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Sample records for moraxella catarrhalis acquisition

  1. Vaccine targets against Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Dabin; Pichichero, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Moraxella catarrhalis is a prominent pathogen that causes acute otitis media in children and lower respiratory tract infections in adults, resulting in a significant socioeconomic burden on healthcare systems globally. No vaccine is currently available for M. catarrhalis. Promising M. catarrhalis target antigens have been characterized in animal models and should soon enter human clinical trials. Areas covered This review discusses the detailed features and research status of current candidate target antigens for an M. catarrhalis vaccine. The approaches for assessing M. catarrhalis vaccine efficacy are also discussed. Expert opinion Targeting the key molecules contributing to serum resistance may be a viable strategy to identify effective vaccine targets among M. catarrhalis antigens. Elucidating the role and mechanisms of the serum and mucosal immune responses to M. catarrhalis is significant for vaccine target selection, testing and evaluation. Developing animal models closely simulating M. catarrhalis-caused human respiratory diseases is of great benefit in better understanding pathogenesis and evaluating vaccine efficacy. Carrying out clinical trials will be a landmark in the progress of M. catarrhalis vaccine research. Combined multicomponent vaccines will be a focus of future M. catarrhalis vaccine studies. PMID:26565427

  2. Role of the Oligopeptide Permease ABC Transporter of Moraxella catarrhalis in Nutrient Acquisition and Persistence in the Respiratory Tract

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Megan M.; Johnson, Antoinette; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Kirkham, Charmaine; Brauer, Aimee L.; Malkowski, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a strict human pathogen that causes otitis media in children and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults, resulting in significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. M. catarrhalis has a growth requirement for arginine; thus, acquiring arginine is important for fitness and survival. M. catarrhalis has a putative oligopeptide permease ABC transport operon (opp) consisting of five genes (oppB, oppC, oppD, oppF, and oppA), encoding two permeases, two ATPases, and a substrate binding protein. Thermal shift assays showed that the purified recombinant substrate binding protein OppA binds to peptides 3 to 16 amino acid residues in length regardless of the amino acid composition. A mutant in which the oppBCDFA gene cluster is knocked out showed impaired growth in minimal medium where the only source of arginine came from a peptide 5 to 10 amino acid residues in length. Whether methylated arginine supports growth of M. catarrhalis is important in understanding fitness in the respiratory tract because methylated arginine is abundant in host tissues. No growth of wild-type M. catarrhalis was observed in minimal medium in which arginine was present only in methylated form, indicating that the bacterium requires l-arginine. An oppA knockout mutant showed marked impairment in its capacity to persist in the respiratory tract compared to the wild type in a mouse pulmonary clearance model. We conclude that the Opp system mediates both uptake of peptides and fitness in the respiratory tract. PMID:25156736

  3. Moraxella catarrhalis synthesizes an autotransporter that is an acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Hoopman, Todd C; Wang, Wei; Brautigam, Chad A; Sedillo, Jennifer L; Reilly, Thomas J; Hansen, Eric J

    2008-02-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis O35E was shown to synthesize a 105-kDa protein that has similarity to both acid phosphatases and autotransporters. The N-terminal portion of the M. catarrhalis acid phosphatase A (MapA) was most similar (the BLAST probability score was 10(-10)) to bacterial class A nonspecific acid phosphatases. The central region of the MapA protein had similarity to passenger domains of other autotransporter proteins, whereas the C-terminal portion of MapA resembled the translocation domain of conventional autotransporters. Cloning and expression of the M. catarrhalis mapA gene in Escherichia coli confirmed the presence of acid phosphatase activity in the MapA protein. The MapA protein was shown to be localized to the outer membrane of M. catarrhalis and was not detected either in the soluble cytoplasmic fraction from disrupted M. catarrhalis cells or in the spent culture supernatant fluid from M. catarrhalis. Use of the predicted MapA translocation domain in a fusion construct with the passenger domain from another predicted M. catarrhalis autotransporter confirmed the translocation ability of this MapA domain. Inactivation of the mapA gene in M. catarrhalis strain O35E reduced the acid phosphatase activity expressed by this organism, and this mutation could be complemented in trans with the wild-type mapA gene. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the mapA gene from six M. catarrhalis strains showed that this protein was highly conserved among strains of this pathogen. Site-directed mutagenesis of a critical histidine residue (H233A) in the predicted active site of the acid phosphatase domain in MapA eliminated acid phosphatase activity in the recombinant MapA protein. This is the first description of an autotransporter protein that expresses acid phosphatase activity.

  4. Development of a shuttle vector for Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Attia, Ahmed S; Liu, Lixia; Rosche, Thomas; Wagner, Nikki J; Hansen, Eric J

    2006-01-01

    Efforts to perform genetic analysis in Moraxella catarrhalis have been hampered by the lack of a cloning vector. M. catarrhalis strain E22 was previously shown to contain plasmid pLQ510 which lacked a selectable antibiotic resistance marker. Several methods were used to eliminate unnecessary DNA from pLQ510. Then, a 1.2 kb spectinomycin resistance cartridge, a multiple cloning site, and the origin of replication from pACYC184 were cloned into this plasmid backbone to obtain the 7.2 kb plasmid pWW102B. This new plasmid could replicate in M. catarrhalis as well as in both Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. This shuttle vector was used to clone and express two different M. catarrhalis genes, respectively, encoding an adhesin and a protein involved in serum resistance. When these two plasmids were introduced into appropriate M. catarrhalis mutants, they complemented the phenotypic deficiency of each mutant. This is the first report of functional complementation in trans in this pathogen.

  5. Molecular mechanism of macrolide-lincosamide resistance in Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Saito, Ryoichi; Nonaka, Shotaro; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Okamura, Noboru

    2012-10-01

    We identified a Moraxella catarrhalis strain with high-level resistance to azithromycin (MIC>256 mg l(-1)), NSH1, isolated from nasopharyngeal swab samples from an inpatient with acute bronchitis in a Japanese hospital in 2011 and determined its mechanism of macrolide-lincosamide resistance. Antimicrobial susceptibility of M. catarrhalis strains was determined using the Etest and agar dilution methods. Mutations in the four 23S rRNA alleles, the ribosomal proteins L4 and L22, and methylase genes erm(B) and erm(F) were tested by PCR and/or sequencing. The efflux system was examined using appropriate inhibitors. Transformation experiments were performed using DNA amplicons of the 23S rRNA gene of M. catarrhalis strain NSH1. This strain showed high-level resistance to erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, clindamycin (MICs>256 mg l(-1)) and josamycin (MIC = 128 mg l(-1)), and contained the A2058T mutation (Escherichia coli numbering) in four of the 23S rRNA alleles. Mutation of the ribosomal proteins and overproduction of the efflux system were not observed, and methylase genes were not detected. When amplified DNA containing the single A2058T mutation was transformed into M. catarrhalis strains, transformants with three A2058T-mutated 23S rRNA alleles showed high-level resistance to macrolide-lincosamide, similar to strain NSH1. In contrast, transformants with two A2058T-mutated 23S rRNA alleles showed low-level MICs (azithromycin: 0.38-0.5 mg l(-1)). Thus, a single A2058T mutation occurring in at least three 23S rRNA alleles confers high-level resistance to 14-, 15- and 16-membered macrolides and lincosamides in M. catarrhalis possessing four 23S rRNA alleles. This study represents the first evidence, to our knowledge, of this effect in M. catarrhalis.

  6. Epidemiological typing of Moraxella catarrhalis by using DNA probes.

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, D; Scriver, S; Bergeron, M G; Low, D E; Parr, T R; Patterson, J E; Matlow, A; Roy, P H

    1993-01-01

    Small-fragment restriction enzyme analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization were used to compare 60 strains of Moraxella catarrhalis isolated from various geographic locations. Restriction enzyme analysis with HaeIII resulted in 46 different patterns, 7 of which were shared by more than one isolate. Hybridizations with two DNA probes resulted in 18 different patterns, 11 of which were shared by more than one isolate. Strains with the same restriction enzyme pattern always had the same hybridization pattern. However, of the 50 strains that shared the 11 hybridization patterns, 39 could be further differentiated by restriction enzyme analysis. We found that hybridization is a method that is specific for the epidemiological typing of M. catarrhalis, but because of limited sensitivity, combination with small-fragment restriction enzyme analysis may be necessary to better determine the relatedness of strains. Images PMID:8096219

  7. Community-Acquired Moraxella catarrhalis Bacteremic Pneumonia: Two Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Prota, Miguel Angel; Pando-Sandoval, Ana; García-Clemente, Marta; Fole-Vázquez, David; Casan, Pere

    2016-01-01

    Moraxella (formerly Branhamella) catarrhalis was discovered at the end of the nineteenth century, and for many decades it was considered to be a harmless commensal of the upper respiratory tract. It is a Gram-negative, aerobic diplococcus considered to be the third most common pathogen isolated in childhood sinusitis and otitis media and in adult chronic lower respiratory disease, as well as an etiological agent of pneumonia in immunosuppressed patients or those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Moraxella catarrhalis pneumonia is rarely associated with bacteremia. Here, we present two cases of community-acquired Moraxella catarrhalis bacteremic pneumonia. PMID:26989548

  8. Bactericidal, opsonophagocytic and anti-adhesive effectiveness of cross-reactive antibodies against Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Augustyniak, Daria; Piekut, Monika; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grażyna; Skała, Jacek

    2015-04-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a human-restricted significant respiratory tract pathogen. The bacteria accounts for 15-20% of cases of otitis media in children and is an important causative agent of infectious exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. The acquisition of new M. catarrhalis strains plays a central role in the pathogenesis of both mentioned disorders. The antibody-dependent immune response to this pathogen is critical for its effective elimination. Thus, the knowledge about the protective threshold of cross-reactive antibodies with defined functionality seems to be important. The complex analysis of broad-spectrum effectiveness of cross-reactive antibodies against M. catarrhalis has never been performed. The goal of the present study was to demonstrate and compare the bactericidal, opsonophagocytic and blocking function of cross-reacting antibodies produced in response to this bacterium or purified outer membrane proteins incorporated in Zwittergent-based micelles. The multivalent immunogens were used in order to better mimic the natural response of the host. The demonstrated broad-spectrum effectiveness of cross-reactive antibodies in pathogen eradication or inhibition strongly indicates that this pool of antibodies by recognition of pivotal shared M. catarrhalis surface epitopes seems to be an essential additional source to control host-microbe interaction.

  9. Current progress with Moraxella catarrhalis antigens as vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Mawas, Fatme; Ho, Mei Mei; Corbel, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    The success of the immunization programs against Haemophilus influenzae type b and, more recently, Streptococcus pneumoniae in developed and some developing countries has demonstrated that invasive disease caused by these bacteria can be very effectively controlled by vaccination. There is also evidence that pneumococcal vaccines can reduce the incidence of acute otitis media in children. More complete control of this disease would be achieved if infections caused by Moraxella catarrhalis and nontypeable H. influenzae, the other common agents of otitis media in children and of a number of respiratory-associated infections in both children and adults, could also be controlled. Since these bacteria do not possess capsules and are not known to secrete exotoxins, the search for vaccine candidates has focused on the conserved epitopes exposed on the bacterial outer membrane. In this article, we review the contribution of M. catarrhalis to disease and recent advances in the development and testing of various vaccine candidates against this bacterium, including those still in the development stage and those approaching clinical trials. Recommendations are proposed for approaches needed for the standardization of assays and use of appropriate animal models for quality-control testing of these vaccine candidates. Regulatory issues surrounding vaccines of this type are also discussed.

  10. Analysis of the Immunological Responses to Transferrin and Lactoferrin Receptor Proteins from Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rong-hua; Bonnah, Robert A.; Ainsworth, Samuel; Schryvers, Anthony B.

    1999-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis expresses surface receptor proteins that specifically bind host transferrin (Tf) and lactoferrin (Lf) in the first step of the iron acquisition pathway. Acute- and convalescent-phase antisera from a series of patients with M. catarrhalis pulmonary infections were tested against Tf and Lf receptor proteins purified from the corresponding isolates. After the purified proteins had been separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting, we observed strong reactivity against Tf-binding protein B (TbpB; also called OMP1) and Lf-binding protein B (LbpB) but little or no reactivity against Tf-binding protein A (TbpA) or Lf-binding protein A (LbpA), using the convalescent-phase antisera. Considerable antigenic heterogeneity was observed when TbpBs and LbpBs isolated from different strains were tested with the convalescent-phase antisera. Comparison to the reactivity against electroblotted total cellular proteins revealed that the immune response against LbpB and TbpB constitutes a significant portion of the total detectable immune response to M. catarrhalis proteins. Preparations of affinity-isolated TbpA and LbpA reacted with convalescent-phase antisera in a solid-phase binding assay, but blocking with soluble TbpB, soluble LbpB, or extracts from an LbpA− mutant demonstrated that this reactivity was attributed to contaminants in the TbpA and LbpA preparations. These studies demonstrate the immunogenicity of M. catarrhalis TbpB and LbpB in humans and support their potential as vaccine candidates. PMID:10417140

  11. Synthesis of a novel pentasaccharide core component from the lipooligosaccharide of Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Andrew G; Peak, Ian R; Wilson, Jennifer C; Grice, I Darren

    2011-12-13

    The novel pentasaccharide [p-(trifluoroacetamido)phenyl]ethyl 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-6-O-[2-O-(α-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-α-D-glucopyranoside (1), which includes a linker moiety to enable facile coupling to an antigenic protein, was synthesised as a component of a potential vaccine candidate against the Gram-negative bacterium Moraxella catarrhalis. This microorganism is one of three principal causative agents of otitis media in children. The pentasaccharide represents a common cross-serotype (A, B and C) structure from the lipooligosaccharides of Moraxella catarrhalis.

  12. Analysis of Moraxella catarrhalis outer membrane antigens cross-reactive with Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica.

    PubMed

    Troncoso, Gemma; Sánchez, Sandra; Criado, María Teresa; Ferreirós, Carlos

    2004-01-15

    Mouse sera against outer membrane proteins from Moraxella catarrhalis, Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica, and human sera from both healthy individuals and patients convalescing from meningococcal meningitis were used to identify cross-reactive antigens. Mouse anti-N. meningitidis and anti-N. lactamica sera recognized 77, 62 and 32 kDa outer membrane antigens in M. catarrhalis strains; on the contrary, the meningococcal porin PorB (38-42 kDa) was recognized by one of the two anti-M. catarrhalis sera. Human sera from both healthy individuals and patients convalescing from meningococcal meningitis also showed cross-reactive antibodies against these proteins. The existence of cross-reactive antigens in M. catarrhalis and N. meningitidis (as well as in N. lactamica) could favor the development of natural immunization against both pathogens.

  13. [Molecular characterization of BRO beta-lactamases of Moraxella catarrhalis strains isolated from carrier children].

    PubMed

    Köseoğlu, Ozgen; Ergin, Alper; Gürkan Aydin, Nazli; Hasçelik, Gülşen

    2004-10-01

    Nasopharyngeal carriage of Moraxella catarrhalis is a risk factor for upper respiratory tract infections and otitis media. In this study, we aimed to characterize BRO beta-lactamases of M. catarrhalis strains isolated from 64 children without any symptoms of respiratory disease. Gram negative diplococci grown on selective media and which are catalase, oxidase, DNase, nitrate reduction positive, glucose, maltose, sucrose and lactose fermentation negative, were diagnosed as M. catarrhalis. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by agar dilution method recommended by NCCLS. BRO beta-lactamases were differentiated by restriction enzyme analysis method. The resistance rate for ampicillin was 18.8% and all the isolates were found to be sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefazolin, cefaclor, azithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Out of 64 M. catarrhalis isolates, 57 (89%) were found beta-lactamase positive with nitrocefin disk test (Remel, USA). The presence of BRO beta-lactamases in these 57 strains (89%) was also confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis, while 7 (11%) of them were found to be negative. Among the positive strains, 47 (73.4%) were typed as BRO-1, and 10 (15.6%) were typed as BRO-2. The characterization of BRO beta-lactamases of M. catarrhalis strains in carrier children is important since the high rate of carriage predisposes to respiratory tract infections. As a result, BRO beta-lactamase typing will guide the treatment regimen against the respiratory infections that can occur due to M. catarrhalis in carrier children.

  14. Susceptibility of clinical Moraxella catarrhalis isolates in British Columbia to six empirically prescribed antibiotic agents

    PubMed Central

    Bandet, Tamara; Whitehead, Sue; Blondel-Hill, Edith; Wagner, Ken; Cheeptham, Naowarat

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Moraxella catarrhalis is a commensal organism of the respiratory tract that has emerged as an important pathogen for a variety of upper and lower respiratory tract infections including otitis media and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Susceptibility testing of M catarrhalis is not routinely performed in most diagnostic laboratories; rather, a comment predicting susceptibility based on the literature is attached to the report. The most recent Canadian report on M catarrhalis antimicrobial susceptibility was published in 2003; therefore, a new study at this time was of interest and importance. OBJECTIVE: To determine the susceptibility of M catarrhalis isolates from British Columbia to amoxicillin-clavulanate, doxycycline, clarithromycin, cefuroxime, levofloxacin and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. METHODS: A total of 117 clinical M catarrhalis isolates were isolated and tested from five Interior hospitals and two private laboratory centres in British Columbia between January and December 2012. Antibiotic susceptibility of M catarrhalis isolates was characterized using the Etest (E-strip; bioMérieux, USA) according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. RESULTS: All isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate, doxycycline, clarithromycin, levofloxacin and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. One isolate was intermediately resistant to cefuroxime, representing a 99.15% sensitivity rate to the cephem agent. Cefuroxime minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) inhibiting 50% and 90% of organisms (MIC50 and MIC90) were highest among the antibiotics tested, and the MIC90 (3 μg/mL) of cefuroxime reached the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoint of susceptibility. DISCUSSION: The antibiotic susceptibility of M catarrhalis isolates evaluated in the present study largely confirms the findings of previous surveillance studies performed in Canada. Cefuroxime MICs are in the high end of the sensitive range and the MIC50 and MIC90

  15. The Respiratory Pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis Targets Collagen for Maximal Adherence to Host Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Birendra; Alvarado-Kristensson, Maria; Johansson, Martin; Hallgren, Oskar; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Mörgelin, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory pathogen that causes acute otitis media in children and is associated with exacerbations in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The first step in M. catarrhalis colonization is adherence to the mucosa, epithelial cells, and extracellular matrix (ECM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of M. catarrhalis interactions with collagens from various angles. Clinical isolates (n = 43) were tested for collagen binding, followed by a detailed analysis of protein-protein interactions using recombinantly expressed proteins. M. catarrhalis-dependent interactions with collagen produced by human lung fibroblasts and tracheal tissues were studied by utilizing confocal immunohistochemistry and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. A mouse smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) model was used to estimate the adherence of M. catarrhalis in vivo. We found that all M. catarrhalis clinical isolates tested adhered to fibrillar collagen types I, II, and III and network-forming collagens IV and VI. The trimeric autotransporter adhesins ubiquitous surface protein A2 (UspA2) and UspA2H were identified as major collagen-binding receptors. M. catarrhalis wild type adhered to human tracheal tissue and collagen-producing lung fibroblasts, whereas UspA2 and UspA2H deletion mutants did not. Moreover, in the COPD mouse model, bacteria devoid of UspA2 and UspA2H had a reduced level of adherence to the respiratory tract compared to the adherence of wild-type bacteria. Our data therefore suggest that the M. catarrhalis UspA2 and UspA2H-dependent interaction with collagens is highly critical for adherence in the host and, furthermore, may play an important role in the establishment of disease. PMID:27006460

  16. Moraxella catarrhalis induces CEACAM3-Syk-CARD9-dependent activation of human granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, A; Heyl, K A; Klaile, E; Müller, M M; Klassert, T E; Wiessner, A; Fischer, K; Schumann, R R; Seifert, U; Riesbeck, K; Moter, A; Singer, B B; Bachmann, S; Slevogt, H

    2016-11-01

    The human restricted pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis is an important causal agent for exacerbations in chronic obstructive lung disease in adults. In such patients, increased numbers of granulocytes are present in the airways, which correlate with bacteria-induced exacerbations and severity of the disease. Our study investigated whether the interaction of M. catarrhalis with the human granulocyte-specific carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM)-3 is linked to NF-κB activation, resulting in chemokine production. Granulocytes from healthy donors and NB4 cells were infected with M. catarrhalis in the presence of different inhibitors, blocking antibodies and siRNA. The supernatants were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for chemokines. NF-κB activation was determined using a luciferase reporter gene assay and chromatin-immunoprecipitation. We found evidence that the specific engagement of CEACAM3 by M. catarrhalis ubiquitous surface protein A1 (UspA1) results in the activation of pro-inflammatory events, such as degranulation of neutrophils, ROS production and chemokine secretion. The interaction of UspA1 with CEACAM3 induced the activation of the NF-κB pathway via Syk and the CARD9 pathway and was dependent on the phosphorylation of the CEACAM3 ITAM-like motif. These findings suggest that the CEACAM3 signalling in neutrophils is able to specifically modulate airway inflammation caused by infection with M. catarrhalis.

  17. Molecular characterization of clinical isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Theoga Raj, Christol James; Shankar, Esaki Muthu; Rothan, Hussin A; Rao, Usha Anand

    2014-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis, a less virulent microorganism that colonizes the upper respiratory tract, has recently been associated with lower respiratory disease, especially in HIV-positive immunocompromised individuals and children. Here, we correlated the DNA clustering pattern of 24 clinical isolates of M. catarrhalis for β-lactamase production and drug resistance, from different disease groups using three different arbitrarily selected primers, P1 (5'-TCACGATGCA-3'), P14 (5'-GATCAAGTCC-3') and P17 (5'-GATCTGACAC-3'). M. catarrhalis revealed three distinct banding patterns with primer P1, four with P14 and P17. 71% (n = 17) of the isolates revealed pattern 2 with primer P1, which discriminated majority (12/21) of the isolates grouped under the major branch of the dendrogram. The minor branch had only three isolates. Separation of M. catarrhalis into two subpopulations (major and minor clusters) with primer P1 is suggestive of diverse genetic lineage. A high level of concordance between RAPD and antibiotic profile was observed. Clustering of M. catarrhalis recovered from different disease groups reflect the identical clinical background or the common geographical/temporal factors. The presence or absence of β-lactamase in a cluster confirmed their single source of origin.

  18. Characterization of the Molecular Interplay between Moraxella catarrhalis and Human Respiratory Tract Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Stefan P. W.; Eleveld, Marc J.; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Bootsma, Hester J.

    2013-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a mucosal pathogen that causes childhood otitis media and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. During the course of infection, M. catarrhalis needs to adhere to epithelial cells of different host niches such as the nasopharynx and lungs, and consequently, efficient adhesion to epithelial cells is considered an important virulence trait of M. catarrhalis. By using Tn-seq, a genome-wide negative selection screenings technology, we identified 15 genes potentially required for adherence of M. catarrhalis BBH18 to pharyngeal epithelial Detroit 562 and lung epithelial A549 cells. Validation with directed deletion mutants confirmed the importance of aroA (3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyl-transferase), ecnAB (entericidin EcnAB), lgt1 (glucosyltransferase), and MCR_1483 (outer membrane lipoprotein) for cellular adherence, with ΔMCR_1483 being most severely attenuated in adherence to both cell lines. Expression profiling of M. catarrhalis BBH18 during adherence to Detroit 562 cells showed increased expression of 34 genes in cell-attached versus planktonic bacteria, among which ABC transporters for molybdate and sulfate, while reduced expression of 16 genes was observed. Notably, neither the newly identified genes affecting adhesion nor known adhesion genes were differentially expressed during adhesion, but appeared to be constitutively expressed at a high level. Profiling of the transcriptional response of Detroit 562 cells upon adherence of M. catarrhalis BBH18 showed induction of a panel of pro-inflammatory genes as well as genes involved in the prevention of damage of the epithelial barrier. In conclusion, this study provides new insight into the molecular interplay between M. catarrhalis and host epithelial cells during the process of adherence. PMID:23936538

  19. [THE PATHOGENIC POTENTIAL OF MORAXELLA CATARRHALIS AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS UNDER INFLAMMATORY PROCESSES OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACTS].

    PubMed

    Kraeva, L A; Burgasova, O A; Kunilova, E S; Petrova, I S; Tseneva, G Ya; Bespalova, G L

    2015-11-01

    The frequent isolation from biological material of Moraxella catarrhalis under bronchitis and pneumonia and Staphilococcus epidermidis under rhinitis and sinusitis requires profound investigation offactors ofpathogenicity ofthe mentioned microorganisms. The genetic and phenotypic markers of virulence of strains M. catarrhalis and S. epidermidis are examined. Their etiologic role in development of infection processes of respiratory tract and middle ear is determined The most of M catarrhalis strains isolated under bronchitis and pneumonia have gene mcaP responsiblefor production ofprotein McaP that provides adhesion to epithelium cell of host and lipolitic activity of bacteria. The strains isolated from patients with pneumonia had the most adhesive activity. The cluster of genes ICA with leading role of gene icaA is responsible for for availability offactors of intercellular adhesion in Staphilococci strains. In the clinical samples from patients with sinusitis this gene is detected 5 times more frequently than from healthy individuals. In phenotypic tests, expression of gene icaA in S. epidermidis isolated from patients is three times higher than in strains isolated from healthy individuals. To establish etiologic role of M. catarrhalis and S. epidermidis and to develop tactic of therapy of patients with bronchitis, pneumonia and sinusitis complex approach is needed, including detection of genetic and phenotypic markers of virulence in isolated microorganisms.

  20. Structure and immunological action of the human pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis IgD-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Riesbeck, Kristian; Nordstrom, Therese

    2006-01-01

    Several pathogens have acquired the capacity to bind immunoglobulins in a nonimmune manner, that is, the binding does not involve the normal antigen-binding sites of the antibodies. In contrast to gram-positive bacteria, for example Staphylococus aureus, nonimmune binding to gram-negative bacteria is rare. Moraxella catarrhalis outer membrane protein MID is the first to date known IgD-binding protein. MID is a 200-kDa autotransporter protein that exists as an oligomer and is governed at the transcriptional level. The majority of M. catarrhalis clinical isolates expresses MID. Two functional domains have been attributed to MID. MID764-913 functions as an adhesin and promotes the bacteria to attach to epithelial cells. The IgD-binding domain is located within MID962-1200 and the IgD-binding is related to the secondary and tertiary structure, that is, an oligomer is required for an optimal interaction. In parallel, M. catarrhalis activates B lymphocytes through the IgD B-cell receptor. This stimulatory capacity can be blocked by anti-IgD polyclonal antibodies, and M. catarrhalis mutants devoid of MID do not stimulate B cells. Moreover, MID and MID962-1200 activates B lymphocytes in the presence of T-helper 2 cytokines or soluble CD40L. Thus, available data suggest that MID is a T-cell-independent antigen.

  1. Antigenic Structure of Outer Membrane Protein E of Moraxella catarrhalis and Construction and Characterization of Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Timothy F.; Brauer, Aimee L.; Yuskiw, Norine; Hiltke, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    Outer membrane protein E (OMP E) is a 50-kDa protein of Moraxella catarrhalis which possesses several characteristics indicating that the protein will be an effective vaccine antigen. To study the antigenic structure of OMP E, eight monoclonal antibodies were developed and characterized. Three of the antibodies recognized epitopes which are present on the bacterial surface. Fusion peptides corresponding to overlapping regions of OMP E were constructed, and immunoblot assays were performed to localize the areas of the molecule bound by the monoclonal antibodies. These studies identified a surface-exposed epitope in the region of amino acids 80 through 180. To further study the protein, two mutants which lack OMP E were constructed. In bactericidal assays, the mutants were more readily killed by normal human serum compared to the isogenic parent strains. These results indicate that OMP E is involved in the expression of serum resistance of M. catarrhalis. PMID:11035732

  2. Connection between trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use and resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Kärpänoja, Pauliina; Nyberg, Solja T; Bergman, Miika; Voipio, Tinna; Paakkari, Pirkko; Huovinen, Pentti; Sarkkinen, Hannu

    2008-07-01

    The association between trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use and resistance among the major respiratory tract pathogens was investigated by comparing regional consumption of the drug to regional resistance in the following year in 21 central hospital districts in Finland. A total of 23,530 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, 28,320 Haemophilus influenzae isolates, and 14,138 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates were tested for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole susceptibility during the study period (1998-2004). Among the S. pneumoniae isolates, a statistically significant connection was found between regional consumption and resistance. No statistically significant connection was found between regional trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use and resistance among H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates. According to our results, it seems that only in pneumococci can the development of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance be influenced by restricting its use. However, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole remains an important antimicrobial agent because of its reasonable price. Hence, resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole among these pathogens needs continuous monitoring.

  3. Non-transpeptidase binding arylthioether β-lactams active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Beck, Tim N; Lloyd, Dina; Kuskovsky, Rostislav; Minah, Jeanette; Arora, Kriti; Plotkin, Balbina J; Green, Jacalyn M; Boshoff, Helena I; Barry, Clifton; Deschamps, Jeffrey; Konaklieva, Monika I

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of drug resistance in both clinical and community settings as a consequence of alterations of biosynthetic pathways, enzymes or cell wall architecture is a persistent threat to human health. We have designed, synthesized, and tested a novel class of non-transpeptidase, β-lactamase resistant monocyclic β-lactams that carry an arylthio group at C4. These thioethers exhibit inhibitory and cidal activity against serine β-lactamase producing Mycobacterium tuberculosis wild type strain (Mtb) and multiple (n=8) β-lactamase producing Moraxella catarrhalis clinical isolates.

  4. The Vaccine Candidate Substrate Binding Protein SBP2 Plays a Key Role in Arginine Uptake, Which Is Required for Growth of Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, Taketo; Kirkham, Charmaine; Brauer, Aimee; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Malkowski, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is an exclusively human pathogen that is an important cause of otitis media in children and lower respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A vaccine to prevent M. catarrhalis infections would have an enormous global impact in reducing morbidity resulting from these infections. Substrate binding protein 2 (SBP2) of an ABC transporter system has recently been identified as a promising vaccine candidate antigen on the bacterial surface of M. catarrhalis. In this study, we showed that SBP1, -2, and -3 individually bind different basic amino acids with exquisite specificity. We engineered mutants that each expressed a single SBP from this gene cluster and showed in growth experiments that SBP1, -2, and -3 serve a nutritional function through acquisition of amino acids for the bacterium. SBP2 mediates uptake of arginine, a strict growth requirement of M. catarrhalis. Adherence and invasion assays demonstrated that SBP1 and SBP3 play a role in invasion of human respiratory epithelial cells, consistent with a nutritional role in intracellular survival in the human respiratory tract. This work demonstrates that the SBPs of an ABC transporter system function in the uptake of basic amino acids to support growth of M. catarrhalis. The critical role of SBP2 in arginine uptake may contribute to its potential as a vaccine antigen. PMID:26597985

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Lipooligosaccharide-Based Conjugates as Vaccine Candidates for Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xin-Xing; Chen, Jing; Barenkamp, Stephen J.; Robbins, John B.; Tsai, Chao-Ming; Lim, David J.; Battey, James

    1998-01-01

    Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis is an important cause of otitis media and sinusitis in children and of lower respiratory tract infections in adults. Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is a major surface antigen of the bacterium and elicits bactericidal antibodies. Treatment of the LOS from strain ATCC 25238 with anhydrous hydrazine reduced its toxicity 20,000-fold, as assayed in the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test. The detoxified LOS (dLOS) was coupled to tetanus toxoid (TT) or high-molecular-weight proteins (HMP) from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae through a linker of adipic acid dihydrazide to form dLOS-TT or dLOS-HMP. The molar ratios of dLOS to TT and HMP conjugates were 19:1 and 31:1, respectively. The antigenicity of the two conjugates was similar to that of the LOS, as determined by double immunodiffusion. Subcutaneous or intramuscular injection of both conjugates elicited a 50- to 100-fold rise in the geometric mean of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to the homologous LOS in mice after three injections and a 350- to 700-fold rise of anti-LOS IgG in rabbits after two injections. The immunogenicity of the conjugate was enhanced by formulation with monophosphoryl lipid A plus trehalose dimycolate. In rabbits, conjugate-induced antisera had complement-mediated bactericidal activity against the homologous strain and heterologous strains of M. catarrhalis. These results indicate that a detoxified LOS-protein conjugate is a candidate for immunization against M. catarrhalis diseases. PMID:9573066

  6. Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria lactamica and Moraxella catarrhalis share cross-reactive carbohydrate antigens.

    PubMed

    Braun, Jan M; Beuth, Josef; Blackwell, C Caroline; Giersen, Sonja; Higgins, Paul G; Tzanakaki, Georgina; Unverhau, Heike; Weir, Donald M

    2004-02-17

    Carriage of commensal bacteria species is associated with the development of natural immunity to meningococcal disease, with lipo-oligosaccharides (LOS) of meningococci being one of the main virulence factors associated with severity of meningococcal disease. Meningococcal reference strains and isolates from the commensal species Neisseria lactamica and Moraxella catarrhalis were assessed for the presence of cross-reactive glycoconjugate antigens. Binding of human blood group antibodies of the P and Ii system to meningococcal immunotype reference strains were in accordance with the presence of known LOS carbohydrate structures. Binding studies with meningococcal immunotyping antibodies and blood group phenotyping antibodies to N. lactamica strains from different European countries showed, that a greater number of isolates obtained from native Greek and Scottish adults and children bound anti-meningococcal L(3, 7, 9) immunotyping (P < 0.001), pK (P = 0.035) and paragloboside (P < 0.001) blood group typing antibodies compared to isolates obtained from children of Russian immigrants in Greece. A greater number of M. catarrhalis strains isolated from children in Scotland bound anti-L(3, 7, 9) antibodies (38.2%) compared to strains isolated from adults (22.2%) (P = 0.017). These findings provide evidence that blood group like glycoconjugate antigens found on the commensal species N. lactamica and M. catarrhalis might be involved in the development of natural immunity to meningococcal endotoxins during childhood, and might be exploited as anti-meningococcal vaccine candidates.

  7. Towards understanding the functional role of the glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of Moraxella catarrhalis lipooligosaccharide.

    PubMed

    Peak, Ian R; Grice, I D; Faglin, Isabelle; Klipic, Zoran; Collins, Patrick M; van Schendel, Lucien; Hitchen, Paul G; Morris, Howard R; Dell, Anne; Wilson, Jennifer C

    2007-04-01

    The glycosyltransferase enzymes (Lgts) responsible for the biosynthesis of the lipooligosaccharide-derived oligosaccharide structures from Moraxella catarrhalis have been investigated. This upper respiratory tract pathogen is responsible for a spectrum of illnesses, including otitis media (middle ear infection) in children, and contributes to exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in elderly patients. To investigate the function of the glycosyltransferase enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of lipooligosaccharide of M. catarrhalis and to gain some insight into the mechanism of serotype specificity for this microorganism, mutant strains of M. catarrhalis were produced. Examination by NMR and MS of the oligosaccharide structures produced by double-mutant strains (2951lgt1/4Delta and 2951lgt5/4Delta) and a single-mutant strain (2951lgt2Delta) of the bacterium has allowed us to propose a model for the serotype-specific expression of lipooligosaccharide in M. catarrhalis. According to this model, the presence/absence of Lgt4 and the Lgt2 allele determines the lipooligosaccharide structure produced by a strain. Furthermore, it is concluded that Lgt4 functions as an N-acetylglucosylamine transferase responsible for the addition of an alpha-D-GlcNAc (1-->2) glycosidic linkage to the (1-->4) branch, and also that there is competition between the glycosyltransferases Lgt1 and Lgt4. That is, in the presence of an active Lgt4, GlcNAc is preferentially added to the (1-->4) chain of the growing oligosaccharide, instead of Glc. In serotype B strains, which lack Lgt4, Lgt1 adds a Glc at this position. This implies that active Lgt4 has a much higher affinity/specificity for the beta-(1-->4)-linked Glc on the (1-->4) branch than does Lgt1.

  8. Superoxol and aminopeptidase tests for identification of pathogenic Neisseria species and Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Pérez, J L; Pulido, A; Gómez, E; Sauca, G; Martín, R

    1990-06-01

    The superoxol test, and prolyl aminopeptidase and gammaglutamyl aminopeptidase tests were evaluated for the detection of pathogenic Neisseria spp. using 317 strains of Neisseria-ceae. The superoxol test was positive for all 116 gonococci and 62 Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis strains, but also for three strains of Neisseria meningitidis, one strain of Neisseria lactamica and eight saprophytic neisseriae. When using strains grown on Thayer-Martin medium, the positive and negative predictive values of the superoxol test for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were 96.7% and 100% respectively. Meningococci were the only neisseriae growing on Thayer-Martin medium that showed gamma-glutamyl aminopeptidase activity. The prolyl aminopeptidase test showed low specificity.

  9. Genetic analysis of a pediatric clinical isolate of Moraxella catarrhalis with resistance to macrolides and quinolones.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Satoshi; Sato, Yoshitake; Toyonaga, Yoshikiyo; Hanaki, Hideaki; Sunakawa, Keisuke

    2015-04-01

    During the surveillance conducted in 2012 by the Drug-resistant Pathogen Surveillance Group in Pediatric Infectious Disease, we isolated a strain of Moraxella catarrhalis that demonstrated resistance to both macrolides and quinolones from a male pediatric patient aged 1.5 years who had developed acute bronchitis. Then we evaluated the susceptibility of this strain to different types of antibacterial agents and conducted a genetic analysis. The results of the susceptibility evaluation showed that the MIC values of azithromycin, clarithromycin, and rokitamycin were >64 μg/mL, >64 μg/mL, and 4 μg/mL, respectively; clearly demonstrating resistance to macrolides. The MIC values of the quinolones levofloxacin, tosufloxacin, and garenoxacin were 4 μg/mL, 2 μg/mL, and 1 μg/mL, respectively; indicating decreased susceptibility. The genetic analysis of this strain revealed one mutation in 23s rRNA with a replacement of adenine by thymine at nucleotide position 2330 (A2330T) and another mutation in gyrB at nucleotide position 1481 by replacement of adenine with guanine (A1481G) that caused a substitution of the 494 th asparagine acid by glycine, as being associated with the observed resistance to macrolides and quinolones, respectively. Similar to drug-resistant bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, the prevalence of which has recently increased, the treatment of drug-resistant M. catarrhalis infections is considered difficult due to the development of resistance to different types of antibacterial agents. It is vital to maintain an unwavering focus on the trend toward an increasing number of drug-resistant M. catarrhalis strains and ensure the proper use of each antibacterial agent.

  10. Moraxella catarrhalis induces mast cell activation and nuclear factor kappa B-dependent cytokine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswamy, G; Martin, R; Walker, E; Li, C; Hossler, F; Hall, K; Chi, D S

    2003-01-01

    Human mast cells are often found perivascularly and at mucosal sites and may play crucial roles in the inflammatory response. Recent studies have suggested a prominent role for mast cells in host defense. In this study, we analyzed the effects of a common airway pathogen, Moraxella catarrhalis and a commensal bacterium, Neiserria cinerea, on activation of human mast cells. Human mast cell leukemia cells (HMC-1) were activated with either phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and calcium ionophore or with varying concentrations of heat-killed suspensions of bacteria. Supernatants were assayed for the cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4), granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-6, IL-8, IL-13 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Nuclear proteins were isolated and assayed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) for nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) nuclear binding activity. In some experiments, NF-kappaB inhibitor, Bay-11 was added to determine functional significance. Both M. catarrhalis and N. cinerea induced mast cell activation and selective secretion of two key inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and MCP-1. This was accompanied by NF-kappaB activation. Neither spun bacterial supernatants nor bacterial lipopolysaccharide induced cytokine secretion, suggesting need for direct bacterial contact with mast cells. Scanning electron microscopy revealed active aggregation of bacteria over mast cell surfaces. The NF-kappaB inhibitor, Bay-11, inhibited expression of MCP-1. These findings suggest the possibility of direct interactions between human mast cells and common bacteria and provide evidence for a novel role for human mast cells in innate immunity.

  11. Outer membrane protein OlpA contributes to Moraxella catarrhalis serum resistance via interaction with factor H and the alternative pathway.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Sara; Fleury, Christophe; Su, Yu-Ching; Zipfel, Peter F; Koske, Iris; Nordström, Therése; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2014-10-15

    Factor H is an important complement regulator of the alternative pathway commonly recruited by pathogens to achieve increased rates of survival in the human host. The respiratory pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis, which resides in the mucosa, is highly resistant to the bactericidal activity of serum and causes otitis media in children and respiratory tract infections in individuals with underlying diseases. In this study, we show that M. catarrhalis binds factor H via the outer membrane protein OlpA. M. catarrhalis serum resistance was dramatically decreased in the absence of either OlpA or factor H, demonstrating that this inhibition of the alternative pathway significantly contributes to the virulence of M. catarrhalis.

  12. Moraxella catarrhalis induces CEACAM3‐Syk‐CARD9‐dependent activation of human granulocytes

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, A.; Heyl, K.A.; Klaile, E.; Müller, M.M.; Klassert, T.E.; Wiessner, A.; Fischer, K.; Schumann, R.R.; Seifert, U.; Riesbeck, K.; Moter, A.; Singer, B.B.; Bachmann, S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The human restricted pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis is an important causal agent for exacerbations in chronic obstructive lung disease in adults. In such patients, increased numbers of granulocytes are present in the airways, which correlate with bacteria‐induced exacerbations and severity of the disease. Our study investigated whether the interaction of M. catarrhalis with the human granulocyte‐specific carcinoembryonic antigen‐related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM)‐3 is linked to NF‐κB activation, resulting in chemokine production. Granulocytes from healthy donors and NB4 cells were infected with M. catarrhalis in the presence of different inhibitors, blocking antibodies and siRNA. The supernatants were analysed by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay for chemokines. NF‐κB activation was determined using a luciferase reporter gene assay and chromatin‐immunoprecipitation. We found evidence that the specific engagement of CEACAM3 by M. catarrhalis ubiquitous surface protein A1 (UspA1) results in the activation of pro‐inflammatory events, such as degranulation of neutrophils, ROS production and chemokine secretion. The interaction of UspA1 with CEACAM3 induced the activation of the NF‐κB pathway via Syk and the CARD9 pathway and was dependent on the phosphorylation of the CEACAM3 ITAM‐like motif. These findings suggest that the CEACAM3 signalling in neutrophils is able to specifically modulate airway inflammation caused by infection with M. catarrhalis. PMID:27038042

  13. ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters of the Human Respiratory Tract Pathogen, Moraxella catarrhalis: Role in Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Timothy F; Brauer, Aimee L.; Johnson, Antoinette; Kirkham, Charmaine

    2016-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media (middle ear infections) in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In view of the huge global burden of disease caused by M. catarrhalis, the development of vaccines to prevent these infections and better approaches to treatment have become priorities. In previous work, we used a genome mining approach that identified three substrate binding proteins (SBPs) of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters as promising candidate vaccine antigens. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive assessment of 19 SBPs of 15 ABC transporter systems in the M. catarrhalis genome by engineering knockout mutants and studying their role in assays that assess mechanisms of infection. The capacity of M. catarrhalis to survive and grow in the nutrient-limited and hostile environment of the human respiratory tract, including intracellular growth, account in part for its virulence. The results show that ABC transporters that mediate uptake of peptides, amino acids, cations and anions play important roles in pathogenesis by enabling M. catarrhalis to 1) grow in nutrient-limited conditions, 2) invade and survive in human respiratory epithelial cells and 3) persist in the lungs in a murine pulmonary clearance model. The knockout mutants of SBPs and ABC transporters showed different patterns of activity in the assay systems, supporting the conclusion that different SBPs and ABC transporters function at different stages in the pathogenesis of infection. These results indicate that ABC transporters are nutritional virulence factors, functioning to enable the survival of M catarrhalis in the diverse microenvironments of the respiratory tract. Based on the role of ABC transporters as virulence factors of M. catarrhalis, these molecules represent potential drug targets to eradicate the organism from the human respiratory tract. PMID:27391026

  14. Oropharyngeal Colonization With Neisseria lactamica, Other Nonpathogenic Neisseria Species and Moraxella catarrhalis Among Young Healthy Children in Ahvaz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhi, Raheleh; Amin, Mansour; Rostami, Soodabeh; Shoja, Saeed; Ebrahimi, Nasim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neisseria lactamica as one of the main commensal in oropharynx during the childhood is related to the induction of a natural immunity against meningococcal meningitis. Also Moraxella catarrhalis in oropharynx of children is a predisposing factor for otitis media infection. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the frequency of the N. lactamica, other nonpathogenic Neisseria spp. and M. catarrhalis in the oropharynx of young healthy children in Ahvaz, Iran by the two phenotypic tests and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods: A total of 192 oropharyngeal swab samples of the young healthy children were studied during four months. Swabs were plated onto enriched selective media and non-selective media. Gram-negative and oxidase-positive diplococci were identified by several conventional biochemical tests. The PCR and sequencing were used to confirm the accuracy of laboratory diagnosis to identify N. lactamica and M. catarrhalis. Results: Among 192 young healthy children with the mean age of 5.93 ± 2.5903 years, authors identified: N. lactamica (21.9%) in the age group of one to nine years; N. mucosa (6.3%); N. sicca (7.8%); N. cinerea (1.6%); N. subflava (biovar subflava) (4.2%); N. subflava (biovar perflava) (28.1%); N. subflava (biovar flava) (7.3%) and M. catarrhalis (42.7%). Conclusions: The young healthy children screening by colonization of N. lactamica and other nonpathogenic Neisseria spp. in oropharynx was the first report in Ahvaz, Iran. The study results demonstrated the high frequency of colonization of M. catarrhalis in the studied young healthy children other than Neisseria spp. PMID:25964847

  15. Moraxella catarrhalis outer membrane vesicles carry β-lactamase and promote survival of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae by inactivating amoxicillin.

    PubMed

    Schaar, Viveka; Nordström, Therése; Mörgelin, Matthias; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2011-08-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a common pathogen found in children with upper respiratory tract infections and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during exacerbations. The bacterial species is often isolated together with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are released by M. catarrhalis and contain phospholipids, adhesins, and immunomodulatory compounds such as lipooligosaccharide. We have recently shown that M. catarrhalis OMVs exist in patients upon nasopharyngeal colonization. As virtually all M. catarrhalis isolates are β-lactamase positive, the goal of this study was to investigate whether M. catarrhalis OMVs carry β-lactamase and to analyze if OMV consequently can prevent amoxicillin-induced killing. Recombinant β-lactamase was produced and antibodies were raised in rabbits. Transmission electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and Western blotting verified that OMVs carried β-lactamase. Moreover, enzyme assays revealed that M. catarrhalis OMVs contained active β-lactamase. OMVs (25 μg/ml) incubated with amoxicillin for 1 h completely hydrolyzed amoxicillin at concentrations up to 2.5 μg/ml. In functional experiments, preincubation of amoxicillin (10× MIC) with M. catarrhalis OMVs fully rescued amoxicillin-susceptible M. catarrhalis, S. pneumoniae, and type b or nontypeable H. influenzae from β-lactam-induced killing. Our results suggest that the presence of amoxicillin-resistant M. catarrhalis originating from β-lactamase-containing OMVs may pave the way for respiratory pathogens that by definition are susceptible to β-lactam antibiotics.

  16. Moraxella catarrhalis Macrolide-Resistant Isolates Are Highly Concentrated in Two MLST Clonal Complexes -CCN10 and CC363.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Li; Xiao, Meng; Cheng, Jing-Wei; Xu, He-Ping; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Ye, Sha; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Kudinha, Timothy; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2017-01-01

    To gain some insights into the molecular evolution of Moraxella catarrhalis macrolide resistance, PCR and sequencing analysis of the 23S rRNA gene, copB typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed on 181 M. catarrhalis isolates. The isolates were obtained from children (n = 47) and adults (n = 134) presenting with respiratory disease in the years 2010-2014. Macrolide resistance was highly age-related, and nucleotide position alterations at A2330T could be detected in all macrolide-resistant isolates. copB 0 and copB NT (non-typable) were only found in macrolide-susceptible isolates from adults. Furthermore, copB I/III was the main type in adult or macrolide-susceptible isolates, while copB II was the most common type in children or macrolide-resistant isolates. Twenty-two different MLST clusters (sharing 7 of the 8 identical loci) were detected and only four likely primary founders (ST224, ST363, STN08, and STN10) which belong to clonal complex (CC) 224, CC363, CCN08, and CCN10, were detected, respectively. Macrolide-resistant M. catarrhalis isolates were highly concentrated in two CCs (CCN10 and CC363), which indicates some potential evolutionary advantage or co-evolution to some extent. However, further studies are needed to fully elucidate the evolution of CCN10 and CC363 in macrolide resistance.

  17. Moraxella catarrhalis Macrolide-Resistant Isolates Are Highly Concentrated in Two MLST Clonal Complexes -CCN10 and CC363

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ya-Li; Xiao, Meng; Cheng, Jing-Wei; Xu, He-Ping; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Ye, Sha; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Kudinha, Timothy; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2017-01-01

    To gain some insights into the molecular evolution of Moraxella catarrhalis macrolide resistance, PCR and sequencing analysis of the 23S rRNA gene, copB typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed on 181 M. catarrhalis isolates. The isolates were obtained from children (n = 47) and adults (n = 134) presenting with respiratory disease in the years 2010–2014. Macrolide resistance was highly age-related, and nucleotide position alterations at A2330T could be detected in all macrolide-resistant isolates. copB 0 and copB NT (non-typable) were only found in macrolide-susceptible isolates from adults. Furthermore, copB I/III was the main type in adult or macrolide-susceptible isolates, while copB II was the most common type in children or macrolide-resistant isolates. Twenty-two different MLST clusters (sharing 7 of the 8 identical loci) were detected and only four likely primary founders (ST224, ST363, STN08, and STN10) which belong to clonal complex (CC) 224, CC363, CCN08, and CCN10, were detected, respectively. Macrolide-resistant M. catarrhalis isolates were highly concentrated in two CCs (CCN10 and CC363), which indicates some potential evolutionary advantage or co-evolution to some extent. However, further studies are needed to fully elucidate the evolution of CCN10 and CC363 in macrolide resistance. PMID:28239374

  18. Comparative Genomic Analyses of the Moraxella catarrhalis Serosensitive and Seroresistant Lineages Demonstrate Their Independent Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Earl, Joshua P.; de Vries, Stefan P.W.; Ahmed, Azad; Powell, Evan; Schultz, Matthew P.; Hermans, Peter W.M.; Hill, Darryl J.; Zhou, Zhemin; Constantinidou, Crystala I.; Hu, Fen Z.; Bootsma, Hester J.; Ehrlich, Garth D.

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial species Moraxella catarrhalis has been hypothesized as being composed of two distinct lineages (referred to as the seroresistant [SR] and serosensitive [SS]) with separate evolutionary histories based on several molecular typing methods, whereas 16S ribotyping has suggested an additional split within the SS lineage. Previously, we characterized whole-genome sequences of 12 SR-lineage isolates, which revealed a relatively small supragenome when compared with other opportunistic nasopharyngeal pathogens, suggestive of a relatively short evolutionary history. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing on 18 strains from both ribotypes of the SS lineage, an additional SR strain, as well as four previously identified highly divergent strains based on multilocus sequence typing analyses. All 35 strains were subjected to a battery of comparative genomic analyses which clearly show that there are three lineages—the SR, SS, and the divergent. The SR and SS lineages are closely related, but distinct from each other based on three different methods of comparison: Allelic differences observed among core genes; possession of lineage-specific sets of core and distributed genes; and by an alignment of concatenated core sequences irrespective of gene annotation. All these methods show that the SS lineage has much longer interstrain branches than the SR lineage indicating that this lineage has likely been evolving either longer or faster than the SR lineage. There is evidence of extensive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) within both of these lineages, and to a lesser degree between them. In particular, we identified very high rates of HGT between these two lineages for ß-lactamase genes. The four divergent strains are sui generis, being much more distantly related to both the SR and SS groups than these other two groups are to each other. Based on average nucleotide identities, gene content, GC content, and genome size, this group could be considered as a separate

  19. Moraxella catarrhalis decreases antiviral innate immune responses by down-regulation of TLR3 via inhibition of p53 in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Annina; Haarmann, Helge; Zahradnik, Sabrina; Frenzel, Katrin; Schreiber, Frauke; Klassert, Tilman E; Heyl, Kerstin A; Endres, Anne-Sophie; Schmidtke, Michaela; Hofmann, Jörg; Slevogt, Hortense

    2016-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is complicated by infectious exacerbations with acute worsening of respiratory symptoms. Coinfections of bacterial and viral pathogens are associated with more severe exacerbations. Moraxella catarrhalis is one of the most frequent lower respiratory tract pathogens detected in COPD. We therefore studied the impact of M. catarrhalis on the antiviral innate immune response that is mediated via TLR3 and p53. Molecular interactions between M. catarrhalis and normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells as well as Beas-2B cells were studied using flow cytometry, quantitative PCR analysis, chromatin immunoprecipitation, RNA interference, and ELISA. M. catarrhalis induces a significant down-regulation of TLR3 in human bronchial epithelial cells. In M. catarrhalis-infected cells, expression of p53 was decreased. We detected a reduced binding of p53 to the tlr3 promoter, resulting in reduced TLR3 gene transcription. M. catarrhalis diminished the TLR3-dependent secretion of IFN-β, IFN-λ, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8. In addition in M. catarrhalis infected cells, expression of rhinovirus type 1A RNA was increased compared with uninfected cells. M. catarrhalis reduces antiviral defense functions of bronchial epithelial cells, which may increase susceptibility to viral infections.-Heinrich, A., Haarmann, H., Zahradnik, S., Frenzel, K., Schreiber, F., Klassert, T. E., Heyl, K. A., Endres, A.-S., Schmidtke, M., Hofmann, J., Slevogt, H. Moraxella catarrhalis decreases antiviral innate immune responses by down-regulation of TLR3 via inhibition of p53 in human bronchial epithelial cells.

  20. beta-Lactamase-producing Moraxella catarrhalis may prevent the emergence of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with recurrent acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Joki-Erkkilä, Veli-Pekka; Aittoniemi, Janne; Vuento, Risto; Puhakka, Heikki

    2002-05-15

    We studied the effect of concomitant nasopharyngeal carriage of beta-lactamase producing Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae on the occurrence of penicillin resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae. We took nasopharyngeal samples from 306 children with recurrent otitis media and a history of several antibiotic treatments. We could isolate at least one of the pathogens in 89 subjects. Of these children 13% carried more than one pathogen. Of the isolated M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae strains 93% and 43% produced beta-lactamase, respectively. Of the S. pneumoniae strains 25% were non-susceptible (I/R) to penicillin. However, in patients carrying beta-lactamase-producing M. catarrhalis together with pneumococci all strains were susceptible to penicillin (P=0.0353). This finding suggests that beta-lactamase producing M. catarrhalis may hinder the emergence of penicillin resistance of S. pneumoniae in children with recurrent acute otitis media.

  1. Use of the Chinchilla model to evaluate the vaccinogenic potential of the Moraxella catarrhalis filamentous hemagglutinin-like proteins MhaB1 and MhaB2.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Teresa L; Balder, Rachel; Buskirk, Sean W; Hogan, Robert J; Lafontaine, Eric R

    2013-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis causes significant health problems, including 15-20% of otitis media cases in children and ~10% of respiratory infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The lack of an efficacious vaccine, the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates, and high carriage rates reported in children are cause for concern. In addition, the effectiveness of conjugate vaccines at reducing the incidence of otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae suggest that M. catarrhalis infections may become even more prevalent. Hence, M. catarrhalis is an important and emerging cause of infectious disease for which the development of a vaccine is highly desirable. Studying the pathogenesis of M. catarrhalis and the testing of vaccine candidates have both been hindered by the lack of an animal model that mimics human colonization and infection. To address this, we intranasally infected chinchilla with M. catarrhalis to investigate colonization and examine the efficacy of a protein-based vaccine. The data reveal that infected chinchillas produce antibodies against antigens known to be major targets of the immune response in humans, thus establishing immune parallels between chinchillas and humans during M. catarrhalis infection. Our data also demonstrate that a mutant lacking expression of the adherence proteins MhaB1 and MhaB2 is impaired in its ability to colonize the chinchilla nasopharynx, and that immunization with a polypeptide shared by MhaB1 and MhaB2 elicits antibodies interfering with colonization. These findings underscore the importance of adherence proteins in colonization and emphasize the relevance of the chinchilla model to study M. catarrhalis-host interactions.

  2. Acyl chain preference and inhibitor identification of Moraxella catarrhalis LpxA: Insight through crystal structure and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Pratap, Shivendra; Kesari, Pooja; Yadav, Ravi; Dev, Aditya; Narwal, Manju; Kumar, Pravindra

    2017-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an important surface component and a potential virulence factor in the pathogenesis of Gram-negative bacteria. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase (LpxA) enzyme catalyzes the first reaction of LPS biosynthesis, reversible transfer of R-3-hydroxy-acyl moiety from donor R-3-hydroxy-acyl-acyl carrier protein to the 3' hydroxyl position of UDP-N-acetyl-glucosamine. LpxA enzyme's essentiality in bacterial survival and absence of any homologous protein in humans makes it a promising target for anti-bacterial drug development. Herein, we present the crystal structure of Moraxella catarrhalis LpxA (McLpxA). We propose that L171 is responsible for limiting the acyl chain length in McLpxA to 10C or 12C. The study reveals the plausible interactions between the highly conserved clusters of basic residues at the C-terminal end of McLpxA and acidic residues of acyl carrier protein (ACP). Furthermore, the crystal structure of McLpxA was used to screen potential inhibitors from NCI open database using various computational approaches viz. pharmacophore mapping, virtual screening and molecular docking. Molecules Mol212032, Mol609399 and Mol152546 showed best binding affinity with McLpxA among all screened molecules. These molecules mimic the substrate-LpxA binding interactions.

  3. A Moraxella catarrhalis Two-Component Signal Transduction System Necessary for Growth in Liquid Media Affects Production of Two Lysozyme Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Joslin, Stephanie N.; Pybus, Christine; Labandeira-Rey, Maria; Evans, Amanda S.; Attia, Ahmed S.; Brautigam, Chad A.

    2014-01-01

    There are a paucity of data concerning gene products that could contribute to the ability of Moraxella catarrhalis to colonize the human nasopharynx. Inactivation of a gene (mesR) encoding a predicted response regulator of a two-component signal transduction system in M. catarrhalis yielded a mutant unable to grow in liquid media. This mesR mutant also exhibited increased sensitivity to certain stressors, including polymyxin B, SDS, and hydrogen peroxide. Inactivation of the gene (mesS) encoding the predicted cognate sensor (histidine) kinase yielded a mutant with the same inability to grow in liquid media as the mesR mutant. DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR analyses indicated that several genes previously shown to be involved in the ability of M. catarrhalis to persist in the chinchilla nasopharynx were upregulated in the mesR mutant. Two other open reading frames upregulated in the mesR mutant were shown to encode small proteins (LipA and LipB) that had amino acid sequence homology to bacterial adhesins and structural homology to bacterial lysozyme inhibitors. Inactivation of both lipA and lipB did not affect the ability of M. catarrhalis O35E to attach to a human bronchial epithelial cell line in vitro. Purified recombinant LipA and LipB fusion proteins were each shown to inhibit human lysozyme activity in vitro and in saliva. A lipA lipB deletion mutant was more sensitive than the wild-type parent strain to killing by human lysozyme in the presence of human apolactoferrin. This is the first report of the production of lysozyme inhibitors by M. catarrhalis. PMID:25312959

  4. The IgD CH1 region contains the binding site for the human respiratory pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis IgD-binding protein MID.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Martin; Jendholm, Johan; Amisten, Stefan; Morrison, Sherie L; Forsgren, Arne; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2006-09-01

    The Moraxella catarrhalis IgD-binding protein (MID) has a unique specificity for human IgD, and the sequence with maximal IgD binding is located within the amino acids MID962-1200. In the present paper, we examined the MID binding site on IgD using a series of recombinant Ig. Full-length IgD, IgD F(ab')2, and an IgD F(ab') C290R mutant lacking the inter-heavy-chain cysteine 290 were manufactured. Furthermore, a series of IgD/IgG chimeras were constructed. ELISA, dot blot and flow cytometry were used to study the binding of purified Ig to native MID, recombinant MID962-1200 or to Moraxella with or without MID. MID962-1200 bound both the IgD F(ab')2 and F(ab') C290R, indicating that the binding occurred independently of antibody structure. When amino acids 157-224 of the IgD CH1 region were substituted with IgG sequences, binding by M. catarrhalis or recombinant MID962-1200 was abolished. Subsequent smaller substitutions of IgD CH1 157-224 with IgG sequences led us to conclude that IgD CH1 amino acids 198-206 were crucial for the interaction between MID and IgD.

  5. Moraxella catarrhalis activates murine macrophages through multiple toll like receptors and has reduced clearance in lungs from TLR4 mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ferdaus; Ren, Dabin; Zhang, Wenhong; Merkel, Tod J; Gu, Xin-Xing

    2012-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a gram negative bacterium and a leading causative agent of otitis media (OM) in children. Several recent reports have provided strong evidence for an association between toll like receptors and OM. It has been found that both Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae activate host protective immune responses through toll like receptors (TLRs), however, the precise mechanism by which Moraxella catarrhalis initiates the host immune response is currently unknown. In this report, using murine macrophages generated from a series of knock-out mice, we have demonstrated that M. catarrhalis lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and either heat killed or live bacteria are recognized by one or more TLRs. LOS activates the host immune response through a membrane bound CD14-TLR4 complex, while both heat killed and live M.cat require recognition by multiple toll like receptors such as TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 without the requirement of CD14. We have also shown that M.cat stimuli are capable of triggering the host innate immune response by both MyD88- and TRIF- dependent signaling pathways. We further showed that M.cat induced activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) is essential in order to achieve optimal secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. We finally showed that TLR4 mutant C3H/HeJ mice produce significantly lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in vivo, An increased bacterial loads at 12 and 24 hours (P<0.001) in their lungs upon challenge with live M.cat in an aerosol chamber compared to wild-type (WT) control mice. These data suggest that TLRs are crucial for an effective innate immune response induced by M.cat. The results of these studies contribute to an increased understanding of molecular mechanism and possible novel treatment strategies for diseases caused by M.cat by specifically targeting TLRs and their signaling pathways.

  6. [Comparison of culture and polymerase chain reaction methods for the detection of Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis in cerebrospinal fluids and middle ear effusions].

    PubMed

    Jbara, Ibrahim; Baysallar, Mehmet; Kiliç, Abdullah; Yetişer, Sertaç; Unay, Bülent; Açikel, Cengizhan; Yapar, Mehmet; Doğanci, Levent

    2007-10-01

    Although the availability of effective antimicrobial therapy, both otitis media with effusion (OME) and acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) are still important infections for children, leading serious health problems. The most frequently isolated bacteria from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of ABM patients are Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, and middle ear effusion (MEE) samples of OME patients are H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, respectively. Since they are fastidious bacteria, various problems may arise in the rapid diagnosis in both ABM and OME settings. In this study, the diagnostic value of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been searched for the detection of bacterial DNA in CSF and MEE specimens and evaluated in comparison to conventional culture method accepted as the "gold standard". A total of 75 samples (53 CSF, 22 MEE) collected from meningitis and OME suspected children were included in the study. With the conventional culture method, one S. pneumoniae strain was isolated from a CSF sample, and one H. influenzae (non-type b) and two M. catarrhalis strains were isolated from three of MEE samples (total isolation rate: %5.3; 4/75). Standard PCR protocol was applied for the detection of H. influenzae, while multiplex PCR protocol was used for M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae, since H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae amplification products were of similar size. PCR revealed genomic DNA sequences of S. pneumoniae from five of the CSF samples, while three H. influenzae, three M. catarrhalis and two S. pneumoniae+M. catarrhalis were detected from MEE samples (total detection rate: %17.3; 13/75). Sensitivity and specificity rates of PCR method were found as 100% and 92.3% for CSF samples, and 100% and 73.7% for MEE samples, respectively, with a total sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 87.3%, positive predictive value of 30.8%, and negative predictive value of 100%. As a result it was concluded

  7. Moraxella catarrhalis stimulates the release of proinflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin E from human respiratory epithelial cells and monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fink, Joshua; Mathaba, Leslie T; Stewart, Geoffrey A; Graham, Peter T; Steer, James H; Joyce, David A; McWilliam, Andrew S

    2006-03-01

    The outer membrane proteins of Moraxella catarrhalis, a bacterial pathogen which causes disease in both children and adults, play an important role in its phenotypic properties. However, their proinflammatory potential with regard to respiratory epithelium and macrophages is unclear. To this end, we examined the cytokine- and mediator-inducing capacity of a heat-killed wild-type M. catarrhalis strain and a nonautoagglutinating mutant as well as their outer membrane proteins and secretory/excretory products using the A549 respiratory epithelial cell line. The outer membrane proteins and secretory/excretory products from both isolates as well as the heat-killed bacteria all induced interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and prostaglandin E2, but not IL-1beta, from the A549 cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Heat-killed bacteria and secretory/excretory products stimulated the release of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and prostaglandin E2 from human monocyte-derived macrophages. Both heat-killed isolates also stimulated nuclear translocation and transactivation of nuclear factor-kappaB. The heat-killed wild-type autoagglutinating isolate induced significantly greater amounts of IL-6 and IL-8 from A549 cells than the nonautoagglutinating mutant compared with the monocyte-derived macrophages but no significant differences in the amounts induced by the two strains were observed. These differences were also evident when the respiratory cell line was stimulated with outer membrane proteins as well as in the degree of nuclear factor-kappaB transactivation. There was little difference in the stimulatory activity of the secretory/excretory products. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses revealed some differences in the outer membrane proteins and secretory excretory products between the two isolates. Combined, these data show that M. catarrhalis secretory excretory products and outer membrane proteins are associated with the induction of inflammatory

  8. Use of next generation sequence to investigate potential novel macrolide resistance mechanisms in a population of Moraxella catarrhalis isolates

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ya-Li; Li, Dong-Fang; Xu, He-Ping; Xiao, Meng; Cheng, Jing-Wei; Zhang, Li; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Chen, Xin-Xin; Zhang, Ge; Kudinha, Timothy; Kong, Fanrong; Gong, Yan-Ping; Wang, Xin-Ying; Zhang, Yin-Xin; Wu, Hong-Long; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have confirmed that 23S rRNA gene mutation could be responsible for most of macrolide resistance in M. catarrhalis, a recent study suggested otherwise. Next generation sequence based comparative genomics has revolutionized the mining of potential novel drug resistant mechanisms. In this study, two pairs of resistant and susceptible M. catarrhalis isolates with different multilocus sequence types, were investigated for potential differential genes or informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The identified genes and SNPs were evaluated in 188 clinical isolates. From initially 12 selected differential genes and 12 informative SNPs, 10 differential genes (mboIA, mcbC, mcbI, mboIB, MCR_1794, MCR_1795, lgt2B/C, dpnI, mcbB, and mcbA) and 6 SNPs (C619T of rumA, T140C of rplF, G643A of MCR_0020, T270G of MCR_1465, C1348A of copB, and G238A of rrmA) were identified as possibly linked to macrolide resistance in M. catarrhalis. Most of the identified differential genes and SNPs are related to methylation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) or DNA, especially MCR_0020 and rrmA. Further studies are needed to determine the function and/or evolution process, of the identified genes or SNPs, to establish whether some novel or combined mechanisms are truly involved in M. catarrhalis macrolide resistance mechanism. PMID:27774989

  9. Moraxella catarrhalis adhesin UspA1-derived recombinant fragment rD-7 induces monocyte differentiation to CD14+CD206+ phenotype.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Brackenbury, Louise S; Hill, Darryl J; Williams, Neil A; Qu, Xun; Virji, Mumtaz

    2014-01-01

    Circulating monocytes in the bloodstream typically migrate to other tissues and differentiate into tissue resident macrophages, the process being determined by the constituents of the microenvironments encountered. These may include microbes and their products. In this study, we investigated whether Moraxella catarrhalis Ubiquitous Surface Protein A1 (UspA1), known to bind to a widely expressed human cell surface receptor CEACAM1, influences monocyte differentiation as receptor engagement has been shown to have profound effects on monocytes. We used the recombinant molecules corresponding to the regions of UspA1 which either bind (rD-7; UspA1527-665) or do not bind (r6-8; UspA1659-863) to CEACAM1 and investigated their effects on CD206, CD80 and CD86 expression on freshly isolated human CD14+ monocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Exposure to rD-7, but not r6-8, biased monocyte differentiation towards a CD14+CD206+ phenotype, with reduced CD80 expression. Monocytes treated with rD-7 also secreted high levels of IL-1ra and chemokine IL-8 but not IL-10 or IL-12p70. The effects of rD-7 were independent of any residual endotoxin. Unexpectedly, these effects of rD-7 were also independent of its ability to bind to CEACAM1, as monocyte pre-treatment with the anti-CEACAM antibody A0115 known to inhibit rD-7 binding to the receptor, did not affect rD-7-driven differentiation. Further, another control protein rD-7/D (a mutant form of rD-7, known not to bind to CEACAMs), also behaved as the parent molecule. Our data suggest that specific regions of M. catarrhalis adhesin UspA1 may modulate inflammation during infection through a yet unknown receptor on monocytes.

  10. Physico-chemical characterisation and immunogenicity of a multi-valent candidate vaccine against non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Mawas, Fatme; Ho, Mei Mei; Huskisson, Rachel; Saydam, Manolya; Corbel, Michael J

    2007-06-15

    The physico-chemical characteristics and immunogenicity of a candidate vaccine against otitis media, prepared from recombinant lipidated outer membrane proteins (rLP4 and rLP6) from non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and of the ubiquitous cell surface protein UspA2 from Moraxella catarrhalis, were evaluated. Optical spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography and gel electrophoresis were used to characterise the purified protein components and assess their purity and molecular sizes. The results showed that the three proteins were highly purified. Possible dimers in rLP4, dimers and multimers in rLP6 and UspA2 were detected. Small amounts of rLP4 and rLP6 dimers and most of UspA2 complexes remained tightly bound even after SDS treatment under reducing conditions. Immunogenicity studies showed that all proteins induced substantial antibody responses in mice immunised with AlPO4-adsorbed rLP4, rLP6 or UspA2 or a combination of these proteins. However, combination of these proteins resulted in a reduced response to rLP4 and rLP6, but not to UspA2, suggesting interference between these proteins which should be taken into consideration during the development and evaluation of this vaccine.

  11. Regional trends in antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in the United States: results from the TRUST Surveillance Program, 1999-2000.

    PubMed

    Thornsberry, Clyde; Sahm, Daniel F; Kelly, Laurie J; Critchley, Ian A; Jones, Mark E; Evangelista, Alan T; Karlowsky, James A

    2002-03-01

    The ongoing TRUST (Tracking Resistance in the United States Today) study, which began monitoring antimicrobial resistance among respiratory pathogens in 1996, routinely tracks resistance at national and regional levels. The 1999-2000 TRUST study analyzed 9499 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 1934 Haemophilus influenzae, and 1108 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates that were prospectively collected from 239 laboratories across the 9 US Bureau of the Census regions. Penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae varied significantly by region, from 8.3% to 24.8% (P<.001). In each region, penicillin resistance closely predicted resistance to other beta-lactams, macrolides, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Levofloxacin resistance was 0.5% nationally (regional range, 0.1%-1.0%). Multidrug resistance also varied significantly (P<.001) by region. beta-Lactamase production among H. influenzae varied significantly (regional range, 24.0%-34.6%) and M. catarrhalis (86.2%-96.8%) also varied by region. Notable variation in regional antimicrobial resistance rates (S. pneumoniae) and beta-lactamase production (H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis) exists throughout the United States.

  12. Usefulness of gram-stained sputum obtained just after administration of antimicrobial agents as the earliest therapeutic indicator for evaluating the effectiveness of empiric therapy in community-acquired pneumonia caused by pneumococcus or Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Yamaoka, Toshimori; Yamamura, Michiko; Kawakami, Sayoko; Ono, Yasuo; Miyazawa, Yukihisa; Teramoto, Tamio; Nishiya, Hajime

    2013-06-01

    We present here three cases in which morphological changes and/or a decreased number of Streptococcus pneumoniae or Moraxella catarrhalis could be observed in gram-stained sputum obtained just after the first administration of an antimicrobial agent. Case 1 was a 53-year-old man with pneumonia caused by gram-positive diplococcus, identified as S. pneumoniae, who was administered 2 g of ampicillin over a period of 1 h. Gram-stained sputum showed smaller or gram-negative pneumococci at the completion of administration of the agent, a decreased number of cocci at 1 h after administration, and almost no cocci at 12 h after the completion of administration. Case 2 was a 72-year-old woman with pneumonia caused by diplococcus, identified as S. pneumoniae, who was administered 2 g of ampicillin over a period of 1 h. Gram-stained sputum showed weakly stained, small cocci at the completion of administration of the agent and few cocci at 1 h after the completion of administration. Case 3 was a 58-year-old woman with pneumonia caused by a gram-negative diplococcus, identified as Moraxella catarrhalis, who was administered 1 g of cefotaxime over a period of 30 min. Gram-stained sputum showed few extracellular cocci and some intracellular cocci inside neutrophils 1 h after administration and no cocci 2 h after the completion of administration. These three cases showed that gram-stained sputum obtained just after and/or 1 h after administration of the first antimicrobial agent were suitable as the quickest therapeutic indicator of the effectiveness of empiric therapy, with the effectiveness of the agent being shown much earlier than with markers such as the white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level.

  13. Detection of antibody responses against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis proteins in children with community-acquired pneumonia: effects of combining pneumococcal antigens, pre-existing antibody levels, sampling interval, age, and duration of illness.

    PubMed

    Borges, I C; Andrade, D C; Vilas-Boas, A-L; Fontoura, M-S H; Laitinen, H; Ekström, N; Adrian, P V; Meinke, A; Cardoso, M-R A; Barral, A; Ruuskanen, O; Käyhty, H; Nascimento-Carvalho, C M

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of combining different numbers of pneumococcal antigens, pre-existing antibody levels, sampling interval, age, and duration of illness on the detection of IgG responses against eight Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins, three Haemophilus influenzae proteins, and five Moraxella catarrhalis proteins in 690 children aged <5 years with pneumonia. Serological tests were performed on acute and convalescent serum samples with a multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. The median sampling interval was 19 days, the median age was 26.7 months, and the median duration of illness was 5 days. The rate of antibody responses was 15.4 % for at least one pneumococcal antigen, 5.8 % for H. influenzae, and 2.3 % for M. catarrhalis. The rate of antibody responses against each pneumococcal antigen varied from 3.5 to 7.1 %. By multivariate analysis, pre-existing antibody levels showed a negative association with the detection of antibody responses against pneumococcal and H. influenzae antigens; the sampling interval was positively associated with the detection of antibody responses against pneumococcal and H. influenzae antigens. A sampling interval of 3 weeks was the optimal cut-off for the detection of antibody responses against pneumococcal and H. influenzae proteins. Duration of illness was negatively associated with antibody responses against PspA. Age did not influence antibody responses against the investigated antigens. In conclusion, serological assays using combinations of different pneumococcal proteins detect a higher rate of antibody responses against S. pneumoniae compared to assays using a single pneumococcal protein. Pre-existing antibody levels and sampling interval influence the detection of antibody responses against pneumococcal and H. influenzae proteins. These factors should be considered when determining pneumonia etiology by serological methods in children.

  14. Comparative in vitro evaluation of dirithromycin tested against recent clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, including effects of medium supplements and test conditions on MIC results.

    PubMed

    Biedenbach, D J; Jones, R N; Lewis, M T; Croco, M A; Barrett, M S

    1999-04-01

    The use of macrolides for treatment of respiratory complaints has been complicated by susceptibility test conditions that adversely effect the in vitro test results and perceived potencies of these compounds. Dirithromycin was studied as to its in vitro activity compared to other macrolides as well as the effects that environmental incubation variations and inoculum concentrations may have on susceptibility results. Dirithromycin was less active than other macrolides tested (azithromycin clarithromycin, erythromycin) against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis with MIC90 values of 16, 32, and 1 microgram/ml, respectively; an activity that was most similar to roxithromycin. This reduced activity may be compensated by the superior pharmacokinetic properties that dirithromycin possesses compared to other members in its class. Method variation studies show that incubation in CO2 environments increase the MIC values for all macrolide compounds and dirithromycin was most effected by pH changes in three in vitro methods tested (Etest [AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden] broth microdilution, and disk diffusion). Variations in inoculum concentration had minimal effect on dirithromycin potency. In addition the variability (lack of reproducibility) of the test results with dirithromycin were not significant. Dirithromycin is an alternative therapeutic choice among macrolide compounds for treatment of community-acquired respiratory infections caused by various streptococci, Legionella pneumophilia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis, and also possesses a modest in vitro potency versus H. influenzae coupled with excellent pharmacokinetic properties. In vitro tests with dirithromycin will continue to be problematic for H. influenzae because of the adverse effects of recommended CO2 incubation for some standardized methods or commercial products (Etest).

  15. Susceptibility patterns for amoxicillin/clavulanate tests mimicking the licensed formulations and pharmacokinetic relationships: do the MIC obtained with 2:1 ratio testing accurately reflect activity against beta-lactamase-producing strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis?

    PubMed

    Pottumarthy, Sudha; Sader, Helio S; Fritsche, Thomas R; Jones, Ronald N

    2005-11-01

    Amoxicillin/clavulanate has recently undergone formulation changes (XR and ES-600) that represent 14:1 and 16:1 ratios of amoxicillin/clavulanate. These ratios greatly differ from the 2:1 ratio used in initial formulations and in vitro susceptibility testing. The objective of this study was to determine if the reference method using a 2:1 ratio accurately reflects the susceptibility to the various clinically used amoxicillin/clavulanate formulations and their respective serum concentration ratios. A collection of 330 Haemophilus influenzae strains (300 beta-lactamase-positive and 30 beta-lactamase-negative) and 40 Moraxella catarrhalis strains (30 beta-lactamase-positive and 10 beta-lactamase-negative) were tested by the broth microdilution method against eight amoxicillin/clavulanate combinations (4:1, 5:1, 7:1, 9:1, 14:1, and 16:1 ratios; 0.5 and 2 microg/mL fixed clavulanate concentrations) and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results were compared with those obtained with the reference 2:1 ratio testing. For the beta-lactamase-negative strains of both genera, there was no demonstrable change in the MIC values obtained for all ratios analyzed (2:1 to 16:1). For the beta-lactamase-positive strains of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, at ratios >or=4:1 there was a shift in the central tendency of the MIC scatterplot compared with the results of testing 2:1 ratio. As a result, there was a 2-fold dilution increase in the MIC(50) and MIC(90) values, most evident for H. influenzae and BRO-1-producing M. catarrhalis strains. For beta-lactamase-positive strains of H. influenzae, the shift resulted in a change in the interpretive result for 3 isolates (1.0%) from susceptible using the reference method (2:1 ratio) to resistant (8/4 microg/mL; very major error) at the 16:1 ratio. In addition, the number of isolates with MIC values at or 1 dilution lower than the breakpoint (4/2 microg/mL) increased from 5% at 2:1 ratio to 32-33% for ratios 14:1 and 16:1. Our

  16. Ligand-bound structures of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate phosphatase from Moraxella catarrhalis reveal a water channel connecting to the active site for the second step of catalysis.

    PubMed

    Dhindwal, Sonali; Priyadarshini, Priyanka; Patil, Dipak N; Tapas, Satya; Kumar, Pramod; Tomar, Shailly; Kumar, Pravindra

    2015-02-01

    KdsC, the third enzyme of the 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO) biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes a substrate-specific reaction to hydrolyze 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate to generate a molecule of KDO and phosphate. KdsC is a phosphatase that belongs to the C0 subfamily of the HAD superfamily. To understand the molecular basis for the substrate specificity of this tetrameric enzyme, the crystal structures of KdsC from Moraxella catarrhalis (Mc-KdsC) with several combinations of ligands, namely metal ion, citrate and products, were determined. Various transition states of the enzyme have been captured in these crystal forms. The ligand-free and ligand-bound crystal forms reveal that the binding of ligands does not cause any specific conformational changes in the active site. However, the electron-density maps clearly showed that the conformation of KDO as a substrate is different from the conformation adopted by KDO when it binds as a cleaved product. Furthermore, structural evidence for the existence of an intersubunit tunnel has been reported for the first time in the C0 subfamily of enzymes. A role for this tunnel in transferring water molecules from the interior of the tetrameric structure to the active-site cleft has been proposed. At the active site, water molecules are required for the formation of a water bridge that participates as a proton shuttle during the second step of the two-step phosphoryl-transfer reaction. In addition, as the KDO biosynthesis pathway is a potential antibacterial target, pharmacophore-based virtual screening was employed to identify inhibitor molecules for the Mc-KdsC enzyme.

  17. Increased Nasopharyngeal Density and Concurrent Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis Are Associated with Pneumonia in Febrile Children

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background We assessed nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage of five pathogens in febrile children with and without acute respiratory infection (ARI) of the upper (URTI) or lower tract, attending health facilities in Tanzania. Methods NP swabs collected from children (N = 960) aged 2 months to 10 years, and with a temperature ≥38°C, were utilized to quantify bacterial density of S. pneumoniae (Sp), H. influenzae (Hi), M. catarrhalis (Mc), S. aureus (Sa), and N. meningitidis (Nm). We determined associations between presence of individual species, densities, or concurrent carriage of all species combination with respiratory diseases including clinical pneumonia, pneumonia with normal chest radiography (CXR) and endpoint pneumonia. Results Individual carriage, and NP density, of Sp, Hi, or Mc, but not Sa, or Nm, was significantly associated with febrile ARI and clinical pneumonia when compared to febrile non-ARI episodes. Density was also significantly increased in severe pneumonia when compared to mild URTI (Sp, p<0.002; Hi p<0.001; Mc, p = 0.014). Accordingly, concurrent carriage of Sp+, Hi+, and Mc+, in the absence of Sa- and Nm-, was significantly more prevalent in children with ARI (p = 0.03), or clinical pneumonia (p<0.001) than non-ARI, and in children with clinical pneumonia (p = 0.0007) than URTI. Furthermore, Sp+, Hi+, and Mc+ differentiated children with pneumonia with normal CXR, or endpoint pneumonia, from those with URTI, and non-ARI cases. Conclusions Concurrent NP carriage of Sp, Hi, and Mc was a predictor of clinical pneumonia and identified children with pneumonia with normal CXR and endpoint pneumonia from those with febrile URTI, or non-ARI episodes. PMID:27907156

  18. Branhamella catarrhalis Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Louie, Milton H.; Gabay, Elizabeth L.; Mathisen, Glenn E.; Finegold, Sydney M.

    1983-01-01

    The diagnosis of Branhamella catarrhalis pneumonia in five cases was established by culture of pulmonary secretions obtained by transtracheal aspiration. B catarrhalis caused an acute lobar pneumonia which usually responded promptly to appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Recognition that this organism may cause pneumonia in a nonimmunocompromised person should alert clinicians to consider it as a possible pathogen when Gramnegative diplococci are seen on smears of specimens from the lower respiratory tract. Images PMID:6837019

  19. Moraxella Catarrhalis: A Common Cause of Childhood Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... among others. Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Immunizations & Infectious Diseases: An Informed Parent's Guide (Copyright © 2006 ...

  20. Branhamella catarrhalis: an organism gaining respect as a pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Catlin, B W

    1990-01-01

    Branhamella catarrhalis was formerly regarded as a common, essentially harmless inhabitant of the pharynx. This misapprehension was caused, in part, by confusion with another pharyngeal resident, Neisseria cinerea. The two organisms can now be differentiated by the positive reactions of B. catarrhalis in tests for nitrate reduction and hydrolysis of tributyrin and DNase. B. catarrhalis is currently recognized as the third most frequent cause of acute otitis media and acute sinusitis in young children. It often causes acute exacerbations of chronic bronchopulmonary disease in older or immunocompromised adults and is incriminated occasionally in meningitis, endocarditis, bacteremia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and urogenital infections. Virulence-associated factors, such as pili, capsules, outer membrane vesicles, iron acquisition proteins, histamine-synthesizing ability, resistance to the bactericidal action of normal human serum, and binding to the C1q complement component, have been identified in some strains. beta-Lactamase producing strains, first detected in 1976, have risen to approximately 75% worldwide. Thus far, however, practically all American strains of B. catarrhalis remain susceptible to alternative antibiotics. A possible selective advantage of recent isolates is their reportedly heightened tendency for adherence to oropharyngeal cells from patients with chronic bronchopulmonary disease. Images PMID:2121328

  1. Branhamella catarrhalis: an organism gaining respect as a pathogen.

    PubMed

    Catlin, B W

    1990-10-01

    Branhamella catarrhalis was formerly regarded as a common, essentially harmless inhabitant of the pharynx. This misapprehension was caused, in part, by confusion with another pharyngeal resident, Neisseria cinerea. The two organisms can now be differentiated by the positive reactions of B. catarrhalis in tests for nitrate reduction and hydrolysis of tributyrin and DNase. B. catarrhalis is currently recognized as the third most frequent cause of acute otitis media and acute sinusitis in young children. It often causes acute exacerbations of chronic bronchopulmonary disease in older or immunocompromised adults and is incriminated occasionally in meningitis, endocarditis, bacteremia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and urogenital infections. Virulence-associated factors, such as pili, capsules, outer membrane vesicles, iron acquisition proteins, histamine-synthesizing ability, resistance to the bactericidal action of normal human serum, and binding to the C1q complement component, have been identified in some strains. beta-Lactamase producing strains, first detected in 1976, have risen to approximately 75% worldwide. Thus far, however, practically all American strains of B. catarrhalis remain susceptible to alternative antibiotics. A possible selective advantage of recent isolates is their reportedly heightened tendency for adherence to oropharyngeal cells from patients with chronic bronchopulmonary disease.

  2. Connection between Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Use and Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis▿

    PubMed Central

    Kärpänoja, Pauliina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Bergman, Miika; Voipio, Tinna; Paakkari, Pirkko; Huovinen, Pentti; Sarkkinen, Hannu

    2008-01-01

    The association between trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use and resistance among the major respiratory tract pathogens was investigated by comparing regional consumption of the drug to regional resistance in the following year in 21 central hospital districts in Finland. A total of 23,530 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, 28,320 Haemophilus influenzae isolates, and 14,138 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates were tested for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole susceptibility during the study period (1998-2004). Among the S. pneumoniae isolates, a statistically significant connection was found between regional consumption and resistance. No statistically significant connection was found between regional trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use and resistance among H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates. According to our results, it seems that only in pneumococci can the development of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance be influenced by restricting its use. However, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole remains an important antimicrobial agent because of its reasonable price. Hence, resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole among these pathogens needs continuous monitoring. PMID:18443116

  3. The IgD-binding domain of the Moraxella IgD-binding protein MID (MID962-1200) activates human B cells in the presence of T cell cytokines.

    PubMed

    Nordström, Therése; Jendholm, Johan; Samuelsson, Martin; Forsgren, Arne; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2006-02-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis immunoglobulin D (IgD)-binding protein (MID) is an outer membrane protein with specific affinity for soluble and cell-bound human IgD. Here, we demonstrate that mutated M. catarrhalis strains devoid of MID show a 75% decreased activation of human B cells as compared with wild-type bacteria. In contrast to MID-expressing Moraxella, the MID-deficient Moraxella mutants did not bind to human CD19+ IgD+ B cells. The smallest MID fragment with preserved IgD-binding capacity comprises 238 amino acids (MID(962-1200)). To prove the specificity of MID(962-1200) for IgD, a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line expressing membrane-anchored human IgD was manufactured. MID(962-1200) bound strongly to the recombinant IgD on CHO cells. Moreover, MID(962-1200) stimulated peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) proliferation 5- and 15-fold at 0.1 and 1.0 microg/ml, respectively. This activation could be blocked completely by antibodies directed against the CD40 ligand (CD154). MID(962-1200) also activated purified B cells in the presence of interleukin (IL)-2 or IL-4. An increased IL-6 production was seen after stimulation with MID(962-1200), as revealed by a human cytokine protein array. MID(962-1200) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) bound to human B cells and activated PBL to the same degree as MID(962-1200). Taken together, MID is the only IgD-binding protein in Moraxella. Furthermore, the novel T cell-independent antigen MID(962-1200) may, together with MID(962-1200)-GFP, be considered as promising reagents in the study of IgD-dependent B cell activation.

  4. Branhamella catarrhalis: significance in pulmonary infections and bacteriological features.

    PubMed

    Christensen, J J; Gadeberg, O; Bruun, B

    1986-04-01

    A three-month survey revealed 29 patients at our hospital with symptoms of acute pulmonary infection, from whom Branhamella catarrhalis was isolated from lower respiratory tract specimens, in 18 cases in pure culture. Approximately 2% of all respiratory tract specimens examined during the period yielded growth of B. catarrhalis. All except one patient suffered from chronic pulmonary disease, notably chronic bronchitis. A phenotypic comparison was made between 55 strains of B. catarrhalis, of which 50 were recent isolates from lower respiratory tract specimens, and 23 Neisseria strains representing Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria cinerea, Neisseria flavescens, Neisseria mucosa, Neisseria pharyngis, and Neisseria lactamica. The morphology of B. catarrhalis colonies is very characteristic, and when the diagnosis is suspected, testing for the ability to hydrolyze tributyrin may confirm it within hours. Ability to produce deoxyribonuclease is another property which differentiates B. catarrhalis from the Neisseria species. Otherwise, the combination of nitrate reduction and failure to produce acid from glucose, maltose, and sucrose establishes the diagnosis.

  5. [Common epitopes of protein antigens in Neisseria and Moraxella].

    PubMed

    Goncharenko, A V; Filatova, T N; Padiukov, L N; Baturo, A P

    2000-01-01

    Cross reactions between N. meningitidis and M. catarrhalis proteins were studied with the use of a panel of monoclonal antibodies to M. catarrhalis protein antigens. All antigenic preparations under study were shown to give cross reactions between N. meningitidis serotype porin of 39 kD (strain B125) and M. catarrhalis proteins of 40-41 kD. These M. catarrhalis proteins belonged to main proteins of class F and had the function of porins in the cell. In addition, the epitope of 41-kD antigen, detected by monoclonal antibodies 3E10, is common for both N. meningitidis porin and N. meningitidis iron-regulated proteins of 70 and 50 kD. The epitope of M. catarrhalis protein of 67 kD, detected by monoclonal antibodies 1G6, is common for N. meningitidis porin and N. meningitidis iron-regulated proteins of 50 and 55 kD.

  6. Moraxella lacunata Septic Arthritis in a Patient with Lupus Nephritis▿

    PubMed Central

    Woodbury, Anna; Jorgensen, James; Owens, Aaron; Henao-Martinez, Andres

    2009-01-01

    Moraxella lacunata is a rare, usually commensal gram-negative rod most commonly associated with eye infections. We report a unique case of noniatrogenic M. lacunata bacteremia and septic knee arthritis in a patient with class III-IV lupus nephritis and speculate on the association between invasive Moraxella infection and renal impairment. PMID:19794049

  7. Spiramycin: in-vitro activity on Branhamella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Riou, J Y; Guibourdenche, M

    1988-07-01

    This in-vitro study of susceptibility to spiramycin of 103 strains of Branhamella catarrhalis isolated between 1982 and 1987 was performed by evaluation of their MICs. More than 97% of strains remained susceptible with MIC less than or equal to 8 mg/l (two strains). One strain presented a MIC of 16 mg/l. There were no significant differences of susceptibility to spiramycin between penicillinase-producing and non-producing strains.

  8. Infections caused by Moraxella, Moraxella urethralis, Moraxella-like groups M-5 and M-6, and Kingella kingae in the United States, 1953-1980.

    PubMed

    Graham, D R; Band, J D; Thornsberry, C; Hollis, D G; Weaver, R E

    1990-01-01

    From 1953 to 1980 the Centers for Disease Control received 933 isolates of bacteria belonging to species of the genus Moraxella, Moraxella-like Moraxella urethralis, now renamed Oligella urethralis, unnamed groups M-5 and M-6, and Kingella kingae. Ordinarily sterile sites were the source of 233 isolates. Moraxella nonliquefaciens, the most common isolate (356 strains), was recovered from upper respiratory or ocular sites in 208 (58%) of the cases. Moraxella osloensis was next most common (199 strains) but was the most frequent blood isolate (44 cases). K. kingae appeared especially invasive, with 58 of 78 isolates from blood, bone, or joint. Of the K. kingae strains, 75% were recovered from children under 6 years, compared with 23% of the other strains from that age group (P less than .01). Of the 74 isolates of group M-5, 53 were from wounds caused by dog bites; no other organism in this series was recovered from such wounds. Sixteen of the 28 M. urethralis isolates were from urine. Cases occurred as single infections, with no evidence of clusters. Of patients with infection of ordinarily sterile sites, 9.3% died; only bacteremia, meningitis, and empyema caused fatalities. Most referring laboratories (98%) had not identified the organisms to species, and only 30% had identified them to correct genus. Susceptibility testing by broth dilution revealed low MICs of penicillin (mean, 0.3; 64% less than 1 micrograms/mL). Moraxella, M. urethralis, M-5, M-6, and Kingella are important but frequently misidentified pathogens for humans; penicillin appears to be the treatment of choice.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis and genetic diversity of 3' region of rtxA gene from geographically diverse strains of Moraxella bovis, Moraxella bovoculi and Moraxella ovis.

    PubMed

    Farias, Luana D'Avila; Maboni, Grazieli; Matter, Letícia Beatriz; Scherer, Charles Fernando Capinos; Libardoni, Felipe; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2015-08-05

    The cytotoxin A (MbxA) is one of the main virulence factors of Moraxella bovis involved in the pathogenesis of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). Moraxella ovis and Moraxella bovoculi, suspected to be associated with infectious keratitis in sheep and cattle respectively, also have a gene that encodes the cytotoxin A (movA and mbvA, respectively). The aim of this study was to determine the molecular sequence of the 3' region of the cytotoxin gene of Moraxella spp. strains isolated from clinical cases to establish phylogenetic and evolutionary comparisons. PCR amplification, nucleotide sequencing (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequence prediction were performed, followed by the sequences comparison, identity level calculation and selective pressure analysis. The phylogenetic reconstruction based on nt and aa sequences clearly differentiate M. bovis (n=15), M. bovoculi (n=11) and M. ovis (n=7) and their respective reference strains. An alignment of 843nt revealed high similarity within bacterial species (MbxA=99.9% nt and aa; MbvA=99.3% nt and 98.8% aa; MovA=99.5% nt and 99.3% aa). The similarity of partial sequences (nt 1807-2649) of MbxA in relation to MbvA and MovA ranged from 76.3 to 78.5%; similarity between MbvA and MovA ranged from 95.7 to 97.5%. A negative selection on mbvA and movA sequences was revealed by the molecular evolution analysis. The phylogenetic analysis of movA and mbvA allowed different strains of Moraxella spp. to be grouped according to the period of isolation. Sequence analysis of cytotoxin may provide insights into genetic and evolutionary relationships and into the genetic/molecular basis of Moraxella spp.

  10. Purification of IgD from human serum--a novel application of recombinant M. catarrhalis IgD-binding protein (MID).

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Martin; Forsgren, Arne; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2006-12-20

    Moraxella catarrhalis IgD-binding protein (MID) is a multimeric outer membrane protein belonging to the family of autotransporters. The IgD-binding domain of MID is located between amino acids MID 962-1200 and binds to amino acids 198-224 of the IgD C(H)1 region. In the present study, we describe a method to purify IgD from serum with high levels of IgD using a two-step affinity chromatography process. The first step involves depletion of MID-specific antibodies of all classes from serum using the non-IgD-binding fragment MID(1000-1200). This step is followed by selective capture of IgD with MID(962-1200). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the eluted IgD is pure, intact and functional for use in downstream applications. Our approach reduces the non-specificity commonly associated with lectin-based IgD purification regimes that rely on glycosylation of the IgD molecule.

  11. Hemagglutination, autoagglutination and pathogenicity of Moraxella bovis strains.

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Turnes, C

    1983-01-01

    Three isolates of Moraxella bovis, recovered from cattle with signs of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, were tested for autoagglutinating activity, hemagglutinating activity and pathogenicity in young calves. Only the autoagglutinating and hemagglutinating isolates were pathogenic in calves. Treatment of the pathogenic isolates with magnesium chloride eliminated their pathogenic effects. PMID:6667436

  12. Moraxella bovis hemagglutinins: effect of carbohydrates, heating and erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Turnes, C; Ribeiro, G A

    1985-01-01

    Several properties of the adhesins of eight isolates of Moraxella bovis recovered from cattle suffering from infectious keratoconjunctivitis, were studied. Adhesions were detected through autoagglutination in saline and hemagglutination. Autoagglutinating strains agglutinated red blood cells of the chicken, rabbit, sheep and swine, but not those of the guinea pig. The adhesins were not inhibited by D-mannose or D-galactose and resisted heating at 100 degrees C for 15 minutes. Magnesium chloride at a final concentration of 10% inhibited autoagglutination and hemagglutination. The value of the hemagglutination test for monitoring synthesis of fimbriae by M. bovis, is discussed. PMID:3986674

  13. Report of a case of bronchopneumonia associated with Moraxella bovis isolation in a chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica).

    PubMed

    Lavin, S; Lastras, M E; Marco, I; Cabañes, F X

    2000-04-01

    A case of fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia associated with Moraxella bovis infection in a chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) is described. The animal, a 4-month-old female, was referred by the staff warden of the National Game Reserve of Freser-Setcases (Catalonia, north-eastern Spain). The animal was in good general condition and was found 4 h before death. On necropsy the lungs were congested and oedematous, with haemorrhagic areas in the cranial and middle lobes. The microscopic lesions were those of a fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia. Microbiological study of the samples obtained showed numerous small beta-haemolytic colonies in pure culture, identified as Moraxella (Moraxella) bovis.

  14. Moraxella Species Are Primarily Responsible for Generating Malodor in Laundry

    PubMed Central

    Mitani, Asako; Niwano, Yu; Takeuchi, Kohei; Tanaka, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Noriko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Hitomi, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Many people in Japan often detect an unpleasant odor generated from laundry that is hung to dry indoors or when using their already-dried laundry. Such an odor is often described as a “wet-and-dirty-dustcloth-like malodor” or an “acidic or sweaty odor.” In this study, we isolated the major microorganisms associated with such a malodor, the major component of which has been identified as 4-methyl-3-hexenoic acid (4M3H). The isolates were identified as Moraxella osloensis by morphological observation and biochemical and phylogenetic tree analyses. M. osloensis has the potential to generate 4M3H in laundry. The bacterium is known to cause opportunistic infections but has never been known to generate a malodor in clothes. We found that M. osloensis exists at a high frequency in various living environments, particularly in laundry in Japan. The bacterium showed a high tolerance to desiccation and UV light irradiation, providing one of the possible reasons why they survive in laundry during and even after drying. PMID:22367080

  15. Reaction mechanism of fluoroacetate dehalogenase from Moraxella sp. B.

    PubMed

    Liu, J Q; Kurihara, T; Ichiyama, S; Miyagi, M; Tsunasawa, S; Kawasaki, H; Soda, K; Esaki, N

    1998-11-20

    Fluoroacetate dehalogenase (EC 3.8.1.3) catalyzes the dehalogenation of fluoroacetate and other haloacetates. The amino acid sequence of fluoroacetate dehalogenase from Moraxella sp. B is similar to that of haloalkane dehalogenase (EC 3.8.1.5) from Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 in the regions around Asp-105 and His-272, which correspond to the active site nucleophile Asp-124 and the base catalyst His-289 of the haloalkane dehalogenase, respectively (Krooshof, G. H., Kwant, E. M., Damborský, J., Koca, J., and Janssen, D. B. (1997) Biochemistry 36, 9571-9580). After multiple turnovers of the fluoroacetate dehalogenase reaction in H218O, the enzyme was digested with trypsin, and the molecular masses of the peptide fragments formed were measured by ion-spray mass spectrometry. Two 18O atoms were shown to be incorporated into the octapeptide, Phe-99-Arg-106. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of this peptide revealed that Asp-105 was labeled with two 18O atoms. These results indicate that Asp-105 acts as a nucleophile to attack the alpha-carbon of the substrate, leading to the formation of an ester intermediate, which is subsequently hydrolyzed by the nucleophilic attack of a water molecule on the carbonyl carbon atom. A His-272 --> Asn mutant (H272N) showed no activity with either fluoroacetate or chloroacetate. However, ion-spray mass spectrometry revealed that the H272N mutant enzyme was covalently alkylated with the substrate. The reaction of the H272N mutant enzyme with [14C]chloroacetate also showed the incorporation of radioactivity into the enzyme. These results suggest that His-272 probably acts as a base catalyst for the hydrolysis of the covalent ester intermediate.

  16. [In vitro comparative activity of five macrolides against 190 Branhamella catarrhalis strains].

    PubMed

    Chardon, H; Bellon, O; Bourgeois, F; Lagier, E

    1989-05-01

    We compared the in vitro activity of 5 macrolides against 190 strains of Branhamella catarrhalis; 48 strains were isolated at Centre Hospitalier, Aix-en-Provence, the 142 others were isolated during 1987, in 15 different Centres-Hospitaliers-Généraux in France. 153 strains were betalactamase producing strains; no difference in susceptibility to erythromycin was observed on betalactamase producing and non producing strains. Three active macrolides against 100% of strains were: erythromycin (MIC 50 = 0.25 mg/l - MIC 90 = 0.50 mg/l), roxithromycin (MIC 50 = 0.50 mg/l - MIC 90 = 0.50 mg/l) and josamycin (MIC 50 = 0.50 mg/l - MIC 90 = 1 mg/l); A lower activity was noted on midecamycin (mic 50 = 2 mg/l - MIC 90 = 2 mg/l) and spiramycin (MIC 50 = 4 mg/l - MIC 90 = 8 mg/l).

  17. Elucidation of the structure of the oligosaccharide from wild type Moraxella bovis Epp63 lipooligosaccharide.

    PubMed

    De Castro, Cristina; Grice, I Darren; Daal, Terese-Marie; Peak, Ian R; Molinaro, Antonio; Wilson, Jennifer C

    2014-03-31

    Moraxella bovis is a Gram-negative microorganism that causes Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), colloquially known as 'Pink eye' in cattle worldwide. Lipopolysaccharides/lipooligosaccharides are the predominant glycans on the surface of Gram-negative microorganisms. Structural elucidation of the oligosaccharide structure of the rough phenotype of Moraxella bovis strain Epp63 was determined using GC-MS, methylation analysis, and NMR spectroscopy. The oligosaccharide is a branched structure that comprises 10 sugars in addition to KDO. The unusual features of this oligosaccharide include the fact that the oligosaccharide is devoid of heptose. The KDO residue is directly attached to a (→4,6)-branched glucose and additionally contains a terminal open chain acetal-linked N-acetylgalactosamine, (1S)-GalaNAc residue →4,6-linked to a sub-terminal galactose residue.

  18. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of selected antimicrobial agents for Moraxella bovoculi associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Angelos, John A; Ball, Louise M; Byrne, Barbara A

    2011-05-01

    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) has been associated with ocular infections by Moraxella bovis, the established etiologic agent of IBK, and more recently, Moraxella bovoculi, a recently described species of Moraxella. To assist in designing rational treatment regimens for M. bovoculi infections associated with IBK, the in vitro susceptibilities of 57 M. bovoculi field isolates cultured from eyes of cattle with IBK in California from 2002 through 2007 were determined. The minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms (MIC(90)) of the following 18 antibiotics tested in the present study were: danofloxacin and enrofloxacin: ≤0.12 µg/ml; ampicillin and ceftiofur: ≤0.25 µg/ml; penicillin: 0.25 µg/ml; gentamicin: ≤1 µg/ml; chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and tiamulin: 1 µg/ml; florfenicol: 0.5 µg/ml; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole: ≤2/38 µg/ml; clindamycin: 2 µg/ml; neomycin and tilmicosin: ≤4 µg/ml; tulathromycin: 4 µg/ml; spectinomycin and tylosin: 16 µg/ml; and sulfadimethoxine: >256 µg/ml. The low MIC(90) of these M. bovoculi isolates suggests that commonly used antibiotics for treatment of IBK associated with M. bovis should also be effective against M. bovoculi.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Moraxella bovoculi Strain 237T (ATCC BAA-1259T) Isolated from a Calf with Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Martin, Neal T; Mhlanga-Mutangadura, Tendai; Reilly, Thomas J

    2014-06-26

    Moraxella bovoculi is a recently identified species, recovered from the bovine eye, which is under investigation as an etiological agent of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. A draft genome sequence of the Moraxella bovoculi type strain 237(T) has been determined to identify features that may be important during host colonization.

  20. Multiple DNA binding activities of the novel site-specific recombinase, Piv, from Moraxella lacunata.

    PubMed

    Tobiason, D M; Lenich, A G; Glasgow, A C

    1999-04-02

    The recombinase, Piv, is essential for site-specific DNA inversion of the type IV pilin DNA segment in Moraxella lacunata and Moraxella bovis. Piv shows significant homology with the transposases of the IS110/IS492 family of insertion elements, but, surprisingly, Piv contains none of the conserved amino acid motifs of the lambda Int or Hin/Res families of site-specific recombinases. Therefore, Piv may mediate site-specific recombination by a novel mechanism. To begin to determine how Piv may assemble a synaptic nucleoprotein structure for DNA cleavage and strand exchange, we have characterized the interaction of Piv with the DNA inversion region of M. lacunata. Gel shift and nuclease/chemical protection assays, competition and dissociation rate analyses, and cooperativity studies indicate that Piv binds two distinct recognition sequences. One recognition sequence, found at multiple sites within and outside of the invertible segment, is bound by Piv protomers with high affinity. The second recognition sequence is located at the recombination cross-over sites at the ends of the invertible element; Piv interacts with this sequence as an oligomer with apparent low affinity. A model is proposed for the role of the different Piv binding sites of the M. lacunata inversion region in the formation of an active synaptosome.

  1. Amperometric microbial biosensor for p-nitrophenol using Moraxella sp.-modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Mulchandani, Priti; Hangarter, Carlos M; Lei, Yu; Chen, Wilfred; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2005-09-15

    An amperometric microbial biosensor for highly specific, sensitive and rapid quantitative determination of p-nitrophenol was developed. The biosensor takes advantage of the ability of Moraxella sp. to specifically degrade p-nitrophenol to hydroquinone, a more electroactive compound than p-nitrophenol. The electrochemical oxidation current of hydroquinone formed in biodegradation of p-nitrophenol was measured at Moraxella sp.-modified carbon paste electrode and correlated to p-phenol concentrations. The optimum response was realized by electrode constructed using 15 mg of dry cell weight per 1 g of carbon paste and operating at 0.3 V (versus Ag/AgCl reference) in pH 7.5, 20 mM sodium phosphate buffer. Operating at these optimum conditions the biosensor had excellent selectivity against phenol derivatives and was able to measure as low as 20 nM (2.78 ppb) p-nitrophenol with very good accuracy and reproducibility. The biosensor was stable for approximately 3 weeks when stored at 4 degrees C. The applicability of the biosensor to measure p-nitrophenol in lake water was demonstrated.

  2. Factors affecting inactivation of Moraxella-Acinetobacter cells in an irradiation process.

    PubMed Central

    Firstenberg-Eden, R; Rowley, D B; Shattuck, G E

    1980-01-01

    The effect of various stages of the irradiation processing of beef on the injury and inactivation of radiation-resistant Moraxella-Acinetobactor cells was studied. Moraxella-Acinetobacter cells were more resistant to heat inactivation and injury when heated in meat with salts (0.75% NaCl and 0.375% sodium tripolyphosphate) then in meat without salts. These salts had no effect on radiation resistance. Both radiation- and heat-injured cells were unable to form colonies at 30 degrees C in plate count agar containing 0.8% NaCl. Neither unstressed nor heat-stressed cells were able to multiply in minced beef incubated at 30 degrees C for 12 h. Only after the beef was diluted 1:10 with peptone water were the heat-injured cells able to repair and eventually multiply. Heated cells were more sensitive to radiation inactivation and injury than unheated cells. After repair, the cells regained their resistance to both NaCl and irradiation. Freezing and storage at -40 degrees C for 14 days had only a slight effect on either unstressed or heat-stressed cells. PMID:7191692

  3. Filamentous-haemagglutinin-like protein genes encoded on a plasmid of Moraxella bovis.

    PubMed

    Kakuda, Tsutomu; Sarataphan, Nopporn; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Takai, Shinji

    2006-11-26

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a plasmid, pMBO-1, from Moraxella bovis strain Epp63 was determined. We identified 30 open reading frames (ORFs) encoded by the 44,215bp molecule. Two large ORFs, flpA and flpB, encoding proteins with similarity to Bordetella pertussis filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), were identified on the same plasmid. The gene for a specific accessory protein (Fap), which may play a role in the secretion of Flp protein, was also identified. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis of total RNA isolated from M. bovis Epp63 indicated that the flpA, flpB, and fap genes are all transcribed. Southern blot analysis indicated that the flp and fap genes are present in other clinical isolates of geographically diverse M. bovis.

  4. Isolation, purification and spectrometric analysis of PSP toxins from moraxella sp., a bacterium associated with a toxic dinoflagellate

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, S.D.; Doucette, G.J.

    1994-12-31

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a seafood intoxication syndrome caused by the injestion of shellfish contaminated with toxins produced by algae known as dinoflagellates. The PSP toxins, saxitoxin and its derivatives, act to block voltage-dependent sodium channels and can cause paralysis and even death at higher doses. It is well documented that bacteria coexist with many harmful or toxic algal species, though the exact nature of the association in relation to toxin production is unknown. Recently, the bacterium Moraxella sp. was isolated from the PSP toxin producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. Through HPLC analysis and saxitoxin receptor binding assays performed on crude bacterial extracts, it appears that Moraxella sp. is capable of producing saxitoxin and several of its derivatives. However, physical confirmation (e.g. mass spectrometry) of these results is still needed.

  5. Use of subcutaneously implanted chambers in calves for in vivo study of isolates of Moraxella bovis.

    PubMed

    Pugh, G W; Wilbur, L A; Beall, C W

    1986-10-01

    Selected cultures of Moraxella bovis were studied in calves, using chambers fabricated from a semipermeable membrane supported and protected by perforated plastic golf balls. Plain balls, semipermeable membrane-covered balls, and balls that contained bags fabricated from semipermeable membranes were surgically implanted subcutaneously in calves at a site approximately 25 cm ventral to the paralumbar fossa and cranial to the prefemoral lymph node. After calves recovered from surgery, chambers were inoculated with different cultures of M bovis. Cultural examination of samples taken from inoculated chambers indicated that M bovis cultures were maintained within the chambers for variable times, depending on the characteristics of the culture inoculated. A smooth (piliated) culture dissociated into a rough (nonpiliated) culture after 4 weeks of incubation within a chamber but none of the rough cultures became smooth. The technique offers a method to study the in vivo variations in a series of cultures or strains of microorganisms under the influence of the same host factors. The selective permeability of the chamber may be controlled by using membranes of different porosities to control the flow of entering or exiting dialysate.

  6. Occurrence of two different forms of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase in a Moraxella sp.

    PubMed Central

    Sterjiades, R; Pelmont, J

    1989-01-01

    Two alternative forms of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (PCase) have been purified from Moraxella sp. strain GU2, a bacterium that is able to grow on guaiacol or various other phenolic compounds as the sole source of carbon and energy. One of these forms (PCase-P) was induced by protocatechuate and had an apparent molecular weight of 220,000. The second form (PCase-G) was induced by guaiacol or other phenolic compounds, such as 2-ethoxyphenol or 4-hydroxybenzoate. It appeared to be smaller (Mr 158,000), and its turnover number was about double that of the former enzyme. Both dioxygenases had similar properties and were built from the association of equal amounts of nonidentical subunits, alpha and beta, which were estimated to have molecular weights of 29,500 and 25,500, respectively. The (alpha beta)3 and (alpha beta)4 structures were suggested for PCases G and P, respectively. On the basis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the alpha and beta polypeptides of PCase-G differed from those of PCase-P. Amino acid analysis supported this conclusion. Both PCases, however, had several other properties in common. It is proposed that both isoenzymes were generated from different sets of alpha and beta subunits, and the significance of these data is discussed. Images PMID:2541659

  7. Aqueous sol-gel encapsulation of genetically engineered Moraxella spp. cells for the detection of organophosphates.

    PubMed

    Yu, Diana; Volponi, Joanne; Chhabra, Swapnil; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Mulchandani, Ashok; Singh, Anup K

    2005-01-15

    An all-aqueous sol-gel method for encapsulation of bacterial cells in porous silicate matrices towards the development of a biosensor is described. The sol-gel encapsulation of cells is achieved at room temperature and neutral pH. Furthermore, use of sodium silicate as precursor avoids generation of alcohol that can be detrimental to cells in contrast to the traditional alkoxide sol-gel encapsulation process. Moraxella spp. cells engineered to express recombinant organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) on the cell surface were encapsulated and OPH enzymatic activity was measured for paraoxon hydrolysis. Kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) as well as pH behavior of surface-expressed OPH were determined to evaluate the effect of encapsulation. Cells encapsulated by the sodium silicate method displayed higher activity retention compared to those by the traditional alkoxide process. Time-course studies over a 2-month period indicate that immobilization through the sodium silicate process led to a reduction in activity of approximately 5% as compared to approximately 30% activity reduction in case of free cells in buffer indicating that immobilization leads to stabilization, a key parameter in biosensor development.

  8. Pathway for biodegradation of p-nitrophenol in a Moraxella sp

    SciTech Connect

    Spain, J.C. ); Gibson, D.T. )

    1991-03-01

    A Moraxella strain grew on p-nitrophenol with stoichiometric release of nitrite. During induction of the enzymes for growth on p-nitrophenol, traces of hydroquinone accumulated in the medium. In the presence of 2,2{prime}-dipyidyl, p-nitrophenol, was converted stoichiometrically to hydroquinone. Particulate enzymes catalyzed the conversion of p-nitrophenol to hydroquinone in the presence of NADPH and oxygen. Soluble enzymes catalyzed the conversion of hydroquinone to {gamma}-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde, which was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-mass spectroscopy. Upon addition of catalytic amounts of NAD{sup +}, {gamma}-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde was converted to {beta}-ketoadipic acid. In the presence of pyruvate and lactic dehydrogenase, substrate amounts of NAD were required and {gamma}-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde was converted to maleylacetic acid, which was identified by HPLC-mass spectroscopy. Similar results were obtained when the reaction was carried out in the presence of potassium ferricyanide. Extracts prepared from p-nitrophenol-grown cells also contained an enzyme that catalyzed the oxidation of 1,2,4-benzenetriol to maleylacetic acid. The enzyme responsible for the oxidation of 1,2,4-benzenetriol was separated from the enzyme responsible for hydroquinone oxidation by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The results indicate that the pathway for biodegradation of p-nitrophenol involves the initial removal of the nitro group as nitrite and formation of hydroquinone.

  9. Point prevalence of infection with Mycoplasma bovoculi and Moraxella spp. in cattle at different stages of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Schnee, Christiane; Heller, Martin; Schubert, Evelyn; Sachse, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) has significant economic consequences and a detrimental impact on animal welfare. Although Moraxella (Mor.) bovis is the primary causative agent, the role of other bacteria, such as Mor. ovis, Mor. bovoculi and Mycoplasma (Myc.) bovoculi, is not well understood. To assess the prevalence of infection with these organisms, and to correlate this with outbreaks of IBK, conjunctival samples from four herds of cattle in Germany of differing IBK status were examined. Herds were selected to represent a hypothetical course of IBK ranging from the pre-outbreak stage (herd 1), to the acute disease stage (herd 2), to a stage where treatment had ceased (herd 3). Unaffected animals were also included (herd 4). To facilitate effective, sensitive sample analysis, a new real-time PCR for Myc. bovoculi was developed and used in concert with established real-time PCR protocols for Myc. bovis and Moraxella spp. Herds 1 and 2 showed similarly high rates of detection for Myc. bovoculi (92.5% and 84.0%, respectively), whereas herds 3 and 4 had a lower prevalence (35.5% and 26.2%, respectively). Mor. bovis and Mor. ovis were more prevalent in herd 1 (32.5% and 87.5%, respectively) and herd 2 (38% and 58%, respectively) than herd 3 (10.4% and 1.3%, respectively) and herd 4 (9.8% and 31.1%, respectively). Mor. bovoculi was the only pathogen that correlated with clinical signs of IBK; at 20% prevalence, it was almost exclusively detected in herd 2. The results indicate that herds with high Myc. bovoculi prevalence are more predisposed to outbreaks of IBK, possibly due to a synergistic interaction with Moraxella spp.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility and mechanisms of high-level macrolide resistance in clinical isolates of Moraxella nonliquefaciens.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Shotaro; Matsuzaki, Kosuke; Kazama, Tomoya; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Ida, Yoko; Koyano, Saho; Sonobe, Kazunari; Okamura, Noboru; Saito, Ryoichi

    2014-02-01

    We investigated antimicrobial susceptibility and the molecular mechanism involved in conferring high-level macrolide resistance in 47 clinical isolates of Moraxella nonliquefaciens from Japan. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using Etest and agar dilution methods. Thirty-two erythromycin-non-susceptible strains were evaluated for the possibility of clonal spreading, using PFGE. To analyse the mechanism related to macrolide resistance, mutations in the 23S rRNA gene and the ribosomal proteins, and the presence of methylase genes were investigated by PCR and sequencing. The efflux system was examined using appropriate inhibitors. Penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, cefixime, levofloxacin and antimicrobials containing β-lactamase inhibitors showed strong activity against 47 M. nonliquefaciens isolates. Thirty-two (68.1 %) of the 47 isolates showed high-level MICs to macrolides (MIC ≥128 mg l(-1)) and shared the A2058T mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. The geometric mean MIC to macrolides of A2058T-mutated strains was significantly higher than that of WT strains (P<0.0001). Thirty-two isolates with high-level macrolide MICs clustered into 30 patterns on the basis of the PFGE dendrogram, indicating that the macrolide-resistant strains were not clonal. In contrast, no common mutations of the ribosomal proteins or methylase genes, or overproduction of the efflux system were observed in A2058T-mutated strains. Moreover, of the 47 M. nonliquefaciens strains, 43 (91.5 %) were bro-1 and 4 (8.5 %) were bro-2 positive. Our results suggest that most M. nonliquefaciens clinical isolates show high-level macrolide resistance conferred by the A2058T mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. This study represents the first characterization of M. nonliquefaciens.

  11. Meningitis due to Moraxella nonliquefaciens in a paediatric patient: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Szymczak, Wendy; Munjal, Iona

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Moraxella nonliquefaciens is an unusual organism to be isolated from cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and there exists only one case report of M. nonliquefaciens meningitis from a neonate. Moraxella species normally exist as part of the human upper respiratory tract flora and rarely cause invasive human disease. There are only a handful of case reports implicating the organism as a cause of endocarditis, bacteraemia, septic arthritis and endophthalmitis. Identification to the species level based on routine laboratory techniques has been challenging, with final identification often made through 16S rRNA sequencing. With the use of a newer diagnostic tool, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS, we were able to rapidly identify the organism and initiate appropriate treatment. Case presentation. We present a rare care of M. nonliquefaciens meningitis in a paediatric patient with an underlying cranial anatomical defect due to Crouzon syndrome. She had been admitted to hospital 3 months previously with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis and mastoiditis, and returned to the emergency department with meningismus. CSF culture grew M. nonliquefaciens. She was treated with ceftriaxone with rapid improvement and eventually was taken for endoscopic surgical repair of a right encephalocele defect. Conclusion. The use of MALDI-TOF MS allowed for the rapid identification of the organism. The patient recovered with appropriate antimicrobial therapy and eventual surgical correction. An underlying anatomical defect should be considered in all patients who present with meningitis due to this unusual organism. PMID:28348808

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Moraxella osloensis Strain KMC41, a Producer of 4-Methyl-3-Hexenoic Acid, a Major Malodor Compound in Laundry

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Morita, Yuji; Tomida, Junko; Sato, Jun; Matsumura, Yuta; Mitani, Asako; Niwano, Yu; Takeuchi, Kohei; Kubota, Hiromi; Kawamura, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Moraxella osloensis strain KMC41, isolated from laundry with malodor. The KMC41 genome comprises a 2,445,556-bp chromosome and three plasmids. A fatty acid desaturase and at least four β-oxidation-related genes putatively associated with 4-methyl-3-hexenoic acid generation were detected in the KMC41 chromosome. PMID:27445387

  13. Large genomic differences between Moraxella bovoculi isolates acquired from the eyes of cattle with conjunctivitis versus the deep nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moraxella bovoculi is a recently described bacterium that is associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or "pinkeye" in cattle. In this study, closed circularized genomes were generated for seven M. bovoculi isolates: three that originated from the eyes of clinical IBK bovine case...

  14. A direct pathway for the conversion of propionate into pyruvate in Moraxella lwoffi

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, B.; McGarry, J. D.

    1968-01-01

    1. The identity of the organism previously known as Vibrio O1 (N.C.I.B. 8250) with a species of Moraxella is established. 2. The ability of cells to oxidize propionate is present only in cells with an endogenous respiration and this ability is increased 80-fold when the organism is grown with propionate. 3. Isocitrate lyase activity in extracts from propionate-grown cells is the same as that in extracts from lactate-grown cells, about tenfold greater than that in extracts from succinate-grown cells and slightly greater than half the activity in extracts from acetate-grown cells. 4. With arsenite as an inhibitor conditions were found in which the organism would catalyse the quantitative oxidation of propionate to pyruvate. When propionate was completely utilized pyruvate was metabolized further to 2-oxoglutarate. 5. The oxidation of propionate by cells was incomplete both in a `closed system' with alkali to trap respiratory carbon dioxide and in an `open system' with an atmosphere of oxygen+carbon dioxide (95:5). Acetate accumulated. Under these conditions [2-14C]- and [3-14C]-propionate gave rise to [14C]acetate. The rate of conversion of [2-14C]propionate into 14CO2, although much less than the rate of conversion of [1-14C]propionate into 14CO2, was slightly greater than the rate of conversion of [3-14C]propionate into 14CO2. 6. The oxidation of propionate by cells was complete in an `open system' with an atmosphere of either oxygen or air. Under these conditions very little [1-14C]propionate was converted into 14C-labelled cell material. The conversion of [2-14C]- and [3-14C]-propionate into 14C-labelled cell material occurred at an appreciable rate, the rate for the incorporation of [3-14C]propionate being slightly more rapid. In the absence of a utilizable nitrogen source part of the [14C]propionate was incorporated into some reserve material, which was oxidized when added substrate had been completely utilized. 7. [14C]-Pyruvate produced from [14C

  15. Mergers + acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2002-05-01

    The hospital sector in 2001 led the health care field in mergers and acquisitions. Most deals involved a network augmenting its presence within a specific region or in a market adjacent to its primary service area. Analysts expect M&A activity to increase in 2002.

  16. Acquisition strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, M.J.; Lynch, P.W. )

    1993-11-01

    Acquiring projects takes careful planning, research and consideration. Picking the right opportunities and avoiding the pitfalls will lead to a more valuable portfolio. This article describes the steps to take in evaluating an acquisition and what items need to be considered in an evaluation.

  17. Fermentation products of solvent tolerant marine bacterium Moraxella spp. MB1 and its biotechnological applications in salicylic acid bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Wahidullah, Solimabi; Naik, Deepak N; Devi, Prabha

    2013-01-01

    As part of a proactive approach to environmental protection, emerging issues with potential impact on the environment is the subject of ongoing investigation. One emerging area of environmental research concerns pharmaceuticals like salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of various analgesics including aspirin. It is a common component of sewage effluent and also an intermediate in the degradation pathway of various aromatic compounds which are introduced in the marine environment as pollutants. In this study, biotransformation products of salicylic acid by seaweed, Bryopsis plumosa, associated marine bacterium, Moraxella spp. MB1, have been investigated. Phenol, conjugates of phenol and hydroxy cinnamic acid derivatives (coumaroyl, caffeoyl, feruloyl and trihydroxy cinnamyl) with salicylic acid (3-8) were identified as the bioconversion products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These results show that the microorganism do not degrade phenolic acid but catalyses oxygen dependent transformations without ring cleavage. The degradation of salicylic acid is known to proceed either via gentisic acid pathway or catechol pathway but this is the first report of biotransformation of salicylic acid into cinnamates, without ring cleavage. Besides cinnamic acid derivatives (9-12), metabolites produced by the bacterium include antimicrobial indole (13) and β-carbolines, norharman (14), harman (15) and methyl derivative (16), which are beneficial to the host and the environment.

  18. Injury and destruction of Moraxella-Acinetobacter in the radappertization process. Final Report Apr 78-1 May 80

    SciTech Connect

    Maxcy, R.B.; Rowley, D.B.

    1981-02-01

    Some highly radiation-resistant Moraxella-Acinetobacter (M-A) may survive the radappertization process for meat preservation, because these vegetative bacteria are more resistant than spores to radiation. They are, however, more susceptible than spores to other destructive factors. This work was to determine the effect of some environmental factors that influence the radappertization process. M-A, M. radiodurans, and B. cereus spores varied greatly in their response to changes in temperature of radiation and menstruum in which they were suspended. Available water was critical in response of vegetative cells to radiation. Salts at the level incorporated into meat for the radappertization process suppressed growth of both injured and uninjured M-A. This effect was attributed to reduction in water activity of the menstruum. Freezing and thawing of M-A indicated some destruction and some injury. The injured cells recovered during subsequent incubation. Thus, specific food products and conditions of radappertization must be considered for setting processing parameters. When all the factors of injury, destruction, and suppression of microbial growth are considered in the radappertization process, it is apparent there is little likelihood any of the low number of naturally occurring M-A cells would survive.

  19. Development of the radiation-resistant strain of Moraxella osloensis and effect of penicillin G on its growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sangyong; Yun, Hyejeong; Joe, Minho; Kim, Dongho

    2009-07-01

    A series of repeated exposures to γ-radiation with intervening outgrowth of survivors was used to develop radioresistant cultures of Moraxella osloensis that have been recognized as potential pathogenic microorganism. The D10 value of the radiation-resistant strain, 5.903±0.006 kGy, was increased by four-fold compared to the parent wild-type strain, 1.637±0.004 kGy. Since most strains of M. osloensis are sensitive to penicillin, we have surveyed the sensitivity of radiation-resistant strain to this antibiotic. When the optical density was monitored after the addition of penicillin G, the radioresistant strain appeared to be more resistant to only a low concentration of penicillin G (0.5 U/ml) than the parent strain. Interestingly, however, there was no apparent difference in the number of viable cells between both strains. Scanning electron microscope data showed that the resistance cells were generally larger than the parent cells, suggesting that this increase in size may cause a higher optical density of radioresistant cells. In conclusion, radiation mutation does not affect the penicillin resistance of M. osloensis.

  20. Evaluation of biofilm-forming capacity of Moraxella bovis, the primary causative agent of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Claudia; Serra, Diego Omar; Martina, Pablo; Jacobs, Melisa; Bosch, Alejandra; Yantorno, Osvaldo M

    2013-10-25

    The difficulties in preventing and treating infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) and the consequent impact on the cattle industry worldwide emphasize the need to better understand this infectious process along with the biology of Moraxella bovis, its primary causative agent. Although there is increasing evidence that bacterial biofilms participate in a variety of ocular infections by direct biofilm formation on the surfaces of the eye, IBK has not been considered as a biofilm-based disease so far, and even more, no information is currently available regarding the ability of M. bovis to adopt a biofilm lifestyle. In the present research, we demonstrated the capacity of M. bovis clinical isolates and reference strains to form biofilms on different abiotic surfaces and culture conditions, and provided qualitative and quantitative information on the biofilm growth and architecture of mature biofilms. In addition, our data indicated that the type IV pili play a critical role in the biofilm formation in vitro. Most significantly, we proved that through exposure to MgCl2 type IV pili are removed from the cell surface, not only preventing M. bovis biofilm formation but also disassembling preformed biofilms. These results could constitute a new approach in the understanding of M. bovis colonization process in cattle eye and/or nasal cavity, and may aid in the development of future antimicrobial strategies for the control of IBK.

  1. Biodegradation of the textile dye Mordant Black 17 (Calcon) by Moraxella osloensis isolated from textile effluent-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Karunya, A; Rose, C; Valli Nachiyar, C

    2014-03-01

    The bacterium with dye degrading ability was isolated from effluent disposal sites of textile industries, Tirupur and was identified as Moraxella osloensis based on the biochemical and morphological characterization as well as 16S rRNA sequencing. This organism was found to decolorize 87 % of Mordant Black 17 at 100 mg l⁻¹ under shake culture condition compared to 92 % under stationary culture condition. Maximum degradation of the dye by M. osloensis was achieved when the mineral salt medium was supplemented with 0.5 % glucose and 0.1 % ammonium nitrate at 35 °C. Degradation of dye was found to follow first order kinetics with the k value of 0.06282 h⁻¹ and a R² value of 0.955. Analyses for the identification of intermediate compounds confirmed the presence of naphthalene, naphthol, naphthoquinone, salicylic acid and catechol. Based on this finding a probable pathway for the degradation of Mordant Black 17 by M. osloensis has been proposed.

  2. Large genomic differences between Moraxella bovoculi isolates acquired from the eyes of cattle with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis versus the deep nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Aaron M; Loy, John D; Bono, James L; Smith, Timothy P L; Apley, Mike D; Lubbers, Brian V; DeDonder, Keith D; Capik, Sarah F; Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J; Blom, Jochen; Chitko-McKown, Carol G; Clawson, Michael L

    2016-02-13

    Moraxella bovoculi is a recently described bacterium that is associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or "pinkeye" in cattle. In this study, closed circularized genomes were generated for seven M. bovoculi isolates: three that originated from the eyes of clinical IBK bovine cases and four from the deep nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle. Isolates that originated from the eyes of IBK cases profoundly differed from those that originated from the nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle in genome structure, gene content and polymorphism diversity and consequently placed into two distinct phylogenetic groups. These results suggest that there are genetically distinct strains of M. bovoculi that may not associate with IBK.

  3. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Lung: Two Progressing Pulmonary Nodules in a 25-Year-Old Adult With a Moraxella catharalis Infection.

    PubMed

    Schweckendiek, Daniel; Inci, Ilhan; Schneiter, Didier; Weder, Walter

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the lung is a rare pulmonary lesion of intermediate biologic potential. Approximately half of all inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors show a rearrangement of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene locus with potentially aberrant kinase expression. We present a 25-year-old man with recurrent exertional hemoptysis and two progressing pulmonary nodules in the right lung shown by computed tomography. After an anterolateral thoracotomy, pathologic studies revealed an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with rearrangement in the ALK gene, although aberrant expression of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase was not detected. In preoperative bronchial washings Moraxella catharalis was found.

  4. Moraxella lacunata infection associated with septicemia, endocarditis, and bilateral septic arthritis in a patient undergoing hemodialysis: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Asami; Yamanaka, Katsuo; Hayashi, Hiroki; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi

    2014-01-01

    We report the first case of both endocarditis and bilateral septic arthritis in a patient caused by Moraxella lacunata and successful management of the infection with antimicrobial therapy. The route of entry leading to bacteremia may have been the oral cavity given the poor oral hygiene of the patient as evidenced by bleeding gums. We hypothesize that the bacteremia led to septic arthritis and mitral valve infective endocarditis. In this case report, we also review the literature on M. lacunata infections and conclude that this organism should be considered in bilateral septic arthritis in a patient with underlying heart abnormalities and/or with renal failure.

  5. A field trial of autogenous Moraxella bovis bacterin administered through either subcutaneous or subconjunctival injection on the development of keratoconjunctivitis in a beef herd

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Harriet J.; Stokka, Gerald L.

    2003-01-01

    The primary purpose of these experiments was to evaluate an autogenous Moraxella bovis bacterin administered through 2 separate routes of inoculation. An autogenous bacterin was manufactured by using M. bovis recovered from the herd. The bacterin was administered by subcutaneous injection or subconjunctival injection. In each experiment, unvaccinated animals served as controls. Random selection methods were used to place calves into a vaccination or control group. There was no statistical difference in development of infectious keratoconjunctivitis between the vaccinated and unvaccinated calves. There was a statistically significant difference between the sexes; heifers had a higher rate of keratoconjunctivitis. PMID:12892288

  6. An Acquisition Guide for Executives

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide covers the following subjects; What is Acquisition?, Purpose and Primary Functions of the Agency’s Acquisition System, Key Organizations in Acquisitions, Legal Framework, Key Players in Acquisitions, Acquisition Process, Acquisition Thresholds

  7. Syntax acquisition.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several

  8. Development of real-time PCR assays for the detection of Moraxella macacae associated with bloody nose syndrome in rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Chris A.; Chase, Kitty; Embers, Monica E.; Kulesh, David A.; Ladner, Jason T.; Palacios, Gustavo F.; Minogue, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Moraxella macacae is a recently described bacterial pathogen that causes epistaxis or so-called bloody nose syndrome in captive macaques. The aim of this study was to develop specific molecular diagnostic assays for M. macacae and to determine their performance characteristics. Methods We developed six real-time PCR assays on the Roche LightCycler. The accuracy, precision, selectivity, and limit of detection (LOD) were determined for each assay, in addition to further validation by testing nasal swabs from macaques presenting with epistaxis at the Tulane National Primate Research Center. Results All assays exhibited 100% specificity and were highly sensitive with an LOD of 10 fg for chromosomal assays and 1 fg for the plasmid assay. Testing of nasal swabs from 10 symptomatic macaques confirmed the presence of M. macacae in these animals. Conclusions We developed several accurate, sensitive, and species-specific real-time PCR assays for the detection of M. macacae in captive macaques. PMID:26365904

  9. Defense Acquisition Workforce Modernization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Acquisition , Technology & Logistics, 2000). PBSA “involves acquisition strategies, methods, and techniques that describe and communicate measurable ... Acquisition Workforce Distribution of DoD Workforce and Attrition Rates Seperation Rates Distribution of Workforce by Years of Service 38 A final issue... measurement . 14 Provisions within the IMPROVE Act demand greater accountability from the acquisition workforce, improve financial management, expand

  10. Investigating Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordens, Peter, Ed.; Lalleman, Josine, Ed.

    Essays in second language acquisition include: "The State of the Art in Second Language Acquisition Research" (Josine Lalleman); "Crosslinguistic Influence with Special Reference to the Acquisition of Grammar" (Michael Sharwood Smith); "Second Language Acquisition by Adult Immigrants: A Multiple Case Study of Turkish and…

  11. Language Acquisition without an Acquisition Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William

    2012-01-01

    Most explanatory work on first and second language learning assumes the primacy of the acquisition phenomenon itself, and a good deal of work has been devoted to the search for an "acquisition device" that is specific to humans, and perhaps even to language. I will consider the possibility that this strategy is misguided and that language…

  12. EARLY SYNTACTIC ACQUISITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KELLEY, K.L.

    THIS PAPER IS A STUDY OF A CHILD'S EARLIEST PRETRANSFORMATIONAL LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PROCESSES. A MODEL IS CONSTRUCTED BASED ON THE ASSUMPTIONS (1) THAT SYNTACTIC ACQUISITION OCCURS THROUGH THE TESTING OF HYPOTHESES REFLECTING THE INITIAL STRUCTURE OF THE ACQUISITION MECHANISM AND THE LANGUAGE DATA TO WHICH THE CHILD IS EXPOSED, AND (2) THAT…

  13. Differentiation of Moraxella nonliquefaciens, M. lacunata, and M. bovis by using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and hybridization with pilin-specific DNA probes.

    PubMed Central

    Tønjum, T; Caugant, D A; Bøvre, K

    1992-01-01

    Genetic relationships among strains of Moraxella nonliquefaciens, M. lacunata, and M. bovis were studied by using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and DNA-DNA hybridization. The 74 isolates analyzed for electrophoretic variation at 12 enzyme loci were assigned to 59 multilocus genotypes. The multilocus genotypes were grouped in four major clusters, one representing strains of M. nonliquefaciens, two representing strains of M. lacunata, and one comprising strains of M. bovis and the single strain of M. equi analyzed. DNA-DNA hybridization with total genomic probes also revealed four major distinctive entities that corresponded to those identified by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. The two distinct clusters recognized among the M. lacunata strains apparently corresponded to the species previously designated M. lacunata and M. liquefaciens. Distinction of the four entities was improved by hybridization with polymerase chain reaction products of nonconserved parts of pilin genes as DNA probes. With these polymerase chain reaction probes, new isolates of M. nonliquefaciens, M. lacunata, M. liquefaciens, and M. bovis can be identified easily by hybridization. PMID:1452691

  14. Type-IV pili spectroscopic markers: applications in the quantification of piliation levels in Moraxella bovis cells by a FT-IR ANN-based model.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Alejandra; Prieto, Claudia; Serra, Diego Omar; Martina, Pablo; Stämmbler, Maren; Naumann, Dieter; Schmitt, Jürgen; Yantorno, Osvaldo

    2010-08-01

    Type-IV pili are cell surface organelles found in a wide variety of Gram-negative bacteria. They have traditionally been detected by electron microscopy and ELISA techniques. However, these methodologies are not appropriate for the rapid discrimination and quantification of piliated and nonpiliated cells in industrial or field conditions. Here, the analysis of FT-IR spectra of piliated, nonpiliated and sheared Moraxella bovis cells, together with purified pili suspensions spectra, allowed the identification of 3 IR regions associated to spectroscopic markers of Type-IV pili: 1750-1600, 1450-1350 and 1280-950 cm(-1). Such IR-specific markers were found for piliated cells grown in different culture systems (liquid or solid media), independently of the strain or pili serotype. They were also sensitive to pili expression levels. Therefore, on the bases of these specific spectral features, an FT-IR ANN-based model was developed to classify piliation levels in 5 distinct groups. An overall classification rate of almost 90% demonstrates the strong potential of the ANN system developed to monitor M. bovis cultures in vaccine production.

  15. Superoxide Dismutase Activity, Hydrogen Peroxide Steady-State Concentration, and Bactericidal and Phagocytic Activities Against Moraxella bovis, in Neutrophils Isolated from Copper-Deficient Bovines.

    PubMed

    Cintia, Postma Gabriela; Leonardo, Minatel; Israel, Olivares Roberto Walter; Andrea, Schapira; Beatriz, Valdez Laura; Elena, Dallorso Maria

    2016-05-01

    Copper (Cu) deficiency increases occurrence of certain infectious diseases in animals, including infectious keratoconjunctivitis in bovines, a bacterial ocular inflammation caused by Moraxella bovis. Neutrophil leukocytes constitute the first phagocytic cells to arrive at infection sites for bacterial neutralization. The objective of this work was to evaluate whether the functionality of neutrophils against M. bovis is impaired in experimentally induced Cu deficiency in bovines using high molybdenum and sulfur levels in the diet. The Cu tissue values and the periocular achromotrichia observed in +Mo animals showed that the clinic phase of Cu deficiency was reached in this group. Instead, +Cu animals have not evidenced clinical signs or biochemical parameters of hypocuprosis. On the basis of our observations, we concluded that Cu deficiency has no effect on phagocytic and bactericidal activities of neutrophils against M. bovis. However, superoxide dismutase activity and peroxide hydrogen generation were significantly different between groups. Therefore, additional research to explain these results is merited to fully characterize the consequences of Cu status on the risk for infections under field conditions.

  16. Excessive acquisition in hoarding.

    PubMed

    Frost, Randy O; Tolin, David F; Steketee, Gail; Fitch, Kristin E; Selbo-Bruns, Alexandra

    2009-06-01

    Compulsive hoarding (the acquisition of and failure to discard large numbers of possessions) is associated with substantial health risk, impairment, and economic burden. However, little research has examined separate components of this definition, particularly excessive acquisition. The present study examined acquisition in hoarding. Participants, 878 self-identified with hoarding and 665 family informants (not matched to hoarding participants), completed an Internet survey. Among hoarding participants who met criteria for clinically significant hoarding, 61% met criteria for a diagnosis of compulsive buying and approximately 85% reported excessive acquisition. Family informants indicated that nearly 95% exhibited excessive acquisition. Those who acquired excessively had more severe hoarding; their hoarding had an earlier onset and resulted in more psychiatric work impairment days; and they experienced more symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety. Two forms of excessive acquisition (buying and free things) each contributed independent variance in the prediction of hoarding severity and related symptoms.

  17. Software Acquisition Program Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-24

    acquisition and development of software-reliant systems . Novak has more than 25 years of experience with real-time embedded software product development...Problem Poor acquisition program performance inhibits military performance by depriving the warfighter of critical systems to achieve mission...objectives • Delayed systems withhold needed capabilities • Wasted resources drain funding needed for new systems Acquisitions fail for both technical

  18. FTMP data acquisition environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padilla, Peter A.

    1988-01-01

    The Fault-Tolerant Multi-Processing (FTMP) test-bed data acquisition environment is described. The performance of two data acquisition devices available in the test environment are estimated and compared. These estimated data rates are used as measures of the devices' capabilities. A new data acquisition device was developed and added to the FTMP environment. This path increases the data rate available by approximately a factor of 8, to 379 KW/S, while simplifying the experiment development process.

  19. Streamlined acquisition handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA has always placed great emphasis on the acquisition process, recognizing it as among its most important activities. This handbook is intended to facilitate the application of streamlined acquisition procedures. The development of these procedures reflects the efforts of an action group composed of NASA Headquarters and center acquisition professionals. It is the intent to accomplish the real change in the acquisition process as a result of this effort. An important part of streamlining the acquisition process is a commitment by the people involved in the process to accomplishing acquisition activities quickly and with high quality. Too often we continue to accomplish work in 'the same old way' without considering available alternatives which would require no changes to regulations, approvals from Headquarters, or waivers of required practice. Similarly, we must be sensitive to schedule opportunities throughout the acquisition cycle, not just once the purchase request arrives at the procurement office. Techniques that have been identified as ways of reducing acquisition lead time while maintaining high quality in our acquisition process are presented.

  20. Coring Sample Acquisition Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Nicolas E.; Murray, Saben D.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kriechbaum, Kristopher L.; Richardson, Megan; Klein, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    A sample acquisition tool (SAT) has been developed that can be used autonomously to sample drill and capture rock cores. The tool is designed to accommodate core transfer using a sample tube to the IMSAH (integrated Mars sample acquisition and handling) SHEC (sample handling, encapsulation, and containerization) without ever touching the pristine core sample in the transfer process.

  1. Human target acquisition performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teaney, Brian P.; Du Bosq, Todd W.; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Thompson, Roger; Aghera, Sameer; Moyer, Steven K.; Flug, Eric; Espinola, Richard; Hixson, Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    The battlefield has shifted from armored vehicles to armed insurgents. Target acquisition (identification, recognition, and detection) range performance involving humans as targets is vital for modern warfare. The acquisition and neutralization of armed insurgents while at the same time minimizing fratricide and civilian casualties is a mounting concern. U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD has conducted many experiments involving human targets for infrared and reflective band sensors. The target sets include human activities, hand-held objects, uniforms & armament, and other tactically relevant targets. This paper will define a set of standard task difficulty values for identification and recognition associated with human target acquisition performance.

  2. Interactive knowledge acquisition tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudziak, Martin J.; Feinstein, Jerald L.

    1987-01-01

    The problems of designing practical tools to aid the knowledge engineer and general applications used in performing knowledge acquisition tasks are discussed. A particular approach was developed for the class of knowledge acquisition problem characterized by situations where acquisition and transformation of domain expertise are often bottlenecks in systems development. An explanation is given on how the tool and underlying software engineering principles can be extended to provide a flexible set of tools that allow the application specialist to build highly customized knowledge-based applications.

  3. Acquisitions for Area Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert D.

    1970-01-01

    Common policies, practices, and trends in acquisitions in the complex field of area studies, including the weak structure of the book trade, the lack of bibliographic control, and current cooperative efforts. (JS)

  4. Data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Stephen L.; Mani, Sudhindra; Atlas, Eugene L.; Cords, Dieter H. W.; Holbrook, Britt

    1997-01-01

    A data acquisition circuit for a particle detection system that allows for time tagging of particles detected by the system. The particle detection system screens out background noise and discriminate between hits from scattered and unscattered particles. The detection system can also be adapted to detect a wide variety of particle types. The detection system utilizes a particle detection pixel array, each pixel containing a back-biased PIN diode, and a data acquisition pixel array. Each pixel in the particle detection pixel array is in electrical contact with a pixel in the data acquisition pixel array. In response to a particle hit, the affected PIN diodes generate a current, which is detected by the corresponding data acquisition pixels. This current is integrated to produce a voltage across a capacitor, the voltage being related to the amount of energy deposited in the pixel by the particle. The current is also used to trigger a read of the pixel hit by the particle.

  5. Documentation and knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel; Moseley, Warren

    1990-01-01

    Traditional approaches to knowledge acquisition have focused on interviews. An alternative focuses on the documentation associated with a domain. Adopting a documentation approach provides some advantages during familiarization. A knowledge management tool was constructed to gain these advantages.

  6. Army Acquisition Lessons Learned

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    analysis on the lessons learned. Acquisition Lessons Learned Portal (ALLP) and Lessons Learned Collection CAALL has established the ALLP as the...PEOs) and their project offices, as well as the broader acquisition community. The primary function of the portal is to allow easy input and retrieval...download- able form that can be completed offline and then uploaded to the portal . This allows the form to be filled out and distrib- uted through

  7. Acquisition Support Program Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-30

    Feedback from direct support and community learning improves ASP practices & SEI technologies © 2006 by Carnegie Mellon University page 6 ASP...the acquisition infrastructure throughout the DoD, Federal Agency and other acquirer communities . © 2006 by Carnegie Mellon University page 3...Seminars • Tailored learning via Acquisition Communities of Practice • Army, Navy, Air Force, Defense and Intel Agencies • Software Collaborator’s Network

  8. The structure of lactoferrin-binding protein B from Neisseria meningitidis suggests roles in iron acquisition and neutralization of host defences

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Cory L.; Arutyunova, Elena; Lemieux, M. Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens have evolved a range of mechanisms to acquire iron from the host during infection. Several Gram-negative pathogens including members of the genera Neisseria and Moraxella have evolved two-component systems that can extract iron from the host glycoproteins lactoferrin and transferrin. The homologous iron-transport systems consist of a membrane-bound transporter and an accessory lipoprotein. While the mechanism behind iron acquisition from transferrin is well understood, relatively little is known regarding how iron is extracted from lactoferrin. Here, the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (N-lobe) of the accessory lipoprotein lactoferrin-binding protein B (LbpB) from the pathogen Neisseria meningitidis is reported. The structure is highly homologous to the previously determined structures of the accessory lipoprotein transferrin-binding protein B (TbpB) and LbpB from the bovine pathogen Moraxella bovis. Docking the LbpB structure with lactoferrin reveals extensive binding interactions with the N1 subdomain of lactoferrin. The nature of the interaction precludes apolactoferrin from binding LbpB, ensuring the specificity of iron-loaded lactoferrin. The specificity of LbpB safeguards proper delivery of iron-bound lactoferrin to the transporter lactoferrin-binding protein A (LbpA). The structure also reveals a possible secondary role for LbpB in protecting the bacteria from host defences. Following proteolytic digestion of lactoferrin, a cationic peptide derived from the N-terminus is released. This peptide, called lactoferricin, exhibits potent antimicrobial effects. The docked model of LbpB with lactoferrin reveals that LbpB interacts extensively with the N-terminal lactoferricin region. This may provide a venue for preventing the production of the peptide by proteolysis, or directly sequestering the peptide, protecting the bacteria from the toxic effects of lactoferricin. PMID:25286931

  9. 75 FR 14057 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-40; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-40: Introduction, Small Entity... Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-40; Introduction AGENCIES: Department of Defense...

  10. Coordinating Council. Seventh Meeting: Acquisitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The theme for this NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program Coordinating Council meeting was Acquisitions. In addition to NASA and the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI) presentations, the report contains fairly lengthy visuals about acquisitions at the Defense Technical Information Center. CASI's acquisitions program and CASI's proactive acquisitions activity were described. There was a presentation on the document evaluation process at CASI. A talk about open literature scope and coverage at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics was also given. An overview of the STI Program's Acquisitions Experts Committee was given next. Finally acquisitions initiatives of the NASA STI program were presented.

  11. Data Acquisition Backend

    SciTech Connect

    Britton Jr., Charles L.; Ezell, N. Dianne Bull; Roberts, Michael

    2013-10-01

    This document is intended to summarize the development and testing of the data acquisition module portion of the Johnson Noise Thermometry (JNT) system developed at ORNL. The proposed system has been presented in an earlier report [1]. A more extensive project background including the project rationale is available in the initial project report [2].

  12. Surviving mergers & acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Diane L

    2002-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions are never easy to implement. The health care landscape is a minefield of failed mergers and uneasy alliances generating great turmoil and pain. But some mergers have been successful, creating health systems that benefit the communities they serve. Five prominent leaders offer their advice on minimizing the difficulties of M&As.

  13. Autonomous Robot Skill Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Research. ix ABSTRACT AUTONOMOUS ROBOT SKILL ACQUISITION MAY 2011 GEORGE DIMITRI KONIDARIS B.Sc., UNIVERSITY OF THE WITWATERSRAND B.Sc. Hons., UNIVERSITY...OF THE WITWATERSRAND M.Sc., UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH Ph.D., UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST Directed by: Professor Andrew G. Barto Among the most

  14. Acquisitions List No. 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The "Acquisitions List" of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  15. Acquisitions List No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood--World Population, New York, NY. Katherine Dexter McCormick Library.

    The "Acquisitions List" of demographic books and articles is issued every two months by the Katharine Dexter McCormick Library. Divided into two parts, the first contains a list of books most recently acquired by the Library, each one annotated and also marked with the Library call number. The second part consists of a list of annotated articles,…

  16. Telecommunications and data acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations is reported. In addition, developments in Earth based radio technology as applied to geodynamics, astrophysics, and the radio search for extraterrestrial intelligence are reported.

  17. Acquisition of Comparison Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohaus, Vera; Tiemann, Sonja; Beck, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study on the time course of the acquisition of comparison constructions. The order in which comparison constructions (comparatives, measure phrases, superlatives, degree questions, etc.) show up in English- and German-learning children's spontaneous speech is quite fixed. It is shown to be insufficiently determined by…

  18. Image Acquisition Context

    PubMed Central

    Bidgood, W. Dean; Bray, Bruce; Brown, Nicolas; Mori, Angelo Rossi; Spackman, Kent A.; Golichowski, Alan; Jones, Robert H.; Korman, Louis; Dove, Brent; Hildebrand, Lloyd; Berg, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To support clinically relevant indexing of biomedical images and image-related information based on the attributes of image acquisition procedures and the judgments (observations) expressed by observers in the process of image interpretation. Design: The authors introduce the notion of “image acquisition context,” the set of attributes that describe image acquisition procedures, and present a standards-based strategy for utilizing the attributes of image acquisition context as indexing and retrieval keys for digital image libraries. Methods: The authors' indexing strategy is based on an interdependent message/terminology architecture that combines the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) standard, the SNOMED (Systematized Nomenclature of Human and Veterinary Medicine) vocabulary, and the SNOMED DICOM microglossary. The SNOMED DICOM microglossary provides context-dependent mapping of terminology to DICOM data elements. Results: The capability of embedding standard coded descriptors in DICOM image headers and image-interpretation reports improves the potential for selective retrieval of image-related information. This favorably affects information management in digital libraries. PMID:9925229

  19. 78 FR 37164 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions AGENCY... applications to acquire land in trust under 25 CFR part 151. This document makes corrections to the...

  20. 48 CFR 7.401 - Acquisition considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition considerations. 7.401 Section 7.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Equipment Lease or Purchase 7.401 Acquisition considerations....

  1. 33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #320, perimeter acquisition radar operations center (PAROC), contains the tactical command and control group equipment required to control the par site. Showing spacetrack monitor console - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  2. The Acquisition of Serial Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, William H.

    1970-01-01

    Results of a questionnaire survey of large research libraries on procedures and special problems in serials acquisitions. Cooperative programs are discussed, including the Latin American Cooperative Acquisitions Program and the National Serials Data Program. (JS)

  3. 48 CFR 7.401 - Acquisition considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Equipment Lease or Purchase 7.401 Acquisition considerations. (a...) Financial and operating advantages of alternative types and makes of equipment. (3) Cumulative...

  4. Managing Radical Change in Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    some process innovation, acquisition continues to plague the Defense System and constrain battlefield mobility, information, and speed. Following the... System & Acquisition Management,Monterey,CA,93943 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...Mark Nissen is Assistant Professor of Information Systems and Acquisition Management at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) in Monterey, CA. He

  5. Locative Terms and Warlpiri Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavin, Edith L.

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on the influence of language specific properties in the acquisition of locative expressions. Some of the claims from literature on the acquisition of locative expressions are discussed and data from the acquisition of Warlpiri are presented and discussed in terms of these claims. (Author/CB)

  6. Automatic carrier acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunce, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic carrier acquisition system for a phase locked loop (PLL) receiver is disclosed. It includes a local oscillator, which sweeps the receiver to tune across the carrier frequency uncertainty range until the carrier crosses the receiver IF reference. Such crossing is detected by an automatic acquisition detector. It receives the IF signal from the receiver as well as the IF reference. It includes a pair of multipliers which multiply the IF signal with the IF reference in phase and in quadrature. The outputs of the multipliers are filtered through bandpass filters and power detected. The output of the power detector has a signal dc component which is optimized with respect to the noise dc level by the selection of the time constants of the filters as a function of the sweep rate of the local oscillator.

  7. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  8. Materiel Acquisition Handbook. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-26

    Development Center director appoints the IPR chairman. The TPR chairman assenibles the IPR agenda pacl.age, staffs it within AMC, dIevelops the AL.C postion...to execute MADP agenda package recommendations. PPBES reviews must ensure recent materiel acquisition decisions are reflected and * supported. CHANGES... agenda packages must contain a notice that the package includes proposed changes to the requirements document, with supporting rationale as appropriate

  9. Getting Defense Acquisition Right

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    Buying Power 1.0 Figure 2. Better Buying Power 2.0 Figure 3. Better Buying Power 3.0 179 Figure 4. Contract Cost Growth on Highest Risk (Major...Crossing Critical Congressional Cost- Growth Thresholds iv Getting Defense Acquisition Right 67 96 97 184 Table 1. Root...Causes for Major Programs Crossing Critical Con­ gressional Cost- Growth Thresholds or Other Major Problems 185 Figure 8. Planned Length of Active

  10. Advanced Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, J.

    2003-01-01

    Current and future requirements of the aerospace sensors and transducers field make it necessary for the design and development of new data acquisition devices and instrumentation systems. New designs are sought to incorporate self-health, self-calibrating, self-repair capabilities, allowing greater measurement reliability and extended calibration cycles. With the addition of power management schemes, state-of-the-art data acquisition systems allow data to be processed and presented to the users with increased efficiency and accuracy. The design architecture presented in this paper displays an innovative approach to data acquisition systems. The design incorporates: electronic health self-check, device/system self-calibration, electronics and function self-repair, failure detection and prediction, and power management (reduced power consumption). These requirements are driven by the aerospace industry need to reduce operations and maintenance costs, to accelerate processing time and to provide reliable hardware with minimum costs. The project's design architecture incorporates some commercially available components identified during the market research investigation like: Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) Programmable Analog Integrated Circuits (PAC IC) and Field Programmable Analog Arrays (FPAA); Digital Signal Processing (DSP) electronic/system control and investigation of specific characteristics found in technologies like: Electronic Component Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF); and Radiation Hardened Component Availability. There are three main sections discussed in the design architecture presented in this document. They are the following: (a) Analog Signal Module Section, (b) Digital Signal/Control Module Section and (c) Power Management Module Section. These sections are discussed in detail in the following pages. This approach to data acquisition systems has resulted in the assignment of patent rights to Kennedy Space Center under U.S. patent # 6

  11. Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Technology developed during a joint research program with Langley and Kinetic Systems Corporation led to Kinetic Systems' production of a high speed Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) data acquisition system. The study, which involved the use of CAMAC equipment applied to flight simulation, significantly improved the company's technical capability and produced new applications. With Digital Equipment Corporation, Kinetic Systems is marketing the system to government and private companies for flight simulation, fusion research, turbine testing, steelmaking, etc.

  12. Defense ADP Acquisition Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-30

    management issues. It also provides broad insight into the nature and causes of problems in the ADP acquisition process and offers several strategies ... strategy planning fails to provide the appropriate mission perspective. Curfent top-down strategic planning does not pro- vide the necessary guidance for the...recommendations presented here are more appropriately labeled strategies for change, rather than specific actions for improvement. (1) There Must Be a

  13. Second language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Juffs, Alan

    2011-05-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) is a field that investigates child and adult SLA from a variety of theoretical perspectives. This article provides a survey of some key areas of concern including formal generative theory and emergentist theory in the areas of morpho-syntax and phonology. The review details the theoretical stance of the two different approaches to the nature of language: generative linguistics and general cognitive approaches. Some results of key acquisition studies from the two theoretical frameworks are discussed. From a generative perspective, constraints on wh-movement, feature geometry and syllable structure, and morphological development are highlighted. From a general cognitive point of view, the emergence of tense and aspect marking from a prototype account of inherent lexical aspect is reviewed. Reference is made to general cognitive learning theories and to sociocultural theory. The article also reviews individual differences research, specifically debate on the critical period in adult language acquisition, motivation, and memory. Finally, the article discusses the relationship between SLA research and second language pedagogy. Suggestions for further reading from recent handbooks on SLA are provided. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 277-286 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.106 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  14. Data acquisition with Masscomp

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, A.J.

    1988-12-31

    Applications and products for data acquisition and control are abundant. Systems and boards for Apple or IBM products collect, store, and manipulate data up to rates in the 10`s of thousands. These systems may suit your application; if so, it would be good for you to obtain one of these systems. However, if you need speed in the hundreds of thousands of samples per second and you want to store, process, and display data in real time, data acquisition becomes much more complex. Operating system code has to be sufficient to handle the load. A company known as Massachusetts Computer Corporation has modified UNIX operating system code to allow real time data acquisition and control. They call this operating system Real Time Unix, or RTU. They have built a family of computer systems around this operating system with specialized hardware to handle multiple processes and quick communications, which a real time operating system needs to function. This paper covers the basics of an application using a Masscomp 5520 computer. The application is for the KYLE Project Cold Tests in SRL. KYLE is a classified weapons program. The data flow from source to Masscomp, the generic features of Masscomp systems, and the specifics of the Masscomp computer related to this application will be presented.

  15. Complexity in language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2013-01-01

    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form.

  16. Assessment of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Peter A; de Villiers, Jill G

    2010-03-01

    This review addresses questions of what should be assessed in language acquisition, and how to do it. The design of a language assessment is crucially connected to its purpose, whether for diagnosis, development of an intervention plan, or for research. Precise profiles of language strengths and weaknesses are required for clear definitions of the phenotypes of particular language and neurodevelopmental disorders. The benefits and costs of formal tests versus language sampling assessments are reviewed. Content validity, theoretically and empirically grounded in child language acquisition, is claimed to be centrally important for appropriate assessment. Without this grounding, links between phenomena can be missed, and interpretations of underlying difficulties can be compromised. Sensitivity and specificity of assessment instruments are often assessed using a gold standard of existing tests and diagnostic practices, but problems arise if that standard is biased against particular groups or dialects. The paper addresses the issues raised by the goal of unbiased assessment of children from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, especially speakers of non-mainstream dialects or bilingual children. A variety of new approaches are discussed for language assessment, including dynamic assessment, experimental tools such as intermodal preferential looking, and training studies that assess generalization. Stress is placed on the need for measures of the process of acquisition rather than just levels of achievement. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  17. Haemophilus influenzae isolates survive for up to 20 years at -70 °C in skim milk tryptone glucose glycerol broth (STGGB) if thawing is avoided during re-culture.

    PubMed

    Hare, K M; Smith-Vaughan, H C; Beissbarth, J; Leach, A J

    2015-12-01

    Haemophilus influenzae remains a major cause of disease worldwide requiring continued study. Recently, isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis, but not H. influenzae, were reported to survive long-term ultra-freeze storage in STGGB. We show that nontypeable H. influenzae isolates survive for up to 20 years when thawing is avoided.

  18. 48 CFR 18.113 - Interagency acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interagency acquisitions. 18.113 Section 18.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities...

  19. 48 CFR 18.113 - Interagency acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interagency acquisitions. 18.113 Section 18.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities...

  20. 48 CFR 18.113 - Interagency acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interagency acquisitions. 18.113 Section 18.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities...

  1. 48 CFR 18.113 - Interagency acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interagency acquisitions. 18.113 Section 18.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Available Acquisition Flexibilities...

  2. Data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, David T.

    1979-01-01

    A data acquisition system capable of resolving transient pulses in the subnanosecond range. A pulse in an information carrying medium such as light is transmitted through means which disperse the pulse, such as a fiber optic light guide which time-stretches optical pulses by chromatic dispersion. This time-stretched pulse is used as a sampling pulse and is modulated by the signal to be recorded. The modulated pulse may be further time-stretched prior to being recorded. The recorded modulated pulse is unfolded to derive the transient signal by utilizing the relationship of the time-stretching that occurred in the original pulse.

  3. Acquisition-Management Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, Don E.; Vann, A. Vernon; Jones, Richard H.; Rew, William E.

    1987-01-01

    NASA Acquisition Management Subsystem (AMS) program integrated NASA-wide standard automated-procurement-system program developed in 1985. Designed to provide each NASA installation with procurement data-base concept with on-line terminals for managing, tracking, reporting, and controlling contractual actions and associated procurement data. Subsystem provides control, status, and reporting for various procurement areas. Purpose of standardization is to decrease costs of procurement and operation of automatic data processing; increases procurement productivity; furnishes accurate, on-line management information and improves customer support. Written in the ADABAS NATURAL.

  4. Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In the mid-1980s, Kinetic Systems and Langley Research Center determined that high speed CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement and Control) data acquisition systems could significantly improve Langley's ARTS (Advanced Real Time Simulation) system. The ARTS system supports flight simulation R&D, and the CAMAC equipment allowed 32 high performance simulators to be controlled by centrally located host computers. This technology broadened Kinetic Systems' capabilities and led to several commercial applications. One of them is General Atomics' fusion research program. Kinetic Systems equipment allows tokamak data to be acquired four to 15 times more rapidly. Ford Motor company uses the same technology to control and monitor transmission testing facilities.

  5. Late Mitochondrial Acquisition, Really?

    PubMed Central

    Degli Esposti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timely critique of a recent Nature paper by Pittis and Gabaldón that has suggested a late origin of mitochondria in eukaryote evolution. It shows that the inferred ancestry of many mitochondrial proteins has been incorrectly assigned by Pittis and Gabaldón to bacteria other than the aerobic proteobacteria from which the ancestor of mitochondria originates, thereby questioning the validity of their suggestion that mitochondrial acquisition may be a late event in eukaryote evolution. The analysis and approach presented here may guide future studies to resolve the true ancestry of mitochondria. PMID:27289097

  6. HYPERCP data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.M.; Luebke, W.R.; Chakravorty, A.

    1997-12-31

    For the HyperCP experiment at Fermilab, we have assembled a data acquisition system that records on up to 45 Exabyte 8505 tape drives in parallel at up to 17 MB/s. During the beam spill, data axe acquired from the front-end digitization systems at {approx} 60 MB/s via five parallel data paths. The front-end systems achieve typical readout deadtime of {approx} 1 {mu}s per event, allowing operation at 75-kHz trigger rate with {approx_lt}30% deadtime. Event building and tapewriting are handled by 15 Motorola MVME167 processors in 5 VME crates.

  7. Data-acquisition systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cyborski, D.R.; Teh, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    Up to now, DAPHNE, the data-acquisition system developed for ATLAS, was used routinely for experiments at ATLAS and the Dynamitron. More recently, the Division implemented 2 MSU/DAPHNE systems. The MSU/DAPHNE system is a hybrid data-acquisition system which combines the front-end of the Michigan State University (MSU) DA system with the traditional DAPHNE back-end. The MSU front-end is based on commercially available modules. This alleviates the problems encountered with the DAPHNE front-end which is based on custom designed electronics. The first MSU system was obtained for the APEX experiment and was used there successfully. A second MSU front-end, purchased as a backup for the APEX experiment, was installed as a fully-independent second MSU/DAPHNE system with the procurement of a DEC 3000 Alpha host computer, and was used successfully for data-taking in an experiment at ATLAS. Additional hardware for a third system was bought and will be installed. With the availability of 2 MSU/DAPHNE systems in addition to the existing APEX setup, it is planned that the existing DAPHNE front-end will be decommissioned.

  8. Unsupervised Language Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Marcken, Carl

    1996-11-01

    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unsegmented text and continuous speech, and mappings between sound and representations of meaning. It performs extremely well on various objective criteria, acquiring knowledge that causes it to assign almost exactly the same structure to utterances as humans do. This work has application to data compression, language modeling, speech recognition, machine translation, information retrieval, and other tasks that rely on either structural or stochastic descriptions of language.

  9. 78 FR 32214 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions AGENCY... of regulations governing decisions by the Secretary to approve or deny applications to acquire land...'s decision to take the land into trust. The Supreme Court has since held that the Quiet Title...

  10. 78 FR 49990 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions AGENCY... governing decisions by the Secretary to approve or deny applications to acquire land in trust. The public... articulating the process for issuing decisions to acquire land in trust under 25 CFR part 151. The...

  11. Plasmid acquisition in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juergensmeyer, Margaret A.; Juergensmeyer, Elizabeth A.; Guikema, James A.

    1995-01-01

    In microgravity, bacteria often show an increased resistance to antibiotics. Bacteria can develop resistance to an antibiotic after transformation, the acquisition of DNA, usually in the form of a plasmid containing a gene for resistance to one or more antibiotics. In order to study the capacity of bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics in microgravity, we have modified the standard protocol for transformation of Escherichia coli for use in the NASA-flight-certified hardware package, The Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA). Here we report on the ability of E. coli to remain competent for long periods of time at temperatures that are readily available on the Space Shuttle, and present some preliminary flight results.

  12. Silicon tracker data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    Large particle physics experiments are making increasing technological demands on the design and implementation of real-time data acquisition systems. The LHC will have bunch crossing intervals of 25 nanoseconds and detectors, such as CMS, will contain over 10 million electronic channels. Readout systems will need to cope with 100 kHz rates of 1 MByte-sized events. Over 70% of this voluminous flow will stem from silicon tracker and MSGC devices. This paper describes the techniques currently being harnessed from ASIC devices through to modular microprocessor-based architectures around standards such as VMEbus and PCI. In particular, the experiences gained at the HERA H1 experiment are highlighted where many of the key technological concepts have already been im implemented.

  13. DSPS in data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, M.; Haeupke, T.; Oelschlaeger, R.; Struck, B.

    1997-12-31

    Off-the-shelf and customized DSP boards in different bus architectures are perfectly suited to act as building blocks for flexible and high performance data acquisition systems. Due to their architecture they can be used to enhance the performance of existing equipment as add ons, as state-of-the-art readout controllers, event builders, on-the-fly data formatters and higher level trigger processors. Applications covering the above mentioned fields with Motorolas 96002 HARC DSP in the DESY HERMES and H1 experiments, at the focal plane polarimeter at KVI and the NIST high flux neutron backscattering spectrometer will be presented. Future possibilities with VME, PCI and PMC boards based on Analog Devices SHARC DSP will be discussed. Systems on the base of Texas Instruments TMS320C6X promise to provide unprecedented performance.

  14. Deepwater seismic acquisition technology

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, J.

    1996-09-01

    Although truly new technology is not required for successful acquisition of seismic data in deep Gulf of Mexico waters, it is helpful to review some basic aspects of these seismic surveys. Additionally, such surveys are likely to see early use of some emerging new technology which can improve data quality. Because such items as depth imaging, borehole seismic, 4-D and marine 3-component recording were mentioned in the May 1996 issue of World Oil, they are not discussed again here. However, these technologies will also play some role in the deepwater seismic activities. What is covered in this paper are some new considerations for: (1) longer data records needed in deeper water, (2) some pros and cons of very long steamer use, and (3) two new commercial systems for quantifying data quality.

  15. Universals of Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R., Ed.; And Others

    Works on second language acquisition theories, affective variables and communicative competence, and interlanguage were compiled as a result of a symposium on universals of second language acquisition at the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. The papers include: "On the Variability of Interlangauge Systems" (Elaine Tarone); "Memory, Learning, and…

  16. Microform Developments Related to Acquisitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Robert C.

    1985-01-01

    Focuses on significant developments of the recent past in acquisition and control of library microforms. Highlights include reference works essential to acquisition of microforms and microform equipment, microform utilization in libraries, bibliographic control, computer output microfilm (COM) and the Copyright Law, technological developments,…

  17. Markedness and Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil-Byeon, Ja

    1999-01-01

    Discusses whether markedness is at work in second-language acquisition in the same way it is in first-language acquisition when Korean speakers learn English as a second language and English speakers learn Korean as a second language. Results are discussed in terms of no access to universal grammar, partial access to universal grammar, and access…

  18. Knowledge Acquisition in Observational Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosniadou, Stella

    This paper presents findings from research on knowledge acquisition in observational astronomy to demonstrate the kinds of intuitive models children form and to show how these models influence the acquisition of science knowledge. Sixty children of approximate ages 6, 9, and 12 were given a questionnaire to investigate their knowledge of the size,…

  19. Acquisition Policies. SPEC Kit 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This collection of acquisition materials from member libraries of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) contains: (1) acquisition policies from Brigham Young University, Iowa State University, and the University of Cincinnati; (2) book selection policies from the University of Nebraska Undergraduate Library and Georgetown University; (3) an…

  20. Investment and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittaway, Daniel S.

    2004-01-01

    The article argues that Norton Peirce's (1995) concept of a language learner's investment should figure centrally in how instructors address the needs of adult learners in ESL classrooms. Investment is discussed in relation to second language acquisition research that addresses the role of social factors in second language acquisition. The article…

  1. STIS CCD Target Acquisition Workout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes, Ron

    1997-07-01

    Following update of STIS flight acquisitions and acq/peak software, redemonstrate the capability to perform point source and peakup acquisitions of a bright target. Then demonstrate ability of the STIS FSW to locate targets more typical of those in the science program.

  2. 48 CFR 207.401 - Acquisition considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition considerations. 207.401 Section 207.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Acquisition considerations. If the equipment will be leased for more than 60 days, the requiring activity...

  3. 48 CFR 34.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 34... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.004 Acquisition strategy. The program manager, as specified in agency procedures, shall develop an acquisition strategy tailored to the...

  4. 48 CFR 3034.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 3034.004 Section 3034.004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Acquisition strategy. See (HSAR) 48 CFR 3009.570 for policy applicable to acquisition strategies that...

  5. 48 CFR 873.105 - Acquisition planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition planning. 873.105 Section 873.105 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS DEPARTMENT... planning. (a) Acquisition planning is an indispensable component of the total acquisition process. (b)...

  6. 48 CFR 873.105 - Acquisition planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES FOR HEALTH-CARE RESOURCES 873.105 Acquisition... the acquisition of health-care resources consisting of commercial services or the use of medical equipment or space, where the acquisition is expected to exceed the simplified acquisition threshold...

  7. 48 CFR 234.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 234..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION 234.004 Acquisition strategy. (1) See 209.570 for policy applicable to acquisition strategies that consider the use of lead...

  8. Ocean Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.; Cavanaugh, J.; Smith, J.; Esaias, W.

    1988-01-01

    The Ocean Data Acquisition System (ODAS) is a low cost instrument with potential commercial application. It is easily mounted on a small aircraft and flown over the coastal zone ocean to remotely measure sea surface temperature and three channels of ocean color information. From this data, chlorophyll levels can be derived for use by ocean scientists, fisheries, and environmental offices. Data can be transmitted to shipboard for real-time use with sea truth measurements, ocean productivity estimates and fishing fleet direction. The aircraft portion of the system has two primary instruments: an IR radiometer to measure sea surface temperature and a three channel visible spectro-radiometer for 460, 490, and 520 nm wavelength measurements from which chlorophyll concentration can be derived. The aircraft package contains a LORAN-C unit for aircraft location information, clock, on-board data processor and formatter, digital data storage, packet radio terminal controller, and radio transceiver for data transmission to a ship. The shipboard package contains a transceiver, packet terminal controller, data processing and storage capability, and printer. Both raw data and chlorophyll concentrations are available for real-time analysis.

  9. Processes Asunder: Acquisition & Planning Misfits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-26

    St ra te gy Re se ar ch Pr oj ec t PROCESSES ASUNDER: ACQUISITION & PLANNING MISFITS BY CHÉRIE A. SMITH Department of Army Civilian DISTRIBUTION...Asunder: Acquisition & Planning Misfits 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Chérie A. Smith 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT PROCESSES ASUNDER: ACQUISITION & PLANNING

  10. Space storable propellant acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegart, J. R.; Uney, P. E.; Anderson, J. E.; Fester, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Surface tension propellant acquisition concepts for an advanced spacecraft propulsion system having a 10-year mission capability were investigated. Surface tension systems were specified because they were shown to be the best propellant acquisition technique for various interplanetery spacecraft in a prior study. A variety of surface tension concepts for accomplishing propellant acquisition were formulated for the baseline space storable propulsion module and Jupiter Orbiter mission. Analyses and evaluations were then conducted on each candidate concept to assess fabricability, performance capability, and spacecraft compatibility. A comparative evaluation of the results showed the Fruhof-class of low-g surface tension systems to be preferred for these interplanetary applications.

  11. Automated ship image acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, T. R.

    2008-04-01

    The experimental Automated Ship Image Acquisition System (ASIA) collects high-resolution ship photographs at a shore-based laboratory, with minimal human intervention. The system uses Automatic Identification System (AIS) data to direct a high-resolution SLR digital camera to ship targets and to identify the ships in the resulting photographs. The photo database is then searchable using the rich data fields from AIS, which include the name, type, call sign and various vessel identification numbers. The high-resolution images from ASIA are intended to provide information that can corroborate AIS reports (e.g., extract identification from the name on the hull) or provide information that has been omitted from the AIS reports (e.g., missing or incorrect hull dimensions, cargo, etc). Once assembled into a searchable image database, the images can be used for a wide variety of marine safety and security applications. This paper documents the author's experience with the practicality of composing photographs based on AIS reports alone, describing a number of ways in which this can go wrong, from errors in the AIS reports, to fixed and mobile obstructions and multiple ships in the shot. The frequency with which various errors occurred in automatically-composed photographs collected in Halifax harbour in winter time were determined by manual examination of the images. 45% of the images examined were considered of a quality sufficient to read identification markings, numbers and text off the entire ship. One of the main technical challenges for ASIA lies in automatically differentiating good and bad photographs, so that few bad ones would be shown to human users. Initial attempts at automatic photo rating showed 75% agreement with manual assessments.

  12. The acquisition of syntactic knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Berwick, R.

    1985-01-01

    This work in computational linguistics describes a break-through in the design of expert systems because it suggests how extensive knowledge might be acquired automatically, without outside intervention. Computationally, the author looks at the developmental problem of the interaction between innate genetic endowment and environmental input, using computational methods to uncover the constraints on the acquisition of syntactic knowledge. Learning and syntax problems are also explored: how lexical categories, phonological rule systems, and phrase structure rules are learned; the role of semantic-syntactic interaction in language acquisition; how a ''parameter setting'' model may be formalized as a learning procedure; how multiple constraints interact to aid acquisition; how transformational-type rules may be learned; and the role of lexical ambiguity in language acquisition.

  13. Acquisition of Books and Pamphlets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Lawrence S.

    1970-01-01

    Acquisitions of current printed works in the research library is a complex process because of the proliferation of publishers and publications in all subject areas. Cooperation among the librarian, subject specialist, and dealers is necessary. (JS)

  14. Acquisition Activities in Intensive Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhenghua, Xu

    1998-01-01

    Discusses four possible ways to conduct language-acquisition activities in the foreign-language classroom: (1) vivid linking; (2) story retelling; (3) self-directed statement; and (4) role playing. (Author/VWL)

  15. Schizophrenia and second language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Bersudsky, Yuly; Fine, Jonathan; Gorjaltsan, Igor; Chen, Osnat; Walters, Joel

    2005-05-01

    Language acquisition involves brain processes that can be affected by lesions or dysfunctions in several brain systems and second language acquisition may depend on different brain substrates than first language acquisition in childhood. A total of 16 Russian immigrants to Israel, 8 diagnosed schizophrenics and 8 healthy immigrants, were compared. The primary data for this study were collected via sociolinguistic interviews. The two groups use language and learn language in very much the same way. Only exophoric reference and blocking revealed meaningful differences between the schizophrenics and healthy counterparts. This does not mean of course that schizophrenia does not induce language abnormalities. Our study focuses on those aspects of language that are typically difficult to acquire in second language acquisition. Despite the cognitive compromises in schizophrenia and the manifest atypicalities in language of speakers with schizophrenia, the process of acquiring a second language seems relatively unaffected by schizophrenia.

  16. STIS Target Acquisitions During SMOV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsanis, Rocio M.; Downes, Ron; Hartig, George; Kraemer, Steve

    1997-07-01

    We summarize the first results on the analysis of in-flight STIS target acquisition (ACQ and ACQ/PEAK). These results show that the STIS target acquisition (ACQ) is working very accurately for point sources (within 0.5 pixels = 0.025 arcseconds), about 4 times better than specified in the Instrument Handbook. As a result of the accuracy of the ACQ algorithm, we are no longer recommending to perform ACQ/PEAKs for the 0.2 arcsecond wide slits. For diffuse acquisitions the accuracy varies with target size. Although analysis of ACQ/PEAK data is hampered by a flight software problem, we anticipate that peakups will be accurate to roughly ±5% of the slit width (instead of the ±15% pr eviously advertised). We are implementing several enhancements to the flight software that will take effect by mid- August to improve the quality of the acquisitions.

  17. An Analysis of Army Rapid Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Strategy ........54 6. Value Center Six: Life Cycle Costs ............................................54 7. Value Center Seven: Lessons Learned...information assurance strategy ANPP Apple new product process AOA analysis of alternatives APB acquisition program baseline APC acquisition program...candidate APO Army Project Office APUC average procurement unit cost AS acquisition strategy ASOM acquisition system operating model BBP better

  18. 48 CFR 1318.270 - Emergency acquisition flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... flexibilities. 1318.270 Section 1318.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.270 Emergency acquisition flexibilities. (a) Authorizing emergency acquisition flexibilities. The process...

  19. 48 CFR 1318.270 - Emergency acquisition flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... flexibilities. 1318.270 Section 1318.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.270 Emergency acquisition flexibilities. (a) Authorizing emergency acquisition flexibilities. The process...

  20. 48 CFR 1318.270 - Emergency acquisition flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... flexibilities. 1318.270 Section 1318.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.270 Emergency acquisition flexibilities. (a) Authorizing emergency acquisition flexibilities. The process...

  1. 48 CFR 1318.270 - Emergency acquisition flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... flexibilities. 1318.270 Section 1318.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.270 Emergency acquisition flexibilities. (a) Authorizing emergency acquisition flexibilities. The process...

  2. 48 CFR 1318.270 - Emergency acquisition flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... flexibilities. 1318.270 Section 1318.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.270 Emergency acquisition flexibilities. (a) Authorizing emergency acquisition flexibilities. The process...

  3. 48 CFR Appendix - Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Index

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Index Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT... (IFMS) Contract clause. FAR Index Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Index Editorial Note:...

  4. 48 CFR Appendix - Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Index

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Index Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT... (IFMS) Contract clause. FAR Index Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Index Editorial Note:...

  5. Iron acquisition by Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Vartivarian, S E; Cowart, R E; Anaissie, E J; Tashiro, T; Sprigg, H A

    1995-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for the growth and metabolism of microbial cells. Most pathogenic microbes elaborate powerful iron chelating agents (siderophores) to mobilize iron from ferric ligands. The pathogenic yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans has not been found to produce siderophores and its mechanism of iron acquisition is unknown. This investigation explored an alternative pathway for iron acquisition by examining the interactions of iron with the cell surface. Iron uptake experiments were conducted utilizing radiolabelled ferrous iron and ferric iron chelates, with evidence for the presence of iron(II) receptors and the generation of ferrous iron by surface reduction. Hyperbolic kinetics were found when 59FeII was presented to the organism and uptake was blocked with bathophenanthroline sulphonate, an Fe2+ chelator. The yeast also acquired iron as [59Fe3+]-citrate and [59Fe3+]-pyrophosphate while bathophenanthroline sulphonate reduced the acquisition of these ferric ligands by 48% and 52% respectively. Pre-incubation with either ferric ligand also reduced iron acquisition by 50%. KCN inhibited uptake of iron(II) by 90% and uptake of [59Fe3+]-pyrophosphate and [59Fe3+]-citrate by 46% and 56% respectively; dinitrophenol had no effect on these processes. The data suggest that C. neoformans can (i) generate ferrous iron at the cell surface via a reduction of ferric chelates, with the subsequent acquisition of the ferrous iron, and (ii) acquire iron through the interaction of ferric chelates with a surface component.

  6. Space Acquisitions: Challenges Facing DOD as it Changes Approaches to Space Acquisitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-09

    SPACE ACQUISITIONS Challenges Facing DOD as it Changes Approaches to Space Acquisitions Statement of Cristina T. Chaplain...2016 SPACE ACQUISITIONS Challenges Facing DOD as it Changes Approaches to Space Acquisitions Why GAO Did This Study DOD is shifting its traditional...approach to space acquisitions, bolstering its protection of space systems, and engaging with more commercial providers. Given the time and

  7. Computational models of syntactic acquisition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Charles

    2012-03-01

    The computational approach to syntactic acquisition can be fruitfully pursued by integrating results and perspectives from computer science, linguistics, and developmental psychology. In this article, we first review some key results in computational learning theory and their implications for language acquisition. We then turn to examine specific learning models, some of which exploit distributional information in the input while others rely on a constrained space of hypotheses, yet both approaches share a common set of characteristics to overcome the learning problem. We conclude with a discussion of how computational models connects with the empirical study of child grammar, making the case for computationally tractable, psychologically plausible and developmentally realistic models of acquisition. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:205-213. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1154 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  8. Acquisition Reform: Three Big Ideas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-19

    Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Three Acq Reform Big Ideas 5 /19/2015 2 (1) Competing Capability Needs Among Services...to sponsor and users • Not required to be an acquisition expert • Tenure not as important Summary: 3 Big Ideas 5 /19/2015 19 (1) Competing...Acquisition Reform Three Big Ideas The provocative views expressed here are not those of the Department of Defense, DAU, or perhaps even the

  9. Stochastic reinforcement benefits skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Eran; Averbeck, Bruno B; Richmond, Barry J; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2014-02-14

    Learning complex skills is driven by reinforcement, which facilitates both online within-session gains and retention of the acquired skills. Yet, in ecologically relevant situations, skills are often acquired when mapping between actions and rewarding outcomes is unknown to the learning agent, resulting in reinforcement schedules of a stochastic nature. Here we trained subjects on a visuomotor learning task, comparing reinforcement schedules with higher, lower, or no stochasticity. Training under higher levels of stochastic reinforcement benefited skill acquisition, enhancing both online gains and long-term retention. These findings indicate that the enhancing effects of reinforcement on skill acquisition depend on reinforcement schedules.

  10. 75 FR 1567 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Foreign Participation in Acquisitions in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 225 and 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Foreign Participation in Acquisitions in Support of Operations in Afghanistan AGENCY:...

  11. 75 FR 19167 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-41; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulations; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-41; Introduction; FAR Case 2009-005... Acquisition Circular 2005-41; Introduction AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General...

  12. 76 FR 30362 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Acquisition of Helium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ...; Submission for OMB Review; Acquisition of Helium AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... approved information collection requirement concerning acquisition of helium. Public comments are... Collection 9000- 0113, Acquisition of Helium, by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov :...

  13. Data Acquisition for Modular Biometric Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor); Grodsinsky, Carlos M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A modular system for acquiring biometric data includes a plurality of data acquisition modules configured to sample biometric data from at least one respective input channel at a data acquisition rate. A representation of the sampled biometric data is stored in memory of each of the plurality of data acquisition modules. A central control system is in communication with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules through a bus. The central control system is configured to collect data asynchronously, via the bus, from the memory of the plurality of data acquisition modules according to a relative fullness of the memory of the plurality of data acquisition modules.

  14. 76 FR 10476 - (General Provisions) Contract Appeals and the Acquisition Regulation: General, Acquisition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... 1991-AB81 (General Provisions) Contract Appeals and the Acquisition Regulation: General, Acquisition Planning, and Contracting Methods and Contract Types Correction In rule document 2011-1320 appearing...

  15. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  16. Analog Input Data Acquisition Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.

  17. Lexical Constraints on Syntactic Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ard, Josh; Gass, Susan M.

    1987-01-01

    Data from responses to a grammaticality judgement test by 26 learners of English as a second language at two proficiency levels were used to investigate syntactic acquisition. Four syntactic structures were examined. Results suggest that less proficient subjects use syntactic strategies, while more proficient learners use semantic-based…

  18. Soviet Weapon-System Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    available in theIWest, provides the central coordination and policy guidance for Soviet weapons acquisition and oversees all military-related research...Machine Building Nuclear weapons and high- (MISREDMASH), (MSM) energy lasers i Ministry of Ship Building Naval vessels and naval (MINSUDPROM), (MSP) weapons...MINRADPROM), (MRP) equipment, guidance -and- control systems, navigation 3 equipment, and military computers Ministry of Communications

  19. Acquisition streamlining: A cultural change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Jesse

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the defense systems management college, educational philosophy, the defense acquisition environment, streamlining initiatives, organizational streamlining types, defense law review, law review purpose, law review objectives, the Public Law Pilot Program, and cultural change.

  20. Bilingualism and Third Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garate, Jose Valencia; Iragui, Jasone Cenoz

    A study investigated the role of bilingualism (Basque/Spanish) and motivation in third (English) language acquisition in Spain's Basque country. Subjects were 321 secondary school students in two programs, one with instruction primarily in Spanish and one with instruction primarily in Basque. The following independent variables were analyzed in…

  1. Soviet Studies in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Article surveys the special theories and empirical studies of language acquisition carried out by Soviet psychologists, especially in the period since 1950. The basic principles of materialism, historicism and social reference characteristic of Soviet Marxist psychology are placed in contrast to certain current tendencies in American linguistics.…

  2. Defense Acquisition Performance Assessment Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    DAPA Project Officer” BeCKeR, gRACe CHuNg , Associate Deputy General Counsel, Office of the Secretary of Defense – “Legal view of the Processes...FiguRes Jordan, Dr. Leland G. “Systemic Fiscal Optimism in Defense Planning.” Acquisition Review Quarterly Winter 2000: 47-62. Joyce, Michael and Bettina

  3. Bootstrapping Lexical and Syntactic Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophe, Anne; Millotte, Severine; Bernal, Savita; Lidz, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on how phrasal prosody and function words may interact during early language acquisition. Experimental results show that infants have access to intermediate prosodic phrases (phonological phrases) during the first year of life, and use these to constrain lexical segmentation. These same intermediate prosodic phrases are used by…

  4. Buffer Gas Acquisition and Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Lueck, Dale E.; Jennings, Paul A.; Callahan, Richard A.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The acquisition and storage of buffer gases (primarily argon and nitrogen) from the Mars atmosphere provides a valuable resource for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as a buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. During the acquisition of carbon dioxide (CO2), whether by sorption bed or cryo-freezer, the accompanying buffer gases build up in the carbon dioxide acquisition system, reduce the flow of CO2 to the bed, and lower system efficiency. It is this build up of buffer gases that provide a convenient source, which must be removed, for efficient capture Of CO2 Removal of this buffer gas barrier greatly improves the charging rate of the CO2 acquisition bed and, thereby, maintains the fuel production rates required for a successful mission. Consequently, the acquisition, purification, and storage of these buffer gases are important goals of ISRU plans. Purity of the buffer gases is a concern e.g., if the CO, freezer operates at 140 K, the composition of the inert gas would be approximately 21 percent CO2, 50 percent nitrogen, and 29 percent argon. Although there are several approaches that could be used, this effort focused on a hollow-fiber membrane (HFM) separation method. This study measured the permeation rates of CO2, nitrogen (ND, and argon (Ar) through a multiple-membrane system and the individual membranes from room temperature to 193K and 10 kpa to 300 kPa. Concentrations were measured with a gas chromatograph that used a thermoconductivity (TCD) detector with helium (He) as the carrier gas. The general trend as the temperature was lowered was for the membranes to become more selective, In addition, the relative permeation rates between the three gases changed with temperature. The end result was to provide design parameters that could be used to separate CO2 from N2 and Ar.

  5. Buffer gas acquisition and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Lueck, Dale E.; Jennings, Paul A.

    2001-02-01

    The acquisition and storage of buffer gases (primarily argon and nitrogen) from the Mars atmosphere provides a valuable resource for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as a buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. During the acquisition of carbon dioxide (CO2), whether by sorption bed or cryo-freezer, the accompanying buffer gases build up in the carbon dioxide acquisition system, reduce the flow of CO2 to the bed, and lower system efficiency. It is this build up of buffer gases that provide a convenient source, which must be removed, for efficient capture of CO2. Removal of this buffer gas barrier greatly improves the charging rate of the CO2 acquisition bed and, thereby, maintains the fuel production rates required for a successful mission. Consequently, the acquisition, purification, and storage of these buffer gases are important goals of ISRU plans. Purity of the buffer gases is a concern e.g., if the CO2 freezer operates at 140 K, the composition of the inert gas would be approximately 21 percent CO2, 50 percent nitrogen, and 29 percent argon. Although there are several approaches that could be used, this effort focused on a hollow-fiber membrane (HFM) separation method. This study measured the permeation rates of CO2, nitrogen (N2), and argon (Ar) through a multiple-membrane system and the individual membranes from room temperature to 193 K and 10 kPa to 300 kPa. Concentrations were measured with a gas chromatograph. The end result was data necessary to design a system that could separate CO2, N2, and Ar. .

  6. 48 CFR 307.104-70 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 307... AND ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Acquisition Planning 307.104-70 Acquisition strategy... designated by the HHS CIO, DASFMP, the CAO, or the cognizant HCA) shall prepare an acquisition strategy...

  7. 48 CFR 218.170 - Additional acquisition flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional acquisition flexibilities. 218.170 Section 218.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Acquisition Flexibilities 218.170 Additional acquisition flexibilities. Additional acquisition...

  8. 48 CFR 218.170 - Additional acquisition flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional acquisition flexibilities. 218.170 Section 218.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Acquisition Flexibilities 218.170 Additional acquisition flexibilities. Additional acquisition...

  9. 48 CFR 218.170 - Additional acquisition flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional acquisition flexibilities. 218.170 Section 218.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Acquisition Flexibilities 218.170 Additional acquisition flexibilities. Additional acquisition...

  10. 48 CFR 218.170 - Additional acquisition flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional acquisition flexibilities. 218.170 Section 218.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Acquisition Flexibilities 218.170 Additional acquisition flexibilities. Additional acquisition...

  11. 48 CFR 218.170 - Additional acquisition flexibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional acquisition flexibilities. 218.170 Section 218.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Acquisition Flexibilities 218.170 Additional acquisition flexibilities. Additional acquisition...

  12. 48 CFR 434.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... manager will develop, in coordination with the Acquisition Executive or Major Information Technology... approval of the Acquisition Executive or Major Information Technology Systems Executive, a project control... Executive or Major Information Technology Systems Executive. (d) Specific procedures and requirements...

  13. 48 CFR 434.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... manager will develop, in coordination with the Acquisition Executive or Major Information Technology... approval of the Acquisition Executive or Major Information Technology Systems Executive, a project control... Executive or Major Information Technology Systems Executive. (d) Specific procedures and requirements...

  14. 32 CFR 644.7 - Acquisition lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HANDBOOK Project Planning Civil Works § 644.7 Acquisition lines. (a) Tentative acquisition lines. As... submission may be for an entire project or by segments or units. However, if the final map is submitted on...

  15. 2 CFR 200.2 - Acquisition cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acquisition cost. 200.2 Section 200.2 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.2 Acquisition cost. Acquisition...

  16. Studies in Filipino Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Teresita V.

    Very little research has been done on first or second language acquisition in the Philippines. Most second language learning studies cited in the literature concern acquisition of English in English-speaking communities, and most American studies of Filipino language acquisition are superficial, consisting primarily of morpheme analysis. The…

  17. 75 FR 19827 - Acquisition Regulation Rewrite

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Acquisition Managers' Partnership (AMP) is a forum for DOI's senior acquisition management community to work... Acquisition and Property Management, Office of the Secretary, telephone (202) 513-0747, fax (202) 219-4244, or... the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866. (1) This rule will not have an...

  18. Undergraduate Laboratory Data Acquisition With a Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Kenneth C.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a flexible, multichannel, highly accurate, digital data acquisition system for use with a microcomputer. Includes a description of instrumentation for computer data acquisition, data acquisition systems, software, uses in the curriculum, library interaction and action, and use in a mechanical engineering laboratory. (DS)

  19. Defense Acquisition Structures and Capabilities Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    requirements, budget, industry, and organizations. See Defense Acquisition Transformation Report to Congress, John Warner National Defense Authorization Act...Shortage of Skills and Talent. 3 Defense Acquisition Transformation Report to Congress, John Warner National Defense Authorization Act, Fiscal Year...Capabilities, Final Report, January 2004. 28 Secretary of Defense, Defense Acquisition Transformation Report to Congress, John War- ner National Defense

  20. Interkinesics and Interprosodics in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassin, June

    1992-01-01

    Assumes unified language behavior including verbal, kinesic, and prosodic forms. Proposes that interlanguage theory should be expanded to include kinesic and prosodic modes of behavior. Suggests that acquisition of second-language kinesic and prosodic forms takes place similarly to acquisition of verbal forms and that acquisition is developmental,…

  1. Pidginization and Creolization as Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Roger W., Ed.

    Pidginization and creolization are addressed from a language acquisition perspective. The 18 collected papers are organized around four areas of inquiry: (1) simplification in input to pidginization and second language acquisition, (2) simplification in interlanguage, (3) creolization and language acquisition, and (4) decreolization and language…

  2. Neurobiological Mechanisms of Language Acquisition. Review Article.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Schumann, John H.

    1994-01-01

    Specifies language acquisition processes in terms of brain mechanisms to explain the variable success achieved by early and late learners and proposes a brain-based model for language acquisition on the basis of the literature. Two conditions for full acquisition of a language are motivation and grammatical ability. The neural underpinnings for…

  3. 14 CFR 151.73 - Land acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Land acquisition. 151.73 Section 151.73... FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.73 Land acquisition. (a) The acquisition of land or any interest therein, or of any easement or other interest in airspace, is eligible...

  4. 14 CFR 151.73 - Land acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Land acquisition. 151.73 Section 151.73... FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.73 Land acquisition. (a) The acquisition of land or any interest therein, or of any easement or other interest in airspace, is eligible...

  5. 14 CFR 151.73 - Land acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Land acquisition. 151.73 Section 151.73... FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.73 Land acquisition. (a) The acquisition of land or any interest therein, or of any easement or other interest in airspace, is eligible...

  6. 14 CFR 151.73 - Land acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Land acquisition. 151.73 Section 151.73... FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.73 Land acquisition. (a) The acquisition of land or any interest therein, or of any easement or other interest in airspace, is eligible...

  7. 14 CFR 151.73 - Land acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Land acquisition. 151.73 Section 151.73... FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.73 Land acquisition. (a) The acquisition of land or any interest therein, or of any easement or other interest in airspace, is eligible...

  8. Photovoltaic module parameters acquisition model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibira, Gabriel; Koščová, Marcela

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents basic procedures for photovoltaic (PV) module parameters acquisition using MATLAB and Simulink modelling. In first step, MATLAB and Simulink theoretical model are set to calculate I-V and P-V characteristics for PV module based on equivalent electrical circuit. Then, limited I-V data string is obtained from examined PV module using standard measurement equipment at standard irradiation and temperature conditions and stated into MATLAB data matrix as a reference model. Next, the theoretical model is optimized to keep-up with the reference model and to learn its basic parameters relations, over sparse data matrix. Finally, PV module parameters are deliverable for acquisition at different realistic irradiation, temperature conditions as well as series resistance. Besides of output power characteristics and efficiency calculation for PV module or system, proposed model validates computing statistical deviation compared to reference model.

  9. GRAVITY acquisition camera: characterization results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anugu, Narsireddy; Garcia, Paulo; Amorim, Antonio; Wiezorrek, Erich; Wieprecht, Ekkehard; Eisenhauer, Frank; Ott, Thomas; Pfuhl, Oliver; Gordo, Paulo; Perrin, Guy; Brandner, Wolfgang; Straubmeier, Christian; Perraut, Karine

    2016-08-01

    GRAVITY acquisition camera implements four optical functions to track multiple beams of Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI): a) pupil tracker: a 2×2 lenslet images four pupil reference lasers mounted on the spiders of telescope secondary mirror; b) field tracker: images science object; c) pupil imager: reimages telescope pupil; d) aberration tracker: images a Shack-Hartmann. The estimation of beam stabilization parameters from the acquisition camera detector image is carried out, for every 0.7 s, with a dedicated data reduction software. The measured parameters are used in: a) alignment of GRAVITY with the VLTI; b) active pupil and field stabilization; c) defocus correction and engineering purposes. The instrument is now successfully operational on-sky in closed loop. The relevant data reduction and on-sky characterization results are reported.

  10. Music and early language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Anthony; Gebrian, Molly; Slevc, L Robert

    2012-01-01

    Language is typically viewed as fundamental to human intelligence. Music, while recognized as a human universal, is often treated as an ancillary ability - one dependent on or derivative of language. In contrast, we argue that it is more productive from a developmental perspective to describe spoken language as a special type of music. A review of existing studies presents a compelling case that musical hearing and ability is essential to language acquisition. In addition, we challenge the prevailing view that music cognition matures more slowly than language and is more difficult; instead, we argue that music learning matches the speed and effort of language acquisition. We conclude that music merits a central place in our understanding of human development.

  11. Centaur propellant acquisition system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blatt, M. H.; Walter, M. D.

    1975-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the desirability of replacing the hydrogen peroxide settling system on the Centaur D-1S with a capillary acquisition system. A comprehensive screening was performed to select the most promising capillary device fluid acquisition, thermal conditioning, and fabrication techniques. Refillable start baskets and bypass feed start tanks were selected for detailed design. Critical analysis areas were settling and refilling, start sequence development with an initially dry boost pump, and cooling the fluid delivered to the boost pump in order to provide necessary net position suction head (NPSH). Design drawings were prepared for the start basket and start tank concepts for both LO2 and LH2 tanks. System comparisons indicated that the start baskets using wicking for thermal conditioning, and thermal subcooling for boost pump NPSH, are the most desirable systems for future development.

  12. Music and Early Language Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Anthony; Gebrian, Molly; Slevc, L. Robert

    2012-01-01

    Language is typically viewed as fundamental to human intelligence. Music, while recognized as a human universal, is often treated as an ancillary ability – one dependent on or derivative of language. In contrast, we argue that it is more productive from a developmental perspective to describe spoken language as a special type of music. A review of existing studies presents a compelling case that musical hearing and ability is essential to language acquisition. In addition, we challenge the prevailing view that music cognition matures more slowly than language and is more difficult; instead, we argue that music learning matches the speed and effort of language acquisition. We conclude that music merits a central place in our understanding of human development. PMID:22973254

  13. 75 FR 8272 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisition Strategies To Ensure Competition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to implement the Weapon Systems Acquisition..., 2009, The Weapon Systems Acquisition Reform Act (Pub. L. 111-23) was enacted to improve the organization and procedures of DoD for the acquisition of major weapon systems. This law establishes...

  14. 75 FR 45072 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Inflation Adjustment of Acquisition-Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ...; Inflation Adjustment of Acquisition-Related Thresholds (DFARS Case 2009-D003) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... the adjustment of acquisition-related thresholds for inflation just maintains the status quo. No... thresholds for inflation: 0704-0229--Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement Part 225,...

  15. The Cybersecurity Challenge in Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    physicians and medical staff were paralyzed, and they suddenly had to rely on paper records to keep operations running. The hospital chose to pay hackers a...record systems. Since the cyber threats keep changing and evolving, how is a manager trained in acquisition supposed to keep track? Target Levels...U.S. Central Command get plenty of attention . Cyber-attacks involving internal resources (i.e., business partners and direct employees) do not get the

  16. WRATS Integrated Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piatak, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The Wing and Rotor Aeroelastic Test System (WRATS) data acquisition system (DAS) is a 64-channel data acquisition display and analysis system specifically designed for use with the WRATS 1/5-scale V-22 tiltrotor model of the Bell Osprey. It is the primary data acquisition system for experimental aeroelastic testing of the WRATS model for the purpose of characterizing the aeromechanical and aeroelastic stability of prototype tiltrotor configurations. The WRATS DAS was also used during aeroelastic testing of Bell Helicopter Textron s Quad-Tiltrotor (QTR) design concept, a test which received international attention. The LabVIEW-based design is portable and capable of powering and conditioning over 64 channels of dynamic data at sampling rates up to 1,000 Hz. The system includes a 60-second circular data archive, an integrated model swashplate excitation system, a moving block damping application for calculation of whirl flutter mode subcritical damping, a loads and safety monitor, a pilot-control console display, data analysis capabilities, and instrumentation calibration functions. Three networked computers running custom-designed LabVIEW software acquire data through National Instruments data acquisition hardware. The aeroelastic model (see figure) was tested with the DAS at two facilities at NASA Langley, the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) and the Rotorcraft Hover Test Facility (RHTF). Because of the need for seamless transition between testing at these facilities, DAS is portable. The software is capable of harmonic analysis of periodic time history data, Fast Fourier Transform calculations, power spectral density calculations, and on-line calibration of test instrumentation. DAS has a circular buffer archive to ensure critical data is not lost in event of model failure/incident, as well as a sample-and-hold capability for phase-correct time history data.

  17. Enhanced Data-Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustain, Roy W.

    1990-01-01

    Time-consuming, costly digitization of analog signals on magnetic tape eliminated. Proposed data-acquisition system provides nearly immediate access to data in incoming signals by digitizing and recording them both on magnetic tape and on optical disk. Tape and/or disk later played back to reconstruct signals in analog or digital form for analysis. Of interest in industrial and scientific applications in which necessary to digitize, store, and/or process large quantities of experimental data.

  18. Peruvian Weapon System Acquisition Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    process for a major program. The United States DOD Directive 5000.1 defines four distinct phases of the acquisition process: concept exploration , demon...Unified or Specified Command. 1. Concept Exploration Phase The first phase for a major system is the concept exploration phase. During this phase... exploration phase proreses. Premature introduction of operating and support details may have a negative effect by dosing out promising alternatives [Ref

  19. Data Acquisition and Mass Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vande Vyvre, P.

    2004-08-01

    The experiments performed at supercolliders will constitute a new challenge in several disciplines of High Energy Physics and Information Technology. This will definitely be the case for data acquisition and mass storage. The microelectronics, communication, and computing industries are maintaining an exponential increase of the performance of their products. The market of commodity products remains the largest and the most competitive market of technology products. This constitutes a strong incentive to use these commodity products extensively as components to build the data acquisition and computing infrastructures of the future generation of experiments. The present generation of experiments in Europe and in the US already constitutes an important step in this direction. The experience acquired in the design and the construction of the present experiments has to be complemented by a large R&D effort executed with good awareness of industry developments. The future experiments will also be expected to follow major trends of our present world: deliver physics results faster and become more and more visible and accessible. The present evolution of the technologies and the burgeoning of GRID projects indicate that these trends will be made possible. This paper includes a brief overview of the technologies currently used for the different tasks of the experimental data chain: data acquisition, selection, storage, processing, and analysis. The major trends of the computing and networking technologies are then indicated with particular attention paid to their influence on the future experiments. Finally, the vision of future data acquisition and processing systems and their promise for future supercolliders is presented.

  20. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M.; Corban, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  1. Affordability of Defense Acquisition Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    the Office of Director, Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation (CAPE). The DPP is a particularly useful tool for assessing the affordability of DOD...within the Service programming communities. • The Defense Program Projection is a valuable tool for DOD’s use in assessing affordability; however, in... tool for assessing the affordability of future acquisition in the spirit of the Better Buying Power initiative. A. Ground Rules, Assumptions, and

  2. Acquisition, Image and Data Compression.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-30

    In Block 20, If different from Report) 1. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presentations made at MILCOM󈨖 Optical Society 󈨗 SPIE󈨗 Optical Computing...Conference󈨗. 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse aide It necessary end identify by block number) Spread Spectrum, Optical Transforms, Acquisition, Simulation...Tracking, PN Direct Sequence Frequency Hopping 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reer. aide it nece-iary end Identify hy block nomber) This report discusses

  3. Jefferson Lab's Distributed Data Acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Allison; Thomas Powers

    2006-05-01

    Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) occasionally experiences fast intermittent beam instabilities that are difficult to isolate and result in downtime. The Distributed Data Acquisition (Dist DAQ) system is being developed to detect and quickly locate such instabilities. It will consist of multiple Ethernet based data acquisition chassis distributed throughout the seven-eights of a mile CEBAF site. Each chassis will monitor various control system signals that are only available locally and/or monitored by systems with small bandwidths that cannot identify fast transients. The chassis will collect data at rates up to 40 Msps in circular buffers that can be frozen and unrolled after an event trigger. These triggers will be derived from signals such as periodic timers or accelerator faults and be distributed via a custom fiber optic event trigger network. This triggering scheme will allow all the data acquisition chassis to be triggered simultaneously and provide a snapshot of relevant CEBAF control signals. The data will then be automatically analyzed for frequency content and transients to determine if and where instabilities exist.

  4. Confidence-Based Feature Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.; desJardins, Marie; MacGlashan, James

    2010-01-01

    Confidence-based Feature Acquisition (CFA) is a novel, supervised learning method for acquiring missing feature values when there is missing data at both training (learning) and test (deployment) time. To train a machine learning classifier, data is encoded with a series of input features describing each item. In some applications, the training data may have missing values for some of the features, which can be acquired at a given cost. A relevant JPL example is that of the Mars rover exploration in which the features are obtained from a variety of different instruments, with different power consumption and integration time costs. The challenge is to decide which features will lead to increased classification performance and are therefore worth acquiring (paying the cost). To solve this problem, CFA, which is made up of two algorithms (CFA-train and CFA-predict), has been designed to greedily minimize total acquisition cost (during training and testing) while aiming for a specific accuracy level (specified as a confidence threshold). With this method, it is assumed that there is a nonempty subset of features that are free; that is, every instance in the data set includes these features initially for zero cost. It is also assumed that the feature acquisition (FA) cost associated with each feature is known in advance, and that the FA cost for a given feature is the same for all instances. Finally, CFA requires that the base-level classifiers produce not only a classification, but also a confidence (or posterior probability).

  5. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Edward C. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This quarterly publication provides archival reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA). In space communications, radio navigation, radio science, and ground-based radio and radar astronomy, it reports on activities of the Deep Space Network (DSN) in planning, supporting research and technology, implementation, and operations. Also included are standards activity at JPL for space data and information systems and reimbursable DSN work performed for other space agencies through NASA. The preceding work is all performed for NASA's Office of Space Communications (OSC).

  6. System Safety in Aircraft Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    principal purpose is the prevention of accidents or deaths/ injuries related thereto. Until a recent meeting cosponsored by SOHP and OUSDRE, communication...results in preventing the loss of a single aircraft ML.214/9OV 83 ($15 million for the AH-64, $25 million for the F-18, $200 million for the B-1B). - An...acquisition program. There- fore, it is essential to have interest and support of system safety by "off-line" management at levels high enough to be effective

  7. DSP based data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Peeyush; Subrahmanya, C. R.

    A new DSP based data acquisition system based on commercial, off-the-shelf available hardware is presented. The board features friendly high speed input and output interfaces, a powerful DSP and hardware offloading of essing to an FPGA. For flexibility of development, a soft realtime linux based kernel popular among embedded developers (uClinux) has been ported on the board.The development environment is fully open source both for the target as well as for host software. The motivation behind creating the system, the development ess and the current status is described. Some results obtained with this system as used in typical applications are also presented.

  8. DEAP-3600 Data Acquisition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    DEAP-3600 is a dark matter experiment using liquid argon to detect Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The DEAP-3600 Data Acquisition (DAQ) has been built using a combination of commercial and custom electronics, organized using the MIDAS framework. The DAQ system needs to suppress a high rate of background events from 39Ar beta decays. This suppression is implemented using a combination of online firmware and software-based event filtering. We will report on progress commissioning the DAQ system, as well as the development of the web-based user interface.

  9. Inflation Adjustments for Defense Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Harmon Daniel B. Levine Stanley A. Horowitz, Project Leader INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES 4850 Mark Center Drive Alexandria, Virginia 22311-1882 Approved...T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Document D-5112 Inflation Adjustments for Defense Acquisition Bruce R. Harmon Daniel B. Levine...might do a better job? The focus of the study is on aircraft procurement. By way of terminology , “cost index,” “price index,” and “deflator” are used

  10. Sample acquisition and instrument deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    Progress is reported in developing the Sample Acquisition and Instrument Deployment (SAID) system, a robotic system for deploying science instruments and acquiring samples for analysis. The system is a conventional four degree of freedom manipulator 2 meters in length. A baseline design has been achieved through analysis and trade studies. The design considers environmental operating conditions on the surface of Mars, as well as volume constraints on proposed Mars landers. Control issues have also been studied, and simulations of joint and tip movements have been performed. The systems have been fabricated and tested in environmental chambers, as well as soil testing and robotic control testing.

  11. On acquisition of programming knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amin, Ashok T.

    1987-01-01

    For the evolving discipline of programming, acquisition of programming knowledge is a difficult issue. Common knowledge results from the acceptance of proven techniques based on results of formal inquiries into the nature of the programming process. This is a rather slow process. In addition, the vast body of common knowledge needs to be explicated to a low enough level of details for it to be represented in the machine processable form. It is felt that this is an impediment to the progress of automatic programming. The importance of formal approaches cannot be overstated since their contributions lead to quantum leaps in the state of the art.

  12. Subsea control and data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at the conference on subsea control and data acquisition. The tasks performed by subsea control systems, although fairly straightforward, are dominated by an alien environment and the high costs associated with failure and repair. The evolution of systems design has resulted in a growing confidence in equipment reliability. In the future, however, more searching demands may include active regulation of valves and the use of data for reservoir management purposes. The emphasis of the papers is on technical depth and understanding, with particular attention being paid to the science control and data monitoring in relation to the task of hydrocarbon recovery.

  13. Acquisition of English comparative adjectives.

    PubMed

    Graziano-King, Janine; Cairns, Helen Smith

    2005-05-01

    Two experiments investigated the acquisition of English comparative adjective forms, Adj + er and more Adj. In Experiment 1, 72 children, four- and seven-years-old, indicated their preferences for the synthetic or periphrastic comparative form for 16 adjectives in a forced-choice judgement task; their responses were compared to those of a group of adults (Graziano-King, 2003). In Experiment 2, a group of 29 children, ranging in age from 5;1 to 10;9, and a group of 11 adults performed a forced-choice judgement task, similar to that of Experiment 1, and an elicited production task, responding to the same 32 adjectives for both tasks. The two studies together support an acquisition trajectory of three stages. In the first stage, children show no preference for either form of the comparative; in the second, they adopt a suffixation rule; and in the third, they abandon the general rule and become conservative learners, eventually reaching the adult target.

  14. The NIFFTE Data Acquisition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Hai; Niffte Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) will employ a novel, high granularity, pressurized Time Projection Chamber to measure fission cross-sections of the major actinides to high precision over a wide incident neutron energy range. These results will improve nuclear data accuracy and benefit the fuel cycle in the future. The NIFFTE data acquisition system (DAQ) has been designed and implemented on the prototype TPC. Lessons learned from engineering runs have been incorporated into some design changes that are being implemented before the next run cycle. A fully instrumented sextant of EtherDAQ cards (16 sectors, 496 channels) will be used for the next run cycle. The Maximum Integrated Data Acquisition System (MIDAS) has been chosen and customized to configure and run the experiment. It also meets the requirement for remote control and monitoring of the system. The integration of the MIDAS online database with the persistent PostgreSQL database has been implemented for experiment usage. The detailed design and current status of the DAQ system will be presented.

  15. Rotary Percussive Sample Acquisition Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, K.; Badescu, M.; Haddad, N.; Shiraishi, L.; Walkemeyer, P.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a potential Mars Sample Return campaign NASA is studying a sample caching mission to Mars, with a possible 2018 launch opportunity. As such, a Sample Acquisition Tool (SAT) has been developed in support of the Integrated Mars Sample Acquisition and Handling (IMSAH) architecture as it relates to the proposed Mars Sample Return (MSR) campaign. The tool allows for core generation and capture directly into a sample tube. In doing so, the sample tube becomes the fundamental handling element within the IMSAH sample chain reducing the risk associated with sample contamination as well as the need to handle a sample of unknown geometry. The tool's functionality was verified utilizing a proposed rock test suite that encompasses a series of rock types that have been utilized in the past to qualify Martian surface sampling hardware. The corresponding results have shown the tool can effectively generate, fracture, and capture rock cores while maintaining torque margins of no less than 50% with an average power consumption of no greater than 90W and a tool mass of less than 6kg.

  16. Acquisition Pros Keep the Gears Moving

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Defense AT&L: May–June 2015 42 Acquisition Pros Keep the Gears Moving Janice Laurenti Laurenti is a contract specialist at the Air Force Training ...The deci- sion to downsize later was found to have failed to increase efficiency. But there is light at the end of the tunnel. Today’s up -and...includes identifying additional DoD-wide areas of training for the acquisition workforce. Three Critical Components Acquisitions are as diverse

  17. Learning the manifold of quality ultrasound acquisition.

    PubMed

    El-Zehiry, Noha; Yan, Michelle; Good, Sara; Fang, Tong; Zhou, S Kevin; Grady, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound acquisition is a challenging task that requires simultaneous adjustment of several acquisition parameters (the depth, the focus, the frequency and its operation mode). If the acquisition parameters are not properly chosen, the resulting image will have a poor quality and will degrade the patient diagnosis and treatment workflow. Several hardware-based systems for autotuning the acquisition parameters have been previously proposed, but these solutions were largely abandoned because they failed to properly account for tissue inhomogeneity and other patient-specific characteristics. Consequently, in routine practice the clinician either uses population-based parameter presets or manually adjusts the acquisition parameters for each patient during the scan. In this paper, we revisit the problem of autotuning the acquisition parameters by taking a completely novel approach and producing a solution based on image analytics. Our solution is inspired by the autofocus capability of conventional digital cameras, but is significantly more challenging because the number of acquisition parameters is large and the determination of "good quality" images is more difficult to assess. Surprisingly, we show that the set of acquisition parameters which produce images that are favored by clinicians comprise a 1D manifold, allowing for a real-time optimization to maximize image quality. We demonstrate our method for acquisition parameter autotuning on several live patients, showing that our system can start with a poor initial set of parameters and automatically optimize the parameters to produce high quality images.

  18. 78 FR 70482 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-71; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Chapter 1 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-71; Small Entity Compliance Guide AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration (GSA), and National Aeronautics and...

  19. 77 FR 13951 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-57; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...; Introduction; United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement; Small Entity Compliance Guide; Final Rules #0;#0... Chapter 1 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-57; Introduction...

  20. Passive acquisition of CLIPS rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovarik, Vincent J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The automated acquisition of knowledge by machine has not lived up to expectations, and knowledge engineering remains a human intensive task. Part of the reason for the lack of success is the difference in the cognitive focus of the expert. The expert must shift his or her focus from the subject domain to that of the representation environment. In doing so this cognitive shift introduces opportunity for errors and omissions. Presented here is work that observes the expert interact with a simulation of the domain. The system logs changes in the simulation objects and the expert's actions in response to those changes. This is followed by the application of inductive reasoning to move the domain specific rules observed to general domain rules.

  1. Surface acquisition through virtual milling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Marshal L.

    1993-01-01

    Surface acquisition deals with the reconstruction of three dimensional objects from a set of data points. The most straightforward techniques require human intervention, a time consuming proposition. It is desirable to develop a fully automated alternative. Such a method is proposed in this paper. It makes use of surface measurements obtained from a 3-D laser digitizer - an instrument which provides the (x,y,z) coordinates of surface data points from various viewpoints. These points are assembled into several partial surfaces using a visibility constraint and a 2-D triangulation technique. Reconstruction of the final object requires merging these partial surfaces. This is accomplished through a procedure that emulates milling, a standard machining operation. From a geometrical standpoint the problem reduces to constructing the intersection of two or more non-convex polyhedra.

  2. Digital data acquisition and processing.

    PubMed

    Naivar, Mark A; Galbraith, David W

    2015-01-05

    A flow cytometer is made up of many different subsystems that work together to measure the optical properties of individual cells within a sample. The data acquisition system (also called the data system) is one of these subsystems, and it is responsible for converting the electrical signals from the optical detectors into list-mode data. This unit describes the inner workings of the data system, and provides insight into how the instrument functions as a whole. Some of the information provided in this unit is applicable to everyday use of these instruments, and, at minimum, should make it easier for the reader to assemble a specific data system. With the considerable advancement of electronics technology, it becomes possible to build an entirely functional data system using inexpensive hobbyist-level electronics. This unit covers both analog and digital data systems, but the primary focus is on the more prevalent digital data systems of modern flow cytometric instrumentation.

  3. Language acquisition is language change.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen; Goro, Takuya; Thornton, Rosalind

    2006-01-01

    According to the theory of Universal Grammar, the primary linguistic data guides children through an innately specified space of hypotheses. On this view, similarities between child-English and adult-German are as unsurprising as similarities between cousins who have never met. By contrast, experience-based approaches to language acquisition contend that child language matches the input, with nonadult forms being simply less articulated versions of the forms produced by adults. This paper reports several studies that provide support for the theory of Universal grammar, and resist explanation on experience-based accounts. Two studies investigate English-speaking children's productions, and a third examines the interpretation of sentences by Japanese speaking children. When considered against the input children are exposed to, the findings of these and other studies are consistent with the continuity hypothesis, which supposes that child language can differ from the language spoken by adults only in ways that adult languages can differ from each other.

  4. Expressing fear enhances sensory acquisition.

    PubMed

    Susskind, Joshua M; Lee, Daniel H; Cusi, Andrée; Feiman, Roman; Grabski, Wojtek; Anderson, Adam K

    2008-07-01

    It has been proposed that facial expression production originates in sensory regulation. Here we demonstrate that facial expressions of fear are configured to enhance sensory acquisition. A statistical model of expression appearance revealed that fear and disgust expressions have opposite shape and surface reflectance features. We hypothesized that this reflects a fundamental antagonism serving to augment versus diminish sensory exposure. In keeping with this hypothesis, when subjects posed expressions of fear, they had a subjectively larger visual field, faster eye movements during target localization and an increase in nasal volume and air velocity during inspiration. The opposite pattern was found for disgust. Fear may therefore work to enhance perception, whereas disgust dampens it. These convergent results provide support for the Darwinian hypothesis that facial expressions are not arbitrary configurations for social communication, but rather, expressions may have originated in altering the sensory interface with the physical world.

  5. Optimality theory in phonological acquisition.

    PubMed

    Barlow, J A; Gierut, J A

    1999-12-01

    This tutorial presents an introduction to the contemporary linguistic framework known as optimality theory (OT). The basic assumptions of this constraint-based theory as a general model of grammar are first outlined, with formal notation being defined and illustrated. Concepts unique to the theory, including "emergence of the unmarked," are also described. OT is then examined more specifically within the context of phonological acquisition. The theory is applied in descriptions of children's common error patterns, observed inter- and intrachild variation, and productive change over time. The particular error patterns of fronting, stopping, final-consonant deletion, and cluster simplification are considered from an OT perspective. The discussion concludes with potential clinical applications and extensions of the theory to the diagnosis and treatment of children with functional phonological disorders.

  6. 78 FR 73472 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Application of Certain Clauses to Acquisitions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Application of Certain Clauses to Acquisitions of Commercial Items (DFARS... (DFARS) to clarify the applicability of two clauses to acquisitions of commercial items. DATES: Comment... of commercial items by adding them to the list at 212.301(f) and revising the clause prescriptions...

  7. Enseignement des langues et theories d'acquisition Sprachunterricht unde Spracherwerbstheorien. (Language Teaching and Acquisition Theories).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Alexander, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This collection of articles on language teaching and language acquisition theories includes: "Enseignement des langues et theories de l'acquisition. Introduction au colloque" ("Language Teaching and Theories of Acquisition. Introduction to the Colloquium") (Rene Richterich); "Apprendre une langue dans l'interaction verbale" ("Language Learning in…

  8. 75 FR 54524 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisition Strategies To Ensure Competition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Weapon Systems Acquisition Reform Act of 2009, to improve the organization and procedures of DoD for the acquisition of major weapon systems. DATES: Effective Date: September 8, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Weapon Systems Acquisition Reform Act (Pub. L. 111-23) was enacted to improve the organization...

  9. 75 FR 3187 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Inflation Adjustment of Acquisition-Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... adjustment every 5 years of statutory acquisition- related thresholds, except for Davis-Bacon Act, Service... acquisition-related thresholds, except for Davis-Bacon Act, Service Contract Act, and trade agreements... acquisition-related thresholds established by the Davis Bacon Act, the Service Contract Act, or...

  10. The Status of Functional Categories in Child Second Language Acquisition: Evidence from the Acquisition of CP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haznedar, Belma

    2003-01-01

    Examines the status of the functional categories in child second language (L2) acquisition of English. Results from longitudinally-collected data are reported, presenting counterevidence for recent hypotheses on early L2 acquisition that assume the following: (1) structure building approach according to which the acquisition of functional…

  11. Webpage Segments Classification with Incremental Knowledge Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Kim, Yang Sok; Kang, Byeong Ho

    This paper suggests an incremental information extraction method for social network analysis of web publications. For this purpose, we employed an incremental knowledge acquisition method, called MCRDR (Multiple Classification Ripple-Down Rules), to classify web page segments. Our experimental results show that our MCRDR-based web page segments classification system successfully supports easy acquisition and maintenance of information extraction rules.

  12. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable acquisition....

  13. Input and Intake in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagliardi, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents an approach for a productive way forward in the study of language acquisition, sealing the rift between claims of an innate linguistic hypothesis space and powerful domain general statistical inference. This approach breaks language acquisition into its component parts, distinguishing the input in the environment from…

  14. Managing Requirements for Acquisition Program Affordability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-14

    to buy weapon systems at a lower cost and higher quality by leveraging commercial technology. He also directed program managers (PMs) and... Managing Requirements for Acquisition Program Affordability by Colonel James O. Winbush, Jr. United States Army...2011 to 11-04-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Managing Requirements for Acquisition Program Affordability 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  15. 16 CFR 801.4 - Secondary acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secondary acquisitions. 801.4 Section 801.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.4 Secondary acquisitions....

  16. 16 CFR 801.4 - Secondary acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Secondary acquisitions. 801.4 Section 801.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.4 Secondary acquisitions....

  17. 16 CFR 801.4 - Secondary acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Secondary acquisitions. 801.4 Section 801.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.4 Secondary acquisitions....

  18. 16 CFR 801.4 - Secondary acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Secondary acquisitions. 801.4 Section 801.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.4 Secondary acquisitions....

  19. 16 CFR 801.4 - Secondary acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Secondary acquisitions. 801.4 Section 801.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.4 Secondary acquisitions....

  20. Second Language Acquisition: Research and Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of second language acquisition (SLA) research over the past several decades and highlights the ways in which it has retained its original applied and linguistic interests and enhanced them by addressing questions about acquisition processes. After discussing disciplinary contexts (SLA research and applied…

  1. How Long Does Intonation Acquisition Take?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruttenden, Alan

    The evidence on the acquisition of intonation by children is reviewed. Reports on the early use of pitch contours fall into two categories, imitational and differential intonation. While imitational intonation is based on mimicry of adults, differential intonation involves the acquisition of two or three tunes that contrast in meaning from an…

  2. Defense Acquisition University Program Managers Tool Kit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    International Standards Organization ( ISO ) registration of a supplier’s quality system since there have been instances where ISO 9001 -registered supplier...58 Quality Management Systems (Defense Acquisition Guidebook...facilities and equipment. DAU PROGRAM MANAGERS TOOL KIT 59 Quality Management Systems (see Defense Acquisition Guidebook) • The PM should allow

  3. The Acquisition of English Pronunciation: Learners' Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cenoz, Jasone; Lecumberri, Ma Luisa Garcia

    1999-01-01

    Describes English learners' views on the acquisition of the phonetic component of English by focusing on (1) their awareness of the difficulty and importance of English pronunciation, and (2) their beliefs about influential factors in the acquisition of pronunciation and their attitudes towards English accents. Examines differences in phonetic…

  4. Programmatic Ahistoricity in Second Language Acquisition Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that, despite some perceptions, second language acquisition theory has a history. Disputes arguments that might be formulated to support the notion that second language acquisition theory has no relevant earlier history, enumerates consequences of maintaining this belief, and speculates about benefits to the field that might accrue from…

  5. 77 FR 59339 - Acquisition of Commercial Items

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 188 (Thursday, September 27, 2012)] [Rules and Regulations] [Page 59339] [FR Doc No: 2012-23917] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 212 Acquisition of Commercial Items CFR Correction 212.504 [Corrected] In Title 48 of the Code...

  6. Preliminary Study of Child's Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yumoto, Kazuko

    1984-01-01

    A naturalistic study looked at the acquisition of English by two Japanese boys, aged 4 and 8 years, during a 2.5-year stay in the United States. Data were collected through observation and transcription of spontaneous speech in daily life. Analysis included a variety of features of language use and of the acquisition process, including attitudes…

  7. Multilingual Language Acquisition in Canada and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufeisen, Britta

    1995-01-01

    Examines multilingual settings in Canada and Germany and explores the differentiation between second- and third-language acquisition as well as the differentiation between acquisition and learning. The article outlines priority areas for further research and presents the prospects for a greater recognition of multilingualism as a resource in…

  8. Acquisition Initiatives Review-Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    Actions to Strengthen the TRA Process................................. II-9 III. Improving Acountability in the Acquisition Workforce A. Clear Command...BETTER ACOUNTABILITY IN THE ACQUISITION WORKFORCE In its simplest terms, the Packard Commission recommended that DoD implement an industry model with...evaluation staff. II-10 This page is intentionally left blank. III-1 III. IMPROVING ACOUNTABILITY IN THE

  9. 75 FR 10567 - Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ...We, the Department of Commerce, issue a final rule to bring the Commerce Acquisition Regulation in alignment with the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) and to streamline DOC's internal policy and guidance. This final rule updates the entire CAR through FAC 2005-...

  10. EBT data acquisition and analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, R.D.; Greenwood, D.E.; Stanton, J.S.; Geoffroy, K.A.

    1980-10-01

    This document describes the design and implementation of a data acquisition and analysis system for the EBT fusion experiment. The system includes data acquisition on five computers, automatic transmission of that data to a large, central data base, and a powerful data retrieval system. The system is flexible and easy to use, and it provides a fully documented record of the experiments.

  11. 78 FR 35195 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... Parts 925, 952, and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export Control AGENCY: Department of... amend the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export control requirements... ``DEAR: Export Control and RIN 1991-AB99,'' by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking...

  12. 78 FR 45168 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Parts 925, 952 and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export Control AGENCY: Department of... Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export control requirements applicable to the... business August 23, 2013. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments, identified by ``DEAR: Export Control and...

  13. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable acquisition....

  14. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable acquisition....

  15. 48 CFR 970.2301 - Sustainable acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... 970.2301 Section 970.2301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301 Sustainable acquisition....

  16. You Can Accurately Predict Land Acquisition Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrigan, Richard

    1967-01-01

    Land acquisition costs were tested for predictability based upon the 1962 assessed valuations of privately held land acquired for campus expansion by the University of Wisconsin from 1963-1965. By correlating the land acquisition costs of 108 properties acquired during the 3 year period with--(1) the assessed value of the land, (2) the assessed…

  17. 40 CFR 35.2210 - Land acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Land acquisition. 35.2210 Section 35.2210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2210 Land acquisition....

  18. 40 CFR 35.2210 - Land acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Land acquisition. 35.2210 Section 35.2210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2210 Land acquisition....

  19. 40 CFR 35.2210 - Land acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Land acquisition. 35.2210 Section 35.2210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2210 Land acquisition....

  20. 40 CFR 35.2210 - Land acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Land acquisition. 35.2210 Section 35.2210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2210 Land acquisition....

  1. 40 CFR 35.2210 - Land acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Land acquisition. 35.2210 Section 35.2210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2210 Land acquisition....

  2. Kuwaiti Arabic: Acquisition of Singleton Consonants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayyad, Hadeel Salama; Bernhardt, B. May; Stemberger, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Arabic, a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic variety, has a rich consonant inventory. Previous studies on Arabic phonological acquisition have focused primarily on dialects in Jordan and Egypt. Because Arabic varies considerably across regions, information is also needed for other dialects. Aims: To determine acquisition benchmarks…

  3. Risk Management Programs for Defense Acquisition Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The audit objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of risk management programs for Defense acquisition systems. Specifically, we determined whether DoD risk management policies and procedures for Defense acquisition systems were effectively implemented and what impact risk management programs bad on reducing program risks and costs. We also reviewed management controls as they applied to the audit objectives.

  4. Child Language Acquisition: Contrasting Theoretical Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambridge, Ben; Lieven, Elena V. M.

    2011-01-01

    Is children's language acquisition based on innate linguistic structures or built from cognitive and communicative skills? This book summarises the major theoretical debates in all of the core domains of child language acquisition research (phonology, word-learning, inflectional morphology, syntax and binding) and includes a complete introduction…

  5. Second Language Acquisition and Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tragant, Elsa; Muñoz, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    After discussing the ties between language teaching and second language acquisition research, the present paper reviews the role that second language acquisition research has played on two recent pedagogical proposals. First, communicative language teaching, advocated in the early eighties, in which focus on the code was excluded, and then the…

  6. Studies in First and Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R., Ed.; Hastings, Ashley J., Ed.

    Papers presented at a 1977 symposium on language acquisition held at the University of Wisconsin/Milwaukee are included. Contents are as follows: "Assumptions, Methods and Goals in Language Acquisition Research" (Sheldon); "The Mother as LAD: Interaction between Order and Frequency of Parental Input and Child Production"…

  7. New Dimensions in Second Language Acquisition Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Roger W., Ed.

    The following papers are included: (1) "Some Common Goals for Second and First Language Acquisition Research" by Kenji Hakuta; (2) "Research on the Measurement of Affective Variables: Some Remaining Questions" by John W. Oller, Jr.; (3) "The Effects of Neurological Age on Nonprimary Language Acquisition" by Thomas…

  8. 48 CFR 1401.7001-4 - Acquisition performance measurement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition performance measurement systems. 1401.7001-4 Section 1401.7001-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE... Acquisition performance measurement systems. (a) The acquisition performance measurement system is a...

  9. 48 CFR 1401.7001-4 - Acquisition performance measurement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acquisition performance measurement systems. 1401.7001-4 Section 1401.7001-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE... Acquisition performance measurement systems. (a) The acquisition performance measurement system is a...

  10. 48 CFR 1401.7001-4 - Acquisition performance measurement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition performance measurement systems. 1401.7001-4 Section 1401.7001-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE... Acquisition performance measurement systems. (a) The acquisition performance measurement system is a...

  11. 48 CFR 225.1101 - Acquisition of supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition of supplies. 225.1101 Section 225.1101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Contract Clauses 225.1101 Acquisition of supplies. (1) Use the provision at 252.225-7000, Buy American...

  12. 48 CFR 225.1101 - Acquisition of supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition of supplies. 225.1101 Section 225.1101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Contract Clauses 225.1101 Acquisition of supplies. (1)(i) Use the provision at 252.225-7000, Buy...

  13. 48 CFR 27.406 - Acquisition of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition of data. 27.406 Section 27.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Data and Copyrights 27.406 Acquisition...

  14. 48 CFR 27.406-3 - Major system acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Major system acquisition. (a) The clause at 52.227-21, Technical Data Declaration, Revision, and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Major system acquisition. 27.406-3 Section 27.406-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION...

  15. 48 CFR 27.406 - Acquisition of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acquisition of data. 27.406 Section 27.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Data and Copyrights 27.406 Acquisition...

  16. 48 CFR 27.406-3 - Major system acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Major system acquisition. (a) The clause at 52.227-21, Technical Data Declaration, Revision, and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Major system acquisition. 27.406-3 Section 27.406-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION...

  17. 48 CFR 27.406-3 - Major system acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Major system acquisition. (a) The clause at 52.227-21, Technical Data Declaration, Revision, and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Major system acquisition. 27.406-3 Section 27.406-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION...

  18. 48 CFR 27.406 - Acquisition of data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acquisition of data. 27.406 Section 27.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Data and Copyrights 27.406 Acquisition...

  19. 48 CFR 1401.370 - Acquisition Managers' Partnership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition Managers... Acquisition Managers' Partnership. (a) The Acquisition Managers' Partnership (AMP) is a forum for DOI's senior acquisition management community to work cooperatively and continuously to improve the management,...

  20. 48 CFR 19.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 19.502 Section 19.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 19.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  1. 48 CFR 1825.1101 - Acquisition of supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Acquisition of supplies. 1825.1101 Section 1825.1101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses 1825.1101 Acquisition of supplies. (c)(1) NASA...

  2. 48 CFR 307.104-70 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AND ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION PLANNING Acquisition Planning 307.104-70 Acquisition strategy. Program and Project Managers responsible for major IT capital investments (and for any other investments... ASFR/OGAPA/DA Internet Web site. Program and Project Managers must initiate the acquisition...

  3. 48 CFR 19.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 19.502 Section 19.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 19.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  4. 48 CFR 19.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 19.502 Section 19.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 19.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  5. 48 CFR 19.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 19.502 Section 19.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 19.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  6. 48 CFR 19.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 19.502 Section 19.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 19.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  7. 48 CFR 217.7503 - Spares acquisition integrated with production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spares acquisition integrated with production. 217.7503 Section 217.7503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CONTRACTING METHODS Acquisition of Replenishment Parts 217.7503 Spares acquisition integrated with...

  8. 48 CFR 217.7503 - Spares acquisition integrated with production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spares acquisition integrated with production. 217.7503 Section 217.7503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CONTRACTING METHODS Acquisition of Replenishment Parts 217.7503 Spares acquisition integrated with...

  9. 48 CFR 217.7503 - Spares acquisition integrated with production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spares acquisition integrated with production. 217.7503 Section 217.7503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CONTRACTING METHODS Acquisition of Replenishment Parts 217.7503 Spares acquisition integrated with...

  10. 48 CFR 217.7503 - Spares acquisition integrated with production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spares acquisition integrated with production. 217.7503 Section 217.7503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CONTRACTING METHODS Acquisition of Replenishment Parts 217.7503 Spares acquisition integrated with...

  11. VLBI data, acquisition, environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    During this quadrennium, very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data acquisition and system development has focused on improving the accuracy of the system sufficiently to allow the determination of reliable estimates of height variations. Associated with this aim has been improvements in the determinations of horizontal velocity fields, monitoring water vapor delay using interferometric methods, and improvements to Earth rotation measurements. The primary aims of the improvements to height measurement accuracy have been to directly measure the contemporary magnitudes of post glacial rebound, and to determine a height reference system for measuring global sea level rise. High frequency Earth rotation studies have been carried out to better define the transformation parameters from an inertial coordinate system to an Earth fixed one, and to better understand the coupling between the components of the atmosphere-ocean-solid Earth system. Two major VLBI campaigns were carried out in support of these studies: (1) Epoch-92 in July 1992 and (2) Cont-94 in January 1994. Each of these campaigns lasted approximately two weeks and involved multiple VLBI networks operating simultaneously in addition to other space geodetic systems operating during these periods. Two major compilations of the VLBI results (and results from other space geodetic systems) have been published during this quadrennium.

  12. Multiple channel data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Crawley, H. Bert; Rosenberg, Eli I.; Meyer, W. Thomas; Gorbics, Mark S.; Thomas, William D.; McKay, Roy L.; Homer, Jr., John F.

    1990-05-22

    A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler.

  13. Multiple channel data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Crawley, H.B.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Meyer, W.T.; Gorbics, M.S.; Thomas, W.D.; McKay, R.L.; Homer, J.F. Jr.

    1990-05-22

    A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler. 25 figs.

  14. Locative terms and Warlpiri acquisition.

    PubMed

    Bavin, E L

    1990-02-01

    Cognitive complexity and complexity of linguistic structure have been found to influence the order of acquisition of locatives. In Warlpiri, locative terms are nominals and they are used in combination with a locative case marker on the reference object; directional affixes may be added to them. Data from a series of tests of Warlpiri children's comprehension and production of the Warlpiri expressions that may be translated as 'in', 'on', 'under', 'in front of', 'behind' and 'between' indicate that the locative case forms are used first without the more specific locative nominals; young children distinguish an 'up-down' dimension but not 'in', and the reference object influences how the locative term is interpreted; kamparru-pirdangirli ('front-behind') is not one dimension for children aged four to five years; kulkurru 'between' is understood before kamparru 'front' and pirdangirli 'behind'; the use of features on a reference object for orientation develops at around six, but the orientation of the reference object, as well as features on the placed object may affect interpretation.

  15. Psychological tools for knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rueter, Henry H.; Olson, Judith Reitman

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge acquisition is said to be the biggest bottleneck in the development of expert systems. The problem is getting the knowledge out of the expert's head and into a computer. In cognitive psychology, characterizing metal structures and why experts are good at what they do is an important research area. Is there some way that the tools that psychologists have developed to uncover mental structure can be used to benefit knowledge engineers? We think that the way to find out is to browse through the psychologist's toolbox to see what there is in it that might be of use to knowledge engineers. Expert system developers have relied on two standard methods for extracting knowledge from the expert: (1) the knowledge engineer engages in an intense bout of interviews with the expert or experts, or (2) the knowledge engineer becomes an expert himself, relying on introspection to uncover the basis of his own expertise. Unfortunately, these techniques have the difficulty that often the expert himself isn't consciously aware of the basis of his expertise. If the expert himself isn't conscious of how he solves problems, introspection is useless. Cognitive psychology has faced similar problems for many years and has developed exploratory methods that can be used to discover cognitive structure from simple data.

  16. Colony image acquisition and segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. X.

    2007-12-01

    For counting of both colonies and plaques, there is a large number of applications including food, dairy, beverages, hygiene, environmental monitoring, water, toxicology, sterility testing, AMES testing, pharmaceuticals, paints, sterile fluids and fungal contamination. Recently, many researchers and developers have made efforts for this kind of systems. By investigation, some existing systems have some problems. The main problems are image acquisition and image segmentation. In order to acquire colony images with good quality, an illumination box was constructed as: the box includes front lightning and back lightning, which can be selected by users based on properties of colony dishes. With the illumination box, lightning can be uniform; colony dish can be put in the same place every time, which make image processing easy. The developed colony image segmentation algorithm consists of the sub-algorithms: (1) image classification; (2) image processing; and (3) colony delineation. The colony delineation algorithm main contain: the procedures based on grey level similarity, on boundary tracing, on shape information and colony excluding. In addition, a number of algorithms are developed for colony analysis. The system has been tested and satisfactory.

  17. 77 FR 10976 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD)....

  18. 78 FR 30232 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 204 and 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense...

  19. 78 FR 41331 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 225 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD)....

  20. 78 FR 73450 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Parts 201, 204, 212, 216, 225, 227, and 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations...

  1. 76 FR 13297 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 215 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD)....

  2. 48 CFR 219.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 219.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  3. 48 CFR 219.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 219.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  4. 48 CFR 219.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 219.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  5. 48 CFR 219.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 219.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  6. 48 CFR 219.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 219.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  7. TFTR diagnostic control and data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Sauthoff, N.R.; Daniels, R.E.; PPL Computer Division

    1985-05-01

    General computerized control and data-handling support for TFTR diagnostics is presented within the context of the Central Instrumentation, Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) System. Procedures, hardware, the interactive man--machine interface, event-driven task scheduling, system-wide arming and data acquisition, and a hierarchical data base of raw data and results are described. Similarities in data structures involved in control, monitoring, and data acquisition afford a simplification of the system functions, based on ''groups'' of devices. Emphases and optimizations appropriate for fusion diagnostic system designs are provided. An off-line data reduction computer system is under development.

  8. TFTR diagnostic control and data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauthoff, N. R.; Daniels, R. E.

    1985-05-01

    General computerized control and data-handling support for TFTR diagnostics is presented within the context of the Central Instrumentation, Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) System. Procedures, hardware, the interactive man-machine interface, event-driven task scheduling, system-wide arming and data acquisition, and a hierarchical data base of raw data and results are described. Similarities in data structures involved in control, monitoring, and data acquisition afford a simplification of the system functions, based on ``groups'' of devices. Emphases and optimizations appropriate for fusion diagnostic system designs are provided. An off-line data reduction computer system is under development.

  9. A data acquisition architecture for the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge, R.

    1990-01-01

    An SSC data acquisition architecture applicable to high-p{sub T} detectors is described. The architecture is based upon a small set of design principles that were chosen to simplify communication between data acquisition elements while providing the required level of flexibility and performance. The architecture features an integrated system for data collection, event building, and communication with a large processing farm. The interface to the front end electronics system is also discussed. A set of design parameters is given for a data acquisition system that should meet the needs of high-p{sub T} detectors at the SSC.

  10. Multi-user data acquisition environment

    SciTech Connect

    Storch, N.A.

    1983-01-01

    The typical data acquisition environment involves data collection and monitoring by a single user. However, in order to support experiments on the Mars facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have had to create a multi-user data acquisition environment where any user can control the data acquisition and several users can monitor and analyze data being collected in real time. This paper describes how we accomplished this on an HP A600 computer. It focuses on the overall system description and user communication with the tasks within the system. Our current implementation is one phase of a long-term software development project.

  11. SSC/BCD data acquisition system proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Barsotti, E.; Bowden, M.; Swoboda, C.

    1989-04-01

    The proposed new data acquisition system architecture takes event fragments off a detector over fiber optics and to a parallel event building switch. The parallel event building switch concept, taken from the telephone communications industry, along with expected technology improvements in fiber-optic data transmission speeds over the next few years, should allow data acquisition system rates to increase dramatically and exceed those rates needed for the SSC. This report briefly describes the switch architecture and fiber optics for a SSC data acquisition system.

  12. Evaluation of Resource Acquisition Approaches : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, Maura L.; Mortimer, Tom; Palermini, Debbi; Nelson, Kari

    1991-09-12

    Over the last few years, Bonneville has been addressing this need and has developed numerous ways of acquiring resources. Four of these Approaches, the Competitive Acquisition, Billing Credits, and Targeted Acquisition Programs, and the Cowlitz Falls Hydroelectric Project, were the subject of this evaluation project. Each Approach is currently in different stages of a process, and Bonneville felt it was an appropriate time that an evaluation be conducted. The purpose of this evaluation is to analyze the various Approaches` processes, to learn what`s working and what`s not, and to offer recommendations as to how Bonneville might improve their resources acquisition efforts. The evaluation was conducted with no preconceived biases.

  13. 75 FR 51884 - Department of Education Acquisition Regulation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...The Secretary proposes to reissue the Department of Education Acquisition Regulation (EDAR) in order to update it to accurately implement the current Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) and Department...

  14. Electronic Flash In Data Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. E.

    1982-02-01

    Photographic acquisition of data often may be simplified, or the data quality improved upon by employing electronic flash sources with traditional equipment or techniques. The relatively short flash duration compared to movie camera shutters, or to the long integration time of video camera provides improved spatial resolution through blur reduction, particularly important as image movement becomes a significant fraction of film format dimension. Greater accuracy typically is achieved in velocity and acceleration determinations by using a stroboscopic light source rather than a movie camera frame-rate control as a time standard. Electrical efficiency often is an important advantage of electronic flash sources since almost any necessary light level for exposure may be produced, yet the source typically is "off" most of the time. Various synchronization techniques greatly expand the precise control of exposure. Biomechanical and sports equipment studies may involve velocities up to 200 feet-per-second, and often will have associated very rapid actions of interest. The need for brief exposures increases H.s one "ZOOMS in on the action." In golf, for example, the swing may be examined using 100 microsecond (Us) flashes at rates of 60 or 120 flashes-per-second (FPS). Accurate determination of linear and rotational velocity of the ball requires 10 Us flashes at 500-1,000 FPS, while sub-Us flashes at 20,000-50,000 FPS are required to resolve the interaction of the ball and the club, head. Some seldom. used techniques involving streak photography are described, with enhanced results obtained by combining strobe with the usual continuous light source. The combination of strobe and a fast electro-mechanical shutter is considered for Us photography under daylight conditions.

  15. Manganese acquisition by Lactobacillus plantarum

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, F.S.; Duong, M.N.

    1984-04-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum has an unusually high Mn(II) requirement for growth and accumulated over 30 mM intracellular Mn(II). The acquisition of Mn(II) by L. plantarum occurred via a specific active transport system powered by the transmembrane proton gradient. The Mn(II) uptake system has a K/sub m/ of 0.2 ..mu..M and a V/sub max/ of 24 nmol mg/sup -1/ of protein min/sup -1/. Above a medium Mn(II) concentration of 200 ..mu..M, the intracellular Mn(II) level was independent of the medium Mn(II) and unresponsive to oxygen stresses but was reduced by phosphate limitation. At a pH of 5.5, citrate, isocitrate, and cis-aconitate effectively promoted MN(II) uptake, although measurable levels of 1,5-(/sup 14/C)citrate were not accumulated. When cells were presented with equimolar Mn(II) and Cd(II), Cd(II) was preferentially taken up by the Mn(II) transport system. Both Mn(II) and Cd(II) uptake were greatly increased by Mn(II) starvation. Mn(II) uptake by Mn(II)-starved cells was subject to a negative feedback regulatory mechanism functioning less than 1 min after exposure of the cells to Mn(II) and independent of protein synthesis. When presented with a relatively large amount of exogenous Mn(II), Mn(II)-starved cells exhibited a measurable efflux of their internal Mn(II), but the rate was only a small fraction of the maximal Mn(II) uptake rate.

  16. MDS-Plus data acquisition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Flor, G. ); Cazzaro, F.; Fregonese, G.; Stangherlin, S. )

    1990-10-01

    MDS-Plus, a model driven data acquisition system being jointly developed at Istituto Gas Ionizzati, MIT Plasma Fusion Center, and Los Alamos National Laboratory, is based on the concept of an experiment model. The model contains descriptions of experiment data, devices, and actions to be performed. The data acquisition engine, i.e., the part of the system which actually executes the acquisition process, is driven by the contents of the model itself and implemented as a set of independent processes. A scheduler keeps the data acquisition engine in step with a state machine reflecting the operation of the actual experiment; a dispatcher takes care of the appropriate sequencing of the operations associated with each state of the experiment; various servers actually execute actions on behalf of the dispatcher.

  17. Mergers and acquisitions: a most strategic decision.

    PubMed

    Laine, Mike; Tyler, David

    2007-11-01

    Five steps are basic to successfully concluding (or deciding not to conclude) a merger or acquisition: Identify targets. Begin with the end in mind. Choose a transaction team. Perform due diligence. Commit to the deal--or to no deal.

  18. 48 CFR 1034.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... manager's acquisition strategy written at the system or investment level in accordance with FAR 7.103(e... team that includes a representative of the procurement organization designated in accordance...

  19. The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Reports on developments in programs managed by JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition are presented. Emphasis is placed on activities of the Deep Space Network and its associated ground facilities.

  20. Acquisition of Crosswell Seismic Monitoring Data

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, T.M.; Niu, F.; Silver, P.G.; Majer, E.L.

    2008-02-15

    Crosswell seismic acquisition provides an ideal geometry for monitoring travel time changes in the subsurface. Analysis of delay time in terms of a characteristic frequency allows us to estimate optimal acquisition parameters (frequency and distance). We have deployed standard data acquisition equipment for continuous monitoring of crosswell travel time in two separate field experiments, with well spacing of 3 and 30 m. The acquisition hardware used for the field experiments is described, along with environmental effects (such as temperature) that influence the measurements. Two field experiments are described that correlate changes in travel time (and therefore velocity) with changes in barometric pressure. The results from the two field sites show a pressure sensitivity for velocity of 10{sup -6}/Pa to 10{sup -8}/Pa.

  1. Acoustic window planning for ultrasound acquisition.

    PubMed

    Göbl, Rüdiger; Virga, Salvatore; Rackerseder, Julia; Frisch, Benjamin; Navab, Nassir; Hennersperger, Christoph

    2017-03-11

    Autonomous robotic ultrasound has recently gained considerable interest, especially for collaborative applications. Existing methods for acquisition trajectory planning are solely based on geometrical considerations, such as the pose of the transducer with respect to the patient surface.

  2. Documents about Measurement Competency Under Acquisition Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These document convey EPA policy requiring that organizations generating environmental data under Agency-funded acquisitions submit documentation of their competency, which may include participation in applicable certification and/or accreditation programs

  3. Tailoring Systems Engineering for Rapid Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    Questions With the inconsistent implementation of tailored acquisition and SE in mind , this thesis focuses on understanding which acquisition and SE...Now mind you, this might be [all during] day one. [Starting of the design process] might be day five, and we deliver at day 30. That’s how fast it...familiarity with interviewing allowed the respondents to wander off track from the questions and also to control the information flow. This limitation could

  4. Positron Emission Mammography with Multiple Angle Acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Raymond R. Raylman

    2002-11-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in breast tumors with dedicated detectors typically has been accomplished with two planar detectors in a fixed position with the breast under compression. The potential use of PEM imaging at two detector positions to guide stereotactic breast biopsy has motivated us to use PEM coincidence data acquired at two or more detector positions together in a single image reconstruction. Multiple angle PEM acquisition and iterative image reconstruction were investigated using point source and compressed breast phantom acquisitions with 5, 9, 12 and 15 mm diameter spheres and a simulated tumor:background activity concentration ratio of 6:1. Image reconstruction was performed with an iterative MLEM algorithm that used coincidence events between any two detector pixels on opposed detector heads at each detector position. This present study compared two acquisition protocols: 2 angle acquisition with detector angular positions of -15 and +15 degrees and 11 angle acquisition with detector positions spaced at 3 degree increments over the range -15 to +15 degrees. Three- dimensional image resolution was assessed for the point source acquisitions, and contrast and signal-to-noise metrics were evaluated for the compressed breast phantom with different simulated tumor sizes. Radial and tangential resolutions were similar for the two protocols, while normal resolution was better for the 2 angle acquisition. Analysis is complicated by the asymmetric point spread functions. Signal- to-noise vs. contrast tradeoffs were better for 11 angle acquisition for the smallest visible 9 mm sphere, while tradeoff results were mixed for the larger and more easily visible 12 mm and 15 mm diameter spheres. Additional study is needed to better understand the performance of limited angle tomography for PEM. PEM tomography experiments with complete angular sampling are planned.

  5. Positron Emission Mammography with Multiple Angle Acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Raymond R. Raylman

    2002-11-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FbG) uptake in breast tumors with dedicated detectors typically has been accomplished with two planar detectors in a fixed position with the breast under compression. The potential use of PEM imaging at two detector positions to guide stereotactic breast biopsy has motivated us to use PEM coincidence data acquired at two or more detector positions together in a single image reconstruction. Multiple angle PEM acquisition and iterative image reconstruction were investigated using point source and compressed breast phantom acquisitions with 5, 9, 12 and 15 mm diameter spheres and a simulated tumor:background activity concentration ratio of 6:1. Image reconstruction was performed with an iterative MLEM algorithm that used coincidence events between any two detector pixels on opposed detector heads at each detector position. This present study compared two acquisition protocols: 2 angle acquisition with detector angular positions of -15 and +15 degrees and 11 angle acquisition with detector positions spaced at 3 degree increments over the range -15 to +15 degrees. Three-dimensional image resolution was assessed for the point source acquisitions, and contrast and signal-to-noise metrics were evaluated for the compressed breast phantom with different simulated tumor sizes. Radial and tangential resolutions were similar for the two protocols, while normal resolution was better for the 2 angle acquisition. Analysis is complicated by the asymmetric point spread functions. Signal- to-noise vs. contrast tradeoffs were better for 11 angle acquisition for the smallest visible 9 mm sphere, while tradeoff results were mixed for the larger and more easily visible 12 mm and 15 mm diameter spheres. Additional study is needed to better understand the performance of limited angle tomography for PEM. PEM tomography experiments with complete angular sampling are planned.

  6. Improving Acquisition Through Innovation in Workforce Incentives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-30

    AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Defense Acquisition...University -Midwest,38219 Mound Road,Sterling Heights,MI,48310 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND... performance and schedule requirements. The acquisition system has delivered superior weapon systems with leading edge capabilities, providing a

  7. Rotor fatigue monitoring data acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    1993-01-01

    The 40 by 80 Foot Wind Tunnel of the National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) had a requirement to monitor rotor fatigue during a test. This test subjected various rotor components to stress levels higher than their structural fatigue limits. A data acquisition system was developed to monitor the cumulative fatigue damage of rotor components using National Instruments hardware and LabVIEW software. A full description of the data acquisition system including its configuration and salient features, is presented in this paper.

  8. The Lick Observatory CCD data acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, L. B.; Stover, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    An evolving system for CCD data acquisition is described. The electronics are subdivided into those attached to the dewar, a 'smart' controller near the dewar, and a computer connected by serial link to the smart controller. Software for the smart controller is in assembler code, while the data acquisition and on-line analysis software is written in 'C' and uses the UNIX operating system.

  9. Thermal (Silicon Diode) Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Ernest; Kegley, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center s X-ray Cryogenic Facility (XRCF) has been performing cryogenic testing to 20 Kelvin since 1999. Two configurations for acquiring data from silicon diode temperature sensors have been implemented at the facility. The facility's environment is recorded via a data acquisition system capable of reading up to 60 silicon diodes. Test article temperature is recorded by a second data acquisition system capable of reading 150+ silicon diodes. The specifications and architecture of both systems will be presented.

  10. Thermal (Silicon Diode) Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegley, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) has been performing cryogenic testing to 20 Kelvin since 1999. Two configurations for acquiring data from silicon diode temperature sensors have been implemented at the facility. The facility's environment is recorded via a data acquisition system capable of reading up to 60 silicon diodes. Test article temperature is recorded by a second data acquisition system capable of reading 150+ silicon diodes. The specifications and architecture of both systems will be presented.

  11. Training Spatial Knowledge Acquisition Using Virtual Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-22

    involves cognitive science, perceptual psychology, virtual- environment design, real-world training methods , etc.), it obviously requires close...97’... 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Training Spatial Knowledge Acquisition Using Virtual Environments N00014-96-1-0379 6. AUTHOR(S...KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION USING VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS (1 FEBRUARY 1996 TO 31 JANUARY 1997) OF ¶ NATHANIEL I. DURLACH, ET AL., MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF

  12. Defense Acquisition Reform and Project Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ANSI / EIA 748 -98 Earned Value Management Systems – For now, DoD and industry EVMS criteria are equal – International discussions ongoing Canada, UK...Advantage Government Industry IBRs 32 EVMS Criteria Regulations Revised Advance Agreements IBRs ANSI - EIA 748 - Incorporate ANSI - EIA 748 in DoD...Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39.18 DoD Acquisition Reform u The acquisition environment – Industrial base consolidation u Earned Value

  13. Department of Defense: Acquisition Rulemaking Practices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-17

    Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) rules; (2) to determine the frequency with which DOD issued final and interim rules without prior...including relevant provisions for notice and comment, for Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) rules; • determines the frequency ...guidance. To determine the frequency of final and interim DFARS rule issued without prior notice and comment between fiscal years 2010 and 2014, we

  14. Dynamic FLIR Target Acquisition. Phase I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-02

    conditions set up by the operational utilization of FLIR systems, will allow the data generated on perceptual processes to be directly applied to...variables affecting acquisition, and the definition of a study program on basic perceptual processes which have application to the operational world... processes under these conditions of image dynamics, it was decided to concentrate the research efforts on studying the observer’s target acquisition

  15. Target Acquisition and Positioning Study (TAPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Scientific Instruments for the Large Space Telescope (LST) require a high degree of accuracy for positioning targets within their respective entrance apertures. The acquisition, verification of position, and guidance during an experiment must be accomplished with a minimum loss of observing time for the maximum effectiveness of the total mission. This study evaluates several viable concepts and modes of operation that are applicable for a Target Acquisition and Positioning System (TAPS) that is responsive to the LST instrument requirements.

  16. Measurement and Controls Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Rick; Daniel, Alice; Batts, Frank E., Sr.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement and Controls Data Acquisition System (MCDAS) is an application program that integrates the functions of two stand-alone programs: one for acquisition of data, the other for controls. MCDAS facilitates and improves testing of complex engineering systems by helping to perform calibration and setup of test systems and acquisition, dissemination, and processing of data. Features of MCDAS include an intuitive, user-friendly graphical user interface, a capability for acquiring data at rates greater than previously possible, cooperation between the data-acquisition software subsystem and alarm-checking and analytical components of the control software subsystem, and a capability for dissemination of data through fiber optics and virtual and wide-area networks, including networks that contain hand-held display units. The integration of the data acquisition and control software offers a safety advantage by making alarm information available to the control software in a more timely manner. By enabling the use of hand-held devices, MCDAS reduces the time spent by technicians asking for screen updates to determine effects of setup actions. Previously recorded data can be processed without interruption to current acquisition of data. Analysts can continue to view test parameters while test-data files are being generated.

  17. Joystick acquisition in tufted capuchins (Cebus apella).

    PubMed

    Leighty, Katherine A; Fragaszy, Dorothy M

    2003-09-01

    A number of nonhuman primate species have demonstrated the ability to use a joystick to control a cursor on a computer screen, yet the acquisition of this skill has not been the focus of systematic inquiry. Here, we examined joystick acquisition in four tufted capuchins under two directional relationships of joystick movement and resultant cursor displacement, isomorphic and inverted. To document the natural history of the acquisition of this skill, we recorded the development of visual tracking of the cursor and body tilting. Rates of acquisition were comparable between the two conditions. After mastering the task in one condition, subjects remastered the task at an accelerated rate in the opposing condition. All subjects significantly increased or maintained high proportions of cursor tracking throughout acquisition. All subjects demonstrated a postural tilt while moving the cursor from the mid-phase of acquisition through task mastery. In the isomorphic condition, all subjects tilted significantly more often in the direction of goal location than in the opposite direction. In three of the four series of tilting that were scored for subjects in the inverted condition, tilting occurred significantly more often toward the direction of goal location than the direction of required hand movement. Together these findings suggest that body tilting participates in the organization of directional movement of the cursor rather than reflecting merely the motoric requirements of the task (to manipulate a joystick).

  18. Updated NGNP Fuel Acquisition Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    David Petti; Tim Abram; Richard Hobbins; Jim Kendall

    2010-12-01

    A Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) fuel acquisition strategy was first established in 2007. In that report, a detailed technical assessment of potential fuel vendors for the first core of NGNP was conducted by an independent group of international experts based on input from the three major reactor vendor teams. Part of the assessment included an evaluation of the credibility of each option, along with a cost and schedule to implement each strategy compared with the schedule and throughput needs of the NGNP project. While credible options were identified based on the conditions in place at the time, many changes in the assumptions underlying the strategy and in externalities that have occurred in the interim requiring that the options be re-evaluated. This document presents an update to that strategy based on current capabilities for fuel fabrication as well as fuel performance and qualification testing worldwide. In light of the recent Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) project closure, the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) fuel development and qualification program needs to support both pebble and prismatic options under the NGNP project. A number of assumptions were established that formed a context for the evaluation. Of these, the most important are: • Based on logistics associated with the on-going engineering design activities, vendor teams would start preliminary design in October 2012 and complete in May 2014. A decision on reactor type will be made following preliminary design, with the decision process assumed to be completed in January 2015. Thus, no fuel decision (pebble or prismatic) will be made in the near term. • Activities necessary for both pebble and prismatic fuel qualification will be conducted in parallel until a fuel form selection is made. As such, process development, fuel fabrication, irradiation, and testing for pebble and prismatic options should not negatively influence each other during the period prior to a decision on reactor type

  19. 48 CFR 1825.1101 - Acquisition of supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition of supplies. 1825.1101 Section 1825.1101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses...

  20. A Research on Second Language Acquisition and College English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Changyu

    2009-01-01

    It was in the 1970s that American linguist S.D. Krashen created the theory of "language acquisition". The theories on second language acquisition were proposed based on the study on the second language acquisition process and its rules. Here, the second language acquisition process refers to the process in which a learner with the…

  1. 48 CFR 227.7103-2 - Acquisition of technical data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition of technical data. 227.7103-2 Section 227.7103-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND...

  2. 48 CFR 227.7103-2 - Acquisition of technical data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition of technical data. 227.7103-2 Section 227.7103-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND...

  3. 48 CFR 227.7103-2 - Acquisition of technical data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acquisition of technical data. 227.7103-2 Section 227.7103-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND...

  4. 48 CFR 227.7103-2 - Acquisition of technical data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acquisition of technical data. 227.7103-2 Section 227.7103-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND...

  5. 48 CFR 227.7103-2 - Acquisition of technical data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acquisition of technical data. 227.7103-2 Section 227.7103-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND...

  6. 48 CFR 1319.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 1319.502 Section 1319.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 1319.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  7. 48 CFR 819.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 819.502 Section 819.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 819.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  8. 48 CFR 25.1101 - Acquisition of supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... such a determination, the contracting officer must follow agency procedures. (2) Insert the provision... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses 25.1101 Acquisition of supplies. The following provisions and clauses apply to the acquisition of supplies and the acquisition...

  9. Analyzing the Structure of Air Force Space Acquisitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    51 viii III. CASE STUDY APPLICATION ...............................................................................53 A. CHAPTER...discussed throughout this research paper . Acquisition Arm is defined as the entity in charge of the acquisition of space assets and systems. Air...phase Evolutionary Acquisition or Single Step to Full Capability FRP Decision Review FOC LRIP/ IOT &E Design Readiness Review Pre-Systems Acquisition

  10. 48 CFR 1319.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 1319.502 Section 1319.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 1319.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  11. 48 CFR 819.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 819.502 Section 819.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 819.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  12. 48 CFR 919.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 919.502 Section 919.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 919.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  13. 48 CFR 1319.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 1319.502 Section 1319.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 1319.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  14. 48 CFR 3419.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Setting aside acquisitions. 3419.502 Section 3419.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 3419.502...

  15. 48 CFR 3419.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 3419.502 Section 3419.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 3419.502...

  16. 48 CFR 3419.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 3419.502 Section 3419.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 3419.502...

  17. 48 CFR 919.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 919.502 Section 919.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 919.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  18. 48 CFR 819.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 819.502 Section 819.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 819.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  19. 48 CFR 3419.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 3419.502 Section 3419.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 3419.502...

  20. 48 CFR 1319.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 1319.502 Section 1319.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 1319.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  1. 48 CFR 1319.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 1319.502 Section 1319.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 1319.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  2. 48 CFR 919.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 919.502 Section 919.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 919.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  3. 48 CFR 819.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 819.502 Section 819.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 819.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  4. 48 CFR 919.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 919.502 Section 919.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 919.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  5. 48 CFR 819.502 - Setting aside acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Setting aside acquisitions. 819.502 Section 819.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Set-Asides for Small Business 819.502 Setting aside acquisitions....

  6. 48 CFR 217.7503 - Spares acquisition integrated with production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spares acquisition integrated with production. 217.7503 Section 217.7503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES...

  7. 10 CFR 626.5 - Acquisition procedures-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.5 Acquisition procedures—general. (a) Notice of acquisition. (1) Except when DOE has... acquire petroleum for the SPR. The notice of acquisition is usually in the form of a solicitation....

  8. 10 CFR 626.5 - Acquisition procedures-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.5 Acquisition procedures—general. (a) Notice of acquisition. (1) Except when DOE has... acquire petroleum for the SPR. The notice of acquisition is usually in the form of a solicitation....

  9. 10 CFR 626.4 - General acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.4 General acquisition strategy. (a) Criteria for commencing acquisition. To reduce... prior to commencing acquisition of petroleum for the SPR: (1) The current inventory of the SPR; (2)...

  10. 10 CFR 626.4 - General acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.4 General acquisition strategy. (a) Criteria for commencing acquisition. To reduce... prior to commencing acquisition of petroleum for the SPR: (1) The current inventory of the SPR; (2)...

  11. 10 CFR 626.5 - Acquisition procedures-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.5 Acquisition procedures—general. (a) Notice of acquisition. (1) Except when DOE has... acquire petroleum for the SPR. The notice of acquisition is usually in the form of a solicitation....

  12. 10 CFR 626.4 - General acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.4 General acquisition strategy. (a) Criteria for commencing acquisition. To reduce... prior to commencing acquisition of petroleum for the SPR: (1) The current inventory of the SPR; (2)...

  13. 10 CFR 626.4 - General acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.4 General acquisition strategy. (a) Criteria for commencing acquisition. To reduce... prior to commencing acquisition of petroleum for the SPR: (1) The current inventory of the SPR; (2)...

  14. 10 CFR 626.4 - General acquisition strategy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.4 General acquisition strategy. (a) Criteria for commencing acquisition. To reduce... prior to commencing acquisition of petroleum for the SPR: (1) The current inventory of the SPR; (2)...

  15. 10 CFR 626.5 - Acquisition procedures-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.5 Acquisition procedures—general. (a) Notice of acquisition. (1) Except when DOE has... acquire petroleum for the SPR. The notice of acquisition is usually in the form of a solicitation....

  16. Nasal colonization by four potential respiratory bacteria in healthy children attending kindergarten or elementary school in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Bae, Songmee; Yu, Jae-Yon; Lee, Kwangjun; Lee, Sunhwa; Park, Bohyun; Kang, Yeonho

    2012-05-01

    A longitudinal analysis was carried out of the colonization by four potential respiratory pathogens - Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcus aureus - in 165 healthy children (aged 3-7 years) attending three kindergartens and 417 healthy children (aged 7-10 years) attending an elementary school in Seoul, Korea, by four consecutive examinations over 1 year. The prevalence of nasal carriers of one or more of four bacteria was found to be higher in younger children (≤7 years) (mean 68.6%) than that in older children (mean 46.8%). The mean rates of nasal carriage of Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis and Staph. aureus were 16.8, 18.9, 20.2 and 18.2%, respectively. Colonization by Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis was higher in pre-school children (28.6, 32.4 and 35.0%, respectively) than in school children (12.2, 13.6 and 14.3%, respectively). Carriage trends differed with age, with Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis colonization decreasing with age but Staph. aureus colonization increasing. Positive associations of co-occurrence between Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were evident, with a significant negative association evident between Staph. aureus and the other three bacteria. A better understanding of the colonization and interaction of potential respiratory pathogens may be important for predicting changes in bacterial ecology and for designing control strategies that target bacterial colonization in upper respiratory tract infections.

  17. 77 FR 10665 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Acquisition-Related Thresholds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Acquisition Regulation (GSAR) to update the acquisition- related thresholds in two GSAR clauses. DATES...-related thresholds, the GSAR clause at 552.219-71, Notice to Offerors of Subcontracting Plan Requirements...'' and ``$1,500,000'', respectively. The GSAR clause at 552.219-72, Preparation, Submission,...

  18. Acquisition Management for System of Systems: Requirement Evolution and Acquisition Strategy Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-29

    inefficiencies and warranted the pursuit of better systems engineering practices to encompass SoS principles. The recognition of the need for improved...important for providing acquisition groups with the means of performing acquisition, integration, and development decision-making in the mist of evolving

  19. 77 FR 23371 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-58; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... the rule appearing in Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-58, which amends the Federal Acquisition... prepared. Interested parties may obtain further information regarding this rule by referring to FAC 2005-58..., contact the analyst whose name appears in the table below. Please cite FAC 2005-58 and the FAR case...

  20. 77 FR 69726 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-62; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... the rule appearing in Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-62, which amends the Federal Acquisition... prepared. Interested parties may obtain further information regarding this rule by referring to FAC 2005-62..., contact the analyst whose name appears in the table below. Please cite FAC 2005-62 and the FAR case...

  1. 76 FR 4187 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-49; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) rules agreed to by DOD, GSA, and NASA in this Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-49. A companion document, the Small Entity Compliance Guide (SECG), follows this FAC. The FAC... in the table below in relation to each FAR case. Please cite FAC 2005-49 and the specific FAR...

  2. 77 FR 23363 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-58; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Acquisition Regulations Council (Councils) in this Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-58. A companion document, the Small Entity Compliance Guide (SECG), follows this FAC. The FAC, including the SECG, is... table below in relation to each FAR case. Please cite FAC 2005-58 and the specific FAR case numbers....

  3. 78 FR 13769 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-66; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... the rule appearing in Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-66, which amends the Federal Acquisition... prepared. Interested parties may obtain further information regarding this rule by referring to FAC 2005-66..., contact the analyst whose name appears in the table below. Please cite FAC 2005-66 and the FAR case...

  4. 77 FR 75780 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-64; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... the rule appearing in Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-64, which amends the Federal Acquisition... prepared. Interested parties may obtain further information regarding this rule by referring to FAC 2005-64... CONTACT: The analyst whose name appears in the table below in relation to the FAR case. Please cite...

  5. 78 FR 38533 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-68; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations Council (Councils) in this Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-68. A companion document, the Small Entity Compliance Guide (SECG), follows this FAC. The FAC, including the SECG... appears in the table below in relation to the FAR case. Please cite FAC 2005-68 and the specific FAR...

  6. 78 FR 6192 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-65; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... the rule appearing in Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-65, which amends the Federal Acquisition... prepared. Interested parties may obtain further information regarding this rule by referring to FAC 2005-65..., contact the analyst whose name appears in the table below. Please cite FAC 2005-65 and the FAR case...

  7. 78 FR 38537 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-68; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... the rule appearing in Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-68, which amends the Federal Acquisition... prepared. Interested parties may obtain further information regarding this rule by referring to FAC 2005-68... the analyst whose name appears in the table below. Please cite FAC 2005-68 and the FAR case...

  8. 77 FR 73515 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-63; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Acquisition Regulations Council (Councils) in this Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-63. A companion document, the Small Entity Compliance Guide (SECG), follows this FAC. The FAC, including the SECG, is... table below. Please cite FAC 2005-63 and the specific FAR case number. For information pertaining...

  9. 76 FR 4191 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-49; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... rules appearing in Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-49, which amend the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). Interested parties may obtain further information regarding these rules by referring to FAC... CONTACT: The analyst whose name appears in the table below. Please cite FAC 2005-49 and the specific...

  10. 78 FR 6183 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-65; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations Council (Councils) in this Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-65. A companion document, the Small Entity Compliance Guide (SECG), follows this FAC. The FAC, including the SECG... appears in the table below in relation to each FAR case. Please cite FAC 2005-65 and the specific FAR...

  11. 77 FR 73520 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-63; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... the rule appearing in Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-63, which amends the Federal Acquisition... prepared. Interested parties may obtain further information regarding this rule by referring to FAC 2005-63..., contact the analyst whose name appears in the table below. Please cite FAC 2005-63 and the FAR case...

  12. 77 FR 69713 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-62; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Acquisition Regulations Council (Councils) in this Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-62. A companion document, the Small Entity Compliance Guide (SECG), follows this FAC. The FAC, including the SECG, is... table below in relation to each FAR case. Please cite FAC 2005-62 and the specific FAR case numbers....

  13. 78 FR 13763 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-66; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations Council (Councils) in this Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-66. A companion document, the Small Entity Compliance Guide (SECG), follows this FAC. The FAC, including the SECG... appears in the table below in relation to each FAR case. Please cite FAC 2005-66 and the specific FAR...

  14. 78 FR 37698 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-67; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... the rule appearing in Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-67, which amends the Federal Acquisition... prepared. Interested parties may obtain further information regarding this rule by referring to FAC 2005-67... the analyst whose name appears in the table below. Please cite FAC 2005-67 and the FAR case...

  15. 76 FR 18324 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-51; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... rules appearing in Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-51, which amend the Federal Acquisition... prepared. Interested parties may obtain further information regarding these rules by referring to FAC 2005... CONTACT: The analyst whose name appears in the table below. Please cite FAC 2005-51 and the specific...

  16. 78 FR 37684 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Interagency Acquisitions: Compliance by Nondefense Agencies With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... (OFPP) and Federal Procurement Data System (FPDS) policy regarding the allocation of socio-economic... 9000-AM36 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Interagency Acquisitions: Compliance by Nondefense Agencies..., GSA, and NASA are adopting as final, with changes, an interim rule amending the Federal...

  17. 78 FR 38234 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Requirements for Acquisitions Pursuant to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... convention. Delete 216.501-1. Only ``Multiple-award contract'' was defined and it was only used in 216.505-70... Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Requirements for Acquisitions Pursuant to Multiple Award Contracts (DFARS... pursuant to multiple award contracts. Increasing savings in expenditures through competition is...

  18. 77 FR 27551 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-59; Small Entity Compliance Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ...This document is issued under the joint authority of DOD, GSA, and NASA. This Small Entity Compliance Guide has been prepared in accordance with section 212 of the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996. It consists of a summary of the rule appearing in Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-59, which amends the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). Interested parties may......

  19. Grammatical Acquisition: Inductive Bias and Coevolution of Language and the Language Acquisition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Ted

    2000-01-01

    An account of grammatical acquisition is developed within the parameter setting framework applied to a generalized categorical grammar (GCG). Computational simulation shows that several resulting acquisition procedures are effective on a parameter set expressing major typological distinctions based on constituent order, and defining 70 distinct…

  20. 78 FR 13544 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Acquisition of Tents and Other Temporary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Acquisition of Tents and Other Temporary Structures (DFARS Case 2012-D015... other temporary structures. DATES: Effective February 28, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Fernell... contracts that provide the best value, when acquiring tents and other temporary structures, regardless...

  1. Societal Responses to Adult Difficulties in L2 Acquisition: Toward an Evolutionary Perspective on Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that second language (L2) acquisition becomes more difficult as one grows older and that success in adult L2 acquisition is highly variable. Nevertheless, humans in language contact situations have to cope with intergroup communication. This article examines the ways society has responded to this challenge. It describes…

  2. 48 CFR 246.404 - Government contract quality assurance for acquisitions at or below the simplified acquisition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... quality assurance for acquisitions at or below the simplified acquisition threshold. 246.404 Section 246... DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 246.404 Government contract quality assurance for acquisitions at or below the simplified acquisition threshold. Do...

  3. 76 FR 58149 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card® and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... Regulation Supplement; Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card and Aircraft Ground Services (DFARS Case... to the simplified acquisition threshold using the Ships Bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card in lieu... fuel using the Ships' bunkers Easy Acquisition (SEA) Card in lieu of the SF44, Purchase...

  4. A Method for Aligning Acquisition Strategies and Software Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    the rate of failure of “ big bang ” acquisitions, the size and expected cost led to the decision that there should be two separate acquisitions, one...Goal: wants the program to avoid a “ big bang ” acquisition since these have often led to fail- ing programs (related to acquisition quality attribute of...program survivability) Stimulus: the PEO is made aware of the rate of failure of “ big bang ” acquisitions Environment: before program inception

  5. DAQMAN - A flexible configurable data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Sivertz, Michael; Larry Hoff, Seth Nemesure

    2012-08-01

    DAQMAN is a flexible configurable interface that allows the user to build and operate a VME-based data acquisition system on a Linux workstation. It consists of two parts: a Java-based Graphical User Interface to configure the system, and a C-based utility that reads out the data and creates the output ASCII data file, with two levels of diagnostic tools. The data acquisition system requires a CAEN CONET-VME Bridge to communicate between the hardware in the VME crate and the Linux workstation. Data acquisition modules, such as ADCs, TDC, Scalers, can be loaded into the system, or removed easily. The GUI allows users to activate modules, and channels within modules by clicking on icons. Running configurations are stored; data are collected and can be viewed either as raw numbers, or by charts and histograms that update as the data are accumulated. Data files are written to disk in ASCII format, with a date and time stamp.

  6. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    A measurement acquisition method that alleviates many shortcomings of traditional measurement systems is presented in this paper. The shortcomings are a finite number of measurement channels, weight penalty associated with measurements, electrical arcing, wire degradations due to wear or chemical decay and the logistics needed to add new sensors. The key to this method is the use of sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits that produce magnetic field responses. The response attributes correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. A radio frequency antenna produces a time-varying magnetic field used to power the sensor and receive the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation system for discerning changes in the sensor response is presented herein. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method. The method eliminates the need for a data acquisition channel dedicated to each sensor. Methods of developing magnetic field response sensors and the influence of key parameters on measurement acquisition are discussed.

  7. Implicit learning and acquisition of music.

    PubMed

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Rebuschat, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    Implicit learning is a core process for the acquisition of a complex, rule-based environment from mere interaction, such as motor action, skill acquisition, or language. A body of evidence suggests that implicit knowledge governs music acquisition and perception in nonmusicians and musicians, and that both expert and nonexpert participants acquire complex melodic, harmonic, and other features from mere exposure. While current findings and computational modeling largely support the learning of chunks, some results indicate learning of more complex structures. Despite the body of evidence, more research is required to support the cross-cultural validity of implicit learning and to show that core and more complex music theoretical features are acquired implicitly.

  8. Hunger promotes acquisition of nonfood objects

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Alison Jing; Schwarz, Norbert; Wyer, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Hunger motivates people to consume food, for which finding and acquiring food is a prerequisite. We test whether the acquisition component spills over to nonfood objects: Are hungry people more likely to acquire objects that cannot satisfy their hunger? Five laboratory and field studies show that hunger increases the accessibility of acquisition-related concepts and the intention to acquire not only food but also nonfood objects. Moreover, people act on this intention and acquire more nonfood objects (e.g., binder clips) when they are hungry, both when these items are freely available and when they must be paid for. However, hunger does not influence how much they like nonfood objects. We conclude that a basic biologically based motivation can affect substantively unrelated behaviors that cannot satisfy the motivation. This presumably occurs because hunger renders acquisition-related concepts and behaviors more accessible, which influences decisions in situations to which they can be applied. PMID:25730858

  9. Optimisation of acquisition time in bioluminescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Shelley L.; Mason, Suzannah K. G.; Glinton, Sophie; Cobbold, Mark; Styles, Iain B.; Dehghani, Hamid

    2015-03-01

    Decreasing the acquisition time in bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and bioluminescence tomography (BLT) will enable animals to be imaged within the window of stable emission of the bioluminescent source, a higher imaging throughput and minimisation of the time which an animal is anaesthetised. This work investigates, through simulation using a heterogeneous mouse model, two methods of decreasing acquisition time: 1. Imaging at fewer wavelengths (a reduction from five to three); and 2. Increasing the bandwidth of filters used for imaging. The results indicate that both methods are viable ways of decreasing the acquisition time without a loss in quantitative accuracy. Importantly, when choosing imaging wavelengths, the spectral attenuation of tissue and emission spectrum of the source must be considered, in order to choose wavelengths at which a high signal can be achieved. Additionally, when increasing the bandwidth of the filters used for imaging, the bandwidth must be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm.

  10. Description of the ACCESS data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Treichel, B.A.; Koehl, E.R.

    1983-09-01

    The ACCESS data acquisition system is designed to acquire, process, and store samples of analog data produced by the Reversing Flow Test Apparatus. Data acquisition requires minimal interaction with the user, being governed primarily by trigger pulses generated in a shaft encoder coupled to a camshaft in the apparatus. A complete scan of 32 input data channels is made 18 times per camshaft revolution at speeds up to 30 revolutions per second. At higher speeds, up to the maximum apparatus speed of 50 revolutions per second, data channels are scanned 9 times per revolution. The programs for this data acquisition system are written for the Hewlett-Packard MCU 2250 measurement and control processor, operating in conjunction with an HP-1000 system computer.

  11. Hunger promotes acquisition of nonfood objects.

    PubMed

    Xu, Alison Jing; Schwarz, Norbert; Wyer, Robert S

    2015-03-03

    Hunger motivates people to consume food, for which finding and acquiring food is a prerequisite. We test whether the acquisition component spills over to nonfood objects: Are hungry people more likely to acquire objects that cannot satisfy their hunger? Five laboratory and field studies show that hunger increases the accessibility of acquisition-related concepts and the intention to acquire not only food but also nonfood objects. Moreover, people act on this intention and acquire more nonfood objects (e.g., binder clips) when they are hungry, both when these items are freely available and when they must be paid for. However, hunger does not influence how much they like nonfood objects. We conclude that a basic biologically based motivation can affect substantively unrelated behaviors that cannot satisfy the motivation. This presumably occurs because hunger renders acquisition-related concepts and behaviors more accessible, which influences decisions in situations to which they can be applied.

  12. Minimum acquisition time detection. [of radar targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, H. I.; Hung, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Two different methods of target detection when the return signal is contaminated with noise are discussed and compared. The first method uses Neyman-Pearson detection philosophy and selects the threshold level to give a desired false alarm probability. The maximum probability of false alarm is constrained by the target cross scan velocity component. The second method (minimum acquisition time detection), which is similar to the ideal observer, selects the threshold level to minimize the expected target acquisition time. The probabilities of false alarm and missed detection are selected so that the errors produced by these effects produce the minimum acquisition time. Three different scan techniques - linear, spiral and two-mode scan - are studied and compared.

  13. Sample Acquisition Techniques for Exobiology Flight Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Carle, Glenn C.; Stratton, David M.; Valentin, Jose R.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Exobiology Flight Experiments involve complex analyses conducted in environments far different than those encountered in terrestrial applications. A major part of the analytical challenge is often the selection, acquisition, delivery and, in some cases, processing of a sample suitable for the analytical requirements of the mission. The added complications of severely limited resources and sometimes rigid time constraints combine to make sample acquisition potentially a major obstacle for successful analyses. Potential samples come in a wide range including planetary atmospheric gas and aerosols (from a wide variety of pressures), planetary soil or rocks, dust and ice particles streaming off of a comet, and cemetery surface ice and rocks. Methods to collect and process sample are often mission specific, requiring continual development of innovative concepts and mechanisms. These methods must also maintain the integrity of the sample for the experimental results to be meaningful. We present here sample acquisition systems employed from past missions and proposed for future missions.

  14. Data Acquisition System for Instructional Spectroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, C. B. S. B.; Hetem, A.

    2014-10-01

    This article aims to present the software for data acquisition developed in scientific initiation program - IC, for use in the design of a spectrometer built by students. The program was built in C++, a language in wide use today. The origin of spectra used is a simplified model of rustic spectroscope. This equipment basically consists of a box that does not allow light to enter, except through a slit made in the side of it, a diffraction media and a camera for data acquisition. After the image acquisition, one executes the data processing, followed by the usual steps of reduction and analysis of this type of tool. We have implemented a method for calibrating the spectroscope, through which one can compare the incidence of the photons with characteristic of each monochromatic wave. The final result is a one-dimensional spectrum that can be subsequently analyzed.

  15. Data acquisition at a residential photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, J. M.; Miller, G. N.

    A description is presented of the techniques employed for data collection and analysis in the study of a small residential photovoltaic (PV) system. A model home of approximately 139 sq m incorporated a PV array on the south-facing roof. The PV system was designed to interface directly to the local utility system through an inverter which converted the direct current output of the array to 60 Hz alternating current. Electric power could flow either from the utility lines into the house or vice versa. The solar panel consisted of 120 modules installed in a 5 x 24 array. Attention is given to initial problems, the conduction of a systems analysis, the data collection method, the equipment used in the data acquisition system, aspects of data collection, the encountered problems, and the results of the data acquisition project. It was found that the data acquisition system employed was effective for computer-compatible data collection.

  16. Interactive specification acquisition via scenarios: A proposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    Some reactive systems are most naturally specified by giving large collections of behavior scenarios. These collections not only specify the behavior of the system, but also provide good test suites for validating the implemented system. Due to the complexity of the systems and the number of scenarios, however, it appears that automated assistance is necessary to make this software development process workable. Interactive Specification Acquisition Tool (ISAT) is a proposed interactive system for supporting the acquisition and maintenance of a formal system specification from scenarios, as well as automatic synthesis of control code and automated test generation. This paper discusses the background, motivation, proposed functions, and implementation status of ISAT.

  17. Magic-angle turning with double acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Tatsuya; Takegoshi, K.

    2017-01-01

    The double-acquisition scheme for efficient data collection of hypercomplex data (the States method) of a two-dimensional experiment is adopted to magic-angle hopping (MAH) and magic-angle turning (MAT) experiments, which are powerful methods to measure the principal values of the chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) in a powder sample. It is shown that the double acquisition MAT (DAMAT) sequence realizes the S/N ratio comparable to or better than those of other variants of the MAH/MAT sequences. In addition, we show that DAMAT has preferable features that there are no spinning sidebands in the indirect dimension, and no spectral shearing is necessary.

  18. Linking Acquisition Decisionmaking With National Military Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    ICopy .17 of 146 copie; !1 AD-A235 445 I IDA REPORT R-366 LINKING ACQUISITION DECISIONMAKING I WITH NATIONAL MILITARY STRATEGY David R. Graham...National Military Strategy C-MDA-903 89 C0003 TA-T-G6-678 6. AUTHOR(S) David R. Graham, Herschel E. Kanter, Martin J. Ralley, Barbara A. Blcksler...executing acquisition programs that are consistent with national military strategy and projected budgets. Next it reviews the long-standing concerns with

  19. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, L. W.; Way, J. D.; Vlasse, M.

    2001-01-01

    The CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM) project will develop, test, and analyze membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The CAM technology will enable passive separation of these gases, allow energy efficient acquisition and purification of these important resources, and lay the foundation for future unmanned sample return and human space missions. The CAM membranes are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications, such as In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) and In Situ Consumables Production (ISCP).

  20. The data acquisition system for SLD

    SciTech Connect

    Sherden, D.J.

    1986-10-01

    This paper describes the data acquisition system planned for the SLD detector, which is being constructed for use with the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). Analog electronics, heavily incorporating hybrid and custom VLSI circuitry, is mounted on the detector itself. Extensive use is made of multiplexing through optical fibers to a FASTBUS readout system. The low repetition rate of the SLC allows a relatively simple software-based trigger. Hardware and software processors within the acquisition modules are used to reduce the large volume of data per event and to calibrate the electronics. A farm of microprocessors is used for full reconstruction of a sample of events prior to transmission to the host.

  1. Magic-angle turning with double acquisition.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Tatsuya; Takegoshi, K

    2017-01-01

    The double-acquisition scheme for efficient data collection of hypercomplex data (the States method) of a two-dimensional experiment is adopted to magic-angle hopping (MAH) and magic-angle turning (MAT) experiments, which are powerful methods to measure the principal values of the chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) in a powder sample. It is shown that the double acquisition MAT (DAMAT) sequence realizes the S/N ratio comparable to or better than those of other variants of the MAH/MAT sequences. In addition, we show that DAMAT has preferable features that there are no spinning sidebands in the indirect dimension, and no spectral shearing is necessary.

  2. Preschool foundations of early reading acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Rvachew, Susan; Savage, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The present paper describes research on the skills and processes associated with word and text reading acquisition in preschool children and during the first years of school. The aim is to provide an overview that gives a sense of the important milestones in language and literacy acquisition. A comparison of children’s performances against these milestones may thus guide effective intervention for health professionals, parents and other professionals. Also summarized and explored are the role of speech perception and production, grammatical and syntactic skills, and metacognitive skills, including phonological awareness. PMID:19030330

  3. Modulated Acquisition of Spatial Distortion Maps

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Alexey; Gros, Jerneja Žganec; Žganec, Mario; Javornik, Tomaž; Švigelj, Aleš

    2013-01-01

    This work discusses a novel approach to image acquisition which improves the robustness of captured data required for 3D range measurements. By applying a pseudo-random code modulation to sequential acquisition of projected patterns the impact of environmental factors such as ambient light and mutual interference is significantly reduced. The proposed concept has been proven with an experimental range sensor based on the laser triangulation principle. The proposed design can potentially enhance the use of this principle to a variety of outdoor applications, such as autonomous vehicles, pedestrians' safety, collision avoidance, and many other tasks, where robust real-time distance detection in real world environment is crucial. PMID:23966196

  4. Draft Automatic Data Acquisition System Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    This Automatic Data Acquisition System (ADAS) Plan has been prepared in support of the requirement for detailed site characterization of the Deaf Smith County candidate repository site in salt, and describes the data acquisition system which will be used for unattended data collection from the geotechnical instrumentation installed at the site. Section 1.1 discusses the programmatic background to the plan, Section 1.2 presents the scope and purpose of the plan, and the organization of the document is given in Section 1.3. 31 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. A Synopsis of Acquisition Related Topics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    Direct labor N/A N/A 5-15 ver bead N/A N/A 4-6 Other Genral Management 6-8 6-8 -8 CONT.ACTCR RISK 0-8 0-7 0-4 FACILITIES INVESTMENT 16-20 N/I N/ SPECIAL...Acquisition Contracts Management *, Procurement Contracting Cost Accounting 2. ASTMACT (CAN@"*OMW - 040 itO. d a.u "Moo FWef 06- -> Managers and potential... managers in the acquisition field should find this thesis to be a useful tool. It initiates development of a single reference that will provide a synopsis

  6. Mandatory Procedures for Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPS) and Major Automated Information System (MAIS) Acquisition Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-05

    ACQUISITION STRATEGY 32 C2.8. SUPPORT STRATEGY 34 DoD 5000.2-R, April 5, 2002 TABLE OF CONTENTS 5 C2.9. BUSINESS STRATEGY 40 C3. CHAPTER 3 TEST AND...AL1.1.110. PA&E Program Analysis and Evaluation AL1.1.111. PAUC Program Acquisition Unit Cost AL1.1.112. PBBE Performance-Based Business Environment...Simulation-Based Acquisition AL1.1.132. SBIR Small Business Innovation Research AL1.1.133. SEI Software Engineering Institute AL1.1.134. SSAA System

  7. Information Acquisition in Children Undergoing Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melamed, Barbara G.; And Others

    In order to evaluate how individual characteristics of hospitalized children influence their acquisition of information presented in a film depicting preparation for surgery, 42 children between the ages of 4 to 17 were assigned to experimental and control groups that were matched for age, sex, race, type of surgery and previous hospital…

  8. The telecommunications and data acquisition report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.

    1980-01-01

    Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implemention, and operations is documented. In addition, developments in Earth based radio technology as applied to geodynamics, astrophysics, and the radio search for extraterrestrial intelligence are reported.

  9. 43 CFR 3837.20 - Acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acquisition. 3837.20 Section 3837.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ACQUIRING A DELINQUENT CO-CLAIMANT'S INTERESTS IN...

  10. 43 CFR 3837.20 - Acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquisition. 3837.20 Section 3837.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ACQUIRING A DELINQUENT CO-CLAIMANT'S INTERESTS IN...

  11. 43 CFR 3837.20 - Acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acquisition. 3837.20 Section 3837.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ACQUIRING A DELINQUENT CO-CLAIMANT'S INTERESTS IN...

  12. 43 CFR 3837.20 - Acquisition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acquisition. 3837.20 Section 3837.20 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ACQUIRING A DELINQUENT CO-CLAIMANT'S INTERESTS IN...

  13. Second Language Acquisition Theory and Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Fred R., Ed.; And Others

    Selected papers on second language acquisition and instruction from the University of Wisconsin at Madison symposium include the following: "Learning and Teaching: The Necessary Intersection" (Susan M. Gass); "Reenvisioning the Second Language Classroom: A Vygotskian Approach" (Linda Schinke-Llano); "The FOCAL SKILLS…

  14. Can Communicative Principles Enhance Classical Language Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overland, Paul; Fields, Lee; Noonan, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Is it feasible for nonfluent instructors to teach Biblical Hebrew by communicative principles? If it is feasible, will communicative instruction enhance postsecondary learning of a classical language? To begin answering these questions, two consultants representing second language acquisition (SLA) and technology-assisted language learning led 8…

  15. Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantolf, James P.; Beckett, Tracy G.

    2009-01-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) research informed by sociocultural theory (henceforth, SCT) began in earnest with the publication of Frawley & Lantolf's (1985) article on L2 (second language) discourse (described in the timeline proper). Since then, well over 300 journal articles, book chapters and doctoral dissertations have appeared in the…

  16. Helicopter External Load Acquisition Technology Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    101st Airborne Division, Fort Campbell, Ky. Evergreen Helicopters, McMinnville , Oregon The Army Technical Representative for the program was Mr. Richard...commercial helicopter operator, Evergreen Helicopters, McMinnville , Oregon, to obtain additional data on commercial solutions to external load acquisition

  17. Facilitation and Practice in Verb Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of syntax acquisition, whose main points are as follows: Syntax is acquired in an item-based manner; early learning facilitates subsequent learning--as evidenced by the accelerating rate of new verbs entering a given structure; and mastery of syntactic knowledge is typically achieved through practice--as evidenced by…

  18. Electro-Optic Data Acquisition and Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Methods for the analysis of electro - optic relaxation data are discussed. Emphasis is on numerical methods using high speed computers. A data acquisition system using a minicomputer for data manipulation is described. Relationship of the results obtained here to other possible uses is given. (Author)

  19. 36 CFR 230.8 - Acquisition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acquisition requirements. 230.8 Section 230.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program §...

  20. 36 CFR 230.8 - Acquisition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acquisition requirements. 230.8 Section 230.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE AND PRIVATE FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program §...