many times brighter than the Moon, the Moon was artificially brightened by a factor of three relative to the Earth by computer enhancement so that both bodies would show clearly in the print. Voyager 2 was launched Aug. 20, 1977, followed by Voyager 1 on Sept. 5, 1977, en route to encounters at Jupiter in 1979 and Saturn in 1980 and 1981. JPL manages the Voyager mission for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  13. The Earth and Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    During its flight, the Galileo spacecraft returned images of the Earth and Moon. Separate images of the Earth and Moon were combined to generate this view. The Galileo spacecraft took the images in 1992 on its way to explore the Jupiter system in 1995-97. The image shows a partial view of the Earth centered on the Pacific Ocean about latitude 20 degrees south. The west coast of South America can be observed as well as the Caribbean; swirling white cloud patterns indicate storms in the southeast Pacific. The distinct bright ray crater at the bottom of the Moon is the Tycho impact basin. The lunar dark areas are lava rock filled impact basins. This picture contains same scale and relative color/albedo images of the Earth and Moon. False colors via use of the 1-micron filter as red, 727-nm filter as green, and violet filter as blue. The Galileo project is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  14. The Moon Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Pat; Leddy, Diana; Johnson, Lindy; Biggam, Sue; Locke, Suzan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a first-grade research project that incorporates trade books and challenges misconceptions. Educators see the power of their students' wonder at work in their classrooms on a daily basis. This wonder must be nourished by students' own experiences--observing the moon on a crystal clear night--as well as by having…

  15. Touching the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLinden, Mike

    1995-01-01

    The Progressive Tactile Timetable was developed to enable pupils with visual impairments and severe learning difficulties to progress from use of concrete symbols (objects of reference) to the abstract tactile Moon code (a simplified raised line version of the Roman print alphabet). A case study illustrates its application with an adolescent with…

  16. Crescent Earth and Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-08-29

    This picture of a crescent-shaped Earth and Moon, the first of its kind ever taken by a spacecraft, was recorded Sept. 18, 1977, by NASA Voyager 1 when it was 7.25 million miles 11.66 million kilometers from Earth. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00013

  17. Crescent Moon with Rings

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-14

    This poetic scene shows the giant, smog-enshrouded moon Titan behind Saturn nearly edge-on rings. Much smaller Epimetheus 116 kilometers, or 72 miles across is just visible to the left of Titan 5,150 kilometers, or 3,200 miles across

  18. Color Between Moons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-05

    Two of Saturn moons straddle the planet rings in this color view from NASA Cassini spacecraft. Mimas is closest to NASA Cassini spacecraft here. Epimetheus is on the far side of the rings. Saturn shadow cuts across the middle of the rings.

  19. Galileo Earth Moon Flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-12-01

    This video has five sections. The first is a live discussion of the information that scientists hope to gain by the Galileo flyby of the Moon. This section has no introduction. There is a great deal of the discussion about the lunar craters and lunar volcanism. There is also some discussion of the composition of the far side of the moon. The second section is a short animation that shows the final step to Jupiter with particular emphasis on the gravitational assisted velocity boost, which was planned to give the spacecraft the requisite velocity to make the trip to Jupiter. The next section is an update of the status of the flyby of the Moon, and the Earth, with an explanation of the trajectory around the earth, and the moon. A photograph of the tracking station in Canberra, Australia is included. The next section is a tour of a full-scale model of the spacecraft. The last section is a discussion with the person charged with the procurement of the instrumentation aboard the spacecraft; the importance of the lunar flyby to assist in the calibration of the instruments is discussed.

  20. Moon - North Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of the north polar region of the Moon was obtained by Galileo's camera during the spacecraft's flyby of the Earth-Moon system on December 7 and 8, 1992. The north pole is to the lower right of the image. The view in the upper left is toward the horizon across the volcanic lava plains of Mare Imbrium. The prominent crater with the central peak is Pythagoras, an impact crater some 130 kilometers (80 miles) in diameter. The image was taken at a distance of 121,000 kilometers (75,000 miles) from the Moon through the violet filter of Galileo's imaging system. According to team scientists, the viewing geometry provided by the spacecraft's pass over the north pole and the low sun-angle illumination provide a unique opportunity to assess the geologic relationships among the smooth plains, cratered terrain and impact ejecta deposits in this region of the Moon. JPL manages the Galileo Project for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  1. [The moon and delivery].

    PubMed

    Romero Martínez, Jorge; Guerrero Guijo, Inmaculada; Artura Serrano, Antonio

    2004-11-01

    In different cultures and mythologies, the moon is related with fertility, pregnancy and delivery. Professional obstetricians also notice an increase in care demands on the days when the moon is full. Many studies have been made which try to correlate delivery processes to the phases of the moon with contradictory results. The authors plan to try to find any basis in fact which support these popular beliefs and to discover if lunar phases bear an influence on the distribution of deliveries. They carried out a descriptive transversal study on a total of 1715 unassisted deliveries over the course of ten complete lunar cycles. The authors have carried out a descriptive and inferential analysis, a one way ANOVA and a Kruskal Wallis test on their three data bases which are general, primipara and multipara in which they contemplated the total number of deliveries per phase, the mean of each phase, as well as the central day in each phase of the lunar cycle. The differences found in the distribution of deliveries over the four lunar phases, along with the comparison of the means and the comparison of the number of deliveries on the central day in each phase are not statistically significant. The different phases in the lunar cycle and especially the full moon do not appear to have any influence over the distribution of deliveries in this study.

  2. Does the Moon Spin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Robert; Simpson, Frances

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the question, "Does the Moon spin?", and show how the question is investigated. They emphasise the importance of the process by which people work out what they know, by "learning from the inside out." They stress that those involved in science education have to challenge current conceptions and ideas, making…

  3. The Moon Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Willmore, Sandra; Smith, Walter S.

    2006-01-01

    What Australia, Alaska, Qatar, Indiana, and Ohio have in common is the authentic writing More Observations Of Nature (MOON) project. In this unique project, teachers from these disparate geographic locations teamed up to instruct children in grades four through eight via the internet on a nearly universally challenging subject for teachers in the…

  4. 2017 Eclipse and the Moon's Orbit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Solar eclipses can only occur at New Moon, when the Moon is between the Earth and the Sun. But not every New Moon produces an eclipse. The Moon's orbit is slightly tilted, and as seen in this anima...

  5. Searching the Sinus Amoris: Using profiles of geological units, impact and volcanic features to characterize a major terrane interface on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P.; Joerg, S.; Dehon, R.

    1994-01-01

    Geochemical profiles of surface units, impact, and volcanic features are studied in detail to determine the underlying structure in an area of extensive mare/highland interface, Sinus Amoris. This study region includes and surrounds the northeastern embayment of Mare Tranquillitatis. The concentrations of two major rock-forming elements (Mg and Al), which were derived from the Apollo 15 orbital geochemical measurements, were used in this study. Mapped units and deposits associated with craters in the northwestern part of the region tend to have correlated low Mg and Al concentrations, indicating the presence of Potassium (K)-Rare Earth Elements (REE)-Phosphorus (P) (KREEP)-enriched basalt. Found along the northeastern rim of Tranquillitatis were areas with correlated high Mg and Al concentration, indicating the presence of troctolite. Distinctive west/east and north/south trends were observed in the concentrations of Mg and Al, and, by implication, in the distribution of major rock components on the surface. Evidence for a systematic geochemical transition in highland or basin-forming units may be observed here in the form of distinctive differences in chemistry in otherwise similar units in the western and eastern portions of the study region.

  6. Europe reaches the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-11-01

    A complex package of tests on new technologies was successfully performed during the cruise to the Moon, while the spacecraft was getting ready for the scientific investigations which will come next. These technologies pave the way for future planetary missions. SMART-1 reached its closest point to the lunar surface so far - its first ‘perilune’ - at an altitude of about 5000 kilometres at 18:48 Central European Time (CET) on 15 November. Just hours before that, at 06:24 CET, SMART-1’s solar-electric propulsion system (or ‘ion engine’) was started up and is now being fired for the delicate manoeuvre that will stabilise the spacecraft in lunar orbit. During this crucial phase, the engine will run almost continuously for the next four days, and then for a series of shorter burns, allowing SMART-1 to reach its final operational orbit by making ever-decreasing loops around the Moon. By about mid-January, SMART-1 will be orbiting the Moon at altitudes between 300 kilometres (over the lunar south pole) and 3000 kilometres (over the lunar north pole), beginning its scientific observations. The main purpose of the first part of the SMART-1 mission, concluding with the arrival at the Moon, was to demonstrate new spacecraft technologies. In particular, the solar-electric propulsion system was tested over a long spiralling trip to the Moon of more than 84 million kilometres. This is a distance comparable to an interplanetary cruise. For the first time ever, gravity-assist manoeuvres, which use the gravitational pull of the approaching Moon, were performed by an electrically-propelled spacecraft. The success of this test is important to the prospects for future interplanetary missions using ion engines. SMART-1 has demonstrated new techniques for eventually achieving autonomous spacecraft navigation. The OBAN experiment tested navigation software on ground computers to determine the exact position and velocity of the spacecraft using images of celestial objects taken

  7. SELENE: The Moon-Orbiting Observatory Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, H.; Kato, M.; Sasaki, S.; Iijima, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Takizawa, Y.

    The Moon-orbiting SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) mission is prepared in Japan for lunar science and technology development. The launch target has been changed from 2005 to 2006 because of the launch failure of H2A rocket in 2003. The spacecraft consists of a main orbiting satellite at about 100 km altitude in the polar orbit and two sub-satellites in the elliptical orbits. The scientific objectives of the mission are; 1) study of the origin and evolution of the Moon, 2) in-situ measurement of the lunar environment, and 3) observation of the solar-terrestrial plasma environment. SELENE carries the instruments for scientific investigation, including mapping of lunar topography and surface composition, measurement of the gravity and magnetic fields, and observation of lunar and solar-terrestrial plasma environment. The total mass of scientific payload is about 300 kg. The mission period will be 1 year. If extra fuel is available, the mission will be extended in a lower orbit around 50 km. The elemental abundances are measured by x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers. Alpha particles from the radon gas and polonium are detected by an alpha particle spectrometer. The mineralogical abundance is characterized by a multi-band imager. The mineralogical composition is identified by a spectral profiler which is a continuous spectral analyzer. The surface topographic data are obtained by a high resolution terrain camera and a laser altimeter. The inside structure up to 5 km below the lunar surface is observed by the radar sounder experiment using a 5 MHz radio wave. A magnetometer and an electron reflectometer provides data on the lunar surface magnetic field. Doppler tracking of the orbiter via the sub-satellite when the orbiter is in the far side is used to determine the gravity field of the far side. Radio sources on the two sub-satellites are used to conduct differential VLBI observation from the ground stations. The lunar environment of high energy particles

  8. New down-hole TDR method for deep profile soil water content and bulk electrical conductivity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Comprehensive irrigation and salinity management both require accurate knowledge of field soil water content and bulk electrical conductivity to depths greater than the root zone depth in agricultural fields. Scientists at the USDA-ARS Conservation & Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, Texas, ...

  9. Experience the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; Benacchio, L.; Boccato, C.

    2011-10-01

    The Moon is, together with the Sun, the very first astronomical object that we experience in our life. As this is an exclusively visual experience, people with visual impairments need a different mode to experience it too. This statement is especially true when events, such as more and more frequent public observations of sky, take place. This is the reason why we are preparing a special package for visual impaired people containing three brand new items: 1. a tactile 3D Moon sphere in Braille with its paper key in Braille. To produce it we used imaging data obtained by NASA's mission Clementine, along with free image processing and 3D rendering software. In order to build the 3D small scale model funding by Europlanet and the Italian Ministry for Research have been used. 2. a multilingual web site for visually impaired users of all ages, on basic astronomy together with an indepth box about the Moon; 3. a book in Braille with the same content of the Web site mentioned above. All the items will be developed with the collaboration of visually impaired people that will check each step of the project and support their comments and criticism to improve it. We are going to test this package during the next International Observe the Moon Night event. After a first testing phase we'll collect all the feedback data in order to give an effective form to the package. Finally the Moon package could be delivered to all those who will demand it for outreach or educational goals.

  10. An improved calibration method for the drift of the conductivity sensor on autonomous CTD profiling floats by θ- S climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, W. Brechner; Wong, Annie P. S.

    2009-03-01

    An improved method to estimate the time-varying drift of measured conductivity from autonomous CTD profiling floats has been developed. This procedure extends previous methods developed by Wong, Johnson and Owens [2003. Delayed-mode calibration of autonomous CTD profiling float salinity data by θ- S climatology. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 20, 308-318] and Böhme and Send [2005. Objective analyses of hydrographic data for referencing profiling float salinities in highly variable environments. Deep-Sea Research Part II, 52, 651-664]. It uses climatological salinity interpolated to the float positions and observed θ surfaces and chooses 10 'best' levels that are within well-mixed mode waters or deep homogeneous water masses. A piece-wise linear fit is used to estimate the temporally varying multiplicative adjustment to the float potential conductivities. An objective, statistical method is used to choose the breakpoints in the float time series where there are multiple drift trends. In the previous methods these breakpoints were chosen subjectively by manually splitting the time series into separate segments over which the fits were made. Our statistical procedure reduces the subjectivity by providing an automated way for doing the piece-wise linear fit. Uncertainties in this predicted adjustment are estimated using a Monte-Carlo simulation. Examples of this new procedure as applied to two Argo floats are presented.

  11. The interior of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    Questions of lunar bulk chemistry are being considered, giving attention to the depletion of the moon in iron and compounds more volatile than iron. Currently four seismic stations are operating on the moon to provide data for the study of the lunar interior. The travel times of seismic waves generated by artificial impacts have been used to determine the structure of the outer 150 km of the moon. New evidence fails to resolve the controversy whether the lunar interior is hot or cold. A schematic cross section of the moon is presented and problems concerning the origin of the moon are considered.

  12. The interior of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    Questions of lunar bulk chemistry are being considered, giving attention to the depletion of the moon in iron and compounds more volatile than iron. Currently four seismic stations are operating on the moon to provide data for the study of the lunar interior. The travel times of seismic waves generated by artificial impacts have been used to determine the structure of the outer 150 km of the moon. New evidence fails to resolve the controversy whether the lunar interior is hot or cold. A schematic cross section of the moon is presented and problems concerning the origin of the moon are considered.

  13. Moons Around Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This series of 10 Hubble Space Telescope images captures several small moons orbiting Saturn. Hubble snapped the five pairs of images while the Earth was just above the ring plane and the Sun below it. The telescope captured a pair of images every 97 minutes as it circled the Earth. Moving out from Saturn, the visible rings are: the broad C Ring, the Cassini Division, and the narrow F Ring.

    The first pair of images shows the large, bright moon Dione, near the middle of the frames. Two smaller moons, Pandora (the brighter one closer to Saturn) and Prometheus, appear as if they're touching the F Ring. In the second frame, Mimas emerges from Saturn's shadow and appears to be chasing Prometheus.

    In the second image pair, Mimas has moved towards the tip of the F Ring. Rhea, another bright moon, has just emerged from behind Saturn. Prometheus, the closest moon to Saturn, has rounded the F Ring's tip and is approaching the planet. The slightly larger moon Epimetheus has appeared.

    The third image pair shows Epimetheus, as a tiny dot just beyond the tip of the F Ring. Prometheus is in the lower right corner. An elongated clump or arc of debris in the F ring is seen as a slight brightening on the far side of this thin ring.

    In the fourth image pair, Epimetheus, in the lower right corner, streaks towards Saturn. The long ring arc can be seen in both frames.

    The fifth image pair again captures Mimas, beyond the tip of the F Ring. The same ring arc is still visible.

    In addition to the satellites, a pair of stars can be seen passing behind the rings, appearing to move towards the lower left due to Saturn's motion across the sky.

    The images were taken Nov. 21, 1995 with Wide Field Planetary Camera-2.

    The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on

  14. Water on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendleton, Yvonne

    2015-08-01

    After years of thinking the Moon is dry, we now know there are three ways in which water appears on the Moon today:1) The hypothesized buried deposits of volatiles at the lunar poles were found at Cabeus crater. There are questions about the origin of such volatiles (i.e., in-falling comets & meteorites, migrating surficial OH/H2O, and accumulated release from the interior), but there is no doubt the water is there. This long suspected polar water was the most recent form to be confirmed on the Moon.2) Widespread, thinly- distributed, surficial OH (or H2O) is the most recently formed lunar water, and its discovery was completely unexpected. It occurs across all types of lunar terrain, but is more difficult to detect in the warmer equatorial terrain where thermal emission is strongest. The consensus is that this OH is indeed derived from solar wind H linked to O from the surface silicate rocks. Although pervasive, we don’t know how quickly it forms, nor how mobile it is.3) The amount of water present when the Moon formed is now documented in lunar materials from Apollo samples (preserved in the lunar mantle material found in volcanic glass beads). Sample analyses made during the Apollo days were not sufficiently precise to distinguish between indigenous lunar water and terrestrial contamination. Measurements with modern equipment are not only more precise (both elemental and isotopic), but can be made in a manner to constrain a host of processes (e.g. diffusion, thermal cycling) that have acted on these samples during their residence on the Moon. The mysteries associated with all these ‘water’ forms are being pursued by teams and scientists around the world. The paradigm-shifting work that reported these discoveries in recent years are from: the NASA LCROSS (lunar impact mission) team (2010), M3 team/ on the Indian Chandrayan Mission (2009), and lunar sample chemists (2008). NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, GRAIL, ESA Smart-1, Japanese Kaguya, and other

  15. Moons Around Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This series of 10 Hubble Space Telescope images captures several small moons orbiting Saturn. Hubble snapped the five pairs of images while the Earth was just above the ring plane and the Sun below it. The telescope captured a pair of images every 97 minutes as it circled the Earth. Moving out from Saturn, the visible rings are: the broad C Ring, the Cassini Division, and the narrow F Ring.

    The first pair of images shows the large, bright moon Dione, near the middle of the frames. Two smaller moons, Pandora (the brighter one closer to Saturn) and Prometheus, appear as if they're touching the F Ring. In the second frame, Mimas emerges from Saturn's shadow and appears to be chasing Prometheus.

    In the second image pair, Mimas has moved towards the tip of the F Ring. Rhea, another bright moon, has just emerged from behind Saturn. Prometheus, the closest moon to Saturn, has rounded the F Ring's tip and is approaching the planet. The slightly larger moon Epimetheus has appeared.

    The third image pair shows Epimetheus, as a tiny dot just beyond the tip of the F Ring. Prometheus is in the lower right corner. An elongated clump or arc of debris in the F ring is seen as a slight brightening on the far side of this thin ring.

    In the fourth image pair, Epimetheus, in the lower right corner, streaks towards Saturn. The long ring arc can be seen in both frames.

    The fifth image pair again captures Mimas, beyond the tip of the F Ring. The same ring arc is still visible.

    In addition to the satellites, a pair of stars can be seen passing behind the rings, appearing to move towards the lower left due to Saturn's motion across the sky.

    The images were taken Nov. 21, 1995 with Wide Field Planetary Camera-2.

    The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on

  16. Impedance Profiling: A Convenient Technique for Determining the Redox or Protonic Acid Doping Characteristics of Conducting Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-18

    public release and sale; its distribution is unlimited. IMPEDANCE PROFILING: A CONVENIENT TECHNIqUE FOR DETERMINING THE REDOX OR PROTONIC ACID DOPING...methods. Results for the oxidative doping of trans-(CH)x in HBF 4 (48% aq.)/H 2 02 , and in CF3 COOH (80%, aq.)/H 20 2 , for cis- (CH)x in iodine / CCl4 ...TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINING THE REDOX OR PROTONIC ACID DOPING CHARACTERISTICS OF CONDUCTING POLYMERS" 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) D.B. Swanson, A.G. MacDiarmid and

  17. Monitoring gradient profile on-line in micro- and nano-high performance liquid chromatography using conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Apeng; Lu, Joann J; Cao, Chengxi; Liu, Shaorong

    2016-08-19

    In micro- or nano-flow high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), flow-splitters and gradient elutions are commonly used for reverse phase HPLC separations. When a flow splitter was used at a high split-ratio (e.g., 1000:1 or higher), the actual gradient may deviate away from the programmed gradient. Sometimes, mobile phase concentrations can deviate by as much as 5%. In this work, we noticed that the conductivity (σ) of a gradient decreased with the increasing organic-solvent fraction (φ). Based on the relationship between σ and φ, a method was developed for monitoring gradient profile on-line to record any deviations in these HPLC systems. The conductivity could be measured by a traditional conductivity detector or a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D). The method was applied for assessing the performance of an electroosmotic pump (EOP) based nano-HPLC. We also observed that σ value of the gradient changed with system pressure; a=0.0175ΔP (R(2)=0.964), where a is the percentage of the conductivity increase and ΔP is the system pressure in bar. This effect was also investigated.

  18. Surface profile gradient in amorphous Ta2O5 semi conductive layers regulates nanoscale electric current stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cefalas, A. C.; Kollia, Z.; Spyropoulos-Antonakakis, N.; Gavriil, V.; Christofilos, D.; Kourouklis, G.; Semashko, V. V.; Pavlov, V.; Sarantopoulou, E.

    2017-02-01

    A link between the morphological characteristics and the electric properties of amorphous layers is established by means of atomic, conductive, electrostatic force and thermal scanning microscopy. Using amorphous Ta2O5 (a-Ta2O5) semiconductive layer, it is found that surface profile gradients (morphological gradient), are highly correlated to both the electron energy gradient of trapped electrons in interactive Coulombic sites and the thermal gradient along conductive paths and thus thermal and electric properties are correlated with surface morphology at the nanoscale. Furthermore, morphological and electron energy gradients along opposite conductive paths of electrons intrinsically impose a current stability anisotropy. For either long conductive paths (L > 1 μm) or along symmetric nanodomains, current stability for both positive and negative currents i is demonstrated. On the contrary, for short conductive paths along non-symmetric nanodomains, the set of independent variables (L, i) is spanned by two current stability/intability loci. One locus specifies a stable state for negative currents, while the other locus also describes a stable state for positive currents.

  19. Planetary Moon Cycler Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Ryan P.; Strange, Nathan J.

    2007-01-01

    Free-return cycler trajectories repeatedly shuttle a spacecraft between two bodies using little or no fuel. Here, the cycler architecture is proposed as a complementary and alternative method for designing planetary moon tours. Previously applied enumerative cycler search and optimization techniques are generalized and specifically implemented in the Jovian and Saturnian moon systems. In addition, the algorithms are tested for general use to find non-Earth heliocentric cyclers. Overall, hundreds of ideal model ballistic cycler geometries are found and several representative cases are documented and discussed. Many of the ideal model solutions are found to remain ballistic in a zero radius sphere of influence patched conic ephemeris model, and preliminary work in a high-fidelity fully integrated model demonstrates near-ballistic cycles for several example cases.

  20. The Tethered Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, K.; Lupu, R.; Dobrovolskis, A.

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic collisions between terrestrial planets resemble somewhat the life cycle of the phoenix: worlds collide, are consumed in flame, and after the debris has cleared, shiny new worlds emerge aglow with possibilities. And glow they do, for they are molten. How brightly they glow, and for how long, is determined by their atmospheres and their moons. A reasonable initial condition on Earth after the Moon-forming impact is that it begins as a hot global magma ocean. We therefore begin our study with the mantle as a liquid ocean with a surface temperature on the order of 3000-4000 K at a time some 100-1000 years after the impact, by which point we can hope that early transients have settled down.

  1. Ferry to the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aston, Graeme

    1987-06-01

    Solar-electric propulsion for a fleet of lunar ferry vehicles may allow the creation of a permanent lunar base not long after the turn of the century with greater cost effectiveness than a fleet of chemically powered spacecraft. After delivery by the Space Shuttle to a 300-km earth orbit, the lunar ferry envisioned would travel in spiral trajectory to the moon under the power of 300-kW solar arrays and ten 30-kW Xe-ion engines; each of the solar arrays would be 12 x 61 m long. Each trip between the earth parking orbit and the moon would take about 1 year, so that a fleet of four ferries operating simultaneously could deliver 20 metric tons to a lunar base every 100 days.

  2. Ferry to the moon

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, G.

    1987-06-01

    Solar-electric propulsion for a fleet of lunar ferry vehicles may allow the creation of a permanent lunar base not long after the turn of the century with greater cost effectiveness than a fleet of chemically powered spacecraft. After delivery by the Space Shuttle to a 300-km earth orbit, the lunar ferry envisioned would travel in spiral trajectory to the moon under the power of 300-kW solar arrays and ten 30-kW Xe-ion engines; each of the solar arrays would be 12 x 61 m long. Each trip between the earth parking orbit and the moon would take about 1 year, so that a fleet of four ferries operating simultaneously could deliver 20 metric tons to a lunar base every 100 days.

  3. Ferry to the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme

    1987-01-01

    Solar-electric propulsion for a fleet of lunar ferry vehicles may allow the creation of a permanent lunar base not long after the turn of the century with greater cost effectiveness than a fleet of chemically powered spacecraft. After delivery by the Space Shuttle to a 300-km earth orbit, the lunar ferry envisioned would travel in spiral trajectory to the moon under the power of 300-kW solar arrays and ten 30-kW Xe-ion engines; each of the solar arrays would be 12 x 61 m long. Each trip between the earth parking orbit and the moon would take about 1 year, so that a fleet of four ferries operating simultaneously could deliver 20 metric tons to a lunar base every 100 days.

  4. Uranus moon - Titania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The terminator region of Titania, one of Uranus' five large moons, was captured in this Voyager 2 image obtained in the early morning hours of Jan. 24, 1986. Voyager was about 500,000 kilometers (300,000 miles) from Titania and inbound toward closest approach. This clear-filter, narrow-angle view is along the terminator -- the line between the sunlit and darkened parts of the moon. The low-angle illumination shows the shape of the surface very clearly. Among the features visible are long linear valleys perhaps 50-100 km (30-60 mi) wide and several hundred km (or mi) long. At least two directions of faulting are visible, as are many circular impact craters attributed to cosmic debris. The resolution of this image is about 9 km (6 mi). The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  5. Ferry to the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme

    1987-01-01

    Solar-electric propulsion for a fleet of lunar ferry vehicles may allow the creation of a permanent lunar base not long after the turn of the century with greater cost effectiveness than a fleet of chemically powered spacecraft. After delivery by the Space Shuttle to a 300-km earth orbit, the lunar ferry envisioned would travel in spiral trajectory to the moon under the power of 300-kW solar arrays and ten 30-kW Xe-ion engines; each of the solar arrays would be 12 x 61 m long. Each trip between the earth parking orbit and the moon would take about 1 year, so that a fleet of four ferries operating simultaneously could deliver 20 metric tons to a lunar base every 100 days.

  6. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color mosaic of part of the Moon was constructed from 54 images taken by Galileo's imaging system as the spacecraft flew past the Moon on December 7, 1992. The mosaic images were processed to exaggerate the colors of the lunar surface for analytical purposes. Titanium-rich soils, typical of the Apollo 11 landing site, appear blue, as seen in Mare Tranquillitatis, left side; soils lower in titanium appear orange, as seen in Mare Serenitatis, center right. Most of the lunar highlands appear red, indicating their low titanium and iron composition. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  7. The moon in heiligenschein

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildey, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of 25 photometric digital images of the moon has been carried out to obtain a single image in a new mapping parameter, the Heiligenschein exponent. The data necessarily represent a range of lunar phases, but all are within 10 hours of full moon. The new parameter characterizes the rate at which lunar features brighten as their local phase angles approach zero. Although considerable contrast is present in this parameter, there is only a small correlation with normal albedo. In particular, the large albedo difference between maria and highlands is not simply reflected in Heiligenschein differences, which are larger within each category of terrain than the difference between the Heiligenschein averages of each. A correlation with age may be present in both the maria and the highlands, but its determination will require separation into distinct geochemical provinces. Copyright ?? 1978 AAAS.

  8. Global electromagnetic induction in the moon and planets. [poloidal eddy current transient response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments and analyses concerning electromagnetic induction in the moon and other extraterrestrial bodies are summarized. The theory of classical electromagnetic induction in a sphere is first considered, and this treatment is extended to the case of the moon, where poloidal eddy-current response has been found experimentally to dominate other induction modes. Analysis of lunar poloidal induction yields lunar internal electrical conductivity and temperature profiles. Two poloidal-induction analytical techniques are discussed: a transient-response method applied to time-series magnetometer data, and a harmonic-analysis method applied to data numerically Fourier-transformed to the frequency domain, with emphasis on the former technique. Attention is given to complicating effects of the solar wind interaction with both induced poloidal fields and remanent steady fields. The static magnetization field induction mode is described, from which are calculated bulk magnetic permeability profiles. Magnetic field measurements obtained from the moon and from fly-bys of Venus and Mars are studied to determine the feasibility of extending theoretical and experimental induction techniques to other bodies in the solar system.

  9. The Moon is a Planet Too: Lunar Science and Robotic Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of what is known about the moon, and draws parallels between the moon and any other terrestrial planet. The Moon is a cornerstone for all rocky planets The Moon is a terrestrial body, formed and evolved similarly to Earth, Mars, Mercury, Venus, and large asteroids The Moon is a differentiated body, with a layered internal structure (crust, mantle, and core) The Moon is a cratered body, preserving a record of bombardment history in the inner solar system The Moon is an active body, experiencing moonquakes, releasing primordial heat, conducting electricity, sustaining bombardment, and trapping volatile molecules Lunar robotic missions provide early science return to obtain important science and engineering objectives, rebuild a lunar science community, and keep our eyes on the Moon. These lunar missions, both past and future are reviewed.

  10. Babies and the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toepker, Terrence P.

    2000-02-01

    ``More babies are born under a full moon than at any other time.'' Many of us have heard this assertion, and a few years ago I tried to get data that would support it. The note ``A Lesson in Curve Fitting'' by Scott Calvin (Phys. Teach. 37, 340, Sept. 1999) provoked me to pass some of the data on to readers of The Physics Teacher.

  11. The New Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrhenius, G.

    1998-01-01

    The late heavy bombardment of the Moon extends in time to about 3.8 Ga and continues to about 3.5 Ga with decreasing frequency of recorded impacts on the Moon. It has been generally assumed that this phenomenon was due to an invasion of the inner solar system by a swarm of asteroidal-sized objects that hit the Moon and all of the terrestrial planets with severeness in proportion to their gravitation. The extension of the record on Earth, and more fragmentarily on Mars, into this time frame demonstrates a lack of the predicted devastating effects. The sedimentary record on Earth consists of segments of undisturbed laminated banded-iron formations that contain traces of what appears as biochemically evolved microbial life. This record reaches back in time beyond 3.86 Ga The martian igneous rock record indicates a crystallization age of 4.5 Ga, followed by shock events but without signs of remelting in late bombardment catastrophes. These observations suggest, as one possibility, a local source of bodies in lunar orbit that coalesced with the Moon. Alternatively, solar-system-wide impacts may have been sufficiently sporadic to have escaped recording in currently studied sedimentary sequences on Earth. The latter alternative would have to be coupled with an assumption of rapid recolonization of the hydrosphere by life. It would than have arisen anew after each sterilizing impact or emerged from protected survival niches. These are speculations about of the absence of a recorded late planetary impact period. Current experiments that aim at resolution of this problem will be discussed.

  12. Topography of Earth's moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Topography of Earth's moon generated from data collected by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter, aboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, with the gravity anomalies bordering the Procellarum region superimposed in blue. The border structures are shown using gravity gradients calculated with data from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission. These gravity anomalies are interpreted as ancient lava-flooded rift zones buried beneath the volcanic plains (or maria) on the nearside of the Moon. Launched as GRAIL A and GRAIL B in September 2011, the probes, renamed Ebb and Flow, operated in a nearly circular orbit near the poles of the moon at an altitude of about 34 miles (55 kilometers) until their mission ended in December 2012. The distance between the twin probes changed slightly as they flew over areas of greater and lesser gravity caused by visible features, such as mountains and craters, and by masses hidden beneath the lunar surface. The twin spacecraft flew in a nearly circular orbit until the end of the mission on Dec. 17, 2012, when the probes intentionally were sent into the moon's surface. NASA later named the impact site in honor of late astronaut Sally K. Ride, who was America's first woman in space and a member of the GRAIL mission team. GRAIL's prime and extended science missions generated the highest-resolution gravity field map of any celestial body. The map will provide a better understanding of how Earth and other rocky planets in the solar system formed and evolved. The GRAIL mission was managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The mission was part of the Discovery Program managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. GRAIL was built by Lockheed Martin Space Systems in Denver. For more information about GRAIL, please visit grail.nasa.gov. Credit: NASA/Colorado School of Mines/MIT/GSFC/Scientific Visualization

  13. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color mosaic was constructed from a series of 53 images taken through three spectral filters by Galileo's imaging system as the spacecraft flew over the northern regions of the Moon on December 7, 1992. The part of the Moon visible from Earth is on the left side in this view. The color mosaic shows compositional variations in parts of the Moon's northern hemisphere. Bright pinkish areas are highlands materials, such as those surrounding the oval lava-filled Crisium impact basin toward the bottom of the picture. Blue to orange shades indicate volcanic lava flows. To the left of Crisium, the dark blue Mare Tranquillitatis is richer in titanium than the green and orange maria above it. Thin mineral-rich soils associated with relatively recent impacts are represented by light blue colors; the youngest craters have prominent blue rays extending from them. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  14. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color mosaic was constructed from a series of 53 images taken through three spectral filters by Galileo's imaging system as the spacecraft flew over the northern regions of the Moon on December 7, 1992. The part of the Moon visible from Earth is on the left side in this view. The color mosaic shows compositional variations in parts of the Moon's northern hemisphere. Bright pinkish areas are highlands materials, such as those surrounding the oval lava-filled Crisium impact basin toward the bottom of the picture. Blue to orange shades indicate volcanic lava flows. To the left of Crisium, the dark blue Mare Tranquillitatis is richer in titanium than the green and orange maria above it. Thin mineral-rich soils associated with relatively recent impacts are represented by light blue colors; the youngest craters have prominent blue rays extending from them. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  15. Moon's North Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Mariner 10 was launched on November 3, 1973, 12:45 am PST, from Cape Canaveral on an Atlas/Centaur rocket (a reconditioned Intercontinental Ballistic Missile - ICBM). Within 12 hours of launch the twin cameras were turned on and several hundred pictures of both the Earth and the Moon were acquired over the following days.

    In this unusual view eastern Mare Frigor is near the center of the disc, while Mare Crisiumis the large circular feature near the lower right limb. The heavily cratered region shown in the top of the mosaic shows portions of the Moon not seen from the Earth.

    This mosaic is composed of 22 frames acquired in orange (15), clear (4), UV (2), and UV-polarized (1) wavelengths by the Mariner 10 Spacecraft.

    The Mariner 10 mission is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  16. Helioseismology on the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, E. J., Jr.

    1994-06-01

    The prospect of a future manned lunar base presents an interesting challenge for helioseismology-a field in which observations have been obtained from the Earth's surface, from near-earth satellites, and from interplanetary spacecraft. Similar observations from the Moon would possess several advantages over those from other sites. Advantages over the Earth would include the absence of the terrestrial atmosphere and the lower lunar surface gravity, both of which would allow for larger-aperture telescopes with which the highest-degree solar oscillations could be studied. Compared with the .99 AU halo orbit of the upcoming Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission a lunar base would have less-restrictive weight, power, and telemetry restrictions. An instrument there could also be repaired in-place and could be operated for at least one solar cycle. Disadvantages compared to SOHO would include interruptions from the lunar night and during lunar eclipses. Temporal sidelobes of frequency spacing comparable to that due to solar surface rotation would be introduced unless a network of lunar stations were operated. FInally, solar Doppler measurements made from the Moon would have to allow for the orbital velocity of the Moon around the Earth, but this should not pose a problem for such measurements.

  17. Conductive heating and microwave hydrolysis under identical heating profiles for advanced anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Seyedeh Neda; Eskicioglu, Cigdem; Bobowski, Jake; Johnson, Thomas

    2013-09-15

    Microwave (2.45 GHz, 1200 W) and conventional heating (custom pressure vessel) pretreatments were applied to dewatered municipal waste sludge (18% total solids) using identical heating profiles that span a wide range of temperatures (80-160 °C). Fourteen lab-scale semi-continuous digesters were set up to optimize the energy (methane) output and sludge retention time (SRT) requirements of untreated (control) and thermally pretreated anaerobic digesters operated under mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. Both pretreatment methods indicated that in the pretreatment range of 80-160 °C, temperature was a statistically significant factor (p-value < 0.05) for increasing solubilization of chemical oxygen demand and biopolymers (proteins, sugars, humic acids) of the waste sludge. However, the type of pretreatment method, i.e. microwave versus conventional heating, had no statistically significant effect (p-value >0.05) on sludge solubilization. With the exception of the control digesters at a 5-d SRT, all control and pretreated digesters achieved steady state at all three SRTs, corresponding to volumetric organic loading rates of 1.74-6.96 g chemical oxygen demand/L/d. At an SRT of 5 d, both mesophilic and thermophilic controls stopped producing biogas after 20 d of operation with total volatile fatty acids concentrations exceeding 1818 mg/L at pH <5.64 for mesophilic and 2853 mg/L at pH <7.02 for thermophilic controls, while the pretreated digesters continued producing biogas. Furthermore, relative (to control) organic removal efficiencies dramatically increased as SRT was shortened from 20 to 10 and then 5 d, indicating that the control digesters were challenged as the organic loading rate was increased. Energy analysis showed that, at an elevated temperature of 160 °C, the amount of methane recovered was not enough to compensate for the energy input. Among the digesters with positive net energy productions, control and pretreated digesters at 80 °C were more

  18. Use of temperature profiles beneath streams to determine rates of vertical ground-water flow and vertical hydraulic conductivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapham, Wayne W.

    1989-01-01

    The use of temperature profiles beneath streams to determine rates of vertical ground-water flow and effective vertical hydraulic conductivity of sediments was evaluated at three field sites by use of a model that numerically solves the partial differential equation governing simultaneous vertical flow of fluid and heat in the Earth. The field sites are located in Hardwick and New Braintree, Mass., and in Dover, N.J. In New England, stream temperature varies from about 0 to 25 ?C (degrees Celsius) during the year. This stream-temperature fluctuation causes ground-water temperatures beneath streams to fluctuate by more than 0.1 ?C during a year to a depth of about 35 ft (feet) in fine-grained sediments and to a depth of about 50 ft in coarse-grained sediments, if ground-water velocity is 0 ft/d (foot per day). Upward flow decreases the depth affected by stream-temperature fluctuation, and downward flow increases the depth. At the site in Hardwick, Mass., ground-water flow was upward at a rate of less than 0.01 ft/d. The maximum effective vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments underlying this site is 0.1 ft/d. Ground-water velocities determined at three locations at the site in New Braintree, Mass., where ground water discharges naturally from the underlying aquifer to the Ware River, ranged from 0.10 to 0.20 ft/d upward. The effective vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments underlying this site ranged from 2.4 to 17.1 ft/d. Ground-water velocities determined at three locations at the Dover, N.J., site, where infiltration from the Rockaway River into the underlying sediments occurs because of pumping, were 1.5 ft/d downward. The effective vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments underlying this site ranged from 2.2 to 2.5 ft/d. Independent estimates of velocity at two of the three sites are in general agreement with the velocities determined using temperature profiles. The estimates of velocities and conductivities derived from the

  19. Strong electrolyte continuum theory solution for equilibrium profiles, diffusion limitation, and conductance in charged ion channels.

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, D G

    1985-01-01

    The solution for the ion flux through a membrane channel that incorporates the electrolyte nature of the aqueous solution is a difficult theoretical problem that, until now, has not been properly formulated. The difficulty arises from the complicated electrostatic problem presented by a high dielectric aqueous channel piercing a low dielectric lipid membrane. The problem is greatly simplified by assuming that the ratio of the dielectric constant of the water to that of the lipid is infinite. It is shown that this is a good approximation for most channels of biological interest. This assumption allows one to derive simple analytical expressions for the Born image potential and the potential from a fixed charge in the channel, and it leads to a differential equation for the potential from the background electrolyte. This leads to a rigorous solution for the ion flux or the equilibrium potential based on a combination of the Nernst-Planck equation and strong electrolyte theory (i.e., Gouy-Chapman or Debye-Huckel). This approach is illustrated by solving the system of equations for the specific case of a large channel containing fixed negative charges. The following characteristics of this channels are discussed: anion and mono- and divalent cation conductance, saturation of current with increasing concentration, current-voltage relationship, influence of location and valence of fixed charge, and interaction between ions. The qualitative behavior of this channel is similar to that of the acetylcholine receptor channel. PMID:2410048

  20. Jupiter's Moons: Family Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This montage shows the best views of Jupiter's four large and diverse 'Galilean' satellites as seen by the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) on the New Horizons spacecraft during its flyby of Jupiter in late February 2007. The four moons are, from left to right: Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. The images have been scaled to represent the true relative sizes of the four moons and are arranged in their order from Jupiter.

    Io, 3,640 kilometers (2,260 miles) in diameter, was imaged at 03:50 Universal Time on February 28 from a range of 2.7 million kilometers (1.7 million miles). The original image scale was 13 kilometers per pixel, and the image is centered at Io coordinates 6 degrees south, 22 degrees west. Io is notable for its active volcanism, which New Horizons has studied extensively.

    Europa, 3,120 kilometers (1,938 miles) in diameter, was imaged at 01:28 Universal Time on February 28 from a range of 3 million kilometers (1.8 million miles). The original image scale was 15 kilometers per pixel, and the image is centered at Europa coordinates 6 degrees south, 347 degrees west. Europa's smooth, icy surface likely conceals an ocean of liquid water. New Horizons obtained data on Europa's surface composition and imaged subtle surface features, and analysis of these data may provide new information about the ocean and the icy shell that covers it.

    New Horizons spied Ganymede, 5,262 kilometers (3,268 miles) in diameter, at 10:01 Universal Time on February 27 from 3.5 million kilometers (2.2 million miles) away. The original scale was 17 kilometers per pixel, and the image is centered at Ganymede coordinates 6 degrees south, 38 degrees west. Ganymede, the largest moon in the solar system, has a dirty ice surface cut by fractures and peppered by impact craters. New Horizons' infrared observations may provide insight into the composition of the moon's surface and interior.

    Callisto, 4,820 kilometers (2,995 miles) in diameter, was imaged

  1. Depth profiling of Stratum corneum hydration in vivo: a comparison between conductance and confocal Raman spectroscopic measurements.

    PubMed

    Boncheva, Mila; de Sterke, Johanna; Caspers, Peter J; Puppels, Gerwin J

    2009-10-01

    The high-frequency electrical conductance of tape-stripped human skin in vivo can be used to evaluate the hydration profile of Stratum corneum (SC). Tape-stripping provides access to the underlying SC layers, and the conductance of these layers (as measured by the Skicon instrument) correlates well with their water content, as demonstrated by independent confocal Raman spectroscopic measurements. The correlation shows high inter-individual variance and is not linear over the full measurement range of the instrument, but is helpful to discriminate between dry, normal and highly hydrated SC. The depth profile of hydration in tape-stripped SC corresponds to the one in intact SC only if the barrier function of the skin is not impaired. Thus, conductometry of tape-stripped skin must be used in conjunction with a method that allows to estimate the barrier damage inflicted to SC during the tape-stripping procedure, for example, measurement of the trans-epidermal water loss. The methodology described here is simple, rapid and minimally invasive, and it employs commercially available instrumentation that is cheap, portable and easy to use. This approach is applicable to in vivo estimation of the SC hydration in studies in the areas of dermatology, skin care and transdermal drug delivery.

  2. Explaining the Birth of the Martian Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    led to the formation of large clumps, which eventually agglomerated to form Phobos and Deimos.The authors find that Phobos and Deimos most likely formed in the outer regions of the accretion disk that was created by a large impact with Mars. [Adapted from Ronnet et al. 2016]In the study conducted by Ronnet, Vernazza, and collaborators, the authors investigated the composition and texture of the dust that would have crystallized in an impact-generated accretion disk making up Marss moons. They find that Phobos and Deimos could not have formed out of the extremely hot, magma-filled inner regions of such a disk, because this would have resulted in different compositions than we observe.Phobos and Deimos could have formed, however, in the very outer part of an impact-generated accretion disk, where the hot gas condensed directly into small solid grains instead of passing through the magma phase. Accretion of such tiny grains would naturally explain the similarity in physical properties we observe between Marss moons and some main-belt asteroids and yet this picture is also consistent with the moons current orbital parameters.The authors argue that the formation of the Martian moons from the outer regions of an impact-generated accretion disk is therefore a plausible scenario, neatly reconciling the observed physical properties of Phobos and Diemos with their orbital properties.CitationT. Ronnet et al 2016 ApJ 828 109. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/828/2/109

  3. Determinants of symptom profile and severity of conduct disorder in a tertiary level pediatric care set up: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprakash, R.; Rajamohanan, K.; Anil, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Conduct disorders (CDs) are one of the most common causes for referral to child and adolescent mental health centers. CD varies in its environmental factors, symptom profile, severity, co-morbidity, and functional impairment. Aims: The aim was to analyze the determinants of symptom profile and severity among childhood and adolescent onset CD. Settings and Design: Clinic based study with 60 consecutive children between 6 and 18 years of age satisfying International Classification of Disease-10 Development Control Rules guidelines for CD, attending behavioral pediatrics unit outpatient. Materials and Methods: The family psychopathology, symptom severity, and functional level were assessed using parent interview schedule, revised behavioral problem checklist and Children's Global Assessment Scale. Statistical Analysis: The correlation and predictive power of the variables were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 version. Results: There was significant male dominance (88.3%) with boy girl ratio 7.5:1. Most common comorbidity noticed was hyperkinetic disorders (45%). Childhood onset group was more predominant (70%). Prevalence of comorbidity was more among early onset group (66.7%) than the late-onset group (33.3%). The family psychopathology, symptom severity, and the functional impairment were significantly higher in the childhood onset group. Conclusion: The determinants of symptom profile and severity are early onset (childhood onset CD), nature, and quantity of family psychopathology, prevalence, and type of comorbidity and nature of symptom profile itself. The family psychopathology is positively correlated with the symptom severity and negatively correlated with the functional level of the children with CD. The symptom severity was negatively correlated with the functional level of the child with CD. PMID:25568472

  4. Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macintosh, Henry G.

    An introduction to profiles is presented with examples provided to permit an overall appraisal of the potential of profiles, of the principles upon which they might be based, and of the problems that will have to be overcome if their potential is to be realized in practice. The larger scale examples of profiles discussed are the Scottish Pupil…

  5. Spacesuit Cooling on the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2009-01-01

    NASA is planning to return to the moon and then explore Mars. A permanent base at the south pole of the moon will be the test bed for Mars. At the moon base, two crewmembers are expected to conduct Extravehicular Activity (EVA) six days every week. Current spacesuits are cooled by the sublimation of water ice into vacuum. A single 7 hour EVA near the lunar equator in daylight can expend up to 5 kilograms of water. Because of the high cost of transporting spacesuit cooling water to the moon, the water for one EVA could cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. The lunar south pole and Mars have low surface temperatures that make cooling much easier than at the lunar equator. Alternate cooling methods and keeping to cool environments can reduce or eliminate the loss of water for spacesuit cooling. If cooling water is not needed, a recycling life support system can provide all the required crew water and oxygen without transporting additional water from Earth.

  6. Clinical Profiles of Children with Disruptive Behaviors Based on the Severity of Their Conduct Problems, Callous-Unemotional Traits and Emotional Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Brendan F; Sorge, Geoff B; Na, Jennifer Jiwon; Wharton-Shukster, Erika

    2015-08-01

    This study identified clinical profiles of referred children based on the severity of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, emotional difficulties, and conduct problems. Parents of 166 children (132 males) aged 6-12 years referred to a hospital clinic because of disruptive behavior completed measures to assess these key indicators, and person-centered analysis was used to identify profiles. Four distinct profiles were identified that include: (1) Children low in severity on the three domains, (2) Children high in severity on the three domains, (3) Children high in severity in conduct problems and CU traits with minimal emotional difficulties, and (4) Children high in severity in conduct problems and emotional difficulties with minimal CU traits. Profiles differed in degree of aggression and behavioral impairment. Findings show that clinic-referred children with disruptive behaviors can be grouped based on these important indicators into profiles that have important implications for assessment and treatment selection.

  7. The Moon Project: 1994 - 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, S.

    2013-04-01

    For over ten years I've been looking for the Moon and marking down my observations in my journals. One of my goals has been to see what I can teach myself, strictly by looking. I don't research the Moon. The following is a glimpse into the development of the Moon Project and also a hint of where it is heading next.

  8. Impact origin of the Moon

    SciTech Connect

    Slattery, W.L.

    1998-12-31

    A few years after the Apollo flights to the Moon, it became clear that all of the existing theories on the origin of the Moon would not satisfy the growing body of constraints which appeared with the data gathered by the Apollo flights. About the same time, researchers began to realize that the inner (terrestrial) planets were not born quietly -- all had evidences of impacts on their surfaces. This fact reinforced the idea that the planets had formed by the accumulation of planetesimals. Since the Earth`s moon is unique among the terrestrial planets, a few researchers realized that perhaps the Moon originated in a singular event; an event that was quite probable, but not so probable that one would expect all the terrestrial planets to have a large moon. And thus was born the idea that a giant impact formed the Moon. Impacts would be common in the early solar system; perhaps a really large impact of two almost fully formed planets of disparate sizes would lead to material orbiting the proto-earth, a proto-moon. This idea remained to be tested. Using a relatively new, but robust, method of doing the hydrodynamics of the collision (Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics), the author and his colleagues (W. Benz, Univ. of Arizona, and A.G.W. Cameron, Harvard College Obs.) did a large number of collision simulations on a supercomputer. The author found two major scenarios which would result in the formation of the Moon. The first was direct formation; a moon-sized object is boosted into orbit by gravitational torques. The second is when the orbiting material forms a disk, which, with subsequent evolution can form the Moon. In either case the physical and chemical properties of the newly formed Moon would very neatly satisfy the physical and chemical constraints of the current Moon. Also, in both scenarios the surface of the Earth would be quite hot after the collision. This aspect remains to be explored.

  9. Rhea: Full Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-12-06

    This giant mosaic reveals Saturn's icy moon Rhea in her full, crater-scarred glory. This view consists of 21 clear-filter images and is centered at 0.4 degrees south latitude, 171 degrees west longitude. The giant Tirawa impact basin is seen above and to the right of center. Tirawa, and another basin to its southwest, are both covered in impact craters, indicating they are quite ancient. The bright, approximately 40-kilometer-wide (25-mile) ray crater seen in many Cassini views of Rhea is located on the right side of this mosaic (at 12 degrees south latitude, 111 degrees west longitude). See PIA07764 for a close-up view of the eastern portion of the bright, ray crater. There are few signs of tectonic activity in this view. However, the wispy streaks on Rhea that were seen at lower resolution by NASA's Voyager and Cassini spacecraft, were beyond the western (left) limb from this perspective. In high-resolution Cassini flyby images of Dione, similar features were identified as fractures caused by extensive tectonism. Rhea is Saturn's second-largest moon, at 1,528 kilometers (949 miles) across. The images in this mosaic were taken with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera during a close flyby on Nov. 26, 2005. The images were acquired as Cassini approached the moon at distances ranging from 79,190 to 58,686 kilometers (49,206 to 36,466 miles) from Rhea and at a Sun-Rhea-spacecraft, or phase, angle of about 19 degrees. Image scale in the mosaic is 354 meters (1,161 feet) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07763

  10. Moon Color Visualizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    These color visualizations of the Moon were obtained by the Galileo spacecraft as it left the Earth after completing its first Earth Gravity Assist. The image on the right was acquired at 6:47 p.m. PST Dec. 8, 1990, from a distance of almost 220,000 miles, while that on the left was obtained at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9, at a range of more than 350,000 miles. On the right, the nearside of the Moon and about 30 degrees of the far side (left edge) are visible. In the full disk on the left, a little less than half the nearside and more than half the far side (to the right) are visible. The color composites used images taken through the violet and two near infrared filters. The visualizations depict spectral properties of the lunar surface known from analysis of returned samples to be related to composition or weathering of surface materials. The greenish-blue region at the upper right in the full disk and the upper part of the right hand picture is Oceanus Procellarum. The deeper blue mare regions here and elsewhere are relatively rich in titanium, while the greens, yellows and light oranges indicate basalts low in titanium but rich in iron and magnesium. The reds (deep orange in the right hand picture) are typically cratered highlands relatively poor in titanium, iron and magnesium. In the full disk picture on the left, the yellowish area to the south is part of the newly confirmed South Pole Aitken basin, a large circular depression some 1,200 miles across, perhaps rich in iron and magnesium. Analysis of Apollo lunar samples provided the basis for calibration of this spectral map; Galileo data, in turn, permit broad extrapolation of the Apollo based composition information, reaching ultimately to the far side of the Moon.

  11. Moon Color Visualizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    These color visualizations of the Moon were obtained by the Galileo spacecraft as it left the Earth after completing its first Earth Gravity Assist. The image on the right was acquired at 6:47 p.m. PST Dec. 8, 1990, from a distance of almost 220,000 miles, while that on the left was obtained at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9, at a range of more than 350,000 miles. On the right, the nearside of the Moon and about 30 degrees of the far side (left edge) are visible. In the full disk on the left, a little less than half the nearside and more than half the far side (to the right) are visible. The color composites used images taken through the violet and two near infrared filters. The visualizations depict spectral properties of the lunar surface known from analysis of returned samples to be related to composition or weathering of surface materials. The greenish-blue region at the upper right in the full disk and the upper part of the right hand picture is Oceanus Procellarum. The deeper blue mare regions here and elsewhere are relatively rich in titanium, while the greens, yellows and light oranges indicate basalts low in titanium but rich in iron and magnesium. The reds (deep orange in the right hand picture) are typically cratered highlands relatively poor in titanium, iron and magnesium. In the full disk picture on the left, the yellowish area to the south is part of the newly confirmed South Pole Aitken basin, a large circular depression some 1,200 miles across, perhaps rich in iron and magnesium. Analysis of Apollo lunar samples provided the basis for calibration of this spectral map; Galileo data, in turn, permit broad extrapolation of the Apollo based composition information, reaching ultimately to the far side of the Moon.

  12. Astrobiology Field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments: Preface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foing, B. H.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2011-01-01

    Extreme environments on Earth often provide similar terrain conditions to landing/operation sites on Moon and Mars. Several field campaigns (EuroGeoMars2009 and DOMMEX/ILEWG EuroMoonMars from November 2009 to March 2010) were conducted at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah. Some of the key astrobiology results are presented in this special issue on Astrobiology field research in Moon/Mars analogue environments relevant to investigate the link between geology, minerals, organics and biota. Preliminary results from a multidisciplinary field campaign at Rio Tinto in Spain are presented.

  13. Astrobiology field research in Moon/Mars analogue environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2011-07-01

    Extreme environments on Earth often provide similar terrain conditions to landing/operation sites on Moon and Mars. Several field campaigns (EuroGeoMars2009 and DOMMEX/ILEWG EuroMoonMars from November 2009 to March 2010) were conducted at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah. Some of the key astrobiology results are presented in this special issue on ‘Astrobiology field research in Moon/Mars analogue environments’ relevant to investigate the link between geology, minerals, organics and biota. Preliminary results from a multidisciplinary field campaign at Rio Tinto in Spain are presented.

  14. Does Vesta Have Moons?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFadden, L. A.; Sykes, M.; Joy, S.; Tricarico, P.; O'Brien, D.; Li, J. Y.; Mutchler, M.; Memarsadeghi, N.; Safavi, H.; Gutierrez-Marques, P.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Previous searches for moons around Vesta have found nothing to an upper limit of 22.5 magnitude, that corresponds to 44 +/- 4 m diameter assuming the same albedo as Vesta. The Dawn mission's approach phase has dedicated satellite search observations consisting of two mosaic sequences bracketing the first observations of a complete rotation of Vesta scheduled for early July, 2011. In addition, we use the approach optical navigation image sequences for initial satellite searches. We will report any findings from these observations, and upper limits of magnitude and size.

  15. Magmatism on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaut, Chloé; Thorey, Clément; Pinel, Virginie

    2016-04-01

    Volcanism on the Moon is dominated by large fissure eruptions of mare basalt and seems to lack large, central vent, shield volcanoes as observed on all the other terrestrial planets. Large shield volcanoes are constructed over millions to several hundreds of millions of years. On the Moon, magmas might not have been buoyant enough to allow for a prolonged activity at the same place over such lengths of time. The lunar crust was indeed formed by flotation of light plagioclase minerals on top of the lunar magma ocean, resulting in a particularly light and relatively thick crust. This low-density crust acted as a barrier for the denser primary mantle melts. This is particularly evident in the fact that subsequent mare basalts erupted primarily within large impact basins where at least part of the crust was removed by the impact process. Thus, the ascent of lunar magmas might have been limited by their reduced buoyancy, leading to storage zone formation deep in the lunar crust. Further magma ascent to shallower depths might have required local or regional tensional stresses. Here, we first review evidences of shallow magmatic intrusions within the lunar crust of the Moon that consist in surface deformations presenting morphologies consistent with models of magma spreading at depth and deforming an overlying elastic layer. We then study the preferential zones of magma storage in the lunar crust as a function of the local and regional state of stress. Evidences of shallow intrusions are often contained within complex impact craters suggesting that the local depression caused by the impact exerted a strong control on magma ascent. The depression is felt over a depth equivalent to the crater radius. Because many of these craters have a radius less than 30km, the minimum crust thickness, this suggests that the magma was already stored in deeper intrusions before ascending at shallower depth. All the evidences for intrusions are also preferentially located in the internal

  16. More Saturnian Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    Saturn takes the lead Following the discovery of at least four additional moons of that planet, Saturn has again taken the lead as the planet with the greatest number of known natural satellites. A corresponding announcement was made today by an international team of astronomers [1] at a meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences (DPS) of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) in Pasadena (California, USA). The four new faint bodies were spotted during observations in August-September 2000 at several astronomical telescopes around the world. Subsequent orbital calculations have indicated that these objects are almost certainly new satellites of the giant planet. Two Saturnian moons found at La Silla ESO PR Photo 29a/00 ESO PR Photo 29a/00 [Preview - JPEG: 263 x 400 pix - 26k] [Normal - JPEG: 525 x 800 pix - 93k] ESO PR Photo 29b/00 ESO PR Photo 29b/00 [Preview - JPG: 289 x 400 pix - 43k] [Normal - JPG: 578 x 800 pix - 432k] ESO PR Photo 29c/00 ESO PR Photo 29c/00 [Animated GIF: 330 x 400 pix - 208k] Captions : The photos show the discovery images of two new Saturnian moons, as registered on August 7, 2000, with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) camera at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at the La Silla Observatory. Photo PR 29a/00 displays the faint image of the newly discovered moon S/2000 S 1 in the lower right corner of the field. A spiral galaxy is seen in the upper left corner of this photo. The other objects are (background) stars in the Milky Way. Photo PR 29b/00 is a combination of three successive WFI exposures of the second moon, S/2000 S 2 . Because of its motion, there are three images (to the left). Photo PR 29c/00 is an animated GIF image of the same three exposures that demonstrates this motion. Technical details are found below. The observations of the first two objects are described on a Circular of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) that was issued today [2]. The images of these new moons were first registered on exposures made on August 7, 2000

  17. Moon model - An offset core.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransford, G.; Sjogren, W.

    1972-01-01

    The lunar model proposed helps to account for the offset of the center of gravity from the center of the optical figure, the moments of inertia of the Moon, the 'mascons,' the localization of the maria basins on the near side of the Moon, the igneous nature of rocks, and the remanent magnetism. In the proposed model the Moon has a core whose center is offset from the center of the outside spheroid towards the earth. Such a core will be formed if the Moon were entirely molten at some time in its past, and on solidification was synchronous with the earth.

  18. The moon and its nature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urey, H. C.

    1975-01-01

    The moon and its relation to earth and sun is analyzed. It is shown that the moon was formed at comparatively low temperatures, heated on its surface by external heat sources, cooled sufficiently and at adequate depth to permit large craters to retain negative gravitational anomalies, and to support mass concentrations on the rigid interior. Moon soil resulted mostly from ash flow and was remelted in limited amounts by radioactive heat. Evidence for living or fossile forms on the moon has not been found.

  19. The 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Lee

    2014-01-01

    The 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) scientific investigations were completed on Mauna Kea volcano in Hawaii in July 2012. The investigations were conducted on the southeast flank of the Mauna Kea volcano at an elevation of approximately 11,500 ft. This area is known as "Apollo Valley" and is in an adjacent valley to the Very Large Baseline Array dish antenna.

  20. How to chase a tracer - combining conventional salt tracer testing and direct push electrical conductivity profiling for enhanced aquifer characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vienken, Thomas; Huber, Emanuel; Kreck, Manuel; Huggenberger, Peter; Dietrich, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Tracer testing is a well-established technique in hydrogeological site characterization. However, certain a priori knowledge of the hydraulic regime is required beforehand to avoid test failure, e.g. miss of tracer. In this study, we propose a novel tracer test concept for the hydraulic characterization of shallow unconsolidated sedimentary deposits when only scarce a priori information on the hydraulic regime is available. Therefore, we combine conventional salt tracer testing with direct push vertical high resolution electrical conductivity logging. The proposed tracer test concept was successfully tested on coarse, braided river deposits of the Tagliamento River, Italy. With limited a priori information available two tracer tests were performed in three days to reliably determine ground water flow direction and velocity allowing on-site decision-making to adaptively install observation wells for reliable breakthrough curve measurements. Furthermore, direct push vertical electrical profiling provided essential information about the plume characteristics with outstanding measurement resolution and efficiency.

  1. A geophysical perspective on mantle water content and melting: Inverting electromagnetic sounding data using laboratory-based electrical conductivity profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A.; Shankland, T. J.

    2012-02-01

    This paper applies electromagnetic sounding methods for Earth's mantle to constrain its thermal state, chemical composition, and "water" content. We consider long-period inductive response functions in the form of C-responses from four stations distributed across the Earth (Europe, North America, Asia and Australia) covering a period range from 3.9 to 95.2 days and sensitivity to ~ 1200 km depth. We invert C-responses directly for thermo-chemical state using a self-consistent thermodynamic method that computes phase equilibria as functions of pressure, temperature, and composition (in the Na2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 model system). Computed mineral modes are combined with recent laboratory-based electrical conductivity models from independent experimental research groups (Yoshino (2010) and Karato (2011)) to compute bulk conductivity structure beneath each of the four stations from which C-responses are estimated. To reliably allocate water between the various mineral phases we include laboratory-measured water partition coefficients for major upper mantle and transition zone minerals. This scheme is interfaced with a sampling-based algorithm to solve the resulting non-linear inverse problem. This approach has two advantages: (1) It anchors temperatures, composition, electrical conductivities, and discontinuities that are in laboratory-based forward models, and (2) At the same time it permits the use of geophysical inverse methods to optimize conductivity profiles to match geophysical data. The results show lateral variations in upper mantle temperatures beneath the four stations that appear to persist throughout the upper mantle and parts of the transition zone. Calculated mantle temperatures at 410 and 660 km depth lie in the range 1250-1650 °C and 1500-1750 °C, respectively, and generally agree with the experimentally-determined temperatures at which the measured phase reactions olivine → β-spinel and γ-spinel → ferropericlase + perovskite occur. The

  2. The Detectability of Moons of Extra-Solar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Karen M.

    2011-09-01

    The detectability of moons of extra-solar planets is investigated, focussing on the time-of-arrival perturbation technique, a method for detecting moons of pulsar planets, and the photometric transit timing technique, a method for detecting moons of transiting planets. Realistic thresholds are derived and analysed in the in the context of the types of moons that are likely to form and be orbitally stable for the lifetime of the system. For the case of the time-of-arrival perturbation technique, the analysis is conducted in two stages. First, a preliminary investigation is conducted assuming that planet and moon's orbit are circular and coplanar. This analysis is then applied to the case of the pulsar planet PSR B1620-26 b, and used to conclude that a stable moon orbiting this pulsar planet could be detected, if its mass was >5% of its planet's mass (2.5 Jupiter masses), and if the planet-moon distance was ~ 2% of the planet-pulsar separation (23 AU). Time-of-arrival expressions are then derived for mutually inclined as well as non-circular orbits. For the case of the photometric transit timing technique, a different approach is adopted. First, analytic expressions for the timing perturbation due to the moon are derived for the case where the orbit of the moon is circular and coplanar with that of the planet and where the planet's orbit is circular and aligned to the line-of-sight, circular and inclined with respect to the line-of-sight or eccentric and aligned to the line-of-sight. Second, the timing noise is investigated analytically, for the case of white photometric noise, and numerically, using SOHO lightcurves, for the case of realistic and filtered realistic photometric noise. [...] Abstract truncated due to the limitations of astroph. See full abstract in the thesis.

  3. Moon - Western Near Side

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This image of the crescent moon was obtained by the Galileo Solid State imaging system on December 8 at 5 a.m. PST as the Galileo spacecraft neared the Earth. The image was taken through a green filter and shows the western part of the lunar nearside. The smallest features visible are 8 kilometers (5 miles) in size. Major features visible include the dark plains of Mare Imbrium in the upper part of the image, the bright crater Copernicus (100 km, 60 miles in diameter) in the central part, and the heavily cratered lunar highlands in the bottom of the image. The landing sides of the Apollo 12, 14 and 15 missions lie within the central part of the image. Samples returned from these sites will be used to calibrate this and accompanying images taken in different colors, which will extend the knowledge of the spectral and compositional properties of the nearside of the moon, seen from Earth, to the lunar far side.

  4. A Moon Contrasts

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-22

    Dione reveals its past via contrasts in this view from NASA's Cassini spacecraft. The features visible here are a mixture of tectonics -- the bright, linear features -- and impact cratering -- the round features, which are spread across the entire surface. Tectonic features tell the story of how Dione (698 miles or 1,123 kilometers across) has been heated and cooled since its formation, and scientists use those clues to piece together the moon's past. Impact craters are evidence of external debris striking the surface, and thus they tell about the environment in which the moon has existed over its history. This view looks toward the trailing hemisphere of Dione. North on Dione is up. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini narrow-angle camera on April 11, 2015. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 68,000 miles (110,000 kilometers) from Dione and at a Sun-Dione-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 28 degrees. Image scale is 2,165 feet (660 meters) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20492

  5. Martian Moon Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Caption: 'Close up of the Martian Moon Phobos taken by Viking Orbiter 1 on February 20, 1977. Viking Orbiter 1 took this close-up photo of the Martian satellite phobos from a range of 120 kilometers at 5:15 p.m. (PST) February 20, 1977. That is the closest range at which any spacecraft has photographed the tiny satellite. At that range, Phobos is too large to be captured in a single frame. This picture covers an area 3 by 3.5 kilometers across. However, the high relative speed of Orbiter 1 and Phobos caused some image smear so that the smallest surface feature identifiable is between 10 and 15 meters (32 and 49 feet) across. Special processing in JPL's Image Processing Lab should improve resolution. The picture shows a region in the northern hemisphere of Phobos that has striations and is heavily cratered. The striations, which appear to be grooves rather than crater chains, are about 100 to 200 meters wide and tens of kilometers long. Craters range in size from 10 meters to 1.2 kilometers in diameter. The surface of Phobos appears similar to the highland regions of the Moon which also was heavily cratered and ancient terrain. The dark region above the limb of Phobos is an artifact of processing and does not indicate an atmosphere.

  6. Moon-Mars Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    On 27 May, the AGU Council unanimously adopted a position statement on NASA's strategic plan released in February 2005:: "A New Age of Exploration: NASA's Direction for 2005 and Beyond". This strategy incorporates U.S. President Bush's vision for manned space flight to Moon and Mars as described in "A Renewed Spirit of Discovery: The President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration" announced in January 2004. The statement was drafted by a panel chaired by Eric Barron of Penn State University. AGU calls for the U.S. Administration, Congress, and NASA to continue their commitment to innovative Earth and space science programs. This commitment has placed the U.S. in an international leadership position. It enables environmental stewardship, promotes economic vitality, engages the next generation of scientists and engineers, protects life and property, and fosters exploration. It is, however, threatened by new financial demands placed on NASA by the return to human space flight using the space shuttle, finishing the space station, and launching the Moon-Mars initiative.

  7. Jupiter's Hot, Mushy Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Jupiter's moon Io is the most volcanically active body in the Solar System. Observations by instruments on the Galileo spacecraft and on telescopes atop Mauna Kea in Hawai'i indicate that lava flows on Io are surprisingly hot, over 1200 oC and possibly as much as 1300 oC; a few areas might have lava flows as hot as 1500 oC. Such high temperatures imply that the lava flows are composed of rock that formed by a very large amount of melting of Io's mantle. This has led Laszlo Keszthelyi and Alfred S. McEwen of the University of Arizona and me to reawaken an old hypothesis that suggests that the interior of Io is a partially-molten mush of crystals and magma. The idea, which had fallen out of favor for a decade or two, explains high-temperature hot spots, mountains, calderas, and volcanic plains on Io. If correct, Io gives us an opportunity to study processes that operate in huge, global magma systems, which scientists believe were important during the early history of the Moon and Earth, and possibly other planetary bodies as well. Though far from proven, the idea that Io has a ocean of mushy magma beneath its crust can be tested with measurements by future spacecraft.

  8. Parting Moon Shots from NASAs GRAIL Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-10

    Video of the moon taken by the NASA GRAIL mission's MoonKam (Moon Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students) camera aboard the Ebb spacecraft on Dec. 14, 2012. Features forward-facing and rear-facing views.

  9. The Moon in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Troland, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    The Moon's cycle of phases is one of the most familiar natural phenomena, yet also one of the most misunderstood. This probably comes as no surprise, but research has found that a significant segment of the population, including both elementary students and teachers, mistakenly believes that the Moon's phases are caused by the shadow of the Earth.…

  10. Field Trip to the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the geology of a single area of the Moon, the Imbrium Basin, and shows how geologists have combined basic geologic principles with evidence collected by the Apollo missions to learn more about the history of the Moon as a whole. In this article, the author discusses lunar geology teaching tips and mapping the Imbrium Basin…

  11. How High Is the Moon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    Presents background information on the method used by Hipparchus to determine the distance between the earth and the moon. Describes student activities that employ Hipparchus's Method and Aristarchus's Method for determining the relative distance of the sun and the moon from the earth and Eratosthenes's Method for finding the circumference of the…

  12. Full Moon and Empty Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauroesch, T. J.; Edinger, J. R., Jr.; Lauroesch, J. T.

    1996-01-01

    The hypothesis that weather is influenced by the occurrence of the full moon has been explored with respect to cloud coverage. Statistical analysis of 44 years of data has shown no apparent correlation between a clear sky and the occurrence of the full moon.

  13. EUVE observations of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, G. R.; McDonald, J. S.; Boyd, W. T.

    1993-03-01

    During its all-sky survey, the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite observed the Moon several times at first and last quarters, and once near the Dec. 10, 1992 lunar eclipse. We present a preliminary reduction and analysis of this data, in the form of EUV images of the Moon and derived albedos.

  14. Field Trip to the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the geology of a single area of the Moon, the Imbrium Basin, and shows how geologists have combined basic geologic principles with evidence collected by the Apollo missions to learn more about the history of the Moon as a whole. In this article, the author discusses lunar geology teaching tips and mapping the Imbrium Basin…

  15. How High Is the Moon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    Presents background information on the method used by Hipparchus to determine the distance between the earth and the moon. Describes student activities that employ Hipparchus's Method and Aristarchus's Method for determining the relative distance of the sun and the moon from the earth and Eratosthenes's Method for finding the circumference of the…

  16. The Moon in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Troland, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    The Moon's cycle of phases is one of the most familiar natural phenomena, yet also one of the most misunderstood. This probably comes as no surprise, but research has found that a significant segment of the population, including both elementary students and teachers, mistakenly believes that the Moon's phases are caused by the shadow of the Earth.…

  17. Compositional Balancing Before Moon Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2008-02-01

    A striking feature in the compositions of the Earth and Moon is their identical abundances of oxygen isotopes. Most planetary scientists agree that the Moon formed as the result of a giant impact with the proto-Earth. It explains some important characteristics about the Earth and Moon, such as why the Moon has a small metallic iron core, but planetary formation models suggest that the Moon ought to have a different oxygen isotopic composition than the Earth. Why is it the same? Kaveh Pahlevan and David Stevenson (Caltech) suggest that after the giant impact and before the Moon formed, Earth exchanged materials with the disk of magma and gas surrounding it, ironing out differences in their isotopic compositions. The process would take a couple of hundred years, about the time (100 to 1000 years) the disk would last before coalescing into the Moon. This interesting idea is far from proven, but it will undoubtedly lead to additional work because it has such great implication s for the compositions of the Earth and Moon, when Earth received its water, and how planets accreted from the cloud of gas and dust surrounding the primitive Sun.

  18. Small Moon Makes Big Waves

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-31

    Saturn small moon Daphnis is caught in the act of raising waves on the edges of the Keeler gap, which is the thin dark band in the left half of the image. Waves like these allow scientists to locate small moons in gaps and measure their masses.

  19. Family Portrait of Pluto Moons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-23

    This composite image shows a sliver of Pluto large moon, Charon, and all four of Pluto small moons, as resolved by the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) on the New Horizons spacecraft. All the moons are displayed with a common intensity stretch and spatial scale (see scale bar). Charon is by far the largest of Pluto's moons, with a diameter of 751 miles (1,212 kilometers). Nix and Hydra have comparable sizes, approximately 25 miles (40 kilometers) across in their longest dimension above. Kerberos and Styx are much smaller and have comparable sizes, roughly 6-7 miles (10-12 kilometers) across in their longest dimension. All four small moons have highly elongated shapes, a characteristic thought to be typical of small bodies in the Kuiper Belt. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20033

  20. Earthquakes - on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Information obtained with the Apollo lunar seismic stations is discussed. The four types of natural seismic sources that have been identified are described, viz., thermal moonquakes, deep moonquakes, meteoroid impacts, and shallow moonquakes. It is suggested that: (1) the thermal quakes represent the slow cracking and movement of surface rocks; (2) the deep quakes are induced by the tide-generating force of the earth's gravity; (3) the meteoroids responsible for most of the observed impacts are in the mass range from 1 to 100 kg and are clustered in groups near the earth's orbit; and (4) the shallow quakes are similar to intraplate earthquakes and indicate that the moon is as seismically active as the interior regions of the earth's tectonic plates. The structure of the lunar interior as inferred from seismic signals due to both the last three natural sources and 'artificial' impacts of used spacecraft is examined in detail.

  1. Shooting the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    This story is about an unlikely NASA mission to the Moon. It was unlikely because it was started with far too little time and too-little money to complete. It was unlikely because it was able to take chances to accept risk of failure. It was unlikely because it was searching for the unthinkable: water-ice on the moon... Figure 1-1: LCROSS Mission. The mission of the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) was to investigate the possibility of water ice in craters on the Moon s poles. This is certainly an interesting scientific topic in itself, but I intend to focus on the compelling experience of managing the LCROSS Project in the context of this storied Agency. Perhaps most interesting are the implications this story has for managing any development effort, lunar or not, and working a balance to achieve success. NASA is by design a risk-taking agency within the US Government. It could be argued that NASA s purpose in the aerospace community is to take on the really big challenges that either the corporate world can t afford, are not yet profitable endeavors, or are just too risky for private corporations to entertain. However, expectations of the Agency have evolved. A combination of grim human tragedies and some very public cost and schedule overruns have challenged the public s and Congress s tolerance for risk-taking within the Agency. NASA, which is supposed to be in the business of taking risks to do bold, difficult things, has become less and less able to do so within its cost framework. Yet effectively replacing prudent risk management with attempts to "risk-eliminate" is completely unaffordable. So where does risk-taking fit within the Agency, or within private/corporate organizations for that matter? Where astronauts play there is clearly concern about risk. When an organization puts humans in harm s way, it is understandably going to take extra effort to assure nobody gets hurt. Doing so, of course, costs money - a lot of money to pay for

  2. The Brick Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Science fiction writers, like Jules Verne in France and Edward Everett Hale in America, had discovered one of the most vital elements in the formula for space travel-a fertile imagination. The first known proposal for a marned-satellite appears in a story by Hale entitled 'The Brick Moon' published in 1899. The story involved a group of young Bostonians who planned to put an artificial satellite into polar orbit for sailors to use to determine longitude accurately and easily. They planned to send a brick satellite into orbit because the satellite would have to withstand fire very well. The Satellite's 37 inhabitants signaled the Earth in morse code by jumping up and down on the outside of the satellite.

  3. Martian Moon, Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-362, 16 May 2003

    Mars has two satellites, Phobos and Deimos. In August and September, 1998, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) had four opportunities for close fly-bys of the inner moon, Phobos. This spectacular view, taken from the MOC archives of over 123,000 images, shows the large crater, Stickney, toward the upper right. Grooves, or troughs, radiate outward from Stickney and are known from Viking and Mariner 9 images to be prevalent all over the surface of Phobos. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper right. Another view of Phobos from 1998 can be seen in: MOC2-66, 11 September 1998, 'Phobos.'

  4. Storms and Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) took this 2-millisecond exposure of Jupiter at 04:41:04 UTC on January 24, 2007. The spacecraft was 57 million kilometers (35.3 million miles) from Jupiter, closing in on the giant planet at 41,500 miles (66,790 kilometers) per hour. At right are the moons Io (bottom) and Ganymede; Ganymede's shadow creeps toward the top of Jupiter's northern hemisphere.

    Two of Jupiter's largest storms are visible; the Great Red Spot on the western (left) limb of the planet, trailing the Little Red Spot on the eastern limb, at slightly lower latitude. The Great Red Spot is a 300-year old storm more than twice the size of Earth. The Little Red Spot, which formed over the past decade from the merging of three smaller storms, is about half the size of its older and 'greater' counterpart.

  5. Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Profiles seven Black, Native American, and Chicano artists and art teachers: Hale A. Woodruff, Allan Houser, Luis Jimenez, Betrand D. Phillips, James E. Pate, I, and Fernando Navarro. This article is part of a theme issue on multicultural art. (SJL)

  6. Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Profiles seven Black, Native American, and Chicano artists and art teachers: Hale A. Woodruff, Allan Houser, Luis Jimenez, Betrand D. Phillips, James E. Pate, I, and Fernando Navarro. This article is part of a theme issue on multicultural art. (SJL)

  7. Moon shots for management.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Gary

    2009-02-01

    In May 2008, a group of management scholars and senior executives worked to define an agenda for management during the next 100 years. The so-called renegade brigade, led by Gary Hamel, included academics, such as C.K. Prahalad, Peter Senge, and Jeffrey Pfeffer; new-age thinkers, like James Surowiecki; and progressive CEOs, such as Whole Foods' John Mackey, W.L. Gore's Terri Kelly, and IDEO's Tim Brown. What drew them together was a set of shared beliefs about the importance of management and a sense of urgency about reinventing it for a new era. The group's first task was to compile a roster of challenges that would focus the energies of management innovators around the world. Accordingly, in this article, Hamel (who has set up the Management Lab, a research organization devoted to management innovation) outlines 25 "moon shots"--ambitious goals that managers should strive to achieve and in the process create Management 2.0. Topping the list is the imperative of extending management's responsibilities beyond just creating shareholder value. To do so will require both reconstructing the field's philosophical foundations so that work serves a higher purpose and fully embedding the ideas of community and citizenship into organizations. A number of challenges focus on ameliorating the toxic effects of hierarchy. Others focus on better ways to unleash creativity and capitalize on employees' passions. Still others seek to transcend the limitations of traditional patterns of management thinking. Not all the moon shots are new, but many tackle issues that are endemic in large organizations. Their purpose is to inspire new solutions to long-simmering problems by making every company as genuinely human as the people who work there.

  8. Return to the Moon: Lunar robotic science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1992-02-01

    There are two important aspects of the Moon and its materials which must be addressed in preparation for a manned return to the Moon and establishment of a lunar base. These involve its geologic science and resource utilization. Knowledge of the Moon forms the basis for interpretations of the planetary science of the terrestrial planets and their satellites; and there are numerous exciting explorations into the geologic science of the Moon to be conducted using orbiter and lander missions. In addition, the rocks and minerals and soils of the Moon will be the basic raw materials for a lunar outpost; and the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) of lunar materials must be considered in detail before any manned return to the Moon. Both of these fields -- planetary science and resource assessment -- will necessitate the collection of considerable amounts of new data, only obtainable from lunar-orbit remote sensing and robotic landers. For over fifteen years, there have been a considerable number of workshops, meetings, etc. with their subsequent 'white papers' which have detailed plans for a return to the Moon. The Lunar Observer mission, although grandiose, seems to have been too expensive for the austere budgets of the last several years. However, the tens of thousands of man-hours that have gone into 'brainstorming' and production of plans and reports have provided the precursor material for today's missions. It has been only since last year (1991) that realistic optimism for lunar orbiters and soft landers has come forth. Plans are for 1995 and 1996 'Early Robotic Missions' to the Moon, with the collection of data necessary for answering several of the major problems in lunar science, as well as for resource and site evaluation, in preparation for soft landers and a manned-presence on the Moon.

  9. Return to the Moon: Lunar robotic science missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two important aspects of the Moon and its materials which must be addressed in preparation for a manned return to the Moon and establishment of a lunar base. These involve its geologic science and resource utilization. Knowledge of the Moon forms the basis for interpretations of the planetary science of the terrestrial planets and their satellites; and there are numerous exciting explorations into the geologic science of the Moon to be conducted using orbiter and lander missions. In addition, the rocks and minerals and soils of the Moon will be the basic raw materials for a lunar outpost; and the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) of lunar materials must be considered in detail before any manned return to the Moon. Both of these fields -- planetary science and resource assessment -- will necessitate the collection of considerable amounts of new data, only obtainable from lunar-orbit remote sensing and robotic landers. For over fifteen years, there have been a considerable number of workshops, meetings, etc. with their subsequent 'white papers' which have detailed plans for a return to the Moon. The Lunar Observer mission, although grandiose, seems to have been too expensive for the austere budgets of the last several years. However, the tens of thousands of man-hours that have gone into 'brainstorming' and production of plans and reports have provided the precursor material for today's missions. It has been only since last year (1991) that realistic optimism for lunar orbiters and soft landers has come forth. Plans are for 1995 and 1996 'Early Robotic Missions' to the Moon, with the collection of data necessary for answering several of the major problems in lunar science, as well as for resource and site evaluation, in preparation for soft landers and a manned-presence on the Moon.

  10. Moon Mineralogy Mapper: Unlocking the Mysteries of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runyon, Cassandra

    2006-01-01

    Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) is a state-of-the-art high spectral resolution imaging spectrometer that will characterize and map the mineral composition of the Moon. The M3 instrument will be flown on Chandrayaan-I, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) mission to be launched in March 2008. The Moon is a cornerstone to understanding early solar system processes. M3 high-resolution compositional maps will dramatically improve our understanding about the early evolution of the terrestrial planets and will provide an assessment of lunar resources at high spatial resolution.

  11. Low energy ion distribution around the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Y.; Yokota, S.; Tanaka, T.; Asamura, K.; Nishino, M. N.; Yamamoto, T.; Tsunakawa, H.

    2009-04-01

    originating from the solar wind ions reflected/scattered at the lunar surface and are picked up and accelerated by the solar wind convection electric field, and 4) Ions originating from the lunar surface/lunar atmosphere. The flux of the solar wind ions scattered at the lunar surface is less than about 1% of the incident solar wind ions. They have lower energy than the incident solar wind ions since part of the energy is lost when solar wind ions collide with the Moon surface. Though solar wind consists of alpha particles as a second major component, the scattered ions consist of almost no alpha particles. When KAGUYA flew over South Pole Aitken region, where strong magnetic anomalies exist, solar wind ions reflected by magnetic anomalies are observed. Different from the ions scattered at the lunar surface, these reflected ions have nearly the same energy as the incident solar wind ions. When reflected ions are observed, the simultaneously measured electrons are often heated and the incident solar wind ions are sometimes slightly decelerated. The reflected/scattered ions are picked up by the solar wind convection electric field and they are accelerated viewed from the Moon reference frame. Since these ions have initial velocity that is as fast as the incident solar wind ions, the maximum possible acceleration is three times the solar wind velocity that is different from the pickup acceleration of the ionized neutral particles that has been observed around comets where the maximum acceleration is twice the solar wind velocity. Another important discovery of IMA is the first in-situ measurements of the alkali ions originating from the Moon surface/atmosphere. The ions generated on the lunar surface by solar wind sputtering, solar photon stimulated desorption, or micro-meteorite vaporization are accelerated by the solar wind convection electric field and detected by IMA. The mass profiles of these ions show heavy ions including C+, N+, O+ and Na+/Mg+, K+/Ar+. Though the relation

  12. The full moon and ED patient volumes: unearthing a myth.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D A; Adams, S L

    1996-03-01

    To determine if there is any effect of the full moon on emergency department (ED) patient volume, ambulance runs, admissions, or admissions to a monitored unit, a retrospective analysis of the hospital electronic records of all patients seen in an ED during a 4-year period was conducted in an ED of a suburban community hospital. A full moon occurred 49 times during the study period. There were 150,999 patient visits to the ED during the study period, of which 34,649 patients arrived by ambulance. A total of 35,087 patients was admitted to the hospital and 11,278 patients were admitted to a monitored unit. No significant differences were found in total patient visits, ambulance runs, admissions to the hospital, or admissions to a monitored unit on days of the full moon. The occurrence of a full moon has no effect on ED patient volume, ambulance runs, admissions, or admissions to a monitored unit.

  13. MoonNEXT: A European Mission to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J. D.; Koschny, D.; Crawford, I.; Falcke, H.; Kempf, S.; Lognonne, P.; Ricci, C.; Houdou, B.; Pradier, A.

    2008-09-01

    MoonNEXT is a mission currently being studied, under the direction of the European Space Agency, whose launch is foreseen between 2015 and 2018. MoonNEXT is intended to prepare the way for future exploration activities on the Moon, while addressing key science questions. Exploration Objectives The primary goal for the MoonNEXT mission is to demonstrate autonomous soft precision landing with hazard avoidance; a key capability for future exploration missions. The nominal landing site is at the South Pole of the Moon, at the edge of the Aitken basin and in the region of Shackleton crater, which has been identified as an optimal location for a future human outpost by the NASA lunar architecture team [1]. This landing site selection ensures a valuable contribution by MoonNEXT to the Global Exploration Strategy [2]. MoonNEXT will also prepare for future lunar exploration activities by characterising the environment at the lunar surface. The potentially hazardous radiation environment will me monitored while a dedicated instrument package will investigate the levitation and mobility of lunar dust. Experience on Apollo demonstrated the potentially hazardous effects of dust for surface operations and human activities and so an understanding of these processes is important for the future. Life sciences investigations will be carried out into the effects of the lunar environment (including radiation, gravity and illumination conditions) on a man made ecosystem analogous to future life support systems. In doing so MoonNEXT will demonstrate the first extraterrestrial man made ecosystem and develop valuable expertise for future missions. Geological and geochemical investigations will explore the possibilities for In Situ Resource Utilisation (ISRU), which will be essential for long term human habitation on the Moon and is of particular importance at the proposed landing site, given its potential as a future habitat location. Science Objectives In addition to providing extensive

  14. MPST Software: MoonKommand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, John H.; Call, Jared A.; Khanampornpan, Teerapat

    2012-01-01

    This software automatically processes Sally Ride Science (SRS) delivered MoonKAM camera control files (ccf) into uplink products for the GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B spacecraft as part of an education and public outreach (EPO) extension to the Grail Mission. Once properly validated and deemed safe for execution onboard the spacecraft, MoonKommand generates the command products via the Automated Sequence Processor (ASP) and generates uplink (.scmf) files for radiation to the Grail-A and/or Grail-B spacecraft. Any errors detected along the way are reported back to SRS via email. With Moon Kommand, SRS can control their EPO instrument as part of a fully automated process. Inputs are received from SRS as either image capture files (.ccficd) for new image requests, or downlink/delete files (.ccfdl) for requesting image downlink from the instrument and on-board memory management. The Moon - Kommand outputs are command and file-load (.scmf) files that will be uplinked by the Deep Space Network (DSN). Without MoonKommand software, uplink product generation for the MoonKAM instrument would be a manual process. The software is specific to the Moon - KAM instrument on the GRAIL mission. At the time of this writing, the GRAIL mission was making final preparations to begin the science phase, which was scheduled to continue until June 2012.

  15. Numerical study on effects of lateral variations of Moon crustal thickness on lunar seismic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, F.; Wang, Y.; Jiang, X.

    2016-12-01

    Most recent results reveal drastic lateral variations of crustal thickness around craters on the Moon. Compared with the crust of the earth, the lunar crustal thickness has strong lateral variations, which can vary from as thin as almost zero kilometers to as thick as more than 60 kilometers. However, effects of drastic variations of crustal thickness on lunar seismic wave propagation are still not well understood. In this study we try to reveal how the variance in crustal thickness of the Moon affects the propagation of the lunar seismic waves by numerical simulation. Based on previous research results, we apply a 2-D staggered grid pseudospectral and finite difference hybrid method to perform numerical simulations of seismic wave propagation in a laterally heterogeneous Moon model. We use the newly published layered velocity model as the background model. As indicated by Jiang et al. (2015), scattering by random velocity perturbation in the upper lunar crust plays a fundamental role in lunar seismic wave propagation. Therefore, we consider the random velocity perturbation in upper crust in our model as well. A lateral varying moon crust model is designed, with one side thickness fixed and the other side varying. Stations are deployed at both sides to record lunar seismic waves generated from different kinds of sources, both shallow and deep moonquakes. An average lunar crustal thickness of 35 kilometers is designed as the contrast model. The simulation results demonstrate that the scattering and reverberation of the lunar seismic waves taper off where the crust is comparatively thin but gradually strengthens when the crust gets thick. The propagation of lunar seismic waves generated by shallow moonquakes is more affected by the variations of crustal thickness than that of deep moonquakes. We also conduct simulations based on several recent real lunar crustal profiles and get similar conclusions. This study can enhance our knowledge of lunar seismic wave

  16. Report of the Terrestrial Bodies Science Working Group. Volume 4: The moon. [lunar polar orbiter mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, L. A.; Duke, M. B.; Hubbard, N.; Johnson, T. V.; Malin, M. C.; Minear, J.

    1977-01-01

    A rationale for furture exploration of the moon is given. Topics discussed include the objectives of the lunar polar orbiter mission, the mission profile, and general characteristics of the spacraft to be used.

  17. Formation and composition of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    Many of the properties of the Moon, including the enrichment in Ca, Al, Ti, U, Th, Ba, Sr, and the REE and the depletion in Fe, Rb, K, Na, and other volatiles can be understood if the Moon represents a high-temperature condensate from the solar nebula. Thermodynamic calculations show that Ca-, Al-, and Ti-rich compounds condense first in a cooling nebula. The initial high temperature mineralogy is gehlenite, spinel, perovskite, Ca-Al-rich pyroxenes, and anorthite. Inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites such as the Allende meteorite are composed primarily of these minerals and, in addition, are highly enriched in refractories such as REE relative to carbonaceous chondrites. These inclusions can yield basalt and anorthosite in the proportions required to eliminate the europium anomaly, leaving a residual spinel-melilite interior. A deep interior high in Ca-Al does not imply an unacceptable mean density or moment of inertia for the Moon. The inferred high-U content of the lunar interior, both from the Allende analog and the high heat flow, indicates a high-temperature interior. The model is consistent with extensive early melting, with shallow melting at 3 AE, and with presently high deep internal temperatures. It is predicted that the outer 250 km is rich in plagioclase and FeO. The low iron content of the interior in this model raises the interior temperatures estimated from electrical conductivity by some 800 C.

  18. The moon as a high temperature condensate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    The accretion during condensation mechanism is used to explain the differences in composition of the terrestrial planets and the moon. Many of the properties of the moon, including the enrichment in Ca, Al, Ti, U, Th, Ba, Sr and the REE and the depletion in Fe, Rb, K, Na and other volatiles can be understood if the moon represents a high temperature condensate from the solar nebula. Thermodynamic calculations show that Ca, Al and Ti rich compounds condense first in a cooling nebula. The high temperature mineralogy is gehlenite, spinel perovskite, Ca-Al-rich pyroxenes and anorthite. The model is consistent with extensive early melting, shallow melting at 3 A.E. and with presently high speed internal temperatures. It is predicted that the outer 250 km is rich in plagioclase and FeO. The low iron content of the interior in this model raises the interior temperatures estimated from electrical conductivity by some 800 C. The lunar crust is 80 percent gabbroic anorthosite, 20 percent basalt and is about 250-270 km thick. The lunar mantle is probably composed of spinel, merwinite and diopside with a density of 3.4 g/cu cm.

  19. Mimicking the Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-03

    When Galileo first observed Venus displaying a crescent phase, he excitedly wrote to Kepler (in anagram) of Venus mimicking the moon-goddess. He would have been delirious with joy to see Saturn and Titan, seen in this image, doing the same thing. More than just pretty pictures, high-phase observations -- taken looking generally toward the Sun, as in this image -- are very powerful scientifically since the way atmospheres and rings transmit sunlight is often diagnostic of compositions and physical states. In this example, Titan's crescent nearly encircles its disk due to the small haze particles high in its atmosphere refracting the incoming light of the distant Sun. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 3 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken in violet light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Aug. 11, 2013. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.1 million miles (1.7 million kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 154 degrees. Image scale is 64 miles (103 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18291

  20. Moons In Hiding

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-21

    Prometheus and Pandora are almost hidden in Saturn's rings in this image. Prometheus (53 miles or 86 kilometers across) and Pandora (50 miles or 81 kilometers across) orbit along side Saturn's narrow F ring, which is shaped, in part, by their gravitational influences help to shape that ring. Their proximity to the rings also means that they often lie on the same line of sight as the rings, sometimes making them difficult to spot. In this image, Prometheus is the left most moon in the ring plane, roughly in the center of the image. Pandora is towards the right. This view looks toward the unilluminated side of the rings from about 0.3 degrees below the ring plane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on May 6, 2015. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 994,000 miles (1.6 million kilometers) from Prometheus and at a Sun-Prometheus-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 106 degrees. Image scale is 6 miles (10 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18334

  1. ESA proposes Moon initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    Upon the invitation of the Swiss Government, the European Space Agency (ESA) is organising from Tuesday 31 May to Friday 3 June 1994 an international workshop on present and future plans for study and exploration of the Moon. This meeting will be held in Beatenberg, Switzerland, and attended by European, Russian and Japanese national space agencies as well as by NASA, the National Aeraunotics & Space Administration. For the media : * - a presentation will be held by Prof. Roger M. Bonnet, ESA Director of Science, and Mr. Jean-Jacques Dordain, Associate Director for Strategy, Planning and International Policy, at ESA Headquarters (8-10, rue Mario Nikis - 75015-PARIS) at 09h00 during a press breakfast on Monday 30 May. An info note describing the main lunar studies which will be presented at the Beatenberg workshop will be distributed on this occasion. * - On Friday 3 June, the press is invited to attend the closing session of the Beatenberg workshop starting at 09h30. This session will be followed by a briefing with the chairmen of the working groups and a lunch.

  2. Bull-eye Moons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-14

    Like a cosmic bull's-eye, Enceladus and Tethys line up almost perfectly for Cassini's cameras. Since the two moons are not only aligned, but also at relatively similar distances from Cassini, the apparent sizes in this image are a good approximation of the relative sizes of Enceladus (313 miles or 504 kilometers across) and Tethys (660 miles or 1,062 kilometers across). This view looks toward the unilluminated side of the rings from 0.34 degrees below the ring plane. The image was taken in red light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Sept. 24, 2015. The image was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.3 million miles (2.1 million kilometers) from Enceladus. Image scale on Enceladus is 7 miles (12 kilometers) per pixel. Tethys was at a distance of 1.6 million miles (2.6 million kilometers) with a pixel scale of 10 miles (16 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18349

  3. Moon - 18 Image Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This mosaic picture of the Moon was compiled from 18 images taken with a green filter by Galileo's imaging system during the spacecraft's flyby on December 7, 1992, some 11 hours before its Earth flyby at 1509 UTC (7:09 a.m. Pacific Standard Time) December 8. The north polar region is near the top part of the mosaic, which also shows Mare Imbrium, the dark area on the left; Mare Serenitatis at center; and Mare Crisium, the circular dark area to the right. Bright crater rim and ray deposits are from Copernicus, an impact crater 96 kilometers (60 miles) in diameter. Computer processing has exaggerated the brightness of poorly illuminated features near the day/night terminator in the polar regions, giving a false impression of high reflectivity there. The digital image processing was done by DLR the German aerospace research establishment near Munich, an international collaborator in the Galileo mission. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  4. Two Tiny Moons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-03

    Two tiny moons of Saturn, almost lost amid the planet's enormous rings, are seen orbiting in this image. Pan, visible within the Encke Gap near lower-right, is in the process of overtaking the slower Atlas, visible at upper-left. All orbiting bodies, large and small, follow the same basic rules. In this case, Pan (17 miles or 28 kilometers across) orbits closer to Saturn than Atlas (19 miles or 30 kilometers across). According to the rules of planetary motion deduced by Johannes Kepler over 400 years ago, Pan orbits the planet faster than Atlas does. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 39 degrees above the ring plane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on July 9, 2016. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 3.4 million miles (5.5 million kilometers) from Atlas and at a Sun-Atlas-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 71 degrees. Image scale is 21 miles (33 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20501

  5. Where Is the Moon Tonight?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Susann M.; Cornell, Kevin F.; Basista, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the activities that fifth-grade students experienced when learning about the moon, its phases, and eclipses. It illustrates how mathematics and science can be integrated to enhance the learning of both. (Contains 3 figures.)

  6. Ocean Inside Saturn Moon Enceladus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-03

    Gravity measurements by NASA Cassini spacecraft and Deep Space Network suggest that Saturn moon Enceladus, which has jets of water vapor and ice gushing from its south pole, also harbors a large interior ocean beneath an ice shell.

  7. Hints of a Shrinking Moon?

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Newly discovered cliffs in the lunar crust indicate the moon shrank globally in the geologically recent past and might still be shrinking today, according to a team analyzing new images from NASA's...

  8. How Is Your Moon Geography?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlathery, Glenn

    1971-01-01

    Describes geography of the moon. A brief history of selenographic history is given and basic features including lunar seas, mountains, craters, rays, and faults are described. Lunar photographs are included. (JM)

  9. The Moon Beams on Westlake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Jeanne E.

    1979-01-01

    Presented is a community's experience with a lunar sample education kit containing actual pieces of moon rocks and soil on loan from NASA. School and community activities including mini-labs, seminars, and lunar sample viewing sessions, are described. (SA)

  10. Lunar Orbiter: Moon and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The worlds first view of the Earth taken by a spacecraft from the vicinity of the Moon. The photo was transmitted to Earth by the United States Lunar Orbiter I and recieved at the NASA tracking station at Robledo de Chavela near Madrid, Spain. This crescent of the Earth was photographed August 23 at 16:35 GMT when the spacecraft was on its 16th orbit and just about to pass behind the Moon. This is the view the astronauts will have when they come around the backside of the Moon and face the Earth. The Earth is shown on the left of the photo with the U.S. east coast in the upper left, southern Europe toward the dark or night side of the Earth, and Antartica at the bottom of the Earth crescent. The surface of the Moon is shown on the right side of the photograph.

  11. Gravity Anomaly Intersects Moon Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-05

    A linear gravity anomaly intersecting the Crisium basin on the nearside of the moon has been revealed by NASA GRAIL mission. The GRAIL gravity gradient data are shown at left, with the location of the anomaly indicated.

  12. Gardening Rates on the Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The narrow-angle camera (LROC NAC) aboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has photographed a large percentage of the moon's surface multiple times. By looking for differences between earl...

  13. LRO Takes the Moon's Temperature

    NASA Image and Video Library

    During the June 2011 lunar eclipse, scientists will be able to get a unique view of the moon. While the sun is blocked by the Earth, LRO's Diviner instrument will take the temperature on the lunar ...

  14. Where Is the Moon Tonight?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Susann M.; Cornell, Kevin F.; Basista, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the activities that fifth-grade students experienced when learning about the moon, its phases, and eclipses. It illustrates how mathematics and science can be integrated to enhance the learning of both. (Contains 3 figures.)

  15. Shirakatsi Crater on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunyan, G. S.

    2014-10-01

    One of the Moon's craters is named after Anania Shirakatsi. It was named due to Viktor Ambartsumian's application to the International Astronomical Union. The crater has 51km diameter and is coupled with the neighboring crater Dobrovolski.

  16. The Next 'Moon Shot' Moment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    For the 50th anniversary of President Kennedy's speech to Congress, when he challenged our nation to land a man on the moon and return him safely to Earth, five NASA Langley employees answered the ...

  17. Invisible Colors of the Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-24

    Data from NASA Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument on the Indian Space Research Organization Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft reveal subtle and previously unknown lunar diversity and features. Animation available at the Photojournal.

  18. Space Science in Action: Moon [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This videotape recording answers key questions about the Moon such as, What keeps it revolving around the Earth?, Why do we see only one side of the Moon?, and What is the origin of the Moon? Students learn about how the Moon has been studied throughout history, including recent lunar missions, its phases, eclipses, and how it causes tides on…

  19. Space Science in Action: Moon [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This videotape recording answers key questions about the Moon such as, What keeps it revolving around the Earth?, Why do we see only one side of the Moon?, and What is the origin of the Moon? Students learn about how the Moon has been studied throughout history, including recent lunar missions, its phases, eclipses, and how it causes tides on…

  20. More Surprises from the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Noah

    2011-01-01

    Even with the naked eye, the dark, extensive plains of the lunar maria can be clearly seen on the surface of the Moon. The maria formed after meteorite impacts created large craters that later filled with lava flows. Mare volcanism is the dominant type of volcanic activity on the Moon and the lavas are made up of basaltic rocks. However, non-mare volcanic deposits, though rare, have been observed on the lunar nearside. The deposits are distinguished from the maria because they are compositionally more evolved rich in silica, potassium and thorium. The deposits are limited in surface extent and it was unknown whether similar non-mare volcanism occurred at all on the Moon s farside. Writing in Nature Geoscience, Jolliff et al. report using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter images and compositional data to identify the rare occurrence of more compositionally evolved volcanic deposits in an isolated area on the Moon s farside. In the 1960s and 1970s, rock and soil samples were collected by the Apollo and Luna missions, by the USA and USSR respectively. This material represents a geologic treasure trove that continues to provide a wealth of information about the Moon and its evolution, and it was a very small fraction of these samples that gave the first hint that non-mare volcanic activity might have occurred. The samples contained fragments of complex volcanic rocks that were unrelated to the maria basalts. Violent bombardment of the Moon by meteorite impacts has caused significant mixing of the rocks at its surface, so the fragments could have had a source hundreds or thousands of kilometres away. The origin of the fragments was unknown. Several decades later, the Lunar Prospector mission used a gamma-ray spectrometer to map the distribution and abundance of various elements, including thorium, on the Moon s surface. The maps identified a distinct and large area of high thorium concentration, as well as several smaller, but equally peculiar areas of high thorium

  1. More Surprises from the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Noah

    2011-01-01

    Even with the naked eye, the dark, extensive plains of the lunar maria can be clearly seen on the surface of the Moon. The maria formed after meteorite impacts created large craters that later filled with lava flows. Mare volcanism is the dominant type of volcanic activity on the Moon and the lavas are made up of basaltic rocks. However, non-mare volcanic deposits, though rare, have been observed on the lunar nearside. The deposits are distinguished from the maria because they are compositionally more evolved rich in silica, potassium and thorium. The deposits are limited in surface extent and it was unknown whether similar non-mare volcanism occurred at all on the Moon s farside. Writing in Nature Geoscience, Jolliff et al. report using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter images and compositional data to identify the rare occurrence of more compositionally evolved volcanic deposits in an isolated area on the Moon s farside. In the 1960s and 1970s, rock and soil samples were collected by the Apollo and Luna missions, by the USA and USSR respectively. This material represents a geologic treasure trove that continues to provide a wealth of information about the Moon and its evolution, and it was a very small fraction of these samples that gave the first hint that non-mare volcanic activity might have occurred. The samples contained fragments of complex volcanic rocks that were unrelated to the maria basalts. Violent bombardment of the Moon by meteorite impacts has caused significant mixing of the rocks at its surface, so the fragments could have had a source hundreds or thousands of kilometres away. The origin of the fragments was unknown. Several decades later, the Lunar Prospector mission used a gamma-ray spectrometer to map the distribution and abundance of various elements, including thorium, on the Moon s surface. The maps identified a distinct and large area of high thorium concentration, as well as several smaller, but equally peculiar areas of high thorium

  2. Lunar Orbiter I - Moon & Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    First view of the earth and moon from space. Published in: Spaceflight Revolution: Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, by James R. Hansen. NASA History Series. NASA SP ; 4308. p ii. Caption: 'The picture of the century was this first view of the earth from space. Lunar Orbiter I took the photo on 23 August 1966 on its 16th orbit just before it passed behind the moon. The photo also provided a spectacular dimensional view of the lunar surface.'

  3. Infrared astronomy from the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Dan

    1988-01-01

    The Moon offers some remarkable opportunities for performing infrared astronomy. Although the transportation overhead can be expected to be very large compared with that for facilities in Earth orbit, certain aspects of the lunar environment should allow significant simplifications in the design of telescopes with background limited performance, at least in some parts of the thermal infrared spectrum. Why leave the Earth to perform infrared astronomy is addressed as is the reasons for going all the way to the Moon for its environment.

  4. Moon 101: Introducing Students to Lunar Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Moon 101 is designed with the purpose of familiarizing students with lunar geology and exploration. Armed with guiding questions, students read articles covering various lunar science topics and browse images from past and current lunar missions to familiarize themselves with available lunar data sets. Moon 101 was originally created for high school students preparing to conduct open-inquiry, lunar research. Most high school students' knowledge of lunar science is limited to lunar phases and tides, and their knowledge of lunar exploration is close to non-existent. Moon 101 provides a summary of the state of knowledge of the Moon's formation and evolution, and the exploration that has helped inform the lunar science community. Though designed for high school students, Moon 101 is highly appropriate for the undergraduate classroom, especially at the introductory level where resources for teaching lunar science are scarce. Moon 101 is comprised of two sections covering lunar science (formation and geologic evolution of the Moon) and one section covering lunar exploration. Students read information on the formation and geologic evolution of the Moon from sources such as the Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) website and the USGS professional paper A Geologic History of the Moon by Wilhelms. While these resources are not peer-reviewed journals, the information is presented at a level more advanced than articles from newspapers and popular science magazines. This ensures that the language is accessible to students who do not have a strong lunar/planetary science background, or a strong science background in general. Formation readings include information on older and current formation hypotheses, including the Giant Impact Hypothesis, the Magma Ocean hypothesis, and the age of the lunar crust. Lunar evolution articles describe ideas such as the Late Heavy Bombardment and geologic processes such as volcanism and impact cratering. After reading the articles

  5. The Inside of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Roger J.

    2008-09-01

    Fundamental questions remain regarding the lunar interior, e.g.: Why did the Moon apparently cool so early? Why does the Moon have an asymmetric structure (nearside/farside)? What is the thickness of the lunar crust? How much of crustal variability is due to variable melting vs. impact redistribution? How big are impact basins and how deep did they excavate and thermally perturb the mantle? What was the temporal evolution of magmatism and brecciation? Did the mantle overturn subsequent to magma ocean solidification? How laterally heterogeneous is the lunar mantle? Does the Moon have a seismic discontinuity in the mantle? Does the Moon have a core? Does the Moon have a liquid outer core? Did the Moon have a core dynamo? Some of these questions will be at least partially answered in the next several years through new spacecraft investigations such as the GRAIL mission, which will map the lunar gravity field to unprecedented spatial resolution and accuracy. Furthermore, a long-lived, multi-station seismic network is also essential for understanding interior structure. Recent analyses of Apollo seismic data call into question the existence of the mantle discontinuity at 500-km depth, and the thickness of the lunar crust beneath the Apollo 12 and 14 landing sites now has multiple estimates. However, there is still a great deal that can be learned from existing lunar data sets. One productive approach would construct a set of self-consistent models that describe the coupled petrological-thermal evolution of the Moon. Such an investigation involves the high-level marriage of detailed petrological information from samples of the lunar crust and possibly mantle; of models that can predict accurately lunar solidi, liquidi, and equilibrium compositions; and of sophisticated thermal models that accurately incorporate the physics of melting and melt migration.

  6. Prevalence and Reliability of Phonological, Surface, and Mixed Profiles in Dyslexia: A Review of Studies Conducted in Languages Varying in Orthographic Depth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane; Siegel, Linda S.; Jimenez, Juan E.; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of orthographic transparency on the prevalence of dyslexia subtypes was examined in a review of multiple-case studies conducted in languages differing in orthographic depth (English, French, and Spanish). Cross-language differences are found in the proportion of dissociated profiles as a function of the dependent variables (speed or…

  7. The Impact of Stereo Display on Student Understanding of Phases of the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cid, Ximena C.; Lopez, Ramon E.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding lunar phases requires three-dimensional information about the relative positions of the Moon, Earth, and Sun, thus using a stereo display in instruction might improve student comprehension of lunar phases or other topics in basic astronomy. We conducted a laboratory (15 sections) on phases of the Moon as part of the introductory…

  8. A goal and strategy for human exploration of the moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivirotto, Donna Shirley

    1990-01-01

    Eventual settlement of the solar system, beginning with the moon and Mars, is proposed, and a strategy for the exploration of and initial settlement of the moon and Mars, based on the model of European settlement of the Americas, is discussed. Strategies suggest an allocation of functions between humans and telerobots to conduct the exploration and initial settlement.

  9. The Impact of Stereo Display on Student Understanding of Phases of the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cid, Ximena C.; Lopez, Ramon E.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding lunar phases requires three-dimensional information about the relative positions of the Moon, Earth, and Sun, thus using a stereo display in instruction might improve student comprehension of lunar phases or other topics in basic astronomy. We conducted a laboratory (15 sections) on phases of the Moon as part of the introductory…

  10. Moon illusion in pictures: a multimechanism approach.

    PubMed

    Coren, S; Aks, D J

    1990-05-01

    The existence of the moon illusion in pictorial representations was demonstrated in 6 experiments. Ss either judged the size of the moon in pictures, depicted as on the horizon or high in the sky, or drew horizon and elevated moons. The horizon moon was consistently judged to be larger than the elevated moon, independent of the angle at which the pictures are viewed. The distance paradox usually observed with the moon illusion (horizon moon apparently closer than the elevated moon) also exists in pictures. The magnitude of both size and distance effects depends on the salience of depicted depth cues. The pattern of results suggests that the moon illusion is caused by several interacting mechanisms and that use of pictorial stimuli may allow the separation of various cognitive from physiological contributions to the illusion.

  11. International Observe the Moon Night

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-18

    Visitors get a rare opportunity to view laser beams pointed at the moon at Optical Site. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Debbie Mccallum On September 18, 2010 the world joined the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Visitor Center in Greenbelt, Md., as well as other NASA Centers to celebrate the first annual International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN). To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/features/2010/moon-nigh... NASA Goddard Space Flight Center contributes to NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s endeavors by providing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  12. International Observe the Moon Night

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-18

    A young girl sees the moon through one of many telescopes set up at VC. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Debbie Mccallum On September 18, 2010 the world joined the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Visitor Center in Greenbelt, Md., as well as other NASA Centers to celebrate the first annual International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN). To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/features/2010/moon-nigh... NASA Goddard Space Flight Center contributes to NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s endeavors by providing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  13. Tracking Apollo to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Hamish

    This is perhaps the most complete, detailed and readable story of manned space-flight ever published. Beginning with the historical origins of the dream of walking on the Moon, Tracking Apollo to the Moon is the complete story of manned spaceflight, from the earliest Mercury and Gemini flights through to the end of the Apollo era.In readable, fascinating detail, Hamish Lindsay - who was directly involved in all three programs - chronicles mankind's greatest adventure with a great narrative, interviews, quotes and masses of photographs, including some previously unpublished.As well as bringing the history of these missions to life Tracking Apollo to the Moon serves as a detailed reference for space enthusiasts and students. Having seen the manuscript, the Smithsonian requested two copies of the finished book, and Buzz Aldrin asked for five!

  14. International Observe the Moon Night

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    A young boy views the moon through a hand made telescope at VC. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Debbie Mccallum On September 18, 2010 the world joined the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Visitor Center in Greenbelt, Md., as well as other NASA Centers to celebrate the first annual International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN). To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/features/2010/moon-nigh... NASA Goddard Space Flight Center contributes to NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s endeavors by providing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  15. The Habitability of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herczeg, Tibor

    Following the vague guesswork of some writers in antiquity, early telescopic astronomy was strongly preoccupied with the ``World in the Moone.'' About the same time, as Kepler's charming ``Dream'' appeared posthumously, Wilkins set out to prove that there was no contradiction ``with reason or faith'' if we assumed the habitability of the Moon. For about two hundred years, this hypothesis remained quite popular (Cyrano, Fontenelle, Huygens) particularly among the wider public. That in spite of the reverberations, for instance, of the Whewell-Brewster controversy over the habitability of planets, now largely forgotten. On this background, the success of the famous ``Moon hoax of 1835'' seems more understandable. It was only in the middle of the 19th century that this idea began to slowly fade as the lack of lunar atmosphere became more and more obvious. The scientific evidence was mainly in connection with the lunar occultations (Bessel, John Herschel, and others), and also with the well-observed total solar eclipse of 1842. Yet, even later, rather fanciful assumptions about the lunar atmosphere collecting on the invisible far side of the Moon kept a modicum of believability alive for some years. Ultimately, however, the ``Selenites'' wandered over into the domain of science fiction -- the best representative being perhaps Wells' utopia in the ``First Men on the Moon'' exploring the inside of the Moon. The scientific studies concentrated more on the rather frustrating topic of lunar surface variations such as the disappearance of the crater Linnae. Nevertheless, as late as the 1960's, a possibly overly cautious NASA was ready to quarantine the returning Apollo astronauts, paying homage, perhaps, to the panspermia hypothesis.

  16. Resource Production on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    A self-sustaining settlement on the moon, or on other airless bodies such as asteroids, will require the ability to refine desired raw materials from available resources, such as lunar or asteroidal regolith. This work will focus on the example case of pro-duction from lunar regolith. The same process sequences could be used at other locations. Stony asteroids typically have regolith similar to that of the moon, and refining of asteroidal material could use the same techniques, adapted for microgravity. Likewise, Martian rock and soil could also be processed by the techniques discussed here.

  17. Astronauts Capture Moon Illusion Photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Many odd looking moon photos have been captured over the years by astronauts aboard the International Space Station. Even so, this photograph, taken by the crew over Russia on May 11, 2003, must have come as a surprise. The moon which is really a quarter of a million miles away, appears to be floating inside the Earth's atmosphere. The picture is tricky because of its uneven lighting. With the sun's elevation angle at only 6 degrees, night is falling on the left side of the image while it is still broad daylight on the right side. This gradient of sunlight is the key to the illusion.

  18. The Moon; twenty years later

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerr, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    The 20th anniversary of the first landing on the Moon occurred on July 21, 1989. The vast majority of the Moon rocks collected by the Apollo mission astronauts await further study in the continuing effort to unravel the origin and evolution of Earth's nearest neighbor. Not that the 382-kilogram treasure trove of lunar samples has been gathering dust in the Planetary Materials Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center in Houston. It is just that lunar scientists are being very sparing in their use of the rocks. 

  19. What's new on the moon?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    As a result of the Apollo program and other lunar probes, questions that remained unsolved during centuries of speculation and scientific study can now be answered concerning the composition, core, surface, age, and history of the moon. Data obtained from lunar samples and instruments on the lunar surface are being used to gain insight into the history of the earth and the other planets, planetary evolution, the development of planetary magnetic fields, the nature of the solar wind, and how the Sun operates. Projects suggested for using the moon to increase understanding of geophysics are described.

  20. Astronauts Capture Moon Illusion Photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Many odd looking moon photos have been captured over the years by astronauts aboard the International Space Station. Even so, this photograph, taken by the crew over Russia on May 11, 2003, must have come as a surprise. The moon which is really a quarter of a million miles away, appears to be floating inside the Earth's atmosphere. The picture is tricky because of its uneven lighting. With the sun's elevation angle at only 6 degrees, night is falling on the left side of the image while it is still broad daylight on the right side. This gradient of sunlight is the key to the illusion.

  1. Young Children's Knowledge about the Moon: A Complex Dynamic System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Grady J.; Louisell, Robert D.; Wilhelm, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to use a multidimensional theoretical framework to examine young children's knowledge about the Moon. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and the design was a multiple case study of ten children between the ages of three and eight from the USA and Australia. A detailed, semi-structured interview…

  2. Rings Around the Sun and Moon: Coronae and Diffraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Les; Laven, Philip; Vollmer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric optical effects can teach much about physics and especially optics. Coronae--coloured rings around the sun or moon--are large-scale consequences of diffraction, which is often thought of as only a small effect confined to the laboratory. We describe coronae, how they are formed and experiments that can be conducted on ones in the sky.…

  3. Young Children's Knowledge about the Moon: A Complex Dynamic System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Grady J.; Louisell, Robert D.; Wilhelm, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to use a multidimensional theoretical framework to examine young children's knowledge about the Moon. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and the design was a multiple case study of ten children between the ages of three and eight from the USA and Australia. A detailed, semi-structured interview…

  4. Mission Activity Planning for Humans and Robots on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, C.; Shelton, K.; Lincoln, W.; Elfes, A.; Smith, J.H.; Mrozinski, J.; Hua, H.; Adumitroaie, V.; Silberg, R.

    2008-01-01

    A series of studies is conducted to develop a systematic approach to optimizing, both in terms of the distribution and scheduling of tasks, scenarios in which astronauts and robots accomplish a group of activities on the Moon, given an objective function (OF) and specific resources and constraints. An automated planning tool is developed as a key element of this optimization system.

  5. Rings Around the Sun and Moon: Coronae and Diffraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Les; Laven, Philip; Vollmer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric optical effects can teach much about physics and especially optics. Coronae--coloured rings around the sun or moon--are large-scale consequences of diffraction, which is often thought of as only a small effect confined to the laboratory. We describe coronae, how they are formed and experiments that can be conducted on ones in the sky.…

  6. Electrical conductivity of old oceanic mantle in the northwestern Pacific I: 1-D profiles suggesting differences in thermal structure not predictable from a plate cooling model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Kiyoshi; Tada, Noriko; Matsuno, Tetsuo; Liang, Pengfei; Li, Ruibai; Zhang, Luolei; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Abe, Natsue; Hirano, Naoto; Ichiki, Masahiro; Utada, Hisashi

    2017-08-01

    Seafloor magnetotelluric (MT) experiments were recently conducted in two areas of the northwestern Pacific to investigate the nature of the old oceanic upper mantle. The areas are far from any tectonic activity, and "normal" mantle structure is therefore expected. The data were carefully analyzed to reduce the effects of coastlines and seafloor topographic changes, which are significant boundaries in electrical conductivity and thus distort seafloor MT data. An isotropic, one-dimensional electrical conductivity profile was estimated for each area. The profiles were compared with those obtained from two previous study areas in the northwestern Pacific. Between the four profiles, significant differences were observed in the thickness of the resistive layer beyond expectations based on cooling of homogeneous oceanic lithosphere over time. This surprising feature is now further clarified from what was suggested in a previous study. To explain the observed spatial variation, dynamic processes must be introduced, such as influence of the plume associated with the formation of the Shatsky Rise, or spatially non-uniform, small-scale convection in the asthenosphere. There is significant room of further investigation to determine a reasonable and comprehensive interpretation of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system beneath the northwestern Pacific. The present results demonstrate that electrical conductivity provides key information for such investigation.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Lunar LIGO and gravitational wave astronomy on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.; Lafave, Norman

    1994-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy continues to be one of the exploration concepts under consideration in NASA's strategy for conducting physics and astrophysics from the lunar surface. As with other proposals for new concepts in science and astronomy from the Moon, this one has a number of very interesting features which need to be developed further in order to assess them adequately. The possibility of robotic deployment of a gravitational wave antenna on the Moon in a triangular configuration and the question of closure on the third interferometer leg are discussed here.

  8. Lunar electrical conductivity, permeability,and temperature from Apollo magnetometer experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    Magnetometers were deployed at four Apollo sites on the moon to measure remanent and induced lunar magnetic fields. Measurements from this network of instruments were used to calculate the electrical conductivity, temperature, magnetic permeability, and iron abundance of the lunar interior. Global lunar fields due to eddy currents, induced in the lunar interior by magnetic transients, were analyzed to calculate and electrical conductivity profile for the moon, and those profiles were used to calculate the lunar temperature for an assumed lunar material of olivine. Simultaneous measurements by magnetometers on the lunar surface and in orbit around the moon were use to construct a whole-moon hysteresis curve, from which the global lunar magnetic permeability is determined. Total iron abundance (sum of iron in the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic states) was calculated for two assumed compositional models of the lunar interior. Other lunar models with an iron core and with a shallow iron-rich layer also discussed in light of the measured global lunar permeability. Simultaneous magnetic field and solar plasma pressure measurements show that the remanent fields at the Apollo 12 and 16 sites interact with, and are compressed by, the solar wind. Velocities and thicknesses of the earth's magnetopause and bow shock were also estimated from simultaneous magnetometer measurements.

  9. On the origin of the ionosphere at Moon : a study using results from Chandrayaan-I S-band radio occultation experiment and a photochemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kailasam Madathil, Ambili; Bhardwaj, Anil; Choudhary, Raj Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Using Chandrayaan-1 communication link between orbiter and ground (S-band frequency), the presence of ionosphere at Moon has been explored using Radio Occultation technique. Results obtained from the observations conducted between July 30 and August 14, 2009 show evidence for a possible existence of the Ionosphere at Moon. A few seconds before the occultation of Chandrayaan-1 radio signals, extra fluctuation in the rate of change of difference between the theoretically estimated Doppler and observed Doppler was observed. The fluctuation was more pronounced when the probing radio waves were crossing through the day-night terminator. Using standard onion-peeling technique to invert the phase changes in radio signals to the refractivity of the medium, we estimated the bending angle and hence the electron density profiles for the Lunar medium. The estimated electron density near the Lunar surface was of the order of 400 - 1000 cm ^{-3} which decreased monotonically with increasing altitude till about 40 km above the surface where it became negligible. The observed electron density was compared with the results from a model which was developed based on CHACE measurements abroad Moon Impact Probe of Chandrayaan-I. The model included the photo chemical reactions and solar wind interactions of the lunar plasma. We propose that the ionosphere over Moon could have molecular origin with H _{2}O ^{+},CO_{2} ^{+} and H_{3}O ^{+} as dominant ions.

  10. NEXT GENERATION OF TELESCOPES OR DYNAMICS REQUIRED TO DETERMINE IF EXO-MOONS HAVE PROGRADE OR RETROGRADE ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Karen M.; Fujii, Yuka

    2014-08-20

    We survey the methods proposed in the literature for detecting moons of extrasolar planets in terms of their ability to distinguish between prograde and retrograde moon orbits, an important tracer of the moon formation channel. We find that most moon detection methods, in particular, sensitive methods for detecting moons of transiting planets, cannot observationally distinguishing prograde and retrograde moon orbits. The prograde and retrograde cases can only be distinguished where the dynamical evolution of the orbit due to, e.g., three body effects is detectable, where one of the two cases is dynamically unstable, or where new observational facilities, which can implement a technique capable of differentiating the two cases, come online. In particular, directly imaged planets are promising targets because repeated spectral and photometric measurements, which are required to determine moon orbit direction, could also be conducted with the primary interest of characterizing the planet itself.

  11. The Coverage Analysis for Moon-based Platform at Three- Polar Regions on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YE, Hanlin; GUO, Huadong; LIU, Guang

    2016-11-01

    More and more attention has been paid to taking the Earth as a whole for researching. Though space-borne and airborne platform have acquired various data from the Earth, the existing Earth observation system lack the ability of long-term continuous observation at a global scale. We propose a new platform, Moon-based platform, which is used for observing Earth from the Moon and discuss the coverage performance for observing Three-polar regions. Three-polar regions is characterized by its large scale and need long-term observation. Moon-based platform is the ideal platform. The coverage performance of the Moon-based platform depends on Moon orbit parameters, the attitude of the Moon and the attitude of the Earth. The position of the Moon are calculated from Jet Propulsion Laboratory ephemerides. The attitude of the Moon calculated from the libration Euler angles and the attitude of the Earth derived from the Earth orientation parameters. After introducing the coordinate system transformation, a preliminary coverage geometry are conducted. With the help of coverage geometry model, the simulation about Three- polar regions is presented. The result shows that the Moon-based platform has the advantages of large observing areas, long observation time windows and rich observing angles combination.

  12. Below and above boiling point comparison of microwave irradiation and conductive heating for municipal sludge digestion under identical heating/cooling profiles.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Koupaie, E; Eskicioglu, C

    2015-01-01

    This research provides a comprehensive comparison between microwave (MW) and conductive heating (CH) sludge pretreatments under identical heating/cooling profiles at below and above boiling point temperatures. Previous comparison studies were constrained to an uncontrolled or a single heating rate due to lack of a CH equipment simulating MW under identical thermal profiles. In this research, a novel custom-built pressure-sealed vessel which could simulate MW pretreatment under identical heating/cooling profiles was used for CH pretreatment. No statistically significant difference was proven between MW and CH pretreatments in terms of sludge solubilization, anaerobic biogas yield and organics biodegradation rate (p-value>0.05), while statistically significant effects of temperature and heating rate were observed (p-value<0.05). These results explain the contradictory results of previous studies in which only the final temperature (not heating/cooling rates) was controlled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Origin, evolution and present thermal state of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, T. C.; Anderson, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    The relative absence of lunar volcanism in the last 3 b.y. and the Apollo 15 heat flow measurement suggest that present-day temperatures in the moon are approximately steady state to depths of 100 km. An exponential distribution of heat sources with depth is scaled by equating the surface heat flow to the integrated heat production of this exterior shell. Presumed present-day interior temperatures and the present-day surface heat flow of 30 ergs/cm2-sec are obtained. The estimated homogeneous concentrations of U, the chemistry of the lunar surface material and inferences to modest depth, and the short accretion time of the moon necessary to provide large-scale differentiation at 4.6 AE suggest that the moon had its origin in the rapid accretion of compounds first condensing from the protoplanetary nebula. The present thermal state of the moon may involve at least some partial melting through all the lunar interior deeper than 200 km. Such a thermal configuration is inconsistent neither with temperatures inferred from electrical conductivity studies nor with the nonhydrostatic shape of the moon.

  14. Backyard Astronomy: Observing Moon Phases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandou, Bob

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity involving the observation of moon phases that can provide a one-on-one learning experience and stimulate interaction between a child and an adult family member. This activity can also be initiated by teachers and outcomes can be integrated into the classroom science curriculum. (JRH)

  15. The Moon and Its Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urey, Harold C.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the origin of the Moon on the basis of the Apollo expeditions as an accumulated gas sphere at its very beginning and, later, a satellite captured by the Earth. Indicates that the model would be substantially believable if further observations should be proved to exist as estimated. (CC)

  16. Geochemical Exploration of the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Isidore

    1984-01-01

    Provides information based on explorations of the Apollo program about the geochemistry of the moon and its importance in developing an understanding of formation/evolution of the solar system. Includes description and some results of orbital remote sensing, lunar x-ray experiments, gamma-ray experiments, alpha-particle experiments, and the Apollo…

  17. Uranus Rings and Two Moons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-06-19

    Voyager 2 has discovered two hepherd satellites associated with the rings of Uranus. The two moons, designated 1986U7 and 1986U8, are seen here on either side of the bright epsilon ring; all nine of the known Uranian rings are visible.

  18. The Moon and Its Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urey, Harold C.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the origin of the Moon on the basis of the Apollo expeditions as an accumulated gas sphere at its very beginning and, later, a satellite captured by the Earth. Indicates that the model would be substantially believable if further observations should be proved to exist as estimated. (CC)

  19. Geminid Meteors Impact the Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Earth wasn’t the only celestial body to be treated to a Geminid showin December -- the moon also got in on the action! This video shows aGeminid impact flash in the upper right corner. The ...

  20. Topographic mapping of the Moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, S.S.C.

    1985-01-01

    Contour maps of the Moon have been compiled by photogrammetric methods that use stereoscopic combinations of all available metric photographs from the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions. The maps utilize the same format as the existing NASA shaded-relief Lunar Planning Charts (LOC-1, -2, -3, and -4), which have a scale of 1:2 750 000. The map contour interval is 500m. A control net derived from Apollo photographs by Doyle and others was used for the compilation. Contour lines and elevations are referred to the new topographic datum of the Moon, which is defined in terms of spherical harmonics from the lunar gravity field. Compilation of all four LOC charts was completed on analytical plotters from 566 stereo models of Apollo metric photographs that cover approximately 20% of the Moon. This is the first step toward compiling a global topographic map of the Moon at a scale of 1:5 000 000. ?? 1985 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  1. Far Side of the Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-02-08

    This image of the moon was obtained by the Galileo Solid State imaging system on Dec. 8 at 7 p.m. PST as NASA Galileo spacecraft passed the Earth and was able to view the lunar surface from a vantage point not possible from the Earth. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00225

  2. Geochemical Exploration of the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Isidore

    1984-01-01

    Provides information based on explorations of the Apollo program about the geochemistry of the moon and its importance in developing an understanding of formation/evolution of the solar system. Includes description and some results of orbital remote sensing, lunar x-ray experiments, gamma-ray experiments, alpha-particle experiments, and the Apollo…

  3. Backyard Astronomy: Observing Moon Phases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandou, Bob

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity involving the observation of moon phases that can provide a one-on-one learning experience and stimulate interaction between a child and an adult family member. This activity can also be initiated by teachers and outcomes can be integrated into the classroom science curriculum. (JRH)

  4. Moon Park: A research and educational facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuriki, Kyoichi; Saito, Takao; Ogawa, Yukimasa

    1992-01-01

    Moon Park has been proposed as an International Space Year (ISY) event for international cooperative efforts. Moon Park will serve as a terrestrial demonstration of a prototype lunar base and provide research and educational opportunities. The kind of data that can be obtained in the Moon Park facilities is examined taking the minimum number of lunar base residents as an example.

  5. Settlement of the moon and ventures beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keaton, Paul W.

    1987-01-01

    The formation of a permanent base on the moon following the establishment of the Space Station is proposed. The characteristics of the moon which make it advantageous for exploration and as a base are described. Consideration is given to lunar resources, the solar flare problem, and the cost of developing a moon base.

  6. The Moon: Been there, done that?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Lunar science is planetary science. Lunar samples teach us about the formation and evolution of the Moon, and the history of all the planets. The Moon is a cornerstone for all rocky planets, since it formed and evolved similarly to Earth, Mars, Mercury, Venus, and large asteroids. Lunar robotic missions provide important science and engineering objectives, and keep our eyes on the Moon.

  7. Dream recall and the full moon.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Fulda, Stephany; Reinhard, Iris

    2006-02-01

    There is ongoing debate on whether the full moon is associated with sleep and dreaming. The analysis of diaries kept by the participants (N = 196) over 28 to 111 nights showed no association of a full moon and dream recall. Psychological factors might explain why some persons associate a full moon with increased dream recall.

  8. Europa--Jupiter's Icy Ocean Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowes, L.

    1999-01-01

    Europa is a puzzle. The sixth largest moon in our solar system, Europa confounds and intrigues scientists. Few bodies in the solar system have attracted as much scientific attention as this moon of Jupiter because of its possible subsurface ocean of water. The more we learn about this icy moon, the more questions we have.

  9. Update on Pluto's Tiniest Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showalter, Mark; Weaver, Harold; Buie, Marc; Merline, Douglas; Mutchler, Max; Soummer, Remi; Steffl, Andrew; Stern, S. Alan; Throop, Henry; Young, Leslie

    2013-04-01

    We report on the discovery and subsequent analysis of "P5", Pluto¹s fifth known moon (officially designated S/2012 (134340) 1), and also provide an update on the latest results for "P4" (S/2012 (134340) 1). P5 was discovered in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images from June and July 2012, and has since been recovered in HST images from 2011. P4, discovered in 2011, was imaged extensively by HST in 2012, and has also been recovered from archival images as far back as 2005. Preliminary orbital elements for P5 are: semimajor axis a = 42579 km; mean motion n = 17.8560 degrees/day; eccentricity e = 0.0048; inclination i = 0.88 degrees. For P4, these values are : a = 57711 km; n = 11.1910 degrees/day; e = 0.0029; i = 0.34 degrees. These values place the moons near, but not in, the 1:3 and 1:5 mean motion resonances with Charon, just as Nix and Hydra fall near the 1:4 and 1:6 resonances. While these associations are too close to have arisen by chance, the role of the near-resonances in the orbital history of the Pluto system is unknown. Photometry indicates that P5 is half as bright as P4 and ~ 5% is bright as Nix. This implies a diameter ~ 10 km if P5's albedo is 0.35, comparable to that of Charon. Searches for additional moons have been negative so far, suggesting that Pluto has no additional moons more than half as bright as P5 orbiting exterior to Charon. However, scattered light in the HST images prevents us from setting such a strict upper limit for any unseen moons interior to Charon's orbit.

  10. Elemental depth profiling in transparent conducting oxide thin film by X-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence combined analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotella, H.; Caby, B.; Ménesguen, Y.; Mazel, Y.; Valla, A.; Ingerle, D.; Detlefs, B.; Lépy, M.-C.; Novikova, A.; Rodriguez, G.; Streli, C.; Nolot, E.

    2017-09-01

    The optical and electrical properties of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films are strongly linked with the structural and chemical properties such as elemental depth profile. In R&D environments, the development of non-destructive characterization techniques to probe the composition over the depth of deposited films is thus necessary. The combination of Grazing-Incidence X-ray Fluorescence (GIXRF) and X-ray reflectometry (XRR) is emerging as a fab-compatible solution for the measurement of thickness, density and elemental profile in complex stacks. Based on the same formalism, both techniques can be implemented on the same experimental set-up and the analysis can be combined in a single software in order to refine the sample model. While XRR is sensitive to the electronic density profile, GIXRF is sensitive to the atomic density (i. e. the elemental depth profile). The combination of both techniques allows to get simultaneous information about structural properties (thickness and roughness) as well as the chemical properties. In this study, we performed a XRR-GIXRF combined analysis on indium-free TCO thin films (Ga doped ZnO compound) in order to correlate the optical properties of the films with the elemental distribution of Ga dopant over the thickness. The variation of optical properties due to annealing process were probed by spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. We studied the evolution of atomic profiles before and after annealing process. We show that the blue shift of the band gap in the optical absorption edge is linked to a homogenization of the atomic profiles of Ga and Zn over the layer after the annealing. This work demonstrates that the combination of the techniques gives insight into the material composition and makes the XRR-GIXRF combined analysis a promising technique for elemental depth profiling.

  11. Lunar electrical conductivity, permeability and temperature from Apollo magnetometer experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    Magnetometers were deployed at four Apollo sites on the moon to measure remanent and induced lunar magnetic fields. Measurements from this network of instruments were used to calculate the electrical conductivity, temperature, magnetic permeability, and iron abundance of the lunar interior. The measured lunar remanent fields range from 3 gammas minimum at the Apollo 15 site to 327 gammas maximum at the Apollo 16 site. Simultaneous magnetic field and solar plasma pressure measurements show that the remanent fields at the Apollo 12 and 16 sites interact with, and are compressed by, the solar wind. Remanent fields at Apollo 12 and Apollo 16 are increased 16 gammas and 32 gammas, respectively, by a solar plasma bulk pressure increase of 1.5 X 10 to the -7th power dynes/sq cm. Global lunar fields due to eddy currents, induced in the lunar interior by magnetic transients, were analyzed to calculate an electrical conductivity profile for the moon. From nightside magnetometer data in the solar wind it was found that deeper than 170 km into the moon the conductivity rises from .0003 mhos/m to .10 mhos/m at 100 km depth. Recent analysis of data obtained in the geomagnetic tail, in regions free of complicating plasma effects, yields results consistent with nightside values.

  12. Planetary Scientist Profile: Noah Petro

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Noah Petro is a NASA planetary geologist who studies the surface of airless bodies in space, primarily focusing on the moon. In this video profile, Noah talks about how he was inspired to become a ...

  13. Moon base reactor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  14. Moon base reactor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  15. Environment Challenges for Exploration of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Cooke, William B.; Howard, James W.; Parker, Linda N.; Sharp, John; Schunck, Greg; Suggs. Robert W.; Wang, Joseph W.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program is designing a new generation of human rated launch and space transportation vehicles to first replace the Space Shuttle fleet, then support develop of a permanent human habitat on the Moon, and ultimately prepare for human exploration of Mars. The ambitious first step beyond low Earth orbit is to develop the infrastructure required for conducting missions to a variety of locations on the lunar surface for periods of a week and establishment of a permanent settlement at one of the lunar poles where crews will serve for periods on the order of approx.200 days. We present an overview of the most challenging aspects of the lunar environment that will need to be addressed when developing transport and habitat infrastructure for long term human presence on the Moon including low temperatures and dusty regolith surfaces, radiation environments due to galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles, charging of lunar infrastructure when exposed to lunar plasma environments, and secondary meteor environments generated by primary impacts on the lunar surface.

  16. Searching for alien artifacts on the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. C. W.; Wagner, R. V.

    2013-08-01

    The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) has a low probability of success, but it would have a high impact if successful. Therefore it makes sense to widen the search as much as possible within the confines of the modest budget and limited resources currently available. To date, SETI has been dominated by the paradigm of seeking deliberately beamed radio messages. However, indirect evidence for extraterrestrial intelligence could come from any incontrovertible signatures of non-human technology. Existing searchable databases from astronomy, biology, earth and planetary sciences all offer low-cost opportunities to seek a footprint of extraterrestrial technology. In this paper we take as a case study one particular new and rapidly-expanding database: the photographic mapping of the Moon's surface by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to 0.5 m resolution. Although there is only a tiny probability that alien technology would have left traces on the moon in the form of an artifact or surface modification of lunar features, this location has the virtue of being close, and of preserving traces for an immense duration. Systematic scrutiny of the LRO photographic images is being routinely conducted anyway for planetary science purposes, and this program could readily be expanded and outsourced at little extra cost to accommodate SETI goals, after the fashion of the SETI@home and Galaxy Zoo projects.

  17. The role of extracellular conductivity profiles in compartmental models for neurons: particulars for layer 5 pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Riera, Jorge; Enjieu-Kadji, Herve; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-07-01

    With the rapid increase in the number of technologies aimed at observing electric activity inside the brain, scientists have felt the urge to create proper links between intracellular- and extracellular-based experimental approaches. Biophysical models at both physical scales have been formalized under assumptions that impede the creation of such links. In this work, we address this issue by proposing a multicompartment model that allows the introduction of complex extracellular and intracellular resistivity profiles. This model accounts for the geometrical and electrotonic properties of any type of neuron through the combination of four devices: the integrator, the propagator, the 3D connector, and the collector. In particular, we applied this framework to model the tufted pyramidal cells of layer 5 (PCL5) in the neocortex. Our model was able to reproduce the decay and delay curves of backpropagating action potentials (APs) in this type of cell with better agreement with experimental data. We used the voltage drops of the extracellular resistances at each compartment to approximate the local field potentials generated by a PCL5 located in close proximity to linear microelectrode arrays. Based on the voltage drops produced by backpropagating APs, we were able to estimate the current multipolar moments generated by a PCL5. By adding external current sources in parallel to the extracellular resistances, we were able to create a sensitivity profile of PCL5 to electric current injections from nearby microelectrodes. In our model for PCL5, the kinetics and spatial profile of each ionic current were determined based on a literature survey, and the geometrical properties of these cells were evaluated experimentally. We concluded that the inclusion of the extracellular space in the compartmental models of neurons as an extra electrotonic medium is crucial for the accurate simulation of both the propagation of the electric potentials along the neuronal dendrites and the

  18. Moon Zoo: a Citizen Science Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugiolacchi, R.; Crawford, I. A.; Joy, K. H.

    2013-09-01

    Moon Zoo is a citizen science project that utilises internet crowd-sourcing techniques. Moon Zoo users are asked to review images from NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)[1] spacecraft and perform tasks such as measuring impact crater sizes and identifying morphologically interesting features. The tasks are designed to address issues in lunar science and to aid future exploration of the Moon. In addition to its potential in delivering high quality science outputs, Moon Zoo is also an important educator resource, providing information about the geology of the Moon and geophysical processes in the inner solar system.

  19. Seismic While Drilling (SWD) methodology in support to Moon subsurface stratigraphy investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletto, Flavio; Magnani, Piergiovanni; Gelmi, Rolando; Corubolo, Piero; Re, Edoardo; Schleifer, Andrea; Perrone, Antonio; Salonico, Antonio; Coste, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    The knowledge of the Moon subsoil geophysical properties is of great importance, for scientific reasons for the development of the Lunar exploration activities and the envisaged exploitation of its planetary resources. The Moon surface is characterized by the presence of regolith, a powdered material made up of unconsolidated, porous and highly brecciated rock fragments of several different grain sizes and lithologies. Beneath the regolith, a transition zone showing higher acoustic velocities may be present down to the solid bedrock. The bedrock consists of basaltic layers characterized by high seismic velocity and low seismic attenuation. In these conditions, human civil engineering and rover activities, including drilling may be subject to risk due to the lack of knowledge of the complex subsoil properties. Seismic While Drilling is a method used on Earth to support from geophysical point of view the drilling for oil and gas and geothermal exploration. In this application, the characterization of the stratigraphy by vertical seismic profiles in the drilled section, providing seismic images of the to-be-drilled substructures, is obtained using the drill-bit radiated energy. We present the result of a project that studies the adaptation of the method for Lunar drilling purposes, taking into account the specific issues related to the Moon environment and remote communication aspects. The results of a laboratory test conducted in the framework of a European Space Agency project (completed in 2009) with a planetary drill prototype and a simulator of a complete remote system are presented and discussed together with the perspectives for the seismic-while-drilling application for planetary missions.

  20. The Age of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barboni, M.; Boehnke, P.; Keller, C. B.; Kohl, I. E.; McKeegan, K. D.; Schoene, B.; Young, E. D.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the age of the Moon is important for understanding the early evolution of the solar system, including the timing of the hypothesized Giant Impact (GI). There have been many attempts to determine the Moon's age, but significant disagreement remains with some authors favoring an early formation and others arguing for a relatively young Moon formed at 4.4 Ga. Attempts to date the GI indirectly through its effects on the asteroid belt are problematic as there is no way to uniquely ascertain the cause of the observed disturbances (e.g., GI or meteorite parent body breakup). Determining the timing of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) crystallization provides a more direct constraint on the age of the Moon, but interpreting the chronologic significance of LMO products is complicated by the fact that the only rock samples available are breccias. A better approach is to construct a model age for the fractional crystallization of the LMO since this should provide a global signature. Zircons from the Apollo samples are ancient, robust against later disturbances, and amenable to precise U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotope analyses that can be used to construct Lu-Hf model ages for the silicate differentiation of the Moon. Previous isotopic studies of Apollo zircons yielded artificially young Hf model ages because of the (then unknown) effect of neutron capture on Hf isotopic ratios generated by long exposure to cosmic radiation, and were unable to determine whether or not the U-Pb dates were concordant due to insufficient precision of in situ dating techniques. We have addressed these issues by carrying out CA-ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology on Apollo 14 zircon fragments, followed by Hf isotope determination by solution MC-ICP-MS on the same volume of zircon. By constructing Hf model ages from zircons that are concordant to the sub-permil level, we show that the minimum age for the end of differentiation of the LMO, and by extension, the formation of the Moon, is 4.52 ± 0

  1. Interpretations of optical observations of Mercury and the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hapke, B.

    1977-01-01

    Optical, thermal and radar remote-sensing measurements indicate that Mercury is covered with a relatively thick layer of soil similar in texture and thickness to lunar regolith. Photometric limb profiles measured by Mariner 10 imply that the small-scale slopes on Mercury are about half those on the moon, probably because of differing gravity. The differential photometric functions of Mercury and the moon have a latitudinal dependence which can be completely accounted for by shadowing in craters. The lack of polar darkening on Mercury in spite of the presence of a magnetic field implies that the dominant soil-darkening process on Mercury, and by extension, on the moon is not dependent on the solar wind, but probably is deposition of material evaporated by meteorite impacts. Recent measurements of Mercury's spectral reflectivity in the IR and vacuum UV are both consistent with the surface rocks of Mercury being lower in FeO than those of the moon. Based on laboratory experiments the average FeO content on the surface of Mercury is estimated to be between 3 and 6%.

  2. Bibliography. [of articles on moon and planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopal, Z.; Moutsoulas, M.; Waranius, F. B.

    1983-01-01

    A bibliography of articles entered into the data base at the Lunar and Planetary Institute Library from November 1982 through January 1983 is presented. An abstract of each article is given. The subjects covered by the articles include: the motion of the moon and dynamics of the earth-moon system: shape and gravity field of the moon; the physical structure of the moon, its thermal and stress history; the morphology of the lunar surface, the origin and stratigraphy of lunar formations, and mapping of the moon; the chemical composition of the moon, lunar petrology, mineralogy, and crystallography; electromagnetic properties of the moon; the planets; and other objects, including asteroids, comets, meteorites, and cosmic dust.

  3. Earthshine simulator: Idealized images of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thejll, Peter; Gleisner, Hans

    2016-12-01

    Terrestrial albedo can be determined from observations of the relative intensity of earthshine. Images of the Moon at different lunar phases can be analyzed to derive the semi-hemispheric mean albedo of the Earth, and an important tool for doing this is simulations of the appearance of the Moon for any time. This software produces idealized images of the Moon for arbitrary times. It takes into account the libration of the Moon and the distances between Sun, Moon and the Earth, as well as the relevant geometry. The images of the Moon are produced as FITS files. User input includes setting the Julian Day of the simulation. Defaults for image size and field of view are set to produce approximately 1x1 degree images with the Moon in the middle from an observatory on Earth, currently set to Mauna Loa.

  4. Bibliography. [of articles on moon and planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopal, Z.; Moutsoulas, M.; Waranius, F. B.

    1983-01-01

    A bibliography of articles entered into the data base at the Lunar and Planetary Institute Library from November 1982 through January 1983 is presented. An abstract of each article is given. The subjects covered by the articles include: the motion of the moon and dynamics of the earth-moon system: shape and gravity field of the moon; the physical structure of the moon, its thermal and stress history; the morphology of the lunar surface, the origin and stratigraphy of lunar formations, and mapping of the moon; the chemical composition of the moon, lunar petrology, mineralogy, and crystallography; electromagnetic properties of the moon; the planets; and other objects, including asteroids, comets, meteorites, and cosmic dust.

  5. Conductivity-Temperature-Depth Profiling of the Columbia River Mouth Using Pacific Harbor Seals as Sampling Platforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    consisting of a VHF radio tag (Advanced Telemetry Systems, Minnesota, USA) and a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) tag (Star-Oddi, Iceland ...Narwhals document continued warming of southern Baffin Bay. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, C10049, doi:10.1029/2009JC005820. McMahon, C. R., E

  6. Exploring the Relationships Between Student Moon Observations and Spatial-Science Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Merryn; Wilhelm, J.; Jackson, C.; Yang, H.; Wilhelm, R. J.

    2013-06-01

    Relationships between student moon observation journaling and sixth-grade students’ spatial-scientific reasoning after implementation of an Earth/Space unit were examined. Teachers followed the NASA-based REAL (Realistic Explorations in Astronomical Learning) curriculum. As part of this curriculum, students kept daily moon observation journals for 5 weeks, recording position and appearance of the moon as well as noting patterns. An extensive search was conducted in both the multilevel model (Hierarchical Linear Modeling) space and the single level model space. The final model identified for this data set is a single level linear model. The model shows that students performing better on moon observation journals, both in terms of overall score and number of entries, score higher on LPCI (Lunar Phases Concept Inventory) post-tests. For every 1 point increase in the overall moon journal score, participants are expected to score 0.18 points or nearly 1% point higher on the LPCI post-test when holding constant the effects of the other two predictors, LPCI pre-test score and number of moon journal entries. An examination of the quality of moon journal entries demonstrates that students who put more time and effort into their moon journals notice more patterns in the appearance (percentage of illumination) and location of the moon in the sky. These patterns additionally relate to their development of spatial skills as they are describing the apparently changing location of celestial objects in relation to their single position on Earth. This study is unique in the purposeful link created between student moon observations and spatial skills. The use of moon journals distinguishes this study further by fostering scientific observation along with skills from across STEM fields and other disciplines. We believe that future work will show a strong link between these improved spatial skills and performance in mathematics and science.

  7. Materials refining on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2007-05-01

    Oxygen, metals, silicon, and glass are raw materials that will be required for long-term habitation and production of structural materials and solar arrays on the Moon. A process sequence is proposed for refining these materials from lunar regolith, consisting of separating the required materials from lunar rock with fluorine. The fluorine is brought to the Moon in the form of potassium fluoride, and is liberated from the salt by electrolysis in a eutectic salt melt. Tetrafluorosilane produced by this process is reduced to silicon by a plasma reduction stage; the fluorine salts are reduced to metals by reaction with metallic potassium. Fluorine is recovered from residual MgF and CaF2 by reaction with K2O.

  8. Meteoritic material on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Ganapathy, R.; Higuchi, H.; Anders, E.

    1974-01-01

    Micrometeorites, ancient planetesimal debris from the early intense bombardment, and debris of recent, crater-forming projectiles are discussed and their amounts and compositions have been determined from trace element studies. The micrometeorite component is uniformly distrubuted over the entire lunar surface, but is seen most clearly in mare soils whereas, the ancient component is seen in highland breccias and soils. A few properties of the basin-forming objects are inferred from the trace element data. An attempt is made to reconstruct the bombardment history of the moon from the observation that only basin-forming objects fell on the moon after crustal differentiation. The apparent half-life of basin-forming bodies is close to the calculated value for earth-crossing planetesimals. It is shown that a gap in radiometric ages is expected between the Imbrium and Nectaris impacts, because all 7 basins formed in this interval lie on the farside or east limb.

  9. Jupiter’s moon Europa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-24

    This composite image shows suspected plumes of water vapor erupting at the 7 o’clock position off the limb of Jupiter’s moon Europa. The plumes, photographed by NASA’s Hubble’s Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, were seen in silhouette as the moon passed in front of Jupiter. Hubble’s ultraviolet sensitivity allowed for the features -- rising over 100 miles (160 kilometers) above Europa’s icy surface -- to be discerned. The water is believed to come from a subsurface ocean on Europa. The Hubble data were taken on January 26, 2014. The image of Europa, superimposed on the Hubble data, is assembled from data from the Galileo and Voyager missions.

  10. International Observe the Moon Night

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Cathie Peddie - Deputy Project Manager LRO (center) shows a young visitor shadows demo. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Debbie Mccallum On September 18, 2010 the world joined the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Visitor Center in Greenbelt, Md., as well as other NASA Centers to celebrate the first annual International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN). To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/features/2010/moon-nigh... NASA Goddard Space Flight Center contributes to NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s endeavors by providing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  11. Impact ejecta on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The partitioning of energy and the distribution of the resultant ejecta on the moon is numerically modeled using a Eulerian finite difference grid. The impact of an iron meteoroid at 15 km/sec on a gabbroic anorthosite lunar crust is examined. The high speed impact induced flow is described over the entire hydrodynamic regime from a time where the peak pressures are 6 Mbar until the stresses everywhere in the flow are linearly elastic, and less than 5 kbar. Shock-induced polymorphic phase changes, (plagioclase and pyroxene to hollandite and perovskite), and the subsequent reversion to low pressure phases are demonstrated to enhance shock wave attenuation. A rate-dependent equation of state is used for describing the hysteretic effect of the phase change. Ballistic equations for a spherical planet are then applied to material with net velocity away from the moon.

  12. Radio astrometry from the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linfield, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    An array of three radio telescopes on the Moon, separated by 100-1000 km, could measure the positions of compact radio sources 50-100 times more accurately than can be done on Earth. These measurements would form an all-sky reference frame of extreme precision (5-10 micro-arcsec) and stability, with applications to the dynamics of the solar system, our galaxy, and nearby galaxies.

  13. Moon set over earth limb

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-07-14

    STS070-701-070 (13-22 JULY 1995) --- Dark surfaces of lunar mare can be identified on the ?tiny? Moon in the center of this clear 35mm frame, recorded by crew members aboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Discovery. A variety of cloud-types obscure land and water in the scene. Several tropical storms and tropical depressions were observed by the crew during its nine-day mission.

  14. Human Exploration of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, Wendell W.

    1999-01-01

    Human exploration of the Moon tilde-n or, more generally, human exploration of the solar system tilde-n began with the landing of Apollo 11 Lunar Module on the lunar surface. Human exploration continued with growing capability until the departure of the Apollo 17 lunar module from the lunar surface in 1972. Human exploration is currently experiencing what can be called euphemistically a hiatus.

  15. Forming the lunar farside highlands by accretion of a companion moon.

    PubMed

    Jutzi, M; Asphaug, E

    2011-08-03

    The most striking geological feature of the Moon is the terrain and elevation dichotomy between the hemispheres: the nearside is low and flat, dominated by volcanic maria, whereas the farside is mountainous and deeply cratered. Associated with this geological dichotomy is a compositional and thermal variation, with the nearside Procellarum KREEP (potassium/rare-earth element/phosphorus) Terrane and environs interpreted as having thin, compositionally evolved crust in comparison with the massive feldspathic highlands. The lunar dichotomy may have been caused by internal effects (for example spatial variations in tidal heating, asymmetric convective processes or asymmetric crystallization of the magma ocean) or external effects (such as the event that formed the South Pole/Aitken basin or asymmetric cratering). Here we consider its origin as a late carapace added by the accretion of a companion moon. Companion moons are a common outcome of simulations of Moon formation from a protolunar disk resulting from a giant impact, and although most coplanar configurations are unstable, a ∼1,200-km-diameter moon located at one of the Trojan points could be dynamically stable for tens of millions of years after the giant impact. Most of the Moon's magma ocean would solidify on this timescale, whereas the companion moon would evolve more quickly into a crust and a solid mantle derived from similar disk material, and would presumably have little or no core. Its likely fate would be to collide with the Moon at ∼2-3 km s(-1), well below the speed of sound in silicates. According to our simulations, a large moon/Moon size ratio (∼0.3) and a subsonic impact velocity lead to an accretionary pile rather than a crater, contributing a hemispheric layer of extent and thickness consistent with the dimensions of the farside highlands and in agreement with the degree-two crustal thickness profile. The collision furthermore displaces the KREEP-rich layer to the opposite hemisphere

  16. Forming the lunar farside highlands by accretion of a companion moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutzi, M.; Asphaug, E.

    2011-08-01

    The most striking geological feature of the Moon is the terrain and elevation dichotomy between the hemispheres: the nearside is low and flat, dominated by volcanic maria, whereas the farside is mountainous and deeply cratered. Associated with this geological dichotomy is a compositional and thermal variation with the nearside Procellarum KREEP (potassium/rare-earth element/phosphorus) Terrane and environs interpreted as having thin, compositionally evolved crust in comparison with the massive feldspathic highlands. The lunar dichotomy may have been caused by internal effects (for example spatial variations in tidal heating, asymmetric convective processes or asymmetric crystallization of the magma ocean) or external effects (such as the event that formed the South Pole/Aitken basin1 or asymmetric cratering). Here we consider its origin as a late carapace added by the accretion of a companion moon. Companion moons are a common outcome of simulations of Moon formation from a protolunar disk resulting from a giant impact, and although most coplanar configurations are unstable, a ~1,200-km-diameter moon located at one of the Trojan points could be dynamically stable for tens of millions of years after the giant impact. Most of the Moon's magma ocean would solidify on this timescale, whereas the companion moon would evolve more quickly into a crust and a solid mantle derived from similar disk material, and would presumably have little or no core. Its likely fate would be to collide with the Moon at ~2-3 km s-1, well below the speed of sound in silicates. According to our simulations, a large moon/Moon size ratio (~0.3) and a subsonic impact velocity lead to an accretionary pile rather than a crater, contributing a hemispheric layer of extent and thickness consistent with the dimensions of the farside highlands and in agreement with the degree-two crustal thickness profile. The collision furthermore displaces the KREEP-rich layer to the opposite hemisphere, explaining

  17. Smart-1 Moon Impact Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayala, Andres; Rigger, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the operations to control the Moon impact of the 3-axis stabilized spacecraft SMART-1 in September 2006. SMART-1 was launched on 27/09/2003. It was the first ESA mission to use an Electric Propulsion (EP) engine as the main motor to spiral out of the Earth gravity field and reach a scientific moon orbit [1]. During September 2005 the last EP maneuvers were performed using the remaining Xenon, in order to compensate for the 3rd body perturbations of the Sun and Earth. These operations extended the mission for an additional year. Afterwards the EP performance became unpredictable and low, so that no meaningful operation for the moon impact could be done. To move the predicted impact point on the 16/8/2006 into visibility from Earth an alternative Delta-V strategy was designed. Due to their alignment, the attitude thrusters could not be used directly to generate the Delta-V, so this strategy was based on controlled angular momentum biasing. Firing along the velocity vector around apolune, the remaining Hydrazine left from the attitude control budget was used, to shift the impact to the required coordinates.

  18. Photon Luminescence of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, T.L.; Lee, K.T.

    2009-01-01

    Luminescence is typically described as light emitted by objects at low temperatures, induced by chemical reactions, electrical energy, atomic interactions, or acoustical and mechanical stress. An example is photoluminescence created when photons (electromagnetic radiation) strike a substance and are absorbed, resulting in the emission of a resonant fluorescent or phosphorescent albedo. In planetary science, there exists X-ray fluorescence induced by sunlight absorbed by a regolith a property used to measure some of the chemical composition of the Moon s surface during the Apollo program. However, there exists an equally important phenomenon in planetary science which will be designated here as photon luminescence. It is not conventional photoluminescence because the incoming radiation that strikes the planetary surface is not photons but rather cosmic rays (CRs). Nevertheless, the result is the same: the generation of a photon albedo. In particular, Galactic CRs (GCRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs) both induce a photon albedo that radiates from the surface of the Moon. Other particle albedos are generated as well, most of which are hazardous (e.g. neutrons). The photon luminescence or albedo of the lunar surface induced by GCRs and SEPs will be derived here, demonstrating that the Moon literally glows in the dark (when there is no sunlight or Earthshine). This extends earlier work on the same subject [1-4]. A side-by-side comparison of these two albedos and related mitigation measures will also be discussed.

  19. FLAG - APOLLO XI - ASTRONAUTS - MOON

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-07-14

    S69-39333 (July 1969) --- This is a photographic illustration of how the flag of the United States will be implanted on the moon by the Apollo 11 astronauts. The flag is three by five feet, and is made of nylon. It will be erected on an eight-foot aluminum staff, and tubing along its top edge will unfurl it in the airless environment of the moon. The implanting of the flag is symbolic of the first time man has landed on another celestial body, and does not constitute a territorial claim by the United States. The photograph on the right shows the flag in a furled condition. Apollo 11 astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, will implant the flag after their Lunar Module (LM) sets down on the moon. Astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, will remain with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit while Armstrong and Aldrin explore the lunar surface.

  20. Moon - North Polar Mosaic, Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    During its flight, the Galileo spacecraft returned images of the Moon. The Galileo spacecraft surveyed the Moon on December 7, 1992, on its way to explore the Jupiter system in 1995-1997. The left part of this north pole view is visible from Earth. This color picture is a mosaic assembled from 18 images taken by Galileo's imaging system through a green filter. The left part of this picture shows the dark, lava-filled Mare Imbrium (upper left); Mare Serenitatis (middle left), Mare Tranquillitatis (lower left), and Mare Crisium, the dark circular feature toward the bottom of the mosaic. Also visible in this view are the dark lava plains of the Marginis and Smythii Basins at the lower right. The Humboldtianum Basin, a 650-kilometer (400-mile) impact structure partly filled with dark volcanic deposits, is seen at the center of the image. The Moon's north pole is located just inside the shadow zone, about a third of the way from the top left of the illuminated region. The Galileo project is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  1. Uranus moon - 1985U1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Several craters are seen on the surface of 1985U1, one of several small moons of Uranus discovered by Voyager 2. The spacecraft acquired this single image -- the only close-up it obtained of any of the new moons -- on Jan. 24, 1986. At the time, Voyager was at a distance of about 500,000 kilometers (300,000 miles) from 1985U1, yielding a resolution of about 10 km (6 mi) in this clear-filter, narrow-angle image. The moon was found Dec. 3O, 1985; it was the first and largest of nearly a dozen satellites discovered by the spacecraft cameras. This image shows 1985U1 to be a dark, nearly spherical object, with a diameter of about 150 km (90 mi); the dark surface reflects only 7 percent of the incident light. The picture was inserted into the Voyager encounter sequence late in its development. This image has had a complex history, having been recorded on the spacecraft tape recorder and first played back during the late afternoon of Jan. 24. An antenna-pointing problem at one of the Australian tracking stations led to loss of the data, so the image had to be transmitted a second time. It was successfully received shortly before 6 p.m. PST Jan. 26. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  2. Russian Planetary Program: Phobos and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galimov, E. M.; Marov, M. Ya.; Politshuk, G. M.; Zeleniy, L. M.

    2006-08-01

    Planetary exploration is a cornerstone of space science and technology development. Russia has a great legacy of the world recognized former space missions to the Moon and planets. Strategy of the Russian Federal Space Agency and the Russian Academy of Sciences planetary program for the coming decade is focused on space vehicle of new generation. The basic concept of this spacecraft development is the modern technology utilization, significant cost reduction and meeting objectives of the important science return. The bottom line is the use of middle class Soyuz-type launcher, which places the principal constraint on mass of the vehicle and mission profile. Flexibility in the design of space vehicle, including a possibility of SEP technology utilization, facilitates its adaptability for extended program of the solar system exploration. As the first step, the project is optimized around sample return mission from satellite of Mars Phobos ("Phobos-Grunt" or PSR) which is in the list of the Russian Federal Space Program for 2006 to 2015. It is to be launched in 2009 and completed in 2012. The experience gained from the former Russian "Phobos 88" serves as a clue to provide an important basis for the mission concept enabling solution of many problems of the project design and its implementation. There is a challenge to return relic matter from such small body like Phobos for the ground labs comprehensive study. The payload is also targeted for in-flight and extended remote sensing and in situ measurements using the capable instrument packages. The project is addressed as a milestone in the Russian program of the solar system study, with a potential for future ambitious missions to asteroids and comets pooling international efforts. Also endorsed by the Russian Federal Space Program is "Luna-Glob" mission to the Moon tentatively scheduled for 2011. The goal is to advance lunar science with the well instrumented orbiter, lander, and the network of penetrators. Return back

  3. Preliminary data from an instantaneous profile test conducted near the Mixed Waste Landfill, Technical Area 3, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bayliss, S.C.; Goering, T.J.; McVey, M.D.; Strong, W.R.; Peace, J.L.

    1996-04-01

    This paper presents data from an instantaneous profile test conducted near the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Mixed Waste Landfill in Technical Area 3. The test was performed from December 1993 through 1995 as part of the environmental Restoration Project`s Phase 2 RCRA Facility Investigation of the Mixed Waste Landfill. The purpose of the test was to measure the unsaturated hydraulic properties of soils near the Mixed Waste Landfill. The instantaneous profile test and instrumentation are described, and the pressure and moisture content data from the test are presented. These data may be useful for understanding the unsaturated hydraulic properties of soils in Technical Area 3 and for model validation, verification, and calibration.

  4. Positional Catalogues of Saturn's and Jupiter's Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizhakevych, O.; Andruk, V.; Pakuliak, L.; Lukianchuk, V.; Shatokhina, S.

    In the framework of the UkrVO national project (http://ukr-vo.org/) we have started the processing of photographic observations of Saturn's (S1-S8) and Jupiter's (J6-J8) moons. Observations were conducted during 1961-1993 with three astrographs DLFA, DWA, DAZ and Z600 reflector. Plate images were digitized as tif-files with commercial scanners. Image processing was carried out by specific software package in the LINUX-MIDAS-ROMAFOT environment with Tycho2 as reference. The software was developed at the MAO NASU. Obtained positions of objects were compared with theoretically predicted ones in IMCCE (Paris) (www.imcce.fr/sat) online. Rms error of divergence between observed and calculated positions is of 0.20' - 0.35'.

  5. Polarized electromagnetic response of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonett, C. P.; Smith, B. F.; Colburn, D. S.; Schubert, G.; Schwartz, K.

    1974-01-01

    The strong anisotropy in Apollo 15 Lunar Surface Magnetometer (LSM) signals resulting from electromagnetic induction in the moon, forced by fluctuations of the interplanetary magnetic field, is shown to result from intense polarization of the induced field. Arguments are given to show that the anisotropy cannot be explained wholly by asymmetric lunar induction in the presence of the diamagnetic cavity, but must be related to a regional influence. The weaker Apollo 12 anisotropy may also be associated with a regional influence. The site of Apollo 15 LSM at the edge of the Imbrium Basin suggests a preliminary model for calculations based on the possibility that Imbrium and perhaps Serenitatis are sources of the regional effect. Lastly, since the very low frequency induction seems free of the anisotropy, our earlier estimate of deep conductivity remains unchanged.

  6. Admittance–voltage profiling of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN heterostructures: Frequency dependence of capacitance and conductance

    SciTech Connect

    Köhler, K.; Pletschen, W.; Godejohann, B.; Müller, S.; Menner, H. P.; Ambacher, O.

    2015-11-28

    Admittance–voltage profiling of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN heterostructures was used to determine the frequency dependent capacitance and conductance of FET devices in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 1 MHz. The nominally undoped low pressure metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy structures were grown with an Al-content of 30%. An additional 1 nm thick AlN interlayer was placed in one structure before the Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N layer growth. For frequencies below 10{sup 8} Hz it is convenient to use equivalent circuits to represent electric or dielectric properties of a material, a method widely used, for example, in impedance spectroscopy. We want to emphasize the relation between frequency dependent admittance–voltage profiling and the corresponding equivalent circuits to the complex dielectric function. Debye and Drude models are used for the description of the frequency dependent admittance profiles in a range of depletion onset of the two-dimensional electron gas. Capacitance- and conductance-frequency profiles are fitted in the entire measured range by combining both models. Based on our results, we see contributions to the two-dimensional electron gas for our samples from surface states (80%) as well as from background doping in the Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N barriers (20%). The specific resistance of the layers below the gate is above 10{sup 5} Ω cm for both samples and increases with increasing negative bias, i.e., the layers below the gate are essentially depleted. We propose that the resistance due to free charge carriers, determined by the Drude model, is located between gate and drain and, because of the AlN interlayer, the resistance is lowered by a factor of about 30 if compared to the sample without an AlN layer.

  7. An experimental validation of the influence of flow profiles and stratified two-phase flow to Lorentz force velocimetry for weakly conducting fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiederhold, Andreas; Ebert, Reschad; Resagk, Christian; Research Training Group: "Lorentz Force Velocimetry; Lorentz Force Eddy Current Testing" Team

    2016-11-01

    We report about the feasibility of Lorentz force velocimetry (LFV) for various flow profiles. LFV is a contactless non-invasive technique to measure flow velocity and has been developed in the last years in our institute. This method is advantageous if the fluid is hot, aggressive or opaque like glass melts or liquid metal flows. The conducted experiments shall prove an increased versatility for industrial applications of this method. For the force measurement we use an electromagnetic force compensation balance. As electrolyte salty water is used with an electrical conductivity in the range of 0.035 which corresponds to tap water up to 20 Sm-1. Because the conductivity is six orders less than that of liquid metals, here the challenging bottleneck is the resolution of the measurement system. The results show only a slight influence in the force signal at symmetric and strongly asymmetric flow profiles. Furthermore we report about the application of LFV to stratified two-phase flows. We show that it is possible to detect interface instabilities, which is important for the dimensioning of liquid metal batteries. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG.

  8. Europe rediscovers the Moon with SMART-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    spiralling journey accounted for more than 100 million kilometres, while the Moon - if you wanted to go there in a straight line - is only between 350,000 and 400,000 kilometres away from the Earth. As SMART-1 neared its destination, it began using the gravity of the Moon to bring it into a position where it was captured by the Moon’s gravitational field. This occurred in November 2004. After being captured by the Moon, in January 2005, SMART-1 started to spiral down to its final operational polar elliptical orbit with a perilune (closest point to the lunar surface) altitude of 300 km and apolune (farthest point) altitude of 3000 km. to conduct its scientific exploration mission. What was there to know that we didn’t know already? Despite the number of spacecraft that have visited the Moon, many scientific questions concerning our natural satellite remained unanswered, notably to do with the origin and evolution of the Moon, and the processes that shape rocky planetary bodies (such as tectonics, volcanism, impacts and erosion). Thanks to SMART-1, scientists all over Europe and around the world now have the best resolution surface images ever from lunar orbit, as well as a better knowledge of the Moon’s minerals. For the first time from orbit, they have detected calcium and magnesium using an X-ray instrument. They have measured compositional changes from the central peaks of craters, volcanic plains and giant impact basins. SMART-1 has also studied impact craters, volcanic features and lava tubes, and monitored the polar regions. In addition, it found an area near the north pole where the Sun always shines, even in winter. SMART-1 has roamed over the lunar poles, enabling it to map the whole Moon, including its lesser known far side. The poles are particularly interesting to scientists because they are relatively unexplored. Moreover, some features in the polar regions have a geological history which is distinct from the more closely studied equatorial regions where

  9. Inverse modelling to estimate the profile of conductivity at saturation. A case study for a shallow layered soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negm, Amro; Barontini, Stefano; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2015-04-01

    An experimental field was installed in Summer 2012 in a mountain environment (Cividate Camuno, Oglio river basin, Central Italian Alps, 274 m a.s.l.) in order to investigate the soil-water balance and the effectiveness of the eddy correlation technique to measure the evapotranspirative fluxes in a complex topography. The soil is young, shallow and anthropized, grown on the debris of a power plant workings. The genetic sequence is given by A, C and D horizons, as it is common in many Alpine sites. USDA textural classes are silty loam (A, up to 9 cm depth), loam (upper C, 9 to 22 cm), silty clay loam (lower C, 22 to 28 cm) and silty loam (D, deeper than 38 cm), with increasing gravel fraction (pebbles) with depth. Due to the meaningful pebbles presence, the sampled soil cores were disturbed and considered reliable only for porosity, grains size distribution, water content and soil-water retention relationships. In the field a single ring infiltrometer was used to estimate the soil conductivity at saturation. Two infiltration tests were performed, in view of sampling the A-layer and the upper 10 centimeters of the C-layer. The great soil heterogeneity in the upper layers does not merge the hypotheses of the classical approaches to determine the soil conductivity after infiltration tests, therefore a methodology based on inverse modelling was developed. After a preliminary estimate of the conductivities of the A-layer (Ks,A) and of the C-layer (Ks,C) based on the hypothesis of steady percolation at the end of the infiltration tests, a 2D axisymmetrical model was set up for both the tests with the FV-FD AdHydra code, which numerically solves the Richards equation. Then the two infiltration tests were used to iteratively fit both Ks,A (first test) and Ks,C (second test), using as an initial condition for the simulation of the second test the tensiometer-pressure potential map given as an output of the simulation of the first test. The procedure rapidly converged to

  10. Depth profiles of temperature, specific conductance and oxygen concentration in Lake Powell, Arizona-Utah, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marzolf, G. Richard; Hart, Robert J.; Stephens, Doyle W.

    1998-01-01

    The depth distribution of temperature in lakes and reservoirs establishes vertical-density gradients that regulate the distribution of a wide array of chemical and biological features. In Lake Powell, the depth at which inflowing river water enters the reservoir is controlled by the water temperature of the river compared to the vertical-thermal structure of the reservoir in late spring and early summer. The measurements reported here document the longitudinal and vertical pattern of temperature, specific conductance, and oxygen concentration on several dates in 1992, 1994, and 1995.

  11. Changing the metabolic profile by large-volume liposuction: a clinical study conducted with 123 obese women.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Francesco; Grella, Roberto; Rizzo, Maria Rosaria; Grella, Elisa; Grella, Rodolfo; Nicoletti, Gianfranco; Barbieri, Michelangela; Paolisso, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a metabolically active tissue. The hypertrophic fat cells of obese patients produce increased quantities of leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and are less sensitive to insulin. This study aimed to determine whether aspirating large amounts of these subcutaneous fat cells by large-volume liposuction (LVL), could change the metabolic profile in 123 obese women. All the patients had a main central body fat distribution (waist-hip ratio, 0.91+/-0.01) and a body mass index of 32.8 +/- 0.8 kg/m). They were studied for 90 days after LVL to determine their changes in insulin sensitivity, resting metabolic rate, serum adipocytokines, and inflammatory marker levels. During 3 months of follow-up evaluation, LVL resulted in a significantly improved insulin sensitivity, resting metabolic rate, serum adipocytokines, and inflammatory marker levels. Such parameters correlate with a decrease in fat mass and waist-hip ratio. Interestingly, no significant changes were seen between the first (21 days) and second (90 days) metabolic determinations after LVL. However, these findings, confirm other preliminary data published previously, and could change the actual role of LVL in the multidisciplinary treatment of obesity.

  12. The Use of Waterborne Resistivity Profiling to Quantify Hydraulic Conductivity of 150 Kilometers of Streambed in the Mississippi River Alluvial Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, B. V.; Wallace, D. S.; Kress, W. H.

    2016-12-01

    In fresh water aquifers, the geoelectric resistivity of earth materials commonly has a positive correlation with hydraulic conducitivity. In June of 2016, the US Geological Survey used waterborne continuous-resistivity profiling to map the shallow (< 10m) subsurface distribution of geoelectrical properties as a proxy for streambed hydraulic conductivity for reaches of the Tallahatchie (60km), Quiver (48km), and Sunflower (39km) Rivers in central Mississippi. Two-dimensional vertical profiles of resistivity were used to identify differences in geoelectrical structure of the streambed specifically between the larger, more-incised Tallahatchie River and the smaller, less-incised Quiver and Sunflower Rivers. Preliminary results show that mean apparent resistivity (Rhoa) on the Tallahatchie is 65 ohmm higher than on the Quiver and Sunflower Rivers. This difference in mean Rhoa is affected by lower resistivity water in the two smaller streams. However, lithologic differences among the streams are discernable in the variability of Rhoa. Distribution of Rhoa along the river profile is highly variable in the Sunflower River, with a standard deviation of 38 ohmm. This is about 52% greater than that of the Quiver at 23 ohmm and Tallahatchie at 27ohmm. Although the Tallhatchie and Quiver have significantly different water column resisitivities, the variability between the two streams is more similar than the highly variable Sunflower. In regional groundwater flow models, the hydraulic conductivity of streambed materials is typically an estimated parameter because of difficulty in obtaining a data-supported value in real-world conditions. The resistivities from this work will be used to scale streambed hydraulic conductivity for incorporation into the hydrogeological framework of a regional groundwater flow model, which may be used to guide policy decisions. Future studies will continue the development of geophysical methods to improve this model.

  13. Proposal for revisions of the United Nations Moon Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Vera; Abreu, Neyda; Fritz, J.; Knapmeyer, Martin; Smeenk, Lisa; Ten Kate, Inge; Trüninger, Monica

    . More than 30 years have passed since the Moon Treaty (c. 1979) was elaborated, and since then technology and science have evolved leading to the need to change the requirements. As stated in the Moon Treaty, the State par-ties who had signed the Treaty meet every 5 and 10 years to revise the Treaty and suggest the necessary ratifications and amendments. The present version of the Moon Treaty, however, does not demonstrate ratifications that take into consideration environmental protection and preservation. For this, it is here suggested, that both the Antarctica Treaty (c. 1959), and more importantly, the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (c. 1991) are to be used as references for future documents that will be drawn pertaining the Moon. The Antarctica Treaty is currently one of the world's most successful international agreements and has evolved through time as needs and awareness require. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty reflects concerns regarding the impact of humans on the fragile environment of that continent. This concern is equally critical as new stages of lunar exploration unfold and the effects of such activity are progressively assessed. The key aspects of the Antarctic Protocol applicable to the Moon Treaty are: (1) a ban on commercial mineral resource activity, (2) careful waste disposal management, and (3) protection of areas of par-ticular scientific, environmental, and historical value. These measures should be implemented to prevent irreparable damage of the pristine lunar environment while permitting scientific, educational, and touristic uses and encouraging continued commitment to exploration of the Moon and other planetary bodies irrespective of exploration being robotic or human. A num-ber of other documents that establish an Environmental Code of Conduct for certain areas within the Antarctic continent (e.g., Management Plan for the Antarctic Specially Managed Area No.2, the McMurdo Dry

  14. Fate of Basin-forming Impact Debris from the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, P. H.; Bruck Syal, M.; Raskin, C.; Owen, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent work shows that projectile sizes for basin-forming impacts at the Moon are larger than previously estimated [1]. This finding has implications for the source regions of Late Heavy Bombardment impactors as well as added contributions from debris generated by similar basin-forming collisions. At such large scales, portions of the projectile fragment survive without interactions with the surface and continue downrange along the original trajectory. Such a process most likely occurs for oblique collisions (< 35° from the surface tangent) by bodies larger than 10% of the diameter of the Moon. For the SPA collision, more than 20% of the impacting body survives as newly generated Earth/Moon-crossing objects [2]. Over time some of this debris may have contributed to a spike in impact craters 20-50 km in diameter. Here we model lunar impact basin formation using Spheral, an adaptive Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code [3,4], focusing on the dynamical fate of basin ejecta and projectile fragments. Models employ self-gravity for the Moon and impactor and include the Earth's gravitational potential. Large impactors and the Moon are each assigned a two-layer, iron core and forsterite mantle structure. The problem is initialized using hydrostatic equlibrium profiles for pressure and density in both the impactor and target. We begin by modeling debris (target and impactor fragments) ejected from the South Pole-Aitken basin impact and extend the analysis to the Imbrium, Orientale, and Crisium basin formation. [1] Schultz, P.H., Crawford, D.A. Origin and implications of non-radial Imbrium Sculpture on the Moon, Nature 535, 391-394(2016). [2] Schultz, P.H., Crawford, D.A. Origin of nearside structural and geochemical anomalies on the Moon. GSA Special Papers 477, 141-159 (2011). [3] Owen, J. M. ASPH modeling of material damage and failure, in: Proceedings of the Fifth International SPHERIC Workshop, 297-304 (2010). [4] Owen, J. M. A compatibly differenced total energy

  15. The Early Years: Seeing the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    Spotting the Moon in the sky is like finding a treasure--unexpected and beautiful. When children look for the Moon in the sky, they don't know where to look. The Moon is far away and most easily observed at a time when most young children are sleeping. Because direct contact isn't possible, adults have to be creative in how they help children…

  16. The binary fission origin of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, Alan B.

    1986-01-01

    The major arguments for and against the binary fission model of lunar origin are reviewed. Unresolved problems include: (1) how the protoearth acquired sufficient angular velocity to fission, and (2) how the earth-moon system lost its excess angular momentum after fission. Despite these uncertainties, the compositional similarities between the earth's mantle and the bulk moon suggest that the fission model is worth considering. The proposed sequence of events in the formation of the moon by binary fission is given.

  17. Moon after trans earth injection - Apollo 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    On July 21, 1969, only days after walking on the Moon's surface, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin leave lunar orbit and begin the journey back to the space ship Columbia and its return to Earth. As they leave the Moon's orbit, a look back gives them a new perspective of where they were and where man's future lies. This was their final sight of the moon before they began docking procedures with Columbia.

  18. Atmospheric moons Galileo would have loved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atreya, Sushil K.

    2010-01-01

    In the spirit of the symposium and the theme of the session of this presentation, “Our solar system after Galileo, the grand vision,” I review briefly a relatively recently discovered phenomenon in the solar system - existence of atmospheres on certain moons, including Io, one of the four moons Galileo discovered four centuries ago. The origin of such atmospheres is discussed, and comparisons are made between various gassy moons.

  19. The Early Years: Seeing the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    Spotting the Moon in the sky is like finding a treasure--unexpected and beautiful. When children look for the Moon in the sky, they don't know where to look. The Moon is far away and most easily observed at a time when most young children are sleeping. Because direct contact isn't possible, adults have to be creative in how they help children…

  20. Gearing Up to Explore the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmans, Alexander

    2002-09-01

    One European and two Japanese space missions will study the Moon's surface and interior. X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers will identify elements on the Moon's surface while an alpha-particle spectrometer will analyze alpha particles emitted by radon gas and polonium. A stereoscopic camera will map the Moon's surface. Missile-shaped projectiles, including seismometers and temperature sensors, will impact the surface and reach depths of up to three meters.

  1. Why Do We Need the Moon: Next Steps Forward for Moon Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guven, U. G.

    2014-10-01

    This paper outlines the various possibilities for the future of the moon and it details how it can be beneficial for future space technology endeavors and discusses alternatives of Nanosatellite Moon missions as well as private sector missions.

  2. Moon As Seen By NIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    These four images of the Moon are from data acquired by the Galileo spacecraft's Near-Earth Mapping Spectrometer during Galileo's December 1992 Earth/Moon flyby. The part of the Moon visible from Earth is toward the left, and the lunar north pole is near the terminator, upper right. The dark regions to left and below in the black-and-white image at upper left, are lunar Maria, including Mare Imbrium at upper left, Serenitatis and Tranquillitatis, lower left center, and the circular basin to the right is Crisium. The bright areas ringing Crisium and dominating the center of the images are the heavily cratered and mountainous lunar highlands. The black-and-white image used infrared wavelengths just beyond the visible deep red. The false-color map images (upper right and lower right) show the relative strength of silicate-rock absorption of near-infrared sunlight, at about 1-micron wavelength. Blue areas show stronger absorption and generally indicate materials with more pyroxene and olivine (iron-bearing silicate materials), while yellow indicates less absorption, due to original compositional variations. In young fresh craters, absorptions are also stronger due to the absence of meteorite-impact effects. Outlines of previously defined geological units are superimposed in the lower right image. Note correlation with the Maria/highlands features in the black-and-white image. The preliminary mineralogical map at lower left uses infrared band shape and intensity to visualize variations in pyroxene and olivine. Blue is related to low-calcium pyroxene, while green and red indicate high calcium and the iron/magnesium content of pyroxene, as well as olivine. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  3. The Effect of the Gravitation of the Moon on Frequency of Births

    PubMed Central

    Wake, Ryotaro; Misugi, Takuya; Shimada, Kenei; Yoshiyama, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the gravitation of the Moon on the frequency of births in Kyoto, Japan. A retrospective cohort analysis of 1007 consecutive births without the use of the induction agents was conducted on a population of births in a private midwife hospital from January, 1966 to December, 2000. There was a significant increase in the cases of births, when the gravitation of the Moon to the Earth was less than 31.5 N. Results of this study suggest that the gravitation of the Moon has an influence on the frequency of births. PMID:20981136

  4. The effect of the gravitation of the moon on frequency of births.

    PubMed

    Wake, Ryotaro; Misugi, Takuya; Shimada, Kenei; Yoshiyama, Minoru

    2010-09-23

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the gravitation of the Moon on the frequency of births in Kyoto, Japan. A retrospective cohort analysis of 1007 consecutive births without the use of the induction agents was conducted on a population of births in a private midwife hospital from January, 1966 to December, 2000. There was a significant increase in the cases of births, when the gravitation of the Moon to the Earth was less than 31.5 N. Results of this study suggest that the gravitation of the Moon has an influence on the frequency of births.

  5. Live from the Moon - Impact!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On March 24, 1965, a nationwide TV audience watched live video from Ranger 9 as it purposefully crashed into the Moon within the crater Alphonsus. Ranger's six cameras sent back more than 5800 video images during the last 18 minutes of its 3-day journey, the last of the Ranger Project. The last few images show the lunar surface in detail from a few hundred meters above.

    This sequence of images from Camera A was converted from video to film to laser disc to digital files.

  6. Pluto Moon Nix, Half Illuminated

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-18

    This recently received panchromatic image of Pluto's small satellite Nix taken by the Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) aboard New Horizons is one of the best images of Pluto's third-largest moon generated by the NASA mission. Taken on July 14, 2015, at a range of about 14,000 miles (23,000 kilometers) from Nix, the illuminated surface is about 12 miles (19 kilometers) by 29 miles (47 kilometers). The unique perspective of this image provides new details about Nix's geologic history and impact record. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20287

  7. Laser altimetry of Mercury, Moon, and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, G. A.; Mazarico, E.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Torrence, M. H.; Barnouin, O. S.; Solomon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Since March 29 of this year, the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft has been ranging twice daily to the surface of Mercury from orbit, collecting more than 1 million ranges each month. Mercury joins Earth, Moon, and Mars as a planetary body mapped precisely by laser altimetry from orbit. Ranging covers nearly all of the northern hemisphere. The southern hemisphere largely lies beyond the 1800-km range of MLA from MESSENGER's eccentric orbit, but the 10-cm-precision MLA data will eventually be complemented by less precise radio occultation and limb profiling measurements by the MESSENGER spacecraft, as well as by digital topographic models produced by stereo photogrammetry. Mercury topography is distinguished from its larger and smaller counterparts by a relatively low (<10 km) dynamic range, less than half that of Earth, Moon, and Mars, and two-thirds that of its nearest neighbor, Venus. There are ample indications from the topography of Mercury impact structures as well as from its low-degree shape that Mercury's thermal evolution was complex and differed from those of other terrestrial planets. Central to the thermal history are the extensive contractional tectonic features for which altimetry quantifies accommodated strain. As well, MLA profiles of extensional graben within more than two dozen impact craters and basins, together with topographic and gravity field observations, will constrain the evolution of Mercury's upper crust and lithosphere. Lidar topographic data provide a wealth of geological contextual information regarding impact crater formation and modification, tectonics, volcanism, lithospheric strength, thermal evolution, and internal structure. Topography is essential for orthorectification of images and calibration of reflectance data. Geodetic topography, referenced to the center of mass, in conjunction with gravity, allows an assessment of the distribution of

  8. Discovery of a Makemakean Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Alex H.; Buie, Marc W.; Grundy, Will M.; Noll, Keith S.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the discovery of a satellite in orbit about the dwarf planet (136472) Makemake. This satellite, provisionally designated S/2015 (136472) 1, was detected in imaging data collected with the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 on UTC 2015 April 27 at 7.80 +/- 0.04 mag fainter than Makemake and at a separation of 0farcs57. It likely evaded detection in previous satellite searches due to a nearly edge-on orbital configuration, placing it deep within the glare of Makemake during a substantial fraction of its orbital period. This configuration would place Makemake and its satellite near a mutual event season. Insufficient orbital motion was detected to make a detailed characterization of its orbital properties, prohibiting a measurement of the system mass with the discovery data alone. Preliminary analysis indicates that if the orbit is circular, its orbital period must be longer than 12.4 days and must have a semimajor axis > or approx. = 21,000 km. We find that the properties of Makemake's moon suggest that the majority of the dark material detected in the system by thermal observations may not reside on the surface of Makemake, but may instead be attributable to S/2015 (136472) 1 having a uniform dark surface. This dark moon hypothesis can be directly tested with future James Webb Space Telescope observations. We discuss the implications of this discovery for the spin state, figure, and thermal properties of Makemake and the apparent ubiquity of trans-Neptunian dwarf planet satellites.

  9. Introducing the Moon's Orbital Eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    I present a novel way to introduce the lunar orbital eccentricity in introductory astronomy courses. The Moon is perhaps the clearest illustration of the general orbital elements such as inclination, ascending node, eccentricity, perigee, and so on. Furthermore, I like the students to discover astronomical phenomena for themselves, by means of a guided exercise, rather than just telling them the facts.1 The inclination and nodes may be found by direct observation, monitoring carefully the position of the Moon among the stars. Even the regression of the nodes may be discovered in this way2 To find the eccentricity from students' observations is also possible,3 but that requires considerable time and effort. if a whole class should discover it in a short time, here is a method more suitable for a one-day class or home assignment. The level I aim at is, more or less, advanced high school or first-year college students. I assume them to be acquainted with celestial coordinates and the lunar phases, and to be able to use algebra and trigonometry.

  10. Far Side of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This image of the moon was obtained by the Galileo Solid State imaging system on Dec. 8 at 7 p.m. PST as the Galileo spacecraft passed the Earth and was able to view the lunar surface from a vantage point not possible from the Earth. On the right-hand side of the image is seen the dark maria of Oceanus Procellarum, also visible from the Earth. The dark spots in the center are Mare Orientale, on the western limb of the nearside of the moon, a region barely visible from the Earth. This region and the bright far side highlands on the left have not been seen previously by a camera system such as the one on the Galileo spacecraft, which provides multispectral images of the lunar limb and far side which have not previously been obtained. Comparison of such images to those of the near-side areas from which Apollo astronauts have returned samples will help us understand the spectral properties and composition of the lunar far side.

  11. Where the Small Moon Rules

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-19

    Pan may be small as satellites go, but like many of Saturn's ring moons, it has a has a very visible effect on the rings. Pan (17 miles or 28 kilometers across, left of center) holds open the Encke gap and shapes the ever-changing ringlets within the gap (some of which can be seen here). In addition to raising waves in the A and B rings, other moons help shape the F ring, the outer edge of the A ring and open the Keeler gap. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 8 degrees above the ring plane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on July 2, 2016. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 840,000 miles (1.4 million kilometers) from Saturn and at a sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 128 degrees. Image scale is 5 miles (8 kilometers) per pixel. Pan has been brightened by a factor of two to enhance its visibility. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20499

  12. Laurence Moon Bardet Biedl Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, A B; Niloy, Ahmed Al Muntasir; Shah, Tazin Afrose; Biswas, Sunil Kumar; Imran, A Khan; Murshed, Khaled Mahbub; Ahmed, Mashrafi

    2009-01-01

    A 14 year old Bangladeshi boy presented with obesity, reduced vision, mental retardation, hypogonadism, delayed development and learning difficulty. On examination, he had polydactyly, moon face, bilateral gynaecomastia, small penis and undescended testes. Retinitis pigmentosa was found on fundoscopy. With typical features, he was diagnosed as a case of Laurence-Moon-Bardet-Biedl syndrome. It is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with mutation in 6 loci identified so far. It is commonly found in communities with high inter-family marriage. Clinical features appear early in childhood and diagnosis is usually done by puberty. Prominent features include rod-cone dystrophy leading to blindness, postaxial polydactyly, central obesity, learning disability, hypogonadism in males and renal dysfunction. Relatives with a single affected gene may have obesity, hypertension, diabetes and renal disease. There is increased risk of renal cell carcinoma. There is no definite treatment. Early diagnosis and symptomatic, supportive and rehabilitative measures can reduce the disability. These include dietary modification, oral hypoglycaemic drugs, testosterone supplement etc. Relatives of the patient should be screened for renal abnormality.

  13. Meteoritic material on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Ganapathy, R.; Higuchi, H.; Anders, E.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of meteoritic material are found on the moon: micrometeorites, ancient planetesimal debris from the "early intense bombardment," and debris of recent, craterforming projectiles. Their amounts and compositions have been determined from trace element studies. The micrometeorite component is uniformly distributed over the entire lunar surface, but is seen most clearly in mare soils. It has a primitive, C1-chondrite-like composition, and comprises 1 to 1.5 percent of mature soils. Apparently it represents cometary debris. The ancient component is seen in highland breccias and soils. Six varieties have been recognized, differing in their proportions of refractories (Ir, Re), volatiles (Ge, Sb), and Au. All have a fractionated composition, with volatiles depleted relative to siderophiles. The abundance patterns do not match those of the known meteorite classes. These ancient meteoritic components seem to represent the debris of an extinct population of bodies (planetisimals, moonlets) that produced the mare basins during the first 700 Myr of the moon's history. On the basis of their stratigraphy and geographic distribution, five of the six groups are tentatively assigned to specific mare basins: Imbrium, Serenitatis, Crisium, Nectaris, and Humorum or Nubium.

  14. Taking Europe To The Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    The first step in this ESA initiated programme is a unique project called 'Euromoon 2000' which is currently being studied by ESA engineers/ scientists and key European Space Industries. The project is intended to celebrate Europe's entry into the New Millennium; and to promote public awareness and interest in science, technology and space exploration. Euromoon 2000 has an innovative and ambitious implementation plan. This includes a 'partnership with industry' and a financing scheme based on raising part of the mission's budget from sponsorship through a dynamic public relations strategy and marketing programme. The mission begins in earnest with the small (approx. 100 kg) LunarSat orbiter satellite, to be designed and built by 50 young scientists and engineers from across Europe. Scheduled for launch in 2000 as a secondary payload on a European Ariane 5 rocket, it will then orbit the Moon, mapping the planned landing area in greater detail in preparation of the EuroMoon Lander in 2001. The Lander's 40 kg payload allocation will accommodate amongst others scientific instrumentation for in-situ investigation of the unique site. Elements of specific support to the publicity and fund-raising campaign will also be considered. The Lander will aim for the 'Peak of Eternal Light' on the rim of the 20 km-diameter, 3 km-deep Shackleton South Pole crater - a site uniquely suited for establishing a future outpost. This location enjoys almost continuous sunlight thus missions can rely on solar power instead of bulky batteries or costly and potentially hazardous nuclear power generation. As a consequence of the undulating South Pole terrain there are also permanently shadowed areas - amongst the coldest in the Solar System resulting in conditions highly favourable for the formation of frozen volatiles (as suggested by the Clementine mission in 1994). Earlier this year (7th January 1998), NASA launched its Lunar Prospector satellite which is currently performing polar lunar

  15. Apollo 17 petrology and experimental determination of differentiation sequences in model moon compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, F. N.; Kushiro, I.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental studies of model moon compositions are discussed, taking into account questions related to the differentiation of the outer layer of the moon. Phase relations for a series of proposed lunar compositions have been determined and a petrographic and electron microprobe study was conducted on four Apollo 17 samples. Two of the samples consist of high-titanium mare basalts, one includes crushed anorthosite and gabbro, and another contains blue-gray breccia.

  16. World-Wide Outreach through International Observe the Moon Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, S.; Jones, A. P.; Bleacher, L.; Shaner, A. J.; Day, B. H.; Wenger, M.; Joseph, E.; Canipe, M.

    2016-12-01

    International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) is an annual worldwide public event that encourages observation, appreciation, and understanding of our Moon and its connection to NASA planetary science and exploration. Everyone on Earth is invited to join the celebration by hosting or attending an InOMN event - and uniting on one day each year to look at and learn about the Moon together. Events are hosted by a variety of institutions including astronomy clubs, observatories, schools, and universities, museums, planetaria, schools, universities, observatories, parks, private businesses and private homes. Events hosts are supported with event flyers, information sheets, Moon maps for observing, activities to use during events, presentations, certificates of participation, and evaluation materials to be used by hosts. 2016 is the seventh year of worldwide participation in InOMN which will be held on October 8th. In the last six years, over 3,000 events were registered worldwide from almost 100 different countries and almost all 50 states and the District of Columbia in the United States. Evaluation of InOMN is conducted by an external evaluation group and includes analysis of event registrations, facilitator surveys, and visitor surveys. Evaluation results demonstrate that InOMN events are successful in raising visitors' awareness of lunar science and exploration, providing audiences with information about lunar science and exploration, and inspiring visitors to want to learn more about the Moon. Additionally, preliminary analysis of social media has shown that there is a virtual network of individuals connecting about InOMN. A large fraction of events have been held by institutions for more than one year showing sustained interest in participation. During this presentation, we will present data for all seven years of InOMN including lessons learned through supporting and evaluating a worldwide event. InOMN is sponsored by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, NASA

  17. Low Frequency Radioastronomy at Moon: possible approach and architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalsky, A.; Mogilevsky, M.; Nazarov, V.; Nazirov, R.; Batanov, O.; Sadovski, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Moon, the Earth's neighbor, attracts an attention as a celestial body, as a source for mineral and other resources and as a possible base for fundamental scientific researches. The conducting ionosphere of Earth completely shields radioemissions coming from outer space and propagating at frequencies below a few MHz. In contrary, the Moon possessing a week atmosphereionosphere around its surface seems to be a perfect base for carrying out measurements of low frequency radio emissions originated from the space. The radio facility deployed at Moon's surface seems to be a powerful tool for various fundamental space researches related to astrophysics, solar system and magnetospheric investigations. The most intriguing objective is a search of terrestrial-like planets in the exosolar system, i.e. planets possessing the intrinsic magnetic fields and developed magnetospheres which interaction with the star wind results in generation of radioemissions (similar to AKR radiation of the terrestrial magnetosphere). Creating the infrastructure of antennas (sensors) on Moon's surface is planned for reaching the described goals. Ideology of such infrastructure (which may be treated as macro-instrument) is closely to SensorWeb approach. The different sensors are collected to unified platforms (PODs in terms of SensorWeb) which provide omni-and bidirectional information flows between PODs. Thus a set of sensors is integrated self-organizing amorphous organism on the base of wireless network. It increases reliability of the research complex and allows quick reconfiguring and adopting it for different investigation tasks. For additional redundancy and openness of the complex at least some PODs will support not only inter-PODs protocol but IEEE 802.16 Wireless LAN standard used in NASA Lunar Communication and Navigation Architecture also. The paper presents a possible approach to the development of the radio facility deployed at Moon's surface, its implementation for various

  18. Near-surface ice on Mercury and the Moon: A topographic thermal model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salvail, James R.; Fanale, Fraser P.

    1994-01-01

    A thermal model that can be easily adapted to craters of arbitrary shape is developed and applied to high-latitude impact craters on Mercury and the Moon, Chao Meng Fu crater at -87.5 deg L on Mercury, an unnamed bowl-shaped crater at 86.7 deg L on Mercury, and Peary crater at 88.6 deg L on the Moon. For an assumed input topography and grid of surface elements, the model computes for each element the irradiation from direct insolation and reflected and emitted radiation from other elements, taking into account shadowing by walls of the crater, partial obscuration of the solar disk near the poles and the diurnal, orbital, and seasonal cycles. Temperatures are computed over the surface grid as functions of depth and time from the surface to a specified depth and over the pertinent astronomical cycles, including the effects of direct and indirect surface irradiation, infrared radiation, heat conduction, and interior heating. Vapor fluxes and ice recession times are computed as functions of ice depth over the surface grid. Temperatures profiles, vapor fluxes, and ice recession times were computed for flat surfaces not associated with craters near the poles of Mercury and the Moon. It was found that water ice could have existed throughout geologic time within the maximum radar detection depth of recent observation of Mercury (J. K. Harmon and M. A. Slade, 1992, Science 258, 640-643) poleward of approximately 87 - 88 deg L on Mercury and poleward of approximately 73 deg L on the Moon. For Chao Meng Fu crater it was found that approximately 40% of the crater floor is permanently shadowed from direct solar insolation, while the remainder of the crater floor is periodically illuminated by a partially obscured Sun. Temperatures at the upper levels of the south wall can slightly exceed 550 K. Surface temperatures in the permanently shadowed region of the crater floor are under approximately 130 K, which could have allowed water ice to exist throughout geologic time within the

  19. Near-surface ice on Mercury and the Moon: A topographic thermal model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salvail, James R.; Fanale, Fraser P.

    1994-01-01

    A thermal model that can be easily adapted to craters of arbitrary shape is developed and applied to high-latitude impact craters on Mercury and the Moon, Chao Meng Fu crater at -87.5 deg L on Mercury, an unnamed bowl-shaped crater at 86.7 deg L on Mercury, and Peary crater at 88.6 deg L on the Moon. For an assumed input topography and grid of surface elements, the model computes for each element the irradiation from direct insolation and reflected and emitted radiation from other elements, taking into account shadowing by walls of the crater, partial obscuration of the solar disk near the poles and the diurnal, orbital, and seasonal cycles. Temperatures are computed over the surface grid as functions of depth and time from the surface to a specified depth and over the pertinent astronomical cycles, including the effects of direct and indirect surface irradiation, infrared radiation, heat conduction, and interior heating. Vapor fluxes and ice recession times are computed as functions of ice depth over the surface grid. Temperatures profiles, vapor fluxes, and ice recession times were computed for flat surfaces not associated with craters near the poles of Mercury and the Moon. It was found that water ice could have existed throughout geologic time within the maximum radar detection depth of recent observation of Mercury (J. K. Harmon and M. A. Slade, 1992, Science 258, 640-643) poleward of approximately 87 - 88 deg L on Mercury and poleward of approximately 73 deg L on the Moon. For Chao Meng Fu crater it was found that approximately 40% of the crater floor is permanently shadowed from direct solar insolation, while the remainder of the crater floor is periodically illuminated by a partially obscured Sun. Temperatures at the upper levels of the south wall can slightly exceed 550 K. Surface temperatures in the permanently shadowed region of the crater floor are under approximately 130 K, which could have allowed water ice to exist throughout geologic time within the

  20. Space Debris Hazards from Fragmentations in Collinear Earth-Moon Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Priyankar; Sharma, Ram Krishan; Tewari, Ashish

    2009-03-01

    The collinear Lagrange points of the Earth-Moon system provide an ideal environment for future missions. L1 point, which lies between the Earth and the Moon, has potential for a manned space station to transport cargo and personnel to the Moon and back. Similarly, L2 point can be a candidate location for communication satellites covering the far side of Moon. Because, Lagrange Points promise to be the hub of future space operations, it has become important to study effect of a spacecraft fragmentation at these points. In this context, Stumpff/Weiss four-body algorithm, which is an extension of the Encke method of orbit propagation, provides a very attractive proposition for the simulation of fragment evolution. The method is 10 to 15 times faster than the other similar techniques and hence permits Monte-Carlo (MC) analysis of fragmentation velocity. Following a fragmentation at Earth-Moon collinear point about 2% of the total number of debris pieces can come within GSO altitude (~ 3.6×104 km). Fragmentation at any one of the Earth-Moon collinear points poses small yet perceptible risk to space operation around the Earth. It is emphasized that there is a genuine need to conduct more detailed study on fragmentation at collinear Earth- Moon points.

  1. LIRAS mission for lunar exploration by microwave interferometric radiometer: Moon's subsurface characterization, emission model and numerical simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompili, Sara; Silvio Marzano, Frank; Di Carlofelice, Alessandro; Montopoli, Mario; Talone, Marco; Crapolicchio, Raffaele; L'Abbate, Michelangelo; Varchetta, Silvio; Tognolatti, Piero

    2013-04-01

    The "Lunar Interferometric Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis" (LIRAS) mission is promoted by the Italian Space Agency and is currently in feasibility phase. LIRAS' satellite will orbit around the Moon at a height of 100 km, with a revisiting time period lower than 1 lunar month and will be equipped with: a synthetic aperture radiometer for subsurface sounding purposes, working at 1 and 3 GHz, and a real aperture radiometer for near-surface probing, working at 12 and 24 GHz. The L-band payload, representing a novel concept for lunar exploration, is designed as a Y-shaped thinned array with three arms less than 2.5 m long. The main LIRAS objectives are high-resolution mapping and vertical sounding of the Moon subsurface by applying the advantages of the antenna aperture synthesis technique to a multi-frequency microwave passive payload. The mission is specifically designed to achieve spatial resolutions less than 10 km at surface and to retrieve thermo-morphological properties of the Moon subsurface within 5 m of depth. Among LIRAS products are: lunar near-surface brightness temperature, subsurface brightness temperature gross profile, subsurface regolith thickness, density and average thermal conductivity, detection index of possible subsurface discontinuities (e.g. ice presence). The following study involves the preliminary design of the LIRAS payload and the electromagnetic and thermal characterization of the lunar subsoil through the implementation of a simulator for reproducing the LIRAS measurements in response to observations of the Moon surface and subsurface layers. Lunar physical data, collected after the Apollo missions, and LIRAS instrument parameters are taken as input for the abovementioned simulator, called "LIRAS End-to-end Performance Simulator" (LEPS) and obtained by adapting the SMOS End-to-end Performance Simulator to the different instrumental, orbital, and geophysical LIRAS characteristics. LEPS completely simulates the behavior of the satellite

  2. GRAIL Gravity Field of the Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-05

    This map shows the gravity field of the moon as measured by NASA GRAIL mission. The viewing perspective, known as a Mercator projection, shows the far side of the moon in the center and the nearside as viewed from Earth at either side.

  3. The Moon's Phases and the Self Shadow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Timothy; Guy, Mark

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a new way of teaching the phases of the Moon. Through the introduction of a "self shadow" (an idea of a shadow that is not well-known), they illuminate students' understanding of the phases of the Moon and help them understand the distinction between the shadows that cause eclipses and the shadows that relate…

  4. Formative Assessment Probes: The Daytime Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2012-01-01

    The familiar adage "seeing is believing" implies that children will recall a particular phenomenon if they had the experience of seeing it with their own eyes. If this were true, then most children would believe that one could see the Moon in both daytime and at night. However, when children are asked, "Can you see the Moon in the daytime?" many…

  5. Origin and Evolution of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Cuixiang

    2014-01-01

    Since the Moon is the only natural satellite of the Earth, the research on the formation of the Moon can not only find out the formation mechanism of the satellites of Solar System planets but also reveal the evolution law of galaxies in the universe. Hence many hypotheses have been proposed for the Moon's formation, including fission,capture,condensation,and impact event hypothesis, but they all have problems. Recently, the author of this abstract discovered the formation mechanism of the Moon, which can be called ``evolution theory'', and described as follows: During some violent volcanic eruptions of the Earth, some rock debris such as pumice through deep rock hole could achieve a velocity no less than the first cosmic velocity (7.9 km/s) to enter an orbit around the Earth, one of the biggest debris is the young Moon. The orbit of the young Moon might be much closer to the Earth than it is today. There were a lot of ejecta from the Earth in the space. Hence, the Moon has merged these ejecta to become larger and larger, and farther and farther away from the Earth.This can be proved as follows: When the Moon moved around the Earth normally, the centrifugal force produced by the Moon's rotation around the Earth and the Earth's gravitation pull on the Moon had the same size. Let M be the mass of the Earth, m 1 be the mass of the Moon, r m be the radius of the Moon, r be the centroid distance between the Earth and the Moon, v be the tangential velocity of the Moon around the Earth, then Gm 1 M/r 2=m 1 v 2/r, therefore $v=\\sqrt{GM/r}$ . Near the orbit of the Moon, there were also many smaller prograde planetesimals moving around the Earth in circular orbits of radius r x (r-r m \\sqrt{GM/r}$ , which implies v x > v, these planetesimals would finally catch and merge with the Moon.Especially,if a planetesimals was large enough, it would impact the Moon forcefully, making the Moon's velocity increase to a larger

  6. Water Molecules on Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-24

    Roger Clark, team member, Cassini spacecraft Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer and co-investigator, Moon Mineralogy Mapper, U.S. Geological Survey in Denver answers questions on NASA’s discovery of water molecules in the polar regions of the moon at a press conference at NASA Headquarters, September 24, 2009, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  7. After Apollo: Fission Origin of the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, John A.

    1973-01-01

    Presents current ideas about the fission process of the Moon, including loss of mass. Saturnian rings, center of the Moon, binary stars, and uniformitarianism. Indicates that planetary formation may be best explained as a destructive, rather than a constructive process. (CC)

  8. Moon Gravity Field Using Prospector Data

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-05

    This map shows the gravity field of the moon from the Lunar Prospector mission. The viewing perspective, known as a Mercator projection, shows the far side of the moon in the center and the nearside as viewed from Earth at either side.

  9. Planetary science: Signs of a wandering Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrick-Bethell, Ian

    2016-03-01

    The presence of ice at two positions on opposite sides of the Moon suggests that the satellite's orientation was once shifted away from its present spin axis -- a finding that has implications for the Moon's volcanic history. See Letter p.480

  10. Evolution of the moon: The 1974 model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    Investigations are reported of Apollo and Luna explorations which have brought about the understanding of the moon and its structure. It is shown that with this knowledge of the moon, a better understanding is presented of the earth's origin, structure and composition.

  11. The Moon's Phases and the Self Shadow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Timothy; Guy, Mark

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a new way of teaching the phases of the Moon. Through the introduction of a "self shadow" (an idea of a shadow that is not well-known), they illuminate students' understanding of the phases of the Moon and help them understand the distinction between the shadows that cause eclipses and the shadows that relate…

  12. Formative Assessment Probes: The Daytime Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2012-01-01

    The familiar adage "seeing is believing" implies that children will recall a particular phenomenon if they had the experience of seeing it with their own eyes. If this were true, then most children would believe that one could see the Moon in both daytime and at night. However, when children are asked, "Can you see the Moon in the daytime?" many…

  13. Migration of Small Moons in Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromley, Benjamin C.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2013-02-01

    The motions of small moons through Saturn's rings provide excellent tests of radial migration models. In theory, torque exchange between these moons and ring particles leads to radial drift. We predict that moons with Hill radii r H ~ 2-24 km should migrate through the A ring in 1000 yr. In this size range, moons orbiting in an empty gap or in a full ring eventually migrate at the same rate. Smaller moons or moonlets—such as the propellers—are trapped by diffusion of disk material into corotating orbits, creating inertial drag. Larger moons—such as Pan or Atlas—do not migrate because of their own inertia. Fast migration of 2-24 km moons should eliminate intermediate-size bodies from the A ring and may be responsible for the observed large-radius cutoff of r H ~ 1-2 km in the size distribution of the A ring's propeller moonlets. Although the presence of Daphnis (r H ≈ 5 km) inside the Keeler gap challenges this scenario, numerical simulations demonstrate that orbital resonances and stirring by distant, larger moons (e.g., Mimas) may be important factors. For Daphnis, stirring by distant moons seems the most promising mechanism to halt fast migration. Alternatively, Daphnis may be a recent addition to the ring that is settling into a low inclination orbit in ~103 yr prior to a phase of rapid migration. We provide predictions of observational constraints required to discriminate among possible scenarios for Daphnis.

  14. Earth and Moon as viewed from Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-22

    This is the first image of Earth ever taken from another planet that actually shows our home as a planetary disk. Because Earth and the Moon are closer to the Sun than Mars, they exhibit phases, just as the Moon, Venus, & Mercury do when viewed from Earth

  15. Rise and fall of the Martian moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, Erik

    2016-08-01

    The two small satellites of Mars are thought to have accreted from a debris disk formed in a giant impact. Simulations suggest the moons were shepherded into formation by the dynamical influence of one or more short-lived massive inner moons.

  16. Exploring the moon. [personal historical background perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jastrow, R.

    1981-01-01

    The genesis of lunar exploration programs is described. The idea that the dead moon could give important clues about the origin of the solar system germinated into plans for a soft landing on the moon and then into the Apollo program. The exchanges between NASA scientists and other astronomers that led to these plans are recounted.

  17. After Apollo: Fission Origin of the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, John A.

    1973-01-01

    Presents current ideas about the fission process of the Moon, including loss of mass. Saturnian rings, center of the Moon, binary stars, and uniformitarianism. Indicates that planetary formation may be best explained as a destructive, rather than a constructive process. (CC)

  18. Supporting Crewed Missions using LiAISON Navigation in the Earth-Moon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Jason M.

    Crewed navigation in certain regions of the Earth-Moon system provides a unique challenge due to the unstable dynamics and observation geometry relative to standard Earth-based tracking systems. The focus of this thesis is to advance the understanding of navigation precision in the Earth-Moon system, analyzing the observability of navigation data types frequently used to navigate spacecraft, and to provide a better understanding of the influence of a crewed vehicle disturbance model for future manned missions in the Earth-Moon system. In this research, a baseline for navigation performance of a spacecraft in a Lagrange point orbit in the Earth-Moon system is analyzed. Using operational ARTEMIS tracking data, an overlap analysis of the reconstructed ARTEMIS trajectory states is conducted. This analysis provides insight into the navigation precision of a spacecraft traversing a Lissajous orbit about the Earth-Moon L1 point. While the ARTEMIS analysis provides insight into the navigation precision using ground based tracking methods, an examination of the benefits of introducing Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation (LiAISON) is investigated. This examination provides insight into the benefits and disadvantages of LiAISON range and range-rate measurements for trajectories in the Earth-Moon system. In addition to the characterization of navigation precision for spacecraft in the Earth-Moon system, an analysis of the uncertainty propagation for noisy crewed vehicles and quiet robotic spacecraft is given. Insight is provided on the characteristics of uncertainty propagation and how it is correlated to the instability of the Lagrange point orbit. A crewed vehicle disturbance model is provided based on either Gaussian or Poisson assumptions. The natural tendency for the uncertainty distribution in a Lagrange point orbit is to align with the unstable manifold after a certain period of propagation. This behavior is influenced directly by the unstable

  19. A geophysical perspective on Earth's mantle water content: Inverting long-period electromagnetic sounding data using laboratory-based electrical conductivity profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankland, T. J.; Khan, A.

    2011-12-01

    We have applied electromagnetic sounding methods for Earth's mantle to constrain its thermal state, chemical composition, and "water" content. We consider long-period inductive response functionsin the form of C-responses from four stations distributed across the Earth (Europe, North America, Asia and Australia) covering a period range from 3.9 to 95.2 days and sensitivity to 1200 km depth. Rather than invert C-responses for conductivity profiles, we invert directly for chemical composition and thermal state using a self-consistent thermodynamic method to compute phase equilibria as functions of pressure, temperature, and composition (in the Na2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 model system). Computed mineral modes are combined with recent laboratory-based electrical conductivity models from independent experimental research groups (Yoshino and coworkers and Karato and coworkers) to compute bulk conductivity structure beneath each of the four stations from which C-responses are estimated. This scheme is interfaced with a sampling-based algorithm to solve the resulting non-linear inverse problem. This approach has two advantages: (1) It anchors temperatures, composition, electrical conductivities, and discontinuities that are in laboratory-based forward models, and (2) At the same time it permits the use of geophysical inverse methods to optimize electrical profiles to match geophysical data. The results show variations in upper mantle temperatures beneath the four stations that appear to persist throughout the upper mantle and parts of the transition zone consistent with observations from seismic tomography images that show major lateral velocity variations in the upper mantle. Calculated mantle temperatures at 410 and 660 km depth lie in the range 1250-1650 deg C and 1500-1750 deg C, respectively, and generally agree with experimentally-determined temperatures at which the measured phase reactions olivine->beta-spinel and gamma-spinel->ferropericlase+perovskite occur. The

  20. Water Molecules on Moon Press Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-24

    Jim Green (far left), director, Planetary Science Division, Science MissionDirectorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington; Carle Pieters, principal investigator, Moon Mineralogy Mapper, Brown University; Rob Green, project instrument scientist, Moon Mineralogy Mapper, at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory; Roger Clark, team member, Cassini spacecraft Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer and co-investigator, Moon Mineralogy Mapper, U.S. Geological Survey in Denver and Jessica Sunshine (far right), deputy principal investigator for NASA's Deep Impactextended mission and co-investigator for Moon Mineralogy Mapper,Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland discuss their findings of water molecules in the polar regions of the moon at a press conference at NASA Headquarters, September 24, 2009, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  1. The squint Moon and the witch ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, M. V.

    2015-06-01

    A witch ball is a reflecting sphere of glass. Looking into the disk that it subtends, the whole sky can be seen at one glance. This feature can be exploited to see and photograph the squint Moon illusion, in which the direction normal to the illuminated face of the Moon—its ‘attitude vector’—does not appear to point towards the Sun. The images of the Sun and Moon in the disk, the geodesic connecting them, the Moon’s attitude, and the squint angle (distinct from the tilt), can be calculated and simulated, for all celestial configurations and viewing inclinations. The Moon direction antipodal to the Sun, corresponding to full Moon, is a singularity of the attitude vector field, with index +1. The main features of the witch ball images also occur in other ways of imaging the squint Moon.

  2. NASAs Evolvable Mars Campaign: Mars Moons Robotic Precursor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Abell, Paul A.; Love, Stanley G.; Lee, David E.; Chappell, Steven P.; Howe, A. Scott; Friedensen, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Human exploration missions to the moons of Mars are being considered within NASA's Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) as an intermediate step for eventual human exploration and pioneering of the surface of Mars. A range of mission architectures is being evaluated in which human crews would explore one or both moons for as little as 14 days or for as long as 500 days with a variety of orbital and surface habitation and mobility options being considered. Relatively little is known about the orbital, surface, or subsurface characteristics of either moon. This makes them interesting but challenging destinations for human exploration missions during which crewmembers must be able to effectively conduct scientific exploration without being exposed to undue risks due to radiation, dust, micrometeoroids, or other hazards. A robotic precursor mission to one or both moons will be required to provide data necessary for the design and operation of subsequent human systems and for the identification and prioritization of scientific exploration objectives. This paper identifies and discusses considerations for the design of such a precursor mission based on current human mission architectures. Objectives of a Mars' moon precursor in support of human missions are expected to include: 1) identifying hazards on the surface and the orbital environment at up to 50-km distant retrograde orbits; 2) collecting data on physical characteristics for planning of detailed human proximity and surface operations; 3) performing remote sensing and in situ science investigations to refine and focus future human scientific activities; and 4) prospecting for in situ resource utilization. These precursor objectives can be met through a combination or remote sensing (orbital) and in-situ (surface) measurements. Analysis of spacecraft downlink signals using radio science techniques would measure the moon's mass, mass distribution, and gravity field, which will be necessary to enable trajectory planning

  3. Working on the moon: The Apollo experience

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    The successful completion of any scientific or engineering project on the Moon will depend, in part, on human ability to do useful work under lunar conditions. In making informed decisions about such things as the use of humans rather than robots for specific tasks, the scheduling of valuable human time, and the design and selection of equipment and tools, good use can be made of the existing experience base. During the six completed landing missions, Apollo lunar surface crews conducted 160 astronaut-hours of extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) and also spent a similar sum of waking hours working in the cramped confines of the Lunar Module. The first three missions were primarily proof-tests of flight hardware and procedures. The ability to land equipment and consumables was very modest but, despite stay times of no more than 32 hours, the crews of Apollos 11, 12, and 14 were able to test their mobility and their capability of doing useful work outside the spacecraft. For the last three missions, thanks to LM modifications which enabled landings with significant amounts of cargo, stay times more than doubled to three days. The crews were able to use Lunar Rovers to conduct extensive local exploration and to travel up to 10 kilometers away from their immediate landing sites. During these final missions, the astronauts spent enough time doing work of sufficient complexity that their experience should be of use in the formulation early-stage lunar base operating plans. 2 refs.

  4. Russian Scientific Project: "The Moon - 2012+"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A.; Petrova, N.

    2006-08-01

    The realization of the modern long-time programs of comprehensive investigation of the Moon in the framework: "SMART-1" (ESA, 2003+), "SELENE" (JAXA, 2007), "Chandrayaan" (India, 2007), "CHANG'E-I" (CNSA, 2007), "LRO" (NASA, 2008), and "Luna Glob" (Russia, 2012) are aimed at obtaining of broad information about lunar gravity field, precision position in the inertial coordinate system, geometrical and dynamical figure and lunar interior: qualitative parameter Q, Love number k[2], core's radius R[c], core's density etc. Russian scientific project "The Moon - 2012+" is directed on the decision of fundamental problems of celestial mechanics, selenodesy and geophysics of the Moon connected to carrying out of complex theoretical researches and computer modelling: 1. Spin-orbital long-time evolution and physical librations the multilayered Moon: ?) construction of the analytical theory of rotation of the two/ three-layer Moon and reception on its basis of physical libration tables for their application at processing precision supervisions; construction of a lunar annual book. b) The analysis of spin-orbital evolution of the early Moon, an estimation of internal energy dissipation, modelling of the long-term mechanism of maintenance free librations the Moon. 2. Geodynamics of a lunar core: the analysis of differentiation of a lunar core, detailed elaboration of plume-tectonics of a mantle and a core of the early Moon, evolution of a boundary layer a core - mantle, reconstruction of gravitational and viscous - mechanical interaction of a lunar core and a mantle, resonant dissipation of internal energy, calculation free and forced nutations a lunar core, free fluctuations of system a core - mantle. 3. Selenodesy of lunar far - side: the decision of a return problem lunar gravimetry, construction of geodynamic model of a lunar crust, a mantle and a core, border Moho, reconstruction initial mascons on the Moon, creation precision topographical and gravitational models of the

  5. The Moon in the UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrix, Amanda

    2014-11-01

    While the Moon has been observed in the UV for decades, the real utility of this spectral region for unlocking some of the Moon’s secrets has only recently been understood. Previously the domain of atmospheric studies, the UV has now emerged as an important spectral region for studying surfaces. The ultraviolet regime is very sensitive to both space weathering effects and composition, including hydration. This presentation will cover a review of early UV lunar observations (e.g., Apollo 17, International Ultraviolet Explorer), as well as early laboratory studies that first shone a light on the importance of this spectral region. The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) instrument, currently in orbit on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft, is providing critical mapping capabilities of UV signatures, including signals from the permanently shadowed regions of the poles. I will discuss some of these exciting results, and extend these to implications for other airless bodies in the solar system.

  6. Sun/Moon capture evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, W.

    1983-12-01

    Because of their optical characteristics, head-up displays (HUDs) have always interacted with various kinds of sunlight to produce unwanted reflections. Capture means that a HUD can and will capture or trap light and direct it into a pilot's eyes. This capture effect can result in both reflections and retroflections. Reflections occur when an external light source impinges on a reflective surface. Retroflections are light reflections that result from external light entering the HUD optics train, reflecting off the face of the cathode ray tube (CRT), and passing back out through the optics. Both the reflected and the retroflected image are called reflexes. With the introduction of diffractive optics technology, there is a need to describe how diffraction and conventional optics perform in the presence of collimated light sources, such as that provided by the Sun and Moon.

  7. Does the moon eat colors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisot, J.-P.

    1986-03-01

    The physical chemistry of tropospheric oxidants, particularly H2O2, and the conditions necessary for their dissolution are investigated to account for the supposed bleaching property of the moon at night. The chemistry of OH, HO2, and H2O2 is linked to the photodissociation of O3 through the production of O(1D). Gaseous H2O2 is removed by heterogeneous reactions involving aerosols and liquid water. The dissolution of H2O2, formed by the interaction of water vapor with ozone dissociation products, occurs inside of water droplets in the presence of a support liquid such as dew principally at night when the humidity is more significant. The daily solubility of ambient H2O2 is estimated, and the oxidizing capacity of H2O2 is seen to explain the bleaching properties of dew.

  8. Environmental Change in Icy Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Vance, S.

    2014-12-01

    There is strong evidence that subsurface oceans could exist within several of the outer solar system's ice-rich moons, at Jupiter (Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto), Saturn (Enceladus and Titan), and Neptune (Triton). If liquid water is indeed available in these subsurface environments, then the availability of chemical energy becomes the greatest limitation on whether icy worlds could harbor life. Of these moons, the largest (Ganymede, Callisto, and Titan) are expected to harbor oceans deep within, and high-pressure H2O ice phases are expected farther beneath those deep oceans. In contrast, the oceans of smaller icy worlds—Europa, Enceladus, and Triton—are plausibly in direct contact with rock below. Given that serpentinization or other water-rock geochemical activity could supply reductants directly to their oceans, these icy worlds have the greatest chance to support present-day microbial life. Each of these three icy worlds displays spectacular resurfaced terrains that are very young (crater retention ages ~10s Myr and younger), with their internal activity linked to extremes in tidal heating today and/or in the geologically recent past. However, the degree of their tidal heating may have changed greatly over time. Europa is believed to experience cyclical tidal heating and activity; Enceladus may have experienced cyclical activity or a geologically recent pulse of activity; Triton may have experienced extreme tidal heating upon its capture and orbital circularization. Such dynamic pasts would pose challenges for any life within. We consider the possible effects of severe swings in the activity level of icy worlds, specifically the implications for delivery of chemical energy to their subsurface oceans.

  9. Asteroid Ida and Its Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the first full picture showing both asteroid 243 Ida and its newly discovered moon to be transmitted to Earth from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Galileo spacecraft--the first conclusive evidence that natural satellites of asteroids exist. Ida, the large object, is about 56 kilometers (35 miles) long. Ida's natural satellite is the small object to the right. This portrait was taken by Galileo's charge-coupled device (CCD) camera on August 28, 1993, about 14 minutes before the Jupiter-bound spacecraft's closest approach to the asteroid, from a range of 10,870 kilometers (6,755 miles). Ida is a heavily cratered, irregularly shaped asteroid in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter--the 243rd asteroid to be discovered since the first was found at the beginning of the 19th century. Ida is a member of a group of asteroids called the Koronis family. The small satellite, which is about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile) across in this view, has yet to be given a name by astronomers. It has been provisionally designated '1993 (243) 1' by the International Astronomical Union. ('1993' denotes the year the picture was taken, '243' the asteroid number and '1' the fact that it is the first moon of Ida to be found.) Although appearing to be 'next' to Ida, the satellite is actually in the foreground, slightly closer to the spacecraft than Ida is. Combining this image with data from Galileo's near-infrared mapping spectrometer, the science team estimates that the satellite is about 100 kilometers (60 miles) away from the center of Ida. This image, which was taken through a green filter, is one of a six-frame series using different color filters. The spatial resolution in this image is about 100 meters (330 feet) per pixel.

  10. Life sciences on the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.

    Despite of the fact that the lunar environment lacks essential prerequisites for supporting life, lunar missions offer new and promising opportunities to the life sciences community. Among the disciplines of interest are exobiology, radiation biology, ecology and human physiology. In exobiology, the Moon offers an ideal platform for studies related to the understanding of the principles, leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life. These include the analysis of lunar samples and meteorites in relatively pristine conditions, radioastronomical search for other planetary systems or Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI), and studies on the role of radiation in evolutionary processes and on the environmental limits for life. For radiation biology, the Moon provides an unique laboratory with built-in sources for optical as well as ionising radiation to investigate the biological importance of the various components of cosmic and solar radiation. Before establishing a lunar base, precursor missions will provide a characterisation of the radiation field, determination of depth dose distributions in different absorbers, the installation of a solar flare alert system, and a qualification of the biological efficiency of the mixed radiation environment. One of the most challenging projects falls into the domain of ecology with the establishment for the first time of an artificial ecosystem on a celestial body beyond the Earth. From this venture, a better understanding of the dynamics regulating our terrestrial biosphere is expected. It will also serve as a precursor of bioregenerative life support systems for a lunar base. The establishment of a lunar base with eventually long-term human presence will raise various problems in the fields of human physiology and health care, psychology and sociology. Protection guidelines for living in this hostile environment have to be established.

  11. Asteroid Ida and Its Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-02-01

    This is the first full picture showing both asteroid 243 Ida and its newly discovered moon to be transmitted to Earth from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Galileo spacecraft--the first conclusive evidence that natural satellites of asteroids exist. Ida, the large object, is about 56 kilometers (35 miles) long. Ida's natural satellite is the small object to the right. This portrait was taken by Galileo's charge-coupled device (CCD) camera on August 28, 1993, about 14 minutes before the Jupiter-bound spacecraft's closest approach to the asteroid, from a range of 10,870 kilometers (6,755 miles). Ida is a heavily cratered, irregularly shaped asteroid in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter -- the 243rd asteroid to be discovered since the first was found at the beginning of the 19th century. Ida is a member of a group of asteroids called the Koronis family. The small satellite, which is about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile) across in this view, has yet to be given a name by astronomers. It has been provisionally designated '1993 (243) 1' by the International Astronomical Union. ('1993' denotes the year the picture was taken, '243' the asteroid number and '1' the fact that it is the first moon of Ida to be found.) Although appearing to be 'next' to Ida, the satellite is actually in the foreground, slightly closer to the spacecraft than Ida is. Combining this image with data from Galileo's near-infrared mapping spectrometer, the science team estimates that the satellite is about 100 kilometers (60 miles) away from the center of Ida. This image, which was taken through a green filter, is one of a six-frame series using different color filters. The spatial resolution in this image is about 100 meters (330 feet) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00136

  12. Young Children's Knowledge About the Moon: A Complex Dynamic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venville, Grady J.; Louisell, Robert D.; Wilhelm, Jennifer A.

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to use a multidimensional theoretical framework to examine young children's knowledge about the Moon. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and the design was a multiple case study of ten children between the ages of three and eight from the USA and Australia. A detailed, semi-structured interview was conducted with each child. In addition, each child's parents were interviewed to determine possible social and cultural influences on the child's knowledge. We sought evidence about how the social and cultural experiences of the children might have influenced the development of their ideas. From a cognitive perspective we were interested in whether the children's ideas were constructed in a theory like form or whether the knowledge was the result of gradual accumulation of fragments of isolated cultural information. Findings reflected the strong and complex relationship between individual children, their social and cultural milieu, and the way they construct ideas about the Moon and astronomy. Findings are presented around four themes including ontology, creatures and artefacts, animism, and permanence. The findings support a complex dynamic system view of students' knowledge that integrates the framework theory perspective and the knowledge in fragments perspective. An initial model of a complex dynamic system of young children's knowledge about the Moon is presented.

  13. Surface Penetrating Radar Simulations for Jupiter's Icy Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markus, Thorsten; Gogineni, S. P.; Green, J. L.; Reinisch, B. W.; Song, P.; Fung, S. F.; Benson, R. F.; Taylor, W. W. L.; Cooper, F.

    2003-01-01

    The icy moons of Jupiter (Europa, Callisto, and Ganymede) are of similar overall composition but show different surface features as a result of different sub-surface processes. Furthermore, each of these moons could have a liquid ocean of water buried underneath the icy crust, but their depth can only be speculated. For Europa, estimates put the thickness of the ice shell anywhere between 2-30 km, with'a few models predicting up to 100 km. Much of the uncertainties are due to the largely unknown temperature gradients and levels of water impurities across different surface layers. One of the most important geological processes is the possible transportation of heat by ice convection. If the ice is convecting, then an upper limit of about 20 km is set for the depth of the ocean underneath. Convection leads to a sharp increase in temperature followed by a thick region of nearly constant temperature. If ice is not convecting, then an exponentially increasing temperature profile is expected. The crust is thought to be a mixture of ice and rock, and although the exact percentage of rock is not known, it is expected to be low. Additionally, the ice crust could contain salt, similar to sea ice on Earth. The exact amount of salt and how that amount changes with depth is also unknown. In preparation for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission, we performed simulations for a surface-penetrating radar investigating signatures for different possible surface and sub-surface structures of these moons in order to estimate the applicability of using radar with a frequency range between 1 and 50 MHz. This includes simulations of power requirements, attenuation losses, layer resolutions for scenarios with and without the presence of a liquid ocean underneath the ice, cases of convecting and non-convecting ice, different impurities within the ice, and different surface roughnesses.

  14. Constraints on the moon's origin from the partitioning behaviour of tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newson, H. E.; Drake, M. J.

    1982-05-01

    An evaluation is conducted of the parameters which control the partitioning of W between metal and silicate in the moon, taking into account information on the possible magnitudes of the lunar W depletion and the possible lunar metal content. A major question regarding depletion of W during partial melting is found to be related to the very homogeneous W/La ratios in lunar samples. It is concluded that a metal content consistent with present geophysical constraints on the size of a metallic lunar core could account for the depletion of W observed in lunar rocks. The low W/La ratio of the moon cannot be used as evidence for the formation of the moon from the earth's mantle by fission following terrestrial core formation. The approximate coincidence of W/La ratios in the earth, moon, and eucrite parent body may only reflect the operation of the same depletion mechanism in similar conditions on several parent bodies.

  15. The Moon's eclipse from 15 June 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex; Paduraru, Catalin

    2011-06-01

    The authors present a video film of the Total Eclipse of the Moon from 15 June 2011, filmed in Feleac, Cluj-Napoca County, Romania. The eclipse shows evidently irregularities on the Earth's shadow on the Surface of the Moon. One discusses the origin of these irregularities. As is known the mountains on the Moon could be observed by a 20 times magnification. The film shows irregularities of the order of magnitude of 20 km, which could origin from mounts (in Africa, Kenya, which are on the line of seeing in this case), underwater depressions (very less probable in this concrete case), as well as from clouds, which could have about or more than 20 km above the Earth's Surface. The website by Catalin Paduraru, which can be found inside the text of the article http://www.astrosnake.com include also photographs from some previous eclipses of the Moon: 03.03.2007, Biescas, Spain; 14.03.2006, Izarra, Spain (Penumbral); 28.10.2004, Bucharest, Romania, as well as some photographs of the Moon: http://www.astrosnake.com/Pages/Moon/Moon.htm

  16. Astronomy and space science from station Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    1995-02-01

    Lunar based telescopes and observatories can provide a long-term multi-wavelength window on the Universe. Here we discuss some basic constraints and specific facts regarding the use of the Moon as a site for astronomy and space science. We assess for this use the effects of gravity, rotation period, surface curvature, the seismic and tidal stability, as well as the tenuous atmosphere, temperature variations, weak magnetic fields on the Moon, micro-meteorite flux and the properties of the regolith. We discuss the thermal and electromagnetic environments on the Moon and the properties of the dark lunar sites for astronomical instruments. The interest in polar lunar observatories (with eventual ice existence), the coldest sites in the solar system, is also presented. We then summarise the respective advantages and drawbacks of Moon-based astronomy and space science in relation to ground-based and near-Earth orbit astronomy. Finally, we discuss the sicence of the Moon. We argue for the renewed interest of lunar exploration using advanced technologies for understanding the Earth/Moon history. The Moon is described as a test-bed for solar system exploration. It allows both remote and in-situ measurements for ground-truth validation of the understanding of other solar-system bodies.

  17. Apollo astronaut supports return to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-12-01

    Nearly 40 years after the Apollo 17 Moon launch on 7 December 1972, former NASA astronaut Harrison Schmitt said there is "no question" that the Moon is still worth going to, "whether you think about the science of the Moon or the resources of the Moon, or its relationship to accelerating our progress toward Mars." Schmitt, a geologist and the lunar module pilot for that final Apollo mission, was speaking at a 6 December news briefing about lunar science at the AGU Fall Meeting. "By going back to the Moon, you accelerate your ability to go anywhere else," Schmitt said, because of the ability to gain experience on a solar system body just a 3-day journey from Earth; test new hardware and navigation and communication techniques; and utilize lunar resources such as water, hydrogen, methane, and helium-3. He said lunar missions also would be a way "to develop new generations of people who know how to work in deep space. The people who know how to work [there] are my age, if not older, and we need young people to get that kind of experience." Schmitt, 77, said that a particularly interesting single location to explore would be the Aitken Basin at the Moon's south pole, where a crater may have reached into the Moon's upper mantle. He also said a longer duration exploration program might be able to explore multiple sites.

  18. Mixing in the Earth's Mantle after the Moon-forming Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korycansky, Donald

    2016-10-01

    The giant-impact hypothesis has provided a satisfactory explanation for the most salient characteristics of the Earth-Moon system. Recently, however, the discovery that many isotope patterns of the Earth and Moon are nearly identical have cast serious doubt on the most-accepted scenario of the Moon-forming impact and have forced the consideration of significantly different kinds of impacts.The original scenario pictured the grazing impact of a Mars-mass body on the proto-Earth. However, in this scenario the Moon is formed largely from impactor material which is extremely unlikely to share the isotopic patterning of the proto-Earth. Hence, two other ideas have been put forth: in one, the proto-Earth is extremely rapidly rotating, and the impactor is small: the Moon-forming disk is largely Earth material "spun-out" by the impact. In the other picture, the proto-Earth and impactor are roughly the same mass and both Earth and Moon are amalgams of the combined proto-Earth and the impactor.As found by Nakajima and Stevenson (2015) in their calculations of all three scenarios, each idea has significantly different consequences for the degree of mixing of the mantle. I will focus in detail on the stability and mixing of a stratified and shearing mantle. The approach will be from a fluid-dynamic standpoint, for which the starting point is the well-known Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and from shear instabilities in general. The situations will be systematically investigated for relevant profiles of shear and entropy, with the aim of producing a more rigorous assessment of mixing in a post-Moon-forming terrestrial mantle. I will present results from CTH hydrocode simulations of calculations of the mantle under various conditions and velocity profiles to help determine which if any of the competing hypotheses for lunar formation are consistent with inferences of the state of the Earth's mantle in this early period.

  19. MIGRATION OF SMALL MOONS IN SATURN's RINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, Benjamin C.; Kenyon, Scott J. E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-02-20

    The motions of small moons through Saturn's rings provide excellent tests of radial migration models. In theory, torque exchange between these moons and ring particles leads to radial drift. We predict that moons with Hill radii r {sub H} {approx} 2-24 km should migrate through the A ring in 1000 yr. In this size range, moons orbiting in an empty gap or in a full ring eventually migrate at the same rate. Smaller moons or moonlets-such as the propellers-are trapped by diffusion of disk material into corotating orbits, creating inertial drag. Larger moons-such as Pan or Atlas-do not migrate because of their own inertia. Fast migration of 2-24 km moons should eliminate intermediate-size bodies from the A ring and may be responsible for the observed large-radius cutoff of r {sub H} {approx} 1-2 km in the size distribution of the A ring's propeller moonlets. Although the presence of Daphnis (r {sub H} Almost-Equal-To 5 km) inside the Keeler gap challenges this scenario, numerical simulations demonstrate that orbital resonances and stirring by distant, larger moons (e.g., Mimas) may be important factors. For Daphnis, stirring by distant moons seems the most promising mechanism to halt fast migration. Alternatively, Daphnis may be a recent addition to the ring that is settling into a low inclination orbit in {approx}10{sup 3} yr prior to a phase of rapid migration. We provide predictions of observational constraints required to discriminate among possible scenarios for Daphnis.

  20. The initial thermal state of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, A. B.

    1984-01-01

    It is argued that the initial thermal state of the Moon was molten. The existence of young thrust fault scarps in the highlands and kbar stress drop, shallow moonquakes both suggest that the thermoelastic stresses in the outer crust are currently in the kbar range. This is expected if the Moon was initially molten, but not if the Moon had a magma ocean only a few hundred km deep. The thesis is also supported by reference to model studies of the concentrations of refractory incompatible elements.