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Sample records for moraxella catarrhalis acquisition

  1. Role of the Oligopeptide Permease ABC Transporter of Moraxella catarrhalis in Nutrient Acquisition and Persistence in the Respiratory Tract

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Megan M.; Johnson, Antoinette; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Kirkham, Charmaine; Brauer, Aimee L.; Malkowski, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a strict human pathogen that causes otitis media in children and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults, resulting in significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. M. catarrhalis has a growth requirement for arginine; thus, acquiring arginine is important for fitness and survival. M. catarrhalis has a putative oligopeptide permease ABC transport operon (opp) consisting of five genes (oppB, oppC, oppD, oppF, and oppA), encoding two permeases, two ATPases, and a substrate binding protein. Thermal shift assays showed that the purified recombinant substrate binding protein OppA binds to peptides 3 to 16 amino acid residues in length regardless of the amino acid composition. A mutant in which the oppBCDFA gene cluster is knocked out showed impaired growth in minimal medium where the only source of arginine came from a peptide 5 to 10 amino acid residues in length. Whether methylated arginine supports growth of M. catarrhalis is important in understanding fitness in the respiratory tract because methylated arginine is abundant in host tissues. No growth of wild-type M. catarrhalis was observed in minimal medium in which arginine was present only in methylated form, indicating that the bacterium requires l-arginine. An oppA knockout mutant showed marked impairment in its capacity to persist in the respiratory tract compared to the wild type in a mouse pulmonary clearance model. We conclude that the Opp system mediates both uptake of peptides and fitness in the respiratory tract. PMID:25156736

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Moraxella catarrhalis Type Strain CCUG 353T.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Hedvig E; Salvà-Serra, Francisco; Thorell, Kaisa; Gonzales-Siles, Lucia; Boulund, Fredrik; Karlsson, Roger; Sikora, Per; Engstrand, Lars; Kristiansson, Erik; Moore, Edward R B

    2016-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a Gram-negative commensal and pathogenic bacterium found in the human respiratory tract. It is associated with otitis media and respiratory tract infections. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of M. catarrhalis type strain CCUG 353(T), composed of 18 contigs and a total size of 1.89 Mb. PMID:27313296

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Moraxella catarrhalis Type Strain CCUG 353T

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Hedvig E.; Gonzales-Siles, Lucia; Boulund, Fredrik; Karlsson, Roger; Sikora, Per; Kristiansson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a Gram-negative commensal and pathogenic bacterium found in the human respiratory tract. It is associated with otitis media and respiratory tract infections. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of M. catarrhalis type strain CCUG 353T, composed of 18 contigs and a total size of 1.89 Mb. PMID:27313296

  4. Comparison of restriction enzymes for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Marti, Sara; Puig, Carmen; Domenech, Arnau; Liñares, Josefina; Ardanuy, Carmen

    2013-07-01

    NotI, the most prevalent restriction enzyme used for typing Moraxella catarrhalis, failed to digest genomic DNA from respiratory samples. An improved pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) methodology determined SpeI as the best choice for typing this bacterial species, with a good restriction of clinical samples and a good clustering correlation with NotI.

  5. Moraxella catarrhalis Expresses a Cardiolipin Synthase That Impacts Adherence to Human Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Buskirk, Sean W.

    2014-01-01

    The major phospholipid constituents of Moraxella catarrhalis membranes are phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and cardiolipin (CL). However, very little is known regarding the synthesis and function of these phospholipids in M. catarrhalis. In this study, we discovered that M. catarrhalis expresses a cardiolipin synthase (CLS), termed MclS, that is responsible for the synthesis of CL within the bacterium. The nucleotide sequence of mclS is highly conserved among M. catarrhalis isolates and is predicted to encode a protein with significant amino acid similarity to the recently characterized YmdC/ClsC protein of Escherichia coli. Isogenic mclS mutant strains were generated in M. catarrhalis isolates O35E, O12E, and McGHS1 and contained no observable levels of CL. Site-directed mutagenesis of a highly conserved HKD motif of MclS also resulted in a CL-deficient strain. Moraxella catarrhalis, which depends on adherence to epithelial cells for colonization of the human host, displays significantly reduced levels of adherence to HEp-2 and A549 cell lines in the mclS mutant strains compared to wild-type bacteria. The reduction in adherence appears to be attributed to the absence of CL. These findings mark the first instance in which a CLS has been related to a virulence-associated trait. PMID:24142255

  6. Respiratory syncytial virus promotes Moraxella catarrhalis-induced ascending experimental otitis media.

    PubMed

    Brockson, M Elizabeth; Novotny, Laura A; Jurcisek, Joseph A; McGillivary, Glen; Bowers, Martha R; Bakaletz, Lauren O

    2012-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) is a polymicrobial disease wherein prior or concurrent infection with an upper respiratory tract virus plays an essential role, predisposing the middle ear to bacterial invasion. In episodes of acute bacterial OM, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most commonly isolated virus and thus serves as an important co-pathogen. Of the predominant bacterial agents of OM, the pathogenesis of disease due to Moraxella catarrhalis is the least well understood. Rigorous study of M. catarrhalis in the context of OM has been significantly hindered by lack of an animal model. To bridge this gap, we assessed whether co-infection of chinchillas with M. catarrhalis and RSV would facilitate ascension of M. catarrhalis from the nasopharynx into the middle ear. Chinchillas were challenged intranasally with M. catarrhalis followed 48 hours later by intranasal challenge with RSV. Within 7 days, 100% of nasopharynges were colonized with M. catarrhalis and homogenates of middle ear mucosa were also culture-positive. Moreover, within the middle ear space, the mucosa exhibited hemorrhagic foci, and a small volume of serosanguinous effusion was present in one of six ears. To improve upon this model, and based on epidemiologic data, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) was included as an additional bacterial co-pathogen via intranasal administration four days before M. catarrhalis challenge. With this latter protocol, M. catarrhalis was cultured from the nasopharynx and middle ear homogenates of a maximum of 88% and 79% animals, respectively, for up to 17 days after intranasal challenge with M. catarrhalis. Additionally, hemorrhagic foci were observed in 79% of middle ears upon sacrifice. Thus, these data demonstrated that co-infection with RSV and NTHI predisposed to M. catarrhalis-induced ascending experimental OM. This model can be used both in studies of pathogenesis as well as to investigate strategies to prevent or treat OM due to M. catarrhalis.

  7. Development of a LacZ-based transcriptional reporter system for use with Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Evans, Amanda S; Pybus, Christine; Hansen, Eric J

    2013-03-01

    The lack of a transcriptional reporter system for use in Moraxella catarrhalis has hindered studies of gene regulation in this pathogen. PCR and recombinant DNA methods were used to insert a multicloning site (MCS) and promoterless full-length Escherichia coli lacZ gene, flanked by transcriptional terminators both immediately upstream and downstream, into the M. catarrhalis recombinant plasmid pWW115. Insertion into the MCS in the newly constructed plasmid pASE222 of M. catarrhalis promoter regions controlled by either a repressor (i.e., NsrR) or activator (i.e., PhoB) yielded transcriptional fusion constructs that were appropriately responsive to signal inputs dependent on the host strain genotype, as measured quantitatively by means of a Miller β-galactosidase assay. The transcriptional reporter plasmid pASE222 should prove to be a useful tool for rapid screening of factors affecting gene expression in M. catarrhalis. PMID:23219721

  8. In Vitro Activity of Delafloxacin Tested against Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Rhomberg, Paul R; Huband, Michael D; Farrell, David J

    2016-10-01

    Delafloxacin, an investigational anionic fluoroquinolone, is active against a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, 200 Streptococcus pneumoniae (plus 30 levofloxacin-resistant isolates), 200 Haemophilus influenzae, and 100 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates selected primarily from the United States (2014) were tested against delafloxacin and comparator agents. Delafloxacin was the most potent agent tested. MIC50 and MIC90 values against all S. pneumoniae isolates were 0.008 and 0.015 μg/ml. Delafloxacin susceptibility was not affected by β-lactamase status against H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis.

  9. Nutrient agar with sodium chloride supplementation for presumptive detection of Moraxella catarrhalis in clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Saito, Ryoichi; Chida, Toshio; Sano, Kazumitsu; Tsuchiya, Tatsuyuki; Okamura, Noboru

    2012-04-01

    We previously reported that Nissui nutrient agar (N medium) promoted the growth of Moraxella catarrhalis but not commensal Neisseria spp. In the present study, we examined which constituent of N medium was responsible for the selective growth of M. catarrhalis using 209 M. catarrhalis and 100 commensal Neisseria spp. clinical strains. We found that peptone, but not meat extract or agar of N medium, had growth-promoting or growth-inhibiting ability with respect to M. catarrhalis and commensal Neisseria spp. Thus, we investigated the amino acid content of N peptone and found it had higher concentrations of amino acids than other commercial peptone products. On varying the sodium chloride concentration of reconstituted N medium, we noted that the concentration was an important factor in bacterial growth differences. Varying the sodium chloride concentration of other commercial nutrient agars achieved similar results to those for N medium. This is, to our knowledge, the first study observing that sodium chloride concentration is responsible for difference in growth between the two organisms. We also successfully isolated colonies of M. catarrhalis from respiratory specimens on N medium, whereas the growth of commensal Neisseria spp. was inhibited, and by adding bovine hematin and β-NAD we were able to isolate Haemophilus influenzae colonies as efficiently as with a chocolate agar. In conclusion, nutrient agar can be used as a medium for the preferential isolation of M. catarrhalis from upper respiratory tract specimens.

  10. Moraxella catarrhalis Might Be More Common than Expected in Acute Otitis Media in Young Finnish Children.

    PubMed

    Sillanpää, Saara; Oikarinen, Sami; Sipilä, Markku; Kramna, Lenka; Rautiainen, Markus; Huhtala, Heini; Aittoniemi, Janne; Laranne, Jussi; Hyöty, Heikki; Cinek, Ondrej

    2016-09-01

    According to studies based on bacterial cultures of middle ear fluids, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis have been the most common pathogens in acute otitis media. However, bacterial culture can be affected by reduced viability or suboptimal growth of bacteria. PCR detects bacterial DNA from samples with greater sensitivity than culture. In the present study, we analyzed the middle ear pathogens with both conventional culture and semiquantitative real-time PCR in 90 middle ear fluid samples obtained from children aged 5 to 42 months during acute otitis media episodes. Samples were tested for the presence of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, Alloiococcus otitidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa One or more bacterial pathogens were detected in 42 (47%) samples with culture and in 69 (77%) samples with PCR. According to PCR analysis, M. catarrhalis results were positive in 42 (47%) samples, H. influenzae in 30 (33%), S. pneumoniae in 27 (30%), A. otitidis in 6 (6.7%), S. aureus in 5 (5.6%), and P. aeruginosa in 1 (1.1%). Multibacterial etiology was seen in 34 (38%) samples, and M. catarrhalis was detected in most (85%) of those cases. Fifteen signals for M. catarrhalis were strong, suggesting a highly probable etiological role of the pathogen. In conclusion, even though M. catarrhalis is often a part of mixed flora in acute otitis media, a considerable proportion of cases may be primarily attributable to this pathogen. PMID:27413187

  11. Moraxella catarrhalis Might Be More Common than Expected in Acute Otitis Media in Young Finnish Children.

    PubMed

    Sillanpää, Saara; Oikarinen, Sami; Sipilä, Markku; Kramna, Lenka; Rautiainen, Markus; Huhtala, Heini; Aittoniemi, Janne; Laranne, Jussi; Hyöty, Heikki; Cinek, Ondrej

    2016-09-01

    According to studies based on bacterial cultures of middle ear fluids, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis have been the most common pathogens in acute otitis media. However, bacterial culture can be affected by reduced viability or suboptimal growth of bacteria. PCR detects bacterial DNA from samples with greater sensitivity than culture. In the present study, we analyzed the middle ear pathogens with both conventional culture and semiquantitative real-time PCR in 90 middle ear fluid samples obtained from children aged 5 to 42 months during acute otitis media episodes. Samples were tested for the presence of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, Alloiococcus otitidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa One or more bacterial pathogens were detected in 42 (47%) samples with culture and in 69 (77%) samples with PCR. According to PCR analysis, M. catarrhalis results were positive in 42 (47%) samples, H. influenzae in 30 (33%), S. pneumoniae in 27 (30%), A. otitidis in 6 (6.7%), S. aureus in 5 (5.6%), and P. aeruginosa in 1 (1.1%). Multibacterial etiology was seen in 34 (38%) samples, and M. catarrhalis was detected in most (85%) of those cases. Fifteen signals for M. catarrhalis were strong, suggesting a highly probable etiological role of the pathogen. In conclusion, even though M. catarrhalis is often a part of mixed flora in acute otitis media, a considerable proportion of cases may be primarily attributable to this pathogen.

  12. Differential gene expression of Moraxella catarrhalis upon exposure to human serum

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Stefan P.W.; Bootsma, Hester J.

    2014-01-01

    The complement system is an important part of the innate defense against invading pathogens (Blom et al., 2009; [1]). The ability to resist complement-mediated killing is considered to be an important virulence trait for the human-restricted respiratory tract pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis, as most disease-associated M. catarrhalis isolates are complement-resistant (Wirth et al., 2007; [2]). Here we provide a detailed overview of the experimental methods that we have used to study the molecular basis of M. catarrhalis complement-resistance by transcriptome profiling of the bacterium upon exposure to 10% normal human serum (NHS), associated with the study of de Vries et al. published in Molecular Microbiology in 2014 [3]. PMID:26484117

  13. The macrophage response to bacteria. Modulation of macrophage functional activity by peptidoglycan from Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis.

    PubMed Central

    Keller, R; Gustafson, J E; Keist, R

    1992-01-01

    Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis organisms have been shown to be particularly efficient in inducing in a pure population of bone marrow-derived mononuclear phagocytes secretory and cellular activities. In the present study, the ability of peptidoglycan from this Gram-negative organism to trigger a macrophage response was compared with that elicited by peptidoglycan from Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The results show that the three peptidoglycans were similarly active in triggering the secretion of tumour necrosis factor and tumouricidal activity but differed considerably in their ability to induce the generation of nitrite in macrophages; in this respect, peptidoglycan from M. catarrhalis was particularly potent. The impressive capacity of M. catarrhalis peptidoglycan to induce in low concentration the secretion of tumour necrosis factor and nitrite and tumouricidal activity may, in addition to its lipopolysaccharide, contribute to the extraordinary potential of this organism to trigger the functional activities of macrophages. PMID:1516255

  14. Comprehensive Antigen Screening Identifies Moraxella catarrhalis Proteins That Induce Protection in a Mouse Pulmonary Clearance Model

    PubMed Central

    Verhaegh, Suzanne J. C.; Niebisch, Axel; Hanner, Markus; Selak, Sanja; Schüler, Wolfgang; Morfeldt, Eva; Hellberg, Christel; Nagy, Eszter; Lundberg, Urban; Hays, John P.; Meinke, Andreas; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is one of the three most common causative bacterial pathogens of otitis media, however no effective vaccine against M. catarrhalis has been developed so far. To identify M. catarrhalis vaccine candidate antigens, we used carefully selected sera from children with otitis media and healthy individuals to screen small-fragment genomic libraries that are expressed to display frame-selected peptides on a bacterial cell surface. This ANTIGENome technology led to the identification of 214 antigens, 23 of which were selected by in vitro or in vivo studies for additional characterization. Eight of the 23 candidates were tested in a Moraxella mouse pulmonary clearance model, and 3 of these antigens induced significantly faster bacterial clearance compared to adjuvant or to the previously characterized antigen OmpCD. The most significant protection data were obtained with the antigen MCR_1416 (Msp22), which was further investigated for its biological function by in vitro studies suggesting that Msp22 is a heme binding protein. This study comprises one of the most exhaustive studies to identify potential vaccine candidate antigens against the bacterial pathogen M. catarrhalis. PMID:23671716

  15. The Respiratory Pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis Targets Collagen for Maximal Adherence to Host Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Birendra; Alvarado-Kristensson, Maria; Johansson, Martin; Hallgren, Oskar; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Mörgelin, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory pathogen that causes acute otitis media in children and is associated with exacerbations in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The first step in M. catarrhalis colonization is adherence to the mucosa, epithelial cells, and extracellular matrix (ECM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of M. catarrhalis interactions with collagens from various angles. Clinical isolates (n = 43) were tested for collagen binding, followed by a detailed analysis of protein-protein interactions using recombinantly expressed proteins. M. catarrhalis-dependent interactions with collagen produced by human lung fibroblasts and tracheal tissues were studied by utilizing confocal immunohistochemistry and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. A mouse smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) model was used to estimate the adherence of M. catarrhalis in vivo. We found that all M. catarrhalis clinical isolates tested adhered to fibrillar collagen types I, II, and III and network-forming collagens IV and VI. The trimeric autotransporter adhesins ubiquitous surface protein A2 (UspA2) and UspA2H were identified as major collagen-binding receptors. M. catarrhalis wild type adhered to human tracheal tissue and collagen-producing lung fibroblasts, whereas UspA2 and UspA2H deletion mutants did not. Moreover, in the COPD mouse model, bacteria devoid of UspA2 and UspA2H had a reduced level of adherence to the respiratory tract compared to the adherence of wild-type bacteria. Our data therefore suggest that the M. catarrhalis UspA2 and UspA2H-dependent interaction with collagens is highly critical for adherence in the host and, furthermore, may play an important role in the establishment of disease. PMID:27006460

  16. Molecular characterization of clinical isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Theoga Raj, Christol James; Shankar, Esaki Muthu; Rothan, Hussin A; Rao, Usha Anand

    2014-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis, a less virulent microorganism that colonizes the upper respiratory tract, has recently been associated with lower respiratory disease, especially in HIV-positive immunocompromised individuals and children. Here, we correlated the DNA clustering pattern of 24 clinical isolates of M. catarrhalis for β-lactamase production and drug resistance, from different disease groups using three different arbitrarily selected primers, P1 (5'-TCACGATGCA-3'), P14 (5'-GATCAAGTCC-3') and P17 (5'-GATCTGACAC-3'). M. catarrhalis revealed three distinct banding patterns with primer P1, four with P14 and P17. 71% (n = 17) of the isolates revealed pattern 2 with primer P1, which discriminated majority (12/21) of the isolates grouped under the major branch of the dendrogram. The minor branch had only three isolates. Separation of M. catarrhalis into two subpopulations (major and minor clusters) with primer P1 is suggestive of diverse genetic lineage. A high level of concordance between RAPD and antibiotic profile was observed. Clustering of M. catarrhalis recovered from different disease groups reflect the identical clinical background or the common geographical/temporal factors. The presence or absence of β-lactamase in a cluster confirmed their single source of origin.

  17. Role of the Zinc Uptake ABC Transporter of Moraxella catarrhalis in Persistence in the Respiratory Tract

    PubMed Central

    Brauer, Aimee L.; Kirkham, Charmaine; Johnson, Antoinette; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Malkowski, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media in children and lower respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We have identified and characterized a zinc uptake ABC transporter that is present in all strains of M. catarrhalis tested. A mutant in which the znu gene cluster is knocked out shows markedly impaired growth compared to the wild type in medium that contains trace zinc; growth is restored to wild-type levels by supplementing medium with zinc but not with other divalent cations. Thermal-shift assays showed that the purified recombinant substrate binding protein ZnuA binds zinc but does not bind other divalent cations. Invasion assays with human respiratory epithelial cells demonstrated that the zinc ABC transporter of M. catarrhalis is critical for invasion of respiratory epithelial cells, an observation that is especially relevant because an intracellular reservoir of M. catarrhalis is present in the human respiratory tract and this reservoir is important for persistence. The znu knockout mutant showed marked impairment in its capacity to persist in the respiratory tract compared to the wild type in a mouse pulmonary clearance model. We conclude that the zinc uptake ABC transporter mediates uptake of zinc in environments with very low zinc concentrations and is critical for full virulence of M. catarrhalis in the respiratory tract in facilitating intracellular invasion of epithelial cells and persistence in the respiratory tract. PMID:23817618

  18. Characterization of the Molecular Interplay between Moraxella catarrhalis and Human Respiratory Tract Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Stefan P. W.; Eleveld, Marc J.; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Bootsma, Hester J.

    2013-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a mucosal pathogen that causes childhood otitis media and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. During the course of infection, M. catarrhalis needs to adhere to epithelial cells of different host niches such as the nasopharynx and lungs, and consequently, efficient adhesion to epithelial cells is considered an important virulence trait of M. catarrhalis. By using Tn-seq, a genome-wide negative selection screenings technology, we identified 15 genes potentially required for adherence of M. catarrhalis BBH18 to pharyngeal epithelial Detroit 562 and lung epithelial A549 cells. Validation with directed deletion mutants confirmed the importance of aroA (3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyl-transferase), ecnAB (entericidin EcnAB), lgt1 (glucosyltransferase), and MCR_1483 (outer membrane lipoprotein) for cellular adherence, with ΔMCR_1483 being most severely attenuated in adherence to both cell lines. Expression profiling of M. catarrhalis BBH18 during adherence to Detroit 562 cells showed increased expression of 34 genes in cell-attached versus planktonic bacteria, among which ABC transporters for molybdate and sulfate, while reduced expression of 16 genes was observed. Notably, neither the newly identified genes affecting adhesion nor known adhesion genes were differentially expressed during adhesion, but appeared to be constitutively expressed at a high level. Profiling of the transcriptional response of Detroit 562 cells upon adherence of M. catarrhalis BBH18 showed induction of a panel of pro-inflammatory genes as well as genes involved in the prevention of damage of the epithelial barrier. In conclusion, this study provides new insight into the molecular interplay between M. catarrhalis and host epithelial cells during the process of adherence. PMID:23936538

  19. Conservation of Outer Membrane Protein E among Strains of Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Timothy F.; Brauer, Aimee L.; Yuskiw, Norine; McNamara, Erin R.; Kirkham, Charmaine

    2001-01-01

    Outer membrane protein E (OMP E) is a 50-kDa protein of Moraxella catarrhalis which has several features that suggest that the protein may be an effective vaccine antigen. To assess the conservation of OMP E among strains of M. catarrhalis, 22 isolates were studied with eight monoclonal antibodies which recognize epitopes on different regions of the protein. Eighteen of 22 strains were reactive with all eight antibodies. The sequences of ompE from 16 strains of M. catarrhalis were determined, including the 4 strains which were nonreactive with selected monoclonal antibodies. Analysis of sequences indicate a high degree of conservation among strains, with sequence differences clustered in limited regions of the gene. To assess the stability of ompE during colonization of the human respiratory tract, the sequences of ompE of isolates collected from patients colonized with the same strain for 3 to 9 months were determined. The sequences remained unchanged. These results indicate that OMP E is highly conserved among strains of M. catarrhalis, and preliminary studies indicate that the gene which encodes OMP E remains stable during colonization of the human respiratory tract. PMID:11349016

  20. [THE PATHOGENIC POTENTIAL OF MORAXELLA CATARRHALIS AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS UNDER INFLAMMATORY PROCESSES OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACTS].

    PubMed

    Kraeva, L A; Burgasova, O A; Kunilova, E S; Petrova, I S; Tseneva, G Ya; Bespalova, G L

    2015-11-01

    The frequent isolation from biological material of Moraxella catarrhalis under bronchitis and pneumonia and Staphilococcus epidermidis under rhinitis and sinusitis requires profound investigation offactors ofpathogenicity ofthe mentioned microorganisms. The genetic and phenotypic markers of virulence of strains M. catarrhalis and S. epidermidis are examined. Their etiologic role in development of infection processes of respiratory tract and middle ear is determined The most of M catarrhalis strains isolated under bronchitis and pneumonia have gene mcaP responsiblefor production ofprotein McaP that provides adhesion to epithelium cell of host and lipolitic activity of bacteria. The strains isolated from patients with pneumonia had the most adhesive activity. The cluster of genes ICA with leading role of gene icaA is responsible for for availability offactors of intercellular adhesion in Staphilococci strains. In the clinical samples from patients with sinusitis this gene is detected 5 times more frequently than from healthy individuals. In phenotypic tests, expression of gene icaA in S. epidermidis isolated from patients is three times higher than in strains isolated from healthy individuals. To establish etiologic role of M. catarrhalis and S. epidermidis and to develop tactic of therapy of patients with bronchitis, pneumonia and sinusitis complex approach is needed, including detection of genetic and phenotypic markers of virulence in isolated microorganisms.

  1. [THE PATHOGENIC POTENTIAL OF MORAXELLA CATARRHALIS AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS UNDER INFLAMMATORY PROCESSES OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACTS].

    PubMed

    Kraeva, L A; Burgasova, O A; Kunilova, E S; Petrova, I S; Tseneva, G Ya; Bespalova, G L

    2015-11-01

    The frequent isolation from biological material of Moraxella catarrhalis under bronchitis and pneumonia and Staphilococcus epidermidis under rhinitis and sinusitis requires profound investigation offactors ofpathogenicity ofthe mentioned microorganisms. The genetic and phenotypic markers of virulence of strains M. catarrhalis and S. epidermidis are examined. Their etiologic role in development of infection processes of respiratory tract and middle ear is determined The most of M catarrhalis strains isolated under bronchitis and pneumonia have gene mcaP responsiblefor production ofprotein McaP that provides adhesion to epithelium cell of host and lipolitic activity of bacteria. The strains isolated from patients with pneumonia had the most adhesive activity. The cluster of genes ICA with leading role of gene icaA is responsible for for availability offactors of intercellular adhesion in Staphilococci strains. In the clinical samples from patients with sinusitis this gene is detected 5 times more frequently than from healthy individuals. In phenotypic tests, expression of gene icaA in S. epidermidis isolated from patients is three times higher than in strains isolated from healthy individuals. To establish etiologic role of M. catarrhalis and S. epidermidis and to develop tactic of therapy of patients with bronchitis, pneumonia and sinusitis complex approach is needed, including detection of genetic and phenotypic markers of virulence in isolated microorganisms. PMID:26999868

  2. Synthesis and characterization of lipooligosaccharide-based conjugates as vaccine candidates for Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Gu, X X; Chen, J; Barenkamp, S J; Robbins, J B; Tsai, C M; Lim, D J; Battey, J

    1998-05-01

    Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis is an important cause of otitis media and sinusitis in children and of lower respiratory tract infections in adults. Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is a major surface antigen of the bacterium and elicits bactericidal antibodies. Treatment of the LOS from strain ATCC 25238 with anhydrous hydrazine reduced its toxicity 20,000-fold, as assayed in the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test. The detoxified LOS (dLOS) was coupled to tetanus toxoid (TT) or high-molecular-weight proteins (HMP) from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae through a linker of adipic acid dihydrazide to form dLOS-TT or dLOS-HMP. The molar ratios of dLOS to TT and HMP conjugates were 19:1 and 31:1, respectively. The antigenicity of the two conjugates was similar to that of the LOS, as determined by double immunodiffusion. Subcutaneous or intramuscular injection of both conjugates elicited a 50- to 100-fold rise in the geometric mean of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to the homologous LOS in mice after three injections and a 350- to 700-fold rise of anti-LOS IgG in rabbits after two injections. The immunogenicity of the conjugate was enhanced by formulation with monophosphoryl lipid A plus trehalose dimycolate. In rabbits, conjugate-induced antisera had complement-mediated bactericidal activity against the homologous strain and heterologous strains of M. catarrhalis. These results indicate that a detoxified LOS-protein conjugate is a candidate for immunization against M. catarrhalis diseases. PMID:9573066

  3. The Vaccine Candidate Substrate Binding Protein SBP2 Plays a Key Role in Arginine Uptake, Which Is Required for Growth of Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, Taketo; Kirkham, Charmaine; Brauer, Aimee; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Malkowski, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is an exclusively human pathogen that is an important cause of otitis media in children and lower respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A vaccine to prevent M. catarrhalis infections would have an enormous global impact in reducing morbidity resulting from these infections. Substrate binding protein 2 (SBP2) of an ABC transporter system has recently been identified as a promising vaccine candidate antigen on the bacterial surface of M. catarrhalis. In this study, we showed that SBP1, -2, and -3 individually bind different basic amino acids with exquisite specificity. We engineered mutants that each expressed a single SBP from this gene cluster and showed in growth experiments that SBP1, -2, and -3 serve a nutritional function through acquisition of amino acids for the bacterium. SBP2 mediates uptake of arginine, a strict growth requirement of M. catarrhalis. Adherence and invasion assays demonstrated that SBP1 and SBP3 play a role in invasion of human respiratory epithelial cells, consistent with a nutritional role in intracellular survival in the human respiratory tract. This work demonstrates that the SBPs of an ABC transporter system function in the uptake of basic amino acids to support growth of M. catarrhalis. The critical role of SBP2 in arginine uptake may contribute to its potential as a vaccine antigen. PMID:26597985

  4. Moraxella catarrhalis uses a twin-arginine translocation system to secrete the β-lactamase BRO-2

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Moraxella catarrhalis is a human-specific gram-negative bacterium readily isolated from the respiratory tract of healthy individuals. The organism also causes significant health problems, including 15-20% of otitis media cases in children and ~10% of respiratory infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The lack of an efficacious vaccine, the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates, and high carriage rates reported in children are cause for concern. Virtually all Moraxella catarrhalis isolates are resistant to β-lactam antibiotics, which are generally the first antibiotics prescribed to treat otitis media in children. The enzymes responsible for this resistance, BRO-1 and BRO-2, are lipoproteins and the mechanism by which they are secreted to the periplasm of M. catarrhalis cells has not been described. Results Comparative genomic analyses identified M. catarrhalis gene products resembling the TatA, TatB, and TatC proteins of the well-characterized Twin Arginine Translocation (TAT) secretory apparatus. Mutations in the M. catarrhalis tatA, tatB and tatC genes revealed that the proteins are necessary for optimal growth and resistance to β-lactams. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to replace highly-conserved twin arginine residues in the predicted signal sequence of M. catarrhalis strain O35E BRO-2, which abolished resistance to the β-lactam antibiotic carbanecillin. Conclusions Moraxella catarrhalis possesses a TAT secretory apparatus, which plays a key role in growth of the organism and is necessary for secretion of BRO-2 into the periplasm where the enzyme can protect the peptidoglycan cell wall from the antimicrobial activity of β-lactam antibiotics. PMID:23782650

  5. Expression of the Oligopeptide Permease Operon of Moraxella catarrhalis Is Regulated by Temperature and Nutrient Availability

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis causes otitis media in children and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. Together, these two conditions contribute to enormous morbidity and mortality worldwide. The oligopeptide permease (opp) ABC transport system is a nutritional virulence factor important for the utilization of peptides. The substrate binding protein OppA, which binds peptides for uptake, is a potential vaccine antigen, but little was known about the regulation of gene expression. The five opp genes oppB, oppC, oppD, oppF, and oppA are in the same open reading frame. Sequence analysis predicted two promoters, one located upstream of oppB and one within the intergenic region between oppF and oppA. We have characterized the gene cluster as an operon with two functional promoters and show that cold shock at 26°C for ≤0.5 h and the presence of a peptide substrate increase gene transcript levels. Additionally, the putative promoter upstream of oppA contributes to the transcription of oppA but is not influenced by the same environmental cues as the promoter upstream of oppB. We conclude that temperature and nutrient availability contribute to the regulation of the Opp system, which is an important nutritional virulence factor in M. catarrhalis. PMID:26099587

  6. Prevalence and molecular analysis of macrolide-resistant Moraxella catarrhalis clinical isolates in Japan, following emergence of the highly macrolide-resistant strain NSH1 in 2011.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Ayako; Ogihara, Shinji; Yamada, Kageto; Tanimichi, Yumiko; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Saito, Ryoichi

    2015-07-01

    Although Moraxella catarrhalis is known to be susceptible to macrolides, highly macrolide-resistant M. catarrhalis isolates have recently been reported in Japan and China. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. catarrhalis isolates in Tokyo and Chiba, Japan, and studied the mechanisms underlying their resistance. Specifically, we determined the susceptibility of 593 clinical isolates (collected between December 2011 and May 2014) to erythromycin, using the disk diffusion method. For isolates with erythromycin resistance, we identified the MICs of seven antimicrobial agents, including macrolides, and used PFGE to analyse the clonal spread. We also performed sequencing analysis to investigate macrolide-resistance targets. Thirteen isolates (2.2 %) were found to be resistant to erythromycin, showing a high MIC90 to erythromycin, clarithromycin, clindamycin and azithromycin. However, those isolates, in addition to 156 randomly selected erythromycin-susceptible strains, were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefixime and levofloxacin. The 13 highly macrolide-resistant isolates were classified into 10 clades and harboured three or four A2058T-mutated 23S rRNA alleles. Three highly macrolide-resistant isolates also exhibited mutations in ribosomal proteins L4 (V27A and R161C) and L22 (K68T). To the best of our knowledge, we have demonstrated for the first time that, whilst the prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. catarrhalis isolates is low in clinical settings in Japan, genetically diverse isolates with high-level macrolide resistance due to the acquisition of an A2058T mutation in the 23S rRNA have already spread. Our study therefore lays the basis for epidemiological studies of macrolide-resistant M. catarrhalis clinical isolates.

  7. Substrate Binding Protein SBP2 of a Putative ABC Transporter as a Novel Vaccine Antigen of Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, Taketo; Kirkham, Charmaine; Johnson, Antoinette; Jones, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a common respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media in children and infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Since the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines with/without protein D of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, M. catarrhalis has become a high-priority pathogen in otitis media. For the development of antibacterial vaccines and therapies, substrate binding proteins of ATP-binding cassette transporters are important targets. In this study, we identified and characterized a substrate binding protein, SBP2, of M. catarrhalis. Among 30 clinical isolates tested, the sbp2 gene sequence was highly conserved. In 2 different analyses (whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry), polyclonal antibodies raised to recombinant SBP2 demonstrated that SBP2 expresses epitopes on the bacterial surface of the wild type but not the sbp2 mutant. Mice immunized with recombinant SBP2 showed significantly enhanced clearance of M. catarrhalis from the lung compared to that in the control group at both 25-μg and 50-μg doses (P < 0.001). We conclude that SBP2 is a novel, attractive candidate as a vaccine antigen against M. catarrhalis. PMID:24914218

  8. ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters of the Human Respiratory Tract Pathogen, Moraxella catarrhalis: Role in Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Timothy F; Brauer, Aimee L.; Johnson, Antoinette; Kirkham, Charmaine

    2016-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media (middle ear infections) in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In view of the huge global burden of disease caused by M. catarrhalis, the development of vaccines to prevent these infections and better approaches to treatment have become priorities. In previous work, we used a genome mining approach that identified three substrate binding proteins (SBPs) of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters as promising candidate vaccine antigens. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive assessment of 19 SBPs of 15 ABC transporter systems in the M. catarrhalis genome by engineering knockout mutants and studying their role in assays that assess mechanisms of infection. The capacity of M. catarrhalis to survive and grow in the nutrient-limited and hostile environment of the human respiratory tract, including intracellular growth, account in part for its virulence. The results show that ABC transporters that mediate uptake of peptides, amino acids, cations and anions play important roles in pathogenesis by enabling M. catarrhalis to 1) grow in nutrient-limited conditions, 2) invade and survive in human respiratory epithelial cells and 3) persist in the lungs in a murine pulmonary clearance model. The knockout mutants of SBPs and ABC transporters showed different patterns of activity in the assay systems, supporting the conclusion that different SBPs and ABC transporters function at different stages in the pathogenesis of infection. These results indicate that ABC transporters are nutritional virulence factors, functioning to enable the survival of M catarrhalis in the diverse microenvironments of the respiratory tract. Based on the role of ABC transporters as virulence factors of M. catarrhalis, these molecules represent potential drug targets to eradicate the organism from the human respiratory tract. PMID:27391026

  9. ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters of the Human Respiratory Tract Pathogen, Moraxella catarrhalis: Role in Virulence.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F; Brauer, Aimee L; Johnson, Antoinette; Kirkham, Charmaine

    2016-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media (middle ear infections) in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In view of the huge global burden of disease caused by M. catarrhalis, the development of vaccines to prevent these infections and better approaches to treatment have become priorities. In previous work, we used a genome mining approach that identified three substrate binding proteins (SBPs) of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters as promising candidate vaccine antigens. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive assessment of 19 SBPs of 15 ABC transporter systems in the M. catarrhalis genome by engineering knockout mutants and studying their role in assays that assess mechanisms of infection. The capacity of M. catarrhalis to survive and grow in the nutrient-limited and hostile environment of the human respiratory tract, including intracellular growth, account in part for its virulence. The results show that ABC transporters that mediate uptake of peptides, amino acids, cations and anions play important roles in pathogenesis by enabling M. catarrhalis to 1) grow in nutrient-limited conditions, 2) invade and survive in human respiratory epithelial cells and 3) persist in the lungs in a murine pulmonary clearance model. The knockout mutants of SBPs and ABC transporters showed different patterns of activity in the assay systems, supporting the conclusion that different SBPs and ABC transporters function at different stages in the pathogenesis of infection. These results indicate that ABC transporters are nutritional virulence factors, functioning to enable the survival of M catarrhalis in the diverse microenvironments of the respiratory tract. Based on the role of ABC transporters as virulence factors of M. catarrhalis, these molecules represent potential drug targets to eradicate the organism from the human respiratory tract. PMID:27391026

  10. Enhancement of Clearance of Bacteria from Murine Lungs by Immunization with Detoxified Lipooligosaccharide from Moraxella catarrhalis Conjugated to Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei-Gang; Chen, Jing; Battey, James F.; Gu, Xin-Xing

    2000-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis strain 25238 detoxified lipooligosaccharide (dLOS)-protein conjugates induced a significant rise of bactericidal anti-LOS antibodies in animals. This study reports the effect of active or passive immunization with the conjugates or their antiserum on pulmonary clearance of M. catarrhalis in an aerosol challenge mouse model. Mice were injected subcutaneously with dLOS-tetanus toxoid (dLOS-TT), dLOS–high-molecular-weight proteins (dLOS-HMP) from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), or nonconjugated materials in Ribi adjuvant and then challenged with M. catarrhalis strain 25238 or O35E or NTHi strain 12. Immunization with dLOS-TT or dLOS-HMP generated a significant rise of serum anti-LOS immunoglobulin G and 68% and 35 to 41% reductions of bacteria in lungs compared with the control (P < 0.01) following challenge with homologous strain 25238 and heterologous strain O35E, respectively. Serum anti-LOS antibody levels correlated with its bactericidal titers against M. catarrhalis and bacterial CFU in lungs. Additionally, immunization with dLOS-HMP generated a 54% reduction of NTHi strain 12 compared with the control (P < 0.01). Passive immunization with a rabbit antiserum against dLOS-TT conferred a significant reduction of strain 25238 CFU in lungs in a dose- and time-dependent pattern compared with preimmune serum-treated mice. Kinetic examination of lung tissue sections demonstrated that antiserum-treated mice initiated and offset inflammatory responses more rapidly than preimmune serum-treated mice. These data indicate that LOS antibodies (whether active or passive) play a major role in the enhancement of pulmonary clearance of different test strains of M. catarrhalis in mice. In addition, dLOS-HMP is a potential candidate for a bivalent vaccine against M. catarrhalis and NTHi infections. PMID:10948114

  11. 1,2,3-Triazole pharmacophore-based benzofused nitrogen/sulfur heterocycles with potential anti-Moraxella catarrhalis activity.

    PubMed

    Maračić, Silvija; Kraljević, Tatjana Gazivoda; Paljetak, Hana Čipčić; Perić, Mihaela; Matijašić, Mario; Verbanac, Donatella; Cetina, Mario; Raić-Malić, Silvana

    2015-12-01

    Versatile 1,2,3-triazole pharmacophore-based benzofused heterocycles containing halogen-substituted aromatic (9-17 and 25-28), 7-substituted coumarin (18-23 and 29-30) or penciclovir-like subunit (31a,b-38a) were designed and synthesized to evaluate their antibacterial activities against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Hybridization approach using environmentally friendly Cu(I)-catalyzed click reaction under microwave irradiation was adopted in the synthesis of regioselective 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole tethered heterocycles (9-23 and 25-30), while post-N-alkylation of NH-1,2,3-triazoles afforded both 2,4- (31a-38a) and 1,4-disubstituted (31b-33b, 35b-37b) 1,2,3-triazole regioisomers. The compounds 18-23 and 25-30 revealed fluorescence in the violet region of the visible spectrum with a strong influence of phenyl spacer in 25-30 on both wavelength and emission intensity. Fusion of selected subunits led to new hybrid architecture, benzothiazole-1,2,3-triazole-coumarin 29 that demonstrated extremely narrow spectrum activity towards fastidious Gram-negative bacteria Moraxella catarrhalis. Selected hybrid showed the potency against Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC⩽0.25μg/mL) comparable to that of reference antibiotic azithromycin, which suggested that further investigations are necessary to optimize this potential hit compound as a new anti-Moraxella catarrhalis agent. PMID:26578325

  12. Identification of an Outer Membrane Lipoprotein Involved in Nasopharyngeal Colonization by Moraxella catarrhalis in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Joslin, Stephanie N.; Pybus, Christine; Evans, Amanda S.; Lichaa, Flora; Brautigam, Chad A.

    2014-01-01

    Colonization of the human nasopharynx by Moraxella catarrhalis is presumed to involve attachment of this bacterium to the mucosa. DNA microarray analysis was used to determine whether attachment of M. catarrhalis to human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells in vitro affected gene expression in this bacterium. Attachment affected expression of at least 454 different genes, with 163 being upregulated and 291 being downregulated. Among the upregulated genes was one (ORF113) previously annotated as encoding a protein with some similarity to outer membrane protein A (OmpA). The protein encoded by ORF113 was predicted to have a signal peptidase II cleavage site, and globomycin inhibition experiments confirmed that this protein was indeed a lipoprotein. The ORF113 protein also contained a predicted peptidoglycan-binding domain in its C-terminal half. The use of mutant and recombinant M. catarrhalis strains confirmed that the ORF113 protein was present in outer membrane preparations, and this protein was also shown to be at least partially exposed on the bacterial cell surface. A mutant unable to produce the ORF113 protein showed little or no change in its growth rate in vitro, in its ability to attach to HBE cells in vitro, or in its autoagglutination characteristics, but it did exhibit a reduced ability to survive in the chinchilla nasopharynx. This is the first report of a lipoprotein essential to the ability of M. catarrhalis to persist in an animal model. PMID:24643539

  13. Differential Virulence Gene Expression of Group A Streptococcus Serotype M3 in Response to Co-Culture with Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Verhaegh, Suzanne J. C.; Flores, Anthony R.; van Belkum, Alex; Musser, James M.; Hays, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus, GAS) and Moraxella catarrhalis are important colonizers and (opportunistic) pathogens of the human respiratory tract. However, current knowledge regarding colonization and pathogenic potential of these two pathogens is based on work involving single bacterial species, even though the interplay between respiratory bacterial species is increasingly important in niche occupation and the development of disease. Therefore, to further define and understand polymicrobial species interactions, we investigated whether gene expression (and hence virulence potential) of GAS would be affected upon co-culture with M. catarrhalis. For co-culture experiments, GAS and M. catarrhalis were cultured in Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with 0.2% yeast extract (THY) at 37°C with 5% CO2 aeration. Each strain was grown in triplicate so that triplicate experiments could be performed. Bacterial RNA was isolated, cDNA synthesized, and microarray transcriptome expression analysis performed. We observed significantly increased (≥4-fold) expression for genes playing a role in GAS virulence such as hyaluronan synthase (hasA), streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z (smeZ) and IgG endopeptidase (ideS). In contrast, significantly decreased (≥4-fold) expression was observed in genes involved in energy metabolism and in 12 conserved GAS two-component regulatory systems. This study provides the first evidence that M. catarrhalis increases GAS virulence gene expression during co-culture, and again shows the importance of polymicrobial infections in directing bacterial virulence. PMID:23626831

  14. Pili play an important role in enhancing the bacterial clearance from the middle ear in a mouse model of acute otitis media with Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Toshiaki; Hirano, Takashi; Kodama, Satoru; Mitsui, Marcelo Takahiro; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Nishizono, Akira; Suzuki, Masashi

    2013-03-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a Gram-negative aerobic diplococcus that is currently the third most frequent cause of bacterial acute otitis media (AOM) in children. In this study, we developed an experimental murine AOM model by inoculating M. catarrhalis in the middle ear bulla and studied the local response to this inoculation, and modulation of its course by the pili of M. catarrhalis. The pili-positive and pili-negative M. catarrhalis showed differences in bacterial clearance and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the middle ear. Pili-negative M. catarrhalis induced a more delayed and prolonged immune response in the middle ear than that of pili-positive M. catarrhalis. TLR2, -4, -5 and -9 mRNA expression was upregulated in neutrophils that infiltrated the middle ear cavity during AOM caused by both pili-positive and pili-negative bacteria. TLR5 mRNA expression and TLR5 protein in the neutrophils were induced more robustly by pili-positive M. catarrhalis. This immune response is likely to be related to neutrophil function such as toll-like 5-dependent phagocytosis. Our results show that mice may provide a useful AOM model for studying the role of M. catarrhalis. Furthermore, we show that pili play an important role in enhancing M. catarrhalis clearance from the middle ear that is probably mediated through neutrophil-dependent TLR5 signaling.

  15. Comparative Genomic Analyses of the Moraxella catarrhalis Serosensitive and Seroresistant Lineages Demonstrate Their Independent Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Earl, Joshua P.; de Vries, Stefan P.W.; Ahmed, Azad; Powell, Evan; Schultz, Matthew P.; Hermans, Peter W.M.; Hill, Darryl J.; Zhou, Zhemin; Constantinidou, Crystala I.; Hu, Fen Z.; Bootsma, Hester J.; Ehrlich, Garth D.

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial species Moraxella catarrhalis has been hypothesized as being composed of two distinct lineages (referred to as the seroresistant [SR] and serosensitive [SS]) with separate evolutionary histories based on several molecular typing methods, whereas 16S ribotyping has suggested an additional split within the SS lineage. Previously, we characterized whole-genome sequences of 12 SR-lineage isolates, which revealed a relatively small supragenome when compared with other opportunistic nasopharyngeal pathogens, suggestive of a relatively short evolutionary history. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing on 18 strains from both ribotypes of the SS lineage, an additional SR strain, as well as four previously identified highly divergent strains based on multilocus sequence typing analyses. All 35 strains were subjected to a battery of comparative genomic analyses which clearly show that there are three lineages—the SR, SS, and the divergent. The SR and SS lineages are closely related, but distinct from each other based on three different methods of comparison: Allelic differences observed among core genes; possession of lineage-specific sets of core and distributed genes; and by an alignment of concatenated core sequences irrespective of gene annotation. All these methods show that the SS lineage has much longer interstrain branches than the SR lineage indicating that this lineage has likely been evolving either longer or faster than the SR lineage. There is evidence of extensive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) within both of these lineages, and to a lesser degree between them. In particular, we identified very high rates of HGT between these two lineages for ß-lactamase genes. The four divergent strains are sui generis, being much more distantly related to both the SR and SS groups than these other two groups are to each other. Based on average nucleotide identities, gene content, GC content, and genome size, this group could be considered as a separate

  16. Identification of Alloiococcus otitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae in Children With Otitis Media With Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Farajzadah Sheikh, Ahmad; Saki, Nader; Roointan, Mitra; Ranjbar, Reza; Yadyad, Mohammad Jaafar; Kaydani, Abbas; Aslani, Sajad; Babaei, Mansoor; Goodarzi, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Based on many studies, otitis media with effusion (OME) is one of the major causes of childhood hearing loss, social malformation and medical costs. The pathogenesis still remains unclear, though it is known that this complication is closely related to bacterial infections. Alloiococcus otitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most common bacterial pathogens isolated from middle ear effusions (MEEs). Objectives: Due to the prevalence of OME in children, we decided to investigate bacterial agents that cause diseases such as A. otitidis, H. influenzae, S. pneumonia and M. catarrhalis in these subjects. Patients and Methods: Forty-five children between one and 15 years of age were selected for this study. Seventy specimens were collected from MEE by myringotomy and inoculated in PBS buffer. Conventional culture and PCR methods were used for identification of bacterial agents. Results: The bacterial cultures in 8.6% of samples were positive by conventional culture, with A. otitidis, M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae present in 1.4%, 2.9% and 4.3% of samples, respectively. No H. influenzae was isolated. By the PCR method, A. otitidis was the most frequently isolated bacterium, found in 25.7% of samples, followed by S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae, which were identified in 20%, 12% and 20% of samples, respectively. Overall, 55 out of 70 samples were positive by both the PCR and culture method. Conclusions: It can be concluded that A. otitidis was the major causative agent of MEE in children with OME. Therefore clinicians should be aware that bacterial infection plays an important role in the progression of acute otitis media to OME in children of our region. PMID:25861433

  17. Rapid assay of A2058T-mutated 23S rRNA allelic profiles associated with high-level macrolide resistance in Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Saito, Ryoichi; Kasai, Ayako; Ogihara, Shinji; Yamada, Kageto; Tao, Kazuyuki

    2015-09-01

    We report on a restriction fragment-length polymorphism (HpyCH4III) assay for profile analysis of 23S rRNA gene A2058T-mutated alleles associated with high-level macrolide resistance in Moraxella catarrhalis. Our assay results were supported by DNA sequencing analysis, allowed for simultaneous testing of many strains, and produced results from pure-cultured colonies within 4 h.

  18. Activities of Faropenem, an Oral β-Lactam, against Recent U.S. Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Critchley, Ian A.; Karlowsky, James A.; Draghi, Deborah C.; Jones, Mark E.; Thornsberry, Clyde; Murfitt, Kate; Sahm, Daniel F.

    2002-01-01

    The in vitro activities of faropenem and other antimicrobial agents were determined against 4,725 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, 2,614 Haemophilus influenzae isolates, and 1,193 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates collected from 273 U.S. laboratories during 1999. Faropenem MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited were 0.008, 0.25, and 1 μg/ml for penicillin-susceptible, -intermediate, and -resistant S. pneumoniae strains, respectively; 0.5 and 1 μg/ml for β-lactamase-positive and -negative H. influenzae strains, respectively; and 0.12 and 0.5 μg/ml for β-lactamase-negative and -positive M. catarrhalis strains, respectively. Faropenem holds promise as an oral therapy for community-acquired respiratory tract infections. PMID:11796376

  19. Activities of faropenem, an oral beta-lactam, against recent U.S. isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Critchley, Ian A; Karlowsky, James A; Draghi, Deborah C; Jones, Mark E; Thornsberry, Clyde; Murfitt, Kate; Sahm, Daniel F

    2002-02-01

    The in vitro activities of faropenem and other antimicrobial agents were determined against 4,725 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, 2,614 Haemophilus influenzae isolates, and 1,193 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates collected from 273 U.S. laboratories during 1999. Faropenem MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited were 0.008, 0.25, and 1 microg/ml for penicillin-susceptible, -intermediate, and -resistant S. pneumoniae strains, respectively; 0.5 and 1 microg/ml for beta-lactamase-positive and -negative H. influenzae strains, respectively; and 0.12 and 0.5 microg/ml for beta-lactamase-negative and -positive M. catarrhalis strains, respectively. Faropenem holds promise as an oral therapy for community-acquired respiratory tract infections. PMID:11796376

  20. Comparative analysis of the humoral immune response to Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae surface antigens in children suffering from recurrent acute otitis media and chronic otitis media with effusion.

    PubMed

    Verhaegh, Suzanne J C; Stol, Kim; de Vogel, Corné P; Riesbeck, Kristian; Lafontaine, Eric R; Murphy, Timothy F; van Belkum, Alex; Hermans, Peter W M; Hays, John P

    2012-06-01

    A prospective clinical cohort study was established to investigate the humoral immune response in middle ear fluids (MEF) and serum against bacterial surface proteins in children suffering from recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM) and chronic otitis media with effusion (COME), using Luminex xMAP technology. The association between the humoral immune response and the presence of Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the nasopharynx and middle ear was also studied. The levels of antigen-specific IgG, IgA, and IgM showed extensive interindividual variation. No significant differences in anti-M. catarrhalis and anti-S. pneumoniae serum and MEF median fluorescence intensity (MFI) values (anti-M. catarrhalis and antipneumococcal IgG levels) were observed between the rAOM or COME groups for all antigens tested. No significant differences were observed for M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae colonization and serum IgG levels against the Moraxella and pneumococcal antigens. Similar to the antibody response in serum, no significant differences in IgG, IgA, and IgM levels in MEF were observed for all M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae antigens between OM M. catarrhalis- or S. pneumoniae-positive and OM M. catarrhalis- or S. pneumonia-negative children suffering from either rAOM or COME. Finally, results indicated a strong correlation between antigen-specific serum and MEF IgG levels. We observed no significant in vivo expressed anti-M. catarrhalis or anti-S. pneumoniae humoral immune responses using a range of putative vaccine candidate proteins. Other factors, such as Eustachian tube dysfunction, viral load, and genetic and environmental factors, may play a more important role in the pathogenesis of OM and in particular in the development of rAOM or COME.

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance in Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis Respiratory Tract Isolates: Results of the Canadian Respiratory Organism Susceptibility Study, 1997 to 2002

    PubMed Central

    Zhanel, George G.; Palatnick, Lorraine; Nichol, Kimberly A.; Low, Don E.; Hoban, Daryl J.

    2003-01-01

    A total of 7,566 unique patient isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and 2,314 unique patient isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis were collected between October 1997 and June 2002 from 25 medical centers in 9 of the 10 Canadian provinces. Among the 7,566 H. influenzae isolates, 22.5% produced β-lactamase, while 92.4% of the 2,314 M. catarrhalis isolates produced β-lactamase. The incidence of β-lactamase-producing H. influenzae isolates decreased significantly over the 5-year study period, from 24.2% in 1997-1998 to 18.6% in 2001-2002 (P < 0.01). The incidence of β-lactamase-producing M. catarrhalis isolates did not change over the study period. The overall rates of resistance to amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate for H. influenzae were 19.3 and 0.1%, respectively. The rank order of cephalosporin activity based on the MICs at which 90% of isolates were inhibited (MIC90s) was cefotaxime > cefixime > cefuroxime > cefprozil > cefaclor. On the basis of the MICs, azithromycin was more active than clarithromycin (14-OH clarithromycin was not tested); however, on the basis of the NCCLS breakpoints, resistance rates were 2.1 and 1.6%, respectively. Rates of resistance to other agents were as follows: doxycycline, 1.5%; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 14.2%; and chloramphenicol, 0.2%. All fluoroquinolones tested, including the investigational fluoroquinolones BMS284756 (garenoxacin) and ABT-492, displayed potent activities against H. influenzae, with MIC90s of ≤0.03 μg/ml. The MIC90s of the investigational ketolides telithromycin and ABT-773 were 2 and 4 μg/ml, respectively, and the MIC90 of the investigational glycylcycline GAR-936 (tigecycline) was 4 μg/ml. Among the M. catarrhalis isolates tested, the resistance rates derived by using the NCCLS breakpoint criteria for H. influenzae were <1% for all antibiotics tested except trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1.5%). In summary, the incidence of β-lactamase-positive H. influenzae strains in Canada is decreasing (18

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolated from community-acquired respiratory tract infections in China: Results from the CARTIPS Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yawei; Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Zhanwei; Cao, Bin; Du, Yan; Feng, Xianju; Hu, Yunjian; Hu, Bijie; Ji, Ping; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Yong; Liao, Wanzhen; Lu, Juan; Sun, Hongli; Wang, Zhongxin; Xu, Xiuli; Xu, Xuesong; Yang, Qing; Yu, Yunsong; Zhang, Rong; Zhuo, Chao

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates causing adult community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs) in China. A multicentre resistance surveillance study (CARTIPS) investigating 1046 clinical isolates from 19 hospitals in China was conducted from 2013 to 2014. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints of oral penicillin, the percentages of penicillin-resistant, penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae were 44.1%, 13.7%, and 42.2%, respectively. The rates of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae ranged from 27.9% to 72.2% in different cities, with the highest rate in Nanchang. Macrolides, including azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin, showed the lowest activities against S. pneumoniae isolates, with resistance rates of 90.5%, 92.2% and 93.0%, respectively. However, 98% of these strains were susceptible to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. For H. influenzae isolates, most of the antimicrobials agents exhibited good activities. However, ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole showed relatively lower activity against H. influenzae, with resistance rates of 35.0% and 54.4%, respectively. β-lactamase production rates amongst H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were 31.0% and 87.1%, respectively. In addition, a total of 15 β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains identified in this study were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor and cefuroxime. Most of the antimicrobial agents showed excellent activity against M. catarrhalis, with susceptibility rates of >90%. The results from the current study confirmed the regional variations in antimicrobial susceptibility of major CARTI pathogens and provided some choices for the treatment of these organisms. Continuous national surveillance of the epidemiology of CARTIs is strongly warranted in China. PMID:27436464

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolated from community-acquired respiratory tract infections in China: Results from the CARTIPS Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yawei; Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Zhanwei; Cao, Bin; Du, Yan; Feng, Xianju; Hu, Yunjian; Hu, Bijie; Ji, Ping; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Yong; Liao, Wanzhen; Lu, Juan; Sun, Hongli; Wang, Zhongxin; Xu, Xiuli; Xu, Xuesong; Yang, Qing; Yu, Yunsong; Zhang, Rong; Zhuo, Chao

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates causing adult community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs) in China. A multicentre resistance surveillance study (CARTIPS) investigating 1046 clinical isolates from 19 hospitals in China was conducted from 2013 to 2014. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints of oral penicillin, the percentages of penicillin-resistant, penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae were 44.1%, 13.7%, and 42.2%, respectively. The rates of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae ranged from 27.9% to 72.2% in different cities, with the highest rate in Nanchang. Macrolides, including azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin, showed the lowest activities against S. pneumoniae isolates, with resistance rates of 90.5%, 92.2% and 93.0%, respectively. However, 98% of these strains were susceptible to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. For H. influenzae isolates, most of the antimicrobials agents exhibited good activities. However, ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole showed relatively lower activity against H. influenzae, with resistance rates of 35.0% and 54.4%, respectively. β-lactamase production rates amongst H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were 31.0% and 87.1%, respectively. In addition, a total of 15 β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains identified in this study were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor and cefuroxime. Most of the antimicrobial agents showed excellent activity against M. catarrhalis, with susceptibility rates of >90%. The results from the current study confirmed the regional variations in antimicrobial susceptibility of major CARTI pathogens and provided some choices for the treatment of these organisms. Continuous national surveillance of the epidemiology of CARTIs is strongly warranted in China.

  4. Use of next generation sequence to investigate potential novel macrolide resistance mechanisms in a population of Moraxella catarrhalis isolates

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ya-Li; Li, Dong-Fang; Xu, He-Ping; Xiao, Meng; Cheng, Jing-Wei; Zhang, Li; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Chen, Xin-Xin; Zhang, Ge; Kudinha, Timothy; Kong, Fanrong; Gong, Yan-Ping; Wang, Xin-Ying; Zhang, Yin-Xin; Wu, Hong-Long; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have confirmed that 23S rRNA gene mutation could be responsible for most of macrolide resistance in M. catarrhalis, a recent study suggested otherwise. Next generation sequence based comparative genomics has revolutionized the mining of potential novel drug resistant mechanisms. In this study, two pairs of resistant and susceptible M. catarrhalis isolates with different multilocus sequence types, were investigated for potential differential genes or informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The identified genes and SNPs were evaluated in 188 clinical isolates. From initially 12 selected differential genes and 12 informative SNPs, 10 differential genes (mboIA, mcbC, mcbI, mboIB, MCR_1794, MCR_1795, lgt2B/C, dpnI, mcbB, and mcbA) and 6 SNPs (C619T of rumA, T140C of rplF, G643A of MCR_0020, T270G of MCR_1465, C1348A of copB, and G238A of rrmA) were identified as possibly linked to macrolide resistance in M. catarrhalis. Most of the identified differential genes and SNPs are related to methylation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) or DNA, especially MCR_0020 and rrmA. Further studies are needed to determine the function and/or evolution process, of the identified genes or SNPs, to establish whether some novel or combined mechanisms are truly involved in M. catarrhalis macrolide resistance mechanism. PMID:27774989

  5. A fusion protein derived from Moraxella catarrhalis and Neisseria meningitidis aimed for immune modulation of human B cells

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Oindrilla; Singh, Birendra; Bayrak, Burcu; Jonsson, Ann-Beth; Mörgelin, Matthias; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Moraxella IgD-binding protein (MID) is a well characterized trimeric autotransporter that specifically targets the IgD of B cells. We fused the membrane anchor of the meningococcal autotransporter NhhA with the IgD-binding region of MID (aa 962–1200) to create a chimeric protein designated as NID. The aim was to use this specific targeting to provide a better vaccine candidate against meningococci, in particular serogroup B by enhancing the immunogenicity of NhhA. NID was thereafter recombinantly expressed in E. coli. The NID-expressing E. coli bound to peripheral B lymphocytes that resulted in cellular activation. Furthermore, we also successfully expressed NID on outer membrane vesicles, nanoparticles that are commonly used in meningococcal vaccines. This study thus highlights the applicability of the menigococcal-Moraxella fusion protein NID to be used for specific targeting of vaccine components to the IgD B cell receptor. PMID:26042357

  6. Deciphering the genetic basis of Moraxella catarrhalis complement resistance: a critical role for the disulphide bond formation system.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Stefan P W; Rademakers, Rob J A; van der Gaast-de Jongh, Christa E; Eleveld, Marc J; Hermans, Peter W M; Bootsma, Hester J

    2014-02-01

    The complement system is an important innate defence mechanism, and the ability to resist complement-mediated killing is considered a key virulence trait of the respiratory tract pathogen M. catarrhalis. We studied the molecular basis of complement resistance by transcriptional profiling and Tn-seq, a genome-wide negative-selection screenings technology. Exposure of M. catarrhalis to human serum resulted in increased expression of 84 genes and reduced expression of 134 genes, among which genes encoding ABC transporter systems and surface proteins UspA1 and McaP. By subjecting a ∼ 15 800 transposon mutant library to serum, mutants of 53 genes were negatively selected, including the key complement-resistance factor uspA2H. Validation with directed mutants confirmed Tn-seq phenotypes of uspA2H and 11 newly identified genes, with mutants of MCR_0424, olpA, MCR_1483, and dsbB most severely attenuated. Detailed analysis showed that both components of the disulphide bond formation (DSB) system, DsbB and DsbA, were required for complement-resistance in multiple isolates, and fulfil a critical role in evasion of IgG-dependent classical pathway-mediated killing. Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) structure and membrane stability were severely affected in ΔdsbA strains, suggesting a pivotal role for the DSB system in LOS structure safeguarding and membrane stability maintenance.

  7. The incidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae otitis media is affected by the polymicrobial environment particularly Moraxella catarrhalis in a mouse nasal colonisation model.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Ajay; McGrath, John; Cripps, Allan W; Kyd, Jennelle M

    2009-04-01

    Otitis media (OM) is a highly prevalent paediatric disease with both bacterial and viral triggers of infection. This study has investigated how combinations of bacteria associated with nasal colonisation and the occurrence and absence of viral infection (Sendai virus) induce OM in a mouse nasal colonisation model. The respiratory virus significantly contributed to bacterial OM for all bacterial combinations (p<0.001). Streptococcus pneumoniae consistently dominated as the causative bacterium of OM and when co-infected with S. pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis more significantly affected pneumococcal OM than did non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (p<0.001) by increasing the incidence rate, infection bacterial load and duration of infection. Nitric oxide levels in the middle ear, an indicator of inflammation, peaked at day 3 in single bacterium groups, but at day 1 in mixed bacterial groups and was produced in all bacteria inoculated groups even in the absence of viable bacterial recovery. Phagocytic cells were recruited rapidly to the ear following nasal inoculation but over time their numbers did not correlate with persistence of bacterial infection. The study has shown that the composition of bacteria in the nasal cavity and respiratory viral infection significantly affected the OM incidence rate, duration of infection and bacterial load (severity).

  8. Ligand-bound structures of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate phosphatase from Moraxella catarrhalis reveal a water channel connecting to the active site for the second step of catalysis.

    PubMed

    Dhindwal, Sonali; Priyadarshini, Priyanka; Patil, Dipak N; Tapas, Satya; Kumar, Pramod; Tomar, Shailly; Kumar, Pravindra

    2015-02-01

    KdsC, the third enzyme of the 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO) biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes a substrate-specific reaction to hydrolyze 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate to generate a molecule of KDO and phosphate. KdsC is a phosphatase that belongs to the C0 subfamily of the HAD superfamily. To understand the molecular basis for the substrate specificity of this tetrameric enzyme, the crystal structures of KdsC from Moraxella catarrhalis (Mc-KdsC) with several combinations of ligands, namely metal ion, citrate and products, were determined. Various transition states of the enzyme have been captured in these crystal forms. The ligand-free and ligand-bound crystal forms reveal that the binding of ligands does not cause any specific conformational changes in the active site. However, the electron-density maps clearly showed that the conformation of KDO as a substrate is different from the conformation adopted by KDO when it binds as a cleaved product. Furthermore, structural evidence for the existence of an intersubunit tunnel has been reported for the first time in the C0 subfamily of enzymes. A role for this tunnel in transferring water molecules from the interior of the tetrameric structure to the active-site cleft has been proposed. At the active site, water molecules are required for the formation of a water bridge that participates as a proton shuttle during the second step of the two-step phosphoryl-transfer reaction. In addition, as the KDO biosynthesis pathway is a potential antibacterial target, pharmacophore-based virtual screening was employed to identify inhibitor molecules for the Mc-KdsC enzyme.

  9. Ligand-bound structures of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate phosphatase from Moraxella catarrhalis reveal a water channel connecting to the active site for the second step of catalysis.

    PubMed

    Dhindwal, Sonali; Priyadarshini, Priyanka; Patil, Dipak N; Tapas, Satya; Kumar, Pramod; Tomar, Shailly; Kumar, Pravindra

    2015-02-01

    KdsC, the third enzyme of the 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO) biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes a substrate-specific reaction to hydrolyze 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate to generate a molecule of KDO and phosphate. KdsC is a phosphatase that belongs to the C0 subfamily of the HAD superfamily. To understand the molecular basis for the substrate specificity of this tetrameric enzyme, the crystal structures of KdsC from Moraxella catarrhalis (Mc-KdsC) with several combinations of ligands, namely metal ion, citrate and products, were determined. Various transition states of the enzyme have been captured in these crystal forms. The ligand-free and ligand-bound crystal forms reveal that the binding of ligands does not cause any specific conformational changes in the active site. However, the electron-density maps clearly showed that the conformation of KDO as a substrate is different from the conformation adopted by KDO when it binds as a cleaved product. Furthermore, structural evidence for the existence of an intersubunit tunnel has been reported for the first time in the C0 subfamily of enzymes. A role for this tunnel in transferring water molecules from the interior of the tetrameric structure to the active-site cleft has been proposed. At the active site, water molecules are required for the formation of a water bridge that participates as a proton shuttle during the second step of the two-step phosphoryl-transfer reaction. In addition, as the KDO biosynthesis pathway is a potential antibacterial target, pharmacophore-based virtual screening was employed to identify inhibitor molecules for the Mc-KdsC enzyme. PMID:25664734

  10. Moraxella Catarrhalis: A Common Cause of Childhood Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  11. Branhamella catarrhalis: an organism gaining respect as a pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Catlin, B W

    1990-01-01

    Branhamella catarrhalis was formerly regarded as a common, essentially harmless inhabitant of the pharynx. This misapprehension was caused, in part, by confusion with another pharyngeal resident, Neisseria cinerea. The two organisms can now be differentiated by the positive reactions of B. catarrhalis in tests for nitrate reduction and hydrolysis of tributyrin and DNase. B. catarrhalis is currently recognized as the third most frequent cause of acute otitis media and acute sinusitis in young children. It often causes acute exacerbations of chronic bronchopulmonary disease in older or immunocompromised adults and is incriminated occasionally in meningitis, endocarditis, bacteremia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and urogenital infections. Virulence-associated factors, such as pili, capsules, outer membrane vesicles, iron acquisition proteins, histamine-synthesizing ability, resistance to the bactericidal action of normal human serum, and binding to the C1q complement component, have been identified in some strains. beta-Lactamase producing strains, first detected in 1976, have risen to approximately 75% worldwide. Thus far, however, practically all American strains of B. catarrhalis remain susceptible to alternative antibiotics. A possible selective advantage of recent isolates is their reportedly heightened tendency for adherence to oropharyngeal cells from patients with chronic bronchopulmonary disease. Images PMID:2121328

  12. Moraxella pluranimalium sp. nov., isolated from animal specimens.

    PubMed

    Vela, A I; Arroyo, E; Aragón, V; Sánchez-Porro, C; Latre, M V; Cerdà-Cuéllar, M; Ventosa, A; Domínguez, L; Fernández-Garayzábal, J F

    2009-04-01

    Four unusual Gram-negative, catalase-positive, oxidase-positive, coccus-shaped bacteria isolated from one sheep and three pigs were characterized using phenotypic and molecular genetic methods. On the basis of cellular morphology and biochemical criteria, the isolates were tentatively assigned to the genus Moraxella, although the organisms did not appear to correspond to any recognized species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies demonstrated that the isolates represent a novel subline within the genus Moraxella. The most closely related species in phylogenetic terms was Moraxella cuniculi, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.9 % to the type strain CCUG 2154(T), although the DNA-DNA relatedness value was only 29 %. The novel isolates were readily distinguished from all recognized Moraxella species by means of physiological and biochemical tests. On the basis of molecular genetic and phenotypic evidence, therefore, the four isolates represent a novel species of the genus Moraxella, for which the name Moraxella pluranimalium sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 248-01(T) (=CECT 7295(T) =CCUG 54913(T)).

  13. Differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis

    PubMed Central

    Maboni, Grazieli; Gressler, Leticia T.; Espindola, Julia P.; Schwab, Marcelo; Tasca, Caiane; Potter, Luciana; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis. Thirty-two strains of Moraxella spp. isolated from cattle and sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis were tested via broth microdilution method to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxytetracycline and penicillin. The results demonstrated that Moraxella spp. strains could be considered sensitive for most of the antimicrobials tested in this study, but differences between the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of these three Moraxella species were found. M. bovis might differ from other species due to the higher MIC and MBC values it presented. PMID:26273272

  14. Genetic transformation assays for identification of strains of Moraxella urethralis.

    PubMed Central

    Juni, E

    1977-01-01

    Studies of 31 strains of Moraxella urethralis have shown that 20 of them are competent for genetic transformation. This finding has led to the development of transformation assays for identification of newly isolated strains of this organism. Crude deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples from all strains of M. urethralis readily transform auxotrophic mutants of competent strains to prototrophy, whereas DNA samples from unrelated bacteria such as Acinetobacter, Moraxella, and Neisseria species uniformly fail to elicit positive transformation of mutant tester strains. One of the competent strains of M. urethralis investigated is a naturally occurring mutant defective in its ability to utilize citrate as a carbon and energy source. DNA samples from 29 of the 30 remaining strains of utilization; the one nonreacting strain is citrate negative and probably possesses the same genetic lesion as the citrate-negative mutant. Three organisms originally identified as strains of M. urethralis, because of their phenotypic properties, are probably incorrectly designated, since DNA samples from these strains failed to transform any of the tester mutant strains used in the present study. The transformation assay for M. urethralis is very simple and can be performed readily in a clinical laboratory. The entire procedure can be carried out in less than 24 h. Images PMID:845247

  15. Report of a case of bronchopneumonia associated with Moraxella bovis isolation in a chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica).

    PubMed

    Lavin, S; Lastras, M E; Marco, I; Cabañes, F X

    2000-04-01

    A case of fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia associated with Moraxella bovis infection in a chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) is described. The animal, a 4-month-old female, was referred by the staff warden of the National Game Reserve of Freser-Setcases (Catalonia, north-eastern Spain). The animal was in good general condition and was found 4 h before death. On necropsy the lungs were congested and oedematous, with haemorrhagic areas in the cranial and middle lobes. The microscopic lesions were those of a fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia. Microbiological study of the samples obtained showed numerous small beta-haemolytic colonies in pure culture, identified as Moraxella (Moraxella) bovis.

  16. Antibiotic sensitivity of an Argentine strain collection of Moraxella bovis.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, G; Piscitelli, H; Perez-Monti, H; Stobbs, L A

    2000-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility of 88 isolates of Moraxella bovis of Argentine origin was evaluated for 12 antimicrobials by broth microdilution procedures. The isolates had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) of < or = 0.06 microg/mL to enrofloxacin; < or = 0.12 microg/mL to ceftiofur; < or = 0.25 microg/mL to ampicillin; < or = 0.5 microg/mL to florfenicol and gentamicin; < or = 1.0 microg/mL to tilmicosin, erythromycin, and oxytetracycline; < or = 4.0 microg/mL to tylosin; < or = 8.0 microg/mL to spectinomycin; < or = 0.25/4.75 microg/mL to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole; and > or = 32 microg/mL to lincomycin. Modal MIC values for these antimicrobials were as follows: enrofloxacin, 0.03 microg/mL; ceftiofur, 0.06 pg/mL; ampicillin, 0.25 microg/mL; florfenicol, gentamicin, erythromycin, and oxytetracycline, 0.5 microg/mL; tilmicosin, 1.0 microg/mL; tylosin and spectinomycin, 4.0 microg/mL; lincomycin and erythromycin, 16 microg/mL; and trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, < or = 0.25/4.75 microg/mL. These data show that all antimicrobials except lincomycin have MICs suggestive of sensitivity in vitro, though confirmation of clinical efficacy can only be properly assessed based on pharmacologic and/or clinical data to support the MIC values. PMID:19757583

  17. Moraxella Species Are Primarily Responsible for Generating Malodor in Laundry

    PubMed Central

    Mitani, Asako; Niwano, Yu; Takeuchi, Kohei; Tanaka, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Noriko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Hitomi, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Many people in Japan often detect an unpleasant odor generated from laundry that is hung to dry indoors or when using their already-dried laundry. Such an odor is often described as a “wet-and-dirty-dustcloth-like malodor” or an “acidic or sweaty odor.” In this study, we isolated the major microorganisms associated with such a malodor, the major component of which has been identified as 4-methyl-3-hexenoic acid (4M3H). The isolates were identified as Moraxella osloensis by morphological observation and biochemical and phylogenetic tree analyses. M. osloensis has the potential to generate 4M3H in laundry. The bacterium is known to cause opportunistic infections but has never been known to generate a malodor in clothes. We found that M. osloensis exists at a high frequency in various living environments, particularly in laundry in Japan. The bacterium showed a high tolerance to desiccation and UV light irradiation, providing one of the possible reasons why they survive in laundry during and even after drying. PMID:22367080

  18. Simple Genetic Transformation Assay for Rapid Diagnosis of Moraxella osloensis

    PubMed Central

    Juni, Elliot

    1974-01-01

    A genetic transformation assay for unequivocal identification of strains of Moraxella osloensis is described. In this assay a stable tryptophan auxotroph is transformed to prototrophy by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples from other strains of M. osloensis but not by DNA samples from unrelated bacteria. The test is simple to perform and definitive results can be obtained in less than 24 h. The procedure, which is suitable for routine diagnosis in a clinical laboratory, involves a rapid method for preparation of crude transforming DNA from small quantities of bacterial cells and permits simultaneous examination of large numbers of isolated cultures. The assay was shown to correctly identify 27 strains previously classified as M. osloensis. Forty-five other gram-negative, oxidase-positive, nonmotile coccobacilli, which might be confused with M. osloensis unless subject to more extensive testing, were shown to be unrelated genetically to M. osloensis. The transformation assay clearly distinguishes M. osloensis from Acinetobacter. Although most strains of M. osloensis are nonfastidious, being able to grow in a mineral medium supplemented with a single organic carbon source, one of the strains tested was only able to grow on fairly complex media and could not be transformed to grow on simple media. Inability to alkalize Simmons citrate agar was shown not to be characteristic of all strains of M. osloensis. Images PMID:4589126

  19. Transcriptional regulation of type 4 pilin genes and the site-specific recombinase gene, piv, in Moraxella lacunata and Moraxella bovis.

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, D W; Glasgow, A C

    1997-01-01

    Moraxella lacunata and Moraxella bovis use type 4 pili to adhere to epithelial tissues of the cornea and conjunctiva. Primer extension analyses were used to map the transcriptional start sites for the genes encoding the major pilin subunits (tfpQ/I) and the DNA invertase (piv), which determines pilin type expression. tfpQ/I transcription starts at a sigma54-dependent promoter (tfpQ/Ip2) and, under certain growth conditions, this transcription is accompanied by weaker upstream transcription that starts at a potential sigma70-dependent promoter (tfpQ/Ip1). piv is expressed in both M. lacunata and M. bovis from a putative sigma70-dependent promoter (pivp) under all conditions assayed. Sigma54-dependent promoters require activators in order to initiate transcription; therefore, it is likely that tfpQ/Ip2 is also regulated by an activator in Moraxella. Primer extension assays with RNA isolated from Escherichia coli containing the subcloned pilin inversion region from M. lacunata showed that pivp is used for the expression of piv; however, tfpQ/Ip2 is not used for the transcription of tfpQ/I. Transcription from tfpQ/Ip2 was activated in E. coli when the sensor (PilS) and response regulator (PilR) proteins of type 4 pilin transcription in Pseudomonas aeruginosa were expressed from a plasmid. These results suggest that the expression of the type 4 pilin in M. lacunata and M. bovis is regulated not only by a site-specific DNA inversion system but also by a regulatory system which is functionally analogous to the PilS-PilR two-component system of P. aeruginosa. PMID:9393693

  20. Purification and properties of formate dehydrogenase from Moraxella sp. strain C-1.

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Y; Sekigawa, T; Inukai, H; Nakazawa, A

    1988-01-01

    NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase was screened in various bacterial strains. Facultative methanol-utilizing bacteria isolated from soil samples, acclimated to a medium containing methanol and formate at pH 9.5, were classified as members of the genus Moraxella. From a crude extract of Moraxella sp. strain C-1, formate dehydrogenase was purified to homogeneity, as judged by disc gel electrophoresis. The enzyme has an isoelectric point of 3.9 and a molecular weight of approximately 98,000. The enzyme is composed of two identical subunits with molecular weights of about 48,000. The apparent Km values for sodium formate and NAD+ were calculated to be 13 mM and 0.068 mM, respectively. Images PMID:3384805

  1. Septic Arthritis Due to Moraxella osloensis in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Wren, Melissa A; Caskey, John R; Liu, David X; Embers, Monica E

    2013-01-01

    A 5.5-y-old Chinese-origin female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral hindlimb lameness. The primate had been group-reared in an SPF breeding colony and was seronegative for Macacine herpesvirus 1, SIV, simian retrovirus type D, and simian T-lymphotropic virus. The macaque's previous medical history included multiple occasions of swelling in the left tarsus, and trauma to the right arm and bilateral hands. In addition, the macaque had experienced osteomyelitis of the left distal tibia and rupture of the right cranial cruciate ligament that had been surgically repaired. Abnormal physical examination findings on presentation included a thin body condition, mild dehydration, and bilaterally swollen stifles that were warm to the touch, with the right stifle more severely affected. Mild instability in the left stifle was noted, and decreased range of motion and muscle atrophy were present bilaterally. Hematologic findings included marked neutrophilia and lymphopenia and moderate anemia. Arthrocentesis and culture of joint fluid revealed Moraxella-like organisms. Treatment with enrofloxacin was initiated empirically and subsequently switched to cephalexin, which over time alleviated the joint swelling and inflammation. Definitive diagnosis of Moraxella osloensis septic arthritis was made through isolation of the organism and sequencing of the 16S rDNA region. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of Moraxella osloensis septic arthritis in a rhesus macaque. PMID:24326229

  2. Septic arthritis due to moraxella osloensis in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Wren, Melissa A; Caskey, John R; Liu, David X; Embers, Monica E

    2013-01-01

    A 5.5-y-old Chinese-origin female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral hindlimb lameness. The primate had been group-reared in an SPF breeding colony and was seronegative for Macacine herpesvirus 1, SIV, simian retrovirus type D, and simian T-lymphotropic virus. The macaque's previous medical history included multiple occasions of swelling in the left tarsus, and trauma to the right arm and bilateral hands. In addition, the macaque had experienced osteomyelitis of the left distal tibia and rupture of the right cranial cruciate ligament that had been surgically repaired. Abnormal physical examination findings on presentation included a thin body condition, mild dehydration, and bilaterally swollen stifles that were warm to the touch, with the right stifle more severely affected. Mild instability in the left stifle was noted, and decreased range of motion and muscle atrophy were present bilaterally. Hematologic findings included marked neutrophilia and lymphopenia and moderate anemia. Arthrocentesis and culture of joint fluid revealed Moraxella-like organisms. Treatment with enrofloxacin was initiated empirically and subsequently switched to cephalexin, which over time alleviated the joint swelling and inflammation. Definitive diagnosis of Moraxella osloensis septic arthritis was made through isolation of the organism and sequencing of the 16S rDNA region. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of Moraxella osloensis septic arthritis in a rhesus macaque.

  3. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of selected antimicrobial agents for Moraxella bovoculi associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Angelos, John A; Ball, Louise M; Byrne, Barbara A

    2011-05-01

    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) has been associated with ocular infections by Moraxella bovis, the established etiologic agent of IBK, and more recently, Moraxella bovoculi, a recently described species of Moraxella. To assist in designing rational treatment regimens for M. bovoculi infections associated with IBK, the in vitro susceptibilities of 57 M. bovoculi field isolates cultured from eyes of cattle with IBK in California from 2002 through 2007 were determined. The minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms (MIC(90)) of the following 18 antibiotics tested in the present study were: danofloxacin and enrofloxacin: ≤0.12 µg/ml; ampicillin and ceftiofur: ≤0.25 µg/ml; penicillin: 0.25 µg/ml; gentamicin: ≤1 µg/ml; chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and tiamulin: 1 µg/ml; florfenicol: 0.5 µg/ml; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole: ≤2/38 µg/ml; clindamycin: 2 µg/ml; neomycin and tilmicosin: ≤4 µg/ml; tulathromycin: 4 µg/ml; spectinomycin and tylosin: 16 µg/ml; and sulfadimethoxine: >256 µg/ml. The low MIC(90) of these M. bovoculi isolates suggests that commonly used antibiotics for treatment of IBK associated with M. bovis should also be effective against M. bovoculi. PMID:21908289

  4. Combined genetic transformation and nutritional assay for identification of Moraxella nonliquefaciens.

    PubMed Central

    Juni, E; Heym, G A; Maurer, M J; Miller, M L

    1987-01-01

    A combined genetic transformation and nutritional assay is described that permits definitive identification of clinically isolated strains of Moraxella nonliquefaciens. Crude DNA preparations of strains of various Moraxella species were used to transform nutritional mutants of a stably competent strain of M. nonliquefaciens for ability to grow on a defined medium (Mn-B). DNA samples from 24 independently isolated strains of M. nonliquefaciens all resulted in massive (4+) transformation of each of two mutant assay strains. DNA samples from strains of M. bovis and M. lacunata frequently gave weak (1+) transformation of one of the mutant assay strains (Mn64) but almost always failed to transform another assay strain (Mn136). DNA samples from eight other Moraxella species failed completely to transform either of the mutant assay strains. When streaked on the defined medium used for the transformation assay (Mn-B), 23 of the 24 strains of M. nonliquefaciens grew well, but all strains of M. bovis and M. lacunata failed to grow on this medium. Images PMID:3654942

  5. Characterization of pilin genes from seven serologically defined prototype strains of Moraxella bovis.

    PubMed Central

    Atwell, J L; Tennent, J M; Lepper, A W; Elleman, T C

    1994-01-01

    Numerous field isolates of Moraxella bovis have previously been classified by serological techniques into seven serogroups, each defined by homologous cross-reaction with antisera prepared against purified pili of a single prototype strain. The gene encoding pilin from each of the prototype strains has been characterized by nucleotide sequence determination. The coding sequences show extensive homology (70 to 80%) while the proximal downstream sequences show a dichotomy into nonhomologous sets. The pilin genes of three more strains were also characterized. The presence of an additional, partial pilin gene in each prototype strain was confirmed by Southern blot analysis, and the partial pilin genes from two strains of one serogroup were characterized by sequence determination. Features of the pilin gene sequences are considered in relation to pilin gene inversion and the serological variants of strains which may arise from gene inversion events. Images PMID:8051000

  6. Isolation, purification and spectrometric analysis of PSP toxins from moraxella sp., a bacterium associated with a toxic dinoflagellate

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, S.D.; Doucette, G.J.

    1994-12-31

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a seafood intoxication syndrome caused by the injestion of shellfish contaminated with toxins produced by algae known as dinoflagellates. The PSP toxins, saxitoxin and its derivatives, act to block voltage-dependent sodium channels and can cause paralysis and even death at higher doses. It is well documented that bacteria coexist with many harmful or toxic algal species, though the exact nature of the association in relation to toxin production is unknown. Recently, the bacterium Moraxella sp. was isolated from the PSP toxin producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. Through HPLC analysis and saxitoxin receptor binding assays performed on crude bacterial extracts, it appears that Moraxella sp. is capable of producing saxitoxin and several of its derivatives. However, physical confirmation (e.g. mass spectrometry) of these results is still needed.

  7. The subgenus names Moraxella and Branhamella (in the genus Moraxella) are not in accordance with the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria and are therefore not validly published: Supplementary information to Opinion 83. Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Tindall, B J

    2014-10-01

    The publication of Opinion 83, which dealt with the valid publication of the subgenus names Moraxella and Branhamella (in the genus Moraxella), has highlighted a problem relating to the absence of descriptions associated with these names at the time they were effectively published. This calls into question whether the ruling outlined in Opinion 83, that these names should have qualified for inclusion on the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, and their inclusion on Validation List 15 are not in accordance with Rule 27 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria governing the valid publication of a name. The subgenus names Moraxella and Branhamella (in the genus Moraxella) are not to be considered to be included on the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, nor are they to be considered to be validly published by inclusion on Validation List 15.

  8. Atomic Resolution Crystal Structure of NAD+-Dependent Formate Dehydrogenase from Bacterium Moraxella sp. C-1

    PubMed Central

    Shabalin, I.G.; Polyakov, K.M.; Tishkov, V.I.

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of the ternary complex of NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase from the methylotrophic bacterium Moraxella sp. C-1 with the cofactor (NAD+) and the inhibitor (azide ion) was established at 1.1 A resolution. The complex mimics the structure of the transition state of the enzymatic reaction. The structure was refined with anisotropic displacitalicents parameters for non-hydrogen atoms to a R factor of 13.4%. Most of the nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon atoms were distinguished based on the analysis of the titalicperature factors and electron density peaks, with the result that side-chain rotamers of histidine residues and most of asparagine and glutamine residues were unambiguously determined. A comparative analysis of the structure of the ternary complex determined at the atomic resolution and the structure of this complex at 1.95 A resolution was performed. In the atomic resolution structure, the covalent bonds in the nicotinamide group are somewhat changed in agreitalicent with the results of quantum mechanical calculations, providing evidence that the cofactor acquires a bipolar form in the transition state of the enzymatic reaction. PMID:22649619

  9. Sequence analysis of the inversion region containing the pilin genes of Moraxella bovis.

    PubMed

    Fulks, K A; Marrs, C F; Stevens, S P; Green, M R

    1990-01-01

    Moraxella bovis EPP63 is able to produce two antigenically distinct pili called Q and I pili (previously called beta and alpha pili). Hybridization studies have shown that the transition between the types is due to inversion of a 2.1-kilobase segment of chromosomal DNA. We present the sequence of a 4.1-kilobase region of cloned DNA spanning the entire inversion region in orientation 1 (Q pilin expressed). Comparison of this sequence with the sequence of the polymerase chain reaction-amplified genomic DNA from orientation 2 (I pilin expressed) allows the site-specific region of recombination to be localized to a 26-base-pair region in which sequence similarity to the left inverted repeat of the Salmonella typhimurium hin system was previously noted. In addition, 50% sequence similarity was seen in a 60-base-pair segment of our sequence to the recombinational enhancer of bacteriophage P1, an inversion system related to the hin system of S. typhimurium. Finally, two open reading frames representing potential genes were identified.

  10. The pathophysiological effects of Moraxella bovis toxins on cattle, mice and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Pugh, G W; Hughes, D E; Schulz, V D

    1973-01-01

    In three experiments, cattle, mice and guinea pigs were inoculated with viable cultures of Moraxella bovis or fractions of this organism. Fractions were obtained by disruption of cells with a fractionator at 20,000 pounds per square inch, and separating the cell wall and cell sap fractions by differential centrifugation. Cell sap fractions were further separated by ultra-centrifugation, heating and precipitation with (NH(4))(2) SO(4). Different fractions induced different pathophysiological manifestations. The cell wall fractions caused localized lesions (necrosis) at the site of injection, and emphysema and congestion of the lungs. Cell sap fractions induced a "shock syndrome," as well as hemorrhage and inflammation of the intestines, hemorrhage and congestion of lymph nodes, liver, adrenal and spleen. Cell sap also induced conjunctivitis in mice and guinea pigs, and periocular edema, myosis, ocular pruritus and lacrimation in cattle. The authors suggest that M. bovis probably produces endotoxins and exotoxins as well as possibly a specific oculopathic substance, but more definitive work is needed to confirm this. They caution that consideration of these toxins should be made in any application of M. bovis for vaccines or other immunological studies.

  11. Association of Moraxella ovis with keratoconjunctivitis in mule deer and moose in Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Dubay, S A; Williams, E S; Mills, K; Boerger-Fields, A M

    2000-04-01

    Six cases of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and moose (Alces alces) in Wyoming (USA) were investigated during fall and winter of 1995 and 1996. Excessive lacrimation, mucopurulent conjunctivitis, keratitis, and corneal opacity were observed in mule deer. Moose had severe mucopurulent conjunctivitis, keratitis, and corneal ulceration. Hemolytic, non-piliated Moraxella ovis was isolated from two mule deer and two moose. We attempted to reproduce IKC in three mule deer fawns using an isolate of M. ovis from a clinically affected mule deer. These fawns did not develop clinical signs of infection and the bacterium was not reisolated from inoculated deer. Inoculated deer may not have developed clinical signs because deer were not exposed to ultraviolet light or mechanical insult before inoculation. In addition, the isolate used for inoculation may have lost virulence factors through passage, or M. ovis may not have been the primary pathogen responsible for clinical disease in the natural cases of IKC we investigated. The etiology of IKC in free-ranging wild ruminants remains poorly understood.

  12. Large genomic differences between Moraxella bovoculi isolates acquired from the eyes of cattle with conjunctivitis versus the deep nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moraxella bovoculi is a recently described bacterium that is associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or "pinkeye" in cattle. In this study, closed circularized genomes were generated for seven M. bovoculi isolates: three that originated from the eyes of clinical IBK bovine case...

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Moraxella osloensis Strain KMC41, a Producer of 4-Methyl-3-Hexenoic Acid, a Major Malodor Compound in Laundry.

    PubMed

    Goto, Takatsugu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Morita, Yuji; Tomida, Junko; Sato, Jun; Matsumura, Yuta; Mitani, Asako; Niwano, Yu; Takeuchi, Kohei; Kubota, Hiromi; Kawamura, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Moraxella osloensis strain KMC41, isolated from laundry with malodor. The KMC41 genome comprises a 2,445,556-bp chromosome and three plasmids. A fatty acid desaturase and at least four β-oxidation-related genes putatively associated with 4-methyl-3-hexenoic acid generation were detected in the KMC41 chromosome. PMID:27445387

  14. Amino acid sequence homology between Piv, an essential protein in site-specific DNA inversion in Moraxella lacunata, and transposases of an unusual family of insertion elements.

    PubMed Central

    Lenich, A G; Glasgow, A C

    1994-01-01

    Deletion analysis of the subcloned DNA inversion region of Moraxella lacunata indicates that Piv is the only M. lacunata-encoded factor required for site-specific inversion of the tfpQ/tfpI pilin segment. The predicted amino acid sequence of Piv shows significant homology solely with the transposases/integrases of a family of insertion sequence elements, suggesting that Piv is a novel site-specific recombinase. Images PMID:8021196

  15. Development of the radiation-resistant strain of Moraxella osloensis and effect of penicillin G on its growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sangyong; Yun, Hyejeong; Joe, Minho; Kim, Dongho

    2009-07-01

    A series of repeated exposures to γ-radiation with intervening outgrowth of survivors was used to develop radioresistant cultures of Moraxella osloensis that have been recognized as potential pathogenic microorganism. The D10 value of the radiation-resistant strain, 5.903±0.006 kGy, was increased by four-fold compared to the parent wild-type strain, 1.637±0.004 kGy. Since most strains of M. osloensis are sensitive to penicillin, we have surveyed the sensitivity of radiation-resistant strain to this antibiotic. When the optical density was monitored after the addition of penicillin G, the radioresistant strain appeared to be more resistant to only a low concentration of penicillin G (0.5 U/ml) than the parent strain. Interestingly, however, there was no apparent difference in the number of viable cells between both strains. Scanning electron microscope data showed that the resistance cells were generally larger than the parent cells, suggesting that this increase in size may cause a higher optical density of radioresistant cells. In conclusion, radiation mutation does not affect the penicillin resistance of M. osloensis.

  16. Fermentation products of solvent tolerant marine bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and its biotechnological applications in salicylic acid bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Wahidullah, Solimabi; Naik, Deepak N; Devi, Prabha

    2013-01-01

    As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of various analgesics including aspirin. It is a common component of sewage effluent and also an intermediate in the degradation pathway of various aromatic compounds which are introduced in the marine environment as pollutants. In this study, biotransformation products of salicylic acid by seaweed, Bryopsis plumosa, associated marine bacterium, Moraxella spp. MB1, have been investigated. Phenol, conjugates of phenol and hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl, caffeoyl, feruloyl and trihydroxy cinnamyl) with salicylic acid (3-8) were identified as the bioconversion products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These results show that the microorganism do not degrade phenolic acid but catalyses oxygen dependent transformations without ring cleavage. The degradation of salicylic acid is known to proceed either via gentisic acid pathway or catechol pathway but this is the first report of biotransformation of salicylic acid into cinnamates, without ring cleavage. Besides cinnamic acid derivatives (9-12), metabolites produced by the bacterium include antimicrobial indole (13) and β-carbolines, norharman (14), harman (15) and methyl derivative (16), which are beneficial to the host and the environment. PMID:24391802

  17. Fermentation products of solvent tolerant marine bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and its biotechnological applications in salicylic acid bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Wahidullah, Solimabi; Naik, Deepak N; Devi, Prabha

    2013-01-01

    As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of various analgesics including aspirin. It is a common component of sewage effluent and also an intermediate in the degradation pathway of various aromatic compounds which are introduced in the marine environment as pollutants. In this study, biotransformation products of salicylic acid by seaweed, Bryopsis plumosa, associated marine bacterium, Moraxella spp. MB1, have been investigated. Phenol, conjugates of phenol and hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl, caffeoyl, feruloyl and trihydroxy cinnamyl) with salicylic acid (3-8) were identified as the bioconversion products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These results show that the microorganism do not degrade phenolic acid but catalyses oxygen dependent transformations without ring cleavage. The degradation of salicylic acid is known to proceed either via gentisic acid pathway or catechol pathway but this is the first report of biotransformation of salicylic acid into cinnamates, without ring cleavage. Besides cinnamic acid derivatives (9-12), metabolites produced by the bacterium include antimicrobial indole (13) and β-carbolines, norharman (14), harman (15) and methyl derivative (16), which are beneficial to the host and the environment.

  18. Fermentation Products of Solvent Tolerant Marine Bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and Its Biotechnological Applications in Salicylic Acid Bioconversion

    PubMed Central

    Wahidullah, Solimabi; Naik, Deepak N.; Devi, Prabha

    2013-01-01

    As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of various analgesics including aspirin. It is a common component of sewage effluent and also an intermediate in the degradation pathway of various aromatic compounds which are introduced in the marine environment as pollutants. In this study, biotransformation products of salicylic acid by seaweed, Bryopsis plumosa, associated marine bacterium, Moraxella spp. MB1, have been investigated. Phenol, conjugates of phenol and hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl, caffeoyl, feruloyl and trihydroxy cinnamyl) with salicylic acid (3–8) were identified as the bioconversion products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These results show that the microorganism do not degrade phenolic acid but catalyses oxygen dependent transformations without ring cleavage. The degradation of salicylic acid is known to proceed either via gentisic acid pathway or catechol pathway but this is the first report of biotransformation of salicylic acid into cinnamates, without ring cleavage. Besides cinnamic acid derivatives (9–12), metabolites produced by the bacterium include antimicrobial indole (13) and β-carbolines, norharman (14), harman (15) and methyl derivative (16), which are beneficial to the host and the environment. PMID:24391802

  19. Assessment of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J killing of Moraxella bovis in an in vitro model of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Boileau, Mélanie J; Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D; Iandolo, John J

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J as an alternative non-chemotherapeutic treatment of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). To accomplish this, various parameters of B. bacteriovorus predation of Moraxella bovis were determined in vitro. Initial passage of B. bacteriovorus using M. bovis as prey required 10 d for active cultures to develop compared with 2 d for culture on normal Escherichia coli prey; however by the 5th passage, time to active predatory morphology was reduced to 2 d. This high passage B. bacteriovorus culture [1 × 10(10) plaque forming units (PFU)/mL] killed 76% of M. bovis [1 × 10(7) colony forming units (CFU)/mL] present in suspension broth in a 4 h assay. The minimal level of M. bovis supporting B. bacteriovorus predation was 1 × 10(4) CFU/mL. To assess the ability of B. bacteriovorus to kill M. bovis on an epithelial surface mimicking IBK, an in vitro assay with Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells inoculated with 4 × 10(7) CFU/mL M. bovis was used. Treatment with a B. bacteriovorus suspension (1.6 × 10(11) PFU/mL) decreased adherence of M. bovis to MDBK cells by 6-fold at 12 h of treatment, as well as decreased the number of unattached M. bovis cells by 1.4-fold. This study demonstrates that B. bacteriovorus has potential as an effective biological control of M. bovis at levels likely present in IBK-infected corneal epithelia and ocular secretions.

  20. Moraxella lacunata infection associated with septicemia, endocarditis, and bilateral septic arthritis in a patient undergoing hemodialysis: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Asami; Yamanaka, Katsuo; Hayashi, Hiroki; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi

    2014-01-01

    We report the first case of both endocarditis and bilateral septic arthritis in a patient caused by Moraxella lacunata and successful management of the infection with antimicrobial therapy. The route of entry leading to bacteremia may have been the oral cavity given the poor oral hygiene of the patient as evidenced by bleeding gums. We hypothesize that the bacteremia led to septic arthritis and mitral valve infective endocarditis. In this case report, we also review the literature on M. lacunata infections and conclude that this organism should be considered in bilateral septic arthritis in a patient with underlying heart abnormalities and/or with renal failure.

  1. Large genomic differences between Moraxella bovoculi isolates acquired from the eyes of cattle with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis versus the deep nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Aaron M; Loy, John D; Bono, James L; Smith, Timothy P L; Apley, Mike D; Lubbers, Brian V; DeDonder, Keith D; Capik, Sarah F; Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J; Blom, Jochen; Chitko-McKown, Carol G; Clawson, Michael L

    2016-02-13

    Moraxella bovoculi is a recently described bacterium that is associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or "pinkeye" in cattle. In this study, closed circularized genomes were generated for seven M. bovoculi isolates: three that originated from the eyes of clinical IBK bovine cases and four from the deep nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle. Isolates that originated from the eyes of IBK cases profoundly differed from those that originated from the nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle in genome structure, gene content and polymorphism diversity and consequently placed into two distinct phylogenetic groups. These results suggest that there are genetically distinct strains of M. bovoculi that may not associate with IBK.

  2. Acquisition strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, M.J.; Lynch, P.W. )

    1993-11-01

    Acquiring projects takes careful planning, research and consideration. Picking the right opportunities and avoiding the pitfalls will lead to a more valuable portfolio. This article describes the steps to take in evaluating an acquisition and what items need to be considered in an evaluation.

  3. Development of real-time PCR assays for the detection of Moraxella macacae associated with bloody nose syndrome in rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Chris A.; Chase, Kitty; Embers, Monica E.; Kulesh, David A.; Ladner, Jason T.; Palacios, Gustavo F.; Minogue, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Moraxella macacae is a recently described bacterial pathogen that causes epistaxis or so-called bloody nose syndrome in captive macaques. The aim of this study was to develop specific molecular diagnostic assays for M. macacae and to determine their performance characteristics. Methods We developed six real-time PCR assays on the Roche LightCycler. The accuracy, precision, selectivity, and limit of detection (LOD) were determined for each assay, in addition to further validation by testing nasal swabs from macaques presenting with epistaxis at the Tulane National Primate Research Center. Results All assays exhibited 100% specificity and were highly sensitive with an LOD of 10 fg for chromosomal assays and 1 fg for the plasmid assay. Testing of nasal swabs from 10 symptomatic macaques confirmed the presence of M. macacae in these animals. Conclusions We developed several accurate, sensitive, and species-specific real-time PCR assays for the detection of M. macacae in captive macaques. PMID:26365904

  4. Gene organization and primary structure of human hormone-sensitive lipase: possible significance of a sequence homology with a lipase of Moraxella TA144, an antarctic bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Langin, D; Laurell, H; Holst, L S; Belfrage, P; Holm, C

    1993-01-01

    The human hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) gene encodes a 786-aa polypeptide (85.5 kDa). It is composed of nine exons spanning approximately 11 kb, with exons 2-5 clustered in a 1.1-kb region. The putative catalytic site (Ser423) and a possible lipid-binding region in the C-terminal part are encoded by exons 6 and 9, respectively. Exon 8 encodes the phosphorylation site (Ser551) that controls cAMP-mediated activity and a second site (Ser553) that is phosphorylated by 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase. Human HSL showed 83% identity with the rat enzyme and contained a 12-aa deletion immediately upstream of the phosphorylation sites with an unknown effect on the activity control. Besides the catalytic site motif (Gly-Xaa-Ser-Xaa-Gly) found in most lipases, HSL shows no homology with other known lipases or proteins, except for a recently reported unexpected homology between the region surrounding its catalytic site and that of the lipase 2 of Moraxella TA144, an antarctic psychrotrophic bacterium. The gene of lipase 2, which catalyses lipolysis below 4 degrees C, was absent in the genomic DNA of five other Moraxella strains living at 37 degrees C. The lipase 2-like sequence in HSL may reflect an evolutionarily conserved cold adaptability that might be of critical survival value when low-temperature-mobilized endogenous lipids are the primary energy source (e.g., in poikilotherms or hibernators). The finding that HSL at 10 degrees C retained 3- to 5-fold more of its 37 degrees C catalytic activity than lipoprotein lipase or carboxyl ester lipase is consistent with this hypothesis. Images Fig. 5 PMID:8506334

  5. Differentiation of Moraxella nonliquefaciens, M. lacunata, and M. bovis by using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and hybridization with pilin-specific DNA probes.

    PubMed Central

    Tønjum, T; Caugant, D A; Bøvre, K

    1992-01-01

    Genetic relationships among strains of Moraxella nonliquefaciens, M. lacunata, and M. bovis were studied by using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and DNA-DNA hybridization. The 74 isolates analyzed for electrophoretic variation at 12 enzyme loci were assigned to 59 multilocus genotypes. The multilocus genotypes were grouped in four major clusters, one representing strains of M. nonliquefaciens, two representing strains of M. lacunata, and one comprising strains of M. bovis and the single strain of M. equi analyzed. DNA-DNA hybridization with total genomic probes also revealed four major distinctive entities that corresponded to those identified by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. The two distinct clusters recognized among the M. lacunata strains apparently corresponded to the species previously designated M. lacunata and M. liquefaciens. Distinction of the four entities was improved by hybridization with polymerase chain reaction products of nonconserved parts of pilin genes as DNA probes. With these polymerase chain reaction probes, new isolates of M. nonliquefaciens, M. lacunata, M. liquefaciens, and M. bovis can be identified easily by hybridization. PMID:1452691

  6. Syntax acquisition.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several

  7. Syntax acquisition.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several

  8. Investigating Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordens, Peter, Ed.; Lalleman, Josine, Ed.

    Essays in second language acquisition include: "The State of the Art in Second Language Acquisition Research" (Josine Lalleman); "Crosslinguistic Influence with Special Reference to the Acquisition of Grammar" (Michael Sharwood Smith); "Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants: A Multiple Case Study of Turkish and Moroccan Learners of…

  9. Language Acquisition without an Acquisition Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William

    2012-01-01

    Most explanatory work on first and second language learning assumes the primacy of the acquisition phenomenon itself, and a good deal of work has been devoted to the search for an "acquisition device" that is specific to humans, and perhaps even to language. I will consider the possibility that this strategy is misguided and that language…

  10. FTMP data acquisition environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padilla, Peter A.

    1988-01-01

    The Fault-Tolerant Multi-Processing (FTMP) test-bed data acquisition environment is described. The performance of two data acquisition devices available in the test environment are estimated and compared. These estimated data rates are used as measures of the devices' capabilities. A new data acquisition device was developed and added to the FTMP environment. This path increases the data rate available by approximately a factor of 8, to 379 KW/S, while simplifying the experiment development process.

  11. Streamlined acquisition handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA has always placed great emphasis on the acquisition process, recognizing it as among its most important activities. This handbook is intended to facilitate the application of streamlined acquisition procedures. The development of these procedures reflects the efforts of an action group composed of NASA Headquarters and center acquisition professionals. It is the intent to accomplish the real change in the acquisition process as a result of this effort. An important part of streamlining the acquisition process is a commitment by the people involved in the process to accomplishing acquisition activities quickly and with high quality. Too often we continue to accomplish work in 'the same old way' without considering available alternatives which would require no changes to regulations, approvals from Headquarters, or waivers of required practice. Similarly, we must be sensitive to schedule opportunities throughout the acquisition cycle, not just once the purchase request arrives at the procurement office. Techniques that have been identified as ways of reducing acquisition lead time while maintaining high quality in our acquisition process are presented.

  12. Acquisition of teleological descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, David W.

    1992-03-01

    Teleology descriptions capture the purpose of an entity, mechanism, or activity with which they are associated. These descriptions can be used in explanation, diagnosis, and design reuse. We describe a technique for acquiring teleological descriptions expressed in the teleology language TeD. Acquisition occurs during design by observing design modifications and design verification. We demonstrate the acquisition technique in an electronic circuit design.

  13. Quick Ride: Acquisition Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. James

    1999-01-01

    Quick Ride is an outgrowth of rapid spacecraft acquisition. It provides a variety of low-cost, short lead time satellite rides for science instruments. Task order contracts with commercial firms will permit placing a order within 30 days. Secondary objectives include a demonstration of a FAR Part 12 commercial acquisition and the exploration of the use of on-ramps.

  14. STIS target acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraemer, Steve; Downes, Ron; Katsanis, Rocio; Crenshaw, Mike; McGrath, Melissa; Robinson, Rich

    1997-01-01

    We describe the STIS autonomous target acquisition capabilities. We also present the results of dedicated tests executed as part of Cycle 7 calibration, following post-launch improvements to the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) flight software. The residual pointing error from the acquisitions are < 0.5 CCD pixels, which is better than preflight estimates. Execution of peakups show clear improvement of target centering for slits of width 0.1 sec or smaller. These results may be used by Guest Observers in planning target acquisitions for their STIS programs.

  15. Interactive knowledge acquisition tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudziak, Martin J.; Feinstein, Jerald L.

    1987-01-01

    The problems of designing practical tools to aid the knowledge engineer and general applications used in performing knowledge acquisition tasks are discussed. A particular approach was developed for the class of knowledge acquisition problem characterized by situations where acquisition and transformation of domain expertise are often bottlenecks in systems development. An explanation is given on how the tool and underlying software engineering principles can be extended to provide a flexible set of tools that allow the application specialist to build highly customized knowledge-based applications.

  16. Acquisition signal transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton L. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An encoded information transmitter which transmits a radio frequency carrier that is amplitude modulated by a constant frequency waveform and thereafter amplitude modulated by a predetermined encoded waveform, the constant frequency waveform modulated carrier constituting an acquisition signal and the encoded waveform modulated carrier constituting an information bearing signal, the acquisition signal providing enhanced signal acquisition and interference rejection favoring the information bearing signal. One specific application for this transmitter is as a distress transmitter where a conventional, legislated audio tone modulated signal is transmitted followed first by the acquisition signal and then the information bearing signal, the information bearing signal being encoded with, among other things, vehicle identification data. The acquistion signal enables a receiver to acquire the information bearing signal where the received signal is low and/or where the received signal has a low signal-to-noise ratio in an environment where there are multiple signals in the same frequency band as the information bearing signal.

  17. Defense acquisition programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The continuing instability in the overall defense budget and the recent changes in Eastern Europe are forcing DOD and the military services to reexamine the need, priority, and annual funding levels for many weapon system acquisition programs. GAO reviewed six weapon system acquisition programs that DOD was scheduled to make an acquisition milestone decision on during fiscal year 1991. Under milestone authorization, up to five years funding can be approved to cover the entire acquisition phase for either full-scale development or full-rate production. This report examines the Non-Line-of-Sight Missile, the Light Helicopter, the MK-50 Torpedo, the Sensor Fuzed Weapon, the Advanced Tactical Fighter, and the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System Class 2 Terminals.

  18. Documentation and knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel; Moseley, Warren

    1990-01-01

    Traditional approaches to knowledge acquisition have focused on interviews. An alternative focuses on the documentation associated with a domain. Adopting a documentation approach provides some advantages during familiarization. A knowledge management tool was constructed to gain these advantages.

  19. Airborne data acquisition techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Arro, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The introduction of standards on acceptable procedures for assessing building heat loss has created a dilemma for the contractor performing airborne thermographic surveys. These standards impose specifications on instrumentation, data acquisition, recording, interpretation, and presentation. Under the standard, the contractor has both the obligation of compliance and the requirement of offering his services at a reasonable price. This paper discusses the various aspects of data acquisition for airborne thermographic surveys and various techniques to reduce the costs of this operation. These techniques include the calculation of flight parameters for economical data acquisition, the selection and use of maps for mission planning, and the use of meteorological forecasts for flight scheduling and the actual execution of the mission. The proper consideration of these factors will result in a cost effective data acquisition and will place the contractor in a very competitive position in offering airborne thermographic survey services.

  20. Data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Stephen L.; Mani, Sudhindra; Atlas, Eugene L.; Cords, Dieter H. W.; Holbrook, Britt

    1997-01-01

    A data acquisition circuit for a particle detection system that allows for time tagging of particles detected by the system. The particle detection system screens out background noise and discriminate between hits from scattered and unscattered particles. The detection system can also be adapted to detect a wide variety of particle types. The detection system utilizes a particle detection pixel array, each pixel containing a back-biased PIN diode, and a data acquisition pixel array. Each pixel in the particle detection pixel array is in electrical contact with a pixel in the data acquisition pixel array. In response to a particle hit, the affected PIN diodes generate a current, which is detected by the corresponding data acquisition pixels. This current is integrated to produce a voltage across a capacitor, the voltage being related to the amount of energy deposited in the pixel by the particle. The current is also used to trigger a read of the pixel hit by the particle.

  1. Multi-echo acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Posse, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development of fMRI was paralleled early on by the adaptation of MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) methods to quantify water relaxation changes during brain activation. This review describes the evolution of multi-echo acquisition from high-speed MRSI to multi-echo EPI and beyond. It highlights milestones in the development of multi-echo acquisition methods, such as the discovery of considerable gains in fMRI sensitivity when combining echo images, advances in quantification of the BOLD effect using analytical biophysical modeling and interleaved multi-region shimming. The review conveys the insight gained from combining fMRI and MRSI methods and concludes with recent trends in ultra-fast fMRI, which will significantly increase temporal resolution of multi-echo acquisition. PMID:22056458

  2. Merger and acquisition medicine.

    PubMed

    Powell, G S

    1997-01-01

    This discussion of the ramifications of corporate mergers and acquisitions for employees recognizes that employee adaptation to the change can be a long and complex process. The author describes a role the occupational physician can take in helping to minimize the potential adverse health impact of major organizational change.

  3. Acquisitions List No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The "Acquisitions List" of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  4. Acquisitions List No. 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The "Acquisitions List" of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  5. First Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Eve V.

    This book examines children's acquisition of a first language, the stages they go through, and how they use language as they learn. There are 16 chapters in 4 parts. After chapter 1, "Acquiring Languages: Issues and Questions," Part 1, "Getting Started," offers (2) "In Conversation with Children," (3) "Starting on Language: Perception," (4) "Early…

  6. Telecommunications and data acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations is reported. In addition, developments in Earth based radio technology as applied to geodynamics, astrophysics, and the radio search for extraterrestrial intelligence are reported.

  7. [Acquisition of arithmetic knowledge].

    PubMed

    Fayol, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on contemporary research on the number counting and arithmetical competencies that emerge during infancy, the preschool years, and the elementary school. I provide a brief overview of the evolution of children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic knowledge, the acquisition and use of counting and how they solve simple arithmetic problems (e.g. 4 + 3). PMID:18198117

  8. Acquisition of Comparison Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohaus, Vera; Tiemann, Sonja; Beck, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study on the time course of the acquisition of comparison constructions. The order in which comparison constructions (comparatives, measure phrases, superlatives, degree questions, etc.) show up in English- and German-learning children's spontaneous speech is quite fixed. It is shown to be insufficiently determined by…

  9. Data Acquisition Backend

    SciTech Connect

    Britton Jr., Charles L.; Ezell, N. Dianne Bull; Roberts, Michael

    2013-10-01

    This document is intended to summarize the development and testing of the data acquisition module portion of the Johnson Noise Thermometry (JNT) system developed at ORNL. The proposed system has been presented in an earlier report [1]. A more extensive project background including the project rationale is available in the initial project report [2].

  10. Image Acquisition Context

    PubMed Central

    Bidgood, W. Dean; Bray, Bruce; Brown, Nicolas; Mori, Angelo Rossi; Spackman, Kent A.; Golichowski, Alan; Jones, Robert H.; Korman, Louis; Dove, Brent; Hildebrand, Lloyd; Berg, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To support clinically relevant indexing of biomedical images and image-related information based on the attributes of image acquisition procedures and the judgments (observations) expressed by observers in the process of image interpretation. Design: The authors introduce the notion of “image acquisition context,” the set of attributes that describe image acquisition procedures, and present a standards-based strategy for utilizing the attributes of image acquisition context as indexing and retrieval keys for digital image libraries. Methods: The authors' indexing strategy is based on an interdependent message/terminology architecture that combines the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) standard, the SNOMED (Systematized Nomenclature of Human and Veterinary Medicine) vocabulary, and the SNOMED DICOM microglossary. The SNOMED DICOM microglossary provides context-dependent mapping of terminology to DICOM data elements. Results: The capability of embedding standard coded descriptors in DICOM image headers and image-interpretation reports improves the potential for selective retrieval of image-related information. This favorably affects information management in digital libraries. PMID:9925229

  11. Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Barry; Harrington, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A distinction is drawn between representational and processing models of second-language acquisition. The first approach is derived primarily from linguistics, the second from psychology. Both fields, it is argued, need to collaborate more fully, overcoming disciplinary narrowness in order to achieve more fruitful research. (GLR)

  12. Coordinating Council. Seventh Meeting: Acquisitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The theme for this NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program Coordinating Council meeting was Acquisitions. In addition to NASA and the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI) presentations, the report contains fairly lengthy visuals about acquisitions at the Defense Technical Information Center. CASI's acquisitions program and CASI's proactive acquisitions activity were described. There was a presentation on the document evaluation process at CASI. A talk about open literature scope and coverage at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics was also given. An overview of the STI Program's Acquisitions Experts Committee was given next. Finally acquisitions initiatives of the NASA STI program were presented.

  13. 78 FR 37164 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... the full address. In proposed rule FR Doc. 2013-12708, published in the issue of May 29, 2013, make...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions...

  14. Activity of Faropenem against Middle Ear Fluid Pathogens from Children with Acute Otitis Media in Costa Rica and Israel▿

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Kimberley Clawson; Dagan, Ron; Arguedas, Adriano; Leibovitz, Eugene; Wang, Elaine; Echols, Roger M.; Janjic, Nebojsa; Critchley, Ian A.

    2007-01-01

    Faropenem was tested against 1,188 middle ear fluid pathogens from children in Israel and Costa Rica. Against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, faropenem was the most active β-lactam, with activity that was similar to or greater than of the other oral antimicrobial classes studied. Faropenem was also active against Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pyogenes. PMID:17387157

  15. Activity of faropenem against middle ear fluid pathogens from children with acute otitis media in Costa Rica and Israel.

    PubMed

    Stone, Kimberley Clawson; Dagan, Ron; Arguedas, Adriano; Leibovitz, Eugene; Wang, Elaine; Echols, Roger M; Janjic, Nebojsa; Critchley, Ian A

    2007-06-01

    Faropenem was tested against 1,188 middle ear fluid pathogens from children in Israel and Costa Rica. Against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, faropenem was the most active beta-lactam, with activity that was similar to or greater than of the other oral antimicrobial classes studied. Faropenem was also active against Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pyogenes. PMID:17387157

  16. Haemophilus influenzae isolates survive for up to 20 years at -70 °C in skim milk tryptone glucose glycerol broth (STGGB) if thawing is avoided during re-culture.

    PubMed

    Hare, K M; Smith-Vaughan, H C; Beissbarth, J; Leach, A J

    2015-12-01

    Haemophilus influenzae remains a major cause of disease worldwide requiring continued study. Recently, isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis, but not H. influenzae, were reported to survive long-term ultra-freeze storage in STGGB. We show that nontypeable H. influenzae isolates survive for up to 20 years when thawing is avoided.

  17. Swab transport in Amies gel followed by frozen storage in skim milk tryptone glucose glycerol broth (STGGB) for studies of respiratory bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Hare, Kim M; Stubbs, Elizabeth; Beissbarth, Jemima; Morris, Peter Stanley; Leach, Amanda J

    2010-06-01

    Nasopharyngeal carriage studies are needed to monitor changes in important bacterial pathogens in response to vaccination and antibiotics. Commercial swab transport followed by transfer to skim milk tryptone glucose glycerol broth for frozen storage is an option for studies of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis.

  18. 33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar operations center (PAROC), contains the tactical command and control group equipment required to control the par site. Showing spacetrack monitor console - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  19. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  20. Advanced Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, J.

    2003-01-01

    Current and future requirements of the aerospace sensors and transducers field make it necessary for the design and development of new data acquisition devices and instrumentation systems. New designs are sought to incorporate self-health, self-calibrating, self-repair capabilities, allowing greater measurement reliability and extended calibration cycles. With the addition of power management schemes, state-of-the-art data acquisition systems allow data to be processed and presented to the users with increased efficiency and accuracy. The design architecture presented in this paper displays an innovative approach to data acquisition systems. The design incorporates: electronic health self-check, device/system self-calibration, electronics and function self-repair, failure detection and prediction, and power management (reduced power consumption). These requirements are driven by the aerospace industry need to reduce operations and maintenance costs, to accelerate processing time and to provide reliable hardware with minimum costs. The project's design architecture incorporates some commercially available components identified during the market research investigation like: Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) Programmable Analog Integrated Circuits (PAC IC) and Field Programmable Analog Arrays (FPAA); Digital Signal Processing (DSP) electronic/system control and investigation of specific characteristics found in technologies like: Electronic Component Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF); and Radiation Hardened Component Availability. There are three main sections discussed in the design architecture presented in this document. They are the following: (a) Analog Signal Module Section, (b) Digital Signal/Control Module Section and (c) Power Management Module Section. These sections are discussed in detail in the following pages. This approach to data acquisition systems has resulted in the assignment of patent rights to Kennedy Space Center under U.S. patent # 6

  1. Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Technology developed during a joint research program with Langley and Kinetic Systems Corporation led to Kinetic Systems' production of a high speed Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) data acquisition system. The study, which involved the use of CAMAC equipment applied to flight simulation, significantly improved the company's technical capability and produced new applications. With Digital Equipment Corporation, Kinetic Systems is marketing the system to government and private companies for flight simulation, fusion research, turbine testing, steelmaking, etc.

  2. First Language Acquisition and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena

    2011-01-01

    "First language acquisition" commonly means the acquisition of a single language in childhood, regardless of the number of languages in a child's natural environment. Language acquisition is variously viewed as predetermined, wondrous, a source of concern, and as developing through formal processes. "First language teaching" concerns schooling in…

  3. Complexity in language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2013-01-01

    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form.

  4. Second language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Juffs, Alan

    2011-05-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) is a field that investigates child and adult SLA from a variety of theoretical perspectives. This article provides a survey of some key areas of concern including formal generative theory and emergentist theory in the areas of morpho-syntax and phonology. The review details the theoretical stance of the two different approaches to the nature of language: generative linguistics and general cognitive approaches. Some results of key acquisition studies from the two theoretical frameworks are discussed. From a generative perspective, constraints on wh-movement, feature geometry and syllable structure, and morphological development are highlighted. From a general cognitive point of view, the emergence of tense and aspect marking from a prototype account of inherent lexical aspect is reviewed. Reference is made to general cognitive learning theories and to sociocultural theory. The article also reviews individual differences research, specifically debate on the critical period in adult language acquisition, motivation, and memory. Finally, the article discusses the relationship between SLA research and second language pedagogy. Suggestions for further reading from recent handbooks on SLA are provided. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 277-286 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.106 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  5. 75 FR 51416 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisition of Commercial Items

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 202, 212, and 234 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisition of Commercial Items AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... interim rule that amended the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to...

  6. Smart Acquisition EELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sader, K.; Schaffer, B.; Vaughan, G.; Wang, P.; Bleloch, A. L.; Brydson, R.; Brown, A.

    2010-07-01

    Electron energy loss (EEL) spectroscopy and high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging in aberration-corrected electron microscopes are powerful techniques to determine the chemical composition and structure of materials at atomic resolution. We have implemented Smart Acquisition, a flexible system of scanning transmission electron microsocpy (STEM) beam position control and EELS collection, on two aberration-corrected dedicated cold field emission gun (FEG) STEMs located at SuperSTEM, Daresbury Laboratory. This allows the collection of EEL spectra from spatially defined areas with a much lower electron dose possible than existing techniques such as spectrum imaging.

  7. Late Mitochondrial Acquisition, Really?

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timely critique of a recent Nature paper by Pittis and Gabaldón that has suggested a late origin of mitochondria in eukaryote evolution. It shows that the inferred ancestry of many mitochondrial proteins has been incorrectly assigned by Pittis and Gabaldón to bacteria other than the aerobic proteobacteria from which the ancestor of mitochondria originates, thereby questioning the validity of their suggestion that mitochondrial acquisition may be a late event in eukaryote evolution. The analysis and approach presented here may guide future studies to resolve the true ancestry of mitochondria. PMID:27289097

  8. HYPERCP data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.M.; Luebke, W.R.; Chakravorty, A.

    1997-12-31

    For the HyperCP experiment at Fermilab, we have assembled a data acquisition system that records on up to 45 Exabyte 8505 tape drives in parallel at up to 17 MB/s. During the beam spill, data axe acquired from the front-end digitization systems at {approx} 60 MB/s via five parallel data paths. The front-end systems achieve typical readout deadtime of {approx} 1 {mu}s per event, allowing operation at 75-kHz trigger rate with {approx_lt}30% deadtime. Event building and tapewriting are handled by 15 Motorola MVME167 processors in 5 VME crates.

  9. Data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, David T.

    1979-01-01

    A data acquisition system capable of resolving transient pulses in the subnanosecond range. A pulse in an information carrying medium such as light is transmitted through means which disperse the pulse, such as a fiber optic light guide which time-stretches optical pulses by chromatic dispersion. This time-stretched pulse is used as a sampling pulse and is modulated by the signal to be recorded. The modulated pulse may be further time-stretched prior to being recorded. The recorded modulated pulse is unfolded to derive the transient signal by utilizing the relationship of the time-stretching that occurred in the original pulse.

  10. Acquisition-Management Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, Don E.; Vann, A. Vernon; Jones, Richard H.; Rew, William E.

    1987-01-01

    NASA Acquisition Management Subsystem (AMS) program integrated NASA-wide standard automated-procurement-system program developed in 1985. Designed to provide each NASA installation with procurement data-base concept with on-line terminals for managing, tracking, reporting, and controlling contractual actions and associated procurement data. Subsystem provides control, status, and reporting for various procurement areas. Purpose of standardization is to decrease costs of procurement and operation of automatic data processing; increases procurement productivity; furnishes accurate, on-line management information and improves customer support. Written in the ADABAS NATURAL.

  11. First language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Goodluck, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews current approaches to first language acquisition, arguing in favor of the theory that attributes to the child an innate knowledge of universal grammar. Such knowledge can accommodate the systematic nature of children's non-adult linguistic behaviors. The relationships between performance devices (mechanisms for comprehension and production of speech), non-linguistic aspects of cognition, and child grammars are also discussed. WIREs Cogn Sci 2011 2 47-54 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.95 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  12. 48 CFR 18.113 - Interagency acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interagency acquisitions. 18.113 Section 18.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities...

  13. 48 CFR 18.113 - Interagency acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interagency acquisitions. 18.113 Section 18.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities...

  14. 48 CFR 18.113 - Interagency acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interagency acquisitions. 18.113 Section 18.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities...

  15. 48 CFR 18.113 - Interagency acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interagency acquisitions. 18.113 Section 18.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities...

  16. 48 CFR 1034.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... “lock in”. (b) The acquisition strategy shall be approved by a chartered interdisciplinary acquisition... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 1034... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 1034.004 Acquisition strategy. (a) A...

  17. 48 CFR 1034.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... “lock in”. (b) The acquisition strategy shall be approved by a chartered interdisciplinary acquisition... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 1034... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 1034.004 Acquisition strategy. (a) A...

  18. Data-acquisition systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cyborski, D.R.; Teh, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    Up to now, DAPHNE, the data-acquisition system developed for ATLAS, was used routinely for experiments at ATLAS and the Dynamitron. More recently, the Division implemented 2 MSU/DAPHNE systems. The MSU/DAPHNE system is a hybrid data-acquisition system which combines the front-end of the Michigan State University (MSU) DA system with the traditional DAPHNE back-end. The MSU front-end is based on commercially available modules. This alleviates the problems encountered with the DAPHNE front-end which is based on custom designed electronics. The first MSU system was obtained for the APEX experiment and was used there successfully. A second MSU front-end, purchased as a backup for the APEX experiment, was installed as a fully-independent second MSU/DAPHNE system with the procurement of a DEC 3000 Alpha host computer, and was used successfully for data-taking in an experiment at ATLAS. Additional hardware for a third system was bought and will be installed. With the availability of 2 MSU/DAPHNE systems in addition to the existing APEX setup, it is planned that the existing DAPHNE front-end will be decommissioned.

  19. Unsupervised Language Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Marcken, Carl

    1996-11-01

    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unsegmented text and continuous speech, and mappings between sound and representations of meaning. It performs extremely well on various objective criteria, acquiring knowledge that causes it to assign almost exactly the same structure to utterances as humans do. This work has application to data compression, language modeling, speech recognition, machine translation, information retrieval, and other tasks that rely on either structural or stochastic descriptions of language.

  20. SNAP: Simulating New Acquisition Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfeld, Louis E.

    1997-01-01

    Simulation models of acquisition processes range in scope from isolated applications to the 'Big Picture' captured by SNAP technology. SNAP integrates a family of models to portray the full scope of acquisition planning and management activities, including budgeting, scheduling, testing and risk analysis. SNAP replicates the dynamic management processes that underlie design, production and life-cycle support. SNAP provides the unique 'Big Picture' capability needed to simulate the entire acquisition process and explore the 'what-if' tradeoffs and consequences of alternative policies and decisions. Comparison of cost, schedule and performance tradeoffs help managers choose the lowest-risk, highest payoff at each step in the acquisition process.

  1. Plasmid acquisition in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juergensmeyer, Margaret A.; Juergensmeyer, Elizabeth A.; Guikema, James A.

    1995-01-01

    In microgravity, bacteria often show an increased resistance to antibiotics. Bacteria can develop resistance to an antibiotic after transformation, the acquisition of DNA, usually in the form of a plasmid containing a gene for resistance to one or more antibiotics. In order to study the capacity of bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics in microgravity, we have modified the standard protocol for transformation of Escherichia coli for use in the NASA-flight-certified hardware package, The Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA). Here we report on the ability of E. coli to remain competent for long periods of time at temperatures that are readily available on the Space Shuttle, and present some preliminary flight results.

  2. Silicon tracker data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    Large particle physics experiments are making increasing technological demands on the design and implementation of real-time data acquisition systems. The LHC will have bunch crossing intervals of 25 nanoseconds and detectors, such as CMS, will contain over 10 million electronic channels. Readout systems will need to cope with 100 kHz rates of 1 MByte-sized events. Over 70% of this voluminous flow will stem from silicon tracker and MSGC devices. This paper describes the techniques currently being harnessed from ASIC devices through to modular microprocessor-based architectures around standards such as VMEbus and PCI. In particular, the experiences gained at the HERA H1 experiment are highlighted where many of the key technological concepts have already been im implemented.

  3. DSPS in data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, M.; Haeupke, T.; Oelschlaeger, R.; Struck, B.

    1997-12-31

    Off-the-shelf and customized DSP boards in different bus architectures are perfectly suited to act as building blocks for flexible and high performance data acquisition systems. Due to their architecture they can be used to enhance the performance of existing equipment as add ons, as state-of-the-art readout controllers, event builders, on-the-fly data formatters and higher level trigger processors. Applications covering the above mentioned fields with Motorolas 96002 HARC DSP in the DESY HERMES and H1 experiments, at the focal plane polarimeter at KVI and the NIST high flux neutron backscattering spectrometer will be presented. Future possibilities with VME, PCI and PMC boards based on Analog Devices SHARC DSP will be discussed. Systems on the base of Texas Instruments TMS320C6X promise to provide unprecedented performance.

  4. AIROscope stellar acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deboo, G. J.; Parra, G. T.; Hedlund, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The acquisition system which operates in conjunction with a balloon-borne TV system, boresighted to a telescope is described. It has two main functions, a star field monitor and an offset star tracker. The design of the system was strongly influenced by the TV camera, which uses the same interlaced scanning system as is employed in commercial television broadcasting. To reduce power and bandwidth requirements, the star field information transmitted in our system consists only of the horizontal and vertical coordinates of each star and its brightness. As a star field monitor the system provides video thresholding, camera blemish suppression, coordinate digitization in 3 axes, circuity to recognize as single star the dispersed video signals resulting from one star overlapping adjacent scanning lines and storage of all signals for readout by the telemetry at appropriate times.

  5. Theories of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Vetter, H J; Howell, R W

    1971-03-01

    Prior to the advent of generative grammar, theoretical approaches to language development relied heavily upon the concepts ofdifferential reinforcement andimitation. Current studies of linguistic acquisition are largely dominated by the hypothesis that the child constructs his language on the basis of a primitive grammar which gradually evolves into a more complex grammar. This approach presupposes that the investigator does not impose his own grammatical rules on the utterances of the child; that the sound system of the child and the rules he employs to form sentences are to be described in their own terms, independently of the model provided by the adult linguistic community; and that there is a series of steps or stages through which the child passes on his way toward mastery of the adult grammar in his linguistic environment. This paper attempts to trace the development of human vocalization through prelinguistic stages to the development of what can be clearly recognized as language behavior, and then progresses to transitional phases in which the language of the child begins to approximate that of the adult model. In the view of the authors, the most challenging problems which confront theories of linguistic acquisition arise in seeking to account for structure of sound sequences, in the rules that enable the speaker to go from meaning to sound and which enable the listener to go from sound to meaning. The principal area of concern for the investigator, according to the authors, is the discovery of those rules at various stages of the learning process. The paper concludes with a return to the question of what constitutes an adequate theory of language ontogenesis. It is suggested that such a theory will have to be keyed to theories of cognitive development and will have to include and go beyond a theory which accounts for adult language competence and performance, since these represent only the terminal stage of linguistic ontogenesis.

  6. 78 FR 49990 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...: Comments on the proposed rule published May 29, 2013 (78 FR 32214) must be received by September 3, 2013... 25 CFR 151.12 (78 FR 32214). The proposed rule would remove procedural requirements that are no...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions...

  7. Lexical Acquisition and Acquisition of Initial Voiceless Stops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Ann A.; Edwards, Mary Louise

    1993-01-01

    Interaction between lexical acquisition and acquisition of initial voiceless stops (VSs) was studied in two normally developing children by acoustically examining token-by-token accuracy of initial VS targets in different lexical items. Tokens representing the emergence of accurate VS production were restricted to certain words, largely old words…

  8. New online signature acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulefki, Adel; Mostefai, Messaoud; Abbadi, Belkacem; Djebrani, Samira; Bouziane, Abderraouf; Chahir, Youssef

    2013-01-01

    We present a nonconstraining and low-cost online signature acquisition system that has been developed to enhance the performances of an existing multimodal biometric authentication system (based initially on both voice and image modalities). A laboratory prototype has been developed and validated for an online signature acquisition.

  9. Language Acquisition, Pidgins and Creoles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wode, Henning

    1981-01-01

    Suggests that structural universals between different-based pidgins result from universal linguo-cognitive processing strategies which are employed in learning languages. Some of the strategies occur in all types of acquisition, and others are more applicable to L2 type acquisition. Past research is discussed, and some exemplary data are given.…

  10. Handbook of Child Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, William C., Ed.; Bhatia, Tej K., Ed.

    This volume provides a comprehensive overview of the major areas of research in the field of child language acquisition. It is divided into seven parts and 19 chapters. Part I is an introduction and overview. Part II covers central issues in the study of child language acquisition, focusing on syntax, including those of innateness, maturation, and…

  11. Knowledge Acquisition in Observational Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosniadou, Stella

    This paper presents findings from research on knowledge acquisition in observational astronomy to demonstrate the kinds of intuitive models children form and to show how these models influence the acquisition of science knowledge. Sixty children of approximate ages 6, 9, and 12 were given a questionnaire to investigate their knowledge of the size,…

  12. 48 CFR 304.7001 - Numbering acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Numbering acquisitions. 304.7001 Section 304.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Acquisition Instrument Identification Numbering System 304.7001 Numbering acquisitions....

  13. 48 CFR 434.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 434.004 Section 434.004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 434.004 Acquisition strategy. (a) The...

  14. 48 CFR 1034.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 1034... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 1034.004 Acquisition strategy. (a) A program manager's acquisition strategy written at the system or investment level in accordance with FAR...

  15. 48 CFR 3034.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Acquisition strategy. See (HSAR) 48 CFR 3009.570 for policy applicable to acquisition strategies that consider... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 3034.004 Section 3034.004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY,...

  16. 48 CFR 234.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 234..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION 234.004 Acquisition strategy. (1) See 209.570 for policy applicable to acquisition strategies that consider the use of lead...

  17. 48 CFR 234.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 234..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION 234.004 Acquisition strategy. (1) See 209.570 for policy applicable to acquisition strategies that consider the use of lead...

  18. 48 CFR 34.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 34... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.004 Acquisition strategy. The program manager, as specified in agency procedures, shall develop an acquisition strategy tailored to the...

  19. 48 CFR 3034.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Acquisition strategy. See (HSAR) 48 CFR 3009.570 for policy applicable to acquisition strategies that consider... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 3034.004 Section 3034.004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY,...

  20. 48 CFR 34.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 34... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.004 Acquisition strategy. The program manager, as specified in agency procedures, shall develop an acquisition strategy tailored to the...

  1. Ocean Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.; Cavanaugh, J.; Smith, J.; Esaias, W.

    1988-01-01

    The Ocean Data Acquisition System (ODAS) is a low cost instrument with potential commercial application. It is easily mounted on a small aircraft and flown over the coastal zone ocean to remotely measure sea surface temperature and three channels of ocean color information. From this data, chlorophyll levels can be derived for use by ocean scientists, fisheries, and environmental offices. Data can be transmitted to shipboard for real-time use with sea truth measurements, ocean productivity estimates and fishing fleet direction. The aircraft portion of the system has two primary instruments: an IR radiometer to measure sea surface temperature and a three channel visible spectro-radiometer for 460, 490, and 520 nm wavelength measurements from which chlorophyll concentration can be derived. The aircraft package contains a LORAN-C unit for aircraft location information, clock, on-board data processor and formatter, digital data storage, packet radio terminal controller, and radio transceiver for data transmission to a ship. The shipboard package contains a transceiver, packet terminal controller, data processing and storage capability, and printer. Both raw data and chlorophyll concentrations are available for real-time analysis.

  2. The acquisition of polysynthesis.

    PubMed

    Mithun, M

    1989-06-01

    Polysynthetic languages can present special extraction puzzles to children, due to the length of their words. A number of hypotheses concerning children's strategies for acquiring morphology, originally proposed on the basis of their approaches to somewhat simpler systems, are confirmed by observations of five children acquiring Mohawk. Among the Mohawk children, the earliest segmentation of words was phonological rather than morphological: stressed syllables, usually penultimate or antepenultimate, were extracted first. Ultimate syllables were then added, confirming the salience of the ends of words. During this time, distinctions expressed by adults in affixes were either omitted or expressed analytically. Acquisition then moved leftward by syllables. When most utterances were long enough to include pronominal prefixes as well as roots, morphological structure was apparently discovered. It is not surprising that the pronouns should trigger this awareness, since they are frequent, appearing with every verb and most nouns, they are functional, and they are semantically transparent. From this point on, the children acquired affixes primarily according to their utility and semantic transparency rather than their phonological shape or position. PMID:2760128

  3. 48 CFR 873.105 - Acquisition planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... equipment or space, where the acquisition is expected to exceed the simplified acquisition threshold (SAT... particular acquisition expected to exceed the SAT. The team should consist of a mix of staff, appropriate...

  4. 48 CFR 873.105 - Acquisition planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... equipment or space, where the acquisition is expected to exceed the simplified acquisition threshold (SAT... particular acquisition expected to exceed the SAT. The team should consist of a mix of staff, appropriate...

  5. 32 CFR 644.88 - Other acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... District Engineer, pursuant to 43 CFR part 295, as soon as a real estate directive is issued. (i) If use... HANDBOOK Acquisition Acquisition by Purchase, Donation, and Transfer § 644.88 Other acquisition....

  6. Automated ship image acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, T. R.

    2008-04-01

    The experimental Automated Ship Image Acquisition System (ASIA) collects high-resolution ship photographs at a shore-based laboratory, with minimal human intervention. The system uses Automatic Identification System (AIS) data to direct a high-resolution SLR digital camera to ship targets and to identify the ships in the resulting photographs. The photo database is then searchable using the rich data fields from AIS, which include the name, type, call sign and various vessel identification numbers. The high-resolution images from ASIA are intended to provide information that can corroborate AIS reports (e.g., extract identification from the name on the hull) or provide information that has been omitted from the AIS reports (e.g., missing or incorrect hull dimensions, cargo, etc). Once assembled into a searchable image database, the images can be used for a wide variety of marine safety and security applications. This paper documents the author's experience with the practicality of composing photographs based on AIS reports alone, describing a number of ways in which this can go wrong, from errors in the AIS reports, to fixed and mobile obstructions and multiple ships in the shot. The frequency with which various errors occurred in automatically-composed photographs collected in Halifax harbour in winter time were determined by manual examination of the images. 45% of the images examined were considered of a quality sufficient to read identification markings, numbers and text off the entire ship. One of the main technical challenges for ASIA lies in automatically differentiating good and bad photographs, so that few bad ones would be shown to human users. Initial attempts at automatic photo rating showed 75% agreement with manual assessments.

  7. Neurophysiological preconditions of syntax acquisition.

    PubMed

    Friederici, Angela D; Oberecker, Regine; Brauer, Jens

    2012-03-01

    Although the neural network for language processing in the adult brain is well specified, the neural underpinning of language acquisition is still underdetermined. Here, we define the milestones of syntax acquisition and discuss the possible neurophysiological preconditions thereof. Early language learning seems to be based on the bilateral temporal cortices. Subsequent syntax acquisition apparently primarily recruits a neural network involving the left frontal cortex and the temporal cortex connected by a ventrally located fiber system. The late developing ability to comprehend syntactically complex sentences appears to require a neural network that connects Broca's area to the left posterior temporal cortex via a dorsally located fiber pathway. Thus, acquisition of syntax requires the maturation of fiber bundles connecting the classical language-relevant brain regions. PMID:21706312

  8. Microcomputer Acquisition Standards and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wold, Geoffrey H.

    1987-01-01

    Increased use of microcomputers in schools can be implemented more effectively when management develops acquisitions standards and controls. Technical standards as well as operational and documentation standards are outlined. (MLF)

  9. STIS Target Acquisitions During SMOV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsanis, Rocio M.; Downes, Ron; Hartig, George; Kraemer, Steve

    1997-07-01

    We summarize the first results on the analysis of in-flight STIS target acquisition (ACQ and ACQ/PEAK). These results show that the STIS target acquisition (ACQ) is working very accurately for point sources (within 0.5 pixels = 0.025 arcseconds), about 4 times better than specified in the Instrument Handbook. As a result of the accuracy of the ACQ algorithm, we are no longer recommending to perform ACQ/PEAKs for the 0.2 arcsecond wide slits. For diffuse acquisitions the accuracy varies with target size. Although analysis of ACQ/PEAK data is hampered by a flight software problem, we anticipate that peakups will be accurate to roughly ±5% of the slit width (instead of the ±15% pr eviously advertised). We are implementing several enhancements to the flight software that will take effect by mid- August to improve the quality of the acquisitions.

  10. 48 CFR 7.402 - Acquisition methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition methods. 7.402... ACQUISITION PLANNING Equipment Lease or Purchase 7.402 Acquisition methods. (a) Purchase method. (1) Generally, the purchase method is appropriate if the equipment will be used beyond the point in time...

  11. 48 CFR 7.402 - Acquisition methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition methods. 7.402... ACQUISITION PLANNING Equipment Lease or Purchase 7.402 Acquisition methods. (a) Purchase method. (1) Generally, the purchase method is appropriate if the equipment will be used beyond the point in time...

  12. Computational models of syntactic acquisition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Charles

    2012-03-01

    The computational approach to syntactic acquisition can be fruitfully pursued by integrating results and perspectives from computer science, linguistics, and developmental psychology. In this article, we first review some key results in computational learning theory and their implications for language acquisition. We then turn to examine specific learning models, some of which exploit distributional information in the input while others rely on a constrained space of hypotheses, yet both approaches share a common set of characteristics to overcome the learning problem. We conclude with a discussion of how computational models connects with the empirical study of child grammar, making the case for computationally tractable, psychologically plausible and developmentally realistic models of acquisition. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:205-213. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1154 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  13. 48 CFR 1318.270 - Emergency acquisition flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... flexibilities. 1318.270 Section 1318.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.270 Emergency acquisition flexibilities. (a) Authorizing emergency acquisition flexibilities. The process...

  14. 48 CFR 1318.270 - Emergency acquisition flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... flexibilities. 1318.270 Section 1318.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.270 Emergency acquisition flexibilities. (a) Authorizing emergency acquisition flexibilities. The process...

  15. 48 CFR 1318.270 - Emergency acquisition flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... flexibilities. 1318.270 Section 1318.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.270 Emergency acquisition flexibilities. (a) Authorizing emergency acquisition flexibilities. The process...

  16. 48 CFR 1318.270 - Emergency acquisition flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... flexibilities. 1318.270 Section 1318.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.270 Emergency acquisition flexibilities. (a) Authorizing emergency acquisition flexibilities. The process...

  17. 48 CFR 1318.270 - Emergency acquisition flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... flexibilities. 1318.270 Section 1318.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.270 Emergency acquisition flexibilities. (a) Authorizing emergency acquisition flexibilities. The process...

  18. 78 FR 67928 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... for issuing trust acquisition decisions. 78 FR 32214. BIA then extended the original comment deadline... because it ensures consistency in the decision- making across BIA regions and addresses any procedural... interest without a judicial remedy. Response: The decision-making process set forth at part 151 requires...

  19. Functionalism in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlin, Russell S.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the role of functional approaches to linguistics in understanding second-language acquisition (SLA), focusing on central premises, tenets, and theoretical problems. It is concluded that functional universals are too insufficiently grounded theoretically and empirically to contribute more than heuristic guidance to SLA theory. (141…

  20. Analog Input Data Acquisition Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.

  1. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  2. Acquisition streamlining: A cultural change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Jesse

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the defense systems management college, educational philosophy, the defense acquisition environment, streamlining initiatives, organizational streamlining types, defense law review, law review purpose, law review objectives, the Public Law Pilot Program, and cultural change.

  3. Intensive Input in Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimino, Andy; Ferguson, Nancy

    This paper discusses the role of input as one of the universals in second language acquisition theory. Considerations include how language instructors can best organize and present input and when certain kinds of input are more important. A self-administered program evaluation exercise using relevant theoretical and methodological contributions…

  4. Bilingualism and Third Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garate, Jose Valencia; Iragui, Jasone Cenoz

    A study investigated the role of bilingualism (Basque/Spanish) and motivation in third (English) language acquisition in Spain's Basque country. Subjects were 321 secondary school students in two programs, one with instruction primarily in Spanish and one with instruction primarily in Basque. The following independent variables were analyzed in…

  5. Buffer Gas Acquisition and Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Lueck, Dale E.; Jennings, Paul A.; Callahan, Richard A.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The acquisition and storage of buffer gases (primarily argon and nitrogen) from the Mars atmosphere provides a valuable resource for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as a buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. During the acquisition of carbon dioxide (CO2), whether by sorption bed or cryo-freezer, the accompanying buffer gases build up in the carbon dioxide acquisition system, reduce the flow of CO2 to the bed, and lower system efficiency. It is this build up of buffer gases that provide a convenient source, which must be removed, for efficient capture Of CO2 Removal of this buffer gas barrier greatly improves the charging rate of the CO2 acquisition bed and, thereby, maintains the fuel production rates required for a successful mission. Consequently, the acquisition, purification, and storage of these buffer gases are important goals of ISRU plans. Purity of the buffer gases is a concern e.g., if the CO, freezer operates at 140 K, the composition of the inert gas would be approximately 21 percent CO2, 50 percent nitrogen, and 29 percent argon. Although there are several approaches that could be used, this effort focused on a hollow-fiber membrane (HFM) separation method. This study measured the permeation rates of CO2, nitrogen (ND, and argon (Ar) through a multiple-membrane system and the individual membranes from room temperature to 193K and 10 kpa to 300 kPa. Concentrations were measured with a gas chromatograph that used a thermoconductivity (TCD) detector with helium (He) as the carrier gas. The general trend as the temperature was lowered was for the membranes to become more selective, In addition, the relative permeation rates between the three gases changed with temperature. The end result was to provide design parameters that could be used to separate CO2 from N2 and Ar.

  6. Data Acquisition for Modular Biometric Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor); Grodsinsky, Carlos M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A modular system for acquiring biometric data includes a plurality of data acquisition modules configured to sample biometric data from at least one respective input channel at a data acquisition rate. A representation of the sampled biometric data is stored in memory of each of the plurality of data acquisition modules. A central control system is in communication with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules through a bus. The central control system is configured to collect data asynchronously, via the bus, from the memory of the plurality of data acquisition modules according to a relative fullness of the memory of the plurality of data acquisition modules.

  7. 48 CFR 218.170 - Additional acquisition flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional acquisition flexibilities. 218.170 Section 218.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Acquisition Flexibilities 218.170 Additional acquisition flexibilities. Additional acquisition...

  8. 48 CFR 218.170 - Additional acquisition flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional acquisition flexibilities. 218.170 Section 218.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Acquisition Flexibilities 218.170 Additional acquisition flexibilities. Additional acquisition...

  9. 48 CFR 218.170 - Additional acquisition flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional acquisition flexibilities. 218.170 Section 218.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Acquisition Flexibilities 218.170 Additional acquisition flexibilities. Additional acquisition...

  10. 48 CFR 307.104-70 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 307... AND ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Acquisition Planning 307.104-70 Acquisition strategy... designated by the HHS CIO, DASFMP, the CAO, or the cognizant HCA) shall prepare an acquisition strategy...

  11. 48 CFR 208.7403 - Acquisition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Enterprise Software Agreements 208.7403 Acquisition procedures. Follow the procedures at PGI 208.7403 when acquiring commercial software and related services....

  12. 48 CFR 208.7403 - Acquisition procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Enterprise Software Agreements 208.7403 Acquisition procedures. Follow the procedures at PGI 208.7403 when acquiring commercial software and related services....

  13. 48 CFR 23.103 - Sustainable acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Sustainable Acquisition Policy 23.103 Sustainable acquisitions. (a... the products are— (1) Energy-efficient (ENERGY STAR® or Federal Energy Management Program...

  14. 4 NCIC Data Acquisition Guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1979-01-01

    The National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC) is the information branch of the National Mapping Program. NCIC gathers descriptions of cartographic products held by Federal, State and local agencies, and private companies. Computerized information systems are used to edit, store, and distribute these descriptions. The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) is NCIC's system for determining if photographs of a particular area, with a particular set of characteristics, are available, and if so, where they can be found. This guide defines the procedures for planning and conducting visits to potential contributors to the APSRS data base. The guide also defines acquisition responsibilities of the contributor, State affiliates, mapping centers, and NCIC headquarters. As a Data Acquisition specialist, you are encouraged to seek innovative approaches to acquiring data and to suggest additions or changes to this guide.

  15. Centaur propellant acquisition system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blatt, M. H.; Walter, M. D.

    1975-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the desirability of replacing the hydrogen peroxide settling system on the Centaur D-1S with a capillary acquisition system. A comprehensive screening was performed to select the most promising capillary device fluid acquisition, thermal conditioning, and fabrication techniques. Refillable start baskets and bypass feed start tanks were selected for detailed design. Critical analysis areas were settling and refilling, start sequence development with an initially dry boost pump, and cooling the fluid delivered to the boost pump in order to provide necessary net position suction head (NPSH). Design drawings were prepared for the start basket and start tank concepts for both LO2 and LH2 tanks. System comparisons indicated that the start baskets using wicking for thermal conditioning, and thermal subcooling for boost pump NPSH, are the most desirable systems for future development.

  16. Supervisory control and data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Gaushell, D.J.; Darlington, H.T.

    1987-12-01

    The acquisition of data, the processing of those data for use by the operator, and operator control of remote devices are the fundamental building blocks upon which all modern utility control systems are based. The systems to accomplish these functions are known as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. This paper provides an overview of the functions of SCADA and the fundamentals of operation of SCADA systems, including a brief description on the key man-machine interface. Several of the key issues and problems in modern SCADA systems, i.e., message standards, system performance testing, and system obsolescence are discussed. The paper concludes with the current trends toward distributed processing, improved man-machine interface, standard systems, smarter RTUs, and standard software. The authors' view of the future, using interchangeable system parts, is provided.

  17. Music and Early Language Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Anthony; Gebrian, Molly; Slevc, L. Robert

    2012-01-01

    Language is typically viewed as fundamental to human intelligence. Music, while recognized as a human universal, is often treated as an ancillary ability – one dependent on or derivative of language. In contrast, we argue that it is more productive from a developmental perspective to describe spoken language as a special type of music. A review of existing studies presents a compelling case that musical hearing and ability is essential to language acquisition. In addition, we challenge the prevailing view that music cognition matures more slowly than language and is more difficult; instead, we argue that music learning matches the speed and effort of language acquisition. We conclude that music merits a central place in our understanding of human development. PMID:22973254

  18. Music and early language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Anthony; Gebrian, Molly; Slevc, L Robert

    2012-01-01

    Language is typically viewed as fundamental to human intelligence. Music, while recognized as a human universal, is often treated as an ancillary ability - one dependent on or derivative of language. In contrast, we argue that it is more productive from a developmental perspective to describe spoken language as a special type of music. A review of existing studies presents a compelling case that musical hearing and ability is essential to language acquisition. In addition, we challenge the prevailing view that music cognition matures more slowly than language and is more difficult; instead, we argue that music learning matches the speed and effort of language acquisition. We conclude that music merits a central place in our understanding of human development.

  19. Effects of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D–Conjugate Vaccine on Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Colonization in Young Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van den Bergh, Menno R.; Spijkerman, Judith; Swinnen, Kristien M.; François, Nancy A.; Pascal, Thierry G.; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode; IJzerman, Ed P. F.; Bruin, Jacob P.; van der Ende, Arie; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the effects of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D–conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization compared with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) in young children. Methods. A randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands, initiated 2 years after 7vCRM introduction, was conducted between 1 April 2008 and 1 December 2010. Infants (N = 780) received either PHiD-CV or 7vCRM (2:1) at 2, 3, 4, and 11–13 months of age. Nasopharyngeal samples taken at 5, 11, 14, 18, and 24 months of age were cultured to detect Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Polymerase chain reaction assays quantified H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae and confirmed H. influenzae as nontypeable (NTHi). Primary outcome measure was vaccine efficacy (VE) against NTHi colonization. Results. In both groups, NTHi colonization increased with age from 33% in 5-month-olds to 65% in 24-month-olds. Three months postbooster, VE against colonization was 0.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], −21.8% to 18.4%) and VE against acquisition 10.9% (95% CI, −31.3% to 38.9%). At each sampling moment, no differences between groups in either NTHi prevalence or H. influenzae density were detected. Streptococcus pneumoniae (range, 39%–57%), M. catarrhalis (range, 63%­–69%), and S. aureus (range, 9%–30%) colonization patterns were similar between groups. Conclusions. PHiD-CV had no differential effect on nasopharyngeal NTHi colonization or H. influenzae density in healthy Dutch children up to 2 years of age, implying that herd effects for NTHi are not to be expected. Other bacterial colonization patterns were also similar. Clinical Trials Registration NCT00652951. PMID:23118268

  20. Enhanced Data-Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustain, Roy W.

    1990-01-01

    Time-consuming, costly digitization of analog signals on magnetic tape eliminated. Proposed data-acquisition system provides nearly immediate access to data in incoming signals by digitizing and recording them both on magnetic tape and on optical disk. Tape and/or disk later played back to reconstruct signals in analog or digital form for analysis. Of interest in industrial and scientific applications in which necessary to digitize, store, and/or process large quantities of experimental data.

  1. WRATS Integrated Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piatak, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The Wing and Rotor Aeroelastic Test System (WRATS) data acquisition system (DAS) is a 64-channel data acquisition display and analysis system specifically designed for use with the WRATS 1/5-scale V-22 tiltrotor model of the Bell Osprey. It is the primary data acquisition system for experimental aeroelastic testing of the WRATS model for the purpose of characterizing the aeromechanical and aeroelastic stability of prototype tiltrotor configurations. The WRATS DAS was also used during aeroelastic testing of Bell Helicopter Textron s Quad-Tiltrotor (QTR) design concept, a test which received international attention. The LabVIEW-based design is portable and capable of powering and conditioning over 64 channels of dynamic data at sampling rates up to 1,000 Hz. The system includes a 60-second circular data archive, an integrated model swashplate excitation system, a moving block damping application for calculation of whirl flutter mode subcritical damping, a loads and safety monitor, a pilot-control console display, data analysis capabilities, and instrumentation calibration functions. Three networked computers running custom-designed LabVIEW software acquire data through National Instruments data acquisition hardware. The aeroelastic model (see figure) was tested with the DAS at two facilities at NASA Langley, the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) and the Rotorcraft Hover Test Facility (RHTF). Because of the need for seamless transition between testing at these facilities, DAS is portable. The software is capable of harmonic analysis of periodic time history data, Fast Fourier Transform calculations, power spectral density calculations, and on-line calibration of test instrumentation. DAS has a circular buffer archive to ensure critical data is not lost in event of model failure/incident, as well as a sample-and-hold capability for phase-correct time history data.

  2. Data Acquisition and Mass Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vande Vyvre, P.

    2004-08-01

    The experiments performed at supercolliders will constitute a new challenge in several disciplines of High Energy Physics and Information Technology. This will definitely be the case for data acquisition and mass storage. The microelectronics, communication, and computing industries are maintaining an exponential increase of the performance of their products. The market of commodity products remains the largest and the most competitive market of technology products. This constitutes a strong incentive to use these commodity products extensively as components to build the data acquisition and computing infrastructures of the future generation of experiments. The present generation of experiments in Europe and in the US already constitutes an important step in this direction. The experience acquired in the design and the construction of the present experiments has to be complemented by a large R&D effort executed with good awareness of industry developments. The future experiments will also be expected to follow major trends of our present world: deliver physics results faster and become more and more visible and accessible. The present evolution of the technologies and the burgeoning of GRID projects indicate that these trends will be made possible. This paper includes a brief overview of the technologies currently used for the different tasks of the experimental data chain: data acquisition, selection, storage, processing, and analysis. The major trends of the computing and networking technologies are then indicated with particular attention paid to their influence on the future experiments. Finally, the vision of future data acquisition and processing systems and their promise for future supercolliders is presented.

  3. Fast Access Data Acquisition System

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Vladimir Katsman

    1998-03-17

    Our goal in this program is to develop Fast Access Data Acquisition System (FADAS) by combining the flexibility of Multilink's GaAs and InP electronics and electro-optics with an extremely high data rate for the efficient handling and transfer of collider experimental data. This novel solution is based on Multilink's and Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) unique components and technologies for extremely fast data transfer, storage, and processing.

  4. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M.; Corban, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  5. 78 FR 73450 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to provide needed editorial changes. DATES:...

  6. 78 FR 13543 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations... the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to provide needed editorial...

  7. 16 CFR 801.4 - Secondary acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.4 Secondary acquisitions. (a... which holds voting securities of an issuer that entity does not control, then the acquiring person's acquisition of the issuer's voting securities is a secondary acquisition and is separately subject to the...

  8. 16 CFR 801.4 - Secondary acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.4 Secondary acquisitions. (a... which holds voting securities of an issuer that entity does not control, then the acquiring person's acquisition of the issuer's voting securities is a secondary acquisition and is separately subject to the...

  9. 76 FR 50141 - Acquisition Regulation Miscellaneous Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... rule in the Federal Register at 76 FR 15901 on March 22, 2011, to revise the Department of the Interior Acquisition Regulation (DIAR). These changes make minor corrections to DOI acquisition procedures to make the... Acquisition Regulation Miscellaneous Changes AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Final...

  10. 76 FR 76899 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... FR 68039). The final rule amended the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to revise the definitions..., 2011 (76 FR 68039). The rule amended the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) by revising the...; Correction; FAR Case 2011-014; Docket 2011-0014; Sequence 1] RIN 9000-AM11 Federal Acquisition...

  11. 14 CFR 151.73 - Land acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Land acquisition. 151.73 Section 151.73 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.73 Land acquisition. (a) The acquisition...

  12. 14 CFR 151.73 - Land acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Land acquisition. 151.73 Section 151.73 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.73 Land acquisition. (a) The acquisition...

  13. 14 CFR 151.73 - Land acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Land acquisition. 151.73 Section 151.73 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.73 Land acquisition. (a) The acquisition...

  14. 14 CFR 151.73 - Land acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Land acquisition. 151.73 Section 151.73 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.73 Land acquisition. (a) The acquisition...

  15. 14 CFR 151.73 - Land acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Land acquisition. 151.73 Section 151.73 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.73 Land acquisition. (a) The acquisition...

  16. 32 CFR 644.7 - Acquisition lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acquisition lines. 644.7 Section 644.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Project Planning Civil Works § 644.7 Acquisition lines. (a) Tentative acquisition lines....

  17. 32 CFR 644.7 - Acquisition lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Acquisition lines. 644.7 Section 644.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Project Planning Civil Works § 644.7 Acquisition lines. (a) Tentative acquisition lines....

  18. Confidence-Based Feature Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; desJardins, Marie; MacGlashan, James

    2010-01-01

    Confidence-based Feature Acquisition (CFA) is a novel, supervised learning method for acquiring missing feature values when there is missing data at both training (learning) and test (deployment) time. To train a machine learning classifier, data is encoded with a series of input features describing each item. In some applications, the training data may have missing values for some of the features, which can be acquired at a given cost. A relevant JPL example is that of the Mars rover exploration in which the features are obtained from a variety of different instruments, with different power consumption and integration time costs. The challenge is to decide which features will lead to increased classification performance and are therefore worth acquiring (paying the cost). To solve this problem, CFA, which is made up of two algorithms (CFA-train and CFA-predict), has been designed to greedily minimize total acquisition cost (during training and testing) while aiming for a specific accuracy level (specified as a confidence threshold). With this method, it is assumed that there is a nonempty subset of features that are free; that is, every instance in the data set includes these features initially for zero cost. It is also assumed that the feature acquisition (FA) cost associated with each feature is known in advance, and that the FA cost for a given feature is the same for all instances. Finally, CFA requires that the base-level classifiers produce not only a classification, but also a confidence (or posterior probability).

  19. Jefferson Lab's Distributed Data Acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Allison; Thomas Powers

    2006-05-01

    Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) occasionally experiences fast intermittent beam instabilities that are difficult to isolate and result in downtime. The Distributed Data Acquisition (Dist DAQ) system is being developed to detect and quickly locate such instabilities. It will consist of multiple Ethernet based data acquisition chassis distributed throughout the seven-eights of a mile CEBAF site. Each chassis will monitor various control system signals that are only available locally and/or monitored by systems with small bandwidths that cannot identify fast transients. The chassis will collect data at rates up to 40 Msps in circular buffers that can be frozen and unrolled after an event trigger. These triggers will be derived from signals such as periodic timers or accelerator faults and be distributed via a custom fiber optic event trigger network. This triggering scheme will allow all the data acquisition chassis to be triggered simultaneously and provide a snapshot of relevant CEBAF control signals. The data will then be automatically analyzed for frequency content and transients to determine if and where instabilities exist.

  20. 76 FR 18324 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-51; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-51; Small Entity Compliance Guide AGENCIES... rules appearing in Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-51, which amend the Federal Acquisition...-51, which precedes this document. These documents are also available via the Internet at...

  1. 77 FR 38734 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisition of Tents and Other Temporary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 225 and 252 RIN 0750-AH73 Defense Federal Acquisition...: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Interim rule. SUMMARY: DoD is...-6094. Mail: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Attn: Amy G. Williams, OUSD(AT&L)DPAP/DARS,...

  2. When co-colonizing the nasopharynx haemophilus influenzae predominates over Streptococcus pneumoniae except serotype 19A strains to cause acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingfu; Casey, Janet R; Chang, Arthur; Pichichero, Michael E

    2012-06-01

    Of 368 acute otitis media (AOM) cases among 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate-vaccinated children, 43.5% were colonized by multiple otopathogens in the nasopharynx but only 7.1% experienced polymicrobial AOM. When co-colonization occurred, Haemophilus influenzae predominated over all Streptococcus pneumoniae strains except 19A strains to cause AOM. Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae both predominated over Moraxella catarrhalis to cause AOM.

  3. SILEX acquisition and tracking sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockshott, Robert A.; Purll, David J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the Acquisition Sensor Detection Unit (ASDU) and the Tracking Sensor Detection Unit (TSDU) developed by Sira Ltd to be flown in the European Space Agency's SILEX (Semi-conductor Inter satellite Link Experiment) terminals. These units were designed, manufactured and qualified by Sira under contract to Matra Marconi Space. Stringent vibration, thermal stability and video waveform noise and timing specifications were critical elements in the design. The ASDU consists of an optical head containing a 385 X 288 CCD and video buffer, and separate electronics box containing clock decoding electronics, CCD clock drivers and video amplifiers. The ASDU operates at a frame rate of 33 or 135 Hz and its noise performance allows the brightest pixel to be detected with an accuracy of +/- 0.5 pixel for input powers in the range 9 - 55 pW (33 Hz) or 16 - 240 pW (135 Hz) during acquisition. Using the ASDU signal, the SILEX pointing, acquisition and tracking system controls the pointing mirrors to centralize the beam, at which point it falls within the smaller TSDU field of view. The TSDU comprises a single 480 g unit containing a 43 mm focal length lens, a 14 X 14 CCD, and clock receiver and video amplifier electronics. During tracking the central 4 CCD pixels are used as a quadrant detector, and the TSDU has demonstrated a noise equivalent angle of 2.7 (mu) rad (1 (sigma) half cone, 180 pW optical input power) at a frame rate of 8 kHz.

  4. DSP based data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Peeyush; Subrahmanya, C. R.

    A new DSP based data acquisition system based on commercial, off-the-shelf available hardware is presented. The board features friendly high speed input and output interfaces, a powerful DSP and hardware offloading of essing to an FPGA. For flexibility of development, a soft realtime linux based kernel popular among embedded developers (uClinux) has been ported on the board.The development environment is fully open source both for the target as well as for host software. The motivation behind creating the system, the development ess and the current status is described. Some results obtained with this system as used in typical applications are also presented.

  5. On acquisition of programming knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amin, Ashok T.

    1987-01-01

    For the evolving discipline of programming, acquisition of programming knowledge is a difficult issue. Common knowledge results from the acceptance of proven techniques based on results of formal inquiries into the nature of the programming process. This is a rather slow process. In addition, the vast body of common knowledge needs to be explicated to a low enough level of details for it to be represented in the machine processable form. It is felt that this is an impediment to the progress of automatic programming. The importance of formal approaches cannot be overstated since their contributions lead to quantum leaps in the state of the art.

  6. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Edward C. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This quarterly publication provides archival reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA). In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in planning, supporting research and technology, implementation, and operations. Also included are standards activity at JPL for space data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other space agencies through NASA. The preceding work is all performed for NASA's Office of Space Communications (OSC).

  7. DEAP-3600 Data Acquisition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    DEAP-3600 is a dark matter experiment using liquid argon to detect Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The DEAP-3600 Data Acquisition (DAQ) has been built using a combination of commercial and custom electronics, organized using the MIDAS framework. The DAQ system needs to suppress a high rate of background events from 39Ar beta decays. This suppression is implemented using a combination of online firmware and software-based event filtering. We will report on progress commissioning the DAQ system, as well as the development of the web-based user interface.

  8. Sample acquisition and instrument deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    Progress is reported in developing the Sample Acquisition and Instrument Deployment (SAID) system, a robotic system for deploying science instruments and acquiring samples for analysis. The system is a conventional four degree of freedom manipulator 2 meters in length. A baseline design has been achieved through analysis and trade studies. The design considers environmental operating conditions on the surface of Mars, as well as volume constraints on proposed Mars landers. Control issues have also been studied, and simulations of joint and tip movements have been performed. The systems have been fabricated and tested in environmental chambers, as well as soil testing and robotic control testing.

  9. Subsea control and data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at the conference on subsea control and data acquisition. The tasks performed by subsea control systems, although fairly straightforward, are dominated by an alien environment and the high costs associated with failure and repair. The evolution of systems design has resulted in a growing confidence in equipment reliability. In the future, however, more searching demands may include active regulation of valves and the use of data for reservoir management purposes. The emphasis of the papers is on technical depth and understanding, with particular attention being paid to the science control and data monitoring in relation to the task of hydrocarbon recovery.

  10. Theories of early language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Plunkett, K

    1997-07-01

    What features of brain processing and neural development support linguistic development in young children? To what extent is the profile and timing of linguistic development in young children determined by a pre-ordained genetic programme? Does the environment play a crucial role in determining the patterns of change observed in children growing up? Recent experimental, neuroimaging and computational studies of developmental change in children promise to contribute to a deeper understanding of how the brain becomes wired up for language. In this review, the muttidisciplinary perspectives of cognitive neuroscience, experimental psycholinguistics and neural network modelling are brought to bear on four distinct areas in the study of language acquisition: early speech perception, word recognition, word learning and the acquisition of grammatical inflections. It is suggested that each area demonstrates how linguistic development can be driven by the interaction of general learning mechanisms, highly sensitive to particular statistical regularities in the input, with a richly structured environment which provides the necessary ingredients for the emergence of linguistic representations that support mature language processing. Similar epigenetic principles, guiding the emergence of linguistic structure, apply to all these domains, offering insights into phenomena ranging from the precocity of young infant's sensitivity to speech contrasts to the complexities of the problem facing the young child learning the arabic plural.

  11. The NIFFTE Data Acquisition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Hai; Niffte Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) will employ a novel, high granularity, pressurized Time Projection Chamber to measure fission cross-sections of the major actinides to high precision over a wide incident neutron energy range. These results will improve nuclear data accuracy and benefit the fuel cycle in the future. The NIFFTE data acquisition system (DAQ) has been designed and implemented on the prototype TPC. Lessons learned from engineering runs have been incorporated into some design changes that are being implemented before the next run cycle. A fully instrumented sextant of EtherDAQ cards (16 sectors, 496 channels) will be used for the next run cycle. The Maximum Integrated Data Acquisition System (MIDAS) has been chosen and customized to configure and run the experiment. It also meets the requirement for remote control and monitoring of the system. The integration of the MIDAS online database with the persistent PostgreSQL database has been implemented for experiment usage. The detailed design and current status of the DAQ system will be presented.

  12. Iron acquisition in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Wyckoff, Elizabeth E; Mey, Alexandra R; Payne, Shelley M

    2007-06-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, has an absolute requirement for iron and must obtain this element in the human host as well as in its varied environmental niches. It has multiple systems for iron acquisition, including the TonB-dependent transport of heme, the endogenous siderophore vibriobactin and several siderophores that are produced by other microorganisms. There is also a Feo system for the transport of ferrous iron and an ABC transporter, Fbp, which transports ferric iron. There appears to be at least one additional high affinity iron transport system that has not yet been identified. In iron replete conditions, iron acquisition genes are repressed by Fur. Fur also represses the synthesis of a small, regulatory RNA, RyhB, which negatively regulates genes for iron-containing proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and respiration as well as genes for motility and chemotaxis. The redundancy in iron transport systems has made it more difficult to determine the role of individual systems in vivo and in vitro, but it may reflect the overall importance of iron in the growth and survival of V. cholerae.

  13. Learning the manifold of quality ultrasound acquisition.

    PubMed

    El-Zehiry, Noha; Yan, Michelle; Good, Sara; Fang, Tong; Zhou, S Kevin; Grady, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound acquisition is a challenging task that requires simultaneous adjustment of several acquisition parameters (the depth, the focus, the frequency and its operation mode). If the acquisition parameters are not properly chosen, the resulting image will have a poor quality and will degrade the patient diagnosis and treatment workflow. Several hardware-based systems for autotuning the acquisition parameters have been previously proposed, but these solutions were largely abandoned because they failed to properly account for tissue inhomogeneity and other patient-specific characteristics. Consequently, in routine practice the clinician either uses population-based parameter presets or manually adjusts the acquisition parameters for each patient during the scan. In this paper, we revisit the problem of autotuning the acquisition parameters by taking a completely novel approach and producing a solution based on image analytics. Our solution is inspired by the autofocus capability of conventional digital cameras, but is significantly more challenging because the number of acquisition parameters is large and the determination of "good quality" images is more difficult to assess. Surprisingly, we show that the set of acquisition parameters which produce images that are favored by clinicians comprise a 1D manifold, allowing for a real-time optimization to maximize image quality. We demonstrate our method for acquisition parameter autotuning on several live patients, showing that our system can start with a poor initial set of parameters and automatically optimize the parameters to produce high quality images.

  14. Child Language Acquisition. CAL Selected Bibliographies: 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Julia S.

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography on child language acquisition which lists works published since 1966, includes book-length studies, anthologies, collected papers, conference reports, and journal and serial publications. (SW)

  15. Learning the manifold of quality ultrasound acquisition.

    PubMed

    El-Zehiry, Noha; Yan, Michelle; Good, Sara; Fang, Tong; Zhou, S Kevin; Grady, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound acquisition is a challenging task that requires simultaneous adjustment of several acquisition parameters (the depth, the focus, the frequency and its operation mode). If the acquisition parameters are not properly chosen, the resulting image will have a poor quality and will degrade the patient diagnosis and treatment workflow. Several hardware-based systems for autotuning the acquisition parameters have been previously proposed, but these solutions were largely abandoned because they failed to properly account for tissue inhomogeneity and other patient-specific characteristics. Consequently, in routine practice the clinician either uses population-based parameter presets or manually adjusts the acquisition parameters for each patient during the scan. In this paper, we revisit the problem of autotuning the acquisition parameters by taking a completely novel approach and producing a solution based on image analytics. Our solution is inspired by the autofocus capability of conventional digital cameras, but is significantly more challenging because the number of acquisition parameters is large and the determination of "good quality" images is more difficult to assess. Surprisingly, we show that the set of acquisition parameters which produce images that are favored by clinicians comprise a 1D manifold, allowing for a real-time optimization to maximize image quality. We demonstrate our method for acquisition parameter autotuning on several live patients, showing that our system can start with a poor initial set of parameters and automatically optimize the parameters to produce high quality images. PMID:24505657

  16. Surface acquisition through virtual milling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Marshal L.

    1993-01-01

    Surface acquisition deals with the reconstruction of three dimensional objects from a set of data points. The most straightforward techniques require human intervention, a time consuming proposition. It is desirable to develop a fully automated alternative. Such a method is proposed in this paper. It makes use of surface measurements obtained from a 3-D laser digitizer - an instrument which provides the (x,y,z) coordinates of surface data points from various viewpoints. These points are assembled into several partial surfaces using a visibility constraint and a 2-D triangulation technique. Reconstruction of the final object requires merging these partial surfaces. This is accomplished through a procedure that emulates milling, a standard machining operation. From a geometrical standpoint the problem reduces to constructing the intersection of two or more non-convex polyhedra.

  17. Optimality theory in phonological acquisition.

    PubMed

    Barlow, J A; Gierut, J A

    1999-12-01

    This tutorial presents an introduction to the contemporary linguistic framework known as optimality theory (OT). The basic assumptions of this constraint-based theory as a general model of grammar are first outlined, with formal notation being defined and illustrated. Concepts unique to the theory, including "emergence of the unmarked," are also described. OT is then examined more specifically within the context of phonological acquisition. The theory is applied in descriptions of children's common error patterns, observed inter- and intrachild variation, and productive change over time. The particular error patterns of fronting, stopping, final-consonant deletion, and cluster simplification are considered from an OT perspective. The discussion concludes with potential clinical applications and extensions of the theory to the diagnosis and treatment of children with functional phonological disorders.

  18. Language acquisition is language change.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Goro, Takuya; Thornton, Rosalind

    2006-01-01

    According to the theory of Universal Grammar, the primary linguistic data guides children through an innately specified space of hypotheses. On this view, similarities between child-English and adult-German are as unsurprising as similarities between cousins who have never met. By contrast, experience-based approaches to language acquisition contend that child language matches the input, with nonadult forms being simply less articulated versions of the forms produced by adults. This paper reports several studies that provide support for the theory of Universal grammar, and resist explanation on experience-based accounts. Two studies investigate English-speaking children's productions, and a third examines the interpretation of sentences by Japanese speaking children. When considered against the input children are exposed to, the findings of these and other studies are consistent with the continuity hypothesis, which supposes that child language can differ from the language spoken by adults only in ways that adult languages can differ from each other.

  19. Passive acquisition of CLIPS rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovarik, Vincent J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The automated acquisition of knowledge by machine has not lived up to expectations, and knowledge engineering remains a human intensive task. Part of the reason for the lack of success is the difference in the cognitive focus of the expert. The expert must shift his or her focus from the subject domain to that of the representation environment. In doing so this cognitive shift introduces opportunity for errors and omissions. Presented here is work that observes the expert interact with a simulation of the domain. The system logs changes in the simulation objects and the expert's actions in response to those changes. This is followed by the application of inductive reasoning to move the domain specific rules observed to general domain rules.

  20. Trends in data acquisition instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanar, George J.

    1993-10-01

    Particle physics research demands unique data acquisition instrumentation in terms of speed, size, cost, and architecture. This paper will focus on principal issues related to trends in high-speed, large-scale, economical, sophisticated instrumentation for high energy physics, heavy ion, nuclear and atomic physics as well as large scale astronomical experiments. Examples will be taken from experiments at many national laboratories including BNL, FNAL, CERN, SLAC, etc., as well as LeCroy Corporation's 26 year history in the field of physics research instrumentation. Finally, instrumentation needs for the next generation of high energy, hadron colliders including the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be reviewed and compared to current technologies.

  1. 76 FR 30362 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Acquisition of Helium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Acquisition of Helium AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General... previously approved information collection requirement concerning acquisition of helium. Public comments are... Collection 9000- 0113, Acquisition of Helium, by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov :...

  2. The Status of Functional Categories in Child Second Language Acquisition: Evidence from the Acquisition of CP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haznedar, Belma

    2003-01-01

    Examines the status of the functional categories in child second language (L2) acquisition of English. Results from longitudinally-collected data are reported, presenting counterevidence for recent hypotheses on early L2 acquisition that assume the following: (1) structure building approach according to which the acquisition of functional…

  3. Second Language Acquisition and Universal Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lydia

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the motivation for Universal Grammar (UG), as assumed in the principles and parameters framework of generative grammar (Chomsky, 1981), focusing on the logical problem of first-language acquisition and the potential role of UG in second-language acquisition. Recent experimental research regarding the second-language status of the…

  4. Managing in a merger and acquisition era.

    PubMed

    Holdren, R C

    1990-01-01

    Medical group administrators are quickly learning what big business has known for years-mergers and acquisitions represent a new and powerful option. If this option is to be employed successfully, however, group management has to understand the terms and be prepared well before merger or acquisition talk begins.

  5. Methodological Questions in Studying Consonant Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    Consonant mastery is one of the most widely used metrics of typical phonological acquisition and of phonological disorder. Two fundamental methodological questions concerning research on consonant acquisition are (1) how to elicit a representative sample of productions and (2) how to analyse this sample once it has been collected. This paper…

  6. Teacher Trainees' Information Acquisition in Lesson Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanni, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have addressed teacher trainees' information acquisition in the context of a task. The paper reports findings from an empirical study on teacher trainees' use of information (seeking) channels and sources, and their modes of information acquisition in lesson planning. Method: Semi-structured (retrospectively held)…

  7. Studies in First and Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R., Ed.; Hastings, Ashley J., Ed.

    Papers presented at a 1977 symposium on language acquisition held at the University of Wisconsin/Milwaukee are included. Contents are as follows: "Assumptions, Methods and Goals in Language Acquisition Research" (Sheldon); "The Mother as LAD: Interaction between Order and Frequency of Parental Input and Child Production" (Forner); "Stress…

  8. 75 FR 19827 - Acquisition Regulation Rewrite

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...The Department of the Interior (DOI) is taking interim final action on administrative changes to the Department of the Interior Acquisition Regulation (DIAR). This action revises the DIAR, 48 CFR Chapter 14, but does not impose any new requirements on DOI contractors. The revisions in this interim final rule will make minor corrections to and streamline DOI acquisition processes to be......

  9. A Pragmatic Approach to Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olshewsky, Thomas M.

    An extreme view of language acquisition sees base structures as innate, and acquisition of the grammar of a particular language as a process of learning the transformation rules needed to get from base structures to surface structures of adult native speakers. Base structures are understood to most resemble simple-active-affirmative-declarative…

  10. (Data acquisition for Ge detector arrays)

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, D.C.

    1989-10-09

    The traveler presented three invited lectures entitled An Overview of Data Acquisition for Ge Detector Arrays,'' Specialized Data Acquisition for Ge Detector Arrays,'' and Gamma-Ray Angular Correlations from Heavy-Ion Inelastic Scattering Measured in the Spin Spectrometer'' and acted as a Study Group Coordinator at the Nuclear Structure in the Era of New Spectroscopy Workshop in Copenhagen, Denmark.

  11. Neural Plasticity in Speech Acquisition and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yang; Wang, Yue

    2007-01-01

    Neural plasticity in speech acquisition and learning is concerned with the timeline trajectory and the mechanisms of experience-driven changes in the neural circuits that support or disrupt linguistic function. In this selective review, we discuss the role of phonetic learning in language acquisition, the "critical period" of learning, the agents…

  12. Acquisitions Allocations: Fairness, Equity and Bundled Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effect of an interdisciplinary Web-based citation database with full text, the ProQuest Research Library, on the Western State University library's acquisitions allocation plan. Used list price of full-text journals to calculate increases in acquisitions funding. A list of articles discussing formula allocation is appended.…

  13. 48 CFR 23.103 - Sustainable acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Sustainable Acquisition Policy 23.103 Sustainable acquisitions. (a... the products are— (1) Energy-efficient (ENERGY STAR ® or Federal Energy Management Program...

  14. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable acquisition....

  15. 48 CFR 23.103 - Sustainable acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Sustainable Acquisition Policy 23.103 Sustainable acquisitions. (a... the products are— (1) Energy-efficient (ENERGY STAR ® or Federal Energy Management Program...

  16. 48 CFR 23.103 - Sustainable acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Sustainable Acquisition Policy 23.103 Sustainable acquisitions. (a... the products are— (1) Energy-efficient (ENERGY STAR ® or Federal Energy Management Program...

  17. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable acquisition....

  18. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable acquisition....

  19. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable acquisition....

  20. New Dimensions in Second Language Acquisition Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Roger W., Ed.

    The following papers are included: (1) "Some Common Goals for Second and First Language Acquisition Research" by Kenji Hakuta; (2) "Research on the Measurement of Affective Variables: Some Remaining Questions" by John W. Oller, Jr.; (3) "The Effects of Neurological Age on Nonprimary Language Acquisition" by Thomas Scovel; (4) "Exceptions to…

  1. The PAN-DA data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Petravick, D.; Berg, D.; Berman, E.; Bernett, M.; Constanta-Fanourakis, P.; Dorries, T.; Haire, M.; Kaczar, K; MacKinnon, B.; Moore, C.; Nicinski, T.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Sergey, G.; Votava, M.; White, V.

    1989-05-01

    The Online and Data Acquisition software groups at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory have extended the VAXONLINE data acquisition package to include a VME based data path. The resulting environment, PAN-DA, provides a high throughput for logging, filtering, formatting and selecting events. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  2. 75 FR 10567 - Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... proposed rule published on October 13, 2009 in the Federal Register (74 FR 52541). The document is also... analysis that describes the effect of the rule on small entities (i.e., small businesses, small... Acquisition regulations, Federal acquisition regulations, Government procurement, Government...

  3. Input and Intake in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagliardi, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents an approach for a productive way forward in the study of language acquisition, sealing the rift between claims of an innate linguistic hypothesis space and powerful domain general statistical inference. This approach breaks language acquisition into its component parts, distinguishing the input in the environment from…

  4. Child Language Acquisition: Contrasting Theoretical Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambridge, Ben; Lieven, Elena V. M.

    2011-01-01

    Is children's language acquisition based on innate linguistic structures or built from cognitive and communicative skills? This book summarises the major theoretical debates in all of the core domains of child language acquisition research (phonology, word-learning, inflectional morphology, syntax and binding) and includes a complete introduction…

  5. The Acquisition of L2 Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtaszek, Adam; Arabski, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    The Acquisition of L2 Phonology is a wide-ranging new collection which focuses on various aspects of the acquisition of an L2 phonological system. The authors are researchers and practitioners from five different countries. The volume has been divided into three major sections. Phonetic Analysis presents five studies of language learners in both…

  6. Child Second Language Acquisition of Syntax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakshmanan, Usha

    1995-01-01

    Reviews recent research in universal grammar-based child second language acquisition (SLA) research, arguing that child SLA studies can better explore the role of biological factors in language acquisition and strengthen the links between SLA and linguistic theory. (129 references) (MDM)

  7. Theories and Research on Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornejo, Ricardo J.; Cornejo, Luz O.

    Intended for students, teachers, parents, and administrators in charge of educating bilingual children, the monograph provides a summarized account of the information available regarding theories and research in second language acquisition, divided into four chapters. Chapter I is an historical overview of language acquisition theories,…

  8. 78 FR 45168 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ..., Office of Acquisition and Project Management, MA-611, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585..., Office of Acquisition and Project Management, Department of Energy. BILLING CODE 6450-01-P ... of Energy (DOE) published a proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register (78 FR 35195) to amend...

  9. Programmatic Ahistoricity in Second Language Acquisition Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that, despite some perceptions, second language acquisition theory has a history. Disputes arguments that might be formulated to support the notion that second language acquisition theory has no relevant earlier history, enumerates consequences of maintaining this belief, and speculates about benefits to the field that might accrue from…

  10. Academic Listening: A Source of Vocabulary Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, Karina

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study of the acquisition of English-as-a-Foreign-Language vocabulary through academic listening. Explored the effects of EFL proficiency and lecture comprehension on vocabulary acquisition as well as the relationship between vocabulary gain and the following factors: frequency of occurrence, types of word, type of word elaboration, and…

  11. How Long Does Intonation Acquisition Take?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruttenden, Alan

    The evidence on the acquisition of intonation by children is reviewed. Reports on the early use of pitch contours fall into two categories, imitational and differential intonation. While imitational intonation is based on mimicry of adults, differential intonation involves the acquisition of two or three tunes that contrast in meaning from an…

  12. 48 CFR 234.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... a development program at the time of Milestone B approval or, in the case of a space program, Key... (Pub. L. 109-364), for major defense acquisition programs as defined in 10 U.S.C. 2430— (i) The... acquisition strategy. The documentation— (A) Shall include an explanation of the level of program risk; and...

  13. 48 CFR 234.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... a development program at the time of Milestone B approval or, in the case of a space program, Key... (Pub. L. 109-364), for major defense acquisition programs as defined in 10 U.S.C. 2430— (i) The... acquisition strategy. The documentation— (A) Shall include an explanation of the level of program risk; and...

  14. 48 CFR 234.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... a development program at the time of Milestone B approval or, in the case of a space program, Key... for Fiscal Year 2007 (Pub. L. 109-364), for major defense acquisition programs at Milestone B— (A) The... acquisition strategy. The documentation— (1) Shall include an explanation of the level of program risk; and...

  15. Input, innateness, and induction in language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J L

    1990-11-01

    Input and innateness compliment one another in language acquisition. Children exposed to different languages acquire different languages. Children's language experience, however, underdetermines the grammars that they acquire; the constraints that are not supplied by input must be available endogenously, and the ultimate origin of these endogenous contributions to acquisition may be traced to the biology of the mind. To the extent that assumptions of innateness encourage greater explicitness in the formulation of theories of acquisition, they should be welcomed. Excessively powerful assumptions of innateness may not be subject to empirical disconfirmation, however. Therefore, attention should be devoted to the development of a theory of language input, particularly with regard to identifying invariants of input. In combination with a linguistic theory providing an account of the endstate of acquisition, a theory of input would permit the deduction of properties of the mind that underlie the acquisition of language.

  16. 48 CFR 1.102-3 - Acquisition team.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition team. 1.102-3... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 1.102-3 Acquisition team. The purpose of defining the Federal Acquisition Team (Team) in the Guiding Principles is to ensure that participants in...

  17. 48 CFR 48.104-2 - Sharing acquisition savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sharing acquisition savings. 48.104-2 Section 48.104-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104-2 Sharing acquisition savings....

  18. 48 CFR 48.104-2 - Sharing acquisition savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sharing acquisition savings. 48.104-2 Section 48.104-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.104-2 Sharing acquisition savings....

  19. 48 CFR 208.7006 - Coordinated acquisition assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assignments. 208.7006 Section 208.7006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Coordinated Acquisition 208.7006 Coordinated acquisition assignments. See PGI 208.7006 for coordinated...

  20. 48 CFR 1401.7001-4 - Acquisition performance measurement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition performance measurement systems. 1401.7001-4 Section 1401.7001-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE... Acquisition performance measurement systems. (a) The acquisition performance measurement system is a...

  1. 48 CFR 307.7001 - Distinction between acquisition and assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Distinction between acquisition and assistance. 307.7001 Section 307.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Considerations in Selecting an Award Instrument 307.7001 Distinction...

  2. 48 CFR 307.7001 - Distinction between acquisition and assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Distinction between acquisition and assistance. 307.7001 Section 307.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Considerations in Selecting an Award Instrument 307.7001 Distinction...

  3. 48 CFR 307.7001 - Distinction between acquisition and assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Distinction between acquisition and assistance. 307.7001 Section 307.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Considerations in Selecting an Award Instrument 307.7001 Distinction...

  4. 48 CFR 1401.7001-4 - Acquisition performance measurement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition performance measurement systems. 1401.7001-4 Section 1401.7001-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE... Acquisition performance measurement systems. (a) The acquisition performance measurement system is a...

  5. 48 CFR 1401.7001-4 - Acquisition performance measurement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acquisition performance measurement systems. 1401.7001-4 Section 1401.7001-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE... Acquisition performance measurement systems. (a) The acquisition performance measurement system is a...

  6. 48 CFR 19.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 19.502 Section 19.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 19.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  7. 48 CFR 208.7006 - Coordinated acquisition assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coordinated acquisition... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Coordinated Acquisition 208.7006 Coordinated acquisition assignments. See PGI 208.7006 for coordinated...

  8. 48 CFR 208.7006 - Coordinated acquisition assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coordinated acquisition... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Coordinated Acquisition 208.7006 Coordinated acquisition assignments. See PGI 208.7006 for coordinated...

  9. 48 CFR 208.7006 - Coordinated acquisition assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coordinated acquisition... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Coordinated Acquisition 208.7006 Coordinated acquisition assignments. See PGI 208.7006 for coordinated...

  10. 48 CFR 208.7006 - Coordinated acquisition assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coordinated acquisition... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Coordinated Acquisition 208.7006 Coordinated acquisition assignments. See PGI 208.7006 for coordinated...

  11. Psychological tools for knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rueter, Henry H.; Olson, Judith Reitman

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge acquisition is said to be the biggest bottleneck in the development of expert systems. The problem is getting the knowledge out of the expert's head and into a computer. In cognitive psychology, characterizing metal structures and why experts are good at what they do is an important research area. Is there some way that the tools that psychologists have developed to uncover mental structure can be used to benefit knowledge engineers? We think that the way to find out is to browse through the psychologist's toolbox to see what there is in it that might be of use to knowledge engineers. Expert system developers have relied on two standard methods for extracting knowledge from the expert: (1) the knowledge engineer engages in an intense bout of interviews with the expert or experts, or (2) the knowledge engineer becomes an expert himself, relying on introspection to uncover the basis of his own expertise. Unfortunately, these techniques have the difficulty that often the expert himself isn't consciously aware of the basis of his expertise. If the expert himself isn't conscious of how he solves problems, introspection is useless. Cognitive psychology has faced similar problems for many years and has developed exploratory methods that can be used to discover cognitive structure from simple data.

  12. VLBI data, acquisition, environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    During this quadrennium, very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data acquisition and system development has focused on improving the accuracy of the system sufficiently to allow the determination of reliable estimates of height variations. Associated with this aim has been improvements in the determinations of horizontal velocity fields, monitoring water vapor delay using interferometric methods, and improvements to Earth rotation measurements. The primary aims of the improvements to height measurement accuracy have been to directly measure the contemporary magnitudes of post glacial rebound, and to determine a height reference system for measuring global sea level rise. High frequency Earth rotation studies have been carried out to better define the transformation parameters from an inertial coordinate system to an Earth fixed one, and to better understand the coupling between the components of the atmosphere-ocean-solid Earth system. Two major VLBI campaigns were carried out in support of these studies: (1) Epoch-92 in July 1992 and (2) Cont-94 in January 1994. Each of these campaigns lasted approximately two weeks and involved multiple VLBI networks operating simultaneously in addition to other space geodetic systems operating during these periods. Two major compilations of the VLBI results (and results from other space geodetic systems) have been published during this quadrennium.

  13. Colony image acquisition and segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. X.

    2007-12-01

    For counting of both colonies and plaques, there is a large number of applications including food, dairy, beverages, hygiene, environmental monitoring, water, toxicology, sterility testing, AMES testing, pharmaceuticals, paints, sterile fluids and fungal contamination. Recently, many researchers and developers have made efforts for this kind of systems. By investigation, some existing systems have some problems. The main problems are image acquisition and image segmentation. In order to acquire colony images with good quality, an illumination box was constructed as: the box includes front lightning and back lightning, which can be selected by users based on properties of colony dishes. With the illumination box, lightning can be uniform; colony dish can be put in the same place every time, which make image processing easy. The developed colony image segmentation algorithm consists of the sub-algorithms: (1) image classification; (2) image processing; and (3) colony delineation. The colony delineation algorithm main contain: the procedures based on grey level similarity, on boundary tracing, on shape information and colony excluding. In addition, a number of algorithms are developed for colony analysis. The system has been tested and satisfactory.

  14. Multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Crawley, H. Bert; Rosenberg, Eli I.; Meyer, W. Thomas; Gorbics, Mark S.; Thomas, William D.; McKay, Roy L.; Homer, Jr., John F.

    1990-05-22

    A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler.

  15. Multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Crawley, H.B.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Meyer, W.T.; Gorbics, M.S.; Thomas, W.D.; McKay, R.L.; Homer, J.F. Jr.

    1990-05-22

    A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler. 25 figs.

  16. 48 CFR 32.003 - Simplified acquisition procedures financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... procedures financing. 32.003 Section 32.003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING 32.003 Simplified acquisition procedures financing. Unless agency regulations otherwise permit, contract financing shall not be provided...

  17. 48 CFR 32.003 - Simplified acquisition procedures financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... procedures financing. 32.003 Section 32.003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING 32.003 Simplified acquisition procedures financing. Unless agency regulations otherwise permit, contract financing shall not be provided...

  18. 48 CFR 219.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 219.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  19. 17 CFR 240.16a-6 - Small acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conditions: (1) Such acquisition, when aggregated with other acquisitions of securities of the same class... acquisitions that have not yet been reported must be reported on Form 4 before the end of the second...

  20. Manganese acquisition by Lactobacillus plantarum

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, F.S.; Duong, M.N.

    1984-04-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum has an unusually high Mn(II) requirement for growth and accumulated over 30 mM intracellular Mn(II). The acquisition of Mn(II) by L. plantarum occurred via a specific active transport system powered by the transmembrane proton gradient. The Mn(II) uptake system has a K/sub m/ of 0.2 ..mu..M and a V/sub max/ of 24 nmol mg/sup -1/ of protein min/sup -1/. Above a medium Mn(II) concentration of 200 ..mu..M, the intracellular Mn(II) level was independent of the medium Mn(II) and unresponsive to oxygen stresses but was reduced by phosphate limitation. At a pH of 5.5, citrate, isocitrate, and cis-aconitate effectively promoted MN(II) uptake, although measurable levels of 1,5-(/sup 14/C)citrate were not accumulated. When cells were presented with equimolar Mn(II) and Cd(II), Cd(II) was preferentially taken up by the Mn(II) transport system. Both Mn(II) and Cd(II) uptake were greatly increased by Mn(II) starvation. Mn(II) uptake by Mn(II)-starved cells was subject to a negative feedback regulatory mechanism functioning less than 1 min after exposure of the cells to Mn(II) and independent of protein synthesis. When presented with a relatively large amount of exogenous Mn(II), Mn(II)-starved cells exhibited a measurable efflux of their internal Mn(II), but the rate was only a small fraction of the maximal Mn(II) uptake rate.

  1. Electronic Flash In Data Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. E.

    1982-02-01

    Photographic acquisition of data often may be simplified, or the data quality improved upon by employing electronic flash sources with traditional equipment or techniques. The relatively short flash duration compared to movie camera shutters, or to the long integration time of video camera provides improved spatial resolution through blur reduction, particularly important as image movement becomes a significant fraction of film format dimension. Greater accuracy typically is achieved in velocity and acceleration determinations by using a stroboscopic light source rather than a movie camera frame-rate control as a time standard. Electrical efficiency often is an important advantage of electronic flash sources since almost any necessary light level for exposure may be produced, yet the source typically is "off" most of the time. Various synchronization techniques greatly expand the precise control of exposure. Biomechanical and sports equipment studies may involve velocities up to 200 feet-per-second, and often will have associated very rapid actions of interest. The need for brief exposures increases H.s one "ZOOMS in on the action." In golf, for example, the swing may be examined using 100 microsecond (Us) flashes at rates of 60 or 120 flashes-per-second (FPS). Accurate determination of linear and rotational velocity of the ball requires 10 Us flashes at 500-1,000 FPS, while sub-Us flashes at 20,000-50,000 FPS are required to resolve the interaction of the ball and the club, head. Some seldom. used techniques involving streak photography are described, with enhanced results obtained by combining strobe with the usual continuous light source. The combination of strobe and a fast electro-mechanical shutter is considered for Us photography under daylight conditions.

  2. SSC/BCD data acquisition system proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Barsotti, E.; Bowden, M.; Swoboda, C.

    1989-04-01

    The proposed new data acquisition system architecture takes event fragments off a detector over fiber optics and to a parallel event building switch. The parallel event building switch concept, taken from the telephone communications industry, along with expected technology improvements in fiber-optic data transmission speeds over the next few years, should allow data acquisition system rates to increase dramatically and exceed those rates needed for the SSC. This report briefly describes the switch architecture and fiber optics for a SSC data acquisition system.

  3. Evaluation of Resource Acquisition Approaches : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, Maura L.; Mortimer, Tom; Palermini, Debbi; Nelson, Kari

    1991-09-12

    Over the last few years, Bonneville has been addressing this need and has developed numerous ways of acquiring resources. Four of these Approaches, the Competitive Acquisition, Billing Credits, and Targeted Acquisition Programs, and the Cowlitz Falls Hydroelectric Project, were the subject of this evaluation project. Each Approach is currently in different stages of a process, and Bonneville felt it was an appropriate time that an evaluation be conducted. The purpose of this evaluation is to analyze the various Approaches` processes, to learn what`s working and what`s not, and to offer recommendations as to how Bonneville might improve their resources acquisition efforts. The evaluation was conducted with no preconceived biases.

  4. Acquisition of speech rhythm in first language.

    PubMed

    Polyanskaya, Leona; Ordin, Mikhail

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of English rhythm in speech produced by children and adults revealed that speech rhythm becomes increasingly more stress-timed as language acquisition progresses. Children reach the adult-like target by 11 to 12 years. The employed speech elicitation paradigm ensured that the sentences produced by adults and children at different ages were comparable in terms of lexical content, segmental composition, and phonotactic complexity. Detected differences between child and adult rhythm and between rhythm in child speech at various ages cannot be attributed to acquisition of phonotactic language features or vocabulary, and indicate the development of language-specific phonetic timing in the course of acquisition.

  5. A data acquisition architecture for the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge, R.

    1990-01-01

    An SSC data acquisition architecture applicable to high-p{sub T} detectors is described. The architecture is based upon a small set of design principles that were chosen to simplify communication between data acquisition elements while providing the required level of flexibility and performance. The architecture features an integrated system for data collection, event building, and communication with a large processing farm. The interface to the front end electronics system is also discussed. A set of design parameters is given for a data acquisition system that should meet the needs of high-p{sub T} detectors at the SSC.

  6. TFTR diagnostic control and data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauthoff, N. R.; Daniels, R. E.

    1985-05-01

    General computerized control and data-handling support for TFTR diagnostics is presented within the context of the Central Instrumentation, Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) System. Procedures, hardware, the interactive man-machine interface, event-driven task scheduling, system-wide arming and data acquisition, and a hierarchical data base of raw data and results are described. Similarities in data structures involved in control, monitoring, and data acquisition afford a simplification of the system functions, based on ``groups'' of devices. Emphases and optimizations appropriate for fusion diagnostic system designs are provided. An off-line data reduction computer system is under development.

  7. TFTR diagnostic control and data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Sauthoff, N.R.; Daniels, R.E.; PPL Computer Division

    1985-05-01

    General computerized control and data-handling support for TFTR diagnostics is presented within the context of the Central Instrumentation, Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) System. Procedures, hardware, the interactive man--machine interface, event-driven task scheduling, system-wide arming and data acquisition, and a hierarchical data base of raw data and results are described. Similarities in data structures involved in control, monitoring, and data acquisition afford a simplification of the system functions, based on ''groups'' of devices. Emphases and optimizations appropriate for fusion diagnostic system designs are provided. An off-line data reduction computer system is under development.

  8. 78 FR 21850 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of... Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to provide needed editorial changes. DATES: Effective Date: April...

  9. MDS-Plus data acquisition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Flor, G. ); Cazzaro, F.; Fregonese, G.; Stangherlin, S. )

    1990-10-01

    MDS-Plus, a model driven data acquisition system being jointly developed at Istituto Gas Ionizzati, MIT Plasma Fusion Center, and Los Alamos National Laboratory, is based on the concept of an experiment model. The model contains descriptions of experiment data, devices, and actions to be performed. The data acquisition engine, i.e., the part of the system which actually executes the acquisition process, is driven by the contents of the model itself and implemented as a set of independent processes. A scheduler keeps the data acquisition engine in step with a state machine reflecting the operation of the actual experiment; a dispatcher takes care of the appropriate sequencing of the operations associated with each state of the experiment; various servers actually execute actions on behalf of the dispatcher.

  10. Generative Research on Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eubank, Lynn

    1995-01-01

    Reviews recent trends in generative research on second language acquisition, focusing on the role of universal grammar, parameter resetting, and anaphoric binding. An annotated bibliography discusses five important works in the field. (61 references) (MDM)

  11. 23 CFR 710.309 - Acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ESTATE Project Development § 710.309 Acquisition. The process of acquiring real property includes appraisal, appraisal review, establishing just compensation, negotiations, administrative and legal... accordance with 49 CFR part 24....

  12. Acquisition of Crosswell Seismic Monitoring Data

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, T.M.; Niu, F.; Silver, P.G.; Majer, E.L.

    2008-02-15

    Crosswell seismic acquisition provides an ideal geometry for monitoring travel time changes in the subsurface. Analysis of delay time in terms of a characteristic frequency allows us to estimate optimal acquisition parameters (frequency and distance). We have deployed standard data acquisition equipment for continuous monitoring of crosswell travel time in two separate field experiments, with well spacing of 3 and 30 m. The acquisition hardware used for the field experiments is described, along with environmental effects (such as temperature) that influence the measurements. Two field experiments are described that correlate changes in travel time (and therefore velocity) with changes in barometric pressure. The results from the two field sites show a pressure sensitivity for velocity of 10{sup -6}/Pa to 10{sup -8}/Pa.

  13. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition are presented. Emphasis is placed on activities of the Deep Space Network and its associated ground facilities.

  14. 2 CFR 200.2 - Acquisition cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... acquisition cost in accordance with the non-Federal entity's regular accounting practices. ... and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT... accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). Ancillary charges, such as taxes,...

  15. Thermal (Silicon Diode) Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Ernest; Kegley, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center s X-ray Cryogenic Facility (XRCF) has been performing cryogenic testing to 20 Kelvin since 1999. Two configurations for acquiring data from silicon diode temperature sensors have been implemented at the facility. The facility's environment is recorded via a data acquisition system capable of reading up to 60 silicon diodes. Test article temperature is recorded by a second data acquisition system capable of reading 150+ silicon diodes. The specifications and architecture of both systems will be presented.

  16. Thermal (Silicon Diode) Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegley, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) has been performing cryogenic testing to 20 Kelvin since 1999. Two configurations for acquiring data from silicon diode temperature sensors have been implemented at the facility. The facility's environment is recorded via a data acquisition system capable of reading up to 60 silicon diodes. Test article temperature is recorded by a second data acquisition system capable of reading 150+ silicon diodes. The specifications and architecture of both systems will be presented.

  17. Positron Emission Mammography with Multiple Angle Acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Raymond R. Raylman

    2002-11-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in breast tumors with dedicated detectors typically has been accomplished with two planar detectors in a fixed position with the breast under compression. The potential use of PEM imaging at two detector positions to guide stereotactic breast biopsy has motivated us to use PEM coincidence data acquired at two or more detector positions together in a single image reconstruction. Multiple angle PEM acquisition and iterative image reconstruction were investigated using point source and compressed breast phantom acquisitions with 5, 9, 12 and 15 mm diameter spheres and a simulated tumor:background activity concentration ratio of 6:1. Image reconstruction was performed with an iterative MLEM algorithm that used coincidence events between any two detector pixels on opposed detector heads at each detector position. This present study compared two acquisition protocols: 2 angle acquisition with detector angular positions of -15 and +15 degrees and 11 angle acquisition with detector positions spaced at 3 degree increments over the range -15 to +15 degrees. Three- dimensional image resolution was assessed for the point source acquisitions, and contrast and signal-to-noise metrics were evaluated for the compressed breast phantom with different simulated tumor sizes. Radial and tangential resolutions were similar for the two protocols, while normal resolution was better for the 2 angle acquisition. Analysis is complicated by the asymmetric point spread functions. Signal- to-noise vs. contrast tradeoffs were better for 11 angle acquisition for the smallest visible 9 mm sphere, while tradeoff results were mixed for the larger and more easily visible 12 mm and 15 mm diameter spheres. Additional study is needed to better understand the performance of limited angle tomography for PEM. PEM tomography experiments with complete angular sampling are planned.

  18. Positron Emission Mammography with Multiple Angle Acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Raymond R. Raylman

    2002-11-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FbG) uptake in breast tumors with dedicated detectors typically has been accomplished with two planar detectors in a fixed position with the breast under compression. The potential use of PEM imaging at two detector positions to guide stereotactic breast biopsy has motivated us to use PEM coincidence data acquired at two or more detector positions together in a single image reconstruction. Multiple angle PEM acquisition and iterative image reconstruction were investigated using point source and compressed breast phantom acquisitions with 5, 9, 12 and 15 mm diameter spheres and a simulated tumor:background activity concentration ratio of 6:1. Image reconstruction was performed with an iterative MLEM algorithm that used coincidence events between any two detector pixels on opposed detector heads at each detector position. This present study compared two acquisition protocols: 2 angle acquisition with detector angular positions of -15 and +15 degrees and 11 angle acquisition with detector positions spaced at 3 degree increments over the range -15 to +15 degrees. Three-dimensional image resolution was assessed for the point source acquisitions, and contrast and signal-to-noise metrics were evaluated for the compressed breast phantom with different simulated tumor sizes. Radial and tangential resolutions were similar for the two protocols, while normal resolution was better for the 2 angle acquisition. Analysis is complicated by the asymmetric point spread functions. Signal- to-noise vs. contrast tradeoffs were better for 11 angle acquisition for the smallest visible 9 mm sphere, while tradeoff results were mixed for the larger and more easily visible 12 mm and 15 mm diameter spheres. Additional study is needed to better understand the performance of limited angle tomography for PEM. PEM tomography experiments with complete angular sampling are planned.

  19. Updated NGNP Fuel Acquisition Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    David Petti; Tim Abram; Richard Hobbins; Jim Kendall

    2010-12-01

    A Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) fuel acquisition strategy was first established in 2007. In that report, a detailed technical assessment of potential fuel vendors for the first core of NGNP was conducted by an independent group of international experts based on input from the three major reactor vendor teams. Part of the assessment included an evaluation of the credibility of each option, along with a cost and schedule to implement each strategy compared with the schedule and throughput needs of the NGNP project. While credible options were identified based on the conditions in place at the time, many changes in the assumptions underlying the strategy and in externalities that have occurred in the interim requiring that the options be re-evaluated. This document presents an update to that strategy based on current capabilities for fuel fabrication as well as fuel performance and qualification testing worldwide. In light of the recent Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) project closure, the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) fuel development and qualification program needs to support both pebble and prismatic options under the NGNP project. A number of assumptions were established that formed a context for the evaluation. Of these, the most important are: • Based on logistics associated with the on-going engineering design activities, vendor teams would start preliminary design in October 2012 and complete in May 2014. A decision on reactor type will be made following preliminary design, with the decision process assumed to be completed in January 2015. Thus, no fuel decision (pebble or prismatic) will be made in the near term. • Activities necessary for both pebble and prismatic fuel qualification will be conducted in parallel until a fuel form selection is made. As such, process development, fuel fabrication, irradiation, and testing for pebble and prismatic options should not negatively influence each other during the period prior to a decision on reactor type

  20. Measurement and Controls Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Rick; Daniel, Alice; Batts, Frank E., Sr.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement and Controls Data Acquisition System (MCDAS) is an application program that integrates the functions of two stand-alone programs: one for acquisition of data, the other for controls. MCDAS facilitates and improves testing of complex engineering systems by helping to perform calibration and setup of test systems and acquisition, dissemination, and processing of data. Features of MCDAS include an intuitive, user-friendly graphical user interface, a capability for acquiring data at rates greater than previously possible, cooperation between the data-acquisition software subsystem and alarm-checking and analytical components of the control software subsystem, and a capability for dissemination of data through fiber optics and virtual and wide-area networks, including networks that contain hand-held display units. The integration of the data acquisition and control software offers a safety advantage by making alarm information available to the control software in a more timely manner. By enabling the use of hand-held devices, MCDAS reduces the time spent by technicians asking for screen updates to determine effects of setup actions. Previously recorded data can be processed without interruption to current acquisition of data. Analysts can continue to view test parameters while test-data files are being generated.

  1. 76 FR 31393 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-52; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... implement Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, and... specified, all Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) ] and other directive material contained in FAC...

  2. 10 CFR 626.4 - General acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.4 General acquisition strategy. (a) Criteria for commencing acquisition. To reduce... prior to commencing acquisition of petroleum for the SPR: (1) The current inventory of the SPR; (2)...

  3. 49 CFR 24.102 - Basic acquisition policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basic acquisition policies. 24.102 Section 24.102... ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Real Property Acquisition § 24.102 Basic acquisition... the owner in writing of the Agency's interest in acquiring the real property and the basic...

  4. 49 CFR 24.102 - Basic acquisition policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basic acquisition policies. 24.102 Section 24.102... ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Real Property Acquisition § 24.102 Basic acquisition... the owner in writing of the Agency's interest in acquiring the real property and the basic...

  5. 49 CFR 24.102 - Basic acquisition policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basic acquisition policies. 24.102 Section 24.102... ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Real Property Acquisition § 24.102 Basic acquisition... the owner in writing of the Agency's interest in acquiring the real property and the basic...

  6. 48 CFR 25.1101 - Acquisition of supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition of supplies... supplies. The following provisions and clauses apply to the acquisition of supplies and the acquisition of services involving the furnishing of supplies. (a)(1) Insert the clause at 52.225-1, Buy American...

  7. 48 CFR Appendix - Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Index

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Index Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT USE OF GOVERNMENT SOURCES BY CONTRACTORS Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Contract clause. FAR Index...

  8. 48 CFR Appendix - Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Index

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Index Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT USE OF GOVERNMENT SOURCES BY CONTRACTORS Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Contract clause. FAR Index...

  9. 48 CFR Appendix - Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Index

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Index Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT USE OF GOVERNMENT SOURCES BY CONTRACTORS Contractor Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Contract clause. FAR Index...

  10. 48 CFR 1319.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 1319.502 Section 1319.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 1319.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  11. 48 CFR 819.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 819.502 Section 819.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 819.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  12. A Research on Second Language Acquisition and College English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Changyu

    2009-01-01

    It was in the 1970s that American linguist S.D. Krashen created the theory of "language acquisition". The theories on second language acquisition were proposed based on the study on the second language acquisition process and its rules. Here, the second language acquisition process refers to the process in which a learner with the…

  13. 48 CFR 7.105 - Contents of written acquisition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... information that requires additional controls to monitor access and distribution (e.g., technical... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents of written acquisition plans. 7.105 Section 7.105 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION...

  14. 48 CFR 301.270 - Executive Committee for Acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... acquisition policies and procedures and to share successful acquisition practices. (b) The ECA consists of members and alternates from the following organizations: (1) ASFR/Office of Grants and Acquisition Policy and Accountability (OGAPA)/Division of Acquisition (DA). (2) Agency for Healthcare Research...

  15. 48 CFR 301.270 - Executive Committee for Acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... acquisition policies and procedures and to share successful acquisition practices. (b) The ECA consists of members and alternates from the following organizations: (1) ASFR/Office of Grants and Acquisition Policy and Accountability (OGAPA)/Division of Acquisition (DA). (2) Agency for Healthcare Research...

  16. 48 CFR 301.270 - Executive Committee for Acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... acquisition policies and procedures and to share successful acquisition practices. (b) The ECA consists of members and alternates from the following organizations: (1) ASFR/Office of Grants and Acquisition Policy and Accountability (OGAPA)/Division of Acquisition (DA). (2) Agency for Healthcare Research...

  17. 48 CFR 301.270 - Executive Committee for Acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... acquisition policies and procedures and to share successful acquisition practices. (b) The ECA consists of members and alternates from the following organizations: (1) ASFR/Office of Grants and Acquisition Policy and Accountability (OGAPA)/Division of Acquisition (DA). (2) Agency for Healthcare Research...

  18. 76 FR 18303 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-51; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ...-51; Introduction; Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Program; Clarification of Standard Form 26--Award...; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-51; Introduction AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services...) rules agreed to by DoD, GSA, and NASA in this Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-51. A...

  19. 78 FR 38234 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Requirements for Acquisitions Pursuant to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Requirements for Acquisitions Pursuant to Multiple Award Contracts (DFARS... INFORMATION: I. Background On October 25, 2002, a final DFARS rule was published (67 FR 65505) which... pursuant to multiple award contracts. Increasing savings in expenditures through competition is...

  20. Grammatical Acquisition: Inductive Bias and Coevolution of Language and the Language Acquisition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Ted

    2000-01-01

    An account of grammatical acquisition is developed within the parameter setting framework applied to a generalized categorical grammar (GCG). Computational simulation shows that several resulting acquisition procedures are effective on a parameter set expressing major typological distinctions based on constituent order, and defining 70 distinct…

  1. 75 FR 18035 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisitions in Support of Operations in Iraq...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Background DoD published an interim rule at 73 FR 53151 on September 15, 2008, to..., 225, and 252, which was published at 73 FR 53151, September 15, 2008, is adopted as a final rule with... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisitions in Support of Operations in Iraq or Afghanistan (DFARS...

  2. 12 CFR 335.331 - Acquisition statements, acquisition of securities by issuers, and other matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acquisition statements, acquisition of securities by issuers, and other matters. 335.331 Section 335.331 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY SECURITIES OF NONMEMBER INSURED BANKS §...

  3. Societal Responses to Adult Difficulties in L2 Acquisition: Toward an Evolutionary Perspective on Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that second language (L2) acquisition becomes more difficult as one grows older and that success in adult L2 acquisition is highly variable. Nevertheless, humans in language contact situations have to cope with intergroup communication. This article examines the ways society has responded to this challenge. It describes…

  4. 76 FR 44280 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Simplified Acquisition Threshold for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Regulation Supplement; Simplified Acquisition Threshold for Humanitarian or Peacekeeping Operations (DFARS... humanitarian or peacekeeping operation. The current simplified acquisition threshold is $150,000 as specified... against the United States; and (c) In support of a humanitarian or peacekeeping operation. The first...

  5. 76 FR 71833 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Simplified Acquisition Threshold for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... in the Federal Register at 76 FR 44280 on July 25, 2011, to amend the Defense Federal Acquisition... amending 48 CFR parts 202 and 218, which was published at 76 FR 44280 on July 25, 2011, is adopted as a... Regulation Supplement: Simplified Acquisition Threshold for Humanitarian or Peacekeeping Operations...

  6. Managing Uncertainty during a Corporate Acquisition: A Longitudinal Study of Communication During an Airline Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Michael W.; Dougherty, Debbie S.; Pierce, Tamyra A.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined pilots' (N at T1 = 140; N at T2 = 126; N at T3 = 104) reactions to communication and uncertainty during the acquisition of their airline by another airline. Quantitative results indicate that communication helped to reduce uncertainty and was predictive of affective responses to the acquisition. However, contrary to…

  7. 75 FR 38691 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-43; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-43; Small Entity Compliance Guide AGENCIES... Administration (NASA). ACTION: Small Entity Compliance Guide. SUMMARY: This document is issued under the joint... National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This Small Entity Compliance Guide has been prepared...

  8. 78 FR 13544 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Acquisition of Tents and Other Temporary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Acquisition of Tents and Other Temporary Structures (DFARS Case 2012-D015... other temporary structures. DATES: Effective February 28, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Fernell... in the Federal Register (77 FR 38734) on June ] 29, 2012, to implement sections 368 and 821 of...

  9. 75 FR 45072 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Inflation Adjustment of Acquisition-Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... (71 FR 75891). This is the second review of DFARS acquisition-related thresholds. DoD published a proposed rule on January 20, 2010 (75 FR 3187). The preamble to the proposed rule contained a detailed...; Inflation Adjustment of Acquisition-Related Thresholds (DFARS Case 2009-D003) AGENCY: Defense...

  10. Women's beliefs concerning condom acquisition and use.

    PubMed

    Libbus, K

    1995-10-01

    Condoms are a time-honored and reliable method of protection against pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. However, their use, and thus their effectiveness, is determined by individual behavior. The purpose of this paper is to report attitudes and salient beliefs related to condom use in a sample of adult women. The study used Ajzen and Fishbein's Theory of Planned Behavior to identify modal, salient beliefs regarding condom acquisition and use as intentional behaviors. The study sample consisted of 58 community women who reported using condoms for contraceptive purposes within the last five years. In face-to-face, audiotaped interviews, open-ended questions were used to solicit beliefs regarding condom acquisition and use. All subject narratives were content-analyzed for recurrent themes. Women cited accessibility and effectiveness in preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases as both advantages and as factors contributing to the ease of acquisition and use. Disadvantages and factors that might deter condom acquisition and use included embarrassment, objections by male partner, and effect on spontaneity. Overall, subjects exhibited accurate knowledge regarding the benefits of condom acquisition and use. However, it is possible that expressed negative beliefs could take precedence in decision-making and reduce the probability of consistent condom use. PMID:7479543

  11. Implicit learning and acquisition of music.

    PubMed

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Rebuschat, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    Implicit learning is a core process for the acquisition of a complex, rule-based environment from mere interaction, such as motor action, skill acquisition, or language. A body of evidence suggests that implicit knowledge governs music acquisition and perception in nonmusicians and musicians, and that both expert and nonexpert participants acquire complex melodic, harmonic, and other features from mere exposure. While current findings and computational modeling largely support the learning of chunks, some results indicate learning of more complex structures. Despite the body of evidence, more research is required to support the cross-cultural validity of implicit learning and to show that core and more complex music theoretical features are acquired implicitly. PMID:23060126

  12. Hunger promotes acquisition of nonfood objects

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Alison Jing; Schwarz, Norbert; Wyer, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Hunger motivates people to consume food, for which finding and acquiring food is a prerequisite. We test whether the acquisition component spills over to nonfood objects: Are hungry people more likely to acquire objects that cannot satisfy their hunger? Five laboratory and field studies show that hunger increases the accessibility of acquisition-related concepts and the intention to acquire not only food but also nonfood objects. Moreover, people act on this intention and acquire more nonfood objects (e.g., binder clips) when they are hungry, both when these items are freely available and when they must be paid for. However, hunger does not influence how much they like nonfood objects. We conclude that a basic biologically based motivation can affect substantively unrelated behaviors that cannot satisfy the motivation. This presumably occurs because hunger renders acquisition-related concepts and behaviors more accessible, which influences decisions in situations to which they can be applied. PMID:25730858

  13. DAQMAN - A flexible configurable data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Sivertz, Michael; Larry Hoff, Seth Nemesure

    2012-08-01

    DAQMAN is a flexible configurable interface that allows the user to build and operate a VME-based data acquisition system on a Linux workstation. It consists of two parts: a Java-based Graphical User Interface to configure the system, and a C-based utility that reads out the data and creates the output ASCII data file, with two levels of diagnostic tools. The data acquisition system requires a CAEN CONET-VME Bridge to communicate between the hardware in the VME crate and the Linux workstation. Data acquisition modules, such as ADCs, TDC, Scalers, can be loaded into the system, or removed easily. The GUI allows users to activate modules, and channels within modules by clicking on icons. Running configurations are stored; data are collected and can be viewed either as raw numbers, or by charts and histograms that update as the data are accumulated. Data files are written to disk in ASCII format, with a date and time stamp.

  14. Optimisation of acquisition time in bioluminescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Shelley L.; Mason, Suzannah K. G.; Glinton, Sophie; Cobbold, Mark; Styles, Iain B.; Dehghani, Hamid

    2015-03-01

    Decreasing the acquisition time in bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and bioluminescence tomography (BLT) will enable animals to be imaged within the window of stable emission of the bioluminescent source, a higher imaging throughput and minimisation of the time which an animal is anaesthetised. This work investigates, through simulation using a heterogeneous mouse model, two methods of decreasing acquisition time: 1. Imaging at fewer wavelengths (a reduction from five to three); and 2. Increasing the bandwidth of filters used for imaging. The results indicate that both methods are viable ways of decreasing the acquisition time without a loss in quantitative accuracy. Importantly, when choosing imaging wavelengths, the spectral attenuation of tissue and emission spectrum of the source must be considered, in order to choose wavelengths at which a high signal can be achieved. Additionally, when increasing the bandwidth of the filters used for imaging, the bandwidth must be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm.

  15. Data acquisition at a residential photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, J. M.; Miller, G. N.

    A description is presented of the techniques employed for data collection and analysis in the study of a small residential photovoltaic (PV) system. A model home of approximately 139 sq m incorporated a PV array on the south-facing roof. The PV system was designed to interface directly to the local utility system through an inverter which converted the direct current output of the array to 60 Hz alternating current. Electric power could flow either from the utility lines into the house or vice versa. The solar panel consisted of 120 modules installed in a 5 x 24 array. Attention is given to initial problems, the conduction of a systems analysis, the data collection method, the equipment used in the data acquisition system, aspects of data collection, the encountered problems, and the results of the data acquisition project. It was found that the data acquisition system employed was effective for computer-compatible data collection.

  16. Data Acquisition System for Instructional Spectroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, C. B. S. B.; Hetem, A.

    2014-10-01

    This article aims to present the software for data acquisition developed in scientific initiation program - IC, for use in the design of a spectrometer built by students. The program was built in C++, a language in wide use today. The origin of spectra used is a simplified model of rustic spectroscope. This equipment basically consists of a box that does not allow light to enter, except through a slit made in the side of it, a diffraction media and a camera for data acquisition. After the image acquisition, one executes the data processing, followed by the usual steps of reduction and analysis of this type of tool. We have implemented a method for calibrating the spectroscope, through which one can compare the incidence of the photons with characteristic of each monochromatic wave. The final result is a one-dimensional spectrum that can be subsequently analyzed.

  17. Sample Acquisition Techniques for Exobiology Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Carle, Glenn C.; Stratton, David M.; Valentin, Jose R.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Exobiology Flight Experiments involve complex analyses conducted in environments far different than those encountered in terrestrial applications. A major part of the analytical challenge is often the selection, acquisition, delivery and, in some cases, processing of a sample suitable for the analytical requirements of the mission. The added complications of severely limited resources and sometimes rigid time constraints combine to make sample acquisition potentially a major obstacle for successful analyses. Potential samples come in a wide range including planetary atmospheric gas and aerosols (from a wide variety of pressures), planetary soil or rocks, dust and ice particles streaming off of a comet, and cemetery surface ice and rocks. Methods to collect and process sample are often mission specific, requiring continual development of innovative concepts and mechanisms. These methods must also maintain the integrity of the sample for the experimental results to be meaningful. We present here sample acquisition systems employed from past missions and proposed for future missions.

  18. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    A measurement acquisition method that alleviates many shortcomings of traditional measurement systems is presented in this paper. The shortcomings are a finite number of measurement channels, weight penalty associated with measurements, electrical arcing, wire degradations due to wear or chemical decay and the logistics needed to add new sensors. The key to this method is the use of sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits that produce magnetic field responses. The response attributes correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. A radio frequency antenna produces a time-varying magnetic field used to power the sensor and receive the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation system for discerning changes in the sensor response is presented herein. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method. The method eliminates the need for a data acquisition channel dedicated to each sensor. Methods of developing magnetic field response sensors and the influence of key parameters on measurement acquisition are discussed.

  19. Hunger promotes acquisition of nonfood objects.

    PubMed

    Xu, Alison Jing; Schwarz, Norbert; Wyer, Robert S

    2015-03-01

    Hunger motivates people to consume food, for which finding and acquiring food is a prerequisite. We test whether the acquisition component spills over to nonfood objects: Are hungry people more likely to acquire objects that cannot satisfy their hunger? Five laboratory and field studies show that hunger increases the accessibility of acquisition-related concepts and the intention to acquire not only food but also nonfood objects. Moreover, people act on this intention and acquire more nonfood objects (e.g., binder clips) when they are hungry, both when these items are freely available and when they must be paid for. However, hunger does not influence how much they like nonfood objects. We conclude that a basic biologically based motivation can affect substantively unrelated behaviors that cannot satisfy the motivation. This presumably occurs because hunger renders acquisition-related concepts and behaviors more accessible, which influences decisions in situations to which they can be applied.

  20. 78 FR 63461 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Foreign...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Foreign Acquisition AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of...) 372-6094. Mail: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Attn: Amy Williams, OUSD(AT&L)DPAP(DARS),...

  1. Diazepam and learning: assessment of acquisition deficits.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, J V; Mewaldt, S P; Ghoneim, M M; Berie, J L

    1982-07-01

    Subjects treated with diazepam (0.3 mg/kg) showed significant reductions in performance on multiple-trial free recall, paired-associate learning, and serial learning tasks compared to placebo control subjects. The free recall task showed the largest drug effect with diazepam subjects failing in six acquisition trials to attain the level of performance achieved by placebo subjects on the first trial. Serial position curves in the serial learning task were changed by the diazepam treatment from their usual skewed form to symmetrical functions. Results indicate that diazepam exerts its greatest memory influence on the acquisition of new information.

  2. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, L. W.; Way, J. D.; Vlasse, M.

    2001-01-01

    The CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM) project will develop, test, and analyze membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The CAM technology will enable passive separation of these gases, allow energy efficient acquisition and purification of these important resources, and lay the foundation for future unmanned sample return and human space missions. The CAM membranes are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications, such as In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) and In Situ Consumables Production (ISCP).

  3. COS FUV Target Acquisition Algorithm Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderblom, David

    2009-07-01

    Verify the ability of the COS FSW to place an isolated point source at the center of the aperture, both for the BOA and PSA, using dispersed light from the object using the FUV gratings. The various options for target centering should be exercised and shown to work properly. This test is for acquisitions in dispersed-light mode only. This program is modeled from SMOV activity summary COS28.This program should be executed two or more weeks after visit 12 of 11469, and after the SIAF update, so that we have confirmed that NUV imaging acquisitions work properly with the BOA.

  4. Strategic petroleum reserve data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Merillat, P D; Bauer, A G

    1980-10-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve Data Acquisition System is a general purpose, digital data acquisition system designed for field use in the DOE's Strategic Petroleum Reserve testing and monitoring program. The system is computer driven, under the control of an operator. The system is designed to allow the operator to perform pre-test system configuration; test monitoring and control; and post test analysis. This document is a system description and an operator users manual. Topics covered include: configuration and running on-line tests, software documentation, and maintenance programming information.

  5. Draft Automatic Data Acquisition System Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    This Automatic Data Acquisition System (ADAS) Plan has been prepared in support of the requirement for detailed site characterization of the Deaf Smith County candidate repository site in salt, and describes the data acquisition system which will be used for unattended data collection from the geotechnical instrumentation installed at the site. Section 1.1 discusses the programmatic background to the plan, Section 1.2 presents the scope and purpose of the plan, and the organization of the document is given in Section 1.3. 31 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Modulated Acquisition of Spatial Distortion Maps

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Alexey; Gros, Jerneja Žganec; Žganec, Mario; Javornik, Tomaž; Švigelj, Aleš

    2013-01-01

    This work discusses a novel approach to image acquisition which improves the robustness of captured data required for 3D range measurements. By applying a pseudo-random code modulation to sequential acquisition of projected patterns the impact of environmental factors such as ambient light and mutual interference is significantly reduced. The proposed concept has been proven with an experimental range sensor based on the laser triangulation principle. The proposed design can potentially enhance the use of this principle to a variety of outdoor applications, such as autonomous vehicles, pedestrians' safety, collision avoidance, and many other tasks, where robust real-time distance detection in real world environment is crucial. PMID:23966196

  7. Multitasking in a data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Microprocessors and microcomputers have been employed widely in data acquisition applications due to low cost and the ease of adapting the microcomputer to changing or altered requirements. Multitasking offers ways of getting more performance from a microcomputer and also a means of designing a system which by its nature is easily changed to meet new requirements. The term multitasking is used to include definitions of multitasking and multiprogramming: multitasking-performing various related functions of the same job, e.g. data acquisition and data logging (recording); multiprogramming-performing possibly unrelated jobs concurrently.

  8. Interactive specification acquisition via scenarios: A proposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    Some reactive systems are most naturally specified by giving large collections of behavior scenarios. These collections not only specify the behavior of the system, but also provide good test suites for validating the implemented system. Due to the complexity of the systems and the number of scenarios, however, it appears that automated assistance is necessary to make this software development process workable. Interactive Specification Acquisition Tool (ISAT) is a proposed interactive system for supporting the acquisition and maintenance of a formal system specification from scenarios, as well as automatic synthesis of control code and automated test generation. This paper discusses the background, motivation, proposed functions, and implementation status of ISAT.

  9. Preschool foundations of early reading acquisition.

    PubMed

    Rvachew, Susan; Savage, Robert

    2006-11-01

    The present paper describes research on the skills and processes associated with word and text reading acquisition in preschool children and during the first years of school. The aim is to provide an overview that gives a sense of the important milestones in language and literacy acquisition. A comparison of children's performances against these milestones may thus guide effective intervention for health professionals, parents and other professionals. Also summarized and explored are the role of speech perception and production, grammatical and syntactic skills, and metacognitive skills, including phonological awareness. PMID:19030330

  10. On Teaching Strategies in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    How to acquire a second language is a question of obvious importance to teachers and language learners, and how to teach a second language has also become a matter of concern to the linguists' interest in the nature of primary linguistic data. Starting with the development stages of second language acquisition and Stephen Krashen's theory, this…

  11. Can Communicative Principles Enhance Classical Language Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overland, Paul; Fields, Lee; Noonan, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Is it feasible for nonfluent instructors to teach Biblical Hebrew by communicative principles? If it is feasible, will communicative instruction enhance postsecondary learning of a classical language? To begin answering these questions, two consultants representing second language acquisition (SLA) and technology-assisted language learning led 8…

  12. The Reading Venture: Accelerating Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sifontes, Aida I.; Baez, Dodie

    This presentation describes how to use reading to improve second language acquisition. Part 1, "Building Awareness of Reading Habits and Attitudes," has students report their habits and attitudes about reading in English and their native language and recognize the importance of reading for improving English skills. Part 2, "Choosing a Book," has…

  13. Dumand-array data-acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, A.E.; Theriot, D.; Dau, W.D.; Geelhood, B.D.; Harris, F.; Learned, J.G.; Stenger, V.; March, R.; Roos, C.; Shumard, E.

    1982-04-01

    An overall data acquisition approach for DUMAND is described. The scheme assumes one array to shore optical fiber transmission line for each string of the array. The basic event sampling period is approx. 13 ..mu..sec. All potentially interesting data is transmitted to shore where the major processing is performed.

  14. Nativization, Linguistic Theory, and Deaf Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, James Paul; Goodhart, Wendy

    1985-01-01

    Considers the acquisition of language by deaf children of deaf parents and by deaf children of hearing parents in the light of such linguistic theories as Andersen's "nativization-denativization" and Bickerton's "bioprograms." Findings both support the theories and bring to light complexities that the theories do not exactly explain. (SED)

  15. Materials Acquisition Project: Volume 1, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego City Schools, CA.

    The first in a series of publications developed by the Materials Acquisition Project, this booklet contains annotations of potentially useful educational materials from prekindergarten through grade 12 that have been acquired from Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries. Annotated listings include reference to source, availability, cost, and…

  16. Language Teaching and Acquisition of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari; Lehtonen, Jaakko

    A theoretical linguistic model is insufficient to deal with the problems of language teaching because of the complexity of the phenomena concerned and the dynamic nature of language acquisition and communication. Most linguistic models neglect the fact that, in communicative situations, language users construct the prerequisites of communicative…

  17. Toward More Substantial Theories of Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, Cinnamon Ann

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive linguists argue that certain sets of knowledge of language are innate. However, critics have argued that the theoretical concept of "innateness" should be eliminated since it is ambiguous and insubstantial. In response, I aim to strengthen theories of language acquisition and identify ways to make them more substantial. I…

  18. Acquisitions List No. 41, January 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The Acquisitions List of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katherine Dexter-McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  19. Acquisitions List No. 39, October 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The Acquisitions List of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  20. Modeling the Distinct Phases of Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenison, Caitlin; Anderson, John R.

    2016-01-01

    A focus of early mathematics education is to build fluency through practice. Several models of skill acquisition have sought to explain the increase in fluency because of practice by modeling both the learning mechanisms driving this speedup and the changes in cognitive processes involved in executing the skill (such as transitioning from…

  1. Microprocessor-Based Laboratory Data Acquisition Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, F. E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on attributes of microcomputer systems which affect their usefulness in a laboratory environment. In addition to presenting general concepts, comments are made regarding the implementation of these concepts using a microprocessor-based data acquisition system developed at the University of North Carolina. (CO)

  2. Language Acquisition through Modeling and Imitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, George Takashi

    Two environmental learning conditions based on generative linguistics were tested to determine whether they could induce in children (in grades 1-3) the acquisition of the rules of metaphors and the subsequent generation of metaphors based on the acquired rules. The first modeling condition (MC-1) emphasized the verbal-interaction effect: the…

  3. Grapheme-Phoneme Acquisition of Deaf Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.; Lederberg, Amy R.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined acquisition of grapheme-phoneme correspondences by 4 deaf and hard-of-hearing preschoolers using instruction from a curriculum designed specifically for this population supplemented by Visual Phonics. Learning was documented through a multiple baseline across content design as well as descriptive analyses. Preschoolers who used sign…

  4. Rad Chem data acquisition chassis users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.A.

    1980-01-24

    The Shiva Laser at LLL requires many forms of diagnostics to measure and analyze fusion experiments. This manual describes the operation of a Micro-Processor controlled data acquisition system designed at LLL to measure Neutron Activation during fusion experiments on the Shiva Laser.

  5. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) are provided. Activities of the Deep Space Network and its associated Ground Communications Facility in planning, in supporting research and technology, in implementation, and in operations are reported in space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy.

  6. Diachronic Change: Early versus Late Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerman, Fred

    2011-01-01

    There is a long linguistic tradition in which language change is explained in terms of first language acquisition. In this tradition, children are considered to be the agents of language change, or at least the agents of changes in the underlying grammar. Since the early 1980s, this has been formulated in the (generative) terminology in terms of…

  7. Making practice retirement acquisition work for you.

    PubMed

    Holdren, R C

    1992-01-01

    Author Richard Holdren writes that medical practice acquisition can have a dramatic impact on hospital and group practice revenue in a "zero-sum game," where both parties are competing for a shrinking patient and dollar base. Holdren describes how such a program is built on the concepts of support management and "grow your own." PMID:10116646

  8. Cerebral Dominance, Language Acquisition, and Foreign Accents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scovel, Tom

    1969-01-01

    Implicit in the discussion of views taken by Wolfe, Geschwind, and Newmark is a claim that no learning theory based solely on "nurture" can account for the fact that language acquisition in childhood is a trait, in adulthood a skill. The child can master the language system completely, regardless of his intellectual capacity or his social…

  9. Motor Acquisition Rate in Brazilian Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Virlaine Bardella; de Lima, Carolina Daniel; Tudella, Eloisa

    2009-01-01

    This study used the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) with the aim of characterizing motor acquisition rate in 70 healthy 0-6-month-old Brazilian infants, as well as comparing both emergence (initial age) and establishment (final age) of each skill between the study sample and the AIMS normative data. New motor skills were continuously acquired…

  10. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Archival reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) are presented. Activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) and its associated Ground Communications Facility (GCF) related to DSN advanced systems, systems implementation, and DSN operations are addressed. In addition, recent developments in the NASA SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) sky survey are summarized.

  11. Extended, Embodied Cognition and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    A "cognitivist" approach to cognition has traditionally dominated second language acquisition (SLA) studies. In this article, I examine two alternative approaches--"extended cognition" and "embodied cognition"--for how they might help us conceptualize SLA. More specifically, I present: (i) summaries of extended and embodied cognition, followed by…

  12. Foreign Language Acquisition and Melody Singing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Carmen Fonseca

    2000-01-01

    Considers the value of relating music and language in the English-as-Foreign-Language (EFL) classroom. This "melodic" approach is based on evidence that musicality of speech has an effect not only on the pronunciation skills of EFL students but also their entire acquisition process. (Author/VWL)

  13. Guidelines for dynamic data acquisition and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piersol, Allan G.

    1992-01-01

    The recommendations concerning pyroshock data presented in the final draft of a proposed military handbook on Guidelines for Dynamic Data Acquisition and Analysis are reviewed. The structural responses produced by pyroshocks are considered to be one of the most difficult types of dynamic data to accurately measure and analyze.

  14. Organizational Newcomers' Acquisition of Information from Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Debra R.

    1991-01-01

    Studies the processes by which organizational newcomers acquire information from their peers. Indicates types of information acquired, channels through which they acquire it, and the relationship between type and channel. Suggests that information acquisition is affected by type of organization, newcomer-peer work interactions, and newcomer…

  15. The Acquisition of Evidentiality and Source Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Ozge; Papafragou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Evidentiality in language marks how information contained in a sentence was acquired. For instance, Turkish has two past-tense morphemes that mark whether access to information was direct (typically, perception) or indirect (hearsay/inference). Full acquisition of evidential systems appears to be a late achievement cross-linguistically. Currently,…

  16. NASA's acquisition requirements for configuration management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coletta, Mark P.

    1992-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on NASA's acquisition requirements for configuration management (CM) goes over CM requirements for single mission and multi-mission orientations, CM automation and CALS implementation initiatives, NASA implementation of DOD standards and DID's (data item descriptions), impact of traceability in NASA CM support, NASA's CM efforts in modifying/upgrading equipment, and CM control of multi-vendor hardware.

  17. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable...

  18. Data acquisition for FNAL E665

    SciTech Connect

    Geesaman, D.F.; Green, M.C.; Kaufman, S.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Bartlett, J.F.; Melanson, H.L.; Petravick, D.; Michael, D.G.; McLeod, D.; Vidal, M.

    1989-01-01

    The data acquisition system for FNAL E665, an experiment to study deep inelastic muon scattering from nucleons and nuclei, is described. The system is built with the FNAL VAXONLINE and RSX DA building blocks. The structure, capabilities and limitations for data flow, control and monitoring are discussed. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Psycholinguistic Techniques in Second Language Acquisition Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinis, Theodore

    2003-01-01

    Presents the benefits of using online methodologies in second language acquisition (SLA) research. Provides a selection of online experiments that have been widely used in first and second language processing studies that are suitable for SLA research and discusses the hardware and software packages required for setting up a psycholinguistic…

  20. 78 FR 35195 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... of Defense Acquisition Regulations (DFARS) (DFARS Case 2004-D010, 75 FR 18030, Apr. 8, 2010): 1. Part... reactors, nuclear enrichment and reprocessing facilities, heavy water production facilities, related... Executive Order 12866, ``Regulatory Planning and Review,'' 58 FR 51735 (October 4, 1993). Accordingly,...

  1. Second Language Acquisition Theory and Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R., Ed.; And Others

    Selected papers on second language acquisition and instruction from the University of Wisconsin at Madison symposium include the following: "Learning and Teaching: The Necessary Intersection" (Susan M. Gass); "Reenvisioning the Second Language Classroom: A Vygotskian Approach" (Linda Schinke-Llano); "The FOCAL SKILLS Approach: An Assessment"…

  2. Precursors to Onset Clusters in Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierut, Judith A.; O'Connor, Kathleen M.

    2002-01-01

    Two lawful relationships involving word-initial onset clusters have been advanced in the acquisition literature; namely, that clusters imply affricates, and that liquid clusters imply a liquid distinction. This study evaluated and extended the validity of these implicational laws in a population of 110 children (aged 3;0 to 8;6) with functional…

  3. Acquisition speed comparison of microscope software programs.

    PubMed

    Biehlmaier, Oliver; Hehl, Joachim; Csucs, Gabor

    2011-06-01

    Reliable software is a prerequisite for successful operation of a modern wide field fluorescence microscope. When used for live cell imaging, acquisition speed is of particular interest. This is both because biological processes can be highly-dynamic, and to avoid unnecessary photobleaching and phototoxicity of living samples. This article shows that besides the hardware (microscope) components themselves, the acquisition control software is an important influencing factor of speed performance. We tested and compared the speed performance of five different generic applications (Image-Pro Plus, MetaMorph, Micro-Manager, SlideBook, and Volocity) using typical experimental setups involving a single specific state-of-the-art fluorescence microscope configuration. The test measurements included multichannel experiments, z-stacking, burst acquisition, as well as combinations of these measurements with time-lapse acquisitions. The measured data provided values for guiding the testing and analysis of other microscope systems with similar configurations. Despite the identical hardware settings, significant and surprisingly large speed differences were evident among the various software applications. Additionally, no application was identifiable as the fastest in all tests. Our work pinpoints the importance of the control software in determining a system's "real" maximal imaging speed. The study could serve as basis for further tests, eventually influencing the system selection criteria for speed-sensitive applications. PMID:21604324

  4. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations is documented. In addition, developments in Earth-based radio technology as applied to geodynamics, astrophysics and the radio search for extraterrestrial intelligence are reported.

  5. 23 CFR 710.501 - Early acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR part 24; (4) The State complied with the requirements of title VI of..., requires the STD to demonstrate that: (1) Prior to acquisition, the STD made the certifications and determinations required by 23 U.S.C. 108(c)(2)(C) and (D); and (2) The STD obtained concurrence from...

  6. A Connectionist Approach to Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lizardi, Luis O.

    This paper attempts to synthesize how biological-nativist theories emerged as a response to logical and empirical flaws in behaviorist learning theories, and how in turn, recent research findings in Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience and Connectionist models of language acquisition are questioning the present innatist framework. As a result of…

  7. Acquisition Order of Coherence Relations in Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirgunes, Sercan

    2015-01-01

    Coherence as one of the criteria for textuality is the main element of a well-produced text. In the literature, there are many studies on the classification of coherence relations. Although there are different classifications on coherence relations, similar findings are reported regarding the acquisition order of coherence relations in different…

  8. 76 FR 15901 - Acquisition Regulation Miscellaneous Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... Acquisition Regulation Miscellaneous Changes AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule... furnished to the Contractor. Changes to this delegation will be made by written changes to the existing..., contract modification, or notice of intent that changes or may change this contract; (2) Waive or agree...

  9. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Developments in programs managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Office of Telecommunications and Data acquisition are discussed. Space communications, radio antennas, the Deep Space Network, antenna design, Project SETI, seismology, coding, very large scale integration, downlinking, and demodulation are among the topics covered.

  10. Shooting direction and crosswell seismic data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Liner, C.L.; Bozkurt, G.; Cox, V.D.

    1996-09-01

    Four crosswell seismic surveys were acquired in the Glenn Pool Field of northeastern Oklahoma as part of a multidisciplinary reservoir characterization project. The acquisition goal was to generate data suitable for tomographic traveltime inversion. Acquisition parameters and shooting geometry were selected by conducting a parameter test at the site. Following the parameter test, the first survey resulted in high quality data showing clear first arrivals, low ambient noise, some reflection events, and strong source-generated tube waves. The second survey involved a different receiver well and encountered high ambient noise levels. The noise was strong enough to prohibit first-arrival picking for much of the data. On-site analysis of the second survey revealed tube waves emanating from a perforated interval in the receiver well. This well was shut in and was not flowing fluid or gas at the surface. They interpret the source of ambient tube waves as borehole-to-formation fluid flow (circulation) associated with the perforations. Since this image plane was important for characterization of the reservoir, the survey was reshot (third survey) by reversing sources and receivers in the two wells. The resulting high-quality data indicates that shooting direction can be an important factor in crosswell seismic acquisition. This experience influenced acquisition of a previously planned fourth survey so that the ambient noise problem would be avoided.

  11. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This publication, one of a series formerly titled The Deep Space Network Progress Report, documents DSN progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations. In addition, developments in earth-based radio technology as applied to geodynamics, astrophysics, and the radio search for extraterrestrial intelligence are reported.

  12. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Archival reports on developments in programs managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition are provided. Space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground based radio and radio astronomy are discussed. Deep Space Network projects are also discussed.

  13. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Archival reports on developments in programs managed by the JPL Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) are provided. Topics covered include: DSN advanced systems (tracking and ground-based navigation; communications, spacecraft-ground; and station control and system technology) and DSN systems implementation (capabilities for existing projects; capabilities for new projects; TDA program management and analysis; and Goldstone solar system radar).

  14. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This publication, one of a series formerly titled The Deep Space Network (DSN) Progress Report, documents DSN progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations. In addition, developments in Earth-based radio technology as applied to geodynamics, astrophysics, and the radio search for extraterrestrial intelligence are reported.

  15. Hypertext Interface Design and Structural Knowledge Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koneman, Philip A.; Jonassen, David H.

    Hypertext is well-suited for educational applications where open learning and knowledge exploration is desired. In such applications, principles of good hypertext interface design should be employed to avoid navigational problems so as to maximize learning. Interface design, however, may also directly enhance acquisition of a particular knowledge…

  16. Linguistic Perspectives from Spanish Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Mark, Ed.; Koike, Dale April, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Papers reporting research on Spanish second language learning include: "Discourse Features of Spanish Oral Production at the Novice Level" (Rebecca Jo Bearden); "A Discourse Approach to the Assessment of Foreign Language Oral Proficiency" (Dale April Koike, Fanny Hinojosa); "Acquisition of Spanish Definite Articles by English-Speaking Learners of…

  17. Acquisitions Fund Accounting on a Word Processor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niles, Judith

    1983-01-01

    Describes the application of a specific word processor to acquisitions fund accounting and reporting functions at Rice University's Fondren Library. Encumbrance of firm orders, preparing budget reports, math calculations, ledger format (for each fund), report format (summarizes overall fund activity), and the value of word processors are…

  18. The Spirituality of Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Baxter

    2006-01-01

    Parallels between the reconstruction of self in Alcoholics Anonymous and the reconstruction of self in second language acquisition are drawn out and examined in three areas: ego deflation, identification at depth, and mutual assistance. These spiritual principles are shown to be theoretically and empirically supported in SLA literature and…

  19. Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantolf, James P.; Beckett, Tracy G.

    2009-01-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) research informed by sociocultural theory (henceforth, SCT) began in earnest with the publication of Frawley & Lantolf's (1985) article on L2 (second language) discourse (described in the timeline proper). Since then, well over 300 journal articles, book chapters and doctoral dissertations have appeared in the…

  20. An Emergentist Perspective on Heritage Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William; Kwak, Hye-Young; Lee, On-Soon; Lee, Miseon

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the processor has a key role to play in creating and strengthening the mapping between form and meaning that is integral to language use. Adopting an emergentist approach to heritage language acquisition, the current study considers the extent to which the operation of the processor can contribute to an account of what…

  1. Auditory Processing Disorder and Foreign Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veselovska, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at exploring various strategies for coping with the auditory processing disorder in the light of foreign language acquisition. The techniques relevant to dealing with the auditory processing disorder can be attributed to environmental and compensatory approaches. The environmental one involves actions directed at creating a…

  2. Complexity and Conflicting Grammars in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westergaard, Marit

    2014-01-01

    The article by Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) presents many interesting ideas about first and second language acquisition as well as some experimental data convincingly illustrating the difference between production and comprehension. The article extends the concept of Universal Bilingualism proposed in Roeper (1999) to second…

  3. NASA Data Acquisitions System (NDAS) Software Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dawn; Duncan, Michael; Franzl, Richard; Holladay, Wendy; Marshall, Peggi; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The NDAS Software Project is for the development of common low speed data acquisition system software to support NASA's rocket propulsion testing facilities at John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC), White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), Plum Brook Station (PBS), and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  4. 48 CFR 434.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... approval of the Acquisition Executive or Major Information Technology Systems Executive, a project control system to schedule, monitor, and regularly report on all aspects of the project. The control system shall.... (c) Upon initiation of the project, the program manager will report regularly to the...

  5. Using Questions To Facilitate Motor Skill Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, G. William; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a dental teaching strategy that promotes acquisition of psychomotor skills through use of metacognition and problem-solving. In five steps, questions are asked to guide the learner through a sequence of discriminations leading to recognition of problems and solutions. Clearly defined criteria in a sequence reflecting procedure are…

  6. 75 FR 43090 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... was published in the Federal Register at 75 FR 38684, July 2, 2010. DATES: Effective Date: July 23... document in the Federal Register of July 2, 2010 (75 FR 38684) amending FAR 52.204-11(d)(10). The amendment... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Correction AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General...

  7. Materials Acquisition Project: Volume 1, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego City Schools, CA.

    Bibliographic data, physical characteristics, contents, prices, and ordering instructions for Spanish and Puerto Rican instructional materials listed in this issue of the Materials Acquisition Project are provided for each entry. Subject categories include social science, language arts, pure science, technology, the arts, literature, and history.…

  8. Materials Acquisition Project: Volume 1, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego City Schools, CA.

    Bibliographic data, physical characteristics, contents, prices, and ordering instructions for Spanish instructional materials listed in this issue of the Materials Acquisition Project are provided for each entry. Subject categories include general works, social science, language arts, pure science, technology, the arts, literature, and history.…

  9. Materials Acquisition Project: Volume 2, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego City Schools, CA.

    Bibliographic data, physical characteristics, contents, prices, and ordering instructions for Spanish and Portuguese instructional materials listed in this issue of the Materials Acquisition Project are provided for each entry. Subject categories include general works, social science, language arts, pure science, technology, the arts, literature,…

  10. Materials Acquisition Project: Volume 2, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego City Schools, CA.

    Bibliographic data, physical characteristics, contents, prices, and ordering instructions for Spanish and Portuguese instructional materials listed in this issue of the Materials Acquisition Project are provided for each entry. Subject categories include social science, language arts, pure science, technology, the arts, literature, and history.…

  11. Materials Acquisition Project: Volume 2, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego City Schools, CA.

    Bibliographic data, physical characteristics, contents, prices, and ordering instructions for Spanish instructional materials listed in this issue of the Materials Acquisition Project are provided for each entry. Subject categories include social science, language arts, pure science, technology, the arts, literature, and history. Materials are…

  12. Materials Acquisition Project: Volume 1, Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego City Schools, CA.

    Bibliographic data, physical characteristics, contents, prices, and ordering instructions for Spanish instructional materials listed in this issue of the Materials Acquisition Project are provided for each entry. Subject categories include general works, social science, language arts, pure science, technology, the arts, literature, and history.…

  13. Materials Acquisition Project: Volume 2, Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego City Schools, CA.

    Bibliographic data, physical characteristics, contents, prices, and ordering instructions for Spanish instructional materials listed in this issue of the Materials Acquisitions Project are provided for each entry. Subject categories include social science, language arts, pure science, technology, the arts, literature, and history. Sections on…

  14. Materials Acquisition Project: Volume 2, Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego City Schools, CA.

    Bibliographic data, physical characteristics, contents, prices, and ordering instructions for Spanish instructional materials listed in this issue of the Materials Acquisition Project are provided for each entry. Subject categories include social science, language arts, pure science, technology, the arts, literature, and history. Materials are…

  15. Materials Acquisition Project: Volume 2, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego City Schools, CA.

    Bibliographic data, physical characteristics, contents, prices, and ordering instructions for Spanish instructional materials listed in this issue of the Materials Acquisition Project are provided for each entry. Subject categories include general works, social science, language arts, pure science, technology, the arts, literature, and history.…

  16. Materials Acquisition Project: Volume 1, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego City Schools, CA.

    Bibliographic data, physical characteristics, contents, prices, and ordering instructions for Spanish instructional materials listed in this issue of the Materials Acquisition Project are provided for each entry. Subject categories include general works, social science, language arts, pure science, technology, the arts, literature, and history.…

  17. Reading and Spelling Acquisition in Thai Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winskel, Heather; Iemwanthong, Kanyarat

    2010-01-01

    Thai, a tonal language, has its own distinctive alphabetic orthography. The study investigates reading and spelling development in Thai children, with an aim of examining the grain size that is predominantly used when reading and spelling. Furthermore, word and nonword lists were developed to examine the acquisition of the complex system of vowels…

  18. Naturalistic acquisition in an early language classroom.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Anne; Vulchanova, Mila D

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether it is possible to provide naturalistic second language acquisition (SLA) of vocabulary for young learners in a classroom situation without resorting to a classical immersion approach. Participants were 60 first-grade pupils in two Norwegian elementary schools in their first year. The control group followed regular instruction as prescribed by the school curriculum, while the experimental group received increased naturalistic target language input. This entailed extensive use of English by the teacher during English classes, and also during morning meetings and for simple instructions and classroom management throughout the day. Our hypothesis was that it is possible to facilitate naturalistic acquisition through better quality target language exposure within a normal curriculum. The students' English vocabulary knowledge was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, version 4 (PPVT-IV, Dunn and Dunn, 2007a), at the beginning and the end of the first year of school. Findings are that (1) early-start second-language (L2) programs in school do not in themselves guarantee vocabulary development in the first year, (2) a focus on increased exposure to the L2 can lead to a significant increase in receptive vocabulary comprehension in the course of only 8 months, and (3) even with relatively modest input, learners in such an early-start L2 program can display vocabulary acquisition comparable in some respects to that of younger native children matched on vocabulary size. The overall conclusion is that naturalistic vocabulary acquisition is in fact possible in a classroom setting.

  19. Adaptive line enhancers for fast acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, H.-G.; Nguyen, T. M.

    1994-01-01

    Three adaptive line enhancer (ALE) algorithms and architectures - namely, conventional ALE, ALE with double filtering, and ALE with coherent accumulation - are investigated for fast carrier acquisition in the time domain. The advantages of these algorithms are their simplicity, flexibility, robustness, and applicability to general situations including the Earth-to-space uplink carrier acquisition and tracking of the spacecraft. In the acquisition mode, these algorithms act as bandpass filters; hence, the carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) is improved for fast acquisition. In the tracking mode, these algorithms simply act as lowpass filters to improve signal-to-noise ratio; hence, better tracking performance is obtained. It is not necessary to have a priori knowledge of the received signal parameters, such as CNR, Doppler, and carrier sweeping rate. The implementation of these algorithms is in the time domain (as opposed to the frequency domain, such as the fast Fourier transform (FFT)). The carrier frequency estimation can be updated in real time at each time sample (as opposed to the batch processing of the FFT). The carrier frequency to be acquired can be time varying, and the noise can be non-Gaussian, nonstationary, and colored.

  20. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Developments in programs managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition are discussed. Topics discussed include sorption compression/mechanical expanded hybrid refrigeration, calculated 70-meter antenna performance for offset L-band, systolic arrays and stack decoding, and calibrations of Deep Space Network antennas.

  1. Neuroimaging and Research into Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabourin, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques are becoming not only more and more sophisticated but are also coming to be increasingly accessible to researchers. One thing that one should take note of is the potential of neuroimaging research within second language acquisition (SLA) to contribute to issues pertaining to the plasticity of the adult brain and to general…

  2. Virtue Acquisition: The Paradox of Striving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Aristotelian-inspired accounts of virtue acquisition stress guided practice and habituated action to develop virtue. This emphasis on action can lead to the "paradox of striving". The paradox occurs when we try too hard to act well and thereby spoil our efforts. I identify four forms of striving--forcing, impulsivity, overthinking, and…

  3. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Deep Space Network (DSN) progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operation is discussed. In addition, developments in Earth-based radio technology as applied to geodynamics, astrophysics and the radio search for extraterrestrial intelligence are reported.

  4. Incidental Foreign Language Acquisition from Media Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppens, An H.

    2010-01-01

    A number of experimental studies have demonstrated the incidental acquisition of a foreign language by children and adolescents when watching foreign language television. While such experiments can only establish short-term effects, this article investigates the extent to which children's foreign language skills benefit from their long-term…

  5. Improving Vocabulary Acquisition with Multisensory Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Alesio, Rosemary; Scalia, Maureen T.; Zabel, Renee M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this action research project was to improve student vocabulary acquisition through a multisensory, direct instructional approach. The study involved three teachers and a target population of 73 students in second and seventh grade classrooms. The intervention was implemented from September through December of 2006 and analyzed in…

  6. Second Language Acquisition and Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the second language acquisition (SLA) process and the differential success of second language learners. Examines the fundamental challenges that this characterization faces, and highlights the contributions SLA is capable of in the coming decade. Offers topics for a training and development of curriculum for future applied linguists from…

  7. Sleep quality influences subsequent motor skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Appleman, Erica R; Albouy, Genevieve; Doyon, Julien; Cronin-Golomb, Alice; King, Bradley R

    2016-06-01

    While the influence of sleep on motor memory consolidation has been extensively investigated, its relation to initial skill acquisition is less well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of sleep quality and quantity on subsequent motor skill acquisition in young adults without sleep disorders. Fifty-five healthy adults (mean age = 23.8 years; 34 women) wore actigraph wristbands for 4 nights, which provided data on sleep patterns before the experiment, and then returned to the laboratory to engage in a motor sequence learning task (explicit 5-item finger sequence tapping task). Indicators of sleep quality and quantity were then regressed on a measure of motor skill acquisition (Gains Within Training, GWT). Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO; i.e., the total amount of time the participants spent awake after falling asleep) was significantly and negatively related to GWT. This effect was not because of general arousal level, which was measured immediately before the motor task. Conversely, there was no relationship between GWT and sleep duration or self-reported sleep quality. These results indicate that sleep quality, as assessed by WASO and objectively measured with actigraphy before the motor task, significantly impacts motor skill acquisition in young healthy adults without sleep disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Archival reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) are presented. In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) and its associated Ground Communications Facility (GCF) in planning, in supporting research and technology, in implementation, and in operations.

  9. Three Myths from the Language Acquisition Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoneberger, Ted

    2010-01-01

    Three popular assertions have hindered the promotion of an empiricist approach to language acquisition: (a) that Brown and Hanlon (1970) claimed to offer data that parents do not reinforce their children's grammaticality; (b) that Brown and Hanlon also claimed to offer data that parents do not provide negative evidence (i.e., corrective feedback)…

  10. Facilitation and Practice in Verb Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of syntax acquisition, whose main points are as follows: Syntax is acquired in an item-based manner; early learning facilitates subsequent learning--as evidenced by the accelerating rate of new verbs entering a given structure; and mastery of syntactic knowledge is typically achieved through practice--as evidenced by…

  11. Ultrasonic Scanner Control and Data Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemann, John

    2002-01-01

    The research accomplishments under this grant were very extensive in the areas of ULTRASONIC SCANNER CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION. Rather than try to summarize all this research I have enclosed research papers and reports which were completed with the hnding provided by the grant. These papers and reports are listed below:

  12. Information Acquisition in Children Undergoing Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melamed, Barbara G.; And Others

    In order to evaluate how individual characteristics of hospitalized children influence their acquisition of information presented in a film depicting preparation for surgery, 42 children between the ages of 4 to 17 were assigned to experimental and control groups that were matched for age, sex, race, type of surgery and previous hospital…

  13. Inexpensive Data Acquisition with a Sound Card

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Umer; Pervaiz, Saad; Anwar, Muhammad Sabieh

    2011-01-01

    Signal generators, oscilloscopes, and data acquisition (DAQ) systems are standard components of the modern experimental physics laboratory. The sound card, a built-in component in the ubiquitous personal computer, can be utilized for all three of these tasks and offers an attractive option for labs in developing countries such as…

  14. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor,Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement acquisition method that alleviates many shortcomings of traditional measurement systems. The shortcomings are a finite number of measurement channels, weight penalty associated with measurements, electrical arcing, wire degradations due to wear or chemical decay and the logistics needed to add new sensors. Wire degradation has resulted in aircraft fatalities and critical space launches being delayed. The key to this method is the use of sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits that produce magnetic field responses. The response attributes correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. Power is wirelessly provided to the sensing element by using Faraday induction. A radio frequency antenna produces a time-varying magnetic field used to power the sensor and receive the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation system for discerning changes in the sensor response frequency, resistance and amplitude has been developed and is presented herein. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method. The method eliminates the need for a data acquisition channel dedicated to each sensor. The method does not require the sensors to be near the acquisition hardware. Methods of developing magnetic field response sensors and the influence of key parameters on measurement acquisition are discussed. Examples of magnetic field response sensors and the respective measurement characterizations are presented. Implementation of this method on an aerospace system is discussed.

  15. Color Vision Deficits and Literacy Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Sandra Rollins

    1994-01-01

    Shows that color blindness, whether partial or total, inhibits literacy acquisition. Offers a case study of a third grader with impaired color vision. Presents a review of literature on the topic. Notes that people with color vision deficits are often unaware of the handicap. (RS)

  16. Processability Theory and German Case Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baten, Kristof

    2011-01-01

    This article represents the first attempt to formulate a hypothetical sequence for German case acquisition by Dutch-speaking learners on the basis of Processability Theory (PT). It will be argued that case forms emerge corresponding to a development from lexical over phrasal to interphrasal morphemes. This development, however, is subject to a…

  17. The telecommunications and data acquisition report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.

    1980-01-01

    Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implemention, and operations is documented. In addition, developments in Earth based radio technology as applied to geodynamics, astrophysics, and the radio search for extraterrestrial intelligence are reported.

  18. Acquisition of Superstitious Behavior with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Gregory A.; Morris, Edward K.

    This paper examines the acquisition of superstitious behavior in young children. Six preschool children were exposed to a 15 minute fixed-time inter-reinforcement interval (FT-15") schedule while another six preschoolers were exposed to a 30 minute fixed-time inter-reinforcement interval (FT-30") schedule. In a free-operant laboratory setting, a…

  19. 32 CFR 21.605 - Acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-GENERAL MATTERS Definitions § 21.605 Acquisition. The acquiring (by purchase, lease, or barter) of property or services for the direct benefit or use of the United States Government (see more detailed definition at 48 CFR 2.101). In accordance with 31 U.S.C. 6303, procurement contracts...

  20. Effective GPR Data Acquisition and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.

    2014-12-01

    We have demonstrated that dense GPR data acquisition typically antenna step increment less than 1/10 wave length can provide clear 3-dimeantiona subsurface images, and we created 3DGPR images. Now we are interested in developing GPR survey methodologies which required less data acquisition time. In order to speed up the data acquisition, we are studying efficient antenna positioning for GPR survey and 3-D imaging algorithm. For example, we have developed a dual sensor "ALIS", which combines GPR with metal detector (Electromagnetic Induction sensor) for humanitarian demining, which acquires GPR data by hand scanning. ALIS is a pulse radar system, which has a frequency range 0.5-3GHz.The sensor position tracking system has accuracy about a few cm, and the data spacing is typically more than a few cm, but it can visualize the mines, which has a diameter about 8cm. 2 systems of ALIS have been deployed by Cambodian Mine Action Center (CMAC) in mine fields in Cambodia since 2009 and have detected more than 80 buried land mines. We are now developing signal processing for an array type GPR "Yakumo". Yakumo is a SFCW radar system which is a multi-static radar, consisted of 8 transmitter antennas and 8 receiver antennas. We have demonstrated that the multi-static data acquisition is not only effective in data acquisition, but at the same time, it can increase the quality of GPR images. Archaeological survey by Yakumo in large areas, which are more than 100m by 100m have been conducted, for promoting recovery from Tsunami attacked East Japan in March 2011. With a conventional GPR system, we are developing an interpolation method of radar signals, and demonstrated that it can increase the quality of the radar images, without increasing the data acquisition points. When we acquire one dimensional GPR profile along a survey line, we can acquire relatively high density data sets. However, when we need to relocate the data sets along a "virtual" survey line, for example a

  1. On Shaft Data Acquisition System (OSDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedings, Marc; DeHart, Shawn; Formby, Jason; Naumann, Charles

    2012-01-01

    On Shaft Data Acquisition System (OSDAS) is a rugged, compact, multiple-channel data acquisition computer system that is designed to record data from instrumentation while operating under extreme rotational centrifugal or gravitational acceleration forces. This system, which was developed for the Heritage Fuel Air Turbine Test (HFATT) program, addresses the problem of recording multiple channels of high-sample-rate data on most any rotating test article by mounting the entire acquisition computer onboard with the turbine test article. With the limited availability of slip ring wires for power and communication, OSDAS utilizes its own resources to provide independent power and amplification for each instrument. Since OSDAS utilizes standard PC technology as well as shared code interfaces with the next-generation, real-time health monitoring system (SPARTAA Scalable Parallel Architecture for Real Time Analysis and Acquisition), this system could be expanded beyond its current capabilities, such as providing advanced health monitoring capabilities for the test article. High-conductor-count slip rings are expensive to purchase and maintain, yet only provide a limited number of conductors for routing instrumentation off the article and to a stationary data acquisition system. In addition to being limited to a small number of instruments, slip rings are prone to wear quickly, and introduce noise and other undesirable characteristics to the signal data. This led to the development of a system capable of recording high-density instrumentation, at high sample rates, on the test article itself, all while under extreme rotational stress. OSDAS is a fully functional PC-based system with 48 channels of 24-bit, high-sample-rate input channels, phase synchronized, with an onboard storage capacity of over 1/2-terabyte of solid-state storage. This recording system takes a novel approach to the problem of recording multiple channels of instrumentation, integrated with the test

  2. 77 FR 205 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-55; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... Management (SAM) (FAR Case 2011-021) The Integrated Acquisition Environment (IAE) systems are being... Representations and Certifications Application (ORCA) to SAM. The FAR change will indicate that these IAE...

  3. 77 FR 181 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-55; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ..., including the SECG, is available via the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov . DATES: For effective dates... and the Disaster Response Registry will now be accessed through http://www.acquisition.gov . This...

  4. 77 FR 23363 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-58; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... adopts as final, without change, an interim rule published in the Federal Register at 76 FR 14559 on..., 2012. Joseph A. Neurauter, Senior Procurement Executive/Deputy CAO, Office of Acquisition Policy,...

  5. 77 FR 56737 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-61; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... without change the interim rule published in the Federal Register on March 7, 2012 (77 FR 13952), to... Acquisition Policy. Dated: September 5, 2012. Joseph A. Neurauter, Senior Procurement Executive/Deputy...

  6. The Neisseria meningitidis ZnuD Zinc Receptor Contributes to Interactions with Epithelial Cells and Supports Heme Utilization when Expressed in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pradeep; Sannigrahi, Soma

    2012-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis employs redundant heme acquisition mechanisms, including TonB receptor-dependent and receptor-independent uptakes. The TonB-dependent zinc receptor ZnuD shares significant sequence similarity to HumA, a heme receptor of Moraxella catarrhalis, and contains conserved motifs found in many heme utilization proteins. We present data showing that, when expressed in Escherichia coli, ZnuD allowed heme capture on the cell surface and supported the heme-dependent growth of an E. coli hemA strain. Heme agarose captured ZnuD in enriched outer membrane fractions, and this binding was inhibited by excess free heme, supporting ZnuD's specific interaction with heme. However, no heme utilization defect was detected in the meningococcal znuD mutant, likely due to unknown redundant TonB-independent heme uptake mechanisms. Meningococcal replication within epithelial cells requires a functional TonB, and we found that both the znuD and tonB mutants were defective not only in survival within epithelial cells but also in adherence to and invasion of epithelial cells. Ectopic complementation rescued these phenotypes. Interestingly, while znuD expression was repressed by Zur with zinc as a cofactor, it also was induced by iron in a Zur-independent manner. A specific interaction of meningococcal Fur protein with the znuD promoter was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Thus, the meningococcal ZnuD receptor likely participates in both zinc and heme acquisition, is regulated by both Zur and Fur, and is important for meningococcal interaction with epithelial cells. PMID:22083713

  7. 30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. Console and line printers - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  8. 76 FR 13297 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE... Acquisition Policy. DATES: Effective Date: March 11, 2011. Applicability Date: All solicitations for... Director, Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy memorandum dated March 4, 2011, Department of...

  9. 48 CFR 1532.003 - Simplified acquisition procedures financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... procedures financing. 1532.003 Section 1532.003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING 1532.003 Simplified acquisition procedures financing. (a) Scope. This subpart provides for authorization of advance and interim payments...

  10. 48 CFR 1532.003 - Simplified acquisition procedures financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... procedures financing. 1532.003 Section 1532.003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING 1532.003 Simplified acquisition procedures financing. (a) Scope. This subpart provides for authorization of advance and interim payments...

  11. 23. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #202, mechanical equipment room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #202, mechanical equipment room no. 2 - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  12. 78 FR 36113 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 222 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... Supplement (DFARS) to provide needed editorial changes. DATES: Effective Date: June 17, 2013. FOR...

  13. 77 FR 10976 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... Supplement (DFARS) to provide needed editorial changes. DATES: Effective Date: February 24, 2012. FOR...

  14. 77 FR 11775 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... Supplement (DFARS) to provide needed editorial changes. DATES: Effective Date: February 28, 2012. FOR...

  15. 76 FR 27274 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 225 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... Supplement (DFARS) to direct contracting officers to additional guidance on supporting contingency...

  16. 78 FR 41331 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 225 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... Supplement (DFARS) to insert a hyperlink and direct contracting officers to the DFARS Procedures,...

  17. 77 FR 19128 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 203 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement... Supplement (DFARS) to add a reference for reporting suspected lobbying violations. DATES: Effective...

  18. 24. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #203, communications room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #203, communications room - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  19. 48 CFR 606.304-70 - Acquisitions by overseas posts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... posts. 606.304-70 Section 606.304-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE... Acquisitions by overseas posts. The Departmental Competition Advocate is the approval authority for the... through the Principal Officer at the overseas post....

  20. 48 CFR 606.304-70 - Acquisitions by overseas posts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... posts. 606.304-70 Section 606.304-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE... Acquisitions by overseas posts. The Departmental Competition Advocate is the approval authority for the... through the Principal Officer at the overseas post....

  1. 48 CFR 606.304-70 - Acquisitions by overseas posts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... posts. 606.304-70 Section 606.304-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE... Acquisitions by overseas posts. The Departmental Competition Advocate is the approval authority for the... through the Principal Officer at the overseas post....

  2. 48 CFR 606.304-70 - Acquisitions by overseas posts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... posts. 606.304-70 Section 606.304-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE... Acquisitions by overseas posts. The Departmental Competition Advocate is the approval authority for the... through the Principal Officer at the overseas post....

  3. 48 CFR 606.304-70 - Acquisitions by overseas posts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... posts. 606.304-70 Section 606.304-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE... Acquisitions by overseas posts. The Departmental Competition Advocate is the approval authority for the... through the Principal Officer at the overseas post....

  4. A simulation of data acquisition system for SSC experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Watase, Y.; Ikeda, H.

    1989-04-01

    A simulation on some parts of the data acquisition system was performed using a general purpose simulation language GPSS. Several results of the simulation are discussed for the data acquisition system for the SSC experiment.

  5. 14. Inner double blast door entrance to perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Inner double blast door entrance to perimeter acquisition radar building security area - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  6. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic field response sensors designed as passive inductor- capacit or circuits produce magnetic field responses whose harmonic frequenci es correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. Power to the sensing element is acquired using Faraday induc tion. A radio frequency antenna produces the time varying magnetic fi eld used for powering the sensor, as well as receiving the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation architecture for disce rning changes in sensor's response frequency, resistance and amplitud e is integral to the method thus enabling a variety of measurements. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method, thus eliminat ing the need to have a data acquisition channel dedicated to each se nsor. The method does not require the sensors to be in proximity to a ny form of acquisition hardware. A vast array of sensors can be used as interchangeable parts in an overall sensing system.

  7. Wavelets for full reconfigurable ECG acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, D. P.; García, A.; Castillo, E.; Meyer-Baese, U.; Palma, A. J.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the use of wavelet cores for a full reconfigurable electrocardiogram signal (ECG) acquisition system. The system is compound by two reconfigurable devices, a FPGA and a FPAA. The FPAA is in charge of the ECG signal acquisition, since this device is a versatile and reconfigurable analog front-end for biosignals. The FPGA is in charge of FPAA configuration, digital signal processing and information extraction such as heart beat rate and others. Wavelet analysis has become a powerful tool for ECG signal processing since it perfectly fits ECG signal shape. The use of these cores has been integrated in the LabVIEW FPGA module development tool that makes possible to employ VHDL cores within the usual LabVIEW graphical programming environment, thus freeing the designer from tedious and time consuming design of communication interfaces. This enables rapid test and graphical representation of results.

  8. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox, Melanie L. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic field response sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits produce magnetic field responses whose harmonic frequencies correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. Power to the sensing element is acquired using Faraday induction. A radio frequency antenna produces the time varying magnetic field used for powering the sensor, as well as receiving the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation architecture for discerning changes in sensor s response kequency, resistance and amplitude is integral to the method thus enabling a variety of measurements. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method, thus eliminating the need to have a data acquisition channel dedicated to each sensor. The method does not require the sensors to be in proximity to any form of acquisition hardware. A vast array of sensors can be used as interchangeable parts in an overall sensing system.

  9. Acquisition of a laboratory information system.

    PubMed

    Bilger, M P

    1987-07-01

    As with any large project, the proper planning and execution of the entire project scope will help ensure success. Following a carefully delinated plan for the acquisition of an LIS is a lengthy and time consuming task, but one well worth the effort. This process could take several years to complete from concept to implementation, but the selection of the right vendor will ultimately save the institution money by reducing costs, increasing personnel efficiency and improving the quality of care. In the end, improved patient care will allow the institution to grow and develop projects that serve the patient population outside of the institution's walls. The purchase of a computer system for the laboratory is one of the most taxing procedures that laboratory and hospital personnel will undertake, but one well worth the effort if done properly. Poor planning of the acquisition will only lead to increased costs and frustrations. Do it right the first time. PMID:10284495

  10. [Language acquisition in CLP children. 3. Results].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, W; Bitter, K

    1991-01-01

    Following part I "Fundamentals" and part II "Procedures", this third part presents the findings about language acquisition and the conditions governing this process in 315 CLP children. It has been shown that early language programs for CLP families leads to the linguistic rehabilitation of these children before they reach school age. Semantically and syntactically complex sentences at the age of 2-3 years results in good articulation at age 5-6. Early precision of articulation is usually associated with an increased risk for psychosomatic complications. The complexity of the cleft at birth is of minor importance for language acquisition, whereas early treatment, parents' compliance and avoidance of corrections and sensitizations are decisive for the successful course of the child's language development at the age of 5-6 years. PMID:1816972

  11. Molecular recordings by directed CRISPR spacer acquisition.

    PubMed

    Shipman, Seth L; Nivala, Jeff; Macklis, Jeffrey D; Church, George M

    2016-07-29

    The ability to write a stable record of identified molecular events into a specific genomic locus would enable the examination of long cellular histories and have many applications, ranging from developmental biology to synthetic devices. We show that the type I-E CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas system of Escherichia coli can mediate acquisition of defined pieces of synthetic DNA. We harnessed this feature to generate records of specific DNA sequences into a population of bacterial genomes. We then applied directed evolution so as to alter the recognition of a protospacer adjacent motif by the Cas1-Cas2 complex, which enabled recording in two modes simultaneously. We used this system to reveal aspects of spacer acquisition, fundamental to the CRISPR-Cas adaptation process. These results lay the foundations of a multimodal intracellular recording device.

  12. Molecular recordings by directed CRISPR spacer acquisition.

    PubMed

    Shipman, Seth L; Nivala, Jeff; Macklis, Jeffrey D; Church, George M

    2016-07-29

    The ability to write a stable record of identified molecular events into a specific genomic locus would enable the examination of long cellular histories and have many applications, ranging from developmental biology to synthetic devices. We show that the type I-E CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas system of Escherichia coli can mediate acquisition of defined pieces of synthetic DNA. We harnessed this feature to generate records of specific DNA sequences into a population of bacterial genomes. We then applied directed evolution so as to alter the recognition of a protospacer adjacent motif by the Cas1-Cas2 complex, which enabled recording in two modes simultaneously. We used this system to reveal aspects of spacer acquisition, fundamental to the CRISPR-Cas adaptation process. These results lay the foundations of a multimodal intracellular recording device. PMID:27284167

  13. Acquisition of a laboratory information system.

    PubMed

    Bilger, M P

    1987-07-01

    As with any large project, the proper planning and execution of the entire project scope will help ensure success. Following a carefully delinated plan for the acquisition of an LIS is a lengthy and time consuming task, but one well worth the effort. This process could take several years to complete from concept to implementation, but the selection of the right vendor will ultimately save the institution money by reducing costs, increasing personnel efficiency and improving the quality of care. In the end, improved patient care will allow the institution to grow and develop projects that serve the patient population outside of the institution's walls. The purchase of a computer system for the laboratory is one of the most taxing procedures that laboratory and hospital personnel will undertake, but one well worth the effort if done properly. Poor planning of the acquisition will only lead to increased costs and frustrations. Do it right the first time.

  14. Shooting direction and crosswell seismic data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Liner, C.L.; Bozkurt, G.; Cox, V.D.

    1994-12-31

    At the Glenn Pool field in Northeastern Oklahoma, a series of crosswell seismic surveys have been acquired. The acquisition parameters and shooting geometry were careful developed using a test survey. The first full survey resulted in high quality data, but the second encountered high ambient noise. The noise levels were high enough to prohibit first-arrival picking over in much of the data. Analysis of the data from the second survey shows that tube waves are emanating from the perforated interval in the receiver well. This is interpreted to be fluid flow or circulation noise through the perforations, even though the well was not flowing fluid at the surface. Since this image plane was important for characterization of the reservoir, the survey was re-shot by reversing sources and receivers in the two wells. The resulting high-quality data indicates that shooting direction can be an important acquisition factor.

  15. Smart data acquisition system for utilities metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ileana, I.; Risteiu, M.; Tulbure, A.; Rusu, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper approaches the task of automatically reading and recognition of registered data on the utility meters of the users and is a part of a more complex project of our team concerning the remote data acquisition from industrial processes. A huge amount of utility meters in our country is of mechanical type without remote acquiring facilities and as an intermediate solution we propose an intelligent optical acquisition system which will store the read values in desktop and mobile devices. The main requirements of such a system are: portability, data reading accuracy, fast processing and energy independence. The paper analyses several solutions (including Artificial Neural Networks approach) tested by our team and present the experimental results and our conclusions.

  16. The CDMS II data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, D.A.; Burke, S.; Cooley, J.; Crisler, M.; Cushman, P.; DeJongh, F.; Duong, L.; Ferril, R.; Golwala, S.R.; Hall, J.; Holmgren, D.; /Fermilab /Texas A-M

    2011-01-01

    The Data Acquisition System for the CDMS II dark matter experiment was designed and built when the experiment moved to its new underground installation at the Soudan Lab. The combination of remote operation and increased data load necessitated a completely new design. Elements of the original LabView system remained as stand-alone diagnostic programs, but the main data processing moved to a VME-based system with custom electronics for signal conditioning, trigger formation and buffering. The data rate was increased 100-fold and the automated cryogenic system was linked to the data acquisition. A modular server framework with associated user interfaces was implemented in Java to allow control and monitoring of the entire experiment remotely.

  17. Three Myths from the Language Acquisition Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schoneberger, Ted

    2010-01-01

    Three popular assertions have hindered the promotion of an empiricist approach to language acquisition: (a) that Brown and Hanlon (1970) claimed to offer data that parents do not reinforce their children's grammaticality; (b) that Brown and Hanlon also claimed to offer data that parents do not provide negative evidence (i.e., corrective feedback) for ungrammaticality; and (c) that Gold (1967) claimed to offer a formal proof showing that, without negative evidence, a child cannot acquire a language solely from environmental input. In this paper I offer introductory comments on the nature–nurture distinction (including interactionism, and the nativists' claim to have found a gene for language). Next I debunk the three aforementioned assertions by arguing that the authors (Brown & Hanlon; Gold) never made the claims attributed to them; review evidence on the role of reinforcement and corrective feedback in language acquisition; and offer some concluding comments. PMID:22477466

  18. Methodological questions in studying consonant acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Consonant mastery is one of the most widely used metrics of typical phonological acquisition and of phonological disorder. Two fundamental methodological questions concerning research on consonant acquisition are (1) how to elicit a representative sample of productions and (2) how to analyse this sample once it has been collected. This paper address these two questions by reviewing relevant aspects of experience in evaluating word-initial consonant accuracy from transcriptions of isolated-word productions elicited from 2- and 3-year-olds learning four different first languages representing a telling range of consonant systems (English, Cantonese, Greek, Japanese). It is suggested that both researchers and clinicians should consider a number of different item-related factors, such as phonotactic probability and word length, when constructing word lists to elicit consonant productions from young children. This study also proposes that transcription should be supplemented by acoustic analysis and the perceptual judgements of naïve listeners. PMID:19031192

  19. Semantic facilitation in bilingual first language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Bilson, Samuel; Yoshida, Hanako; Tran, Crystal D; Woods, Elizabeth A; Hills, Thomas T

    2015-07-01

    Bilingual first language learners face unique challenges that may influence the rate and order of early word learning relative to monolinguals. A comparison of the productive vocabularies of 435 children between the ages of 6 months and 7 years-181 of which were bilingual English learners-found that monolinguals learned both English words and all-language concepts faster than bilinguals. However, bilinguals showed an enhancement of an effect previously found in monolinguals-the preference for learning words with more associative cues. Though both monolinguals and bilinguals were best fit by a similar model of word learning, semantic network structure and growth indicated that the two groups were learning English words in a different order. Further, in comparison with a model of two-monolinguals-in-one-mind, bilinguals overproduced translational equivalents. Our results support an emergent account of bilingual first language acquisition, where learning a word in one language facilitates its acquisition in a second language.

  20. A Digital Data Acquisition for VANDLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madurga, Miguel; Paulauskas, S.; Grzywacz, Robert; Miller, David; Padgett, Stephen; Tan, Hui

    2015-10-01

    Neutron energy measurements can be achieved using time-of-flight (ToF) techniques. A digital data acquisition system was developed for reliable ToF measurements with subnanosecond timing resolution based on digitizers with 10 ns and 4 ns sampling periods using pulse shape analysis algorithms. A validation procedure was developed to confirm the reliability. The response of the algorithm to photomultiplier signals was studied using a specially designed experimental system based on fast plastic scintillators. The presented developments enabled digital data acquisition systems to instrument the recently developed Versatile Array of Neutron Detectors at Low-Energy (VANDLE). This research was sponsored in part by the National Nuclear Security Administration under the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances program through DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FG52-08NA28552 and the Office of Nuclear Physics.